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Sample records for halothane isoflurane sevoflurane

  1. Hemodynamic effects of halothane-O2 and halothane-nitrous oxide anesthesia in swine. Comparison with equipotent isoflurane, enflurane, and sevoflurane anesthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manohar, M.; Parks, C.

    1986-01-01

    Fifteen micron diameter radionuclide labelled microspheres were injected into left atrium; and cerebral, myocardial, renal, adrenal and splanchnic organ hemodynamics were studied in nine healthy, isocapnic, normothermic swine while awake and during two levels (1.0 and 1.5 MAC) of anesthesia produced with halothane (HAL) vaporized in O 2 alone and a mixture of 50% nitrous oxide in O 2 . Heart rate, cardiac output and arterial blood pressure were maintained better when equipotent anesthesia was produced using 50% N 2 O with HAL. Dose dependent vasodilatation occurred with HAL in all regions of the brain. Cerebral, cerebellar and brain stem blood flows at 1.5 MAC HAL-O 2 were 135, 135 and 115% of respective control values. At 1.0 and 1.5 MAC, HAL-N 2 O cerebral blood flow was 204 and 153% of awake values. These effects on cerebral circulation were similar directionally to those of equipotent isoflurane and enflurane anesthesia. However, sevoflurane-O 2 did not cause cerebral vasodilation. Myocardial blood flow decreased transmurally with HAL-O 2 but during equipotent HAL-N 2 O anesthesia it was not different from the awake value. Renal blood flow was unaffected during both levels of HAL-O 2 and HAL-N 2 O anesthesia. Adrenal blood flow increased with 1.5 MAC HAL-O 2 . Splenic, pancreatic, gastric and small intestinal blood flows decreased with HAL-O 2 and HAL-N 2 O anesthesia. During HAL-N 2 O anesthesia, perfusion to these tissues was above values recorded during equipotent HAL-O 2 anesthesia

  2. Atmospheric chemistry of isoflurane, desflurane, and sevoflurane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads P. Sulbæk; Nielsen, Ole John; Karpichev, Boris

    2012-01-01

    (sevoflurane) are estimated at 3.2, 14, and 1.1 years, respectively. The 100 year time horizon global warming potentials of isoflurane, desflurane, and sevoflurane are 510, 2540, and 130, respectively. The atmospheric degradation products of these anesthetics are not of environmental concern....

  3. Changes in heart rate variability during anaesthesia induction using sevoflurane or isoflurane with nitrous oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Tomoki

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic balance using heart rate variability (HRV) during induction of anaesthesia between sevoflurane and isoflurane in combination with nitrous oxide. 40 individuals aged from 30 to 60 years, scheduled for general anaesthesia were equally divided into sevoflurane or isoflurane groups. After 100% oxygen inhalation for a few minutes, anaesthesia was induced with nitrous oxide 3 L min-1, oxygen 3 L min-1 and sevoflurane or isoflurane. Sevoflurane or isoflurane concentration was increased by 0.5% every 2 to 3 breaths until 5% was attained for sevoflurane, or 3% for isoflurane. Vecuronium was administered to facilitate tracheal intubation. After intubation, sevoflurane was set to 2% while isoflurane was set to 1% with nitrous oxide with oxygen (1:1) for 5 min. Both sevoflurane and isoflurane provoked a decrease in blood pressure, total power, the low frequency component (LF), and high frequency component (HF) of HRV. Although the heart rate increased during isoflurane anaesthesia, it decreased under sevoflurane. The power of LF and HF also decreased in both groups. LF was higher in the isoflurane group while HF was higher in the sevoflurane group. The LF/HF ratio increased transiently in the isoflurane group, but decreased in the sevoflurane group. Anaesthesia induction with isoflurane-nitrous oxide transiently increased cardiac sympathetic activity, while sevoflurane-nitrous oxide decreased both cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic activities. The balance of cardiac parasympathetic/sympathetic activity was higher in sevoflurane anaesthesia.

  4. Effects of sevoflurane anaesthesia on recovery in children: a comparison with halothane.

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    Lapin, S L; Auden, S M; Goldsmith, L J; Reynolds, A M

    1999-01-01

    We prospectively studied one hundred ASA physical status I-II children, ages six months to six years, undergoing myringotomy surgery. Children were randomly assigned to one of four anaesthetic groups receiving either halothane or sevoflurane for anaesthesia and oral midazolam premedication or no premedication. We found that children anaesthetized with sevoflurane had significantly faster recovery times and discharge home times than those who received halothane. Patients given oral midazolam premedication had significantly longer recovery times, but no delay in discharge home compared with those not premedicated. However, children anaesthetized with sevoflurane and no premedication had an unacceptably high incidence (67%) of postoperative agitation. The use of oral midazolam preoperatively did decrease the amount of postoperative agitation seen with sevoflurane. We conclude that although sevoflurane does shorten recovery times, the degree of associated postoperative agitation makes it unacceptable as a sole anaesthetic for myringotomy surgery.

  5. Sevoflurane Induces DNA Damage Whereas Isoflurane Leads to Higher Antioxidative Status in Anesthetized Rats

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    Thalita L. A. Rocha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account that there are controversial antioxidative effects of inhalational anesthetics isoflurane and sevoflurane and absence of comparison of genotoxicity of both anesthetics in animal model, the aim of this study was to compare DNA damage and antioxidant status in Wistar rats exposed to a single time to isoflurane or sevoflurane. The alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis assay (comet assay was performed in order to evaluate DNA damage in whole blood cells of control animals (unexposed; n = 6 and those exposed to 2% isoflurane (n = 6 or 4% sevoflurane (n = 6 for 120 min. Plasma antioxidant status was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. There was no statistically significant difference between isoflurane and sevoflurane groups regarding hemodynamic and temperature variables (P > 0.05. Sevoflurane significantly increased DNA damage compared to unexposed animals (P = 0.02. In addition, Wistar rats anesthetized with isoflurane showed higher antioxidative status (MTT than control group (P = 0.019. There were no significant differences in DNA damage or antioxidant status between isoflurane and sevoflurane groups (P > 0.05. In conclusion, our findings suggest that, in contrast to sevoflurane exposure, isoflurane increases systemic antioxidative status, protecting cells from DNA damage in rats.

  6. Carbon monoxide production from five volatile anesthetics in dry sodalime in a patient model: halothane and sevoflurane do produce carbon monoxide; temperature is a poor predictor of carbon monoxide production

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    Perez Roberto SGM

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Desflurane and enflurane have been reported to produce substantial amounts of carbon monoxide (CO in desiccated sodalime. Isoflurane is said to produce less CO and sevoflurane and halothane should produce no CO at all. The purpose of this study is to measure the maximum amounts of CO production for all modern volatile anesthetics, with completely dry sodalime. We also tried to establish a relationship between CO production and temperature increase inside the sodalime. Methods A patient model was simulated using a circle anesthesia system connected to an artificial lung. Completely desiccated sodalime (950 grams was used in this system. A low flow anesthesia (500 ml/min was maintained using nitrous oxide with desflurane, enflurane, isoflurane, halothane or sevoflurane. For immediate quantification of CO production a portable gas chromatograph was used. Temperature was measured within the sodalime container. Results Peak concentrations of CO were very high with desflurane and enflurane (14262 and 10654 ppm respectively. It was lower with isoflurane (2512 ppm. We also measured small concentrations of CO for sevoflurane and halothane. No significant temperature increases were detected with high CO productions. Conclusion All modern volatile anesthetics produce CO in desiccated sodalime. Sodalime temperature increase is a poor predictor of CO production.

  7. Use of intranasal fentanyl in children undergoing myringotomy and tube placement during halothane and sevoflurane anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinkin, J L; Fazi, L M; Cuy, R M; Chiavacci, R M; Kurth, C D; Shah, U K; Jacobs, I N; Watcha, M F

    2000-12-01

    Many children are restless, disoriented, and inconsolable immediately after bilateral myringotomy and tympanosotomy tube placement (BMT). Rapid emergence from sevoflurane anesthesia and postoperative pain may increase emergence agitation. The authors first determined serum fentanyl concentrations in a two-phase study of intranasal fentanyl. The second phase was a prospective, placebo-controlled, double-blind study to determine the efficacy of intranasal fentanyl in reducing emergence agitation after sevoflurane or halothane anesthesia. In phase 1, 26 children with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I or II who were scheduled for BMT received intranasal fentanyl, 2 microg/kg, during a standardized anesthetic. Serum fentanyl concentrations in blood samples drawn at emergence and at postanesthesia care unit (PACU) discharge were determined by radioimmunoassay. In phase 2, 265 children with ASA physical status I or II were randomized to receive sevoflurane or halothane anesthesia along with either intranasal fentanyl (2 microg/kg) or saline. Postoperative agitation, Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale (CHEOPS) scores, and satisfaction of PACU nurses and parents with the anesthetic technique were evaluated. In phase 1, the mean fentanyl concentrations at 10 +/- 4 min (mean +/- SD) and 34 +/- 9 min after administering intranasal fentanyl were 0.80 +/- 0.28 and 0.64 +/- 0.25 ng/ml, respectively. In phase 2, the incidence of severe agitation, highest CHEOPS scores, and heart rate in the PACU were decreased with intranasal fentanyl. There were no differences between sevoflurane and halothane in these measures and in times to hospital discharge. The incidence of postoperative vomiting, hypoxemia, and slow respiratory rates were not increased with fentanyl. Serum fentanyl concentrations after intranasal administration exceed the minimum effective steady state concentration for analgesia in adults. The use of intranasal fentanyl during

  8. Recovery of older patients undergoing ambulatory anaesthesia with isoflurane or sevoflurane.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mahajan, V A

    2007-06-01

    Delayed recovery of cognitive function is a well-recognized phenomenon in older patients. The potential for the volatile anaesthetic used to contribute to alterations in postoperative cognitive function in older patients following minor surgical procedures has not been determined. We compared emergence from isoflurane and sevoflurane anaesthesia in older surgical patients undergoing urological procedures of short duration.

  9. Comparative immunohistochemical assessment of the effect of repetitive anesthesia with isoflurane and sevoflurane on rat liver

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    Flavia Ruxanda

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives: Inhalation anesthetics are used in human, as well as veterinary medical practice. In the present study we investigated the effect of isoflurane and sevoflurane on rat hepatocytes. Methods: A total of 40 Wistar female rats were used in this study. Animals were divided in groups of 5 rats. Groups IM, SM served as control groups. Groups I1, I2, I3 were used to study isoflurane and S1, S2, S3 for sevoflurane study. They were anesthetized 3 times, for 2 h long, at 2 days interval with a concentration of: 1.5% isoflurane (I1, I2, I3 and 2% sevoflurane (S1, S2, S3. The oxygen supply throughout the anesthesia was 1 L O2/min. Groups IM, IS, I1, S1 were sacrificed immediately after the last anesthesia. Groups I2, S2 were sacrificed 6 h after the last anesthesia, and groups I3, S3, 24 h post-anesthesia. Liver samples were harvested to highlight caspase-3 in apoptotic hepatocytes. Results: Following isoflurane administration, there were less than 1% cells in apoptosis highlighted in rat livers from groups IM, I1 and I2. At 24 h post-anesthesia (group I3, a small number of apoptotic hepatocytes was highlighted (around 3.23% cells in apoptosis, with a strictly periacinar disposition, randomly distributed in a small number of hepatic lobules. After sevoflurane administration, less than 1% apoptotic hepatocytes were identified at all control moments throughout the study. Conclusions: The results suggest that the anesthetics do not present a considerable hepatotoxicity. The comparative assessment of the two anesthetics shows that sevoflurane is superior to isoflurane.

  10. Median effective dose of isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane in green iguanas.

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    Barter, Linda S; Hawkins, Michelle G; Brosnan, Robert J; Antognini, Joseph F; Pypendop, Bruno H

    2006-03-01

    To determine the median effective dose (ED(50); equivalent to the minimum alveolar concentration [MAC]) of isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane for anesthesia in iguanas. 6 healthy adult green iguanas. In unmedicated iguanas, anesthesia was induced and maintained with each of the 3 volatile drugs administered on separate days according to a Latin square design. Iguanas were endotracheally intubated, mechanically ventilated, and instrumented for cardiovascular and respiratory measurements. During each period of anesthesia, MAC was determined in triplicate. The mean value of 2 consecutive expired anesthetic concentrations, 1 that just permitted and 1 that just prevented gross purposeful movement in response to supramaximal electrical stimulus, and that were not different by more than 15%, was deemed the MAC. Mean +/- SD values for the third MAC determination for isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane were 1.8 +/- 0.3%, 3.1 +/- 1.0%, and 8.9 +/- 2.1% of atmospheric pressure, respectively. The MAC for all inhaled agents was, on average, 22% greater for the first measurement than for the third measurement. Over time, MACs decreased for all 3 agents. Final MAC measurements were similar to values reported for other species. The decrease in MACs over time may be at least partly explained by limitations of anesthetic uptake and distribution imposed by the reptilian cardiorespiratory system. Hence, for a constant end-tidal anesthetic concentration in an iguana, the plane of anesthesia may deepen over time, which could contribute to increased morbidity during prolonged procedures.

  11. Synergistic effect of sevoflurane and isoflurane on inhibition of the adult-type muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor by rocuronium.

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    Liu, Li; Li, Wei; Wei, Ke; Cao, Jun; Luo, Jie; Wang, Bin; Min, Su

    2013-06-01

    Inhaled anesthetics increase the incidence of postoperative residual neuromuscular blockade, and the mechanism is still unclear. We have investigated the synergistic effect of low-concentration inhaled anesthetics and rocuronium on inhibition of the inward current of the adult-type muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (ε-nAChR). Adult-type mouse muscle ε-nAChR was expressed in HEK293 cells by liposome transfection. The inward current of the ε-nAChR was activated by use of 10 μmol/L acetylcholine alone or in combination with different concentrations of sevoflurane, isoflurane, or rocuronium. The concentration-response curves of five cells were constructed, and the data yielded the 5, 25, and 50 % inhibitory concentrations (IC5, IC25, and IC50, respectively) for single-drug application. Subsequently, the functional channels were perfused by adding 0.5 IC5 of either sevoflurane or isoflurane (aqueous concentrations 140 and 100 μmol/L, respectively) to the solution, followed by addition of IC5, IC25, or IC50 rocuronium. The amount of inhibition was calculated to quantify their synergistic effect. The inhibitory effect of rocuronium was enhanced by sevoflurane or isoflurane in a concentration-dependent manner. Sevoflurane or isoflurane (0.5 IC5) with rocuronium at IC5, IC25, and IC50 synergistically inhibited the current amplitude of adult-type muscle ε-nAChR. When the IC5 of rocuronium was used, isoflurane had a stronger synergistic effect than sevoflurane (p rocuronium was applied at higher concentrations (IC25 and IC50), sevoflurane had an effect similar to that of isoflurane. For both inhaled anesthetics, the synergistic effect was more intense for rocuronium at IC5 than for rocuronium at IC25 or IC50. Residual-concentration sevoflurane or isoflurane has a strong synergistic effect with rocuronium at clinically relevant residual concentrations. A lower rocuronium concentration resulted in a stronger synergistic effect.

  12. Differential effects of hyperventilation on cerebral blood flow velocity after tourniquet deflation during sevoflurane, isoflurane, or propofol anesthesia.

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    Hinohara, Hiroshi; Kadoi, Yuji; Ide, Masanobu; Kuroda, Masataka; Saito, Shigeru; Mizutani, Akio

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the degree of increase in middle cerebral artery (MCA) blood flow velocity after tourniquet deflation when modulating hyperventilation during orthopedic surgery under sevoflurane, isoflurane, or propofol anesthesia. Twenty-four patients undergoing elective orthopedic surgery were randomly divided into sevoflurane, isoflurane, and propofol groups. Anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane, isoflurane, or propofol administration with 33% oxygen and 67% nitrous oxide at anesthetic drug concentrations adequate to maintain bispectral values between 45 and 50. A 2.0-MHz transcranial Doppler probe was attached to the patient's head at the temporal window, and mean blood flow velocity in the MCA (V (mca)) was continuously measured. The extremity was exsanguinated with an Esmarch bandage, and the pneumatic tourniquet was inflated to a pressure of 450 mmHg. Arterial blood pressure, heart rate, V (mca) and arterial blood gases were measured every minute for 10 min after release of the tourniquet in all three groups. Immediately after tourniquet release, the patients' respiratory rates were increased to tightly maintain end-tidal carbon dioxide (PetCO(2)) at 35 mmHg. No change in partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood (PaCO(2)) was observed pre- and posttourniquet deflation in any of the three groups. Increase in V (mca) in the isoflurane group was greater than that in the other two groups after tourniquet deflation. In addition, during the study period, no difference in V (mca) after tourniquet deflation was observed between the propofol and sevoflurane groups. Hyperventilation could prevent an increase in V (mca) in the propofol and sevoflurane groups after tourniquet deflation. However, hyperventilation could not prevent an increase in V (mca) in the isoflurane group.

  13. Comparison of three different inhalant anesthetic agents (isoflurane, sevoflurane, desflurane) in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis).

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    Granone, Tiffany D; de Francisco, Olga N; Killos, Maria B; Quandt, Jane E; Mandsager, Ron E; Graham, Lynelle F

    2012-01-01

    To compare isoflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane for inhalant anesthesia in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) in terms of the speed and characteristics of induction; cardiovascular and respiratory parameters while anesthetized; and speed and quality of recovery. Prospective, cross over, randomized experimental study. 12 healthy adult red-tailed hawks. Anesthesia was induced with isoflurane, sevoflurane or desflurane in oxygen via face mask in a crossover, randomized design with a 1 week washout period between each treatment. Hawks were tracheally intubated, allowed to breathe spontaneously, and instrumented for cardiopulmonary monitoring. Data collected included heart rate, respiratory rate, end-tidal CO(2) , inspired and expired agent, SpO(2,) temperature, systolic blood pressure, time to intubation and time to recovery (tracking). Recovery was subjectively scored on a 4 point scale as well as a summary evaluation, by a single blinded observer. No significant difference in time to induction and time to extubation was noted with the administration of isoflurane, sevoflurane or desflurane. Time to the ability of the bird to follow a moving object with its eyes (tracking) was significantly faster with the administration of sevoflurane and desflurane. All recoveries were scored 1 or 2 and were assessed as good to excellent. No significant difference was noted in heart rate, blood pressure and temperature among the three inhalants. Administration of isoflurane resulted in lower respiratory rates. Overall, although isoflurane remains the most common inhaled anesthetic in avian practice, sevoflurane and desflurane both offer faster time to tracking, while similar changes in cardiopulmonary function were observed with each agent during anesthesia of healthy red-tailed hawks. © 2011 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. © 2011 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists.

  14. A comparative study of induction, maintenance and recovery characteristics of sevoflurane and halothane anaesthesia in pediatric patients (6 months to 6 years

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    Shruti Redhu

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion: We conclude that induction with sevoflurane in nitrous oxide and oxygen leads to fast loss of consciousness and provides ideal conditions for managing the airway without supplemental opioids or muscle relaxants with haemodynamic stability and is therefore a reasonable alternative to halothane for paediatric patients.

  15. Differential increases in blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery after tourniquet deflation during sevoflurane, isoflurane or propofol anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadoi, Y; Kawauchi, C H; Ide, M; Saito, S; Mizutani, A

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the comparative effects of sevoflurane, isoflurane or propofol on cerebral blood flow velocity after tourniquet deflation during orthopaedic surgery. Thirty patients undergoing elective orthopaedic surgery were randomly divided into sevoflurane, isoflurane and propofol groups. Anaesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane, isoflurane or propofol infusion in 33% oxygen and 67% nitrous oxide, in whatever concentrations were necessary to keep bispectral index values between 45 and 50. Ventilatory rate or tidal volume was adjusted to target PaCO2 of 35 mmHg. A 2.0 MHz transcranial Doppler probe was attached to the patient's head at the temporal window and mean blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery was continuously measured. The extremity was exsanguinated with an Esmarch bandage and the pneumatic tourniquet was inflated to a pressure of 450 mmHg. Arterial blood pressure, heart rate, velocity in the middle cerebral artery and arterial blood gas analysis were measured every minute for 10 minutes after release of the tourniquet in all three groups. Velocity in the middle cerebral artery in the three groups increased for five minutes after tourniquet deflation. Because of the different cerebrovascular effects of the three agents, the degree of increase in flow velocity in the isoflurane group was greater than in the other two groups, the change in flow velocity in the propofol group being the lowest (at three minutes after deflation 40 +/- 7%, 32 +/- 6% and 28 +/- 10% in the isoflurane, sevoflurane and propofol groups respectively, P < 0.05).

  16. Local application of 133Xenon for measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane anesthesia in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eintrei, C.; Leszniewski, W.; Carlsson, C.

    1985-01-01

    It is well known that halothane causes an increase in cerebral blood flow (CBF). In this study the effects of halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in humans were determined in the presence of 70% N 2 O at a combined MAC concentration of 1.5. CBF was determined in 24 patients from the washout of locally applied 133 Xenon with the use of an external scintillation. All 24 patients (control n = 6, halothane n = 6, enflurane n = 6, and isoflurane n = 6) were undergoing neurosurgical procedures. All patients were anesthetized with thiopental, fentanyl, droperidol, and 70% N 2 O in oxygen and paralyzed with pancuronium. The measurements were performed after the dura had been opened and before definitive surgery. The first measurement was done in the absence of any volatile agent, and the wash-out curve was registered for 6 min. The second measurement was done after one of the volatile agents had been added for at least 20 min and had reached a concentration of 0.58% for halothane, 1.14% for enflurane, or 1.0% for isoflurane in the expiratory gases in order to obtain about 1.5 MAC with each volatile anesthetic. The anesthetic concentrations were measured with the Engstroem multigas analyzer EMMA. The physiologic variables changed very little throughout the period of observation. Body temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, PaCO 2 , and PaO 2 were stable. Ephedrine was used to maintain a stable arterial pressure. At approximately 1.5 MAC, halothane (plus N 2 O) increased rCBF to nearly three times (166%) the control value, while enflurane induced only a slight increase (35%) in rCBF

  17. A critical test of Drosophila anaesthetics: Isoflurane and sevoflurane are benign alternatives to cold and CO2.

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    MacMillan, Heath A; Nørgård, Mikkel; MacLean, Heidi J; Overgaard, Johannes; Williams, Catherine J A

    2017-08-01

    Anaesthesia is often a necessary step when studying insects like the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. Most studies of Drosophila and other insects that require anaesthesia use either cold exposure or carbon dioxide exposure to induce a narcotic state. These anaesthetic methods are known to disrupt physiology and behavior with increasing exposure, and thus ample recovery time is required prior to experimentation. Here, we examine whether two halogenated ethers commonly used in vertebrate anaesthesia, isoflurane and sevoflurane, may serve as alternative means of insect anaesthesia. Using D. melanogaster, we generated dose-response curves to identify exposure times for each anaesthetic (cold, CO 2 , isoflurane and sevoflurane) that allow for five-minutes of experimental manipulation of the animals after the anaesthetic was removed (i.e. 5min recovery doses). We then compared the effects of this practical dose on high temperature, low temperature, starvation, and desiccation tolerance, as well as locomotor activity and fecundity of female flies following recovery from anaesthesia. Cold, CO 2 and isoflurane each had significant or near significant effects on the traits measured, but the specific effects of each anaesthetic differed, and effects on stress tolerance generally did not persist if the flies were given 48h to recover from anaesthesia. Sevoflurane had no measureable effect on any of the traits examined. Care must be taken when choosing an anaesthetic in Drosophila research, as the impacts of specific anaesthetics on stress tolerance, behavior and reproduction can widely differ. Sevoflurane may be a practical alternative to cold and CO 2 anaesthesia in insects - particularly if flies are to be used for experiments shortly after anesthesia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of an infrared anaesthetic agent analyser (Datex-Ohmeda) with refractometry for measurement of isoflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane concentrations.

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    Rudolff, Andrea S; Moens, Yves P S; Driessen, Bernd; Ambrisko, Tamas D

    2014-07-01

    To assess agreement between infrared (IR) analysers and a refractometer for measurements of isoflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane concentrations and to demonstrate the effect of customized calibration of IR analysers. In vitro experiment. Six IR anaesthetic monitors (Datex-Ohmeda) and a single portable refractometer (Riken). Both devices were calibrated following the manufacturer's recommendations. Gas samples were collected at common gas outlets of anaesthesia machines. A range of agent concentrations was produced by stepwise changes in dial settings: isoflurane (0-5% in 0.5% increments), sevoflurane (0-8% in 1% increments), or desflurane (0-18% in 2% increments). Oxygen flow was 2 L minute(-1) . The orders of testing IR analysers, agents and dial settings were randomized. Duplicate measurements were performed at each setting. The entire procedure was repeated 24 hours later. Bland-Altman analysis was performed. Measurements on day-1 were used to yield calibration equations (IR measurements as dependent and refractometry measurements as independent variables), which were used to modify the IR measurements on day-2. Bias ± limits of agreement for isoflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane were 0.2 ± 0.3, 0.1 ± 0.4 and 0.7 ± 0.9 volume%, respectively. There were significant linear relationships between differences and means for all agents. The IR analysers became less accurate at higher gas concentrations. After customized calibration, the bias became almost zero and the limits of agreement became narrower. If similar IR analysers are used in research studies, they need to be calibrated against a reference method using the agent in question at multiple calibration points overlapping the range of interest. © 2013 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  19. Time to tracheal extubation after coronary artery surgery with isoflurane, sevoflurane, or target-controlled propofol anesthesia: a prospective, randomized, controlled trial.

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    Parker, Francis C; Story, David A; Poustie, Stephanie; Liu, Guoming; McNicol, Larry

    2004-10-01

    To determine if anesthesia with sevoflurane or target-controlled propofol reduced the time to tracheal extubation after coronary artery bypass graft surgery compared with isoflurane anesthesia. A 3-arm (isoflurane, sevoflurane, or propofol), randomized, controlled trial with patients and intensive care staff blinded to the drug allocation. A single, tertiary referral hospital affiliated with the University of Melbourne. Three hundred sixty elective coronary artery surgery patients. Patients received either isoflurane (control group, 0.5%-2% end-tidal concentration), sevoflurane (1%-4% end-tidal concentration), or target-controlled infusion of propofol (1-8 microg/mL plasma target concentration) as part of a balanced, standardized anesthetic technique including 15 microg/kg of fentanyl. The primary outcome was time to tracheal extubation. The median time to tracheal extubation for the propofol group was 10.25 hours (interquartile range [IQR] 8.08-12.75), the sevoflurane group 9.17 hours (IQR 6.25-11.25), and the isoflurane group 7.67 hours (IQR 6.25-9.42). Intraoperatively, the propofol group required less vasopressor (p = 0.002) and more vasodilator therapy (nitroglycerin p = 0.01, nitroprusside p = 0.002). There was no difference among the groups in time to intensive care unit discharge. The median time to tracheal extubation was significantly longer for the target-controlled propofol group. A significantly greater number in this group required the use of a vasodilator to control intraoperative hypertension.

  20. Evaluation of cardiopulmonary parameters and recovery from anesthesia in cougars (Puma concolor anesthetized with detomidine/ketamine and isoflurane or sevoflurane

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    Verônica B. Albuquerque

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the cardiopulmonary effects, the onset time after the administration of a detomidine/ketamine combination, and the recovery from anesthesia of cougars (Puma concolor anesthetized with detomidine/ketamine and isoflurane or sevoflurane for abdominal ultrasound imaging. Fourteen animals were randomly allocated into two experimental groups: GISO (n=7 and GSEVO (n=7. Chemical restraint was performed using 0.15mg/kg detomidine combined with 5mg/kg ketamine intramuscularly; anesthesia induction was achieved using 2mg/kg propofol intravenously and maintenance with isoflurane (GISO or sevoflurane (GSEVO. The following parameters were assessed: heart rate, respiratory rate, systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure, oxyhemoglobin saturation, rectal temperature, central venous pressure, and end-tidal carbon dioxide. The time to sternal recumbency (TSR and time to standing position (TSP were also determined. There was not statistically significant difference for the cardiopulmonary variables or TSP whereas TSR was significantly shorter in GSEVO. The time to onset of anesthesia was 11.1±1.2 minutes and 11.3±1.8 minutes for GISO and GSEVO, respectively. The anesthesia of cougars with detomidine/ketamine and isoflurane or sevoflurane was conducted with safety, cardiopulmonary stability, and increased time to sternal recumbency in the GISO group.

  1. Comparison of the effect of sevoflurane and halothane anesthesia on the fall in hear rate as a predictor of successful single shot caudal epidural in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercan, A.; Ture, H.; Sayin, Murat M.; Koner, O.; Aykac, B.; Sozubir, S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective was to investigate the effect of sevoflurane anesthesia on heart rate (HR) fall with the injection of the initial drug in caudal space to confirm the correct needle placement. After the ethical approval was obtained from the hospital's ethics committee, a prospective randomized, clinical study was designed in Yeditepe University Hospital, in 2007. Children aged 1-12 years, scheduled for infraumblical surgery under general anesthesia and caudal block were included in the study. Anesthesia was induced and maintained by sevoflurane in group S (n=8) and by halothane in group H (n=82). Baseline HR was recorded before the caudal block was performed. The HR changes during the initial dose and total drug injection was recorded followed by 2 more HR recordings taken 5 and 10 minutes after caudal injection. The success of the block was recorded by a blind observer. There were 167 children included in the study. Caudal block success was 96.5% in group S and 97.6% in group H. Basal HR was 110.9+-10.9 in group S and 105.9+-10.1 in group H. Following the initial drug injection, mean HR was 109.8+-10.9 in group S and 102.9+-9.9 in group H. It was significantly lower than the baseline in group. The only significant decrease in the HR of the patients in group S was at the tenth minute following caudal injection. The decrease in HR with drug injection has no value to predict the success of caudal block under sevoflurane anesthesia. (author)

  2. Atmospheric chemistry of isoflurane, desflurane, and sevoflurane: kinetics and mechanisms of reactions with chlorine atoms and OH radicals and global warming potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulbaek Andersen, Mads P; Nielsen, Ole J; Karpichev, Boris; Wallington, Timothy J; Sander, Stanley P

    2012-06-21

    The smog chamber/Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) technique was used to measure the rate coefficients k(Cl + CF(3)CHClOCHF(2), isoflurane) = (4.5 ± 0.8) × 10(-15), k(Cl + CF(3)CHFOCHF(2), desflurane) = (1.0 ± 0.3) × 10(-15), k(Cl + (CF(3))(2)CHOCH(2)F, sevoflurane) = (1.1 ± 0.1) × 10(-13), and k(OH + (CF(3))(2)CHOCH(2)F) = (3.5 ± 0.7) × 10(-14) cm(3) molecule(-1) in 700 Torr of N(2)/air diluent at 295 ± 2 K. An upper limit of 6 × 10(-17) cm(3) molecule(-1) was established for k(Cl + (CF(3))(2)CHOC(O)F). The laser photolysis/laser-induced fluorescence (LP/LIF) technique was employed to determine hydroxyl radical rate coefficients as a function of temperature (241-298 K): k(OH + CF(3)CHFOCHF(2)) = (7.05 ± 1.80) × 10(-13) exp[-(1551 ± 72)/T] cm(3) molecule(-1); k(296 ± 1 K) = (3.73 ± 0.08) × 10(-15) cm(3) molecule(-1), and k(OH + (CF(3))(2)CHOCH(2)F) = (9.98 ± 3.24) × 10(-13) exp[-(969 ± 82)/T] cm(3) molecule(-1); k(298 ± 1 K) = (3.94 ± 0.30) × 10(-14) cm(3) molecule(-1). The rate coefficient of k(OH + CF(3)CHClOCHF(2), 296 ± 1 K) = (1.45 ± 0.16) × 10(-14) cm(3) molecule(-1) was also determined. Chlorine atoms react with CF(3)CHFOCHF(2) via H-abstraction to give CF(3)CFOCHF(2) and CF(3)CHFOCF(2) radicals in yields of approximately 83% and 17%. The major atmospheric fate of the CF(3)C(O)FOCHF(2) alkoxy radical is decomposition via elimination of CF(3) to give FC(O)OCHF(2) and is unaffected by the method used to generate the CF(3)C(O)FOCHF(2) radicals. CF(3)CHFOCF(2) radicals add O(2) and are converted by subsequent reactions into CF(3)CHFOCF(2)O alkoxy radicals, which decompose to give COF(2) and CF(3)CHFO radicals. In 700 Torr of air 82% of CF(3)CHFO radicals undergo C-C scission to yield HC(O)F and CF(3) radicals with the remaining 18% reacting with O(2) to give CF(3)C(O)F. Atmospheric oxidation of (CF(3))(2)CHOCH(2)F gives (CF(3))(2)CHOC(O)F in a molar yield of 93 ± 6% with CF(3)C(O)CF(3) and HCOF as minor products. The IR

  3. Alterações transitórias do exame neurológico durante o despertar da anestesia com enflurano, isoflurano ou sevoflurano Alteraciones transitorias del examen neurológico durante el despertar de la anestesia con enflurano, isoflurano o sevoflurano Transient neurological changes during emergence from enflurane, isoflurane or sevoflurane anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Soares

    2001-12-01

    comportamiento durante la recuperación de la anestesia con enflurano (Grupo E, isoflurano (Grupo I y sevoflurano (Grupo S. MÉTODO: Fueron estudiados 44 pacientes que recibieron anestesia con enflurano, isoflurano o sevoflurano en N2O a 50%. Fueron anotados antes de la inducción, inmediatamente después de la cesación de la administración del anestésico y 5, 10, 15, 20, 30 e 40 minutos después: temperatura timpánica, nivel de consciencia, tono muscular, reflejos pupilar, ciliar, bicipital, patelar y cutaneo-plantar, bien como la ocurrencia de calofríos. RESULTADOS: Las respuestas de los reflejos pupilar, ciliar, patelar y cutaneo-plantar se correlacionaron con el nivel de consciencia. Los grupos no difirieron cuanto a la prevalencia de hipertonia muscular, hiperreflexia bicipital, clonus plantar y respuesta extensora cutaneo-plantar. Hiperreflexia patelar fue mas frecuente en el grupo del enflurano de que en el grupo del isoflurano. Calofríos fueron mas frecuentes en los grupos E e I de que en el grupo del sevoflurano. La temperatura timpánica no difirió entre los pacientes que presentaron o no calofríos. CONCLUSIONES: Alteraciones reversibles del examen neurológico pueden estar presentes por hasta 40 minutos durante la recuperación de la anestesia con enflurano, isoflurano o sevoflurano.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Transient neurological findings are seen during emergence from halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane anesthesia. Little is known about neurological changes during recovery from sevoflurane anesthesia. This study was aimed at comparing the incidence of such findings during recovery from enflurane (Group E, isoflurane (Group I and sevoflurane (Group S anesthesia. METHODS: Forty four patients were assigned to receive enflurane, isoflurane or sevoflurane anesthesia in 50% N2O. Evaluated parameters were: tympanic temperature, consciousness level, muscle tone, pupillary, eyelash, bicipital, patellar and plantar reflexes and shivering, which were recorded before

  4. Perbandingan Efek Sevofluran dengan Halotan terhadap Jumlah Neutrofil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafniana Hafniana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Neutrofil berperan penting dalam respons imun nonspesifik. Penurunan nilai neutrofil dapat dipakai sebagai parameter sederhana untuk mengukur tingkat stres dan inflamasi sistemik. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui efek agen inhalasi sevofluran dan halotan terhadap penurunan neutrofil. Penelitian ini merupakan uji klinis dengan acak tersamar buta ganda yang membandingkan efek sevofluran dengan halotan terhadap  jumlah neutrofil pada 36 pasien ASA I dan II yang menjalani operasi elektif dengan anestesi umum di RSUP Haji Adam Malik Medan periode September 2016. Pasien dibagi dua kelompok, yaitu kelompok yang mendapat agen inhalasi sevofluran dan kelompok yang mendapat inhalasi halotan. Jumlah neutrofil dihitung pada kedua kelompok pada saat sebelum operasi, setelah induksi, dan 90 menit setelah inhalasi. Jumlah neutrofil pada kedua kelompok tidak mengalami penurunan sebelum operasi dan setelah induksi (p>0,005, namun mengalami penurunan pada 90 menit setelah inhalasi (p0.005, but suffered a decline in the number of neuthrophils 90 minutes after inhalation (p>0.005. The difference between the sevoflurane and halothane groups was not meaningful in the three times of measurement. In conclusion, there is no difference between sevoflurane and halothane terms of declined number of neutrophils.

  5. Effect of sevoflurane on human neutrophil apoptosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tyther, R

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Both chronic occupational exposure to volatile anaesthetic agents and acute in vitro exposure of neutrophils to isoflurane have been shown to inhibit the rate of apoptosis of human neutrophils. It is possible that inhibition of neutrophil apoptosis arises through delaying mitochondrial membrane potential collapse. We assessed mitochondrial depolarization and apoptosis in unexposed neutrophils and neutrophils exposed to sevoflurane in vivo. METHODS: A total of 20 mL venous blood was withdrawn pre- and postinduction of anaesthesia, the neutrophils isolated and maintained in culture. At 1, 12 and 24 h in culture, the percentage of neutrophil apoptosis was assessed by dual staining with annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide. Mitochondrial depolarization was measured using the dual emission styryl dye JC-1. RESULTS: Apoptosis was significantly inhibited in neutrophils exposed to sevoflurane in vivo at 24 (exposed: 38 (12)% versus control: 28 (11)%, P = 0.001), but not at 1 or 12 h, in culture. Mitochondrial depolarization was not delayed in neutrophils exposed to sevoflurane. CONCLUSIONS: The most important findings are that sevoflurane inhibits neutrophil apoptosis in vivo and that inhibition is not mediated primarily by an effect on mitochondrial depolarization.

  6. The common inhaled anesthetic isoflurane increases aggregation of huntingtin and alters calcium homeostasis in a cell model of Huntington's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qiujun; Liang Ge; Yang Hui; Wang Shouping; Eckenhoff, Maryellen F.; Wei Huafeng

    2011-01-01

    Isoflurane is known to increase β-amyloid aggregation and neuronal damage. We hypothesized that isoflurane will have similar effects on the polyglutamine huntingtin protein and will cause alterations in intracellular calcium homeostasis. We tested this hypothesis in striatal cells from the expanded glutamine huntingtin knock-in mouse (STHdh Q111/Q111 ) and wild type (STHdh Q7/Q7 ) striatal neurons. The primary cultured neurons were exposed for 24 h to equipotent concentrations of isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane in the presence or absence of extracellular calcium and with or without xestospongin C, a potent endoplasmic reticulum inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP 3 ) receptor antagonist. Aggregation of huntingtin protein, cell viability, and calcium concentrations were measured. Isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane all increased the aggregation of huntingtin in STHdh Q111/Q111 cells, with isoflurane having the largest effect. Isoflurane induced greater calcium release from the ER and relatively more cell damage in the STHdh Q111/Q111 huntingtin cells than in the wild type STHdh Q7/Q7 striatal cells. However, sevoflurane and desflurane caused less calcium release from the ER and less cell damage. Xestospongin C inhibited the isoflurane-induced calcium release from the ER, aggregation of huntingtin, and cell damage in the STHdh Q111/Q111 cells. In summary, the Q111 form of huntingtin increases the vulnerability of striatal neurons to isoflurane neurotoxicity through combined actions on the ER IP 3 receptors. Calcium release from the ER contributes to the anesthetic induced huntingtin aggregation in STHdh Q111/Q111 striatal cells.

  7. Controversies in pediatric anesthesia: sevoflurane and fluid management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueli, Sarah L; Lerman, Jerrold

    2013-06-01

    To explore the interrelationships among the pharmacokinetics of sevoflurane, epileptiform electroencephalographic (EEG) activity and awareness in children. To also describe the revised perioperative fluid management strategy espoused by Holliday and Segar and noninvasive measures that may predict who will respond positively to fluid loading. The depth of anesthesia during the early washin period with sevoflurane 8% is one-third less than during halothane. Eight percent sevoflurane rarely causes clinical seizures; more commonly, it causes epileptiform EEG activity that only weakly portends seizure activity. When preceded by nitrous oxide, midazolam or normocapnia, the risk of inducing epileptiform activity during spontaneous respiration is exceedingly small. Decreasing the inspired concentration of sevoflurane upon loss of the eyelash reflex to prevent epileptiform activity has not been shown to reduce the risk of clinical seizures, but more importantly, it may increase the risk of awareness if the child is stimulated. Isotonic intravenous solutions should be infused in volumes of 20-40 ml/kg over 2-4 h in children undergoing elective surgery. Postoperatively, these infusions may be continued at rates of 2/1/0.5 ml/kg/h; serum sodium concentration should be measured periodically. Noninvasive measures currently do not reliably identify those children who will respond positively to fluid boluses. Sevoflurane is a well tolerated induction agent that rarely causes seizures in children, but may cause awareness if the inspired concentration is prematurely reduced. Perioperative isotonic fluids should be infused at 20-40 ml/kg over 2-4 h during elective surgery. Noninvasive metrics do not predict a child's responsiveness to fluid loading.

  8. The impact of age on bispectral index values and EEG bispectrum during anaesthesia with desflurane and halothane in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirel, O; Wodey, E; Harris, R; Bansard, J Y; Ecoffey, C; Senhadji, L

    2006-04-01

    The relationship between end-tidal sevoflurane concentration, bispectral index (BIS) and the EEG bispectrum in children appears to be age dependent. The aim of this study was to quantify the BIS values at 1 MAC (minimum alveolar concentration) for desflurane and halothane, and explore the relationship with age for these anaesthetic agents in children. ECG, EEG and BIS were recorded continuously in 90 children aged 6-170 months requiring anaesthesia for elective surgery. Fifty children were anaesthetized with desflurane, and 40 children with halothane. Recordings were performed through to a steady state of 2 MAC, and thereafter at 1 and 0.5 MAC, respectively. The bispectrum of the EEG was estimated using MATLAB(c) software. A multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) was used. At a steady state of 1 MAC, BIS values were significantly higher with halothane 62 (43-80) than desflurane 34 (18-64). BIS values were significantly correlated with age in both groups: DES (r(2)=0.57; PEEG bispectrum) were different for the two volatile anaesthetic agents. In children, BIS values are linked to age irrespective of the volatile anaesthetic agent used. The difference in BIS values for different agents at the same MAC can be explained by the specific effect on the EEG bispectrum induced by each anaesthetic agent, bringing into question the ability of the EEG bispectrum to accurately determine the depth of anaesthesia.

  9. Halogen bonded complexes between volatile anaeshetics (chloroform, halothane, enflurane, isoflurane) and formaldehyde: a theoretical study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zierkiewicz, W.; Wieczorek, R.; Hobza, Pavel; Michalska, D.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 11 (2011), s. 5105-5113 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : halogen bond * anaesthetics * ab initio calculation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.573, year: 2011

  10. Severe hepatic dysfunction after sevoflurane exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alotaibi, Wadha M.

    2008-01-01

    Sevoflurane is thought to have a potential for hepatotoxicity. A few cases of hepatotoxicity have been reported since it was introduced in 1999 into clinical practice in Japan. The underlying pathophysiology of hepatotoxicity is non-specific. We report a case of severe hepatic dysfunction after uneventful sevoflurane anesthesia in a child with posterior fossa resection of medulloblastoma. The case of sevoflurane being incriminated is unclear due to various confounding factors that is worthy of discussion. (author)

  11. Polyuria with sevoflurane administration: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirle, Lori

    2011-02-01

    Polyuria has been reported as a side effect of sevoflurane administration, but because of its relative rarity, many practitioners are not aware of this potential phenomenon. Polyuria in its extreme form can cause undesirable hemodynamic changes. A case study, in an 18-year-old man, is presented highlighting polyuria as a probable side effect of sevoflurane administration.

  12. MAC reduction of isoflurane by sufentanil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, M D; Braithwaite, P; Jhaveri, R; McEwan, A I; Goodman, D K; Smith, L R; Glass, P S

    1994-01-01

    We have shown previously that a plasma fentanyl concentration of 1.67 ng ml-1 reduced the MAC of isoflurane by 50%. By comparing equal degrees of MAC reduction by sufentanil, we may determine the potency ratio of these opioids. Seventy-six patients were allocated randomly to receive predetermined infusions of sufentanil, and end-tidal concentrations of isoflurane in oxygen. Blood samples were obtained 10 min after the start of the infusion, and just before and after skin incision. Any purposeful movement by the patient was recorded. The MAC reduction of isoflurane produced by sufentanil was obtained using a logistic regression model. A sufentanil plasma concentration of 0.145 ng ml-1 (95% confidence limits 0.04, 0.26 ng ml-1) resulted in a 50% reduction in the MAC of isoflurane. At a plasma concentration greater than 0.5 ng ml-1, sufentanil exhibited a ceiling effect.

  13. Isoflurane increases cardiorespiratory coordination in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Muammar M.; Beig, Mirza I.; Nalivaiko, Eugene; Abbott, Derek; Baumert, Mathias

    2008-12-01

    Anesthetics such as isoflurane adversely affect heart rate. In this study we analysed the interaction between heart rhythm and respiration at different concentrations of isoflurane and ventilation rates. In two rats, the electrocardiogram (ECG) and respiratory signals were recorded under the influence of isoflurane. For the assessment of cardiorespiratory coordination, we analysed the phase locking between heart rate, computed from the R-R intervals of body surface ECG, and respiratory rate, computed from impedance changes, using Hilbert transform. The changes in heart rate, percentage of synchronization and duration of synchronized epochs at different isoflurane concentrations and ventilation rates were assessed using linear regression model. From this study it appears that the amount of phase locking between cardiac and respiratory rates increases with the increase in concentration of isoflurane. Heart rate and duration of synchronized epochs increased significantly with the increase in the level of isoflurane concentration while respiratory rate was not significantly affected. Cardiorespiratory coordination also showed a considerable increase at the ventilation rates of 50- 55 cpm in both the rats, suggesting that the phase-locking between the cardiac and respiratory oscillators can be increased by breathing at a particular respiratory frequency.

  14. Isoflurane minimum alveolar concentration reduction by fentanyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, A I; Smith, C; Dyar, O; Goodman, D; Smith, L R; Glass, P S

    1993-05-01

    Isoflurane is commonly combined with fentanyl during anesthesia. Because of hysteresis between plasma and effect site, bolus administration of fentanyl does not accurately describe the interaction between these drugs. The purpose of this study was to determine the MAC reduction of isoflurane by fentanyl when both drugs had reached steady biophase concentrations. Seventy-seven patients were randomly allocated to receive either no fentanyl or fentanyl at several predetermined plasma concentrations. Fentanyl was administered using a computer-assisted continuous infusion device. Patients were also randomly allocated to receive a predetermined steady state end-tidal concentration of isoflurane. Blood samples for fentanyl concentration were taken at 10 min after initiation of the infusion and before and immediately after skin incision. A minimum of 20 min was allowed between the start of the fentanyl infusion and skin incision. The reduction in the MAC of isoflurane by the measured fentanyl concentration was calculated using a maximum likelihood solution to a logistic regression model. There was an initial steep reduction in the MAC of isoflurane by fentanyl, with 3 ng/ml resulting in a 63% MAC reduction. A ceiling effect was observed with 10 ng/ml providing only a further 19% reduction in MAC. A 50% decrease in MAC was produced by a fentanyl concentration of 1.67 ng/ml. Defining the MAC reduction of isoflurane by all the opioids allows their more rational administration with inhalational anesthetics and provides a comparison of their relative anesthetic potencies.

  15. Sevoflurane improves gaseous exchange and exerts protective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sevoflurane improves gaseous exchange and exerts protective effects in ... Lung water content and cell count were estimated by standard protocols. ... It reversed LPS-induced oxidative stress, as demonstrated by increase in total antioxidant ...

  16. Hypertrophied hearts: what of sevoflurane cardioprotection?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jens Kjærgaard Rolighed; Smerup, Morten Holdgaard; Hasenkam, John Michael

    2009-01-01

    pigs (n=7-12/group) were subjected to 45 min distal coronary artery balloon occlusion, followed by 120 min of reperfusion. Controls were given pentobarbital, while sevoflurane cardioprotection was achieved by 3.2% inhalation throughout the experiment. Chronic banding of the ascending aorta resulted......-at-risk) was reduced from mean 55.0 (13.6%) (+/-SD) in controls to 17.5 (13.2%) by sevoflurane (P=0.001). Sevoflurane reduced the infarct size in hypertrophied hearts to 14.6 (10.4%) (P=0.001); however, in hypertrophic controls, infarcts were reduced to 34.2 (10.2%) (P=0.001). CONCLUSION: Sevoflurane abrogated...

  17. 21 CFR 868.1620 - Halothane gas analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... infrared or ultraviolet radiation. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Halothane gas analyzer. 868.1620 Section 868.1620 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...

  18. Isoflurane preconditions myocardium against infarction via release of free radicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müllenheim, Jost; Ebel, Dirk; Frässdorf, Jan; Preckel, Benedikt; Thämer, Volker; Schlack, Wolfgang

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Isoflurane exerts cardioprotective effects that mimic the ischemic preconditioning phenomenon. Generation of free radicals is implicated in ischemic preconditioning. The authors investigated whether isoflurane-induced preconditioning may involve release of free radicals. METHODS:

  19. Sevoflurane anesthesia induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    effects of sevoflurane on growth and induction of apoptotic changes in NPC-039 cells. ... population of apoptotic NPC-039 cells compared with cells treated with sevoflurane alone. The .... peroxidase-conjugated anti-rabbit IgG secondary.

  20. Cryosolution infrared study of hydrogen bonded halothane acetylene complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melikova, S. M.; Rutkowski, K. S.; Rospenk, M.

    2018-05-01

    The interactions between halothane (2-bromo-2-chloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane) and acetylene (C2H2) are studied by FTIR spectroscopy. Results obtained in liquid cryosolutions in Kr suggest weak complex formation stabilized by H - bond. The complexation enthalpy (∼11 kJ/mol) is evaluated in a series of temperature measurements (T ∼ 120-160 K) of integrated intensity of selected bands performed in liquefied Kr. The quantum chemical MP2/6-311++G(2d,2p) calculations predict four different structures of the complex. The most stable and populated (94% at T∼120 K) structure corresponds to the H - bond between H atom of halothane and pi-electron of triple bond between C atoms of acetylene. Wave numbers of vibrational bands of the most stable structure are calculated in anharmonic approximation implemented in Gaussian program.

  1. The cardiac anesthetic index of isoflurane in green iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Craig A E; Dyson, Doris; Smith, Dale A

    2003-06-01

    To determine the cardiac anesthetic index (CAI) of isoflurane in green iguanas and whether butorphanol affected the CAI. Prospective randomized controlled trial. 7 healthy mature iguanas. In 5 iguanas, CAI was determined after induction of anesthesia with isoflurane alone, and in 5 iguanas, CAI was determined after induction of anesthesia with isoflurane and IM administration of butorphanol (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb]). Three iguanas underwent both treatments. Animals were equilibrated for 20 minutes at 1.5 times the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane and observed for evidence of cardiovascular arrest. If there was no evidence of cardiovascular arrest, end-tidal isoflurane concentration was increased by 20%, and animals were allowed to equilibrate for another 20 minutes. This process was repeated until cardiovascular arrest occurred or vaporizer output could no longer be consistently increased. The CAI was calculated by dividing the highest end-tidal isoflurane concentration by the MAC. None of the iguanas developed cardiovascular arrest and all survived. Mean +/- SD highest end-tidal isoflurane concentration during anesthesia with isoflurane alone (9.2 +/- 0.60%) was not significantly different from mean concentration during anesthesia with isoflurane and butorphanol (9.0 +/- 0.43%). The CAI was > 4.32. Results suggest that the CAI of isoflurane in green iguanas is > 4.32 and not affected by administration of butorphanol. Isoflurane appears to be a safe anesthetic in green iguanas.

  2. Effects of halothane, sevoflurane and desflurane on the force-frequency relation in the dog heart in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preckel, Benedikt; Obal, Detlef; Müllenheim, Jost; Hennes, Juliane; Heiderhoff, Marc; Thämer, Volker; Schlack, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: Frequency potentiation is the increase in force of contraction induced by an increased heart rate (HR). This positive staircase phenomenon has been attributed to changes in Ca2+ entry and loading of intracellular Ca2+ stores. Volatile anesthetics interfere with Ca2+ homeostasis of

  3. [Anesthesia with isoflurane in air and with isoflurane and nitrous oxide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, G; Rossi, R; Cellai, M P; Pieraccioli, E; Novelli, G P

    1994-06-01

    The aim of this study is to control the depth, the quality of recovery of total inhalation isoflurane anesthesia with or without nitrous oxide. Controlled comparative study was carried out on 51 patients, aged 40-54 yr, ASA 1, undergoing saphenectomy, in an University Clinic. Induction: thiopental (3.5 mg kg), atracurium (0.6 mg kg) i.v. Patients were randomly assigned to: group 1 (26 patients), 5% isoflurane in air, by mask; group 2 (25 patients), 3% isoflurane and 60% N2O, by mask. Maintenance: group 1, 2% isoflurane in air; group 2, 1.2% isoflurane and 60% N2O. During anesthesia, consciousness and analgesia level were monitored by EEG Compressed Spectral Array, and clinical signs of pain by Evans' test; arousal time evaluation by "Time to correct response test". The subjective impressions, eventual dreams and recalls were collected using a standard set of questions one hour after the end of anesthesia and 24 hours later. One hour before anesthesia and two hours after the end of surgical procedures, a psychomotor performance recovery evaluation was performed using Zazzo's "deux barrages" test. Student's "t" test. Adequate anesthetic depth was documented in all patients. Recovery time was statistically longer in isoflurane group (group 1 16.7 sd 2.2 minutes vs 10.3 sd 1.9 minutes group 2, p hours after recovery no significant differences in psychomotor performance tests were recorded. Isoflurane anesthesia in air, in adequate concentrations, provides a sufficient level of analgesia, hypnosis, amnesia, without clinical side effects.

  4. Spectral analysis of the EEG during halothane anaesthesia: Input-output relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, F.H. Lopes da; Smith, N. Ty; Zwart, Aart; Nichols, W.W.

    1. 1. The “Halothane-brain compartment” system was investigated in dogs. The input was the inspired concentration of Halothane. The output was the intensity of EEG spectral components. The EEG was analysed by a hybrid system (analogue filters and digital integration in a small computer). For the

  5. Influence of Isoflurane on Immediate-Early Gene Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Bunting, Kristopher M.; Nalloor, Rebecca I.; Vazdarjanova, Almira

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anterograde amnesia is a hallmark effect of volatile anesthetics. Isoflurane is known to affect both the translation and transcription of plasticity-associated genes required for normal memory formation in many brain regions. What is not known is whether isoflurane anesthesia prevents the initiation of transcription or whether it halts transcription already in progress. We tested the hypothesis that general anesthesia with isoflurane prevents learning-induced initiation of transcr...

  6. Diphenylhydantoin and lidocaine modification of A-V conduction in halothane-anesthetized dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlee, J L; Homer, L D; Tobey, R E

    1975-07-01

    The effect of halothane on A-V conduction was evaluated in gods during atrial pacing using the technique of His-bundle electrocardiography. In addition, the effects of lidocaine and diphenylkydantoin (DPH) on A-V conuction were examined during halothane anesthesia. Effects of these drugs on three subintervals of A-V conduction were compared. These included the -H (stimulus atifact of His-bundle deflection-atrioventricular conduction), H-Q (His-budnle deflection onset of QRS complex-His-Purkinje conduction), and H-S intervals(His-bundle delfection to end of QRS COmplex-total intraventricular conduction). Linear regression best described the relationship between duration of interval (P-H, H-V,and H-S) and heart rate during incremental increases in the atrial paced rate. Data from these experiments were fitted to a multiple lenear regression model that predicted the effect of increasing concentrations of halothan, lidocaine, and DPH on slope and intercept coefficients. In creasing concentrations of halothan ( 30 and 45 mg/100 ml arterial). Both lidocaine and DPH further depressed conduction at all levels of halothan anesthesia. The P-H interval was particularly sensitive todrug effefts. This may represent potentiation of the normal slowing of conduction through the AVnode in response to incremental increases in heart rate (fatigue response.) We conclude thatboth lidocaine and DPH fail to reverse the depressant effect of halothane on A-V conduction. This may explain their ineffectiveness in treating certain types of arrhythmias during halothane anesthesia.

  7. Sevoflurane anesthesia induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the effects of sevoflurane on NPC-039 nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. Methods: WST-8 assays and flow cytometry with annexin V/PI staining were used to analyze the effects of sevoflurane on growth and induction of apoptotic changes in NPC-039 cells. Cell viability was performed on a microplate ...

  8. Increased NMDA receptor inhibition at an increased Sevoflurane MAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brosnan Robert J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sevoflurane potently enhances glycine receptor currents and more modestly decreases NMDA receptor currents, each of which may contribute to immobility. This modest NMDA receptor antagonism by sevoflurane at a minimum alveolar concentration (MAC could be reciprocally related to large potentiation of other inhibitory ion channels. If so, then reduced glycine receptor potency should increase NMDA receptor antagonism by sevoflurane at MAC. Methods Indwelling lumbar subarachnoid catheters were surgically placed in 14 anesthetized rats. Rats were anesthetized with sevoflurane the next day, and a pre-infusion sevoflurane MAC was measured in duplicate using a tail clamp method. Artificial CSF (aCSF containing either 0 or 4 mg/mL strychnine was then infused intrathecally at 4 μL/min, and the post-infusion baseline sevoflurane MAC was measured. Finally, aCSF containing strychnine (either 0 or 4 mg/mL plus 0.4 mg/mL dizocilpine (MK-801 was administered intrathecally at 4 μL/min, and the post-dizocilpine sevoflurane MAC was measured. Results Pre-infusion sevoflurane MAC was 2.26%. Intrathecal aCSF alone did not affect MAC, but intrathecal strychnine significantly increased sevoflurane requirement. Addition of dizocilpine significantly decreased MAC in all rats, but this decrease was two times larger in rats without intrathecal strychnine compared to rats with intrathecal strychnine, a statistically significant (P  Conclusions Glycine receptor antagonism increases NMDA receptor antagonism by sevoflurane at MAC. The magnitude of anesthetic effects on a given ion channel may therefore depend on the magnitude of its effects on other receptors that modulate neuronal excitability.

  9. Alteration of tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolism in rat brain slices by halothane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, S.C.; Brunner, E.A.

    1978-01-01

    Metabolism of [2- 14 C] pyruvate, [1- 14 C] acetate and [5- 14 C] citrate in rat cerebral cortex slices was studied in the presence of halothane. Metabolites assayed include acetylcholine (ACh), citrate, glutamate, glutamineγ-aminobutyrate (GABA) and aspartate. The trichloroacetic acid soluble extract, the trichloracetic acid insoluble precipitate and its lipid extract were also studied. In control experiments, pyruvate preferentially labelled ACh, citrate, glutamate, GABA and aspartate. Acetate labelled ACh, but to a lesser extent than pyruvate. Acetate also labelled lipids and glutamine. Citrate labelled lipids but not ACh and served as a preferential precursor for glutamine. These data support a three-compartment model for cerebral tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolism. Halothane caused increases in GABA and aspartate contents and a decrease in ACh content. It has no effect on the contents of citrate, glutamate and glutamine. Halothane preferentially inhibited the metabolic transfer of radioactivity from pyruvate into almost all metabolites, an effect probably not related to pyruvate permeability. This is interpreted as halothane depression of the large metabolic compartment which includes the nerve endings. Halothane increased the metabolic transfer of radioactivity from acetate into lipids but did not alter such a transfer into the trichloroacetic acid extract. Halothane increased the metabolic transfer of radioactivity from citrate into the trichloroacetic acid precipitate, lipids and especially glutamine. Transfer of citrate radioactivity into GABA was somewhat decreased. The differential effects of halothane on acetate and citrate utilization suggest that the small metabolic compartment should be subdivided. Therefore, at least three metabolic compartments are demonstrated. Halothane did not interfere with the dicarboxylic acid portion of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. (author)

  10. Halothane effects on metabolic processes in cholinergic synaptosomes prepared from rat cerebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.V.W.

    1984-01-01

    Synaptosomes are an excellent model system for examining metabolic processes that occur in nerve endings. In this study they were used to examine the effects of halothane, an inhalational anesthetic, on metabolic processes associated with the synthesis of the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine. They were also used to study possible mechanisms involved with supplying the cytosol with activated acetyl groups produced in the mitochondria. In synaptosomes, halothane reversibly inhibits acetylcholine synthesis, and inhibits choline uptake in a competitive-like manner. It also depresses 14 CO 2 evolution from labeled pyruvate, glucose and succinate, decreases the activity of ATP-citrate lyase and pyruvate dehydrogenase, and completely inhibits pentose phosphate pathway activity. Halothane also significantly enhances glucose utilization and lactate production. However, halothane has no effect on choline acetyltransferases activity or total synaptosomal acetyl CoA levels. These alterations of metabolic processes leads to the suggestion that the primary effect of halothane is to decrease the NAD + /NADH potential, possibly resulting from mitochondrial NADH-CoQ reductase inhibition. This in combination with halothane's inhibition of choline transport would reduce the availability of both choline and acetyl CoA, precursors required for acetylcholine synthesis

  11. Assessing the depth of isoflurane anaesthesia during cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ka Ting; Alston, R Peter; Just, George; McKenzie, Chris

    2018-03-01

    Bispectral index (BIS) and monitoring of end-tidal concentration may be associated with a reduction in the incidence of awareness during volatile-based general anaesthesia. An analogue of end-tidal concentration during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is measuring exhausted isoflurane concentration from the oxygenator as an estimate to blood and, so, brain concentration. The aim of this study was to determine the relationships between oxygenator exhaust and blood concentrations of isoflurane and the BIS score during CPB when administering isoflurane into the sweep gas supply to the oxygenator. Seventeen patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery using CPB and isoflurane with BIS monitoring were recruited in a single-centre university hospital. Isoflurane gas was delivered via a calibrated vaporiser at the beginning of anaesthetic induction. Radial arterial blood samples were collected after the initiation of CPB and before aortic cross-clamping, which were analysed for isoflurane by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The BIS score and the concentration of exhausted isoflurane from the oxygenator membrane, as measured by an anaesthetic gas analyser, were recorded at the time of blood sampling. The mean duration of anaesthetic induction to arterial blood sampling was 90 min (95%CI: 80,100). On CPB, the median BIS was 39 (range, 7-43) and the mean oxygenator exhaust isoflurane concentration was 1.24 ± 0.21%. No significant correlation was demonstrated between BIS with arterial isoflurane concentration (r=-0.19, p=0.47) or oxygenator exhaust isoflurane concentration (r=0.07, p=0.80). Mixed-venous blood temperature was moderately correlated to BIS (r=0.50, p=0.04). Oxygenator exhaust isoflurane concentration was moderately, positively correlated with its arterial concentration (r=0.64, p<0.01). In conclusion, in patients undergoing heart surgery with CPB, the findings of this study indicate that, whilst oxygenator exhaust concentrations were significantly

  12. Sevoflurane Induces Coherent Slow-Delta Oscillations in Rats

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    Jennifer A. Guidera

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Although general anesthetics are routinely administered to surgical patients to induce loss of consciousness, the mechanisms underlying anesthetic-induced unconsciousness are not fully understood. In rats, we characterized changes in the extradural EEG and intracranial local field potentials (LFPs within the prefrontal cortex (PFC, parietal cortex (PC, and central thalamus (CT in response to progressively higher doses of the inhaled anesthetic sevoflurane. During induction with a low dose of sevoflurane, beta/low gamma (12–40 Hz power increased in the frontal EEG and PFC, PC and CT LFPs, and PFC–CT and PFC–PFC LFP beta/low gamma coherence increased. Loss of movement (LOM coincided with an abrupt decrease in beta/low gamma PFC–CT LFP coherence. Following LOM, cortically coherent slow-delta (0.1–4 Hz oscillations were observed in the frontal EEG and PFC, PC and CT LFPs. At higher doses of sevoflurane sufficient to induce loss of the righting reflex, coherent slow-delta oscillations were dominant in the frontal EEG and PFC, PC and CT LFPs. Dynamics similar to those observed during induction were observed as animals emerged from sevoflurane anesthesia. We conclude that the rat is a useful animal model for sevoflurane-induced EEG oscillations in humans, and that coherent slow-delta oscillations are a correlate of sevoflurane-induced behavioral arrest and loss of righting in rats.

  13. Halothane anaesthesia and liver damage A review of the literature on this and associated hazards

    CERN Document Server

    Spoor, N L

    1977-01-01

    In radiological protection the decision to use bronchopulmonary lavage, or not to use it, will occasionally rest on a comparison of risks: on the one hand the long-term radiological risk and, on the other, the short-term risks from the operation itself (after several repetitions) and from multiple exposure to the anaesthetic agents, thiopentone (or other barbiturate) and halothane. The purpose of this review was to find a numerical estimate for the risk of irreversible liver damage from multiple exposure to halothane in a healthy male aged between 20 and 60 years. The many reports which have appeared since 1970 have shown that halothane hepatitis is probably a specific, but rare, pathological condition and that the risks from halothane exposure are no greater than those from other anaesthetics. The facts suggest that there is an increased risk associated with multiple exposure. If for the average patient the mortality risk from one anaesthetic exposure to halothane is 1 in 10 sup 5 , the risk from two further...

  14. Halothane anaesthesia and liver damage: A review of the literature on this and associated hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spoor, N L

    1977-09-01

    In radiological protection the decision to use bronchopulmonary lavage, or not to use it, will occasionally rest on a comparison of risks: on the one hand the long-term radiological risk and, on the other, the short-term risks from the operation itself (after several repetitions) and from multiple exposure to the anaesthetic agents, thiopentone (or other barbiturate) and halothane. The purpose of this review was to find a numerical estimate for the risk of irreversible liver damage from multiple exposure to halothane in a healthy male aged between 20 and 60 years. The many reports which have appeared since 1970 have shown that halothane hepatitis is probably a specific, but rare, pathological condition and that the risks from halothane exposure are no greater than those from other anaesthetics. The facts suggest that there is an increased risk associated with multiple exposure. If for the average patient the mortality risk from one anaesthetic exposure to halothane is 1 in 10{sup 5}, the risk from two further exposures within the following 4 weeks is nearer 1 in 10{sup 4}. Other risks associated with surgical operations have not been ignored; errors in the administration of thiopentone, for example, which increase the overall risk to a level nearer 5 in 10{sup 4}, and errors of operational diagnosis or judgement. (author)

  15. Isoflurane exerts neuroprotective actions at or near the time of severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statler, Kimberly D; Alexander, Henry; Vagni, Vincent; Holubkov, Richard; Dixon, C Edward; Clark, Robert S B; Jenkins, Larry; Kochanek, Patrick M

    2006-03-03

    Isoflurane improves outcome vs. fentanyl anesthesia, in experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI). We assessed the temporal profile of isoflurane neuroprotection and tested whether isoflurane confers benefit at the time of TBI. Adult, male rats were randomized to isoflurane (1%) or fentanyl (10 mcg/kg iv bolus then 50 mcg/kg/h) for 30 min pre-TBI. Anesthesia was discontinued, rats recovered to tail pinch, and TBI was delivered by controlled cortical impact. Immediately post-TBI, rats were randomized to 1 h of isoflurane, fentanyl, or no additional anesthesia, creating 6 anesthetic groups (isoflurane:isoflurane, isoflurane:fentanyl, isoflurane:none, fentanyl:isoflurane, fentanyl:fentanyl, fentanyl:none). Beam balance, beam walking, and Morris water maze (MWM) performances were assessed over post-trauma d1-20. Contusion volume and hippocampal survival were assessed on d21. Rats receiving isoflurane pre- and post-TBI exhibited better beam walking and MWM performances than rats treated with fentanyl pre- and any treatment post-TBI. All rats pretreated with isoflurane had better CA3 neuronal survival than rats receiving fentanyl pre- and post-TBI. In rats pretreated with fentanyl, post-traumatic isoflurane failed to affect function but improved CA3 neuronal survival vs. rats given fentanyl pre- and post-TBI. Post-traumatic isoflurane did not alter histopathological outcomes in rats pretreated with isoflurane. Rats receiving fentanyl pre- and post-TBI had the worst CA1 neuronal survival of all groups. Our data support isoflurane neuroprotection, even when used at the lowest feasible level before TBI (i.e., when discontinued with recovery to tail pinch immediately before injury). Investigators using isoflurane must consider its beneficial effects in the design and interpretation of experimental TBI research.

  16. Comparison of maintenance, emergence and recovery characteristics of sevoflurane and desflurane in pediatric ambulatory surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish B Kotwani

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Desflurane provides faster emergence and recovery in comparison to sevoflurane when used for the maintenance of anesthesia through SGA in children. Both sevoflurane and desflurane can be safely used in children for lower abdominal surgeries.

  17. Whole-brain blood flow and oxygen metabolism in the rat after halothane anesthesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjedde, A; Hindfeldt, B [Cerebrovascular Research Center, Department of Neurology, The New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, New York, U.S.A.; Department of Neurology, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden)

    1975-01-01

    A recent modification of the Kety-Schmidt wash-out technique for /sup 133/xenon was used to measure whole-brain flow (CBF) and oxygen consumption (CMRsub(o2)) 1 to 4 hours after termination of halothane anesthesia in 15 Wistar rats. In this 3-hour experimental period, mean CBF and CMRsub(o2) were reduced to 29 and 43 percent of control values, respectively. CBF and CMRsub(o2) determined at the beginning and end of the experimental period were not significantly different from each other. Cerebral venous O/sub 2/ tension was significantly higher than in the control group, supporting recent suggestions of a primary, intrinsic effect of halothane on the homeostatic control of this variable. It is concluded that halothane is not useful for cerebral metabolic studies in the rat.

  18. The effect of halothane anesthesia on heart function during normovolemia and hypovolemia in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingemar, F.; Ahlgren, H.

    1978-01-01

    The effects of halothane anesthesia on coronary circulation and cardiac work were studied in normovolemic and hypovolemic dogs, with the aid of the radioactive microsphere technique. During normovolemia, halothane depressed the heart rate, cardiac output, arterial mean blood pressure and left ventricular work, with a simultaneous decrease in the coronary blood flow. During moderate hypovolemia, the arterial blood pressure was reduced as well as the coronary blood flow; whereas during hemorrhagic hypotension (severe hypovolemia), the arterial blood pressure was slightly increased and the coronary blood flow was unchanged with a reduced heart rate and increased stroke volume. (author)

  19. Effects of halothane on the conduction system of the heart in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffer, G. J.; Jonges, R.; Holley, H. S.; Grimbergen, C. A.; Ros, H. H.; Peper, A.; Booij, L. H.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of 2.0 MAC halothane on atrioventricular conduction times in humans were studied. A real-time recording system for the detection of surface His-Purkinje potentials based on signal averaging techniques was used. Recordings were made in 23 patients before and after the administration of

  20. Influence of the halothane gene (HAL) on pork quality in two commercial crossbreeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, A C P; Freitas, P F A; César, A S M; Cesar, A S M; Antunes, R C; Guimarães, E C; Batista, D F A; Torido, L C

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of the halothane (HAL) gene on the quality of pork in domestic pigs. Half-carcasses from two different commercial pig (Sus domestica) crossbreeds were analyzed, 46 of which were homozygous dominant (HAL(NN)) and 69 of which were heterozygous (HAL(Nn)) for the halothane gene. The measures included backfat thickness, lean meat percentage, carcass weight, pH 24 h after slaughtering, color, and drip loss; DNA was extracted from the haunch muscle. Swine with the HAL(Nn) genotype had less backfat thickness and higher lean meat percentages than swine with the HAL(NN) genotype. Yet, swine with the HAL(Nn) genotype had lower quality meat than those with the HAL(NN) swine. The pH at 24 h was lower in HAL(Nn) swine. The meat color was paler in HAL(Nn) animals, the drip loss was greater in those animals bearing the n allele, and the amount of intramuscular fat was not related to the halothane genotype. We conclude that bearers of the recessive allele of the halothane gene produce more meat, but with quality parameters that are inferior to those sought by consumers and industry.

  1. Pharmacokinetics of rocuronium after bolus and continuous infusion during halothane anaesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCoy, E.P; Mirakhur, R.K; Maddineni, V.R; Wierda, J.MKH; Proost, Hans

    We have studied the pharmacokinetics of a single bolus of rocuronium (Org 9426), followed by an infusion, in eight patients during anaesthesia with halothane and nitrous oxide in oxygen. Neuromuscular block was monitored using train-of-four (TOF) stimulation and recording the force of contraction of

  2. Fatal subacute liver failure after repeated administration of sevoflurane anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zizek, David; Ribnikar, Marija; Zizek, Bogomir; Ferlan-Marolt, Vera

    2010-01-01

    Sevoflurane is a widely used halogenated inhalation anaesthetic. In comparison with other similar anaesthetics, it is not metabolized to potentially hepatotoxic trifluoroacetylated proteins. In this case report, we present a 66-year-old woman with breast carcinoma, who underwent sevoflurane general anaesthesia twice in 25 days. Soon after the second elective surgical procedure, jaundice and marked elevations in serum transaminases developed. The patient died 66 days thereafter. Autopsy results denied evidence of major cardiovascular abnormality, and histological examination confirmed massive liver cell necrosis with no feature of chronic liver injury. Sevoflurane anaesthesia was imputed as the cause after exclusion of other possible aetiological agents. Besides, coexistent malignant tumours found in the patient could have modulated the immunological response to the applied anaesthetic followed by fatal consequences.

  3. Estudo comparativo dos parâmetros cardiorrespiratórios e tempo de recuperação em cadelas submetidas a ovariosalpingohisterectomia e anestesiadas com halotano, isofluorano ou sevofluorano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewaldo de Mattos Junior

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The cardiopulmonary effects and recovery times of halothane, isoflurane and sevoflurane were compared in bitches submitted to ovariohysterectomy. Twenty-four mongrel dogs were assigned in three groups of eight animals, with medium weight 15.03 kg and 3.93 years of age, designed groups GAH, GAI and GAS. All dogs received acepromazine (0.1 mg/kg, i.m. as premedication and after 15 minutes, anesthesia was induced with propofol (5.0 mg/kg, i.v. and maintenance anesthetics were halothane (GAH, isoflurane (GAI and sevoflurane (GAS. No statistic difference was observed in cardiovascular parameters, but the SAP, DAP and MAP decreased slighty in moment M1 and this effect was associated with propofol. The rectal temperature decreased in function of the time of anesthesia, without difference among groups, but the AI and AS groups presented the lowest values of this parameter. Respiratory rate decreased in all groups, with an increase in the PaCO2 and a decrease in the pH, without statistic differences. The extubation times were similar in the three groups. Time to standing was shorter in the AS group when compared with the GAH and GAI groups. On the basis of the results, for this animal category and surgical procedure halothane, isoflurane and sevoflurane were similar in cardiovascular parameters. All agents caused respiratory depression and the recovery times were shorter in sevofluorano group.

  4. Antimicrobial effects of liquid anesthetic isoflurane on Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armstead Valerie

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Candida albicans is a dimorphic fungus that can grow in yeast morphology or hyphal form depending on the surrounding environment. This ubiquitous fungus is present in skin and mucus membranes as a potential pathogen that under opportunistic conditions causes a series of systemic and superficial infections known as candidiasis, moniliasis or simply candidiasis. There has been a steady increase in the prevalence of candidiasis that is expressed in more virulent forms of infection. Although candidiasis is commonly manifested as mucocutaneous disease, life-threatening systemic invasion by this fungus can occur in every part of the body. The severity of candidal infections is associated with its morphological shift such that the hyphal morphology of the fungus is most invasive. Of importance, aberrant multiplication of Candida yeast is also associated with the pathogenesis of certain mucosal diseases. In this study, we assessed the anti-candidal activity of the volatile anesthetic isoflurane in liquid form in comparison with the anti-fungal agent amphotericin B in an in vitro culture system. Exposure of C. albicans to isoflurane (0.3% volume/volume and above inhibited multiplication of yeast as well as formation of hyphae. These data suggest development of potential topical application of isoflurane for controlling a series of cutaneous and genital infections associated with this fungus. Elucidiation of the mechanism by which isoflurane effects fungal growth could offer therapeutic potential for certain systemic fungal infections.

