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Sample records for halotolerans w22 combines

  1. Weissella halotolerans W22 combines arginine deiminase and ornithine decarboxylation pathways and converts arginine to putrescine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, C. I.; San Romao, M. V.; Lolkema, J. S.; Barreto Crespo, M. T.; Baretto Crespo, M.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To demonstrate that the meat food strain Weissella halotolerans combines an ornithine decarboxylation pathway and an arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway and is able to produce putrescine, a biogenic amine. Evidence is shown that these two pathways produce a proton motive force (PMF). Methods and

  2. Sequence, assembly and annotation of the maize W22 genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since its adoption by Brink and colleagues in the 1950s and 60s, the maize W22 inbred has been utilized extensively to understand fundamental genetic and epigenetic processes such recombination, transposition and paramutation. To maximize the utility of W22 in gene discovery, we have Illumina sequen...

  3. Reclassification of Brevibacterium halotolerans DSM8802 as Bacillus halotolerans comb. nov. Based on Microbial and Biochemical Characterization and Multiple Gene Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Gad, Doron; Gerchman, Yoram

    2017-01-01

    Brevibacterium halotolerans is currently classified as a member of the Brevibacterium genus, a genus that groups together many bacterial species of similar morphology but diverse biochemical and physiological features. Here we suggest, based on multiple gene sequencing and microbial and biochemical characterization of two environmental isolates and one type strain (DSM8802), that the B. halotolerans DSM8802 (and probably the other deposited under this species name) should be re-classified into the Bacillus genus, and offered the name B. halotolerans comb. nov.

  4. Genome analysis shows Bacillus axarquiensis is not a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus mojavensis; reclassification of Bacillus malacitensis and Brevibacterium halotolerans as heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus axarquiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Christopher A; Bowman, Michael J; Schisler, David A; Rooney, Alejandro P

    2016-06-01

    Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis were previously reported to be later heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus mojavensis, based primarily on DNA-DNA relatedness values. We have sequenced draft genomes of Bacillus axarquiensis NRRL B-41617T and Bacillus malacitensis NRRL B-41618T. Comparative genomics and DNA-DNA relatedness calculations showed that while Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis are synonymous with each other, they are not synonymous with Bacillus mojavensis. In addition, a draft genome was completed for Brevibacterium halotolerans, a strain long suspected of being a Bacillus subtilis group member based on 16S rRNA similarities (99.8 % with Bacillus mojavensis). Comparative genomics and DNA-DNA relatedness calculations showed that Brevibacterium halotolerans is synonymous with Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis. The pairwise in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values calculated in comparisons between the three conspecific strains were all greater than 92 %, which is well above the standard species threshold of 70 %. While the pairwise in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values calculated in comparisons of the three conspecific strains with Bacillus mojavensis were all less than 65 %. The combined results of our genotype and phenotype studies showed that Bacillus axarquiensis, Bacillus malacitensis and Brevibacterium halotolerans are conspecific and distinct from Bacillus mojavensis. Because the valid publication of the name Bacillus axarquiensis predates the publication of the name Bacillus malacitensis, we propose that Bacillus malacitensis be reclassified as a synonym of Bacillus axarquiensis. In addition, we propose to reclassify Brevibacterium halotolerans as a synonym of Bacillus axarquiensis. An amended description of Bacillus axarquiensis is provided.

  5. Rhizobium halotolerans sp. nov., Isolated from chloroethylenes contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diange, Eboa Adolf; Lee, Sang-Seob

    2013-06-01

    The strain designated as AB21(T) was isolated from chloroethylenes contaminated soil. Cells are gram-negative, aerobic, non-spore-forming, and motile rods. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that it belonged to the genus Rhizobium, and was closely related to Rhizobium sullae IS 123(T) (97.4 %), Rhizobium yanglingense SH 22623(T) (97.2 %), Rhizobium gallicum R 602sp(T) (97.1 %), Rhizobium alamii GBV 016(T) (97.0 %), and Rhizobium monogolense USDA 1844(T) (97.0 %). It showed less than 97 % identity with the remaining Rhizobium species. This novel isolate grew optimally at 25-37 °C (optimum, 30 °C) and pH 6-9 (optimum, pH 8.0). It grew in the presence of 0-4 % (w/v) NaCl, tolerating a 4 % (w/v) NaCl. DNA-DNA hybridization experiment shows less than 53 % binding with closely related Rhizobium. Predominant quinone is ubiquinone (Q-10). The major fatty acids were summed feature 8 (composed of C(18:1) ω7c/C(18:1) ω6c), C(19:0) cyclo ω8c, and C(16:0). The G+C molar content is 62.5 mol%. Based on the polyphasic analysis, strain AB21(T) is referred to be a novel species of the genus Rhizobium for which the name Rhizobium halotolerans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is AB21(T) (=KEMC 224-056(T) = JCM 17536(T)).

  6. Protein Profiling Reveals Novel Proteins in Pollen and Pistil of W22 (ga1; Ga1 in Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Yu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Gametophytic factors mediate pollen-pistil interactions in maize (Zea mays L. and play active roles in limiting gene flow among maize populations and between maize and teosinte. This study was carried out to identify proteins and investigate the mechanism of gametophytic factors using protein analysis. W22 (ga1; which did not carry a gametophytic factor and W22 (Ga1, a near iso-genic line, were used for the proteome investigation. SDS-PAGE was executed to investigate proteins in the pollen and pistil of W22 (ga1 and W22 (Ga1. A total of 44 differentially expressed proteins were identified in the pollen and pistil on SDS-PAGE using LTQ-FTICR MS. Among the 44 proteins, a total of 24 proteins were identified in the pollen of W22 (ga1 and W22 (Ga1 whereas 20 differentially expressed proteins were identified from the pistil of W22 (ga1 and W22 (Ga1. However, in pollen, 2 proteins were identified only in the W22 (ga1 and 12 proteins only in the W22 (Ga1 whereas 10 proteins were confirmed from the both of W22 (ga1 and W22 (Ga1. In contrary, 10 proteins were appeared only in the pistil of W22 (ga1 and 7 proteins from W22 (Ga1 while 3 proteins confirmed in the both of W22 (ga1 and W22 (Ga1. Moreover, the identified proteins were generally involved in hydrolase activity, nucleic acid binding and nucleotide binding. These results help to reveal the mechanism of gametophytic factors and provide a valuable clue for the pollen and pistil research in maize.

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Photobacterium halotolerans S2753, Producer of Bioactive Secondary Metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Henrique; Månsson, Maria; Gram, Lone

    2014-01-01

    We report here the whole draft genome sequence of marine isolate Photobacterium halotolerans S2753, which produces the known antibiotic holomycin and also ngercheumicins and solonamides A and B, which interfere with virulence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains by interacting w...

  8. Micromonospora halotolerans sp. nov., isolated from the rhizosphere of a Pisum sativum plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, Lorena; Pukall, Rüdiger; Spröer, Cathrin; Kroppenstedt, Reiner M; Trujillo, Martha E

    2013-06-01

    A filamentous actinomycete strain designated CR18(T) was isolated on humic acid agar from the rhizosphere of a Pisum sativum plant collected in Spain. This isolate was observed to grow optimally at 28 °C, pH 7.0 and in the presence of 5 % NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated a close relationship with the type strains of Micromonospora chersina and Micromonospora endolithica. A further analysis based on a concatenated DNA sequence stretch of 4,523 bp that included partial sequences of the atpD, gyrB, recA, rpoB and 16S rRNA genes clearly differentiated the new strain from recognized Micromonospora species compared. DNA-DNA hybridization studies further supported the taxonomic position of strain CR18(T) as a novel genomic species. Chemotaxonomic analyses which included whole cell sugars, polar lipids, fatty acid profiles and menaquinone composition confirmed the affiliation of the new strain to the genus Micromonospora and also highlighted differences at the species level. These studies were finally complemented with an array of physiological tests to help differentiate between the new strain and its phylogenetic neighbours. Consequently, strain CR18(T) (= CECT 7890(T) = DSM 45598(T)) is proposed as the type strain of a novel species, Micromonospora halotolerans sp. nov.

  9. A New Esterase from Thermobifida halotolerans Hydrolyses Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET and Polylactic Acid (PLA

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    Georg Steinkellner

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A new esterase from Thermobifida halotolerans (Thh_Est was cloned and expressed in E. coli and investigated for surface hydrolysis of polylactic acid (PLA and polyethylene terephthalate (PET. Thh_Est is a member of the serine hydrolases superfamily containing the -GxSxG- motif with 85–87% homology to an esterase from T. alba, to an acetylxylan esterase from T. fusca and to various Thermobifida cutinases. Thh_Est hydrolyzed the PET model substrate bis(benzoyloxyethylterephthalate and PET releasing terephthalic acid and mono-(2-hydroxyethyl terephthalate in comparable amounts (19.8 and 21.5 mmol/mol of enzyme while no higher oligomers like bis-(2-hydroxyethyl terephthalate were detected. Similarly, PLA was hydrolyzed as indicated by the release of lactic acid. Enzymatic surface hydrolysis of PET and PLA led to a strong hydrophilicity increase, as quantified with a WCA decrease from 90.8° and 75.5° to 50.4° and to a complete spread of the water drop on the surface, respectively.

  10. Acinetobacter halotolerans sp. nov., a novel halotolerant, alkalitolerant, and hydrocarbon degrading bacterium, isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, Ram Hari; Chaudhary, Dhiraj Kumar; Kim, Jaisoo

    2017-07-01

    A novel aerobic, non-motile, halotolerant, alkalitolerant, hydrocarbon degrading, and rod shaped bacterium, designated strain R160(T), was isolated from soil in South Korea. Cells were Gram-staining-negative, catalase-positive, and oxidase-negative. This strain grew up to 7% of NaCl and in the pH range of 6-11 (optimum 7.0-10.0). The isolate degraded 51.7 ± 1.3% of hydrocarbon components (C-18, C-20, and C-22) and 45.8 ± 1.4% oil components (kerosene, diesel, and gasoline). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16 S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain R160(T) formed a lineage within the genus Acinetobacter, and was closely related to 'Acinetobacter oleivorans' DR1(T) (97.47%, sequence similarity). Other closely related members have sequence similarity between 97.47 to 96.52%. The predominant respiratory lipoquinones of strain R160(T) were ubiquinone 9 (Q-9) and ubiquinone 8 (Q-8). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), and phosphatidylcholine (PC). The major cellular fatty acids were 9-octadecenoic acid (C18:1 ω9c), hexadecanoic acid (C16:0), and summed feature (comprising C16:1 ω7c and/or C16:1 ω6c). The DNA G + C content of strain R160(T) was 44.9 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic, genotypic, chemotaxonomic, and phylogenetic characteristics, strain R160(T) represents a novel species of the genus Acinetobacter, for which the name Acinetobacter halotolerans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is R160(T) (= KEMB 9005-333(T) = KACC 18453(T) = JCM 31009(T)).

  11. Nocardia halotolerans sp. nov., a halotolerant actinomycete isolated from saline soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshtaghi Nikou, Mahdi; Ramezani, Mohaddaseh; Ali Amoozegar, Mohammad; Rasooli, Mehrnoosh; Harirchi, Sharareh; Shahzadeh Fazeli, Seyed Abolhasan; Schumann, Peter; Spröer, Cathrin; Ventosa, Antonio

    2015-09-01

    A novel halotolerant actinomycete, strain Chem15(T), was isolated from soil around Inche-Broun hypersaline wetland; its taxonomic position was determined based on a polyphasic approach. Strain Chem15(T) was strictly aerobic and tolerated NaCl up to 12.5%. The optimum temperature and pH for growth were 28-30 °C and pH 7.0-7.5, respectively. The cell wall of strain Chem15(T) contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as diamino acid and galactose, arabinose and ribose as whole-cell sugars. The major phospholipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannosides. The cellular fatty acids profile consisted of C16 : 0, iso-C18 : 0, C18 : 0 10-methyl and C18 : 1ω9c, and the major respiratory quinone was MK-8(H4cycl). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 68.0 mol%. The novel strain constituted a distinct phyletic line within the genus Nocardia, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and was closely associated with Nocardia sungurluensis DSM 45714(T) and Nocardia alba DSM 44684(T) (98.2 and 98.1% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively). However DNA-DNA relatedness and phenotypic data demonstrated that strain Chem15(T) was clearly different from closely related species of the genus Nocardia. It is concluded that the organism should be classified as a representative of a novel species of the genus Nocardia, for which the name Nocardia halotolerans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Chem15(T) ( = IBRC-M 10490(T) = LMG 28544(T)).

  12. Streptococcus halotolerans sp. nov. isolated from the respiratory tract of Marmota himalayana in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Lina; Lu, Shan; Hu, Shoukui; Jin, Dong; Lai, Xinhe; Yang, Jing; Chen, Cuixia; Wang, Yiting; Bai, Xiangning; Lan, Ruiting; Lv, Gang; Xie, Yingping; Ye, Changyun; Xu, Jianguo

    2016-10-01

    Two Gramstaining-positive, catalase-negative, α-hemolytic, coccus-shaped organisms were isolated separately from the respiratory tracts of two Marmota himalayana animals from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, PR China. Morphological, biological, biochemical, and molecular genetic studies were performed on these two isolates (HTS9T and HTS12). Their biochemical characteristics, such as acid production from different sugars and enzymatic activities, indicated that they represented a member of the genus Streptococcus. They are most closely related to Streptococcus thoraltensis CIP 105518T based on sequence analysis of their 16S rRNA, groEL, sodA and rpoB genes, with similarities of 97.6, 89.9, 92.6 and 91.1 % the four genes respectively. The whole genome phylogenetic tree reconstructed using 372 core genes from 65 genomes of members of the genus Streptococcus validates that HTS9T forms a distinct subline and exhibits specific phylogenetic affinity with S. thoraltensis. In silico DNA-DNA hybridization of HTS9T showed a DNA reassociation value of 32.1 %, closest to that of S. thoraltensis CIP 105518T. Based on their phenotypic characteristics and in particular the phylogenetic findings (DNA-DNA hybridization, three phylogenetic trees built from the partial 16S rRNA/housekeeping genes, and from 372 core genes of 65 genomes of members of the genus Streptococcus), we propose with confidence that strains HTS9T and HTS12 should be classified as representing a novel species of the genus Streptococcus, Streptococcus halotolerans sp. nov. The type strain is HTS9T (=DSM 101996T=CGMCC1.15532T). Genome analysis of Streptococcus halotolerans sp. nov. shows that its genome is 1 823 556 bp long with a DNA G+C content of 39.9 mol% and contains 2068 genes.

  13. New structures and composition of cell wall teichoic acids from Nocardiopsis synnemataformans, Nocardiopsis halotolerans, Nocardiopsis composta and Nocardiopsis metallicus: a chemotaxonomic value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tul'skaya, Elena M; Shashkov, Alexander S; Streshinskaya, Galina M; Potekhina, Natalia V; Evtushenko, Ludmila I

    2014-12-01

    The structures of the cell wall teichoic acids (TA) from some species of the genus Nocardiopsis were established by chemical and NMR spectroscopic methods. The cell walls of Nocardiopsis synnemataformans VKM Ac-2518(T) and Nocardiopsis halotolerans VKM Ac-2519(T) both contain two TA with unique structures-poly(polyol phosphate-glycosylpolyol phosphate)-belonging to the type IV TA. In both organisms, the minor TA have identical structures: poly(glycerol phosphate-N-acetyl-β-galactosaminylglycerol phosphate) with the phosphodiester bond between C-3 of glycerol and C-4 of the amino sugar. This structure is found for the first time. The major TA of N. halotolerans has a hitherto unknown structure: poly(glycerol phosphate-N-acetyl-β-galactosaminylglycerol phosphate), the N-acetyl-β-galactosamine being acetalated with pyruvic acid at positions 4 and 6. The major TA of N. synnemataformans is a poly(glycerol phosphate-N-acetyl-β-galactosaminylglycerol phosphate) with the phosphodiester bond between C-3 of glycerol and C-3 of the amino sugar. The cell walls of Nocardiopsis composta VKM Ac-2520 and N. composta VKM Ac-2521(T) contain only one TA, namely 1,3-poly(glycerol phosphate) partially substituted with N-acetyl-α-glucosamine. The cell wall of Nocardiopsis metallicus VKM Ac-2522(T) contains two TA. The major TA is 1,5-poly(ribitol phosphate), each ribitol unit carrying a pyruvate ketal group at positions 2 and 4. The structure of the minor TA is the same as that of N. composta. The results presented correlate well with the phylogenetic grouping of strains and confirm the species and strain specific features of cell wall TA in members of the genus Nocardiopsis.

  14. The consequences of Bacillus axarquiensis Ruiz-García et al. 2005, Bacillus malacitensis Ruiz-García et al. 2005 and Brevibacterium halotolerans Delaporte and Sasson 1967 (Approved Lists 1980) being treated as heterotypic synonyms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, B J

    2017-01-01

    In a recent publication, data was presented supporting Bacillus axarquiensis Ruiz-García et al. 2005, Bacillus malacitensis Ruiz-García et al. 2005 and Brevibacterium halotolerans Delaporte and Sasson 1967 (Approved Lists 1980) being treated as heterotypic synonyms. The nomenclatural consequences proposed were that under these circumstances the correct name to be used is Bacillus axarquiensis Ruiz-García et al. 2005, but this is not consistent with the wording of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes and it is, therefore, it is necessary to establish the correct name to be used.

  15. Naumannella halotolerans gen. nov., sp. nov., a Gram-positive coccus of the family Propionibacteriaceae isolated from a pharmaceutical clean room and from food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieser, Gernot; Scherer, Siegfried; Wenning, Mareike

    2012-12-01

    Four Gram-stain-positive, aerobic bacterial strains isolated from a pharmaceutical clean room (strain WS4616(T)), a dessert milk product (strain WS4617) and from raw milk (strains WS4623 and WS4624) were characterized using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA and recA gene sequences showed that they formed a distinct lineage within the family Propionibacteriaceae. Similarity values between 16S rRNA gene sequences of the four novel strains and the type species of all genera belonging to the family Propionibacteriaceae were 89.2-94.1%. The major cellular fatty acid was anteiso-C(15:0) and the major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol. Respiratory quinones were MK-8(H(4)) and MK-9(H(4)). The cell-wall peptidoglycan of type A3γ contained ll-diaminopimelic acid, alanine, glycine and glutamic acid. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain WS4616(T) was 67.7 mol%. The whole-cell sugar pattern contained ribose, mannose, arabinose, glucose and galactose. On the basis of phenotypic and genetic data, strains WS4616(T), WS4617, WS4623 and WS4624 are classified as members of a novel species in a new genus of the family Propionibacteriaceae, for which the name Naumannella halotolerans gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is WS4616(T) ( = DSM 24323(T) = LMG 26184(T)) and three additional strains are WS4617, WS4623 and WS4624.

  16. RGD peptide conjugation results in enhanced antitumor activity of PD0325901 against glioblastoma by both tumor-targeting delivery and combination therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jianjun; Diao, Yiping; Li, Wei; Yang, Zhenjun; Zhang, Lihe; Chen, Zili; Wu, Yun

    2016-05-30

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive tumor type in the central nervous system. Both tumor-targeting drug delivery and combination therapy of multiple therapeutic agents with distinct mechanisms are important for GBM treatment. We combined these two strategies and developed a new platform of peptide-drug conjugate (RGD-PEG-Suc-PD0325901, W22) for tumor-targeting delivery using a combination of PD0325901 (a MEK1/2 inhibitor) and RGD peptide. In the present study, the combination of PD0325901 and RGD peptide strongly inhibited U87MG model in vitro and in vivo. This inhibition contributed to synergistic suppression of cell proliferation by blocking ERK pathway activity and cell migration. Modified by conjugation strategy, their conjugate W22 enhanced PD0325901 delivery to GBM cells by receptor mediated cellular internalization. W22 showed great superiority in targeting to U87MG xenografted tumors and strong anti-tumor efficacy based on ERK pathway inhibition and tumor-targeted delivery in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, W22 was stable in serum and able to release PD0325901 in the enzymatic environment. These data indicated that the RGD-PEG-Suc-PD0325901 conjugate provided a strategy for effective delivery of PD0325901 and RGD peptide into the GBM cells and inhibition of tumor growth in a synergistic manner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent molecular methods for the determination of lactic microbiota in sucuk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesmen, Z; Yetiman, A E; Gulluce, A; Kacmaz, N; Sagdic, O; Cetin, B; Adiguzel, A; Sahin, F; Yetim, H

    2012-02-15

    In this study, the culture-dependent and culture-independent molecular methods were used for the identification of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in sucuk a Turkish fermented dry sausage. On the one hand, the PCR-DGGE method targetting the V1 and V3 regions of 16S DNA was applied to DNA that was directly extracted from sucuk samples. On the other hand, rep-PCR fingerprinting was performed for the primary differentiation and grouping of the isolates, and the results were confirmed by sequencing of the 16S rDNA and 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region. As a result of the PCR-DGGE analysis of all the samples, total 8 different lactic acid bacteria were identified, and Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus curvatus and Weissella viridescens were the dominant microbiota among these bacteria. The culture-dependent approach indicated that the majority of the strains belonged to the Lactobacillus genera including Lb. sakei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lb. curvatus, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus farciminis and Lactobacillus alimentarius. However, Leuconostoc and Weisella were also detected as minor genera. Again, Lactococcus piscium, Weissella halotolerans, Staphylococcus succinus and the comigrated Staphylococcus piscifermentans/Staphylococcus condimenti/Staphylococcus carnosus group were detected only with the culture-independent method while Lb. plantarum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Leuconostoc citreum were identified only by using the culture-dependent method. In the results, it was concluded that the combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent methods was necessary for reliable and detailed investigation of LAB communities in fermented food products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Combination vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David AG Skibinski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccines into a single product has been central to the protection of the pediatric population over the past 50 years. The addition of inactivated polio, Haemophilus influenzae, and hepatitis B vaccines into the combination has facilitated the introduction of these vaccines into recommended immunization schedules by reducing the number of injections required and has therefore increased immunization compliance. However, the development of these combinations encountered numerous challenges, including the reduced response to Haemophilus influenzae vaccine when given in combination; the need to consolidate the differences in the immunization schedule (hepatitis B; and the need to improve the safety profile of the diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis combination. Here, we review these challenges and also discuss future prospects for combination vaccines.

  19. combination Dictionary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    advanced-level Spanish-speaking EFL learners. 2. Word combinations ... a certain process of segregation as a separate branch of linguistics. While lexi- ... As substantiated by Ilson's investigation of lexicographic practices, most dictionaries ...

  20. Winning Combinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Criscuolo, Paola; Laursen, Keld; Reichstein, Toke

    2017-01-01

    Searching for the most rewarding sources of innovative ideas remains a key challenge in management of technological innovation. Yet, little is known about which combinations of internal and external knowledge sources are triggers for innovation. Extending theories about searching for innovation, ...

  1. Combined homicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slović Živana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Combined homicide is a combination of two or more different modes of killing. These homicides occur when multiple perpetrators have different mode of killing, to hide the true manner of death, or when an initially unsuccessful attack with one weapon is abandoned and changed by another mode which is more successful, or due to availability of weapons at the scene of homicide, or unexpected appearance of possible eyewitness, or else. Case report: This case report is about 65-year old woman who was found in her residence on the floor next to the bed lying on her back with two kitchen knives in her neck. Autopsy revealed an abrasion on the frontal part of the neck and a bruise of the soft tissues of the neck with a double fracture of both greater horns of the hyoid bone and a fracture of both superior horns of the thyroid cartilage. The cause of death was exsanguination into right half of the thoracic cavity from the left subclavian artery which was cut, on the spot of stab wound in the neck. Conclusion: Hemorrhage in the soft tissue near broken hyoid bone and thyroid cartilage indicate that the victim was first strangulated and then stabbed with kitchen knives. Combined homicides are caused by one or more killers in order to accelerate the killing, or to be sure to provide the fatal outcome. This case is also interesting because the killer left weapon in the victim's neck.

  2. Imtechella halotolerans gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from estuarine water

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Surendra, V.; Bhawana, P.; Suresh, K.; Srinivas, T.N.R.; AnilKumar, P.

    similarity of 93.0 percent). Phylogenetic analysis showed that strain K1 sup(T) formed a distinct branch within the family Flavobacteriaceae and clustered with the clade comprising species of the genera Zhouia, Coenonia and Capnocytophaga, being...

  3. Birth control pills - combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000655.htm Birth control pills - combination To use the sharing features on ... both progestin and estrogen. What Are Combination Birth Control Pills? Birth control pills help keep you from ...

  4. COMBINE 2 seminar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt; Jacobsen, Kim

    1995-01-01

    A seminar about the COMBINE project was described. Further, the project was described in generel, i.e. the COMBINE´s data model (IDM), the data exchange system (DES) and the different I/O-systems included in COMBINE 2......A seminar about the COMBINE project was described. Further, the project was described in generel, i.e. the COMBINE´s data model (IDM), the data exchange system (DES) and the different I/O-systems included in COMBINE 2...

  5. Practical, general parser combinators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Izmaylova (Anastasia); A. Afroozeh (Ali); T. van der Storm (Tijs)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractParser combinators are a popular approach to parsing where contextfree grammars are represented as executable code. However, conventional parser combinators do not support left recursion, and can have worst-case exponential runtime. These limitations hinder the expressivity and

  6. Combinators for Paraconsistent Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Jørgen

    2001-01-01

    In order to analyse the semantics of natural language sentences a translation into a partial type logic using lexical and logical combinators is presented. The sentences cover a fragment of English with propositional attitudes like knowledge, belief and assertion. A combinator is a closed term of...

  7. Influence of natural substrates and co-occurring marine bacteria on the production of secondary metabolites by Photobacterium halotolerans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Månsson, Maria; Giobergia, Sonia; Møller, Kirsten A.

    Genome sequences reveal that our current standard laboratory conditions only support a fraction of the potential secondary metabolism in bacteria. Thus, we must rethink cultivation, detection, and isolation strategies for bacterial secondary metabolites in order to explore the huge, so far...

  8. Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

    Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

  9. Combination of antiarrhythmic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüderitz, B; Mletzko, R; Jung, W; Manz, M

    1991-01-01

    Antiarrhythmic treatment with single agents is often ineffective and can be limited by dose-dependent side effects. Therefore, combinations of antiarrhythmic drugs in smaller and well-tolerated doses are advocated in cases refractory to single antiarrhythmic drugs. Basically, substances belonging to the same electrophysiologic class should not be combined. However, drugs of different subsets of class I may be combined. Agents that have pharmacokinetic interactions, such as quinidine and amiodarone, should not be given together because this combination may be associated with a considerable proarrhythmic effect. A combination of beta-adrenoreceptor blockers with class I antiarrhythmic drugs may be effective, mainly in cases in which the arrhythmia is dependent on adrenergic stimulation. The combination of class III and IB substances can be useful in some cases, from the electrophysiological and clinical point of view. Among the successful combinations of this type are amiodarone and mexiletine, sotalol and mexiletine, or sotalol and tocainide. In 34 patients, the reduction of ventricular premature beats by sotalol alone was 28%, and by sotalol plus mexiletine or tocainide was 79%. Complex ventricular arrhythmias were suppressed by sotalol alone by less than 40% and by sotalol plus mexiletine or tocainide by more than 80%. There was no difference in the effectiveness of mexiletine and tocainide (both of them being class IB drugs) in this combination. However, mexiletine was associated with fewer adverse effects than was tocainide. In patients refractory to amiodarone alone or to a combination with mexiletine, the combined treatment with amiodarone and class IC drugs such as flecainide and encainide prolongs the cycle length of ventricular tachycardia, but does not suppress induction of ventricular tachycardia during programmed stimulation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Subacute combined degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the term "combined." At first, the nerve covering (myelin sheath) is damaged. Later, the entire nerve cell is affected. Doctors do not know exactly how a lack of vitamin B12 damages the nerves. It is possible that the lack ...

  11. Resonant High Power Combiners

    CERN Document Server

    Langlois, Michel; Peillex-Delphe, Guy

    2005-01-01

    Particle accelerators need radio frequency sources. Above 300 MHz, the amplifiers mostly used high power klystrons developed for this sole purpose. As for military equipment, users are drawn to buy "off the shelf" components rather than dedicated devices. IOTs have replaced most klystrons in TV transmitters and find their way in particle accelerators. They are less bulky, easier to replace, more efficient at reduced power. They are also far less powerful. What is the benefit of very compact sources if huge 3 dB couplers are needed to combine the power? To alleviate this drawback, we investigated a resonant combiner, operating in TM010 mode, able to combine 3 to 5 IOTs. Our IOTs being able to deliver 80 kW C.W. apiece, combined power would reach 400 kW minus the minor insertion loss. Values for matching and insertion loss are given. The behavior of the system in case of IOT failure is analyzed.

  12. Combine Harvester Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilmann, Ole; Sørlie, James Arnold

    1999-01-01

    A simulator for training pilots in the operation of a modern high-tech combine harvester is presented. The new simulator application is based on DMI´s well-known DMS maritime simulator architecture. Two major challenges have been encountered in the development of the simulator: 1) interfacing the...

  13. Combination Chemotherapy for Influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Webster

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses in April 2009 and the continuous evolution of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses underscore the urgency of novel approaches to chemotherapy for human influenza infection. Anti-influenza drugs are currently limited to the neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir and zanamivir and to M2 ion channel blockers (amantadine and rimantadine, although resistance to the latter class develops rapidly. Potential targets for the development of new anti-influenza agents include the viral polymerase (and endonuclease, the hemagglutinin, and the non-structural protein NS1. The limitations of monotherapy and the emergence of drug-resistant variants make combination chemotherapy the logical therapeutic option. Here we review the experimental data on combination chemotherapy with currently available agents and the development of new agents and therapy targets.

  14. Combination-Combination Hyperchaos Synchronization of Complex Memristor Oscillator System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jin-E

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination-combination synchronization scheme is based on combination of multidrive systems and combination of multiresponse systems. In this paper, we investigate combination-combination synchronization of hyperchaotic complex memristor oscillator system. Several sufficient conditions are provided to ascertain the combination of two drive hyperchaotic complex memristor oscillator systems to synchronize the combination of two response hyperchaotic complex memristor oscillator systems. These new conditions improve and extend the existing synchronization results for memristive systems. A numerical example is given to show the feasibility of theoretical results.

  15. Transfer function combinations

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Liang

    2012-10-01

    Direct volume rendering has been an active area of research for over two decades. Transfer function design remains a difficult task since current methods, such as traditional 1D and 2D transfer functions, are not always effective for all data sets. Various 1D or 2D transfer function spaces have been proposed to improve classification exploiting different aspects, such as using the gradient magnitude for boundary location and statistical, occlusion, or size metrics. In this paper, we present a novel transfer function method which can provide more specificity for data classification by combining different transfer function spaces. In this work, a 2D transfer function can be combined with 1D transfer functions which improve the classification. Specifically, we use the traditional 2D scalar/gradient magnitude, 2D statistical, and 2D occlusion spectrum transfer functions and combine these with occlusion and/or size-based transfer functions to provide better specificity. We demonstrate the usefulness of the new method by comparing to the following previous techniques: 2D gradient magnitude, 2D occlusion spectrum, 2D statistical transfer functions and 2D size based transfer functions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Combining thermal comfort models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yigit, A.

    1999-07-01

    Two models commonly used in thermal comfort studies were combined to develop a two-dimensional computer model that estimates the resistance to dry and evaporative heat transfer for a clothing system from fabric resistance data, fabric thickness data, and information concerning the amount of body surface area covered by different fabric layers and the amount of air trapped between fabric layers. Five different clothing ensembles with different total thermal insulation and very different distributions of the insulation on the body were simulated with 16 sedentary subjects. This paper first evaluates total thermal insulation predictions from the Fanger steady-state model and then uses these data in the Gagge two-compartment (or two-node) model. The combined model uses the transient heat balance of each segment and the whole body. It estimates total insulation value and then uses this value to calculate transient temperature and wettedness. By application of the combined model, predictions of human responses to a wide range of thermal conditions are compared with the responses of human subjects as described in reports of laboratory experiments. Possible reasons for discrepancies between the observed data and predictions of the model are briefly discussed.

  17. Coherent laser beam combining

    CERN Document Server

    Brignon, Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the improvement of diode pumping in solid state lasers and the development of double clad fiber lasers have allowed to maintain excellent laser beam quality with single mode fibers. However, the fiber output power if often limited below a power damage threshold. Coherent laser beam combining (CLBC) brings a solution to these limitations by identifying the most efficient architectures and allowing for excellent spectral and spatial quality. This knowledge will become critical for the design of the next generation high-power lasers and is of major interest to many industrial, environme

  18. Combining classical metrology models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Roldán

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The results obtained in the graphic analysis of the modulation of the Cuarto Real de Santo Domingo building in Granada, Spain, (ROLDÁN, 2011 have provided new insights to further approach the research on possible use the double-scale in historical monumental architecture. We propose the characterization of the singularities of the system, from the implications and graphic representation required by the metrological scheme identified, as well as the variety of typologies that are presented in their modular frames, and the iterative combination of two-scale modules which allow operational approximations to fractions and ratios not explicitly present in the system.

  19. Combined PET/MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, D. L.; Pichler, B. J.; Gückel, B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarises key themes and discussions from the 4th international workshop dedicated to the advancement of the technical, scientific and clinical applications of combined positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems that was held in Tübingen, Germany, from...... February 23 to 27, 2015. Specifically, we summarise the three days of invited presentations from active researchers in this and associated fields augmented by round table discussions and dialogue boards with specific topics. These include the use of PET/MRI in cardiovascular disease, paediatrics, oncology......, neurology and multi-parametric imaging, the latter of which was suggested as a key promoting factor for the wider adoption of integrated PET/MRI. Discussions throughout the workshop and a poll taken on the final day demonstrated that attendees felt more strongly that PET/MRI has further advanced in both...

  20. Combined Heat and Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    At their 2007 Summit in Heiligendamm, G8 leaders called on countries to 'adopt instruments and measures to significantly increase the share of combined heat and power (CHP) in the generation of electricity.' As a result, energy, economic, environmental and utility regulators are looking for tools and information to understand the potential of CHP and to identify appropriate policies for their national circumstances. This report forms the first part of the response. It includes answers to policy makers' questions about the potential economic, energy and environmental benefits of an increased policy commitment to CHP. It also includes for the first time integrated IEA data on global CHP installations, and analyses the benefits of increased CHP investment in the G8+5 countries. A companion report will be produced later in 2008 to document best practice policy approaches that have been used to expand the use of CHP in a variety of countries.

  1. Biomass Gasification Combined Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judith A. Kieffer

    2000-07-01

    Gasification combined cycle continues to represent an important defining technology area for the forest products industry. The ''Forest Products Gasification Initiative'', organized under the Industry's Agenda 2020 technology vision and supported by the DOE ''Industries of the Future'' program, is well positioned to guide these technologies to commercial success within a five-to ten-year timeframe given supportive federal budgets and public policy. Commercial success will result in significant environmental and renewable energy goals that are shared by the Industry and the Nation. The Battelle/FERCO LIVG technology, which is the technology of choice for the application reported here, remains of high interest due to characteristics that make it well suited for integration with the infrastructure of a pulp production facility. The capital cost, operating economics and long-term demonstration of this technology area key input to future economically sustainable projects and must be verified by the 200 BDT/day demonstration facility currently operating in Burlington, Vermont. The New Bern application that was the initial objective of this project is not currently economically viable and will not be implemented at this time due to several changes at and around the mill which have occurred since the inception of the project in 1995. The analysis shows that for this technology, and likely other gasification technologies as well, the first few installations will require unique circumstances, or supportive public policies, or both to attract host sites and investors.

  2. Combined oral contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C; Murtagh, J

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of prescribing combined oral contraceptives (OCs) is achievement of good cycle control and effective contraception with the least side effects, using an OC with the lowest possible dose of estrogen. Triphasil, Triquilar, Nordette, Microgynon 30, and Brevinor are good 1st choices because of the low estrogen dose (30-35 mcg). Women who probably cannot tolerate breakthrough bleeding and who need simple packaging should use a monophasic, more progestogenic OC, e.g., Nordette or Microgynon 30. Physicians should suggest a low dose estrogen and low dose antiandrogenic progestogen (OC) (e.g., Diane-35 ED) for women who have acne. They should advise patients that when they take OCs, their menstrual periods usually become shorter, regular, and lighter. Women need not take a break from OC usage. Vitamin C, antibiotics, griseofulvin, rifampicin, and anticonvulsants (except sodium valproate) interact with OCs. Women using warfarin and oral hypoglycemics and wanting to start using OCs need to consult their physician about changing requirements for warfarin and oral hypoglycemics. The effectiveness of OCs can be diminished by diarrhea and vomiting. Absolute contraindications to OCs include pregnancy, use during the first 2 weeks postpartum, history of thromboembolism, undiagnosed abnormal vaginal bleeding, focal migraine, coronary heart disease, steroid-dependent tumors, recent impaired liver function, and cardiovascular accidents. Some relative contraindications are older than 35 years old and smoking, breast feeding, and hypertension. This article provides a section on how to manage common side effects. For example, if the side effect is acne, the physician should prescribe an OC with increased estrogen and reduced progestogen (e.g., Triphasil/Triquilar to Biphasil/Sequilar). This article lists trade names of various OCs and their estrogen and progestogen doses, e.g., Nordette has 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol and 150 mcg levonorgestrel.

  3. Combined dyslipidemia in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavey, Rae-Ellen W

    2015-01-01

    Combined dyslipidemia (CD) is now the predominant dyslipidemic pattern in childhood, characterized by moderate-to-severe elevation in triglycerides and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), minimal elevation in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and reduced HDL-C. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy shows that the CD pattern is represented at the lipid subpopulation level as an increase in small, dense LDL and in overall LDL particle number plus a reduction in total HDL-C and large HDL particles, a highly atherogenic pattern. In youth, CD occurs almost exclusively with obesity and is highly prevalent, seen in more than 40% of obese adolescents. CD in childhood predicts pathologic evidence of atherosclerosis and vascular dysfunction in adolescence and young adulthood, and early clinical cardiovascular events in adult life. There is a tight connection between CD, visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and the metabolic syndrome, suggesting an integrated pathophysiological response to excessive weight gain. Weight loss, changes in dietary composition, and increases in physical activity have all been shown to improve CD significantly in children and adolescents in short-term studies. Most importantly, even small amounts of weight loss are associated with significant decreases in triglyceride levels and increases in HDL-C levels with improvement in lipid subpopulations. Diet change focused on limitation of simple carbohydrate intake with specific elimination of all sugar-sweetened beverages is very effective. Evidence-based recommendations for initiating diet and activity change are provided. Rarely, drug therapy is needed, and the evidence for drug treatment of CD in childhood is reviewed. Copyright © 2015 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Propagating Class and Method Combination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a mixin based class and method combination mechanism with block structure propagation. Traditionally, mixins can be composed to form new classes, possibly merging the implementations of methods (as in CLOS). In our approach, a class or method combination operation may cause any...... number of implicit combinations. For example, it is possible to specify separate aspects of a family of classes, and then combine several aspects into a full-fledged class family. The combination expressions would explicitly combine whole-family aspects, and by propagation implicitly combine the aspects...... for each member of the class family, and again by propagation implicitly compose each method from its aspects. As opposed to CLOS, this is type-checked statically; and as opposed to other systems for advanced class combination/ merging/weaving, it is integrated directly in the language, ensuring a clear...

  5. Combining Evidence from Homologous Datasets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Feng, Ao; Allan, James

    2006-01-01

    .... We argue that combining evidence from these "homologous" datasets can give us better representation of the original data, and our experiments show that a model combining all sources outperforms each...

  6. Belladonna Alkaloid Combinations and Phenobarbital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belladonna alkaloid combinations and phenobarbital are used to relieve cramping pains in conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome and ... Belladonna alkaloid combinations and phenobarbital come as a regular tablet, a slow-acting tablet, capsule, and liquid to take ...

  7. [Combined radiotherapy of uveal melanoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovkina, A F; Kesheleva, V V; Fridman, F E; Fishkin, I G

    1997-01-01

    Fifteen patients with uveal melanoma were exposed to combined radiotherapy: transscleral exposure of melanoma using a ruthenium ophthalmoapplicator and intracorporeal administration of 59Fe. Radiation reaction of the tumor was potentiated by combined exposure.

  8. Conceptual Combination During Sentence Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinney, David; Love, Tracy; Walenski, Matthew; Smith, Edward E.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment examined the time course of integration of modifier-noun (conceptual) combinations during auditory sentence comprehension using cross-modal lexical priming. The study revealed that during ongoing comprehension, there is initial activation of features of the noun prior to activation of (emergent) features of the entire conceptual combination. These results support compositionality in conceptual combination; that is, they indicate that features of the individual words constituting a conceptual combination are activated prior to combination of the words into a new concept. PMID:17576278

  9. Combining Narrative and Numerical Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Sanne; Ladeby, Klaes Rohde; Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2011-01-01

    Strategic simulation is the combination of narrative and numerical simulation and can be used as a tool to support strategic decision making by providing different scenarios in combination with computer modelling. The core of the combined simulation approach (CSA) is to make it possible for decis......Strategic simulation is the combination of narrative and numerical simulation and can be used as a tool to support strategic decision making by providing different scenarios in combination with computer modelling. The core of the combined simulation approach (CSA) is to make it possible...... to the decision making in operations and production management by providing new insights into modelling and simulation based on the combined narrative and numerical simulation approach as a tool for strategy making. The research question asks, “How can the CSA be applied in a practical context to support strategy...

  10. Combining partially independent belief functions

    OpenAIRE

    Chebbah, Mouna; Martin, Arnaud; Ben Yaghlane, Boutheina

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The theory of belief functions manages uncertainty and also proposes a set of combination rules to aggregate opinions of several sources. Some combination rules mix evidential information where sources are independent; other rules are suited to combine evidential information held by dependent sources. In this paper we have two main contributions: First we suggest a method to quantify sources' degree of independence that may guide the choice of the more appropriate set ...

  11. Combined Environment Acoustic Chamber (CEAC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The CEAC imposes combined acoustic, thermal and mechanical loads on aerospace structures. The CEAC is employed to measure structural response and determine...

  12. Model selection for forecast combination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper it is advocated to select a model only if it significantly contributes to the accuracy of a combined forecast. Using hold-out-data forecasts of individual models and of the combined forecast, a useful test for equal forecast accuracy can be designed. An illustration for

  13. Combined Holographic Infrared Inspection Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    Shearography imaging system . As mentioned, the combination of Shearography and Infrared images could prove to be a successful method of defect characterization... system and more recent experience with newly available electronic shearography is that the shearography -infrared combination (Shearo-IR) offers... systems . Nevertheless, operation of the phase-locked Ho!o system requires exteiided control of environmental conditions. The shearography system , on

  14. Combination contraceptives: effects on weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Maria F; Lopez, Laureen M; Grimes, David A; Carayon, Florence; Schulz, Kenneth F; Helmerhorst, Frans M

    2014-01-29

    Weight gain is often considered a side effect of combination hormonal contraceptives, and many women and clinicians believe that an association exists. Concern about weight gain can limit the use of this highly effective method of contraception by deterring the initiation of its use and causing early discontinuation among users. However, a causal relationship between combination contraceptives and weight gain has not been established. The aim of the review was to evaluate the potential association between combination contraceptive use and changes in weight. In November 2013, we searched the computerized databases CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, POPLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS for studies of combination contraceptives, as well as ClinicalTrials.gov and International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). For the initial review, we also wrote to known investigators and manufacturers to request information about other published or unpublished trials not discovered in our search. All English-language, randomized controlled trials were eligible if they had at least three treatment cycles and compared a combination contraceptive to a placebo or to a combination contraceptive that differed in drug, dosage, regimen, or study length. All titles and abstracts located in the literature searches were assessed. Data were entered and analyzed with RevMan. A second author verified the data entered. For continuous data, we calculated the mean difference and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the mean change in weight between baseline and post-treatment measurements using a fixed-effect model. For categorical data, such as the proportion of women who gained or lost more than a specified amount of weight, the Peto odds ratio with 95% CI was calculated. We found 49 trials that met our inclusion criteria. The trials included 85 weight change comparisons for 52 distinct contraceptive pairs (or placebos). The four trials with a placebo or no intervention group did not find

  15. What's new in melanoma? Combination!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascierto, Paolo A; Marincola, Francesco M; Atkins, Michael B

    2015-07-04

    Melanoma was again a focus of attention at the 2015 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting, in particular the use of combination treatment strategies involving immunotherapies and/or targeted agents. New data on targeted therapies confirmed previous findings, with combined BRAF inhibitor (vemurafenib) plus MEK inhibitor (cobimetinib) improving progression-free survival (PFS) compared to vemurafenib monotherapy in patients with BRAFV600 mutation-positive tumors (CoBRIM trial). Positive results were also seen with combined dabrafenib and trametinib in patients with BRAF V600E/K metastatic melanoma and encorafenib plus binimetinib in BRAFV600-mutant cutaneous melanoma. Even more interesting news centered on the use of combination immunotherapy, in particular the randomized, double-blind CheckMate 067 study in which median PFS with nivolumab plus ipilimumab was 11.5 months, compared to 2.9 months with ipilimumab alone (HR 0.42) and 6.9 months with nivolumab alone (HR 0.57). Of interest, in patients with ≥5% PD-L1 expression, median PFS was 14 months with the combination or with nivolumab alone compared with 3.9 months in the ipilimumab group, while in the PD-L1 negative cohort, the combination remained superior to both monotherapies. Given that combination therapy was accompanied by a high occurrence of side-effects, this raises the suggestion that combination therapy might be reserved for PD-L1 negative patients only, with PD-L1 positive patients achieving the same benefit from nivolumab monotherapy. However, overall survival data are awaited and the equivalence of single agent to the combination remains unconvincing. Interesting data were also reported on the combination of T-VEC (talimogene laherparepvec) with ipilimumab, and the anti-PD-1 agent MEDI4736 (durvolumab) combined with dabrafenib plus trametinib. Emerging data also suggested that predictive markers based on immunoprofiling and mismatch repair deficiency may be of clinical use. In

  16. Aerofoils and Aerofoil Structural Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorrell, Edgar S; Martin, H S

    1918-01-01

    Report presents results of wind tunnel tests of cambered aerofoils and body-wing combinations used for biplanes. Aerodynamic characteristics including drag, lift-drift ratio and stability derivatives are given.

  17. Combined radar and telemetry system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T.; Young, Derek; Chou, Tina; Hsieh, Lung-Hwa; Conover, Kurt; Heintzleman, Richard

    2017-08-01

    A combined radar and telemetry system is described. The combined radar and telemetry system includes a processing unit that executes instructions, where the instructions define a radar waveform and a telemetry waveform. The processor outputs a digital baseband signal based upon the instructions, where the digital baseband signal is based upon the radar waveform and the telemetry waveform. A radar and telemetry circuit transmits, simultaneously, a radar signal and telemetry signal based upon the digital baseband signal.

  18. Modified function projective combination synchronization of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Combination hyperchaotic system; modified function projective combination synchronization; adaptive control; hyperchaotic Lorenz system; hyperchaotic Lu system ... A self-combination system is constructed from hyperchaotic Lorenz system by combining state variables of the Lorenz system with appropriate scaling factors.

  19. Combination vaccines against diarrheal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Malabi M; Van de Verg, Lillian L

    2015-01-01

    Diarrheal diseases remain a leading cause of global childhood mortality and morbidity. Several recent epidemiological studies highlight the rate of diarrheal diseases in different parts of the world and draw attention to the impact on childhood growth and survival. Despite the well-documented global burden of diarrheal diseases, currently there are no combination diarrheal vaccines, only licensed vaccines for rotavirus and cholera, and Salmonella typhi-based vaccines for typhoid fever. The recognition of the impact of diarrheal episodes on infant growth, as seen in resource-poor countries, has spurred action from governmental and non-governmental agencies to accelerate research toward affordable and effective vaccines against diarrheal diseases. Both travelers and children in endemic countries will benefit from a combination diarrheal vaccine, but it can be argued that the greater proportion of any positive impact will be on the public health status of the latter. The history of combination pediatric vaccines indicate that monovalent or single disease vaccines are typically licensed first prior to formulation in a combination vaccine, and that the combinations themselves undergo periodic revision in response to need for improvement in safety or potential for wider coverage of important pediatric pathogens. Nevertheless combination pediatric vaccines have proven to be an effective tool in limiting or eradicating communicable childhood diseases worldwide. The landscape of diarrheal vaccine candidates indicates that there now several in active development that offer options for potential testing of combinations to combat those bacterial and viral pathogens responsible for the heaviest disease burden-rotavirus, ETEC, Shigella, Campylobacter, V. cholera and Salmonella.