  5. Influence of Isoflurane on Immediate-Early Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunting, Kristopher M; Nalloor, Rebecca I; Vazdarjanova, Almira

    2015-01-01

    Anterograde amnesia is a hallmark effect of volatile anesthetics. Isoflurane is known to affect both the translation and transcription of plasticity-associated genes required for normal memory formation in many brain regions. What is not known is whether isoflurane anesthesia prevents the initiation of transcription or whether it halts transcription already in progress. We tested the hypothesis that general anesthesia with isoflurane prevents learning-induced initiation of transcription of several memory-associated immediate-early genes (IEGs) correlated with amnesia; we also assessed whether it stops transcription initiated prior to anesthetic administration. Using a Tone Fear Conditioning paradigm, rats were trained to associate a tone with foot-shock. Animals received either no anesthesia, anesthesia immediately after training, or anesthesia before, during, and after training. Animals were either sacrificed after training or tested 24 h later for long-term memory. Using Cellular Compartment Analysis of Temporal Activity by Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (catFISH), we examined the percentage of neurons expressing the IEGs Arc/Arg3.1 and Zif268/Egr1/Ngfi-A/Krox-24 in the dorsal hippocampus, primary somatosensory cortex, and primary auditory cortex. On a cellular level, isoflurane administered at high doses (general anesthesia) prevented initiation of transcription, but did not stop transcription of Arc and Zif268 mRNA initiated prior to anesthesia. On a behavioral level, the same level of isoflurane anesthesia produced anterograde amnesia for fear conditioning when administered before and during training, but did not produce retrograde amnesia when administered immediately after training. General anesthesia with isoflurane prevents initiation of learning-related transcription but does not stop ongoing transcription of two plasticity-related IEGs, Arc and Zif268, a pattern of disruption that parallels the effects of isoflurane on memory formation. Combined with

  6. Influence of isoflurane on Immediate-Early Gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristopher M Bunting

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anterograde amnesia is a hallmark effect of volatile anesthetics. Isoflurane is known to affect both the translation and transcription of plasticity-associated genes required for normal memory formation in many brain regions. What is not known is whether isoflurane anesthesia prevents the initiation of transcription or whether it halts transcription already in progress. We tested the hypothesis that general anesthesia with isoflurane prevents learning-induced initiation of transcription of several memory-associated immediate-early genes (IEGs correlated with amnesia; we also assessed whether it stops transcription initiated prior to anesthetic administration.Methods: Using a Tone Fear Conditioning paradigm, rats were trained to associate a tone with foot-shock. Animals received either no anesthesia, anesthesia immediately after training, or anesthesia before, during, and after training. Animals were either sacrificed after training or tested 24 hours later for memory. Using Cellular Compartment Analysis of Temporal Activity by Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (catFISH, we examined the percentage of neurons expressing the IEGs Arc/Arg3.1 and Zif268/Egr1/Ngfi-A/Krox-24 in the dorsal hippocampus, primary somatosensory cortex, and primary auditory cortex.Results: On a cellular level, isoflurane administered at high doses (general anesthesia prevented initiation of transcription, but did not stop transcription of Arc and Zif268 mRNA initiated prior to anesthesia. On a behavioral level, the same level of isoflurane anesthesia produced anterograde amnesia for fear conditioning when administered before and during training, but did not produce retrograde amnesia when administered immediately after training. Conclusions: General anesthesia with isoflurane prevents initiation of learning-related transcription but does not stop ongoing transcription of two plasticity-related IEGs, Arc and Zif268, a pattern of disruption that parallels the

  7. Direct and specific effect of sevoflurane anesthesia on rat Per2 expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megumi Anzai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our previous studies revealed that application of the inhalation anesthetic, sevoflurane, reversibly repressed the expression of Per2 in the mouse suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN. We aimed to examine whether sevoflurane directly affects the SCN. METHODS: We performed in vivo and in vitro experiments to investigate rat Per2 expression under sevoflurane-treatment. The in vivo effects of sevoflurane on rPer2 expression were examined by quantitative in situ hybridization with a radioactively-labeled cRNA probe. Additionally, we examined the effect of sevoflurane anesthesia on rest/activity rhythms in the rat. In the in vitro experiments, we applied sevoflurane to SCN explant cultures from Per2-dLuc transgenic rats, and monitored luciferase bioluminescence, representing Per2 promoter activity. Bioluminescence from two peripheral organs, the kidney cortex and the anterior pituitary gland, were also analyzed. RESULTS: Application of sevoflurane in rats significantly suppressed Per2 expression in the SCN compared with untreated animals. We observed no sevoflurane-induced phase-shift in the rest/activity rhythms. In the in vitro experiments, the intermittent application of sevoflurane repressed the increase of Per2-dLuc luminescence and led to a phase delay in the Per2-dLuc luminescence rhythm. Sevoflurane treatment did not suppress bioluminescence in the kidney cortex or the anterior pituitary gland. CONCLUSION: The suppression of Per2-dLuc luminescence by sevoflurane in in vitro SCN cultures isolated from peripheral inputs and other nuclei suggest a direct action of sevoflurane on the SCN itself. That sevoflurane has no such effect on peripheral organs suggests that this action might be mediated through a neuron-specific cellular mechanism or a regulation of the signal transduction between neurons.

  8. Sevoflurane induction for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)- a clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: In our experience sevoflurane has been fairly well tolerated and has improved patient anaesthetic induction morbidity but appears to be associated with a shorter duration of motor seizure, potential haemodynamic complications and an increased financial burden for the hospital. Conclusion: This report is from a ...

  9. Halothane inhibits the cholinergic-receptor-mediated influx of calcium in primary culture of bovine adrenal medulla cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashima, N.; Wada, A.; Izumi, F.

    1986-01-01

    Adrenal medulla cells are cholinoceptive cells. Stimulation of the acetylcholine receptor causes the influx of Ca to the cells, and Ca acts as the coupler of the stimulus-secretion coupling. In this study, the authors investigated the effects of halothane on the receptor-mediated influx of 45 Ca using cultured bovine adrenal medulla cells. Halothane at clinical concentrations (0.5-2%) inhibited the influx of 45 Ca caused by carbachol, with simultaneous inhibition of catecholamine secretion. The influx of 45 Ca and the secretion of catecholamines caused by K depolarization were inhibited by a large concentration of Mg, which competes with Ca at Ca channels, but not inhibited by halothane. Inhibition of the 45 Ca influx by halothane was not overcome by increase in the carbachol concentration. Inhibition of the 45 Ca influx by halothane was examined in comparison with that caused by a large concentration of Mg by the application of Scatchard analysis as the function of the external Ca concentration. Halothane decreased the maximal influx of 45 Ca without altering the apparent kinetic constant of Ca to Ca channels. On the contrary, a large concentration of Mg increased the apparent kinetic constant without altering the maximal influx of 45 Ca. Based on these findings, the authors suggest that inhibition of the 45 Ca influx by halothane was not due to the direct competitive inhibition of Ca channels, nor to the competitive antagonism of agonist-receptor interaction. As a possibility, halothane seems to inhibit the receptor-mediated activation of Ca channels through the interference of coupling between the receptor and Ca channels

  10. Rocuronium duration of action under sevoflurane, desflurane or propofol anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidatsi, P G; Zaralidou, A Th; Gorgias, N K; Amaniti, E N; Karakoulas, K A; Giala, M M

    2004-10-01

    We conducted a prospective randomized study to evaluate whether the duration of action of a single bolus dose of rocuronium is influenced by maintenance of anaesthesia with sevoflurane, desflurane or propofol infusion. Fifty-seven ASA I-II patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery were enrolled in this study. Anaesthesia was induced with thiopental 3-5 mg kg(-1) or propofol 2.5 mg kg(-1) and fentanyl 5 microg kg(-1) and tracheal intubation was facilitated with rocuronium 0.9 mg kg(-1). Thereafter patients were randomly allocated to three different groups to receive sevoflurane, desflurane or propofol for maintenance of anaesthesia. Recovery of neuromuscular function was monitored by single twitch stimulation of the ulnar nerve and by recording the adductor pollicis response using accelerometry. Intergroup recovery times to 5% of control value of single twitch were analysed using analysis of variance with Bonferroni correction. The mean (95% confidence interval) recovery time to 5% of control value of single twitch during desflurane anaesthesia was 90.18 (86.11-94.25) min. Significantly shorter recovery times were observed during sevoflurane or propofol anaesthesia, 58.86 (54.73-62.99) min and 51.11 (45.47-56.74) min, respectively (P < 0.001). There were also significant differences in the recovery time between groups receiving desflurane vs. sevoflurane (P < 0.001) and desflurane vs. propofol (P < 0.001). Desflurane anaesthesia significantly prolongs the duration of action of rocuronium at 0.9 mg kg(-1) single bolus dose, compared to sevoflurane or propofol anaesthesia maintenance regimens.

  11. Sevoflurane suppresses proliferation by upregulating microRNA-203 in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiaying; Yang, Longqiu; Guo, Xia; Jin, Guangli; Wang, Qimin; Lv, Dongdong; Liu, Junli; Chen, Qiu; Song, Qiong; Li, Baolin

    2018-05-03

    Rapid proliferation is one of the critical characteristics of breast cancer. However, the underlying regulatory mechanism of breast cancer cell proliferation is largely unclear. The present study indicated that sevoflurane, one of inhalational anesthetics, could significantly suppress breast cancer cell proliferation by arresting cell cycle at G1 phase. Notably, the rescue experiment indicated that miR-203 was upregulated by sevoflurane and mediated the function of sevoflurane on suppressing the breast cancer cell proliferation. The present study indicated the function of the sevoflurane/miR-203 signaling pathway on regulating breast cancer cell proliferation. These results provide mechanistic insight into how the sevoflurane/miR-203 signaling pathway supresses proliferation of breast cancer cells, suggesting the sevoflurane/miR-203 pathway may be a potential target in the treatment of breast cancer.

  12. Use of the caffeine-halothane contracture test for the diagnosis of malignant hyperthermia in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.T. Sudo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Malignant hyperthermia (MH is a pharmacogenetic disease triggered by volatile anesthetics and succinylcholine. Deaths due to MH have been reported in Brazil. The first Malignant Hyperthermia Diagnostic and Research Center in Latin America was inaugurated in 1993 at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The center followed the diagnostic protocols of the North America MH Group, in which the contractures of biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle are analyzed after exposure to caffeine and halothane (CHCT. CHCT was performed in individuals who survived, their relatives and those with signs/symptoms somewhat related to MH susceptibility (MHS. Here, we report data from 194 patients collected over 16 years. The Southeast (N = 110 and South (N = 71 represented the majority of patients. Median age was 25 (4-70 years, with similar numbers of males (104 and females (90. MHS was found in 90 patients and 104 patients were normal. Abnormal responses to both caffeine and halothane were observed in 59 patients and to caffeine or halothane in 20 and 11 patients, respectively. The contracture of biopsies from MHS exposed to caffeine and halothane was 1.027 ± 0.075 g (N = 285 and 4.021 ± 0.255 g (N = 226, respectively. MHS was found in patients with either low or high blood creatine kinase and also, with a low score on the clinical grading scale. Thus, these parameters cannot be used with certainty to predict MHS. We conclude that the CHCT protocol described by the North America MH Group contributed to identification of MHS in suspected individuals at an MH center in Brazil with 100% sensitivity and 65.7% specificity.

  13. Isoflurane anesthesia initiated at the onset of reperfusion attenuates oxidative and hypoxic-ischemic brain injury.

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    Sergey A Sosunov

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates that in mice subjected to hypoxia-ischemia (HI brain injury isoflurane anesthesia initiated upon reperfusion limits a release of mitochondrial oxidative radicals by inhibiting a recovery of complex-I dependent mitochondrial respiration. This significantly attenuates an oxidative stress and reduces the extent of HI brain injury. Neonatal mice were subjected to HI, and at the initiation of reperfusion were exposed to isoflurane with or without mechanical ventilation. At the end of HI and isoflurane exposure cerebral mitochondrial respiration, H2O2 emission rates were measured followed by an assessment of cerebral oxidative damage and infarct volumes. At 8 weeks after HI navigational memory and brain atrophy were assessed. In vitro, direct effect of isoflurane on mitochondrial H2O2 emission was compared to that of complex-I inhibitor, rotenone. Compared to controls, 15 minutes of isoflurane anesthesia inhibited recovery of the compex I-dependent mitochondrial respiration and decreased H2O2 production in mitochondria supported with succinate. This was associated with reduced oxidative brain injury, superior navigational memory and decreased cerebral atrophy compared to the vehicle-treated HI-mice. Extended isoflurane anesthesia was associated with sluggish recovery of cerebral blood flow (CBF and the neuroprotection was lost. However, when isoflurane anesthesia was supported with mechanical ventilation the CBF recovery improved, the event associated with further reduction of infarct volume compared to HI-mice exposed to isoflurane without respiratory support. Thus, in neonatal mice brief isoflurane anesthesia initiated at the onset of reperfusion limits mitochondrial release of oxidative radicals and attenuates an oxidative stress. This novel mechanism contributes to neuroprotective action of isoflurane. The use of mechanical ventilation during isoflurane anesthesia counterbalances negative effect of isoflurane anesthesia on

  14. Breakdown of local information processing may underlie isoflurane anesthesia effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollstadt, Patricia; Sellers, Kristin K; Rudelt, Lucas; Priesemann, Viola; Hutt, Axel; Fröhlich, Flavio; Wibral, Michael

    2017-06-01

    The disruption of coupling between brain areas has been suggested as the mechanism underlying loss of consciousness in anesthesia. This hypothesis has been tested previously by measuring the information transfer between brain areas, and by taking reduced information transfer as a proxy for decoupling. Yet, information transfer is a function of the amount of information available in the information source-such that transfer decreases even for unchanged coupling when less source information is available. Therefore, we reconsidered past interpretations of reduced information transfer as a sign of decoupling, and asked whether impaired local information processing leads to a loss of information transfer. An important prediction of this alternative hypothesis is that changes in locally available information (signal entropy) should be at least as pronounced as changes in information transfer. We tested this prediction by recording local field potentials in two ferrets after administration of isoflurane in concentrations of 0.0%, 0.5%, and 1.0%. We found strong decreases in the source entropy under isoflurane in area V1 and the prefrontal cortex (PFC)-as predicted by our alternative hypothesis. The decrease in source entropy was stronger in PFC compared to V1. Information transfer between V1 and PFC was reduced bidirectionally, but with a stronger decrease from PFC to V1. This links the stronger decrease in information transfer to the stronger decrease in source entropy-suggesting reduced source entropy reduces information transfer. This conclusion fits the observation that the synaptic targets of isoflurane are located in local cortical circuits rather than on the synapses formed by interareal axonal projections. Thus, changes in information transfer under isoflurane seem to be a consequence of changes in local processing more than of decoupling between brain areas. We suggest that source entropy changes must be considered whenever interpreting changes in information

  15. Detomidine reduces isoflurane anesthetic requirement (MAC) in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffey, Eugene P; Pascoe, Peter J

    2002-10-01

    To quantitate the dose- and time-related magnitude of the anesthetic sparing effect of, and selected physiological responses to detomidine during isoflurane anesthesia in horses. Randomized cross-over study. Three, healthy, young adult horses weighing 485 ± 14 kg. Horses were anesthetized on two occasions to determine the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane in O 2 and then to measure the anesthetic sparing effect (time-related MAC reduction) following IV detomidine (0.03 and 0.06 mg kg -1 ). Selected common measures of cardiopulmonary function, blood glucose and urinary output were also recorded. Isoflurane MAC was 1.44 ± 0.07% (mean ± SEM). This was reduced by 42.8 ± 5.4% and 44.8 ± 3.0% at 83 ± 23 and 125 ± 36 minutes, respectively, following 0.03 and 0.06 mg kg -1 , detomidine. The MAC reduction was detomidine dose- and time-dependent. There was a tendency for mild cardiovascular and respiratory depression, especially following the higher detomidine dose. Detomidine increased both blood glucose and urine flow; the magnitude of these changes was time- and dose-dependent CONCLUSIONS: Detomidine reduces anesthetic requirement for isoflurane and increases blood glucose concentration and urine flow in horses. These changes were dose- and time-related. The results imply potent anesthetic sparing actions by detomidine. The detomidine-related increased urine flow should be considered in designing anesthetic protocols for individual horses. Copyright © 2002 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Common Inhalational Anesthetic Sevoflurane Induces Apoptosis and Increases β-Amyloid Protein Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yuanlin; Zhang, Guohua; Zhang, Bin; Moir, Robert D.; Xia, Weiming; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Culley, Deborah J.; Crosby, Gregory; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Xie, Zhongcong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of sevoflurane, the most commonly used inhalation anesthetic, on apoptosis and β-amyloid protein (Aβ) levels in vitro and in vivo. Subjects: Naive mice, H4 human neuroglioma cells, and H4 human neuroglioma cells stably transfected to express full-length amyloid precursor protein. Interventions: Human H4 neuroglioma cells stably transfected to express full-length amyloid precursor protein were exposed to 4.1% sevoflurane for 6 hours. Mice received 2.5% sevoflurane for 2 hours. Caspase-3 activation, apoptosis, and Aβ levels were assessed. Results: Sevoflurane induced apoptosis and elevated levels of β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme and Aβ in vitro and in vivo. The caspase inhibitor Z-VAD decreased the effects of sevoflurane on apoptosis and Aβ. Sevoflurane-induced caspase-3 activation was attenuated by the γ-secretase inhibitor L-685,458 and was potentiated by Aβ. These results suggest that sevoflurane induces caspase activation which, in turn, enhances β-site amyloid precursor protein–cleaving enzyme and Aβ levels. Increased Aβ levels then induce further rounds of apoptosis. Conclusions: These results suggest that inhalational anesthetic sevoflurane may promote Alzheimer disease neuropathogenesis. If confirmed in human subjects, it may be prudent to caution against the use of sevoflurane as an anesthetic, especially in those suspected of possessing excessive levels of cerebral Aβ. PMID:19433662

  17. Minocycline attenuates cognitive impairment induced by isoflurane anesthesia in aged rats.

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    Feijuan Kong

    Full Text Available Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD is a clinical phenomenon characterized by cognitive deficits in patients after anesthesia and surgery, especially in geriatric surgical patients. Although it has been documented that isoflurane exposure impaired cognitive function in several aged animal models, there are few clinical interventions and treatments available to prevent this disorder. Minocycline has been well established to exert neuroprotective effects in various experimental animal models and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, we hypothesized that pretreatment with minocycline attenuates isoflurane-induced cognitive decline in aged rats. In the present study, twenty-month-old rats were administered minocycline or an equal volume of saline by intraperitoneal injection 12 h before exposure to isoflurane. Then the rats were exposed to 1.3% isoflurane for 4 h. Two weeks later, spatial learning and memory of the rats were examined using the Morris Water Maze. We found that pretreatment with minocycline mitigated isoflurane-induced cognitive deficits and suppressed the isoflurane-induced excessive release of IL-1β and caspase-3 in the hippocampal CA1 region at 4 h after isoflurane exposure, as well as the number of TUNEL-positive nuclei. In addition, minocycline treatment also prevented the changes of synaptic ultrastructure in the hippocampal CA1 region induced by isoflurane. In conclusion, pretreatment with minocycline attenuated isoflurane-induced cognitive impairment in aged rats.

  18. Anesthesia with Dexmedetomidine and Low-dose Isoflurane Increases Solute Transport via the Glymphatic Pathway in Rat Brain When Compared with High-dose Isoflurane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benveniste, Helene; Lee, Hedok; Ding, Fengfei; Sun, Qian; Al-Bizri, Ehab; Makaryus, Rany; Probst, Stephen; Nedergaard, Maiken; Stein, Elliot A; Lu, Hanbing

    2017-12-01

    The glymphatic pathway transports cerebrospinal fluid through the brain, thereby facilitating waste removal. A unique aspect of this pathway is that its function depends on the state of consciousness of the brain and is associated with norepinephrine activity. A current view is that all anesthetics will increase glymphatic transport by inducing unconsciousness. This view implies that the effect of anesthetics on glymphatic transport should be independent of their mechanism of action, as long as they induce unconsciousness. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the supplementary effect of dexmedetomidine, which lowers norepinephrine, with isoflurane only, which does not. Female rats were anesthetized with either isoflurane (N = 8) or dexmedetomidine plus low-dose isoflurane (N = 8). Physiologic parameters were recorded continuously. Glymphatic transport was quantified by contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Cerebrospinal fluid and gray and white matter volumes were quantified from T1 maps, and blood vessel diameters were extracted from time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiograms. Electroencephalograms were recorded in separate groups of rats. Glymphatic transport was enhanced by 32% in rats anesthetized with dexmedetomidine plus low-dose isoflurane when compared with isoflurane. In the hippocampus, glymphatic clearance was sixfold more efficient during dexmedetomidine plus low-dose isoflurane anesthesia when compared with isoflurane. The respiratory and blood gas status was comparable in rats anesthetized with the two different anesthesia regimens. In the dexmedetomidine plus low-dose isoflurane rats, spindle oscillations (9 to 15 Hz) could be observed but not in isoflurane anesthetized rats. We propose that anesthetics affect the glymphatic pathway transport not simply by inducing unconsciousness but also by additional mechanisms, one of which is the repression of norepinephrine release.

  19. Isoflurane produces sustained cardiac protection after ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Yasuo M; Patel, Hemal H; Lai, N Chin; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Head, Brian P; Roth, David M

    2006-03-01

    Isoflurane reduces myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury within hours to days of reperfusion. Whether isoflurane produces sustained cardiac protection has never been examined. The authors studied isoflurane-induced cardiac protection in the intact mouse after 2 h and 2 weeks of reperfusion and determined the dependence of this protection on adenosine triphosphate-dependent potassium channels and the relevance of this protection to myocardial function and apoptosis. Mice were randomly assigned to receive oxygen or isoflurane for 30 min with 15 min of washout. Some mice received mitochondrial (5-hydroxydecanoic acid) or sarcolemmal (HMR-1098) adenosine triphosphate-dependent potassium channel blockers with or without isoflurane. Mice were then subjected to a 30-min coronary artery occlusion followed by 2 h or 2 weeks of reperfusion. Infarct size was determined at 2 h and 2 weeks of reperfusion. Cardiac function and apoptosis were determined 2 weeks after reperfusion. Isoflurane did not change hemodynamics. Isoflurane reduced infarct size after reperfusion when compared with the control groups (27.7 +/- 6.3 vs. 41.7 +/- 6.4% at 2 h and 19.6 +/- 5.9 vs. 28.8 +/- 9.0% at 2 weeks). Previous administration of 5-hydroxydecanoic acid, but not HMR-1098, abolished isoflurane-induced cardiac protection. At 2 weeks, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter was decreased significantly and end-systolic pressure and maximum and minimum dP/dt were improved by isoflurane. Isoflurane-treated mice subjected to ischemia and 2 weeks of reperfusion showed less expression of proapoptotic genes, significantly decreased expression of cleaved caspase-3, and significantly decreased deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling-positive nuclei compared with the control group. Cardiac protection induced by isoflurane against necrotic and apoptotic cell death is associated with an acute memory period that is sustained and functionally relevant 2 weeks after

  20. Sevoflurane posttreatment prevents oxidative and inflammatory injury in ventilator-induced lung injury.

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    Julie Wagner

    Full Text Available Mechanical ventilation is a life-saving clinical treatment but it can induce or aggravate lung injury. New therapeutic strategies, aimed at reducing the negative effects of mechanical ventilation such as excessive production of reactive oxygen species, release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and transmigration as well as activation of neutrophil cells, are needed to improve the clinical outcome of ventilated patients. Though the inhaled anesthetic sevoflurane is known to exert organ-protective effects, little is known about the potential of sevoflurane therapy in ventilator-induced lung injury. This study focused on the effects of delayed sevoflurane application in mechanically ventilated C57BL/6N mice. Lung function, lung injury, oxidative stress, and inflammatory parameters were analyzed and compared between non-ventilated and ventilated groups with or without sevoflurane anesthesia. Mechanical ventilation led to a substantial induction of lung injury, reactive oxygen species production, pro-inflammatory cytokine release, and neutrophil influx. In contrast, sevoflurane posttreatment time dependently reduced histological signs of lung injury. Most interestingly, increased production of reactive oxygen species was clearly inhibited in all sevoflurane posttreatment groups. Likewise, the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β and MIP-1β and neutrophil transmigration were completely prevented by sevoflurane independent of the onset of sevoflurane administration. In conclusion, sevoflurane posttreatment time dependently limits lung injury, and oxidative and pro-inflammatory responses are clearly prevented by sevoflurane irrespective of the onset of posttreatment. These findings underline the therapeutic potential of sevoflurane treatment in ventilator-induced lung injury.

  1. The effect of isoflurane anaesthesia and vasectomy on circulating corticosterone and ACTH in BALB/c mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kirsten Rosenmaj; Kalliokoski, Otto; Teilmann, Anne Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    compared to anaesthetised mice not treated with dexamethasone. Thus, dexamethasone effectively inhibited the corticosterone response in the anaesthetised-only mice, but not in the mice subjected to surgery. In conclusion, both isoflurane anaesthesia and vasectomy during isoflurane anaesthesia resulted...

  2. Identification of causal relations between haemodynamic variables, auditory evoked potentials and isoflurane by means of fuzzy logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E W; Nebot, A; Caminal, P

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify a possible relationship between haemodynamic variables, auditory evoked potentials (AEP) and inspired fraction of isoflurane (ISOFl). Two different models (isoflurane and mean arterial pressure) were identified using the fuzzy inductive reasoning (FIR...

  3. Minimum alveolar concentration threshold of sevoflurane for postoperative dream recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceto, P; Perilli, V; Lai, C; Sacco, T; Modesti, C; Luca, E; De Santis, P; Sollazzi, L; Antonelli, M

    2015-11-01

    Many factors affect postoperative dream recall, including patient characteristics, type of anesthesia, timing of postoperative interview and stress hormone secretion. Aims of the study were to determine whether Bispectral Index (BIS)-guided anesthesia might decrease sevoflurane minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) when compared with hemodynamically-guided anesthesia, and to search for a MAC threshold useful for preventing arousal, dream recall and implicit memory. One hundred thirty patients undergoing elective thyroidectomy were enrolled. Anesthesia was induced with propofol 2 mg kg(-1), fentanyl 3 mcg kg(-1) and cis-atracurium 0.15 mg kg(-1). For anesthesia maintenance, patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups: a BIS-guided group in which sevoflurane MAC was adjusted on the basis of BIS values, and a hemodynamic parameters (HP)-guided group in which MAC was adjusted based on HP. An auditory recording was presented to patients during anesthesia maintenance. Dream recall and explicit/implicit memory were investigated upon awakening and approximately after 24 h. Mean sevoflurane MAC during auditory presentation was similar in the two groups (0.85 ± 0.16 and 0.87 ± 0.17 [P = 0.53] in BIS-guided and HP-guided groups, respectively). Frequency of dream recall was similar in the two groups: 27% (N. = 17) in BIS-guided group, 18% (N. = 12) in HP-guided group, P = 0.37. In both groups, dream recall was less probable in patients anesthetized with MAC values ≥ 0.9 (area under ROC curve = 0.83, sensitivity = 90%, and specificity = 49%). BIS-guided anesthesia was not able to generate different MAC values compared to HP-guided anesthesia. Independent of the guide used for anesthesia, a sevoflurane MAC over 0.9 was required to prevent postoperative dream recall.

  4. DFT study on the adsorption behavior and electronic response of AlN nanotube and nanocage toward toxic halothane gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, R.; Hosseinian, A.; Khosroshahi, E. Saedi; Edjlali, L.; Vessally, E.

    2018-04-01

    We have investigated the adsorption of a halothane molecule on the AlN nanotube, and nanocage using density functional theory calculations. We predicted that the halothane molecule tends to be physically adsorbed on the surface of AlN nanotube with adsorption energy (Ead) of -4.2 kcal/mol. The electronic properties of AlN nanotube are not affected by the halothane, and it is not a sensor. But the AlN nanocage is more reactive than the AlN nanotube because of its higher curvature. The halothane tends to be adsorbed on a hexagonal ring, an Alsbnd N bond, and a tetragonal ring of the AlN nanocage. The adsorption ability order is as follows: tetragonal ring (Ead = -14.7 kcal/mol) > Alsbnd N bond (Ead = -12.3 kcal/mol) > hexagonal ring (Ead = -10.1 kcal/mol). When a halothane molecule is adsorbed on the AlN nanocage, its electrical conductivity is increased, demonstrating that it can yield an electronic signal at the presence of this molecule, and can be employed in chemical sensors. The AlN nanocage benefits from a short recovery time of about 58 ms at room temperature.

  5. Isoflurane Damages the Developing Brain of Mice and Induces Subsequent Learning and Memory Deficits through FASL-FAS Signaling

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    Xiuwen Yi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Isoflurane disrupts brain development of neonatal mice, but its mechanism is unclear. We explored whether isoflurane damaged developing hippocampi through FASL-FAS signaling pathway, which is a well-known pathway of apoptosis. Method. Wild type and FAS- or FASL-gene-knockout mice aged 7 days were exposed to either isoflurane or pure oxygen. We used western blotting to study expressions of caspase-3, FAS (CD95, and FAS ligand (FASL or CD95L proteins, TUNEL staining to count apoptotic cells in hippocampus, and Morris water maze (MWM to evaluate learning and memory. Result. Isoflurane increased expression of FAS and FASL proteins in wild type mice. Compared to isoflurane-treated FAS- and FASL-knockout mice, isoflurane-treated wild type mice had higher expression of caspase-3 and more TUNEL-positive hippocampal cells. Expression of caspase-3 in wild isoflurane group, wild control group, FAS/FASL-gene-knockout control group, and FAS/FASL-gene-knockout isoflurane group showed FAS or FASL gene knockout might attenuate increase of caspase-3 caused by isoflurane. MWM showed isoflurane treatment of wild type mice significantly prolonged escape latency and reduced platform crossing times compared with gene-knockout isoflurane-treated groups. Conclusion. Isoflurane induces apoptosis in developing hippocampi of wild type mice but not in FAS- and FASL-knockout mice and damages brain development through FASL-FAS signaling.

  6. Effects of isoflurane anesthesia and pilocarpine on rat parotid saliva flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jacob Dronninglund; Nauntofte, Birgitte; Josipovic, M

    2011-01-01

    rats was 50% slower than that of the sham-irradiated rats. In conclusion, 1.5% isoflurane was found to be a good compromise between proper anesthesia and isoflurane-induced inhibition of saliva secretion. Pilocarpine induces saliva secretion in a dose-dependent matter, with supra-maximal stimulation...

  7. Isoflurane causes anterograde but not retrograde amnesia for pavlovian fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Robert C; Maurer, Anya J; Sonner, James M; Fanselow, Michael S; Laster, Michael J; Eger, Edmond I

    2002-05-01

    Production of retrograde amnesia by anesthetics would indicate that these drugs can disrupt mechanisms that stabilize memory. Such disruption would allow suppression of memory of previous untoward events. The authors examined whether isoflurane provides retrograde amnesia for classic (Pavlovian) fear conditioning. Rats were trained to fear tone by applying three (three-trial) or one (one-trial) tone-shock pairs while breathing various constant concentrations of isoflurane. Immediately after training, isoflurane administration was either discontinued, maintained unchanged, or rapidly increased to 1.0 minimum alveolar concentration for 1 h longer. Groups of rats were similarly trained to fear context while breathing isoflurane by applying shocks (without tones) in a distinctive environment. The next day, memory for the conditioned stimuli was determined by presenting the tone or context (without shock) and measuring the proportion of time each rat froze (appeared immobile). For each conditioning procedure, the effects of the three posttraining isoflurane treatments were compared. Rapid increases in posttraining isoflurane administration did not suppress conditioned fear for any of the training procedures. In contrast, isoflurane administration during conditioning dose-dependently suppressed conditioning (P conditioning. Isoflurane appears to disrupt memory processes that occur at or within a few minutes of the conditioning procedure.

  8. Isoflurane produces antidepressant effects and induces TrkB signaling in rodents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antila, Hanna; Ryazantseva, Maria; Popova, Dina

    2017-01-01

    A brief burst-suppressing isoflurane anesthesia has been shown to rapidly alleviate symptoms of depression in a subset of patients, but the neurobiological basis of these observations remains obscure. We show that a single isoflurane anesthesia produces antidepressant-like behavioural effects...

  9. Sugammadex-Enhanced Neuronal Apoptosis following Neonatal Sevoflurane Exposure in Mice

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    Maiko Satomoto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In rodents, neonatal sevoflurane exposure induces neonatal apoptosis in the brain and results in learning deficits. Sugammadex is a new selective neuromuscular blockade (NMB binding agent that anesthesiologists can use to achieve immediate reversal of an NMB with few side effects. Given its molecular weight of 2178, sugammadex is thought to be unable to pass through the blood brain barrier (BBB. Volatile anesthetics can influence BBB opening and integrity. Therefore, we investigated whether the intraperitoneal administration of sugammadex could exacerbate neuronal damage following neonatal 2% sevoflurane exposure via changes in BBB integrity. Cleaved caspase-3 immunoblotting was used to detect apoptosis, and the ultrastructure of the BBB was examined by transmission electron microscopy. Exposure to 2% sevoflurane for 6 h resulted in BBB ultrastructural abnormalities in the hippocampus of neonatal mice. Sugammadex alone without sevoflurane did not induce apoptosis. The coadministration of sugammadex with sevoflurane to neonatal mice caused a significant increase (150% in neuroapoptosis in the brain compared with 2% sevoflurane. In neonatal anesthesia, sugammadex could influence neurotoxicity together with sevoflurane. Exposure to 2% sevoflurane for 6 h resulted in BBB ultrastructural abnormalities in the hippocampus of neonatal mice.

  10. Modeling of Recovery Profiles in Mentally Disabled and Intact Patients after Sevoflurane Anesthesia; A Pharmacodynamic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Teo Jeon; Noh, Gyu-Jeong; Koo, Yong-Seo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Mentally disabled patients show different recovery profiles compared to normal patients after general anesthesia. However, the relationship of dose-recovery profiles of mentally disabled patients has never been compared to that of normal patients. Materials and Methods Twenty patients (10 mentally disabled patients and 10 mentally intact patients) scheduled to dental surgery under general anesthesia was recruited. Sevoflurane was administered to maintain anesthesia during dental treatment. At the end of the surgery, sevoflurane was discontinued. End-tidal sevoflurane and recovery of consciousness (ROC) were recorded after sevoflurane discontinuation. The pharmacodynamic relation between the probability of ROC and end-tidal sevoflurane concentration was analyzed using NONMEM software (version VII). Results End-tidal sevoflurane concentration associated with 50% probability of ROC (C50) and γ value were lower in the mentally disabled patients (C50=0.37 vol %, γ=16.5 in mentally intact patients, C50=0.19 vol %, γ=4.58 in mentally disabled patients). Mentality was a significant covariate of C50 for ROC and γ value to pharmacodynamic model. Conclusion A sigmoid Emanx model explains the pharmacodynamic relationship between end-tidal sevoflurane concentration and ROC. Mentally disabled patients may recover slower from anesthesia at lower sevoflurane concentration at ROC an compared to normal patients. PMID:25323901

  11. 75 FR 1021 - Certain Other Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Sevoflurane

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... Halocarbon Products Corp. The ANADA provides for the use of sevoflurane inhalant anesthetic in dogs. DATES... anesthetic, in dogs. Halocarbon Products Corp.'s Sevoflurane is approved as a generic copy of SEVOFLO... Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and under authority delegated to the Commissioner of Food and Drugs...

  12. Response surface modeling of alfentanil-sevoflurane interaction on cardiorespiratory control and bispectral index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, A; Nieuwenhuijs, D; Olofsen, E; Sarton, E; Romberg, R; Teppema, L

    2001-06-01

    Respiratory depression is a serious side effect of anesthetics and opioids. The authors examined the influence of the combined administration of sevoflurane and alfentanil on ventilatory control, heart rate (HR), and Bispectral Index (BIS) in healthy volunteers. Step decreases in end-tidal partial pressure of oxygen from normoxia into hypoxia (approximately 50 mmHg) at constant end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (approximately 48 mmHg) were performed in nine male volunteers at various concentrations of alfentanil and sevoflurane, ranging from 0 to 50 ng/ml for alfentanil and from 0 to 0.4 end-tidal concentration (ET%) for sevoflurane, and with various combinations of alfentanil and sevoflurane. The alfentanil-sevoflurane interactions on normoxic resting (hypercapnic) ventilation (Vi), HR, hypoxic Vi, and HR responses and BIS were assessed by construction of response surfaces that related alfentanil and sevoflurane to effect using a population analysis. Concentration-effect relations were linear for alfentanil and sevoflurane. Synergistic interactions were observed for resting Vi and resting HR. Depression of Vi by 25% occurred at 38 +/- 11 ng/ml alfentanil (population mean +/- SE) and at 0.7 +/- 0.4 ET% sevoflurane. One possibility for 25% reduction when alfentanil and sevoflurane are combined is 13.4 ng/ml alfentanil plus 0.12 ET% sevoflurane. Additive interactions were observed for hypoxic Vi and HR responses and BIS. Depression of the hypoxic Vi response by 25% occurred at 16 +/- 1 ng/ml alfentanil and 0.14 +/- 0.05 ET% sevoflurane. The effect of sevoflurane on the BIS (25% reduction of BIS occurred at 0.45 +/- 0.08 ET%) was independent of the alfentanil concentration. Response surface modeling was used successfully to analyze the effect of interactions between two drugs on respiration. The combination of alfentanil and sevoflurane causes more depression of Vi and HR than does the summed effect of each drug administered separately. The effects of

  13. Effects of carprofen and morphine on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jeff C H; Weil, Ann B; Inoue, Tomohito

    2009-01-01

    The minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane in dogs was determined following carprofen (2.2 mg/kg per os) alone, morphine (1 mg/kg intravenously) alone, carprofen and morphine, and no drug control in eight healthy adult dogs. Isoflurane MAC following administration of morphine alone (0.81%+/-0.18%) or carprofen and morphine (0.68%+/-0.31%) was significantly less than the control MAC (1.24%+/-0.15%). Isoflurane MAC after carprofen alone (1.13%+/-0.13%) was not significantly different from the control value. Results indicated that administration of morphine alone or in combination with carprofen significantly reduced the MAC of isoflurane in dogs. The isoflurane MAC reduction was additive between the effects of carprofen and morphine.

  14. First use of halothane in the United States, C. Ronald Stephen, M.D. (1916-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesecke, Adolph H

    2008-01-01

    Anesthesia is one of the most valued discoveries in all of history. Almost immediately after the first public demonstration of ether anesthesia, a search for a better drug began. Ether, despite its flammability, persisted as the primary inhalation agent for over a hundred years. The breakthrough came with the introduction of a non-flammable volatile anesthetic called halothane in 1955. The drug was approved by the FDA in 1958 and quickly became the most commonly used agent in the United States. It was a quantum leap forward in the safety of anesthetic drugs. It became obsolete in 1988 because of hepatotoxicity. Three eminent anesthesiologists: Drs. Abajian of Vermont, Siker of Pittsburgh and Stephen of Duke could have been the first to use halothane in the USA. My review of the documents and writings of the three confirm that Dr. C. Ronald Stephen of Duke University was indeed the first to use and publish on halothane anesthesia in the USA.

  15. QT-RR relationships and suitable QT correction formulas for halothane-anesthetized dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabo, Mitsuyasu; Nakamura, Mikiko; Kimura, Kazuya; Ito, Shigeo

    2006-10-01

    Several QT correction (QTc) formulas have been used for assessing the QT liability of drugs. However, they are known to under- and over-correct the QT interval and tend to be specific to species and experimental conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine a suitable formula for halothane-anesthetized dogs highly sensitive to drug-induced QT interval prolongation. Twenty dogs were anesthetized with 1.5% halothane and the relationship between the QT and RR intervals were obtained by changing the heart rate under atrial pacing conditions. The QT interval was corrected for the RR interval by applying 4 published formulas (Bazett, Fridericia, Van de Water, and Matsunaga); Fridericia's formula (QTcF = QT/RR(0.33)) showed the least slope and lowest R(2) value for the linear regression of QTc intervals against RR intervals, indicating that it dissociated changes in heart rate most effectively. An optimized formula (QTcX = QT/RR(0.3879)) is defined by analysis of covariance and represents a correction algorithm superior to Fridericia's formula. For both Fridericia's and the optimized formula, QT-prolonging drugs (d,l-sotalol, astemizole) showed QTc interval prolongation. A non-QT-prolonging drug (d,l-propranolol) failed to prolong the QTc interval. In addition, drug-induced changes in QTcF and QTcX intervals were highly correlated with those of the QT interval paced at a cycle length of 500 msec. These findings suggest that Fridericia's and the optimized formula, although the optimized is a little bit better, are suitable for correcting the QT interval in halothane-anesthetized dogs and help to evaluate the potential QT prolongation of drugs with high accuracy.

  16. [The effect of halothane on the fructose metabolism in the liver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, E; Scholz, R

    1975-10-01

    Glucose production from frutose (2 mmol) and fructolysis was studied in perfused rat liver. In the presence of halothane (0.5, 1.5, and 4.0 vol%) glucose production was inhibited, whereas lactate production was stimulated. Total fructose metabolism was unchanged. Since halogenated hydrocarbon compounds are known to inhibit the mitochondrial respiratory chain, it is concluded that glucose synthesis is inhibited due to decreased supply of energy-rich phosphates from oxidative phosphorylation. On the other hand, this depletion of energy may be partially compensated for by an increased extramitochondrial energy production due to fructolysis.

  17. Activation of D1 dopamine receptors induces emergence from isoflurane general anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Norman E.; Chemali, Jessica J.; Brown, Emery N.; Solt, Ken

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND A recent study showed that methylphenidate induces emergence from isoflurane anesthesia. Methylphenidate inhibits dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake transporters. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that selective dopamine receptor activation induces emergence from isoflurane anesthesia. METHODS In adult rats, we tested the effects of chloro-APB (D1 agonist) and quinpirole (D2 agonist) on time to emergence from isoflurane general anesthesia. We then performed a dose–response study to test for chloro-APB-induced restoration of righting during continuous isoflurane anesthesia. SCH-23390 (D1 antagonist) was used to confirm that the effects induced by chloro-APB are specifically mediated by D1 receptors. In a separate group of animals, spectral analysis was performed on surface electroencephalogram recordings to assess neurophysiological changes induced by chloro-APB and quinpirole during isoflurane general anesthesia. RESULTS Chloro-APB decreased median time to emergence from 330s to 50s. The median difference in time to emergence between the saline control group (n=6) and the chloro-APB group (n = 6) was 222s (95% CI: 77–534s, Mann-Whitney test). This difference was statistically significant (p = 0.0082). During continuous isoflurane anesthesia, chloro-APB dose-dependently restored righting (n = 6) and decreased electroencephalogram delta power (n = 4). These effects were inhibited by pretreatment with SCH-23390. Quinpirole did not restore righting (n = 6) and had no significant effect on the electroencephalogram (n = 4) during continuous isoflurane anesthesia. CONCLUSIONS Activation of D1 receptors by chloro-APB decreases time to emergence from isoflurane anesthesia, and produces behavioral and neurophysiological evidence of arousal during continuous isoflurane anesthesia. These findings suggest that selective activation of a D1 receptor-mediated arousal mechanism is sufficient to induce emergence from isoflurane general

  18. Isoflurane induced cognitive impairment in aged rats through hippocampal calcineurin/NFAT signaling

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    Ni, Cheng; Li, Zhengqian; Qian, Min; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Jun; Guo, Xiangyang, E-mail: puthmzk@163.com

    2015-05-15

    Calcineurin (CaN) over-activation constrains synaptic plasticity and memory formation. Upon CaN activation, NFAT imports into the nucleus and guides its downstream genes, which also affect neuronal and synaptic function. Aberrant CaN/NFAT signaling involves in neurotoxicity and cognitive impairment in neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, but its role in postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) remains uninvestigated. Inhaled anesthetic isoflurane facilitates the development of POCD, and the present study investigated the role of CaN/NFAT signaling in isoflurane induced cognitive impairment of aged rats, and the therapeutic effects of CaN inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA). The results indicated that hippocampal CaN activity increased and peaked at 6 h after isoflurane exposure, and NFAT, especially NFATc4, imported into the nucleus following CaN activation. Furthermore, phamacological inhibition of CaN by CsA markedly attenuated isoflurane induced aberrant CaN/NFATc4 signaling in the hippocampus, and rescued relevant spatial learning and memory impairment of aged rats. Overall, the study suggests hippocampal CaN/NFAT signaling as the upstream mechanism of isoflurane induced cognitive impairment, and provides potential therapeutic target and possible treatment methods for POCD. - Highlights: • Isoflurane induces hippocampal calcineurin activation. • Isoflurane induces hippocampal NFAT, especially NFATc4, nuclear import. • Cyclosporine A attenuates isoflurane induced aberrant calcineurin/NFAT signaling. • Cyclosporine A rescues isoflurane induced cognitive impairment. • Calcineurin/NFAT signaling is the upstream mechanism of isoflurane induced synaptic dysfunction and cognitive impairment.

  19. Isoflurane-induced spatial memory impairment in mice is prevented by the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil.

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    Diansan Su

    Full Text Available Although many studies have shown that isoflurane exposure impairs spatial memory in aged animals, there are no clinical treatments available to prevent this memory deficit. The anticholinergic properties of volatile anesthetics are a biologically plausible cause of cognitive dysfunction in elderly subjects. We hypothesized that pretreatment with the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil, which has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, prevents isoflurane-induced spatial memory impairment in aged mice. In present study, eighteen-month-old mice were administered donepezil (5 mg/kg or an equal volume of saline by oral gavage with a feeding needle for four weeks. Then the mice were exposed to isoflurane (1.2% for six hours. Two weeks later, mice were subjected to the Morris water maze to examine the impairment of spatial memory after exposure to isoflurane. After the behavioral test, the mice were sacrificed, and the protein expression level of acetylcholinesterase (AChE, choline acetylase (ChAT and α7 nicotinic receptor (α7-nAChR were measured in the brain. Each group consisted of 12 mice. We found that isoflurane exposure for six hours impaired the spatial memory of the mice. Compared with the control group, isoflurane exposure dramatically decreased the protein level of ChAT, but not AChE or α7-nAChR. Donepezil prevented isoflurane-induced spatial memory impairments and increased ChAT levels, which were downregulated by isoflurane. In conclusions, pretreatment with the AChE inhibitor donepezil prevented isoflurane-induced spatial memory impairment in aged mice. The mechanism was associated with the upregulation of ChAT, which was decreased by isoflurane.

  20. Isoflurane induced cognitive impairment in aged rats through hippocampal calcineurin/NFAT signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Cheng; Li, Zhengqian; Qian, Min; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Jun; Guo, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    Calcineurin (CaN) over-activation constrains synaptic plasticity and memory formation. Upon CaN activation, NFAT imports into the nucleus and guides its downstream genes, which also affect neuronal and synaptic function. Aberrant CaN/NFAT signaling involves in neurotoxicity and cognitive impairment in neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, but its role in postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) remains uninvestigated. Inhaled anesthetic isoflurane facilitates the development of POCD, and the present study investigated the role of CaN/NFAT signaling in isoflurane induced cognitive impairment of aged rats, and the therapeutic effects of CaN inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA). The results indicated that hippocampal CaN activity increased and peaked at 6 h after isoflurane exposure, and NFAT, especially NFATc4, imported into the nucleus following CaN activation. Furthermore, phamacological inhibition of CaN by CsA markedly attenuated isoflurane induced aberrant CaN/NFATc4 signaling in the hippocampus, and rescued relevant spatial learning and memory impairment of aged rats. Overall, the study suggests hippocampal CaN/NFAT signaling as the upstream mechanism of isoflurane induced cognitive impairment, and provides potential therapeutic target and possible treatment methods for POCD. - Highlights: • Isoflurane induces hippocampal calcineurin activation. • Isoflurane induces hippocampal NFAT, especially NFATc4, nuclear import. • Cyclosporine A attenuates isoflurane induced aberrant calcineurin/NFAT signaling. • Cyclosporine A rescues isoflurane induced cognitive impairment. • Calcineurin/NFAT signaling is the upstream mechanism of isoflurane induced synaptic dysfunction and cognitive impairment

  1. Direct Pore Binding as a Mechanism for Isoflurane Inhibition of the Pentameric Ligand-gated Ion Channel ELIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang; Kinde, Monica N; Arjunan, Palaniappa; Wells, Marta M; Cohen, Aina E; Xu, Yan; Tang, Pei

    2015-09-08

    Pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) are targets of general anesthetics, but molecular mechanisms underlying anesthetic action remain debatable. We found that ELIC, a pLGIC from Erwinia chrysanthemi, can be functionally inhibited by isoflurane and other anesthetics. Structures of ELIC co-crystallized with isoflurane in the absence or presence of an agonist revealed double isoflurane occupancies inside the pore near T237(6') and A244(13'). A pore-radius contraction near the extracellular entrance was observed upon isoflurane binding. Electrophysiology measurements with a single-point mutation at position 6' or 13' support the notion that binding at these sites renders isoflurane inhibition. Molecular dynamics simulations suggested that isoflurane binding was more stable in the resting than in a desensitized pore conformation. This study presents compelling evidence for a direct pore-binding mechanism of isoflurane inhibition, which has a general implication for inhibitory action of general anesthetics on pLGICs.

  2. Does Listening to Music during Tonsillectomy Affect Sevoflurane Consumption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan Baki, Elif; Ulu, Şahin; Yüksek, Ahmet; Arıcan, Hüseyin; Sivaci, Remziye

    2018-03-12

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of listening to music on the consumption of an anesthetic agent as well as postoperative recovery and pain in children undergoing elective tonsillectomy. Fifty patients were randomized into those to whom music was played during surgery (Group M) and a control group to whom music was not played (Group C). The depth of anesthesia was provided by entropy levels of 50 ± 5 in both groups. Demographic characteristics and hemodynamic parameters were recorded perioperatively. The duration of surgery sevoflurane consumption, eye opening time, and extubation time were also recorded. A value of p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Surgical pleth index values measured intraoperatively were statistically lower in Group M than in Group C. In the post-anesthesia care unit children in the music group felt less pain than those in the control group according to Wong-Baker Faces Pain Rating Scale (p = 0.035). The heart rates of the patients in the music group were statistically lower at 30 minutes intraoperatively and at the end of the procedure compared to the values of the control group (p = 0.015). Consumption of sevoflurane was lower in Group M than in Group C but the difference was not statistically significant. The need for additional fentanyl was significantly lower in Group M than in Group C. In this study, the children exposed to music intraoperatively needed less analgesia during surgery, and reported less pain postoperatively, but there was no difference in sevoflurane requirements. ©2018The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Propofol and magnesium attenuate isoflurane-induced caspase-3 activation via inhibiting mitochondrial permeability transition pore

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    Zhang Yiying

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inhalation anesthetic isoflurane has been shown to open the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP and induce caspase activation and apoptosis, which may lead to learning and memory impairment. Cyclosporine A, a blocker of mPTP opening might attenuate the isoflurane-induced mPTP opening, lessening its ripple effects. Magnesium and anesthetic propofol are also mPTP blockers. We therefore set out to determine whether propofol and magnesium can attenuate the isoflurane-induced caspase activation and mPTP opening. Methods We investigated the effects of magnesium sulfate (Mg2+, propofol, and isoflurane on the opening of mPTP and caspase activation in H4 human neuroglioma cells stably transfected to express full-length human amyloid precursor protein (APP (H4 APP cells and in six day-old wild-type mice, employing Western blot analysis and flowcytometry. Results Here we show that Mg2+ and propofol attenuated the isoflurane-induced caspase-3 activation in H4-APP cells and mouse brain tissue. Moreover, Mg2+ and propofol, the blockers of mPTP opening, mitigated the isoflurane-induced mPTP opening in the H4-APP cells. Conclusion These data illustrate that Mg2+ and propofol may ameliorate the isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity by inhibiting its mitochondrial dysfunction. Pending further studies, these findings may suggest the use of Mg2+ and propofol in preventing and treating anesthesia neurotoxicity.

  4. Antidepressant and neurocognitive effects of isoflurane anesthesia versus electroconvulsive therapy in refractory depression.

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    Howard R Weeks

    Full Text Available Many patients have serious depression that is nonresponsive to medications, but refuse electroconvulsive therapy (ECT. Early research suggested that isoflurane anesthesia may be an effective alternative to ECT. Subsequent studies altered drug, dose or number of treatments, and failed to replicate this success, halting research on isoflurane's antidepressant effects for a decade. Our aim was to re-examine whether isoflurane has antidepressant effects comparable to ECT, with less adverse effects on cognition.Patients with medication-refractory depression received an average of 10 treatments of bifrontal ECT (n = 20 or isoflurane (n = 8 over 3 weeks. Depression severity (Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression-24 and neurocognitive responses (anterograde and retrograde memory, processing speed and verbal fluency were assessed at Pretreatment, Post all treatments and 4-week Follow-up.Both treatments produced significant reductions in depression scores at Post-treatment and 4-week Follow-up; however, ECT had modestly better antidepressant effect at follow-up in severity-matched patients. Immediately Post-treatment, ECT (but not isoflurane patients showed declines in memory, fluency, and processing speed. At Follow-up, only autobiographical memory remained below Pretreatment level for ECT patients, but isoflurane patients had greater test-retest neurocognitive score improvement.Our data reconfirm that isoflurane has an antidepressant effect approaching ECT with less adverse neurocognitive effects, and reinforce the need for a larger clinical trial.

  5. Abnormalities of contrast sensitivity and electroretinogram following sevoflurane anaesthesia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Iohom, G

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that disturbances of the visual pathway following sevoflurane general anaesthesia (a) exist and persist even after clinical discharge criteria have been met and (b) are associated with decreased contrast sensitivity. METHODS: We performed pattern and full-field flash electroretinograms (ERG) in 10 unpremedicated ASA I patients who underwent nitrous oxide\\/sevoflurane anaesthesia. ERG and contrast sensitivity were recorded preoperatively, immediately after discharge from the recovery room and 2 h after discontinuation of sevoflurane. The time at which the Post Anaesthesia Discharge Score first exceeded 9 was also noted. Data were analysed using paired, one-tailed t-tests and Pearson\\'s correlation coefficient. RESULTS: On the full-field photopic ERG, b-wave latency was greater at each postoperative time point (31.6+\\/-1.1 and 30.8+\\/-1.1 ms) compared to preoperatively (30.1+\\/-1.1 ms, P < 0.001 and P = 0.03, respectively). Oscillatory potential latencies were greater on discharge from the recovery room compared with preanaesthetic values (23.1+\\/-3.1 vs. 22.4+\\/-3.3 ms, P = 0.01) and returned to baseline by 2 h after emergence from anaesthesia. Also at 2 h after emergence from anaesthesia: (a) P50 latency on the pattern ERG was greater than at baseline (81.5+\\/-17.9 vs. 51.15+\\/-22.6ms, P = 0.004); (b) N95 amplitude was less compared to preanaesthetic values (2.6+\\/-0.5 vs. 3.3+\\/-0.4 microV, P = 0.003) and (c) contrast sensitivity was less compared to baseline values (349+\\/-153 vs. 404+\\/-140, P = 0.048). A positive correlation was demonstrated between contrast sensitivity and both N95 amplitude and b-wave latency (r = 0.99 and r = -0.55 at significance levels of P < 0.005 and P < 0.05, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative ERG abnormalities and associated decreases in contrast sensitivity are consistently present in patients who have undergone nitrous oxide\\/sevoflurane anaesthesia. These

  6. Cardiovascular, Antinociceptive and Sedative Effects of Medetomidine Infusion in Sevoflurane Anesthesia in Puppies

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    J Morgaz*, JM Domínguez, R Navarrete, JA Fernández-Sarmiento, P Muñoz-Rascón, RJ Gómez-Villamandos and MM Granados

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a constant rate infusion of medetomidine in the cortical brain activity and hemodynamic parameters in sevoflurane anesthetized puppies. Six puppies of the age of two weeks old were included in the study and were anaesthetized three times with sevoflurane. On the first anesthesia, each dog’s minimum alveolar concentration (MAC for sevoflurane was determined by the use of the tail clamp method. On the second anesthesia (sevoflurane, the puppies were anesthetized at each of five multiples of their individual’s MAC, 0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.5 and 1.75 MAC, and bispectral index and cardiorespiratory parameters were registered. On the third anesthesia (sevoflurane+ medetomidine, puppies were anesthetized at each of five multiples of their individual’s MAC, and medetomidine (5 µg/kg+2µg/kg/h was administered. Mild cardiovascular depression was observed in sevoflurane+medetomidine in comparison with sevoflurane. Cortical and antinociceptive effects were not observed with medetomidine infusion although a mature EEG response to noxious stimulation would not have developed in puppies. Central alpha-2 adrenoreceptors would be immature in puppies during the first two weeks of life, and for this reason, medetomidine would not produce sedative and analgesic effects in young puppies. More studies have to be performed to support this statement.

  7. Myocardial Perfusion and Function Are Distinctly Altered by Sevoflurane Anesthesia in Diet-Induced Prediabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brom, Charissa E; Boly, Chantal A; Bulte, Carolien S E; van den Akker, Rob F P; Kwekkeboom, Rick F J; Loer, Stephan A; Boer, Christa; Bouwman, R Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Preservation of myocardial perfusion during surgery is particularly important in patients with increased risk for perioperative complications, such as diabetes. Volatile anesthetics, like sevoflurane, have cardiodepressive effects and may aggravate cardiovascular complications. We investigated the effect of sevoflurane on myocardial perfusion and function in prediabetic rats. Rats were fed a western diet (WD; n = 18) or control diet (CD; n = 18) for 8 weeks and underwent (contrast) echocardiography to determine perfusion and function during baseline and sevoflurane exposure. Myocardial perfusion was estimated based on the product of microvascular filling velocity and blood volume. WD-feeding resulted in a prediabetic phenotype characterized by obesity, hyperinsulinemia, hyperlipidemia, glucose intolerance, and hyperglycemia. At baseline, WD-feeding impaired myocardial perfusion and systolic function compared to CD-feeding. Exposure of healthy rats to sevoflurane increased the microvascular filling velocity without altering myocardial perfusion but impaired systolic function. In prediabetic rats, sevoflurane did also not affect myocardial perfusion; however, it further impaired systolic function. Diet-induced prediabetes is associated with impaired myocardial perfusion and function in rats. While sevoflurane further impaired systolic function, it did not affect myocardial perfusion in prediabetic rats. Our findings suggest that sevoflurane anesthesia leads to uncoupling of myocardial perfusion and function, irrespective of the metabolic state.

  8. Maternal Sevoflurane Exposure Causes Abnormal Development of Fetal Prefrontal Cortex and Induces Cognitive Dysfunction in Offspring

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    Ruixue Song

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal sevoflurane exposure during pregnancy is associated with increased risk for behavioral deficits in offspring. Several studies indicated that neurogenesis abnormality may be responsible for the sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity, but the concrete impact of sevoflurane on fetal brain development remains poorly understood. We aimed to investigate whether maternal sevoflurane exposure caused learning and memory impairment in offspring through inducing abnormal development of the fetal prefrontal cortex (PFC. Pregnant mice at gestational day 15.5 received 2.5% sevoflurane for 6 h. Learning function of the offspring was evaluated with the Morris water maze test at postnatal day 30. Brain tissues of fetal mice were subjected to immunofluorescence staining to assess differentiation, proliferation, and cell cycle dynamics of the fetal PFC. We found that maternal sevoflurane anesthesia impaired learning ability in offspring through inhibiting deep-layer immature neuron output and neuronal progenitor replication. With the assessment of cell cycle dynamics, we established that these effects were mediated through cell cycle arrest in neural progenitors. Our research has provided insights into the cell cycle-related mechanisms by which maternal sevoflurane exposure can induce neurodevelopmental abnormalities and learning dysfunction and appeals people to consider the neurotoxicity of anesthetics when considering the benefits and risks of nonobstetric surgical procedures.

  9. Anesthetic propofol attenuates the isoflurane-induced caspase-3 activation and Aβ oligomerization.

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    Yiying Zhang

    Full Text Available Accumulation and deposition of β-amyloid protein (Aβ are the hallmark features of Alzheimer's disease. The inhalation anesthetic isoflurane has been shown to induce caspase activation and increase Aβ accumulation. In addition, recent studies suggest that isoflurane may directly promote the formation of cytotoxic soluble Aβ oligomers, which are thought to be the key pathological species in AD. In contrast, propofol, the most commonly used intravenous anesthetic, has been reported to have neuroprotective effects. We therefore set out to compare the effects of isoflurane and propofol alone and in combination on caspase-3 activation and Aβ oligomerization in vitro and in vivo. Naïve and stably-transfected H4 human neuroglioma cells that express human amyloid precursor protein, the precursor for Aβ; neonatal mice; and conditioned cell culture media containing secreted human Aβ40 or Aβ42 were treated with isoflurane and/or propofol. Here we show for the first time that propofol can attenuate isoflurane-induced caspase-3 activation in cultured cells and in the brain tissues of neonatal mice. Furthermore, propofol-mediated caspase inhibition occurred when there were elevated levels of Aβ. Finally, isoflurane alone induces Aβ42, but not Aβ40, oligomerization, and propofol can inhibit the isoflurane-mediated oligomerization of Aβ42. These data suggest that propofol may mitigate the caspase-3 activation by attenuating the isoflurane-induced Aβ42 oligomerization. Our findings provide novel insights into the possible mechanisms of isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity that may aid in the development of strategies to minimize potential adverse effects associated with the administration of anesthetics to patients.

  10. Role of Steroids in Hyperexcitatory Adverse and Anesthetic Effects of Sevoflurane in Neonatal Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaqiang; Xu, Changqing; Puentes, Dyanet L; Seubert, Christoph N; Gravenstein, Nikolaus; Martynyuk, Anatoly E

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that long-term developmental effects of neonatal anesthesia were more prominent in males. We tested whether steroids, in general, and sex steroids, in particular, are involved in the mediation of sevoflurane-caused paradoxical cortical seizures during the early postnatal period. Cortical electroencephalograms, hippocampal synaptic activity, serum levels of steroids and the loss of the righting reflex (LORR), a marker of anesthetic effect, were measured on postnatal days 4-6 in Sprague Dawley rats of both genders exposed to 2.1% sevoflurane. Episodes of seizures, persistent spikes in electroencephalograms and increases in serum corticosterone were similar in both genders. In the order of increasing potency, the corticosteroid receptor antagonist RU 28318, the estradiol receptor antagonist ICI 182780 and the estradiol synthesis inhibitor formestane decreased sevoflurane-induced seizures. Exogenous estradiol increased sevoflurane-caused seizures, spikes and serum levels of corticosterone. These estradiol-enhanced seizures and spikes were depressed by ICI 182780 and the NKCC1 inhibitor, bumetanide, while RU 28318 decreased seizures only. In hippocampal CA1 neurons, estradiol increased the amplitude, rise time and area under the curve of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAAR)-mediated miniature postsynaptic currents. Exogenous estradiol shortened, while ICI 182780 and formestane lengthened the time needed for sevoflurane to induce LORR. These findings provide evidence for gender-independent acute electroencephalographic effects of sevoflurane at this age. Corticosterone and estradiol are involved in the mediation of sevoflurane-induced seizures. Estradiol, but not corticosterone, also contributes to sevoflurane-caused spikes, by enhancing GABAAR-mediated excitation in the cortex. By increasing GABAAR-mediated inhibition in more mature caudal regions of the brain, estradiol contributes to sevoflurane-induced LORR. © 2015 S

  11. Day-surgery patients anesthetized with propofol have less postoperative pain than those anesthetized with sevoflurane.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tan, Terry

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: There have been recent studies suggesting that patients anesthetized with propofol have less postoperative pain compared with patients anesthetized with volatile anesthetics. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind study, 80 patients undergoing day-case diagnostic laparoscopic gynecological surgery were either anesthetized with IV propofol or sevoflurane. The primary outcome measured was pain on a visual analog scale. RESULTS: Patients anesthetized with propofol had less pain compared with patients anesthetized with sevoflurane (P = 0.01). There was no difference in any of the other measured clinical outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The patients anesthetized with propofol appeared to have less pain than patients anesthetized with sevoflurane.

  12. Fentanyl bolus induces muscle tremors in sevoflurane-anaesthetized piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringer, S K; Spielmann, N; Weiss, M; Mauch, J Y

    2016-08-01

    Intravenous fentanyl (10 mcg/kg) or saline (control) was randomly administered to 10 healthy sevoflurane-mono-anaesthetized piglets. Trembling was assessed by two blinded observers using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and a simple ordinal scale at baseline and 5 min (T5) after drug administration. If no trembling was observed at that time point, the opposite treatment was administered and piglets were re-evaluated after another 5 min (T10). Four out of five piglets showed trembling after fentanyl (T5), while none given saline showed any trembling. With fentanyl the VAS scores were significantly higher at T5 compared either with baseline or with the control treatment. Control animals received fentanyl after the 5 min evaluation and all piglets showed clear trembling afterwards. The median time after fentanyl administration until first muscle tremors was 51 (20-840) s. In summary, nine out of 10 sevoflurane-anaesthetized piglets showed muscle tremors after intravenous fentanyl. Tremors subsided over time and no specific treatment was necessary. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. [Isoflurane provides neuroprotection in neonatal hypoxic ischemic brain injury by suppressing apoptosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, De-An; Bi, Ling-Yun; Huang, Qian; Zhang, Fang-Min; Han, Zi-Ming

    Isoflurane is halogenated volatile ether used for inhalational anesthesia. It is widely used in clinics as an inhalational anesthetic. Neonatal hypoxic ischemia injury ensues in the immature brain that results in delayed cell death via excitotoxicity and oxidative stress. Isoflurane has shown neuroprotective properties that make a beneficial basis of using isoflurane in both cell culture and animal models, including various models of brain injury. We aimed to determine the neuroprotective effect of isoflurane on hypoxic brain injury and elucidated the underlying mechanism. A hippocampal slice, in artificial cerebrospinal fluid with glucose and oxygen deprivation, was used as an in vitro model for brain hypoxia. The orthodromic population spike and hypoxic injury potential were recorded in the CA1 and CA3 regions. Amino acid neurotransmitters concentration in perfusion solution of hippocampal slices was measured. Isoflurane treatment caused delayed elimination of population spike and improved the recovery of population spike; decreased frequency of hypoxic injury potential, postponed the onset of hypoxic injury potential and increased the duration of hypoxic injury potential. Isoflurane treatment also decreased the hypoxia-induced release of amino acid neurotransmitters such as aspartate, glutamate and glycine induced by hypoxia, but the levels of γ-aminobutyric acid were elevated. Morphological studies showed that isoflurane treatment attenuated edema of pyramid neurons in the CA1 region. It also reduced apoptosis as evident by lowered expression of caspase-3 and PARP genes. Isoflurane showed a neuro-protective effect on hippocampal neuron injury induced by hypoxia through suppression of apoptosis. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Isoflurane provides neuroprotection in neonatal hypoxic ischemic brain injury by suppressing apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, De-An; Bi, Ling-Yun; Huang, Qian; Zhang, Fang-Min; Han, Zi-Ming

    Isoflurane is halogenated volatile ether used for inhalational anesthesia. It is widely used in clinics as an inhalational anesthetic. Neonatal hypoxic ischemia injury ensues in the immature brain that results in delayed cell death via excitotoxicity and oxidative stress. Isoflurane has shown neuroprotective properties that make a beneficial basis of using isoflurane in both cell culture and animal models, including various models of brain injury. We aimed to determine the neuroprotective effect of isoflurane on hypoxic brain injury and elucidated the underlying mechanism. A hippocampal slice, in artificial cerebrospinal fluid with glucose and oxygen deprivation, was used as an in vitro model for brain hypoxia. The orthodromic population spike and hypoxic injury potential were recorded in the CA1 and CA3 regions. Amino acid neurotransmitters concentration in perfusion solution of hippocampal slices was measured. Isoflurane treatment caused delayed elimination of population spike and improved the recovery of population spike; decreased frequency of hypoxic injury potential, postponed the onset of hypoxic injury potential and increased the duration of hypoxic injury potential. Isoflurane treatment also decreased the hypoxia-induced release of amino acid neurotransmitters such as aspartate, glutamate and glycine induced by hypoxia, but the levels of γ-aminobutyric acid were elevated. Morphological studies showed that isoflurane treatment attenuated edema of pyramid neurons in the CA1 region. It also reduced apoptosis as evident by lowered expression of caspase-3 and PARP genes. Isoflurane showed a neuro-protective effect on hippocampal neuron injury induced by hypoxia through suppression of apoptosis. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Recovery following General Anesthesia with Isoflurane or Enflurane for Outpatient Dentistry and Oral Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Valanne, Jukka V.; Korttila, Kari

    1988-01-01

    Anesthesia was induced in 120 unpremedicated, healthy patients undergoing outpatient dentistry or oral surgery with methohexital, and endotracheal intubation facilitated with succinylcholine. Anesthesia was maintained randomly with either enflurane or isoflurane in nitrous oxide and oxygen (50%) administered in a nonrebreathing circuit using spontaneous respiration. After both enflurane and isoflurane anesthesia, it took 12-13 minutes before the patients were oriented as to time and place. Th...

  16. Simvastatin Attenuates Neurogenetic Damage and Improves Neurocongnitive Deficits Induced by Isoflurane in Neonatal Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Isoflurane inhibited neurogenesis and induced subsequent neurocognitive deficits in developing brain. Simvastatin exerts neuroprotection in a wide range of brain injury models. In the present study, we investigated whether simvastatin could attenuate neurogenetic inhibition and cognitive deficits induced by isoflurane exposure in neonatal rats. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats at postnatal day (PND 7 and neural stem cells (NSCs were treated with either gas mixture, isoflurane, or simvastatin 60 min prior to isoflurane exposure, respectively. The rats were decapitated at PND 8 and PND 10 for detection of neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ and subgranular zone (SGZ of the hippocampus by immunostaining. NSC proliferation, viability and apoptosis were assessed by immunohistochemistry, CCK-8 and TUNEL, respectively. The protein expressions of caspase-3, p-Akt and p-GSK-3β both in vivo and vitro were assessed by western blotting. Cognitive functions were assessed by Morris Water Maze test and context fear conditioning test at the adult. Results: Isoflurane exposure inhibited neurogenesis in the SVZ and SGZ, decreased NSC proliferation and viability, promoted NSC apoptosis and led to late cognitive deficits. Furthermore, isoflurane increased caspase-3 expression and decreased protein expressions of p-Akt and p-GSK-3β both in vivo and in vitro. Pretreatment with simvastatin attenuated isoflurane-elicited changes in NSCs and cognitive function. Co-treatment with LY294002 reversed the effect of simvastatin on NSCs in vitro. Conclusion: We for the first time showed that simvastatin, by upregulating Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathway, alleviated isoflurane-induced neurogenetic damage and neurocognitive deficits in developing rat brain.

  17. Isoflurane provides neuroprotection in neonatal hypoxic ischemic brain injury by suppressing apoptosis

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    De-An Zhao

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives: Isoflurane is halogenated volatile ether used for inhalational anesthesia. It is widely used in clinics as an inhalational anesthetic. Neonatal hypoxic ischemia injury ensues in the immature brain that results in delayed cell death via excitotoxicity and oxidative stress. Isoflurane has shown neuroprotective properties that make a beneficial basis of using isoflurane in both cell culture and animal models, including various models of brain injury. We aimed to determine the neuroprotective effect of isoflurane on hypoxic brain injury and elucidated the underlying mechanism. Methods: A hippocampal slice, in artificial cerebrospinal fluid with glucose and oxygen deprivation, was used as an in vitro model for brain hypoxia. The orthodromic population spike and hypoxic injury potential were recorded in the CA1 and CA3 regions. Amino acid neurotransmitters concentration in perfusion solution of hippocampal slices was measured. Results: Isoflurane treatment caused delayed elimination of population spike and improved the recovery of population spike; decreased frequency of hypoxic injury potential, postponed the onset of hypoxic injury potential and increased the duration of hypoxic injury potential. Isoflurane treatment also decreased the hypoxia-induced release of amino acid neurotransmitters such as aspartate, glutamate and glycine induced by hypoxia, but the levels of γ-aminobutyric acid were elevated. Morphological studies showed that isoflurane treatment attenuated edema of pyramid neurons in the CA1 region. It also reduced apoptosis as evident by lowered expression of caspase-3 and PARP genes. Conclusions: Isoflurane showed a neuro-protective effect on hippocampal neuron injury induced by hypoxia through suppression of apoptosis.

  18. Postcountershock myocardial damage after pretreatment with adrenergic and calcium channel antagonists in halothane-anesthetized dogs

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    Gaba, D.M.; Metz, S.; Maze, M.

    1985-05-01

    Transthoracic electric countershock can cause necrotic myocardial lesions in humans as well as experimental animals. The authors investigated the effect on postcountershock myocardial damage of pretreatment with prazosin, an alpha-1 antagonist; L-metoprolol, a beta-1 antagonist, and verapamil, a calcium channel-blocking agent. Twenty dogs were anesthetized with halothane and given two transthoracic countershocks of 295 delivered joules each after drug or vehicle treatment. Myocardial injury was quantitated 24 h following countershock by measuring the uptake of technetium-99m pyrophosphate in the myocardium. Elevated technetium-99m pyrophosphate uptake occurred in visible lesions in most dogs regardless of drug treatment. For each of four parameters of myocardial damage there was no statistically significant difference between control animals and those treated with prazosin, metoprolol, or verapamil. These data suggest that adrenergic or calcium channel-mediated mechanisms are not involved in the pathogenesis of postcountershock myocardial damage.

  19. A Case of Sevoflurane Use during Pregnancy in the Management of Persistent Status Asthmaticus

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    Jessica Parrott

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sevoflurane is rarely used for the treatment of status asthmaticus. We report a case of sevoflurane hepatotoxicity in pregnancy with presentation similar to HELLP syndrome. Case. A G2P1001 at 23 weeks in status asthmaticus presented with pCO2 > 130 and pH < 7. She was nonresponsive to traditional therapy. Sevoflurane was added for a 24 hr period. Respiratory status improved. Extubation occurred on day 12. Workup for preeclampsia spectrum disorders occurred due to maternal hypertension. Given the atypical presentation and hepatotoxicity, a liver biopsy was performed. Histologic features suggested drug induced hepatic injury. Liver function subsequently normalized. She delivered a term neonate without short-term complications. Conclusion. The use of sevoflurane is a treatment option of status asthmaticus during pregnancy. Providers should be aware of the potential for hepatotoxicity.

  20. Isoflurane reversibly destabilizes hippocampal dendritic spines by an actin-dependent mechanism.

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    Jimcy Platholi

    Full Text Available General anesthetics produce a reversible coma-like state through modulation of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission. Recent evidence suggests that anesthetic exposure can also lead to sustained cognitive dysfunction. However, the subcellular effects of anesthetics on the structure of established synapses are not known. We investigated effects of the widely used volatile anesthetic isoflurane on the structural stability of hippocampal dendritic spines, a postsynaptic structure critical to excitatory synaptic transmission in learning and memory. Exposure to clinical concentrations of isoflurane induced rapid and non-uniform shrinkage and loss of dendritic spines in mature cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Spine shrinkage was associated with a reduction in spine F-actin concentration. Spine loss was prevented by either jasplakinolide or cytochalasin D, drugs that prevent F-actin disassembly. Isoflurane-induced spine shrinkage and loss were reversible upon isoflurane elimination. Thus, isoflurane destabilizes spine F-actin, resulting in changes to dendritic spine morphology and number. These findings support an actin-based mechanism for isoflurane-induced alterations of synaptic structure in the hippocampus. These reversible alterations in dendritic spine structure have important implications for acute anesthetic effects on excitatory synaptic transmission and synaptic stability in the hippocampus, a locus for anesthetic-induced amnesia, and have important implications for anesthetic effects on synaptic plasticity.