  20. A rare combination: Combined factor V and factor VIII deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Başak Ünver Koluman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Combined factor V (FV and factor VIII (FVIII deficiency is a rare factor deficiency with mild-moderate hemorrhage. It is an autosomal recessive coagulation disorder . Prolonged prothrombin time and partial thromboplastic time is characteristic, platelet count remains in normal ranges. The main stay of treatment is to control the hemorrhage. Fresh frozen plasma, desmopressin, specific FVIII concentrates (plasma- derived or recombinant may be used. Being very rare in the general population, we present a case with a combined FV and FVIII deficiency. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (2: 323-325

  1. COMBINE Archive Specification Version 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Frank T; Rodriguez, Nicolas; Le Novère, Nicolas

    2015-09-04

    Several standard formats have been proposed that can be used to describe models, simulations, data or other essential information in a consistent fashion. These constitute various separate components required to reproduce a given published scientific result. The Open Modeling EXchange format (OMEX) supports the exchange of all the information necessary for a modeling and simulation experiment in biology. An OMEX file is a ZIP container that includes a manifest file, an optional metadata file, and the files describing the model. The manifest is an XML file listing all files included in the archive and their type. The metadata file provides additional information about the archive and its content. Although any format can be used, we recommend an XML serialization of the Resource Description Framework. Together with the other standard formats from the Computational Modeling in Biology Network (COMBINE), OMEX is the basis of the COMBINE Archive. The content of a COMBINE Archive consists of files encoded in COMBINE standards whenever possible, but may include additional files defined by an Internet Media Type. The COMBINE Archive facilitates the reproduction of modeling and simulation experiments in biology by embedding all the relevant information in one file. Having all the information stored and exchanged at once also helps in building activity logs and audit trails.

  2. Mode Combinations and International Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benito, Gabriel R. G.; Petersen, Bent; Welch, Lawrence S.

    2011-01-01

    An enduring characteristic of extant literature on foreign operation modes is its discrete choice approach, where companies are assumed to choose one among a small number of distinctive alternatives. In this paper we use detailed information about the operations of six Norwegian companies in three...... key markets (China, UK and USA) as the basis for an exploration of the extent to which, and how and why, companies combine clearly different foreign operation modes. We examine their use of foreign operation mode combinations within given value activities as well as within given countries. The study...... reveals that companies tend to combine modes of operation; thereby producing unique foreign operation mode “packages” for given activities and/or countries, and that the packages are liable to be modified over time – providing a potentially important optional path for international expansion. Our data...

  3. Mode Combinations and International Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benito, Gabriel R. G.; Petersen, Bent; Welch, Lawrence S.

    2011-01-01

    An enduring characteristic of extant literature on foreign operation modes is its discrete choice approach, where companies are assumed to choose one among a small number of distinctive alternatives. In this paper, detailed information about the operations of six Norwegian companies in three key...... markets (China, UK and USA) is used as the basis for an exploration of the extent to which, and how and why, companies combine clearly different foreign operation modes. We examine their use of foreign operation mode combinations within given value activities as well as within given countries. The study...... reveals that companies tend to combine modes of operation; thereby producing unique foreign operation mode “packages” for given activities and/or countries, and that the packages are liable to be modified over time—providing a potentially important optional path for international expansion. The data show...

  4. Combination trading with limit orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Schellhorn

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We model the exchange of commodities that are contingent upon each other, when traders place mostly limit orders. Examples include: 1 a market of financial futures where future spreads are also traded, 2 a market of mutual funds and stocks, 3 a market of options and stocks, under the viewpoint that they are both combinations of Arrow-Debreu securities. We prove that consistent prices are optimal. We develop a fixed-point algorithm to compute an optimal price and allocation. The algorithm combines ideas from contraction mapping theory and from homotopy theory. It is much faster than a traditional linear programming approach.

  5. Property Attribution in Combined Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalding, Thomas L.; Gagné, Christina L.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research shows that the judged likelihood of properties of modified nouns ("baby ducks have webbed feet") is reduced relative to judgments for unmodified nouns ("ducks have webbed feet"). This modification effect has been taken as evidence both for and against the idea that combined concepts automatically inherit…

  6. What future for combination therapies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, John

    2003-01-01

    For most patients who require lipid-lowering treatment, statin monotherapy is the appropriate treatment. However, in those patients where statin monotherapy does not produce optimal lipid levels, the combination of a statin with niacin, a bile acid sequestrant, a fibric acid derivative, a

  7. H gas turbine combined cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corman, J. [General Electric Co., Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1995-10-01

    A major step has been taken in the development of the Next Power Generation System - {open_quotes}H{close_quotes} Technology Combined Cycle. This new gas turbine combined-cycle system increases thermal performance to the 60% level by increasing gas turbine operating temperature to 1430 C (2600 F) at a pressure ratio of 23 to 1. Although this represents a significant increase in operating temperature for the gas turbine, the potential for single digit NOx levels (based upon 15% O{sub 2}, in the exhaust) has been retained. The combined effect of performance increase and environmental control is achieved by an innovative closed loop steam cooling system which tightly integrates the gas turbine and steam turbine cycles. The {open_quotes}H{close_quotes} Gas Turbine Combined Cycle System meets the goals and objectives of the DOE Advanced Turbine System Program. The development and demonstration of this new system is being carried out as part of the Industrial/Government cooperative agreement under the ATS Program. This program will achieve first commercial operation of this new system before the end of the century.

  8. Major Joint/Combined Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Force conducted a saturation bombing of the Monte Cassino monastery against the advice of the respective air commanders. Not surprisingly, all...From the Stone Age to Alexander the Great, rev. ed. (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1997), 134. 4 Rowena Reed, Combined Operations in the Civil War

  9. Combined autophagy and proteasome inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Dan T; Stadtmauer, Edward A; Tan, Kay-See; Heitjan, Daniel F; Davis, Lisa E; Pontiggia, Laura; Rangwala, Reshma; Piao, Shengfu; Chang, Yunyoung C; Scott, Emma C; Paul, Thomas M; Nichols, Charles W; Porter, David L; Kaplan, Janeen; Mallon, Gayle; Bradner, James E; Amaravadi, Ravi K

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of proteasome inhibition for myeloma is limited by therapeutic resistance, which may be mediated by activation of the autophagy pathway as an alternative mechanism of protein degradation. Preclinical studies demonstrate that autophagy inhibition with hydroxychloroquine augments the antimyeloma efficacy of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. We conducted a phase I trial combining bortezomib and hydroxychloroquine for relapsed or refractory myeloma. We enrolled 25 patients, including 11 (44%) refractory to prior bortezomib. No protocol-defined dose-limiting toxicities occurred, and we identified a recommended phase 2 dose of hydroxychloroquine 600 mg twice daily with standard doses of bortezomib, at which we observed dose-related gastrointestinal toxicity and cytopenias. Of 22 patients evaluable for response, 3 (14%) had very good partial responses, 3 (14%) had minor responses, and 10 (45%) had a period of stable disease. Electron micrographs of bone marrow plasma cells collected at baseline, after a hydroxychloroquine run-in, and after combined therapy showed therapy-associated increases in autophagic vacuoles, consistent with the combined effects of increased trafficking of misfolded proteins to autophagic vacuoles and inhibition of their degradative capacity. Combined targeting of proteasomal and autophagic protein degradation using bortezomib and hydroxychloroquine is therefore feasible and a potentially useful strategy for improving outcomes in myeloma therapy. PMID:24991834

  10. Combining Clozapine and Talk Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulroy, Kevin

    Clozapine is an antipsychotic medication used in the treatment of schizophrenia. This paper reviews articles concerning clozapine therapy. It considers its benefits and dangers in various situations, and how it can be successfully combined with talk therapies. Studies are reviewed concerning patients in outpatient clinics, partial hospitalization…

  11. Convex combination of analytic functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Nak Eun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Radii of convexity, starlikeness, lemniscate starlikeness and close-to-convexity are determined for the convex combination of the identity map and a normalized convex function F given by f(z = α z+(1−αF(z.

  12. Temporal aspects of cue combination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mierlo, C.M.; Brenner, E.; Smeets, J.B.J.

    2007-01-01

    The human brain processes different kinds of information (or cues) independently with different neural latencies. How does the brain deal with these differences in neural latency when it combines cues into one estimate? To find out, we introduced artificial asynchronies between the moments that

  13. CHILD WITH COMBINED CARDIORESPIRATORY PATHOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    N.D. Vashakmadze; G. V. Revunenkov; E. G. Chernavina; O. V. Kustova; M. V. Tarayan; I. V. Davydova; A. K. Gevorkyan

    2013-01-01

    The course of a secondary pulmonary hypertension in a child with congenital heart disease and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in anamnesis is retraced in the article using a concrete clinical case. An assessment of echocardiographic and radiologic disease signs at a prolonged follow-up observation of a child with combined cardiorespiratory pathology was conducted. The main therapeutic approaches to this category of patients were covered.

  14. Binocular combination of luminance profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jian; Levi, Dennis M

    2017-11-01

    We develop and test a new two-dimensional model for binocular combination of the two eyes' luminance profiles. For first-order stimuli, the model assumes that one eye's luminance profile first goes through a luminance compressor, receives gain-control and gain-enhancement from the other eye, and then linearly combines the other eye's output profile. For second-order stimuli, rectification is added in the signal path of the model before the binocular combination site. Both the total contrast and luminance energies, weighted sums over both the space and spatial-frequency domains, were used in the interocular gain-control, while only the total contrast energy was used in the interocular gain-enhancement. To challenge the model, we performed a binocular brightness matching experiment over a large range of background and target luminances. The target stimulus was a dichoptic disc with a sharp edge that has an increment or decrement luminance from its background. The disk's interocular luminance ratio varied from trial to trial. To refine the model we tested three luminance compressors, five nested binocular combination models (including the Ding-Sperling and the DSKL models), and examined the presence or absence of total luminance energy in the model. We found that (1) installing a luminance compressor, either a logarithmic luminance function or luminance gain-control, (2) including both contrast and luminance energies, and (3) adding interocular gain-enhancement (the DSKL model) to a combined model significantly improved its performance. The combined model provides a systematic account of binocular luminance summation over a large range of luminance input levels. It gives a unified explanation of Fechner's paradox observed on a dark background, and a winner-take-all phenomenon observed on a light background. To further test the model, we conducted two additional experiments: luminance summation of discs with asymmetric contour information (Experiment 2), similar to

  15. Classifier combination for wafer segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeat, Pierrick T.; Meriaudeau, Fabrice

    2005-02-01

    In the last decade, the accessibility of inexpensive and powerful computers has allowed true digital holography to be used for industrial inspection. This technique allows capturing a complex image of a scene (i.e. containing magnitude and phase), and reconstructing the phase and magnitude information. Digital holograms give a new dimension to texture analysis since the topology information can be used as an additional way to extract features. This new technique can be used to extend previous work on image segmentation of patterned wafers for defect detection. This paper presents a combination of features obtained from Gabor filters on different complex images. The combination enables to cope with the intensity variations occurring during the holography and provides final results which are independent from the selected training samples.

  16. Combining activity and economic efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fersch, Barbara

    In the Danish welfare state, long-term care is a universal service that is run by the municipalities. The municipalities, although bound by a national legal framework, do have considerable autonomy concerning the concrete definition and organization of long-term care services. One of the newest “....... The paper provides a discourse analysis of the interviewees’ accounts, that shows how discourses on activity and economic efficiency have been combined in the Danish context....

  17. CHILD WITH COMBINED CARDIORESPIRATORY PATHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Vashakmadze

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The course of a secondary pulmonary hypertension in a child with congenital heart disease and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in anamnesis is retraced in the article using a concrete clinical case. An assessment of echocardiographic and radiologic disease signs at a prolonged follow-up observation of a child with combined cardiorespiratory pathology was conducted. The main therapeutic approaches to this category of patients were covered.

  18. Imagining a Stata / Python Combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, James

    2012-01-01

    There are occasions when a task is difficult in Stata, but fairly easy in a more general programming language. Python is a popular language for a range of uses. It is easy to use, has many high ]quality packages, and programs can be written relatively quickly. Is there any advantage in combining Stata and Python within a single interface? Stata already offers support for user-written programs, which allow extensive control over calculations, but somewhat less control over graphics. Also, except for specifying output, the user has minimal programmatic control over the user interface. Python can be used in a way that allows more control over the interface and graphics, and in so doing provide a roundabout method for satisfying some user requests (e.g., transparency levels in graphics and the ability to clear the results window). My talk will explore these ideas, present a possible method for combining Stata and Python, and give examples to demonstrate how this combination might be useful.

  19. Chemistry of combined residual chlorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leao, S.F.; Selleck, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    The decay of the combined chlorine residual was investigated in this work. Recent concerns about the formation of undesirable compounds such as chloroform with free residual chlorination have focused attention on the alternative use of combined residual chlorination. This work investigates the applicability of reactions proposed to describe the transformations and decay of the combined residual with time. Sodium hypochlorite was added to buffered solutions of ammonia with the chlorine residual being monitored over periods extending up to 10 days. The reaction was studied at four initial concentrations of hypochlorite of 100, 50, 25 and 10 mg/L as Cl/sub 2/ with molar application ratios of chlorine to ammonia, defined herein as M ratios, of 0.90, 0.50, 0.25 and 0.05 at each hypochlorite dose. Sixty-eight experiments were conducted at the pH of 6.6 and 7.2. The conclusions are: (1) in the absence of free chlorine, the concentration of NH/sub 3/ does not seem to affect the rate of disappearance of the residual other than through the formation of NHCl/sub 2/ by NH/sub 2/Cl hydrolysis; (2) the reaction between NHCl/sub 2/ and NH/sub 4//sup +/ to form NH/sub 2/Cl is either much slower than reported by Gray et. al. or the mechanism is different with a rate limiting step not involving NH/sub 3/ or NH/sub 4//sup +/; (3) a redox reaction in addition to the first-order decomposition of NHCl/sub 2/ appears necessary. Model simulation results indicated that a reaction of the type NH/sub 2/Cl + NHCl/sub 2/ ..-->.. P added to the first-order NHCl/sub 2/ decomposition can explain the results observed except at the higher chlorine doses.

  20. Chemical and natural stressors combined:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gergs, André; Zenker, Armin; Grimm, Volker

    2013-01-01

    In addition to natural stressors, populations are increasingly exposed to chemical pollutants released into the environment. We experimentally demonstrate the loss of resilience for Daphnia magna populations that are exposed to a combination of natural and chemical stressors even though effects...... vulnerability to the toxicant which acts in a size selective manner. Moreover, population vulnerability to the toxicant increases with predator size and predation intensity whereas indirect trait-mediated interactions via predator kairomones may buffer chemical effects to a certain extent. Our study...

  1. [Combination chemotherapy of experimental leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel', N M; Konovalova, N P; D'iachkovskaia, R F

    1977-01-01

    In the present work an attempt was made to gain greater therapeutic effect of diazane coupled with adriamycin and sarcolysin. Leucemias L-1210 and La served as a model. In leucosis La diazane was injected once in 5 days. Either an additional injection of adriamycin two days prior to diazane injection or sarcolysin injected simultaneously with diazane enabled the authors to obtain a distinct synergestic effect. In leucemia L-1210 a simultaneous administration of diazane and sarcolysin also contributes to considerably longer survival of leucemic animals. Such combinations are likely to be promising in their clinical use.

  2. Combining Alphas via Bounded Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zura Kakushadze

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We give an explicit algorithm and source code for combining alpha streams via bounded regression. In practical applications, typically, there is insufficient history to compute a sample covariance matrix (SCM for a large number of alphas. To compute alpha allocation weights, one then resorts to (weighted regression over SCM principal components. Regression often produces alpha weights with insufficient diversification and/or skewed distribution against, e.g., turnover. This can be rectified by imposing bounds on alpha weights within the regression procedure. Bounded regression can also be applied to stock and other asset portfolio construction. We discuss illustrative examples.

  3. Combinations of complex dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pilgrim, Kevin M

    2003-01-01

    This work is a research-level monograph whose goal is to develop a general combination, decomposition, and structure theory for branched coverings of the two-sphere to itself, regarded as the combinatorial and topological objects which arise in the classification of certain holomorphic dynamical systems on the Riemann sphere. It is intended for researchers interested in the classification of those complex one-dimensional dynamical systems which are in some loose sense tame. The program is motivated by the dictionary between the theories of iterated rational maps and Kleinian groups.

  4. Curcumin in combined cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troselj, Koraljka Gall; Kujundzic, Renata Novak

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms of beneficial preventive and therapeutic effects achieved by traditional and complementary medicine are currently being deciphered in molecular medicine. Curcumin, a yellow-colored polyphenol derived from the rhizome of turmeric (Curcuma longa), influences a wide variety of cellular processes through the reshaping of many molecular targets. One of them, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), represents a strong mediator of inflammation and, in a majority of systems, supports the pro-proliferative features of cancer cells. The application of various anticancer drugs, cytostatics, triggers signals which lead to an increase in cellular NF-κB activity. As a consequence, cancer cells often reshape their survival signaling pathways and, over time, become resistant to applied therapy. Curcumin was shown to be a strong inhibitor of NF-κB activity and its inhibitory effect on NF-κB related pathways often leads to cellular apoptotic response. All these facts, tested and confirmed in many different biological systems, have paved the way for research aimed to elucidate the potential beneficial effects of combining curcumin and various anti-cancer drugs in order to establish more efficient and less toxic cancer treatment modalities. This review addresses certain aspects of NF-κB-related inflammatory response, its role in carcinogenesis and therapy benefits that may be gained through silencing NF-κB by selectively combining curcumin and various anticancer drugs.

  5. [Familial combined hyperlipidemia: consensus document].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Pedro; Alonso, Rodrigo; Ruíz-Garcia, Antonio; Díaz-Díaz, Jose L; González, Noemí; Gijón-Conde, Teresa; Martínez-Faedo, Ceferino; Morón, Ignacio; Arranz, Ezequiel; Aguado, Rocío; Argueso, Rosa; Perez de Isla, Leopoldo

    2014-10-01

    Familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH) is a frequent disorder associated with premature coronary artery disease. It is transmitted in an autosomal dominant manner, although there is not a unique gene involved. The diagnosis is performed using clinical criteria, and variability in lipid phenotype and family history of hyperlipidemia are necessaries. Frequently, the disorder is associated with type2 diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension and central obesity. Patients with FCH are considered as high cardiovascular risk and the lipid target is an LDL-cholesterol <100mg/dL, and <70mg/dL if cardiovascular disease or type 2 diabetes are present. Patients with FCH require lipid lowering treatment using potent statins and sometimes, combined lipid-lowering treatment. Identification and management of other cardiovascular risk factors as type 2 diabetes and hypertension are fundamental to reduce cardiovascular disease burden. This document gives recommendations for the diagnosis and global treatment of patients with FCH directed to specialists and general practitioners. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. 7 CFR 51.304 - Combination grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combination grades. 51.304 Section 51.304 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.304 Combination grades. (a) Combinations of the above grades may... permitted in connection with the U.S. apple grades. When Combination grades are packed, at least 50 percent...

  7. Combined Shape and Topology Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Asger Nyman

    Shape and topology optimization seeks to compute the optimal shape and topology of a structure such that one or more properties, for example stiffness, balance or volume, are improved. The goal of the thesis is to develop a method for shape and topology optimization which uses the Deformable...... Simplicial Complex (DSC) method. Consequently, we present a novel method which combines current shape and topology optimization methods. This method represents the surface of the structure explicitly and discretizes the structure into non-overlapping elements, i.e. a simplicial complex. An explicit surface...... representation usually limits the optimization to minor shape changes. However, the DSC method uses a single explicit representation and still allows for large shape and topology changes. It does so by constantly applying a set of mesh operations during deformations of the structure. Using an explicit instead...

  8. How rats combine temporal cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhardi, Paulo; Keen, Richard; MacInnis, Mika L M; Church, Russell M

    2005-05-31

    The procedures for classical and operant conditioning, and for many timing procedures, involve the delivery of reinforcers that may be related to the time of previous reinforcers and responses, and to the time of onsets and terminations of stimuli. The behavior resulting from such procedures can be described as bouts of responding that occur in some pattern at some rate. A packet theory of timing and conditioning is described that accounts for such behavior under a wide range of procedures. Applications include the food searching by rats in Skinner boxes under conditions of fixed and random reinforcement, brief and sustained stimuli, and several response-food contingencies. The approach is used to describe how multiple cues from reinforcers and stimuli combine to determine the rate and pattern of response bouts.

  9. Combining supramolecular chemistry with biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlenheuer, Dana A; Petkau, Katja; Brunsveld, Luc

    2010-08-01

    Supramolecular chemistry has primarily found its inspiration in biological molecules, such as proteins and lipids, and their interactions. Currently the supramolecular assembly of designed compounds can be controlled to great extent. This provides the opportunity to combine these synthetic supramolecular elements with biomolecules for the study of biological phenomena. This tutorial review focuses on the possibilities of the marriage of synthetic supramolecular architectures and biological systems. It highlights that synthetic supramolecular elements are for example ideal platforms for the recognition and modulation of proteins and cells. The unique features of synthetic supramolecular systems with control over size, shape, valency, and interaction strength allow the generation of structures fitting the demands to approach the biological problems at hand. Supramolecular chemistry has come full circle, studying the biology and its molecules which initially inspired its conception.

  10. Combining ESP and baghouse technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowland, B.; Ganatra, C.P.; Woolston, J. [W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., Elkton, MD (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The authors present a progressive application in the field of air pollution control technology. The content of this paper should appeal to operators who must operate out-of-compliance electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), or to those who strive for optimal emission control. St. Lawrence Cement Company, a plant in Beauport Canada, has been in operation since 1955. Their two wet process kilns have utilized electrostatic precipitator (ESP) filters since inception. Since 1965, this company has strived to reduce energy consumption by using alternative waste fuel. This, combined with the increased demand of low alkali cement, took its toll on the ESPs, causing the equipment and its performance to deteriorate. Pressure from environmental agencies to lower outlet emissions forced the company to consider ESP modifications. After investigating several alternatives, the optimal modification was to combine the ESP with bag filters. In addition to being the best choice from a performance standpoint, it was also the least expensive. This modification also allowed a reduced alkali dust from the ESP hoppers to be recirculated to the kilns. The latter two-thirds of the ESP were converted to a baghouse, and optimal system performance was achieved by using high efficiency expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membrane filter bags. Despite the high moisture, submicron particle size, and cohesive nature of the alkaline dust, very low pressure differentials and extremely low emissions were achieved. Most notably, this complex project was completed within nine months, from concept to commissioning. The plant was shut down for only six weeks during the entire retrofit process. This economically attractive idea was readily accepted by St. Lawrence Cement personnel and the permitting agencies. After the first successful kiln/ESP retrofit, the second kiln/ESP conversion was completed the following year.

  11. Combined Reduced-Rank Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoli Torokhti

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose and justify a new approach to constructing optimal nonlinear transforms of random vectors. We show that the proposed transform improves such characteristics of {rank-reduced} transforms as compression ratio, accuracy of decompression and reduces required computational work. The proposed transform ${mathcal T}_p$ is presented in the form of a sum with $p$ terms where each term is interpreted as a particular rank-reduced transform. Moreover, terms in ${mathcal T}_p$ are represented as a combination of three operations ${mathcal F}_k$, ${mathcal Q}_k$ and ${oldsymbol{varphi}}_k$ with $k=1,ldots,p$. The prime idea is to determine ${mathcal F}_k$ separately, for each $k=1,ldots,p$, from an associated rank-constrained minimization problem similar to that used in the Karhunen--Lo`{e}ve transform. The operations ${mathcal Q}_k$ and ${oldsymbol{varphi}}_k$ are auxiliary for f/inding ${mathcal F}_k$. The contribution of each term in ${mathcal T}_p$ improves the entire transform performance. A corresponding unconstrained nonlinear optimal transform is also considered. Such a transform is important in its own right because it is treated as an optimal filter without signal compression. A rigorous analysis of errors associated with the proposed transforms is given.

  12. Combined Dietotherapy after Extensive Hepatectomies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kiselev

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to compare the time course of nutritional changes in relation to the components of nutritive support in the early postoperative period after extensive hepatectomies.Subjects and methods. Beginning with the 1st postoperative day, 12 patients had parenteral feeding comprising 20% glucose, fat emulsions, and specialized amino acid solutions (Group 1. Beginning with the same day, 14 patients were given the parenteral formula Oliclinomel (Group 2. Starting from the 2nd postoperative day, both groups additionally received a balanced feeding formula by sipping.Results. Postoperatively, first-to-second degree encephalopathy was recorded in both groups. Positive changes as consciousness recovery were found in both Group 1 in which the patients used branched-chain amino acid-enriched solutions and Group 2 (parenteral Oliclinomel feeding. The patients under examination were not given albumin solutions and fresh frozen plasma in the postoperative period. Moreover, by postoperative day 7, there were significant increases in the levels of albumin and total protein in Groups 1 and 2, in those of cholinesterase and the absolute count of lymphocytes, and a reduction in the concentration of C-reactive protein.Conclusion. Combined parenteral and enteral feedings are effective in patients after extensive hepatectomies. The parenteral feeding formula Oliclinomel may be used in this group of patients. 

  13. Efficient Web Services Policy Combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatan, Farrokh; Harman, Joseph G.

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale Web security systems usually involve cooperation between domains with non-identical policies. The network management and Web communication software used by the different organizations presents a stumbling block. Many of the tools used by the various divisions do not have the ability to communicate network management data with each other. At best, this means that manual human intervention into the communication protocols used at various network routers and endpoints is required. Developing practical, sound, and automated ways to compose policies to bridge these differences is a long-standing problem. One of the key subtleties is the need to deal with inconsistencies and defaults where one organization proposes a rule on a particular feature, and another has a different rule or expresses no rule. A general approach is to assign priorities to rules and observe the rules with the highest priorities when there are conflicts. The present methods have inherent inefficiency, which heavily restrict their practical applications. A new, efficient algorithm combines policies utilized for Web services. The method is based on an algorithm that allows an automatic and scalable composition of security policies between multiple organizations. It is based on defeasible policy composition, a promising approach for finding conflicts and resolving priorities between rules. In the general case, policy negotiation is an intractable problem. A promising method, suggested in the literature, is when policies are represented in defeasible logic, and composition is based on rules for non-monotonic inference. In this system, policy writers construct metapolicies describing both the policy that they wish to enforce and annotations describing their composition preferences. These annotations can indicate whether certain policy assertions are required by the policy writer or, if not, under what circumstances the policy writer is willing to compromise and allow other assertions to take

  14. Combining Quality Control Circles and Work Simplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Alan D.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of combining a quality circles program with a work simplification program. Points out that both require participative management and that their combination can improve the effectiveness of quality circles. (JOW)

  15. Combining multiple classifiers for age classification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, C

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors compare several different classifier combination methods on a single task, namely speaker age classification. This task is well suited to combination strategies, since significantly different feature classes are employed. Support vector...

  16. Determination of hormonal combination for increased multiplication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eight hormonal combinations were formulated and tested using a completely randomized design with three replicates in the tissue culture laboratory. Ten shoot tips from in-vitro raised plantlets were excised and transferred to each of these hormonal combinations. The effect of hormonal combinations was variety dependant ...

  17. 40 CFR 1506.4 - Combining documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Combining documents. 1506.4 Section... Combining documents. Any environmental document in compliance with NEPA may be combined with any other agency document to reduce duplication and paperwork. ...

  18. Multiswitching combination–combination synchronization of chaotic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, a novel synchronization scheme is investigated for a class of chaotic systems. Themultiswitching synchronization scheme is extended to the combination–combination synchronization scheme such that the combination of state variables of two drive systems synchronize with different combination of state ...

  19. 12 CFR 5.33 - Business combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FOR CORPORATE ACTIVITIES Expansion of Activities § 5.33 Business combinations. (a) Authority. 12 U.S.C... business combination. (ii) Conditional approval. The OCC grants conditional approval to form an interim... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Business combinations. 5.33 Section 5.33 Banks...

  20. Systemic combination treatment for psoriasis: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Skov, Lone; Zachariae, Claus

    2010-01-01

    exist for the use of systemic combination therapy. Therefore, our aim was to review the current literature on systemic anti-psoriatic combination regimens. We searched PubMed and identified 98 papers describing 116 studies (23 randomized) reporting on the effect of various systemic combination...

  1. Instructions for combined pill users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, M; Hatcher, R A

    1985-01-01

    Guidelines are provided for women who take combined oral contraceptives. Women should carefully read and follow the instructions provided on the package insert and initiate pill taking as advised by their clinicians. Clincians generally advise patients to either start on the 1st day of their menstrual period, 5 days following the 1st menstrual day, or the 1st Sunday following the 1st menstrual day. Women should not start taking OCs at any other time unless they are absolutely sure that they are not pregnant. A backup method should be used until menstruation reoccurs. Women on a 21-day regimen should take 1 pill/day for 21 days, stop for 1 week, and then start over again with a new package. Women on a 28-day regimen should take 1 pill each day for 28 days and start a new package on the 29th day. The pill should be taken at the same time each day, and as an aid in remembering, women should try to associate taking the pill with an activity they perform daily. If a woman misses 1 pill, she should immediately, upon remembering, take the missed pill, take the next day's pill at the regular time, and use a backup method until menstruation begins. If 2 pills are missed, the women should take 2 pills immediately, and 2 pills the following day at the regular time. A backup method should be used until menstruation reoccurs. If 3 pills are missed, there are several alternates which can be followed; however, the woman should consider switching to a more suitable method. If a woman misses a period and took all her pills, it is unlikely that she is pregnant. She should simply start a new packet at the regular time. Women who miss a period, and also missed a pill, and women who missed 2 periods, even if they took all their pills, should contact their clinicians and have a pregnancy test. Women who are pregnant should immediately stop taking the pill. OC users who want to become pregnant should stop taking the pill, but use a backup method until they have 3 normal menstrual periods

  2. Systemic combination treatment for psoriasis: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Skov, Lone; Zachariae, Claus

    2010-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease, which affects approximately 2.6% of the population in Northern Europe and Scandinavia. In order to achieve disease control, combinations of systemic treatments are sometimes needed for variable time periods. However, no evidence-based guidelines e...... treatments. The most thoroughly investigated combination was retinoid and phototherapy. Further controlled research is needed to define the safest and most effective combination regimens....

  3. Retinoid plus antimicrobial combination treatments for acne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feneran, Ashley N; Kaufman, William S; Dabade, Tushar S; Feldman, Steven R

    2011-01-01

    Background: Acne vulgaris is a chronic disease with several pathogenic factors. Multiple medications are typically used that can lead to nonadherence and treatment failure. Combination medications target multiple pathways of acne formation and may offer therapeutic benefit. Purpose: To explore the efficacy and tolerability of combination retinoid plus antimicrobial treatments in acne vulgaris. Methods: A PubMed and Google search was conducted for combination therapies of clindamycin and tretinoin, with secondary analysis of related citations and references. Similar searches were completed for the combination medications of benzoyl peroxide plus clindamycin or erythromycin, and for the combination therapy of adapalene and benzoyl peroxide. Results: Combination clindamycin phosphate and tretinoin gel was found to be more efficacious than monotherapy of either drug or its vehicle for acne, including inflammatory acne, and has a greater onset of action than either drug alone. Clindamycin phosphate and tretinoin gel was well-tolerated, and adherence to its use exceeded that of using both medications in separate formulations. Benzoyl peroxide-containing combination medications with clindamycin or erythromycin were both more effective in the treatment of acne than either drug alone. Both medications were well-tolerated, with dry skin being the most common adverse effect. Conclusions: Combination medications have superior efficacy and adherence, and have a similar tolerability profile compared with monotherapy of its components. Several studies have found antibiotic-containing combination products with a retinoid effective for acne. The use of antibiotic-containing combination medications for acne can lead to bacterial resistance. Due to this potential for bacterial resistance, benzoyl peroxide treatments are also recommended in combination with a retinoid. PMID:21760743

  4. Consensus paper: combining transcranial stimulation with neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebner, Hartwig R; Bergmann, Til O; Bestmann, Sven

    2009-01-01

    In the last decade, combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-neuroimaging studies have greatly stimulated research in the field of TMS and neuroimaging. Here, we review how TMS can be combined with various neuroimaging techniques to investigate human brain function. When applied during ne...

  5. 12 CFR 602.16 - Combining requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combining requests. 602.16 Section 602.16 Banks....16 Combining requests. You may not avoid paying fees by filing multiple requests at the same time. When FCA reasonably believes that you, alone or with others, are breaking down a request into a series...

  6. Convergence analysis of combinations of different methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Y. [Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This paper provides a convergence analysis for combinations of different numerical methods for solving systems of differential equations. The author proves that combinations of two convergent linear multistep methods or Runge-Kutta methods produce a new convergent method of which the order is equal to the smaller order of the two original methods.

  7. 24 CFR 3285.313 - Combination systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Combination systems. 3285.313 Section 3285.313 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... systems. Support systems that combine both load-bearing capacity and uplift resistance must also be sized...

  8. Combined Developmental Constructs and Job Performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Combined Developmental Constructs and Job Performance of Librarians in University Libraries in South-South Geo-Political Zone of Nigeria. ... The results showed that librarians' on-the-job performance depends significantly on the combined effect of the six developmental constructs. Further analysis showed that only ...

  9. Multimedia: How to Combine Language and Visuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Horz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, advanced computer technology has allowed for development of information systems and learning environments that combine language with other forms of human communication in innovative ways. Language in the form of written texts, for example, can be combined not only with static pictures or graphs as in printed material, but also with animation or video.

  10. Multimedia: How to Combine Language and Visuals

    OpenAIRE

    Holger Horz; Wolfgang Schnotz

    2008-01-01

    In the last decade, advanced computer technology has allowed for development of information systems and learning environments that combine language with other forms of human communication in innovative ways. Language in the form of written texts, for example, can be combined not only with static pictures or graphs as in printed material, but also with animation or video.

  11. Combination products: modernizing the regulatory paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Nina L; Sherman, Rachel E

    2017-08-01

    New opportunities to develop innovative - and often complex - products that combine drugs, devices and/or biological components are rapidly emerging, raising questions about how such products should be regulated. Here, we discuss the ongoing efforts of the FDA to develop a modern, transparent, flexible and consistent science-based regulatory approach for combination products.

  12. Multimedia: How to Combine Language and Visuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Horz

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, advanced computer technology has allowed for development of information systems and learning environments that combine language with other forms of human communication in innovative ways. Language in the form of written texts, for example, can be combined not only with static pictures or graphs as in printed material, but also with animation or video.

  13. Combined zenithal tropospheric delay during CONT08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollet, A.; Coulot, D.; Bock, O.; Nahmani, S.

    2012-12-01

    CONT08 is a two-week campaign of continuous VLBI observations. The IERS working group on Combination at the Observation Level (COL) has chosen this campaign in order to study such combination. In the COL framework, the French Groupe de Recherche en Géodésie Spatiale (GRGS) studies this approach, which directly combines the space geodetic observations of DORIS, GPS, SLR, and VLBI techniques using the same models and software for all the individual data processing. The purpose is to better use all the information provided by the different techniques through the interaction between the observations of the different techniques and to use more common parameters than a combination carried out at the solution level. In this work, combinations of DORIS, GPS, SLR, and VLBI technique measurements are studied during CONT08. We present different results concerning the use of common zenithal tropospheric delay (ZTD) during the combination. We compare the ZTD obtained separately with each individual technique data processing, the combined ZTD, and the ZTD derived from a meteorological model. We conclude with the benefit of the combined estimation of these parameters.

  14. Suction caissons subjected to monotonic combined loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penzes, P.; Jensen, M.R.; Zania, Varvara

    2016-01-01

    for offshore wind turbines. The combined loading imposed typically to a suction caisson has led to the estimation of their bearing capacity by means of 3D failure envelopes. This study aims to analyse the behaviour of suction caissons for offshore wind turbines subjected to combined loading. Finite element...

  15. Building program understanding tools using visitor combinators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Deursen (Arie); J.M.W. Visser (Joost)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractProgram understanding tools manipulate program representations, such as abstract syntax trees, control-flow graphs, or data-flow graphs. This paper deals with the use of visitor combinators to conduct such manipulations. Visitor combinators are an extension of the well-known

  16. OT-Combiners Via Secure Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harnik, Danny; Ishai, Yuval; Kushilevitz, Eyal

    2008-01-01

    An OT-combiner implements a secure oblivious transfer (OT) protocol using oracle access to n OT-candidates of which at most t may be faulty. We introduce a new general approach for combining OTs by making a simple and modular use of protocols for secure computation. Specifically, we obtain an OT......, in a network consisting of a single OT-channel. Our approach applies both to the “semi-honest” and the “malicious” models of secure computation, yielding the corresponding types of OT-combiners. Instantiating our general approach with secure computation protocols from the literature, we conceptually simplify......, strengthen the security, and improve the efficiency of previous OT-combiners. In particular, we obtain the first constant-rate OT-combiners in which the number of secure OTs being produced is a constant fraction of the total number of calls to the OT-candidates, while still tolerating a constant fraction...

  17. Ziconotide combination intrathecal therapy: rationale and evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Mark S; Rauck, Richard L; Deer, Timothy

    2010-09-01

    Ziconotide is a nonopioid intrathecal analgesic used to manage moderate to severe chronic pain. Although ziconotide is approved in the United States for intrathecal monotherapy only, it is often used in combination with other intrathecal drugs in clinical practice. The need exists for a critical assessment of the currently available published literature on ziconotide combination therapy. This review summarizes and evaluates the publications from preclinical and clinical peer-reviewed experiments that have investigated the safety and effectiveness of ziconotide in combination with a variety of other drugs. Eleven relevant publications were identified through a systematic search of multiple databases. In preclinical studies, additive or synergistic antinociceptive effects were discovered when ziconotide was used in combination with morphine, clonidine, or baclofen; however, no additional antinociceptive effects were observed when bupivacaine was added to ziconotide therapy. Safety data from animal studies revealed that ziconotide did not exacerbate morphine-induced respiratory depression, or clonidine-induced hypotension or bradycardia; however, ziconotide did potentiate morphine-induced hypotension and inhibition of gastrointestinal tract motility. Results from 2 open-label trials indicated that combination ziconotide and morphine therapy produced greater analgesia than was produced by the use of either drug alone. Preliminary support for the use of ziconotide in combination with morphine, baclofen, or hydromorphone was provided by case studies. Although clinical and preclinical studies provide some support for the use of ziconotide in combination with morphine, hydromorphone, clonidine, or baclofen, strong evidence-based data are limited. Controlled, long-term clinical trials are warranted.

  18. Leishmania donovani develops resistance to drug combinations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel García-Hernández

    Full Text Available Drug combinations for the treatment of leishmaniasis represent a promising and challenging chemotherapeutic strategy that has recently been implemented in different endemic areas. However, the vast majority of studies undertaken to date have ignored the potential risk that Leishmania parasites could develop resistance to the different drugs used in such combinations. As a result, this study was designed to elucidate the ability of Leishmania donovani to develop experimental resistance to anti-leishmanial drug combinations. The induction of resistance to amphotericin B/miltefosine, amphotericin B/paromomycin, amphotericin B/Sb(III, miltefosine/paromomycin, and Sb(III/paromomycin was determined using a step-wise adaptation process to increasing drug concentrations. Intracellular amastigotes resistant to these drug combinations were obtained from resistant L. donovani promastigote forms, and the thiol and ATP levels and the mitochondrial membrane potential of the resistant lines were analysed. Resistance to drug combinations was obtained after 10 weeks and remained in the intracellular amastigotes. Additionally, this resistance proved to be unstable. More importantly, we observed that promastigotes/amastigotes resistant to one drug combination showed a marked cross-resistant profile to other anti-leishmanial drugs. Additionally, the thiol levels increased in resistant lines that remained protected against the drug-induced loss of ATP and mitochondrial membrane potential. We have therefore demonstrated that different resistance patterns can be obtained in L. donovani depending upon the drug combinations used. Resistance to the combinations miltefosine/paromomycin and Sb(III/paromomycin is easily obtained experimentally. These results have been validated in intracellular amastigotes, and have important relevance for ensuring the long-term efficacy of drug combinations.

  19. Fourier Plane Image Combination by Feathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, W. D.

    2017-09-01

    Astronomical objects frequently exhibit structure over a wide range of scales whereas many telescopes, especially interferometer arrays, only sample a limited range of spatial scales. To properly image these objects, images from a set of instruments covering the range of scales may be needed. These images then must be combined in a manner to recover all spatial scales. This paper describes the feathering technique for image combination in the Fourier transform plane. Implementations in several packages are discussed and example combinations of single dish and interferometric observations of both simulated and celestial radio emission are given.

  20. Combined Sparsifying Transforms for Compressive Image Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO, L.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new compressive image fusion method based on combined sparsifying transforms. First, the framework of compressive image fusion is introduced briefly. Then, combined sparsifying transforms are presented to enhance the sparsity of images. Finally, a reconstruction algorithm based on the nonlinear conjugate gradient is presented to get the fused image. The simulations demonstrate that by using the combined sparsifying transforms better results can be achieved in terms of both the subjective visual effect and the objective evaluation indexes than using only a single sparsifying transform for compressive image fusion.

  1. Combination solar photovoltaic heat engine energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    A combination solar photovoltaic heat engine converter is proposed. Such a system is suitable for either terrestrial or space power applications. The combination system has a higher efficiency than either the photovoltaic array or the heat engine alone can attain. Advantages in concentrator and radiator area and receiver mass of the photovoltaic heat engine system over a heat-engine-only system are estimated. A mass and area comparison between the proposed space station organic Rankine power system and a combination PV-heat engine system is made. The critical problem for the proposed converter is the necessity for high temperature photovoltaic array operation. Estimates of the required photovoltaic temperature are presented.

  2. [Kidney paired donation. Combination with extracorporeal desensitization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, G; Böhmig, G A

    2014-09-01

    Live kidney donation represents the gold standard for renal replacement therapy. Due to ABO and HLA incompatibility between donor and recipient pairs, one third of possible transplantations cannot be performed. Kidney exchange programs in combination with extracorporeal desensitization have been introduced to enable successful kidney transplantation in such circumstances. This review discusses the current indications, methods, ethical problems and results within such programs. Relevant Medline articles were analyzed and personal experiences of the authors are included in this article. Kidney exchange programs in combination with extracorporeal desensitization enable successful transplantation for most patients. The best combinations of existing strategies have to be defined and newly arisen ethical questions have to be answered.

  3. Combining modeling and gaming for predictive analytics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Riensche, Roderick M; Whitney, Paul D

    2012-01-01

    .... In this paper we describe our approach of combining modeling and gaming disciplines to develop predictive capabilities, using formal models to inform game development, and using games to provide data for modeling...

  4. Unrewarded Object Combinations in Captive Parrots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auersperg, Alice Marie Isabel; Oswald, Natalie; Domanegg, Markus; Gajdon, Gyula Koppany; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In primates, complex object combinations during play are often regarded as precursors of functional behavior. Here we investigate combinatory behaviors during unrewarded object manipulation in seven parrot species, including kea, African grey parrots and Goffin cockatoos, three species previously used as model species for technical problem solving. We further examine a habitually tool using species, the black palm cockatoo. Moreover, we incorporate three neotropical species, the yellow- and the black-billed Amazon and the burrowing parakeet. Paralleling previous studies on primates and corvids, free object-object combinations and complex object-substrate combinations such as inserting objects into tubes/holes or stacking rings onto poles prevailed in the species previously linked to advanced physical cognition and tool use. In addition, free object-object combinations were intrinsically structured in Goffin cockatoos and in kea. PMID:25984564

  5. Combined Control Scheme for Monitoring Quality Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekeye K.S.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the literature, the Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA and Exponentially Weighted Moving Variance (EMWV control schemes have been used separately to monitor the process average and process variability respectively. Here the two are combined and applied on simulated process with different level of variation. The control limit interval (CLI and the average run length (ARL were evaluated for the combined chart. The combined chart performed better than the two independently. Furthermore, an algorithm was developed for the two control charts and implemented on visual basic VB6.0. The obtained results show that the combined EWMA and EWMV control chart is very sensitive in detecting shift in production process and every shift in the process mean is always preceded by shift in the process variability.

  6. Learning about Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Learning About Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding ...

  7. 7 CFR 4280.193 - Combined funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Renewable Energy Systems and Energy... combined funding, the applicant must submit separate applications for both types of assistance (grant and...

  8. Effects of pioglitazone in familial combined hyperlipidaemia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink-Zandbergen, E.J.; Graaf, J. de; Haan, J.H.A. de; Heerschap, A.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.; Tack, C.J.J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Familial combined hyperlipidaemia (FCH) is associated with insulin resistance. We hypothesized that pioglitazone treatment of FCH patients might increase insulin sensitivity, but may also improve serum lipid levels, body fat distribution, intramyocellular lipids (IMCL) and endothelial

  9. Optimizing sales areas of combined transport chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Michalk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Combined transport chains (such as intermodal transport, have certain advantages. The main advantage from customer points of view is the possibility to bundle freight and thereby decrease transport costs. On the other hand, a combined transport chain can cause longer transport times, due to the necessary transshipment processes. Methods: The area around a terminal, in which a combined service has favourable properties to a customer in comparison to a direct transport, can be understood as a sales-area, in which a combined transport product is marketable. The aim of this paper was to find a method to determine the best shape and size of this area. Results and conclusions: The paper at hand lined out a method in order to calculate such a sales area and determine which geographical points around a terminal have an advantage in comparison to a direct transport service.

  10. Results from ATLAS Calorimeter Combined Test Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Tarrade, F

    2007-01-01

    Beam tests of combinations of ATLAS calorimeters have been performed both for the barrel and end cap parts. During a combined test beam in summer 2004 a slice of the ATLAS barrel detector - including all detector sub systems from the inner tracker, the calorimetry to the muon system - was exposed to particle beams (electrons, pions, photons, muons) with different energies (1GeV to 350GeV). The aim was to study the combined performance of the different detector sub systems in ATLAS-like conditions. We will present the electronics calibration scheme of the electromagnetic calorimeter and its implementation. The following studies on the combined testbeam data have been performed and will be presented: performance of the electromagnetic calorimetry down to very low energies (> GeV), photon reconstruction including converted photons and position measurements using the very precise ATLAS tracker and the electromagnetic calorimeter. These measurements have been compared to Monte Carlo simulations showing the good de...

  11. Combined assessment (aspiration cytology and mammography) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Combined assessment (aspiration cytology and mammography) of clinically suspicious breast masses. W.F. van Wyk, D Dent, E Anne Hacking, Genevieve Learmonth, R.E. Kottler, C Anne Gudgeon, A Tiltman ...

  12. Coherent combining pulse bursts in time domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvanauskas, Almantas

    2018-01-09

    A beam combining and pulse stacking technique is provided that enhances laser pulse energy by coherent stacking pulse bursts (i.e. non-periodic pulsed signals) in time domain. This energy enhancement is achieved by using various configurations of Fabry-Perot, Gires-Tournois and other types of resonant cavities, so that a multiple-pulse burst incident at either a single input or multiple inputs of the system produces an output with a solitary pulse, which contains the summed energy of the incident multiple pulses from all beams. This disclosure provides a substantial improvement over conventional coherent-combining methods in that it achieves very high pulse energies using a relatively small number of combined laser systems, thus providing with orders of magnitude reduction in system size, complexity, and cost compared to current combining approaches.

  13. Combination Classes and "Hora de comunicacion."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldredge, Dee L.

    1989-01-01

    Ways to combine small classes of higher education students studying Spanish at various levels are described, including judicious use of language laboratories, staggering of the different level groups, and rotation of activities geared toward students' individual proficiency levels. (CB)

  14. Combining Ability and Heterotic Relationships between CIMMYT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Abstract. Knowledge of ... Combining Ability and Heterotic Relationships between CIMMYT and Ethiopian Maize Inbred Lines. [83]. Since its ... for hybrid performance is obtained in a single cross diallel or North Carolina Design II mating.