  1. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism during sevoflurane anaesthesia in healthy subjects studied with positron emission tomography

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    Schlünzen, L; Juul, N; Hansen, K V

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The precise mechanism by which sevoflurane exerts its effects in the human brain remains unknown. In the present study, we quantified the effects of sevoflurane on regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rGMR) in the human brain measured with positron emission tomography. METHODS: Eight...... areas by 48-71% of the baseline (Pbrain metabolic reduction of GMR in all regions...... of the human brain, with the most marked metabolic suppression in the lingual gyrus, thalamus and occipital lobe....

  2. Respiratory mechanics during sevoflurane anesthesia in children with and without asthma.

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    Habre, W; Scalfaro, P; Sims, C; Tiller, K; Sly, P D

    1999-11-01

    We studied lung function in children with and without asthma receiving anesthesia with sevoflurane. Fifty-two children had anesthesia induced with sevoflurane (up to 8%) in a mixture of 50% nitrous oxide in oxygen and then maintained at 3% with children breathing spontaneously via face mask and Jackson-Rees modification of the T-piece. Airway opening pressure and flow were then measured. After insertion of an oral endotracheal tube under 5% sevoflurane, measurements were repeated at 3%, as well as after increasing to 4.2%. Respiratory system resistance (Rrs) and compliance during expiration were calculated using multilinear regression analysis of airway opening pressure and flow, assuming a single-compartment model. Data from 44 children were analyzed (22 asthmatics and 22 normal children). The two groups were comparable with respect to age, weight, ventilation variables, and baseline respiratory mechanics. Intubation was associated with a significant increase in Rrs in asthmatics (17% +/- 49%), whereas in normal children, Rrs slightly decreased (-4% +/- 39%). At 4.2%, Rrs decreased slightly in both groups with almost no change in compliance system resistance. We concluded that in children with mild to moderate asthma, endotracheal intubation during sevoflurane anesthesia was associated with increase in Rrs that was not seen in nonasthmatic children. Tracheal intubation using sevoflurane as sole anesthetic is possible and its frequency is increasing. When comparing children with and without asthma, tracheal intubation under sevoflurane was associated with an increase in respiratory system resistance in asthmatic children. However, no apparent clinical adverse event was observed.

  3. The Volatile Anesthetic Isoflurane Increases Endothelial Adenosine Generation via Microparticle Ecto-5′-Nucleotidase (CD73) Release

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    Kim, Mihwa; Ham, Ahrom; Kim, Katelyn Yu-Mi; Brown, Kevin M.; Lee, H. Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is common in acute and chronic organ injury. Isoflurane is a widely used halogenated volatile anesthetic during the perioperative period and protects against endothelial cell death and inflammation. In this study, we tested whether isoflurane induces endothelial ecto-5′-nucleotidase (CD73) and cytoprotective adenosine generation to protect against endothelial cell injury. Clinically relevant concentrations of isoflurane induced CD73 activity and increased adenosine generation in cultured human umbilical vein or mouse glomerular endothelial cells. Surprisingly, isoflurane-mediated induction of endothelial CD73 activity occurred within 1 hr and without synthesizing new CD73. We determined that isoflurane rapidly increased CD73 containing endothelial microparticles into the cell culture media. Indeed, microparticles isolated from isoflurane-treated endothelial cells had significantly higher CD73 activity as well as increased CD73 protein. In vivo, plasma from mice anesthetized with isoflurane had significantly higher endothelial cell-derived CD144+ CD73+ microparticles and had increased microparticle CD73 activity compared to plasma from pentobarbital-anesthetized mice. Supporting a critical role of CD73 in isoflurane-mediated endothelial protection, a selective CD73 inhibitor (APCP) prevented isoflurane-induced protection against human endothelial cell inflammation and apoptosis. In addition, isoflurane activated endothelial cells Rho kinase evidenced by myosin phosphatase target subunit-1 and myosin light chain phosphorylation. Furthermore, isoflurane-induced release of CD73 containing microparticles was significantly attenuated by a selective Rho kinase inhibitor (Y27632). Taken together, we conclude that the volatile anesthetic isoflurane causes Rho kinase-mediated release of endothelial microparticles containing preformed CD73 and increase adenosine generation to protect against endothelial apoptosis and inflammation. PMID:24945528

  4. Cardiorespiratory effects of isoflurane in Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus) anesthetized with intramuscular medetomidine and zolazepam/tiletamine.

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    Jeong, Dong-Hyuk; Yang, Jeong-Jin; Seok, Seong-Hoon; Song, Dong-Joo; Yeon, Seong-Chan

    2017-01-20

    The objective of this study was to determine the dose-dependent effects of isoflurane on various cardiovascular parameters and the stable range of isoflurane concentrations in Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus). Seven Asiatic black bears were intramuscularly injected with medetomidine, zolazepam and tiletamine (MZT) to induce anesthesia, and anesthesia was maintained by administering isoflurane in 100% oxygen (4 l/min) without mechanical ventilation. Several cardiovascular parameters were measured at five end-tidal isoflurane concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5%). Blood was collected from the femoral artery before administration of isoflurane and after each administration for immediate blood gas analysis. Isoflurane produced dose-dependent increases in heart rate, respiratory rate, minute volume, end-tidal carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) partial pressure and the partial pressure of arterial CO 2 , and dose-dependent decreases in non-invasive blood pressure and tidal volume. Rectal temperature, oxygenation and acid-base balance were unaffected by isoflurane. All parameters in this study were in a clinically acceptable range at all times. The data show that the combination of MZT and isoflurane is suitable for general anesthesia in Asiatic black bears with spontaneous breathing during prolonged procedures. End-tidal isoflurane concentrations of 0.5 to 2.5% can be used in Asiatic black bears without adverse side effects.

  5. The common inhalation anesthetic isoflurane induces caspase activation and increases amyloid beta-protein level in vivo.

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    Xie, Zhongcong; Culley, Deborah J; Dong, Yuanlin; Zhang, Guohua; Zhang, Bin; Moir, Robert D; Frosch, Matthew P; Crosby, Gregory; Tanzi, Rudolph E

    2008-12-01

    An estimated 200 million patients worldwide have surgery each year. Anesthesia and surgery have been reported to facilitate emergence of Alzheimer's disease. The commonly used inhalation anesthetic isoflurane has previously been reported to induce apoptosis, and to increase levels and aggregation of Alzheimer's disease-associated amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) in cultured cells. However, the in vivo relevance has not been addressed. We therefore set out to determine effects of isoflurane on caspase activation and levels of beta-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme (BACE) and Abeta in naive mice, using Western blot, immunohistochemistry, and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Here we show for the first time that a clinically relevant isoflurane anesthesia (1.4% isoflurane for 2 hours) leads to caspase activation and modest increases in levels of BACE 6 hours after anesthesia in mouse brain. Isoflurane anesthesia induces caspase activation, and increases levels of BACE and Abeta up to 24 hours after anesthesia. Isoflurane may increase BACE levels by reducing BACE degradation. Moreover, the Abeta aggregation inhibitor, clioquinol, was able to attenuate isoflurane-induced caspase-3 activation in vivo. Given that transient insults to brain may lead to long-term brain damage, these findings suggest that isoflurane may promote Alzheimer's disease neuropathogenesis and, as such, have implications for use of isoflurane in humans, pending human study confirmation.

  6. Isoflurane Preconditioning Increases Survival of Rat Skin Random-Pattern Flaps by Induction of HIF-1α Expression

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    Yu Sun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Survival of random-pattern skin flaps is important for the success of plastic and reconstructive surgeries. This study investigates isoflurane-induced protection against ischemia of skin flap and the underlying molecular mechanism in this process. Methods: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs and human skin fibroblast cells were exposed to isoflurane for 4 h. Expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF were analyzed up to 24 h post isoflurane exposure using qRT-PCR and western blot, or ELISA analyses. PI3K inhibitors - LY 294002 and wortmannin, mTOR inhibitor - rapamycin, and GSK3β inhibitor - SB 216763 were used respectively to assess the effects of isoflurane treatment and HIF-1α expression. Furthermore, 40 rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (control, isoflurane, scrambled siRNA plus isoflurane, HIF-1α siRNA plus isoflurane, and DMOG and subjected to random-pattern skin flaps operation. Rats were prepared for evaluation of flap survival and full-feld laser perfusion imager (FLPI (at 7 day and microvessel density evaluation (at 10 day. Results: Isoflurane exposure induced expression of HIF-1α protein, HO-1 and VEGF mRNA and proteins in a time-dependent manner. Both LY 294002 and wortmannin inhibited phospho-Akt, phospho-mTOR, phospho-GSK 3β and HIF-1α expression after isoflurane exposure. Both wortmannin and rapamycin inhibited isoflurane-induced phospho-4E-BP1 (Ser 65 and phospho-P70s6k (Thr 389 and HIF-1α expression. SB 216763 pre-treatment could further enhance isoflurane-induced expression of phospho-GSK 3β (Ser 9 and HIF-1α protein compared to the isoflurane-alone cells. In animal experiments, isoflurane alone, scrambled siRNA plus isoflurane, or DMOG groups had significantly upregulated vascularity and increased survival of the skin flaps compared to the controls. However, HIF-1α knockdown abrogated the protective effect of

  7. Isoflurane administration before ischemia and during reperfusion attenuates ischemia/reperfusion-induced injury of isolated rabbit lungs.

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    Liu, R; Ishibe, Y; Ueda, M; Hang, Y

    1999-09-01

    To investigate the effects of isoflurane on ischemia/ reperfusion (IR)-induced lung injury, we administered isoflurane before ischemia or during reperfusion. Isolated rabbit lungs were divided into the following groups: control (n = 6), perfused and ventilated for 120 min without ischemia; ISO-control (n = 6), 1 minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration (MAC) isoflurane was administered for 30 min before 120 min continuous perfusion; IR (n = 6), ischemia for 60 min, followed by 60 min reperfusion; IR-ISO1 and IR-ISO2, ischemia followed by reperfusion and 1 MAC (n = 6) or 2 MAC (n = 6) isoflurane for 60 min; ISO-IR (n = 6), 1 MAC isoflurane was administered for 30 min before ischemia, followed by IR. During these maneuvers, we measured total pulmonary vascular resistance (Rt), coefficient of filtration (Kfc), and lung wet to dry ratio (W/D). The results indicated that administration of isoflurane during reperfusion inhibited an IR-induced increase in Kfc and W/D ratio. Furthermore, isoflurane at 2 MAC, but not 1 MAC, significantly inhibited an IR-induced increase in Rt. The administration of isoflurane before ischemia significantly attenuated the increase in IR-induced Kfc, W/D, and Rt. Our results suggest that the administration of isoflurane before ischemia and during reperfusion protects against ischemia-reperfusion-induced injury in isolated rabbit lungs.

  8. Molecular dynamics and brownian dynamics investigation of ion permeation and anesthetic halothane effects on a proton-gated ion channel.

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    Cheng, Mary Hongying; Coalson, Rob D; Tang, Pei

    2010-11-24

    Bacterial Gloeobacter violaceus pentameric ligand-gated ion channel (GLIC) is activated to cation permeation upon lowering the solution pH. Its function can be modulated by anesthetic halothane. In the present work, we integrate molecular dynamics (MD) and Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations to elucidate the ion conduction, charge selectivity, and halothane modulation mechanisms in GLIC, based on recently resolved X-ray crystal structures of the open-channel GLIC. MD calculations of the potential of mean force (PMF) for a Na(+) revealed two energy barriers in the extracellular domain (R109 and K38) and at the hydrophobic gate of transmembrane domain (I233), respectively. An energy well for Na(+) was near the intracellular entrance: the depth of this energy well was modulated strongly by the protonation state of E222. The energy barrier for Cl(-) was found to be 3-4 times higher than that for Na(+). Ion permeation characteristics were determined through BD simulations using a hybrid MD/continuum electrostatics approach to evaluate the energy profiles governing the ion movement. The resultant channel conductance and a near-zero permeability ratio (P(Cl)/P(Na)) were comparable to experimental data. On the basis of these calculations, we suggest that a ring of five E222 residues may act as an electrostatic gate. In addition, the hydrophobic gate region may play a role in charge selectivity due to a higher dehydration energy barrier for Cl(-) ions. The effect of halothane on the Na(+) PMF was also evaluated. Halothane was found to perturb salt bridges in GLIC that may be crucial for channel gating and open-channel stability, but had no significant impact on the single ion PMF profiles.

  9. Effect of low-dose atropine administration on dobutamine dose requirement in horses anesthetized with detomidine and halothane.

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    Weil, A B; Keegan, R D; Greene, S A

    1997-12-01

    To determine whether a low dose of atropine is associated with decreased requirement for cardiovascular supportive treatment in horses given detomidine prior to maintenance of general anesthesia with halothane. 3 groups of 10 healthy horses. Detomidine (20 micrograms/kg of body weight, i.m.) was administered to all 30 horses. Then, 10 horses received atropine (0.006 mg/kg, i.v.) 1 hour after detomidine administration, 10 horses received atropine (0.012 mg/kg, i.m.) at the time of detomidine administration, and 10 horses served as a control group. Heart rate was measured prior to detomidine administration and at fixed intervals throughout anesthesia. The dobutamine infusion rate necessary to maintain mean arterial blood pressure between 70 and 80 mm of Hg was recorded. Systemic blood pressures, end-tidal halothane, end-tidal CO2, and arterial blood gas tensions were measured at fixed intervals. Mean heart rate was higher among horses receiving atropine i.v. or i.m., compared with that in control horses. Horses that received atropine i.v. had higher systemic arterial blood pressure and required a lower dobutamine infusion rate than did horses of the other groups. Detomidine-treated, halothane-anesthetized horses given atropine i.v. required less dobutamine, compared with horses receiving or not receiving atropine i.m. Complications, such as colic and dysrhythmias, from use of higher doses of atropine, were not observed at this lower dose of atropine. i.v. administration of a low dose of atropine prior to induction of general anesthesia may result in improved blood pressure in horses that have received detomidine before anesthesia with halothane.

  10. Perinatal supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids improves sevoflurane-induced neurodegeneration and memory impairment in neonatal rats.

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    Xi Lei

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate if perinatal Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs supplementation can improve sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity and cognitive impairment in neonatal rats. METHODS: Female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 3 each group were treated with or without an n-3 PUFAs (fish oil enriched diet from the second day of pregnancy to 14 days after parturition. The offspring rats (P7 were treated with six hours sevoflurane administration (one group without sevoflurane/prenatal n-3 PUFAs supplement as control. The 5-bromodeoxyuridine (Brdu was injected intraperitoneally during and after sevoflurane anesthesia to assess dentate gyrus (DG progenitor proliferation. Brain tissues were harvested and subjected to Western blot and immunohistochemistry respectively. Morris water maze spatial reference memory, fear conditioning, and Morris water maze memory consolidation were tested at P35, P63 and P70 (n = 9, respectively. RESULTS: Six hours 3% sevoflurane administration increased the cleaved caspase-3 in the thalamus, parietal cortex but not hippocampus of neonatal rat brain. Sevoflurane anesthesia also decreased the neuronal precursor proliferation of DG in rat hippocampus. However, perinatal n-3 PUFAs supplement could decrease the cleaved caspase-3 in the cerebral cortex of neonatal rats, and mitigate the decrease in neuronal proliferation in their hippocampus. In neurobehavioral studies, compared with control and n-3 PUFAs supplement groups, we did not find significant spatial cognitive deficit and early long-term memory impairment in sevoflurane anesthetized neonatal rats at their adulthood. However, sevoflurane could impair the immediate fear response and working memory and short-term memory. And n-3 PUFAs could improve neurocognitive function in later life after neonatal sevoflurane exposure. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that neonatal exposure to prolonged sevoflurane could impair the immediate fear response, working

  11. Comparison of the effects of two anesthesia maintenance methods by remifentanil or halothane on endoscopic sinus surgery condition

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    Seyed mojtaba Karimi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Endoscopic surgery is a new standard method of treatment for chronic sinusitis. During this operation even small amount of bleeding may reduce the visual field of surgeon significantly and make the procedure troublesome. In this study we have compared the operative condition between patients who receive either remifentanil or halothane for general anesthesia. Materials and Methods: Endoscopic sinus surgery was performed in 60 patents. Pre- medication was done by fentanil and midazolam and induction was done by propofol and atracurium. Halothane or remifentanil was used in two groups of patients respectively for anesthesia maintenance. Monitoring was performed during anesthesia. Bleeding volume was measured and operation field condition was assessed by the surgeon. Results: Personal characteristics such as age and sex were the same in both groups. Intra- operative systolic blood pressures was significantly lower in remifentanil group but diastolic and mean blood pressure and heart rate didn’t change after induction and during maintenance in both groups. Recovery time in remifentanil group was also significantly shorter than halothane group. Finally bleeding volume was lower and operation field condition was better significantly in remifentanil group. Conclusion: Remifentanil is a good choice to maintain an ideal anesthesia for endoscopic sinus surgery.    

  12. Sevoflurane-Based Inhalation Induction in High-Risk Elderly Patients During Noncardiac Surgery

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    O. A. Grebenchikov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the hemodynamic effects of sevoflurane during the induction of anesthesia in elderly patients at high risk for cardiac events. Subjects and methods. This study enrolled 32 patients who had a left ventricular ejection fraction of <30% during preoperative examination. According to the presumptive type of anesthesia, the patients were randomized to one of the study groups: In the sevoflurane group receiving infusion of fentanyl (1 ig^kg”‘^hr”‘, anesthesia was induced by sevoflurane at the maximum concentration of 8 vol% at first inspiration, without the respiratory circuit being prefilled. After loss of consciousness, further saturation was carried out using Fianesth, 5 vol%. Combination anesthesia (CA was that which was induced by successive administration of dormicum, ketamine, propo-fol, and fentanyl. The trachea was intubated during total myoplegia under the control of TOF (TOF-Watch, Organon, the Netherlands. Results. In all the patients under CA, its induction was made during infusion of dopamine (5 lg^kg”‘^min”‘, the dose of which had to be increased up to 10 ig • kg-1 • min-1 in 6 (75% patients. Nevertheless, there were decreases in mean blood pressure (BPmean to 46±6 mm Hg and in cardiac index (CI to 1.5±0.3 fig • kg-1 • min-1 (by 32% of the outcome value. In the sevoflurane inhalation induction group, only 3 (12.5% patients needed dopamine. Its dose producing a cardiotonic effect was near-minimal; its average maintenance infusion rate was 5.3±0.3 ig^kg”‘^min”‘. The reduction in CI was statistically insignificant; despite a 9% decrease in BPmean, this indicator in the sevoflurane group remained within acceptable ranges. Conclusion. The use of a sevoflurane-based inhalation induction technique permits higher hemodynamic stability in patients at high risk for cardiac events. Key words: inhalation induction, sevoflurane, ketamine, elderly patients.

  13. [Effects of nitrous oxide on electroencephalographic activity during sevoflurane anesthesia: a zero-crossing analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, T; Ochiai, R; Takeda, J; Fukushima, K

    1995-11-01

    We have investigated the influence of nitrous oxide (N2O) on central nervous system (CNS) during sevoflurane anesthesia by using zero-crossing method of EEG in 31 patients. The study was divided into three parts: Study 1 (n = 18), Study 2 (n = 6) and Study 3 (n = 7). (Study 1) After induction of anesthesia, sevoflurane 1.0 % in oxygen (O2), and sevoflurane 1.0 % with 67 % N2O in O2 were given to the patients sequentially in a random fashion, and EEG was recorded. (Study 2) Sevoflurane 1.7 % in O2, and sevoflurane 0.7 % with 67 % N2O in O2, which were considered to be the same anesthetic depth (= sevoflurane 1 MAC), were inhaled, and EEG was recorded in the same manner as in the study 1. (Study 3) We compared the effects of N2O on EEG during intravenous administration of fentanyl and midazolam with 67 % N2O, and without N2O, and EEG was recorded in the same manner. In all studies, percentage of each frequency range (delta, theta, alpha, beta) and average frequency were calculated by zero-crossing method. During sevoflurane anesthesia, the EEG activity was decelerated with N2O, depending on minimum alveolar concentration (MAC). But there were no significant changes in EEG activity of the patient with and those without N2O during intravenous anesthesia. We concluded that the influences of N2O on CNS can be evaluated by quantitative analysis of EEG.

  14. Minocycline attenuates sevoflurane-induced cell injury via activation of Nrf2.

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    Tian, Yue; Wu, Xiuying; Guo, Shanbin; Ma, Ling; Huang, Wei; Zhao, Xiaochun

    2017-04-01

    Minocycline has been demonstrated to exert neuroprotective effects in various experimental models. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of minocycline on cell injury induced by the inhalation of the anesthetic, sevoflurane. In our in vivo experiments using rats, minocycline attenuated sevoflurane-induced neuronal degeneration and apoptosis in the rat hippocampus, and this effect was associated with the minocycline-mediated suppression of oxidative stress in the hippocampus. In in vitro experiments, minocycline inhibited sevoflurane-induced apoptosis and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in H4 human neuroglioma cells. In addition, minocycline suppressed the sevoflurane-induced upregulation of interleukin (IL)-6 and the activation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway in H4 cells. Furthermore, we found that nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), an activator of the stress response, was upregulated and activated upon sevoflurane treatment both in the rat hippocampus and in H4 cells. In addition, minocycline further augmented the upregulation and activation of Nrf2 when used in conjunction with sevoflurane. Moreover, the knockdown of Nrf2 in H4 cells by small interfering RNA (siRNA) diminished the cytoprotective effect of minocycline, and attenuated the inhibitory effect of minocycline on ROS production, IL-6 upregulation and the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. On the whole, our findings indicate that minocycline may exert protective effects against sevoflurane-induced cell injury via the Nrf2-modulated antioxidant response and the inhibition of the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway.

  15. Minocycline attenuates sevoflurane-induced cell injury via activation of Nrf2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yue; Wu, Xiuying; Guo, Shanbin; Ma, Ling; Huang, Wei; Zhao, Xiaochun

    2017-01-01

    Minocycline has been demonstrated to exert neuroprotective effects in various experimental models. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of minocycline on cell injury induced by the inhalation of the anesthetic, sevoflurane. In our in vivo experiments using rats, minocycline attenuated sevoflurane-induced neuronal degeneration and apoptosis in the rat hippocampus, and this effect was associated with the minocycline-mediated suppression of oxidative stress in the hippocampus. In in vitro experiments, minocycline inhibited sevoflurane-induced apoptosis and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in H4 human neuroglioma cells. In addition, minocycline suppressed the sevoflurane-induced upregulation of interleukin (IL)-6 and the activation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway in H4 cells. Furthermore, we found that nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), an activator of the stress response, was upregulated and activated upon sevoflurane treatment both in the rat hippocampus and in H4 cells. In addition, minocycline further augmented the upregulation and activation of Nrf2 when used in conjunction with sevoflurane. Moreover, the knockdown of Nrf2 in H4 cells by small interfering RNA (siRNA) diminished the cytoprotective effect of minocycline, and attenuated the inhibitory effect of minocycline on ROS production, IL-6 upregulation and the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. On the whole, our findings indicate that minocycline may exert protective effects against sevoflurane-induced cell injury via the Nrf2-modulated antioxidant response and the inhibition of the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. PMID:28260081

  16. Assessment of occupational exposure of medical personnel to inhalatory anesthetics in Poland

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    Małgorzata Kucharska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Despite common use of inhalatory anesthetics, such as nitrous oxide (N2O, halothane, sevoflurane, and the like, occupational exposure to these substances in operating theatres was not monitored in Poland until 2006. The situation changed when maximum admissible concentration (MAC values for anesthetics used in Poland were established in 2005 for N2O, and in 2007 for sevoflurane, desflurane and isoflurane. The aim of this work was to assess occupational exposure in operating rooms on the basis of reliable and uniform analytical procedures. Material and Methods: The method for the determination of all anesthetics used in Poland, i.e. nitrous oxide, sevoflurane, isoflurane, desflurane, and halothane, was developed and validated. The measurements were performed in 2006-2010 in 31 hospitals countrywide. The study covered 117 operating rooms; air samples were collected from the breathing zone of 146 anesthesiologists, and 154 nurses, mostly anaesthetic. The measurements were carried out during various surgical operations, mostly on adult patients but also in hospitals for children. Results: Time weighted average concentrations of the anesthetics varied considerably, and the greatest differences were noted for N2O (0.1-1438.5 mg/m3; 40% of the results exceeded the MAC value. Only 3% of halothane, and 2% of sevoflurane concentrations exceeded the respective MAC values. Conclusions: Working in operating theatres is dangerous to the health of the operating staff. The coefficient of combined exposure to anesthesiologists under study exceeded the admissible value in 130 cases, which makes over 40% of the whole study population. Most of the excessive exposure values were noted for nitrous oxide. Med Pr 2014;65(1:43–54

  17. Obesity does not influence the onset and offset of sevoflurane effect as measured by the hysteresis between sevoflurane concentration and bispectral index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortínez, Luis I; Gambús, Pedro; Trocóniz, Iñaki F; Echevarría, Ghislaine; Muñoz, Hernán R

    2011-07-01

    The onset and offset of action of anesthetic gases might be delayed by respiratory changes and gas exchange alterations present in obese patients. In this study, we assessed the influence of obesity on the hysteresis between sevoflurane and its effect as measured by the bispectral index (BIS). Because the use of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in obese patients has improved gas exchange, we also assessed the influence of PEEP on hysteresis. Fifteen obese and 15 normal-weight patients, ASA physical status I and II, 20 to 50 years old, scheduled to undergo general anesthesia for elective laparoscopic surgery, were prospectively studied. Anesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with sevoflurane and fentanyl. At the end of surgery and after stable BIS values of 60 to 65, the inspired concentration of sevoflurane was increased to 5 vol% for 5 minutes or until BIS was rate constant was not influenced by body mass index or PEEP (P > 0.05). Neither obesity nor PEEP showed any influence on the PK/PD descriptors. Our results do not support the hypothesis that obesity prolongs induction or recovery times when sevoflurane, a poorly soluble anesthetic, is used to maintain anesthesia from 90 to 120 minutes.

  18. Isoflurane rescue therapy for bronchospasm reduces intracranial pressure in a patient with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradisek, Primoz; Dolenc, Simon

    2016-01-01

    To assess the unusual use of a volatile anaesthetic for treatment of life-threatening bronchospasm in a patient with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Case report. This study presents a previously healthy 30-year-old man with severe TBI and bronchospasm-induced acute hypercapnia. He was treated with inhaled isoflurane in combination with monitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP) and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). Three-day-long isoflurane treatment resolved drug-refractory bronchospasm, decreased airway pressure and improved gas exchange, even at a low end-tidal concentration (0.3-0.5 vol%). Although rCBF was increased by 18 ml min(-1) 100 g(-1) during isoflurane treatment, there was a significant decrease in ICP (21 (SD = 3) mmHg, 9 (SD = 5) mmHg, 2 (SD = 3) mmHg; during pre-treatment, treatment and post-treatment, respectively; p < 0.001). Improved autoregulation due to lower partial pressure of carbon dioxide, restoration of carbon dioxide reactivity, isoflurane-induced regional differences in rCBF and improved microcirculation may have been responsible for the prompt and long-lasting normalization of ICP. The patient had no TBI-related disability at 6 months post-injury. Isoflurane at a low dose can be an effective and safe treatment option for drug-refractory bronchospasm in a patient with traumatic intracranial hypertension, provided that multimodality neuromonitoring is used.

  19. Effects of isoflurane anesthesia and pilocarpine on rat parotid saliva flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jacob Dronninglund; Nauntofte, Birgitte; Josipovic, M

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of isoflurane on unstimulated and pilocarpine-stimulated parotid saliva secretion. Ten male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 350-400 g were randomized into two groups, and the saliva flow rate and lag phase were measured at two doses of isoflur......The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of isoflurane on unstimulated and pilocarpine-stimulated parotid saliva secretion. Ten male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 350-400 g were randomized into two groups, and the saliva flow rate and lag phase were measured at two doses...... of isoflurane in a crossover study design. Increasing the isoflurane concentration from 1% to 2% was associated with a 19% decrease in saliva secretion rate, and the lag to saliva secretion was increased by 155%. To clarify whether the effect of isoflurane (1.5%) on the parotid flow varied with stimulus...... intensity, we measured the parotid flow induced by seven different doses of pilocarpine on sham-irradiated rats and rats irradiated with single doses of 15 Gy. A maximal pilocarpine response was obtained with 1.5 mg/kg in both irradiated and sham-irradiated rats; however, the parotid flow of the irradiated...

  20. Effects of dose-dependent levels of isoflurane on cerebral blood flow in healthy subjects studied using positron emission tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlünzen, L; Cold, G E; Rasmussen, Mads

    2006-01-01

    maintained constant over time. No significant change in global CBF was observed. Throughout all three MAC levels of sedation, isoflurane caused an increased regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the anterior cingulate and decreased rCBF in the cerebellum. Initially, isoflurane (0 vs. 0.2 MAC) significantly...

  1. Dreaming during sevoflurane or propofol short-term sedation: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, G H; Liu, X S; Yu, F Q; Gu, E W; Zhang, J; Royse, A G; Wang, K

    2012-05-01

    Prior reports suggest that dreaming during anaesthesia is dependent on recovery time. Dreaming during sedation may impact patient satisfaction. The current study explores the incidence and content of dreaming during short-term sedation with sevoflurane or propofol and investigates whether dreaming is affected by recovery time. A total of 200 women undergoing first trimester abortion (American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I) participated in the study. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either sevoflurane or propofol for short-term sedation. Patients were interviewed upon emergence with the modified Brice questionnaire. The results showed the incidence of dreaming was significantly different between anaesthesia groups with 60% (60/100) of the sevoflurane group and 33% (33/100) of the propofol group (P=0.000). However, recovery time did not significantly differ between groups. In the sevoflurane group, a greater number of dreamers could not recall what they had dreamed about (P=0.02) and more patients reported dreams that had no sound (P=0.03) or movement (P=0.001) compared with dreamers in the propofol group. Most participants reported dreams with positive emotional content and this did not significantly differ between groups. Anaesthesia administered had no effect on patient satisfaction. The results suggest that the incidence of dreaming was not affected by recovery time. Patient satisfaction was not influenced by choice of sedative and/or by the occurrence of dreaming during sevoflurane or propofol short-term sedation.

  2. Evaluation of aqueous tear production in dogs after general anaesthesia with medetomidine-propofol-carprofen-halothane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komnenou, A T H; Kazakos, G M; Savvas, I; Thomas, A L N

    2013-08-10

    The influence of an anaesthetic protocol, which included medetomidine, propofol, carprofen and halothane on tear production in the dog. There are no previous studies on the effects of this combination on tear production in dogs or in any other species. The present study included 39 dogs, which underwent non-ophthalmic surgery in our clinic. Preanaesthetically, all dogs had normal tear production (18.62±3.65 mm/minute) as this was recorded with Schirmer tear test I (STT I) and the ophthalmologic examination did not reveal anything abnormal. Tear production readings were recorded before the administration of premedication, at the end of anaesthesia, one hour and two hours postanaesthesia. No reverse agent was administrated. At the end of anaesthesia (right eye (oculus dexter, OD) P<0.0005, left eye (oculus sinister, OS) P<0.0005), as well as one hour postanaesthesia (OD P=0.020, OS P=0.001) there was a statistically significant reduction in tear production, which returned to normal values two hours postanaesthesia, regardless of the duration of the operation. This anaesthetic combination resulted in a decrease in tear production and, therefore, the use of tear substitute treatment in dogs undergoing anaesthesia with this protocol (combination) from the time the sedative is given until at least two hours after the end of anaesthesia is highly recommended.

  3. Etorphine-halothane anaesthesia in two five-year-old African elephants (Loxodonta africana : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.F. Stegmann

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Anaesthesia of 2 five-year-old femaleAfrican elephants (Loxodonta africana was required for dental surgery. The animals were each premedicated with 120 mg of azaperone 60 min before transportation to the hospital. Before offloading, 1 mg etorphine was administered intramuscularly (i.m. to each elephant to facilitate walking them to the equine induction / recovery room. For induction, 2 mg etorphine was administered i.m. to each animal. Induction was complete within 6 min. Surgical anaesthesia was induced with halothane-in-oxygen after intubation of the trunk. During surgery the mean heart rate was 61 and 45 beats / min respectively. Systolic blood pressures increased to 27.5 and 25.6 kPa respectively, and were treated with intravenous azaperone. Blood pressure decreased thereafter to a mean systolic pressure of 18.1 and 19.8 kPa, respectively. Rectal temperature was 35.6 and 33.9 oC at the onset of surgery, and decreased to 35.3 and 33.5 oC, respectively, at the end of anaesthesia. Etorphine anaesthesia was reversed with 5mg diprenorphine at the completion of 90 min of surgery.

  4. Effects of nitrous oxide on cerebral haemodynamics and metabolism during isoflurane anaesthesia in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algotsson, L.; Messeter, K.; Rosen, I.; Holmin. T.

    1992-01-01

    Seven normoventilated and five hyperventilated healthy adults undergoing cholecystectomy and anaesthetized with methohexitone, fentanyl and pancuronium were studied with measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cereal metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRo 2 ), and quantified electroencephalography (EEG) under two sets of conditions: 1) 1.7% end-tidal concentration of isoflurane in air/oxygen: 2) 0.85% end-tidal concentration of isoflurane in nitrous oxide (N 2 O)/oxygen. The object was to study the effects of N 2 O during isoflurane anaesthesia on cerebral circulation, metabolism and neuroelectric activity. N 2 O in the anaesthetic gas mixture caused a 43% (P 2 was not significantly altered by N 2 O. EEG demonstrated an activated pattern with decreased low frequency activity and increased high frequency activity. The results confirm that N 2 O is a potent cerebral vasodilator in man, although the mechanisms underlying the effects on CBF are still unclear. (au)

  5. Circadian rhythm resynchronization improved isoflurane-induced cognitive dysfunction in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jia; Chu, Shuaishuai; Cui, Yin; Qian, Yue; Li, Xiuxiu; Xu, Fangxia; Shao, Xueming; Ma, Zhengliang; Xia, Tianjiao; Gu, Xiaoping

    2018-04-13

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a common clinical phenomenon characterized by cognitive deficits in patients after anesthesia and surgery. Advanced age is a significant independent risk factor for POCD. We previously reported that in young mice, sleep-wake rhythm is involved in the isoflurane-induced memory impairment. In present study, we sought to determine whether advanced age increased the risk of POCD through aggravated and prolonged post-anesthetic circadian disruption in the elderly. We constructed POCD model by submitting the mice to 5-h 1.3% isoflurane anesthesia from Zeitgeber Time (ZT) 14 to ZT19. Under novel object recognition assay (NOR) and Morris water maze (MWM) test, We found 5-h isoflurane anesthesia impaired the cognition of young mice for early 3 days after anesthesia but damaged the aged for at least 1 week. With Mini-Mitter continuously monitoring, a 3.22 ± 0.75 h gross motor activity acrophase delay was manifested in young mice on D1, while in the aged mice, the gross motor activity phase shift lasted for 3 days, consistent with the body temperature rhythm trends of change. Melatonin has been considered as an effective remedy for circadian rhythm shift. In aged mice, melatonin was pretreated intragastrically at the dose of 10 mg/kg daily for 7 consecutive days before anesthesia. We found that melatonin prevented isoflurane-induced cognitive impairments by restoring the locomotor activity and temperature circadian rhythm via clock gene resynchronization. Overall, these results indicated that Long-term isoflurane anesthesia induced more aggravated and prolonged memory deficits and circadian rhythms disruption in aged mice. Melatonin could prevent isoflurane-induced cognitive impairments by circadian rhythm resynchronization. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Nitrous Oxide Effects the Uptake of Sevoflurane to the Body During Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Varlık Erel

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the effects of nitrous oxide (N2O on the speed and quality of the uptake process of sevoflurane during inhalation induction in adult patients. Materials­ and­ Methods: For randomized controlled study, eighty-four American Society of Anesthesiologists I-II patients undergoing gynecological interventions were randomly assigned to receive an 8% sevoflurane mixture with either 67% N2O plus 33% oxygen [Group sevoflurane and nitrous oxide (SA] or 100% oxygen only [Group sevoflurane (S]. Both groups were induced by a single-breath induction. End-tidal and inspiratory concentrations of respiratory and anesthetic gasses were continuously assessed during induction as well as time to loss of eyelash reflex, time to cessation of eye movements, and time to initiation of spontaneous breaths. Patients were intubated by the 5th minute of induction and their vital signs, bispectral indexes, reflex responses to intubation and additional drug requirements for intubation were also recorded. Results: End-tidal sevoflurane concentrations and the ratio of alveolar to inspiratory sevoflurane concentrations (FA/Fi of patients in group SA recorded at the 2nd, the third and the 5th minute of induction showed statistically significant increases when compared with patients in group S. Time to loss of eyelash reflex and time to cessation of eye movements were found to be decreased in group SA by 25 and 13%, respectively. Patients who presented with a reflex response to intubation in group S exceeded patients in group SA by 38.8% and patients who required additional medication for intubation in group S exceeded patients in group SA by 28.6%. Conclusion: The findings of this study support the view that administration of N2O improves the rate and quality of mask induction with sevoflurane. The benefits provided by N2O attributable to the concentrating and second gas effects appear during the first few minutes of induction (2nd, 3rd, and 4th minutes as

  7. The child's behavior during inhalational induction and its impact on the anesthesiologist's sevoflurane exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog-Niescery, Jennifer; Vogelsang, Heike; Bellgardt, Martin; Botteck, Nikolaj Matthias; Seipp, Hans-Martin; Bartz, Horst; Weber, Thomas Peter; Gude, Philipp

    2017-12-01

    Sevoflurane is commonly used for inhalational inductions in children, but the personnel's exposure to it is potentially harmful. Guidance to reduce gas pollution refers mainly to technical aspects, but the impact of the child's behavior has not yet been studied. The purpose of this study was to determine how child behavior, according to the Frankl Behavioral Scale, affects the amount of waste sevoflurane in anesthesiologists' breathing zones. Sixty-eight children aged 36-96 months undergoing elective ENT surgery were recruited for this prospective, observational investigation. After oral midazolam premedication (0.5 mg/kg body weight), patients obtained sevoflurane using a facemask with an inspiratory concentration of 8 Vol.% in 100% oxygen (flow 10 L/min). Ventilation was manually supported and a venous catheter was placed. The inspiratory sevoflurane concentration was reduced, and remifentanil and propofol were administered before the facemask was removed and a cuffed tracheal tube inserted. The child's behavior toward the operating room personnel during induction was evaluated by the anesthesiologist (Frankl Behavioral Scale: 1-2 = negative behavior, 3-4 = positive behavior). During induction mean (c¯mean) and maximum (c¯max), sevoflurane concentrations were determined in the anesthesiologist's breathing zone by continuous photoacoustic gas monitoring. Mean and maximum sevoflurane concentrations were c¯mean = 4.38 ± 4.02 p.p.m and c¯max = 70.06 ± 61.08 p.p.m in patients with positive behaviors and sufficient premedications and c¯mean = 12.63 ± 8.66 p.p.m and c¯max = 242.86 ± 139.91 p.p.m in children with negative behaviors and insufficient premedications (c¯mean: P max: P < .001). Negative behavior was accompanied by significantly higher mean and maximum sevoflurane concentrations in the anesthesiologist's breathing zone compared with children with positive attitudes. Consequently, the status of premedication influences the amount of sevoflurane

  8. Effect of clonidine to prevent agitation in children after sevoflurane anaesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ydemann, M.; Nielsen, Bettina Nygaard; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Post-operative agitation (PA) is a common problem (20-70%) in children anaesthetised with sevoflurane. Clonidine is widely used off-label in children for several indications, including PA; but the current level of evidence is limited. Our aim is to investigate the impact of prophyla......INTRODUCTION: Post-operative agitation (PA) is a common problem (20-70%) in children anaesthetised with sevoflurane. Clonidine is widely used off-label in children for several indications, including PA; but the current level of evidence is limited. Our aim is to investigate the impact...

  9. Upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 contributes to sevoflurane preconditioning–mediated cardioprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian B

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Bin Qian,1 Yang Yang,2 Yusheng Yao,3 Yanling Liao,3 Ying Lin3 1Department of Anesthesiology, People’s Hospital Affiliated to Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou, Fujian, China; 2Department of Anesthesiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China; 3Department of Anesthesiology, The Shengli Clinical Medical College, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian, China Purpose: Sevoflurane preconditioning (SPC can provide myocardial protective effects similar to ischemic preconditioning. However, the exact mechanism of SPC remains unclear. Previous studies indicate that vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR-1 is involved in ischemic preconditioning-mediated cardioprotection. This study was designed to determine the significance of VEGFR-1 signaling in SPC-mediated cardioprotection.Materials and methods: Myocardial ischemia–reperfusion (I/R rat model was established using the Langendorff isolated heart perfusion apparatus. Additionally, after 15 min of baseline equilibration, the isolated hearts were pretreated with 2.5% sevoflurane, 2.5% sevoflurane+MF1 10 µmol/L, or 2.5% sevoflurane+placental growth factor 10 µmol/L, and then subjected to 30 min of global ischemia and 120 min of reperfusion. The changes in hemodynamic parameters, myocardial infarct size, and the levels of creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase, cardiac troponin-I, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin 6 in the myocardium were evaluated.Results: Compared to the I/R group, pretreatment with 2.5% sevoflurane significantly improved the cardiac function, limited myocardial infarct size, reduced cardiac enzyme release, upregulated VEGFR-1 expression, and decreased inflammation. In addition, the selective VEGFR-1 agonist, placental growth factor, did not enhance the cardioprotection and anti-inflammation effects of sevoflurane, while the specific VEGFR-1 inhibitor, MF1, completely reversed these effects

  10. Anesthesia with halothane and nitrous oxide alters protein and amino acid metabolism in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horber, F.F.; Krayer, S.; Rehder, K.; Haymond, M.W.

    1988-01-01

    General anesthesia in combination with surgery is known to result in negative nitrogen balance. To determine whether general anesthesia without concomitant surgery decreases whole body protein synthesis and/or increases whole body protein breakdown, two groups of dogs were studied: Group 1 (n = 6) in the conscious state and Group 2 (n = 8) during general anesthesia employing halothane (1.5 MAC) in 50% nitrous oxide and oxygen. Changes in protein metabolism were estimated by isotope dilution techniques employing simultaneous infusions of [4,53H]leucine and alpha-[1-14C]-ketoisocaproate (KIC). Total leucine carbon flux was unchanged or slightly increased in the anesthetized animals when compared to the conscious controls, indicating only a slight increase in the rate of proteolysis. However, leucine oxidation was increased (P less than 0.001) by more than 80% in the anesthetized animals when compared with their conscious controls, whereas whole body nonoxidative leucine disappearance, an indicator of whole body protein synthesis, was decreased. The ratio of leucine oxidation to the nonoxidative rate of leucine disappearance, which provides an index of the catabolism of at least one essential amino acid in the postabsorptive state, was more than twofold increased (P less than 0.001) in the anesthetized animals regardless of the tracer employed. These studies suggest that the administration of anesthesia alone, without concomitant surgery, is associated with a decreased rate of whole body protein synthesis and increased leucine oxidation, resulting in increased leucine and protein catabolism, which may be underlying or initiating some of the protein wasting known to occur in patients undergoing surgery

  11. Effects of halothane-nitrous oxide inhalation anesthesia and Inactin on overall renal and tubular function in Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Christensen, P; Leyssac, P P

    1982-01-01

    Real function, plasma renin concentration (PRC) and prostaglandin (PG) excretion rate was studied in groups of Sprague-Dawley (SPRD) and Wistar (WIST) rats anesthetized with either Halothane-N2O or Inactin. Conscious rats were used as controls. A. In Halothane-N2O anesthesia inulin clearance (CIN...... anesthesia indicating that the proximal luminal diameter was constant and independent of CIN. B. Inactin anesthesia CIN was similarly reduced but APR was more depressed (by about 35%). RPF and solute excretion rate decreased only in SPRD rats, while urine flow was significantly reduced in both strains. 1/OT...... prepared rats are more severely depressed by Inactin than by Halothane-N2O anesthesia. The gas anesthesia is equally well tolerated by both strains of rats....

  12. Effects of MK-801 upon local cerebral glucose utilization in conscious rats and in rats anaesthetised with halothane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurumaji, A.; McCulloch, J.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of MK-801 (0.5 mg/kg i.v.), a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist, upon local cerebral glucose utilization were examined in conscious, lightly restrained rats and in rats anaesthetised with halothane in nitrous oxide by means of the quantitative autoradiographic [14C]-2-deoxyglucose technique. In the conscious rats, MK-801 produced a heterogenous pattern of altered cerebral glucose utilization with significant increases being observed in 12 of the 28 regions of gray matter examined and significant decreases in 6 of the 28 regions. Pronounced increases in glucose use were observed after MK-801 in the olfactory areas and in a number of brain areas in the limbic system (e.g., hippocampus molecular layer, dentate gyrus, subicular complex, posterior cingulate cortex, and mammillary body). In the cerebral cortices, large reductions in glucose use were observed after administration of MK-801, whereas in the extrapyramidal and sensory-motor areas, glucose use remained unchanged after MK-801 administration in conscious rats. In the halothane-anaesthetised rats, the pattern of altered glucose use after MK-801 differed qualitatively and quantitatively from that observed in conscious rats. In anaesthetised rats, significant reductions in glucose use were noted after MK-801 in 10 of the 28 regions examined, with no area displaying significantly increased glucose use after administration of the drug. In halothane-anaesthetised rats, MK-801 failed to change the rates of glucose use in the olfactory areas, the hippocampus molecular layer, and the dentate gyrus

  13. Preliminary investigation into the ventilatory effects of midazolam in isoflurane-anaesthetised goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George F. Stegmann

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The ventilatory effects of intravenous midazolam (MDZ were evaluated in isoflurane- anaesthetised goats. Eight female goats aged 2–3 years were fasted from food and water for 12 h. Anaesthesia was then induced using a face mask with isoflurane in oxygen, whilst the trachea was intubated with a cuffed tracheal tube and anaesthesia maintained with isoflurane at 1.5% end-tidal concentration. Ventilation was spontaneous. The goats were treated with either a saline placebo (PLC or MDZ intravenously at 0.2 mg/kg. Analysis of variance for repeated measures was used for the analysis of data. Significance was taken at the 0.05 level. Differences between treatments were not statistically significant (p > 0.05 for tidal volume, ventilation rate, tidal volume/kg (VT/kg and end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure. Within treatments, VT and VT/kg differed 5 min after MDZ administration; this was statistically significant (p < 0.05. The occurrence of apnoea in the MDZ-treated goats was statistically significant (p = 0.04 compared with the PLC treated goats. Intravenous MDZ at 0.2 mg/kg administered to isoflurane-anaesthetised goats may result in transient apnoea and a mild decrease in VT and VT/kg.

  14. The effect of the anaesthetic agent isoflurane on the rate of neutrophil apoptosis in vitro.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tyther, R

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Volatile anaesthetic agents influence neutrophil function, and potentially, the inflammatory response to surgery. AIM: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of isoflurane (1-4%) on human polymorphonuclear neutrophil apoptosis in vitro. METHODS: Venous blood from 12 healthy volunteers was exposed to 0, 1, and 4% isoflurane delivered via a 14G Wallace flexihub internal jugular cannula, at a fresh gas flow of 0.51\\/min for 5 minutes. Isolated neutrophils were assessed for apoptosis at 1, 12, and 24 hours in culture using dual staining with annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide (Annexin-V FITC assay). Data were analysed using paired, one-tailed Student\\'s t-tests. p<0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: At 1 hour apoptosis was inhibited in the 1% (5.1 [6.8]%; p=0.017) and 4% (4.8 [4.5]%; p=0.008) isoflurane groups compared to control (11.3 [6.9]%). At 12 and 24 hours, a dose-dependent inhibition of apoptosis was demonstrated, i.e. 4% > 1% > 0%. CONCLUSION: Human neutrophil apoptosis is inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro by isoflurane in clinical concentrations.

  15. Isoflurane as a solvent for electrochemistry. Electrooxidation study of icosahedral carborane anions in four different solvents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wahab, Abdul; Kvapilová, Hana; Klíma, Jiří; Michl, Josef; Ludvík, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 689, JAN 2013 (2013), s. 257-261 ISSN 1572-6657 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME09002; GA ČR GC203/09/J058 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : isoflurane * relative permitivity * icosahedral carborane anions Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.871, year: 2013

  16. Single Channel Analysis of Isoflurane and Ethanol Enhancement of Taurine-Activated Glycine Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirson, Dean; Todorovic, Jelena; Mihic, S John

    2018-01-01

    The amino acid taurine is an endogenous ligand acting on glycine receptors (GlyRs), which is released by astrocytes in many brain regions, such as the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex. Taurine is a partial agonist with an efficacy significantly lower than that of glycine. Allosteric modulators such as ethanol and isoflurane produce leftward shifts of glycine concentration-response curves but have no effects at saturating glycine concentrations. In contrast, in whole-cell electrophysiology studies these modulators increase the effects of saturating taurine concentrations. A number of possible mechanisms may explain these enhancing effects, including modulator effects on conductance, channel open times, or channel closed times. We used outside-out patch-clamp single channel electrophysiology to investigate the mechanism of action of 200 mM ethanol and 0.55 mM isoflurane in enhancing the effects of a saturating concentration of taurine. Neither modulator enhanced taurine-mediated conductance. Isoflurane increased the probability of channel opening. Isoflurane also increased the lifetimes of the two shortest open dwell times while both agents decreased the likelihood of occurrence of the longest-lived intracluster channel-closing events. The mechanism of enhancement of GlyR functioning by these modulators is dependent on the efficacy of the agonist activating the receptor and the concentration of agonist tested. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  17. Preliminary investigation into the ventilatory effects of midazolam in isoflurane-anaesthetised goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George F. Stegmann

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The ventilatory effects of intravenous midazolam (MDZ were evaluated in isoflurane- anaesthetised goats. Eight female goats aged 2–3 years were fasted from food and water for 12 h. Anaesthesia was then induced using a face mask with isoflurane in oxygen, whilst the trachea was intubated with a cuffed tracheal tube and anaesthesia maintained with isoflurane at 1.5% end-tidal concentration. Ventilation was spontaneous. The goats were treated with either a saline placebo (PLC or MDZ intravenously at 0.2 mg/kg. Analysis of variance for repeated measures was used for the analysis of data. Significance was taken at the 0.05 level. Differences between treatments were not statistically significant (p > 0.05 for tidal volume, ventilation rate, tidal volume/kg (VT/kg and end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure. Within treatments, VT and VT/kg differed 5 min after MDZ administration; this was statistically significant (p < 0.05. The occurrence of apnoea in the MDZ-treated goats was statistically significant (p = 0.04 compared with the PLC treated goats. Intravenous MDZ at 0.2 mg/kg administered to isoflurane-anaesthetised goats may result in transient apnoea and a mild decrease in VT and VT/kg.

  18. Isoflurane anaesthesia in an African wild dog, Lycaon pictus : short communication

    OpenAIRE

    G.F. Stegmann

    2000-01-01

    Anaesthesia was required in a captive female African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) for surgical wound treatment. After it was immobilised with a medetomidine-ketamine combination, bradycardia, hypothermia, systolic hypertension and metabolic acidosis were observed. Surgical anaesthesia was maintained with a 1 %end-tidal isoflurane concentration. A decrease in the arterial blood pressure, rectal temperature and pHoccurred during maintenance of anaesthesia.

  19. Sevoflurane exposure during the neonatal period induces long-term memory impairment but not autism-like behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Woosuk; Park, Saegeun; Hong, Jiso; Park, Sangil; Lee, Soomin; Heo, Junyoung; Kim, Daesoo; Ko, Youngkwon

    2015-10-01

    To examine whether neonatal exposure to sevoflurane induces autism-like behaviors in mice. There are continuing reports regarding the potential negative effects of anesthesia on the developing brain. Recently, several studies suggest that neurotoxicity caused by anesthesia may lead to neurodevelopmental impairments. However, unlike reports focusing on learning and memory, there are only a few animal studies focusing on neurodevelopmental disorders after general anesthesia. Therefore, we have focused on autism, a representative neurodevelopmental disorder. Neonatal mice (P6-7) were exposed to a titrated dose of sevoflurane for 6 h. Apoptosis was evaluated by assessing the expression level of cleaved (activated) caspase-3. Autism-like behaviors, general activity, anxiety level, and long-term memory were evaluated with multiple behavioral assays. Western blotting confirmed that neonatal exposure to sevoflurane increased the expression level of activated caspase-3, indicative of apoptosis. Mice exposed to sevoflurane also showed impaired long-term memory in fear tests. However, sevoflurane-exposed mice did not exhibit autism-like features in all of the following assays: social interaction (three-chamber test, caged social interaction), social communication (ultrasonic vocalization test), or repetitive behavior (self-grooming test, digging). There were also no differences in general activity (open field test, home cage activity) and anxiety (open field test, light-dark box) after sevoflurane exposure. Our results confirm previous studies that neonatal sevoflurane exposure causes neurodegeneration and long-term memory impairment in mice. However, sevoflurane did not induce autism-like features. Our study suggests that mice are more vulnerable to long-term memory deficits than autism-like behaviors after exposure to sevoflurane. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Potential Adverse Effects of Prolonged Sevoflurane Exposure on Developing Monkey Brain: From Abnormal Lipid Metabolism to Neuronal Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Rainosek, Shuo W; Frisch-Daiello, Jessica L; Patterson, Tucker A; Paule, Merle G; Slikker, William; Wang, Cheng; Han, Xianlin

    2015-10-01

    Sevoflurane is a volatile anesthetic that has been widely used in general anesthesia, yet its safety in pediatric use is a public concern. This study sought to evaluate whether prolonged exposure of infant monkeys to a clinically relevant concentration of sevoflurane is associated with any adverse effects on the developing brain. Infant monkeys were exposed to 2.5% sevoflurane for 9 h, and frontal cortical tissues were harvested for DNA microarray, lipidomics, Luminex protein, and histological assays. DNA microarray analysis showed that sevoflurane exposure resulted in a broad identification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the monkey brain. In general, these genes were associated with nervous system development, function, and neural cell viability. Notably, a number of DEGs were closely related to lipid metabolism. Lipidomic analysis demonstrated that critical lipid components, (eg, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylglycerol) were significantly downregulated by prolonged exposure of sevoflurane. Luminex protein analysis indicated abnormal levels of cytokines in sevoflurane-exposed brains. Consistently, Fluoro-Jade C staining revealed more degenerating neurons after sevoflurane exposure. These data demonstrate that a clinically relevant concentration of sevoflurane (2.5%) is capable of inducing and maintaining an effective surgical plane of anesthesia in the developing nonhuman primate and that a prolonged exposure of 9 h resulted in profound changes in gene expression, cytokine levels, lipid metabolism, and subsequently, neuronal damage. Generally, sevoflurane-induced neuronal damage was also associated with changes in lipid content, composition, or both; and specific lipid changes could provide insights into the molecular mechanism(s) underlying anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity and may be sensitive biomarkers for the early detection of anesthetic-induced neuronal damage. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the

  1. Effects of fentanyl on isoflurane minimum alveolar concentration in New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

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    Barter, Linda S; Hawkins, Michelle G; Pypendop, Bruno H

    2015-02-01

    To determine effects of increasing plasma fentanyl concentrations on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane in rabbits. 6 adult female New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Rabbits were anesthetized with isoflurane in oxygen; ventilation was controlled and body temperature maintained between 38.5° and 39.5°C. Fentanyl was administered IV by use of a computer-controlled infusion system to achieve 6 target plasma concentrations. Isoflurane MAC was determined in duplicate by use of the bracketing technique with a supramaximal electrical stimulus. Blood samples were collected for measurement of plasma fentanyl concentration at each MAC determination. The MAC values were analyzed with a repeated-measures ANOVA followed by Holm-Sidak pairwise comparisons. Mean ± SD plasma fentanyl concentrations were 0 ± 0 ng/mL (baseline), 1.2 ± 0.1 ng/mL, 2.2 ± 0.3 ng/mL, 4.4 ± 0.4 ng/mL, 9.2 ± 0.4 ng/mL, 17.5 ± 2.6 ng/mL, and 36.8 ± 2.4 ng/mL. Corresponding mean values for isoflurane MAC were 1.92 ± 0.16%, 1.80 ± 0.16%, 1.60 ± 0.23%, 1.46 ± 0.22%, 1.12 ± 0.19%, 0.89 ± 0.14%, and 0.70 ± 0.15%, respectively. Isoflurane MAC for plasma fentanyl concentrations ≥ 2.2 ng/mL differed significantly from the baseline value. In 3 rabbits, excessive spontaneous movement prevented MAC determination at the highest plasma fentanyl concentration. Fentanyl reduced isoflurane MAC by approximately 60% in New Zealand White rabbits. Further studies will be needed to investigate the cardiorespiratory effects of isoflurane and fentanyl combinations in rabbits; however, fentanyl may prove to be a useful adjunct to inhalation anesthesia in this species.

  2. Ciproxifan, an H3 receptor antagonist, improves short-term recognition memory impaired by isoflurane anesthesia.

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    Ding, Fang; Zheng, Limin; Liu, Min; Chen, Rongfa; Leung, L Stan; Luo, Tao

    2016-08-01

    Exposure to volatile anesthetics has been reported to cause temporary or sustained impairments in learning and memory in pre-clinical studies. The selective antagonists of the histamine H3 receptors (H3R) are considered to be a promising group of novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of cognitive disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of H3R antagonist ciproxifan on isoflurane-induced deficits in an object recognition task. Adult C57BL/6 J mice were exposed to isoflurane (1.3 %) or vehicle gas for 2 h. The object recognition tests were carried at 24 h or 7 days after exposure to anesthesia to exploit the tendency of mice to prefer exploring novel objects in an environment when a familiar object is also present. During the training phase, two identical objects were placed in two defined sites of the chamber. During the test phase, performed 1 or 24 h after the training phase, one of the objects was replaced by a new object with a different shape. The time spent exploring each object was recorded. A robust deficit in object recognition memory occurred 1 day after exposure to isoflurane anesthesia. Isoflurane-treated mice spent significantly less time exploring a novel object at 1 h but not at 24 h after the training phase. The deficit in short-term memory was reversed by the administration of ciproxifan 30 min before behavioral training. Isoflurane exposure induces reversible deficits in object recognition memory. Ciproxifan appears to be a potential therapeutic agent for improving post-anesthesia cognitive memory performance.

  3. Preferential effect of isoflurane on top-down vs. bottom-up pathways in sensory cortex.

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    Raz, Aeyal; Grady, Sean M; Krause, Bryan M; Uhlrich, Daniel J; Manning, Karen A; Banks, Matthew I

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism of loss of consciousness (LOC) under anesthesia is unknown. Because consciousness depends on activity in the cortico-thalamic network, anesthetic actions on this network are likely critical for LOC. Competing theories stress the importance of anesthetic actions on bottom-up "core" thalamo-cortical (TC) vs. top-down cortico-cortical (CC) and matrix TC connections. We tested these models using laminar recordings in rat auditory cortex in vivo and murine brain slices. We selectively activated bottom-up vs. top-down afferent pathways using sensory stimuli in vivo and electrical stimulation in brain slices, and compared effects of isoflurane on responses evoked via the two pathways. Auditory stimuli in vivo and core TC afferent stimulation in brain slices evoked short latency current sinks in middle layers, consistent with activation of core TC afferents. By contrast, visual stimuli in vivo and stimulation of CC and matrix TC afferents in brain slices evoked responses mainly in superficial and deep layers, consistent with projection patterns of top-down afferents that carry visual information to auditory cortex. Responses to auditory stimuli in vivo and core TC afferents in brain slices were significantly less affected by isoflurane compared to responses triggered by visual stimuli in vivo and CC/matrix TC afferents in slices. At a just-hypnotic dose in vivo, auditory responses were enhanced by isoflurane, whereas visual responses were dramatically reduced. At a comparable concentration in slices, isoflurane suppressed both core TC and CC/matrix TC responses, but the effect on the latter responses was far greater than on core TC responses, indicating that at least part of the differential effects observed in vivo were due to local actions of isoflurane in auditory cortex. These data support a model in which disruption of top-down connectivity contributes to anesthesia-induced LOC, and have implications for understanding the neural basis of consciousness.

  4. Comparison of propofol versus sevoflurane on thermoregulation in patients undergoing transsphenoidal pituitary surgery: A preliminary study

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    Tumul Chowdhury

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: General anesthesia causes inhibition of thermoregulatory mechanisms. Propofol has been reported to cause more temperature fall, but in case of deliberate mild hypothermia, both sevoflurane and propofol were comparable. Thermoregulation is found to be disturbed in cases of pituitary tumors. We aimed to investigate which of the two agents, sevoflurane or propofol, results in better preservation of thermoregulation in patients undergoing transsphenoidal excision of pituitary tumors. Methods: Twenty-six patients scheduled to undergo transsphenoidal removal of pituitary adenomas were randomly allocated to receive propofol or sevoflurane anesthesia. Baseline esophageal temperature was noted. Times for temperature to fall by 1°C or 35°C and to return to baseline were also comparable ( P>0.05. After that warmer was started at 43°C and time to rise to baseline was noted. Duration of surgery, total blood loss, and total fluid intake were also noted. If any, side effects such as delayed arousal and recovery from muscle relaxant were noted. Results: The demographics of the patients were comparable. Duration of surgery and total blood loss were comparable in the two groups. The time for temperature to fall by 1°C or 35°C and time to return to baseline was also comparable ( P>0.05. No side effects related to body temperature were noted. Conclusion: Both propofol and sevoflurane show similar effects in maintaining thermal homeostasis in patients undergoing transsphenoidal pituitary surgery.

  5. Hypercholesterolemic myocardium is vulnerable to ischemia-reperfusion injury and refractory to sevoflurane-induced protection.

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    Yong Xu

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated that volatile anesthetic postconditioning confers myocardial protection against ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury through activation of the reperfusion injury salvage kinase (RISK pathway. As RISK has been shown to be impaired in hypercholesterolemia. Therefore, we investigate whether anesthetic-induced cardiac protection was maintained in hypercholesterolemic rats. In the present study, normocholesteolemic or hypercholesterolemic rat hearts were subjected to 30 min of ischemia and 2 h of reperfusion. Animals received 2.4% sevoflurane for 5 min or 3 cycles of 10-s ischemia/10-s reperfusion. The hemodynamic parameters, including left ventricular developed pressure, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and heart rate, were continuously monitored. The infarct size, apoptosis, p-Akt, p-ERK1/2, p-GSK3β were determined. We found that both sevoflurane and ischemic postconditioning significantly improved heart pump function, reduced infarct size and increased the phosphorylation of Akt, ERK1/2 and their downstream target of GSK3β in the healthy rats. In the hypercholesterolemic rats, neither sevoflurane nor ischemic postconditioning improved left ventricular hemodynamics, reduced infarct size and increased the phosphorylated Akt, ERK1/2 and GSK3β. In contrast, GSK inhibitor SB216763 conferred cardioprotection against IR injury in healthy and hypercholesterolemic hearts. In conclusions, hyperchoesterolemia abrogated sevoflurane-induced cardioprotection against IR injury by alteration of upstream signaling of GSK3β and acute GSK inhibition may provide a novel therapeutic strategy to protect hypercholesterolemic hearts against IR injury.

  6. A comparative study of effect of sevoflurane on intubating conditions with rocuronium in neurosurgical patients.

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    Mitra, Saikat; Purohit, Shobha; Bhatia, Sonali; Kalra, Poonam; Sharma, Satya Prakash

    2015-12-01

    Rocuronium may not always be the preferred relaxant for rapid sequence intubation. When 2% sevoflurane is used in conjunction with rocuronium, it may reduce the time required for achieving complete skeletal muscle relaxation with the intubating dose of rocuronium. This study was prospective, randomised, double-blind in nature and compared the effect of sevoflurane on intubation time and intubating conditions when used along with rocuronium. Thirty adult patients belonging to American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status Grades 1 and 2, of either gender aged between 30 and 65 years undergoing neurosurgical operations were randomly allocated into two equal groups: Group R received 0.8 mg/kg rocuronium, and Group RS received 0.8 mg/kg of rocuronium with 2% sevoflurane. Onset time of intubation was assessed using train-of-four stimuli. The intubating conditions were compared using the Cooper scoring system and the haemodynamic responses were compared between the two groups. The onset time of intubation was 101.73 ± 10.28 s in Group R and 60.4 ± 4.1 s in Group RS (P Rocuronium 0.8 mg/kg along with 2% sevoflurane provides excellent intubating conditions within 60-66 s from its administration.

  7. Effects of sevoflurane on adenylate cyclase and phosphodiesterases activity in brain of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Changdong; Yang Jianping; Dai Tijun

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of sevoflurane on c adenylate cyclase (AC) and phosphodiesterases (PDE) activity in the cerebrocortex, hippocampus and brain stem of rats, and to examine the role of cAMP in sevoflurane anesthesia. Methods: Fourty SD rats were delaminately designed and allocated randomly to 5 groups inhaling 1.5% sevoflurane i.e., no recovery (recovery group, n=8) and one hour after righting reflexrecovery (aware group, n=8). The brain tissues were rapidly dissected into cerebrocortex and hippocampus and brain stem.Then the adenylate cyclase and phosphodiesterases activity were assessed. Results: So far as the activity of AC is concerned, compared with the control group, the activity of AC in the cerebrocortex, hippocampus and brain stem brain stem of induction group and anesthesia group, the cerebrocortex, and hippocampus in the recovery group were significantly increased; compared with those in the anesthesia group, the activity of AC in the cerebrocortex, hippocampus and brain stem of aware group were significantly decreased (P<0.05); For the activity of PDE, compared with the control group, the activity of PDE in the cerebrocortex, hippocampus and brain stem in the induction group and anesthesia group was significantly decreased, compared with that in anesthesia group, the activity of PDE in the cerebrocortex, hippocampus and brain stem of recovery group and aware group was significantly increased (P<0.05). Conclusion: cAMP may play an important role in sevoflurane anesthesia. (authors)

  8. Survey of the sevoflurane sedation status in one provincial dental clinic center for the disabled

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    Park, Chang-hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background Sevoflurane sedation in pediatric and disabled patients has the advantage of faster induction and recovery compared to general anesthesia, as well as minimum influence on the respiratory and cardiovascular functions, and airway protective reflexes. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of sevoflurane sedation used in dental treatment at one provincial dental clinic center for the disabled. Methods We investigated patients' gender, age, reasons for undergoing sedation, medication history prior to treatment, duration of anesthesia, treatment length, type of treatment, and yearly patterns, for 387 cases of dental treatment performed using sevoflurane sedation from January 2013 to October 2016. Results We analyzed 387 cases (215 male patients, 172 female patients). Male patients aged 20 year or older accounted for 39.0% of all patients, marking the highest proportion. Patient's lack of cooperation was the most common reason for performing dental sedation. Prosthetic treatment was the most frequently practiced, accounting for 174 treatment cases. The mean lengths of the entire treatment and of the dental procedure were 55.2 min and 39.8 min, respectively. Conclusions Sevoflurane sedation has the advantage of fast anesthesia induction and recovery compared to general anesthesia; therefore, it can be used efficiently to induce anesthesia in pediatric and disabled patients during short dental procedures, enabling stable treatment of these patients. PMID:28879316

  9. Changes in Rat Brain MicroRNA Expression Profiles Following Sevoflurane and Propofol Anesthesia

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    Yu Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sevoflurane and propofol are widely used anesthetics for surgery. Studies on the mechanisms of general anesthesia have focused on changes in protein expression properties and membrane lipid. MicroRNAs (miRNAs regulate neural function by altering protein expression. We hypothesize that sevoflurane and propofol affect miRNA expression profiles in the brain, expect to understand the mechanism of anesthetic agents. Methods: Rats were randomly assigned to a 2% sevoflurane group, 600 μg·kg − 1·min − 1 propofol group, and a control group without anesthesia (n = 4, respectively. Treatment group was under anesthesia for 6 h, and all rats breathed spontaneously with continuous monitoring of respiration and blood gases. Changes in rat cortex miRNA expression profiles were analyzed by miRNA microarrays and validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Differential expression of miRNA using qRT-PCR among the control, sevoflurane, and propofol groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: Of 677 preloaded rat miRNAs, the microarray detected the expression of 277 miRNAs in rat cortex (40.9%, of which 9 were regulated by propofol and (or sevoflurane. Expression levels of three miRNAs (rno-miR-339-3p, rno-miR-448, rno-miR-466b-1FNx01 were significantly increased following sevoflurane and six (rno-miR-339-3p, rno-miR-347, rno-miR-378FNx01, rno-miR-412FNx01, rno-miR-702-3p, and rno-miR-7a-2FNx01 following propofol. Three miRNAs (rno-miR-466b-1FNx01, rno-miR-3584-5p and rno-miR-702-3p were differentially expressed by the two anesthetic treatment groups. Conclusions: Sevoflurane and propofol anesthesia induced distinct changes in brain miRNA expression patterns, suggesting differential regulation of protein expression. Determining the targets of these differentially expressed miRNAs may help reveal both the common and agent-specific actions of anesthetics on neurological and physiological

  10. Evaluation of halothane as stressor agent in poultry / Avaliação do halotano como agente estressor em frangos

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    Massami Shimokomaki

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies have been demonstrating in poultry, the existence of at least two causes for the formation of PSE meat: genetic through the sensibility towards halothane and the environmental factor in particular the temperature as the main factor. Thus the objective of this work was to evaluate halothane as stressor agent for broiler concomitantly to evaluating the PSE incidence by submitting these birds to thermal stress. In this experiment, 24 broilers of commercial lineage were divided in 6 animals for 4 treatments: HHH, broilers submitted to halothane test and slaughtered 1h after this test; HET broilers submitted to halothane at 35°C/1h after 48h of halothane test followed by the birds slaughtering; EET, broilers submitted to thermal stress and slaughtered immediately after this treatment, and finally the control treatment (CCC where broilers were not submitted to halothane test nor to thermal stress as control. The initial pH of Pectoralis major m, was evaluated 30 min post mortem and the pH final, color, (L*, a*, b* water holding capacity (WHC, and R value analysis were carried out after 24h of storage of fillet samples at 40C. The pH24h was higher (p ? 0.05 for CCC samples in comparison to other treatments and R value was higher for birds under HET and EET treatments in comparison to CCC (p ? 0.05 suggesting that the rigor mortis was more rapid in samples from birds submitted to thermal stress. The HHH, HET, and EET treatments presented 4 birds each with PSE meat and 2 broilers from CCC treatment originated PSE meat showing the influence not only halothane but also the thermal stress over broilers welfare. Finally, results demonstrated that halothane is a stressor agent as well as the thermal stress and both promoted dramatic biochemical changes bringing about the formation of broiler PSE meat. Resultados vêm mostrando uma direta relação entre a sensibilidade ao halotano e a ocorrência de filés PSE em aves, que pode ser originado pela

  11. [Modification of the analgetic effects (buprenorphine, pentazocine, pethidine) on respiration and haemodynamics by epidural, halothane- or neuroleptanaesthesia (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüst, H J; Moritz, K G; Sandmann, W; Richter, O

    1980-04-01

    In 38 patients buprenorphine, meperidine and pentazocine were given in a single dose for postoperative pain relief 20 hours after the end of anaesthesia. Measuring the parameters of the high- and low-pressure system as well as the metabolism the authors found that the effects of these analgetic medicaments, intravenously injected were significantly influenced by fentanyl, halothane or diazepam, given under the course of operation. Especially buprenorphine, injected after epidural anaesthesia in combination with diazepam sedation, proved to have a rather negative effect, because it caused a strong depression of respiration and circulation. On the other hand buprenorphine had, given after neuroleptanaesthesia, a neutralizing - and pentazocine and pethidine in combination with neuroleptanaesthesia a stimulating influence on the circulation. After halothane-anaesthesia the effect of the analegtics on the cardiovascular system was, when buprenorphine was given, depressing and when pentazocine was given indifferent. Similar reactions, but more pronounced, could be seen in the epidural group. With certain reservations, caused by the preliminary character of this study, the following conclusions can be drawn for the anaesthetic practice: 1 Choosing analgetic drugs for postoperative pain relief, the anaesthesist has to be aware of the interactions, possibly resulting from the medicaments, given during anaesthesia. 2. The number of medicaments, given during anaesthesia, should be kept small, considering the eventual interactions and the unintentional secondary effects.

  12. [Inductions and intubating conditions with sevoflurane and different doses of remifentanil without muscle relaxant in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ling-Xin; Deng, Xiao-Ming; Liu, Ju-Hui; Luo, Mao-Ping; Tong, Shi-Yi; Zhang, Yan-Ming; Liao, Xu; Xu, Kun-Lin

    2008-12-01

    To observe the clinical effectiveness of inductions and tracheal intubating conditions with 3% sevoflurane and different doses of remifentanil without muscle relaxant in children. Totally 120 peadiatric patients (aged 4-10 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists grade I for inhalational induction) were randomly allocated into group I (remifentanil 1 microg/kg), group II (remifentanil 2 microg/kg), group III (remifentanil 3 microg/kg), and control group (vecuronium bromide 0.1 mg/kg). After inhalational induction with 3% sevoflurane and 60% nitrous oxide in 40% oxygen for 2 minutes, remifentanil 1 microg/kg, 2 microg/ kg, and 3 microg/kg were intravenously injected over 1 minute into patients in group I , group II, and group III, respectively. After remifentanil administration and manual ventilation for 1 minute, the trachea was intubated. In the control group, 2 minutes after intravenous administration of vecuronium bromide 0.1 mg/kg, tracheal intubation was attempted. Agitation, intubating satisfactoriness, and the circulation changes after tracheal intubation and anesthesia induction were observed. In these four groups, agitation occurred in 37.5% of patients during sevoflurane induction. Satisfactory intubation rate was 70.0% in group I, 86.7% in group II, 90.0% in group III, and 93.3% in the control group. Compared with the control group, the impact of tracheal intubation on the circulatory system was smaller in group I , II , and III. Induction with 3% sevoflurane combined with remifentanil can be smoothly performed, followed by the successful tracheal intubation. The intubating conditions are more satisfactory with 3% sevoflurane combined with remifentanil 2 microg/kg or 3 microg/kg.

  13. Sevoflurane therapy for life-threatening acute severe asthma: a case report.

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    Ruszkai, Zoltán; Bokrétás, Gergely Péter; Bartha, Péter Töhötöm

    2014-10-01

    Acute severe asthma is a life-threatening form of bronchial constriction in which the progressively worsening airway obstruction is unresponsive to the usual appropriate bronchodilator therapy. Pathophysiological changes restrict airflow, which leads to premature closure of the airway on expiration, impaired gas exchange, and dynamic hyperinflation ("air-trapping"). Additionally, patients suffering from asthma for a prolonged period of time usually have serious comorbidities. These conditions constitute a challenge during the treatment of this disease. Therapeutic interventions are designed to reduce airway resistance and improve respiratory status. To achieve therapeutic goals, appropriate bronchodilator treatment is indispensable, and mechanical ventilation under adequate sedation may also be required. The volatile anesthetic agent, sevoflurane, meets both criteria; therefore, its use can be beneficial and should be considered. A 67-yr-old Caucasian male presented with acute life-threatening asthma provoked by an assumed upper airway infection and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug antipyretics, complicated by chronic atrial fibrillation and hemodynamic instability. Due to frequent premature ventricular contractions, conventional treatment was considered unsafe and discontinued, and sevoflurane inhalation was initiated via the AnaConDa (Anaesthetic Conserving Device). Symptoms of life-threatening bronchospasm resolved, and the patient's respiratory status improved within hours. Adequate sedation was also achieved without any hemodynamic adverse effects. The volatile anesthetic agent, sevoflurane, is used widely in anesthesia practice. Its utility for treatment of refractory bronchospasm has been appreciated for years; however, its administration was difficult within the environment of the intensive care unit due to the need for an anesthesia machine and a scavenging system. The introduction of the AnaConDa eliminates these obstacles and makes the use of

  14. Anesthetic Sevoflurane Causes Rho-Dependent Filopodial Shortening in Mouse Neurons.

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    Jeffrey H Zimering

    Full Text Available Early postnatal anesthesia causes long-lasting learning and memory impairment in rodents, however, evidence for a specific neurotoxic effect on early synaptogenesis has not been demonstrated. Drebrin A is an actin binding protein whose localization in dendritic protrusions serves an important role in dendritic spine morphogenesis, and is a marker for early synaptogenesis. We therefore set out to investigate whether clinically-relevant concentrations of anesthetic sevoflurane, widely- used in infants and children, alters dendritic morphology in cultured fetal day 16 mouse hippocampal neurons. After 7 days in vitro, mouse hippocampal neurons were exposed to four hours of 3% sevoflurane in 95% air/5% CO2 or control condition (95% air/5% CO2. Neurons were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde and stained with Alexa Fluor555-Phalloidin, and/or rabbit anti-mouse drebrin A/E antibodies which permitted subcellular localization of filamentous (F-actin and/or drebrin immunoreactivity, respectively. Sevoflurane caused acute significant length-shortening in filopodia and thin dendritic spines in days-in-vitro 7 neurons, an effect which was completely rescued by co-incubating neurons with ten micromolar concentrations of the selective Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632. Filopodia and thin spine recovered in length two days after sevoflurane exposure. Yet cluster-type filopodia (a precursor to synaptic filopodia were persistently significantly decreased in number on day-in-vitro 9, in part owing to preferential localization of drebrin immunoreactivity to dendritic shafts versus filopodial stalks. These data suggest that sevoflurane induces F-actin depolymerization leading to acute, reversible length-shortening in dendritic protrusions through a mechanism involving (in part activation of RhoA/Rho kinase signaling and impairs localization of drebrin A to filopodia required for early excitatory synapse formation.

  15. [Effects of sevoflurane and propofol on evoked potentials during neurosurgical anesthesia].

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    Nakagawa, Itsuo; Hidaka, Syozo; Okada, Hironori; Kubo, Takashi; Okamura, Kenta; Kato, Takahiro

    2006-06-01

    The effect of anesthetics on somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) and auditory brain stem response (ABR) has been a subject of intense reseach over the last two decades. In fact, volatile anesthetics have been repeatedly shown to decrease cortical amplitude in a dose-dependent fashion but the information regarding the effect of propofol is incomplete. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of sevoflurane and propofol on evoked potentials during comparable depth of anesthesia guided by bispectral index (BIS). Forty four patients scheduled for neurosurgery were studied. Anesthesia was maintained with intravenous propofol using target controlled infusion (TCI). We measured the change of amplitude and latency of SEP(N20-P25), ABR (V wave) and visual evoked potential (VEP: P100) at three sets of sevoflurane (0%, 1%, 2%) or propofol concentrations (effect site concentration of 1.5, 2.0, 3.0 microug x ml(-1)). BIS monitor was used to measure relative depth of hypnosis. With increasing concentrations of sevoflurane (0, 1% and 2%), SEP showed dose-related reduction in its amplitude, ABR produced less marked changes and VEP showed a significant reduction at 1%. VEP at the propofol concentration of 3.0 microg x ml(-1) was decreased significantly compared with the amplitude at 1.5 microg x ml(-1) concentration. No significant change was observed with SEP and ABR during the change of propofol dosages. BIS values were almost the same with each anesthetics. VEP was most strongly affected with anesthetics, and ABR showed less marked influence of sevoflurane and propofol. Propofol based TIVA technique would induce less change in evoked potentials than sevoflurane.

  16. Effects of sevoflurane on ventilator induced lung injury in a healthy lung experimental model.

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    Romero, A; Moreno, A; García, J; Sánchez, C; Santos, M; García, J

    2016-01-01

    Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) causes a systemic inflammatory response in tissues, with an increase in IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α in blood and tissues. Cytoprotective effects of sevoflurane in different experimental models are well known, and this protective effect can also be observed in VILI. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of sevoflurane in VILI. A prospective, randomized, controlled study was designed. Twenty female rats were studied. The animals were mechanically ventilated, without sevoflurane in the control group and sevoflurane 3% in the treated group (SEV group). VILI was induced applying a maximal inspiratory pressure of 35 cmH2O for 20 min without any positive end-expiratory pressure for 20 min (INJURY time). The animals were then ventilated 30 min with a maximal inspiratory pressure of 12 cmH2O and 3 cmH2O positive end-expiratory pressure (time 30 min POST-INJURY), at which time the animals were euthanized and pathological and biomarkers studies were performed. Heart rate, invasive blood pressure, pH, PaO2, and PaCO2 were recorded. The lung wet-to-dry weight ratio was used as an index of lung edema. No differences were found in the blood gas analysis parameters or heart rate between the 2 groups. Blood pressure was statistically higher in the control group, but still within the normal clinical range. The percentage of pulmonary edema and concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6 in lung tissue in the SEV group were lower than in the control group. Sevoflurane attenuates VILI in a previous healthy lung in an experimental subclinical model in rats. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Repeated isoflurane exposure and neuroapoptosis in the midgestation fetal sheep brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olutoye, Olutoyin A; Sheikh, Fariha; Zamora, Irving J; Yu, Ling; Akinkuotu, Adesola C; Adesina, Adekunle M; Olutoye, Oluyinka O

    2016-04-01

    Advances in surgery and technology have resulted in increased in-utero procedures. However, the effect of anesthesia on the fetal brain is not fully known. The inhalational anesthetic agent, isoflurane, other gamma amino butyric acid agonists (benzodiazepines, barbiturates, propofol, other inhalation anesthetics), and N-methyl D aspartate antagonists, eg, ketamine, have been shown to induce neuroapoptosis. The ovine model has been used extensively to study maternal-fetal physiologic interactions and to investigate different surgical interventions on the fetus. The purpose of this study was to determine effects of different doses and duration of isoflurane on neuroapoptosis in midgestation fetal sheep. We hypothesized that repeated anesthetic exposure and high concentrations of isoflurane would result in increased neuroapoptosis. Time-dated, pregnant sheep at 70 days gestation (term 145 days) received either isoflurane 2% × 1 hour, 4% × 3 hours, or 2% × 1 hour every other day for 3 exposures (repeated exposure group). Euthanasia occurred following anesthetic exposure and fetal brains were processed. Neuroapoptosis was detected by immunohistochemistry using anticaspase-3 antibodies. Fetuses unexposed to anesthesia served as controls. Another midgestation group with repeated 2% isoflurane exposure was examined at day 130 (long-term group) and neuronal cell density compared to age-matched controls. Representative sections of the brain were analyzed using Aperio Digital imaging (Leica Microsystems Inc, Buffalo Grove, IL). Data, reported by number of neurons per cubic millimeter of brain tissue are presented as means and SEM. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests as appropriate. A total of 34 fetuses were studied. There was no significant difference in neuroapoptosis observed in fetuses exposed to 2% isoflurane for 1 hour or 4% isoflurane for 3 hours. Increased neuroapoptosis was observed in the frontal cortex following repeated 2

  18. Propofol increased the interleukin-6 to interleukin-10 ratio more than isoflurane after surgery in long-term alcoholic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Dossow, V; Baur, S; Sander, M

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of an anaesthetic regimen on the immune response in 40 long-term alcoholic patients undergoing surgery. Patients were randomly allocated to receive either propofol or isoflurane during surgery. Plasma cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 were measured at defined...... times and rates of post-operative infections were documented. The IL-6/IL-10 ratio significantly increased with propofol compared with isoflurane on day 1 after surgery and the IL-10 level significantly increased with isoflurane on day 1 after surgery. The overall post-operative infection rate...... was significantly higher in isoflurane-treated patients. Our findings indicate that propofol anaesthesia might be the more favourable regimen, with the IL-6/IL-10 ratio indicating an attenuation of the immune imbalance after surgery in long-term alcoholic patients. These results support the undertaking...

  19. Propofol increased the interleukin-6 to interleukin-10 ratio more than isoflurane after surgery in long-term alcoholic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Dossow, V; Baur, S; Sander, M

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of an anaesthetic regimen on the immune response in 40 long-term alcoholic patients undergoing surgery. Patients were randomly allocated to receive either propofol or isoflurane during surgery. Plasma cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 were measured at defined...... times and rates of post-operative infections were documented. The IL-6/IL-10 ratio significantly increased with propofol compared with isoflurane on day 1 after surgery and the IL-10 level significantly increased with isoflurane on day 1 after surgery. The overall post-operative infection rate...... was significantly higher in isoflurane-treated patients. Our findings indicate that propofol anaesthesia might be the more favourable regimen, with the IL-6/IL-10 ratio indicating an attenuation of the immune imbalance after surgery in long-term alcoholic patients. These results support the undertaking...

  20. Inhalation of sevoflurane in the removal of post-labioplasty and palatoplasty stitches in uncooperative children patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ediyana Nuryadi

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The technique of behaviour management in medical treatment, especially in dental treatment, is needed to eliminate uncooperative children behaviour. The main factor influencing children behaviour is fear of painful that usually related to dental treatment. Children patients who will have their post­labioplasty and palatoplasty stitches removed have more sensitive condition, they cry when the dentist gives treatment. Using general anesthesia is a method to manage uncooperative children behaviour. Inhalational anesthesia is often used in general anesthesia and sevoflurane is a drug of choice. Sevoflurane has low solubility in blood, pleasant odor, nonirritating airway, and has a rapid induction of and recovery from anesthesia. Some researches indicate that sevoflurane gives more calm condition and can be used as a sufficiently ideal induction and maintenance of anesthesia in children. Sevoflurane can therefore made as alternative procedure in the removal of post-labioplasty and palatoplasty stitches.

  1. THE PHARMACODYNAMICS AND PHARMACOKINETICS OF ORG-9426, A NEW NONDEPOLARIZING NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING-AGENT, IN PATIENTS ANESTHETIZED WITH NITROUS-OXIDE, HALOTHANE AND FENTANYL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIERDA, JMKH; KLEEF, UW; LAMBALK, LM; KLOPPENBURG, WD; AGOSTON, S

    The pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of a new non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent, Org 9426, were investigated. Ten patients undergoing elective head and neck surgery and anaesthetized with nitrous oxide, halothane and fentanyl, received a bolus dose of Org 9426 (1 mg.kg-1, 3 x ED90).

  2. Sevoflurane Inhalation Accelerates the Long-Term Memory Consolidation via Small GTPase Overexpression in the Hippocampus of Mice in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Emi; Kinoshita, Hiroyuki; Feng, Guo-Gang; Hayashi, Hisaki; Satomoto, Maiko; Sato, Motohiko; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Sevoflurane exposure impairs the long-term memory in neonates. Whether the exposure to animals in adolescence affects the memory, however, has been unclear. A small hydrolase enzyme of guanosine triphosphate (GTPase) rac1 plays a role in the F-actin dynamics related to the synaptic plasticity, as well as superoxide production via reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activation. The current study was designed to examine whether sevoflurane exposure to mice in early adolescence modifies the long-term learning ability concomitantly with the changes in F-actin constitution as well as superoxide production in the hippocampus according to the levels of rac1 protein expression. Four-week-old mice were subjected to the evaluation of long-term learning ability for three days. On day one, each mouse was allowed to enter a dark chamber for five min to acclimatization. On day two, the procedure was repeated with the addition of an electric shock as soon as a mouse entered the dark chamber. All mice subsequently inhaled 2 L/min air with (Sevoflurane group) and without (Control group) 2.5% sevoflurane for three hours. On day three, each mouse was placed on the platform and retention time, which is the latency to enter the dark chamber, was examined. The brain removed after the behavior test, was used for analyses of immunofluorescence, Western immunoblotting and intracellular levels of superoxide. Sevoflurane exposure significantly prolonged retention time, indicating the enhanced long-term memory. Sevoflurane inhalation augmented F-actin constitution coexisting with the rac1 protein overexpression in the hippocampus whereas it did not alter the levels of superoxide. Sevoflurane exposure to 4-week-old mice accelerates the long-term memory concomitantly with the enhanced F-actin constitution coexisting with the small GTPase rac1 overexpression in the hippocampus. These results suggest that sevoflurane inhalation may amplify long-term memory

  3. Sevoflurane-induced down-regulation of hippocampal oxytocin and arginine vasopressin impairs juvenile social behavioral abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi-Bin; Yang, Xiao-Yu; Yuan, Bao-Long; Niu, Li-Jun; Zhou, Xue; Huang, Wen-Qi; Feng, Xia; Zhou, Li-Hua

    2015-05-01

    Cumulative evidence indicates that early childhood anesthesia can alter a child's future behavioral performance. Animal researchers have found that sevoflurane, the most commonly used anesthetic for children, can produce damage in the neonatal brains of rodents. To further investigate this phenomenon, we focused on the influence of sevoflurane anesthesia on the development of juvenile social behavioral abilities and the pro-social proteins oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) in the neonatal hippocampus. A single 6-h sevoflurane exposure for postnatal day 5 mice resulted in decreased OT and AVP messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels in the hippocampus. OT and AVP proteins became sparsely distributed in the dorsal hippocampus after the exposure to sevoflurane. Compared with the air-treated group, mice in the sevoflurane-treated group showed signs of impairment in social recognition memory formation and social discrimination ability. Sevoflurane anesthesia reduces OT and AVP activities in the neonatal hippocampus and impairs social recognition memory formation and social discrimination ability in juvenile mice.

  4. [The effect of isoflurane on the secretion of TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta from LPS-stimulated human peripheral blood monocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, W; Enzan, K; Masaki, Y; Kayaba, M; Suzuki, M

    1995-07-01

    The cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 secreted from macrophages/monocytes proved to play important roles in the pathogenesis of endotoxemia, severe pancreatitis and other surgical injuries. However, it is still unclear how inhalational anesthetic agents influence the secretion of these cytokines from macrophages/monocytes. We investigated the effects of isoflurane on TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta secretions from human peripheral blood monocytes stimulated by lipopolysaccharide. TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta secretions increased after LPS stimulation and this increase was inhibited by isoflurane in dose-dependent fashion. The inhibitory action of isoflurane disappeared between 1 and 3 hours after stopping isoflurane inhalation. We concluded that isoflurane could inhibit TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta secretions from peripheral blood monocytes stimulated by LPS in a dose-dependent fashion and that the inhibitory action of isoflurane was reversible.

  5. Influence of isoflurane on the diastolic pressure-flow relationship and critical occlusion pressure during arterial CABG surgery: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hinz, Jos?; Mansur, Ashham; Hanekop, Gerd G.; Weyland, Andreas; Popov, Aron F.; Schmitto, Jan D.; Gr?ne, Frank F. G.; Bauer, Martin; Kazmaier, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The effects of isoflurane on the determinants of blood flow during Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) surgery are not completely understood. This study characterized the influence of isoflurane on the diastolic Pressure-Flow (P-F) relationship and Critical Occlusion Pressure (COP) during CABG surgery. Twenty patients undergoing CABG surgery were studied. Patients were assigned to an isoflurane or control group. Hemodynamic and flow measurements during CABG surgery were perf...

  6. Isoflurane Anesthesia Interferes with the Expression of Cocaine-Induced Sensitization in Female Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Siegal, Nora; Dow-Edwards, Diana

    2009-01-01

    Repeated cocaine administration results in a progressive sensitization of behavior which typically occurs more readily in female rats than in males. Our recent studies of rats undergoing surgical procedures revealed that following anesthesia, females sensitized less than males receiving identical repeated cocaine injections. Since isoflurane acts primarily by increasing the effects of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) and reducing the effects of the excitatory amino ...

  7. Effects of isoflurane concentration on basic echocardiographic parameters of the left ventricle in rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Říha, H.; Papoušek, František; Neckář, Jan; Pirk, J.; Ošťádal, Bohuslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 4 (2012), s. 419-423 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA501110901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : anesthesia * isoflurane * echocardiography * left ventricular function * rat heart Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 1.531, year: 2012

  8. Effects of the morphine-lidocaine-ketamine combination on cardiopulmonary function and isoflurane sparing in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzane Lilian Beier

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to evaluate the isoflurane sparing and clinical effects of a constant rate infusion of morphine – lidocaine – ketamine (MLK in healthy sheep undergoing experimental gastrointestinal surgery. Twelve adult female sheep (Texel breed were used, weighing 36.5 ± 8.1 kg. The sheep were anesthetized for the implantation of duodenal cannulas. The sheep were premedicated with 0.3 mg kg-1 intramuscular (IM morphine and 20 ?g kg-1 intravenous (IV detomidine. After premedication, anesthesia was induced using 5 mg kg-1 ketamine and 0.5 mg kg-1 diazepam IV and maintained using isoflurane in 100% oxygen. After the induction of anesthesia, the animals were allocated into two groups (each n=6; the GMLK (MLK group – 10 mg morphine, 150 mg lidocaine, 30 mg de ketamine were added in 500 mL saline received a 10 mL kg-1h-1 MLK infusion during the maintenance of anesthesia, and GCON (control group received 10 mL kg-1h-1 of 0.9% sodium chloride. The animals were mechanically ventilated. Cardiopulmonary variables and end-tidal isoflurane concentration (FE´Iso were measured at baseline (immediately before the surgery and 15, 30 and 45 minutes after initiation of surgery. In GMLK, there was a decrease in the FE´Iso at 15, 30 and 45 minutes, a reduction of up to 75.6% during the surgery. The HR was lower in GMLK compared with GCON at 30 minutes, and the MAP was at during baseline in GCON compared with GMLK. The standing time was less in GMLK than in GCON. The use of intravenous MLK was demonstrated to offer great efficiency as part of a balanced anesthesia protocol in sheep, with a 75.6% reduction in the need for isoflurane, providing stability of the cardiovascular parameters and blood gases with a shortened recovery period.

  9. Isoflurane anaesthesia in an African wild dog, Lycaon pictus : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.F. Stegmann

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Anaesthesia was required in a captive female African wild dog (Lycaon pictus for surgical wound treatment. After it was immobilised with a medetomidine-ketamine combination, bradycardia, hypothermia, systolic hypertension and metabolic acidosis were observed. Surgical anaesthesia was maintained with a 1 %end-tidal isoflurane concentration. A decrease in the arterial blood pressure, rectal temperature and pHoccurred during maintenance of anaesthesia.

  10. Effects of inhaled anesthetic isoflurane on long-term potentiation of CA3 pyramidal cell afferents in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballesteros KA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Kristen A Ballesteros,1 Angela Sikorski,2 James E Orfila,3 Joe L Martinez Jr41Department of Biology, The University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA; 2Texas A&M University Texarkana, Texarkana, TX, USA; 3University of Colorado in Denver, Denver, CO, USA; 4University of Illinois in Chicago, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Isoflurane is a preferred anesthetic, due to its properties that allow a precise concentration to be delivered continually during in vivo experimentation. The major mechanism of action of isoflurane is modulation of the γ-amino butyric acid (GABAA receptor-chloride channel, mediating inhibitory synaptic transmission. Animal studies have shown that isoflurane does not cause cell death, but it does inhibit cell growth and causes long-term hippocampal learning deficits. As there are no studies characterizing the effects of isoflurane on electrophysiological aspects of long-term potentiation (LTP in the hippocampus, it is important to determine whether isoflurane alters the characteristic responses of hippocampal afferents to cornu ammonis region 3 (CA3. We investigated the effects of isoflurane on adult male rats during in vivo induction of LTP, using the mossy fiber pathway, the lateral perforant pathway, the medial perforant pathway, and the commissural CA3 (cCA3 to CA3, with intracranial administration of Ringer’s solution, naloxone, RS-aminoindan-1, 5-dicarboxylic acid (AIDA, or 3-[(R-2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl]-propo-2-enyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP. Then, we compared these responses to published electrophysiological data, using sodium pentobarbital as an anesthetic, under similar experimental conditions. Our results showed that LTP was exhibited in animals anesthetized with isoflurane under vehicle conditions. With the exception of AIDA in the lateral perforant pathway, the defining characteristics of the four pathways appeared to remain intact, except for the observation that LTP was markedly reduced in animals

  11. Isoflurane Exposure Rescues Short-term Learning and Memory in Sleep-Disturbed Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zena Chatila

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is known to play an important role in cognition, learning and memory. As Drosophila melanogaster have stable circadian rhythms and behavioral states similar to those of human sleep, they have been a useful model to investigate the effects of sleep on learning and memory. General anesthesia has been shown to cause cognitive impairments in humans. However, anesthesia also induces a behavioral state similar to sleep and may activate sleep pathways. This study examined learning and memory after an acute exposure of isoflurane in a Drosophila mutant model of restless leg syndrome. There were two possible outcomes: isoflurane (an anesthetic could have impaired cognitive functioning or enhanced learning and memory by activating sleep pathways. Given the acute cognitive impairments often observed postoperatively, we believed the former outcome to be the most likely. Flies with fragmented sleep had impaired performance on an aversive phototaxic suppression learning and memory task compared to wildtype flies. This deficit was rescued with isoflurane exposure, as no differences in learning were observed between mutant and wildtype flies treated with anesthesia. This result suggests that anesthesia exposure can ameliorate impaired learning and memory due to sleep fragmentation. Further investigations are required to determine the type of memory impacted by anesthesia and the mechanisms by which anesthesia induces this effect.

  12. Effects of nitrous oxide on cerebral haemodynamics and metabolism during isoflurane anaesthesia in man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Algotsson, L.; Messeter, K. (Department of Anaesthesiology, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden)); Rosen, I. (Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden)); Holmin, T. (Department of Surgery, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden))

    1992-01-01

    Seven normoventilated and five hyperventilated healthy adults undergoing cholecystectomy and anaesthetized with methohexitone, fentanyl and pancuronium were studied with measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cereal metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRo[sub 2]), and quantified electroencephalography (EEG) under two sets of conditions: (1) 1.7% end-tidal concentration of isoflurane in air/oxygen: (2) 0.85% end-tidal concentration of isoflurane in nitrous oxide (N[sub 2]O)/oxygen. The object was to study the effects of N[sub 2]O during isoflurane anaesthesia on cerebral circulation, metabolism and neuroelectric activity. N[sub 2]O in the anaesthetic gas mixture caused a 43% (P<0.05) increase in CBF during normocarbic conditions but no significant change during hypocapnia. CMRo[sub 2] was not significantly altered by N[sub 2]O. EEG demonstrated an activated pattern with decreased low frequency activity and increased high frequency activity. The results confirm that N[sub 2]O is a potent cerebral vasodilator in man, although the mechanisms underlying the effects on CBF are still unclear. (au).

  13. Effects of carprofen on renal function during medetomidine-propofol-isoflurane anesthesia in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frendin, Jan H M; Boström, Ingrid M; Kampa, Naruepon; Eksell, Per; Häggström, Jens U; Nyman, Görel C

    2006-12-01

    To investigate effects of carprofen on indices of renal function and results of serum bio-chemical analyses and effects on cardiovascular variables during medetomidine-propofol-isoflurane anesthesia in dogs. 8 healthy male Beagles. A randomized crossover study was conducted with treatments including saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (0.08 mL/kg) and carprofen (4 mg/kg) administered IV. Saline solution or carprofen was administered 30 minutes before induction of anesthesia and immediately before administration of medetomidine (20 microg/kg, IM). Anesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with inspired isoflurane in oxygen. Blood gas concentrations and ventilation were measured. Cardiovascular variables were continuously monitored via pulse contour cardiac output (CO) measurement. Renal function was assessed via glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal blood flow (RBF), scintigraphy, serum biochemical analyses, urinalysis, and continuous CO measurements. Hematologic analysis was performed. Values did not differ significantly between the carprofen and saline solution groups. For both treatments, sedation and anesthesia caused changes in results of serum biochemical and hematologic analyses; a transient, significant increase in urine alkaline phosphatase activity; and blood flow diversion to the kidneys. The GFR increased significantly in both groups despite decreased CO, mean arterial pressure, and absolute RBF variables during anesthesia. Carprofen administered IV before anesthesia did not cause detectable, significant adverse effects on renal function during medetomidine-propofol-isoflurane anesthesia in healthy Beagles.

  14. Effects of ampicillin/sulbactam and enrofloxacin on the blood pressure of isoflurane anesthetized dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorer, Jeremiah D; Towle-Millard, Heather A; Gross, Marjorie E; Payton, Mark E

    2013-01-01

    A blinded, prospective, randomized crossover study was performed to determine the effects of ampicillin Na/sulbactam Na and enrofloxacin on the blood pressure (BP) of healthy anesthetized dogs. Eight dogs were anesthetized three different times. They randomly received enrofloxacin, ampicillin Na/sulbactam Na, and saline. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial BPs (SAP, DAP, and MAP, respectively), heart rate (HR), O2 saturation of hemoglobin, end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2) concentration, inspired isoflurane concentration, end-tidal isoflurane (ETiso) concentration, respiratory rate, electrocardiogram, and body temperature were measured for 20 min prior to administration of treatment, during administration over 30 min, and for 30 min after administration. There was no significant difference in the SAP or ETiso. There was no significant change in the arterial pressure values over time in the enrofloxacin and ampicillin Na/sulbactam Na groups. The control group's MAP increased over time and was increased compared with the enrofloxacin group at times 25, 35, 45, and 55. The statistical difference between the enrofloxacin and the control groups was due to an increase in the MAP in the control group, not a decrease in the enrofloxacin group's BP. Neither enrofloxacin nor ampicillin Na/sulbactam Na caused hypotension in healthy dogs anesthetized with isoflurane and fentanyl.

  15. The effect of halothane on the distribution of cardiac output and organ blood flows in the hemorrhagic, hypotensive dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlgren, I.; Aronsen, K.F.; Bjoerkman, I.

    1978-01-01

    Halothane was given to dogs which had been bled to an arterial mean blood pressure of 60 mmHg, and the circulatory effects were studied with the aid of the radioactive microsphere technique. The cardiac output and coronary blood flow were well maintained, whereas the arterial mean blood pressure was slightly, and the stroke volume markedly increased, indicating an improved heart function. The blood flows to the brain, lungs, liver and kidneys were well preserved throughout the anesthesia. The effect of retransfusing the withdrawn blood was also studied, and it resulted in an increased cardiac output, arterial mean blood pressure and increased blood flows to the heart, lungs, spleen, bowel and liver. (author)

  16. Sevoflurane anaesthesia for nasal surgery in a patient with multiple chemical sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Martín, M T; Álvarez López, J C

    2018-01-01

    Multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome is a group of complex disorders that include psychiatric disorders, chronic fatigue and/or respiratory problems. This syndrome could be triggered by specific allergens and toxins that cause neurophysiological sensitization and the appearance of the clinical symptomatology. Anaesthesia for these patients always poses a challenge for the anaesthetist, because they need to find and use drugs that do not trigger or aggravate the symptoms of the disease. Therefore, sevoflurane in these circumstances might be "the ideal anaesthetic". Performing general anaesthesia with sevoflurane as the sole anaesthetic agent, together with a series of environmental measures formed the basis for successful anaesthesia and surgery in our patient with a multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Isoflurane and ketamine:xylazine differentially affect intraocular pressure-associated scotopic threshold responses in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choh, Vivian; Gurdita, Akshay; Tan, Bingyao; Feng, Yunwei; Bizheva, Kostadinka; McCulloch, Daphne L; Joos, Karen M

    2017-10-01

    Amplitudes of electroretinograms (ERG) are enhanced during acute, moderate elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) in rats anaesthetised with isoflurane. As anaesthetics alone are known to affect ERG amplitudes, the present study compares the effects of inhalant isoflurane and injected ketamine:xylazine on the scotopic threshold response (STR) in rats with moderate IOP elevation. Isoflurane-anaesthetised (n = 9) and ketamine:xylazine-anaesthetised (n = 6) rats underwent acute unilateral IOP elevation using a vascular loop anterior to the equator of the right eye. STRs to a luminance series (subthreshold to -3.04 log scotopic cd s/m 2 ) were recorded from each eye of Sprague-Dawley rats before, during, and after IOP elevation. Positive STR (pSTR) amplitudes for all conditions were significantly smaller (p = 0.0001) for isoflurane- than for ketamine:xylazine-anaesthetised rats. In addition, ketamine:xylazine was associated with a progressive increase in pSTR amplitudes over time (p = 0.0028). IOP elevation was associated with an increase in pSTR amplitude (both anaesthetics p ketamine:xylazine and isoflurane were similar (66.3 ± 35.5 vs. 54.2 ± 24.1 µV, respectively). However, the fold increase in amplitude during IOP elevation was significantly higher in the isoflurane- than in the ketamine:xylazine-anaesthetised rats (16.8 ± 29.7x vs. 2.1 ± 2.7x, respectively, p = 0.0004). The anaesthetics differentially affect the STRs in the rat model with markedly reduced amplitudes with isoflurane compared to ketamine:xylazine. However, the IOP-associated enhancement is of similar absolute magnitude for the two anaesthetics, suggesting that IOP stress and anaesthetic effects operate on separate retinal mechanisms.

  18. Treating myocardial stunning randomly, with either propofol or isoflurane following transient coronary occlusion and reperfusion in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urdaneta Felipe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Propofol and isoflurane may be used during fast track anesthesia for off-pump bypass, where transient ischemia is common. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of propofol vs isoflurane in a porcine model of acute coronary occlusion. Twenty five pigs were randomized to receive general anesthesia with either isoflurane, 1 MAC (n = 13, or propofol, 3 mg/kg bolus followed by 200 μg/ kg/min infusion (n = 12. Pressure-tipped catheters were placed in the left ventricle (LV and carotid artery; cardiac output was measured by ultrasound; two pairs of ultrasonic dimension catheters were placed in the subendocardium of LV. The slope of LV end-systolic pressure-volume relationship (E max was calculated. Reversible ischemia for 15 mins was accomplished with an occluder around the left anterior descending artery followed by reperfusion period. Measurements were done at baseline, end ischemia, early (5 min and late (30 min reperfusion. The data collected included systemic hemodynamics, LV end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP, dP/dt, E max , and the presence of ventricular arrhythmias. The number of animals studied to completion was 19 (n = 11 in the isoflurane group; n = 8 in propofol group. There was a significant difference in E max between isoflurane and propofol during early and late reperfusion [3.4 (0.5 and 4.0 (0.3 vs 2.6 (0.4 and 3.2 (0.5 mmHg/sec, respectively; P < 0.05]. Postreperfusion ventricular fibrillation occurred in 54% animals in the propofol group vs none in the isoflurane group ( P < 0.05. Isoflurane administration was found to be cardioprotective against ventricular depression and arrhythmias compared to propofol.

  19. Effect of dexmedetomidine on cognitive function and related cytokine contents after sevoflurane anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Bo Han

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the effect of dexmedetomidine on cognitive function and related cytokine contents after sevoflurane anesthesia. Methods: A total of 118 who received surgical treatment in our hospital all received sevoflurane intravenous-inhalation combined anesthesia, and according to the intraoperative application of dexmedetomidine or not, all included patients were divided into observation group and control group by half. Control group received sevoflurane intravenous-inhalation combined anesthesia alone, observation group received dexmedetomidine on the basis of intravenous-inhalation combined anesthesia, and then differences in the values of hemodynamic parameters, immune function indicators, cognitionrelated indicators, illness-related indicators and so son were compared between two groups. Results: CVP values of observation group at T2 and T3 were higher than those of control group, and Rv, CO and CI values were lower than those of control group (P<0.05; CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and CD16+/CD56+ values of observation group at T2 and T3 were higher than those of control group, and TNF-α and IL-1β values were lower than those of control group (P<0.05; serum BDNF, S100β and β-EP values of observation group immediately after operation were lower than those of control group, and ChAT and NGF values were higher than those of control group (P<0.05; serum HIF-1α value of observation group immediately after operation was higher than that of control group, and ALD, NF-kB and sICAM-1 values were lower than those of control group (P<0.05. Conclusions: Application of dexmedetomidine in sevoflurane anesthesia can protect patients’ cognitive function and stabilize circulation, and contributes to postoperative body function recovery.

  20. Lung mechanics and histology during sevoflurane anesthesia in a model of chronic allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burburan, Shirley Moreira; Xisto, Debora Gonçalves; Ferreira, Halina Cidrini; Riva, Douglas Dos Reis; Carvalho, Giovanna Marcella Cavalcante; Zin, Walter Araujo; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macêdo

    2007-03-01

    There are no studies examining the effects of sevoflurane on a chronically inflamed and remodeled airway, such as that found in asthma. In the present study, we sought to define the respiratory effects of sevoflurane in a model of chronic allergic asthma. For this purpose, pulmonary mechanics were studied and lung morphometry analyzed to determine whether the physiological modifications reflected underlying morphological changes. Thirty-six BALB/c mice (20-25 g) were randomly divided into four groups. In OVA groups, mice were sensitized with ovalbumin and exposed to repeated ovalbumin challenges. In SAL groups, mice received saline using the same protocol. Twenty-four hours after the last challenge, the animals were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium (PENTO, 20 mg/kg i.p.) or sevoflurane (SEVO, 1 MAC). Lung static elastance (Est), resistive ([DELTA]P1) and viscoelastic/inhomogeneous ([DELTA]P2) pressure decreases were analyzed by an end-inflation occlusion method. Lungs were fixed and stained for histological analysis. Animals in the OVASEVO group showed lower [DELTA]P1 (38%), [DELTA]P2 (24%), and Est (22%) than animals in the OVAPENTO group. Histology demonstrated greater airway dilation (16%) and a lower degree of alveolar collapse (25%) in the OVASEVO compared with OVAPENTO group. [DELTA]P1 was lower (35%) and airway diameters larger (12%) in the SALSEVO compared with SALPENTO group. Sevoflurane anesthesia acted both at airway level and lung periphery reducing ([DELTA]P1 and [DELTA]P2 pressures, and Est in chronic allergic asthma.

  1. Optimal dose of rocuronium bromide undergoing adenotonsillectomy under 5% sevoflurane with fentanyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Hyub; Park, Jeong Jun; Kim, Ji Yeong; Kim, Tae Hoon; Yoon, Seung Zhoo; Shin, Hye Won; Lee, Hye-Won; Lim, Hye-Ja; Cho, Jang Eun

    2017-10-01

    Adenotonsillectomy is a short surgical procedure under general anaesthesia in children. An ideal muscle relaxant for adenotonsillectomy would create an intense neuromuscular block while having a quick recovery time without postoperative morbidity. We compared the effect of different doses of rocuronium for the tracheal intubation in children under 5% sevoflurane and fentanyl. 75 children (aged 3-10 years, ASA I) scheduled for adenotonsillectomy were enrolled. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol 2.5 mg/kg, followed by fentanyl 2 μg/kg. After mask ventilation with 5 vol% sevoflurane in 100% oxygen for 2 min, 2 ml of study drug was administered intravenously, i.e., either normal saline (S Group) or one of two doses (0.15 or 0.3 mg/kg) of rocuronium. We assessed conditions during tracheal intubation and also recorded the surgical condition, the time from discontinuation of sevoflurane to extubation and PAED scale, pain scores in PACU. Rocuronium groups (96% and 100%, respectively; P rocuronium (80%) treatment clearly resulted in excellent intubating conditions compared with the 0.15 mg/kg group (44%; p = 0.028). There was no significant difference in the time to extubation and surgical condition, and in the postoperative measures of emergence delirium, pain, and recovery time among the three groups. A dose of 0.3 mg/kg rocuronium may provide optimal intubating conditions without delayed recovery in 5% sevoflurane anaesthesia with fentanyl in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy. NCT02467595. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A comparative study of effect of sevoflurane on intubating conditions with rocuronium in neurosurgical patients

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    Saikat Mitra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Rocuronium may not always be the preferred relaxant for rapid sequence intubation. When 2% sevoflurane is used in conjunction with rocuronium, it may reduce the time required for achieving complete skeletal muscle relaxation with the intubating dose of rocuronium. Methods: This study was prospective, randomised, double-blind in nature and compared the effect of sevoflurane on intubation time and intubating conditions when used along with rocuronium. Thirty adult patients belonging to American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status Grades 1 and 2, of either gender aged between 30 and 65 years undergoing neurosurgical operations were randomly allocated into two equal groups: Group R received 0.8 mg/kg rocuronium, and Group RS received 0.8 mg/kg of rocuronium with 2% sevoflurane. Onset time of intubation was assessed using train-of-four stimuli. The intubating conditions were compared using the Cooper scoring system and the haemodynamic responses were compared between the two groups. Results: The onset time of intubation was 101.73 ± 10.28 s in Group R and 60.4 ± 4.1 s in Group RS (P < 0.001, with excellent intubating conditions in both groups and without any adverse effects. Significant differences in heart rate and mean arterial pressure were seen immediately after intubation, at 1 and 3 min (P < 0.05 between the two groups. Conclusion: Rocuronium 0.8 mg/kg along with 2% sevoflurane provides excellent intubating conditions within 60-66 s from its administration.

  3. Health worker exposure risk during inhalation sedation with sevoflurane using the (AnaConDa®) anaesthetic conserving device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rodríguez, R; Muñoz Martínez, A; Galan Serrano, J; Moral García, M V

    2014-03-01

    Occupational exposure to sevoflurane should not exceed 2 ppm. During inhalation sedation with sevoflurane using the anaesthetic conserving device (AnaConDa(®)) in the post-anaesthesia care unit, waste gases can be reduced by gas extraction systems or scavenging devices such as CONTRAfluran™. However, the efficacy of these methods has not been clearly established. To determine the safest scenario for healthcare workers during inhalation sedation with sevoflurane in the post-surgical intensive care unit. An experimental study on occupational exposure was conducted in a post-cardiothoracic care unit during March-August 2009. The measurements were performed in four post-cardiac surgery sedated adults in post-surgical intensive care unit and four nurses at the bedside, and at four points: scenario A, inhalation sedation without gas extraction system or contrafluran as a reference scenario; scenario B, applying a gas extraction system to the ventilator; scenario C, using contrafluran; and scenario 0, performing intravenous isolation sedation. Sevoflurane concentrations were measured in the nurses' breathing area during patient care, and at 1.5 and 8 m from the ventilator using diffusive passive monitor badges. All badges corresponding to the nurses' breathing area were below 2 ppm. Levels of sevoflurane detected using prevention systems were lower than that in the control situation. Only one determination over 2 ppm was found, corresponding to the monitor placed nearest the gas outlet of the ventilator in scenario A. Trace concentrations of sevoflurane were found in scenario 0 during intravenous sedation. Administration of sevoflurane through the AnaConDa(®) system during inhalation sedation in post-surgical intensive care units is safe for healthcare workers, but gas extraction systems or scavenging systems, such as CONTRAfluran™ should be used to reduce occupational exposure as much as possible. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimaci

  4. The minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane in ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) and aye-ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnadurai, Sathya K; Williams, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    To determine the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of sevoflurane for ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) and aye-ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis). Prospective experimental trial. Six adult ring-tailed lemurs, aged 1.3-11.2 years (median age: 8.26) and weighing a mean ± standard deviation (SD) of 2283 ± 254 g. Five adult aye-ayes, aged 4.4-19.3 years (median age: 8.0) and weighing 2712 ± 191 g. Minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane was determined using a tail-clamp stimulus. The end-tidal sevoflurane (Fe'Sevo) concentration was increased or decreased by approximately 10% after a positive or negative response to tail clamping, respectively. This procedure was repeated until a positive and negative result were seen on two consecutive trials (i.e. a negative result was achieved and a single 10% decrease in Fe'Sevo concentration resulted in a positive test). The MAC for that animal was determined to be the mean of the concentrations at the two consecutive trials. The mean ± SD MAC of sevoflurane for ring-tailed lemurs was 3.48 ± 0.55% and 1.84 ± 0.17 for aye-ayes. This represents a 47.1% higher MAC in ring-tailed lemurs compared to aye-ayes. The sevoflurane MAC was significantly higher in ring-tailed lemurs, compared to aye-ayes. The MAC of sevoflurane in aye-ayes is consistent with reported MAC values in other species. Extrapolation of sevoflurane anesthetic dose between different species of lemurs could lead to significant errors in anesthetic dosing. © 2015 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  5. Effect of Desflurane versus Sevoflurane in Pediatric Anesthesia: A Meta-Analysis.

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    He, Jiaxuan; Zhang, Yong; Xue, Rongliang; Lv, Jianrui; Ding, Xiaoying; Zhang, Zhenni

    2015-01-01

    To compare the effect of desflurane versus sevoflurane in pediatric anesthesia by conducting meta-analysis. Studies were searched from PubMed, Medline, Springer, Elsevier Science Direct, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar up to July 2014. Weighted mean difference (WMD) or risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were considered as effect sizes. Heterogeneity across studies was assessed by Cochran Q test and I2 statistic. The random effects model was performed in the meta-analysis when heterogeneity was observed, or the fixed effect model was used. Review Manager 5.1 software was applied for the meta-analysis. A total of 11 studies (13 comparisons) involving 1,273 objects were included in this meta-analysis. No heterogeneity was observed between studies for any comparison but for postoperative extubation time. The results showed significant differences between desflurane and sevoflurane groups for postoperative extubation time (WMD = -3.87, 95%CI = -6.14 to -1.60, P 0.05) were detected for discharge from the recovery room, oculocardiac reflex, nausea and vomiting and severe pain. Desflurane may have less adverse effects than sevoflurane when used in pediatric anesthesia with significantly shorter postoperative extubation time, eye opening time and awakening time as well as slighter agitation.

  6. Combination effect of low dose fentanyl and propofol on emergence agitation in children following sevoflurane anesthesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhamees, Hassan S; Mercan, Arzu; ElHalafawy, Yasser M

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the combination effect of low dose fentanyl and subhypnotic dose of propofol on emergence agitation in children receiving sevoflurane for adenotonsillectomy procedure.After ethical approval, a prospective, randomized, clinical study was performed in Saad Specialist Hospital, Al-Khobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 2007-2008. One hundred and twenty children in physical status of I according to the American Society of Anesthesiologists, aged 2-6 years, scheduled for adentonsillectomy under general anesthesia were allocated into 3 groups randomly. Anesthesia was induced and maintained by sevoflurane in all groups. Children received 0.1 ml.kg-1 normal saline at the end of surgery in group C (n=40), 1.5 mcg.kg-1 fentanyl during induction, and 0.1 ml.kg-1 normal saline at the end of surgery in group F (n=40), and 1.5 mcg.kg-1 fentanyl during induction and 1 mg.kg-1 propofol at the end of surgery in group FP (n=40). Postoperative agitation was recorded, if any, for the first postoperative hour.Three groups were comparable with regard to demographic data. Twenty-one patients (53%) in the control group, 14 patients (35%) in group F and 7 (18%) patients in group FP experienced postoperative agitation.The combination of low dose fentanyl before surgery and propofol at the end of surgery decreases the incidence and level of emergence agitation in children after adenotonsillectomy procedure under sevoflurane anesthesia. (author)

  7. Sevoflurane requirement during elective ankle day surgery: the effects of etirocoxib premedication, a prospective randomised study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakobsson Jan G

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anti-inflammatory drugs, NSAIDs, have become an important part of the pain management in day surgery. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Coxib premedication on the intra-operative anaesthetic requirements in patients undergoing elective ankle surgery in general anaesthesia. Type of study Prospective, randomized study of the intra-operative anaesthetic-sparing effects of etoricoxib premedication as compared to no NSAID preoperatively. Methods The intra-operative requirement of sevoflurane was studied in forty-four ASA 1–2 patients undergoing elective ankle day surgical in balanced general anaesthesia. Primary study endpoint was end-tidal sevoflurane concentration to maintain Cerebral State Index of 40 – 50 during surgery. Results All anaesthesia and surgery was uneventful, no complications or adverse events were noticed. The mean end-tidal sevoflurane concentration intra-operatively was 1.25 (SD 0.2 and 0.91 (SD 0.2 for the pre and post-operative administered group of patients respectively (p Conclusion Coxib premedication before elective day surgery has an anaesthetic sparing potential.

  8. Wake-up times following sedation with sevoflurane versus propofol after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellström, Jan; Öwall, Anders; Sackey, Peter V

    2012-10-01

    Intravenous sedation in the intensive care unit (ICU) may contribute to altered consciousness and prolonged mechanical ventilation. We tested the hypothesis that replacing intravenous propofol with inhaled sevoflurane for sedation after cardiac surgery would lead to shorter wake-up times, quicker patient cooperation, and less delusional memories. Following coronary artery bypass surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, 100 patients were randomized to sedation with sevoflurane via the anesthetic conserving device or propofol. Study drugs were administered for a minimum of 2 hours until criteria for extubation were met. Primary endpoints were time from drug stop to extubation and to adequate verbal response. Secondary endpoints were adverse recovery events, memories reported in the ICU Memory Tool test, and ICU/hospital stay. Median time from drug stop to extubation (interquartile range/total range) was shorter after sevoflurane compared to propofol sedation; 10 (10/100) minutes versus 25 (21/240) minutes (p sedation after cardiac surgery leads to shorter wake-up times and quicker cooperation compared to propofol. No differences were seen in ICU-stay, adverse memories or recovery events in our short-term sedation.

  9. Changes in biomarkers of hepatic and renal function after prolonged general anesthesia for oral cancer surgery: A cohort comparison between desflurane and sevoflurane

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    I-Hua Lin

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: Both desflurane and sevoflurane did not cause clinically significant nephrotoxicity but produced a transient deterioration in liver function after prolonged anesthesia for oral cancer surgery. Sevoflurane was associated with a more severe degree of liver damage than desflurane in this study.

  10. Learning, memory and synaptic plasticity in hippocampus in rats exposed to sevoflurane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hongyan; Liu, Bing; Chen, Yali; Zhang, Jun

    2016-02-01

    Developmental exposure to volatile anesthetics has been associated with cognitive deficits at adulthood. Rodent studies have revealed impairments in performance in learning tasks involving the hippocampus. However, how the duration of anesthesia exposure impact on hippocampal synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory is as yet not fully elucidated. On postnatal day 7(P7), rat pups were divided into 3 groups: control group (n=30), 3% sevoflurane treatment for 1h (Sev 1h group, n=30) and 3% sevoflurane treatment for 6h (Sev 6h group, n=28). Following anesthesia, synaptic vesicle-associated proteins and dendrite spine density and synapse ultrastructure were measured using western blotting, Golgi staining, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) on P21. In addition, the effects of sevoflurane treatment on long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD), two molecular correlates of memory, were studied in CA1 subfields of the hippocampus, using electrophysiological recordings of field potentials in hippocampal slices on P35-42. Rats' neurocognitive performance was assessed at 2 months of age, using the Morris water maze and novel-object recognition tasks. Our results showed that neonatal exposure to 3% sevoflurane for 6h results in reduced spine density of apical dendrites along with elevated expression of synaptic vesicle-associated proteins (SNAP-25 and syntaxin), and synaptic ultrastructure damage in the hippocampus. The electrophysiological evidence indicated that hippocampal LTP, but not LTD, was inhibited and that learning and memory performance were impaired in two behavioral tasks in the Sev 6h group. In contrast, lesser structural and functional damage in the hippocampus was observed in the Sev 1h group. Our data showed that 6-h exposure of the developing brain to 3% sevoflurane could result in synaptic plasticity impairment in the hippocampus and spatial and nonspatial hippocampal-dependent learning and memory deficits. In contrast, shorter

  11. Low-dose sevoflurane promotes hippocampal neurogenesis and facilitates the development of dentate gyrus-dependent learning in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chong; Shen, Feng-Yan; Zhao, Xuan; Zhou, Tao; Xu, Dao-Jie; Wang, Zhi-Ru; Wang, Ying-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Huge body of evidences demonstrated that volatile anesthetics affect the hippocampal neurogenesis and neurocognitive functions, and most of them showed impairment at anesthetic dose. Here, we investigated the effect of low dose (1.8%) sevoflurane on hippocampal neurogenesis and dentate gyrus-dependent learning. Neonatal rats at postnatal day 4 to 6 (P4-6) were treated with 1.8% sevoflurane for 6 hours. Neurogenesis was quantified by bromodeoxyuridine labeling and electrophysiology recording. Four and seven weeks after treatment, the Morris water maze and contextual-fear discrimination learning tests were performed to determine the influence on spatial learning and pattern separation. A 6-hour treatment with 1.8% sevoflurane promoted hippocampal neurogenesis and increased the survival of newborn cells and the proportion of immature granular cells in the dentate gyrus of neonatal rats. Sevoflurane-treated rats performed better during the training days of the Morris water maze test and in contextual-fear discrimination learning test. These results suggest that a subanesthetic dose of sevoflurane promotes hippocampal neurogenesis in neonatal rats and facilitates their performance in dentate gyrus-dependent learning tasks. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Low-Dose Sevoflurane Promotes Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Facilitates the Development of Dentate Gyrus-Dependent Learning in Neonatal Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Huge body of evidences demonstrated that volatile anesthetics affect the hippocampal neurogenesis and neurocognitive functions, and most of them showed impairment at anesthetic dose. Here, we investigated the effect of low dose (1.8% sevoflurane on hippocampal neurogenesis and dentate gyrus-dependent learning. Neonatal rats at postnatal day 4 to 6 (P4–6 were treated with 1.8% sevoflurane for 6 hours. Neurogenesis was quantified by bromodeoxyuridine labeling and electrophysiology recording. Four and seven weeks after treatment, the Morris water maze and contextual-fear discrimination learning tests were performed to determine the influence on spatial learning and pattern separation. A 6-hour treatment with 1.8% sevoflurane promoted hippocampal neurogenesis and increased the survival of newborn cells and the proportion of immature granular cells in the dentate gyrus of neonatal rats. Sevoflurane-treated rats performed better during the training days of the Morris water maze test and in contextual-fear discrimination learning test. These results suggest that a subanesthetic dose of sevoflurane promotes hippocampal neurogenesis in neonatal rats and facilitates their performance in dentate gyrus-dependent learning tasks.

  13. Effects of carprofen and meloxicam with or without butorphanol on the minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Kazuto; Okano, Yoshihiko; Yamashita, Maiko; Umar, Mohammed A; Kushiro, Tokiko; Muir, William W

    2008-01-01

    Sparing effects of carprofen and meloxicam with or without butorphanol on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of sevoflurane were determined in 6 dogs. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with sevoflurane in oxygen, and MAC was determined by use of a tail clamp method. The dogs were administered a subcutaneous injection of carprofen (4 mg/kg) or meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg), or no medication (control) one hour prior to induction of anesthesia. Following the initial determination of MAC, butorphanol (0.3 mg/kg) was administered intramuscularly, and MAC was determined again. The sevoflurane MACs for carprofen alone (2.10 +/- 0.26%) and meloxicam alone (2.06 +/- 0.20%) were significantly less than the control (2.39 +/- 0.26%). The sevoflurane MACs for the combination of carprofen with butorphanol (1.78 +/- 0.20%) and meloxicam with butorphanol (1.66 +/- 0.29%) were also significantly less than the control value after the administration of butorphanol (2.12 +/- 0.28%). The sevoflurane sparing effects of the combinations of carprofen with butorphanol and meloxicam with butorphanol were additive.

  14. COMPARISON OF AIRWAY RESPONSES, HAEMODYNAMICS AND RECOVERY USING SEVOFLURANE AND DESFLURANE VIA LARYNGEAL MASK AIRWAY IN DAY CARE PAEDIATRIC SURGERIES

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    A. Satyanarayana

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The general observation that children achieve better convalescence in the home environment supports the need for adoption of day care surgeries in them. Advantages of paediatric outpatient anaesthesia include- minimises parental separation, uninterrupted feeding schedule/sleeping patterns, less risk of nosocomial infections, reduced cost of hospitalisation, convenience and improved patient satisfaction. The aim of the study is to compare the airway responses, haemodynamic parameters and recovery using sevoflurane and desflurane via laryngeal mask airway in day care paediatric surgeries. MATERIALS AND METHODS 60 paediatric patients of both gender between the age group of 6 and 14 years with ASA grade 1 and 2 undergoing elective day care surgeries under general anaesthesia with LMA are divided into two groups. (Group S sevoflurane group received sevoflurane 2% to 3% and (group D desflurane group received desflurane 6% to 8% for maintenance of anaesthesia after induction with IV propofol 2 mg/kg. Airway responses, haemodynamics and recovery parameters are recorded. RESULTS Recovery parameters spontaneous eye opening, response to verbal commands, Aldrete score at 5 and 10 mins. showed statistically significant difference between two groups. Recovery is faster in desflurane group compared to sevoflurane group. The airway responses and adverse events were found to be more in desflurane group, but statistically not significant. CONCLUSION Recovery from anaesthesia was faster in patients maintained with desflurane (6% to 8% compared with sevoflurane (2% to 3%.

  15. Effects of propofol and sevoflurane on isolated human umbilical arteries pre-contracted with dopamine, adrenaline and noradrenaline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Ergun; Arun, Oguzhan; Bagci, Sengal Taylan; Oc, Bahar; Salman, Alper; Yilmaz, Setenay Arzu; Celik, Cetin; Duman, Ates

    2015-05-01

    To assess the effects of propofol and sevoflurane on the contraction elicited by dopamine, adrenaline and noradrenaline on isolated human umbilical arteries. Umbilical arteries were cut into endothelium-denuded spiral strips and suspended in organ baths containing Krebs-Henseleit solution bubbled with O2 +CO2 mixture. Control contraction to phenylephrine (10(-5)  M) was recorded. Response curves were obtained to 10(-5)  M dopamine, 10(-5)  M adrenaline or 10(-5)  M noradrenaline. Afterwards, either cumulative propofol (10(-6)  M, 10(-5)  M and 10(-4)  M) or cumulative sevoflurane (1.2%, 2.4% and 3.6%) was added to the organ bath, and the responses were recorded. Responses are expressed percentage of phenylephrine-induced contraction (mean ± standard deviation) (P adrenaline and noradrenaline (P adrenaline. High and highest concentrations of sevoflurane caused significantly higher relaxation compared with the high and highest concentrations of propofol on the contraction elicited by noradrenaline. Dopamine, adrenaline and noradrenaline elicit contractions in human umbilical arteries, and noradrenaline causes the highest contraction. Both propofol and sevoflurane inhibit these contractions in a dose-dependent manner. Propofol caused greater relaxation in the contractions elicited by dopamine and adrenaline while sevoflurane caused greater relaxation in the contraction elicited by noradrenaline. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  16. Prolonged duration of isoflurane anesthesia impairs spatial recognition memory through the activation of JNK1/2 in the hippocampus of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Miao, Bei; Chen, Ying

    2017-05-03

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction is a frequent complication with surgery and anesthesia, and the underlying mechanism is unclear. Our aim was to investigate the effect of different durations of isoflurane anesthesia on spatial recognition memory and activation of JNK1/2 in the hippocampus of mice. In the present study, adult male mice were anesthetized with isoflurane for different durations (1.5% isoflurane for 1, 2, and 4 h). Spatial recognition memory was determined using spontaneous alternation and two-trial recognition memory in Y-maze at 24 h after anesthesia. The activation of JNK1/2 in the hippocampus was tested using western blot. Mice treated with isoflurane for 4 h showed significantly decreased spontaneous alternations and decreased exploration parameters compared with the no anesthesia group, but this was not observed in mice treated with isoflurane for 1 or 2 h. The protein levels of p-JNK1/2 in the hippocampus were significantly increased at 10 min after isoflurane anesthesia for 1, 2, and 4 h compared with no anesthesia. However, only isoflurane anesthesia for 4 h still increased JNK1/2 and p-JNK1/2 levels at 24 h after anesthesia. We concluded that prolonged duration of isoflurane anesthesia maintained the activation of JNK1/2, which led to memory impairment at 24 h after anesthesia.

  17. Inhibition of sarcoplasmic Ca2+-ATPase increases caffeine- and halothane-induced contractures in muscle bundles of malignant hyperthermia susceptible and healthy individuals

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    Roewer Norbert

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant hyperthermia (MH is triggered by halogenated anaesthetics and depolarising muscle relaxants, leading to an uncontrolled hypermetabolic state of skeletal muscle. An uncontrolled sarcoplasmic Ca2+ release is mediated via the ryanodine receptor. A compensatory mechanism of increased sarcoplasmic Ca2+-ATPase activity was described in pigs and in transfected cell lines. We hypothesized that inhibition of Ca2+ reuptake via the sarcoplasmic Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA enhances halothane- and caffeine-induced muscle contractures in MH susceptible more than in non-susceptible skeletal muscle. Methods With informed consent, surplus muscle bundles of 7 MHS (susceptible, 7 MHE (equivocal and 16 MHN (non-susceptible classified patients were mounted to an isometric force transducer, electrically stimulated, preloaded and equilibrated. Following 15 min incubation with cyclopiazonic acid (CPA 25 μM, the European MH standard in-vitro-contracture test protocol with caffeine (0.5; 1; 1.5; 2; 3; 4 mM and halothane (0.11; 0.22; 0.44; 0.66 mM was performed. Data as median and quartiles; Friedman- and Wilcoxon-test for differences with and without CPA; p Results Initial length, weight, maximum twitch height, predrug resting tension and predrug twitch height of muscle bundles did not differ between groups. CPA increased halothane- and caffeine-induced contractures significantly. This increase was more pronounced in MHS and MHE than in MHN muscle bundles. Conclusion Inhibition of the SERCA activity by CPA enhances halothane- and caffeine-induced contractures especially in MHS and MHE skeletal muscle and may help for the diagnostic assignment of MH susceptibility. The status of SERCA activity may play a significant but so far unknown role in the genesis of malignant hyperthermia.

  18. Physiological alteration, quality of anesthesia and economy of isoflurane in domestic chickens (Gallus domesticus

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    Parag Deori

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of isoflurane anesthesia on physiological parameters, assessment of anesthetic qualities, and economy of use of isoflurane in domestic chickens (Gallus domesticus. Materials and Methods: In this study, 18 apparently healthy adult domestic chickens were selected randomly and divided into three groups. The birds were anesthetized by masked induction with isoflurane at a dose rate of 3.5%, 4%, and 5% and were maintained with 1.5%, 2%, and 2.5% isoflurane with oxygen by endotracheal intubation in Groups I, II, and III, respectively. Physiological parameters, viz., cloacal temperature, heart rate, and respiration rate were recorded at 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min. The quality of anesthesia was assessed on the basis of induction time, induction behavior, quality of sedation, production of analgesia, degree of muscle relaxation, palpebral reflex, recovery time, and recovery behavior. The economy of anesthesia was calculated in terms of quantity of isoflurane utilized during 60 min of study. Statistical analysis was performed by analysis of variance, Duncan's multiple range tests. Results: There was significant decrease (p<0.01 in physiological parameters such as in cloacal temperature, heart rate and respiration rate in the birds of all the groups from 0 to 60 min. The induction time was 5.83±0.33, 2.37±0.18, and 0.87±0.15 min, respectively, in Groups I, II, and III. Induction behavior was smooth in Group III, whereas mildly stormy in Group II and I. Quality of sedation was excellent in Group III, better in Group II as compared to Group I. Analgesia was moderate in Group III whereas poor in Group II and I. Degree of muscle relaxation was excellent in Group III, whereas good in Group I and II. Palpebral reflexes were absent in all the groups. Recovery time was 15.33±0.84, 18.83±0.94, and 26.50±0.85 in Groups I, II, and III respectively. Recovery behavior was smooth in birds of all the groups

  19. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism during isoflurane-induced hypotension in patients subjected to surgery for cerebral aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J B; Cold, G E; Hansen, E S

    1987-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow and cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen were measured during isoflurane-induced hypotension in 10 patients subjected to craniotomy for clipping of a cerebral aneurysm. Flow and metabolism were measured 5-13 days after the subarachnoid haemorrhage by a modification of the classi......Cerebral blood flow and cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen were measured during isoflurane-induced hypotension in 10 patients subjected to craniotomy for clipping of a cerebral aneurysm. Flow and metabolism were measured 5-13 days after the subarachnoid haemorrhage by a modification......). Controlled hypotension to an average MAP of 50-55 mm Hg was induced by increasing the dose of isoflurane, and maintained at an inspired concentration of 2.2 +/- 0.2%. This resulted in a significant decrease in CMRO2 (to 1.73 +/- 0.16 ml/100 g min-1), while CBF was unchanged. After the clipping...

  20. Effects of dopamine and dobutamine on isoflurane-induced hypotension in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnellbacher, Rodney W; da Cunha, Anderson F; Beaufrère, Hugues; Queiroz, Patricia; Nevarez, Javier G; Tully, Thomas N

    2012-07-01

    To assess the effects of dopamine and dobutamine on the blood pressure of isoflurane-anesthetized Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 8 Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. A randomized crossover study was conducted. Each bird was anesthetized (anesthesia maintained by administration of 2.5% isoflurane in oxygen) and received 3 doses of each drug during a treatment period of 20 min/dose. Treatments were constant rate infusions (CRIs) of dobutamine (5, 10, and 15 μg/kg/min) and dopamine (5, 7, and 10 μg/kg/min). Direct systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure measurements, heart rate, esophageal temperature, and end-tidal partial pressure of CO(2) were recorded throughout the treatment periods. Mean ± SD of the systolic, mean, and diastolic arterial blood pressures at time 0 (initiation of a CRI) were 132.9 ± 22.1 mm Hg, 116.9 ± 20.5 mm Hg, and 101.9 ± 22.0 mm Hg, respectively. Dopamine resulted in significantly higher values than did dobutamine for the measured variables, except for end-tidal partial pressure of CO(2). Post hoc multiple comparisons revealed that the changes in arterial blood pressure were significantly different 4 to 7 minutes after initiation of a CRI. Overall, dopamine at rates of 7 and 10 μg/kg/min and dobutamine at a rate of 15 μg/kg/min caused the greatest increases in arterial blood pressure. Dobutamine CRI at 5, 10, and 15 μg/kg/min and dopamine CRI at 5, 7, and 10 μg/kg/min may be useful in correcting severe hypotension in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots caused by anesthesia maintained with 2.5% isoflurane.

  1. Dose-dependent effects of the clinical anesthetic isoflurane on Octopus vulgaris: a contribution to cephalopod welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polese, Gianluca; Winlow, William; Di Cosmo, Anna

    2014-12-01

    Recent progress in animal welfare legislation relating to invertebrates has provoked interest in methods for the anesthesia of cephalopods, for which different approaches to anesthesia have been tried but in most cases without truly anesthetizing the animals. For example, several workers have used muscle relaxants or hypothermia as forms of "anesthesia." Several inhalational anesthetics are known to act in a dose-dependent manner on the great pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis, a pulmonate mollusk. Here we report, for the first time, on the effects of clinical doses of the well-known inhalational clinical anesthetic isoflurane on the behavioral responses of the common octopus Octopus vulgaris. In each experiment, isoflurane was equilibrated into a well-aerated seawater bath containing a single adult O. vulgaris. Using a web camera, we recorded each animal's response to touch stimuli eliciting withdrawal of the arms and siphon and observed changes in the respiratory rate and the chromatophore pattern over time (before, during, and after application of the anesthetic). We found that different animals of the same size responded with similar behavioral changes as the isoflurane concentration was gradually increased. After gradual application of 2% isoflurane for a maximum of 5 min (at which time all the responses indicated deep anesthesia), the animals recovered within 45-60 min in fresh aerated seawater. Based on previous findings in gastropods, we believe that the process of anesthesia induced by isoflurane is similar to that previously observed in Lymnaea. In this study we showed that isoflurane is a good, reversible anesthetic for O. vulgaris, and we developed a method for its use.

  2. The features of general anesthesia by sevofluran in pediatric vitreoretinal surgery with different diseases and ophthalmosurgeral pathologies

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    Pronin S.N.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: clinical studies of inhalation anesthesia with sevoflurane as the main anesthetic for various diseases in children with vitreoretinal operations. Material and Methods. There was considered the age groups of children from 3 to 16 years old. Among 76 children: 18 with non-prosperrous psycho-emotional statuses, 2 with ICP, 2 with bronchial asthma, 3 with atopic dermatitis, 5 with small anomalies of heart development, 46 were somatically healthy. All of children had different ophthalmosuregery pathology. Results. The performing of general anesthesia by sevoflurane at vitreoretinal surgeries of children with the different diseases and ophthalmological pathologies displayed appropriateness and safety during the surgeries. Conclusion. The appliance of sevoflurane is the reasonable and optimal scheme in modern ophtalmosurgery and anesthesiology.

  3. Isoflurane minimum alveolar concentration sparing effects of fentanyl in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Allan J; Soares, Joao H N; Pavlisko, Noah D; McAlister Council-Troche, Robert; Henao-Guerrero, Natalia

    2017-07-01

    To characterize the isoflurane-sparing effects of a high and a low dose of fentanyl in dogs, and its effects on mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR). Prospective, randomized crossover trial. Eight healthy male Beagle dogs weighing 12.1 ± 1.6 kg [mean ± standard deviation (SD)] and approximate age 1 year. Dogs were anesthetized using isoflurane and minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) was determined in duplicate by the bracketing method using an electrical stimulus on the tarsus. Animals were administered fentanyl: low dose (33 μg kg -1 loading dose, 0.2 μg kg -1  minute -1 ) or high dose (102 μg kg -1 loading dose, 0.8 μg kg -1  minute -1 ) and MAC was re-determined (MAC ISO-F ). Blood was collected for analysis of plasma fentanyl concentrations before administration and after MAC ISO-F determination. All values are presented as mean ± SD. Isoflurane MAC (MAC ISO ) was 1.30 ± 0.23% in the low dose treatment, which significantly decreased to 0.75 ± 0.22% (average MAC reduction 42.3 ± 9.4%). MAC ISO was 1.30 ± 0.18% in the high dose treatment, which significantly decreased to 0.30 ± 0.11% (average MAC reduction 76.9 ± 7.4%). Mean fentanyl plasma concentrations were 6.2 and 29.5 ng mL -1 for low and high dose treatments, respectively. MAP increased significantly only in the high dose treatment (from 81 ± 8 to 92 ± 9 mmHg). HR decreased significantly in both treatments from 108 ± 25 to 61 ± 14 beats minute -1 with the low dose and from 95 ± 14 to 42 ± 4 beats minute -1 with the high dose. Fentanyl administration resulted in a dose-dependent isoflurane MAC-sparing effect with bradycardia at both doses and an increase in MAP only at high dose. Further evaluation is needed to determine the effects of fentanyl on the overall cardiovascular function. Copyright © 2017 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  4. Low concentration of isoflurane promotes the development of neurogenic pulmonary edema in spinal cord injured rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šedý, Jiří; Urdzíková, Lucia; Likavčanová, Katarína; Hejčl, A.; Burian, M.; Jendelová, Pavla; Zicha, Josef; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Syková, Eva

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 24, - (2007), s. 1487-1501 ISSN 0897-7151 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0538; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/06/1246 Grant - others:GA MZd(CZ) NR8339; GA MZd(CZ) 1A8697; EU(FR) 518233 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512; CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : Blood pressure * Isoflurane * Lesion Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.640, year: 2007

  5. Cardiopulmonary effects of anaesthesia maintained by propofol infusion versus isoflurane inhalation in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Roxanne K; Tordiffe, Adrian Sw; Zeiler, Gareth E

    2017-11-01

    To compare the cardiopulmonary effects of propofol total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) with isoflurane in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) to evaluate feasibility for field use. Prospective clinical study. A group of 24 adult cheetahs, 12 per group. Cheetahs were immobilized with zolazepam/tiletamine (1.2 mg kg -1 ) and medetomidine [40 μg kg -1 , both intramuscular (IM)] by darting. A maintenance protocol of propofol TIVA (group P) or isoflurane inhalation (group I) was assigned randomly to each cheetah. Anaesthesia was maintained for at least 60 minutes. Cheetahs breathed spontaneously throughout; oxygen was supplemented at 3 L minute -1 . Cardiopulmonary parameters were recorded at 5 minute intervals and three arterial blood gas samples were analysed. Following maintenance, atipamezole was administered IM (200 μg kg -1 ) and recovery was observed. Data are reported as mean±standard deviation; variables over time were compared using a linear mixed model (fixed: time, treatment; random: cheetah). Lack of response to manipulations was maintained in all cases (end-tidal isoflurane percentage 1.1±0.1%, propofol rate maintained at 0.1 mg kg -1  minute -1 ). The heart and respiratory rates were acceptable throughout maintenance. The end-tidal carbon dioxide tension increased slowly [44.0±5.0 mmHg (5.87±0.67 kPa)] with no differences between groups. All cheetahs were initially markedly hypertensive [mean arterial blood pressure (MAP): (163±17 mmHg)]. The MAP normalized for group I (125±30 mmHg) but remained high for group P (161±17 mmHg) (p < 0.001). Arterial carbon dioxide tension [48.9±14.6 mmHg (6.52±1.95 kPa)] never differed between groups. Initial arterial oxygen tension indicated borderline hypoxaemia, but improved with oxygen supplementation. Recovery time was 10.8±5.0 and 51.9±23.5 minutes for group I and group P, respectively. Both protocols provided acceptable cardiopulmonary values. Propofol may be an alternative to isoflurane

  6. Short-term memory impairment after isoflurane in mice is prevented by the α5 γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor inverse agonist L-655,708.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saab, Bechara J; Maclean, Ashley J B; Kanisek, Marijana; Zurek, Agnieszka A; Martin, Loren J; Roder, John C; Orser, Beverley A

    2010-11-01

    Memory blockade is an essential component of the anesthetic state. However, postanesthesia memory deficits represent an undesirable and poorly understood adverse effect. Inhibitory α5 subunit-containing γ-aminobutyric acid subtype A receptors (α5GABAA) are known to play a critical role in memory processes and are highly sensitive to positive modulation by anesthetics. We postulated that inhibiting the activity of α5GABAA receptors during isoflurane anesthesia would prevent memory deficits in the early postanesthesia period. Mice were pretreated with L-655,708, an α5GABAA receptor-selective inverse agonist, or vehicle. They were then exposed to isoflurane for 1 h (1.3%, or 1 minimum alveolar concentration, or air-oxygen control). Then, either 1 or 24 h later, mice were conditioned in fear-associated contextual and cued learning paradigms. In addition, the effect of L-655,708 on the immobilizing dose of isoflurane was studied. Motor coordination, sedation, anxiety, and the concentration of isoflurane in the brain at 5 min, 1 h, and 24 h after isoflurane were also examined. Motor and sensory function recovered within minutes after termination of isoflurane administration. In contrast, a robust deficit in contextual fear memory persisted for at least 24 h. The α5GABAA receptor inverse agonist, L-655,708, completely prevented memory deficits without changing the immobilizing dose of isoflurane. Trace concentrations of isoflurane were measured in the brain 24 h after treatment. Memory deficits occurred long after the sedative, analgesic, and anxiolytic effects of isoflurane subsided. L-655,708 prevented memory deficit, suggesting that an isoflurane interaction at α5GABAA receptors contributes to memory impairment during the early postanesthesia period.

  7. Isoflurane anesthesia promotes cognitive impairment by inducing expression of β-amyloid protein-related factors in the hippocampus of aged rats.

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    Shuai Zhang

    Full Text Available Isoflurane anesthesia has been shown to be responsible for cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD and development of AD in the older age groups. However, the pathogenesis of AD-related cognitive impairments induced by isoflurane anesthesia remains elusive. Thus, this study was designed to investigate the mechanism by which isoflurane anesthesia caused AD-related cognitive impairments. Aged Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups (n = 12, 1 control group (CONT and 5 isoflurane treated (ISO groups (ISO 0, ISO 0.5D, ISO 1D, ISO 3D and ISO 7D. The CONT group inhaled 30% O2 for 2 h without any anesthesia. ISO groups were placed under anesthesia with 3% isoflurane and then exposed to 1.5% isoflurane delivered in 30% O2 for 2 h. Rats in each ISO group were then analyzed immediately (ISO 0 or at various time points (0.5, 1, 3 or 7 day after this exposure. Cognitive function was assessed using the Morris water maze test. Protein levels of amyloid precursor protein (APP, β-site APP cleavage enzyme-1 (BACE-1 and Aβ42 peptide were analyzed in hippocampal samples by Western blot. β-Amyloid (Abeta plaques were detected in hippocampal sections by Congo red staining. Compared with controls, all ISO groups showed increased escape latency and impaired spatial memory. Isoflurane increased APP mRNA expression and APP protein depletion, promoting Aβ42 overproduction, oligomerization and accumulation. However, isoflurane did not affect BACE-1 expression. Abeta plaques were observed only in those ISO groups sacrificed at 3 or 7 d. Our data indicate that aged rats exposed to isoflurane had increased APP mRNA expression and APP protein depletion, with Aβ42 peptide overproduction and oligomerization, resulting in formation of Abeta plaques in the hippocampus. Such effects might have contributed to cognitive impairments, including in spatial memory, observed in these rats after isoflurane anesthesia.

  8. Taurine Pretreatment Prevents Isoflurane-Induced Cognitive Impairment by Inhibiting ER Stress-Mediated Activation of Apoptosis Pathways in the Hippocampus in Aged Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanan; Li, Dongliang; Li, Haiou; Hou, Dailiang; Hou, Jingdong

    2016-10-01

    Isoflurane, a commonly used inhalation anesthetic, may induce neurocognitive deficits, especially in elderly patients after surgery. Recent study demonstrated that isoflurane caused endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and subsequent neuronal apoptosis in the brain, contributing to cognitive deficits. Taurine, a major intracellular free amino acid, has been shown to inhibit ER stress and neuronal apoptosis in several neurological disorders. Here, we examined whether taurine can prevent isoflurane-induced ER stress and cognitive impairment in aged rats. Thirty minutes prior to a 4-h 1.3 % isoflurane exposure, aged rats were treated with vehicle or taurine at low, middle and high doses. Aged rats without any treatment served as control. The brains were harvested 6 h after isoflurane exposure for molecular measurements, and behavioral study was performed 2 weeks later. Compared with control, isoflurane increased expression of hippocampal ER stress biomarkers including glucose-regulated protein 78, phosphorylated (P-) inositol-requiring enzyme 1, P-eukaryotic initiation factor 2-α (EIF2α), activating transcription factor 4 (ATF-4), cleaved ATF-6 and C/EBP homologous protein, along with activation of apoptosis pathways as indicated by decreased B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2)/BCL2-associated X protein, increased expressions of cytochrome-c and cleaved caspase-3. Taurine pretreatment dose-dependently inhibited isoflurane-induced increase in expression of ER stress biomarkers except for P-EIF2α and ATF-4, and reversed isoflurane-induced changes in apoptosis-related proteins. Moreover, isoflurane caused spatial working memory deficits in aged rats, which were prevented by taurine pretreatment. The results indicate that taurine pretreatment prevents anesthetic isoflurane-induced cognitive impairment by inhibiting ER stress-mediated activation of apoptosis pathways in the hippocampus in aged rats.