  15. Novel Combination Chemotherapy for Localized Ewing Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this clinical trial, researchers will test whether the addition of the drug combination vincristine, topotecan, and cyclophosphamide to a standard chemotherapy regimen improves overall survival in patients with extracranial Ewing

  16. Course Combines History, Literature, and Journalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Nancy L.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a course that combines history, literature, and journalism. Suggests that students can be enriched if communication historians integrate their research into as many of the courses they teach as is possible. (JK)

  17. Beam Combination for Sparse Aperture Telescopes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for funding to continue development of an alternative beam combiner for Stellar Imager (SI), a 30-aperture, interferometric telescope chosen as one...

  18. Combining resin composite bonding and enamel microabrasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, T P

    1996-10-01

    Some teeth can best be treated by a combination of enamel microabrasion and resin composite bonding. This article outlines a protocol for treating patients with such teeth and documents one case, showing 5-year results.

  19. Retinoid plus antimicrobial combination treatments for acne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feneran A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ashley N Feneran1, William S Kaufman2, Tushar S Dabade1, Steven R Feldman1,3,41Department of Dermatology, Center for Dermatology Research, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 2Medical College of Virginia, Richmond, VA, USA; 3Department of Pathology, Center for Dermatology Research, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 4Department of Public Health Sciences, Center for Dermatology Research, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USABackground: Acne vulgaris is a chronic disease with several pathogenic factors. Multiple medications are typically used that can lead to nonadherence and treatment failure. Combination medications target multiple pathways of acne formation and may offer therapeutic benefit.Purpose: To explore the efficacy and tolerability of combination retinoid plus antimicrobial treatments in acne vulgaris.Methods: A PubMed and Google search was conducted for combination therapies of clindamycin and tretinoin, with secondary analysis of related citations and references. Similar searches were completed for the combination medications of benzoyl peroxide plus clindamycin or erythromycin, and for the combination therapy of adapalene and benzoyl peroxide.Results: Combination clindamycin phosphate and tretinoin gel was found to be more efficacious than monotherapy of either drug or its vehicle for acne, including inflammatory acne, and has a greater onset of action than either drug alone. Clindamycin phosphate and tretinoin gel was well-tolerated, and adherence to its use exceeded that of using both medications in separate formulations. Benzoyl peroxide-containing combination medications with clindamycin or erythromycin were both more effective in the treatment of acne than either drug alone. Both medications were well-tolerated, with dry skin being the most common adverse effect.Conclusions: Combination medications have superior efficacy and adherence, and

  20. Combined surface and volumetric occlusion shading

    KAUST Repository

    Schott, Matthias O.

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, a method for interactive direct volume rendering is proposed that computes ambient occlusion effects for visualizations that combine both volumetric and geometric primitives, specifically tube shaped geometric objects representing streamlines, magnetic field lines or DTI fiber tracts. The proposed algorithm extends the recently proposed Directional Occlusion Shading model to allow the rendering of those geometric shapes in combination with a context providing 3D volume, considering mutual occlusion between structures represented by a volume or geometry. © 2012 IEEE.

  1. Contrast and phase combination in binocular vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chang-Bing; Zhou, Jiawei; Zhou, Yifeng; Lu, Zhong-Lin

    2010-12-09

    How the visual system combines information from the two eyes to form a unitary binocular representation of the external world is a fundamental question in vision science that has been the focus of many psychophysical and physiological investigations. Ding & Sperling (2006) measured perceived phase of the cyclopean image, and developed a binocular combination model in which each eye exerts gain control on the other eye's signal and over the other eye's gain control. Critically, the relative phase of the monocular sine-waves plays a central role. We used the Ding-Sperling paradigm but measured both the perceived contrast and phase of cyclopean images in three hundred and eighty combinations of base contrast, interocular contrast ratio, eye origin of the probe, and interocular phase difference. We found that the perceived contrast of the cyclopean image was independent of the relative phase of the two monocular gratings, although the perceived phase depended on the relative phase and contrast ratio of the monocular images. We developed a new multi-pathway contrast-gain control model (MCM) that elaborates the Ding-Sperling binocular combination model in two ways: (1) phase and contrast of the cyclopean images are computed in separate pathways, although with shared cross-eye contrast-gain control; and (2) phase-independent local energy from the two monocular images are used in binocular contrast combination. With three free parameters, the model yielded an excellent account of data from all the experimental conditions. Binocular phase combination depends on the relative phase and contrast ratio of the monocular images but binocular contrast combination is phase-invariant. Our findings suggest the involvement of at least two separate pathways in binocular combination.

  2. Combining Stocks and Flows of Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambos, Tina C.; Nell, Phillip Christopher; Pedersen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    ). This study investigates intra-functional as well as cross-functional complementarity effects from the perspective of the knowledge recipient and tests their impact on the benefit created for MNC units. Based on a comprehensive sample of 324 relationships between MNC units, we find that both types...... of complementarity create benefits for these units, but that the effects from intra-functional combinations of knowledge stocks and flows are significantly stronger than from cross-functional combinations....

  3. RF waveguide phase-directed power combiners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantista, Christopher D.; Dolgashev, Valery A.; Tantawi, Sami G.

    2017-05-02

    High power RF phase-directed power combiners include magic H hybrid and/or superhybrid circuits oriented in orthogonal H-planes and connected using E-plane bends and/or twists to produce compact 3D waveguide circuits, including 8.times.8 and 16.times.16 combiners. Using phase control at the input ports, RF power can be directed to a single output port, enabling fast switching between output ports for applications such as multi-angle radiation therapy.

  4. Continuation Passing Combinators for Parsing Precedence Grammars

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Steve

    1994-01-01

    We describe a scheme for constructing parsers for precedence grammars based on the combinators described by Hutton. The new combinators provide a robust method for building parsers and help avoid the possibility of a non-terminating parser. Efficiency is improved via an optimisation to the grammar. A number of approaches to the problem are described - the most elegant and efficient method is based on continuation passing. A parser for the expression part of the C programming language is prese...

  5. Automatic Synthesis of Multilevel Combinational Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders C.; Madsen, Jan; Madsen, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a system for the synthesis of multilevel combinational logic, transforming functional description into mask layout. The system includes a logic synthesis part, partly consisting of tools developed at Eindhoven University of Technology, which has been interfaced to the layout...... synthesis part in the CATOE-system, developed at the DesignCenter of Electronics Institute. The various steps in the transformation are presented together with a complete design example, implementing a multi-output combinational decoder function....

  6. PROBLEMATIC ISSUES OF COMBINED INTESTINAL INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Shkarin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The  article  presents the  possible combinations of intestinal   infections of  various   etiologies, some   pathogenetic, clinical  and  epidemiological features and  problems of epidemiological surveillance and  control  of  associated infections.  Details  the  combination of typhoid fever,  shigelloses, salmonelloses, yersiniosis, pseudotuberculosis, rotavirus and norovirus infections between itself  and  other  infectious and parasitic diseases. Discusses the clinical  and  epidemiological features different combinations of intestinal infections. It is shown  that  the proportion of combined intestinal infections  can reach  to 48.9±3.3% in the structure of all associated  infections. The proportion of combination of two intestinal  infections pathogens was  29,2±6,5%, 3 agents and 10,3±4,3% and  4 pathogens and  5,9±11,6 percent. In the overall structure of the combination of intestinal anthroponoses with anthroponoses was 61,9±5,3%, anthroponoses with zoonoses was 31,1±5,0%, the other combinations (zoonoses and  zoonoses, zoonoses and  sapronoses, antroponoses with zoonoses and  sapronoses of  7,0±9,3  percent. The  article raises  the  question of  the  need to  introduce into  existing regulatory framework the  new  scientific data  on the  whole range of features of the epidemiology of intestinal infections combined.

  7. Combination therapy in hypertension: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalra Sanjay

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Meticulous control of blood pressure is required in patients with hypertension to produce the maximum reduction in clinical cardiovascular end points, especially in patients with comorbidities like diabetes mellitus where more aggressive blood pressure lowering might be beneficial. Recent clinical trials suggest that the approach of using monotherapy for the control of hypertension is not likely to be successful in most patients. Combination therapy may be theoretically favored by the fact that multiple factors contribute to hypertension, and achieving control of blood pressure with single agent acting through one particular mechanism may not be possible. Regimens can either be fixed dose combinations or drugs added sequentially one after other. Combining the drugs makes them available in a convenient dosing format, lower the dose of individual component, thus, reducing the side effects and improving compliance. Classes of antihypertensive agents which have been commonly used are angiotensin receptor blockers, thiazide diuretics, beta and alpha blockers, calcium antagonists and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Thiazide diuretics and calcium channel blockers are effective, as well as combinations that include renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers, in reducing BP. The majority of currently available fixed-dose combinations are diuretic-based. Combinations may be individualized according to the presence of comorbidities like diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure, heart failure, thyroid disorders and for special population groups like elderly and pregnant females.

  8. Fused combiners for photonic crystal bers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noordegraaf, Danny

    The work presented in this Ph.D. thesis focuses on the fabrication of fused combiners for high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers. The main focus of the Ph.D. project was to further develop the fused pump combiners for airclad photonic crystal bers (PCFs), and implement a signal feed-through in th......The work presented in this Ph.D. thesis focuses on the fabrication of fused combiners for high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers. The main focus of the Ph.D. project was to further develop the fused pump combiners for airclad photonic crystal bers (PCFs), and implement a signal feed......-through in these combiners. Such a pump/signal combiner enables the fabrication of all spliced fiber amplifier systems based on the PCFs technology. Amplifier systems interfaced only by standard multi-mode (MM) and single-mode (SM) fibers are easy to use, since all-spliced systems can be made and bulk optics are avoided...... into an ensemble of SM fibers enables filtering with advancedfi ber Bragg gratings (FBGs)....

  9. Combined precut in difficult biliary cannulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Espinel-Díez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: precut sphincterotomy refers to a variety of endoscopic techniques that are used in order to access the bile duct when conventional methods of cannulation have failed. There are not significant data (such as efficacy, safety about the use of different techniques of precutting at the same session. We have described our experience with combined precut sphincterotomy (CPS and we have compared our results to the use of an isolated precut. Patients and methods: we have performed 247 precuts of a total of 2.390 ERCPs. Patients were distributed according to the type of precut practiced: Needle-knife, transpancreatic and combined precut sphincterotomies. "Combined precut" consisted in performing first a transpancreatic sphincterotomy and, if the access was not achieved, then performing a needle-knife sphincterotomy in the same session. The data about safety and efficacy were prospectively collected. The complications were defined according to the consensus criteria. Results: we performed precutting techniques in 247 patients. Needle-knife, transpancreatic, and combined precuts were performed in 125 (6.9%, 74 (4.1% and 48 (2.6% patients, respectively. Bile duct cannulation was successful in 48 patients (100% in the group of combined precut, 121 patients (96.8% in the transpancreatic group, and 67 patients (90.5% in the needle-knife group (p = 0.03. There were not differences in complications rates between the three groups. There was no pancreatitis in the combined precut group. The complications were successfully managed with conservative treatment. Conclusions: combined precut sphincterotomy seems to be a safe and successful technique in those cases of difficult bile duct cannulation.

  10. A cost-minimization analysis of combination therapy in hypertension: fixed-dose vs extemporary combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bellone

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease management and prevention represent the leading cost driver in Italian healthcare expenditure. In order to reach the target blood pressure, a large majority of patients require simultaneous administration of multiple antihypertensive agents.OBJECTIVE: To assess the economic impact of the use of fixed dose combinations of antihypertensive agents, compared to the extemporary combination of the same principles.METHODS: A cost minimization analysis was conducted to determine the pharmaceutical daily cost of five fixed dose combinations (olmesartan 20 mg + amlodipine 5 mg, perindopril 5 mg + amlodipine 5 mg, enalapril 20 mg + lercanidipine 10 mg, felodipine 5 mg + ramipril 5 mg, and delapril 30 mg + manidipine 10 mg compared with extemporary combination of the same principles in the perspective of the Italian NHS. Daily acquisition costs are estimated based on current Italian prices and tariffs.RESULTS: In three cases the use of fixed‑dose combination instead of extemporary combination induces a lower daily cost. Fixed combination treatment with delapril 30 mg + manidipine 10 mg induces greater cost savings for the National Health System (95,47 €/pts/year, as compared to free drugs combination therapy.CONCLUSIONS: Compared with free drug combinations, fixed‑dose combinations of antihypertensive agents are associated with lower daily National Health Service acquisition costs.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/fe.v14i4.886

  11. Energy Analysis in Combined Reforming of Propane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Moon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined (steam and CO2 reforming is one of the methods to produce syngas for different applications. An energy requirement analysis of steam reforming to dry reforming with intermediate steps of steam reduction and equivalent CO2 addition to the feed fuel for syngas generation has been done to identify condition for optimum process operation. Thermodynamic equilibrium data for combined reforming was generated for temperature range of 400–1000°C at 1 bar pressure and combined oxidant (CO2 + H2O stream to propane (fuel ratio of 3, 6, and 9 by employing the Gibbs free energy minimization algorithm of HSC Chemistry software 5.1. Total energy requirement including preheating and reaction enthalpy calculations were done using the equilibrium product composition. Carbon and methane formation was significantly reduced in combined reforming than pure dry reforming, while the energy requirements were lower than pure steam reforming. Temperatures of minimum energy requirement were found in the data analysis of combined reforming which were optimum for the process.

  12. Inappropriate combination of warfarin and aspirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Burak; Demir, Hakan; Mutlu, Ayhan; Daşlı, Tolga; Erkol, Ayhan; Erden, İsmail

    2016-03-01

    A combination of warfarin and aspirin is associated with increased bleeding compared with warfarin monotherapy. The aim of the study was to investigate the incidence and appropriateness of the combination of warfarin and aspirin in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) or mechanical heart valve (MHV). This cross-sectional study included consecutive patients with AF or MHV on chronic warfarin therapy (>3 months) without acute coronary syndrome or have not undergone a revascularization procedure in the preceding year. Medical history, concomitant diseases, and treatment data were acquired through patient interviews and from hospital records. Three hundred and sixty patients (213 with AF, 147 with MHV) were included. In those with AF, a significantly higher warfarin-aspirin combination was observed with concomitant vascular disease (38.8% vs. 14.6%), diabetes (36.6% vs. 16.3%), statin therapy (40% vs. 16.9%), left ventricular systolic dysfunction (33.3% vs. 17.5%) (paspirin combination were concomitant vascular disease, diabetes, and (younger) age in patients with AF and were concomitant AF and male sex in patients with MHV. Interestingly, the incidence of combination therapy was found to increase with a higher HAS-BLED score in both patients with AF and MHV (paspirin was found to be prescribed to patients with AF mainly for the prevention of cardiovascular events, for which warfarin monotherapy usually suffices. On the other hand, co-treatment with aspirin appeared to be underused in patients with MHV.

  13. Supersonic Flow Control Using Combined Energy Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Azarova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Drag force control via energy deposition in an oncoming flow is a wide area of interest in aerospace sciences. Recently, investigations on the effect of combining energy sources have been conducted. The possibility of coupling microwave (MW discharges or MW and laser energy deposition is discussed. In the present work, the flow details accompanying the interaction of a combined energy release and an aerodynamic body in a supersonic flow are considered numerically on the base of the Euler equations. Comparison with non-combined energy deposition is analyzed. The effect of introducing the internal part to the energy release on the drag force reduction is examined. The flows for blunt cylinder, hemisphere-cylinder and pointed body are considered for a wide class of the combined energy source characteristics. Freestream Mach number is varied from 1.89 to 3.45. Complicated unsteady vortex structures caused by the Richtmyer–Meshkov instabilities are shown to be the reason for the reduction in drag. The unsteady double vortex mechanism of the frontal drag force reduction and mechanism of the constantly acting vortices at the steady flow are described. Suppression of shear layer instability and large scaled flow pulsations as the result of the combined energy release effect is established. Complex conservative difference schemes are used in the simulations.

  14. Exercise, fasting, and mimetics: toward beneficial combinations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Richard T; Zillikens, M Carola; Friesema, Edith C H; delli Paoli, Giuseppe; Bloch, Wilhelm; Uitterlinden, André G; Goglia, Fernando; Lanni, Antonia; de Lange, Pieter

    2017-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated disorders that involve a multiplicity of tissues. Both fasting and physical exercise are known to counteract dyslipidemia/hyperglycemia. Skeletal muscle plays a key role in the control of blood glucose levels, and the metabolic changes and related signaling pathways in skeletal muscle induced by fasting overlap with those induced by exercise. The reduction of fat disposal has been shown to extend to the liver and to white and brown adipose tissue and to involve an increase in their metabolic activities. In recent years signal transduction pathways related to exercise and fasting/food withdrawal in muscle have been intensively studied, both in animals and in humans. Combining fasting/food withdrawal with exercise in animals as well as in humans causes changes unlike those seen during fasting/food withdrawal or exercise alone, which favor repair of muscle over autophagy. In addition, compounds that mimic exercise have been studied in combination with exercise or fasting/food withdrawal. This review addresses our current knowledge of the mechanisms that underlie the individual and combined effects of fasting/food withdrawal, endurance or resistance exercise, and their mimetics, in muscle vs other organs in rodents and humans, and highlights which combinations may improve metabolic disorders.-Jaspers, R. T., Zillikens, M. C., Friesema, E. C. H., delli Paoli, G., Bloch, W., Uitterlinden, A. G., Goglia, F., Lanni, A., de Lange, P. Exercise, fasting, and mimetics: toward beneficial combinations. © FASEB.

  15. A combined cycle engine test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engers, R.; Cresci, D.; Tsai, C. [General Applied Science Laboratories Inc., Ronkonkoma, NY (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Rocket-Based Combined-Cycle (RBCC) engines intended for missiles and/or space launch applications incorporate features of rocket propulsion systems operating in concert with airbreathing engine cycles. Performance evaluation of these types of engines, which are intended to operate from static sea level take-off to supersonic cruise or accerlerate to orbit, requires ground test capabilities which integrate rocket component testing with airbreathing engine testing. A combined cycle engine test facility has been constructed in the General Applied Science Laboratories, Inc. (GASL) Aeropropulsion Test Laboratory to meet this requirement. The facility was designed to support the development of an innovative combined cycle engine concept which features a rocket based ramjet combustor. The test requirements included the ability to conduct tests in which the propulsive force was generated by rocket only, the ramjet only and simultaneous rocket and ramjet power (combined cycle) to evaluate combustor operation over the entire engine cycle. The test facility provides simulation over the flight Mach number range of 0 to 8 and at various trajectories. The capabilities of the combined cycle engine test facility are presented.

  16. Efficient power combiner for THz radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamide Seidfaraji

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Most dangerous explosive materials, both toxic and radioactive, contain nitrogen salts with resonant absorption lines in the frequency range 0.3-10 THz. Therefore, there has been growing interest in remotely detecting such materials by observing the spectrum of reflected signals when the suspicious material is interrogated by THz radiation. Practical portable THz sources available today generate only 20–40 mW output power. This power level is too low to interrogate suspicious material from a safe distance, especially if the material is concealed. Hence, there is a need for sources that can provide greater power in the THz spectrum. Generating and extracting high output power from THz sources is complicated and inefficient. The efficiency of vacuum electronic microwave sources is very low when scaled to the THz range and THz sources based on scaling down semiconductor laser sources have low efficiency as well, resulting in the well known “THz gap.” The reason for such low efficiencies for both source types is material losses in the THz band. In this article an efficient power combiner is described that is based on scaling to higher frequencies a microwave combiner that increases the output power in the THz range of interest in simulation studies. The proposed power combiner not only combines the THz power output from several sources, but can also form a Gaussian wavebeam output. A minimum conversion efficiency of 89% with cophased inputs in a lossy copper power combiner and maximum efficiency of 100% in a Perfect Electric Conductor (PEC-made power combiner were achieved in simulations. Also, it is shown that the TE01 output mode is a reasonable option for THz applications due to the fact that conductive loss decreases for this mode as frequency increases.

  17. Artificial intelligence in drug combination therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsigelny, Igor F

    2018-02-09

    Currently, the development of medicines for complex diseases requires the development of combination drug therapies. It is necessary because in many cases, one drug cannot target all necessary points of intervention. For example, in cancer therapy, a physician often meets a patient having a genomic profile including more than five molecular aberrations. Drug combination therapy has been an area of interest for a while, for example the classical work of Loewe devoted to the synergism of drugs was published in 1928-and it is still used in calculations for optimal drug combinations. More recently, over the past several years, there has been an explosion in the available information related to the properties of drugs and the biomedical parameters of patients. For the drugs, hundreds of 2D and 3D molecular descriptors for medicines are now available, while for patients, large data sets related to genetic/proteomic and metabolomics profiles of the patients are now available, as well as the more traditional data relating to the histology, history of treatments, pretreatment state of the organism, etc. Moreover, during disease progression, the genetic profile can change. Thus, the ability to optimize drug combinations for each patient is rapidly moving beyond the comprehension and capabilities of an individual physician. This is the reason, that biomedical informatics methods have been developed and one of the more promising directions in this field is the application of artificial intelligence (AI). In this review, we discuss several AI methods that have been successfully implemented in several instances of combination drug therapy from HIV, hypertension, infectious diseases to cancer. The data clearly show that the combination of rule-based expert systems with machine learning algorithms may be promising direction in this field. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Combined air and water pollution control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, Billy C. (Inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

  19. Wind turbine blade testing under combined loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roczek-Sieradzan, Agnieszka; Nielsen, Magda; Branner, Kim

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents full-scale blade tests under a combined flap- and edgewise loading. The main aim of this paper is to present the results from testing a wind turbine blade under such conditions and to study the structural behavior of the blade subjected to combined loading. A loading method using...... anchor plates was applied, allowing transverse shear distortion. The global and local deformation of the blade as well as the reproducibility of the test was studied and the results from the investigations are presented....

  20. Combining pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy - the example of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The studies looking at the neurobiological effects of psychotherapy is reviewed and discussed. The practical aspects of combination therapy are presented and problems inherent are indicated and the effectiveness presented. Finally the Canadian Psychiatric Association's comprehensive evidence based clinical guideline ...

  1. GENISTEIN AND DAIDZEIN, IN COMBINATION, PROTECT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of two major soy isoflavones, genistein and daidzein, in combination on the status of glycoconjugates in plasma, erythrocyte membrane and mammary tissues during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced mammary carcinogenesis in female ...

  2. Combination of ATLAS Higgs Boson measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Monticelli, Fernando; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The results obtained from the different decay channels are combined to study the properties of the Higgs boson mass, production and decay, and test the SM theoretical precision with increased accuracy, using about 36 fb^{-1} of p-p collisions data collected at 13 TeV.

  3. Feature selection based classifier combination approach for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Conditional mutual information based feature selection when driving the ensemble of classifier produces improved recognition results for most of the benchmarking datasets. The improve- ment is also observed with maximum relevance minimum redundancy based feature selection when used in combination with ensemble ...

  4. Combinational Services for NGN based IPTV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikóczy, E.; Schumann, S.; Stokking, H.M.; Deventer, M.O. van; Niamut, O.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the general concept of combinational/blended services for IP-based Television (IPTV) services in next generation networks towards its service oriented architecture concept (SOA). Besides introducing general approaches of service reusability (SOA concepts), the service enables

  5. Aircraft Detectors, Trap Triggers and Combination Locks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 2. Aircraft Detectors, Trap Triggers and Combination Locks - Functional Diversity of Insect Mechanosensory Hairs. Jürgen Tautz. General Article Volume 5 Issue 2 February 2000 pp 32-38 ...

  6. Successive combination jet algorithm for hadron collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, S D; Ellis, Stephen D.; Soper, Davision E.

    1993-01-01

    Jet finding algorithms, as they are used in $e^+ e^-$ and hadron collisions, are reviewed and compared. It is suggested that a successive combination style algorithm, similar to that used in $e^+ e^-$ physics, might be useful also in hadron collisions, where cone style algorithms have been used previously.

  7. Combinations of bacterial species in endodontic infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, LB; Wesselink, P.R.; van Winkelhoff, AJ

    Aim This study was undertaken to investigate combinations of bacteria found in root-canal infections of teeth with periapical bone destruction without clinical signs and symptoms. Methodology Endodontic samples from 58 root canals were cultured anaerobically and microorganisms were counted and

  8. Effectiveness of combined thermophilic composting and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thermophilic composting is commonly used for the treatment of organic wastes or for production of organic/natural fertilizers. Vermicomposting (V) is also increasingly becoming popular. These two techniques have their inherent advantages and disadvantages. In this study, vermicomposting and a combination of ...

  9. Ectopic pregnancy treatment by combination therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cymbaluk-Płoska Aneta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Detectability of early stages of ectopic pregnancies has increased due to improvements in ultrasonographic and biochemical techniques. Since the patients’ future procreative plans must be taken into consideration when commencing treatment, the goal of this work was to compare the effects of treatment methods and their impact on fertility. The study included 91 patients treated surgically for ectopic pregnancy. The choice of treatment depended on patients’ general condition, ultrasonographic evaluation and serum level of beta-hCG. A combination of laparoscopic and conservative systemic treatment was applied in 70% of cases. More rapid beta-hCG reduction was noted when laparoscopy and intra-oviductal injection of hyperosmolar glucose or methotrexate (MTX were combined with intramuscular administration of MTX at a dose of 50 mg/m2. Follow-up examination of 66 patients revealed that the greatest number of spontaneous pregnancies (48% resulted after this combination therapy. We conclude that this combination treatment is safe and provides satisfactory results in terms of future fertility.

  10. 38 CFR 21.4233 - Combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-day in school and a part-day on job or may be such periods which alternate on a daily, weekly, monthly... period shall be excluded from the calculation; where the course is approved as continuous part-time work and part-time study in combination, it shall be measured on the basis of the ratio which each portion...

  11. ACTIVATED CARBON/REFRIGERANT COMBINATIONS FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    No. 1, March, 2001. 53. ACTIVATED CARBON/REFRIGERANT COMBINATIONS. FOR SOLAR REFRIGERATION APPLICATION. By. E.E. ANYANWU. 1. AND N.V. .... may be assumed that the perfect gas law is obeyed approximately by the vapour. Thus,. (2). Hence by integrating,. This linear relationship between log P and.

  12. Combined Approach for Solving the Electromagnetic Induction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nafiisah

    approaches to the reconstruction problem: the pixel-based approach and the parameter-based approach. This paper describes how both approaches may be combined for a more systematic reconstruction. Keywords: Electromagnetic induction, inverse problem, image reconstruction. *For correspondences and reprints ...

  13. Combining pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy - the example of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    2003-05-20

    May 20, 2003 ... psychotherapy - the example of depressive disorders ... Major depression is used as an example of a disorder where the combination of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy offer great advantages. The evidence for .... channels of communication between psychiatrist and psycho- therapist. How effective is ...

  14. 77 FR 59921 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings Take notice that the Commission has received the... Jurisdictional Blanket Certificate of Public Convenience and necessity, pursuant to Section 284.224. Filed Date...

  15. COMPARISON OF XYLAZINE, LIGNOCAINE AND COMBINATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with adrenaline 1:100,000 (Lidocaine 2%,. ASTRA Pharmaceutical Ltd, UK) at 2mg/kg and. ' a combination of xylazine (0.1mg/kg) and lignocaine (2mg/kg). Xylazine alone treatment was further diluted with normal saline to lml for injection into the epidural space. Prior to each trial the lumbosacral space was aseptically.

  16. Challenges Associated with Scaling up Artemisinin Combination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One key strategic intervention is provision of early diagnosis and prompt effective treatment. A major setback has been the development of drug resistance to commonly used antimalarials. To overcome this, most countries in Sub-Saharan Africa have adopted Artemisinin Combination Therapy (ACT) as a first line treatment ...

  17. Cotard syndrome with catatonia: Unique combination

    OpenAIRE

    Aniruddha Basu; Priti Singh; Rajiv Gupta; Sandeep Soni

    2013-01-01

    Cotard syndrome is a rare psychiatric condition characterized by extreme nihilistic delusions. Catatonia though common, its combination with the Cotard syndrome is exceeding rare and more so the response with the pharmacotherapy as in our case. Since, both are found in organic conditions the importance of studying such a case is to understand the underlying neurobiologic determinants.

  18. Cotard syndrome with catatonia: unique combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Aniruddha; Singh, Priti; Gupta, Rajiv; Soni, Sandeep

    2013-07-01

    Cotard syndrome is a rare psychiatric condition characterized by extreme nihilistic delusions. Catatonia though common, its combination with the Cotard syndrome is exceeding rare and more so the response with the pharmacotherapy as in our case. Since, both are found in organic conditions the importance of studying such a case is to understand the underlying neurobiologic determinants.

  19. Determination of hormonal combination for increased multiplication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    In Uganda, the use of tissue culture is a new technique in seed potato production, therefore, appropriate media composition for rapid multiplication of potato tissue culture plantlets has not been optimised. Thus, the objective of this study was to optimize hormonal combinations for increased multiplication of tissue culture.

  20. Combined central retinalartery and vein occlusion complicating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Orbital Cellulitis is a dreaded ophthalmologic disease. Itmay destroy vision and the eye andmay even become life threatening. Often visual loss is the result of exposure and subsequent destruction of ocular tissue commonly the cornea and the uvea. We report a case of combined central retinal artery and vein occlusion ...

  1. Determining large deflections in rectangular combined loaded ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, large deflection of cantilever beams of Ludwick type material subjected to a combined loading consisting of a uniformly distributed load and one vertical concentrated load at the free end was investigated. In calculations, both material and geometrical non-linearity have been considered. Horizontal and vertical ...

  2. Determining large deflections in rectangular combined loaded ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this study, large deflection of cantilever beams of Ludwick type material subjected to a combined loading consisting of a uniformly distributed load and one vertical concentrated load at the free end was investigated. In calcula- tions, both material and geometrical non-linearity have been considered. Horizon-.

  3. Combined Heat and Power and Emissions Trading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this IEA Information Paper is to help policy makers and other stakeholders understand the challenges facing the incorporation of high efficiency combined heat and power (CHP) into greenhouse gas (GHG) Emissions Trading Schemes (ETSs) -- and to propose options for overcoming them.

  4. 76 FR 1421 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings December 30, 2010. Take notice that the.... Description: National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation submits tariff filing per 154.204: 2011 January IG Rate to...

  5. Combination proves effective for acute post-

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    effect that is greater than either individual component. The combination formulation also had significantly lower NNT. (number-needed-to-treat) than the components alone, compa- rable to ibuprofen (400mg), the gold standard for this pain model. Tramadol alone and acetaminophen (paracetamol) alone had. NNT of about ...

  6. Combining Teacher Assessment Scores with External Examination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated four statistical models for combining teacher assessment scores with external examination scores for certifying secondary school graduates in Ghana in terms of validity of the composite scores. The models studied were (1) external examination moderation with nominal weights, (2) reference school ...

  7. Ectopic pregnancy treatment by combination therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cymbaluk-Płoska, Aneta; Chudecka-Głaz, Anita; Kuźniak, Sławomir; Menkiszak, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    Detectability of early stages of ectopic pregnancies has increased due to improvements in ultrasonographic and biochemical techniques. Since the patients' future procreative plans must be taken into consideration when commencing treatment, the goal of this work was to compare the effects of treatment methods and their impact on fertility. The study included 91 patients treated surgically for ectopic pregnancy. The choice of treatment depended on patients' general condition, ultrasonographic evaluation and serum level of beta-hCG. A combination of laparoscopic and conservative systemic treatment was applied in 70% of cases. More rapid beta-hCG reduction was noted when laparoscopy and intra-oviductal injection of hyperosmolar glucose or methotrexate (MTX) were combined with intramuscular administration of MTX at a dose of 50 mg/m2. Follow-up examination of 66 patients revealed that the greatest number of spontaneous pregnancies (48%) resulted after this combination therapy. We conclude that this combination treatment is safe and provides satisfactory results in terms of future fertility.

  8. 220-kV combined optical transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ying; Ye, Miaoyuan; Zhu, Yong; Xu, Yan; Luo, Sunan

    2000-10-01

    The magneto-optic current and electro-optic voltage sensing technologies were combined into a single phase unit which provides a new solution for combined current and voltage sensing and relaying applications. It senses voltage and current by making utilities of Pockels electro-optic effect of a BGO(Bi4Ge3O12) crystal and Faraday magneto-optic effect of a close-loop flint. The 220 kV high voltage is directly applied on the BGO crystal without capacitive dividers. This design permits true optical voltage measurement to be performed for the highest possible accuracy and stability. In the current sensor, a light beam circles around the current carrying conductor. The effect of the location movement of the conductor and external magnetic field are reduced. It has superior advantages of compact size, light- weight and better performance compared with conventional current and voltage transformers. Composite bushing consisting of a fiberglass tube support and silicone rubber that is filled with SF6 gas is employed for HV insulation. Connections between the Combined Optical Transformers in the substation and the metering and protecting unit in the control house are via optical fiber cable. The fundamental principal, system design and test result of this new 220 kV Combined Optical Transformer will be introduced in this paper.

  9. Pharmacokinetics Of Artemether-Lumefantrine Combination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The therapeutic effects of artemether monotherapy compared to artemether-lumefantrine combined therapy in malaria based on their pharmacokinetic parameters such as absorption, elimination constants, area under the curve, bioavailability, volume of distribution and half-lives were investigated. Methods: ...

  10. Combined solar collector and energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, R. N. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A combined solar energy collector, fluid chiller and energy storage system is disclosed. A movable interior insulated panel in a storage tank is positionable flush against the storage tank wall to insulate the tank for energy storage. The movable interior insulated panel is alternately positionable to form a solar collector or fluid chiller through which the fluid flows by natural circulation.

  11. Combined administration of Spondias mombin and Ficus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Despite the rapidly changing concept of gastric ulcer management from conventional vagotomy, H2 receptor antagonists and antacids to proton pump inhibitors, gastrointestinal toxicity remains an impediment to their application in clinical practice. Combined administration of two or more plant extracts with ...

  12. 38 CFR 21.124 - Combination course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... vocational rehabilitation, a course will be considered to be a combination course, if the student spends full... objective which the student attains primarily through school instruction with the on-job portion being...; (3) Requires the student to devote at least one-half of the total training period to the school...

  13. Combined treatment in punctate inner choroidopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terelak-Borys B

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Barbara Terelak-Borys, Katarzyna Zagajewska, Irmina Jankowska-Lech, Piotr Tesla, Iwona Grabska-Liberek Department of Ophthalmology, Centre of Postgraduate Medical Education, Prof W Orlowski Clinical Hospital, Warsaw, Poland Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe a combination treatment for choroidal neovascular (CNV membrane, secondary to punctate inner choroidopathy (PIC.Patient and methods: A 44-year-old female patient was diagnosed with PIC complicated by the development of recurrent juxtafoveal neovascular membrane. The treatment included a sequence of monotherapy regimens: systemic steroid therapy, photodynamic therapy, and intravitreal injections of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF inhibitor (anti-VEGF. Owing to the CNV membrane resistance to various types of monotherapy, a combination treatment consisting of local injections of steroid underneath the Tenon’s capsule and intravitreal anti-VEGF injections was used.Results: Systemic steroid therapy resulted in rapid local improvement with a very short remission period. No positive effects of photodynamic therapy were observed. Sequential anti-VEGF injections led to remission periods of several months. Permanent regression of CNV membrane was achieved following combined local application of steroid and intravitreal anti-VEGF injections.Conclusion: A combination treatment including steroid and anti-VEGF medication characterized by anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic effects may be a very beneficial option for the treatment of recurrent CNV membrane as a complication of PIC. Keywords: punctate inner choroidopathy, neovascular membrane, anti-VEGF injections, photodynamic therapy, steroids

  14. PANSAID-PAracetamol and NSAID in combination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, Kasper Højgaard; Jakobsen, Janus Christian; Hägi-Pedersen, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Effective postoperative pain management is essential for the rehabilitation of the surgical patient. The PANSAID trial evaluates the analgesic effects and safety of the combination of paracetamol and ibuprofen. This paper describes in detail the statistical analysis plan for the prima...

  15. Comparing and combining chunkers of biomedical text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ning; van Mulligen, Erik M; Kors, Jan A

    2011-04-01

    Text chunking is an essential pre-processing step in information extraction systems. No comparative studies of chunking systems, including sentence splitting, tokenization and part-of-speech tagging, are available for the biomedical domain. We compared the usability (ease of integration, speed, trainability) and performance of six state-of-the-art chunkers for the biomedical domain, and combined the chunker results in order to improve chunking performance. We investigated six frequently used chunkers: GATE chunker, Genia Tagger, Lingpipe, MetaMap, OpenNLP, and Yamcha. All chunkers were integrated into the Unstructured Information Management Architecture framework. The GENIA Treebank corpus was used for training and testing. Performance was assessed for noun-phrase and verb-phrase chunking. For both noun-phrase chunking and verb-phrase chunking, OpenNLP performed best (F-scores 89.7% and 95.7%, respectively), but differences with Genia Tagger and Yamcha were small. With respect to usability, Lingpipe and OpenNLP scored best. When combining the results of the chunkers by a simple voting scheme, the F-score of the combined system improved by 3.1 percentage point for noun phrases and 0.6 percentage point for verb phrases as compared to the best single chunker. Changing the voting threshold offered a simple way to obtain a system with high precision (and moderate recall) or high recall (and moderate precision). This study is the first to compare the performance of the whole chunking pipeline, and to combine different existing chunking systems. Several chunkers showed good performance, but OpenNLP scored best both in performance and usability. The combination of chunker results by a simple voting scheme can further improve performance and allows for different precision-recall settings. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. PHARMACOECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE DRUG COMBINATIONS USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Tarlovskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To pursue pharmacoeconomic analysis of two drug combinations of ACE inhibitor (enalapril and diuretic.Material and methods. Patients with arterial hypertension degree 2 and diabetes mellitus type 2 without ischemic heart disease (n=56 were included into the study. Blood pressure (BP dynamics and cost/effectiveness ratio were evaluated.Results. In group A (fixed combination of original enalapril/hydrochlorothiazide 61% of patients achieved target BP level with initial dose, and the rest 39% of patients – with double dose. In group B (non-fixed combination of generic enalapril/indapamide 60% of patients achieved the target BP with initial dose of drugs, 33% - with double dose of ACE inhibitor, and 7% - with additional amlodipine administration. In patients of group A systolic BP (SBP reduction was 45.82±1.23 mm Hg by the 12th week vs. 40.0±0.81 mm Hg in patients of group B; diastolic BP (DBP reduction was 22.47±1.05 mm Hg and 18.76±0.70 mm Hg, respectively, by the 12th week of treatment. In the first month of treatment costs of target BP achievement was 298.62 rubles per patient in group A, and 299.50 rubles – in group B; by the 12th week of treatment – 629.45 and 631.22 rubles, respectively. Costs of SBP and DBP reduction by 1 mm Hg during 12 weeks of therapy were 13 and 27 rubles per patient, respectively, in group A, and 16 and 34 rubles per patient, respectively, in group B.Conclusion. The original fixed combination (enalapril+hydrochlorothiazide proved to be more clinically effective and more cost effective in the treatment of hypertensive patients in comparison with the non-fixed combination of generic drugs (enalapril+indapamide.

  17. PHARMACOECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE DRUG COMBINATIONS USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Tarlovskaya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To pursue pharmacoeconomic analysis of two drug combinations of ACE inhibitor (enalapril and diuretic.Material and methods. Patients with arterial hypertension degree 2 and diabetes mellitus type 2 without ischemic heart disease (n=56 were included into the study. Blood pressure (BP dynamics and cost/effectiveness ratio were evaluated.Results. In group A (fixed combination of original enalapril/hydrochlorothiazide 61% of patients achieved target BP level with initial dose, and the rest 39% of patients – with double dose. In group B (non-fixed combination of generic enalapril/indapamide 60% of patients achieved the target BP with initial dose of drugs, 33% - with double dose of ACE inhibitor, and 7% - with additional amlodipine administration. In patients of group A systolic BP (SBP reduction was 45.82±1.23 mm Hg by the 12th week vs. 40.0±0.81 mm Hg in patients of group B; diastolic BP (DBP reduction was 22.47±1.05 mm Hg and 18.76±0.70 mm Hg, respectively, by the 12th week of treatment. In the first month of treatment costs of target BP achievement was 298.62 rubles per patient in group A, and 299.50 rubles – in group B; by the 12th week of treatment – 629.45 and 631.22 rubles, respectively. Costs of SBP and DBP reduction by 1 mm Hg during 12 weeks of therapy were 13 and 27 rubles per patient, respectively, in group A, and 16 and 34 rubles per patient, respectively, in group B.Conclusion. The original fixed combination (enalapril+hydrochlorothiazide proved to be more clinically effective and more cost effective in the treatment of hypertensive patients in comparison with the non-fixed combination of generic drugs (enalapril+indapamide.

  18. Combination N-Way Power Divider/Combiner and Noninvasive Reflected Power Detection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An N-way RF/microwave power divider/combiner utilizes one input and N outputs, or conversely N inputs and one output to divide (or combine) RF/microwave power while...

  19. Combining contingency tables with missing dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominici, F

    2000-06-01

    We propose a methodology for estimating the cell probabilities in a multiway contingency table by combining partial information from a number of studies when not all of the variables are recorded in all studies. We jointly model the full set of categorical variables recorded in at least one of the studies, and we treat the variables that are not reported as missing dimensions of the study-specific contingency table. For example, we might be interested in combining several cohort studies in which the incidence in the exposed and nonexposed groups is not reported for all risk factors in all studies while the overall numbers of cases and cohort size is always available. To account for study-to-study variability, we adopt a Bayesian hierarchical model. At the first stage of the model, the observation stage, data are modeled by a multinomial distribution with fixed total number of observations. At the second stage, we use the logistic normal (LN) distribution to model variability in the study-specific cells' probabilities. Using this model and data augmentation techniques, we reconstruct the contingency table for each study regardless of which dimensions are missing, and we estimate population parameters of interest. Our hierarchical procedure borrows strength from all the studies and accounts for correlations among the cells' probabilities. The main difficulty in combining studies recording different variables is in maintaining a consistent interpretation of parameters across studies. The approach proposed here overcomes this difficulty and at the same time addresses the uncertainty arising from the missing dimensions. We apply our modeling strategy to analyze data on air pollution and mortality from 1987 to 1994 for six U.S. cities by combining six cross-classifications of low, medium, and high levels of mortality counts, particulate matter, ozone, and carbon monoxide with the complication that four of the six cities do not report all the air pollution variables. Our

  20. Drug Combinations: Tests and Analysis with Isoboles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallarida, Ronald J

    2016-03-18

    Described in this unit are experimental and computational methods to detect and classify drug interactions. In most cases, this relates to two drugs or compounds with overtly similar effects, e.g., two analgesics or two anti-hypertensives. From the dose-response data of the individual drugs, it is possible to generate a curve, the isobole, which defines all dose combinations that are expected to yield a specified effect. The theory underlying the isobole involves the calculation of doses of drug A that are effectively equivalent to doses of drug B with that equivalence determining whether the isobole is linear or nonlinear. In either case, the isobole allows for a comparison with actual combination effects making it possible to determine whether the interaction is synergistic, additive, or sub-additive. Actual as well as illustrative data are employed to demonstrate experimental design and data analysis. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  1. USE OF COMBINED ANTITUSSIVE MEDICATIONS IN PEDIATRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Vishneva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Coughing is the most frequent symptom that accompanies diseases of the bronchopulmonary system. However, it may develop in a number of diseases that vary in its pathogenesis and location. Despite the variety of potential causes, in most cases acute respiratory infections (ARIs play the key role in the etyology of coughing. Key methods of therapy for coughing in ARIs include efforts to improve the bronchial drainage function, restore mucociliary clearance, antiinflammation and, if necessary, broncholytic therapy. However, if coughing disrupts the well-being and condition of a patient (non-productive, short, compulsive, vomitory, chest pain causing, sleep and appetite disturbing, cough suppressive medications are administered. To this end, combined preparations containing codeine are successfully used in pediatric practice. Key words: coughing, combined antitussive preparations, children.(Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(6:78-80

  2. Combined spinal intramedullary arteriovenous malformation and lipomyelomeningocele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weon, Y.C.; Roh, H.G.; Byun, H.S. [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Chung, J.I. [Medimoa Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Eoh, W. [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)

    2005-10-01

    Combined spinal arteriovenous malformation and lipomyelomeningocele are extremely rare. We present a rare combined case of a lipomyelomeningocele with an intramedullary arteriovenous malformation (AVM) occurred at the L3-L4 level in a 30-year-old man who suffered from low back pain radiating to the lower extremities, dysuria, and frequency for 5 years. The MR studies showed an intradural mass with high-signal intensity on both T1-weighted and T2-weighted images, intermingled with multiple signal-void structures. The mass extended extradurally toward a subcutaneously forming fatty mass on the patient's back. Spinal angiography showed an AVM supplied by the radiculopial branches of the lumbar arteries and drained by tortuous, dilated, perimedullary veins. Endovascular embolization and surgical resection were performed. (orig.)

  3. Combining ability of twelve maize populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vacaro Elton

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic progress depends on germplasm quality and breeding methods. Twelve maize populations and their crosses were evaluated to estimate combining ability and potential to be included as source populations in breeding programs. Plant height, point of insertion of the first ear, number of ears per plant, number of grains per ear, root and stalk lodging and grain yield were studied in two locations in Brazil, during the 1997/98 season. Genotype sum of squares was divided into general (GCA and specific (SCA combining ability. Results indicated the existence of genetic divergence for all traits analyzed, where additive effects were predominant. The high heterosis levels observed, mainly in Xanxerê, suggested the environmental influence on the manifestation of this genetic phenomenon. Populations revealed potential to be used in breeding programs; however, those more intensively submitted to selection could provide larger genetic progress, showing the importance of population improvement for the increment of the heterosis in maize.

  4. Estimation of combined sewer overflow discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahm, Malte; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Nielsen, Jesper Ellerbæk

    2016-01-01

    weirs. It can, therefore, be a challenge to quantify the discharges from CSOs. Quantification of CSO discharges are important in relation to the increased environmental awareness of the receiving water bodies. Furthermore, CSO discharge quantification is essential for closing the rainfall-runoff mass......Combined sewer overflow (CSO) structures are constructed to effectively discharge excess water during heavy rainfall, to protect the urban drainage system from hydraulic overload. Consequently, most CSO structures are not constructed according to basic hydraulic principles for ideal measurement......-balance in combined sewer catchments. A closed mass-balance is an advantage for calibration of all urban drainage models based on mass-balance principles. This study presents three different software sensor concepts based on local water level sensors, which can be used to estimate CSO discharge volumes from hydraulic...

  5. Roles for Innate Immunity in Combination Immunotherapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Kelly D; Irvine, Darrell J

    2017-10-01

    Immunity to infectious agents involves a coordinated response of innate and adaptive immune cells working in concert, with many feed-forward and regulatory interactions between both arms of the immune system. In contrast, many therapeutic strategies to augment immunity against tumors have focused predominantly on stimulation of adaptive immunity. However, a growing appreciation of the potential contributions of innate immune effectors to antitumor immunity, especially in the context of combination immunotherapy, is leading to novel strategies to elicit a more integrated immune response against cancer. Here we review antitumor activities of innate immune cells, mechanisms of their synergy with adaptive immune responses against tumors, and discuss recent studies highlighting the potential of combination therapies recruiting both innate and adaptive immune effectors to eradicate established tumors. Cancer Res; 77(19); 5215-21. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Combined additive manufacturing approaches in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannitelli, S M; Mozetic, P; Trombetta, M; Rainer, A

    2015-09-01

    Advances introduced by additive manufacturing (AM) have significantly improved the control over the microarchitecture of scaffolds for tissue engineering. This has led to the flourishing of research works addressing the optimization of AM scaffolds microarchitecture to optimally trade-off between conflicting requirements (e.g. mechanical stiffness and porosity level). A fascinating trend concerns the integration of AM with other scaffold fabrication methods (i.e. "combined" AM), leading to hybrid architectures with complementary structural features. Although this innovative approach is still at its beginning, significant results have been achieved in terms of improved biological response to the scaffold, especially targeting the regeneration of complex tissues. This review paper reports the state of the art in the field of combined AM, posing the accent on recent trends, challenges, and future perspectives. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. PANSAID - PAracetamol and NSAID in combination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, Kasper Højgaard; Hägi-Pedersen, Daniel; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2017-01-01

    consent. Exclusion criteria are patients who cannot cooperate with the trial; participation in another trial; patients who cannot understand/speak Danish; daily use of strong opioids; allergy against trial medication; contraindications against ibuprofen; alcohol and/or drug abuse. A total of 556 eligible......BACKGROUND: Effective postoperative pain management is essential for the rehabilitation of the surgical patient. No 'gold standard' exists after total hip arthroplasty (THA) and combinations of different nonopioid medications are used with virtually no evidence for additional analgesic efficacy...... compared to monotherapy. The objective of this trial is to investigate the analgesic effects and safety of paracetamol and ibuprofen alone and in combination in different dosages after THA. METHODS: PANSAID is a placebo-controlled, parallel four-group, multicentre trial with centralised computer...