  9. Comparative evaluation of halothane anaesthesia in medetomidine–butorphanol and midazolam–butorphanol premedicated water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis

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    V. Malik

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Six clinically healthy male water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis 2–3 years of age and weighing 290–325 kg were used for 2 different treatments (H1 andH2. The animals of groupH1 were premedicated with medetomidine (2.5 g/kg, i.v. and butorphanol (0.05 mg/kg, i.v., while in groupH2 midazolam (0.25 mg/kg and butorphanol (0.05 mg/kg were used intravenously. Induction of anaesthesia was achieved by 5%thiopental sodium inH1 (3.85±0.63 mg/kg and H2 (6.96 ± 0.45 mg/kg groups. The anaesthesia was maintained with halothane in 100 % oxygen through a large animal anaesthetic machine. Better analgesia and sedation with a significantly lower dose of thiopental for induction and significantly higher values of sternal recumbency time and standing time were recorded in group H1 than in group H2 , whereas no significant (P > 0.05 difference for the halothane concentration was observed between groups H1 and H2. Significant decrease in heart rate was observed in group H1 whereas it significantly increased in group H2. In both groups, RR decreased during the preanaesthetic period, which increased significantly (P 0.05 after premedication and a significant (P<0.05 occurredafter thiopental administration. In both groups a significant (P<0.01 increase in CVP and a significant (P<0.01 decrease in SpO2 were observed after premedication which persisted up to 120 min. ECG changes included significant (P<0.01 decrease and increase in QRS amplitudes in groupsH1 andH2 respectively, a significant (P < 0.05 increase in PR interval was recorded at 15 min in group H1, a significant (P<0.05 decrease in PR interval in groupH2 , a significant (P<0.05 decrease in T wave amplitude in groupH1, and a significant (P<0.01 increase in duration of T wave in groupH1 . It is concluded that both combinations can be used safely in buffaloes for surgery of 2 h duration but better sedation, analgesia and muscular relaxation and more dose sparing effect on anaesthetics and shorter recovery times

  10. Comparison between sevoflurane and desflurane on emergence and recovery characteristics of children undergoing surgery for spinal dysraphism

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    Priyanka Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Rapid recovery is desirable after neurosurgery as it enables early post-operative neurological evaluation and prompt management of complications. Studies have been rare comparing the recovery characteristics in paediatric neurosurgical patients. Hence, this study was carried out to compare the effect of sevoflurane and desflurane anaesthesia on emergence and extubation in children undergoing spinal surgery. Methods: Sixty children, aged 1-12 years, undergoing elective surgery for lumbo-sacral spinal dysraphism were enrolled. Anaesthesia was induced with sevoflurane using a face mask. The children were then randomised to receive either sevoflurane or desflurane with oxygen and nitrous oxide, fentanyl (1 μg/kg/h and rocuronium. The anaesthetic depth was guided by bispectral index (BIS ® monitoring with a target BIS ® between 45 and 55. Perioperative data with regard to demographic profile, haemodynamics, emergence and extubation times, modified Aldrete score (MAS, pain (objective pain score, agitation (Cole′s agitation score, time to first analgesic and complications, thereof, were recorded. Statistical analysis was done using STATA 11.2 (StataCorp., College Station, TX, USA and data are presented as median (range or mean ± standard deviation. Results: The demographic profile, haemodynamics, MAS, pain and agitation scores and time to first analgesic were comparable in between the two groups (P > 0.05. The emergence time was shorter in desflurane group (2.75 [0.85-12] min as compared to sevoflurane (8 [2.5-14] min (P < 0.0001. The extubation time was also shorter in desflurane group (3 [0.8-10] min as compared to the sevoflurane group (5.5 [1.2-14] min (P = 0.0003. Conclusion: Desflurane provided earlier tracheal extubation and emergence as compared to sevoflurane in children undergoing surgery for lumbo-sacral spinal dysraphism.

  11. Sevoflurane mitigates shedding of hyaluronan from the coronary endothelium, also during ischemia/reperfusion: an ex vivo animal study

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    Chen C

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Congcong Chen,1,3 Daniel Chappell,2,3 Thorsten Annecke,2,3 Peter Conzen,2 Matthias Jacob,2,3 Ulrich Welsch,4 Bernhard Zwissler,2 Bernhard F Becker3 1Department of Anesthesiology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China; 2Clinic of Anesthesiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany; 3Walter-Brendel-Centre of Experimental Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany; 4Institute of Anatomy, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany Abstract: Glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA, a major constituent of the endothelial glycocalyx, helps to maintain vascular integrity. Preconditioning the heart with volatile anesthetic agents protects against ischemia/reperfusion injury. We investigated a possible protective effect of sevoflurane on the glycocalyx, especially on HA. The effect of pre-ischemic treatment with sevoflurane (15 minutes at 2% vol/vol gas on shedding of HA was evaluated in 28 isolated, beating guinea pig hearts, subjected to warm ischemia (20 minutes at 37°C followed by reperfusion (40 minutes, half with and half without preconditioning by sevoflurane. HA concentration was measured in the coronary effluent. Over the last 20 minutes of reperfusion hydroxyethyl starch (1 g% was continuously infused and the epicardial transudate collected over the last 5 minutes for measuring the colloid extravasation. Additional hearts were fixed by perfusion after the end of reperfusion for immunohistology and electron microscopy. Sevoflurane did not significantly affect post-ischemic oxidative stress, but strongly inhibited shedding of HA during the whole period, surprisingly even prior to ischemia. Immunohistology demonstrated that heparan sulfates and SDC1 of the glycocalyx were also preserved by sevoflurane. Electron microscopy revealed shedding of glycocalyx caused by ischemia and a mostly intact glycocalyx in hearts exposed to sevoflurane. Coronary vascular permeability of the

  12. IMPACT OF SEVOFLURANE AND ACETYLCYSTEINE ON ISCHEMIA-REPERFUSION INJURY OF THE LIVER FROM BRAIN-DEAD DONOR

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    A. E. Shcherba

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The purpose of our work was to estimate the impact of preconditioning with acetylcysteine and sevoflurane on ischemia-reperfusion injury of cadaveric donor liver with marginal features. Methods and results. In this prospective randomized controlled trial we recruited 21 heart beating donors with brain death. We assigned 11 donors to the study group, and 10 donors to the control group. Morphological characteristics of ischemia- reperfusion injury in both groups were analyzed. Conclusion. Use of pharmacological preconditioning with acetylcysteine and sevoflurane resulted in necrosis and hepatocyte apoptosis reduction as compared to the control group, thereby had a protective effect against ischemia-reperfusion injury. 

  13. Feasibility of dexmedetomidine assisting sevoflurane for controlled hypotension in endoscopic sinus surgery

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    Guang-jie GAO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To explore the feasibility of dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant of sevoflurane for controlled hypotension in endoscopic sinus surgery. Methods  Forty-eight patients (ASA Ⅰor Ⅱ scheduled for endoscopic sinus surgery were randomly assigned into two groups (n=24: control group (group I and dexmedetomidine group (group Ⅱ. In both groups, intravenous injection of midazolam, propofol, fentanyl, and atracurium besilate was given to induce anesthesia, and propofol, fentanyl, atracurium besilate, together with sevoflurane inhalation were used to maintain anesthesia. The radial artery was cannulated to monitor the invasive mean arterial pressure (MAP. Controlled hypotension was induced by adjusting the sevoflurane concentration in group Ⅰ. In group Ⅱ, within 15min to 30min before the induction of anesthesia, dexmedetomidine was administered in a dose of 0.8μg/kg via intravenous infusion pump, then maintained at 0.4μg/(kg·h. Sevoflurane concentration was adjusted to maintain the target blood pressure at the beginning of surgery. The MAP was maintained at 65-75mmHg up to the end of operation. Meanwhile, the heart rate (HR, MAP, epinephrine (E, and norepinephrine (NE concentrations were recorded at the time of induction of anesthesia (T0, beginning of controlled hypotension (T1, 30min after controlled hypotension (T2, and at the time when extubation was performed (T3. Blood gas analysis and determination of lactic acid concentration were conducted using the blood drawn from the radial artery during the operation. The surgical field quality was assessed based on Fromme scores of surgical field quality (SSFQ. Meanwhile, the dose of sevoflurane, propofol, and fentanyl, MAP, the recovery time of anesthesia, and the incidence rate of untoward effects were recorded. Results  The doses of propofol, fentanyl and sevoflurane, and MAC value in group Ⅱwas significantly diminished compared with group Ⅰ(P<0.01. In addition, the surgical

  14. Postoperative changes in the full-field electroretinogram following sevoflurane anaesthesia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Iohom, G

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that disturbances of the visual pathway persist following general anaesthesia, even after normal clinical discharge criteria have been met. METHODS: We performed full-field flash electroretinography in the right eye of 10 unpremedicated ASA I patients who underwent N2O\\/sevoflurane anaesthesia. Electroretinograms were recorded preoperatively, immediately after discharge from the recovery room and 2 h after discontinuation of sevoflurane. The time at which postanaesthesia discharge score first exceeded 9 was also noted. Data were analysed using paired, one-tailed Student\\'s t-test. RESULTS: Latency of the b-wave on the photopic electroretinogram was greater at each postoperative time point (30.5 +\\/- 0.9 and 30 +\\/- 1.3 ms), compared to preoperative values (29.2 +\\/- 0.8 ms, P < 0.001 and P = 0.04, respectively). The A-B amplitude of the b-wave was less postoperatively (220.3 +\\/- 52.7 and 210.3 +\\/- 42.7 pV) compared to values before operation (248.1 +\\/- 57.6 microV, P = 0.03 and P = 0.01, respectively). Oscillatory potential latencies were greater at each postoperative time point (21.4 +\\/- 0.5 and 20.8 +\\/- 0.6 ms) compared to before operation (20.4 +\\/- 0.4 ms, P < 0.001 and P = 0.03, respectively). Oscillatory potential amplitudes were less at the first postoperative time point (17.5 +\\/- 6.1 microV), compared to preoperative values (22 +\\/- 6.4 microV, P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative electroretinogram abnormalities are consistently present in patients who have undergone N2O\\/sevoflurane anaesthesia. These abnormalities persist beyond the time at which standard clinical discharge criteria have been met.

  15. Postoperative neurological aggravation after anesthesia with sevoflurane in a patient with xeroderma pigmentosum: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjouji, Salaheddine; Bensghir, Mustapha; Yafat, Bahija; Bouhabba, Najib; Boutayeb, Elhoucine; Azendour, Hicham; Kamili, Nordine Drissi

    2013-03-14

    Xeroderma pigmentosum is a rare autosomal recessive disease that causes changes in skin pigmentation, precancerous lesions and neurological abnormalities. It is a defect in the nucleotide excision repair mechanism. It has been reported that volatile anesthetics has a possible genotoxic side effect and deranged nucleotide excision repair in cells obtained from a patient with xeroderma pigmentosum.We report an unusual case of postoperative neurological aggravation in a patient with xeroderma pigmentosum anesthetized with sevoflurane. A 24-year-old African woman, who has had xeroderma pigmentosum since childhood, was admitted to our hospital for a femoral neck fracture. A preoperative physical examination revealed that she had a resting tremor with ataxia. She had cutaneous lesions such as keratosis and hyperpigmentation on her face and both hands. There was no major alteration of cognitive function, muscular strength was maintained and her osteotendinous reflexes were preserved. Surgical fixation was performed under general anesthesia after the failure of spinal anesthesia. All parameters were stable during surgery. When she woke up four hours later, the patient presented with confusion and psychomotor agitation, sharpened reflexes and the Babinski reflex was present. Her postoperative test results and a magnetic resonance imaging scan were unremarkable. It was suggested that sevoflurane had had a probable deleterious effect on the neurological status of this patient. The anesthetizing of a patient with xeroderma pigmentosum is associated with a risk of worsening neurological disorders. At present, there are no clear recommendations to avoid the use of volatile agents in the anesthetic management of patients with xeroderma pigmentosum. More clinical and experimental research is needed to confirm the sensitivity of patients with xeroderma pigmentosum to sevoflurane and other halogenated anesthetics.

  16. Sevoflurane impairs post-operative olfactory memory but preserves olfactory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostopanagiotou, Georgia; Kalimeris, Konstantinos; Kesidis, Kyriakos; Matsota, Paraskevi; Dima, Cleanthi; Economou, Maria; Papageorgiou, Charalambos

    2011-01-01

    The effect of anaesthesia on olfaction has not been systematically studied. Our aim is to compare the effects of general and regional anaesthesia on olfactory acuity and memory in the immediate post-operative period. Sixty adult patients with the American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II status scheduled for elective minor surgery were included. Exclusion criteria were smoking, alcoholism, psychiatric disease and recent or past airway infection with resulting hyposmia. Patients were randomly allocated to one of three groups (in the analysis, n = 16 in each group): epidural anaesthesia (group E), general anaesthesia with propofol (group P) and general anaesthesia with sevoflurane (group S) of 40-120 min duration. The evening before surgery, at 0.5 and at 3 h post-operatively olfactory acuity and memory were tested, along with blood sampling to measure plasma melatonin and oxytocin levels. Olfactory acuity was tested with successive dilutions of n-butyl-alcohol, and olfactory memory (interpretation of odours) with the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test. Patient characteristics did not differ between groups. Olfactory acuity was intact in all patients, before and after anaesthesia. Olfactory memory deteriorated in group S compared to groups P and E at both post-operative time-points. This was accompanied by a significant post-operative reduction of plasma melatonin levels in group S. Oxytocin levels remained constant in all groups. Our results manifest a specific effect of sevoflurane on olfactory memory, not observed with neuraxial or total intravenous anaesthesia. The misinterpretation of odours in the immediate post-operative period by sevoflurane could be mediated by the decreased levels of melatonin.

  17. Lidocaine, dexmedetomidine and their combination reduce isoflurane minimum alveolar concentration in dogs.

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    Carlos M Acevedo-Arcique

    Full Text Available The effects of intravenous (i.v. lidocaine, dexmedetomidine and their combination delivered as a bolus followed by a constant rate infusion (CRI on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane (MACISO in dogs were evaluated. Seven healthy adult dogs were included. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with isoflurane. For each dog, baseline MAC (MACISO/BASAL was determined after a 90-minute equilibration period. Thereafter, each dog received one of the following treatments (loading dose, CRI: lidocaine 2 mg kg(-1, 100 µg kg(-1 minute(-1; dexmedetomidine 2 µg kg(-1, 2 µg kg(-1 hour(-1; or their combination. MAC was then determined again after 45- minutes of treatment by CRI. At the doses administered, lidocaine, dexmedetomidine and their combination significantly reduced MACISO by 27.3% (range: 12.5-39.2%, 43.4% (33.3-53.3% and 60.9% (46.1-78.1%, respectively, when compared to MACISO/BASAL. The combination resulted in a greater MACISO reduction than the two drugs alone. Their use, at the doses studied, provides a clinically important reduction in the concentration of ISO during anaesthesia in dogs.

  18. Propofol Compared to Isoflurane Inhibits Mitochondrial Metabolism in Immature Swine Cerebral Cortex

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    Kajimoto, Masaki; Atkinson, D. B.; Ledee, Dolena R.; Kayser, Ernst-Bernhard; Morgan, Phil G.; Sedensky, Margaret M.; Isern, Nancy G.; Des Rosiers, Christine; Portman, Michael A.

    2014-01-08

    Anesthetics used in infants and children are implicated in development of neurocognitive disorders. Although propofol induces neuroapoptosis in developing brain, the underlying mechanisms require elucidation and may have an energetic basis. We studied substrate utilization in an immature swine model anesthetized with either propofol or isoflurane for 4 hours. Piglets were infused with 13-Carbon labeled glucose and leucine in the common carotid artery in order to assess citric acid cycle (CAC) metabolism in the parietal cortex. The anesthetics produced similar systemic hemodynamics and cerebral oxygen saturation by near-infrared-spectroscopy. Compared to isoflurane, propofol depleted ATP and glycogen stores. Propofol also decreased pools of the CAC intermediates, citrate and α-ketoglutarate, while markedly increasing succinate along with decreasing mitochondrial complex II activity. Propofol also inhibited acetyl-CoA entry into the CAC through pyruvate dehydrogenase, while promoting glycolytic flux with marked accumulation of lactate. Although oxygen supply appeared similar between the anesthetic groups, propofol yielded a metabolic phenotype which resembled a hypoxic state. Propofol impairs substrate flux through the CAC in the immature cerebral cortex. These impairments occurred without systemic metabolic perturbations which typically accompany propofol infusion syndrome. These metabolic abnormalities may play a role in neurotoxity observed with propofol in the vulnerable immature brain.

  19. RETRACTED: Can sugammadex improve the reversal profile of Atracurium under Sevoflurane anesthesia?

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    Heba Ismail Ahmed Nagy

    2014-01-01

    Shortly after publishing the paper “Can sugammadex improve the reversal profile of atracurium under sevoflurane anesthesia?” in Egyptian Journal of Anaesthesia, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.egja.2013.09.007, the journal received a request from the ethics committee of the Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt, for withdrawing the paper, claiming that they had found that the authors made changes in the protocol they had submitted to the committee. After investigating this with the authors, they affirmed that they had made some changes. For this reason, this article has been retracted.

  20. An equivalence study comparing nitrous oxide and oxygen with low-dose sevoflurane and oxygen as inhalation sedation agents in dentistry for adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M; Thompson, S

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether sevoflurane in oxygen was equivalent to near equipotent concentrations of nitrous oxide in oxygen when used as an inhalation sedation agent in terms of patient and user acceptability. Forty anxious dental patients referred to the sedation suite at Cardiff University School of Dentistry received either nitrous oxide to a maximum concentration of 40% or sevoflurane to a maximum concentration of 0.3% for a routine maxillary plastic restoration with articaine infiltration local analgesia. The inhalation sedation agent to be administered was chosen by a random number allocator. Measurements of blood pressure, oxygen saturation, heart rate, respiratory rate and bispectral index were recorded every 5 minutes. At the end of the treatment episode the patient, the operator and an observer who was unaware of the agent used, recorded their impressions about the episode by completing questionnaires. In the doses used in this study, sevoflurane was found to be as effective as an inhalation sedation agent as the standard dose of nitrous oxide used in normal inhalation sedation in the treatment of adult anxious dental patients. Sevoflurane in low concentrations is equivalent in effect to near equipotent concentrations of nitrous oxide. This would suggest that further research, perhaps with slightly higher concentrations of sevoflurane, is needed. If sevoflurane was shown to be acceptable at slightly higher concentrations, there is scope to explore the development of equipment specifically designed to deliver sevoflurane as an inhalation sedation agent in future.

  1. Sevoflurane represses the self-renewal ability by regulating miR-7a,7b/Klf4 signalling pathway in mouse embryonic stem cells.

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    Wang, Qimin; Li, Guifeng; Li, Baolin; Chen, Qiu; Lv, Dongdong; Liu, Jiaying; Ma, Jieyu; Sun, Nai; Yang, Longqiu; Fei, Xuejie; Song, Qiong

    2016-10-01

    Sevoflurane is a frequently-used clinical inhalational anaesthetic and can cause toxicity to embryos during foetal development. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are derived from the inner cell mass of blastospheres and can be used as a useful model of early development. Here, we found that sevoflurane significantly influenced self-renewal ability of mESCs on stemness maintenance and cell proliferation. The cell cycle was arrested via G1 phase delay. We further found that sevoflurane upregulated expression of miR-7a,7b to repress self-renewal. Next we performed rescue experiments and found that after adding miR-7a,7b inhibitor into mESCs treated with sevoflurane, its influence on self-renewal could be blocked. Further we identified stemness factor Klf4 as the direct target of miR-7a,7b. Overexpression of Klf4 restored self-renewal ability repressed by miR-7a,7b or sevoflurane. In this work, we determined that sevoflurane repressed self-renewal ability by regulating the miR-7a,7b/Klf4 signalling pathway in mESCs. Our study demonstrated molecular mechanism underlying the side effects of sevoflurane during early development, laying the foundation for studies on safe usage of inhalational anaesthetic during non-obstetric surgery. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Cardiovascular effects of epidural morphine or ropivacaine in isoflurane-anaesthetised pigs during surgical devascularisation of the liver

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    G.F. Stegmann

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular effects of non-abdominal and abdominal surgery during isoflurane anaesthesia (A-group or isoflurane anaesthesia supplemented with either epidural ropivacaine (AR-group; 0.75 % solution, 0.2 mℓ/kg or morphine (AM-group; 0.1 mg/kg diluted in saline to 0.2mℓ/kg were evaluated in 28 healthy pigs with a mean body weight of 30.3 kg SD ± 4.1 during surgical devascularisation of the liver. Anaesthesia was induced with the intramuscular injection of midazolam (0.3 mg/kg and ketamine (10 mg/kg. Anaesthesia was deepened with intravenous propofol to enable tracheal intubation and maintained with isoflurane on a circle rebreathing circuit. The vaporiser was set at 2.5% for the A-group and 1.5% for the AR- and AM-groups. Differences between treatment groups were not statistically significant (P>0.05 for any of the variables. Differences between AM- and AR-groups were marginally significant heart rate (HR (P = 0.06 and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP (P = 0.08. Within treatment groups, differences for the A-group were statistically significant (P 0.05. It was concluded that in isoflurane-anaesthetised pigs, the epidural administration of ropivacaine decreased heart rate and improved arterial blood pressure during surgery.

  3. Dose-response and concentration-response relation of rocuronium infusion during propofol nitrous oxide and isoflurane nitrous oxide anaesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kansanaho, M; Olkkola, KT; Wierda, JMKH

    The dose-response and concentration-response relation of rocuronium infusion was studied in 20 adult surgical patients during proporfol-nitrous oxide and isoflurane (1 MAC) -nitrous oxide anaesthesia. Neuromuscular block was kept constant, initially at 90% and then at 50% with a closed-loop feedback

  4. Elamipretide (SS-31 Ameliorates Isoflurane-Induced Long-Term Impairments of Mitochondrial Morphogenesis and Cognition in Developing Rats

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    Jian-Jun Yang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are supposed to be involved in the early pathogenesis of general anesthesia (GA-induced neurotoxicity and long-term cognitive deficits in developing brains. However, effective pharmacologic agents targeted on mitochondria during GA exposure are lacking. This study explores the protective effects of mitochondrion-targeted antioxidant elamipretide (SS-31 on mitochondrial morphogenesis and cognition in developing rats exposed to isoflurane. Rat pups at postnatal day (PND 7 were exposed to 1.5% isoflurane for 6 h following intraperitoneal administration of elamipretide or vehicle with 30 min interval. The hippocampus was immediately removed for biochemical assays. Histopathological studies were conducted at PND 21, and behavioral tests were performed at PND 40 or 60. We found that early exposure to isoflurane caused remarkable reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation, mitochondrial deformation and neuronal apoptosis in hippocampus. The injury occurrence ultimately gave rise to long-term cognitive deficits in developing rats. Interestingly, pretreatment with elamipretide not only provided protective effect against oxidative stress and mitochondrial damages, but also attenuated isoflurane-induced cognitive deficits. Our data support the notion that mitochondrial damage is an early and long lasting event of GA-induced injury and suggest that elamipretide might have clinically therapeutic benefits for pediatric patients undertaking GA.

  5. Isoflurane is a suitable alternative to ether for anesthetizing rats prior to euthanasia for gene expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsu, Noriyuki; Igarashi, Yoshinobu; Aoshi, Taiki; Hamaguchi, Isao; Saito, Masumichi; Mizukami, Takuo; Momose, Haruka; Ishii, Ken J; Yamada, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Diethyl ether (ether) had been widely used in Japan for anesthesia, despite its explosive properties and toxicity to both humans and animals. We also had used ether as an anesthetic for euthanizing rats for research in the Toxicogenomics Project (TGP). Because the use of ether for these purposes will likely cease, it is required to select an alternative anesthetic which is validated for consistency with existing TGP data acquired under ether anesthesia. We therefore compared two alternative anesthetic candidates, isoflurane and pentobarbital, with ether in terms of hematological findings, serum biochemical parameters, and gene expressions. As a result, few differences among the three agents were observed. In hematological and serum biochemistry analysis, no significant changes were found. In gene expression analysis, four known genes were extracted as differentially expressed genes in the liver of rats anesthetized with ether, isoflurane, or pentobarbital. However, no significant relationships were detected using gene ontology, pathway, or gene enrichment analyses by DAVID and TargetMine. Surprisingly, although it was expected that the lung would be affected by administration via inhalation, only one differentially expressed gene was extracted in the lung. Taken together, our data indicate that there are no significant differences among ether, isoflurane, and pentobarbital with respect to effects on hematological parameters, serum biochemistry parameters, and gene expression. Based on its smallest affect to existing data and its safety profile for humans and animals, we suggest isoflurane as a suitable alternative anesthetic for use in rat euthanasia in toxicogenomics analysis.

  6. Carbon dioxide absorbents containing potassium hydroxide produce much larger concentrations of compound A from sevoflurane in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakage, M; Yamada, S; Chen, X; Iwasaki, S; Tsujiguchi, N; Namiki, A

    2000-07-01

    We investigated the concentrations of degraded sevoflurane Compound A during low-flow anesthesia with four carbon dioxide (CO(2)) absorbents. The concentrations of Compound A, obtained from the inspiratory limb of the circle system, were measured by using a gas chromatograph. In the groups administered 2 L/min fresh gas flow with 1% sevoflurane, when the conventional CO(2) absorbents, Wakolime(TM) (Wako, Tokyo, Japan) and Drägersorb(TM) (Dräger, Lübeck, Germany), were used, the concentrations of Compound A increased steadily from a baseline to 14.3 ppm (mean) and 13.2 ppm, respectively, at 2 h after exposure to sevoflurane. In contrast, when the other novel types of absorbents containing decreased or no potassium hydroxide/sodium hydroxide, Medisorb(TM) (Datex-Ohmeda, Louisville, CO) and Amsorb(TM) (Armstrong, Coleraine, Northern Ireland), were used, Compound A remained at baseline (potassium hydroxide/sodium hydroxide produce much larger concentrations of Compound A from sevoflurane in clinical practice. An absorbent containing neither potassium hydroxide nor sodium hydroxide produces the smallest concentrations of Compound A.

  7. Minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane in green iguanas and the effect of butorphanol on minimum alveolar concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Craig A E; Dyson, Doris; Smith, Dale A

    2003-06-01

    To determine minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane in green iguanas and effects of butorphanol on MAC. Prospective randomized trial. 10 healthy mature iguanas. in each iguana, MAC was measured 3 times: twice after induction of anesthesia with isoflurane and once after induction of anesthesia with isoflurane and IM administration of butorphanol (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb]). A blood sample was collected from the tail vein for blood-gas analysis at the beginning and end of the anesthetic period. The MAC was determined with a standard bracketing technique; an electrical current was used as the supramaximal stimulus. Animals were artificially ventilated with a ventilator set to deliver a tidal volume of 30 mL/kg (14 mL/lb) at a rate of 4 breaths/min. Mean +/- SD MAC values during the 3 trials (2 without and 1 with butorphanol) were 2.0 +/- 0.6, 2.1 +/- 0.6, and 1.7 +/- 0.7%, respectively, which were not significantly different from each other. Heart rate and end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 were also not significantly different among the 3 trials. Mean +/- SD heart rate was 48 +/- 10 beats/min; mean end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 was 22 +/- 10 mm Hg. There were no significant differences in blood-gas values for samples obtained at the beginning versus the end of the anesthetic period. Results suggest that the MAC of isoflurane in green iguanas is 2.1% and that butorphanol does not have any significant isoflurane-sparing effects.

  8. Pattern recognition analysis of proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of brain tissue extracts from rats anesthetized with propofol or isoflurane.

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    Hiroshi Kawaguchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: General anesthesia is routinely used as a surgical procedure and its safety has been endorsed by clinical outcomes; however, its effects at the molecular level have not been elucidated. General anesthetics influence glucose metabolism in the brain. However, the effects of anesthetics on brain metabolites other than those related to glucose have not been well characterized. We used a pattern recognition analysis of proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra to visualize the changes in holistic brain metabolic phenotypes in response to the widely used intravenous anesthetic propofol and the volatile anesthetic isoflurane. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Rats were randomized into five groups (n = 7 each group. Propofol and isoflurane were administered to two groups each, for 2 or 6 h. The control group received no anesthesia. Brains were removed directly after anesthesia. Hydrophilic compounds were extracted from excised whole brains and measured by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. All spectral data were processed and analyzed by principal component analysis for comparison of the metabolite profiles. Data were visualized by plotting principal component (PC scores. In the plots, each point represents an individual sample. The propofol and isoflurane groups were clustered separately on the plots, and this separation was especially pronounced when comparing the 6-h groups. The PC scores of the propofol group were clearly distinct from those of the control group, particularly in the 6-h group, whereas the difference in PC scores was more subtle in the isoflurane group and control groups. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results of the present study showed that propofol and isoflurane exerted differential effects on holistic brain metabolism under anesthesia.

  9. Effects of a constant rate infusion of detomidine on cardiovascular function, isoflurane requirements and recovery quality in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauvliege, Stijn; Marcilla, Miguel Gozalo; Verryken, Kirsten; Duchateau, Luc; Devisscher, Lindsey; Gasthuys, Frank

    2011-11-01

    To examine the influence of a detomidine constant rate infusion (CRI) on cardiovascular function, isoflurane requirements and recovery quality in horses undergoing elective surgery. Prospective, randomized, blinded, clinical trial. Twenty adult healthy horses. After sedation (detomidine, 10 μg kg(-1) intravenously [IV]) and induction of anaesthesia (midazolam 0.06 mg kg(-1) , ketamine 2.2 mg kg(-1) IV), anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in oxygen/air (inspiratory oxygen fraction 55%). When indicated, the lungs were mechanically ventilated. Dobutamine was administered when MAPdetomidine (5 μg kg(-1)  hour(-1) ) (D) or saline (S) CRI, with the anaesthetist unaware of the treatment. Monitoring included end-tidal isoflurane concentration, arterial pH, PaCO(2) , PaO(2) , dobutamine administration rate, heart rate (HR), arterial pressure, cardiac index (CI), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), stroke index and oxygen delivery index (ḊO(2) I). For recovery from anaesthesia, all horses received 2.5 μg kg(-1) detomidine IV. Recovery quality and duration were recorded in each horse. For statistical analysis, anova, Pearson chi-square and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used as relevant. Heart rate (p=0.0176) and ḊO(2) I (p= 0.0084) were lower and SVR higher (p=0.0126) in group D, compared to group S. Heart rate (p=0.0011) and pH (p=0.0187) increased over time. Significant differences in isoflurane requirements were not detected. Recovery quality and duration were comparable between treatments. A detomidine CRI produced cardiovascular effects typical for α(2) -agonists, without affecting isoflurane requirements, recovery duration or recovery quality. © 2011 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. © 2011 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists.

  10. Recovery of dynamic balance after general anesthesia with sevoflurane in short-duration oral surgery.

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    Fujisawa, Toshiaki; Miyamoto, Eriko; Takuma, Shigeru; Shibuya, Makiko; Kurozumi, Akihiro; Kimura, Yukifumi; Kamekura, Nobuhito; Fukushima, Kazuaki

    2009-01-01

    Recovery of dynamic balance, involving adjustment of the center of gravity, is essential for safe discharge on foot after ambulatory anesthesia. The purpose of this study was to assess the recovery of dynamic balance after general anesthesia with sevoflurane, using two computerized dynamic posturographies. Nine hospitalized patients undergoing oral surgery of less than 2 h duration under general anesthesia (air-oxygensevoflurane) were studied. A dynamic balance test, assessing the ability of postural control against unpredictable perturbation stimuli (Stability System; Biodex Medical), a walking analysis test using sheets with foot pressure sensors (Walk Way-MG1000; Anima), and two simple psychomotor function tests were performed before anesthesia (baseline), and 150 and 210 min after the emergence from anesthesia. Only the double-stance phase in the walking analysis test showed a significant difference between baseline and results at 150 min. None of the other variables showed any differences among results at baseline and at 150 and 210 min. The recovery times for dynamic balance and psychomotor function seem to be within 150 min after emergence from general anesthesia with sevoflurane in patients undergoing oral surgery of less than 2-h duration.

  11. Cardiovascular effects of dobutamine and phenylephrine infusion in sevoflurane-anesthetized Thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Minoru; Kurimoto, Shinjiro; Ishikawa, Yuhiro; Tokushige, Hirotaka; Mae, Naomi; Nagata, Shun-ichi; Mamada, Masayuki

    2013-11-01

    To determine dose-dependent cardiovascular effects of dobutamine and phenylephrine during anesthesia in horses, increasing doses of dobutamine and phenylephrine were infused to 6 healthy Thoroughbred horses. Anesthesia was induced with xylazine, guaifenesin and thiopental and maintained with sevoflurane at 2.8% of end-tidal concentration in all horses. The horses were positioned in right lateral recumbency and infused 3 increasing doses of dobutamine (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 µg/kg/min) for 15 min each dose. Following to 30 min of reversal period, 3 increasing doses of phenylephrine (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 µg/kg/min) were infused. Cardiovascular parameters were measured before and at the end of each 15-min infusion period for each drug. Blood samples were collected every 5 min during phenylephrine infusion period. There were no significant changes in heart rate throughout the infusion period. Both dobutamine and phenylephrine reversed sevoflurane-induced hypotension. Dobutamine increased both mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and cardiac output (CO) as the result of the increase in stroke volume, whereas phenylephrine increased MAP but decreased CO as the result of the increase in systemic vascular resistance. Plasma phenylephrine concentration increased dose-dependently, and these values at 15, 30 and 45 min were 6.2 ± 1.2, 17.0 ± 4.8 and 37.9 ± 7.3 ng/ml, respectively.

  12. Sevoflurane postconditioning against cerebral ischemic neuronal injury is abolished in diet-induced obesity: role of brain mitochondrial KATP channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zecheng; Chen, Yunbo; Zhang, Yan; Jiang, Yi; Fang, Xuedong; Xu, Jingwei

    2014-03-01

    Obesity is associated with increased infarct volumes and adverse outcomes following ischemic stroke. However, its effect on anesthetic postconditioning‑induced neuroprotection has not been investigated. The present study examined the effect of sevoflurane postconditioning on focal ischemic brain injury in diet‑induced obesity. Sprague‑Dawley rats were fed a high‑fat diet (HF; 45% kcal as fat) for 12 weeks to develop obesity syndrome. Rats fed a low‑fat diet (LF; 10% kcal as fat) served as controls. The HF or LF‑fed rats were subjected to focal cerebral ischemia for 60 min, followed by 24 h of reperfusion. Postconditioning was performed by exposure to sevoflurane for 15 min immediately at the onset of reperfusion. The involvement of the mitochondrial KATP (mitoKATP) channel was analyzed by the administration of a selective inhibitor of 5‑hydroxydecanoate (5‑HD) prior to sevoflurane postconditioning or by administration of diazoxide (DZX), a mitoKATP channel opener, instead of sevoflurane. The cerebral infarct volume, neurological score and motor coordination were evaluated 24 h after reperfusion. The HF‑fed rats had larger infarct volumes, and lower neurological scores than the LF‑fed rats and also failed to respond to neuroprotection by sevoflurane or DZX. By contrast, sevoflurane and DZX reduced the infarct volumes and improved the neurological scores and motor coordination in the LF‑fed rats. Pretreatment with 5‑HD inhibited sevoflurane‑induced neuroprotection in the LF‑fed rats, whereas it had no effect in the HF‑fed rats. Molecular studies demonstrated that the expression of Kir6.2, a significant mitoKATP channel component, was reduced in the brains of the HF‑fed rats compared with the LF‑fed rats. The results of this study indicate that diet‑induced obesity eliminates the ability of anesthetic sevoflurane postconditioning to protect the brain against cerebral ischemic neuronal injury, most likely due to an impaired brain

  13. Application effects of dexmedetomidine combined with sevoflurane for anesthesia in short operations in children with burn injury

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    Jin-xin WANG

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of dexmedetomidine combined with sevoflurane for anesthesia in short operations in pediatric burn patients. Methods  Forty hospitalized children undergoing short operation for burn injury were allocated to sevoflurane group (S group or sevoflurane combined dexmedetomidine group (group D(20 patients each. Children in group D inhaled 8% sevoflurane in the beginning until loss of eyelash reflex, and then the density of sevoflurane was reduced to 3% for maintenance, 5μg/(kg.h of dexmedetomidine was pumped for 10 mins, then the density was reduced to 0.5μg/(kg.h. Then operation was started herewith till to the end. Children in group S received sevoflurane anethesia alone, and dexmedetomidine was replaced by the same volume of physiological saline. Additional 3mg/kg propofol was injected when anesthesia was inadequate. During the procedure, HR, MAP, SpO2 and Ramsay scale were recorded at baseline (T1, loss of eyelash reflex (T2, 5min after the start of operation (T4, 10min (T5 and the end of operation (T6. The operation time, anethesia time, propofol consumption, case of respiratory depression and pediatric anesthesia emergence delirium scale (PAED in pediatric anesthesia care unit (PACU were recorded. Results  There was no significant difference in operation time between the two groups. Intraoperative SpO2 was higher in group D than in group S (P<0.05, respiratory inhibition occurred in 4 cases of group D and 10 cases of group S (P<0.05. Propofol consumption was less and the operation time was longer in group D than in group S (P<0.05. At T3-T6, the MAP and HR were lower, but the Ramsay scale was higher in group D than in group S (P<0.05. In PACU, PAED scale was lower in group D than in group S (P<0.05. Conclusions  Dexmedetomidine combined with sevoflurane for anesthesia for short burn surgery in children not only stabilize hemodynamic parameters but also reduce the impact to respiration

  14. [Effects of sevoflurane and desflurane on pharmacodynamics of rocuronium in children].

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    Kang, D X; Rao, Y Q; Ji, B; Li, J

    2017-02-14

    Objective: To observe the intraoperative influences on pharmacodynamics of rocuronium in children inhaling sevoflurane and desflurane for 40 min balance. Methods: Ninety children (ASAⅠ-Ⅱ) undergoing elective surgery with general anesthesia in Second Affiliated Hospital & Yuying Children's Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University from July 2015 to May 2016 were randomly assigned into six groups ( n =15): Sevoflurane group (group S1 and S2), Desflurane group (group D1 and D2) and Propofol group (group P1 and P2). Children in group D1, S1 and P1 were allocated to research the dose-effect relationship of rocuronium, children in group D2, S2 and P2 were allocated to research the time-effect relationship of rocuronium. TOF-Watch SX monitor was used to exert a train-of-four stimulation (TOF) at ulnar nerve in wrist, then the adductor pollicis muscle appeared muscle twitch 4 times in turn which was recorded T(1, )T(2, )T(3) and T(4) respectively. After the success of the muscle relaxant calibration, 1.3 MAC sevoflurane and desflurane were inhaled and maintained for 40 min respectively in children in Sevoflurane group (group S1 and S2) and Desflurane group (group D1 and D2), Plasma target controlled infusion of 3.5-4.0 μg/ml propofol was always administered in Propofol group (group P1 and P2). 75 μg/kg rocuronium was injected each time in group S1, D1 and P1 respectively. Maximum inhibited effect of T(1) was recorded after every injection until inhibition of T(1) more than 95% eventually. The method of cumulative dose four times was used to calculate the efficiency curve of rocuronium[median effective dose (ED(50)), 90% effective dose (ED(90)) and 95% effective dose (ED(95))]. 0.6 mg/kg rocuronium was injected respectively through vein in group S2, D2 and P2. The recovery times of muscle relaxant were recorded which including time of T(1) disappeared (onset time), T(1) from 0% to 5% (peak effect time), T(1) from 0% to 25% (clinical effect time), T(1) from 25% to 75

  15. Recovery profile-e comparison of isoflurane and propofol anesthesia for laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, A.; Siddiqui, S.Z.; Aftab, S.; Sabbar, S.

    2008-01-01

    To compare the recovery profile in terms of time of extubation, eye opening, orientation and mobility and frequency of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) between propofol and isoflurane based anesthesia in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy with prophylactic antiemetic. After informed consent, a total of 60 ASA I-II patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were divided in two equal groups I and P. Anesthesia in all patients were induced by Nalbuphine 0.15 mg/kg, Midazolam 0.03 mg/kg, Propofol 1.5 mg/kg and Rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg. Anesthesia was maintained with Isoflurane in group I and propofol infusion in group P, while ventilation was maintained with 50% N/sub 2/O/sub 2/ mixture in both the groups. All patients were given antiemetic prophylaxis. Hemodynamics were recorded throughout anesthesia and recovery period. At the end of surgery, times of extubation, eye opening, orientation (by modified Aldrete score) and mobility (recovery profile) were assessed. PONV was observed and recorded immediately after extubation, during early postoperative period (0-4 hours) and late period (4-24 hours). Antiemetic requirements were also recorded for the same periods in both the groups. Propofol provided faster recovery (extubation and eye opening times) and orientation in immediate postoperative period with statistically significant differences between the groups (p<0.0001). Recovery characteristics were comparably lower in group I. More patients achieved full points (8) on modified Aldrete score at different time until 30 minutes in group P. Postoperative nausea and vomiting in early and late periods were significantly reduced in group P. Moreover, requirement of rescue antiemetic doses were significantly lower in group P in 24 hours (p<0.0001). In this series, recovery was much faster with earlier gain of orientation with propofol anesthesia compared to isoflurane in the early recovery periods. Propofol is likely to be a better choice of

  16. Effects of ketamine and midazolam on emergence agitation after sevoflurane anaesthesia in children receiving caudal block: a randomized trial

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    Ayse Ozcan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Emergence agitation is a common postanaesthetic problem in children after sevoflurane anaesthesia. We aimed to compare the effects of ketamine and midazolam administered intravenously, before the end of surgery, for prevention of emergence agitation in children who received caudal block for pain relief under sevoflurane anaesthesia. Methods: 62 American Society of Anesthesiologists patient classification status I children, aged 2–7 years, scheduled for inguinal hernia repair, circumcision or orchidopexy were enrolled to the study. Anaesthesia was induced with sevoflurane 8% in a mixture of 50% oxygen and nitrous oxide. After achieving adequate depth of anaesthesia, a laryngeal mask was placed and then caudal block was performed with 0.75 mL kg−1, 0.25% bupivacaine. At the end of the surgery, ketamine 0.25 mg kg−1, midazolam 0.03 mg kg−1 and saline were given to ketamine, midazolam and control groups, respectively. Agitation was assessed using Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scale and postoperative pain was evaluated with modified Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale. Results and conclusions: Modified Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale scores were found higher in control group than in ketamine and midazolam groups. Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scores were similar between groups. Modified Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale and Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scores showed a significant decrease by time in all groups during follow-up in postanaesthesia care unit. The present study resulted in satisfactory Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scores which are below 10 in all groups. As a conclusion, neither ketamine nor midazolam added to caudal block under sevoflurane anaesthesia did show further effect on emergence agitation. In addition, pain relief still seems to be the major factor in preventing emergence agitation after

  17. Optimum time for intravenous cannulation after induction with sevoflurane, oxygen, and nitrous oxide in children without any premedication.

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    Hasan, Abm Kamrul; Sivasankar, Raman; Nair, Salil G; Hasan, Wamia U; Latif, Zulaidi

    2018-02-01

    Intravenous cannulation is usually done in children after inhalational induction with volatile anesthetic agents. The optimum time for safe intravenous cannulation after induction with sevoflurane, oxygen, and nitrous oxide has been studied in premedicated children, but there is no information for the optimum time for cannulation with inhalational induction in children without premedication. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum time for intravenous cannulation after the induction of anesthesia with sevoflurane, oxygen, and nitrous oxide in children without any premedication. This is a prospective, observer-blinded, up-and-down sequential allocation study in unpremedicated ASA grade 1 children aged 2-6 years undergoing elective dental surgery. Intravenous cannulation was attempted after inhalational induction with sevoflurane, oxygen, and nitrous oxide. The timing of cannulation was considered adequate if there was no movement, coughing, or laryngospasm. The cannulation attempt for the first child was set at 4 minutes after the loss of eyelash reflex and the time for intravenous cannulation was determined by the up-and-down method using 15 seconds as step size. Probit test was used to analyze the up-down sequences for the study. The adequate time for effective cannulation after induction with sevoflurane, oxygen, and nitrous oxide in 50% and 95% of patients was 53.02 seconds (95% confidence limits, 20.23-67.76 seconds) and 87.21 seconds (95% confidence limits, 70.77-248.03 seconds), respectively. We recommend waiting for 1 minute 45 seconds (105 seconds) after the loss of eyelash reflex before attempting intravenous cannulation in pediatric patients induced with sevoflurane, oxygen, and nitrous oxide without any premedication. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Comparison of effects on the oxidant/antioxidant system of sevoflurane, desflurane and propofol infusion during general anesthesia

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    Mesut Erbas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Desflurane and sevoflurane are frequently used for maintenance of anesthesia and studies have shown that these anesthetics cause a variety of changes to the oxidative stress and antioxidative defense mechanisms. This study aims to compare the effects of sevoflurane, desflurane and propofol infusion anesthesia on the oxidant and antioxidant systems of patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODS: 45 patients between 18 and 50 years with planned laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthetic were included in the study. Patients were divided into three groups on the way to surgery: propofol (group P n: 15, sevoflurane (group S n: 15 and desflurane (group D n: 15. All groups were given hypnotic 2 mg/kg propofol IV, 1 mcg/kg fentanyl IV and 0.1 mg/kg vecuronium IV for induction. For maintenance of anesthesia group S were ventilated with 2% sevoflurane, group D cases were given 6% desflurane and group P were given propofol infusions of 12 mg/kg/h for the first 10 min, 9 mg/kg/h for the second 10 min and 6 mg/kg/h after that. Before induction and after the operation venous blood samples were taken to evaluate the levels of glutation peroxidase, total oxidants and antioxidants. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The 45 patients included in the study were 22 male and 23 female patients. The demographic characteristics of the groups were similar. In the postoperative period we observed that while sevoflurane and propofol increased antioxidants by a statistically significant level, desflurane increased the total oxidants level by a significant amount compared to levels before the operation.

  19. Desflurane Allows for a Faster Emergence when Compared to Sevoflurane Without Affecting the Baseline Cognitive Recovery Time.

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    Joseph G. Werner

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aims, We compared the effect of desflurane and sevoflurane on anesthesia recovery time in patients undergoing urological cystoscopic surgery. The Short Orientation Memory Concentration Test (SOMCT measured and compared cognitive impairment between groups and coughing was assessed throughout the anesthetic.Methods and Materials, This investigation included 75 ambulatory patients. Patients were randomized to receive either desflurane or sevoflurane. Inhalational anesthetics were discontinued after removal of the cystoscope and once repositioning of the patient was final. Coughing assessment and awakening time from anesthesia were assessed by a blinded observer.Statistical analysis used: Statistical analysis was performed by using t-test for parametric variables and Mann-Whitney U test for nonparametric variables. Results, The primary endpoint, mean time to eye-opening, was 5.0±2.5 minutes for desflurane, and 7.9±4.1 minutes for sevoflurane (p <0.001. There were no significant differences in time to SOMCT recovery (p=0.109, overall time spent in the post anesthesia care unit (p=0.924 or time to discharge (p=0.363. Median time until readiness for discharge was nine minutes in the desflurane group, while the sevoflurane group had a median time of 20 minutes (p=0.020. The overall incidence of coughing during the perioperative period was significantly higher in the desflurane (p=0.030. Conclusions, We re-confirmed that patients receiving desflurane had a faster emergence and met the criteria to be discharged from the post anesthesia care unit earlier. No difference was found in time to return to baseline cognition between desflurane and sevoflurane.

  20. General anesthetics inhibit erythropoietin induction under hypoxic conditions in the mouse brain.

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    Tomoharu Tanaka

    Full Text Available Erythropoietin (EPO, originally identified as a hematopoietic growth factor produced in the kidney and fetal liver, is also endogenously expressed in the central nervous system (CNS. EPO in the CNS, mainly produced in astrocytes, is induced under hypoxic conditions in a hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-dependent manner and plays a dominant role in neuroprotection and neurogenesis. We investigated the effect of general anesthetics on EPO expression in the mouse brain and primary cultured astrocytes.BALB/c mice were exposed to 10% oxygen with isoflurane at various concentrations (0.10-1.0%. Expression of EPO mRNA in the brain was studied, and the effects of sevoflurane, halothane, nitrous oxide, pentobarbital, ketamine, and propofol were investigated. In addition, expression of HIF-2α protein was studied by immunoblotting. Hypoxia-induced EPO mRNA expression in the brain was significantly suppressed by isoflurane in a concentration-dependent manner. A similar effect was confirmed for all other general anesthetics. Hypoxia-inducible expression of HIF-2α protein was also significantly suppressed with isoflurane. In the experiments using primary cultured astrocytes, isoflurane, pentobarbital, and ketamine suppressed hypoxia-inducible expression of HIF-2α protein and EPO mRNA.Taken together, our results indicate that general anesthetics suppress activation of HIF-2 and inhibit hypoxia-induced EPO upregulation in the mouse brain through a direct effect on astrocytes.

  1. Comparison of detomidine and romifidine as premedicants before ketamine and halothane anesthesia in horses undergoing elective surgery.

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    Taylor, P M; Bennett, R C; Brearley, J C; Luna, S P; Johnson, C B

    2001-03-01

    To compare detomidine hydrochloride and romifidine as premedicants in horses undergoing elective surgery. 100 client-owned horses. After administration of acepromazine (0.03 mg/kg, IV), 50 horses received detomidine hydrochloride (0.02 mg/kg of body weight, IV) and 50 received romifidine (0.1 mg/kg, IV) before induction and maintenance of anesthesia with ketamine hydrochloride (2 mg/kg) and halothane, respectively. Arterial blood pressure and blood gases, ECG, and heart and respiratory rates were recorded. Induction and recovery were timed and graded. Mean (+/- SD) duration of anesthesia for all horses was 104 +/- 28 minutes. Significant differences in induction and recovery times or grades were not detected between groups. Mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) decreased in both groups 30 minutes after induction, compared with values at 10 minutes. From 40 to 70 minutes after induction, MABP was significantly higher in detomidine-treated horses, compared with romifidine-treated horses, although more romifidine-treated horses received dobutamine infusions. In all horses, mean respiratory rate ranged from 9 to 11 breaths/min, PaO2 from 200 to 300 mm Hg, PaCO2 from 59 to 67 mm Hg, arterial pH from 7.33 to 7.29, and heart rate from 30 to 33 beats/min, with no significant differences between groups. Detomidine and romifidine were both satisfactory premedicants. Romifidine led to more severe hypotension than detomidine, despite administration of dobutamine to more romifidine-treated horses. Both detomidine and romifidine are acceptable alpha2-adrenoceptor agonists for use as premedicants before general anesthesia in horses; however, detomidine may be preferable when maintenance of blood pressure is particularly important.

  2. The SiBI connector: a new medical device to facilitate preoxygenation and reduce waste anesthetic gases during inhaled induction with sevoflurane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colas, M J; Tétrault, J P; Dumais, L; Truong, P; Claprood, Y; Martin, R

    2000-12-01

    The SiBI connector is a new medical device used for vital capacity inhaled induction with sevoflurane. It allows efficient preoxygenation of patients and reduces waste anesthetic gases in the operation room during induction.

  3. Effect of intravenous magnesium sulphate or dexamethasone as adjuvants to sevoflurane anesthesia to prevent delirium during primary cleft palate repair, controlled randomized blind study

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    M. Elsonbaty

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Co-administration of intravenous magnesium sulphate or dexamethasone with to sevoflurane anesthesia during primary cleft palate repair provides more vital hemodynamic state and decrease in postoperative vomiting and delirium when compared with control group.

  4. Effects of propofol or sevoflurane anesthesia induction on hemodynamics in patients undergoing fiberoptic intubation for cervical spine surgery: A randomized, controlled, clinical trial

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    Chiara Robba

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Anesthesia induction with both propofol or sevoflurane is safe and effective. However, total IV anesthesia induction is associated with more pronounced MAP drop which can worsen spinal cord hypoperfusion.

  5. Long-term surgical anaesthesia with isoflurane in human habituated Nile Crocodiles

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    George F. Stegmann

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A suitable long-term anaesthetic technique was required for implantation of physiological sensors and telemetric devices in sub-adult Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus to allow the collection of physiological data. Five Nile crocodiles with a median body mass of 24 kg were used. After manual capture, they were blindfolded and 0.2 mL (1 mg/mL medetomidine was administered intramuscularly in four of the animals which had an estimated body mass between 20 kg and 30 kg. One crocodile with an estimated body mass of 50 kg received 0.5 mL. For induction, 5 mL propofol (10 mg/mL was injected intravenously into the occipital sinus. Additional doses were given when required to ensure adequate anaesthesia. Anaesthesia was maintained with 1.5% isoflurane. Ventilation was controlled. Local anaesthesia was administered for surgical incision and external placement of the radio transmitter. Medetomidine was antagonised with atipamezole at the end of surgery. Median heart rate during surgery was 22 beats/min, at extubation 32 beats per min and 30 beats per min the following day at the same body temperature as under anaesthesia. Median body temperature of the animals increased from 27.3 °C to 27.9 °C during anaesthesia, as room temperature increased from 24.5 °C to 29.0 °C during surgery. Anaesthesia was successfully induced with intramuscular medetomidine and intravenous propofol and was maintained with isoflurane for the placement of telemetric implants. Intraoperative analgesia was supplemented with lidocaine infiltration. Perioperative physiological parameters remained stable and within acceptable clinical limits. Multiple factors appear to influence these variables during the recovery period, including residual anaesthetic effects, environmental temperature and physical activity.

  6. Effect of intravenous administration of tramadol hydrochloride on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Christine M; Souza, Marcy J; Greenacre, Cheryl B; Cox, Sherry K; Rohrbach, Barton W

    2009-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of IV administration of tramadol hydrochloride on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane (ISOMAC) that prevented purposeful movement of rabbits in response to a noxious stimulus. Six 6- to 12-month-old female New Zealand White rabbits. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. A baseline ISOMAC was determined by clamping a pedal digit with sponge forceps until gross purposeful movement was detected or a period of 60 seconds elapsed. Subsequently, tramadol (4.4 mg/kg) was administered IV and the posttreatment ISOMAC (ISOMAC(T)) was measured. Mean +/- SD ISOMAC and ISOMAC(T) values were 2.33 +/- 0.13% and 2.12 +/- 0.17%, respectively. The ISOMAC value decreased by 9 +/- 4% after tramadol was administered. Plasma tramadol and its major metabolite (M1) concentrations at the time of ISOMAC(T) determination varied widely (ranges, 181 to 636 ng/mL and 32 to 61 ng/mL, respectively). Intervals to determination of ISOMAC(T) and plasma tramadol and M1 concentrations were not correlated with percentage change in the ISOMAC. Heart rate decreased significantly immediately after tramadol administration but by 10 minutes afterward was not different from the pretreatment value. Systolic arterial blood pressure decreased to approximately 60 mm Hg for approximately 5 minutes in 3 rabbits after tramadol administration. No adverse effects were detected. As administered, tramadol had a significant but clinically unimportant effect on the ISOMAC in rabbits. Higher doses of tramadol may provide clinically important reductions but may result in a greater degree of cardiovascular depression.

  7. Effect of sevoflurane on the ATPase activity of hippocampal neurons in a rat model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury via the cAMP-PKA signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tie-Jun; Zhang, Jin-Cun; Gao, Xiao-Zeng; Tan, Zhi-Bin; Wang, Jian-Jun; Zhang, Pan-Pan; Cheng, Ai-Bin; Zhang, Shu-Bo

    2018-01-01

    We aim to investigate the effects of sevoflurane on the ATPase activity of the hippocampal neurons in rats with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) via the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway. Sixty rats were assigned into the normal, model and sevoflurane groups (n = 20, the latter two groups were established as focal cerebral IRI models). The ATPase activity was detected using an ultramicro Na (+)-K (+)-ATP enzyme kit. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the positive protein expression of cAMP and PKA. The hippocampal neurons were assigned to the normal, IRI, IRI + sevoflurane, IRI + forskolin, IRI + H89 and IRI + sevoflurane + H89 groups. qRT-PCR and Western blotting were performed for the expressions of cAMP, PKA, cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The normal and sevoflurane groups exhibited a greater positive protein expression of cAMP and PKA than the model group. Compared with the normal group, the expressions of cAMP, PKA, CREB and BDNF all reduced in the IRI, model and IRI + H89 groups. The sevoflurane group showed higher cAMP, PKA, CREB and BDNF expressions than the model group. Compared with the IRI group, ATPase activity and expressions of cAMP, PKA, CREB and BDNF all increased in the normal, IRI + sevoflurane and IRI + forskolin groups but decreased in the IRI + H89 group. It suggests that sevoflurane could enhance ATPase activity in hippocampal neurons of cerebral IRI rats through activating cAMP-PKA signaling pathway. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  8. Effects of nitrous oxide on the production of cytokines and chemokines by the airway epithelium during anesthesia with sevoflurane and propofol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumakura, Seiichiro; Yamaguchi, Keisuke; Sugasawa, Yusuke; Murakami, Taisuke; Kikuchi, Toshihiro; Inada, Eiichi; Nagaoka, Isao

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of nitrous oxide (a gaseous anesthetic) on the in vivo production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines by the airway epithelium, when combined with sevoflurane or propofol. Subjects undergoing simple or segmental mastectomy were randomly assigned to the sevoflurane and nitrous oxide, sevoflurane and air, propofol and nitrous oxide, or propofol and air group (all n=13). Epithelial lining fluid (ELF) was obtained using the bronchoscopic microsampling method prior to and following the mastectomy to enable measurement of the pre- and post-operative levels of certain inflammatory cytokines and chemokines using a cytometric bead array system. Notably, the levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) in the ELF were significantly increased following the operations which involved the inhalation of sevoflurane and nitrous oxide, although the levels of these molecules were not significantly changed by the inhalation of sevoflurane and air. Furthermore, the IL-12p70 levels were significantly reduced in the ELF following the operations that involved the inhalation of sevoflurane and air, although the IL-12p70 levels were not significantly changed by the inhalation of nitrous oxide and sevoflurane. These observations suggest that the combination of sevoflurane and nitrous oxide induces an inflammatory response (increased production of IL-1β, IL-8 and MCP-1) and suppresses the anti-inflammatory response (reduced production of IL-12p70) in the local milieu of the airway. Thus, the combination of these compounds should be carefully administered for anesthesia.

  9. Severity classification of repeated isoflurane anesthesia in C57BL/6JRj mice-Assessing the degree of distress.

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    Katharina Hohlbaum

    Full Text Available According to the EU Directive 2010/63, the severity of a procedure has to be classified as mild, moderate or severe. General anesthesia is thought to be mild, but the Directive does not differentiate between single and repeated anesthesia. Therefore, we investigated the impact of repeated administration of isoflurane, the most commonly used inhalation anesthetic, on the well-being of adult C57BL/6JRj mice, in comparison to single administrations and to untreated animals, when applied six times for 45 min at an interval of 3-4 days. For the animals anesthetized, excitations, phases of anesthesia, and vital parameters were monitored. Well-being after anesthesia was assessed using a behavioral test battery including luxury behavior like burrowing and nest building behavior, the Mouse Grimace Scale (MGS, the free exploratory paradigm for anxiety-related behavior, home cage activity and the rotarod test for activity, as well as food intake and body weight. Additionally, hair corticosterone and fecal corticosterone metabolites were measured. Our results show that nest building behavior, home cage activity, body weight, and corticosterone concentrations were not influenced by anesthesia, whereas changes in burrowing behavior, the MGS, food intake, and the free exploratory behavior indicated that the well-being of the mice was more affected by repeated than single isoflurane anesthesia. This effect depended on the sex of the animals, with female mice being more susceptible than male mice. However, repeated isoflurane anesthesia caused only short-term mild distress and impairment of well-being, mainly in the immediate postanesthetic period. Well-being stabilized at 8 days after the last anesthesia, at the latest. Therefore, we conclude that when using our anesthesia protocol, the severity of both single and repeated isoflurane anesthesia in C57BL/6JRj mice can be classified as mild. However, within the mild severity category, repeated isoflurane

  10. The Mechanism of Sevoflurane Preconditioning-Induced Protections against Small Intestinal Ischemia Reperfusion Injury Is Independent of Mast Cell in Rats

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    Xiaoliang Gan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate whether sevoflurane preconditioning can protect against small intestinal ischemia reperfusion (IIR injury and to explore whether mast cell (MC is involved in the protections provided by sevoflurane preconditioning. Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to sevoflurane or treated with MC stabilizer cromolyn sodium (CS were subjected to 75-minute superior mesenteric artery occlusion followed by 2-hour reperfusion in the presence or absence of MC degranulator compound 48/80 (CP. Small intestinal ischemia reperfusion resulted in severe intestinal injury as demonstrated by significant elevations in intestinal injury scores and p47phox and gp91phox, ICAM-1 protein expressions and malondialdehyde and IL-6 contents, and MPO activities as well as significant reductions in SOD activities, accompanied with concomitant increases in mast cell degranulation evidenced by significant increases in MC counts, tryptase expression, and β-hexosaminidase concentrations, and those alterations were further upregulated in the presence of CP. Sevoflurane preconditioning dramatically attenuated the previous IIR-induced alterations except MC counts, tryptase, and β-hexosaminidase which were significantly reduced by CS treatment. Furthermore, CP exacerbated IIR injury was abrogated by CS but not by sevoflurane preconditioning. The data collectively indicate that sevoflurane preconditioning confers protections against IIR injury, and MC is not involved in the protective process.

  11. Preventing Emergence Agitation Using Ancillary Drugs with Sevoflurane for Pediatric Anesthesia: A Network Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Deng, Qi; Liu, Bin; Yu, Xiangdi

    2017-11-01

    Using sevoflurane for pediatric anesthesia plays a pivotal role in surgeries. Emergence agitation (EA) is a major adverse event accompanied with pediatric anesthesia. Other anesthetic adjuvants can be combined with sevoflurane in clinical practices for different purposes. However, it is uncertain that such a practice may have substantial influence on the risk of EA. We conducted a literature search in online databases, including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Clinical Trials. Key data were extracted from eligible randomized control trials (RCTs). Both pairwise and network meta-analysis (NMA) were conducted for synthesizing data from eligible studies. The relative risk of EA was assessed using the odds ratios (ORs) and their corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CI) or credible intervals (CrI). Ranking scheme based on the surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) values was produced. Several key assumptions of NMA such as heterogeneity, degree of consistence, and publication bias were validated by different statistical or graphical approaches. Evidence from 67 randomized control trials was synthesized. The relative risk of EA associated with eight anesthetic adjuvants was analyzed, including ketamine, propofol, dexmedetomidine, clonidine, midazolam, fentanyl, remifentanil, and sufentanil. Patients with the following anesthetic adjuvants appeared to have significantly reduced risk of EA in relation to those with placebo: dexmedetomidine (OR = 0.18, 95 % CrI 0.12-0.25), fentanyl (OR = 0.19, 95 % CrI 0.12-0.30), sufentanil (OR = 0.20, 95 % CrI 0.08-0.50), ketamine (OR = 0.21, 95 % CrI 0.13-0.34), clonidine (OR = 0.25, 95 % CrI 0.14-0.46), propofol (OR = 0.32, 95 % CrI 0.18-0.56), midazolam (OR = 0.46, 95 % CrI 0.27-0.77), and remifentanil (OR = 0.29, 95 % CrI 0.13-0.68). The SUCRA values for each anesthetic adjuvant were: dexmedetomidine (73.65 %), fentanyl (68.04 %), sufentanil (60.81 %), ketamine (59.99 %), clonidine

  12. Effect of Intermittent Positive Pressure Ventilation on Depth of Anaesthesia during and after Isoflurane Anaesthesia in Sulphur-Crested Cockatoos (Cacatua galerita galerita

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    Saul Chemonges

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effect of intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV on the depth of inhalation anaesthesia in parrots. Anaesthesia was induced with 3.0% isoflurane in six Sulphur-crested Cockatoos (Cacatua galerita galerita and maintained using either 1.5% or 3.0% during spontaneous ventilation (SV or IPPV at 6 (IPPV-6 or 12 (IPPV-12 breaths per minute. The time taken for the appearance of somatic reflexes and the return of SV after IPPV was recorded. During recovery, the body jerk, beak, eye, and shivering reflexes appeared after 126 ± 27 s, 133 ± 26 s, 165 ± 34 s, and 165 ± 44 s, respectively. All cockatoos developed apnoea after IPPV-12 and only some did after IPPV-6. Return of SV after IPPV-12 was delayed compared to IPPV-6. Recovery times after the SV runs were significantly different between 1.5% and 3.0% isoflurane anaesthesia. Similarly, after IPPV, the recovery times were significantly different between 1.5% and 3.0% isoflurane anaesthesia. Recovery times after 3.0% inhaled isoflurane were longer than those of 1.5% inhaled isoflurane. In conclusion, cockatoos recovering from isoflurane anaesthesia are likely to exhibit body jerk, beak, eye, and shivering reflexes in that order. IPPV increases the depth of anaesthesia in a rate and dose-related manner and prolongs recovery.

  13. Influence of isoflurane on the diastolic pressure-flow relationship and critical occlusion pressure during arterial CABG surgery: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, José; Mansur, Ashham; Hanekop, Gerd G; Weyland, Andreas; Popov, Aron F; Schmitto, Jan D; Grüne, Frank F G; Bauer, Martin; Kazmaier, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The effects of isoflurane on the determinants of blood flow during Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) surgery are not completely understood. This study characterized the influence of isoflurane on the diastolic Pressure-Flow (P-F) relationship and Critical Occlusion Pressure (COP) during CABG surgery. Twenty patients undergoing CABG surgery were studied. Patients were assigned to an isoflurane or control group. Hemodynamic and flow measurements during CABG surgery were performed twice (15 minutes after the discontinuation of extracorporeal circulation (T15) and again 15 minutes later (T30)). The zero flow pressure intercept (a measure of COP) was extrapolated from a linear regression analysis of the instantaneous diastolic P-F relationship. In the isoflurane group, the application of isoflurane significantly increased the slope of the diastolic P-F relationship by 215% indicating a mean reduction of Coronary Vascular Resistance (CVR) by 46%. Simultaneously, the Mean Diastolic Aortic Pressure (MDAP) decreased by 19% mainly due to a decrease in the systemic vascular resistance index by 21%. The COP, cardiac index, heart rate, Left Ventricular End-Diastolic Pressure (LVEDP) and Coronary Sinus Pressure (CSP) did not change significantly. In the control group, the parameters remained unchanged. In both groups, COP significantly exceeded the CSP and LVEDP at both time points. We conclude that short-term application of isoflurane at a sedative concentration markedly increases the slope of the instantaneous diastolic P-F relationship during CABG surgery implying a distinct decrease with CVR in patients undergoing CABG surgery.

  14. Sevoflurane-emergence agitation: Effect of supplementary low-dose oral ketamine premedication in preschool children undergoing dental surgery

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    Khattab Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The use of sevoflurane in pediatric anesthesia, which could enable a more rapid emergence and recovery, is complicated by the frequent occurrence of post-anesthesia agitation. This study aims to test the efficacy of adding a low dose of ketamine orally, as a supplement to the midazolam-based oral premedication for reducing sevoflurane-related emergence agitation. Materials and Methods: Ninety-two preschool children, aged between two and six years, with an American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II, scheduled for elective dental filling and extractions under general anesthesia were included. The patients were allocated into two groups: Group M (46 patients received oral midazolam 0.5 mg/kg, mixed with ibuprofen 10 mg/kg, while group KM (46 patients received a similar premedication mixture, in addition to ketamine 2 mg/kg. The acceptance of the drug mixture, the onset of action, and the occurrence of vomiting were monitored over the next 30 minutes. Induction of anesthesia was carried out using sevoflurane 8 Vol% in 100% oxygen via face mask. Anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane 1.5-2 Vol% in an oxygen-nitrous oxide mixture. After extubation, the standard scoring scale was used for assessing the quality of emergence. Agitation parameters were measured using a five-point scale. Agitated children were managed by giving intravenous increments of fentanyl 1 μg/ kg. The time of hospital discharge allowance was recorded. Results: Drug palatability, vomiting, and onset of action of premedication; showed no significant differences between both groups. Time of eye opening after discontinuation of sevoflurane showed no significant differences between both groups. Postoperative agitation score and rescue fentanyl consumption were higher in group M than in group KM on admission to the PACU ( P < 0.01. The time of hospital discharge allowance in group M was longer than in group KM ( P< 0.05. Conclusion

  15. Effects of Short-term Feeding Magnesium before Slaughter on Blood Metabolites and Postmortem Muscle Traits of Halothane-carrier Pigs

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    Jing Chen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-four, mixed-sex, halothane-carrier crossbred (Yorkshire×Landrace pigs with an average initial BW of 108.2±0.8 kg were randomly allotted to one of three dietary treatments for 5 d before slaughter: i a control corn-soybean meal finisher diet devoid of supplemental magnesium; ii a diet supplemented with 1.5 g/kg of elemental Mg from magnesium acetate; and iii a diet supplemented with 1.5 g/kg of elemental Mg from magnesium sulfate heptahydrate. Serum creatine kinase (CK, lactate and glucose were analyzed at slaughter. Muscles from longissimus (LM were packaged and stored to simulate display storage for muscle lactate and glycogen determinations at 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 d. Mg supplementation reduced (p0.05 on serum glucose. Daily change of muscle lactate concentration linearly increased (p<0.01, while glucose concentration linearly decreased (p<0.05 as storage time increased in all treatments. However, dietary Mg acetate and Mg sulfate supplementation in pigs elevated (p<0.05 muscle glycogen and reduced (p<0.05 muscle lactate concentrations, especially during the first 2 d of display, compared with pigs fed the control diet. This study suggests that short-term feeding of magnesium acetate and magnesium sulfate to heterozygous carriers of the halothane gene has beneficial effects on stress response and pork quality by improving blood and muscle biochemical indexes.

  16. The effects of general anaesthesia on memory in children: a comparison between propofol and sevoflurane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, J; Wang, S-L; Liu, X-B

    2014-02-01

    We studied the effects of general anaesthesia on memory 7 days and 3 months following elective hernia surgery. Sixty children aged between 7 and 13 years were randomly allocated to receive either propofol or sevoflurane. Memory was classified into immediate, short-term and long-term memory and assessed using the Wechsler Memory Scale-Propofol impaired short-term memory 7 days postoperatively compared with pre-operative values (image recalling: p = 0.02, figure recognition: p = 0.01, visual reproduction: p = 0.03) but recovered to baseline levels 3 months following surgery. Neither general anaesthetic affected immediate or long-term memory. We conclude that propofol impairs short-term memory postoperatively in children. © 2013 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  17. Postoperative changes in visual evoked potentials and cognitive function tests following sevoflurane anaesthesia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Iohom, G

    2012-02-03

    We tested the hypothesis that minor disturbance of the visual pathway persists following general anaesthesia even when clinical discharge criteria are met. To test this, we measured visual evoked potentials (VEPs) in 13 ASA I or II patients who did not receive any pre-anaesthetic medication and underwent sevoflurane anaesthesia. VEPs were recorded on four occasions, before anaesthesia and at 30, 60, and 90 min after emergence from anaesthesia. Patients completed visual analogue scales (VAS) for sedation and anxiety, a Trieger Dot Test (TDT) and a Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) immediately before each VEP recording. These results were compared using Student\\'s t-test. P<0.05 was considered significant. VEP latency was prolonged (P<0.001) and amplitude diminished (P<0.05) at 30, 60, and 90 min after emergence from anaesthesia, when VAS scores for sedation and anxiety, TDT, and DSST had returned to pre-anaesthetic levels.

  18. Comparison of Bispectral Index and Entropy values with electroencephalogram during surgical anaesthesia with sevoflurane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aho, A J; Kamata, K; Jäntti, V; Kulkas, A; Hagihira, S; Huhtala, H; Yli-Hankala, A

    2015-08-01

    Concomitantly recorded Bispectral Index® (BIS) and Entropy™ values sometimes show discordant trends during general anaesthesia. Previously, no attempt had been made to discover which EEG characteristics cause discrepancies between BIS and Entropy. We compared BIS and Entropy values, and analysed the changes in the raw EEG signal during surgical anaesthesia with sevoflurane. In this prospective, open-label study, 65 patients receiving general anaesthesia with sevoflurane were enrolled. BIS, Entropy and multichannel digital EEG were recorded. Concurrent BIS and State Entropy (SE) values were selected. Whenever BIS and SE values showed ≥10-unit disagreement for ≥60 s, the raw EEG signal was analysed both in time and frequency domain. A ≥10-unit disagreement ≥60 s was detected 428 times in 51 patients. These 428 episodes accounted for 5158 (11%) out of 45 918 analysed index pairs. During EEG burst suppression, SE was higher than BIS in 35 out of 49 episodes. During delta-theta dominance, BIS was higher than SE in 141 out of 157 episodes. During alpha or beta activity, SE was higher than BIS in all 49 episodes. During electrocautery, both BIS and SE changed, sometimes in the opposite direction, but returned to baseline values after electrocautery. Electromyography caused index disagreement four times (BIS > SE). Certain specific EEG patterns, and artifacts, are associated with discrepancies between BIS and SE. Time and frequency domain analyses of the original EEG improve the interpretation of studies involving BIS, Entropy and other EEG-based indices. NCT01077674. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Reversal of profound vecuronium-induced neuromuscular block under sevoflurane anesthesia: sugammadex versus neostigmine.

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    Lemmens Hendrikus JM

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors cannot rapidly reverse profound neuromuscular block. Sugammadex, a selective relaxant binding agent, reverses the effects of rocuronium and vecuronium by encapsulation. This study assessed the efficacy of sugammadex compared with neostigmine in reversal of profound vecuronium-induced neuromuscular block under sevoflurane anesthesia. Methods Patients aged ≥18 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists class 1-4, scheduled to undergo surgery under general anesthesia were enrolled in this phase III, multicenter, randomized, safety-assessor blinded study. Sevoflurane anesthetized patients received vecuronium 0.1 mg/kg for intubation, with maintenance doses of 0.015 mg/kg as required. Patients were randomized to receive sugammadex 4 mg/kg or neostigmine 70 μg/kg with glycopyrrolate 14 μg/kg at 1-2 post-tetanic counts. The primary efficacy variable was time from start of study drug administration to recovery of the train-of-four ratio to 0.9. Safety assessments included physical examination, laboratory data, vital signs, and adverse events. Results Eighty three patients were included in the intent-to-treat population (sugammadex, n = 47; neostigmine, n = 36. Geometric mean time to recovery of the train-of-four ratio to 0.9 was 15-fold faster with sugammadex (4.5 minutes compared with neostigmine (66.2 minutes; p Conclusions Recovery from profound vecuronium-induced block is significantly faster with sugammadex, compared with neostigmine. Neostigmine did not rapidly reverse profound neuromuscular block (Trial registration number: NCT00473694.

  20. Impact of age on both BIS values and EEG bispectrum during anaesthesia with sevoflurane in children.

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    Wodey, E; Tirel, O; Bansard, J Y; Terrier, A; Chanavaz, C; Harris, R; Ecoffey, C; Senhadji, L

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential relationship between age, BIS (Aspect), and the EEG bispectrum during anaesthesia with sevoflurane. BIS and raw EEG were recorded at a steady state of 1 MAC in 100 children, and during a decrease from 2 to 0.5 MAC in a sub-group of 29 children. The bispectrum of the EEG was estimated using MATLAB software. For analysis, the bispectrum was divided into 36 frequencies of coupling (P(i))--the MatBis. A multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) was used to establish an underlying structure of the pattern of each individual's MatBis at 1 MAC. Clustering of children into homogeneous groups was conducted by a hierarchical ascending classification (HAC). The level of statistical significance was set at 0.05. At 1 MAC, the BIS values for all children ranged from 20 to 74 (median 40). Projection of both age and BIS value recorded at 1 MAC onto the structured model of the MCA showed them to be distributed along the same axis, demonstrating that the different values of BIS obtained in younger or older children are mainly dependent on their MatBis. At 1 MAC, six homogeneous groups of children were obtained through the HAC. Groups 5 (30 months; range 23-49) and 6 (18 months; range 6-180) were the younger children and Group 1 (97 months; range 46-162) the older. Groups 5 and 6 had the highest median values of BIS (54; range 50-59) (55; range 26-74) and Group 1 the lowest values (29; range 22-37). The EEG bispectrum, as well as the BIS appeared to be strongly related to the age of children at 1 MAC sevoflurane.