  8. Combined XRF and PIXE analysis of flour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, N.S.; Al-Saleh, K.A.

    Combined X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) techniques were used for the determination of trace and minor elements in two different samples of flour purchased at the local market. The significance of some of the elements found in the samples is discussed from the viewpoint of nutrition. It is also shown that XRF can be a useful complementary technique for PIXE analysis of flour.

  9. Chapter 23: Combined Heat and Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simons, George [Itron, Davis, CA (United States); Barsun, Stephan [Itron, Davis, CA (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This protocol defines a combined heat and power (CHP) measure as a system that sequentially generates both electrical energy and useful thermal energy from one fuel source at a host customer's facility or residence. This protocol is aimed primarily at regulators and administrators of ratepayer-funded CHP programs; however, project developers may find the protocol useful to understand how CHP projects are evaluated.

  10. Techniques for Combined Arms for Air Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-29

    operations. Trainers and educators will also use this publication to support the employment of combined arms air defense into their curricula...the enemy forces. UAS can be effective in disabling or interrupting the conduct of military operations, their communications networks, information... inclusion in the DAL. The joint force commander and his staff may incorporate one or more nominees and issue an updated (re-prioritized) DAL, which

  11. EFFICIENCY METRICS COMPUTING IN COMBINED SENSOR NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Luntovskyy, Andriy; Vasyutynskyy, Volodymyr

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the computer-aided design of combined networks for offices and building automation systems based on diverse wired and wireless standards. The design requirements for these networks are often contradictive and have to consider performance, energy and cost efficiency together. For usual office communication, quality of service is more important. In the wireless sensor networks, the energy efficiency is a critical requirement to ensure their long life, to reduce maintenance ...

  12. Numerical Modeling of Ultra Wideband Combined Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorkal'tseva, M. Yu.; Koshelev, V. I.; Petkun, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    With the help of a program we developed, based on the finite difference method in the time domain, we have investigated the characteristics of ultra wideband combined antennas in detail. The antennas were developed to radiate bipolar pulses with durations in the range 0.5-3 ns. Data obtained by numerical modeling are compared with the data of experimental studies on antennas and have been used in the synthesis of electromagnetic pulses with maximum field strength.

  13. A new combination in Erica (Ericaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boratynski, A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A new nomenclatural status and combination is proposed for Erica cinerea var. numidica. New data about the morphology, chorology and ecology of this taxon are given.Se propone un nuevo estatus y combinación nomenclatural para Erica cinerea var. numidica. Se aportan nuevos datos sobre la morfología, corología y ecología de este taxón.

  14. Combined daylight systems for lightpipe applications

    OpenAIRE

    A. Rosemann; H. Kaase

    2006-01-01

    The European research project ARTHELIO has examined the possibility of guiding daylight into deeper building interiors using hollow light guides. Within this project, a goniophotometer was developed and built up to measure the luminous intensity distribution of lightpipes. In two demonstration sites, the daylight utilisation by the hollow light guides combined with heliostats has successfully been demonstrated. Daylight is collected by heliostats and enters the building. It is guided along ho...

  15. COMBINING STEGANOGRAPHY AND CRYPTOGRAPHY: NEW DIRECTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Khalil Challita; Hikmat Farhat

    2011-01-01

    Our main goal in this paper is to give new insights and directions on how to improve existing methods of hiding secret messages, possibly by combining steganography and cryptography. We start by describing the main existing methods and techniques in steganography that allow us to hide the existence of a message, together with the mostly used steganalysis techniques to counter them. We then illustrate two different approaches that help us achieve a higher level of secrecy and security, togethe...

  16. Combination of palbociclib and radiotherapy for glioblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Whittaker, Shane; Madani, Daniel; Joshi, Swapna; Chung, Sylvia A; Johns, Terrance; Day, Bryan; Khasraw, Mustafa; McDonald, Kerrie L.

    2017-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, palbociclib has shown compelling efficacy in breast cancer patients. Several pre-clinical studies of glioblastoma (GBM) have also shown palbociclib to be efficacious. In this study, we investigated palbociclib in combination with radiation therapy (RT) for treating GBM. We tested palbociclib (with and without RT) on four patient-derived cell lines (PDCLs; RB1 retained; CDKN2A loss). We investigated the impact of therapy on the cell cycle and apoptosis us...

  17. Surgical and Prosthetic Rehabilitation of Combination Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Carlino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this report is to analyze the clinical symptoms, ethologic factors, and prosthetic rehabilitation in a case of Combination Syndrome (CS. The treatment of CS can be conventional or surgical, with or without the bone reconstruction of maxilla. The correct prosthetic treatment helps this kind of patients to restore the physiologic occlusion plane to allow a correct masticatory and aesthetic function. Management of this kind of patients can be a challenge for a dental practitioner.

  18. Evaluation of combined photovoltaic/thermal collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrie, S.D.

    1979-01-01

    The thermal and electric performance of an air and a liquid type combined photovoltaic/thermal solar collector has been evaluated, yielding close correlation with theoretical results. Maximum thermal efficiencies of 42.5% and 40% for the liquid and air collectors without electric power production decreased to 40.4% and 32.9% when electrical power was produced. Maximum electrical efficiencies of 6.8% were measured.

  19. Inpainting with sparse linear combinations of exemplars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlberg, Brendt [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a new exemplar-based inpainting algorithm based on representing the region to be inpainted as a sparse linear combination of blocks extracted from similar parts of the image being inpainted. This method is conceptually simple, being computed by functional minimization, and avoids the complexity of correctly ordering the filling in of missing regions of other exemplar-based methods. Initial performance comparisons on small inpainting regions indicate that this method provides similar or better performance than other recent methods.

  20. Methods for combining experts' probability assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, R A

    1995-09-01

    This article reviews statistical techniques for combining multiple probability distributions. The framework is that of a decision maker who consults several experts regarding some events. The experts express their opinions in the form of probability distributions. The decision maker must aggregate the experts' distributions into a single distribution that can be used for decision making. Two classes of aggregation methods are reviewed. When using a supra Bayesian procedure, the decision maker treats the expert opinions as data that may be combined with its own prior distribution via Bayes' rule. When using a linear opinion pool, the decision maker forms a linear combination of the expert opinions. The major feature that makes the aggregation of expert opinions difficult is the high correlation or dependence that typically occurs among these opinions. A theme of this paper is the need for training procedures that result in experts with relatively independent opinions or for aggregation methods that implicitly or explicitly model the dependence among the experts. Analyses are presented that show that m dependent experts are worth the same as k independent experts where k < or = m. In some cases, an exact value for k can be given; in other cases, lower and upper bounds can be placed on k.

  1. Combining ability's for yield components in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hladni Nada

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop new single-cross sunflower hybrids with an altered plant model and a high genetic potential for seed yield and oil content, it is essential to study the combining ability's of the inbred lines. Full diallel crosses with six genetically divergent sunflower inbreeds were carried out in order to study the mode of inheritance and combining ability for plant height and head diameter in the F1 and F2 generations. Significant differences in the mean values for the traits concerned were observed. The most common mode of inheritance of plant height in the F1 and F2 generations was super dominance, and there were also instances of partial dominance and dominance. The mode of inheritance of head diameter in the F1 and F2 generations was dominance and super dominance. Highly significant GCA and SCA value, for plant height and head diameter were recorded. We found a line (NS-NDF with negative GCA value that was also a good genera 1 combiner for reduced plant height and head diameter. .

  2. Regulatory requirements for marketing fixed dose combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasheel, B G

    2010-10-01

    The development of fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) is becoming increasingly important from a public health perspective. FDCs have advantages when there is an identifiable patient population for whom treatment with a particular combination of actives in a fixed ratio is safe and effective and when all of the actives contribute to the overall therapeutic effect. Such combinations of drugs are particularly useful in the management of chronic diseases. In addition, there can be real clinical benefits in the form of increased efficacy and/or a reduced incidence of adverse effects. Additional advantages of FDCs are potentially lower costs of manufacturing compared to the costs of producing separate products administered concurrently, simpler logistics of distribution and reduced development of resistance in the case of antimicrobials. Above all, FDC therapy reduces pill burden and improves medication compliance. Although, FDCs seem to be ideal under certain pre-defined circumstances, if a dosing adjustment is warranted, there may not be an FDC available in the most appropriate strength for the patient and if an adverse drug reaction occurs from using an FDC, it may be difficult to identify the active ingredient responsible for causing the reaction. Appendix VI of Schedule Y (Drugs & Cosmetics Rules 1945, India) states the requirements for marketing approval of various types of FDCs. The same is further elaborated in this article to provide a detailed guidance including the clinical trial requirements. However, the heterogeneity of the therapeutic field makes it difficult to develop a standard guidance document.

  3. Regulatory requirements for marketing fixed dose combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B G Jayasheel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of fixed-dose combinations (FDCs is becoming increasingly important from a public health perspective. FDCs have advantages when there is an identifiable patient population for whom treatment with a particular combination of actives in a fixed ratio is safe and effective and when all of the actives contribute to the overall therapeutic effect. Such combinations of drugs are particularly useful in the management of chronic diseases. In addition, there can be real clinical benefits in the form of increased efficacy and/or a reduced incidence of adverse effects. Additional advantages of FDCs are potentially lower costs of manufacturing compared to the costs of producing separate products administered concurrently, simpler logistics of distribution and reduced development of resistance in the case of antimicrobials. Above all, FDC therapy reduces pill burden and improves medication compliance. Although, FDCs seem to be ideal under certain pre-defined circumstances, if a dosing adjustment is warranted, there may not be an FDC available in the most appropriate strength for the patient and if an adverse drug reaction occurs from using an FDC, it may be difficult to identify the active ingredient responsible for causing the reaction. Appendix VI of Schedule Y (Drugs & Cosmetics Rules 1945, India states the requirements for marketing approval of various types of FDCs. The same is further elaborated in this article to provide a detailed guidance including the clinical trial requirements. However, the heterogeneity of the therapeutic field makes it difficult to develop a standard guidance document.

  4. Rational Combinations of Targeted Agents in AML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prithviraj Bose

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite modest improvements in survival over the last several decades, the treatment of AML continues to present a formidable challenge. Most patients are elderly, and these individuals, as well as those with secondary, therapy-related, or relapsed/refractory AML, are particularly difficult to treat, owing to both aggressive disease biology and the high toxicity of current chemotherapeutic regimens. It has become increasingly apparent in recent years that coordinated interruption of cooperative survival signaling pathways in malignant cells is necessary for optimal therapeutic results. The modest efficacy of monotherapy with both cytotoxic and targeted agents in AML testifies to this. As the complex biology of AML continues to be elucidated, many “synthetic lethal” strategies involving rational combinations of targeted agents have been developed. Unfortunately, relatively few of these have been tested clinically, although there is growing interest in this area. In this article, the preclinical and, where available, clinical data on some of the most promising rational combinations of targeted agents in AML are summarized. While new molecules should continue to be combined with conventional genotoxic drugs of proven efficacy, there is perhaps a need to rethink traditional philosophies of clinical trial development and regulatory approval with a focus on mechanism-based, synergistic strategies.

  5. Combined impact features for laser plasma generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loktionov, E.; Protasov, Yu; Telekh, V.

    2017-05-01

    Laser-induced plasma has been considered for multiple applications by the moment, and its characteristics strongly depend on laser radiation parameters. Reaching demanded values for the latter might be rather costly, but, in certain cases, similar or even better results could be reached in case of additional impact (optical, electric, magnetic, corpuscular, mechanical etc.). Combined impact effects are mainly based on target properties or interaction mechanism change, and found to decrease plasma generation thresholds by orders of magnitude, improve energy efficiency significantly, and also broaden the range of plasma parameters. Application area, efficiency and optimal regimes for laser plasma generation at such combined impact have been considered. Analysis based on published data and own experiments was performed for both target material and induced plasma flows. Criterial parameters have been suggested to characterize both combined impact and response to it. The data on plasma generation thresholds, controlled parameters, working media supply systems and recovery rate of droplets are very important for technology setups, including those for material modification.

  6. Genetic compatibility determines endophyte-grass combinations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Saikkonen

    Full Text Available Even highly mutually beneficial microbial-plant interactions, such as mycorrhizal- and rhizobial-plant exchanges, involve selfishness, cheating and power-struggles between the partners, which depending on prevailing selective pressures, lead to a continuum of interactions from antagonistic to mutualistic. Using manipulated grass-endophyte combinations in a five year common garden experiment, we show that grass genotypes and genetic mismatches constrain genetic combinations between the vertically (via host seeds transmitted endophytes and the out-crossing host, thereby reducing infections in established grass populations. Infections were lost in both grass tillers and seedlings in F(1 and F(2 generations, respectively. Experimental plants were collected as seeds from two different environments, i.e., meadows and nearby riverbanks. Endophyte-related benefits to the host included an increased number of inflorescences, but only in meadow plants and not until the last growing season of the experiment. Our results illustrate the importance of genetic host specificity and trans-generational maternal effects on the genetic structure of a host population, which act as destabilizing forces in endophyte-grass symbioses. We propose that (1 genetic mismatches may act as a buffering mechanism against highly competitive endophyte-grass genotype combinations threatening the biodiversity of grassland communities and (2 these mismatches should be acknowledged, particularly in breeding programmes aimed at harnessing systemic and heritable endophytes to improve the agriculturally valuable characteristics of cultivars.

  7. The 2004 ATLAS Combined Test Beam

    CERN Multimedia

    The ATLAS CTB Team, .

    2004-01-01

    In the year 2004, ATLAS has been involved in a huge combined test beam (CTB) effort in H8. A complete slice of the barrel detector and of the Muon End-cap has been tested, with the following clear goals: pre-commission the final elements and study the detector performance in a realistic combined data taking. Thanks to this experience, a lot of expertise in the operations has been acquired and much data (~ 4.6 TB of data, ~ 90 million events on castor) has been collected and is already under analysis. The CTB has been characterized by different phases with an incremental presence of sub-detectors modules and associated DAQ infrastructure, as well as incremental improvement of analysis tools for prompt data certification. The physics goals of the CTB have been defined in consultation with the physics coordinator, all the sub-detector representatives and the combined performance group representative. With all these indications, a detailed run plan day-by-day schedule was defined before the CTB start and was foll...

  8. Combined effects of radiation and trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerschmidt, Otfried

    Injuries, caused by both whole-body irradiation and wounds or burns, have been relatively little studied. Possibly because many investigators think that these injuries are just modified radiation-induced diseases for which the same treatment principles are valid. Other authors had the impression that, for instance, the radiation burn trauma is a new kind of disease which differs significantly from either radiation syndrome alone or from burn disease. There are many experimental data on animals which suggest that the pathology of combined injuries differs significantly from that of radiation-induced disease or of thermal or mechanical traumas. Wounds or burns which, in general, do not cause septicaemia could become entrance ports for bacteria when animals are exposed to whole-body irradiation. Thrombocytopenia is the reason for hemorrhages in wounds. The susceptibility to shock is increased considerably in combined injuries and the formation of callus in the bone fractures is significantly delayed. The healing of wounds and burns in the initial phase of the radiation syndrome does not always differ from healing in the non-irradiated organism. However, a few days or weeks later very serious wound infections and hemorrhages can occur. The additional injuries almost always worsen the development and prognosis of radiation-induced disease. The recommended treatment for combined injuries will differ in many respects from the treatment of wounds and burns or the radiation syndrome.

  9. Reports from the Combined Performance Working Groups

    CERN Document Server

    S. Haywood

    The main goal of the Combined Performance Groups is to study the detector performance for physics, as well as to monitor the effect of changes to the detector layout and the evolution of the software. The groups combine the expertise available in several different subdetectors. In addition, they are responsible for developing combined reconstruction algorithms and are involved in the calibration of energy scales and optimising resolutions. For the Workshop, the four groups made a real effort to compare the reconstruction in Athena (the "New" C++ software framework) and Atrecon (the "Old" software used for the TDR studies). b-tagging Working Group: Over the last few months, the description of the Inner Detector in the simulation has become more realistic, following the evolution of the detector design. This has caused the amount of material in the simulation to increase and the Pixel B-layer has been moved to a larger radius to allow for a wider beam-pipe. Nevertheless, the good performance of the b-tagging (...

  10. Combination of palbociclib and radiotherapy for glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Shane; Madani, Daniel; Joshi, Swapna; Chung, Sylvia A; Johns, Terrance; Day, Bryan; Khasraw, Mustafa; McDonald, Kerrie L

    2017-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, palbociclib has shown compelling efficacy in breast cancer patients. Several pre-clinical studies of glioblastoma (GBM) have also shown palbociclib to be efficacious. In this study, we investigated palbociclib in combination with radiation therapy (RT) for treating GBM. We tested palbociclib (with and without RT) on four patient-derived cell lines (PDCLs; RB1 retained; CDKN2A loss). We investigated the impact of therapy on the cell cycle and apoptosis using flow cytometry, in vitro. Balb/c nude mice were intracranially injected with the PDCL, GBM-L1 and treated orally with palbociclib (with and without RT). Overall survival was measured. Palbociclib treatment resulted in a significant increase in the percentage of cells in the G1 cell cycle phase. Apoptotic cell death, measured by Annexin V was induced. Palbociclib combined with RT acted synergistically with the significant impediment of colony formation. The oral treatment of mice with palbociclib did not show any significant survival advantage when compared to control mice, however when combined with RT, a survival advantage of 8 days was observed. Our results support the use of palbociclib as an adjuvant treatment to RT and warrant translation to the clinic.

  11. Combining classifiers for robust PICO element detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudin, Florian; Nie, Jian-Yun; Bartlett, Joan C; Grad, Roland; Pluye, Pierre; Dawes, Martin

    2010-05-15

    Formulating a clinical information need in terms of the four atomic parts which are Population/Problem, Intervention, Comparison and Outcome (known as PICO elements) facilitates searching for a precise answer within a large medical citation database. However, using PICO defined items in the information retrieval process requires a search engine to be able to detect and index PICO elements in the collection in order for the system to retrieve relevant documents. In this study, we tested multiple supervised classification algorithms and their combinations for detecting PICO elements within medical abstracts. Using the structural descriptors that are embedded in some medical abstracts, we have automatically gathered large training/testing data sets for each PICO element. Combining multiple classifiers using a weighted linear combination of their prediction scores achieves promising results with an f-measure score of 86.3% for P, 67% for I and 56.6% for O. Our experiments on the identification of PICO elements showed that the task is very challenging. Nevertheless, the performance achieved by our identification method is competitive with previously published results and shows that this task can be achieved with a high accuracy for the P element but lower ones for I and O elements.

  12. On Coding Non-Contiguous Letter Combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric eDandurand

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the hypothesis that printed word identification initially involves the parallel mapping of visual features onto location-specific letter identities, we analyze the type of information that would be involved in optimally mapping this location-specific orthographic code onto a location-invariant lexical code. We assume that some intermediate level of coding exists between individual letters and whole words, and that this involves the representation of letter combinations. We then investigate the nature of this intermediate level of coding given the constraints of optimality. This intermediate level of coding is expected to compress data while retaining as much information as possible about word identity. Information conveyed by letters is a function of how much they constrain word identity and how visible they are. Optimization of this coding is a combination of minimizing resources (using the most compact representations and maximizing information. We show that in a large proportion of cases, non-contiguous letter sequences contain more information than contiguous sequences, while at the same time requiring less precise coding. Moreover, we found that the best predictor of human performance in orthographic priming experiments was within-word ranking of conditional probabilities, rather than average conditional probabilities. We conclude that from an optimality perspective, readers learn to select certain contiguous and non-contiguous letter combinations as information that provides the best cue to word identity.

  13. Flow testing rear face hardware combinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haun, F.E. Jr.

    1962-06-01

    The purpose of these tests is to provide necessary laboratory data in support of an R,PEO program in determining the energy loss associated with various hardware size combinations on the rear face of the B-D-F reactors. The original method used to check for critical flow was determined to be faulty. A revised method demonstrated critical flow did occur in the 5/8-inch inconel connector and combination 1 fittings. The remaining fitting combinations with the 5/8-inch inconel and 3/4-inch aluminum connector were not rechecked because of the reaming of the I.D. to permit the continuation of the original tests. During test number 6, audible cavitation was heard with the highest severity at a point midway between pressure points 3 and 4 on the connector. This condition appeared again in tests 6A, 7, and 7A, with incipient cavitation at approximately 40 gpm in each test, regardless of the rear header pressure and/or temperature.

  14. Diuretic uptitration with half dose combined ACEI + ARB better decreases proteinuria than combined ACEI + ARB uptitration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esnault, Vincent L M; Ekhlas, Amr; Nguyen, Jean-Michel; Moranne, Olivier

    2010-07-01

    Residual proteinuria is a strong modifiable risk factor for renal failure progression. We previously showed that the antiproteinuric effect of combined half doses of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) and angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) is increased by raising diuretic dosage. Methods. We tested whether uptitration of loop diuretics on top of combined half doses of ACEI and ARB would better decrease proteinuria than uptitration to combined full doses of ACEI and ARB in a randomized, crossover, three periods of 6-week controlled study. Eighteen patients with stable proteinuria over 1 g/day with combined ramipril at 5 mg/day and valsartan at 80 mg/day in addition to conventional antihypertensive treatments were randomized to receive combined ramipril at 5 mg/day and valsartan at 80 mg/day, or combined ramipril at 10 mg/day and valsartan at 160 mg/day, or combined ramipril at 5 mg/day, valsartan at 80 mg/day and increased furosemide dosage in random order. The primary end point was the mean urinary protein/creatinine ratio in two 24-hour urine collections at the end of the three treatment periods. Secondary end points included mean 24-hour proteinuria, home systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) levels. The geometric mean urinary protein/creatinine ratio was lower with combined ramipril at 5 mg/day, valsartan at 80 mg/day and increased furosemide dosage compared to combined ramipril at 5 mg/day and valsartan at 80 mg/day, but also to combined ramipril at 10 mg/day and valsartan at 160 mg/day. These differences remained significant after adjustment for SBP, DBP or MAP and 24-hour natriuresis but not after adjustment on eGFR. Diuretic dosage uptitration did not increase the number of home systolic blood pressure measurements below 100 mmHg, but led to a statistically significant increase in the number of symptomatic hypotension episodes. A cautious

  15. Fixed Dose Combination for TB treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandra Y. Aditama

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization, a third of the world’s population is infected with tuberculosis. The disease is responsible for nearly 2 million deaths each year and over 8 million were developing active diseases. Moreover, according to WHO (2000, tuberculosis deaths are estimated to increase to 35 million between 2000-2020. The majority of tuberculosis patients worldwide are still treated with single drugs, or with 2-drug fixed-dose combinations (FDCs. To improve tuberculosis treatment, 2- and 3-drug FDCs were recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO as part of the DOTS strategy. Since 1999 a 4-drug FDC was included on the WHO Model List of Essential Drugs. Today, FDCs are important tools to further improve the quality of care for people with TB, and accelerate DOTS expansion to reach the global TB control targets. Fixed dose combination TB drugs could simplifies both treatment and management of drug supply, and may prevent the emergence of drug resistance .Prevention of drug resistance is just one of the potential benefits of the use of FDCs. FDCs simplify administration of drugs by reducing the number of pills a patient takes each day and decreasing the risk of incorrect prescriptions. Most tuberculosis patients need only take 3–4 FDCs tablets per day during the intensive phase of treatment, instead of the 15–16 tablets per day that is common with single-drug formulations It is much simpler to explain to patients that they need to take four tablets of the same type and colour, rather than a mixture of tablets of different shapes, colours and sizes. Also, the chance of taking an incomplete combination of drugs is eliminated, since the four essential drugs are combined into one tablet. FDCs are also simpler for care-givers as they minimize the risk of confusion. Finally, drug procurement, in all its components (stock management, shipping, distribution, is simplified by FDCs. Adverse reactions to drugs are not more

  16. Spectral beam combining of diode lasers with high efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, André; Vijayakumar, Deepak; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin

    2012-01-01

    Based on spectral beam combining we obtain 16 W of output power, combining two 1063 nm DBR-tapered diode lasers. The spectral separation within the combined beam can be used for subsequent sum-frequency generation.......Based on spectral beam combining we obtain 16 W of output power, combining two 1063 nm DBR-tapered diode lasers. The spectral separation within the combined beam can be used for subsequent sum-frequency generation....

  17. All-fiber 7x1 signal combiner for incoherent laser beam combining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noordegraaf, Danny; Maack, Martin D.; Skovgaard, Peter M. W.

    2011-01-01

    fibers have a core diameter of 17 μm and the output MM fiber has a core diameter of 100 μm. In a tapered section light gradually leaks out of the SM fibers and is captured by a surrounding fluorine-doped cladding. The combiner is tested up to 2.5 kW of combined output power and only a minor increase...

  18. Plant behaviour under combined stress: tomato responses to combined salinity and pathogen stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yuling; Kissoudis, Christos; Yan, Zhe; Visser, Richard G F; van der Linden, Gerard

    2017-12-13

    Crop plants are subjected to a variety of stresses during their lifecycle, including abiotic stress factors such as salinity and biotic stress factors such as pathogens. Plants have developed a multitude of defense and adaption responses to these stress factors. In the field, different stress factors mostly occur concurrently resulting in a new state of stress, the combined stress. There is evidence that plant resistance to pathogens can be attenuated or enhanced by abiotic stress factors. With stress tolerance research being mostly focused on plant responses to individual stresses, the understanding of a plants' ability to adapt to combined stresses is limited. In the last few years, we studied powdery mildew resistance under salt stress conditions in the model crop plant tomato with the aim to understand the requirements to achieve plant resilience to a wider array of combined abiotic and biotic stress combinations. We uncovered specific responses of tomato plants to combined salinity-pathogen stress, which varied with salinity intensity and plant resistance genes. Moreover, hormones, with their complex regulation and cross-talk, were shown to play a key role in the adaption of tomato plants to the combined stress. In this review, we attempt to understand the complexity of plant responses to abiotic and biotic stress combinations, with a focus on tomato responses (genetic control and cross talk of signaling pathways) to combined salinity and pathogen stresses. Further, we provide recommendations on how to design novel strategies for breeding crops with a sustained performance under diverse environmental conditions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. VLBI TRF Combination Using GNSS Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younghee Kwak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Space geodetic techniques can be used to obtain precise shape and rotation information of the Earth. To achieve this, the representative combination solution of each space geodetic technique has to be produced, and then those solutions need to be combined. In this study, the representative combination solution of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI, which is one of the space geodetic techniques, was produced, and the variations in the position coordinate of each station during 7 years were analyzed. Products from five analysis centers of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS were used as the input data, and Bernese 5.0, which is the global navigation satellite system (GNSS data processing software, was used. The analysis of the coordinate time series for the 43 VLBI stations indicated that the latitude component error was about 15.6 mm, the longitude component error was about 37.7 mm, and the height component error was about 30.9 mm, with respect to the reference frame, International Terrestrial Reference Frame 2008 (ITRF2008. The velocity vector of the 42 stations excluding the YEBES station showed a magnitude difference of 7.3 mm/yr (30.2% and a direction difference of 13.8° (3.8%, with respect to ITRF2008. Among these, the 10 stations in Europe showed a magnitude difference of 7.8 mm/yr (30.3% and a direction difference of 3.7° (1.0%, while the 14 stations in North America showed a magnitude difference of 2.7 mm/yr (15.8% and a direction difference of 10.3° (2.9%.

  20. Binocular combination in abnormal binocular vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jian; Klein, Stanley A.; Levi, Dennis M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated suprathreshold binocular combination in humans with abnormal binocular visual experience early in life. In the first experiment we presented the two eyes with equal but opposite phase shifted sine waves and measured the perceived phase of the cyclopean sine wave. Normal observers have balanced vision between the two eyes when the two eyes' images have equal contrast (i.e., both eyes contribute equally to the perceived image and perceived phase = 0°). However, in observers with strabismus and/or amblyopia, balanced vision requires a higher contrast image in the nondominant eye (NDE) than the dominant eye (DE). This asymmetry between the two eyes is larger than predicted from the contrast sensitivities or monocular perceived contrast of the two eyes and is dependent on contrast and spatial frequency: more asymmetric with higher contrast and/or spatial frequency. Our results also revealed a surprising NDE-to-DE enhancement in some of our abnormal observers. This enhancement is not evident in normal vision because it is normally masked by interocular suppression. However, in these abnormal observers the NDE-to-DE suppression was weak or absent. In the second experiment, we used the identical stimuli to measure the perceived contrast of a cyclopean grating by matching the binocular combined contrast to a standard contrast presented to the DE. These measures provide strong constraints for model fitting. We found asymmetric interocular interactions in binocular contrast perception, which was dependent on both contrast and spatial frequency in the same way as in phase perception. By introducing asymmetric parameters to the modified Ding-Sperling model including interocular contrast gain enhancement, we succeeded in accounting for both binocular combined phase and contrast simultaneously. Adding binocular contrast gain control to the modified Ding-Sperling model enabled us to predict the results of dichoptic and binocular contrast discrimination experiments

  1. [Adult Bochdalek hernia combined with pneumothorax].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Hirohisa; Shimojima, Reiko; Miyabe, Rika; Shintani, Tsunehiro; Kobayashi, Hideaki; Shiraishi, Kou; Nakayama, Takamori; Mori, Shunji; Isobe, Kiyoshi

    2011-08-01

    A 71-year-old man, who had been given a diagnosis of Bochdalek hernia in infancy, was referred to our hospital for dyspnea The chest X-ray and computed tomography (CT) showed left pneumothorax with bullas and intestines in his left thoracic cavity. He was admitted to our hospital and a chest tube was inserted into the left pleural cavity. The left lung expanded immediately and air leakage was stopped. He became asymptomatic and he was discharged from the hospital on the 8th day. Most Bochdalek hernias are observed in infancy, and adult cases combined with pneumothorax and bullas are very rare.

  2. Combined subcutaneous, intrathoracic and abdominal splenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadrashid, Reza; Paak, Neda; Salehi, Ahad

    2010-09-01

    We report a case of combined subcutaneous, intrathoracic, and abdominal splenosis who presented with attacks of flushing, tachycardia and vague abdominal pain. The patient's past medical history included a splenectomy due to abdominal trauma and years later, a lung lobectomy due to recurrent pneumonia. An enhancing solid mass adjacent to the upper pole of the left kidney and nodular pleural based lesions in the left hemi-thorax along with nodular lesions in subcutaneous tissue of the left chest wall suggested possible adrenal malignancy with multiple metastases. Histopathologic examination demonstrated benign lesions of ectopic splenic tissue.

  3. A Combined Preconditioning Strategy for Nonsymmetric Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Dios, B. Ayuso [Univ. of Bologna (Italy). Dept. of Mathematics; King Abdullah Univ. of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia); Barker, A. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vassilevski, P. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-11-04

    Here, we present and analyze a class of nonsymmetric preconditioners within a normal (weighted least-squares) matrix form for use in GMRES to solve nonsymmetric matrix problems that typically arise in finite element discretizations. An example of the additive Schwarz method applied to nonsymmetric but definite matrices is presented for which the abstract assumptions are verified. Variable preconditioner, which combines the original nonsymmetric one and a weighted least-squares version of it, and it is shown to be convergent and provides a viable strategy for using nonsymmetric preconditioners in practice. Numerical results are included to assess the theory and the performance of the proposed preconditioners.

  4. Combining Stocks and Flows of Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambos, Tina C.; Nell, Phillip Christopher; Pedersen, Torben

    on the complementarity effects of different types of knowledge stocks and flows in the multinational corporation (MNC). We investigate intra-functional as well as cross-functional complementarity effects from the perspective of the knowledge recipient. We test the impact of stocks on flows on the benefit that is created...... for MNC units. Based on a comprehensive sample of 324 relationships between MNC units we find that both types of complementarity create benefits for these units, but that the effects from intra-functional combinations of knowledge stocks and flows are significantly stronger than from cross...

  5. Radiotherapy versus combined modality in early stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, L; Carde, P; Mauch, P

    1992-01-01

    In early stage Hodgkin's disease the optimal choice of treatment for the individual patient is still an unresolved issue. So far, twenty-two randomized trials of radiotherapy alone versus radiotherapy plus combination chemotherapy have been carried out worldwide. The preliminary results of a global...... be reduced, and that the stress of experiencing a relapse is avoided in many patients. The major argument against the use of chemotherapy up front is: that by careful staging and selection of patients and by careful radiotherapy techniques the number of patients exposed to potentially toxic chemotherapy may...

  6. Combined Pulmonary Fibrosis and Emphysema Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds, Sharon I. S.

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing clinical, radiologic, and pathologic recognition of the coexistence of emphysema and pulmonary fibrosis in the same patient, resulting in a clinical syndrome known as combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) that is characterized by dyspnea, upper-lobe emphysema, lower-lobe fibrosis, and abnormalities of gas exchange. This syndrome frequently is complicated by pulmonary hypertension, acute lung injury, and lung cancer. The CPFE syndrome typically occurs in male smokers, and the mortality associated with this condition, especially if pulmonary hypertension is present, is significant. In this review, we explore the current state of the literature and discuss etiologic factors and clinical characteristics of the CPFE syndrome. PMID:22215830

  7. The Argo NOC: Combining TDM and GALS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasapaki, Evangelia; Sparsø, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Argo is a network-on-chip developed for use in a multi-core platform designed specifically for hard real-time applications and it supports message passing across virtual end-to-end channels. Argo implements these channels using time-division-multiplexing (TDM) of the resources in the NOC following...... of the network interfaces we have managed to combine TDM and GALS and obtain a very hardware-efficient implementation of the NOC. The paper gives a brief overview of the Argo NOC and focuses on two important issues: how to safely bring the NOC out of reset and timing analysis of the network of asynchronous...

  8. A Combined Preconditioning Strategy for Nonsymmetric Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ayuso Dios, Blanca

    2014-01-01

    We present and analyze a class of nonsymmetric preconditioners within a normal (weighted least-squares) matrix form for use in GMRES to solve nonsymmetric matrix problems that typically arise in finite element discretizations. An example of the additive Schwarz method applied to nonsymmetric but definite matrices is presented for which the abstract assumptions are verified. A variable preconditioner, combining the original nonsymmetric one and a weighted least-squares version of it, is shown to be convergent and provides a viable strategy for using nonsymmetric preconditioners in practice. Numerical results are included to assess the theory and the performance of the proposed preconditioners.

  9. Combining or Separating Forward and Reverse Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert-Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Larsen, Samuel; Nielsen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – While forward logistics handles and manages the flow of goods downstream in the supply chain from suppliers to customers, reverse logistics (RL) manages the flow of returned goods upstream. A firm can combine reverse logistics with forward logistics, keep the flows separated, or choose......-research addresses intra-RL issues while the relationship between forward and reverse logistics is under-researched. This paper contributes to RL-theory by identifying the contextual factors that determine the most advantageous relationship between forward and reverse logistics, and proposes a novel decision making...

  10. Strongyloides Hyperinfection Syndrome Combined with Cytomegalovirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatehi Elnour Elzein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mortality in Strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome (SHS is alarmingly high. This is particularly common in bone marrow, renal, and other solid organ transplant (SOT patients, where figures may reach up to 50–85%. Immunosuppressives, principally corticosteroids, are the primary triggering factor. In general, the clinical features of Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection are nonspecific; therefore, a high index of suspicion is required for early diagnosis and starting appropriate therapy. Although recurrent Gram-negative sepsis and meningitis have been previously reported, the combination of both cytomegalovirus (CMV and strongyloidiasis had rarely been associated. We here describe a patient who survived SHS with recurrent Escherichia coli (E. coli urosepsis and CMV infection.

  11. Strength of Ship Plates under Combined Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, W.; Wang, Y.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2002-01-01

    Strength of ship plates plays a significant role in the ultimate strength analysis of ship structures. In recent years several authors have proposed simplified analytical methods to calculate the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates. The majority of these investigations deal with plates....... The obtained results indicate that the simplified analytical method is able to determine the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates with imperfections in the form of welding-induced residual stresses and geometric deflections subjected to combined loads. Comparisons with experimental results show...

  12. Strength of ship plates under combined loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Weiching; Wang, Yongjun; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2000-01-01

    Strength of ship plates plays a significant role for the ultimate strength analysis of ship structures. In recent years several authors have proposed simplified methods to calculate the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates. The majority of these investigations deal with plates subjected...... that the simplified method is able to determine the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates with imperfections in the form of welding induced residual stresses and geometric deflections subjected to combined loads. Comparisons with experimental results show that the procedure has sufficient accuracy for practical...

  13. Anticancer Efficacy of Polyphenols and Their Combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Niedzwiecki

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols, found abundantly in plants, display many anticarcinogenic properties including their inhibitory effects on cancer cell proliferation, tumor growth, angiogenesis, metastasis, and inflammation as well as inducing apoptosis. In addition, they can modulate immune system response and protect normal cells against free radicals damage. Most investigations on anticancer mechanisms of polyphenols were conducted with individual compounds. However, several studies, including ours, have indicated that anti-cancer efficacy and scope of action can be further enhanced by combining them synergistically with chemically similar or different compounds. While most studies investigated the anti-cancer effects of combinations of two or three compounds, we used more comprehensive mixtures of specific polyphenols and mixtures of polyphenols with vitamins, amino acids and other micronutrients. The mixture containing quercetin, curcumin, green tea, cruciferex, and resveratrol (PB demonstrated significant inhibition of the growth of Fanconi anemia head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and -9 secretion, cell migration and invasion through Matrigel. PB was found effective in inhibition of fibrosarcoma HT-1080 and melanoma A2058 cell proliferation, MMP-2 and -9 expression, invasion through Matrigel and inducing apoptosis, important parameters for cancer prevention. A combination of polyphenols (quercetin and green tea extract with vitamin C, amino acids and other micronutrients (EPQ demonstrated significant suppression of ovarian cancer ES-2 xenograft tumor growth and suppression of ovarian tumor growth and lung metastasis from IP injection of ovarian cancer A-2780 cells. The EPQ mixture without quercetin (NM also has shown potent anticancer activity in vivo and in vitro in a few dozen cancer cell lines by inhibiting tumor growth and metastasis, MMP-2 and -9 secretion, invasion

  14. Combined Solar and Wind Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripanagnostopoulos, Y.; Souliotis, M.; Makris, Th.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present the new concept of combined solar and wind energy systems for buildings applications. Photovoltaics (PV) and small wind turbines (WTs) can be install on buildings, in case of sufficient wind potential, providing the building with electricity. PVs can be combined with thermal collectors to form the hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) systems. The PVs (or the PV/Ts) and WT subsystems can supplement each other to cover building electrical load. In case of using PV/T collectors, the surplus of electricity, if not used or stored in batteries, can increase the temperature of the thermal storage tank of the solar thermal unit. The description of the experimental set-up of the suggested PV/T/WT system and experimental results are presented. In PV/T/WT systems the output from the solar part depends on the sunshine time and the output of the wind turbine part depends on the wind speed and is obtained any time of day or night. The use of the three subsystems can cover a great part of building energy load, contributing to conventional energy saving and environment protection. The PV/T/WT systems are considered suitable in rural and remote areas with electricity supply from stand-alone units or mini-grid connection. PV/T/WT systems can also be used in typical grid connected applications.

  15. Combining Search Engines for Comparative Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabb, David

    2012-01-01

    Many proteomics laboratories have found spectral counting to be an ideal way to recognize biomarkers that differentiate cohorts of samples. This approach assumes that proteins that differ in quantity between samples will generate different numbers of identifiable tandem mass spectra. Increasingly, researchers are employing multiple search engines to maximize the identifications generated from data collections. This talk evaluates four strategies to combine information from multiple search engines in comparative proteomics. The “Count Sum” model pools the spectra across search engines. The “Vote Counting” model combines the judgments from each search engine by protein. Two other models employ parametric and non-parametric analyses of protein-specific p-values from different search engines. We evaluated the four strategies in two different data sets. The ABRF iPRG 2009 study generated five LC-MS/MS analyses of “red” E. coli and five analyses of “yellow” E. coli. NCI CPTAC Study 6 generated five concentrations of Sigma UPS1 spiked into a yeast background. All data were identified with X!Tandem, Sequest, MyriMatch, and TagRecon. For both sample types, “Vote Counting” appeared to manage the diverse identification sets most effectively, yielding heightened discrimination as more search engines were added.

  16. [Performance of a novel combined flocculant HECES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaisong; Zhou, Qixing; Wei, Shuhe; Ren, Liping

    2003-05-01

    Combined flocculants with higher environmental safety and lower ecological risk are urgently required in the process of water and wastewater treatment. HECES, a kind of flocculants with high effect and high ecological safety was synthesized by natural and biodegradable polysaccharide starch of corn and inorganic aluminium salt. Flocculent performance includes sediment character and turbidity removal rate. The jar test results showed that the flocculent performance of HECES with the dose of 3.0 mg.L-1 was prior to the combined adding 4.5 mg.L-1 PAC and 1.0 mg.L-1 PAM in treating kaolin suspensions. The optimal concentration of HECES was 8.0 mg.L-1 and 4.0 mg.L-1 in treating domestic wastewater and municipal effluent respectively, with the comparison to 50% an 40% of PAC, the removal rate of turbidity reached 95% and 99%, respectively. It was also identified that the optimal concentration required to effect flocculation depended on kaolin concentration, and on the character of the wastewater within the range examined. It could be more effective to treat wastewater with higher concentration of HECES. The flocculating performance would be better at pH 4.0-9.5. The superior ecological safety of HECES was due to its lower dosage and its lower concentration of residual activated aluminium.

  17. Combined transurethral prostatectomy and inguinal hernioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, I; Abdel-Maguid, A-F

    2010-04-01

    Evaluation of combined transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) and inguinal hernia repair with Vypro II mesh in comparison with patients undergoing TURP and hernioplasty sequentially. Thirty patients were randomly categorized into two groups through a computer randomization program. Group I included 15 patients operated by TURP and inguinal hernioplasty in the same session. Group II included 15 patients operated by TURP followed by inguinal hernioplasty in separate sessions. The mean operative time was 84.6 +/- 23.4 min in group I versus 95.5 +/- 15.3 min in group II. The mean hospitalization time was 3.07 +/- 0.46 days in group I and 4.07 +/- 0.59 days in group II. No significant increase in the complication rate was seen when the TURP and inguinal hernioplasty operations were performed together. Hernia recurrence did not occur in either group. Hospitalization cost was reduced by 26% when performing the two operations in the same session. The numerical patient satisfaction score 3 months after surgery was 8.87 +/- 0.99 for group I patients versus 7.80 +/- 0.94 for group II patients. Combined TURP and inguinal hernioplasty is a practical, safe, and effective operative procedure that can reduce hospitalization cost. It allows patients to undergo only one anesthetic procedure, hospital admission, and convalescence.

  18. Combined experiment Phase 2 data characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.S.; Shipley, D.E.; Young, T.S.; Robinson, M.C.; Luttges, M.W. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States); Simms, D.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s ``Combined Experiment`` has yielded a large quantity of experimental data on the operation of a downwind horizontal axis wind turbine under field conditions. To fully utilize this valuable resource and identify particular episodes of interest, a number of databases were created that characterize individual data events and rotational cycles over a wide range of parameters. Each of the 59 five-minute data episodes collected during Phase 11 of the Combined Experiment have been characterized by the mean, minimum, maximum, and standard deviation of all data channels, except the blade surface pressures. Inflow condition, aerodynamic force coefficient, and minimum leading edge pressure coefficient databases have also been established, characterizing each of nearly 21,000 blade rotational cycles. In addition, a number of tools have been developed for searching these databases for particular episodes of interest. Due to their extensive size, only a portion of the episode characterization databases are included in an appendix, and examples of the cycle characterization databases are given. The search tools are discussed and the FORTRAN or C code for each is included in appendices.

  19. Reproductive cloning combined with genetic modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, C

    2005-11-01

    Although there is widespread opposition to reproductive cloning, some have argued that its use by infertile couples to have genetically related children would be ethically justifiable. Others have suggested that lesbian or gay couples might wish to use cloning to have genetically related children. Most of the main objections to human reproductive cloning are based on the child's lack of unique nuclear DNA. In the future, it may be possible safely to create children using cloning combined with genetic modifications, so that they have unique nuclear DNA. The genetic modifications could be aimed at giving such children genetic characteristics of both members of the couple concerned. Thus, cloning combined with genetic modification could be appealing to infertile, lesbian, or gay couples who seek genetically related children who have genetic characteristics of both members. In such scenarios, the various objections to human reproductive cloning that are based on the lack of genetic uniqueness would no longer be applicable. The author argues that it would be ethically justifiable for such couples to create children in this manner, assuming these techniques could be used safely.

  20. [Results of combined endotrabeculectomy and phacoemulsification surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novytskyy, I Ya; Novytskyy, M I

    2015-01-01

    to identify indications and evaluate the efficacy of combined endotrabeculectomy and phacoemulsification surgery. A total of 172 patients (193 eyes) with open-angle glaucoma and cataract were enrolled. Group 1 included 102 patients (118 eyes), who were considered surgical candidates due to decompensation of IOP, group 2--70 patients (75 eyes), in whom IOP control could only be achieved with a multidrug regimen (two or more ocular hypotensive medications). The mean preoperative IOP measured with Maklakov tonometer was 26.4 ± 1.8 mmHg in group 1 and 20.5 ± 1.7 mmHg in group 2. In 134 eyes the extent of retention of intraocular fluid was determined intraoperatively by provoking blood reflux into Schlemm's canal. In 6 out of 134 eyes (4.5%) Schlemm's canal was not at all filled with blood, which was considered a contraindication for endotrabeculectomy. Partial filling of Schlemm's canal with blood was observed in 26 out of 134 eyes (19.4%), complete--in 102 eyes (76.1%). All but 6 patients underwent endotrabeculectomy (ab interno trabecular excision with original forceps through the anterior chamber angle) combined with cataract phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation. In 11 out of 126 cases, insignificant bleeding occurred during sample acquisition. No other complications were registered. Six months after the surgery, IOP was reduced by the mean of 7.0 ± 0.6 mmHg (26.5% from the baseline) in group 1 and by 2.2 ± 0.2 mmHg (10.7% from the baseline) in group 2. The number of hypotensive medications by that time has been decreased from 2.3 ± 0.3 to 0.8 ± 0.2 in group 1 and from 1.6 ± 0.3 to 0.4 ± 0.1 in group 2. Combined endotrabeculectomy and phacoemulsification surgery is a pathogenically oriented procedure, which improves ocular hydrodynamics and has a significant hypotensive effect.

  1. Rethinking Robot Vision - Combining Shape and Appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias J. Schlemmer

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Equipping autonomous robots with vision sensors provides a multitude of advantages by simultaneously bringing up difficulties with regard to different illumination conditions. Furthermore, especially with service robots, the objects to be handled must somehow be learned for a later manipulation. In this paper we summarise work on combining two different vision sensors, namely a laser range scanner and a monocular colour camera, for shape-capturing, detecting and tracking of objects in cluttered scenes without the need of intermediate user interaction. The use of different sensor types provides the advantage of separating the shape and the appearance of the object and therefore overcome the problem with changing illumination conditions. We describe the framework and its components of visual shape-capturing, fast 3D object detection and robust tracking as well as examples that show the feasibility of this approach.

  2. Theoretically Palatable Flavor Combinations of Astrophysical Neutrinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Mauricio; Beacom, John F; Winter, Walter

    2015-10-16

    The flavor composition of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos can reveal the physics governing their production, propagation, and interaction. The IceCube Collaboration has published the first experimental determination of the ratio of the flux in each flavor to the total. We present, as a theoretical counterpart, new results for the allowed ranges of flavor ratios at Earth for arbitrary flavor ratios in the sources. Our results will allow IceCube to more quickly identify when their data imply standard physics, a general class of new physics with arbitrary (incoherent) combinations of mass eigenstates, or new physics that goes beyond that, e.g., with terms that dominate the Hamiltonian at high energy.

  3. Combining engineering and data-driven approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Katharina; De Sanctis, Gianluca; Kohler, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    assumptions that may result in a biased risk assessment. In two related papers we show how engineering and data-driven modelling can be combined by developing generic risk models that are calibrated to statistical data on observed fire events. The focus of the present paper is on the calibration procedure......Two general approaches may be followed for the development of a fire risk model: statistical models based on observed fire losses can support simple cost-benefit studies but are usually not detailed enough for engineering decision-making. Engineering models, on the other hand, require many....... A framework is developed that is able to deal with data collection in non-homogeneous portfolios of buildings. Also incomplete data sets containing only little information on each fire event can be used for model calibration. To illustrate the capabilities of the proposed framework, it is applied...

  4. COmBined muon reconstruction for Atlas

    CERN Document Server

    Lavrijsen, W T L P; Kittel, E.W.

    2002-01-01

    The Atlas detector, which is being built for the LHC collider experiment at CERN, near Geneva, has as primary objective the discovery or exclusion of the Higgs boson. This boson is an important ingredient of the Standard Model of elementary particles, but has not yet been experimentally established. Atlas contains two tracking subdetectors, separated by a calorimeter, capable of detecting muon trajectories. The best measurement of the parameters of those particles, mostly muons with a large enough energy, that traverse the calorimeter are obtained by a global fit that includes both tracking subdetectors. A software package, COBRA, which implements an abstraction that allows for the application of the same track fit to either subdetector, the global fit, or any arbitrary detector configuration has been developed. The COBRA method and studies of its performance, based on single-track Monte Carlo simulation, are presented. The COBRA package is then used to assess the effect of combined reconstruction on the disc...

  5. How Not to Combine RC4 States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banik, Subhadeep; Jha, Sonu

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few years, an attractive design paradigm has emerged, that aims to produce new stream cipher designs, by combining one or more independently produced RC4 states. The ciphers so produced turn out to be faster than RC4 on any software platform, mainly because the average number...... of internal operations used in the cipher per byte of keystream produced is usually lesser than RC4. One of the main efforts of the designers is to ensure that the existing weaknesses of RC4 are not carried over to the new ciphers so designed. In this work we will look at two such ciphers RC4B (proposed...... by Zhang et. al.) and Quad-RC4/m-RC4 (proposed by Maitra et. al.). We will propose distinguishing attacks against all these ciphers, and look at certain design flaws that made these ciphers vulnerable....

  6. The Optimal Decision Combination in Semiconductor Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungwook Yoon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wafer fabrication is a capital-intensive and highly complex manufacturing process. In a wafer fabrication facility (fab, wafers are grouped as a lot to go through repeated sequences of operations to build circuitry. Lot scheduling is an important task for manufacturers in order to improve production efficiency and satisfy customers’ demands of on-time delivery. Cycle time and average work-in-process reduction while meeting customers’ requirements play an important role in improving the competitiveness and sustainability of a semiconductor manufacturer. In this research, we propose the optimal combination rules for lot scheduling problems in wafer fabs, focusing on three complex areas of decision making: lot release control, batch sizing, and dispatching lots to enhance competitiveness and sustainability of a semiconductor facility.

  7. Fulminant Myocarditis with Combination Immune Checkpoint Blockade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Douglas B.; Balko, Justin M.; Compton, Margaret L.; Chalkias, Spyridon; Gorham, Joshua; Xu, Yaomin; Hicks, Mellissa; Puzanov, Igor; Alexander, Matthew R.; Bloomer, Tyler L.; Becker, Jason; Slosky, David A.; Phillips, Elizabeth J.; Pilkinton, Mark A.; Craig-Owens, Laura; Kola, Nina; Plautz, Gregory; Reshef, Daniel S.; Deutsch, Jonathan S.; Deering, Raquel P.; Olenchock, Benjamin A.; Lichtman, Andrew H.; Roden, Dan M.; Seidman, Christine E.; Koralnik, Igor J.; Seidman, Jonathan G.; Hoffman, Robert D.; Taube, Janis M.; Diaz, Luis A.; Anders, Robert A.; Sosman, Jeffrey A.; Moslehi, Javid J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Immune checkpoint inhibitors significantly improve clinical outcomes in numerous malignancies, but high-grade immune-related adverse events can occur, particularly with combination immunotherapy. Herein, we report two melanoma patients who developed fatal myocarditis following treatment with ipilimumab and nivolumab. Both patients developed myositis with rhabdomyolysis, early progressive and refractory cardiac electrical instability, and myocarditis with robust T-cell and macrophage infiltrates. Selective clonal T-cell populations infiltrating the myocardium were identical to those present in tumor and skeletal muscle. Pharmacovigilance data revealed that myocarditis occurred in 0.27% of patients treated with ipilimumab/nivolumab, suggesting this is a rare, potentially fatal, T-cell-driven drug reaction. PMID:27806233

  8. Medicine as combining natural and human science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyfus, Hubert L

    2011-08-01

    Medicine is unique in being a combination of natural science and human science in which both are essential. Therefore, in order to make sense of medical practice, we need to begin by drawing a clear distinction between the natural and the human sciences. In this paper, I try to bring the old distinction between the Geistes and Naturwissenschaften up to date by defending the essential difference between a realist explanatory theoretical study of nature including the body in which the scientist discovers the causal properties of natural kinds and the interpretive understanding of human beings as embodied agents which, as Charles Taylor has convincingly argued, requires a hermeneutic account of self-interpreting human practices.

  9. [The normative combined therapy for recurrent sinusitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bengang; Sun, Yiqing; Miao, Xutao; Wang, Xin; Li, Wenjun

    2014-06-01

    To assess the treatment outcome after endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) in patients with recurrent sinusitis and to research which factors could influence the clinical outcome. Endoscopic sinus surgery was performed in 55 patients. The clinical outcome and epithelization of mucosa after ESS were evaluated by Chinese ENT Association criteria. The total cure rate was 81.82%, effective rate was 92.73%. The mean period of epithelization after operation was 13.2 weeks. No serious complication occurred. The treatment efficacy can be greatly improved by the normative combined therapy which include the standard and orderly perioperative treatment ,the overall shape and nasalization of nasal cavity, postoperative follow-up and clearing cav ity after ESS.

  10. Combination antiretroviral therapy and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Álvaro H

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the newest research about the effects of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on cancer risk. RECENT FINDINGS: HIV+ persons are at increased risk of cancer. As this risk is higher for malignancies driven by viral and bacterial coinfections, classifying malignancies...... initiation in reducing cancer risk, understand the relationship between long-term cART exposure and cancer incidence and assess whether adjuvant anti-inflammatory therapies can reduce cancer risk during treated HIV infection....... into infection-related and infection-unrelated has been an emerging trend. Cohorts have detected major reductions in the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) following cART initiation among immunosuppressed HIV+ persons. However, recent randomized data indicate that cART reduces risk...

  11. Combining ability of white grain popcorn populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Scapim

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to indicate the best improvement strategy and select parents to begin animprovement program of white grain popcorn based on the combining ability and heterosis of eight populations selected inexperiments in the northwestern region of Paraná. The traits plant and ear height, grain yield and popping expansion wereevaluated. The base populations, the F1 and five controls were evaluated in Maringá, state of Paraná, over the course of twoyears. Heterosis for popping expansion was very low and the best improvement strategy is to raise the values of poppingexpansion up to commercial levels through intrapopulation improvement of the populations BRS Angela and SC 002. Intenseselection must be applied to reduce plant and ear height; interpopulation selection must not be initiated at this moment.

  12. Combining GLP-1 receptor agonists with insulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul; Vilsbøll, T

    2013-01-01

    Due to the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the emergent trend towards diagnosis in younger patients and the progressive nature of this disease, many more patients than before now require insulin to maintain glycaemic control. However, there is a degree of inertia among...... physicians and patients regarding the initiation and intensification of insulin therapy, in part due to concerns about the associated weight gain and increased risk of hypoglycaemia. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) increase insulin release and suppress glucagon secretion in a glucose......, compared with insulin, the antihyperglycaemic efficacy of GLP-1RAs is limited. The combination of a GLP-1RA and insulin might thus be highly effective for optimal glucose control, ameliorating the adverse effects typically associated with insulin. Data from clinical studies support the therapeutic...

  13. Combined wavelets-DCT image compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Ahmad C.; Gertner, Izidor; Zeevi, Yehoshua Y.

    1992-07-01

    The mappings from multidimension to one dimension, or the inverse mappings, are theoretically described by space filling curves, i.e., Peano curves or Hilbert curves. The Peano Scan is an application of the Peano curve to the scanning of images, and it is used for analyzing, clustering, or compressing images, and for limiting the number of the colors used in an image. In this paper an efficient method for visual data compression is presented, combining generalized Peano Scan, wavelet decomposition, and adaptive subband coding technique. The Peano Scan is incorporated with the encoding scheme in order to cluster highly correlated pixels. Using wavelet decomposition, an adaptive subband coding technique is developed to encode each subband separately with an optimum algorithm. Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) is applied on the low spatial frequency subband, and high spatial frequency subbands are encoded using Run Length encoding technique.

  14. Radiotherapy versus combined modality in early stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, L.; Carde, P.; Mauch, P.

    1992-01-01

    metaanalysis of these trials indicate that we still do not definitively know whether or not the addition of prophylactic chemotherapy up front improves survival. Arguments in favour of the addition of chemotherapy up front are: that laparotomy may be avoided, that radiation fields and doses may perhaps......In early stage Hodgkin's disease the optimal choice of treatment for the individual patient is still an unresolved issue. So far, twenty-two randomized trials of radiotherapy alone versus radiotherapy plus combination chemotherapy have been carried out worldwide. The preliminary results of a global...... be reduced, and that the stress of experiencing a relapse is avoided in many patients. The major argument against the use of chemotherapy up front is: that by careful staging and selection of patients and by careful radiotherapy techniques the number of patients exposed to potentially toxic chemotherapy may...

  15. Combining Triggers in HEP Data Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Lendermann, Victor; Herbst, Michael; Kruger, Katja; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Stamen, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Modern high-energy physics experiments collect data using dedicated complex multi-level trigger systems which perform an online selection of potentially interesting events. In general, this selection suffers from inefficiencies. A further loss of statistics occurs when the rate of accepted events is artificially scaled down in order to meet bandwidth constraints. An offline analysis of the recorded data must correct for the resulting losses in order to determine the original statistics of the analysed data sample. This is particularly challenging when data samples recorded by several triggers are combined. In this paper we present methods for the calculation of the offline corrections and study their statistical performance. Implications on building and operating trigger systems are discussed.

  16. [Combined forecasting system of peritonitis outcome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, N V; Klimov, A E; Agrba, S B; Gaidukevich, E K

    To create a reliable system for assessing of severity and prediction of the outcome of peritonitis. Critical analysis of the systems for peritonitis severity assessment is presented. The study included outcomes of 347 patients who admitted at the Department of Faculty Surgery of Peoples' Friendship University of Russia in 2015-2016. The cause of peritonitis were destructive forms of acute appendicitis, cholecystitis, perforated gastroduodenal ulcer, various perforation of small and large intestines (including tumor). Combined forecasting system for peritonitis severity assessment is created. The system includes clinical, laboratory data, assessment of systemic inflammatory response (SIRS) and severity of organ failure (qSOFA). The authors focused on easily identifiable parameters which are available in virtually any surgical hospital. Threshold value (lethal outcome probability over 50%) is 8 scores in this system. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 93.3, 99.7 and 98.9%, respectively according to ROC-curve that exceeds those parameters of MPI and APACHE II.

  17. [Diagnostics and surgery of combined lung echinococcosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafin, A Z; Diad'kov, A V; Aĭdemirov, A N; Malanka, M I; Abdokov, A D

    2013-01-01

    An analysis of surgical treatment of 162 patients with lung echinococcosis was made. The main group consisted of 74 patients with combined forms of echinococcosis of the lung and other organs. They were treated in clinic in the period of time since 1982 till 2011 years. The control group included of 88 patients with echinococcosis of lung and the patients were followed-up in the period of time since 1991 till 2000. Plasma technology was applied in all patients of control group. The patients from main group (25) were operated by using the conventional methods and 49 patients - with the application of plasma technology. An analysis shows a reliable reduction of the rate of postoperative complications after application of plasma technology in 4 times. The lethality significantly decreased in this group of patients.

  18. Combination Treatment for Nicotine Dependence: State of the Science

    OpenAIRE

    INGERSOLL, KAREN S.; COHEN, JESSYE

    2005-01-01

    Both nicotine replacement and sustained-release buproprion double the odds of achieving short- and moderate-term abstinence from nicotine. However, questions remain about the efficacy of combining pharmacotherapies. Our purposes were to review the evidence for (1) combined pharmacotherapy and (2) multimodal treatment combining pharmacotherapy and behavioral treatment and to recommend combinations of treatments to reduce nicotine dependence. Combining first-line pharmacotherapies with each oth...

  19. Combination and interpretation of observables in Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virey Jean-Marc

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The standard cosmological model has deep theoretical foundations but need the introduction of two major unknown components, dark matter and dark energy, to be in agreement with various observations. Dark matter describes a non-relativistic collisionless fluid of (non baryonic matter which amount to 25% of the total density of the universe. Dark energy is a new kind of fluid not of matter type, representing 70% of the total density which should explain the recent acceleration of the expansion of the universe. Alternatively, one can reject this idea of adding one or two new components but argue that the equations used to make the interpretation should be modified consmological scales. Instead of dark matter one can invoke a failure of Newton's laws. Instead of dark energy, two approaches are proposed : general relativity (in term of the Einstein equation should be modified, or the cosmological principle which fixes the metric used for cosmology should be abandonned. One of the main objective of the community is to find the path of the relevant interpretations thanks to the next generation of experiments which should provide large statistics of observationnal data. Unfortunately, cosmological in formations are difficult to pin down directly fromt he measurements, and it is mandatory to combine the various observables to get the cosmological parameters. This is not problematic from the statistical point of view, but assumptions and approximations made for the analysis may bias our interprettion of the data. Consequently, a strong attention should be paied to the statistical methods used to make parameters estimation and for model testing. After a review of the basics of cosmology where the cosmological parameters are introduced, we discuss the various cosmological probes and their associated observables used to extract cosmological informations. We present the results obtained from several statistical analyses combining data of diferent nature but

  20. Combined Waste Form Cost Trade Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirk Gombert; Steve Piet; Timothy Trickel; Joe Carter; John Vienna; Bill Ebert; Gretchen Matthern

    2008-11-01

    A new generation of aqueous nuclear fuel reprocessing, now in development under the auspices of the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), separates fuel into several fractions, thereby partitioning the wastes into groups of common chemistry. This technology advance enables development of waste management strategies that were not conceivable with simple PUREX reprocessing. Conventional wisdom suggests minimizing high level waste (HLW) volume is desirable, but logical extrapolation of this concept suggests that at some point the cost of reducing volume further will reach a point of diminishing return and may cease to be cost-effective. This report summarizes an evaluation considering three groupings of wastes in terms of cost-benefit for the reprocessing system. Internationally, the typical waste form for HLW from the PUREX process is borosilicate glass containing waste elements as oxides. Unfortunately several fission products (primarily Mo and the noble metals Ru, Rh, Pd) have limited solubility in glass, yielding relatively low waste loading, producing more glass, and greater disposal costs. Advanced separations allow matching the waste form to waste stream chemistry, allowing the disposal system to achieve more optimum waste loading with improved performance. Metals can be segregated from oxides and each can be stabilized in forms to minimize the HLW volume for repository disposal. Thus, a more efficient waste management system making the most effective use of advanced waste forms and disposal design for each waste is enabled by advanced separations and how the waste streams are combined. This trade-study was designed to juxtapose a combined waste form baseline waste treatment scheme with two options and to evaluate the cost-benefit using available data from the conceptual design studies supported by DOE-NE.

  1. Combining human and machine processes (CHAMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudit, Moises; Sudit, David; Hirsch, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Machine Reasoning and Intelligence is usually done in a vacuum, without consultation of the ultimate decision-maker. The late consideration of the human cognitive process causes some major problems in the use of automated systems to provide reliable and actionable information that users can trust and depend to make the best Course-of-Action (COA). On the other hand, if automated systems are created exclusively based on human cognition, then there is a danger of developing systems that don't push the barrier of technology and are mainly done for the comfort level of selected subject matter experts (SMEs). Our approach to combining human and machine processes (CHAMP) is based on the notion of developing optimal strategies for where, when, how, and which human intelligence should be injected within a machine reasoning and intelligence process. This combination is based on the criteria of improving the quality of the output of the automated process while maintaining the required computational efficiency for a COA to be actuated in timely fashion. This research addresses the following problem areas: • Providing consistency within a mission: Injection of human reasoning and intelligence within the reliability and temporal needs of a mission to attain situational awareness, impact assessment, and COA development. • Supporting the incorporation of data that is uncertain, incomplete, imprecise and contradictory (UIIC): Development of mathematical models to suggest the insertion of a cognitive process within a machine reasoning and intelligent system so as to minimize UIIC concerns. • Developing systems that include humans in the loop whose performance can be analyzed and understood to provide feedback to the sensors.

  2. EGSIEM combination service: combination of GRACE monthly K-band solutions on normal equation level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Ulrich; Jean, Yoomin; Arnold, Daniel; Jäggi, Adrian

    2017-04-01

    The European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management (EGSIEM) project offers a scientific combination service, combining for the first time monthly GRACE gravity fields of different analysis centers (ACs) on normal equation (NEQ) level and thus taking all correlations between the gravity field coefficients and pre-eliminated orbit and instrument parameters correctly into account. Optimal weights for the individual NEQs are commonly derived by variance component estimation (VCE), as is the case for the products of the International VLBI Service (IVS) or the DTRF2008 reference frame realisation that are also derived by combination on NEQ-level. But variance factors are based on post-fit residuals and strongly depend on observation sampling and noise modeling, which both are very diverse in case of the individual EGSIEM ACs. These variance factors do not necessarily represent the true error levels of the estimated gravity field parameters that are still governed by analysis noise. We present a combination approach where weights are derived on solution level, thereby taking the analysis noise into account.

  3. Combining Scores in Multiple-Criteria Assessment Systems: The Impact of Combination Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBee, Matthew T.; Peters, Scott J.; Waterman, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Best practice in gifted and talented identification procedures involves making decisions on the basis of multiple measures. However, very little research has investigated the impact of different methods of combining multiple measures. This article examines the consequences of the conjunctive ("and"), disjunctive/complementary…

  4. An extension contracture of the cervical spine combined with headache: An unusual combination - A case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertzen, J.H.B.; Rietman, J.S.; Robinson, P.H.; Eisma, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    A case of a rare condition is reported. A 28-year old female had an extension contraction of the cervical spine in combination with a headache, secondary to a very tight nuchal ligament. There was no underlying disease. A surgical release relieved the complaints.

  5. Combining hypoxic methods for peak performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Gregoire P; Roels, B; Schmitt, L; Woorons, X; Richalet, J P

    2010-01-01

    . The intensity of hypoxic exercise might play a role on adaptations at the molecular level in skeletal muscle tissue. There is clear evidence that intense exercise at high altitude stimulates to a greater extent muscle adaptations for both aerobic and anaerobic exercises and limits the decrease in power. So although IHT induces no increase in VO(2max) due to the low 'altitude dose', improvement in athletic performance is likely to happen with high-intensity exercise (i.e. above the ventilatory threshold) due to an increase in mitochondrial efficiency and pH/lactate regulation. We propose a new combination of hypoxic method (which we suggest naming Living High-Training Low and High, interspersed; LHTLHi) combining LHTL (five nights at 3000 m and two nights at sea level) with training at sea level except for a few (2.3 per week) IHT sessions of supra-threshold training. This review also provides a rationale on how to combine the different hypoxic methods and suggests advances in both their implementation and their periodization during the yearly training programme of athletes competing in endurance, glycolytic or intermittent sports.

  6. Combining the Observations from Different GNSS (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dach, R.; Lutz, S.; Schaer, S.; Bock, H.; Jäggi, A.; Meindl, M.; Ostini, L.; Thaller, D.; Steinbach, A.; Beutler, G.; Steigenberger, P.

    2009-12-01

    For a very long time GPS has clearly dominated the use of GNSS measurements for scientific purposes. This picture is changing: we are moving from a GPS-only to a multi-GNSS world. This is, e.g., reflected by changing the meaning of the abbreviation IGS in March 2005 from International GPS to GNSS Service. The current situation can be described as follows: GPS has the leading role in the GNSS because it has provided a very stable satellite constellation over many years. Some of the currently active GPS satellites are nearly 15 years old. These old satellites are expected to be decommissioned within the next years. On the other hand, due to the increasing number of active GLONASS satellites and the improved density of multi-GNSS tracking stations in the IGS network, the quality of the GLONASS orbits has drastically improved during the last years. The European Galileo system is under development: currently two test satellites (GIOVE-A and GIOVE-B) are in orbit. The IOV (in-orbit-validation phase) will start soon. Also the first test satellites for the Chinese Compass system are in space. For the maximum benefit the observations of these GNSS will be processed in a combined multi-GNSS analysis in future. CODE (Center for Orbit Determination in Europe) is a joint venture between the Astronomical Institute of the University Bern (AIUB, Bern, Switzerland), the Federal Office of Topography (swisstopo, Wabern, Switzerland), the Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (BKG, Frankfurt am Main, Germany), and the Institut für Astronomische und Physikalische Geodäsie of the Technische Universität München (IAPG/TUM, Munich, Germany). It acts as one of the global analysis centers of the IGS and has started in May 2003 with a rigorous combined processing of GPS and GLONASS measurements for the final, rapid, and even ultra-rapid product lines. All contributions from CODE to the IGS are in fact multi-GNSS products -- the only exception is the satellite and receiver clock

  7. Combinations of genetic variants associated with bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellerup, Erling; Andreassen, Ole A.; Bennike, Bente

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to find genetic variants that in combination are significantly associated with bipolar disorder. In previous studies of bipolar disorder, combinations of three and four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) genotypes taken from 803 SNPs were analyzed, and five...... clusters of combinations were found to be significantly associated with bipolar disorder. In the present study, combinations of ten SNP genotypes taken from the same 803 SNPs were analyzed, and one cluster of combinations was found to be significantly associated with bipolar disorder. Combinations from......, heterozygote or variant homozygote. In the combinations containing 10 SNP genotypes almost all the genotypes were the normal homozygote. Such a finding may indicate that accumulation in the genome of combinations containing few SNP genotypes may be a risk factor for bipolar disorder when those combinations...

  8. Optimal combinations of specialized conceptual hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayastha, Nagendra; Lal Shrestha, Durga; Solomatine, Dimitri

    2010-05-01

    In hydrological modelling it is a usual practice to use a single lumped conceptual model for hydrological simulations at all regimes. However often the simplicity of the modelling paradigm leads to errors in represent all the complexity of the physical processes in the catchment. A solution could be to model various hydrological processes separately by differently parameterized models, and to combine them. Different hydrological models have varying performance in reproducing catchment response. Generally it cannot be represented precisely in different segments of the hydrograph: some models performed well in simulating the peak flows, while others do well in capturing the low flows. Better performance can be achieved if a model being applied to the catchment using different model parameters that are calibrated using criteria favoring high or low flows. In this work we use a modular approach to simulate hydrology of a catchment, wherein multiple models are applied to replicate the catchment responses and each "specialist" model is calibrated according to a specific objective function which is chosen in a way that forces the model to capture certain aspects of the hydrograph, and outputs of models are combined using so-called "fuzzy committee". Such multi-model approach has been already previously implemented in the development of data driven and conceptual models (Fenicia et al., 2007), but its perfomance was considered only during the calibration period. In this study we tested an application to conceptual models in both calibration and verification period. In addition, we tested the sensitivity of the result to the use of different weightings used in the objective functions formulations, and memberbship functions used in the committee. The study was carried out for Bagamati catchment in Nepal and Brue catchment in United Kingdoms with the MATLAB-based implementation of HBV model. Multi-objective evolutionary optimization genetic algorithm (Deb, 2001) was used to

  9. Detection of combined frequency and amplitude modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, B C; Sek, A

    1992-12-01

    This article is concerned with the detection of mixed modulation (MM), i.e., simultaneously occurring amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM). In experiment 1, an adaptive two-alternative forced-choice task was used to determine thresholds for detecting AM alone. Then, thresholds for detecting FM were determined for stimuli which had a fixed amount of AM in the signal interval only. The amount of AM was always less than the threshold for detecting AM alone. The FM thresholds depended significantly on the magnitude of the coexisting AM. For low modulation rates (4, 16, and 64 Hz), the FM thresholds did not depend significantly on the relative phase of modulation for the FM and AM. For a high modulation rate (256 Hz) strong effects of modulator phase were observed. These phase effects are as predicted by the model proposed by Hartmann and Hnath [Acustica 50, 297-312 (1982)], which assumes that detection of modulation at modulation frequencies higher than the critical modulation frequency is based on detection of the lower sideband in the modulated signal's spectrum. In the second experiment, psychometric functions were measured for the detection of AM alone and FM alone, using modulation rates of 4 and 16 Hz. Results showed that, for each type of modulation, d' is approximately a linear function of the square of the modulation index. Application of this finding to the results of experiment 1 suggested that, at low modulation rates, FM and AM are not detected by completely independent mechanisms. In the third experiment, psychometric functions were again measured for the detection of AM alone and FM alone, using a 10-Hz modulation rate. Detectability was then measured for combined AM and FM, with modulation depths selected so that each type of modulation would be equally detectable if presented alone. Significant effects of relative modulator phase were found when detectability was relatively high. These effects were not correctly predicted by either a

  10. Imaging combined autoimmune and infectious disease microarrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewart, Tom; Raha, Sandeep; Kus, Dorothy; Tarnopolsky, Mark

    2006-09-01

    Bacterial and viral pathogens are implicated in many severe autoimmune diseases, acting through such mechanisms as molecular mimicry, and superantigen activation of T-cells. For example, Helicobacter pylori, well known cause of stomach ulcers and cancers, is also identified in ischaemic heart disease (mimicry of heat shock protein 65), autoimmune pancreatitis, systemic sclerosis, autoimmune thyroiditis (HLA DRB1*0301 allele susceptibility), and Crohn's disease. Successful antibiotic eradication of H.pylori often accompanies their remission. Yet current diagnostic devices, and test-limiting cost containment, impede recognition of the linkage, delaying both diagnosis and therapeutic intervention until the chronic debilitating stage. We designed a 15 minute low cost 39 antigen microarray assay, combining autoimmune, viral and bacterial antigens1. This enables point-of-care serodiagnosis and cost-effective narrowly targeted concurrent antibiotic and monoclonal anti-T-cell and anti-cytokine immunotherapy. Arrays of 26 pathogen and 13 autoimmune antigens with IgG and IgM dilution series were printed in triplicate on epoxysilane covalent binding slides with Teflon well masks. Sera diluted 1:20 were incubated 10 minutes, washed off, anti-IgG-Cy3 (green) and anti-IgM-Dy647 (red) were incubated for 5 minutes, washed off and the slide was read in an ArrayWoRx(e) scanning CCD imager (Applied Precision, Issaquah, WA). As a preliminary model for the combined infectious disease-autoimmune diagnostic microarray we surveyed 98 unidentified, outdated sera that were discarded after Hepatitis B antibody testing. In these, significant IgG or IgM autoantibody levels were found: dsDNA 5, ssDNA 11, Ro 2, RNP 7, SSB 4, gliadin 2, thyroglobulin 13 cases. Since control sera showed no autoantibodies, the high frequency of anti-DNA and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies found in infected sera lend increased support for linkage of infection to subsequent autoimmune disease. Expansion of the antigen

  11. Efficient Generation and Selection of Combined Features for Improved Classification

    KAUST Repository

    Shono, Ahmad N.

    2014-05-01

    This study contributes a methodology and associated toolkit developed to allow users to experiment with the use of combined features in classification problems. Methods are provided for efficiently generating combined features from an original feature set, for efficiently selecting the most discriminating of these generated combined features, and for efficiently performing a preliminary comparison of the classification results when using the original features exclusively against the results when using the selected combined features. The potential benefit of considering combined features in classification problems is demonstrated by applying the developed methodology and toolkit to three sample data sets where the discovery of combined features containing new discriminating information led to improved classification results.

  12. Combined oral contraceptives: health benefits beyond contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caserta, D; Ralli, E; Matteucci, E; Bordi, G; Mallozzi, M; Moscarini, M

    2014-09-01

    It has been recognized for over 50 years that combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are also capable of offering health benefits beyond contraception through the treatment and prevention of several gynaecological and medical disorders. During the last years a constant attention was given to the adverse effects of COCs, whereas their non-contraceptive benefits were underestimated. To date, most women are still unaware of the therapeutic uses of hormonal contraceptives, while on the contrary there is an extensive and constantly increasing of these non-contraceptive health benefits. This review summarizes the conditions of special interest for physicians, including dysmenorrhoea, menorrhagia, hyperandrogenism (acne, hirsutism, polycystic ovary syndrome), functional ovarian cysts, endometriosis, premenstrual syndrome, myomas, pelvic inflammatory disease, bone mineral density, benign breast disease and endometrial/ovarian and colorectal cancer. The benefits of COCs in rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, menstrual migraine and in perimenopause have also been treated for more comprehensive information. Using COCs specifically for non-contraceptive indications is still outside the product licence in the majority of cases. We strongly believe that these aspects are not of minor relevance and they deserve a special consideration by health providers and by the mass media, which have the main responsibility in the diffusion of scientific information. Thus, counseling and education are necessary to help women make well-informed health-care decisions and it is also crucial to increase awareness among general practitioners and gynaecologists.

  13. Combined Heuristic Attack Strategy on Complex Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Šimon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Usually, the existence of a complex network is considered an advantage feature and efforts are made to increase its robustness against an attack. However, there exist also harmful and/or malicious networks, from social ones like spreading hoax, corruption, phishing, extremist ideology, and terrorist support up to computer networks spreading computer viruses or DDoS attack software or even biological networks of carriers or transport centers spreading disease among the population. New attack strategy can be therefore used against malicious networks, as well as in a worst-case scenario test for robustness of a useful network. A common measure of robustness of networks is their disintegration level after removal of a fraction of nodes. This robustness can be calculated as a ratio of the number of nodes of the greatest remaining network component against the number of nodes in the original network. Our paper presents a combination of heuristics optimized for an attack on a complex network to achieve its greatest disintegration. Nodes are deleted sequentially based on a heuristic criterion. Efficiency of classical attack approaches is compared to the proposed approach on Barabási-Albert, scale-free with tunable power-law exponent, and Erdős-Rényi models of complex networks and on real-world networks. Our attack strategy results in a faster disintegration, which is counterbalanced by its slightly increased computational demands.

  14. [Alkaliphilic sulfidogenesis on cellulose by combined cultures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavarzin, G A; Zhilina, T N; Dulov, L E

    2008-01-01

    Soda lakes are characterized by an intense sulfur cycle that begins with sulfidogenesis. Model laboratory experiments that involved combining of pure cultures showed that, during anaerobic decomposition of cellulose by Clostridium alkalicellulosi, the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) of the species Desulfonatronovibrio hydrogenovorans, Desulfonatronum lacustre, and Desulfonatronum cooperativum, different in their nutritional requirements, may directly use the cellulose fermentation products for sulfidogenesis without mediatory microorgansims. In binary cocultures with SRB, the amount of the H2S formed constituted from one-third to two-thirds of the cellulose [H] equivalents; acetate was among the products formed. When the syntrophic Contubernalis alkalaceticum, capable of acetate oxidation, was incorporated into the trophic chain along with hydrogenotrophic SRB, the amount of the H2S formed exceeded by 33-42% the amount of the [H] equivalents in the utilized cellulose, water being the source of additional hydrogen. Thus, the trophic pathway from plant residues to sulfide, previously considered to be the longest in the alkaliphilic microbial community, may involve a minimal number of stages and do without intermediate participation of dissipotrophic fermenters.

  15. Combination microwave ovens: an innovative design strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinga, Wayne R; Eke, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Reducing the sensitivity of microwave oven heating and cooking performance to load volume, load placement and load properties has been a long-standing challenge for microwave and microwave-convection oven designers. Conventional design problem and solution methods are reviewed to provide greater insight into the challenge and optimum operation of a microwave oven after which a new strategy is introduced. In this methodology, a special load isolating and energy modulating device called a transducer-exciter is used containing an iris, a launch box, a phase, amplitude and frequency modulator and a coupling plate designed to provide spatially distributed coupling to the oven. This system, when applied to a combined microwave-convection oven, gives astounding performance improvements to all kinds of baked and roasted foods including sensitive items such as cakes and pastries, with the only compromise being a reasonable reduction in the maximum available microwave power. Large and small metal utensils can be used in the oven with minimal or no performance penalty on energy uniformity and cooking results. Cooking times are greatly reduced from those in conventional ovens while maintaining excellent cooking performance.

  16. Combined Treatment of Old Sanitary Landfill Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visnja Orescanin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Landfill leachate presents hardly treatable, highly complex and very toxic environmental effluent originated in the municipal solid waste degradation process. Although, numerous treatment methods were developed so far, none of them alone could achieve permissible limits of the primary pollutants to discharge into natural recipients. The current study aimed to develop and apply the process to treat landfill leachate by simultaneous application of electrochemical methods, ultrasound, electromagnetic field and ozonation to achieve the legal criteria for its discharge into natural recipient and minimize its adverse environmental impacts. For this purpose, old landfill leachate was taken from the Piskornica (Koprivnica, Croatia sanitary landfill. Prior to the treatment, the leachate was supplemented with NaCl (2 g/L and subjected to simultaneous treatment with stainless steel electrode plates, ultrasound and recirculation through electromagnetic field. After 45 minutes, stainless steel electrode plates were replaced by iron electrodes and treated for another 10 minutes followed by 15 minutes of the treatment with aluminum electrode plates. Ultrasound and recirculation through electromagnetic field were also applied during Fe and Al electrode treatment. Finally, the electrodes were removed and the suspension was mixed with ozone for another 30 minutes and allowed to settle for an hour. Following the combined treatment, the removal efficiency for the turbidity, color, suspended solids, ammonium, phosphates and heavy metals was 99% or higher, while the removal of COD was 97%. All the measured parameters in the treated leachate were lower compared to upper permissible limit for discharge into natural recipient.

  17. Optimal Operation of Combined Photovoltaic Electrolyzer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Khalilnejad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the design and simulation of a combination of a photovoltaic (PV array with an alkaline electrolyzer is performed to maximize the production of hydrogen as a reliable power resource. Detailed electrical model of PV system, as long as thermal and electrochemical model of electrolyzer is used. Since an electrolyzer is a non-linear load, its coupling with PV systems to get the best power transfer is very important. Solar irradiation calculations were done for the region of Miami (FL, USA, giving an optimal surface slope of 25.7° for the PV array. The size of the PV array is optimized, considering maximum hydrogen production and minimum excess power production in a diurnal operation of a system using the imperialistic competitive algorithm (ICA. The results show that for a 10 kW alkaline electrolyzer, a PV array with a nominal power of 12.3 kW The results show that 12.3 kW photvoltaic system can be utilized for supplying a 10 kW electrolyzer. Hydrogen production and Faraday efficiency of the system are 697.21 mol and 0.3905 mol, respectively.

  18. Linear combinations come alive in crossover designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, Jonathan J

    2017-10-30

    Before learning anything about statistical inference in beginning service courses in biostatistics, students learn how to calculate the mean and variance of linear combinations of random variables. Practical precalculus examples of the importance of these exercises can be helpful for instructors, the target audience of this paper. We shall present applications to the "1-sample" and "2-sample" methods for randomized short-term 2-treatment crossover studies, where patients experience both treatments in random order with a "washout" between the active treatment periods. First, we show that the 2-sample method is preferred as it eliminates "conditional bias" when sample sizes by order differ and produces a smaller variance. We also demonstrate that it is usually advisable to use the differences in posttests (ignoring baseline and post washout values) rather than the differences between the changes in treatment from the start of the period to the end of the period ("delta of delta"). Although the intent is not to provide a definitive discussion of crossover designs, we provide a section and references to excellent alternative methods, where instructors can provide motivation to students to explore the topic in greater detail in future readings or courses. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. A new combined surface and volume registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepore, Natasha; Joshi, Anand A.; Leahy, Richard M.; Brun, Caroline; Chou, Yi-Yu; Pennec, Xavier; Lee, Agatha D.; Barysheva, Marina; De Zubicaray, Greig I.; Wright, Margaret J.; McMahon, Katie L.; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2010-03-01

    3D registration of brain MRI data is vital for many medical imaging applications. However, purely intensitybased approaches for inter-subject matching of brain structure are generally inaccurate in cortical regions, due to the highly complex network of sulci and gyri, which vary widely across subjects. Here we combine a surfacebased cortical registration with a 3D fluid one for the first time, enabling precise matching of cortical folds, but allowing large deformations in the enclosed brain volume, which guarantee diffeomorphisms. This greatly improves the matching of anatomy in cortical areas. The cortices are segmented and registered with the software Freesurfer. The deformation field is initially extended to the full 3D brain volume using a 3D harmonic mapping that preserves the matching between cortical surfaces. Finally, these deformation fields are used to initialize a 3D Riemannian fluid registration algorithm, that improves the alignment of subcortical brain regions. We validate this method on an MRI dataset from 92 healthy adult twins. Results are compared to those based on volumetric registration without surface constraints; the resulting mean templates resolve consistent anatomical features both subcortically and at the cortex, suggesting that the approach is well-suited for cross-subject integration of functional and anatomic data.

  20. Combining Electrolysis and Electroporation for Tissue Ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Mary; Rubinsky, Liel; Meir, Arie; Raju, Narayan; Rubinsky, Boris

    2015-08-01

    Electrolytic ablation is a method that operates by delivering low magnitude direct current to the target region over long periods of time, generating electrolytic products that destroy cells. This study was designed to explore the hypothesis stating that electrolytic ablation can be made more effective when the electrolysis-producing electric charges are delivered using electric pulses with field strength typical in reversible electroporation protocols. (For brevity we will refer to tissue ablation protocols that combine electroporation and electrolysis as E(2).) The mechanistic explanation of this hypothesis is related to the idea that products of electrolysis generated by E(2) protocols can gain access to the interior of the cell through the electroporation permeabilized cell membrane and therefore cause more effective cell death than from the exterior of an intact cell. The goal of this study is to provide a first-order examination of this hypothesis by comparing the charge dosage required to cause a comparable level of damage to a rat liver, in vivo, when using either conventional electrolysis or E(2) approaches. Our results show that E(2) protocols produce tissue damage that is consistent with electrolytic ablation. Furthermore, E(2) protocols cause damage comparable to that produced by conventional electrolytic protocols while delivering orders of magnitude less charge to the target tissue over much shorter periods of time. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Object recognition combining vision and touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, Tadeo; Hall, Peter; Iravani, Pejman

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores ways of combining vision and touch for the purpose of object recognition. In particular, it focuses on scenarios when there are few tactile training samples (as these are usually costly to obtain) and when vision is artificially impaired. Whilst machine vision is a widely studied field, and machine touch has received some attention recently, the fusion of both modalities remains a relatively unexplored area. It has been suggested that, in the human brain, there exist shared multi-sensorial representations of objects. This provides robustness when one or more senses are absent or unreliable. Modern robotics systems can benefit from multi-sensorial input, in particular in contexts where one or more of the sensors perform poorly. In this paper, a recently proposed tactile recognition model was extended by integrating a simple vision system in three different ways: vector concatenation (vision feature vector and tactile feature vector), object label posterior averaging and object label posterior product. A comparison is drawn in terms of overall accuracy of recognition and in terms of how quickly (number of training samples) learning occurs. The conclusions reached are: (1) the most accurate system is "posterior product", (2) multi-modal recognition has higher accuracy to either modality alone if all visual and tactile training data are pooled together, and (3) in the case of visual impairment, multi-modal recognition "learns faster", i.e. requires fewer training samples to achieve the same accuracy as either other modality.

  2. Combined "dual" absorption and fluorescence smartphone spectrometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafat Hossain, Md; Canning, John; Ast, Sandra; Cook, Kevin; Rutledge, Peter J; Jamalipour, Abbas

    2015-04-15

    A combined "dual" absorption and fluorescence smartphone spectrometer is demonstrated. The optical sources used in the system are the white flash LED of the smartphone and an orthogonally positioned and interchangeable UV (λex=370  nm) and blue (λex=450  nm) LED. The dispersive element is a low-cost, nano-imprinted diffraction grating coated with Au. Detection over a 300 nm span with 0.42 nm/pixel resolution was carried out with the camera CMOS chip. By integrating the blue and UV excitation sources into the white LED circuitry, the entire system is self-contained within a 3D printed case and powered from the smartphone battery; the design can be scaled to add further excitation sources. Using a customized app, acquisition of absorption and fluorescence spectra are demonstrated using a blue-absorbing and green-emitting pH-sensitive amino-naphthalimide-based fluorescent probe and a UV-absorbing and blue-emitting Zn2+-sensitive fluoro-ionophore.

  3. Sweden: Combining childbearing and gender equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Bernhardt

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Sweden is the forerunner of the Second Demographic Transition. Fertility trends have fluctuated greatly since the 1960s, and the 1990s showed both European-highest and lowest-ever-in-Sweden levels, while the cohort pattern has been relatively stable. Period fluctuations have been accompanied by a postponement of entering committed partnerships and parenthood as well as an increasing instability of family relationships. The awareness and the availability of effective contraceptives have been extensive since the mid-1970s, the year the liberal abortion law was introduced. Post-modern values are dominant in this highly secularized society, but ideal family size is among the highest in the European Union, and childlessness has remained at a relatively low level. Ethnic diversification has increased over time, with about one-fifth of the population having a 'foreign background' in the early 2000s. The level of female labor-force participation is the highest in Europe (although mothers of pre-schoolers often work part-time, and young women are just as highly educated as men. Family policies, based on the principle of equality across social groups and gender, seem to play an important role in keeping fertility relatively high. In combination with other factors, family policies also play a role in the fluctuations of fertility rates, as eligibility to parental-leave and benefits as well as the availability of public childcare are linked to parents' labor-force attachment.

  4. Combined treatment of uveal melanoma liver metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brasiuniene B

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Uveal melanoma (UM is the most prevalent intraocular malignant tumor in the Western world. The prognosis of survival in the presence of metastatic disease is 2-7 months, depending on the treatment applied. This article presents a case of metastatic UM with successful complex treatment of liver metastases. A 49-year old female, underwent removal of the right eyeball in 1996 due to a histologically confirmed uveal melanoma. After 11 years, CT revealed a mass in the left kidney and multiple metastases in the liver. After left nephrectomy, 6 chemotherapy courses with dacarbazine were performed. The increasing liver metastases were observed. Additional 4 intraarterial (i/a chemotherapy courses were administered using cisplatin, doxorubicin, fluorouracil, and interferon alfa. After few courses increase in CTC Grade 4 liver transaminases was seen. A partial response was observed, and in December 2008 the patient underwent surgery removing all liver metastases by 7 wedge or atypical resections. All margins were tumor-free. 21 months after liver resections and 14 years since diagnosis, the patient is alive without evidence of disease. Successful treatment of metastatic uveal melanoma was due to a timely application of a combination of several treatment methods and good prognostic factors of the patient.

  5. Pixel-Tilecal-MDT Combined Test Beam

    CERN Document Server

    B. Di Girolamo

    A test with many expectations When an additional week of running (from September 11th to 18th) was allocated for the test-beam, it was decided to give priority to a combined run with the participation of the Pixel, Tilecal and MDT sub-detectors. The integration of these three sub-detectors was possible as they all use the baseline (DAQ-1/EF based) DAQ for test beams (as reported in a previous e-news). The tests and the addition of a common trigger and busy were organized in a short timescale by experts from the three sub-detectors and DAQ/EF. The expectations were many; both looking for problems and finding solutions. The setup The setup, shown in the figure, consisted of the Pixel telescope normally used during the sub-detector tests, two Tilecal barrel modules, two Tilecal extended barrel modules, and six MDT barrel chambers. This fully occupied a length of some 30 meters in the H8 line of the SPS North Area. Each sub-detector used their own specialized front-end electronics. The data collected by modu...

  6. Combined strategies in the management of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, John B; Dixon, Maureen E

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic relapsing disease requiring a similar long term approach to management as that of other chronic conditions. Management needs to be multifaceted aiming to achieve sustainable behavioural changes to physical activity and diet to alter the patient and family microenvironment to one favouring better weight control. A range of therapies including specific diets, calorie counting, meal replacements, very low calorie diets, pharmacotherapy, intragastric balloons and surgery can provide very useful additional benefit. Use of these should be guided by the extent of weight loss required to reduce BMI to an acceptable level with regard to the patient's ethnicity, risk and comorbid conditions. Patients need to set goals that are optimistic, but realistic, and understand the benefits of sustained modest weight loss and the likelihood of weight regain requiring repeat episodes of weight loss. Practitioners need to be informed about the efficacy of current therapies and their combinations to enhance choice of suitable methods for achieving the optimal weight loss required by the patient. They will also need to anticipate trigger points for renewed periods of weight loss in the event of weight regain, as relapse is likely but not a reason for abandoning the battle.

  7. Use of combined oral contraceptives post abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffield, Mary E; Kapp, Nathalie; Ravi, Anita

    2009-10-01

    Providing combined oral contraceptives (COCs) following surgical or medical induced abortion offers women an opportune moment to initiate a reliable contraceptive method. We conducted a systematic review, searching MEDLINE and The Cochrane Library for articles in any language concerning COC use following spontaneous, induced (medical or surgical) or septic abortion, from 1966 through June 2008. Seven articles were identified and evaluated using the United States Preventive Services Task Force system. Immediate COC initiation after first-trimester medical or surgical induced abortion did not increase side effects or prolong vaginal bleeding compared with use of a placebo, copper-bearing intrauterine device (IUD), nonhormonal contraceptive method or COC initiation at a later time. Initiating COCs after first-trimester surgical abortion produced small increases in coagulation parameters compared with IUD use; although they are statistically significant, their clinical relevance is unlikely. No study examined second-trimester induced or spontaneous abortion, or septic abortion. Evidence shows that COCs can be safely initiated immediately following surgical and medical abortion in the first-trimester of pregnancy.

  8. Combined Radiation Belt - Plasma Sheet System Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseev, Nikita; Shprits, Yuri; Kellerman, Adam; Drozdov, Alexander; Zhu, Hui

    2017-04-01

    Recent years have given rise to numerous mathematical models of the Earth's radiation belt dynamics. Driven by observations at geosynchronous orbit (GEO) where satellites (e.g. GOES and LANL) provide extensive in-situ measurements, radiation belt models usually take into account only diffusion processes in the energetic electron belts (100 keV and greater), leaving aside the dynamics of colder source population (tens of keV). Such models are able to reconstruct the radiation belt state, but they are not capable of predicting the electron dynamics at GEO, where many communication and navigation satellites currently operate. In this work we present combined four-dimensional electron radiation belt - plasma sheet model accounting for adiabatic advective transport, radial diffusion due to interaction with ULF waves, local acceleration of electrons, scattering into the atmosphere, magnetopause shadowing, and adiabatic effects due to contraction and expansion of the magnetic field. The developed model is applicable to energetic, relativistic and ultrarelativistic electrons as well as to source electron population. The model provides spatial particle distribution allowing us to compare and validate the model with multiple satellite measurements at different MLT sectors (e.g. Van Allen Probes, GOES, LANL, THEMIS). The model can be helpful for the prediction of crucial for satellite operators geosynchronous electron fluxes and electron radiation belt dynamics including the heart of the outer belt, slot region and inner belt.