  1. Infarct-remodeled myocardium is receptive to protection by isoflurane postconditioning: role of protein kinase B/Akt signaling.

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    Feng, Jianhua; Fischer, Gregor; Lucchinetti, Eliana; Zhu, Min; Bestmann, Lukas; Jegger, David; Arras, Margarete; Pasch, Thomas; Perriard, Jean-Claude; Schaub, Marcus C; Zaugg, Michael

    2006-05-01

    Postinfarct remodeled myocardium exhibits numerous structural and biochemical alterations. So far, it is unknown whether postconditioning elicited by volatile anesthetics can also provide protection in the remodeled myocardium. Myocardial infarct was induced in male Wistar rats by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Six weeks later, hearts were buffer-perfused and exposed to 40 min of ischemia followed by 90 min of reperfusion. Anesthetic postconditioning was induced by 15 min of 2.1 vol% isoflurane. In some experiments, LY294002 (15 microM), a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, was coadministered with isoflurane. Masson's trichrome staining, immunohistochemistry, Western blot analysis, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction served to confirm remodeling. In buffer-perfused hearts, functional recovery was recorded, and acute infarct size was measured using 1% triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining and lactate dehydrogenase release during reperfusion. Western blot analysis was used to determine phosphorylation of reperfusion injury salvage kinases including protein kinase B/Akt and its downstream targets after 15 min of reperfusion. Infarct hearts exhibited typical macroscopic and molecular changes of remodeling. Isoflurane postconditioning improved functional recovery and decreased acute infarct size, as determined by triphenyltetrazolium (35 +/- 5% in unprotected hearts vs. 8 +/- 3% in anesthetic postconditioning; P protection was abolished by LY294002, which inhibited phosphorylation of protein kinase B/Akt and its downstream targets glycogen synthase kinase 3beta, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and p70S6 kinase. Infarct-remodeled myocardium is receptive to protection by isoflurane postconditioning via protein kinase B/Akt signaling. This is the first time to demonstrate that anesthetic postconditioning retains its marked protection in diseased myocardium.

  2. Effect of detomidine or romifidine constant rate infusion on plasma lactate concentration and inhalant requirements during isoflurane anaesthesia in horses.

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    Niimura Del Barrio, M C; Bennett, Rachel C; Hughes, J M Lynne

    2017-05-01

    Influence of detomidine or romifidine constant rate infusion (CRI) on plasma lactate concentration and isoflurane requirements in horses undergoing elective surgery. Prospective, randomised, blinded, clinical trial. A total of 24 adult healthy horses. All horses were administered intramuscular acepromazine (0.02 mg kg -1 ) and either intravenous detomidine (0.02 mg kg -1 ) (group D), romifidine (0.08 mg kg -1 ) (group R) or xylazine (1.0 mg kg -1 ) (group C) prior to anaesthesia. Group D was administered detomidine CRI (10 μg kg -1 hour -1 ) in lactated Ringer's solution (LRS), group R romifidine CRI (40 μg kg -1 hour -1 ) in LRS and group C an equivalent amount of LRS intraoperatively. Anaesthesia was induced with ketamine and diazepam and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. Plasma lactate samples were taken prior to anaesthesia (baseline), intraoperatively (three samples at 30 minute intervals) and in recovery (at 10 minutes, once standing and 3 hours after end of anaesthesia). End-tidal isoflurane percentage (Fe'Iso) was analysed by allocating values into three periods: Prep (15 minutes after the start anaesthesia-start surgery); Surgery 1 (start surgery-30 minutes later); and Surgery 2 (end Surgery 1-end anaesthesia). A linear mixed model was used to analyse the data. A value of pdetomidine or romifidine CRI in horses did not result in a clinically significant increase in plasma lactate compared with control group. Detomidine and romifidine infusions decreased isoflurane requirements during surgery. Copyright © 2017 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of fentanyl target-controlled infusions on isoflurane minimum anaesthetic concentration and cardiovascular function in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis).

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    Pavez, Juan C; Hawkins, Michelle G; Pascoe, Peter J; Knych, Heather K DiMaio; Kass, Philip H

    2011-07-01

    To determine the impact of three different target plasma concentrations of fentanyl on the minimum anaesthetic concentration (MAC) for isoflurane in the red-tailed hawk and the effects on the haemodynamic profile. Experimental study. Six healthy adult red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) of unknown sex with body weights (mean ± SD) of 1.21 ± 0.15 kg. This study was undertaken in two phases. In the first phase anaesthesia was induced with isoflurane in oxygen via facemask and maintained with isoflurane delivered in oxygen via a Bain circuit. Following instrumentation baseline determination of the MAC for isoflurane was made for each animal using the bracketing method and a supramaximal electrical stimulus. End-tidal isoflurane concentration (E'Iso) was then set at 0.75 × MAC and after an appropriate equilibration period a bolus of fentanyl (20 μg kg(-1)) was administered intravenously (IV) in order to determine the pharmacokinetics of fentanyl in the isoflurane-anaesthetized red-tailed hawk. During the second phase anaesthesia was induced in a similar manner and E'Iso was set at 0.75 × MAC for each individual. Fentanyl was infused IV to achieve target plasma concentrations between 8 and 32 ng mL(-1). At each fentanyl plasma concentration, the MAC for isoflurane and cardiovascular variables were determined. Data were analyzed by use of repeated-measures anova. Mean ± SD fentanyl plasma concentrations and isoflurane MACs were 0 ± 0, 8.51 ± 4, 14.85 ± 4.82 and 29.25 ± 11.52 ng mL(-1), and 2.05 ± 0.45%, 1.42 ± 0.53%, 1.14 ± 0.31% and 0.93 ± 0.32% for the target concentrations of 0, 8, 16 and 32 ng mL(-1), respectively. At these concentrations fentanyl significantly (p = 0.0016) decreased isoflurane MAC by 31%, 44% and 55%, respectively. Dose had no significant effect on heart rate, systolic, diastolic or mean arterial blood pressure. Fentanyl produced a dose-related decrease of isoflurane MAC with minimal effects on measured cardiovascular parameters in

  4. Comparison of the isoflurane concentration of using dexketoprofen or methadone at premedication during orthopedic surgery in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Calvo, Rocío; Gutiérrez-Bautista, Álvaro J; Granados, María M; Domínguez, Juan M; Fernández-Sarmiento, J Andrés; Quirós-Carmona, Setefilla; Morgaz, J

    2016-04-01

    Thirty-two dogs were used in this prospective, randomized, clinical and double-blinded study. Dexmedetomidine was administered at 1 μg/kg IV, and randomly each dog received dexketoprofen 1 mg/kg IV (group DK) or methadone 0.2 mg/kg IV (group M). Dogs were induced with propofol and maintained with isoflurane in 100% oxygen. During surgery, the isoflurane concentration was changed depending on clinical signs of depth of anesthesia. Fentanyl and propofol could be used as required. Qualities of sedation and recovery were evaluated. A generalized linear mixed model or Mann-Whiney U test was used, and Pdexketoprofen at 1 mg/kg IV at premedication required a similar isoflurane concentration to maintain anesthesia as methadone at 0.2 mg/kg IV during orthopedic surgery in dogs. Further analgesia is recommended intraoperatively, because of the need of fentanyl and propofol in same animals in both groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of the Cerebral State Index in Cats under Isoflurane Anaesthesia: Dose-Effect Relationship and Prediction of Clinical Signs

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    Joana R. Sousa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of the cerebral state index (CSI in reflecting different levels of isoflurane anaesthesia was evaluated in ten cats subjected to four end-tidal isoflurane concentrations (EtIso, each maintained for 15 minutes (0.8%, 1.2%, 1.6%, or 2.0% EtIso. The CSI, hemodynamic data, ocular reflexes, and eye position were recorded for each EtIso concentration. Pharmacodynamic analysis of CSI with EtIso was performed, as well as prediction probability analysis with a clinical scale based on the eye reflexes. The CSI values showed great variability. Between all parameters, burst suppression ratio showed the better fitting with the sigmoidal concentration-effect model (R2=0.93 followed by CSI (R2=0.82 and electromyographic activity (R2=0.79. EtIso was the variable with better prediction of the clinical scale of anaesthesia (prediction probability value of 0.94. Although the CSI values decrease with increasing isoflurane concentrations, the huge variability in CSI values may be a strong limitation for its use in cats and it seems to be no better than EtIso as a predictor of clinical signs.

  6. Validation of the bispectral index as an indicator of anesthetic depth in Thoroughbred horses anesthetized with sevoflurane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokushige, Hirotaka; Kakizaki, Masashi; Ode, Hirotaka; Okano, Atsushi; Okada, Jun; Kuroda, Taisuke; Wakuno, Ai; Ohta, Minoru

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the bispectral index (BIS) as an indicator of anesthetic depth in Thoroughbred horses, BIS values were measured at multiple stages of sevoflurane anesthesia in five horses anesthetized with guaifenesin and thiopental following premedication with xylazine. There was no significant difference between the BIS values recorded at end-tidal sevoflurane concentrations of 2.8% (median 60 ranging from 47 to 68) and 3.5% (median 71 ranging from 49 to 82) in anesthetized horses. These BIS values during anesthesia were significantly lower (Phorses (median 98 ranging from 98 to 98) or sedated horses (median 92 ranging from 80 to 93). During the recovery phase, the BIS values gradually increased over time but did not significantly increase until the horses showed movement. In conclusion, the BIS value could be useful as an indicator of awakening during the recovery period in horses, as previous reported.

  7. Evaluation of optimum time for intravenous cannulation after sevoflurane induction of anesthesia in different pediatric age groups.

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    Kumar, Kanil Ranjith; Sinha, Renu; Chandiran, Ravindran; Pandey, Ravinder Kumar; Darlong, Vanlal; Chandralekha

    2017-01-01

    The ideal time for intravenous (IV) cannulation following inhalational induction in children is debatable. The effect of age on this time has not been studied. We evaluated the optimum time for IV cannulation after sevoflurane induction of anesthesia in different pediatric age groups. A prospective interventional study based on Dixon's sequential up and down method was conducted in children of age 1-10 years. They were grouped according to their age - Group 1: 1-3 years, Group 2: >3-7 years, and Group 3: >7-10 years. Anesthesia was induced with 8% sevoflurane in 5 L of 100% oxygen. IV cannulation was attempted at 3.5 min in the first child in each group. The time for cannulation in the next child was stepped up or down by 30 s depending on positive or negative response, respectively, in the previous child. Children were recruited till a minimum of six pairs of failure-success sequence which was obtained in each group. The mean of midpoints of the failure-success sequence was calculated to obtain the time for cannulation in 50% of the children in each group. Total number of children in Groups 1, 2, and 3 were 24, 23, and 24, respectively. The mean (95% confidence level) time for IV cannulation after sevoflurane induction in Groups 1, 2, and 3 was 53.6 (40.0-67.1), 105 (62.6-147.4), and 143.6 (108.8-178.4) s, respectively. This time was significantly shorter in Group 1 compared to those in Groups 2 and 3. The optimum time for IV cannulation in 50% of the children after sevoflurane induction of anesthesia was shorter in children of age 1-3 years than in older children.

  8. Effects of constant rate infusions of dexmedetomidine or MK-467 on the minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hector, Rachel C; Rezende, Marlis L; Mama, Khursheed R; Steffey, Eugene P; Knych, Heather K; Hess, Ann M; Honkavaara, Juhana M; Raekallio, Marja R; Vainio, Outi M

    2017-07-01

    To determine the effects of low and high dose infusions of dexmedetomidine and a peripheral α 2 -adrenoceptor antagonist, MK-467, on sevoflurane minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) in dogs. Crossover experimental study. Six healthy, adult Beagle dogs weighing 12.6±0.9 kg (mean±standard deviation). Dogs were anesthetized with sevoflurane in oxygen. After a 60-minute instrumentation and equilibration period, the MAC of sevoflurane was determined in triplicate using the tail clamp technique. PaCO 2 and temperature were maintained at 40±5 mmHg (5.3±0.7 kPa) and 38±0.5 ºC, respectively. After baseline MAC determination, dogs were administered two incremental loading and infusion doses of either dexmedetomidine (1.5 μg kg -1 then 1.5 μg kg -1  hour -1 and 4.5 μg kg -1 then 4.5 μg kg -1  hour -1 ) or MK-467 (90 μg kg -1 then 90 μg kg -1  hour -1 and 180 μg kg -1 then 180 μg kg -1  hour -1 ); loading doses were administered over 10 minutes. MAC was redetermined in duplicate starting 30 minutes after the start of drug administration at each dose. End-tidal sevoflurane concentrations were corrected for calibration and adjusted to sea level. A repeated-measures analysis was performed and comparisons between doses were conducted using Tukey's method. Statistical significance was considered at pbenefits of the addition of a peripheral α 2 -adrenergic antagonist to inhalation anesthesia in dogs. Copyright © 2017 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Monitoring of cerebral blood flow autoregulation in adults undergoing sevoflurane anesthesia: a prospective cohort study of two age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goettel, Nicolai; Patet, Camille; Rossi, Ariane; Burkhart, Christoph S; Czosnyka, Marek; Strebel, Stephan P; Steiner, Luzius A

    2016-06-01

    Autoregulation of blood flow is a key feature of the human cerebral vascular system to assure adequate oxygenation and metabolism of the brain under changing physiological conditions. The impact of advanced age and anesthesia on cerebral autoregulation remains unclear. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of sevoflurane anesthesia on cerebral autoregulation in two different age groups. This is a follow-up analysis of data acquired in a prospective observational cohort study. One hundred thirty-three patients aged 18-40 and ≥65 years scheduled for major noncardiac surgery under general anesthesia were included. Cerebral autoregulation indices, limits, and ranges were compared in young and elderly patient groups. Forty-nine patients (37 %) aged 18-40 years and 84 patients (63 %) aged ≥65 years were included in the study. Age-adjusted minimum alveolar concentrations of sevoflurane were 0.89 ± 0.07 in young and 0.99 ± 0.14 in older subjects (P blood pressure range of 13.8 ± 9.8 mmHg in young and 10.2 ± 8.6 mmHg in older patients (P = 0.079). The lower limit of autoregulation was 66 ± 12 mmHg and 73 ± 14 mmHg in young and older patients, respectively (P = 0.075). The association between sevoflurane concentrations and autoregulatory capacity was similar in both age groups. Our data suggests that the autoregulatory plateau is shortened in both young and older patients under sevoflurane anesthesia with approximately 1 MAC. Lower and upper limits of cerebral blood flow autoregulation, as well as the autoregulatory range, are not influenced by the age of anesthetized patients. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00512200).

  10. Cost Minimization Analysis of Hypnotic Drug: Target Controlled Inhalation Anesthesia (TCIA Sevoflurane and Target Controlled Infusion (TCI Propofol

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    Made Wiryana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cost minimization analysis is a pharmaco-economic study used to compare two or more health interventions that have been shown to have the same effect, similar or equivalent. With limited health insurance budget from the Indonesian National Social Security System implementation in 2015, the quality control and the drug cost are two important things that need to be focused. The application of pharmaco-economic study results in the selection and use of drugs more effectively and efficiently. Objective: To determine cost minimization analysis of hypnotic drug between a target controlled inhalation anesthesia (TCIA sevoflurane and a target controlled infusion (TCI propofol in patients underwent a major oncologic surgery in Sanglah General Hospital. Methods: Sixty ASA physical status I-II patients underwent major oncologic surgery were divided into two groups. Group A was using TCIA sevoflurane and group B using TCI propofol. Bispectral index monitor (BIS index was used to evaluate the depth of anesthesia. The statistical tests used are the Shapiro-Wilk test, Lavene test, Mann-Whitney U test and unpaired t-test (α = 0.05. The data analysis used the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS for Windows. Results: In this study, the rate of drug used per unit time in group A was 0.12 ml sevoflurane per minute (± 0.03 and the group B was 7.25 mg propofol per minute (±0.98. Total cost of hypnotic drug in group A was IDR598.43 (IQR 112.47 per minute, in group B was IDR703.27 (IQR 156.73 per minute (p>0.05. Conclusions: There was no statistically significant difference from the analysis of the drug cost minimization hypnotic drug in a major oncologic surgery using TCIA sevoflurane and TCI propofol.

  11. Loss of Intralipid®- but not sevoflurane-mediated cardioprotection in early type-2 diabetic hearts of fructose-fed rats: importance of ROS signaling.

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    Phing-How Lou

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance and early type-2 diabetes are highly prevalent. However, it is unknown whether Intralipid® and sevoflurane protect the early diabetic heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury.Early type-2 diabetic hearts from Sprague-Dawley rats fed for 6 weeks with fructose were exposed to 15 min of ischemia and 30 min of reperfusion. Intralipid® (1% was administered at the onset of reperfusion. Peri-ischemic sevoflurane (2 vol.-% served as alternative protection strategy. Recovery of left ventricular function was recorded and the activation of Akt and ERK 1/2 was monitored. Mitochondrial function was assessed by high-resolution respirometry and mitochondrial ROS production was measured by Amplex Red and aconitase activity assays. Acylcarnitine tissue content was measured and concentration-response curves of complex IV inhibition by palmitoylcarnitine were obtained.Intralipid® did not exert protection in early diabetic hearts, while sevoflurane improved functional recovery. Sevoflurane protection was abolished by concomitant administration of the ROS scavenger N-2-mercaptopropionyl glycine. Sevoflurane, but not Intralipid® produced protective ROS during reperfusion, which activated Akt. Intralipid® failed to inhibit respiratory complex IV, while sevoflurane inhibited complex I. Early diabetic hearts exhibited reduced carnitine-palmitoyl-transferase-1 activity, but palmitoylcarnitine could not rescue protection and enhance postischemic functional recovery. Cardiac mitochondria from early diabetic rats exhibited an increased content of subunit IV-2 of respiratory complex IV and of uncoupling protein-3.Early type-2 diabetic hearts lose complex IV-mediated protection by Intralipid® potentially due to a switch in complex IV subunit expression and increased mitochondrial uncoupling, but are amenable to complex I-mediated sevoflurane protection.

  12. Short- and long-term follow-up of intensive care unit patients after sedation with isoflurane and midazolam--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackey, Peter V; Martling, Claes-Roland; Carlswärd, Christine; Sundin, Orjan; Radell, Peter J

    2008-03-01

    To compare memories from the intensive care unit (ICU) and short- and long-term psychological morbidity in patients after sedation with intravenous midazolam or inhaled isoflurane. Prospective long-term follow-up after randomized controlled trial. General ICU at Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Stockholm. Forty patients in need of sedation during ventilator treatment. Patients were randomized to receive isoflurane or midazolam for goal-directed sedation until extubation or for a maximum of 96 hrs. For short-term follow-up, doctors', nurses', and physiotherapists' notes from the 4 days following exposure to the study drugs were reviewed for words indicating adequate or pathologic cognitive and psychological recovery. For long-term follow-up, all 6-month survivors received questionnaires including the ICU Memory Tool (ICU-MT), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Impact of Event Scale (IES), and Well-Being Index. Additionally, several screening questions for previous posttraumatic stress symptoms were included. In the short term follow-up, no significant differences were found between groups. In the long-term follow-up, a trend toward fewer hallucinations/delusions after isoflurane sedation than after midazolam (two of ten isoflurane patients vs. five of seven midazolam patients) was found (p = .06). None of the five solely isoflurane-sedated patients reported hallucinations/delusions from the ICU. There was no difference in groups in long-term psychological morbidity as measured with HADS and IES. Memories of negative feelings in the ICU (ICU-MT) were associated with high HADS and IES scores (Fisher's exact test, p = .02 and p = .01, respectively). Sedation of ICU patients with isoflurane may result in fewer delusional memories or hallucinations from the ICU compared with more commonly used intravenous sedation. Memories of negative feelings from the ICU were associated with symptoms of depression or anxiety or symptoms indicating posttraumatic stress

  13. Effects of Fentanyl on Emergence Agitation in Children under Sevoflurane Anesthesia: Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei; Zhou, Qin; Yang, Peng; Huang, Xiongqing

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives The goal of this meta-analysis study was to assess the effects of fentanyl on emergence agitation (EA) under sevoflurane anesthesia in children. Subjects and Methods We searched electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) for articles published until December 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed the effects of fentanyl and placebo on EA under sevoflurane anesthesia in children that the outcome were the incidence of EA, postoperative pain, emergence time or adverse effects were included in this meta-analysis. Results A total of 16 studies, including 1362 patients (737 patients for the fentanyl group and 625 for the placebo group), were evaluated in final analysis. We found that administration of fentanyl decreased the incidences of EA (RR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.27~0.49, Pfentanyl decreases the incidence of EA under sevoflurane anesthesia in children and postoperative pain, but has a higher incidence of PONV. Considering the inherent limitations of the included studies, more RCTs with extensive follow-up should be performed to validate our findings in the future. PMID:26275039

  14. The effect of maropitant on intraoperative isoflurane requirements and postoperative nausea and vomiting in dogs: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swallow, Adam; Rioja, Eva; Elmer, Tim; Dugdale, Alex

    2017-07-01

    To establish if preoperative maropitant significantly reduced intraoperative isoflurane requirements and reduced clinical signs associated with postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in dogs. Randomized clinical trial. Twenty-four healthy, client-owned dogs undergoing routine ovariohysterectomy. Premedication involved acepromazine (0.03 mg kg -1 ) combined with methadone (0.3 mg kg -1 ) intramuscularly 45 minutes before anaesthetic induction with intravenous (IV) propofol, dosed to effect. Meloxicam (0.2 mg kg -1 ) was administered intravenously. Dogs were randomly assigned to administration of saline (group S; 0.1 mL kg -1 , n=12) or maropitant (group M; 1 mg kg -1 , n=12) subcutaneously at time of premedication. Methadone (0.1 mg kg -1 IV) was repeated 4 hours later. Anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in oxygen, dosed to effect by an observer unaware of group allocation. The dogs were assessed hourly, starting 1 hour postoperatively, using the short form of the Glasgow Composite Pain Score (GCPS), and for ptyalism and signs attributable to PONV [score from 0 (none) to 3 (severe)] by blinded observers. Owners completed a questionnaire at the postoperative recheck. Overall mean±standard deviation end-tidal isoflurane percentage was lower in group M (1.19±0.26%) than group S (1.44±0.23%) (p=0.022), but was not significantly different between groups at specific noxious events (skin incision, ovarian pedicle clamp application, cervical clamp application, wound closure). Cardiorespiratory variables and postoperative GCPS were not significantly different between groups. Overall, 50% of dogs displayed signs attributable to PONV, with no difference in PONV scores between groups (p=0.198). No difference in anaesthetic recovery was noted by owners between groups. Maropitant reduced overall intraoperative isoflurane requirements but did not affect the incidence of PONV. Maropitant provided no significant benefits to dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy

  15. Effect of Butorphanol on Anaesthesia Induction by Isoflurane in the Green Iguana (Iguana iguana

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    Š. Trnková

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 10 clinically healthy green iguanas (5 males and 5 females, body weight ranging from 1 350 to 2 770 g were given butorphanol by intramuscular injection following 24 h fasting. Inhalation anaesthesia was administered by mask (5% isoflurane with oxygen, 1.0 l/min, once reactions to external stimuli had decreased (15.45 ± 1.54 min later. Tracheal intubation was performed as soon as the iguanas exhibited complete tolerance to mechanical stimuli. A second study was performed 4 weeks later using the same green iguanas with no pre-medication. Marked individual reactions to masking were observed during both experiments. Some iguanas exhibited breath holding which prolonged anaesthetic induction. Physical stimulation was used in these cases in order to stimulate spontaneous breathing. The mean anaesthetic induction time was similar in both groups of green iguanas (4.34 ± 0.47 and 4.93 ± 0.88 min. There was also a comparable interval from masking to safe tracheal intubation in both experimental groups (15.21 ± 4.26 and 14.31 ± 1.39 min. In view of the results, pre-medication with butorphanol cannot be considered an effective method of anaesthetic induction in green iguanas.

  16. Brainstem stimulation increases functional connectivity of basal forebrain-paralimbic network in isoflurane-anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Siveshigan; Liu, Xiping; Baracskay, Péter; Hudetz, Anthony G

    2014-09-01

    Brain states and cognitive-behavioral functions are precisely controlled by subcortical neuromodulatory networks. Manipulating key components of the ascending arousal system (AAS), via deep-brain stimulation, may help facilitate global arousal in anesthetized animals. Here we test the hypothesis that electrical stimulation of the oral part of the pontine reticular nucleus (PnO) under light isoflurane anesthesia, associated with loss of consciousness, leads to cortical desynchronization and specific changes in blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) functional connectivity (FC) of the brain. BOLD signals were acquired simultaneously with frontal epidural electroencephalogram before and after PnO stimulation. Whole-brain FC was mapped using correlation analysis with seeds in major centers of the AAS. PnO stimulation produced cortical desynchronization, a decrease in δ- and θ-band power, and an increase in approximate entropy. Significant increases in FC after PnO stimulation occurred between the left nucleus Basalis of Meynert (NBM) as seed and numerous regions of the paralimbic network. Smaller increases in FC were present between the central medial thalamic nucleus and retrosplenium seeds and the left caudate putamen and NBM. The results suggest that, during light anesthesia, PnO stimulation preferentially modulates basal forebrain-paralimbic networks. We speculate that this may be a reflection of disconnected awareness.

  17. Simulated use of premixed 0.25% isoflurane in 50% nitrous oxide and 50% oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J A; Tunstall, M E

    2002-12-01

    Isoflurane (0.25%) in premixed nitrous oxide and oxygen, 50/50, v/v (IN(2)O), has been suggested for pain relief in labour. Possible phase separation of the mixture was studied during simulated administration. A sinusoidal pump set at stroke volume of 2 litres and a rate of 20-22 bpm and cycling for 1 min in three was used to simulate breathing during the painful contractions of labour. The temperature inside a 10-litre capacity cylinder did not drecrease sufficiently to cause separation of the gas mixture. Temperature in the demand valve decreased to -15.5 degrees C and this caused a small amount of liquid formation within the valve. Accordingly, the inspired concentration during the first breath of mixture in a cycle could be transiently as high as 0.55%. The concentration observed at the patient connection after the first breath varied between 0.17 and 0.28%. The system delivered a clinically acceptable performance although further development to avoid liquid condensation is needed.

  18. NIR studies of cholesterol-dependent structural modification of the model lipid bilayer doped with inhalation anesthetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuć, Marta; Cieślik-Boczula, Katarzyna; Rospenk, Maria

    2018-06-01

    The influence of cholesterol on the structure of the model lipid bilayers treated with inhalation anesthetics (enflurane, isoflurane, sevoflurane and halothane) was investigated employing near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The conformational changes occurring in the hydrophobic area of the lipid bilayers were analyzed using the first overtones of symmetric (2νs) and antisymmetric (2νas) stretching vibrations of the CH2 groups of lipid aliphatic chains. The temperature values of chain-melting phase transition (Tm) of anesthetic-mixed dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC)/cholesterol and dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG)/cholesterol membranes, which were obtained from the PCA analysis, were compared with cholesterol-free DPPC and DPPG bilayers mixed with inhalation anesthetics.

  19. The effect of cerebral monitoring on recovery after sevoflurane anesthesia in ambulatory setting in children: A comparison among bispectral index, A-line autoregressive index, and standard practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Wei Liao

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: BIS- and AAI- guided titration sevoflurane anesthesia could result in shortened recovery and reduced sevoflurane concentration and consumption without affecting the quality of recovery in children receiving ambulatory urologic surgery. The beneficial effects of AAI- and BIS-guided anesthesia in pediatric ambulatory surgeries are similar.

  20. Perbandingan antara Sevofluran dan Propofol Menggunakan Total Intravenous Anesthesia Target Controlled Infusion terhadap Waktu Pulih Sadar dan Pemulangan Pasien pada Ekstirpasi Fibroadenoma Payudara

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    Arvianto

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA with propofol is increasingly used, because it is easy to control, has rapid onset, short duration, minimal adverse effects, and rapid recovery of the psychomotor and cognitive functions. This study was conducted to compare the emergence and discharge time between patients receiving sevoflurane and propofol with TCI. A single blind randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 36 female patients aged 18–65 years with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA physical status I–II, who underwent breast fibroadenoma extirpation biopsy at the outpatient surgical unit in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung. The subjects were randomized and divided into two groups: sevoflurane group receiving inhalation anesthesia with sevoflurane and target controlled infusion (TCI group receiving propofol TCI Schnider’s Effect Concentration (ec. The mergence time and discharge time were recorded for each group and analysis was performed using Mann Whitney test, t-test and chi-square/Fisher’s exact with 95% confidence interval. This study showed that the emergence time in sevoflurane group and TCI group were 7.429±0.763 minutes and 9.356±2.331 minutes, respectively. The result showed that sevoflurane provides shorter emergence time while TIVA with TCI propofol provides shorter discharge time.

  1. Pathway-related modules involved in the application of sevoflurane or propofol in off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Xiangmei; Wang, Bo; Wang, Yaoqi; Wang, Zhigang; Gong, Chunzhi; Qi, Feng; Zhang, Caixia

    2017-07-01

    Off-pump coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery has recently emerged as a means to avoid the sequelae of extracorporeal circulation, including the whole-body inflammatory response, coagulation disorders and multiple organ dysfunction. At present, gas anesthesia, sevoflurane and intravenous anesthesia and propofol have been widely used during the CABG. To further understand the underlying mechanisms of these anesthetics on the gene level, the present study conducted pathway-related module analysis based on a co-expression network. This was performed in order to identify significant pathways in coronary artery disease patients who had undergone off-pump CABG surgery before and after applying sevoflurane or propofol. A total of 269 and 129 differentially expressed genes were obtained in the sevoflurane and propofol groups, respectively. In total, eight and seven pathways (P<0.05) in the sevoflurane and propofol groups were separately obtained via Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome pathway analysis. Finally, eight and seven pathway-related modules in the sevoflurane and propofol groups were obtained, respectively. Furthermore, the mean degree of complement and coagulation cascades pathway-related module in both of the groups was the highest. It was predicted that during the CABG, the anesthetics might activate the complement and coagulation systems in order to possess some cardioprotective properties.

  2. Comparison of Hemodynamic Changes during General Anesthesia with Low-dose Isoflurane or Propofol in Elderly Patients Undergoing Upper Femoral Surgery

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    Mir Mohammad Taghi Mortazavi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Surgery of upper part of femor in elderly patients can be due to the fracture of femoral neck, shaft and arthroplasty. Hemodynamic changes and complications of the anesthesia are among the major concerns. The aim of this study was to compare the hemodynamic changes in low dose isoflurane with propofol in upper femoral surgeries in elderly patients. Methods: This prospective clinical trial study was done on 60 patients over 65 year-old elderly patients with ASA physical status of I and II that were candidate for upper femoral surgery in two groups (inhalational: isoflurane 0.5-0.6 MAC and (total intravenous anesthesia with propofol 50-100 mic/kg/min. Hemodynamic changes were compared in these groups with the same anesthetic depth (HR-SBP-DBP-MBP-SaO₂. Results: There was no significant difference in heart rate, age or sex between two groups. In isoflurane group SBP on 20 and 25th minutes and DBP and MBP on 20, 25 and 35th minutes were significantly higher than propofol group. In propofol group SaO₂ was significantly more than isoflurane group on induction, start of surgery and on 5, 25, 35 and 45th minutes of surgery. Conclusion: In anesthesia with the same Bi-Spectral Index, isoflurane provides more stable hemodynamic parameters than propofol.

  3. Influência do gene halotano sobre a qualidade da carne suína Effect of the halothane gene on the quality of pork

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    Paulete de Oliveira Vargas Culau

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do gene halotano sobre as características de qualidade da carne suína. Foram utilizadas 151 carcaças de suínos híbridos comerciais, sendo 93 carcaças com genótipo halotano normal (HalNN, 51 heterozigotas (HalNn e 7 recessivas (Hal nn. As medidas efetuadas foram peso da carcaça, refletância através da fibra óptica GP4-Hennessy, temperatura muscular aos 45 minutos e pH aos 45 minutos e 24 horas após o abate no músculo Longissimus dorsi, cor e identificação do genótipo halotano em amostras de gordura através de PCR-RFLP. Houve diferença significativa entre suínos HalNn e HalNN e entre Hal nn e HalNN quanto ao pH inicial e a cor. Em relação à temperatura muscular e pH, final não houve diferença significativa entre os genótipos. A freqüência de carcaças PSE foi mais elevada nos suínos Hal nn e HalNn do que nos suínos HalNN (85,71; 58,82 e 36,56%, pelo pH inicial; 71,43; 47,06 e 17,20%, pela cor, respectivamente. A qualidade da carne de suínos Hal nn e HalNn foi inferior à de suínos HalNN, em termos de pH e cor.The aim of this research work was to evaluate the effect of the halothane gene on the quality characteristics of pork. Commercial hybrid pork carcasses (151 were used for the trial, 93 with normal halothane genotype (HalNN, 51 heterozygous genotype (HalNn and 7 homozigous recessive genotype (Hal nn. The measured attributes were carcass weight, muscle temperature at 45 minutes and pH at 45 minutes and 24 hours after the slaughter at the Longissimus dorsi muscle and color. Identification of the halothane genotype was determined in fat samples through the PCR-RLPC technique. Significant differences were observed between HalNn and HalNN and between Hal nn and HalNN pigs in relation to the inicial pH and color of the meat. The PSE carcasses frequency was greater in the Hal nn and in the HalNn pigs than in the HalNN (85.71, 58.82, and 36,56%, based on the initial pH; 71

  4. Central Hemodynamic Features in Elderly Patients During General Anesthesia with Sevoflurane

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    O.I. Petrov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to reduce the number of perioperative cardiovascular events in elderly patients during traditional cholecystectomy, by using anesthesia based on sevoflurane (SF and fentanyl (FL. Subjects and methods. Forty-eight patients aged 60 to 75 years, who were divided into 2 groups, operated on by a classical surgical technique for chronic calculous cholecystitis in the presence of concomitant coronary heart disease and essential hypertension, and had grade 3 surgical risk according to the classification of the Moscow Research Society of Anesthesiologists and Reanimatologists, were examined. Premedicaton was routine. The induction of anesthesia was as follows: intravenous propofol (PF (1.8±0.2 mg/kg and FL (2.2±0.4 mg/kg in Groups 1 and 2. General anesthesia (GA was maintained by SF (1.1±0.2 MAC and FL (2.4±0.4 jBg/kg/hr in Group 1 (n=25 and by PF (2.0—4.0 mg/kg/hr and FL (3.5±0.7 ^Bg/kg/hr in Group 2 (n=23. In both groups, mechanical ventilation was as follows: N2O:O2 = 2:1; air flow, 6 l/min. Myoplegia was rocuronium bromide (RB (0.075—0.1 mg/kg in Group 1 and RB (0.15 mg/kg in Group 2. Hemodynamics was studied during 5 stages of surgery. Results. Central hemodynamics (CH was rather stable in patients after GA with SF. Significant CH changes were noted only during the traumatic stage of surgery, which were less pronounced than those in patients following GA with PF. CH parameters returned gradually to the baseline values at the end of surgery and virtually to the background values after tracheal extubation. The patients under GA with PF showed significant CH changes at all stages of the study. Conclusion. Analysis of the systemic hemodynamic changes induced by the use of SF and PF suggests that GA with SF in elderly patients is more preferable than that in those with PF. Key words: sevoflurane, hemodynamics, elderly.

  5. Effect of method of euthanasia on sperm motility of mature Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutler, Shannon A; Johnson, Eric W; Still, Kenneth R; Schaeffer, David J; Hess, Rex A; Arfsten, Darryl P

    2007-03-01

    Euthanasia is one of the most commonly performed procedures in laboratory animal settings. The method of euthanasia may affect experimental results in studies using animals and must be compatible with research objectives including subsequent tissue analyses. Our present study was performed to evaluate the effects of 7 euthanasia methods on sperm motility in mature rats. Rats were euthanized using CO2, 2 commercially available euthanasia solutions (Beuthanasia-D and Sleepaway), and 4 volatile anesthetics (enflurane, halothane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane). Rats euthanized by rapid decapitation alone served as negative controls, and a-chlorohydrin-treated rats euthanized by rapid decapitation were positive controls for sperm impairment. For 5 of these methods, we also measured time to ataxia, recumbency, respiratory arrest, and no auscultable heartbeat. Immediately after euthanasia of each rat, distal caudal epididymides were removed; 1 was processed for automated sperm motility analysis, and the other was frozen for subsequent concentration analysis. Time to all measured parameters was less for volatile anesthetics than for Beuthanasia-D. Times to last respiration and no heartbeat were less for halothane and isoflurane than for enflurane and sevoflurane. Percentage motile sperm did not differ significantly between methods. Percentage progressively motile sperm did not vary significantly between methods except for Beuthanasia-D, for which it was significantly less than the negative control value. Specific sperm motion parameters for each euthanasia method except CO2 and Sleepaway varied significantly from the negative control. Our results indicate that the method of euthanasia is an important consideration when rat sperm motility parameters must be evaluated.

  6. Hipotermia dan Waktu Pemulihannya dalam Anestesi Gas Isofluran dengan Induksi Ketamin-Xylazin pada Anjing (HYPOTHERMIA AND ITS RECOVERY IN GAS ISOFLURANE ANESTHESIA WITH KETAMINE-XYLAZINE INDUCTION ON DOGS

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    Gagak Donny Satria

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The most common effect occurred during anaesthesia is the decrease of body temperature. Technologicaldevelopment has enabled the used the latest innovations in order to to increase the efficacy and the safetyof anaesthesia. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of ketamine-xylazine injection onhypothermia and its recovery at dog which anesthetized with isoflurane. Ten healthy dogs were dividedinto two groups with each group consisted offive dogs. In Group A, dogs were given premedication (atropinesulfate 0.04 mg/kg and then anaesthetized with isoflurane gas (4% for induction dose and 1% for themaintenance dose. In Group B dogs were given premedication atropine sulfate (0.04 mg/kg and ketamineHCl induction solution (10 mg/kg mixed with xylazine HCl (2 mg/kg, and anaesthetized with isofluranegas (maintenance dose of 1%. Adaptation period was conducted in one week. Body temperature wasmeasured before, during, and after the duration of anaesthesia. The data was analyzed statistically by arepeated Anova test. This study found that the mean body temperature of dogs in Group A decreased from37,88±0,51 oC to 34,64±0,95 oC over a period of anaesthesia, and the recovery time was over 40 minutespost-anaesthesia. In Group B, body temperature decreased from 38.06±0.42 oC to 34.96±1.23 oC, and therecovery time was 90 minutes. In conclusion, the use of ketamine-xylazine in isoflurane anaesthesiaprocedures on dogs, would need post-anaesthesia preparation procedure regarding with hypothermia andits recovery.

  7. Effects of subanaesthetic and anaesthetic doses of sevoflurane on regional cerebral blood flow in healthy volunteers. A positron emission tomographic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlünzen, L; Vafaee, M S; Cold, G E

    2004-01-01

    in the thalamus. At the last level (0.4 MAC vs. 1 MAC) the rCBF was increased in the insula and decreased in the posterior cingulate, the lingual gyrus, precuneus and in the frontal cortex. CONCLUSION: At sevoflurane concentrations at 0.7% and 2.0% a significant decrease in relative rCBF was detected...... escalating doses using 0.4%, 0.7% and 2.0% end-tidal sevoflurane inhalation. During baseline and each of the three levels of anaesthesia one PET scan was performed after injection of . Cardiovascular and respiratory parameters were monitored and electroencephalography and bispectral index (BIS) were......BACKGROUND: We tested the hypothesis that escalating drug concentrations of sevoflurane are associated with a significant decline of cerebral blood flow in regions subserving conscious brain activity, including specifically the thalamus. METHODS: Nine healthy human volunteers received three...

  8. Relationships between the H and A-O blood types, phosphohexose isomerase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase red cell enzyme systems and halothane sensitivity, and economic traits in a superior and an inferior selection line of swiss landrace pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vögeli, P; Stranzinger, G; Schneebeli, H; Hagger, C; Künzi, N; Gerwig, C

    1984-12-01

    Associations between production traits and the genes for halothane sensitivity (HAL), S, A and H blood group systems and phosphohexose isomerase (PHI) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGD) enzyme systems were investigated in two lines of pigs selected for an index. The phenotypic variance-covariance matrix of the index included backfat thickness and daily gain, whereas the genetic variance-covariance matrix included daily gain, feed conversion and percentage of lean meat. The experiment was conducted at the experimental station of the Institute of Animal Production and has been underway since 1973. The same index was applied but in two opposite directions to give a superior and inferior line in relation to the production traits. One hundred twenty-nine animals of the superior line in the seventh generation and 88 animals of the inferior line in the sixth generation were studied. Forty-two percent (54/129) of the animals of the superior line were halothane-positive. No animals in the inferior line were halothane reactors. Of the halothane-positive pigs, 70.4% (38/54) in the superior line had the HaHa and 94.4% (51/54) had the SsSs genotype, whereas only 4% (3/75) of the HaHa and 12% (9/75) of the SsSs pigs were halothane-negative. By practicing selection at the H and S loci, it seems possible to efficiently reduce halothane sensitivity in Swiss Landrace pigs. In pigs of the superior line, there were significant differences in percentage of lean meat, carcass length, pH1 (pH value at 45 min to 1 h postmortem, M. longissimus) and reflectance values among genotypes of the HAL, S and H systems and among some genotypes of the 6-PGD system. Poorest meat quality, highest percentage of lean meat and shortest carcass length were observed in pigs homozygous for the alleles HALn, Ss, Ha, PHIB and 6-PGDA. In the inferior line, these associations were absent. As the HAL locus is associated with the above mentioned production traits, linkage disequilibria may explain the

  9. [Intraoperative pain stimuli change somatosensory evoked potentials, but not auditory evoked potentials during isoflurane/nitrous oxide anesthesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundshagen, I; Kochs, E; Bischoff, P; Schulte am Esch, J

    1997-10-01

    Evoked potentials are used for intraoperative monitoring to assess changes of cerebral function. This prospective randomised study assesses the influence of surgical stimulation on midlatency components of somatosensory (SEPs) and auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) in anaesthetised patients. After approval of the Ethics Committee and written informed consent 36 orthopaedic patients (34 +/- 15 y, 73 +/- 14 kg. 1.71 +/- 0.07 m, ASA I-II) were randomly included in the study. Anaesthesia was induced with 1.5 micrograms/kg fentanyl, 0.3 mg/kg etomidate and 0.1 mg/kg vecuronium. The lungs were intubated and patients normoventilated in steady state anaesthesia with isoflurane (end-tidal 0.6%) and 66% nitrous oxide. 18 patients (group 1) were assigned to the SEP group: median nerve stimulation, recording at Erb, C 6 and the contralateral somatosensory cortex (N20, P25, N35) vs Fz. AEPs were recorded in group 2 (n = 18): binaural stimulation, recording at Cz versus linked mastoid (V, Na, Pa, Nb). Recordings were performed during 30 min before the start of surgery (baseline: BL), at skin incision (SURG1) and at the preparation of the periost (SURG2). Heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, oxygen saturation, endtidal pCO2 and isoflurane (PetISO) concentrations were registered simultaneously. Data were analysed by one-way analysis of variance. Post hoc comparison were made by Mann-Whitney U-Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test with p beats/min) to SURG2 (76 +/- 12 beats/min). Increases of amplitudes of midlatency SEP amplitudes indicate increased nociceptive signal transmission which is not blunted by isoflurane-nitrous oxide anaesthesia. In contrast, unchanged AEPs indicate adequate levels of the hypnotic components of anaesthesia.

  10. Hemodynamic effects of 6% hydroxyethyl starch infusion in sevoflurane-anesthetized thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Minoru; Kurimoto, Shinjiro; Tokushige, Hirotaka; Kuroda, Taisuke; Ishikawa, Yuhiro

    2013-07-31

    To determine hemodynamic effects of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) infusion during anesthesia in horses, incremental doses of 6% HES were administered to 6 healthy Thoroughbred horses. Anesthesia was induced with xylazine, guaifenesin and thiopental and maintained with sevoflurane at 2.8% of end-tidal concentration in all horses. The horses were positioned in right lateral recumbency and administered 3 intravenous dose of 6% HES (5 ml/kg) over 15 min with 15-min intervals in addition to constant infusion of lactated Ringer's solution at 10 ml/kg/hr. Hemodynamic parameters were measured before and every 15 min until 90 min after the administration of 6% HES. There was no significant change in heart rate and arterial blood pressures throughout the experiment. The HES administration produced significant increases in mean right atrial pressure, stroke volume, cardiac output (CO) and decrease in systemic vascular resistance (SVR) in a dose-dependent manner. There was no significant change in electrolytes (Na(+), K(+), Cl(-)) throughout the experiment, however, packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration, and total protein and albumin concentrations decreased in a dose-dependent manner following the HES administration. In conclusion, the HES administration provides a dose-dependent increase in CO, but has no impact upon arterial blood pressures due to a simultaneous decrease in SVR.

  11. Isoflurane depolarizes bronchopulmonary C neurons by inhibiting transient A-type and delayed rectifier potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenxiong; Zhuang, Jianguo; Zhang, Cancan; Xu, Fadi

    2013-04-01

    Inhalation of isoflurane (ISO), a widely used volatile anesthetic, can produce clinical tachypnea. In dogs, this response is reportedly mediated by bronchopulmonary C-fibers (PCFs), but the relevant mechanisms remain unclear. Activation of transient A-type potassium current (IA) channels and delayed rectifier potassium current (IK) channels hyperpolarizes neurons, and inhibition of both channels by ISO increases neural firing. Due to the presence of these channels in the cell bodies of rat PCFs, we determined whether ISO could stimulate PCFs to produce tachypnea in anesthetized rats, and, if so, whether this response resulted from ISO-induced depolarization of the pulmonary C neurons via the inhibition of IA and IK. We recorded ventilatory responses to 5% ISO exposure in anesthetized rats before and after blocking PCF conduction and the responses of pulmonary C neurons (extracellularly recorded) to ISO exposure. ISO-induced (1mM) changes in pulmonary C neuron membrane potential and IA/IK were tested using the perforated patch clamp technique. We found that: (1) ISO inhalation evoked a brief tachypnea (∼7s) and that this response disappeared after blocking PCF conduction; (2) the ISO significantly elevated (by 138%) the firing rate of most pulmonary C neurons (17 out of 21) in the nodose ganglion; and (3) ISO perfusion depolarized the pulmonary C neurons in the vitro and inhibited both IA and IK, and this evoked-depolarization was largely diminished after blocking both IA and IK. Our results suggest that ISO is able to stimulate PCFs to elicit tachypnea in rats, at least partly, via inhibiting IA and IK, thereby depolarizing the pulmonary C neurons. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Effects of sevoflurane and clonidine on acid base status and long-term emotional and cognitive outcomes in spontaneously breathing rat pups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Almenrader

    Full Text Available Numerous experiments in rodents suggest a causative link between exposure to general anaesthetics during brain growth spurt and poor long-lasting neurological outcomes. Many of these studies have been questioned with regard of their translational value, mainly because of extremely long anaesthesia exposure. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the impact of a short sevoflurane anaesthesia, alone or combined with clonidine treatment, on respiratory function in spontaneously breathing rat pups and overall effects on long-lasting emotional and cognitive functions.At postnatal day (PND 7, male Sprague Dawley rat pups were randomized into four groups and exposed to sevoflurane for one hour, to a single dose of intraperitoneal clonidine or to a combination of both and compared to a control group. Blood gas analysis was performed at the end of sevoflurane anaesthesia and after 60 minutes from clonidine or saline injection. Emotional and cognitive outcomes were evaluated in different group of animals at infancy (PND12, adolescence (PND 30-40 and adulthood (PND 70-90.Rat pups exposed to either sevoflurane or to a combination of sevoflurane and clonidine developed severe hypercapnic acidosis, but maintained normal arterial oxygenation. Emotional and cognitive outcomes were not found altered in any of the behavioural task used either at infancy, adolescence or adulthood.Sixty minutes of sevoflurane anaesthesia in newborn rats, either alone or combined with clonidine, caused severe hypercapnic acidosis in spontaneously breathing rat pups, but was devoid of long-term behavioural dysfunctions in the present setting.

  13. Interaction between maropitant and carprofen on sparing of the minimum alveolar concentration for blunting adrenergic response (MAC-BAR) of sevoflurane in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Sho; Ooyama, Norihiko; Tamura, Jun; Umar, Mohammed Ahmed; Ishizuka, Tomohito; Itami, Takaharu; Miyoshi, Kenjiro; Sano, Tadashi; Yamashita, Kazuto

    2017-03-18

    Maropitant, a neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist, may provide analgesic effects by blocking pharmacological action of substance P. Carprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug commonly used for pain control in dogs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a combination of maropitant and carprofen on the minimum alveolar concentration for blunting adrenergic response (MAC-BAR) of sevoflurane in dogs. Six healthy adult beagle dogs were anesthetized with sevoflurane four times with a minimum of 7-day washout period. On each occasion, maropitant (1 mg/kg) alone, carprofen (4 mg/kg) alone, a combination of maropitant (1 mg/kg) and carprofen (4 mg/kg), or saline (0.1 ml/kg) was subcutaneously administered at 1 hr prior to the first electrical stimulation for the sevoflurane MAC-BAR determination. The sevoflurane MAC-BAR was significantly reduced by maropitant alone (2.88 ± 0.73%, P=0.010), carprofen alone (2.96 ± 0.38%, P=0.016) and the combination (2.81 ± 0.51%, P=0.0003), compared with saline (3.37 ± 0.56%). There was no significant difference in the percentage of MAC-BAR reductions between maropitant alone, carprofen alone and the combination. The administration of maropitant alone and carprofen alone produced clinically significant sparing effects on the sevoflurane MAC-BAR in dogs. However, the combination of maropitant and carprofen did not produce any additive effect on the sevoflurane MAC-BAR reduction. Anesthetic premedication with a combination of maropitant and carprofen may not provide any further sparing effect on anesthetic requirement in dogs.

  14. Optimization of initial propofol bolus dose for EEG Narcotrend Index-guided transition from sevoflurane induction to intravenous anesthesia in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennhardt, Nils; Boethig, Dietmar; Beck, Christiane; Heiderich, Sebastian; Boehne, Martin; Leffler, Andreas; Schultz, Barbara; Sümpelmann, Robert

    2017-04-01

    Sevoflurane induction followed by intravenous anesthesia is a widely used technique to combine the benefits of an easier and less traumatic venipuncture after sevoflurane inhalation with a recovery with less agitation, nausea, and vomiting after total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA). Combination of two different anesthetics may lead to unwanted burst suppression in the electroencephalogram (EEG) during the transition phase. The objective of this prospective clinical observational study was to identify the optimal initial propofol bolus dose for a smooth transition from sevoflurane induction to TIVA using the EEG Narcotrend Index (NI). Fifty children aged 1-8 years scheduled for elective pediatric surgery were studied. After sevoflurane induction and establishing of an intravenous access, a propofol bolus dose range 0-5 mg·kg -1 was administered at the attending anesthetist's discretion to maintain a NI between 20 and 64, and sevoflurane was stopped. Anesthesia was continued as TIVA with a propofol infusion dose of 15 mg·kg -1 ·h -1 for the first 15 min, followed by stepwise reduction according to McFarlan's pediatric infusion regime, and remifentanil 0.25 μg·kg -1 ·min -1 . Endtidal concentration of sevoflurane, NI, and hemodynamic data were recorded during the whole study period using a standardized case report form. Propofol plasma concentrations were calculated using the paedfusor dataset and a TIVA simulation program. Median endtidal concentration of sevoflurane at the time of administration of the propofol bolus was 5.1 [IQR 4.7-5.9] Vol%. The median propofol bolus dose was 1.2 [IQR 0.9-2.5] mg·kg -1 and median NI thereafter was 33 [IQR 23-40]. Nine children presented with a NI 13-20 and three children with burst suppression in the EEG (NI 0-12); all of them received an initial propofol bolus dose >2 mg·kg -1 . Regression equation demonstrated that NI 20-64 was achieved with a 95% probability when using a propofol bolus dose of 1 mg·kg -1 after

  15. Propofol for pediatric tracheal intubation with deep anesthesia during sevoflurane induction: dosing according to elapsed time for two age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politis, George D; Stemland, Christopher J; Balireddy, Ravi K; Brockhaus, Julie; Hughes, Kevin R; Goins, Matthew D; McMurry, Timothy L

    2014-02-01

    To determine, for two different age groups, the effect of duration of sevoflurane administration on the amount of propofol needed when performing tracheal intubation. Classic Dixon's Up-and-Down sequential method. University based operating rooms. 106 ASA physical status 1 and 2 patients aged one to 11 years. Patients were allocated to the 1-6 year (≥ 12 and age groups. Midazolam 0.5 mg/kg was given orally to the 1-6 year group, and all patients were induced with 8% dialed sevoflurane and 67% nitrous oxide (N2O), with N2O discontinued and sevoflurane dialed to 5% after one minute and 1.5 minutes for the younger and older age groups, respectively. Intravenous access was obtained and propofol was promptly administered. Propofol dose was determined according to age group and whether propofol was given 2-4, 4-6, or 6-8 minutes after the start of sevoflurane induction, with Dixon's Up and Down Method used separately for each specific age/time group. Tracheal intubation conditions one minute after propofol were evaluated. Isotonic regression determined propofol ED50 estimates for excellent tracheal intubation conditions, and linear regression determined the effect of propofol dose on change in systolic blood pressure (SBP). Estimated propofol ED50 doses for 1-6 year olds, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), were 1.48 mg/kg (0.80, 2.03), 0.00 mg/kg (0.00, 0.38), and 0.07 mg/kg (0.00, 0.68) in the 2-4, 4-6, and 6-8 minute groups, respectively, with estimated differences between the 2-4 minute group versus the 4-6 and 6-8 minute groups being 1.47 mg/kg (95% CI = 1.04, 2.06) and 1.41 mg/kg (95% CI = 0.74, 2.04), respectively. Estimated propofol ED50 doses for 6-11 year olds, with 95% CIs, were 2.35 mg/kg (1.97, 2.45) and 2.33 mg/kg (1.59, 2.45) in the 2-4 and 4-6 minute groups, respectively. Diminutions in SBP at one minute and two minutes after propofol administration were dose dependent for children 1-6 years of age, decreasing 5.3% and 8.1% for each 1 mg/kg of propofol

  16. The incidence of emergence delirium and risk factors following sevoflurane use in pediatric patients for day case surgery, Kingston, Jamaica

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    Rachel Gooden

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Emergence delirium is a distressing complication of the use of sevoflurane for general anesthesia. This study sought to determine the incidence of emergence delirium and risk factors in patients at a specialist pediatric hospital in Kingston, Jamaica. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, observational study including pediatric patients aged 3-10 years, ASA I and II, undergoing general anesthesia with sevoflurane for elective day-case procedures. Data collected included patients' level of anxiety pre-operatively using the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale, surgery performed, anesthetic duration and analgesics administered. Postoperatively, patients were assessed for emergence delirium, defined as agitation with non-purposeful movement, restlessness or thrashing; inconsolability and unresponsiveness to nursing and/or parental presence. The need for pharmacological treatment and post-operative complications related to emergence delirium episodes were also noted. Results: One hundred and forty-five (145 children were included, with emergence delirium occurring in 28 (19.3%. Emergence delirium episodes had a mean duration of 6.9±7.8 min, required pharmacologic intervention in 19 (67.8% children and were associated with a prolonged recovery time (49.4±11.9 versus 29.7± 10.8 min for non-agitated children; p<0.001. Factors positively associated with emergence delirium included younger age (p = 0.01, OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.2-8.6 and moderate and severe anxiety prior to induction (p <0.001, OR 5.6, 95% CI 2.3-13.0. Complications of emergence delirium included intravenous line removal (n = 1, and surgical site bleeding (n = 3. Conclusion: Children of younger age with greater preoperative anxiety are at increased risk of developing emergence delirium following general anesthesia with sevoflurane. The overall incidence of emergence delirium was 19%.

  17. Effect of fentanyl and lidocaine on the end-tidal sevoflurane concentration preventing motor movement in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Martin A; Seddighi, Reza; Egger, Christine M; Rohrbach, Barton W; Cox, Sherry K; KuKanich, Butch K; Doherty, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine effects of fentanyl, lidocaine, and a fentanyl-lidocaine combination on the minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane preventing motor movement (MAC NM ) in dogs. ANIMALS 6 adult Beagles. PROCEDURES Dogs were anesthetized with sevoflurane in oxygen 3 times (1-week intervals). Baseline MAC NM (MAC NM-B ) was determined starting 45 minutes after induction of anesthesia. Dogs then received 1 of 3 treatments IV: fentanyl (loading dose, 15 μg/kg; constant rate infusion [CRI], 6 μg/kg/h), lidocaine (loading dose, 2 mg/kg; CRI, 6 mg/kg/h), and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination at the same doses. Determination of treatment MAC NM (MAC NM-T ) was initiated 90 minutes after start of the CRI. Venous blood samples were collected at the time of each treatment MAC NM measurement for determination of plasma concentrations of fentanyl and lidocaine. RESULTS Mean ± SEM overall MAC NM-B for the 3 treatments was 2.70 ± 0.27 vol%. The MAC NM decreased from MAC NM-B to MAC NM-T by 39%, 21%, and 55% for fentanyl, lidocaine, and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination, respectively. This decrease differed significantly among treatments. Plasma fentanyl concentration was 3.25 and 2.94 ng/mL for fentanyl and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination, respectively. Plasma lidocaine concentration was 2,570 and 2,417 ng/mL for lidocaine and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination, respectively. Plasma fentanyl and lidocaine concentrations did not differ significantly between fentanyl and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination or between lidocaine and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE CRIs of fentanyl, lidocaine, and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination at the doses used were associated with clinically important and significant decreases in the MAC NM of sevoflurane in dogs.

  18. Quality and Safety of General Anesthesia with Propofol and Sevoflurane in Children Aged 1-14 Based on Laboratory Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanis-Vatrenjak, Selma; Mesic, Amira; Abdagic, Ines; Mujezinovic, Djenita; Zvizdic, Zlatan

    2015-08-01

    Knowledge of anatomic, physiological, biochemical and physical characteristics of children of all age groups, the existing illness and possible pathological response of the organism to the existing situation, require a pediatric anesthesiologist to participate in the preparation of a child for surgical treatment, to choose the best anesthesia technique and medications, and manipulative techniques to enable the scheduled surgical treatment with minimum anesthesia risks. The aim of this clinical study was to prove reliability and quality of propofol or sevoflurane general anesthesia in children in the age group of 1-14 years from the ASA I group and in the elective surgical treatments in duration of 60 minutes, based on preoperative and postoperative levels of laboratory findings (transaminases, blood sugar, urea and creatinine). the study included 160 patients randomized in two groups based on different approaches: total intravenous anesthesia was used for the propofol group (n=80) (TIVA) and the inhalation technique was used for the sevoflurane group (n=80). statistical evaluation of the obtained results indicates stability of laboratory findings in the immediate postoperative course (after 24 hours) in respect to the preoperative period. Based on the Mann Whitney test (P), preoperative and postoperative blood sugar levels in the sevoflurane vs. propofol group were P=0.152 vs. 0.021; creatinine levels P=0.113 vs. 0.325; urea levels P= 0.016 vs. 0.900; AST levels P=0,031 vs. 0,268 and ALT levels P=0.021 vs. 0.058. Level of significance was Psecurity and quality of general anesthesia in children age group 1-14 years, from the ASA I group. All analyzed laboratory levels in the postoperative course remained in their referential values in both groups of participants.

  19. Sevoflurane causes less arrhythmias than desflurane after off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting: A pilot study

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    Hemmerling Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Volatile anesthetics provide myocardial protection during cardiac surgery. Sevoflurane and desflurane are both efficient agents that allow immediate extubation after off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCABG. This study compared the incidence of arrhythmias after OPCABG with the two agents. Materials and Methods: Forty patients undergoing OPCABG with immediate extubation and perioperative high thoracic analgesia were included in this controlled, double-blind study; anesthesia was either provided using 1 MAC of sevoflurane (SEVO-group or desflurane (DES-group. Monitoring of perioperative arrhythmias was provided by continuous monitoring of the EKG up to 72 hours after surgery, and routine EKG monitoring once every day, until time of discharge. Patient data, perioperative arrhythmias, and myocardial protection (troponin I, CK, CK-MB-ratio, and transesophageal echocardiography examinations were compared using t-test, Fisher′s exact test or two-way analysis of variance for repeated measurements; P < 0.05. Results: Patient data and surgery-related data were similar between the two groups; all the patients were successfully extubated immediately after surgery, with similar emergence times. Supraventricular tachycardia occurred only in the DES-group (5 of 20 patients, atrial fibrillation was significantly more frequent in the DES group versus SEVO-group, at five out of 20 versus one out of 20 patients, respectively. Myocardial protection was equally achieved in both groups. Discussion: Ultra-fast track anesthesia using sevoflurane seems more advantageous than desflurane for anesthesia, for OPCABG, as it is associated with significantly less atrial fibrillation or supraventricular arrhythmias after surgery.

  20. End-tidal concentration of sevoflurane for preventing rocuronium-induced withdrawal of the arm in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Jong Hoon; Kim, Yong Oh; Lee, Jae Min; Jeon, Woo Jae

    2014-04-01

    During induction of general anesthesia, the intravenous injection of rocuronium is often associated with withdrawal movement of the arm due to pain, and this abrupt withdrawal may result in dislodgement of the venous catheter, injury, or inadequate injection of rocuronium. We performed this study to evaluate the 50 and 95% effective end-tidal concentrations of sevoflurane (ETsev) for preventing rocuronium-induced withdrawal of the arm. We conducted a prospective double-blind study in 31 pediatric patients. After free flow of lactated Ringer's IV fluid was confirmed, anesthesia was induced in the patients by using 2.5% thiopental sodium (4 mg/kg) and sevoflurane (4 vol%) with 6 L/min of oxygen. When the target ETsev was reached, preservative-free 1% lidocaine (1.5 mg/kg) was intravenously injected during manual venous occlusion and rocuronium (0.6 mg/kg) was injected after lidocaine injection under free-flow intravenous fluid. A nurse who was an investigator and was blinded to the ETsev injected the rocuronium. The nurse evaluated the response. Non-withdrawal movement was observed in 5 out of 11 patients with ETsev 3.0 vol% and in 5 out of 6 patients with ETsev 3.5 vol%. By Dixon's up-and-down method, the 50% effective concentration (EC50) of sevoflurane for non-withdrawal movement at rocuronium injection was 3.1 ± 0.4 vol%. A logistic regression curve of the probability of non-withdrawal movements showed that the 50% effective ETsev for abolishing withdrawal movement at rocuronium injection was 2.9 vol% (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.4-3.8 vol%) and the 95% effective ETsev was 4.3 vol% (95% CI 3.6-9.8 vol%). This study showed that the 50 and 95% effective ETsev that prevent withdrawal movement at rocuronium injection are 2.9 and 4.3 vol%, respectively.

  1. Xenon and sevoflurane provide analgesia during labor and fetal brain protection in a perinatal rat model of hypoxia-ischemia.

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    Ting Yang

    Full Text Available It is not possible to identify all pregnancies at risk of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE. Many women use some form of analgesia during childbirth and some anesthetic agents have been shown to be neuroprotective when used as analgesics at subanesthetic concentrations. In this study we sought to understand the effects of two anesthetic agents with presumptive analgesic activity and known preconditioning-neuroprotective properties (sevoflurane or xenon, in reducing hypoxia-induced brain damage in a model of intrauterine perinatal asphyxia. The analgesic and neuroprotective effects at subanesthetic levels of sevoflurane (0.35% or xenon (35% were tested in a rat model of intrauterine perinatal asphyxia. Analgesic effects were measured by assessing maternal behavior and spinal cord dorsal horn neuronal activation using c-Fos. In separate experiments, intrauterine fetal asphyxia was induced four hours after gas exposure; on post-insult day 3 apoptotic cell death was measured by caspase-3 immunostaining in hippocampal neurons and correlated with the number of viable neurons on postnatal day (PND 7. A separate cohort of pups was nurtured by a surrogate mother for 50 days when cognitive testing with Morris water maze was performed. Both anesthetic agents provided analgesia as reflected by a reduction in the number of stretching movements and decreased c-Fos expression in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Both agents also reduced the number of caspase-3 positive (apoptotic neurons and increased cell viability in the hippocampus at PND7. These acute histological changes were mirrored by improved cognitive function measured remotely after birth on PND 50 compared to control group. Subanesthetic doses of sevoflurane or xenon provided both analgesia and neuroprotection in this model of intrauterine perinatal asphyxia. These data suggest that anesthetic agents with neuroprotective properties may be effective in preventing HIE and should be

  2. Neuroprotective effect of bispectral index-guided fast-track anesthesia using sevoflurane combined with dexmedetomidine for intracranial aneurysm embolization

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    Chao-liang Tang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Dexmedetomidine has sedative, anxiolytic, analgesic, anti-sympathetic, and anti-shivering effects. Dexmedetomidine might be effective in combination with sevoflurane for anesthesia, but prospective randomized controlled clinical trials with which to verify this hypothesis are lacking. In total, 120 patients who underwent embolization of an intracranial aneurysm were recruited from Anhui Provincial Hospital and Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University of China and randomly allocated to two groups. After intraoperative administration of 2% to 3% sevoflurane inhalation, one group of patients received pump-controlled intravenous injection of 1.0 μg/kg dexmedetomidine for 15 minutes followed by maintenance with 0.3 μg/kg/h until the end of surgery; the other group of patients only underwent pump-controlled infusion of saline. Bispectral index monitoring revealed that dexmedetomidine-assisted anesthesia can shorten the recovery time of spontaneous breathing, time to eye opening, and time to laryngeal mask removal. Before anesthetic induction and immediately after laryngeal mask airway removal, the glucose and lactate levels were low, the S100β and neuron-specific enolase levels were low, the perioperative blood pressure and heart rate were stable, and postoperative delirium was minimal. These findings indicate that dexmedetomidine can effectively assist sevoflurane for anesthesia during surgical embolization of intracranial aneurysms, shorten the time to consciousness and extubation, reduce the stress response and energy metabolism, stabilize hemodynamic parameters, and reduce adverse reactions, thereby reducing the damage to the central nervous system. This trial was registered at the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (http://www.chictr.org.cn/ (registration number: ChiCTR-IPR-16008113.

  3. ANESTHETIC INDUCTION AND RECOVERY PARAMETERS IN BEARDED DRAGONS (POGONA VITTICEPS): COMPARISON OF ISOFLURANE DELIVERED IN 100% OXYGEN VERSUS 21% OXYGEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O, Odette; Churgin, Sarah M; Sladky, Kurt K; Smith, Lesley J

    2015-09-01

    Inland bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps, n=6) were anesthetized for 1 hr using isoflurane in either 100% oxygen or 21% oxygen (FI 21; medical-grade room air). Parameters of anesthetic depth were recorded throughout both induction and recovery by an observer blinded to the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2), including the loss and return of withdrawal and righting reflexes, muscle tone, ability to intubate or extubate, and return to spontaneous respiration. Physiologic data were recorded every 5 min throughout the anesthetic procedures, including heart rate, body temperature, end-tidal CO2, hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2), and percent expired isoflurane. Lizards were subjected to application of a noxious stimulus (needle stick) at 0, 30, and 60 min, and responses recorded. Following a minimum 7-day washout period, the experiment was repeated with each lizard subjected to the other protocol in a randomized, complete crossover design. The only statistically significant difference was a lower mean SpO2 in the group inspiring 21% oxygen (P<0.0020). No statistically significant differences were detected in any parameters during induction or recovery; however, all values were uniformly shorter for the FI 21 group, indicating a possible clinically significant difference. A larger sample size may have detected statistically significant differences. Further studies are needed to evaluate these effects in other reptile species and with the concurrent use of injectable anesthetic and analgesic drugs.

  4. Inhalation anesthesia in dumeril´s monitor with isofluane, sevofluane, and nitrus oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Mosley, Craig; Crawshaw, Graham J.

    2005-01-01

    Induction and recovery from inhalation anesthesia of Dumeril´s monitors using isoflurane, sevoflurane and nitrus oxide were characterized using a randomized crossover design.......Induction and recovery from inhalation anesthesia of Dumeril´s monitors using isoflurane, sevoflurane and nitrus oxide were characterized using a randomized crossover design....

  5. Effects of physical exercise on object recognition memory in adult rats of postnatal isoflurane exposures

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    Xiao-yan FANG

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate effects of physical exercise (PE on object recognition memory in adult rats of postnatal isoflurane (Iso exposures. Methods One hundred and ten postnatal 7-day SD rats (P7 were randomly divided into four groups: normal control group (Naive, Naive+PE group (received physical exercise in P21: a treadmill exercise 30min each day, 5 times/week, for 6 weeks, Iso group (three times of 2-hour Iso exposure in P7, P9, and P11, and Iso+PE group (received PE in P21 after postnatal Iso exposures. In P67, behavioral testing was conducted including open field and object recognition task (ORT, recording the time (Discrimination Ratios, DR that rats spent on exploring each object, evaluating effects of PE on object recognition memory. Results There was no significant difference in influence of PE on open field testing in all of the groups (P>0.05. Compared with Naive, there was no group difference in DR (P>0.05 for all groups, but the DR of Iso male rats was significantly higher than that of Naive female rats in P67, with significant difference (P=0.034. Compared with non-PE groups, whether or not postnatal Iso exposures, the DR of PE male groups was significantly higher (compared with Naive and Iso group: P67, P=0.050, P=0.017; P95, P=0.037, P=0.019; in female rats, the DR for ISO+PE group was lower than that of Iso group in P67 (P=0.036, but the DR of Naive+PE group was higher than that of Naive group in P95 (P=0.004. Compared with male rats, the DR of non-PE female rats was significantly higher in P67 (vis. Naive and Iso group: P=0.022, P=0.011; but in P95, the DR of non- Iso female groups was significantly higher than that of male groups (vis. Naive and Naive+PE: P=0.008, P=0.017. Conclusions There is no obvious impact of postnatal Iso exposures on object recognition memory of adult rats. These results also indicate that postnatal PE could improve object recognition memory of non-spatial learning in adult rats. In addition, exercise

  6. Randomized controlled trial of total intravenous anesthesia with propofol versus inhalation anesthesia with isoflurane-nitrous oxide: postoperative nausea with vomiting and economic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, K.; Hassink, E. A.; Bonsel, G. J.; Moen, J.; Kalkman, C. J.

    2001-01-01

    To assess the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting after total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) with propofol versus inhalational anesthesia with isoflurane-nitrous oxide, the authors performed a randomized trial in 2,010 unselected surgical patients in a Dutch academic institution. An

  7. Activation of the canonical nuclear factor-κB pathway is involved in isoflurane-induced hippocampal interleukin-1β elevation and the resultant cognitive deficits in aged rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zheng-Qian; Rong, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Ya-Jie; Ni, Cheng; Tian, Xiao-Sheng; Mo, Na; Chui, De-Hua; Guo, Xiang-Yang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Isoflurane induces hippocampal IL-1β elevation and cognitive deficits in aged rats. •Isoflurane transiently activates the canonical NF-κB pathway in aged rat hippocampus. •NF-κB inhibitor mitigates isoflurane-induced IL-1β elevation and cognitive deficits. •We report a linkage between NF-κB signaling, IL-1β expression, and cognitive changes. -- Abstract: Although much recent evidence has demonstrated that neuroinflammation contributes to volatile anesthetic-induced cognitive deficits, there are few existing mechanistic explanations for this inflammatory process. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the volatile anesthetic isoflurane on canonical nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling, and to explore its association with hippocampal interleukin (IL)-1β levels and anesthetic-related cognitive changes in aged rats. After a 4-h exposure to 1.5% isoflurane in 20-month-old rats, increases in IκB kinase and IκB phosphorylation, as well as a reduction in the NF-κB inhibitory protein (IκBα), were observed in the hippocampi of isoflurane-exposed rats compared with control rats. These events were accompanied by an increase in NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation at 6 h after isoflurane exposure and hippocampal IL-1β elevation from 1 to 6 h after isoflurane exposure. Nevertheless, no significant neuroglia activation was observed. Pharmacological inhibition of NF-κB activation by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate markedly suppressed the IL-1β increase and NF-κB signaling, and also mitigated the severity of cognitive deficits in the Morris water maze task. Overall, our results demonstrate that isoflurane-induced cognitive deficits may stem from upregulation of hippocampal IL-1β, partially via activation of the canonical NF-κB pathway, in aged rats

  8. Sevoflurane-induced Preconditioning Impact of Protocol and Aprotinin Administration on Infarct Size and Endothelial Nitric-Oxide Synthase Phosphorylation in the Rat Heart In Vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fräßdorf, Jan; Huhn, Ragnar; Weber, Nina C.; Ebel, Dirk; Wingert, Nadja; Preckel, Benedikt; Toma, Octavian; Schlack, Wolfgang; Hollmann, Markus W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Sevoflurane induces preconditioning (SevoPC) 1 he effect of aprotinin and the involvement of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (NOS) on SevoPC are unknown We investigated (1) whether SevoPC is strengthened by multiple preconditioning cycles (2) whether SevoPC is blocked by aprotinin, and

  9. Attenuation of ischemia-reperfusion injury by sevoflurane postconditioning involves protein kinase B and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta activation in isolated rat hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Neng-Xin; Yao, Yun-Tai; Shi, Chun-Xia; Li, Li-Huan

    2010-12-01

    Volatile anesthetic ischemic postconditioning reduces infarct size following ischemia/reperfusion. Whether phosphorylation of protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β) is causal for cardioprotection by postconditioning is controversial. We therefore investigated the impact of PKB/Akt and GSK3β in isolated perfused rat hearts subjected to 40 min of ischemia followed by 1 h of reperfusion. 2.0% sevoflurane (1.0 minimum alveolar concentration) was administered at the onset of reperfusion in 15 min as postconditioning. Western blot analysis was used to determine phosphorylation of PKB/Akt and its downstream target GSK3β after 1 h of reperfusion. Mitochondrial and cytosolic content of cytochrome C checked by western blot served as a marker for mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening. Sevoflurane postconditioning significantly improved functional cardiac recovery and decreased infarct size in isolated rat hearts. Compared with unprotected hearts, sevoflurane postconditioning-induced phosphorylation of PKB/Akt and GSK3β were significantly increased. Increase of cytochrome C in mitochondria and decrease of it in cytosol is significant when compared with unprotected ones which have reversal effects on cytochrome C. The current study presents evidence that sevoflurane-induced cardioprotection at the onset of reperfusion are partly through activation of PKB/Akt and GSK3β.

  10. Comparative evaluation of the effects of propofol and sevoflurane on cognitive function and memory in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A randomised prospective study

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    Upasana Goswami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: General anaesthesia (GA may cause post-operative impairment of cognition and memory. This is of importance where time to discharge after anaesthesia is short as after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This study was conducted to compare the effects of propofol and sevoflurane on cognitive function in the post-operative period. Methods: After approval of the Ethical Committee, 80 female patients posted for laparoscopic cholecystectomy to be performed under GA were randomly divided into two groups. Propofol was used in Group P and sevoflurane in Group S. Data analysis was done with California verbal learning test (CVLT, digit span test (DST, Rivermead behavioural memory test (RBMT, mini mental state examination (MMSE score, and semantic memory tests. Aldrete recovery scoring system and visual analogue scale for pain were assessed post-operatively. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: There was no significant difference in demographic and haemodynamic data. Cognition and explicit memory were affected more in the propofol group in the immediate post-operative period. With majority of tests, such as semantic memory test, MMSE score, DST and RBMT, the difference was insignificant at 2 and 4 h post-operatively. But CVLT values were found to be statistically significant between groups even at 4 h. Conclusion: Propofol was associated with significant impact on cognitive functions in comparison to sevoflurane in the immediate post-operative period. Sevoflurane anaesthesia might be a better option in day care surgeries.