  9. Combinations of ancestral modules in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolevsky, Yehoshua; Frenkel, Zakharia M; Trifonov, Edward N

    2007-12-01

    Twenty-seven protein sequence elements, six to nine amino acids long, were extracted from 15 phylogenetically diverse complete prokaryotic proteomes. The elements are present in all of these proteomes, with at least one copy each (omnipresent elements), and have presumably been conserved since the last universal common ancestor (LUCA). All these omnipresent elements are identified in crystallized protein structures as parts of highly conserved closed loops, 25-30 residues long, thus representing the closed-loop modules discovered in 2000 by Berezovsky et al. The omnipresent peptides make up seven distinct groups, of which the largest groups, Aleph and Beth, contain 18 and four elements, respectively, which are related but different, while five other groups are represented by only one element each. The LUCA modules appear with one or several copies per protein molecule in a variety of combinations depending on the functional identity of the corresponding protein. The functional involvement of individual LUCA modules is outlined on the basis of known protein annotations. Analyses of all the related sequences in a large, formatted protein sequence space suggest that many, if not all, of the 27 omnipresent elements have a common sequence origin. This sequence space network analysis may lead to elucidation of the earliest stages of protein evolution.

  10. Combined hostile fire and optics detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brännlund, Carl; Tidström, Jonas; Henriksson, Markus; Sjöqvist, Lars

    2013-10-01

    Snipers and other optically guided weapon systems are serious threats in military operations. We have studied a SWIR (Short Wave Infrared) camera-based system with capability to detect and locate snipers both before and after shot over a large field-of-view. The high frame rate SWIR-camera allows resolution of the temporal profile of muzzle flashes which is the infrared signature associated with the ejection of the bullet from the rifle. The capability to detect and discriminate sniper muzzle flashes with this system has been verified by FOI in earlier studies. In this work we have extended the system by adding a laser channel for optics detection. A laser diode with slit-shaped beam profile is scanned over the camera field-of-view to detect retro reflection from optical sights. The optics detection system has been tested at various distances up to 1.15 km showing the feasibility to detect rifle scopes in full daylight. The high speed camera gives the possibility to discriminate false alarms by analyzing the temporal data. The intensity variation, caused by atmospheric turbulence, enables discrimination of small sights from larger reflectors due to aperture averaging, although the targets only cover a single pixel. It is shown that optics detection can be integrated in combination with muzzle flash detection by adding a scanning rectangular laser slit. The overall optics detection capability by continuous surveillance of a relatively large field-of-view looks promising. This type of multifunctional system may become an important tool to detect snipers before and after shot.

  11. Combined oral contraceptives affect liver mitochondrial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonderko, Krzysztof; Skałba, Piotr; Kamińska, Magdalena; Kasicka-Jonderko, Anna; Galas, Ewa; Biały, Aleksandra

    2013-10-01

    To examine liver mitochondrial function in women using combined oral contraceptives (COCs) containing ethinylestradiol. A breath test after oral administration of 1 mg/kg (13)C-alpha-ketoisocaproic acid ((13)C-KICA) and 20 mg/kg L-leucine was performed twice: (i) in 15 women on day 14, 15, 16, 17 or 18 of COC intake, and between day 1 and 5 of the withdrawal bleeding; and (ii) in 15 regularly menstruating females not taking hormonal contraceptives: during the luteal phase, between the 18th and the 22nd day of the cycle, and again between day 1 and 5 of the menstruation. In women on COCs the maximum (13)C elimination in breath air (Dmax) was higher (26.8 ± 1.6%/h) than during withdrawal bleeding (23.5 ± 1.2%/h; p = 0.012). The time to reach the Dmax was similar on the two study days: 33.3 ± 2.4 min during the phase of pill intake vs. 37.0 ± 2.5 min during the pill-free interval. The one-hour cumulative breath (13)C elimination was greater after two weeks of COC intake than during the withdrawal bleeding: 17.49 ± 1.03% vs. 15.32 ± 0.85% (p = 0.024). In the control group no menstrual cycle phase-dependent fluctuations in the results of the (13)C-KICA breath test were observed. The metabolism of (13)C-alpha-ketoisocaproic acid augments during the intake of COCs containing ethinylestradiol, reflecting enhanced liver mitochondrial metabolic activity.

  12. Combined space environment on spacecraft engineering materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.; Kosten, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Spacecraft structures and surface materials exposed to the space environment for extended periods, up to thirty years, have increased potential for damage from long term exposure to the combined space environment including solar ultraviolet radiation, electrons, and protons and orbiting space debris. The space environment in which the Space Station Freedom and other space platforms will orbit is truly a hostile environment. For example, the currently estimated integral fluence for electrons above 1 Mev at 2000 nautical miles is above 2 x 10(exp 10) electrons/cm(sup 2)/day and the proton integral fluence is above 1 x 10(exp 9) protons/cm(sup 2)/day. At the 200 - 400 nautical miles, which is more representative of the altitude which will provide the environment for the Space Station, each of these fluences will be proportionately less; however, the data indicates that the radiation environment will obviously have an effect on structural materials exposed to the environment for long durations. The effects of ultraviolet radiation, particularly in the vacuum ultraviolet (less than 200 nm wavelength) is more difficult to characterize at this time. Very little data is available in the literature which can be used for determining the life cycle of a material placed in space for extended durations of time. In order to obtain critical data for planning and designing of spacecraft systems, use of a small vacuum system at the Environmental Effects Facility at MSFC, which can be used for these purposes was used. A special effort was made to build up this capability during the course of this research effort and perform a variety of experiments on materials proposed for the Space Station. A description of the apparatus and the procedure devised to process potential spacecraft materials is included.

  13. Combined SRCT & FXCT - The next steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, C.; Acres, R. G.; Winnett, A.; Wang, F.

    2016-03-01

    One of the goals in developing synchrotron radiation x-ray computed tomography (SRCT) for biomedical specimens, is allowing particular tissues and cell types to be marked in the images. This is equivalent to the staining in histology, which enables researchers to visualise and measure tissue structure and biochemical processes within the specimen. Some progress in this direction for SRCT is being made, using a variety of contrast agents that alter the natural x-ray attenuation of the marked tissue [1]. However there are limits to the usefulness of these attenuation altering techniques. Often high concentrations of potentially disruptive chemicals are required with reduced compatibility for in-vivo studies. Another image highlighting technique which might prove more sensitive is x-ray fluorescence imaging. In this case usually endogenous elemental markers are visualised. We would like to develop a lower resolution, but wider field of view means of three-dimensional (3-D) fluorescence imaging compatible with SRCT. We have previously proposed a technique in which x-ray fluorescence CT (FXCT) and SRCT data can be collected simultaneously [2]. This work resulted in proof of concept modelling, and a simple experiment test system. We show data here which demonstrate a two-dimensional (2-D) reconstruction of an iodine fluorescence map from a phantom. Measurements were performed with a fixed beam modulating mask using the Imaging and Medical beam line (IMBL) at the Australian Synchrotron. Fluorescence data was obtained during a CT scan using a single point detector, while transmission data was simultaneously collected using an area detector. A maximum likelihood expectation maximisation (MLEM) iterative algorithm was used to reconstruct the fluorescence map. We report on technique development and now believe compressive sensing (CS) imaging techniques suit SRCT and may overcome the issues encountered so far in combining SRCT and FXCT.

  14. Locations of Combined Sewer Overflow Outfalls - US EPA Region 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies the locations of Combined sewer overflow outfalls. Combined sewer systems are sewers that are designed to collect rainwater runoff,...

  15. A combined constraint handling framework: an empirical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Si, Chengyong; Hu, Junjie; Lan, Tian

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a new combined constraint handling framework (CCHF) for solving constrained optimization problems (COPs). The framework combines promising aspects of different constraint handling techniques (CHTs) in different situations with consideration of problem characteristics. In order...

  16. A Gain-Control Theory of Binocular Combination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jian Ding; George Sperling

    2006-01-01

    In binocular combination, light images on the two retinas are combined to form a single "cyclopean" perceptual image, in contrast to binocular rivalry which occurs when the two eyes have incompatible ("rivalrous...

  17. Treatment of premature ejaculation: a new combined approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Kurkar

    2015-01-01

    Causes of PE differ considerably. In this paper, we compared the outcomes of two single treatment lines together with a combination of both. The combination therapy was more effective than either line alone.

  18. Infliximab, azathioprine, or combination therapy for Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colombel, Jean Frédéric; Sandborn, William J; Reinisch, Walter

    2010-01-01

    The comparative efficacy and safety of infliximab and azathioprine therapy alone or in combination for Crohn's disease are unknown.......The comparative efficacy and safety of infliximab and azathioprine therapy alone or in combination for Crohn's disease are unknown....

  19. Therapeutic cancer vaccines in combination with conventional therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Hald; Junker, Niels; Ellebaek, Eva

    2010-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of most therapeutic vaccines against cancer has not yet met its promise. Data are emerging that strongly support the notion that combining immunotherapy with conventional therapies, for example, radiation and chemotherapy may improve efficacy. In particular combination...

  20. Combined performance studies for electrons at the 2004 ATLAS combined test-beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abat, E.; Abdallah, J. M.; Addy, T. N.; Adragna, P.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahmad, A.; Akesson, T. P. A.; Aleksa, M.; Alexa, C.; Anderson, K.; Andreazza, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Antonaki, A.; Arabidze, G.; Arik, E.; Atkinson, T.; Baines, J.; Baker, O. K.; Banfi, D.; Baron, S.; Barr, A. J.; Beccherle, R.; Beck, H. P.; Belhorma, B.; Bell, P. J.; Benchekroun, D.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benslama, K.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Bernabeu, J.; Bertelsen, H.; Binet, S.; Biscarat, C.; Boldea, V.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Boonekamp, M.; Bosman, M.; Bourdarios, C.; Broklova, Z.; Burckhart Chromek, D.; Bychkov, V.; Callahan, J.; Calvet, D.; Canneri, M.; Capeáns Garrido, M.; Caprini, M.; Cardiel Sas, L.; Carli, T.; Carminati, L.; Carvalho, J.; Cascella, M.; Castillo, M. V.; Catinaccio, A.; Cauz, D.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Cetin, S. A.; Chen, H.; Cherkaoui, R.; Chevalier, L.; Chevallier, F.; Chouridou, S.; Ciobotaru, M.; Citterio, M.; Clark, A.; Cleland, B.; Cobal, M.; Cogneras, E.; Conde Muino, P.; Consonni, M.; Constantinescu, S.; Cornelissen, T.; Correard, S.; Corso Radu, A.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Cuneo, S.; Cwetanski, P.; Da Silva, D.; Dam, M.; Dameri, M.; Danielsson, H. O.; Dannheim, D.; Darbo, G.; Davidek, T.; De, K.; Defay, P. O.; Dekhissi, B.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Delmastro, M.; Derue, F.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Girolamo, B.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Dobos, D.; Dobson, M.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Dotti, A.; Drake, G.; Drasal, Z.; Dressnandt, N.; Driouchi, C.; Drohan, J.; Ebenstein, W. L.; Eerola, P.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Egorov, K.; Eifert, T. F.; Einsweiler, K.; El Kacimi, M.; Elsing, M.; Emelyanov, D.; Escobar, C.; Etienvre, A. I.; Fabich, A.; Facius, K.; Fakhr-Edine, A. I.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farthouat, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Fayard, L.; Febbraro, R.; Fedin, O. L.; Fenyuk, A.; Fergusson, D.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferreira, B. C.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrere, D.; Filippini, G.; Flick, T.; Fournier, D.; Francavilla, P.; Francis, D.; Froeschl, R.; Froidevaux, D.; Fullana, E.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Gallas, M.; Gallop, B. J.; Gameiro, S.; Gan, K. K.; Garcia, R.; Garcia, C.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gemme, C.; Gerlach, P.; Ghodbane, N.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giangiobbe, V.; Giokaris, N.; Glonti, G.; Goettfert, T.; Golling, T.; Gollub, N.; Gomes, A.; Gomez, M. D.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goodrick, M. J.; Gorfine, G.; Gorini, B.; Goujdami, D.; Grahn, K.-J.; Grenier, P.; Grigalashvili, N.; Grishkevich, Y.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Gruwe, M.; Guicheney, C.; Gupta, A.; Haeberli, C.; Haertel, R.; Hajduk, Z.; Hakobyan, H.; Hance, M.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, P. H.; Hara, K.; Harvey, A., Jr.; Hawkings, R. J.; Heinemann, F. E. W.; Henriques Correia, A.; Henss, T.; Hervas, L.; Higon, E.; Hill, J. C.; Hoffman, J.; Hostachy, J. Y.; Hruska, I.; Hubaut, F.; Huegging, F.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hurwitz, M.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Jansen, E.; Jen-La Plante, I.; Johansson, P. D. C.; Jon-And, K.; Joos, M.; Jorgensen, S.; Joseph, J.; Kaczmarska, A.; Kado, M.; Karyukhin, A.; Kataoka, M.; Kayumov, F.; Kazarov, A.; Keener, P. T.; Kekelidze, G. D.; Kerschen, N.; Kersten, S.; Khomich, A.; Khoriauli, G.; Khramov, E.; Khristachev, A.; Khubua, J.; Kittelmann, T. H.; Klingenberg, R.; Klinkby, E. B.; Kodys, P.; Koffas, T.; Kolos, S.; Konovalov, S. P.; Konstantinidis, N.; Kopikov, S.; Korolkov, I.; Kostyukhin, V.; Kovalenko, S.; Kowalski, T. Z.; Krüger, K.; Kramarenko, V.; Kudin, L. G.; Kulchitsky, Y.; Lacasta, C.; Lafaye, R.; Laforge, B.; Lampl, W.; Lanni, F.; Laplace, S.; Lari, T.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Lechowski, M.; Ledroit-Guillon, F.; Lehmann, G.; Leitner, R.; Lelas, D.; Lester, C. G.; Liang, Z.; Lichard, P.; Liebig, W.; Lipniacka, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Louchard, L.; Lourerio, K. F.; Lucotte, A.; Luehring, F.; Lund-Jensen, B.; Lundberg, B.; Ma, H.; Mackeprang, R.; Maio, A.; Maleev, V. P.; Malek, F.; Mandelli, L.; Maneira, J.; Mangin-Brinet, M.; Manousakis, A.; Mapelli, L.; Marques, C.; Garcia, S. Marti i.; Martin, F.; Mathes, M.; Mazzanti, M.; McFarlane, K. W.; McPherson, R.; Mchedlidze, G.; Mehlhase, S.; Meirosu, C.; Meng, Z.; Meroni, C.; Mialkovski, V.; Mikulec, B.; Milstead, D.; Minashvili, I.; Mindur, B.; Mitsou, V. A.; Moed, S.; Monnier, E.; Moorhead, G.; Morettini, P.; Morozov, S. V.; Mosidze, M.; Mouraviev, S. V.; Moyse, E. W. J.; Munar, A.; Myagkov, A.; Nadtochi, A. V.; Nakamura, K.; Nechaeva, P.; Negri, A.; Nemecek, S.; Nessi, M.; Nesterov, S. Y.; Newcomer, F. M.; Nikitine, I.; Nikolaev, K.; Nikolic-Audit, I.; Ogren, H.; Oh, S. H.; Oleshko, S. B.; Olszowska, J.; Onofre, A.; Padilla Aranda, C.; Paganis, S.; Pallin, D.; Pantea, D.; Paolone, V.; Parodi, F.; Parsons, J.; Parzhitskiy, S.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passmored, S. M.; Pater, J.; Patrichev, S.; Peez, M.; Perez Reale, V.; Perini, L.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Petersen, J.; Petersen, T. C.; Petti, R.; Phillips, P. W.; Pina, J.; Pinto, B.; Podlyski, F.; Poggioli, L.; Poppleton, A.; Poveda, J.; Pralavorio, P.; Pribyl, L.; Price, M. J.; Prieur, D.; Puigdengoles, C.; Puzo, P.; RØhne, O.; Ragusa, F.; Rajagopalan, S.; Reeves, K.; Reisinger, I.; Rembser, C.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Reznicek, P.; Ridel, M.; Risso, P.; Riu, I.; Robinson, D.; Roda, C.; Roe, S.; Rohne, O.; Romaniouk, A.; Rousseau, D.; Rozanov, A.; Ruiz, A.; Rusakovich, N.; Rust, D.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Ryjov, V.; Salto, O.; Salvachua, B.; Salzburger, A.; Sandaker, H.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santi, L.; Santoni, C.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarri, F.; Sauvage, G.; Says, L. P.; Schaefer, M.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schlager, G.; Schlereth, J.; Schmitt, C.; Schultes, J.; Schwemling, P.; Schwindling, J.; Seixas, J. M.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Serin, L.; Sfyrla, A.; Shalanda, N.; Shaw, C.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Silva, J.; Simion, S.; Simonyan, M.; Sloper, J. E.; Smirnov, S. Yu; Smirnova, L.; Solans, C.; Solodkov, A.; Solovianov, O.; Soloviev, I.; Sosnovtsev, V. V.; Spanò, F.; Speckmayer, P.; Stancu, S.; Stanek, R.; Starchenko, E.; Straessner, A.; Suchkov, S. I.; Suk, M.; Szczygiel, R.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, F.; Tas, P.; Tayalati, Y.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Teuscher, R.; Thioye, M.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Timmermans, C. J. W. P.; Tisserant, S.; Toczek, B.; Tremblet, L.; Troncon, C.; Tsiareshka, P.; Tyndel, M.; Karagoez Unel, M.; Unal, G.; Unel, G.; Usai, G.; Van Berg, R.; Valero, A.; Valkar, S.; Valls, J. A.; Vandelli, W.; Vannucci, F.; Vartapetian, A.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vasilyeva, L.; Vazeille, F.; Vernocchi, F.; Vetter-Cole, Y.; Vichou, I.; Vinogradov, V.; Virzi, J.; Vivarelli, I.; de Vivie, J. B.; Volpi, M.; Anh, T. Vu; Wang, C.; Warren, M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weingarten, J.; Wells, P. S.; Werner, P.; Wheeler, S.; Wiessmann, M.; Wilkens, H.; Williams, H. H.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Yasu, Y.; Zaitsev, A.; Zenin, A.; Zenis, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhelezko, A.; Zhou, N.

    2010-11-01

    In 2004 at the ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) combined test beam, one slice of the ATLAS barrel detector (including an Inner Detector set-up and the Liquid Argon calorimeter) was exposed to particles from the H8 SPS beam line at CERN. It was the first occasion to test the combined electron performance of ATLAS. This paper presents results obtained for the momentum measurement p with the Inner Detector and for the performance of the electron measurement with the LAr calorimeter (energy E linearity and resolution) in the presence of a magnetic field in the Inner Detector for momenta ranging from 20 GeV/c to 100 GeV/c. Furthermore the particle identification capabilities of the Transition Radiation Tracker, Bremsstrahlungs-recovery algorithms relying on the LAr calorimeter and results obtained for the E/p ratio and a way how to extract scale parameters will be discussed.

  1. Combining semantics with non-standard interpreter hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abramov, Sergei M.; Glück, Robert

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports on results concerning the combination of non-standard semantics via interpreters. We define what a semantics combination means and identify under which conditions a combination can be realized by computer programs (robustness, safely combinable). We develop the underlying...... mathematical theory and examine the meaning of several non-standard interpreter towers. Our results suggest a technique for the implementation of a certain class of programming language dialects by composing a hierarchy of non-standard interpreters....

  2. PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF A COMBINATION OF CINNULIN WITH PROBIOTICS

    OpenAIRE

    Vetvicka Vaclav; Vetvickova Jana

    2013-01-01

    The search for an optimal combination of natural immunomodulators led us to study the biological effects of the combination of a cinnamon extract Cinnulin PF and probiotic LactoSpore. We found that this combination has strong synergetic effects on phagocytosis and on regulation of cholesterol and blood sugar levels. In addition, the Cinnulin/LastoSpore combination also reduced intestinal damage in mouse model of colitis.

  3. An Ultra-Low Power Edge Combining BPSK Transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    TECHNICAL DOCUMENT 3271 September 2013 An Ultra-Low Power Edge Combining BPSK Transmitter A. Ryu J. Rowland S. Naik...Ultra-Low Power Edge Combining BPSK Transmitter Albert Ryu #1, Jason Rowland #2, Suketu Naik #3 #1, #2 55250, Advanced Integrated Circuit Technology...locked to a ring oscillator (RO), and then multiple phase outputs are combined at the last edge combining/power amplifier (EC/PA) stage. With the

  4. A combined nulling and imaging pupil-plane beam-combiner for DARWIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaksman, Ron P. H.; de Vries, Cor P.; den Herder, Jan-Willem; Vosteen, L. L. A.; Bokhove, Henk; Mieremet, Arjan L.

    2006-06-01

    The primary goal of DARWIN is to detect earth-like extrasolar planets and to search for biomarkers. This is achieved by means of nulling interferometry, using three free-flying telescopes and a Beam-Combiner (BC) hub. DARWIN will be able to perform astrophysical imaging with high spectral and spatial resolution. Should one of Darwin's telescope flyers fail, then Darwin's capability of detecting earth-sized exo-planets is dramatically reduced. However, with only two telescopes the imaging mode can continue operating with minimal performance degradation, thus ensuring mission success. This work describes a trade-off study between four conceptual three-beam BC's, that are capable of performing both as a nuller and as an imager. A proposed breadboard design will demonstrate end-to-end Fringe-Tracking (FT) and Optical Path-Length (OPL) control. The BC concept is based on a pupil-plane (Michelson) beam combination scheme. Pupil-plane imaging BC's offer a large overlap in terms of optical layout with the nulling BC concept, making it possible to develop a combined nulling- and imaging BC. This means that a reduced number of optical components can be used compared to a scheme with separate BC's. The BC concept inherently compensates for unequal OPL's, which in ground-based interferometers is compensated for by long stroke Optical Delay Lines (ODL's).

  5. Combinational Logic-Level Verification using Boolean Expression Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgaard, Henrik; Williams, Poul Frederick; Andersen, Henrik Reif

    1997-01-01

    of BDDs. This paper demonstrates that BEDs are well suited for solving the combinational logic-level verification problem which is, given two combinational circuits, to determine whether they implement the same Boolean functions. Based on all combinational circuits in the ISCAS 85 and LGSynth 91...

  6. Parsec: direct style monadic parser combinators for the real world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijen, D.; Meijer, E.

    2001-01-01

    Despite the long list of publications on parser combinators, there does not yet exist a monadic parser combinator library that is applicable in real world situations. In particular naive implementations of parser combinators are likely to suffer from space leaks and are often unable to

  7. In vitro susceptibilities of zygomycetes to combinations of antimicrobial agents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danaoui, E.; Afeltra, J.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Verweij, P.E.

    2002-01-01

    Combinations of antimicrobial agents were tested against 35 strains of zygomycetes. The interaction between amphotericin B and rifampin was synergistic or additive. Flucytosine alone was inactive and, upon combination with amphotericin B, synergy was not achieved. The combination of amphotericin B

  8. Combined aniridic intraocular lens implantation and vitreoretinal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Hitendra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A 45-year-old man presented with post-traumatic aniridia. We describe the combined surgery done to treat both aniridia and epiretinal membrane simultaneously. A combined aniridia intraocular lens and vitreoretinal surgery was done. The case report highlights the advantage of combined surgery in terms of cost factor and surgical time.

  9. 47 CFR 51.315 - Combination of unbundled network elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Combination of unbundled network elements. 51... Combination of unbundled network elements. (a) An incumbent LEC shall provide unbundled network elements in a manner that allows requesting telecommunications carriers to combine such network elements in order to...

  10. Reliability analysis of the combined district heating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharapov, V. I.; Orlov, M. E.; Kunin, M. V.

    2015-12-01

    Technologies that improve the reliability and efficiency of the combined district heating systems in urban areas are considered. The calculation method of reliability of the CHP combined district heating systems is proposed. The comparative estimation of the reliability of traditional and combined district heating systems is performed.

  11. Modeling and experiment to threshing unit of stripper combine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... Key words: Stripping, combine harvester, threshing unit, model, experiment. INTRODUCTION. The stripper combine is combined with a stripper header. And the basic concept of the stripper header is that a rearwards rotating rotor fitted in the front of the header is fitted with 6 to 8 rows of stripping fingers that ...

  12. Combined aluminium sulfate/hydroxide process for fluoride removal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fluoride removal efficiency of the combined process was also tested for real water sample from selected community water supply system in the Rift Valley Region of Ethiopia. The removal of fluoride was rapid in the first 15 min. The combined process efficiency was about 93% with an optimum combined alum/AO dose ...

  13. Preliminary evaluation of the combined anticonvulsant activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, local Nigerian plants (Newbouldia laevis, Melissa officinalis, Musa paradisiaca) used folklorically against epilepsy, were evaluated for combined anticonvulsant activity in combination. Their anticonvulsant activity, individually and in combination was evaluated in mice using the pentylene tetrazole model ...

  14. Embedding Number-Combinations Practice Within Word-Problem Tutoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Sarah R; Fuchs, Lynn S; Fuchs, Douglas

    2010-09-01

    Two aspects of mathematics with which students with mathematics learning difficulty (MLD) often struggle are word problems and number-combination skills. This article describes a math program in which students receive instruction on using algebraic equations to represent the underlying problem structure for three word-problem types. Students also learn counting strategies for answering number combinations that they cannot retrieve from memory. Results from randomized-control trials indicated that embedding the counting strategies for number combinations produces superior word-problem and number-combination outcomes for students with MLD beyond tutoring programs that focus exclusively on number combinations or word problems.

  15. Combinations of genetic data in a study of oral cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellerup, Erling Thyge; Møller, Gert Lykke; Mondal, Pinaki

    2015-01-01

    for a polygenic disorder will not occur in in control persons genetically unrelated to patients, so the strategy is to analyze combinations of genetic variants present exclusively in patients. In a previous study of oral cancer and leukoplakia 325 SNPs were analyzed. This study has been supplemented...... with an analysis of combinations of two SNP genotypes from among the 325 SNPs. Two clusters of combinations containing 95 patient specific combinations were significantly associated with oral cancer or leukoplakia. Of 373 patients with oral cancer 205 patients had a number of these 95 combinations in their genome...

  16. The importance of iteration in creative conceptual combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Joel; Schunn, Christian D

    2015-12-01

    Theories of creative conceptual combination hypothesize that, to generate highly creative concepts, one should attempt to combine source concepts that are very different from each other. While lab studies show a robust link between far combinations and increased novelty of concepts, empirical evidence that far combinations lead to more creative concepts (i.e., both more novel and of higher quality) is mixed. Drawing on models of the creative process, we frame conceptual combination as a divergent process, and hypothesize that iteration is necessary to convert far combinations into creative concepts. We trace conceptual genealogies of many hundreds of concepts proposed for a dozen different problems on a large-scale Web-based innovation platform, and model the effects of combination distance on creative outcomes of concepts. The results are consistent with our predictions: (1) direct effects of far combinations have a mean zero effect, and (2) indirect effects of far combinations (i.e., building on concepts that themselves build on far combinations) have more consistently positive effects. This pattern of effects is robust across problems on the platform. These findings lend clarity to theories of creative conceptual combination, and highlight the importance of iteration for generating creative concepts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Combined research effort on aggregate road materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Elena; Hoff, Inge; Willy Danielsen, Svein; Wigum, Børge Johannes; Fladvad, Marit; Rieksts, Karlis; Loranger, Benoit; Barbieri, Diego

    2017-04-01

    ) mechanical and c) thermal properties, and d) frost action and susceptibility. The main goal of the PhD topic N1 is to achieve better utilization of aggregate resources through adjusting the production process according to local geological conditions and construction needs. The objective of the PhD project N2 is to look at the design stage and find the way to use these aggregates anyway by changing the road's design (e.g. increasing the thickness of asphalt layer). Fine particles content will also be harder to control due to rock type variability from site to site. Thus, PhD project N3 is going to investigate the effect of the increasing of fines and their mineralogy on frost action related problems during freezing and thawing seasons. Finally, PhD project N4 is investigating how the grading and mineralogy of the crushed rock material affects the heat exchange in road's granular layers and consequently, the frost penetration depth. Combining these PhD studies we aim to create a holistic approach for a new understanding within this very complex area.

  18. Multi-technique combination at observation level with NAPEOS: combining GPS, GLONASS and LEO satellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, M.; Flohrer, C.; Springer, T.; Enderle, W.

    2012-04-01

    For the ITRF2008 call for participation ESOC reprocessed the historic data from the IDS, IGS, and ILRS. Our three solutions were computed with one and the same software package NAPEOS, running on the same machine and using, as far as possible, identical settings. Any systematic differences between the technique dependent reference frame solutions must therefore be caused by the technique itself, and not because of model differences or errors. Our three technique dependent solutions gave us a good understanding of the technique dependent effects, helping us to improve our models. At ESOC we have now made a significant step forward by including all satellite geodetic techniques (SLR, DORIS and GPS/GLONASS) in one solution. This allows us to combine the ILRS, IDS and IGS reference frames by using "space-ties". Of course these space-ties are not perfectly known but nevertheless they allow for a rigorous combination of the different reference frames. And, very important for the GNSS technique, they allow for the direct estimation of the GNSS satellite transmitter phase centre offset. We solve not only for integer ambiguities of the GPS satellites but also for those of the Jason-2 satellite, which is also providing GPS phase observations on two frequencies. In our presentation we will give an overview of this multi-technique combination approach at observation level. As part of our activities within the IERS COL working group we processed the data of the CONT11 and CONT08 periods. We included all observations provided by the following satellites in one and the same parameter estimation process: GPS,GLONASS, SPOT, Envisat, Jason-2, LAGEOS and Etalon satellites. We will show the benefits of such a rigorous approach compared to processing the various space geodetic techniques separately. We will also address the impact of resolving integer ambiguities for the LEO satellite Jason-2 on the global solution.

  19. Hybrid drug combination: Combination of ferulic acid and metformin as anti-diabetic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nankar, Rakesh; Prabhakar, P K; Doble, Mukesh

    2017-12-15

    Ferulic acid, an anti-oxidant phytochemical present in several dietary components, is known to produce wide range of pharmacological effects. It is approved for use in food industry as a preservative and in sports food. Previous reports from our lab have shown synergistic interaction of ferulic acid with metformin in cell lines and diabetic rats. The purpose of this review is to compile information about anti-diabetic activity of ferulic acid in in vitro and in vivo models with special emphasis on activity of ferulic acid when combined with metformin. The mechanism of synergistic interaction between ferulic acid and metformin is also proposed after carefully studying effects of these compounds on molecules involved in glucose metabolism. Scientific literature for the purpose of this review was collected using online search engines and databases such as ScienceDirect, Scopus, PubMed and Google scholar. Ferulic acid forms resonance stabilized phenoxyl radical which scavenges free radicals and reduce oxidative stress. It improves glucose and lipid profile in diabetic rats by enhancing activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase in the pancreatic tissue. Combining ferulic acid with metformin improves both, in vitro glucose uptake activity and in vivo hypoglycemic activity of the latter. It is possible to reduce the dose of metformin by four folds (from 50 to 12.5 mg/kg body weight) by combining it with 10 mg of ferulic acid/kg body weight in diabetic rats. Ferulic acid improves glucose uptake through PI3-K pathway whereas metformin activates AMPK pathway to improve glucose uptake. The synergistic interaction of ferulic acid and metformin is due their action on parallel pathways which are involved in glucose uptake. Due to synergistic nature of their interaction, it is possible to reduce the dose of metformin (by combining with ferulic acid) required to achieve normoglycemia. Since the dose of metformin is reduced, the dose associated side

  20. Considerations in glaucoma therapy: fixed combinations versus their component medications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eve J Higginbotham

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Eve J HigginbothamMorehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USAAbstract: Fixed combinations of medications that lower intraocular pressure (IOP are increasingly used in the treatment of glaucoma and ocular hypertension and offer several potential advantages over combined use of the separate component medications including enhanced convenience, improved adherence, reduced exposure to preservatives, and possible cost savings. This review aims to examine the current role of IOP-lowering fixed combinations in disease management. The results of studies that compared the efficacy and safety of IOP-lowering fixed combinations with their component medications are summarized, including those fixed combinations that consist of a prostaglandin analog and timolol. The fixed combinations currently available for use in the United States are fixed-combination dorzolamide/timolol (FCDT and fixed-combination brimonidine/timolol (FCBT. Both of these fixed combinations reduce IOP more effectively than their component medications used separately as monotherapy. FCBT therapy also demonstrates a more favorable safety profile and reduced ocular allergy compared to monotherapy with brimonidine, a component medication. Few studies have directly compared the efficacy and safety of FCDT and FCBT, but available evidence suggests that FCBT is at least as effective as FCDT in lowering IOP and is more comfortable and better tolerated. Additional studies are needed to further evaluate the comparative efficacy and tolerability of FCDT and FCBT in the management of glaucoma and ocular hypertension.Keywords: glaucoma, intraocular pressure, fixed combination, adherence, brimonidine

  1. Linear and Order Statistics Combiners for Pattern Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumer, Kagan; Ghosh, Joydeep; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Several researchers have experimentally shown that substantial improvements can be obtained in difficult pattern recognition problems by combining or integrating the outputs of multiple classifiers. This chapter provides an analytical framework to quantify the improvements in classification results due to combining. The results apply to both linear combiners and order statistics combiners. We first show that to a first order approximation, the error rate obtained over and above the Bayes error rate, is directly proportional to the variance of the actual decision boundaries around the Bayes optimum boundary. Combining classifiers in output space reduces this variance, and hence reduces the 'added' error. If N unbiased classifiers are combined by simple averaging. the added error rate can be reduced by a factor of N if the individual errors in approximating the decision boundaries are uncorrelated. Expressions are then derived for linear combiners which are biased or correlated, and the effect of output correlations on ensemble performance is quantified. For order statistics based non-linear combiners, we derive expressions that indicate how much the median, the maximum and in general the i-th order statistic can improve classifier performance. The analysis presented here facilitates the understanding of the relationships among error rates, classifier boundary distributions, and combining in output space. Experimental results on several public domain data sets are provided to illustrate the benefits of combining and to support the analytical results.

  2. Artemisinin-Naphthoquine Combination (ARCO®: An Overview of the Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyun Huang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rapidly spreading resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to available non-artemisinin antimalarial drugs, new and novel pharmaceuticals are needed. ARCO® is a new generation ACT, one of several artemisinin-based combinations developed in China to counter antimalarial drug resistance. ARCO® is a derivative of two independently developed antimalarials, artemisinin and naphthoquine phosphate, which were combined to form the artemisinin-naphthoquine combination. Both artemisinin and naphthoquine drugs have proven to be efficacious, safe and well tolerated as monotherapies. The artemisinin-naphthoquine combination offers a novel advantage over existing ACTs: it can be administered as a single oral dose (or a 1-day treatment. Several therapeutic studies conducted recently indicate that a single oral dose administration of artemisinin-naphthoquine combination is equally effective and safe as the 3-day treatment with artemether-lumefantrine combination and other existing ACTs. This would make ARCO® the next generation ACT for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria.

  3. Categorical Abstract Algebraic Logic: Meet-Combination of Logical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Voutsadakis

    2013-01-01

    properties inherited by the resulting combinations. One of the oldest such methods is fibring. In fibring the shared connectives of the combined logics inherit properties from both component logical systems, and this leads often to inconsistencies. To deal with such undesired effects, Sernadas et al. (2011, 2012 have recently introduced a novel way of combining logics, called meet-combination, in which the combined connectives share only the common logical properties they enjoy in the component systems. In their investigations they provide a sound and concretely complete calculus for the meet-combination based on available sound and complete calculi for the component systems. In this work, an effort is made to abstract those results to a categorical level amenable to categorical abstract algebraic logic techniques.

  4. Enhanced antitumor activity of irofulven in combination with antimitotic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelner, Michael J; McMorris, Trevor C; Rojas, Rafael J; Trani, Nicole A; Velasco, Tami R; Estes, Leita A; Suthipinijtham, Pharnuk

    2002-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the antitumor activity of irofulven when administered in combination with a variety of antimitotic agents. Irofulven in combination with either paclitaxel or docetaxel demonstrated synergistic activity in both the in vitro and in vivo studies. The majority of xenograft bearing animals that received suboptimal (irofulven and a taxane demonstrated complete cures. In contrast, in vitro studies produced either an additive or an antagonistic effect when irofulven was combined with other antimitotic agents such as vinca alkaloids, rhizoxin, s-trityl cysteine, or allocolchicine. Xenograft studies of irofulven and vinca alkaloids reflected in vitro results, as the tumor response in combination treated animals was less than the response in irofulven (monotherapy) treated animals. These results indicate that the therapeutic activity of irofulven is enhanced when combined with taxanes, and warrant further evaluation of these combinations.

  5. Combination treatment for nicotine dependence: state of the science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Karen S; Cohen, Jessye

    2005-01-01

    Both nicotine replacement and sustained-release buproprion double the odds of achieving short- and moderate-term abstinence from nicotine. However, questions remain about the efficacy of combining pharmacotherapies. Our purposes were to review the evidence for (1) combined pharmacotherapy and (2) multimodal treatment combining pharmacotherapy and behavioral treatment and to recommend combinations of treatments to reduce nicotine dependence. Combining first-line pharmacotherapies with each other or with investigational drugs shows little benefit. In contrast, trials combining specific behavioral treatments with first-line pharmacotherapies show enhanced smoking cessation rates, but benefits are not seen in all populations. We recommend future directions for research, including better specification of behavioral components and further examination of the length and timing of treatment.

  6. The use of combinations of monoclonal antibodies in clinical oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henricks, Linda M; Schellens, Jan H M; Huitema, Alwin D R; Beijnen, Jos H

    2015-12-01

    Treatment with monoclonal antibodies is becoming increasingly important in clinical oncology. These antibodies specifically inhibit signaling pathways in tumor growth and/or induce immunological responses against tumor cells. By combining monoclonal antibodies several pathways may be targeted simultaneously, potentially leading to additive or synergistic effects. Theoretically, antibodies are very suitable for use in combination therapy, because of limited overlapping toxicity and lack of pharmacokinetic interactions. In this article an overview is given of preclinical and clinical data on twenty-five different combinations of antibodies in oncology. Some of these combinations have proven clinical benefit, for example the combination of trastuzumab and pertuzumab in HER2-positive breast cancer, which exemplifies an additive or synergistic effect on antitumor activity in clinical studies and the combination of nivolumab and ipilimumab, which results in significant increases in progression-free and overall survival in patients with advanced melanoma. However, other combinations may lead to unfavorable results, such as bevacizumab with cetuximab or panitumumab in advanced colorectal cancer. These combinations result in shorter progression-free survival and increased toxicity compared to therapy with a single antibody. In summary, the different published studies showed widely varying results, depending on the combination of antibodies, indication and patient population. More preclinical and clinical studies are necessary to unravel the mechanisms behind synergistic or antagonistic effects of combining monoclonal antibodies. Most research on combination therapies is still in an early stage, but it is expected that for several tumor types the use of combination therapy of antibodies will become standard of care in the near future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Strategic Sourcing Development–Emerging Resource Combination and Knowledge Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Jørgensen, Claus; Mathiasen, John Bang

    2013-01-01

    This paper contributes to the understanding of strategic sourcing through resource combination, with focus on knowledge interactions. The IMP approach, and especially the resource combination framework, views knowledge interaction as embedded in business relationships. Knowledge is understood...... are conducted. Especially the last five years both companies experience change in the resource combination, first the physical and then the organizational, adjusting the mechanisms to improve knowledge interaction and competence within their value chain and inter- and intra-organizational processes. One SME, re...

  8. Coherent and spectral beam combining of fiber lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augst, S. J.; Redmond, S. M.; Yu, C. X.; Ripin, D. J.; Fan, T. Y.; Goodno, G. D.; Thielen, P. A.; Rothenberg, J. E.; Sanchez-Rubio, A.

    2012-02-01

    State-of-the-art diffraction-limited fiber lasers are presently capable of producing kilowatts of power. Power levels produced by single elements are gradually increasing but beam combining techniques are attractive for rapidly scaling fiber laser systems to much higher power levels. We discuss both coherent and spectral beam combining techniques for scaling fiber laser systems to high brightness and high power. Recent results demonstrating beam combination of 500-W commercial fiber laser amplifiers will be presented.

  9. The comparison between monotherapy and combination therapy in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalvat A

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic inflammatory condition. The condition can affected many tissues throught out the body, but the joints are usually most severely affected. The high incidence of RA, the conventional treatments and the experimental observation have shown by combination therapy, the disease symptoms of the patients reduce. To compare the efficacy and tolerability of single-agent Hydroxychloroquin (HCQ with combination therapies composed of (HCQ and Methotrexate (MTX and (HCQ, (MTX and Sulfasalazin (SSZ in active rheumatoid arthritis patients with additive arthritis. Methods: One hundred and twenty RA patients with active arthritis (male/female: 30/90 who were treated in rheumatology clinic between 2003 and 2005 were enrolled in this trial. Patients treated with (HCQ alone(200 mg/daywere include in group (I, patients treated with combination of (HCQ (200 mg/dayand (MTX (7.5mg/weekin group (II,and patents treated with combination of (HCQ (200mg/day,(MTX (7.5mg/weekand (SSZ(1 gr/dayin group (III, Forty patients (male/female:10/30 in group (I,(II and (IIIwere eligible for statistical analysis at the end of study. Changes in variable were compared by the T-test. Results: The combination of (MTX, (HCQand (SSZ and the combination of (MTX and (HCQ were more effective regarding the clinical and laboratory parameters than (HCQ alone (P<0.05. Moreover the combination of (MTX, (HCQ and (SSZ was more effective than the combination of (MTX and (HCQ (P<0.05. Combination therapies seem to be more effective and no more toxic than monotherapy in RA patients with additive arthritis. Conclusion: Combination therapy with methotrexate, hydroxychloroquin and sulfasalazin is more effective than hydroxychloroquin alone or a combination of methotrexate and hydroxychloroquin in RA. We suggest starting combination therapy for the patients with early RA, when the diagnosis has been established.

  10. Effect of Combination Therapy on Joint Destruction in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, N.; Hubeck-Graudal, T.; Tarp, S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite significant cost differences, the comparative effect of combination treatments of disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) with and without biologic agents has rarely been examined. Thus we performed a network meta-analysis on the effect of combination therapies...... on progression of radiographic joint erosions in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods and Findings: The following combination drug therapies compared versus single DMARD were investigated: Double DMARD: 2 DMARDs (methotrexate, sulfasalazine, leflunomide, injectable gold, cyclosporine, chloroquine...

  11. Computer aided system for parametric design of combination die

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranje, Vishal G.; Hussein, H. M. A.; Kumar, S.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a computer aided system for parametric design of combination dies is presented. The system is developed using knowledge based system technique of artificial intelligence. The system is capable to design combination dies for production of sheet metal parts having punching and cupping operations. The system is coded in Visual Basic and interfaced with AutoCAD software. The low cost of the proposed system will help die designers of small and medium scale sheet metal industries for design of combination dies for similar type of products. The proposed system is capable to reduce design time and efforts of die designers for design of combination dies.

  12. Combined melanocytic nevi: histologic variants and melanoma mimics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Johanna L; Duncan, Lyn M

    2011-10-01

    Combined melanocytic nevi are composed of 2 or more distinct populations of nevomelanocytes. Most commonly used to describe the combination of blue nevi with common nevi, it may also be applied to other combinations of benign melanocytic proliferations, including Spitz nevi and nevi with deep dermal pigmented nevomelanocytes. We report the incidence and distribution of these tumors at the Massachusetts General Hospital over the past decade and review guidelines for diagnostic criteria and nomenclature. Between 2000 and 2010 we identified 511 cases of combined nevi, represented by 4 histologically distinct diagnostic categories: (1) blue nevus, (2) nevi with deep dermal pigmented nevomelanocytes (plexiform/deep penetrating, inverted type A/clonal), (3) Spitz or pigmented spindled cell nevus, combined with another type of nevus (usually common or dysplastic), and (4) other combinations including 2 or more nevus types. Nearly one fifth of these tumors displayed atypical features; atypia was observed more often in combined nevi with Spitz or deep pigmented elements (26 of 55, 47%, and 25 of 98, 26%, respectively) than in combined common and blue nevi (37 of 336, 11%). Clinical follow-up data were available for 83% of the patients with atypical combined nevi; none developed recurrence or metastasis with a mean follow-up of over 4 years.

  13. Representing Meaning with a Combination of Logical and Distributional Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    I. Beltagy; Stephen Roller; Pengxiang Cheng; Katrin Erk; Raymond J. Mooney

    2016-01-01

    .... It has therefore been argued that the two are complementary. We adopt a hybrid approach that combines logical and distributional semantics using probabilistic logic, specifically Markov Logic Networks...

  14. Anticancer Drug Combinations, How Far We can Go Through?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Da-Yong; Chen, En-Hong; Wu, Hong-Ying; Lu, Ting-Ren; Xu, Bin; Ding, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Many clinical cancer therapies are less effective by using one anticancer drug only due to refractory properties of cancer pathogenesis and drug resistance property in advanced cancer patients. A general consensus among clinicians is that anticancer drug cocktail might better control cancer progresses and metastasis than single drug therapeutics in clinical trials. Despite great popularity, the anticancer drug combination dogma has not been established. The complexity of drug combination dogma discovery is more than we can expect now. This article speculates possible routes we can undertake in this matter. The background knowledge of drug combination therapy presently practiced and possible future landscapes and drawbacks of cancer drug combinative therapies are highlighted.

  15. Combining Energy Drinks and Alcohol: A Recipe for Trouble?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pennay, Amy; Lubman, Dan I; Miller, Peter

    2011-01-01

    ...: Combining alcohol with energy drinks can mask the signs of alcohol intoxication, resulting in greater levels of alcohol intake, dehydration, more severe and prolonged hangovers, and alcohol poisoning...

  16. Use of a combined lining in copper production converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkle, G.V.B.; Slovikovski, V.V.; Danilova, T.A.; P' yankova, V.A.; Verzilov, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors look at materials and methods for increasing the liner life and thermal efficiency of converters used at three copper melting combines in the Soviet Union. The refractories tested are various commercial combinations of magnesite, periclase and chromite, and the properties for which they are tested include their compression strength, heat resistance, thermal expansion, and wear resistance to slag. The authors find the refractory combination least degradable by heat and wear and calculate the savings, both in cost and energy, achieved by the combines in question by the utilization of this liner material.

  17. Single versus combination immunotherapy drug treatment in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Antonio Maria; Marincola, Francesco M; Ascierto, Paolo Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The advent of new immunotherapies for the treatment of metastatic melanoma has resulted in various novel combination strategies. Because of their distinct modes of action, different immunotherapies have been investigated in combination with one another, as well as combined with targeted therapies and other treatment modalities. Anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1 treatments enhance antitumor immunity through complementary and non-redundant mechanisms. The combination of the anti-CTLA-4 agent ipilimumab and the anti-PD-1 agent nivolumab has been shown to improve progression-free survival and objective response rate compared with either agent alone as monotherapy in patients with advanced melanoma. However, the combination was associated with significant toxicity, with around one-third of patients discontinuing treatment as a result. The sequential use of nivolumab and ipilimumab was associated with similar outcomes and comparable toxicity to concurrent therapy. Clinical trials assessing various combinations of immunomodulating antibodies are ongoing or planned. Ipilimumab and pembrolizumab have also been investigated in combination with the oncolytic virus, talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC), with promising results. In addition, immunotherapies have also been combined with chemotherapy, radiotherapy and electrochemotherapy. Investigation of combination approaches represents the start of a new story that begins with melanoma treatment and expands to embrace other solid and hematological cancers.