  11. Time-varying spectral analysis revealing differential effects of sevoflurane anaesthesia: non-rhythmic-to-rhythmic ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y-T; Wu, H-T; Tsao, J; Yien, H-W; Hseu, S-S

    2014-02-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) may reflect various physiological dynamics. In particular, variation of R-R peak interval (RRI) of electrocardiography appears regularly oscillatory in deeper levels of anaesthesia and less regular in lighter levels of anaesthesia. We proposed a new index, non-rhythmic-to-rhythmic ratio (NRR), to quantify this feature and investigated its potential to estimate depth of anaesthesia. Thirty-one female patients were enrolled in this prospective study. The oscillatory pattern transition of RRI was visualised by the time-varying power spectrum and quantified by NRR. The prediction of anaesthetic events, including skin incision, first reaction of motor movement during emergence period, loss of consciousness (LOC) and return of consciousness (ROC) by NRR were evaluated by serial prediction probability (PK ) analysis; the ability to predict the decrease of effect-site sevoflurane concentration was also evaluated. The results were compared with Bispectral Index (BIS). NRR well-predicted first reaction (PK  > 0.90) 30 s ahead, earlier than BIS and significantly better than HRV indices. NRR well-correlated with sevoflurane concentration, although its correlation was inferior to BIS, while HRV indices had no such correlation. BIS indicated LOC and ROC best. Our findings suggest that NRR provides complementary information to BIS regarding the differential effects of anaesthetics on the brain, especially the subcortical motor activity. © 2014 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Measurement of consumption of sevoflurane for short pediatric anesthetic procedures: Comparison between dion′s method and dragger algorithm

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    Preet Mohinder Singh

    2013-01-01

    Methodology: One hundred pediatric patients scheduled for ophthalmological examination under anesthesia were included in the study. Anesthesia was induced and maintained using sevoflurane with oxygen and nitrous oxide (1:1 on Primus workstation (Drager Inc., Germany. Total sevoflurane consumed for each procedure was calculated using Dion′s equation and the values obtained from Drager Primus were noted and compared. Results: Both methods showed a very strong correlation (0.895 [P < 0.001]. Dion′s method underestimated consumption by 2.59 ml with limits of agreement between 5.188 ml and −0.008 ml. Both test results showed a strong correlation, but poor concordance. Conclusions: Dion′s method strongly correlates with Drager protocol although concordance between the two methods for measuring anesthetic gas consumption is poor. Dion′s method underestimates the consumption and with slight modification addressing this underestimation, it can be electronically incorporated in other workstations to overcome limitations of real-time measurement of inhalation agent consumption.

  13. Inside anesthesia breathing circuits: time to reach a set sevoflurane concentration in toddlers and newborns: simulation using a test lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Delphine; Larcher, Claire; Basset, Bertrand; Alacoque, Xavier; Fesseau, Rose; Samii, Kamran; Minville, Vincent; Fourcade, Olivier

    2012-08-01

    We measured the time it takes to reach the desired inspired anesthetic concentration using the Primus (Drägerwerk, AG, Lübeck, Germany) and the Avance (GE Datex-Ohmeda, Munich, Germany) anesthesia machines with toddler and newborn ventilation settings. The time to reach 95% of inspired target sevoflurane concentration was measured during wash-in from 0 to 6 vol% sevoflurane and during wash-out from 6 to 0 vol% with fresh gas flows equal to 1 and 2 times the minute ventilation. The Avance was faster than the Primus (65 seconds [95% confidence interval (CI): 55 to 78] vs 310 seconds [95% CI: 261 to 359]) at 1.5 L/min fresh gas flow, tidal volume of 50 mL, and 30 breaths/min. Times were shorter by the same magnitude at higher fresh gas flows and higher minute ventilation rates. The effect of doubling fresh gas flow was variable and less than expected. The Primus is slower during newborn than toddler ventilation, whereas the Avance's response time was the same for newborn and toddler ventilation. Our data confirm that the time to reach the target-inspired anesthetic concentration depends on breathing circuit volume, fresh gas flow, and minute ventilation.

  14. Anesthetic management of comprehensive dental restoration in a child with glutaric aciduria type 1 using volatile sevoflurane

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    Wei-Nung Teng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA1 is a rare, inherited mitochondrial disorder that results from deficiency of mitochondrial glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase. Most patients develop neurological dysfunction early in life, which leads to severe disabilities. We present a 37-month-old girl with GA1 manifested as macrocephaly and hypotonia who received comprehensive dental restoration surgery under general anesthesia with sevoflurane. She was placed on specialized fluid management during a preoperative fasting period and anesthesia was administered without complications. All the physiological parameters, including glucose and lactate blood levels and arterial blood gas were carefully monitored and maintained within normal range perioperatively. Strategies for anesthetic management should include prevention of pulmonary aspiration, dehydration, hyperthermia and catabolic state, adequate analgesia to minimize surgical stress, and avoidance of prolonged neuromuscular blockade. We administered general anesthesia with sevoflurane uneventfully, which was well tolerated by our patient with GA1. Additionally, communication with a pediatric geneticist and surgeons should be undertaken to formulate a comprehensive anesthetic strategy in these patients.

  15. Effect of Home Cage Bedding in the Induction Chamber on Serum Cortisol and Corticosterone Levels in Response to Isoflurane-induced Anesthesia in C57BL/6J Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Cara P; Christy, Amanda C; Olsen, Cara H; Bentzel, David E

    2017-03-01

    Mice are routinely anesthetized with isoflurane in an induction chamber. The AVMA Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals states that distress should be minimized during euthanasia but does not address this point in regard to induction of anesthesia. Here we evaluated the potential for familiar surroundings to reduce the adrenocortical response of mice during anesthesia induction with isoflurane. However, adding bedding from the animals' home cage to the induction chamber failed to significantly reduce serum cortisol or corticosterone levels in male and female C57BL/6J mice. These results indicate that familiar surroundings do not appear sufficient to reduce the adrenocortical response of mice during anesthesia induction with isoflurane.

  16. Nausea and Vomiting following Balanced Xenon Anesthesia Compared to Sevoflurane: A Post-Hoc Explorative Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

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    Astrid V Fahlenkamp

    Full Text Available Like other inhalational anesthetics xenon seems to be associated with post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV. We assessed nausea incidence following balanced xenon anesthesia compared to sevoflurane, and dexamethasone for its prophylaxis in a randomized controlled trial with post-hoc explorative analysis.220 subjects with elevated PONV risk (Apfel score ≥2 undergoing elective abdominal surgery were randomized to receive xenon or sevoflurane anesthesia and dexamethasone or placebo after written informed consent. 93 subjects in the xenon group and 94 subjects in the sevoflurane group completed the trial. General anesthesia was maintained with 60% xenon or 2.0% sevoflurane. Dexamethasone 4mg or placebo was administered in the first hour. Subjects were analyzed for nausea and vomiting in predefined intervals during a 24h post-anesthesia follow-up.Logistic regression, controlled for dexamethasone and anesthesia/dexamethasone interaction, showed a significant risk to develop nausea following xenon anesthesia (OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.02-5.19, p = 0.044. Early-onset nausea incidence was 46% after xenon and 35% after sevoflurane anesthesia (p = 0.138. After xenon, nausea occurred significantly earlier (p = 0.014, was more frequent and rated worse in the beginning. Dexamethasone did not markedly reduce nausea occurrence in both groups. Late-onset nausea showed no considerable difference between the groups.In our study setting, xenon anesthesia was associated with an elevated risk to develop nausea in sensitive subjects. Dexamethasone 4mg was not effective preventing nausea in our study. Group size or dosage might have been too small, and change of statistical analysis parameters in the post-hoc evaluation might have further contributed to a limitation of our results. Further trials will be needed to address prophylaxis of xenon-induced nausea.EU Clinical Trials EudraCT-2008-004132-20 ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00793663.

  17. Effects of inhalational anaesthesia with low tidal volume ventilation on end-tidal sevoflurane and carbon dioxide concentrations: prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Matta-Martín, M; López-Herrera, D; Luis-Navarro, J C; López-Romero, J L

    2014-02-01

    We investigated how ventilation with low tidal volumes affects the pharmacokinetics of sevoflurane uptake during the first minutes of inhaled anaesthesia. Forty-eight patients scheduled for lung resection were randomly assigned to three groups. Patients in group 1, 2 and 3 received 3% sevoflurane for 3 min via face mask and controlled ventilation with a tidal volume of 2.2, 8 and 12 ml kg(-1), respectively (Phase 1). After tracheal intubation (Phase 2), 3% sevoflurane was supplied for 2 min using a tidal volume of 8 ml kg(-1) (Phase 3). End-tidal sevoflurane concentrations were significantly higher in group 1 at the end of phase 1 and lower at the end of phase 2 than in the other groups as follows: median of 2.5%, 2.2% and 2.3% in phase 1 for groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively (Ptidal carbon dioxide values in group 1 were significantly lower at the end of phase 1 and higher at the end of phase 2 than in the other groups as follows: median of 16.5, 31 and 29.5 mm Hg in phase 1 for groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively (Ptidal volume approximating the airway dead space volume, end-tidal sevoflurane and end-tidal carbon dioxide may not correctly reflect the concentration of these gases in the alveoli, leading to misinterpretation of expired gas data. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  18. Intubating conditions and side effects of propofol, remifentanil and sevoflurane compared with propofol, remifentanil and rocuronium: a randomised, prospective, clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Tracheal intubation without muscle relaxants is usually performed with remifentanil and propofol or sevoflurane. Remifentanil 1.0 to 4.0 μg·kg-1 and propofol 2.0-3.0 mg·kg-1 or sevoflurane up to 8.0 Vol% provide acceptable, i.e. excellent or good intubating conditions. We hypothesized that sevoflurane 1.0 MAC would provide acceptable intubating conditions when combined with propofol and remifentanil. Methods Eighty-three patients to be intubated were randomised to two groups. The SEVO group received propofol 1.5 mg kg-1, remifentanil 0.30 μg kg min-1 and sevoflurane 1.0 MAC; the MR group received the same doses of propofol and remifentanil plus rocuronium 0.45 mg kg-1. We evaluated intubation and extubation conditions, mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and bispectral index (BIS). The vocal cords were examined for injury by videolaryngoscopy before and 24 hours after surgery. Results Acceptable intubating conditions were seen more frequently with rocuronium than with sevoflurane: 97% versus 82%; p = 0.03; the subscore for vocal cords was comparable: 100% versus 98%. MAP before intubation decreased significantly compared with the MAP at baseline to the same extent in both groups; ephedrine IV was given in 15 (SEVO) versus 16 (MR) patients; p = 0.93. BIS at tracheal intubation was 27 (13-65) in the SEVO group, 29 (14-62) in the MR group; p = 0.07. Vocal cord injuries (oedema, haematoma) were similar: 4 patients in each group. Conclusions Overall intubating conditions were better when rocuronium was used; the subscore for vocal cords was comparable. The incidence of side effects was the same in the two groups. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.Gov: NCT 01591031. PMID:24860256

  19. Effect of isoflurane alone or in combination with meloxicam on the behavior and physiology of goat kids following cautery disbudding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempstead, Melissa N; Waas, Joseph R; Stewart, Mairi; Dowling, Suzanne K; Cave, Vanessa M; Lowe, Gemma L; Sutherland, Mhairi A

    2018-04-01

    Cautery disbudding of goat kids is painful, but may be alleviated with pain mitigation. We therefore evaluated the effect of administering general anesthesia (isoflurane) or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (meloxicam) on goat kid behavior and physiology following cautery disbudding. Trial 1 (n = 12/treatment) evaluated behavioral responses in 72 female Saanen dairy goat kids (mean ± standard error of the mean; 3.9 ± 0.15 d old) and trial 2 (n = 10/treatment) evaluated physiological responses in 60 female Saanen dairy goat kids (4.3 ± 0.14 d old). Goat kids were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 treatment groups that were either (1) sham-handled only (simulated disbudding; SHAM) or disbudded with (2) no pain relief (CAUT), (3) isoflurane gas (ISO), (4) isoflurane and s.c. meloxicam combined (ISO+MEL), (5) meloxicam s.c. (0.5 mg/kg of body weight; I-MEL), or (6) oral meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg of body weight; O-MEL). Head shaking, head scratching, self-grooming, feeding, and body shaking were continuously video recorded for 24 h pre- and post-treatment. Lying behavior was recorded continuously for 24 h pre- and post-treatment using accelerometers. Plasma cortisol, glucose, and lactate concentrations were measured from blood samples collected immediately before treatment (baseline) and at 15, 60, and 120 min post-treatment. Body temperature was measured immediately after blood sampling at all blood sampling time points. Head shaking and body shaking frequencies were 50% higher in CAUT than SHAM kids 5 min post-treatment; ISO+MEL and ISO kids performed 25% less body shakes than CAUT kids. Head scratching durations 1 h post-treatment were higher in CAUT than SHAM kids, whereas O-MEL were similar to SHAM kids from 2 h post-treatment. Self-grooming, feeding, and lying did not differ between groups. Cortisol concentrations were higher in CAUT than SHAM kids (156.4 ± 26.41 and 104.1 ± 26.41 nmol/L, respectively), whereas ISO+MEL and ISO kids (88.3 ± 26.41 and 113.2 ± 26

  20. Emergence from anesthesia in children undergoing ambulatory surgery- a comparison between propofol and sevoflurane using single anesthetic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasha, A.K.; Kazi, W.A.; Farhat, K

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare emergence from anesthesia using total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) with propofol and volatile induction maintenance anesthesia (VIMA) with sevoflurane, in children undergoing ambulatory inguinal herniorrhaphy. Study Design: Randomized, controlled trials. Place and Duration of Study: Shifa Hospital of Pakistan Navy, from 1st Mar 2005 to 28th Feb 2006. Patients and Methods: Eighty children, aged 5-10 years of ASA physical status I or II were divided into two groups of 40 each using random numbers table. Group P received propofol 3mg/kg for induction and 100-400 micro g/kg/min infusion for maintenance of anesthesia, while group S received sevoflurane 8% (inspired concentration) in 100% oxygen for induction and 2-3% in oxygen for maintenance of anesthesia. No sedative premedication was given. Analgesia was provided with caudal block using 0.25% bupivacaine. Speed of emergence from anesthesia was assessed by time to extubation, time to eye opening, and time to crying / stating name. A modified aldrete score system was used to evaluate recovery while Pain/Discomfort scale to assess the quality of emergence from anesthesia. These were recorded by a separate consultant anesthetist blind to the anesthetic technique. Results: Emergence from anesthesia occurred significantly quicker in the S group as compared to P group, as evident by times in minutes (mean +- SD) to extubation: 8.3+-6.9 versus 4.7+-2.6(p=0.017), eye opening: 9.1 +- 5.3 vs. 5.6 +- 2.6 (p=0.043) and crying / state name: 14.7 +-7.2 vs.11.3 +- 4.6(p=0.039). Similarly, more patients in the S group scored maximum points in the modified aldrete score at 10 min: 17 (42.5%) vs.7 (17.5%) (p=0.015), 20 min: 32 (80%) vs.23 (57.5%) (p=0.030). Although, number of patients in the S group compared to P group scoring max points in Pain-discomfort scale at 10 min: 8 (20%) vs4 (10%), p=0.210; 20 min: 6 (15%) vs.2 (5%), p=0.136 and 30 min: 4 (10%) vs. 0, p=0.130 were more, these results were not

  1. Efeito do Halotano sobre a Gestação e a Viabilidade Embrionária em Ratos - Estudo Experimental/Effect of Halothane on Pregnancy and Embryonic Viability in Rats - Experimental Study

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    Carlos Eduardo Domingues

    2012-12-01

    exposure to halothane. Group 2: (n=5 rats exposed to halothane during estrous period. Groups 3: (n=5 rats exposed to halothane in 8th to 10th day of pregnancy. Group 4: (n=5 rats exposed to halothane in 11th to 13th days of pregnancy, and Group 5: (n=5 14th to 16th days. The animals were exposed to halothane (0.8% for 30 minutes with 100% oxygen. The offspring of the groups was analyzed according to size, weight, morphological and umbilical cord length and number of live births in each group. Results were expressed as mean +- standard deviation, followed by Tukey test. Results: morphological changes in different periods of pregnancy and changes in weight, size and length of the cord in group 2 (3.05±0.10 cm, 3.17±0.17 g and 2.57±0.12 cm being significant (p<0.005. Conclusion: halothane did not affect the fertility of the animals studied, but promoted the appearance of morphological changes in the first period of pregnancy, showing the risk of teratogenicity and therefore the embryonic infeasibility.

  2. Lack of Responsiveness during the Onset and Offset of Sevoflurane Anesthesia Is Associated with Decreased Awake-Alpha Oscillation Power

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    Kara J. Pavone

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Anesthetic drugs are typically administered to induce altered states of arousal that range from sedation to general anesthesia (GA. Systems neuroscience studies are currently being used to investigate the neural circuit mechanisms of anesthesia-induced altered arousal states. These studies suggest that by disrupting the oscillatory dynamics that are associated with arousal states, anesthesia-induced oscillations are a putative mechanism through which anesthetic drugs produce altered states of arousal. However, an empirical clinical observation is that even at relatively stable anesthetic doses, patients are sometimes intermittently responsive to verbal commands during states of light sedation. During these periods, prominent anesthesia-induced neural oscillations such as slow-delta (0.1–4 Hz oscillations are notably absent. Neural correlates of intermittent responsiveness during light sedation have been insufficiently investigated. A principled understanding of the neural correlates of intermittent responsiveness may fundamentally advance our understanding of neural dynamics that are essential for maintaining arousal states, and how they are disrupted by anesthetics. Therefore, we performed a high-density (128 channels electroencephalogram (EEG study (n = 8 of sevoflurane-induced altered arousal in healthy volunteers. We administered temporally precise behavioral stimuli every 5 s to assess responsiveness. Here, we show that decreased eyes-closed, awake-alpha (8–12 Hz oscillation power is associated with lack of responsiveness during sevoflurane effect-onset and -offset. We also show that anteriorization—the transition from occipitally dominant awake-alpha oscillations to frontally dominant anesthesia induced-alpha oscillations—is not a binary phenomenon. Rather, we suggest that periods, which were defined by lack of responsiveness, represent an intermediate brain state. We conclude that awake-alpha oscillation, previously thought to be

  3. Dorsalis pedis arterial pressure is lower than noninvasive arm blood pressure in normotensive patients under sevoflurane anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Wang, Enqin; Zhu, Yuan; Li, Yongshuai; Lu, Kaizhi

    2016-02-01

    It is widely known that blood pressure (BP) in the lower extremity is higher than in the upper extremity. However, whether this phenomenon remains the same during general anesthesia is still unclear. This study aims to investigate the difference between invasive dorsalis pedis artery (DPA) pressure and the most commonly used noninvasive arm pressure during sevoflurane anesthesia. A total of 50 normotensive Chinese patients were enrolled in this observational study. Invasive DPA pressure, noninvasive arm pressure, and systemic vascular resistance index were assessed simultaneously. BP data during the entire surgery were analyzed through a Bland-Altman plot for repeated measures. The concordance of BP variation in the DPA and the arm was analyzed using four-quadrant plots and linear regression. The time-dependent changes in BP and the systemic vascular resistance index were also evaluated. Data from 46 effective cases were analyzed. Bias (95% limits of agreement) was -7.40 mmHg (-20.36 to +5.57 mmHg) for mean blood pressure, +3.54 mmHg (-20.32 to +27.41 mmHg) for systolic blood pressure, and -10.20 mmHg (-23.66 to +3.26 mmHg) for diastolic blood pressure, respectively. The concordance of BP variation at the two measurement sites was clinically acceptable. DPA pressure and vascular resistance in the lower limb decreased gradually during surgery. DPA pressure tends to be lower than arm pressure under sevoflurane anesthesia, especially the mean blood pressure and the diastolic blood pressure. Hence, noninvasive arm BP monitoring is recommend to be retained when invasive BP is measured at the DPA, so as to allow clinicians to comprehensively evaluate the BP condition of the patients and make appropriate therapeutic decisions.

  4. Sevoflurane postconditioning improves myocardial mitochondrial respiratory function and reduces myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury by up-regulating HIF-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Long; Xie, Peng; Wu, Jianjiang; Yu, Jin; Yu, Tian; Wang, Haiying; Wang, Jiang; Xia, Zhengyuan; Zheng, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Sevoflurane postconditioning (SPostC) can exert myocardial protective effects similar to ischemic preconditioning. However, the exact myocardial protection mechanism by SPostC is unclear. Studies indicate that hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) maintains cellular respiration homeostasis by regulating mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme activity under hypoxic conditions. This study investigated whether SPostC could regulate the expression of myocardial HIF-1α and to improve mitochondrial respiratory function, thereby relieving myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. The myocardial ischemia-reperfusion rat model was established using the Langendorff isolated heart perfusion apparatus. Additionally, postconditioning was performed using sevoflurane alone or in combination with the HIF-1α inhibitor 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME2). The changes in hemodynamic parameters, HIF-1α protein expression levels, mitochondrial respiratory function and enzyme activity, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production rates, and mitochondrial ultrastructure were measured or observed. Compared to the ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) group, HIF-1α expression in the SPostC group was significantly up-regulated. Additionally, cardiac function indicators, mitochondrial state 3 respiratory rate, respiratory control ratio (RCR), cytochrome C oxidase (C c O), NADH oxidase (NADHO), and succinate oxidase (SUCO) activities, mitochondrial ROS production rate, and mitochondrial ultrastructure were significantly better than those in the I/R group. However, these advantages were completely reversed by the HIF-1α specific inhibitor 2ME2 ( P <0.05). The myocardial protective function of SPostC might be associated with the improvement of mitochondrial respiratory function after up-regulation of HIF-1α expression.

  5. Cardiohemodynamic and electrophysiological effects of a selective EP4 receptor agonist ONO--AE1--329 in the halothane-anesthetized dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Hiroaki; Nakamura, Yuji; Cao, Xin; Honda, Atsushi; Katagi, Jun; Ohara, Hiroshi; Izumi-Nakaseko, Hiroko; Satoh, Yoshioki; Ando, Kentaro; Sugiyama, Atsushi

    2015-08-15

    Cardiovascular effects of a highly selective prostaglandin E2 type 4 (EP4) receptor agonist ONO-AE1-329 were assessed with the halothane-anesthetized dogs (n=6). ONO-AE1-329 was intravenously infused in three escalating doses of 0.3, 1 and 3ng/kg/min for 10min with a pause of 20min between the doses. The low dose of 0.3ng/kg/min significantly increased maximum upstroke velocity of left ventricular pressure by 18% at 20min, indicating increase of ventricular contractility. The middle dose of 1ng/kg/min significantly decreased total peripheral resistance by 24% and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure by 32% at 10min, indicating dilation of arteriolar resistance vessels and venous capacitance ones, respectively; and increased cardiac output by 25% at 10min in addition to the change induced by the low dose. The high dose of 3ng/kg/min increased heart rate by 34% at 10min; decreased mean blood pressure by 14% at 10min and atrioventricular nodal conduction time by 13% at 5min; and shortened left ventricular systolic period by 8% at 10min and electromechanical coupling defined as an interval from completion of repolarization to the start of ventricular diastole by 39% at 10min in addition to the changes induced by the middle dose. No significant change was detected in a ventricular repolarization period. These results indicate that ONO-AE1-329 may possess a similar cardiovascular profile to typical phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitors as an inodilator, and suggest that EP4 receptor stimulation can become an alternative strategy for the treatment of congestive heart failure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of ketamine and midazolam on emergence agitation after sevoflurane anaesthesia in children receiving caudal block: a randomized trial

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    Ayse Ozcan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Emergence agitation is a common postanaesthetic problem in children after sevoflurane anaesthesia. We aimed to compare the effects of ketamine and midazolam administered intravenously, before the end of surgery, for prevention of emergence agitation in children who received caudal block for pain relief under sevoflurane anaesthesia. Methods: 62 American Society of Anesthesiologists patient classification status I children, aged 2–7 years, scheduled for inguinal hernia repair, circumcision or orchidopexy were enrolled to the study. Anaesthesia was induced with sevoflurane 8% in a mixture of 50% oxygen and nitrous oxide. After achieving adequate depth of anaesthesia, a laryngeal mask was placed and then caudal block was performed with 0.75 mL kg−1, 0.25% bupivacaine. At the end of the surgery, ketamine 0.25 mg kg−1, midazolam 0.03 mg kg−1 and saline were given to ketamine, midazolam and control groups, respectively. Agitation was assessed using Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scale and postoperative pain was evaluated with modified Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale. Results and conclusions: Modified Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale scores were found higher in control group than in ketamine and midazolam groups. Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scores were similar between groups. Modified Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale and Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scores showed a significant decrease by time in all groups during follow-up in postanaesthesia care unit. The present study resulted in satisfactory Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scores which are below 10 in all groups. As a conclusion, neither ketamine nor midazolam added to caudal block under sevoflurane anaesthesia did show further effect on emergence agitation. In addition, pain relief still seems to be the major factor in preventing emergence agitation after

  7. Measurements of partial oxygen pressure pO2 using the OxyLite system in R3327-AT tumors under isoflurane anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Bixiu; Urano, Muneyasu; O'Donoghue, Joseph A; Ling, C Clifton

    2006-09-01

    The presence of oxygen-deficient tumor cells is a critical issue in cancer therapy. To identify tumor hypoxia, tissue partial oxygen pressure (pO2) can be measured directly. The OxyLite system allows determination of pO2 in tumors and permits continuous measurements of pO2 at a fixed point. In this study, this system was used to continuously measure pO2 in R3327-AT tumors in animals anesthetized with isoflurane. In addition, continuous pO2 measurement was performed in the muscle in non-tumor-bearing animals. In animals breathing isoflurane balanced by air, tumor pO2 at fixed positions decreased rapidly within 1-2 min of probe positioning but remained stable thereafter. In animals breathing isoflurane balanced by pure oxygen, tumor pO2 was higher and remained high. We also measured pO2 values at multiple positions in R3327-AT tumors of various sizes, with anesthetized animals breathing either air or pure oxygen. Our data showed that the frequency of pO2 measurements below 2.5 or 5.0 mmHg was significantly higher in animals breathing air than in animals breathing pure oxygen. Measurements in different-sized tumors showed that the mean pO2 value decreased as tumor volume increased, with the largest change occurring between tumor volumes of 100 and 200 mm3. Our data demonstrate that the OxyLite system, when used with isoflurane anesthesia, is a valuable tool in the study of tumor hypoxia.

  8. Maternal Exposure of Rats to Isoflurane during Late Pregnancy Impairs Spatial Learning and Memory in the Offspring by Up-Regulating the Expression of Histone Deacetylase 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Foquan; Hu, Yan; Zhao, Weilu; Zuo, Zhiyi; Yu, Qi; Liu, Zhiyi; Lin, Jiamei; Feng, Yunlin; Li, Binda; Wu, Liuqin; Xu, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that most general anesthetics can harm developing neurons and induce cognitive dysfunction in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) has been implicated in synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. Our previous results showed that maternal exposure to general anesthetics during late pregnancy impaired the offspring's learning and memory, but the role of HDAC2 in it is not known yet. In the present study, pregnant rats were exposed to 1.5% isoflurane in 100% oxygen for 2, 4 or 8 hours or to 100% oxygen only for 8 hours on gestation day 18 (E18). The offspring born to each rat were randomly subdivided into 2 subgroups. Thirty days after birth, the Morris water maze (MWM) was used to assess learning and memory in the offspring. Two hours before each MWM trial, an HDAC inhibitor (SAHA) was given to the offspring in one subgroup, whereas a control solvent was given to those in the other subgroup. The results showed that maternal exposure to isoflurane impaired learning and memory of the offspring, impaired the structure of the hippocampus, increased HDAC2 mRNA and downregulated cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element binding protein (CREB) mRNA, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2 subunit B (NR2B) mRNA and NR2B protein in the hippocampus. These changes were proportional to the duration of the maternal exposure to isoflurane and were reversed by SAHA. These results suggest that exposure to isoflurane during late pregnancy can damage the learning and memory of the offspring rats via the HDAC2-CREB -NR2B pathway. This effect can be reversed by HDAC2 inhibition.

  9. Detomidine and the combination of detomidine and MK-467, a peripheral alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist, as premedication in horses anaesthetized with isoflurane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakkanen, Soile Ae; Raekallio, Marja R; Mykkänen, Anna K; Salla, Kati M; de Vries, Annemarie; Vuorilehto, Lauri; Scheinin, Mika; Vainio, Outi M

    2015-09-01

    To investigate MK-467 as part of premedication in horses anaesthetized with isoflurane. Experimental, crossover study with a 14 day wash-out period. Seven healthy horses. The horses received either detomidine (20 μg kg(-1) IV) and butorphanol (20 μg kg(-1) IV) alone (DET) or with MK-467 (200 μg kg(-1) IV; DET + MK) as premedication. Anaesthesia was induced with ketamine (2.2 mg kg(-1) ) and midazolam (0.06 mg kg(-1) ) IV and maintained with isoflurane. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), end-tidal isoflurane concentration, end-tidal carbon dioxide tension, central venous pressure, fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2 ) and cardiac output were recorded. Blood samples were taken for blood gas analysis and to determine plasma drug concentrations. The cardiac index (CI), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), ratio of arterial oxygen tension to inspired oxygen (Pa O2 /FiO2 ) and tissue oxygen delivery (DO2 ) were calculated. Repeated measures anova was applied for HR, CI, MAP, SVR, lactate and blood gas variables. The Student's t-test was used for pairwise comparisons of drug concentrations, induction times and the amount of dobutamine administered. Significance was set at p detomidine concentrations were reduced in the group receiving MK-467. After DET+MK, the area under the plasma concentration time curve of butorphanol was smaller. MK-467 enhances cardiac function and tissue oxygen delivery in horses sedated with detomidine before isoflurane anaesthesia. This finding could improve patient safety in the perioperative period. The dosage of MK-467 needs to be investigated to minimise the effect of MK-467 on MAP. © 2014 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  10. Postconditioning with sevoflurane ameliorates spatial learning and memory deficit via attenuating endoplasmic reticulum stress induced neuron apoptosis in a rat model of hemorrhage shock and resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xianwen; Wang, Jingxian; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Qiquan; Duan, Xiaowen; Zhang, Ye

    2018-06-02

    Hemorrhage shock could initiate endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and then induce neuronal apoptosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether sevoflurane postconditioning could attenuate brain injury via suppressing apoptosis induced by ERS. Seventy male rats were randomized into five groups: sham, shock, low concentration (sevo1, 1.2%), middle concentration (sevo2, 2.4%) and high concentration (sevo3, 3.6%) of sevoflurane postconditioning. Hemorrhage shock was induced by removing 40% of the total blood volume during an interval of 30 min. 1h after the completion of bleeding, the animals were reinfused with shed blood during the ensuing 30 min. The spatial learning and memory ability of rats were measured by Morris water maze (MWM) test three days after the operation. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) positive cells in the hippocampus CA1 region were assessed after the MWM test. The expression of C/EBP-homologousprotein (CHOP) and glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) in the hippocampus were measured at 24h after reperfusion. We found that sevoflurane postconditioning with the concentrations of 2.4% and 3.6% significantly ameliorated the spatial learning and memory ability, decreased the TUNEL-positive cells, and reduced the GRP78 and CHOP expression compared with the shock group. These results suggested that sevoflurane postconditioning with the concentrations of 2.4% and 3.6% could ameliorate spatial learning and memory deficit after hemorrhage shock and resuscitation injury via suppressing apoptosis induced by ERS. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. The effect of magnesium sulphate infusion on the incidence and severity of emergence agitation in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy using sevoflurane anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulatif, M; Ahmed, A; Mukhtar, A; Badawy, S

    2013-10-01

    This randomised, controlled, double-blind study investigated the effects of intra-operative magnesium sulphate administration on the incidence of emergence agitation in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy using sevoflurane anaesthesia. Seventy children were randomly allocated to receive a 30 mg.kg(-1) bolus of intravenous magnesium sulphate after induction of anaesthesia followed by a continuous infusion of 10 mg.kg(-1).h(-1) or an equal volume of saline 0.9%. All children received titrated sevoflurane anaesthesia adjusted to maintain haemodynamic stability. The Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale and the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Score were used for the assessment of postoperative emergence agitation and pain, respectively. Emergence agitation was more common in the control group than in the magnesium group (23 (72%) and 12 (36%), respectively (p = 0.004)), with a relative risk of 0.51 (95% CI 0.31-0.84), an absolute risk reduction of 0.35 (95% CI 0.10-0.54), and number needed to treat of 3 (95% CI 2-9). Postoperative pain scores were comparable in the two groups. Magnesium sulphate reduces the incidence and severity of emergence agitation in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy using sevoflurane anaesthesia and is not associated with increased postoperative side-effects or delayed recovery. © 2013 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  12. Inhalational Induction and Maintenance of Sevoflurane-Based Anesthesia or Total Intravenous Anesthesia Using Propofol and Fentanyl in Patients with Concomitant Dyscirculatory Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Likhvantsev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to improve the results of treatment in patients with concomitant cerebrovascular diseases, by reducing the incidence of postoperative delirium due to neuroprotective properties of sevoflurane. Subjects and methods. Eighty2two patients with concomitant dyscirculatory encephalopathy were examined. The goals of the study included evaluating (a efficiency and safety of total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA using propofol versus inhalational induction and (b maintenance of anesthesia (IIMA using sevoflurane in patients with atherosclerotic and hypertensive encephalopathy undergoing noncardiac surgery. Results. The patients from both groups were susceptible to episodes of unintentional cerebral desaturation (rSO2; however, only the TIVA group showed a high correlation between a decrease in rSO2 and increases in the blood levels of S100beta protein, a marker of neuronal damage, and in the incidence of postoperative delirium (r=0.7321; p=0.0000001 diagnosed in accordance to comprehensive clinical examination and MMSE scores. The IIMA group lacked a relationship of MMSE scores to the episodes of cerebral desaturation (r=0.1609; p=0.4860, which is regarded as a manifestation of the neuroprotective effect resulted from anesthetic preconditioning. Conclusion. sevafluran2based inhalational induction and maintenance of anesthesia in patients with atherosclerotic and hypertensive encephalopathy is preferable over intravenous anesthesia with propofol and fentanyl in patients with concomitatnt disregulatory enc encephalopathy. Key words: cerebral desaturation, postoperative delirium, anesthetic preconditioning, europrotection, sevoflurane.

  13. Concomitant administration of nitrous oxide and remifentanil reduces oral tissue blood flow without decreasing blood pressure during sevoflurane anesthesia in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Masataka; Ichinohe, Tatsuya; Okamoto, Sota; Okada, Reina; Kanbe, Hiroaki; Matsuura, Nobuyuki

    2015-06-01

    To determine whether continuous administration of nitrous oxide and remifentanil—either alone or together—alters blood flow in oral tissues during sevoflurane anesthesia. Eight male tracheotomized Japanese white rabbits were anesthetized with sevoflurane under mechanical ventilation. Heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), common carotid arterial blood flow (CCBF), tongue mucosal blood flow (TMBF), mandibular bone marrow blood flow (BBF), masseter muscle blood flow (MBF), upper alveolar tissue blood flow (UBF), and lower alveolar tissue blood flow (LBF) were recorded in the absence of all test agents and after administration of the test agents (50 % nitrous oxide, 0.4 μg/kg/min remifentanil, and their combination) for 20 min. Nitrous oxide increased SBP, DBP, MAP, CCBF, BBF, MBF, UBF, and LBF relative to baseline values but did not affect HR or TMBF. Remifentanil decreased all hemodynamic variables except DBP. Combined administration of nitrous oxide and remifentanil recovered SBP, DBP, MAP, and CCBF to baseline levels, but HR and oral tissue blood flow remained lower than control values. Our findings suggest that concomitant administration of nitrous oxide and remifentanil reduces blood flow in oral tissues without decreasing blood pressure during sevoflurane anesthesia in rabbits.

  14. [A 53-year-old man with herpes encephalitis showing acceleration of improvement in higher brain function after general anesthesia with sevoflurane: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togashi, Naohiko; Kaida, Kenichi; Hongo, Yu; Ogawa, Go; Ishikawa, Yukinobu; Takeda, Katsuhiko; Kamakura, Keiko

    2014-01-01

    We experienced a right-handed 53-year-old man who presented with disturbance of consciousness and fever. Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) was diagnosed based on the detection of herpes simplex virus DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid. The administration of acyclovir for 42 days improved his consciousness level. Drowsiness, fever and seizures reappeared 20 days after stopping acyclovir treatment (day 67) and he responded well to vidarabine and methylprednisolone pulse therapy. An assessment of aphasia on day 98 revealed transcortical sensory aphasia. Brain MRI showed lesion in the left temporal lobe, bilateral insular cortexes and bilateral frontal lobe. His higher brain dysfunction continued. On day 156, he underwent hip replacement arthroplasty under general anesthesia sevoflurane. His higher brain dysfunction rapidly improved thereafter. We concluded that the accelerated improvement in our patient's higher brain function was related to the protective effect of sevoflurane. Some reports also show the protective effects of sevoflurane in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis by inhibition of T cell activation. These protective and anti-inflammatory effects may explain the accelerated improvement in higher brain function after general anesthesia.

  15. Cardiovascular effects of a continuous rate infusion of lidocaine in calves anesthetized with xylazine, midazolam, ketamine and isoflurane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Marcelo A; Dias, Bianca P; Bovino, Fernanda; Deschk, Maurício; Abimussi, Caio Jx; Oliva, Valéria Nls; Rodrigues, Celso A; Santos, Paulo Sp

    2014-03-01

    To assess the cardiovascular changes of a continuous rate infusion of lidocaine in calves anesthetized with xylazine, midazolam, ketamine and isoflurane during mechanical ventilation. Prospective, randomized, cross-over, experimental trial. A total of eight, healthy, male Holstein calves, aged 10 ± 1 months and weighing 114 ± 11 kg were included in the study. Calves were administered xylazine followed by ketamine and midazolam, orotracheal intubation and maintenance on isoflurane (1.3%) using mechanical ventilation. Forty minutes after induction, lidocaine (2 mg kg⁻¹ bolus) or an equivalent volume of saline (0.9%) was administered IV followed by a continuous rate infusion (100 μg kg⁻¹ minute⁻¹) of lidocaine (treatment L) or saline (treatment C). Heart rate (HR), systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressures (SAP, DAP and MAP), central venous pressure (CVP), mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP), pulmonary arterial occlusion pressure (PAOP), cardiac output, end-tidal carbon dioxide (Pe'CO2 ) and core temperature (CT) were recorded before lidocaine or saline administration (Baseline) and at 20-minute intervals (T20-T80). Plasma concentrations of lidocaine were measured in treatment L. The HR was significantly lower in treatment L compared with treatment C. There was no difference between the treatments with regards to SAP, DAP, MAP and SVRI. CI was significantly lower at T60 in treatment L when compared with treatment C. PAOP and CVP increased significantly at all times compared with Baseline in treatment L. There was no significant difference between times within each treatment and between treatments with regards to other measured variables. Plasma concentrations of lidocaine ranged from 1.85 to 2.06 μg mL⁻¹ during the CRI. At the studied rate, lidocaine causes a decrease in heart rate which is unlikely to be of clinical significance in healthy animals, but could be a concern in compromised animals. © 2013 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists

  16. [Effect of remifentanil on clinical and electroencephalographic parameters of depth of anesthesia in balanced anesthesia with propofol, enflurane or isoflurane].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, P; Plümer, L; Scholz, J; Drögemeier, K; von Knobelsdorff, G; Schulte am Esch, J

    1998-01-01

    Electrophysiological parameters are well-suited to detect changes in cerebral function. The present study investigates whether balanced anaesthesia with remifentanil during nociceptive stimulation is associated with changes in clinical and electrophysiological parameters indicating inadequate depth of anaesthesia. Following IRB approval and written informed consent, 23 patients (ASA: I; age: 36 +/- 11) scheduled for elective gynaecological laparoscopy were included in the study. Without any premedication, anaesthesia was induced with remifentanil (1.0 microgram/kg bolus injection), propofol (0.5 mg/kg added by repetitive (10 mg) bolus injections every 10 s until unconciousness) and vecuronium (0.1 mg/kg). Following endotracheal intubation (normoventilation: PetCO2: 36 bis 38 mmHg), remifentanil infusion was started with continuous doses of 0.5 microgram/kg/min over 5 minutes and maintained with 0.25 microgram/kg/min during surgery. Remifentanil was randomly combined with propofol (group 1: 100 micrograms/kg/min; n = 7), enflurane (group 2: 0.5 MAC; n = 8) or isoflurane (group 3: 0.5 MAC; n = 8). Monitoring included: heart rate (beats/min), mean arterial pressure (mmHg), oxygen saturation (%), endtidal CO2 (mmHg) and endtidal enflurane and isoflurane (%). EEG: 2-channel recordings of Fz versus mastoid and ECG (artefact control) during steady-state anaesthesia and surgery. Following fast-fourier-transformation (4 s; 256/s; 0.5 to 35.0 Hz), spectral power densities were calculated for the selected frequency bands. Auditory evoked potentials (AEP; middle latency) were registered simultaneously after binaural stimulation via head-phones click-stimulation (6 Hz; 75 dB above hearing threshold; 512 stimulations per average). Bandpass was 0.01 to 2.0 kHz. Na, Pa, Nb (latencies; ms) and peak-to-peak amplitudes (NaPa, PaNb; microV). EEG and AEP recording technique [15]. The study protocol included baseline values from pre-intubation, pre-surgery, the respective post

  17. Comparing charcoal and zeolite reflection filters for volatile anaesthetics: A laboratory evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturesson, Louise W; Frennström, Jan O; Ilardi, Marcella; Reinstrup, Peter

    2015-08-01

    A modified heat-moisture exchanger that incorporates a reflecting filter for use with partial rebreathing of exhaled volatile anaesthetics has been commercially available since the 1990 s. The main advantages of the device are efficient delivery of inhaled sedation to intensive care patients and reduced anaesthetic consumption during anaesthesia. However, elevated arterial CO2 values have been observed with an anaesthetic conserving device compared with a conventional heat and moisture exchanger, despite compensation for larger apparatus dead space. The objective of this study is to thoroughly explore the properties of two reflecting materials (charcoal and zeolites). A controlled, prospective, observational laboratory study. Lund University Hospital, Sweden, from December 2011 to December 2012. None. Three filters, with identical volumes, were compared using different volatile anaesthetics at different conditions of temperature and moisture. The filtering materials were charcoal or zeolite. Glass spheres were used as an inert control. Consumption of volatile anaesthetics using different reflecting materials in filters at different conditions regarding temperature and moisture. CO2 reflection by the filtering materials: glass spheres, charcoal or zeolite. Isoflurane consumption in an open system was 60.8 g h(-1). The isoflurane consumption in dry, warm air was 39.8 g h(-1) with glass spheres. Changing to charcoal and zeolite had a profound effect on isoflurane consumption, 11.8 and 10.7 g h(-1), respectively. Heating and humidifying the air as well as the addition of N2O created only minor changes in consumption. The percentage of isoflurane conserved by the charcoal filter was independent of the isoflurane concentration (0.5 to 4.5%). Reflection of sevoflurane, desflurane and halothane by the charcoal filter was similar to reflection of isoflurane. Both charcoal and zeolite filters had CO2 reflecting properties and end-tidal CO2 increased by 3 to 3.7% compared

  18. Effects of post-conditioning with sevoflurane on the expressions of intestinal AQP8 and I-FABP in pigs with hemorrhagic shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-hong CHEN

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the effects of sevoflurane post-conditioning on the expression of Aquaporin 8 (AQP8 and intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP, in order to investigate the protective role of sevoflurane post-conditioning on intestinal injury and its underlying mechanism. Methods Eighteen bama miniature pigs were randomly divided into three groups (6 each using a random number table: control group (S group, hemorrhagic shock group (HS group, and sevoflurane post-coditioning group (Post/ Sev group. Experimental animals were fasted for 8 hours before surgery, and propofol 3mg/kg was given viathe ear vein. Endotracheal intubation was done when the animal fell asleep. Bloodletting from the femoral artery after anesthesia was done to reproduce hemorrhagic shock. In Post/Sev group, 2% sevoflurane was given by inhalation for 30min (post-conditioning after successful reproduction of the model. Blood samples were collected prior to anesthesia (T0 and 30min (T1, 1h (T2, 1.5h (T3, 2h (T4, 3h (T5, 4h (T6 after hemorrhagic shock. The quantity of blood I-FABP and intestinal AQP8 levels were determined with ELISA. Water content in the intestinal tissue was determined by wet and dry weight method. Histopathological changes in the intestinal tissue were observed with HE staining. Results Compared with the control group, the serum I-FABP content, the expressions of intestinal AQP8, and water content in the intestinal tissue were significantly increased in HS group and Post/Sev (P<0.05 group. Compared with HS group, the above indices in Post/Sev group were significantly lower (P<0.05. These results were confirmed by pathological examination. Conclusion Postconditioning with sevoflurane could improve, to some extent, pig's intestinal barrier function in hemorrhagic shock, and this effect is likely related with lowering of intestinal AQP8 and I-FABP expression and mucosal edema. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.11.11

  19. Effects of a prostagrandin EP4-receptor agonist ONO-AE1-329 on the left ventricular pressure-volume relationship in the halothane-anesthetized dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Atsushi; Nakamura, Yuji; Ohara, Hiroshi; Cao, Xin; Nomura, Hiroaki; Katagi, Jun; Wada, Takeshi; Izumi-Nakaseko, Hiroko; Ando, Kentaro; Sugiyama, Atsushi

    2016-03-15

    Cardiac effects of a prostagrandin EP4-receptor agonist ONO-AE1-329 were assessed in the halothane-anesthetized dogs under the monitoring of left ventricular pressure-volume relationship, which were compared with those of clinically recommended doses of dopamine, dobutamine and milrinone (n=4-5 for each treatment). ONO-AE1-329 was intravenously administered in doses of 0.3, 1 and 3 ng/kg/min for 10 min with a pause of 20 min. Dopamine in a dose of 3 µg/kg/min for 10 min, dobutamine in a dose of 1 µg/kg/min for 10 min and milrinone in a dose of 5 µg/kg/min for 10 min followed by 0.5 µg/kg/min for 10 min were intravenously administered. Low dose of ONO-AE1-329 increased the stroke volume. Middle dose of ONO-AE1-329 increased the cardiac output, left ventricular end-diastolic volume, ejection fraction, maximum upstroke/downstroke velocities of the left ventricular pressure and external work, but decreased the end-systolic pressure and internal work besides the change by the low dose. High dose of ONO-AE1-329 increased the heart rate and maximum elastance, but decreased the end-systolic volume besides the changes by the middle dose. Dopamine, dobutamine and milrinone exerted essentially similar cardiac effects to ONO-AE1-329, but they did not significantly change the end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, stroke volume, ejection fraction, end-systolic pressure, maximum elastance, external work or internal work. Thus, EP4-receptor stimulation by ONO-AE1-329 may have potential to better promote the passive ventricular filling than the conventional cardiotonic drugs, which could become a candidate of novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Isoflurane Impairs Low-Frequency Feedback but Leaves High-Frequency Feedforward Connectivity Intact in the Fly Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Dror; van Swinderen, Bruno; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu

    2018-01-01

    Hierarchically organized brains communicate through feedforward (FF) and feedback (FB) pathways. In mammals, FF and FB are mediated by higher and lower frequencies during wakefulness. FB is preferentially impaired by general anesthetics in multiple mammalian species. This suggests FB serves critical functions in waking brains. The brain of Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) is also hierarchically organized, but the presence of FB in these brains is not established. Here, we studied FB in the fly brain, by simultaneously recording local field potentials (LFPs) from low-order peripheral structures and higher-order central structures. We analyzed the data using Granger causality (GC), the first application of this analysis technique to recordings from the insect brain. Our analysis revealed that low frequencies (0.1-5 Hz) mediated FB from the center to the periphery, while higher frequencies (10-45 Hz) mediated FF in the opposite direction. Further, isoflurane anesthesia preferentially reduced FB. Our results imply that the spectral characteristics of FF and FB may be a signature of hierarchically organized brains that is conserved from insects to mammals. We speculate that general anesthetics may induce unresponsiveness across species by targeting the mechanisms that support FB.

  1. CLINICAL-PHARMACOLOGY OF ROCURONIUM (ORG-9426) - STUDY OF THE TIME-COURSE OF ACTION, DOSE REQUIREMENT, REVERSIBILITY, AND PHARMACOKINETICS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDENBROEK, L; WIERDA, JMKH; SMEULERS, NJ; VANSANTEN, GJ; LECLERCQ, MGL; HENNIS, PJ

    1994-01-01

    Study Objective: To evaluate the time course of action, dose requirement, reversibility, and pharmacokinetics of rocuronium (Org 9426) under 3 anesthetic techniques (nitrous oxide-fentanyl supplemented with propofol halothane, or isoflurane). Design: Prospective, randomized study. Setting: Operating

  2. Euthanasia using gaseous agents in laboratory rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentim, A M; Guedes, S R; Pereira, A M; Antunes, L M

    2016-08-01

    Several questions have been raised in recent years about the euthanasia of laboratory rodents. Euthanasia using inhaled agents is considered to be a suitable aesthetic method for use with a large number of animals simultaneously. Nevertheless, its aversive potential has been criticized in terms of animal welfare. The data available regarding the use of carbon dioxide (CO2), inhaled anaesthetics (such as isoflurane, sevoflurane, halothane and enflurane), as well as carbon monoxide and inert gases are discussed throughout this review. Euthanasia of fetuses and neonates is also addressed. A table listing currently available information to ease access to data regarding euthanasia techniques using gaseous agents in laboratory rodents was compiled. Regarding better animal welfare, there is currently insufficient evidence to advocate banning or replacing CO2 in the euthanasia of rodents; however, there are hints that alternative gases are more humane. The exposure to a volatile anaesthetic gas before loss of consciousness has been proposed by some scientific studies to minimize distress; however, the impact of such a measure is not clear. Areas of inconsistency within the euthanasia literature have been highlighted recently and stem from insufficient knowledge, especially regarding the advantages of the administration of isoflurane or sevoflurane over CO2, or other methods, before loss of consciousness. Alternative methods to minimize distress may include the development of techniques aimed at inducing death in the home cage of animals. Scientific outcomes have to be considered before choosing the most suitable euthanasia method to obtain the best results and accomplish the 3Rs (replacement, reduction and refinement). © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Correlation of bispectral index (BIS monitoring and end-tidal sevoflurane concentration in a patient with lobar holoprosencephaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Galante

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: The bispectral index (BIS is a parameter derived by electroencephalography (EEG which provides a direct measurement of the effects of sedatives and anesthetics on the brain and offers guidance on the adequacy of anesthesia. The literature lacks studies on BIS monitoring in pediatric patients with congenital brain disease undergoing general anesthesia.CLINICAL FEATURES: A 13-year-old child weighing 32 kg, suffering from lobar holoprosencephaly, underwent surgery in which the bispectral index (BIS monitoring the depth of anesthesia showed an abnormal response. Detailed analysis of the trends of BIS values in the different observation times demonstrated sudden falls and repetitive values of BIS likely related to repetitive epileptiform electrical activity caused by sevoflurane.CONCLUSION: The BIS is a very useful monitoring tool for assessing the degree of depth of anesthesia and to analyze the electroencephalographic variations of anesthetics. Particular attention should be given to patients with congenital disorders of the central nervous system in which the BIS may give abnormal responses that do not reflect an accurate assessment of the depth of anesthesia.

  4. Effects of activin A and its downstream ERK1/2 in oxygen and glucose deprivation after isoflurane-induced postconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Yin, Jiangwen; Wang, Sheng; Cui, Di; Lin, Hong; Ge, Mingyue; Dai, Zhigang; Xie, Liping; Si, Junqiang; Ma, Ketao; Li, Li; Zhao, Lei

    2016-12-01

    Isoflurane postconditioning (ISPOC) plays a neuroprotection role in the brain. Previous studies confirmed that isoflurane postconditioning can provide better protection than preconditioning in acute hypoxic-ischemic brain damage, such as acute craniocerebral trauma and ischemic stroke. Numerous studies have reported that activin A can protect rat's brain from cell injury. However, whether activin A and its downstream ERK1/2 were involved in isoflurane postconditioning-induced neuroprotection is unknown. A total of 80 healthy Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 50-70g were randomly divided into 10 groups of 8: normal control, oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD), 1.5% ISPOC, 3.0% ISPOC, 4.5% ISPOC, blocker of activin A (SB431542), blocker of ERK1/2 (U0126), 3.0% ISPOC+SB431542, 3.0% ISPOC+U0126, and vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide(DMSO)) group. Blockers (SB431542 and U0126) were used in each concentration of isoflurane before OGD. Hematoxylin-eosin staining, 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining, and propidium iodide (PI) staining were conducted to assess the reliability in the brain slices. Immunofluorescence, Western blot, and quantitative real-time PCR(Q-PCR) were performed to validate the protein expression levels of activin A, Smad2/3, P-Smad2/3, ERK1/2, and phosphorylation ERK1/2 (P-ERK1/2). The number of damaged neurons and mean fluorescence intensity(MFI) of PI staining increased, but formazan generation, expression levels of activin A and P-ERK1/2 protein, and mRNA synthesis level of activin A decreased in the OGD group compared with the normal control group (pneurons and MFI of PI staining decreased, but formazan production, expression levels of activin A, P-Smad2/3, and P-ERK1/2, and mRNA synthesis level of activin A increased significantly in the 1.5% ISPOC and 3.0% ISPOC groups (pneuron and MFI of PI staining increased, but formazan production, expression levels of activin A, P-Smad2/3, and P-ERK1/2, and mRNA synthesis level of activin A decreased in the 4

  5. Effects of fresh gas flow, tidal volume, and charcoal filters on the washout of sevoflurane from the Datex Ohmeda (GE) Aisys, Aestiva/5, and Excel 210 SE Anesthesia Workstations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabouri, A Sassan; Lerman, Jerrold; Heard, Christopher

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the effects of tidal volume (VT), fresh gas flow (FGF), and a charcoal filter in the inspiratory limb on the washout of sevoflurane from the following Datex Ohmeda (GE) Anesthesia Workstations (AWSs): Aisys, Aestiva/5, and Excel 210SE. After equilibrating the AWSs with 2% sevoflurane, the anesthetic was discontinued, and the absorbent anesthesia breathing circuit (ABC), reservoir bag, and test lung were changed. The lung was ventilated with 350 or 200 mL·breath(-1), 15 breaths·min(-1), and a FGF of 10 L·min(-1) while the washout of sevoflurane was performed in triplicate using a calibrated Datex Ohmeda Capnomac Ultima™ and a calibrated MIRAN SapphIRe XL ambient air analyzer until the concentration was ≤ 10 parts per million (ppm). The effects of decreasing the FGF to 5 and 2 L·min(-1) after the initial washout and of a charcoal filter in the ABC were recorded separately. The median washout times with the Aisys AWS (14 min, P Excel 210SE (32 min). The mean (95% confidence interval) washout time with the Aisys increased to 23.5 (21.5 to 25.5) min with VT 200 mL·breath(-1) (P < 0.01). Decreasing the FGF from 10 to 5 and 2 L·min(-1) with the Aisys caused a rebound in sevoflurane concentration to ≥ 50 ppm. Placement of a charcoal filter in the inspiratory limb reduced the sevoflurane concentration to < 2 ppm in the Aisys and Aestiva/5 AWSs within two minutes. The GE AWSs should be purged with large FGFs and VTs ~350 mL·breath(-1) for ~25 min to achieve 10 ppm sevoflurane. The FGF should be maintained to avoid a rebound in anesthetic concentration. Charcoal filters rapidly decrease the anesthetic concentration to < 2 ppm.

  6. Role of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channel-mediated PKC-ε in delayed protection against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in isolated hearts of sevoflurane-preconditioned rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C. [Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, The Second Affiliate Hospital, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Institute of Neuroscience, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Hu, S.M. [Institute of Neuroscience, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Xie, H.; Qiao, S.G. [Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, The Second Affiliate Hospital, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Liu, H. [Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, University of California Davis Health System, Davis, CA (United States); Liu, C.F. [Institute of Neuroscience, Soochow University, Suzhou (China)

    2015-03-27

    This study aimed to determine the role of mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium (mitoK{sub ATP}) channels and protein kinase C (PKC)-ε in the delayed protective effects of sevoflurane preconditioning using Langendorff isolated heart perfusion models. Fifty-four isolated perfused rat hearts were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=9). The rats were exposed for 60 min to 2.5% sevoflurane (the second window of protection group, SWOP group) or 33% oxygen inhalation (I/R group) 24 h before coronary occlusion. The control group (CON) and the sevoflurane group (SEVO) group were exposed to 33% oxygen and 2.5% sevoflurane for 60 min, respectively, without coronary occlusion. The mitoK{sub ATP} channel inhibitor 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD) was given 30 min before sevoflurane preconditioning (5-HD+SWOP group). Cardiac function indices, infarct sizes, serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) concentrations, and the expression levels of phosphorylated PKC-ε (p-PKC-ε) and caspase-8 were measured. Cardiac function was unchanged, p-PKC-ε expression was upregulated, caspase-8 expression was downregulated, cTnI concentrations were decreased, and the infarcts were significantly smaller (P<0.05) in the SWOP group compared with the I/R group. Cardiac function was worse, p-PKC-ε expression was downregulated, caspase-8 expression was upregulated, cTnI concentration was increased and infarcts were larger in the 5-HD+SWOP group (P<0.05) compared with the SWOP group. The results suggest that mitoK{sub ATP} channels are involved in the myocardial protective effects of sevoflurane in preconditioning against I/R injury, by regulating PKC-ε phosphorylation before ischemia, and by downregulating caspase-8 during reperfusion.

  7. [Desflurane versus isoflurane in geriatric patients. A comparison of psychomotor and postoperative well-being following abdominal surgical procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motsch, J; Epple, J; Fresenius, M; Neff, S; Schmidt, W; Martin, E

    1998-05-01

    The new volatile anaesthetic agent desflurane has a significantly lower blood-gas partition coefficient (0.42) than isoflurane (1.4), suggesting excellent intraoperative control of anaesthesia and rapid emergence and recovery from anaesthesia. However, only limited experience is available in geriatric patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. After approval by the local ethics committee and with written informed consent, 52 patients (> or = 65 years old, ASA class II or III) scheduled for major abdominal surgery were randomised to receive either desflurane (DES) or isoflurane (ISO) for maintenance of anaesthesia. After oral premedication with midazolam 3.75-7.5 mg, anaesthesia was induced with etomidate 0.2-0.3 mg/kg and fentanyl 3 micrograms/kg. Vecuronium 0.1 mg/kg provided muscle relaxation for endotracheal intubation. All patients were mechanically ventilated to maintain normocapnia. For maintenance of anaesthesia, DES or ISO was administered in 60% N2O and additional boluses of fentanyl and vecuronium were given as required. At the end of surgery, the neuromuscular blockade was reversed with neostigmine 0.02 mg/kg and DES or ISO was discontinued at the end of skin closure. Episodes of bradycardia and tachycardia and hypo- and hypertension, the time from the end of anaesthesia to extubation, opening eyes, squeezing hand, stating name and birthdate and to discharge from the recovery room were recorded. Until 360 minutes after the end of anaesthesia, the recovery of psychomotor functions was measured by means of simple reaction time tests, critical flicker fusion test, labyrinth test, ball bearing test, short and long-term memory test and digit symbol substitution test. The patient's well-being was documented with scores for pain, sedation and postoperative nausea and vomiting. Demographic data in both groups was similar (Tab. 1). Anaesthesia was significantly prolonged in the ISO group. No significant differences between groups were found for MAC hours and

  8. A randomized prospective study of desflurane versus isoflurane in minimal flow anesthesia using “equilibration time” as the change-over point to minimal flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Tanuja; Aneja, S; Tope, R; Muralidhar, V

    2012-01-01

    Background: In the administration of minimal flow anesthesia, traditionally a fixed time period of high flow has been used before changing over to minimal flow. However, newer studies have used “equilibration time” of a volatile anesthetic agent as the change-over point. Materials and Methods: A randomized prospective study was conducted on 60 patients, who were divided into two groups of 30 patients each. Two volatile inhalational anesthetic agents were compared. Group I received desflurane (n = 30) and group II isoflurane (n = 30). Both the groups received an initial high flow till equilibration between inspired (Fi) and expired (Fe) agent concentration were achieved, which was defined as Fe/Fi = 0.8. The mean (SD) equilibration time was obtained for both the agent. Then, a drift in end-tidal agent concentration during the minimal flow anesthesia and recovery profile was noted. Results: The mean equilibration time obtained for desflurane and isoflurane were 4.96 ± 1.60 and 16.96 ± 9.64 min (P < 0.001). The drift in end-tidal agent concentration over time was minimal in the desflurane group (P = 0.065). Recovery time was 5.70 ± 2.78 min in the desflurane group and 8.06 ± 31 min in the isoflurane group (P = 0.004). Conclusion: Use of equilibration time of the volatile anesthetic agent as a change-over point, from high flow to minimal flow, can help us use minimal flow anesthesia, in a more efficient way. PMID:23225926

  9. Effects of rocuronium bromide on globe position and respiratory function in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs: a comparison between three different dosages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briganti, Angela; Barsotti, Giovanni; Portela, Diego A; Di Nieri, Camilla; Breghi, Gloria

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the effect on globe position and respiration of three dosages of intravenous rocuronium in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs. Thirty-two dogs anesthetized for ophthalmic procedures. The dogs were divided into four groups, each of eight animals (G1-G4). G1, G2, G3 received 0.075, 0.05, 0.03 mg/kg of IV rocuronium, respectively; G4 received 0.9% NaCl IV; all the treatments were administered when an end-tidal isoflurane of 1.1-1.2% was reached. Anesthesia was obtained with dexmedetomidine (2.5 mcg/kg IV), methadone (0.1 mg/kg IV), propofol (2 mg/kg IV), and isoflurane in oxygen. Neuromuscular function was assessed with acceleromyography by stimulation of the peroneal nerve using the train-of-four (ToF) and the ToF ratio (ToFR). Monitoring of cardiovascular and respiratory functions was performed. Changes in globe position were recorded. All three dosages of rocuronium produced centralization of the globe. Duration was 24.3 ± 4.2, 23.4 ± 3.6, and 8.7 ± 2.8 min, for G1, G2, and G3, respectively. The control group did not show globe centralization. No significant differences were found among the four groups in cardiovascular and respiratory parameters. Minute volume and ToFR were significantly lower in G1 compared with baseline values. All doses of rocuronium resulted in globe centralization. The higher dose provoked a transient respiratory depression and some degree of skeletal muscular blockade detectable with ToFR. No alterations in respiratory activity were present when 0.05 mg/kg was used. The 0.03 mg/kg dosage could be useful for very short ophthalmic procedures. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  10. Repeated anaesthesia with isoflurane and medetomidine-midazolam-fentanyl in guinea pigs and its influence on physiological parameters.

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    Sabrina Schmitz

    Full Text Available Repeated anaesthesia may be required in experimental protocols and in daily veterinary practice, but anaesthesia is known to alter physiological parameters in GPs (Cavia porcellus, GPs. This study investigated the effects of repeated anaesthesia with either medetomidine-midazolam-fentanyl (MMF or isoflurane (Iso on physiological parameters in the GP. Twelve GPs were repeatedly administered with MMF or Iso in two anaesthesia sets. One set consisted of six 40-min anaesthesias, performed over 3 weeks (2 per week; the anaesthetic used first was randomized. Prior to Iso anaesthesia, atropine was injected. MMF anaesthesia was antagonized with AFN (atipamezole-flumazenil-naloxone. Abdominally implanted radio-telemetry devices recorded the mean arterial blood pressure (MAP, heart rate (HR and core body temperature continuously. Additionally, respiratory rate, blood glucose and body weight were assessed. An operable state could be achieved and maintained for 40 min in all GPs. During the surgical tolerance with MMF, the GPs showed a large MAP range between the individuals. In the MMF wake- up phase, the time was shortened until the righting reflex (RR returned and that occurred at lower MAP and HR values. Repeated Iso anaesthesia led to an increasing HR during induction (anaesthesias 2-6, non-surgical tolerance (anaesthesias 3-6 and surgical tolerance (anaesthesias 4, 6. Both anaesthetics may be used repeatedly, as repeating the anaesthesias resulted in only slightly different physiological parameters, compared to those seen with single anaesthesias. The regular atropine premedication induced HR increases and repeated MMF anaesthesia resulted in a metabolism increase which led to the faster return of RR. Nevertheless, Iso's anaesthesia effects of strong respiratory depression and severe hypotension remained. Based on this increased anaesthesia risk with Iso, MMF anaesthesia is preferable for repeated use in GPs.

  11. Use of brachial plexus blockade and medetomidine-ketamine-isoflurane anaesthesia for repair of radio-ulna fracture in an adult cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimeli, Peter; Mogoa, Eddy M; Mwangi, Willy E; Kipyegon, Ambrose N; Kirui, Gilbert; Muasya, Daniel W; Mande, John D; Kariuki, Edward; Mijele, Dominic

    2014-10-10

    Regional anaesthetic techniques have been used in combination with systemic analgesics during small animal surgery to provide multimodal analgesia. Brachial plexus nerves block using local anaesthetics provides analgesia of the thoracic limb through desensitization of the nerves that provide sensory and motor innervation. This has been shown to reduce intra-operative anesthetic requirements and provide postoperative pain relief. Decreasing the doses of general anaesthetics allows more stable cardiopulmonary function during anaesthesia and the development of less side effects. The present case reports a successful use of brachial plexus blockade to supplement medetomidine-ketamine-isoflurane anaesthesia for repair of radio-ulna fracture in an adult cheetah (acinonyx jubatus). An adult male Cheetah weighing about 65 kg was presented with a history of leg carrying lameness of the left forelimb sustained following a car accident a week earlier. Clinical examination under general anaesthesia revealed slight dehydration and a swelling with a wound on the caudo-medial aspect of the left radio-ulna region. Crepitation was present on manipulation and radiography confirmed a complete transverse radio-ulna fracture of the left forelimb, which required open reduction and internal fixation. Brachial plexus blockade using lignocaine hydrochloride was used to supplement medetomidine-ketamine-isoflurane anaesthesia for the surgical procedure. Isoflurane anaesthesia was maintained at 0.5 - 2.0% throughout the surgical procedure, which was uneventful. Temperature and cardio-pulmonary parameters remained stable intra-operatively. Limb paralysis extended for 5 hours post-operatively, suggesting prolonged anaesthesia. To the researchers' knowledge, this is the first reported case of the use of brachial plexus blockade to supplement general anaesthesia to facilitate forelimb surgery in an adult cheetah. The use of brachial plexus block with a light plane of general anaesthesia proved to

  12. Comparison of the effects of dexmedetomidine-ketamine and sevoflurane-sufentanil anesthesia in children with obstructive sleep apnea after uvulopalatopharyngoplasty: An observational study

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    Xinqi Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA are particularly at risk under anesthesia after uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP. This prospective randomized double-blind study focused on the comparison of dexmedetomidine-ketamine and sevoflurane-sufentanil anesthesia on children with respect to safety, feasibility, and clinical effects. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 children, aged 2-10 years, classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA status I and II scheduled for UPPP were prospectively studied. Patients were randomly allocated to receive either dexmedetomidine-ketamine-based anesthesia (group DK, n = 30 or sevoflurane-sufentanil-based anesthesia (group SS, n = 3 0. Heart rate (HR and systolic blood pressure during the first 60 min of the procedure, Ramsay sedation score, the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium (PAED scale and a 5-point scale used to evaluate emergence agitation (EA in postanesthesia care unit (PACU and postoperative outcomes data were recorded. Results: During the first 60 min of anesthesia, mean HR, and mean diastolic noninvasive arterial blood pressure (NIBP were not statistically different in the two groups (P > 0.05 Compared with group SS, the patients in group DK had lower rescue tramadol requirement and lower pain score, PAED score, and EA score at 5, 10, 15, and 30 min in PACU; but had a higher Ramsay scale at 10, 15, 30, 45, and 60 min in PACU and the incidence of SpO 2 below 95%, also the time of first bowel movement and ambulation in group DK was shorter. Conclusions: The dexmedetomidine-ketamine combination was not superior to a sevoflurane-sufentanil combination because of late awake time and a high potential for adverse respiratory events in PACU, the benefit of dexmedetomidine administration being a decreased incidence of EA and a lower recovery time of bowel movement and ambulation.

  13. The effects of arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure and sevoflurane on capillary venous cerebral blood flow and oxygen saturation during craniotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Klaus Ulrich; Glaser, Martin; Reisch, Robert; Tresch, Achim; Werner, Christian; Engelhard, Kristin

    2009-07-01

    Intraoperative routine monitoring of cerebral blood flow and oxygenation remains a technological challenge. Using the physiological principle of carbon dioxide reactivity of cerebral vasculature, we investigated a recently developed neuromonitoring device (oxygen-to-see, O2C device) for simultaneous measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (rvCBF), blood flow velocity (rvVelo), oxygen saturation (srvO2), and hemoglobin amount (rvHb) at the capillary venous level in patients subjected to craniotomy. Twenty-six neurosurgical patients were randomly assigned to anesthesia with 1.4% or 2.0% sevoflurane end-tidal concentration. After craniotomy, a fiberoptic probe was applied on a macroscopically healthy surface of cerebral tissue next to the site of surgery. Simultaneous measurements in 2 and 8 mm cerebral depth were performed in each patient during lower (35 mm Hg) and higher (45 mm Hg) levels (random order) of arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2). The principle of these measurements relies on the combination of laser-Doppler flowmetry (rvCBF, rvVelo) and photo-spectrometry (srvO2, rvHb). Linear models were fitted to test changes of end points (rvCBF, rvVelo, srvO2, rvHb) in response to lower and higher levels of PaCO2, 1.4% and 2.0% sevoflurane end-tidal concentration, and 2 and 8 mm cerebral depth. RvCBF and rvVelo were elevated by PaCO2 independent of sevoflurane concentration in 2 and 8 mm depth of cerebral tissue (P oxygen was decreased by elevated PaCO2. Unchanged levels of rvHb signify that there was no blood loss during measurements. Data suggest that the device allows detection of local changes in blood flow and oxygen saturation in response to different PaCO2 levels in predominant venous cerebral microvessels.

  14. EFEITOS DA INFUSÃO CONTÍNUA DE CETAMINA S(+ EM EQÜINOS ANESTESIADOS PELO HALOTANO EFFECTS OF S(+-KETAMINE CONTINUOUS RATE INFUSION IN HORSES ANESTHETIZED BY HALOTHANE

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    José Henrique Saraiva Borges

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A manutenção da pressão arterial, no transanestésico, consiste grande desafio, principalmente quando se trata da espécie equina, suscetível à instabilidade cardiovascular. Por isso, torna-se imperioso utilizar técnica anestésica que mantenham estáveis os parâmetros cardiovasculares. A cetamina tem sido amplamente empregada na indução anestésica para o halotano em equinos, conferindo-lhes estabilidade cardiovascular. A cetamina S(+, recentemente disponibilizada no mercado, induz estimulação cardiovascular e possui maior potência anestésica e analgésica em relação à cetamina. Todavia, os efeitos dessa substância, administrada por infusão contínua durante a  manutenção da anestesia pelo halotano em equinos, ainda não foram avaliados. Em face da tendência atual de a infusão continuada da cetamina potencializar os anestésicos inalatórios, considerou-se pertinente avaliar os efeitos cardiovasculares e respiratórios desse isômero de cetamina em equinos anestesiados pelo halotano. Conclui-se que a infusão contínua de 0,01mg/kg/min de cetamina S(+ durante anestesia com 1,5 CAM de halotano em equinos não agravou a depressão cardiorrespiratória promovida por esse anestésico inalatório.
     
    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Cetamina S(+, equinos, halotano, infusão contínua.