  18. Large-scale exploration and analysis of drug combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Huang, Chao; Fu, Yingxue; Wang, Jinan; Wu, Ziyin; Ru, Jinlong; Zheng, Chunli; Guo, Zihu; Chen, Xuetong; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Wenjuan; Li, Yan; Chen, Jianxin; Lu, Aiping; Wang, Yonghua

    2015-06-15

    Drug combinations are a promising strategy for combating complex diseases by improving the efficacy and reducing corresponding side effects. Currently, a widely studied problem in pharmacology is to predict effective drug combinations, either through empirically screening in clinic or pure experimental trials. However, the large-scale prediction of drug combination by a systems method is rarely considered. We report a systems pharmacology framework to predict drug combinations (PreDCs) on a computational model, termed probability ensemble approach (PEA), for analysis of both the efficacy and adverse effects of drug combinations. First, a Bayesian network integrating with a similarity algorithm is developed to model the combinations from drug molecular and pharmacological phenotypes, and the predictions are then assessed with both clinical efficacy and adverse effects. It is illustrated that PEA can predict the combination efficacy of drugs spanning different therapeutic classes with high specificity and sensitivity (AUC = 0.90), which was further validated by independent data or new experimental assays. PEA also evaluates the adverse effects (AUC = 0.95) quantitatively and detects the therapeutic indications for drug combinations. Finally, the PreDC database includes 1571 known and 3269 predicted optimal combinations as well as their potential side effects and therapeutic indications. The PreDC database is available at http://sm.nwsuaf.edu.cn/lsp/predc.php. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Efficacy of combined hormonal vaginal ring in comparison to combined hormonal pills in heavy menstrual bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahiya, Pushpa; Dalal, Monika; Yadav, Anu; Dahiya, Krishna; Jain, Shaveta; Silan, Vijay

    2016-08-01

    To compare the efficacy, acceptability and compliance of combined hormonal vaginal ring (CVR), with combined hormonal pills (CHP) in patients with heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB). This prospective study was conducted in 50 women with HMB in age group of 25-40 years. Patients were divided in two groups of 25 each and followed for six treatment cycles. In each group, cycle comprised of three weeks of CVR (releases 15μg of EE and 120μg of the etonogestrel per day) or CHP (containing 30μgm of EE and 150μgm of LNG) use, followed by one ring or pill free week. After each cycle, patients were evaluated about the amount of blood loss and duration of bleeding by the pictoral blood assessment chart (PBAC), early bleeding (EWB), continued bleeding (CWB), intermenstrual bleeding, intended bleeding, compliance, and user acceptability. The collected data were analyzed using the Chi square test, t-test and ANOVA test. Reduction in PBAC score for CVR (70.73%) and CHP group (70.02%), duration of bleeding and incidence of EWB was comparable among the two groups. The incidence of intermenstrual bleeding was lower in CVR than in CHP group in cycle 3 and 4 with significant p value. The incidence of CWB was significantly lower and the incidence of intended bleeding pattern in CVR group was significantly higher in cycle 3, 4, 5 and 6, signifying better cycle control. Compliance was also higher in CVR (88%) than CHC (75.33% of all cycles). This trial suggests that both the CVR and CHP are very effective short-term treatments for HMB in reproductive age group. However, women had better cycle control and compliance with CVR. This may be an attractive option among the wide variety of medications used to treat HMB. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Peculiarities of Grammatical Properties in Nominal Word Combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina B. Klienkova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines some peculiarities if grammatical properties of nominal word combinations based on the study of German-speaking Swiss press. The accumulated experience of linguists is analyzed and certain factors influencing the choice of syntactic relations in nominal word combinations with quantitative meaning are researched. It has been established that the choice of syntactic relations in such word combinations is determined by functional style, semantics and grammatical features of nouns - first or second components in a word combination. The aforementioned factors influencing the choice of syntactic relations in quantitative nominal word combinations are studied on the material of Germanspeaking Swiss press. The research revealed a number of peculiarities. First of all, German-speaking Swiss press uses such syntactic relation as genitive subordination quite often, not only on "special occasion" and unlike its use in Germany does not produce a magniloquent, pompous impression. Secondly, it has been established that the choice of syntactic relations in word combinations of the above-mentioned type of word combinations greatly depends on the semantic meaning of the noun - the first component of the word combination - and does not always coincide with the grammatical properties in nominal combinations in Germany. Thirdly, a clear dependence of syntactic relations choice is observed. Moreover, the article highlights the importance of grammatical features of the second component. These are such features as gender, number, case accompanied by noun declension. All the afore-mentioned features help to define the type of syntactic relations, which nominal quantitative word combinations may be connected by. The results of the comparisons of grammatical properties of quantitative nominal word combinations in German and Swiss press are demonstrated in a table below.

  1. MotifCombinator: a web-based tool to search for combinations of cis-regulatory motifs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsunoda Tatsuhiko

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A combination of multiple types of transcription factors and cis-regulatory elements is often required for gene expression in eukaryotes, and the combinatorial regulation confers specific gene expression to tissues or environments. To reveal the combinatorial regulation, computational methods are developed that efficiently infer combinations of cis-regulatory motifs that are important for gene expression as measured by DNA microarrays. One promising type of computational method is to utilize regression analysis between expression levels and scores of motifs in input sequences. This type takes full advantage of information on expression levels because it does not require that the expression level of each gene be dichotomized according to whether or not it reaches a certain threshold level. However, there is no web-based tool that employs regression methods to systematically search for motif combinations and that practically handles combinations of more than two or three motifs. Results We here introduced MotifCombinator, an online tool with a user-friendly interface, to systematically search for combinations composed of any number of motifs based on regression methods. The tool utilizes well-known regression methods (the multivariate linear regression, the multivariate adaptive regression spline or MARS, and the multivariate logistic regression method for this purpose, and uses the genetic algorithm to search for combinations composed of any desired number of motifs. The visualization systems in this tool help users to intuitively grasp the process of the combination search, and the backup system allows users to easily stop and restart calculations that are expected to require large computational time. This tool also provides preparatory steps needed for systematic combination search – i.e., selecting single motifs to constitute combinations and cutting out redundant similar motifs based on clustering analysis. Conclusion

  2. Combined forecasts from linear and nonlinear time series models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Terui (Nobuhiko); H.K. van Dijk (Herman)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractCombined forecasts from a linear and a nonlinear model are investigated for time series with possibly nonlinear characteristics. The forecasts are combined by a constant coefficient regression method as well as a time varying method. The time varying method allows for a locally

  3. A quadratic programming model for crop combinations in intercropping

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One particularly known problem that confronts the farmer is that of determining optimal crop combinations for an intercropping scheme. This work therefore sets out to develop a model which determines optimally a crop combination that will yield maximum profit when interactive effects are present. A quadratic programming ...

  4. Life@CMS: Combining Higgs search data with ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN

    2011-01-01

    First combined results from the CMS and ATLAS Higgs search at the LHC. Including exclusive footage from internal CMS meetings. For more information, visit: http://cms.web.cern.ch/news/atlas-and-cms-combine-summer-11-search-limits-standard-model-higgs

  5. Combining ability and heterotic relationships between CIMMYT and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inbred lines C2 and C6 were good general combiners for plant height and days to silking, respectively. Hybrids E4 x C2 and E5 x C3 showed superior SCA effects for grain yield while few other combinations showed desirable SCA effects for days to anthesis, ear and plant heights. The results of this study indicated potential ...

  6. Effects of single and combined inoculations of selected Trichoderma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of single and combined inoculations of selected Trichoderma and Bacillus isolates on growth of dry bean and biological control of Rhizoctonia solani damping-off. ... Greenhouse trials showed that combined inoculations of T. atroviride strain 6 and B. subtilis B69 gave the highest growth promotion of bean in terms of ...

  7. Drug combination may be highly effective in recurrent ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Significant improvement with the use of a combination drug therapy for recurrent ovarian cancer was reported at the annual meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology meeting in Chicago. The trial compared the activity of a combination of the dru

  8. Short communication Combined use of Mathieu and incised plate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To evaluate the results and complications after combined use of Mathieu and incised plate technique for management of distal hypospadias in older children. Patients and methods: A total of 33 patients with primary distal penile hypospadias were operated upon using the Mathieu technique combined with deep ...

  9. Combined use of Mathieu and incised plate technique (Snodgrass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To evaluate the results and complications after combined use of Mathieu and incised plate technique for management of distal hypospadias in older children. Patients and methods: A total of 33 patients with primary distal penile hypospadias were operated upon using the Mathieu technique combined with deep ...

  10. Combined Forecasts from Linear and Nonlinear Time Series Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Terui (Nobuhiko); H.K. van Dijk (Herman)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractCombined forecasts from a linear and a nonlinear model are investigated for time series with possibly nonlinear characteristics. The forecasts are combined by a constant coefficient regression method as well as a time varying method. The time varying method allows for a locally

  11. Combining forecasts in short term load forecasting: Empirical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present an empirical analysis to show that combination of short term load forecasts leads to better accuracy. We also discuss other aspects of combination, i.e.,distribution of weights, effect of variation in the historical window and distribution of forecast errors. The distribution of forecast errors is analyzed in order to get a ...

  12. The Forecast Combination Puzzle: A Simple Theoretical Explanation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Claeskens (Gerda); J. Magnus (Jan); A. Vasnev (Andrey); W. Wang (Wendun)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ is papers offers a theoretical explanation for the stylized fact that forecast combinations with estimated optimal weights often perform poorly in applications. The properties of the forecast combination are typically derived under the assumption that the weights are

  13. The forecast combination puzzle : A simple theoretical explanation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claeskens, Gerda; Magnus, Jan R.; Vasnev, Andrey L.; Wang, Wendun

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers a theoretical explanation for the stylized fact that forecast combinations with estimated optimal weights often perform poorly in applications. The properties of the forecast combination are typically derived under the assumption that the weights are fixed, while in practice they

  14. The analgesic effect of different antidepressants combined with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Combination analgesics provide more effective pain relief for a broader spectrum of pain. This research examines the possible potentiation of the analgesic effect of different classes of antidepressants when combined with aspirin in thermal model of pain using Albino mice. Methods: Different groups of six ...

  15. Combined Coding And Modulation Employing Multi Phase Shift ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper a technique for combining Huffman code, array code and phase modulation is proposed with a view to reduce redundancy, provide error control and simultaneously optimise on channel bandwidth. The combined scheme provides a reduction in overall complexity of the communication system as compared to a ...

  16. Evaluation Of Selenium Supplementation Alone, A Combination Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of selenium supplementation alone and a combination of selenium and Vitamin E or low dose diminazene aceturate (berenil) was investigated in Trypanosoma brucei brucei infected rats. The effect of the selenium supplementation and its combinations were assessed using the parasitaemia, changes in body ...

  17. Maxillary arch and combined incisor dimensions of Urhobos in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tooth morphometry is known to be influenced by cultural, environment and racial or ethnic factors. The purpose of this study was to assess the maxillary arch and combined incisor widths; to determine if there is sexual dimorphism in the maxillary arch and combined incisor dimensions; to verify the reliability of Pont's Index ...

  18. Q-Squared: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    24 juil. 2013 ... ... ways they may be fruitfully combined. IDRC has supported earlier work on the use of Q-squared theory and practice in poverty analysis. Q-Squared: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches in Poverty Analysis is published by Oxford University Press. Find out more about purchasing the book.

  19. Combined Cataract and Glaucoma Surgery: An assessment of 68 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the best corrected visual acuity and average intraocular pressure at 6 months and one (1) year in patients with cataracts in glaucoma that had combined trabeculectomy and cataract surgery with lens implantation. Methods: A retrospective review of the case notes of patients who underwent combined ...

  20. Time-varying Combinations of Predictive Densities using Nonlinear Filtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Billio (Monica); R. Casarin (Roberto); F. Ravazzolo (Francesco); H.K. van Dijk (Herman)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWe propose a Bayesian combination approach for multivariate predictive densities which relies upon a distributional state space representation of the combination weights. Several specifications of multivariate time-varying weights are introduced with a particular focus on weight dynamics

  1. Combining Methods in Educational and Social Research. Conducting Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorard, Stephen; Taylor, Chris

    2004-01-01

    There is growing interest in the possibilities of combining research approaches in education and social sciences, as dissatisfaction mounts with the limitations of traditional mono-method studies and with the schism between quantitative and qualitative methods. This book argues the case for combining multiple research methods, and provides…

  2. Chemoenzymatic combination of glucose oxidase with titanium silicalite -1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennestrøm, Peter Nicolai Ravnborg; Taarning, Esben; Christensen, Claus H.

    2010-01-01

    Zeozymes: A proof-of-concept is presented for the chemoenzymatic combination of titanium silicalite-1 zeolite with glucose oxidase. In this combination, glucose is oxidized to gluconic acid and the H2O2 byproduct formed in situ is used for the simultaneous oxidation of chemical substrates. Both...

  3. combining ability and heterotic pattern in west african sorghum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Accessions Panel (WASAP) and two female lines, were used in « Line x tester » mating design to produce thirty- eight (38) hybrids. Analysis of variance showed significant general combining ability and specific combining ability effects for grain weight, plant height, days to flowering, panicle length and chlorophyll content ...

  4. The role of combination therapy in managing pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein-Ardeschir Ghofrani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH is a complex, progressive disease with several pathobiological mechanisms, including the endothelin, nitric oxide and prostacyclin pathways. Current treatments for PAH target one of these pathways and, in more severe cases or instances of disease worsening, may be combined with a view to target multiple pathways in parallel. Treatment combination is performed sequentially (as an intensification from initial monotherapy or upfront (use of two or more therapies in treatment-naı¨ve patients. Whilst combination therapy has been historically considered to be an option for the treatment of PAH, supporting evidence was typically limited to expert opinion, clinical experience and registry data. Data from randomised controlled trials on sequential combination therapy in particular has grown in recent years, resulting in a change in the level of recommendations in the latest update to the PAH treatment algorithm. However, short-term trials have shown inconsistent results, and have not been powered to assess morbidity/mortality outcomes. More recent data from long-term trials suggest a potential clinical benefit associated with sequential combination therapy. In this review we will introduce the concept of combination therapy, consider the latest evidence for both sequential and upfront combination therapy, and discuss additional considerations when initiating combination therapy in clinical practice.

  5. Efficacy of rifampicin combination therapy on selected non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Combination therapy or polytherapy is the use of more than one antibacterial agent in the treatment of a single infection. In this study, rifampicin that was mainly used in the treatment of mycobacterial infections has been used in combination with other agents in non mycobacterial organisms. Clinical isolates of ...

  6. Heterosis and combining ability in a diallel cross of okra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A diallel analysis on 8 pure lines of Abelmoschus esculentus was done at 3 sites in Cameroon (Dibang, Yaoundé and Yagoua) in a randomized complete block design, with 3 replications, to estimate both the heterosis and the combining ability. The heterosis over mid-parent and the combining abilities were significant for ...

  7. Detection in Urban Scenario using Combined Airborne Imaging Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renhorn, I.; Axelsson, M.; Benoist, K.W.; Bourghys, D.; Boucher, Y.; Xavier Briottet, X.; Sergio De CeglieD, S. De; Dekker, R.J.; Dimmeler, A.; Dost, R.; Friman, O.; Kåsen, I.; Maerker, J.; Persie, M. van; Resta, S.; Schwering, P.B.W.; Shimoni, M.; Vegard Haavardsholm, T.

    2012-01-01

    The EDA project “Detection in Urban scenario using Combined Airborne imaging Sensors” (DUCAS) is in progress. The aim of the project is to investigate the potential benefit of combined high spatial and spectral resolution airborne imagery for several defense applications in the urban area. The

  8. Detection in Urban Scenario Using Combined Airborne Imaging Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renhorn, I.; Axelsson, M.; Benoist, K.W.; Bourghys, D.; Boucher, Y.; Xavier Briottet, X.; Sergio De CeglieD, S. De; Dekker, R.J.; Dimmeler, A.; Dost, R.; Friman, O.; Kåsen, I.; Maerker, J.; Persie, M. van; Resta, S.; Schwering, P.B.W.; Shimoni, M.; Vegard Haavardsholm, T.

    2012-01-01

    The EDA project “Detection in Urban scenario using Combined Airborne imaging Sensors” (DUCAS) is in progress. The aim of the project is to investigate the potential benefit of combined high spatial and spectral resolution airborne imagery for several defense applications in the urban area. The

  9. Combined trabeculectomy and cataract extraction-A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad V

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Ninety six eyes haying senile cataract and as-sociated open-angle glaucoma had been operated upon over a period of seven years by a combined procedure. The advantages of combined opera-tion have been discussed. The results were en-couraging.

  10. QTL mapping for combining ability in different population-based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 92; Issue 3. QTL mapping for combining ability in different population-based NCII designs: a simulation study. Lanzhi Li Congwei Sun ... The NCII design (North Carolina mating design II) has been widely applied in studies of combining ability and heterosis. The objective of our ...

  11. Development of Combination Therapy with Anti-Cancer Drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijen, S.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes early clinical trials with anti-cancer drugs in combination with commonly applied and registered chemotherapy and single agent studies with compounds that are intended for use in combination with registered or other targeted anti-cancer drugs. Gemcitabine is a prodrug that

  12. Water-immiscible dissolved oxygen carriers in combination with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of water-immiscible compounds in combination with Pluronic F 68 in bioprocesses is discussed with the intention of analysing their combined effect where bioreactor and biomass performance is affected by DO limitations, nutrient starvation, high concentrations of trace element ions, oxidative stress and cell death ...

  13. Laryngeal and miliary tuberculosis a rare combination | Agbagbe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Both laryngeal tuberculosis and miliary tuberculosis are rare disease in adults. The combination of laryngeal and miliary tuberculosis is equally rare. Aim: This case is reported so as to raise awareness of this rare clinical combination of laryngeal tuberculosis and miliary tuberculosis in our tuberculous patients ...

  14. Rare combination of dextrocardia with right-sided Poland syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Kim, Jae Bum; Park, Nam Hee; Keum, Dong Yoon; Kim, Yeo Hyang

    2012-10-01

    The combination of right-sided Poland syndrome and dextrocardia is rare. To our knowledge, reports regarding this subject are lacking in the published literature to date. Previous reports suggested that dextrocardia may be part of the left sided Poland syndrome. We report and discuss this rare combination. Copyright © 2012 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Combining ability and heterosis for phenologic and agronomic traits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The parents: EVDT-99WSTRC0, EVDT-99WSTRQPMC0, TZE-COMP3DTC1 and EX-BIU WHITE were identified as the best general combiners in terms of GCA for days to tasseling, days to silking, ASI, plant height, ear height, dehusked cobs and grain yield. Keywords: Maize, combining ability, additive, non-additive genetic ...

  16. 4th Workshop on Combinations of Intelligent Methods and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Palade, Vasile; Prentzas, Jim

    2016-01-01

    This volume includes extended and revised versions of the papers presented at the 4th Workshop on “Combinations of Intelligent Methods and Applications” (CIMA 2014) which was intended to become a forum for exchanging experience and ideas among researchers and practitioners dealing with combinations of different intelligent methods in Artificial Intelligence. The aim is to create integrated or hybrid methods that benefit from each of their components. Some of the existing presented efforts combine soft computing methods (fuzzy logic, neural networks and genetic algorithms). Another stream of efforts integrates case-based reasoning or machine learning with soft-computing methods. Some of the combinations have been more widely explored, like neuro-symbolic methods, neuro-fuzzy methods and methods combining rule-based and case-based reasoning. CIMA 2014 was held in conjunction with the 26th IEEE International Conference on Tools with Artificial Intelligence (ICTAI 2014). .

  17. Combined musculoskeletal pain in the upper and lower body:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Tine Gjedde; Frost, Poul; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Pain in more than one site is common in working populations. We aimed to characterise combined pain (pain in the upper and lower body) and to evaluate whether the prevalence of combined pain is positively related to combined occupational mechanical exposures to the upper and lower body...... and to high psychosocial job strain. Methods This cross-sectional study was based on questionnaire data from the Musculoskeletal Research Database at the Danish Ramazzini Centre. The study included 14,081 men and 20,173 women. Occupational exposures were assessed by job exposure matrices. We analysed...... the prevalence of pain limited to the upper body, pain limited to the lower body, and combined pain in relation to occupational exposures using Poisson regression. Results During the last year, 23.2 % of the men and 33.9 % of the women reported combined pain, which was characterised by somatisation, illness...

  18. New achromatic quarter-wave combination of birefringent plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Arijit; Bhattacharya, Kallol; Chakraborty, Ajoy Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Phase retarders usually exhibit strong wavelength dependence. For this paper, the design and characteristics of an achromatic cascaded system of birefringent plates were studied. The combination of three retarders in a series had been previously proposed by Pancharatnam, and he discussed the possibility of fabricating reasonably good achromatic quarter-wave plates with a suitable level of retardance. This combination, however, still shows substantial variation in terms of retardance within 500 to 700 nm. Here, the combination of four plates for the construction of an almost achromatic quarter-wave plate, which has a variation of only +/- 1 degree over the wavelength spectrum of 500 to 700 nm, is proposed. Moreover, spherical trigonometric considerations have been used by Pancharatnam for obtaining the transmission characteristics of a cascaded system. We, however, used the succinct and relatively simple Jones matrix formalism to derive a general expression for the equivalent retardation of this combination. The proposed arrangement of four birefringent plates promises better achromatic combinations.

  19. [Gliptin-gliflozin combination for treating type 2 diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheen, André J; Paquot, Nicolas

    2016-08-24

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex disease with multiple defects, which generally require a combination of several pharmacological approaches to control hyperglycaemia. Combining a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4i) and a sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitor (SGT2i) appears to be an attractive approach because the two drugs exert different and potentially complementary glucose-lowering effects. Dual therapy (initial combination or stepwise approach) is more potent than either monotherapy in patients treated with diet and exercise or already treated with metformin. Combining the two pharmacological options is safe and does not induce hypoglycaemia. Two fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) are already available (saxagliptin-dapagliflozin and linagliptin-empagliflozin) and others are in current development.

  20. Degradation of industrial surfactants by photocatalysis combined with ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsilák, Zoltán; Fónagy, Orsolya; Szabó-Bárdos, Erzsébet; Horváth, Ottó; Horváth, Krisztián; Hajós, Péter

    2014-10-01

    The efficiency of titanium dioxide-mediated photocatalytic degradation of pollutants can be enhanced by combination with another advanced oxidation procedure such as ozonation. Mineralization of hydroxy- and dihydroxybenzenesulfonate based on these methods, both individually and combined, was investigated by monitoring the total organic carbon content, sulfate concentration, pH, high-performance liquid chromatography as well as the absorption spectral changes. The mineralization efficiency of the combined procedure significantly exceeded the sum of those of the individual techniques. The comparison of the disappearance of the starting material and the formation of the sulfate ions indicates that desulfonation is not the primary step of the degradation. Moreover, in the case of the combined method, ring cleavage, and thus, partial mineralization can occur without desulfonation. Efficient degradation of other, widely used industrial surfactants, such as alkylbenzene sulfonates and alkyl ether sulfates, was also achieved by heterogeneous photocatalysis combined with ozonation, offering an applicable method for the removal of these pollutants.

  1. A Roundtable Discussion: Combination Products: Twice the Challenge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Nolan; Binion, Steven B; Cammack, Jon; Paine, Stephanie Del; Gonzales, Rosemary; Passut, Jena; Weiner, John Barlow Barr

    2015-01-01

    Combination products are therapeutic or diagnostic medical products that combine drugs, devices, and/or biological products with one another. FDA developed a regulation (final rule) on Current Good Manufacturing Practices (CGMP) for combination products that became effective July 22, 2013 (21 CFR Part 4). AAMI recently developed a technical information report (TIR) that provides information on how to effectively implement FDA's regulation. The overall goal of the TIR is to aid informed, risk-based decisions in establishing CGMP operating systems that support development, manufacture, premarket regulatory evaluation, and ultimately commercialization of combination products. This article, a result of an discussion with industry and FDA representatives, explores the landscape of combination products, highlights important considerations in developing and seeking marketing clearance for these innovative products, and provides insight on trends in the area.

  2. Gastrointestinal Toxicities With Combined Antiangiogenic and Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollom, Erqi L.; Deng, Lei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Pai, Reetesh K. [Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Brown, J. Martin; Giaccia, Amato; Loo, Billy W.; Shultz, David B.; Le, Quynh Thu; Koong, Albert C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Chang, Daniel T., E-mail: dtchang@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Combining the latest targeted biologic agents with the most advanced radiation technologies has been an exciting development in the treatment of cancer patients. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is an ablative radiation approach that has become established for the treatment of a variety of malignancies, and it has been increasingly used in combination with biologic agents, including those targeting angiogenesis-specific pathways. Multiple reports have emerged describing unanticipated toxicities arising from the combination of SBRT and angiogenesis-targeting agents, particularly of late luminal gastrointestinal toxicities. In this review, we summarize the literature describing these toxicities, explore the biological mechanism of action of toxicity with the combined use of antiangiogenic therapies, and discuss areas of future research, so that this combination of treatment modalities can continue to be used in broader clinical contexts.

  3. Think twice and then: combining or choosing in dialectical bootstrapping?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Stefan M; Hertwig, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Individuals can partly recreate the "wisdom of crowds" within their own minds by combining nonredundant estimates they themselves have generated. Herzog and Hertwig (2009) showed that this accuracy gain could be boosted by urging people to actively think differently when generating a 2nd estimate ("dialectical bootstrapping"). Although the "crowd within" promises accuracy gains, it remains unclear whether and when people spontaneously reap those gains. What makes people combine their estimates rather than trying to identify the better one? This research found that participants were more likely to combine when they were instructed to actively contradict themselves. Furthermore, they were more likely to combine as the size of the disagreement between 1st and 2nd estimate grew. People thus acted as if they were hedging against the risk of making large errors. Finally, when people pursued a strategy other than combination, they were not able to outperform their crowd within.

  4. Gamma radiation combined with cinnamon oil to maintain fish quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Fei; Zhang, Jing; Wei, Qianqian; Gao, Fei; Ding, Yuting; Liu, Shulai

    2017-12-01

    Effects of gamma radiation combined with cinnamon oil on quality of Northern Snakehead fish fillets were observed during storage at 4 °C. Fish fillets were treated with 1-5 kGy gamma radiation, 0.05-0.5% cinnamon oil or the combination of radiation and cinnamon oil. The antimicrobial activity increased with radiation dose and cinnamon oil concentration. During storage, the combination of 1 kGy radiation and 0.5% cinnamon oil displayed better inhibiting activities on aerobic plate counts, total volatile basic nitrogen, thiobarbituric acid reaction substances than 1 kGy radiation or 0.5% cinnamon oil used alone. Moreover, the combination could arrive at the similar inhibiting activities of cinnamon oil with higher concentration of 0.5% or radiation with higher dose of 5 kGy. Thus, the combination could decrease the radiation dose and cinnamon oil concentration without decreasing the effect of them on maintaining fish quality.

  5. Seepage characteristics of the second tertiary combined model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan ZHAO

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The second tertiary combined model experiment zone has been developed in Block B, Field L. The percolation feature of the second tertiary combined develop model shows great importance to rational and efficient development of the reservoir. In order to clearly illuminate its percolation feature, the typical reservoir numerical model is built by Eclipse, which is a reservoir numerical simulation software. The percolation features of original and added perforation interval under the second tertiary combined model are studied, and the variation features of general water-cut, recovery percentage, wellbore pressure, reservoir pressure and water saturation on condition of higher injection rate under the second tertiary combined model are analyzed. The research indicates that the second tertiary combined enhances the recovery of remaining oil on top of thick reservoir by developing and enhancing original perforation interval under water drive, then improves development results by polymer flooding, and gains higher recovery rate by synthetic action of water driver and polymer flooding.

  6. Combination therapy in the management of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, M S; Staib, R L; Wicks, L M

    2013-05-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease without a cure, which can lead to right heart failure and death. Over the past decades, several therapeutic advances have been developed for the management of PAH. Although these agents have demonstrated clinical safety and efficacy, some patients may require additional drug therapy due to a lack of response or disease progression. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of various combination PAH therapies. A systematic search was conducted using the MEDLINE database (1966 and June 2012) for relevant clinical studies. Searches were limited to English, human and clinical trial using the terms sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil, phosphodiesterase inhibitor, prostacyclin, prostaglandin, epoprostenol, treprostinil, iloprost, beraprost, endothelin receptor antagonist, bosentan, ambrisentan, sitaxsentan and pulmonary hypertension. Overall, 22 studies met inclusion criteria. Overall, the majority of trials demonstrated clinical efficacy in improving functional class, reducing pulmonary pressure, or increasing exercise capacity. Most trials were uncontrolled with small sample sizes investigating the acute effects of combination therapy and lacking long-term clinical outcomes. Adjunctive therapy was well tolerated by most patients. Overall, combination therapy is relatively safe and well tolerated. Published guidelines provide evidence-based recommendations for monotherapy. However, suggestions for combination therapy in refractory PAH patients are lacking. Several studies evaluating several combination therapies have been published. The preferred combination treatment among several PAH drug therapies remain controversial. Therefore, clinicians should consider ease of administration, cost, and tolerability when choosing specific combination therapies. Combination therapy appears promising for patients who are refractory to treatment or whose disease progression is not well controlled

  7. Combination of direct laser writing and soft lithography molds for combined nano- and microfabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumler, M.; Kollmuss, M.; Baier, L.; Michel, F.; Förthner, M.; Becker, M.; Rommel, M.; Frey, L.

    2016-10-01

    This work presents a novel approach for combined micro- and nanofabrication based on the local laser exposure of an UV-curing material through a structured mold. The proposed process makes use of the high freedom of design of direct laser writing (DLW) and the high resolution of soft lithography molds (made e.g. from PDMS). By optimizing the exposure process it was possible to fabricate locally defined hierarchical structures with a height of around 16 μm, that are fully covered with nanometer-sized holes using OrmoComp®. Manual test imprints showed that the fabricated structures can be used for "step and repeat" nanoimprint processes. Furthermore, the local transfer of nanostructures into two different soft lithography resists (Katiobond 110707, mr-NIL210) was investigated. Diffusion of resist components into the PDMS mold was observed and could be prohibited by the use of hybrid molds, which employ OrmoComp® as structure containing layer. First experiments revealed successful transfer of the mold's nanostructures into mr-NIL210 but still leave room for improvement concerning the process parameters.

  8. Combining Motivational Interviewing with Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments for Substance Abuse: Lessons from the COMBINE Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyers, Theresa B.; Houck, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Motivational Interviewing began as a treatment for substance misuse and has strong empirical support as an intervention for these disorders. It is very common for MI to be combined with other types of treatment when it is used for substance abuse, and this article focuses on one example of this: the COMBINE Research Project. We examine the…

  9. Variable geometry gas turbines for improving the part-load performance of marine combined cycles - Combined cycle performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haglind, Fredrik

    2011-01-01

    The part-load performance of combined cycles intended for naval use is of great importance, and it is influenced by the gas turbine configuration and load control strategy. This paper is aimed at quantifying the effects of variable geometry gas turbines on the part-load efficiency for combined...... cycles used for ship propulsion. Moreover, the paper is aimed at developing methodologies and deriving models for part-load simulations suitable for energy system analysis of various components within combined cycle power plants. Two different gas turbine configurations are studied, a two-shaft aero......-derivative configuration and a single-shaft industrial configuration. The results suggest that by the use of variable geometry gas turbines, the combined cycle part-load performance can be improved. In order to minimise the voyage fuel consumption, a combined cycle featuring two-shaft gas turbines with VAN control...

  10. Method of stimulus combination impacts resistance to extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlesnik, Christopher A; Bai, John Y H

    2015-07-01

    Reinforcing an alternative response in the presence of the stimuli governing a target response increases resistance to extinction of target responding, relative to training target responding on its own. Conversely, training alternative and target responses in the presence of different stimuli and combining those stimuli only decreases resistance to extinction of target responding, relative to target responding on its own. The present study assessed how different methods of combining discriminative stimuli influence resistance to extinction of responding in pigeons. As in previous studies, combining stimuli across different keys only decreased resistance to extinction of target responding relative to target responding on its own. In comparison, combining stimuli on the same key initially increased resistance to extinction of target responding, but repeated tests resulted in similar levels of responding as target responding with stimuli combined on separate keys. Moreover, greater overall reinforcement rates produced greater resistance to extinction with both methods of combining stimuli, consistent with behavioral momentum theory. These findings reveal several behavioral processes influence the outcome of combining stimuli--including perceptual processes, discriminative control by contingencies, response competition, and behavioral momentum. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  11. Synergistic combination dry powders for inhaled antimicrobial therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Desmond; Lee, Sie Huey; Teo, Jeanette; Ng, Wai Kiong; Chan, Hak-Kim; Tan, Reginald B. H.

    2013-06-01

    Combination products play an important role in medicine as they offer improved clinical effectiveness, enhanced patient adherence, and reduced administrative costs. In combination antimicrobial therapy, the desired outcome is to extend the antimicrobial spectrum and to achieve a possible synergistic effect. However, adverse antagonistic species may sometimes emerge from such combinations, leading to treatment failure. Therefore, it is crucial to screen the drug candidates for compatibility and possible antagonistic interactions. This work aims to develop a novel synergistic dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulation for antimicrobial combination therapy via the pulmonary route. Binary and ternary combinations were prepared via spray drying on a BUCHI® Nano Spray Dryer B-90. All powders were within the respirable size range, and were consisted of spherical particles that were slightly corrugated. The powers yielded fine particle fractions (of the loaded dose) of over 40% when dispersed using an Aerolizer® DPI at 60 L/min. Time-kill studies carried out against common respiratory tract pathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia and Acinetobacter baumannii at 1x the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) over 24 hours revealed no antagonistic behavior for both combinations. While the interactions were generally found to be indifferent, a favorable synergistic effect was detected in the binary combination when it was tested against Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria.

  12. Impairment due to amphetamines and benzodiazepines, alone and in combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høiseth, Gudrun; Andås, Hilde; Bachs, Liliana; Mørland, Jørg

    2014-12-01

    The impairing effects of combined use of amphetamines and benzodiazepines among recreational drug users are not well described, but knowledge about this is important in the risk assessment of such combined drug use. The aim of this study was to compare the impairment, among apprehended drivers, as judged by a clinical test of impairment (CTI), in cases where a combination of amphetamines and benzodiazepines was detected, in blood, with cases where only one of the two drug groups was detected. The results of CTI judgments were compared to toxicological drug tests of blood samples that were obtained at the time of CTI screening in cases containing amphetamines only, cases containing different benzodiazepines only, and cases containing a combination of amphetamines and benzodiazepines. There were significantly more drivers being judged as impaired in the combined group (n = 777), compared both with amphetamines alone (n = 267, χ(2) = 47.8, p benzodiazepines alone (n = 153, χ(2) = 7.0, p = 0.008). This was also seen when only including the lowest concentrations of benzodiazepines (χ(2) = 4.3, p = 0.038). The concentrations of the drugs were higher in the single drug groups, compared with the combined group. This study indicates that during real-life driving, those influenced by both amphetamines and benzodiazepines are more impaired, as judged by the CTI, compared with those influenced by either drug alone, although the combined group showed lower drug concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Atmospheric propagation and combining of high-power lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, W; Sprangle, P; Davis, C C

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we analyze beam combining and atmospheric propagation of high-power lasers for directed-energy (DE) applications. The large linewidths inherent in high-power fiber and slab lasers cause random phase and intensity fluctuations that occur on subnanosecond time scales. Coherently combining these high-power lasers would involve instruments capable of precise phase control and operation at rates greater than ∼10  GHz. To the best of our knowledge, this technology does not currently exist. This presents a challenging problem when attempting to phase lock high-power lasers that is not encountered when phase locking low-power lasers, for example, at milliwatt power levels. Regardless, we demonstrate that even if instruments are developed that can precisely control the phase of high-power lasers, coherent combining is problematic for DE applications. The dephasing effects of atmospheric turbulence typically encountered in DE applications will degrade the coherent properties of the beam before it reaches the target. Through simulations, we find that coherent beam combining in moderate turbulence and over multikilometer propagation distances has little advantage over incoherent combining. Additionally, in cases of strong turbulence and multikilometer propagation ranges, we find nearly indistinguishable intensity profiles and virtually no difference in the energy on the target between coherently and incoherently combined laser beams. Consequently, we find that coherent beam combining at the transmitter plane is ineffective under typical atmospheric conditions.

  14. Clinical Aspects of Combination of Ceramic and Acrylic Occlusal Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ozhohan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to develop and substantiate the methods of constructing the occlusal surfaces when manufacturing aesthetic fixed restorations through the combination of different materials. Materials and methods. The study included 65 patients with ceramic and acrylic occlusal surfaces of aesthetic fixed dental prostheses. Group I included 21 patients with a combination of ceramic and acrylic occlusal surfaces. Group II included 22 patients with a combination of ceramic occlusal surfaces. Group III included 22 patients with a combination of acrylic occlusal surfaces. The patients were observed 3, 6 and 12 months after prosthetic repair. Results. The greatest increase in the occlusal contact surface area of fixed restorations was observed in Group I, that is, when combining dental prostheses with ceramic and acrylic occlusal surfaces. Considering uneven abrasion of the occlusal surfaces, we do not recommend to combine different materials when veneering the occlusal surface of the antagonistic teeth. Conclusions. This study demonstrated the important role of the correct combination of materials when veneering the occlusal surfaces. Physical and chemical properties of materials, namely the abrasion resistance play a significant role in the long-term denture functioning. The smallest increase in the occlusal contact surface area was observed in Group II when combining ceramic occlusal surfaces. It was due to a good abrasion resistance of ceramics as compared to acrylic resin as well as the presence of the glazed layer which prevents the premature abrasion of the occlusal surfaces of the antagonistic teeth due to lower surface roughness. The combination of acrylic resin and ceramics when constructing the occlusal surfaces of fixed restorations in Group I demonstrated the highest rate of the increase in the occlusal contact surface area – 9.93%. It was due to a low hardness of acrylic resin and its high surface roughness. In

  15. Higgs results from the combination of ATLAS and CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Lacey, Jim; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Results of the combined ATLAS and CMS measurements of the mass, production and decay rates of the Higgs boson, as well as constraints on its couplings to vector bosons and fermions. The combination is based on the analysis of five production processes and the six decay channels $H\\rightarrow$ ZZ, WW, $\\gamma\\gamma$, $\\tau\\tau$, bb, and $\\mu\\mu$. All reported coupling results are obtained assuming a Higgs boson mass of 125.09 GeV, corresponding to the result of the combined mass measurement.

  16. Hyperbilirubinemia without Transaminitis during Combined Therapy with Daclatasvir and Asunaprevir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayato Baba

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Daclatasvir (DCV and asunaprevir (ASV are direct-acting antivirals (DAAs used in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. Combined therapy with DCV and ASV shows high efficacy and safety even in patients with cirrhosis. We encountered a patient exhibiting severe hyperbilirubinemia during combined therapy, which is an unreported side effect of DCV and ASV. A 78-year-old woman with cirrhosis developed hyperbilirubinemia >10 mg/dl without transaminitis 3 weeks after starting combined therapy. We suspected DAAs-induced liver disorder and discontinued treatment, which resulted in the improvement of hyperbilirubinemia. Caution is required in the use of DAAs for patients with advanced cirrhosis.

  17. Efficient combined security system for wireless sensor network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Fayed

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs need effective security mechanisms because these networks deployed in hostel unattended environments. There are many parameters affect selecting the security mechanism as its speed and energy consumption. This paper presents a combined security system for WSN that enhance the speed of the network and it is energy consumption. This system combines two strong protocols, Lightweight Kerberos and Elliptic Curve Menezes–Qu–Vanstone (ECMQV. The simulation results demonstrate that the combined system can enlarge the life time for wireless sensor networks, enhance its security, and increase its speed.

  18. Coherent combination of two Tm-doped fiber amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaida, C; Kienel, M; Müller, M; Klenke, A; Gebhardt, M; Stutzki, F; Jauregui, C; Limpert, J; Tünnermann, A

    2015-05-15

    The efficient coherent combination of two ultrafast Tm-doped fiber amplifiers in the 2-μm wavelength region is demonstrated. The performance of the combined amplifiers is compared to the output characteristics of a single amplifier being limited by the onset of detrimental nonlinear effects. Nearly transform-limited pulses with 830-fs duration, 22-μJ pulse energy, and 25-MW peak power have been achieved with a combining efficiency greater than 90%. Based on this result, it can be expected that 2-μm-ultrafast-fiber-laser systems will enter new performance realms in the near future.

  19. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF COMBINATION DRUGS FOR TREATING VAGINOSIS DIFFERENT ETIOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobritskaya L. A.,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigated the antimicrobial activity of the combination preparation in capsules "Meraflam" clinical of microbial strains isolated from patients with bacterial vaginosis . Experimentally proved the therapeutic dose of 0.3 g ornidazole in combination with Flamini 0.05 g, improve tolerability and expand the range of antibacterial action of the drug. In view of the antimicrobial capacity of diclofenac sodium from the combination of ofloxacin proposed for use in an integrated circuit - inflammatory treatment of infectious diseases , including bacterial vaginosis.

  20. Material Research of Rotary Sealing Device for Combined Cutting System

    OpenAIRE

    Rui Zeng; Yong Zhang; Zhenrong Lin; Lulu Wang

    2017-01-01

    In order to solve the rotary sealing problem of rotary shaft in drum shearer combined cutting system, the material and structure of combined cutting system rotary sealing device needs to be selected and designed. In the paper, the rotary sealing structure of four grades in series was designed first, and then the material of NBR-40 and PTFE 4FT-4 under the separate static and dynamic sealing tests were carried out on the combined tooth-slip-ring sealing test-bed. The tests show that the NBR-40...

  1. Optical Ground Terminals Using Multi Aperture Digital Coherent Combining

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    digital coherent combining through a 3.2-km free- space link [5]. For this experiment, a continuous wave...Geisler, T. M. Yarnall, C. M. Schieler, M. L. Stevens, B. S. Robinson, and S. A. Hamilton, “Experimental demonstration of multi- aperture digital coherent combining over a 3.2-km free-space link ,” Proc. SPIE 10096, p. 100960C, 2017. ...Optical Ground Terminals Using Multi-Aperture Digital Coherent Combining (Invited Paper) D. J. Geisler, T. M. Yarnall, C. M. Schieler, M. L.

  2. Study of combined cycle engine for aerospace plane

    OpenAIRE

    苅田, 丈士; Kanda, Takeshi; 工藤, 賢司; Kudo, Kenji

    2002-01-01

    At the Ramjet Propulsion Research Center, the scramjet engine for an aerospace plane has been studied. Other engines are required for the plane to go into orbit. Recently, a combined cycle engine including scramjet mode has been also studied to complete the engine system for the plane. The scramjet and the combined cycle engine are most effective with application to the Single-Stage-to-Orbit (SSTO) aerospace plane, as shown in Figure 1. Recent activity on the combined cycle engine and the SST...

  3. [Cardiovascular risks of combined oral contraceptives - beyond the French controversy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronier, H; Gronier-Gouvernel, H; Robin, G

    2014-03-01

    Combined hormonal contraceptive is the most used contraceptive method in France among childbearing-aged women. Following the temporary delisting of oral contraception containing a 3rd generation progestin and following the market withdrawal of oral pills containing cyproterone acetate in combination with ethynil-estradiol (35μg), the impact of these events on our prescribing practice remains to determine. We will especially discuss the cardiovascular risk associated with combined hormonal contraceptives in the light of the most recent publications either with epidemiological or biological data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Combination of results on the Higgs Boson in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Mansoulié, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    The combination of the most recent results obtained by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC on the Higgs boson is presented. The combined mass measurement derived from the $H \\to \\gamma \\gamma$ and $H \\to ZZ^{(*)} \\to 4l$ channels using the full 2011 and 2012 dataset is $m_H$ = $125 ± 2 (stat)^{+0.5}_{-0.6}$ (sys) GeV. The combination of all studied nal states, including the $H \\to \\tau\\tau, H \\to b\\bar{b}$ and $H \\to WW^{(*}) \\to l\

  5. 3rd Workshop on "Combinations of Intelligent Methods and Applications"

    CERN Document Server

    Palade, Vasile

    2013-01-01

    The combination of different intelligent methods is a very active research area in Artificial Intelligence (AI). The aim is to create integrated or hybrid methods that benefit from each of their components.  The 3rd Workshop on “Combinations of Intelligent Methods and Applications” (CIMA 2012) was intended to become a forum for exchanging experience and ideas among researchers and practitioners who are dealing with combining intelligent methods either based on first principles or in the context of specific applications. CIMA 2012 was held in conjunction with the 22nd European Conference on Artificial Intelligence (ECAI 2012).This volume includes revised versions of the papers presented at CIMA 2012.  .

  6. Combinations of drugs in the Treatment of Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio C. Mancini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a chronic disease associated with excess morbidity and mortality. Clinical treatment, however, currently offers disappointing results, with very high rates of weight loss failure or weight regain cycles, and only two drugs (orlistat and sibutramine approved for long-term use. Drugs combinations can be an option for its treatment but, although widely used in clinical practice, very few data are available in literature for its validation. Our review focuses on the rationale for their use, with advantages and disadvantages; on combinations often used, with or without studies; and on new perspectives of combinations being studied mainly by the pharmaceutical industry.

  7. Low-cost replicable plastic HUD combiner element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Bernard; Raulot, Victorien; St. Hilaire, Pierre; Meyrueis, Patrick

    2009-05-01

    We present a novel technique to fabricate low cost mass replicable plastic HUDs for the transportation industry. HUD are implemented in numerous sectors today (in avionics, automobile, military, machinery,...). Typical implementations include an optical combiner which produces the desired virtual image while leaving the field mostly unaffected by the optics. Such combiners optics are usually implemented as cumbersome catadioptric devices in automobile, dichroic coated curved plates, or expensive volume holograms in commercial and military aviation. We propose a novel way to design, model and fabricate combiner masters which can be replicated in mass by UV casting in plastic. We review the various design techniques required for such elements and the novel mastering technology.

  8. A case study of single-pill combination therapy: the ezetimibe/simvastatin combination for treatment of hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xianhai; Chen, David Y-K

    2012-11-01

    In recent years, combination therapy has received growing popularity as a powerful therapeutic tactic for the treatment of diseases. The justifications and benefits of combination therapy are far-reaching, including but not limited to addressing unmet medical needs such as cancer, malaria, and HIV/AIDS, improved clinical efficacy and safety with reduced dosage of a single medication, understanding the underlying science of the disease, alleviating pharmaco-economic impacts, and better drug life-cycle management. Using the ezetimibe/simvastatin combination therapy as a case study, a comprehensive overview of the successful discovery and development of the single-pill combination, Vytorin, is presented in this review. A cursory introduction to combination therapy and the rationale for the ezetimibe/simvastatin combination for the treatment of hyperlipidemia provides an instructive entry point. The discovery and mode of action of simvastatin and ezetimibe monotherapies set the scene for a detailed discussion on the discovery and development of Vytorin, with emphasis on bioequivalency studies, clinical efficacy and safety profile studies, and the economic consequences of the single-pill combination therapy. Large-scale outcome clinical trials are also discussed to demonstrate the long-term effects of Vytorin. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Colour harmony of two colour combinations in clothes matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicaksono, Sungging Haryo; Fu, Tzu-Hao; Chen, Liang-Ya; Hou, Chien-Yu; Ou, Li-Chen

    2015-01-01

    There are many definitions and theories about colour harmony. But no consistent rules and definitions can be determined. Some previous researches show that there are many factors that influence the colour harmony. Colour harmony is highly depends on the external factors, including the context of colour besides their colour combinations. In the current research an experiment conducted by observing two colour combinations which applied in shirt and trousers. Twenty observers involved in the experiment, consist of ten male and ten female. Each observer predict colour harmony score in 58 samples of shirt and trouser pairs, the colour combination then applied upside down. Based on the experimental results, male and female group has similar tendency in colour harmony score prediction in the same colour samples (correlation coefficient, r=0.84). Upside down colour combinations will change the impression of observer about colour harmony and yields a different value of colour harmony prediction score which indicated from correlation coefficient results of 0.53.

  10. Effects of different hydroponic substrate combinations and watering ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Production of medicinal plants in controlled environments, particularly hydroponic technology, provides opportunities for high quality biomass accumulation and optimizes production of secondary metabolites. Applying special watering regimes in combination with efficient soil draining is an encouraging new ...

  11. Hypnotherapy: A Combined Approach Using Psychotherapy and Behavior Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Bruce

    1987-01-01

    Discusses use of hypnosis in traditional psychoanalysis, compares use of hypnosis in behavior modification therapy versus psychoanalysis, and presents a hypno-behavioral model which combines both approaches using hypnosis as the medium. (Author/NB)

  12. Knowledge base combinations and innovation performance in Swedish regions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grillitsch, M.; Martin, R.; Srholec, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 5 (2017), s. 458-479 ISSN 0013-0095 Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : knowledge base * knowledge combination * region Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 5.344, year: 2016

  13. Knowledge base combinations and innovation performance in Swedish regions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grillitsch, M.; Martin, R.; Srholec, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 5 (2017), s. 458-479 ISSN 0013-0095 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : knowledge base * knowledge combination * region Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 5.344, year: 2016

  14. Impact of Tamsulosin, Tolterodine and drug-combination on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of Tamsulosin, Tolterodine and drug-combination on the outcomes of lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to post-ureteroscopy ureteral stent: A prospective randomized controlled clinical study.

  15. Speech perception using combinations of auditory, visual, and tactile information

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blamey, P J; Cowan, R S; Alcantara, J I; Whitford, L A; Clark, G M

    1989-01-01

    Four normally-hearing subjects were trained and tested with all combinations of a highly-degraded auditory input, a visual input via lipreading, and a tactile input using a multichannel electrotactile speech processor...

  16. Evaluating optical spectral matching of phosphor-photodetector combinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyvas, N [Greek Atomic Energy Commission, 153 10, Ag. Paraskevi, P.O BOX 60092 (Greece); Valais, I; Costaridou, L; Panayiotakis, G [Department of Medical Physics, Medical School, University of Patras, 265 00 Patras (Greece); Kandarakis, I; Cavouras, D [Department of Medical Instruments Technology, Technological Educational Institution of Athens, Aigaleo, 122 10 Athens (Greece); Nomicos, C D [Department of Electronics, Technological Educational Institution of Athens, Aigaleo, 122 10 Athens (Greece)], E-mail: kandarakis@teiath.gr

    2009-07-15

    Phosphor materials are used in medical X-ray imaging combined with various photodetectors suitable for conventional and digital radiography and fluoroscopy. A prerequisite for these combinations is good optical spectral matching, which results in patient dose minimization. In the present work, a recently introduced factor, named OGTE, which accounts for optical gain signal-to-noise ratio transfer efficiency, is utilized for the evaluation of various phosphor-photodetector combinations. The optical photon spectrum of the phosphor materials studied was either determined experimentally, or obtained from literature. These phosphors were examined in conjunction with various photodetectors, which may be suitable for digital imaging. The corresponding optical response functions of the photodetectors were obtained from literature. It was found that there are numerous combinations exhibiting OGTE values above 0.80, which contribute to patient dose minimization.

  17. Evaluating optical spectral matching of phosphor-photodetector combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyvas, N.; Valais, I.; Costaridou, L.; Kandarakis, I.; Cavouras, D.; Nomicos, C. D.; Panayiotakis, G.

    2009-07-01

    Phosphor materials are used in medical X-ray imaging combined with various photodetectors suitable for conventional and digital radiography and fluoroscopy. A prerequisite for these combinations is good optical spectral matching, which results in patient dose minimization. In the present work, a recently introduced factor, named OGTE, which accounts for optical gain signal-to-noise ratio transfer efficiency, is utilized for the evaluation of various phosphor-photodetector combinations. The optical photon spectrum of the phosphor materials studied was either determined experimentally, or obtained from literature. These phosphors were examined in conjunction with various photodetectors, which may be suitable for digital imaging. The corresponding optical response functions of the photodetectors were obtained from literature. It was found that there are numerous combinations exhibiting OGTE values above 0.80, which contribute to patient dose minimization.

  18. On Combining Scores from Interest and Value Measures for Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Robert G. L.; Taylor, Neville B.

    1986-01-01

    Investigated the usefulness and the methods for combining vocational interests and work aspect preferences. Results indicated the Vocational Preference Inventory has greater discriminatory ability than the Work Aspect Preference Scale. Implications for counselors are given. (Author/BL)

  19. Diagnostic challenges in combined multiple sclerosis and centronuclear myopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, D.B.; Langkilde, Annika Reynberg; Schmalbruch, H

    2000-01-01

    The first case of combined centronuclear myopathy and multiple sclerosis is reported. The difficulties of diagnosing multiple sclerosis in patients with muscular disorders associated with the central nervous system involvement are discussed...

  20. 21 CFR 347.20 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredients to prepare an aluminum acetate solution. Aluminum sulfate tetradecahydrate may be combined with calcium acetate monohydrate in powder or tablet form to provide a 0.13 to 0.5 percent aluminum acetate...

  1. Clinical efficacy of Rifampicin and Streptomycin in combination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical efficacy of Rifampicin and Streptomycin in combination against Mycobacterium ulcerans infection: a systematic review. ... EMBASE (Excerpta Medica Database), The Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), WHOLIS (World Health Organization Library ...

  2. Combination Drug Delivery Approaches in Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun H. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated metastatic breast cancer needs aggressive treatment due to its reduced response to anticancer treatment and hence low survival and quality of life. Although in theory a combination drug therapy has advantages over single-agent therapy, no appreciable survival enhancement is generally reported whereas increased toxicity is frequently seen in combination treatment especially in chemotherapy. Currently used combination treatments in metastatic breast cancer will be discussed with their challenges leading to the introduction of novel combination anticancer drug delivery systems that aim to overcome these challenges. Widely studied drug delivery systems such as liposomes, dendrimers, polymeric nanoparticles, and water-soluble polymers can concurrently carry multiple anticancer drugs in one platform. These carriers can provide improved target specificity achieved by passive and/or active targeting mechanisms.

  3. Sentence-Combining in Technical Writing: An Editing Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Mary

    1982-01-01

    Describes the development and use of sentence combining exercises at a midwestern university and presents the results of a test to determine the effects of the exercises on syntactic maturity and mechanics. (HTH)

  4. COMBINED FORECASTS OF INFLATION RATE IN ROMANIA USING AFTER ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Simionescu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to construct some combined predictions for the inflation rate in Romania, by using only the individual forecasts of two experts. The predictions provided during 2004-2014 were used in constructing the new forecasts. Several schemes of combination were employed: equally weighted scheme, a scheme with weights that weights depend on the inverse of averages square forecast errors and the Aggregated Forecast Through Exponential Re-weighting (AFTER algorithm. The combined predictions based on these schemes improved the degree of accuracy of the forecasts made by the second expert during 2010-2013, but only an empirical combination based on the weights from 2009 improved also the first expert predictions for inflation rate in Romania.

  5. Application of localized reactivity index in combination with periodic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    HSAB) principle. Finally, a swelling mechanism is proposed. This is a unique study where a combination of periodic and localized calculations has been performed to validate the capability of reactivity index calculations in material designing.

  6. Perception of the efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West Nigeria and perception of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). Design and methods-About 180 pre-tested questionnaires were administered to randomly selected nurses out of which 155 were sufficiently completed and ...

  7. Combining ability of tomato lines in saladette-type hybrids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marcela Carvalho Andrade; Alex Antônio da Silva; Thiago Vicenzi Conrado; Wilson Roberto Maluf; Thiago Matos Andrade; Celso Mattes de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Given the growing importance of the saladette fresh tomato market in Brazil, the objective of this paper was to assess the combining abilities of lines potentially useful as parents of hybridsin this class...

  8. NMR with Combined Antiangiogenic and Radiation Therapies - Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    The original goal of the present study was to determine optimal strategies for combining radiation and antiangiogenic therapies in spontaneous murine tumors and to evaluate the potential of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR...

  9. Logical and Decisive Combining Criterion for Binary Group Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Vrana

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A new combining criterion, the Multiplicative Proportional Deviative Influence (MPDI is presented for combining or aggregating multi-expert numerical judgments in Yes-or-No type ill-structured group decision making situations. This newly proposed criterion performs well in comparison with the widely used aggregation means: the Arithmetic Mean (AM, and Geometric Mean (GM, especially in better reflecting the degree of agreement between criteria levels or numerical experts’ judgments. The MPDI can be considered as another class of combining criteria that make effect of the degree of agreement among multiple numerical judgments. The MPDI is applicable in integrating several collaborative or synergistic decision making systems through combining final numerical decision outputs. A discussion and generalization of the proposed MPDI is discussed withnumerical example.

  10. Combination of Citicoline and Physiotherapy in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Nasiri

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Results demonstrated that citicoline in combination to physiotherapy appears to be a promising agent to improve gross motor function in patients with cerebral palsy versus physiotherapy alone. Although, further studies are need to be done.

  11. Combination could be another tool for bowel preparation?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jae Seung Soh Kyung-Jo Kim

    2016-01-01

    ...), and prokinetic agents(e.g., cisapride, mosapride, and itopride). A combination of PEG with an osmotic, stimulant, or prokinetic agent could effectively reduce the PEG solution volume and increase patients’ adherence...

  12. Combining Drugs to Treat Ovarian Cancer - Annual Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 70 percent of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer will die from the disease. Read about the NCI-funded combination drug trial that has successfully treated Betsy Brauser's recurrent cancer.

  13. Vision System of Mobile Robot Combining Binocular and Depth Cameras

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yuxiang Yang; Xiang Meng; Mingyu Gao

    2017-01-01

    In order to optimize the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and obtain more precise actual distances of the object, a 3D reconstruction system combining binocular and depth cameras is proposed in this paper...

  14. Combining hardware and simulation for datacenter scaling studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Pilimon, Artur; Thrane, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    Datacenter networks are becoming crucial foundations for our information technology based society. However, commercial datacenter infrastructure is often unavailable to researchers for conducting experiments. In this work, we therefore elaborate on the possibility of combining commercial hardware...

  15. Combined wet oxidation and alkaline hydrolysis of polyvinylchloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, E.; Bjerre, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    In view of the widespread aversion to burning polyvinylchloride (PVC) together with municipal waste, we have attempted an alternative approach to its decomposition. This paper describes a combined wet oxidation/alkaline hydrolysis yielding water soluble, biodegradable products. Experiments were...

  16. Combined limit on $B^0_s$ oscillation frequency

    CERN Document Server

    Moser, H G

    1996-01-01

    Several techniques were used in ALEPH to search for B0_s oscillations: Dileptons, lepton-jet charge, kaon-lepton correlation, D_s-lepton and D_s-hadron events with multiple initial state tags. In order to achieve the highest sensitivity all these analyses can be combined. This combination is performed using the amplitude-fit technique. In each analysis the amplitude of the B0_s B0_s/bar oscillation is fitted as function of the oscillation frequency. This amplitude parameter should be 0, if no oscillation is observed, or one if an oscillation signal is present. Oscillations can be excluded for a certain frequency if A = 1 can be excluded. The individual amplitude spectra represent measurements of the same physical quantity and can be combined using straightforeward error propagation. The combined lower limit will be presented.

  17. Q-Squared: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-07-24

    Jul 24, 2013 ... In Q-Squared: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches in Poverty Analysis, author Paul Shaffer examines the underlying assumptions and implications of how we conceptualize and investigate poverty.

  18. Effect of Combined Application of Organic and Mineral Nitrogen and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mite

    Hordeum ... effect of combined organic and mineral nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) on selected soil physico-chemical ...... soil sealing and crusting, enhances water infiltration, increases CEC and soil moisture retention capacity (Bationo et al., ...

  19. Development of Pattern Recognition Options for Combining Safeguards Subsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burr, Thomas L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hamada, Michael S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-24

    This talk reviews project progress in combining process monitoring data and nuclear material accounting data to improve the over nuclear safeguards system. Focus on 2 subsystems: (1) nuclear materials accounting (NMA); and (2) process monitoring (PM).

  20. Cancer treatment: the combination of vaccination with other therapies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M.H.; Sorensen, R.B.; Schrama, D.

    2008-01-01

    approach to fight cancer, the combination with additional therapy could create a number of synergistic effects. Herein we discuss the possibilities and prospects of vaccination when combined with other treatments. In this regard, cell death upon drug exposure may be immunogenic or non-immunogenic depending...... and endothelial cells. The efficacy of therapeutic vaccination against cancer will over the next few years be studied in settings taking advantage of strategies in which vaccination is combined with other treatment modalities. These combinations should be based on current knowledge not only regarding the biology...... of the cancer cell per se, but also considering how treatment may influence the malignant cell population as well as the immune system Udgivelsesdato: 2008/11...

  1. Measurement Combination for Acoustic Source Localization in a Room Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pertilä Pasi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of time delay estimation (TDE is well understood and therefore attractive to apply in acoustic source localization (ASL. A time delay between microphones maps into a hyperbola. Furthermore, the likelihoods for different time delays are mapped into a set of weighted nonoverlapping hyperbolae in the spatial domain. Combining TDE functions from several microphone pairs results in a spatial likelihood function (SLF which is a combination of sets of weighted hyperbolae. Traditionally, the maximum SLF point is considered as the source location but is corrupted by reverberation and noise. Particle filters utilize past source information to improve localization performance in such environments. However, uncertainty exists on how to combine the TDE functions. Results from simulated dialogues in various conditions favor TDE combination using intersection-based methods over union. The real-data dialogue results agree with the simulations, showing a 45% RMSE reduction when choosing the intersection over union of TDE functions.

  2. Measurement Combination for Acoustic Source Localization in a Room Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasi Pertilä

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of time delay estimation (TDE is well understood and therefore attractive to apply in acoustic source localization (ASL. A time delay between microphones maps into a hyperbola. Furthermore, the likelihoods for different time delays are mapped into a set of weighted nonoverlapping hyperbolae in the spatial domain. Combining TDE functions from several microphone pairs results in a spatial likelihood function (SLF which is a combination of sets of weighted hyperbolae. Traditionally, the maximum SLF point is considered as the source location but is corrupted by reverberation and noise. Particle filters utilize past source information to improve localization performance in such environments. However, uncertainty exists on how to combine the TDE functions. Results from simulated dialogues in various conditions favor TDE combination using intersection-based methods over union. The real-data dialogue results agree with the simulations, showing a 45% RMSE reduction when choosing the intersection over union of TDE functions.

  3. Combination therapy: the next opportunity and challenge of medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marincola Francesco M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract From an historical point of view, combination therapy was the basis for the care of important diseases like infection diseases or cancer. Today the "cocktail drug" of the Highly Active Anti Retroviral Therapy (HAART has reduced the death for HIV infection changing the outcome of such disease. Moreover, the combination of different strategies changed the course of transplants (both in haematology and surgical transplant. Different diseases with high social impact including cardiovascular, metabolic (obesity, hypercholesterolaemia and diabetes and autoimmune diseases, have better results with combinations of different drug classes of drugs. After recent successes in the immunotherapy field (Sepuleucel-T, ipilimumab and the new promising small molecule therapies, cancer should be the next challenge for combination strategies.

  4. Combination irradiation treatments for food safety and phytosanitary uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combination of irradiation treatment with other preservation techniques is of potential importance in enhancing the effectiveness and reducing the energy or dose requirement for destroying food borne illness and spoilage organisms while retaining or improving product quality. Phytosanitary irradiati...

  5. Prototype solar heating and combined heating cooling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The design and development of eight prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems is discussed. The program management and systems engineering are reported, and operational test sites are identified.

  6. Combined seismic plus live-load analysis of highway bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    "The combination of seismic and vehicle live loadings on bridges is an important design consideration. There are well-established design : provisions for how the individual loadings affect bridge response: structural components that carry vertical li...

  7. Long term combination treatment for severe idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affuso, Flora; Cirillo, Plinio; Ruvolo, Antonio; Carlomagno, Guido; Fazio, Serafino

    2010-01-01

    We report the long-term follow-up of 3 cases of severe idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, in whom tadalafil plus sitaxentan combination therapy improved the clinical condition and exercise performance without any relevant adverse event. PMID:21160759

  8. Synthesis and catalytic applications of combined zeolitic/mesoporous materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarian Vernimmen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, research concerning nanoporous siliceous materials has been focused on mesoporous materials with intrinsic zeolitic features. These materials are thought to be superior, because they are able to combine (i the enhanced diffusion and accessibility for larger molecules and viscous fluids typical of mesoporous materials with (ii the remarkable stability, catalytic activity and selectivity of zeolites. This review gives an overview of the state of the art concerning combined zeolitic/mesoporous materials. Focus is put on the synthesis and the applications of the combined zeolitic/mesoporous materials. The different synthesis approaches and formation mechanisms leading to these materials are comprehensively discussed and compared. Moreover, Ti-containing nanoporous materials as redox catalysts are discussed to illustrate a potential implementation of combined zeolitic/mesoporous materials.

  9. Combining psychosocial treatment with pharmacotherapy for alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Roger D; Kueppenbender, Karsten D

    2006-12-01

    Pharmacotherapy for alcohol dependence is always delivered in a psychosocial context that may affect the outcome of the treatment. The rigorous study of different psychotherapeutic treatments for alcohol dependence has shown several distinct approaches to be effective. This article reviews the combination of alcohol dependence pharmacotherapies, including disulfiram, naltrexone, and acamprosate, with different psychosocial interventions. Many psychosocial interventions for alcohol dependence, including Alcoholics Anonymous, can be integrated successfully with pharmacotherapy. Psychosocial interventions, ranging from brief medical management to more intensive manualized psychotherapies, have all been shown to produce positive outcomes in certain studies, depending on the specific medication and the study context. Particularly successful combinations may include the use of behavioral marital therapy plus a disulfiram contract for patients taking that medication, and the combination of naltrexone or acamprosate with cognitive-behavioral therapy or psychosocial support. Ongoing research examining the optimal combinations of medications with different psychosocial treatments for alcohol dependence may further inform the field.

  10. Internal motions in proteins: A combined neutron scattering and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    phycocyanin, that can be obtained in protonated and deuterated forms. Diffusive motions have been studied using the protonated C-phycocyanin, protein. Molecular dynamics simulation and analytical theory have been combined to analyse the data ...

  11. Combination antiretroviral therapy and the risk of myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friis-Moller, N; Sabin, CA; Weber, R; Monforte, AD; El-Sadr, WM; Reiss, P; Thiebaut, R; Morfeldt, L; De Wit, S; Pradier, C; Calvo, G; Law, MG; Kirk, O; Phillips, AN; Lundgren, JD; Lundgren, JD; Weber, R; Monteforte, AD; Bartsch, G; Reiss, P; Dabis, F; Morfeldt, L; De Wit, S; Pradier, C; Calvo, G; Law, MG; Kirk, O; Phillips, AN; Houyez, F; Loeliger, E; Tressler, R; Weller, I.; Friis-Moller, N; Sabin, CA; Sjol, A; Lundgren, JD; Sawitz, A; Rickenbach, M; Pezzotti, P; Krum, E; Meester, R; Lavignolle, V.; Sundstrom, A; Poll, B; Fontas, E; Torres, F; Petoumenos, K; Kjaer, J; Hammer, S; Neaton, J; Sjol, A; de Wolf, F; van der Ven, E; Zaheri, S; Van Valkengoed, L; Meester, R; Bronsveld, W; Weigel, H; Brinkman, K; Frissen, P; ten Veen, J; Hillbrand, M; Schieveld, S; Mulder, J; van Gorp, E; Meenhorst, P; Danner, S; Claessen, F; Perenboom, R; Schattenkerk, JKE; Godfried, M; Lange, J; Lowe, S; van der Meer, J; Nellen, F; Pogany, K; van der Poll, T; Reiss, R; Ruys, T; Wit, F; Richter, C; van Leusen, R; Vriesendorp, R; Jeurissen, F; Kauffmann, R; Koger, E; Brevenboer, B; Sprenger, HG; Law, G; ten Kate, RW; Leemhuis, M; Schippers, E; Schrey, G; van der Geest, S; Verbon, A; Koopmans, P; Keuter, M; Telgt, D; van der Ven, A; van der Ende, Marchina E.; Gyssens, I.; de Marie, S; Juttmann, J; van der Heul, C; Schneider, M; Borleffs, J; Hoepelman, I.; Jaspers, C; Matute, A; Schurink, C; Blok, W; Salamon, R; Beylot, J; Dupon, M; Le Bras, M; Pellegrin, JL; Ragnaud, JM; Dabis, F; Chene, G; Jacqmin-Gadda, H; Rhiebaut, R; Lawson-Ayayi, S; Lavignolle, V.; Balestre, E; Blaizeau, MJ; Decoin, M; Formaggio, AM; Delveaux, S; Labarerre, S; Uwamaliya, B; Vimard, E; Merchadou, L; Palmer, G; Touchard, D; Dutoit, D; Pereira, F; Boulant, B; Beylot, J; Morlat, P; Bonarek, M; Bonnet, F; Coadou, B; Gelie, P; Jaubert, D; Nouts, C; Lacoste, D; Dupon, M; Dutronc, H; Cipriano, G; Lafarie, S; Chossat, I.; Lacut, JY; Leng, B; Pellegrin, JL; Mercie, P; Viallard, JF; Faure, I.; Rispal, P; Cipriano, C; Tchamgoue, S; Le Bras, M; Djossou, F; Malvy, D; Pivetaud, JP; Ragnaud, JM; Chambon, D; De La Taille, C; Galperine, T; Lafarie, S; Neau, D; Ochoa, A; Beylot, C; Doutre, MS; Bezian, JH; Moreau, JF; Taupin, JL; Conri, C; Constans, J; Couzigou, P; Castera, L; Fleury, H; Lafon, ME; Masquelier, B; Pellegrin, I.; Trimoulet, P; Moreau, F; Mestre, C; Series, C; Taytard, A; Law, M; Petoumenos, K; Bal, J; Mijch, A; Watson, K; Roth, N; Wood, H; Austin, D; Gowers, A; Baker, B; McFarlane, R; Carr, A; Cooper, D; Chuah, J; Fankhauser, W; Mallal, S; Skett, J; Calvo, G; Torres, F; Mateau, S; Domingo, P; Sambeat, MA; Gatell, J; Del Cacho, E; Cadafalch, J; Fuster, M; Codina, C; Sirera, G; Vaque, A; Clumeck, N; De Wit, S; Gerard, M; Hildebrand, M; Kabeya, K; Konopnicki, D; Payen, MC; Poll, B; Van Laethem, Y; Neaton, J; Bartsch, G; El-Sadr, WM; Krum, E; Thompson, G; Wentworth, D; Luskin-Hawk, R; Telzak, E; El-Sadr, WM; Abrams, DI; Cohn, D; Markowitz, N; Arduino, R; Mushatt, D; Friedland, G; Perez, G; Tedaldi, E; Fisher, E; Gordin, F; Crane, LR; Sampson, J; Baxter, J; Kirk, O; Mocroft, A; Phillips, AN; Lundgren, JD; Vetter, N; Clumeck, N; Hermans, P; Colebunders, R; Machala, L; Nielsen, J; Benfield, T; Gerstoft, J; Katzenstein, T; Roge, B; Skinhoj, P; Pedersen, C; Katlama, C; Viard, JP; Saint-Marc, T; Vanhems, P; Pradier, C; Dietrich, M; Manegold, C; van Lunzen, J; Miller, V.; Staszewski, S; Bieckel, M; Goebel, FD; Salzberger, B; Rockstroh, J; Kosmidis, J; Gargalianos, P; Sambatakou, H; Perdios, J; Panos, G; Karydis, I.; Filandras, A; Banhegyi, D; Mulcahy, F; Yust, I.; Turner, D; Pollack, S; Ben-Ishai, Z; Bentwich, Z; Maayan, S; Vella, S; Chiesi, A; Arici, C; Pristera, R; Mazzotta, F; Gabbuti, A; Esposito, R; Bedini, A; Chirianni, A; Montesarchio, E; Vullo, V.; Santopadre, P; Narciso, P; Antinori, A; Franci, P; Zaccarelli, M; Lazzarin, A; Finazzi, R; Monforte, VO; Hemmer, R; Staub, T; Reiss, P; Bruun, J; Maeland, A; Ormaasen, V.; Knysz, B; Gasiorowski, J; Horban, A; Prokopowicz, D; Boron-Kaczmarska, A; Pnyka, M; Beniowski, M; Trocha, H; Antunes, F; Mansinho, K; Proenca, R; Gonzalez-Lahoz, J; Diaz, B; Garcia-Benayas, T; Martin-Carbonero, L; Soriano, V.; Clotet, B; Jou, A; Conejero, J; Tural, C; Gatell, JM; Miro, JM; Blaxhult, A; Heidemann, B; Pehrson, P; Ledergerber, B; Weber, R; Francioli, P; Telenti, A; Hirschel, B; Soravia-Dunand, V.; Furrer, H; Fisher, M; Brettle, R; Barton, S; Johnson, AM; Mercey, D; Loveday, C; Johnson, MA; Pinching, A; Parkin, J; Weber, J; Scullard, G; Morfeldt, L; Thulin, G; Sunstrom, A; Akerlund, B; Koppel, K; Karlsson, A; Flamholc, L; Hakangard, C; Monforte, AD; Pezzotti, P; Moroni, M; Monforte, AD; Cargnel, A; Merli, S; Vigevani, GM; Pastecchia, C; Lazzarin, A; Novati, R; Caggese, L; Moioli, C; Mura, MS; Mannazzu, M; Suter, F; Arici, C; Manconi, PE; Piano, P; Mazzotta, F; Lo Caputo, S; Poggio, A; Bottari, G; Pagano, G; Alessandrini, A; Scasso, A; Vincenti, A; Abbadesse, V.; Mancuso, S; Alberici, F; Ruggieri, A; Arlotti, M; Ortolani, P; De Lalla, F; Tositti, G; Piersantelli, N; Piscopo, R; Raise, E; Pasquinucci, S; Soscia, F; Tacconi, L; Tirelli, U; Nasti, G; Santoro, D; Pusterla, L; Carosi, G; Castelli, F; Cadeo, G; Vangi, D; Carnevale, G; Galloni, D; Filice, G; Bruno, R; Sinicco, A; Sciandra, M; Caramello, P; Gennero, L; Soranzo, ML; Bonasso, M; Rizzardini, G; Migliorino, G; Chiodo, F; Colangeli, V.; Magnani, G; Ursitti, M; Menichetti, F; Martinelli, C; Esposito, R; Mussini, C; Ghinelli, F; Sighinolfi, L; Coronado, O; Zauli, T; Ballardini, G; Montroni, M; Zoli, A; Petrelli, E; Cioppi, A; Ortona, L; De Luca, A; Petrosillo, N; Noto, P; Narciso, P; Salcuni, P; Antinori, A; De Longis, P; Vullo, V.; Lichtner, M; Pastore, G; Minafra, G; Chiriann, A; Loiacono, L; Piazza, M; Nappa, S; Abrescia, N; De Marco, M; Colomba, A; Prestileo, T; De Stefano, C; La Gala, A; Ferraro, T; Scerbo, A; Grima, P; Tundo, P; Pizzigallo, E; D'Alessandro, M; Grisorio, B; Ferrara, S; Pradier, C; Fontas, E; Caissotti, C; Dellamonica, P; Bentz, L; Bernard, E; Chaillou, S; De Salvador-Guillouet, F; Durant, J; Guttman, R; Heripret, L; Mondain-Miton, V.; Perbost, I.; Prouvost-Keller, B; Pugliese, P; Rahelinirina, V.; Roger, PM; Vandenbos, F; Bernasconi, E; Bucher, H; Burgisser, P; Cattacin, S; Egger, M; Erb, P; Fierz, W; Fischer, M; Flepp, M; Fontana, A; Francioli, P; Furrer, HJ; Gorgievski, M; Hirschel, B; Kaiser, L; Kind, C; Klimkait, T; Ledergerber, B; Lauper, U; Opravil, M; Paccaud, F; Pantaleo, G; Perrin, L; Piffaretti, JC; Rickenbach, M; Rudin, C; Schupbach, J; Speck, R; Telenti, A; Trkola, A; Vernazza, P; Weber, R; Yerly, S; Ten Napel, C.

    2003-01-01

    Background: It remains controversial whether exposure to combination antiretroviral treatment increases the risk of myocardial infarction. Methods: In this prospective observational study, we enrolled 23,468 patients from 11 previously established cohorts from December 1999 to April 2001 and

  12. Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) Propulsion Workshop, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacki, Kent T.

    1992-01-01

    The goal of the Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) Propulsion Technology Workshop, was to impart technology information to the propulsion community with respect to hypersonic combined cycle propulsion capabilities. The major recommendation resulting from this technology workshop was as follows: conduct a systems-level applications study to define the desired propulsion system and vehicle technology requirements for LEO launch vehicles. All SSTO and TSTO options using the various propulsion systems (airbreathing combined cycle, rocket-based combined cycle, and all rocket) must be considered. Such a study should be accomplished as soon as possible. It must be conducted with a consistent set of ground rules and assumptions. Additionally, the study should be conducted before any major expenditures on a RBCC technology development program occur.

  13. Micro-Combined Heat and Power Device Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NIST has developed a test facility for micro-combined heat and power (micro-CHP) devices to measure their performance over a range of different operating strategies...

  14. Approximation with positive linear operators and linear combinations

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Vijay

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a systematic overview of approximation by linear combinations of positive linear operators, a useful tool used to increase the order of approximation. Fundamental and recent results from the past decade are described with their corresponding proofs. The volume consists of eight chapters that provide detailed insight into the representation of monomials of the operators Ln , direct and inverse estimates for a broad class of positive linear operators, and case studies involving finite and unbounded intervals of real and complex functions. Strong converse inequalities of Type A in terminology of Ditzian–Ivanov for linear combinations of Bernstein and Bernstein–Kantorovich operators and various Voronovskaja-type estimates for some linear combinations are analyzed and explained. Graduate students and researchers in approximation theory will find the list of open problems in approximation of linear combinations useful. The book serves as a reference for graduate and postgraduate courses as we...

  15. INVESTIGATIONS ON SEWAGE TREATMENT PROCESS USING COMBINED BIO-OXIDIZERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Jaromsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of investigations on process of aerobic waste water treatment with combined bio-oxidizers at milk processing enterprises. It has been shown that attached biocenosis, free-floating biocenosis and also bio-module rotation frequency  have exerted a significant influence on the process of an aerobic sewage treatment. It has been established that combined bio-oxidizers can be used for cleaning high concentrated waste water at the enterprises of food industry.

  16. Combination of metformin with chemotherapeutic drugs via different molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Mei; Darko, Kwame Oteng; Tao, Ting; Huang, Yanjun; Su, Qiongli; He, Caimei; Yin, Tao; Liu, Zhaoqian; Yang, Xiaoping

    2017-03-01

    Metformin, a widely prescribed drug for treating type II diabetes, is one of the most extensively recognized metabolic modulators which has shown an important anti-cancer property. However, fairly amount of clinical trials on its single administration have not demonstrated a convincing efficiency yet. Thus, recent studies tend to combine metformin with clinical commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs to decrease their toxicity and attenuate their tumor resistance. These strategies have displayed promising clinical benefits. Interestingly, metformin experiences a diversity of molecular mechanisms when it combines different chemotherapeutic drugs. For example, AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway activation plays a major role when it combines with hormone modulating drugs. In contrast, suppression of HIF-1, p-gp and MRP1 protein expression is its main mechanism when metformin combines with anti-metabolites. Furthermore, when combining of metformin with antibiotics, inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammatory signaling pathway becomes a novel pharmaceutical mechanism for its cardio-protective effect. Induction of apoptotic mitochondria and nucleus could be the major player for the synergistic effect of its combination with cisplatin. In contrast, down-regulation of lipoprotein or cholesterol synthesis might be the undefined molecular base when metformin combines with taxane. Thus, deep exploration of molecular mechanisms of metformin with these different drugs is critical to understand its synergistic effect and help for personalized administration. In this mini-review, detailed molecular mechanisms of these combinations are discussed and summarized. This work will promote better understanding of molecular mechanisms of metformin and provide precise targets to identify specific patient groups to achieve satisfactory treatment efficacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. SEISMIC RESPONSE OF FRAME BUILDINGS WITH COMBINED EARTHQUAKE PROTECTION SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Abakar J. Abakarov; Khadzhimurad M. Omarov

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. Objectives The aim of the study is to search for methods to improve the efficiency of the earthquake protection systems with rubber-metallic seismic insulating supports by combining them with dry friction and brittle uncoupling elements. Method The research is based on dynamic modelling methods. Results The computational dynamic model of the combined earthquake protection system and the system of differential equations of the seismic motion of a five-story frame building were compil...

  18. Combined Intelligent Control (CIC): An Intelligent decision making algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Moteaal Asadi Shirzi; M. R. Hairi Yazdi; Caro Lucas

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this research is to introduce the concept of combined intelligent control (CIC) as an effective architecture for decision making and control of intelligent agents and multi robot sets. Basically, the CIC is a combination of various architectures and methods from fields such as artificial intelligence, Distributed Artificial Intelligence (DAI), control and biological computing. Although any intelligent architecture may be very effective for some specific applications, it could be ...

  19. Olmesartan medoxomil combined with hydrochlorothiazide for the treatment of hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Greathouse

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Mark GreathouseSouth Hills Cardiology Associates of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USAAbstract: In most patients with hypertension, especially Stage 2 hypertension, adequate control of blood pressure (BP is only achieved with combination drug therapy. When using combination therapy, antihypertensive agents with complementary mechanisms of action are recommended, for example, an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB in combination with hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ, a β-blocker + HCTZ, an ACE inhibitor + HCTZ, or a calcium channel blocker + an ACE inhibitor. One such combination is olmesartan medoxomil + HCTZ, which is available as fixed-dose, single-tablet combinations for once-daily administration. In clinical trials, olmesartan medoxomil/HCTZ reduced systolic BP (SBP and diastolic BP (DBP to a greater extent than either component as monotherapy. A clinical study in patients with Stage 1 or 2 hypertension showed that olmesartan medoxomil/HCTZ achieved a similar mean reduction in DBP, but a significantly greater mean reduction in SBP and higher rate of BP control (<140/90 mmHg than observed with losartan/HCTZ, at US/European-approved starting doses. In a non-inferiority trial, the antihypertensive efficacy of olmesartan medoxomil/HCTZ was comparable to that of atenolol/HCTZ. Furthermore, indirect comparisons have shown that olmesartan medoxomil/HCTZ compares favorably with other antihypertensive combination therapies, including other ARB/HCTZ combinations and amlodipine besylate/benazepril. Olmesartan medoxomil/HCTZ is generally well tolerated. In conclusion, olmesartan medoxomil/HCTZ is an effective and well-tolerated combination antihypertensive therapy that results in significant BP reductions and BP control in many patients. Keywords: olmesartan medoxomil, hydrochlorothiazide, angiotensin II receptor blocker, hypertension

  20. Effect of combined application of organic P and inorganic N ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was undertaken to assess the effect of combined application of organic-P and inorganic-N fertilizers on post harvest quality of carrot (Daucus carota l.) stored at 1°C and ambient conditions (8.6 - 24.8°C). For the fertilizer treatments, 309 kg orga ha-1 (for P) in combination with each of six rates of urea (0, 68.5, 267.2, ...

  1. Diagnostic challenges in combined multiple sclerosis and centronuclear myopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, D.B.; Langkilde, Annika Reynberg; Schmalbruch, H

    2000-01-01

    The first case of combined centronuclear myopathy and multiple sclerosis is reported. The difficulties of diagnosing multiple sclerosis in patients with muscular disorders associated with the central nervous system involvement are discussed......The first case of combined centronuclear myopathy and multiple sclerosis is reported. The difficulties of diagnosing multiple sclerosis in patients with muscular disorders associated with the central nervous system involvement are discussed...

  2. Accounting for business combinations: (Un)desirable uniformity?

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Humberto; Crowther, David

    2005-01-01

    For many years, two methods existed alongside each other in the USA to account for business combinations: the pooling of interests method, applied to operations, such as mergers, that met all the conditions as stated at APB Opinion No. 16; and the purchase method for all other combinations. This dual accounting status was also widespread through many other countries, although some included substantial GAAP differences (e.g. USA versus UK) or applied restrictions to the application of those me...

  3. APPROACHES TO COMBINED THERAPY OF ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Soboleva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of combined therapy of acute intestinal infections in children with lactulose and pancreatine in prebiotic dose are discussed in this article. Authors showed advantages of combined treatment: significant shortening of terms of symptoms stopping and children’s recovery.Key words: children, acute intestinal infections, lactulose, pancreatine.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. – 2010;9(3:102-106

  4. Therapeutic Cancer Vaccines in Combination with Conventional Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Mads Hald Andersen; Niels Junker; Eva Ellebaek; Inge Marie Svane; Per thor Straten

    2010-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of most therapeutic vaccines against cancer has not yet met its promise. Data are emerging that strongly support the notion that combining immunotherapy with conventional therapies, for example, radiation and chemotherapy may improve efficacy. In particular combination with chemotherapy may lead to improved clinical efficacy by clearing suppressor cells, reboot of the immune system, by rendering tumor cells more susceptible to immune mediated killing, or by activation o...

  5. Fighting liver cancer with combination immunotherapies | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new clinical trial testing the effectiveness of immunotherapy treatment combinations against liver cancer is enrolling patients at the NIH Clinical Center in Bethesda, Maryland. Individually, immunotherapy drugs harness the power of the human immune system to better identify and kill cancer cells. Now, researchers at the NIH’s Center for Cancer Research have begun to find evidence that the drugs may work far more effectively when taken in combination with other therapies and with each other than when taken alone.

  6. Heritability, combining ability and inheritance of storage root dry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Significant (p<0.001) mean squares for general combining ability (GCA), and specific combining ability (SCA) were observed in F1 and F2 generations, demonstrating additive and non-additive genetic inheritance of RDM. High Baker's ratio in F1 (0.76) and F2 (0.78), and large σ2GCA/σ2SCA (3.13) indicate predominance ...

  7. Internal auditing and organizational governance : the combined assurance approach

    OpenAIRE

    Decaux, Loïc

    2015-01-01

    If risk is everywhere, why is not assurance? This is an especially important question for boards of directors since they are often required to attest the effectiveness and appropriateness of internal control and risk management systems, but how can a board do so without receiving holistic assurance? This dissertation tries to provide elements of solution by developing four essays around the concept of combined assurance. Originally introduced by The King III Report in South Africa, combined a...

  8. Deterministic combination of numerical and physical coastal wave models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, H.W.; Schäffer, Hemming Andreas; Jakobsen, K.P.

    2007-01-01

    A deterministic combination of numerical and physical models for coastal waves is developed. In the combined model, a Boussinesq model MIKE 21 BW is applied for the numerical wave computations. A piston-type 2D or 3D wavemaker and the associated control system with active wave absorption provides...... modes) near the wavemaker are taken into account. With this approach, the data transfer between the two models is thus on a deterministic level with detailed wave information transmitted along the wavemaker....

  9. Inserting Stress Analysis of Combined Hexagonal Aluminum Honeycombs

    OpenAIRE

    Xiangcheng Li; Kang Li; Yuliang Lin; Rong Chen; Fangyun Lu

    2016-01-01

    Two kinds of hexagonal aluminum honeycombs are tested to study their out-of-plane crushing behavior. In the tests, honeycomb samples, including single hexagonal aluminum honeycomb (SHAH) samples and two stack-up combined hexagonal aluminum honeycombs (CHAH) samples, are compressed at a fixed quasistatic loading rate. The results show that the inserting process of CHAH can erase the initial peak stress that occurred in SHAH. Meanwhile, energy-absorbing property of combined honeycomb samples is...

  10. DSC and universal bit-level combining for HARQ systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv Tiejun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper proposes a Dempster -Shafer theory based combining scheme for single-input single-output (SISO systems with hybrid automatic retransmission request (HARQ, referred to as DSC, in which two methods for soft information calculations are developed for equiprobable (EP and non-equiprobable (NEP sources, respectively. One is based on the distance from the received signal to the decision candidate set consisting of adjacent constellation points when the source bits are equiprobable, and the corresponding DSC is regarded as DSC-D. The other is based on the posterior probability of the transmitted signals when the priori probability for the NEP source bits is available, and the corresponding DSC is regarded as DSC-APP. For the diverse EP and NEP source cases, both DSCD and DSC-APP are superior to maximal ratio combining, the so-called optimal combining scheme for SISO systems. Moreover, the robustness of the proposed DSC is illustrated by the simulations performed in Rayleigh channel and AWGN channel, respectively. The results show that the proposed DSC is insensitive to and especially applicable to the fading channels. In addition, a DS detection-aided bit-level DS combining scheme is proposed for multiple-input multiple-output--HARQ systems. The bit-level DS combining is deduced to be a universal scheme, and the traditional log-likelihood-ratio combining is a special case when the likelihood probability is used as bit-level soft information.

  11. A Diverse Stochastic Search Algorithm for Combination Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Umut Caglar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Design of drug combination cocktails to maximize sensitivity for individual patients presents a challenge in terms of minimizing the number of experiments to attain the desired objective. The enormous number of possible drug combinations constrains exhaustive experimentation approaches, and personal variations in genetic diseases restrict the use of prior knowledge in optimization. Results. We present a stochastic search algorithm that consisted of a parallel experimentation phase followed by a combination of focused and diversified sequential search. We evaluated our approach on seven synthetic examples; four of them were evaluated twice with different parameters, and two biological examples of bacterial and lung cancer cell inhibition response to combination drugs. The performance of our approach as compared to recently proposed adaptive reference update approach was superior for all the examples considered, achieving an average of 45% reduction in the number of experimental iterations. Conclusions. As the results illustrate, the proposed diverse stochastic search algorithm can produce optimized combinations in relatively smaller number of iterative steps. This approach can be combined with available knowledge on the genetic makeup of the patient to design optimal selection of drug cocktails.

  12. Towards a rigorous combination of space geodetic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothacher, Markus

    The IERS with all its different components and products, ranging from the definition and realization of the reference frames (ITRF and ICRF), over EOPs and global geophysical fluid data all the way to conventions, is in a unique position to contribute in an essential way to the integration and combination efforts that are necessary to cope with the next generation of scientific missions and challenges. Concentrating on its core products first, the IERS should strive for a rigorous combination of ITRF, EOPs, and ICRF. A scheme for such a combination to obtain a much more consistent and accurate set of IERS products is presented and discussed. The vision of a rigorous combination goes, however, far beyond the combination of ITRF, EOPs, and ICRF, and includes all three pillars of space geodesy, i.e. geometry, Earth rotation, and the gravity field. The interaction of the two pillars "geometry" and "Earth rotation", where the IERS is playing a major role, with the third pillar "gravity" and with the global geophysical fluids is therefore discussed as well. It shows that, on the long run, a rigorous combination of all common parameter types and all three pillars of space geodesy has to be achieved. The project of an Integrated Global Geodetic Observing System (IGGOS) proposed by the IAG might be the framework for such an ambitious undertaking.

  13. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND CLINICAL FEATURES OF COMBINED RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Shkarin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Presents a review of publications on the problem of combined respiratory infections among children. Viral-bacterial associations are registered  in a group of often ill children in 51.7%. More than half of the patients have herpesvirus infection in various combinations. The presence of a combined acute respiratory viral infection among children in the group from 2 to 6 years was noted in 44.2% of cases, among which, in addition to influenza viruses, RS-, adeno-, etc., metapneumovirus and bocavirus plays an important role.The increase in severity of acute respiratory viral infection with combined  infection, with chlamydia  and mycoplasma infection is shown. A longer and more severe course of whooping cough was observed when combined with respiratory viruses.The revealed facts of frequency of distribution of combined  respiratory infections in children, the severity and duration of their course with the development of various complications and the formation of chronic pathology dictate the need to improve diagnosis and treatment tactics of these forms of infections.

  14. Amlodipine-Valsartan Combination Decreases Central Systolic Blood Pressure More Effectively Than the Amlodipine-Atenolol Combination: The EXPLOR Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boutouyrie, Pierre; Achouba, Assya; Trunet, Patrick; Laurent, Stéphane

    2010-01-01

    ...). The trial was designed to determine whether the advantages of angiotensin-receptor blockers over atenolol remained significant when both were combined with the calcium-channel blocker amlodipine...

  15. Treatment of skeletal class II malocclusion with the combination of twin-block and combination-pull headgear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer S Patil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The patient was a girl with a Class II division 1 malocclusion, a large overjet, an excessively deep overbite, and a slightly increased mandibular plane angle. Treatment started with the Twin-block appliance combined with combination-pull headgear to promote growth of the mandible, restrain the maxilla in the anteroposterior plane, and improve her profile. This was later, followed by fixed appliance therapy.

  16. Treatment of skeletal class II malocclusion with the combination of twin-block and combination-pull headgear

    OpenAIRE

    Sameer S Patil; Sandesh S Baralay; Sheetal S Potnis

    2014-01-01

    The patient was a girl with a Class II division 1 malocclusion, a large overjet, an excessively deep overbite, and a slightly increased mandibular plane angle. Treatment started with the Twin-block appliance combined with combination-pull headgear to promote growth of the mandible, restrain the maxilla in the anteroposterior plane, and improve her profile. This was later, followed by fixed appliance therapy.

  17. Current concepts in combination therapy for the treatment of hypertension: combined calcium channel blockers and RAAS inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto F Rubio-Guerra

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Alberto F Rubio-Guerra1, David Castro-Serna2, Cesar I Elizalde Barrera2, Luz M Ramos-Brizuela21Metabolic and Research Clinic, 2Internal Medicine Department, Hospital General de Ticomán SS DF, MéxicoAbstract: Recent guidelines for the management of hypertension recommend target blood pressures <140/90 mmHg in hypertensive patients, or <130/80 mmHg in subjects with diabetes, chronic kidney disease, or coronary artery disease. Despite the availability and efficacy of antihypertensive drugs, most hypertensive patients do not reach the recommended treatment targets with monotherapy, making combination therapy necessary to achieve the therapeutic goal. Combination therapy with 2 or more agents is the most effective method for achieving strict blood pressure goals. Fixed-dose combination simplifies treatment, reduces costs, and improves adherence. There are many drug choices for combination therapy, but few data are available about the efficacy and safety of some specific combinations. Combination therapy of calcium antagonists and inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS are efficacious and safe, and have been considered rational by both the JNC 7 and the 2007 European Society of Hypertension – European Society of Cardiology guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension. The aim of this review is to discuss some relevant issues about the use of combinations with calcium channel blockers and RAAS inhibitors in the treatment of hypertension.Keywords: hypertension, calcium channel blockers, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors, fixed-dose combination, adherence

  18. Coherent beam combining architectures for high power tapered laser arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmel, G.; Janicot, S.; Hanna, M.; Decker, J.; Crump, P.; Erbert, G.; Witte, U.; Traub, M.; Georges, P.; Lucas-Leclin, G.

    2017-02-01

    Coherent beam combining (CBC) aims at increasing the spatial brightness of lasers. It consists in maintaining a constant phase relationship between different emitters, in order to combine them constructively in one single beam. We have investigated the CBC of an array of five individually-addressable high-power tapered laser diodes at λ = 976 nm, in two architectures: the first one utilizes the self-organization of the lasers in an interferometric extended-cavity, which ensures their mutual coherence; the second one relies on the injection of the emitters by a single-frequency laser diode. In both cases, the coherent combining of the phase-locked beams is ensured on the front side of the array by a transmission diffractive grating with 98% efficiency. The passive phase-locking of the laser bar is obtained up to 5 A (per emitter). An optimization algorithm is implemented to find the proper currents in the five ridge sections that ensured the maximum combined power on the front side. Under these conditions we achieve a maximum combined power of 7.5 W. In the active MOPA configuration, we can increase the currents in the tapered sections up to 6 A and get a combined power of 11.5 W, corresponding to a combining efficiency of 76%. It is limited by the beam quality of the tapered emitters and by fast phase fluctuations between emitters. Still, these results confirm the potential of CBC approaches with tapered lasers to provide a high-power and high-brightness beam, and compare with the current state-of-the-art with laser diodes.

  19. Oral Tranexamic Acid with Fluocinolone-Based Triple Combination Cream Versus Fluocinolone-Based Triple Combination Cream Alone in Melasma: An Open Labeled Randomized Comparative Trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Padhi, Tanmay; Pradhan, Swetalina

    2015-01-01

    .... To compare the efficacy of a combination of oral tranexamic acid and fluocinolone-based triple combination cream with that of fluocinolone-based triple combination cream alone in melasma among Indian patients...

  20. CO adsorption on the GaPd(1[combining macron]1[combining macron]1[combining macron]) surface: a comparative DFT study using different functionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón Villaseca, S; Levchenko, S V; Armbrüster, M

    2016-06-07

    CO adsorption on the polar (1[combining macron]1[combining macron]1[combining macron]) surface of the intermetallic compound GaPd is examined within ab initio methods using an all-electron full-potential electronic structure approach. Comparison between the PW-LDA, GGA-PBE, GGA-RPBE, GGA-revPBE, and hybrid HSE06 functionals is considered through bulk, clean surface and CO adsorption calculations. The choice of the functional is found to have a strong influence in the description of single CO adsorption on the surface model proposed in literature. As expected from the so called "CO adsorption puzzle", differences in the obtained results demonstrate that classic LDA and PBE functionals can only partially describe the complex CO adsorption bonding scenario on a surface containing transition metal elements (in this case Pd atoms), where the energies of the substrate-adsorbate electronic states are shifted, yielding important differences in the absolute values of the adsorption energies, vibrational frequencies and surface-adsorbate interaction. So far the hybrid functional HSE06 correctly retrieves all the tendencies observed experimentally as confirmed by comparing our first-principles results to experimental findings.