    The horse’s blood pressure is susceptible to changes induced by volatile anesthetics. Because of that, the use of anesthesic techniques which keep stable the horse´s blood pressure is essencial. Ketamine is an important induction and maintenance anesthetic agent used in the horse anesthesia practice mainly to improve the blood pressure. S(+-ketamine provides the same effects on the blood pressure, with greater analgesic results and less side effects than the normal ketamine. Although some studies have been conducted with ketamine continuous rate infusion during the halothane anesthetized horses, the S(+-ketamine has not been evaluated

  15. Efeito do genótipo halotano e de diferentes sistemas de produção na qualidade da carne suína Effect of the halothane genes and rearing systems on meat quality of pork

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    Ana Maria Bridi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Verificou-se o efeito dos genótipos halotano homozigoto dominante e heterozigoto e dos sistemas de criação confinado sobre piso de cimento, confinado sobre cama de maravalha e ao ar livre sobre a qualidade da carne suína. Foram utilizados 96 suínos machos castrados selecionados através do exame de DNA genômico, utilizando-se a técnica de reação em cadeia de polimerase (PCR para amplificar a região do receptor rianodina. A região amplificada foi clivada pela técnica polimorfismo do comprimento dos fragmentos de restrição (RFLP. Mediu-se o pH nos músculos Longissimus dorsi e Semimembranosus aos quarenta e cinco minutos e vinte e quatro horas após o abate. A capacidade de retenção de água foi avaliada em amostras do músculo Longissimus dorsi através das técnicas de perda de líquido por gotejamento, de cocção e de descongelamento. Escores para a cor e o grau de marmorização da carne foram atribuídos com auxílio de padrões fotográficos. A maciez da carne foi medida pela força de cisalhamento em equipamento Warner-Bratzler Shear. Suínos com gene halotano heterozigotos apresentaram valores inferiores de pH, menor capacidade de retenção de água e uma freqüência de carcaças com carne PSE três vezes maior. O sistema de criação não afetou os valores de pH inicial e final ou a capacidade de retenção de água da carne suína. A maior incidência de carne PSE foi observada nas carcaças dos suínos criados em sistema confinado sobre piso de concreto. Não houve efeito significativo da interação genótipo halotano e sistema de criação para as características avaliadas.The effect of halothane genotypes (heterozygous and dominant homozygous and intensive rearing systems (indoor, wood shavings bedding and outdoor on pork quality were determinated. Ninety six castrated male pigs were used for the trial. Identification of the halothane genotype was determined in blood samples using the DNA-test, based on the

  16. Intraoperative "Analgesia Nociception Index"-Guided Fentanyl Administration During Sevoflurane Anesthesia in Lumbar Discectomy and Laminectomy: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, Henry D; Ludbrook, Guy L; Wing, Andrew; Sleigh, Jamie W

    2017-07-01

    The "Analgesia Nociception Index" (ANI; MetroDoloris Medical Systems, Lille, France) is a proposed noninvasive guide to analgesia derived from an electrocardiogram trace. ANI is scaled from 0 to 100; with previous studies suggesting that values ≥50 can indicate adequate analgesia. This clinical trial was designed to investigate the effect of intraoperative ANI-guided fentanyl administration on postoperative pain, under anesthetic conditions optimized for ANI functioning. Fifty patients aged 18 to 75 years undergoing lumbar discectomy or laminectomy were studied. Participants were randomly allocated to receive intraoperative fentanyl guided either by the anesthesiologist's standard clinical practice (control group) or by maintaining ANI ≥50 with boluses of fentanyl at 5-minute intervals (ANI group). A standardized anesthetic regimen (sevoflurane, rocuronium, and nonopioid analgesia) was utilized for both groups. The primary outcome was Numerical Rating Scale pain scores recorded from 0 to 90 minutes of recovery room stay. Secondary outcomes included those in the recovery room period (total fentanyl administration, nausea, vomiting, shivering, airway obstruction, respiratory depression, sedation, emergence time, and time spent in the recovery room) and in the intraoperative period (total fentanyl administration, intraoperative-predicted fentanyl effect-site concentrations over time [CeFent], the correlation between ANI and predicted CeFent and the incidence of movement). Statistical analysis was performed with 2-tailed Student t tests, χ tests, ordinal logistic generalized estimating equation models, and linear mixed-effects models. Bonferroni corrections for multiple comparisons were made for primary and secondary outcomes. Over the recovery room period (0-90 minutes) Numerical Rating Scale pain scores were on average 1.3 units lower in ANI group compared to the control group (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.4 to 2.4; P= .01). Patients in the ANI group

  17. Correlation of bispectral index (BIS monitoring and end-tidal sevoflurane concentration in a patient with lobar holoprosencephaly

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    Dario Galante

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The bispectral index (BIS is a parameter derived by electroencephalography (EEG which provides a direct measurement of the effects of sedatives and anesthetics on the brain and offers guidance on the adequacy of anesthesia. The literature lacks studies on BIS monitoring in pediatric patients with congenital brain disease undergoing general anesthesia. Clinical features: A 13-year-old child weighing 32 kg, suffering from lobar holoprosencephaly, underwent surgery in which the bispectral index (BIS monitoring the depth of anesthesia showed an abnormal response. Detailed analysis of the trends of BIS values in the different observation times demonstrated sudden falls and repetitive values of BIS likely related to repetitive epileptiform electrical activity caused by sevoflurane. Conclusion: The BIS is a very useful monitoring tool for assessing the degree of depth of anesthesia and to analyze the electroencephalographic variations of anesthetics. Particular attention should be given to patients with congenital disorders of the central nervous system in which the BIS may give abnormal responses that do not reflect an accurate assessment of the depth of anesthesia. Resumo: Objetivo: O índice bispectral (BIS é um parâmetro derivado por eletroencefalografia (EEG que fornece uma medida direta dos efeitos de sedativos e anestésicos no cérebro e orientação sobre a adequação da anestesia. A literatura carece de estudos sobre a monitoração do BIS em pacientes pediátricos com doença cerebral congênita submetidos à anestesia geral. Características clínicas: Criança de 13 anos de idade, pesando 32 kg, com holoprosencefalia lobar, foi submetida à cirurgia em que a monitoração da profundidade da anestesia com o uso do BIS mostrou uma resposta anormal. A análise detalhada das tendências dos valores do BIS nos diferentes tempos de observação mostrou quedas súbitas e valores repetitivos do BIS, provavelmente relacionados

  18. MAC-sparing effect of nitrous oxide in sevoflurane anesthetized sheep and its reversal with systemic atipamezole administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanu, Antonio; Melosu, Valentino; Careddu, Giovanni Mario; Sotgiu, Giovanni

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an anesthetic gas with antinociceptive properties and reduces the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) for volatile anesthetic agents, potentially through mechanisms involving central alpha2-adrenoceptors. We hypothesized that 70% N2O in the inspired gas will significantly reduce the MAC of sevoflurane (MACSEVO) in sheep, and that this effect can be reversed by systemic atipamezole. Materials and methods Animals were initially anesthetized with SEVO in oxygen (O2) and exposed to an electrical current as supramaximal noxious stimulus in order to determine MACSEVO (in duplicates). Thereafter, 70% N2O was added to the inspired gas and the MAC re-determined in the presence of N2O (MACSN). A subgroup of sheep were anesthetized a second time with SEVO/N2O for re-determination of MACSN, after which atipamezole (0.2 mg kg-1, IV) was administered for MACSNA determinations. Sheep were anesthetized a third time, initially with only SEVO/O2 to re-determine MACSEVO, after which atipamezole (0.2 mg kg-1, IV) was administered for determination of MACSA. Results MACSEVO was 2.7 (0.3)% [mean (standard deviation)]. Addition of N2O resulted in a 37% reduction of MACSEVO to MACSN of 1.7 (0.2)% (p <0.0001). Atipamezole reversed this effect, producing a MACSNA of 3.1 (0.7)%, which did not differ from MACSEVO (p = 0.12). MACSEVO did not differ from MACSA (p = 0.69). Cardiorespiratory variables were not different among experimental groups except a lower ETCO2 in animals exposed to SEVO/N2O. Conclusions N2O produces significant MACSEVO-reduction in sheep; this effect is completely reversed by IV atipamezole confirming the involvement of alpha2-adrenoreceptors in the MAC-sparing action of N2O. PMID:29315308

  19. Comparison of the Effects of Oral Midazolam, Ketamine and Tramadol on Postoperative Agitation Related to Sevoflurane in Children

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    Rahşan Karayazılı

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of oral midazolam, ketamine and tramadol, which have been administered as premedication in pediatric patients, on sedation quality, postoperative agitation and pain. Methods: Sixty pediatric patients (aged 2-12 years with American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA classifications I and II were included in the study. Group M was administered 0.5 mg kg-1 midazolam, Group K 6 mg kg-1 ketamine and Group T 2 mg kg-1 tramadol orally. The mean arterial blood pressure (MAP, heart rates (HR, Ramsey sedation scores (Rss and sedation agitation scores (Sas were recorded before and at 10 and 30 min after drug administration, before induction and 5,10, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 90 minutes after operation in all patients. Anesthesia induction was performed with lidocaine, propofol and rocuronium. Maintenance of anaesthesia was provided with sevoflurane, N2O and O2. Recovery times, Alderete scores and facial pain scores (FPS were recorded. Results: There were no differences between the groups according to demographic data. HR was significantly lower in Group T. Group M was determined to be more agitated 30 and 45 min after the operation. Also, Alderete scores were lower in Goup K. The FPS scores of Group T were lower (p<0.05. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups according to frequency of postoperative agitation and delirium. Conclusion: Although ketamine may reduce the postoperative sedation-agitation scores, it also may reduce the recovery scores in pediatric patients. Tramadol does not provide adequate sedation in premedication, but it reduces postoperative pain scores. However, the frequency of postoperative agitation-delirium is not different among these three agents. (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2010; 48: 146-52

  20. The Role Of Sevoflurane And Ionising Radiation On THE Level Of Primary DNA Damage Measured In Blood And Different Organs Of Swiss Albino Mice By THE Alkaline Comet Assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkovic, V.; Milic, M.; Horvat Knezevic, A.; Halovanovic, S.; Borojevic, N.; Orsolic, N.

    2015-01-01

    Sevoflurane is general anaesthetic suitable for short surgical procedures due to its quick induction of anaesthesia, maintaining spontaneous breathing frequency and hemodynamic stability of patients. However, it can directly trigger the formation of peroxynitrite, significantly increase intracellular levels of H2O2, peroxide, superoxide anion and nitric oxide in peripheral polymorphonuclear neutrophils 1h after the treatment; lowering the levels of intracellular glutathione, and increase radiosensitivity of cells also exposed to ionising radiation (IR). We wanted to evaluate the level of sinergistic effect and possible radiosensitivity DNA damage in blood, and different organs of Swiss albino mice after exposure to both sevoflurane (2.4 percent, 50:50) and the 1Gy gamma-ray radiation generally used in diagnostic purposes after 0, 2, 6 and 24 hours from the combined treatment with alkaline comet assay. Combined exposure to sevoflurane and IR has demonstrated synergistic effect. Due to metabolising of the sevoflurane, there was different sensitivity between blood, liver, kidney and brain cells. (author).

  1. Protective effects of a green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, against sevoflurane-induced neuronal apoptosis involve regulation of CREB/BDNF/TrkB and PI3K/Akt/mTOR signalling pathways in neonatal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Mei-Li; Ma, Hui; Man, Yi-Gang; Lv, Hong-Yan

    2017-12-01

    Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a polyphenol in green tea, is an effective antioxidant and possesses neuroprotective effects. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) are crucial for neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity. In this study, we aimed to assess the protective effects of EGCG against sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity in neonatal mice. Distinct groups of C57BL/6 mice were given EGCG (25, 50, or 75 mg/kg body weight) from postnatal day 3 (P3) to P21 and were subjected to sevoflurane (3%; 6 h) exposure on P7. EGCG significantly inhibited sevoflurane-induced neuroapoptosis as determined by Fluoro-Jade B staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL). Increased levels of cleaved caspase-3, downregulated Bad and Bax, and significantly enhanced Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, xIAP, c-IAP-1, and survivin expression were observed. EGCG induced activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway as evidenced by increased Akt, phospho-Akt, GSK-3β, phospho-GSK-3β, and mTORc1 levels. Sevoflurane-mediated downregulation of cAMP/CREB and BDNF/TrkB signalling was inhibited by EGCG. Reverse transcription PCR analysis revealed enhanced BDNF and TrkB mRNA levels upon EGCG administration. Improved performance of mice in Morris water maze tests suggested enhanced learning and memory. The study indicates that EGCG was able to effectively inhibit sevoflurane-induced neurodegeneration and improve learning and memory retention of mice via activation of CREB/BDNF/TrkB-PI3K/Akt signalling.

  2. Effect of prolonged general anesthesia with sevoflurane and laparoscopic surgery on gastric and small bowel propulsive motility and pH in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscan, Pedro; Cochran, Shannon; Monnet, Eric; Webb, Craig; Twedt, David

    2014-01-01

    To determine if general anesthesia with sevoflurane and laparoscopic surgery changed gastric and small bowel propulsive motility or pH in dogs. Prospective, controlled trial. Twelve, 19-24 months old, female, Treeing Walker Hound dogs, weighing 23-30 kg. Dogs were anesthetized for a median of 8.5 hours during another study to determine the minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane using a visceral stimulus. Gastric and small bowel motility were determined using a sensor capsule that measures pressure, pH and temperature. Gastric transit time and motility index were calculated. For 8/12 dogs, gastric motility, pH and transit time were measured. In 4/12 dogs, small bowel motility and pH were measured. Anesthesia decreased gastric and small bowel motility but did not change luminal pH. Mean gastric contraction force decreased from median (range) 11 (8-20) to 3 (1-10) mmHg (p < 0.01) and gastric motility index decreased from 0.63 (0-1.58) to 0 (0-0.31; p = 0.01). Frequency of contractions did not change, 3.7 (1.6-4.4) versus 2.8 (0.1-5.1) contractions minute(-1) (p = 0.1). Gastric motility returned to normal 12-15 hours following anesthesia. Gastric emptying was prolonged from 12 (5.3-16) to 49 (9.75-56.25) hours (p < 0.01). Mean small bowel contraction force decreased from 34 (24-37) to 3 (0.9-17) mmHg (p < 0.02) and motility index decreased from 3.75 (1-4.56) to 0 (0-1.53; p = 0.02). Frequency of contractions did not change, 0.5 (0.3-1.4) versus 1.4 (0.3-4.6) contractions minute(-1) (p = 0.11). Small bowel motility returned within 2 hours after anesthesia. Laparoscopy did not result in changes to gastric or small bowel parameters beyond those produced by general anesthesia. The force of gastric and small bowel contractions decreased during sevoflurane anesthesia for laparoscopy. Although gastric motility returned to normal within 12-15 hours the impairment of gastric emptying lasted 30-40 hours, predisposing dogs to postoperative ileus.

  3. SU-F-T-675: Down-Regulating the Expression of Cdc42 and Inhibition of Migration of A549 with Combined Treatment of Ionizing Radiation and Sevoflurane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Y; Feng, J; Huang, Z

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Cdc42 is involved in cell transformation, proliferation, invasion and metastasis of human cancer cells. Cdc42 overexpression has been reported in several types of cancers. This study investigated the combined treatment effects of ionizing radiation and sevoflurane on down-regulating Cdc42 expression and suppressing migration of human adenocarcinoma cell line A549. Methods: Samples of A549 cells with Cdc42 overexpression were created and Cdc42 expression was determined by Western blotting. Increase of migration speed by Cdc42-HA overexpression was confirmed with an initial in-vitro scratch assay. The cells grown in culture media were separated into 2 groups of 6 samples: one for the control and the other was treated with 4% sevoflurane for 5hrs prior to a single-fraction radiation of 4Gy using a 6MV beam. Cell migration speeds of the 2 groups were measured with an initial in-vitro scratch assay. The scratch was created with a pipette tip immediately after treatment and images at 4 post-treatment time points (0h, 3h, 6h, 12h) were acquired. The distance between the two separated sides at 0h was used as reference and subsequent changes of the distance over time was defined as the cell migration speed. Image processing and measurement were performed with an in-house software. The experiment was repeated three times independently to evaluate the repeatability and reliability. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 19.0. Results: Western blotting showed the treatment down-regulated Cdc42 overexpression. Quantitative analysis and two-tailed t-test showed that cell migration speed of the treated group was higher than the control group at all time points after treatment (p < 0.02). Conclusion: Combined treatment of 6MV photon and sevoflurane can cause the effects of down-regulating Cdc42 overexpression and decrease of migration speed of A549 cells which provides potential of clinical benefit for the cancer therapy. More investigation is needed to further

  4. SU-F-T-675: Down-Regulating the Expression of Cdc42 and Inhibition of Migration of A549 with Combined Treatment of Ionizing Radiation and Sevoflurane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Y [East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Feng, J [Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); Huang, Z [East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Cdc42 is involved in cell transformation, proliferation, invasion and metastasis of human cancer cells. Cdc42 overexpression has been reported in several types of cancers. This study investigated the combined treatment effects of ionizing radiation and sevoflurane on down-regulating Cdc42 expression and suppressing migration of human adenocarcinoma cell line A549. Methods: Samples of A549 cells with Cdc42 overexpression were created and Cdc42 expression was determined by Western blotting. Increase of migration speed by Cdc42-HA overexpression was confirmed with an initial in-vitro scratch assay. The cells grown in culture media were separated into 2 groups of 6 samples: one for the control and the other was treated with 4% sevoflurane for 5hrs prior to a single-fraction radiation of 4Gy using a 6MV beam. Cell migration speeds of the 2 groups were measured with an initial in-vitro scratch assay. The scratch was created with a pipette tip immediately after treatment and images at 4 post-treatment time points (0h, 3h, 6h, 12h) were acquired. The distance between the two separated sides at 0h was used as reference and subsequent changes of the distance over time was defined as the cell migration speed. Image processing and measurement were performed with an in-house software. The experiment was repeated three times independently to evaluate the repeatability and reliability. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 19.0. Results: Western blotting showed the treatment down-regulated Cdc42 overexpression. Quantitative analysis and two-tailed t-test showed that cell migration speed of the treated group was higher than the control group at all time points after treatment (p < 0.02). Conclusion: Combined treatment of 6MV photon and sevoflurane can cause the effects of down-regulating Cdc42 overexpression and decrease of migration speed of A549 cells which provides potential of clinical benefit for the cancer therapy. More investigation is needed to further

  5. Effects of preoperative carprofen on cardio-respiratory, hormonal and metabolic stress response in calves during umbilical surgery under isoflurane inhalation anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, I; Poos, E M; Meyer, H; List, A K; Kaestner, S B R; Rehage, J

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of preoperative carprofen on the cardiorespiratory, hormonal and metabolic stress response during umbilical surgery under isoflurane anaesthesia combined with local anaesthesia, in calves. A randomised, blinded experimental study was conducted in 24 calves. Carprofen (n = 12; 1.4 mg/kg) or physiological saline solution (controls; n = 12) was administered 1 h prior to surgery. Anaesthesia was induced with xylazine (0.1 mg/kg, IM) and, after the onset of sedation (i.e. after 5-8 min), ketamine was administered (2 mg/kg, IV). Anaesthesia was then maintained with isoflurane (ISO) in oxygen to effect and completed by infiltration of the incision line with 20 mL of 2% procaine. Cardiorespiratory, endocrine and metabolic parameters were examined before, during and after surgery at short intervals. In both groups, anaesthesia appeared adequate for the surgical intervention. Heart rate, stroke index and arterial blood pressure were significantly elevated after the onset of surgery. Oxygen partial pressure and oxygen delivery increased, while the oxygen extraction ratio decreased intraoperatively, ensuring sufficient oxygen supply. In the control group, the mean surge in serum cortisol concentrations tended to be higher (P = 0.089) and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) was significantly greater (P carprofen group during surgery. In conclusion, the anaesthetic protocol used in this study induced reliable analgesia in both groups. The lower serum cortisol levels and SVR may indicate a reduced surgical stress response in calves undergoing umbilical surgery under ISO anaesthesia after administering carprofen preoperatively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of a heat and moisture exchanger on heat loss in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs undergoing single-limb orthopedic procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik H; Brainard, Benjamin M; Braun, Christina; Figueiredo, Juliana P

    2011-12-15

    To determine whether a heat and moisture exchange device (HME) prevents a decrease in body temperature in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs undergoing orthopedic procedures. Blinded randomized controlled clinical trial. 60 privately owned dogs weighing at least 15 kg (33 lb). Dogs were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups (n = 20/group): HME placed immediately after anesthetic induction with isoflurane, after transfer to the operating room, or not at all. The device consisted of a hygroscopic filter placed between the endotracheal tube and the Y piece of the anesthesia circuit. Each dog was positioned on a circulating warm water blanket and had a forced-air warming blanket placed over its body. Body temperature was monitored after transfer to the operating room with a probe placed in the thoracic aspect of the esophagus. Study groups did not differ significantly with respect to body weight, body condition score, reproductive status, breed, surgical procedure, preoperative sedative and opioid administration, anesthetic induction drug, local nerve block technique, or operating room assignment. There were no significant differences among groups in esophageal temperature variables, interval between anesthetic induction and surgery, surgery duration, anesthesia duration, or oxygen flow rate. However, the relationship between temperature delta and body weight was significant and relevant (R(2) = 0.23), as was the association between temperature nadir and body weight (R(2)= 0.10). As body weight increased, the temperature delta decreased and temperature nadir increased. No other significant relationships were identified. Inclusion of an HME in healthy dogs undergoing anesthesia for an elective orthopedic surgery did not facilitate maintenance of body temperature throughout the procedure.

  7. The effect of ketamine versus fentanyl on the incidence of emergence agitation after sevoflurane anesthesia in pediatric patients undergoing tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Arafat Abdelhalim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emergence agitation (EA has been documented as a common side-effect of sevoflurane anesthesia. This prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was designed to compare the effects of ketamine versus fentanyl, administered 10 min before the end of surgery on the development of EA. Methods: A total of 120 children aged 3-7 years of American Society of Anesthesiologists I-II physical status were randomly assigned to one of three equal groups receiving either ketamine 0.5 mg/kg (Group K, fentanyl 1 μg/kg (Group F or saline (Group C at 10 min before the end of surgery. Post-operative EA was assessed with Aono′′s four point scale. Recovery times, the post-operative pain and adverse reactions were assessed. Results: There was no significant difference between the three groups regarding recovery and discharge times from post-anesthesia care unit. The incidence of EA was significantly low in Group K and Group F (15% and 17.5%, respectively compared to the control group (42.5%, with no significant difference between Group K and Group F. There were no significant differences in Children′s Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale between the three groups. The incidence of nausea or vomiting was significantly more in Group F compared to that in other two groups. However, no complications such as somnolence, oxygen desaturation or respiratory depression occurred during the study period and there were no episodes of hallucinations or bad dreams in the ketamine group. Conclusion: The intravenous administration of either ketamine 0.5 mg/kg or fentanyl 1 μg/kg before the end of surgery in sevoflurane-anesthetized children undergoing tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy reduces the incidence of post-operative agitation without delaying emergence.

  8. Performance of a new carbon dioxide absorbent, Yabashi lime® as compared to conventional carbon dioxide absorbent during sevoflurane anesthesia in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondoh, Kei; Atiba, Ayman; Nagase, Kiyoshi; Ogawa, Shizuko; Miwa, Takashi; Katsumata, Teruya; Ueno, Hiroshi; Uzuka, Yuji

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, we compare a new carbon dioxide (CO2) absorbent, Yabashi lime(®) with a conventional CO2 absorbent, Sodasorb(®) as a control CO2 absorbent for Compound A (CA) and Carbon monoxide (CO) productions. Four dogs were anesthetized with sevoflurane. Each dog was anesthetized with four preparations, Yabashi lime(®) with high or low-flow rate of oxygen and control CO2 absorbent with high or low-flow rate. CA and CO concentrations in the anesthetic circuit, canister temperature and carbooxyhemoglobin (COHb) concentration in the blood were measured. Yabashi lime(®) did not produce CA. Control CO2 absorbent generated CA, and its concentration was significantly higher in low-flow rate than a high-flow rate. CO was generated only in low-flow rate groups, but there was no significance between Yabashi lime(®) groups and control CO2 absorbent groups. However, the CO concentration in the circuit could not be detected (≤5ppm), and no change was found in COHb level. Canister temperature was significantly higher in low-flow rate groups than high-flow rate groups. Furthermore, in low-flow rate groups, the lower layer of canister temperature in control CO2 absorbent group was significantly higher than Yabashi lime(®) group. CA and CO productions are thought to be related to the composition of CO2 absorbent, flow rate and canister temperature. Though CO concentration is equal, it might be safer to use Yabashi lime(®) with sevoflurane anesthesia in dogs than conventional CO2 absorbent at the point of CA production.

  9. [Anaesthetic-induced myocardial preconditioning: fundamental basis and clinical implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiari, P; Bouvet, F; Piriou, V

    2005-04-01

    Volatile halogenated anaesthetics offer a myocardial protection when they are administrated before a myocardial ischaemia. Cellular mechanisms involved in anaesthetic preconditioning are now better understood. The objectives of this review are to understand the anaesthetic-induced preconditioning underlying mechanisms and to know the clinical implications. References were obtained from PubMed data bank (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi) using the following keywords: volatile anaesthetic, isoflurane, halothane, sevoflurane, desflurane, preconditioning, protection, myocardium. Ischaemic preconditioning (PC) is a myocardial endogenous protection against ischaemia. It has been described as one or several short ischaemia before a sustained ischemia. These short ischaemia trigger a protective signal against this longer ischaemia. An ischemic organ is able to precondition a remote organ. It is possible to replace the short ischaemia by a preadministration of halogenated volatile anaesthetic with the same protective effect, this is called anaesthetic PC (APC). APC and ischaemic PC share similar underlying biochemical mechanisms including protein kinase C, tyrosine kinase activation and mitochondrial and sarcolemnal K(ATP) channels opening. All halogenated anaesthetics can produce an anaesthetic PC effect. Myocardial protection during reperfusion, after the long ischaemia, has been shown by successive short ischaemia or volatile anaesthetic administration, this is called postconditioning. Ischaemic PC has been described in humans in 1993. Clinical studies in human cardiac surgery have shown the possibility of anaesthetic PC with volatile anaesthetics. These studies have shown a decrease of postoperative troponin in patient receiving halogenated anaesthetics.

  10. The effects of general anesthetics on ESR spectra of spin labels in phosphatidylcholine vesicles containing purified Na,K-ATPase or microsomal protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Makiko; Hiraoki, Toshifumi; Kimura, Kunie; Fukushima, Kazuaki; Suzuki, Kuniaki

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the effects of general anesthetics on liposome containing spin labels, 5-doxyl stearic acid (5-DSA) and 16-doxyl stearic acid (16-DSA), and purified Na,K-ATPase or membrane protein of microsome using an electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The spectra of 16-DSA in liposomes with both proteins showed three sharp signals compared with 5-DSA. The difference in the order parameter S value of 5-DSA and 16-DSA suggested that the nitroxide radical location of 5-DSA and 16-DSA were different in the membrane bilayer. The results were almost the same as those obtained in liposomes without proteins. The addition of sevoflurane, isoflurane, halothane, ether, ethanol and propofol increased the intensity of the signals, but the clinical concentrations of anesthetics did not significantly alter the S and τ values, which are indices of the fluidity of the membrane. These results suggest that anesthetics remain on the surface of the lipid bilayer and do not act on both the inside hydrophobic area and the relatively hydrophilic area near the surface. These results and others also suggest that the existence of Na,K-ATPase and microsomal proteins did not affect the environment around the spin labels in the liposome and the effects of anesthetics on liposome as a model membrane.

  11. Effect of Xenon Anesthesia Compared to Sevoflurane and Total Intravenous Anesthesia for Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery on Postoperative Cardiac Troponin Release: An International, Multicenter, Phase 3, Single-blinded, Randomized Noninferiority Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofland, Jan; Ouattara, Alexandre; Fellahi, Jean-Luc; Gruenewald, Matthias; Hazebroucq, Jean; Ecoffey, Claude; Joseph, Pierre; Heringlake, Matthias; Steib, Annick; Coburn, Mark; Amour, Julien; Rozec, Bertrand; Liefde, Inge de; Meybohm, Patrick; Preckel, Benedikt; Hanouz, Jean-Luc; Tritapepe, Luigi; Tonner, Peter; Benhaoua, Hamina; Roesner, Jan Patrick; Bein, Berthold; Hanouz, Luc; Tenbrinck, Rob; Bogers, Ad J J C; Mik, Bert G; Coiffic, Alain; Renner, Jochen; Steinfath, Markus; Francksen, Helga; Broch, Ole; Haneya, Assad; Schaller, Manuella; Guinet, Patrick; Daviet, Lauren; Brianchon, Corinne; Rosier, Sebastien; Lehot, Jean-Jacques; Paarmann, Hauke; Schön, Julika; Hanke, Thorsten; Ettel, Joachym; Olsson, Silke; Klotz, Stefan; Samet, Amir; Laurinenas, Giedrius; Thibaud, Adrien; Cristinar, Mircea; Collanges, Olivier; Levy, François; Rossaint, Rolf; Stevanovic, Ana; Schaelte, Gereon; Stoppe, Christian; Hamou, Nora Ait; Hariri, Sarah; Quessard, Astrid; Carillion, Aude; Morin, Hélène; Silleran, Jacqueline; Robert, David; Crouzet, Anne-Sophie; Zacharowski, Kai; Reyher, Christian; Iken, Sonja; Weber, Nina C; Hollmann, Marcus; Eberl, Susanne; Carriero, Giovanni; Collacchi, Daria; Di Persio, Alessandra; Fourcade, Olivier; Bergt, Stefan; Alms, Angela

    2017-12-01

    Ischemic myocardial damage accompanying coronary artery bypass graft surgery remains a clinical challenge. We investigated whether xenon anesthesia could limit myocardial damage in coronary artery bypass graft surgery patients, as has been reported for animal ischemia models. In 17 university hospitals in France, Germany, Italy, and The Netherlands, low-risk elective, on-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery patients were randomized to receive xenon, sevoflurane, or propofol-based total intravenous anesthesia for anesthesia maintenance. The primary outcome was the cardiac troponin I concentration in the blood 24 h postsurgery. The noninferiority margin for the mean difference in cardiac troponin I release between the xenon and sevoflurane groups was less than 0.15 ng/ml. Secondary outcomes were the safety and feasibility of xenon anesthesia. The first patient included at each center received xenon anesthesia for practical reasons. For all other patients, anesthesia maintenance was randomized (intention-to-treat: n = 492; per-protocol/without major protocol deviation: n = 446). Median 24-h postoperative cardiac troponin I concentrations (ng/ml [interquartile range]) were 1.14 [0.76 to 2.10] with xenon, 1.30 [0.78 to 2.67] with sevoflurane, and 1.48 [0.94 to 2.78] with total intravenous anesthesia [per-protocol]). The mean difference in cardiac troponin I release between xenon and sevoflurane was -0.09 ng/ml (95% CI, -0.30 to 0.11; per-protocol: P = 0.02). Postoperative cardiac troponin I release was significantly less with xenon than with total intravenous anesthesia (intention-to-treat: P = 0.05; per-protocol: P = 0.02). Perioperative variables and postoperative outcomes were comparable across all groups, with no safety concerns. In postoperative cardiac troponin I release, xenon was noninferior to sevoflurane in low-risk, on-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery patients. Only with xenon was cardiac troponin I release less than with total intravenous

  12. The neuromuscular effects of rocuronium under sevoflurane-remifentanil or propofol-remifentanil anesthesia: a randomized clinical comparative study in an Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangseok; Ro, Young Jin; Koh, Won Uk; Nishiyama, Tomoki; Yang, Hong-Seuk

    2016-08-22

    We conducted a prospective, randomized, multicenter study to evaluate the differences in the blocking effect of different doses of rocuronium between sevoflurane- or propofol-remifentanil anesthesia in an Asian population. A total of 368 ASA I-II patients was enrolled. Anesthesia was induced with 2.0 mg/kg propofol and 0.1 μg/kg/min remifentanil (TIVA) or 5.0 vol.% sevoflurane with 0.1 μg/kg/min remifentanil (SEVO). Tracheal intubation was facilitated at 180 s after the administration of rocuronium at 0.3, 0.6, or 0.9 mg/kg and then intubation condition was evaluated. The time to maximum block and recovery profile were monitored by TOF stimulation of the ulnar nerve and by recording the adductor pollicis response using acceleromyography. The numbers of patients with clinically acceptable intubation conditions were 41, 82, and 97 % (TIVA) and 34, 85, and 90 % (SEVO) at each dose of rocuronium, respectively. There were no significant differences in the time to maximum block between groups at each rocuronium dose. There were significant differences in the recovery to a train-of-four ratio of 90 % between the groups: 42.7 (19.5), 74.8 (29.9), and 118.4 (35.1) min (TIVA) and 66.5 (39.3), 110.2 (43.5), and 144.4 (57.5) min (SEVO) at 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9 mg/kg, respectively (P rocuronium. The type of anesthetic does not significantly influence the time to maximum block by rocuronium. Rocuronium at a dose of 0.9 mg/kg should be used for better intubation conditions with both anesthesia regimens in an Asian population. UMIN-CTR Clinical Trial ( http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index.htm ; UMIN#000007289 ; date of registration 14(th) February 2012).

  13. Using screen-based simulation of inhaled anaesthetic delivery to improve patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, J H

    2015-12-01

    Screen-based simulation can improve patient care by giving novices and experienced clinicians insight into drug behaviour. Gas Man(®) is a screen-based simulation program that depicts pictorially and graphically the anaesthetic gas and vapour tension from the vaporizer to the site of action, namely the brain and spinal cord. The gases and vapours depicted are desflurane, enflurane, ether, halothane, isoflurane, nitrogen, nitrous oxide, sevoflurane, and xenon. Multiple agents can be administered simultaneously or individually and the results shown on an overlay graph. Practice exercises provide in-depth knowledge of the subject matter. Experienced clinicians can simulate anaesthesia occurrences and practices for application to their clinical practice, and publish the results to benefit others to improve patient care. Published studies using this screen-based simulation have led to a number of findings, as follows: changing from isoflurane to desflurane toward the end of anaesthesia does not accelerate recovery in humans; vital capacity induction can produce loss of consciousness in 45 s; simulated context-sensitive decrement times explain recovery profiles; hyperventilation does not dramatically speed emergence; high fresh gas flow is wasteful; fresh gas flow and not the vaporizer setting should be reduced during intubation; re-anaesthetization can occur with severe hypoventilation after extubation; and in re-anaesthetization, the anaesthetic redistributes from skeletal muscle. Researchers using screen-based simulations can study fewer subjects to reach valid conclusions that impact clinical care. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Time course of changes in cerebral blood flow velocity after tourniquet deflation in patients with diabetes mellitus or previous stroke under sevoflurane anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinohara, Hiroshi; Kadoi, Yuji; Takahashi, Kenichiro; Saito, Shigeru; Kawauchi, Chikara; Mizutani, Akio

    2011-06-01

    We observed an increase in mean middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (V(mca)) after tourniquet deflation during orthopedic surgery under sevoflurane anesthesia in patients with diabetes mellitus or previous stroke. Eight controls, seven insulin-treated diabetic patients, and eight previous stroke patients were studied. Arterial blood pressure, heart rate, V(mca), arterial blood gases, and plasma lactate levels were measured every minute for 10 min after tourniquet release in all patients. V(mca) was measured using a transcranial Doppler probe. V(mca) in all three groups increased after tourniquet deflation, the increase lasting for 4 or 5 min. However, the degree of increase in V(mca) in the diabetic patients was smaller than that in the other two groups after tourniquet deflation (at 2 min after tourniquet deflation: control 58.5 ± 3.3, previous stroke 58.4 ± 4.6, diabetes 51.7 ± 2.3; P < 0.05 compared with the other two groups). In conclusion, the degree of increase in V (mca) in diabetic patients is smaller than that in controls and patients with previous stroke.

  15. Evaluation of the effects of dorsal versus lateral recumbency on the cardiopulmonary system during anesthesia with isoflurane in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Michelle G; Malka, Shachar; Pascoe, Peter J; Solano, Adrian M; Kass, Philip H; Ohmura, Hajime; Jones, James H

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of dorsal versus lateral recumbency on the cardiopulmonary system during isoflurane anesthesia in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). 6 adult 1.1- to 1.6-kg red-tailed hawks. A randomized, crossover study was used to evaluate changes in respiratory rate, tidal volume, minute ventilation, heart rate, mean arterial and indirect blood pressures, and end-tidal Pco(2) measured every 5 minutes plus Paco(2) and Pao(2) and arterial pH measured every 15 minutes throughout a 75-minute study period. Respiratory rate was higher, tidal volume lower, and minute ventilation not different in lateral versus dorsal recumbency. Position did not affect heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, or indirect blood pressure, although heart rate decreased during the anesthetic period. Birds hypoventilated in both positions and Paco(2) differed with time and position × time interaction. The Petco(2) position × time interaction was significant and Petco(2) was a mean of 7 Torr higher than Paco(2). The Paco(2) in dorsal recumbency was a mean of 32 Torr higher than in lateral recumbency. Birds in both positions developed respiratory acidosis. Differences in tidal volume with similar minute ventilation suggested red-tailed hawks in dorsal recumbency might have lower dead space ventilation. Despite similar minute ventilation in both positions, birds in dorsal recumbency hypoventilated more yet maintained higher Pao(2), suggesting parabronchial ventilatory or pulmonary blood flow distribution changes with position. The results refute the hypothesis that dorsal recumbency compromises ventilation and O(2) transport more than lateral recumbency in red-tailed hawks.

  16. [Comparison of waste anesthetic gases in operating rooms with or without an scavenging system in a Brazilian University Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braz, Leandro Gobbo; Braz, José Reinaldo Cerqueira; Cavalcante, Guilherme Aparecido Silva; Souza, Kátina Meneghetti; Lucio, Lorena Mendes de Carvalho; Braz, Mariana Gobbo

    Occupational exposure to waste anesthetic gases in operating room (OR) without active scavenging system has been associated with adverse health effects. Thus, this study aimed to compare the trace concentrations of the inhaled anesthetics isoflurane and sevoflurane in OR with and without central scavenging system. Waste concentrations of isoflurane and sevoflurane were measured by infrared analyzer at different locations (near the respiratory area of the assistant nurse and anesthesiologist and near the anesthesia station) and at two times (30 and 120minutes after the start of surgery) in both OR types. All isoflurane and sevoflurane concentrations in unscavenged OR were higher than the US recommended limit (2 parts per million), regardless of the location and time evaluated. In scavenged OR, the average concentrations of isoflurane were within the limit of exposure, except for the measurements near the anesthesia station, regardless of the measurement times. For sevoflurane, concentrations exceeded the limit value at all measurement locations and at both times. The exposure to both anesthetics exceeded the international limit in unscavenged OR. In scavenged OR, the concentrations of sevoflurane, and to a lesser extent those of isoflurane, exceeded the recommended limit value. Thus, the OR scavenging system analyzed in the present study decreased the anesthetic concentrations, although not to the internationally recommended values. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of the high-flow modified to-and-fro anesthestic system on blood gas and respiratory rate in halothane anesthetized horses Efeitos do sistema anestésico de alto fluxo "to-and-fro" modificado sobre os gases sanguíneos e frequência respiratória em cavalos anestesiados com halotano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Corrêa Natalini

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Ten healthy adult horses male or female, mean body weight of 424±44.1kg, were anesthetized with romifidine, tiletamine/zolazepam and halothane for 60 minutes using a modified to-and-fro rebreathing anesthetic system, added of 1 liter mechanical dead space. The gas flow rate was 10 liters oxygen/minute during all inhalation anesthetic time. Variables analysed were arterial blood pH, carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2 and oxygen partial pressure (PaO2, and respiratory rate (RR. The horses were allowed to breath spontaneously, and were positioned in right lateral recumbency the arterial O2 values were significantly higher during halothane anesthesia when compared to the baseline values, and significantly lower after induction with tiletamine/zolazepam although arterial hypoxemia were not present. The arterial PaCO2 values were significantly higher from baseline values during halothane anesthesia occurring arterial hypercapnia and mild respiratory acidosis. The arterial pH changes paralleled the changes in PaCO2. Respiratory rate values were significantly lower during halothane anesthesia when compared to baseline values. All values remained within accepted range for lateral recumbent spontaneously breathing anesthetized horses.Dez cavalos adultos e sadios machos ou fêmeas, com peso médio de 424±44,1kg, foram anestesiados com romifidina, tiletamina/zolazepam e halotano por 60 minutos, sendo utilizado um sisterna anestésico reinalatório "to-and-fro" modificado pela adição de um litro de espaço morto mecânico. O fluxo de gás diluente foi de 10 litros de O2/minuto durante o período de anestesia com halotano. As variáveis estudadas no sangue arterial foram o pH, pressão parcial de dióxido de carbono (PaCO2 e pressão parcial de oxigênio (PO2 e freqüência respiratória (RR. Os cavalos foram mantidos sob respiração espontânea e posicionados em decúbito lateral direito. Os valores arteriais de oxigênio estiveram

  18. Sub-Tenon's lidocaine injection improves emergence agitation after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a sub-Tenon's lidocaine injection on emergence agitation in children receiving sevoflurane or halothane anaesthesia for strabismus surgery. Design: A prospective, randomised study. Setting: The study setting included a hospital where a surgical team performed ...

  19. Cytotoxicity of S-conjugates of the sevoflurane degradation product fluoromethyl-2,2-difluoro-1-(trifluoromethyl) vinyl ether (Compound A) in a human proximal tubular cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altuntas, T. Gul; Zager, Richard A.; Kharasch, Evan D.

    2003-01-01

    Fluoromethyl-2,2-difluoro-1-(trifluoromethyl)vinyl ether (FDVE) is a fluorinated alkene formed by degradation of the volatile anesthetic sevoflurane in anesthesia machines. FDVE is nephrotoxic in rats but not humans. Rat FDVE nephrotoxicity is attributed to FDVE glutathione conjugation and bioactivation of subsequent FDVE-cysteine S-conjugates, in part by renal β-lyase. Although FDVE conjugation and metabolism occur in both rats and humans, the mechanism for selective toxicity in rats and lack of effect in humans is incompletely elucidated. This investigation measured FDVE S-conjugate cytotoxicity in cultured human proximal tubular HK-2 cells, and compared this with known cytotoxic S-conjugates. HK-2 cells were incubated with FDVE and its GSH, cysteine S-mercapturic acid, cysteine S-sulfoxide, and mercapturic acid sulfoxide conjugates (0.1-2.7 mM) for 24 h. Cytotoxicity was determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, total LDH, and the ability of viable cells to reduce a tetrazolium-based compound (MTT). FDVE was cytotoxic only at concentrations ≥0.9 mM. No increase in LDH release was observed with either FDVE-GSH conjugate. The FDVE-cysteine conjugates S-(1,1-difluoro-2-fluoromethoxy-2-(trifluoromethyl) ethyl)-L-cysteine (DFEC) and (Z)-S-(1-fluoro-2-fluoromethoxy-2-(trifluoromethyl) vinyl)-L-cysteine ((Z)-FFVC) caused significant differences in LDH release and MTT reduction only at 2.7 mM; (Z)-FFVC was slightly more cytotoxic. Both S-(1,1-difluoro-2-fluoromethoxy-2-(trifluoromethyl) ethyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide (DFEC-SO) and (Z)-N-acetyl-S-(1-fluoro-2-fluoromethoxy-2-(trifluoromethyl) vinyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide ((Z)-N-Ac-FFVC-SO) caused slightly greater changes in LDH release or total LDH than the corresponding equimolar DFEC and (Z)-N-acetyl-S-(1-fluoro-2-fluoromethoxy-2-(trifluoromethyl) vinyl)-L-cysteine ((Z)-N-Ac-FFVC) conjugates. In contrast to FDVE S-conjugates, S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine was markedly cytotoxic, at concentrations as low as 0

  20. Avaliação de parâmetros antioxidantes em ratos tratados com sevoflurano Evaluación de parámetros antioxidantes en ratones tratados con sevoflurano Evaluation of antioxidant parameters in eats treated with sevoflurane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. L Bezerra

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O sevoflurano é um éter halogenado com flúor que sofre biotransformação hepática através do citocromo P450 2E1. Éteres halogenados que sofrem biotransformação pelo P450 2E1 podem produzir espécies reativas do oxigênio (ERO e promover enfraquecimento do sistema de defesa antioxidante. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a relação entre a atividade das enzimas antioxidantes eritrocitárias e o sevoflurano. MÉTODO: Os animais foram distribuídos em quatro grupos: Grupo 1 controle: apenas oxigênio a 100% (1 L.min-1 por 60 minutos durante 5 dias consecutivos; Grupo 2 - sevoflurane 4,0% em oxigênio a 100% (1 L.min-1 por 60 minutos durante 5 dias consecutivos; Grupo 3 - isoniazida (i.p., 50 mg.kg-1 de peso corporal /dia, durante 4 dias e em seguida tratados apenas com oxigênio a 100% (1 L.min-1 por 60 minutos durante 5 dias consecutivos; Grupo 4 - isoniazida por via intraperitoneal na dose de 50 mg.kg-1 de peso corporal, diariamente durante 4 dias, seguido da administração do sevoflurane a 4,0% em oxigênio a 100% (1 L.min-1 por 60 minutos durante 5 dias. Após 12 horas da última exposição ao sevoflurane, os animais foram sacrificados e o sangue foi coletado através da veia porta para análise da atividade das enzimas antioxidantes. RESULTADOS: Aumento da atividade específica da glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase, diminuição da atividade específica da catalase, principalmente no grupo de animais pré-tratados com isoniazida e, em seguida, tratados com sevoflurano. A glutationa peroxidase não apresentou alteração na sua atividade. CONCLUSÕES: A interação do sevoflurano com indutores enzimáticos do citocromo P450 2E1 pode propiciar a instalação do estresse oxidativo caso a exposição se torne prolongada e repetitiva.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: El sevoflurano es un éter halogenado con flúor que sufre una biotransformación hepática a través del citocromo P450 2E1. Los

  1. Instabilidade hemodinâmica grave durante o uso de isoflurano em paciente portador de escoliose idiopática: relato de caso Severe hemodynamic instability during the use of isoflurane in a patient with idiopathic scoliosis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Bechara de Souza Hobaika

    2007-04-01

    ámica grave causada por isoflurano en pacientes previamente saludables. Anafilaxia, taquicardia supraventricular con repercusión hemodinámica y sensibilidad cardiaca aumentada al isoflurano son discutidas como posibles causas de la inestabilidad hemodinámica. Actualmente, existen evidencias de que el isoflurano pude interferir en el sistema de acoplamiento y desacoplamiento de la contratilidad miocárdica a través de la reducción del Ca2+ citosólico y/o deprimiendo la función de las proteínas contráctiles. Los mecanismos moleculares fundamentales de este proceso deben ser elucidados todavía. El relato sugiere que la administración del isoflurano fue la causa de las alteraciones hemodinámicas presentadas por el paciente y que este, probablemente, presentó una sensibilidad cardiovascular no común al fármaco.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Isoflurane is considered a safe inhalational anesthetic. It has a low level of biotransformation, and low hepatic and renal toxicity. In clinical concentrations, it has minimal negative inotropic effect, causes a small reduction in systemic vascular resistance, and, rarely, can cause cardiac arrhythmias. The objective of this report was to present a case of severe hemodynamic instability in a patient with idiopathic scoliosis. CASE REPORT: Male patient, 13 years old, ASA physical status I, with no prior history of allergy to medications, scheduled for surgical repair of idiopathic scoliosis. After anesthetic induction with fentanyl, midazolam, propofol, and atracurium, 1% isoflurane with 100% oxygen was initiated for anesthesia maintenance. After five minutes, the patient presented severe hypotension (MAP = 26 mmHg associated with sinus tachycardia (HR = 166 bpm that did not respond to the administration of vasopressors and fluids. Lung and heart auscultation, pulse oxymetry, capnography, nasopharyngeal temperature, and arterial blood gases did not change. The patient was treated for anaphylaxis and the surgery was cancelled. The

  2. Is general anesthesia a risk for myocardium? Effect of anesthesia on myocardial function as assessed by cardiac troponin-i in two different groups (isofluran+N2O inhalation and propofol+fentanyl iv anesthesia

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    Demet Dogan Erol

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Demet Dogan Erol1, Ibrahim Ozen21Department of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation, School of Medicine, Kocatepe University, Afyonkarahisar, Turkey; 2Department of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation, Karadeniz Technical University Faculty of Medicine, Trabzon, TurkeyBackground and objectives: Peroperative myocardial infarction (MI is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality. What is the role of general anesthesia in this process? Is general anesthesia a risk for myocardial infarction? The present study was designed to determine whether the measurement of serum levels of cardiac troponin I (cTnI, a highly sensitive and specific marker for cardiac injury, would help establish the diagnosis of myocardial infarction in two different types of anesthesia.Method: Elective abdominal hysterectomy was planned with the permission of the ethic committee in 40 patients who were 20–45 years range, in ASA-I group, and have a Goldman Cardiac Risk Index-0. The patients were divided into two groups. Isoflurane + N2O was administrated to first group, and Propofol + Fentanyl to second group. cTnI levels were determined before anesthesia, after induction before surgery and 9 hours after the second period respectively.Results: There was no significant difference between the groups by the means of demographic properties, hemodynamic parameters and cTnI levels, and the cTnI levels were determined under the basal levels in all samples.Conclusion: General anesthesia is not a risk for myocardial infarction to state eliminating risk factors and protection hemodynamia cardiac.Keywords: cardiac troponin-I, myocardial infarction, isofluran + N2O inhalation anesthesia, propofol + fentanyl intravenous anesthesia.

  3. Retraction notice to “Can Sugammadex improve the reversal profile of Atracurium under Sevoflurane anesthesia?” [Egyptian Journal of Anaesthesia 30/1 (2014 95–99

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    Heba Ismail Ahmed Nagy

    2015-04-01

    This article has been retracted at the request of the Publisher. Shortly after publishing the paper “Can sugammadex improve the reversal profile of atracurium under sevoflurane anesthesia?” in Egyptian Journal of Anaesthesia, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.egja.2013.09.007, the journal received a request from the ethics committee of the Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt, for withdrawing the paper, claiming that they had found that the authors made changes in the protocol they had submitted to the committee. After investigating this with the authors, they affirmed that they had made some changes. For this reason, this article has been retracted.

  4. Anaesthetic management of ostrich. Initial experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaccarino, M.; Mauthe Degerfeld, M. von

    1997-01-01

    Different anaesthetic induction and maintenance protocols were used in 2 adult ostriches and 3 juvenile ostriches. After the intramuscolar (im) administration of an induction agent, like ketamine or tiletamine/zolazepam, general anaesthesia in 4 cases was maintained with isoflurane or halothane. General anaesthesia for radiological examinations was also performed with metedomidine/ketamine im [it

  5. Bronkodilaterende inhalationsanaestetika ved asthma bronchiale og status asthmaticus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C M; Stjernholm, P H; Hansen, T G

    1994-01-01

    On the basis of a review of the literature, a survey is presented concerning the use of halogenated inhalational anaesthetics (halothane, enflurane, isoflurane) in anaesthesia of asthmatic patients and in intensive care units in the treatment of status asthmaticus refractory to maximal standard t...

  6. The effects of general anesthetics on ESR spectra of spin labels in phosphatidylcholine vesicles containing purified Na,K-ATPase or microsomal protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibuya, Makiko, E-mail: shibu@den.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Dental Anesthesiology, Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University (Japan); Hiraoki, Toshifumi [Division of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University (Japan); Kimura, Kunie; Fukushima, Kazuaki [Department of Dental Anesthesiology, Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University (Japan); Suzuki, Kuniaki [Department of Molecular Cell Pharmacology, Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University (Japan)

    2012-12-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied the effects of general anesthetics on liposome using ESR spectra. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two spin labels, 5-DSA and 16-DSA, were located in different position in liposome. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anesthetics did not change the environment around the spin labels in the liposome. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anesthetics remained on the surface of the lipid bilayer of liposome. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proteins in the liposome did not change the effects of anesthetics on liposome. - Abstract: We investigated the effects of general anesthetics on liposome containing spin labels, 5-doxyl stearic acid (5-DSA) and 16-doxyl stearic acid (16-DSA), and purified Na,K-ATPase or membrane protein of microsome using an electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The spectra of 16-DSA in liposomes with both proteins showed three sharp signals compared with 5-DSA. The difference in the order parameter S value of 5-DSA and 16-DSA suggested that the nitroxide radical location of 5-DSA and 16-DSA were different in the membrane bilayer. The results were almost the same as those obtained in liposomes without proteins. The addition of sevoflurane, isoflurane, halothane, ether, ethanol and propofol increased the intensity of the signals, but the clinical concentrations of anesthetics did not significantly alter the S and {tau} values, which are indices of the fluidity of the membrane. These results suggest that anesthetics remain on the surface of the lipid bilayer and do not act on both the inside hydrophobic area and the relatively hydrophilic area near the surface. These results and others also suggest that the existence of Na,K-ATPase and microsomal proteins did not affect the environment around the spin labels in the liposome and the effects of anesthetics on liposome as a model membrane.

  7. Hipertermia maligna

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    Carlos Vilaplana Santaló

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available La hipertermia maligna es un desorden hipermetabólico de los músculos esqueléticos, caracterizado por hipercalcemia intracelular y consumo rápido de adenosín trifosfato; esta condición se desencadena por la exposición a 1 o más agentes anestésicos precipitantes incluidos halotano, enflurano, isoflurano, desflurano, sevoflurano y el succinilcolina. Los síntomas de esta afección pueden presentarse en el quirófano o en la Unidad de Cuidados Posanestésicos y se caracteriza por aparición súbita de taquicardia, taquipnea, hipertensión, hipercapnia, hipertermia, acidosis y rigidez musculoesquelética. El dantroleno atenúa la elevación del calcio intracelular y puede ser administrado de forma profiláctica o inmediatamente que se sospeche el diagnóstico. Con el objetivo de conocer las bases fisiopatológicas de este síndrome y las pautas de tratamiento más empleadas se realizó una exhaustiva revisión bibliográficaMalignant hyperthermia is a hypermetabolic disorder of the skeletal muscles, characterized by intracellular hypercalcemia and rapid consumption of adenosine triphosphate. This condition appears as a result of the exposure to 1 or more precipitating anesthetic agents, including halothane, enflurane, isoflurane, desflurane, sevoflurane and succinylcholine. The symptoms of this affection may be present in the operating room or in the Unit of Postanesthetic Care and it is characterized by the sudden appearance of thachycardia, tachypnea, hypertensiion, hypercapnia, hyperthermia, acidosis and muscoloskeletal rigidity. Dantrolene attenuates the elevation of intracellular calcium and may be prophylactically administered or as soon as the diagnosis is suspected. In order to know the physiopathological basis of this syndrome and the most used treatment patterns, an exhaustive bibliographic review was made

  8. Anestesia por isofluorano em eqüinos submetidos à infusão contínua de medetomidina ou xilazina Isoflurane anesthesia in horses during medetomidine or xilazine continuous infusion

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    Renata Gebara Sampaio Dória

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se oito eqüinos sob anestesia geral inalatória com isofluorano (1CAM e infusão contínua de xilazina (0,35mg kg-1h-1 ou medetomidina (3,5µg kg-1h-1, em relação à freqüência cardíaca, ritmo cardíaco, freqüência respiratória, pressão arterial, hemogasometria arterial e temperatura, nos tempos T0 (imediatamente antes do início da infusão contínua e T10 ao T60 (intervalos de 10 minutos, após início da infusão contínua. Houve redução da freqüência cardíaca e da temperatura e elevação da pressão arterial média. A paCO2 (no GM elevou-se e a paO2 mostrou-se maior no GM que no GX. Conclui-se que a infusão contínua de doses equipotentes de xilazina e medetomidina, durante anestesia geral inalatória, com isofluorano, em eqüinos, promove alterações cardiocirculatórias, respiratórias, térmicas e hemogasométricas discretas e equivalentes.Eight horses under inhalant general anesthesia with isoflurane (1MAC and continuous infusion of xylazine (0.35mg kg-1h-1 or medetomidine (3.5µg kg-1h-1 were evaluated for heart rate and rhythm, respiratory rate, arterial blood pressure, arterial blood gas analysis and temperature immediately before the beginning of the continuous infusion (T0 and in intervals of 10 minutes after the beginning of the continuous infusion (T10 to T60. Heart rate and temperature decreased and mean arterial pressure increased. PaCO2 (in GM increased and GM showed a higher paO2 than GX. We conclude that equipotent doses of continuous infusion of medetomidine and xylazine during inhalant general anesthesia with isoflurane in horses promote slight and equivalent cardiocirculatory, respiratory, thermic and arterial blood gases changes.

  9. Comparação entre a lidocaína e a acupuntura no tratamento da taquicardia ventricular induzida com dopamina em equinos anestesiados com halotano Comparative study between lidocaine and acupunture in the treatment of ventricular tachycardia induced by dopamine in horses anesthetized with halothane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Cárdenas

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos da lidocaina e da acupuntura nos pontos bilaterais associados ao pericárdio 6 (Pc6-Neiguan e ao coração 7 (C7-Shenmen, no tratamento da taquicardia ventricular (TV induzida por dopamina em equinos anestesiados com halotano, foram avaliados e comparados. Seis equinos, distribuídos em três grupos: grupo-controle (GC, grupo tratado com acupuntura (GA e grupo tratado com lidocaína (GL, foram anestesiados três vezes cada, com intervalo de uma semana entre cada anestesia. Avaliaram-se os parâmetros cardiovasculares (frequência cardíaca, pressão arterial e eletrocardiografia, os respiratórios (frequência respiratória, capnografía, saturação de hemoglobina e hemogasometria e o escore de recuperação. A dose arritmogênica da dopamina (DAD foi determinada a partir da infusão de 70µg/kg/min IV durante 10 minutos, sem interrupção, preenchendo o critério arritmogênico: quatro ou mais complexos ventriculares prematuros seguidos, com duração de pelo menos 15 segundos ou TV sustentada. O tempo médio de aparecimento da DAD ou da TV foi de 6,05±0,45 minutos nos animais não tratados, e a TV se reverteu espontaneamente aos 2,7±0,2 minutos. O grupo tratado com acupuntura reverteu a TV no tempo médio de 1,8±0,2 (PThe effects of lidocaine and acupuncture in the associated bilateral points, i.e. pericardium 6 (Pc 6- Neiguan and heart 7 (H7 - Shenmen, on the ventricular tachycardia (VT induced by dopamine were evaluated in horses anesthetized with halothane. Six horses were distributed in three groups: control group (CG, acupuncture treated group (AG, and lidocaine treated group (LG. They were anesthetized three times each one using halothane with one week interval between each anesthesic procedure. Cardiovascular (heart rate, arterial pressure, and ECG and respiratory (respiratory rate, capnometry, hemoglobin saturation, and blood gas analysis parameters and recovery score were evaluated. The arrhythmogenic dose of dopamine

  10. miRNAs may regulate GABAergic transmission associated genes in aged rats with anesthetics-induced recognition and working memory dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Ligang; Ma, Duo; Zhang, Chengshen; Xiong, Wei; Zhang, Yi

    2017-09-01

    Isoflurane and sevoflurane are widely used anesthetics in surgery and administration of these anesthetics could lead to postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). However, the mechanisms remain unclear. Aged Wistar rats were exposed to isoflurane and sevoflurane for 2 or 4h. Recognition memory and spatial working memory were measured using Novel object recognition (NOR) and Y-maze test, respectively. Apoptotic cells were detected by TUNEL staining. miRNA expression was measured by Real-time PCR while protein expression was measured by Western blot. Dual-Luciferase reporter assay was used to establish the direct relationship between miRNAs and Gabra5 and gephyrin gene expression. Exposure to isoflurane and sevoflurane for 2 or 4h significantly decreased the NOR index in the NOR test and spontaneous alternations in arm entries in the Y-maze test in aged rats. TUNEL staining showed that isoflurane and sevoflurane administration significantly induced apoptosis in the mPFC and hippocampus. The protein level of α5 GABA A receptor (α5GABA A R), gephyrin, and dystrophin were significantly increased, whereas the expression of miR-30a, miR-31, miR-190a, and miR-190b was significantly decreased in the hippocampus and mPFC in aged rats exposed to isoflurane and sevoflurane compared to control rats. The protein levels of α5GABA A R, gephyrin, and dystrophin protein in the hippocampus and the mPFC significantly correlated with NOR index and spontaneous alternations. Dual-Luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-30a and miR-190a/b mimics significantly inhibited Gabra5 and gephyrin gene expression, respectively. There might be a miRNAs-GABAergic transmission pathway which may be involved in the pathophysiological alteration in anesthetics-induced POCD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. An evaluation of new circle system of anesthesia. Quantitative anesthesia with isoflurane in new zealand rabbits Avaliação de um novo sistema circular de anestesia: anestesia quantitativa com isuflorane em coelhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuber M. Fonseca

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available A small circuit system of anesthesia was developed by Fonseca and Goldenberg in 1993. The authors used in this study New Zealand White (NZW rabbits under closed system anesthetic regiment by insoflurane. Twenty male adult New Zealand rabbits were distributed in two groups of ten animals. No premedicant drugs were given. Endotraqueal intubation was made after intravenous administration of propofol (10mg/kg. Insoflurane was used to anesthesia management, administred by lowflow closed system technique with cooper kettle vaporizer, fixed by pre-calculated vaporizing flow in double times intervals. The group II underwent surgical periostal scratching in the medial tibial surface at the proximal shaft. Rabbits breathed spontaneously. Hypotensio, hypercapnia and respiratory acidosis were characteristic of the cardiopulmonary effects of the anesthesia. The corneal reflex and pinch reflex was useful as reliable indicators of anesthesic depth. Manual or mechanical ventilation should be considered as a way of improving alveolar ventilation and normalize blood-gas values. The system developed by Fonseca and Goldenberg was considered suitable for anesthesic management in rabbits.Um sistema circular de anestesia para animais de pequeno porte foi desenvolvido por FONSECA e GOLDENBERG, em 1993. No presente estudo foram utilizados 20 coelhos brancos linhagem Nova Zelândia, submetidos ao sistema com isoflurane, distribuidos em dois grupos de 10 animais. O grupo I, controle, que foi apenas anestesiado e o grupo II foi submetido a raspagem periostal da parte proximal e medial da tíbia. Não foi administrada droga pré-anestésica. Após administração do propofol intravenoso (10mg/kg procedeu-se a intubação endotraqueal. O isuflorane foi administrado lentamente no sistema circular de anestesia. Os animais respiravam espontaneamente. Houve efeitos cardiorespiratórios conseqüentes da anestesia, tais como, hipotensão, hipercapnia e acidose respiratória. O

  12. Efeitos do modo ventilatório sobre variáveis hemogasométricas em equinos submetidos à mudança de decúbito durante a anestesia geral inalatória com halotano Effects of the ventilatory regimen on arterial blood gas variables in horses that underwent a change in body position during halothane anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. Sá

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Compararam-se os efeitos da ventilação espontânea (V E e controlada (V C em equinos submetidos à mudança de decúbito durante anestesia. Dezesseis animais foram equitativamente divididos em dois grupos: V E e V C. Os procedimentos cirúrgicos foram iniciados com os animais em decúbito lateral esquerdo (DLE e, após 75 minutos, os animais foram reposicionados em decúbito lateral direito (DLD. Análises hemogasométricas do sangue arterial foram realizadas após 30 e 75 minutos com os animais posicionados em cada decúbito (M1 e M2 no DLE e M3 e M4 no DLD, respectivamente. Durante a V E, observaram-se hipercapnia (PaCO2 >45mmHg, acidose respiratória (pH The effects of spontaneous (SV and controlled ventilation (CV were compared in horses undergoing changes in body position during anesthesia. Sixteen animals were equally distributed in two groups: SV and CV. All surgical procedures were commenced on left lateral recumbency (LLR and 75 minutes later the animals were repositioned on right lateral recumbency (RLR. Arterial blood gas analyses were performed at 30 and 75 minutes after each recumbency (M1 and M2 for LLR and M3 and M4 for RLR. Hypercapnia (PaCO2 >45mmHg, respiratory acidosis (pH <7.35, and significant decrease in PaO2 after 75min of change in body position (M4: 205.8±124.7mmHg in comparison to PaO2 values before the change of position (M1: 271.8±84.8mmHg were observed during SV. When compared to the SV group, CV resulted in significantly higher PaO2 levels (52 to 96% increase. It was concluded that the change in the body position in spontaneously ventilating halothane-anesthetized horses causes impairment in arterial oxygenation. The use of CV since the beginning of anesthesia prevents the respiratory acidosis and maintains arterial oxygen levels that are closer to values expected during the use of 100% O2.

  13. Electrocardiographic study on geriatric dogs undergoing general anesthesia with isoflurane Estudo eletrocardiográfico em cães geriátricos submetidos à anestesia geral com isofluorano

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    Andreza Conti-Patara

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to clarify the degree of influence of anesthetic agents commonly used during anesthesia on the heart conduction systems of geriatric dogs, with or without the presence of electrocardiographic changes in the pre-anesthetic electrocardiogram and also to determine the possible causes of ST-segment and T-wave changes during anesthesia, by monitoring ventilation and oxygenation. 36 geriatric dogs were evaluated. In addition to electrocardiographic evaluation, the pre-anesthetic study included serum levels of urea, creatinine, total protein, albumin and electrolytes. The pre-anesthetic medication consisted of acepromazine (0.05mg kg-1 in association with meperidine (3.0mg kg-1 by IM injection. Anesthesia was induced with propofol (3.0 to 5.0mg kg-1 by IV injection and maintained with isoflurane in 100% oxygen. During the anesthesia, the animals were monitored by continued computerized electrocardiogram. Systemic blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, end-tidal carbon dioxide, partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood, arterial oxygen saturation, partial pressure of arterial oxygen and oxygen saturation of hemoglobin were closely monitored. During maintenance anesthesia, normal sinus rhythm was more common (78%. ST-segment and T-wave changes during the anesthetic procedure were quite common and were related to hypoventilation. The use of isoflurane did not result in arrhythmia, being therefore a good choice for this type of animal; Electrocardiographic findings of ST-segment and T-wave changes during the maintenance anesthesia were evident in animals with hypercapnia, a disorder that should be promptly corrected with assisted or controlled ventilation to prevent complicated arrhythmias.Os objetivos deste estudo foram esclarecer a influência dos agentes anestésicos comumente utilizados durante a anestesia no sistema de condução cardíaco em cães idosos, com ou sem alterações eletrocardiográficas pr

  14. Pharmacoeconomics of volatile inhalational anaesthetic agents: an 11-year retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, L; Story, D; Nam, J; McNicol, L

    2010-09-01

    With continuously increasing expenditure on health care resources, various cost containment strategies have been suggested in regard to controlling the cost of inhalational anaesthetic agents. We performed a cost identification analysis assessing inhalational anaesthetic agent expenditure at a tertiary level hospital, along with an evaluation of strategies to contain the cost of these agents. The number of bottles of isoflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane used during the financial years 1997 to 2007 was retrospectively determined and the acquisition costs and cumulative drug expenditure calculated. Pharmacoeconomic modelling using low fresh gas flow anaesthesia was performed to evaluate practical methods of cost reduction. The use of isoflurane decreased from 384 bottles during 1997 to 204 in 2007. In contrast, use of sevoflurane increased from 226 bottles during 1998 to 875 during 2007. Desflurane use increased from 34 bottles per year during 2002 (its year of introduction) to 163 bottles per year in 2007. While the inflation-adjusted cumulative expenditure for these inhalational agents (Australian dollars) increased from $132,000 in 1997 to over $326,000 in 2007, an increase of 168%, patient workload over the same period increased by only 11%. Pharmacoeconomic modelling demonstrated that sevoflurane at 2 l/minute costs 19 times more than isoflurane at 0.5 l/minute. For the financial years 1997 to 2007, we found a progressive shift from the cheaper isoflurane to the more expensive agents, sevoflurane and desflurane, a shift associated with marked increases in costs. Low flow anaesthesia with isoflurane is one strategy to reduce costs.

  15. Eletroencefalograma processado em crianças anestesiadas com sevoflurano. É possível? Electroencefalograma procesado en niños anestesiados con sevoflurano. ¿Es posible? Processed electroencephalogram in children anesthetized with sevoflurane. Is it feasible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogean Rodrigues Nunes

    2003-06-01

    farmacodinámicas del sevoflurano (CE y CE/CAM, comparándolas con el adulto. MÉTODO: Participaron del estudio, 100 pacientes de ambos sexos, con edades entre 0 y 40 años, estado físico ASA I y II. Todos los pacientes fueron inducidos con sevoflurano siendo utilizado bloqueador neuromuscular cuando el BIS llegó a 30, siendo estratificados en 5 grupos: GI (20 - edad entre 0 y 6 meses; GII (20 - edad > 6 meses hasta 2 años; GIII (20 - edad > 2 años hasta 12 años; GIV (20 - edad > 12 años hasta 18 años y GV (20 - edad > 18 años hasta 40 años. En cada grupo 5 momentos fueron evaluados: M1 (alerta; M2 (BIS 60; M3 (BIS 50; M4 (BIS 40 y M5 (despertar, siendo, en todos los momentos, anotados los siguientes parámetros: PAS, PAD, FC, BIS, SEF95%, d%, tasa de supresión de ataques, CE y CE/CAM. RESULTADOS: Los valores de BIS y SEF95% presentaron correlación directa con la CE/CAM del sevoflurano a valores de BIS de 40, 50, 60 y despertar, respetándose la CAM para edad (p > 0,05. A d%, en el GI presentó valores superiores a todos los otros grupos, en los cinco momentos (p BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: EEG-derived bispectral index (BIS, has been indicated as a major substrate for measuring hypnotic effects of anesthetic drugs. However, there are only limited data on the use of EEG in anesthetized children. This study aimed at evaluating changes in BIS, SEF95%, relative delta band frequency amplitude (d% and suppression rate (SR in children, correlating these changes with sevoflurane pharmacodynamic variables (EC and EC/MAC as compared to adults. METHODS: Participated in this study 100 patients of both genders, aged 0 to 40 years, physical status ASA I and II. All patients were induced with sevoflurane followed by neuromuscular blocker at BIS 30. Patients were distributed in 5 groups: GI (20 - 0 to 6 months; GII (20 > 6 months to 2 years; GIII (20 > 2 to 12 years; GIV (20 > 12 to 18 years and GV (20 > 18 to 40 years. Five moments were evaluated for each group: M1 (awaken; M2

  16. Neuroprotective effect of paeonol against isoflurane- induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cells [3]. Neuroinflammation has been reported to be involved in volatile anesthetic-induced ... genus Paeonia and a key active principle of plants such ... housing conditions of 12 h day/night cycle and ..... human esophageal cancer cell lines.

  17. Influence of acepromazine on the cardiovascular actions of dobutamine in isoflurane-anesthetized horses Influência da acepromazina sobre os efeitos cardiovasculares da dobutamina em cavalos anestesiados com isofluorano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Raposo Monteiro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of acepromazine (ACP on the effectiveness of dobutamine (DBT in increasing blood pressure during isoflurane (ISO anesthesia was evaluated in six horses. On separate occasions, the horses were randomly assigned to receive NaCl 0.9% (Control, ACP 0.025mg kg-1 and ACP 0.05mg kg-1. The experimental treatment was administered prior to induction of anesthesia. Maintenance of anesthesia was performed under conditions of normocapnia with ISO in oxygen. Dobutamine was administered at progressively increasing infusion rates until mean arterial pressure (MAP reached 70mmHg or until a maximum infusion rate of 5.0µg kg-1 min-1. Compared with baseline, DBT increased heart rate, systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressures in all treatments. However, these variables did not differ among treatments. The target MAP (70mmHg was not reached in 2/6, 2/5 and 0/6 horses in the Control, ACP0.025 and ACP0.05 treatments, respectively. The mean dose of DBT to achieve target MAP was 3.5±1.8, 3.7±1.6 and 2.7±1.4µg kg-1 min-1 in the Control, ACP0.025 and ACP0.05 treatments, respectively (P>0.05. Under the conditions of this study, premedication with ACP does not interfere with the effectiveness of DBT in increasing blood pressure in horses anesthetized with ISO.A influência da acepromazina (ACP sobre a capacidade da dobutamina (DBT em elevar a pressão arterial durante a anestesia com isofluorano (ISO foi avaliada em seis equinos. Em ocasiões diferentes, os animais receberam aleatoriamente NaCl 0,9% (Controle, ACP 0,025mg kg-1 e ACP 0,05mg kg-1. O tratamento experimental foi administrado previamente à indução da anestesia. A manutenção da anestesia foi realizada em condições de normocapnia com ISO em oxigênio. A administração de DBT foi iniciada em doses progressivamente crescentes até que o valor de pressão arterial média (PAM atingisse 70mmHg ou até a dose máxima de 5,0µg kg-1 min-1. Comparado ao basal, a administração da DBT

  18. Estudo comparativo duplamente encoberto entre Sevoflurano Genérico e Sevorane® Estudio comparativo doblemente encubierto entre Sevoflurano genérico y Sevorane® A double-blind comparative study between generic Sevoflurane and SevoraneTM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Augusto Vieira Portella

    2010-10-01

    tipos de recipientes. Las diferencias de propiedades físico-químicas de esos productos se deben a los diversos procesos de fabricación, aunque sean esencialmente idénticos en cuanto a las pruebas de comparación química. Existe la hipótesis de que la molécula del Sevoflurano pueda presentar una inestabilidad química debido a la formación de ácidos Lewis, como consecuencia del material utilizado para la fabricación de los pomos y del contenido de agua. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar la eficacia clínica del Sevoflurano cuando fue acondicionado en pomos diferentes. MÉTODO: Se estudiaron 64 pacientes adultos distribuidos aleatoriamente en dos grupos. Fueron utilizados dos vaporizadores Datex-Ohmeda, siendo uno de ellos abastecido apenas con Sevoflurano Genérico y el otro con Sevorane®. El coordinador del estudio fue el responsable por el abastecimiento de los vaporizadores y no realizó la anestesia. En los dos grupos, se usó la misma técnica anestésica y la misma monitorización (ECG, FC, SpO2, P ET CO2, BIS, SEF, TOF, % INSP, % EXP, PAS, PAD. RESULTADOS: No hubo diferencia entre los grupos durante la anestesia. Pero sí que hubo una diferencia estadística entre la interrupción del Sevoflurano y la abertura espontánea de los ojos (13,91 ± 6,39 min Grupo II, y 10,34 ± 6,05 min Grupo I, y la interrupción del Sevoflurano y el apretón de la mano al comando verbal (15,38 ± 6,47 min Grupo II, y 11,88 ± 6,60 min Grupo I. No hubo diferencia estadística entre la interrupción del Sevoflurano y el momento en que los pacientes alcanzaron el Índice de Aldrete-Kroulik igual o superior a 8. CONCLUSIONES: Durante la anestesia, no se registró diferencia entre los grupos. Aunque el despertar haya sido 3,5 minutos más rápido en el Grupo I (Sevoflurano Genérico, los anestesistas no se percataron de ninguna diferencia en el comportamiento clínico de los pacientes en cuanto a ese aspectoBACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Sevoflurane is presented in three

  19. Sevoflurane improves gaseous exchange and exerts protective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mice, and exerted protective effects against acute LPS-induced lung injury. ... This is an Open Access article that uses a funding model which does not charge readers .... field microscope [20]. ... by Tukey's test were used for statistical analysis.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of inhaled anesthetics in green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Robert J; Pypendop, Bruno H; Barter, Linda S; Hawkins, Michelle G

    2006-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that differences in anesthetic uptake and elimination in iguanas would counter the pharmacokinetic effects of blood:gas solubility and thus serve to minimize kinetic differences among inhaled agents. 6 green iguanas (Iguana iguana). Iguanas were anesthetized with isoflurane, sevoflurane, or desflurane in a Latin-square design. Intervals from initial administration of an anesthetic agent to specific induction events and from cessation of administration of an anesthetic agent to specific recovery events were recorded. End-expired gas concentrations were measured during anesthetic washout. Significant differences were not detected for any induction or recovery events for any inhalation agent in iguanas. Washout curves best fit a 2-compartment model, but slopes for both compartments did not differ significantly among the 3 anesthetics. Differences in blood:gas solubility for isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane did not significantly influence differences in pharmacokinetics for the inhalation agents in iguanas.

  1. Estado neurológico e cardiorrespiratório de filhotes de cães nascidos de parto normal ou de cesariana sob anestesia geral inalatória com sevofluorano Neurological and cardiocirculatory investigation of dog neonates born by normal parturition or cesarean section on sevoflurane inhalation anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Tozadore Gabas

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A anestesia obstétrica possibilita um procedimento mais seguro para a mãe e para os fetos. Em medicina veterinária, no entanto, a literatura científica a respeito do assunto é deficiente. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o grau de depressão neurológica, hemodinâmica e respiratória fetais provocado pelo agente anestésico, em que as mães foram submetidas ao parto normal ou à cesariana, utilizando-se sevofluorano como agente de manutenção anestésica, comparando-o com o parto normal. Foram realizados seis partos normais (GN e seis cesarianas (GC, avaliando-se um total de 36 filhotes. As cesarianas foram realizadas utilizando-se acepromazina, propofol e sevofluorano (GC e os neonatos foram avaliados clinicamente ao primeiro, quinto e décimo minuto de nascimento, nos dois grupos. Observou-se maior depressão respiratória nos filhotes nascidos de cesariana. Contudo, apesar dessa depressão, o protocolo anestésico empregado não comprometeu de maneira importante a viabilidade e a saúde das mães e dos filhotes, demonstrando ser seguro em cadelas gestantes.The obstetric anesthesia must be safe for mother and puppies and about this, the literature is pour. This study was aimed at evaluating the neurological, hemodinamic and respiratory changes in neonates provoked by the anestesic agent as a result of normal parturition and cesarean section employing sevoflurane as the maintenance agent. Six deliveries (GN and six cesarean sections (GC were performed. The cesarean sections were performed under general anesthesia using acepromazina maleate, propofol and sevoflurane. Thirty six puppies were evaluated and the neurologic reflexes were worse in that were born through cesarean section. However, we concluded that despite the anesthetic depression, the protocol employed didn,t affect in any important way the viability and health of the mothers and puppies, being suitable for cesarean sections.

  2. Doença de Moyamoya e anestesia com sevoflurano fora do centro cirúrgico: relato de caso Enfermedad de Moyamoya y anestesia con sevoflurano fuera del centro quirúrgico: relato de caso Moyamoya disease and sevoflurane anesthesia outside the surgery center: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Braga Machado

    2002-06-01

    causa de accidente vascular cerebral en individuos jóvenes. El objetivo de este relato es presentar el caso de un paciente con enfermedad de Moyamoya que fue sometido a anestesia general con sevoflurano para procedimiento diagnóstico fuera del centro quirúrgico. RELATO DEL CASO: Niño con 13 años, estado físico ASA IV, portador de enfermedad de Moyamoya con secuela neurológica después de tres accidentes vasculares cerebrales, insuficiencia renal crónica e hipertensión arterial sistémica, sometido a endoscopia digestiva alta. En decúbito dorsal y después monitorización, se realizó inducción inalatoria por la cánula de traqueostomía con sevoflurano (aumento gradual de la concentración inspiratoria hasta 6% y mezcla de oxígeno/óxido nitroso a 50%. Un catéter venoso fue introducido para infusión de solución glucosada a 5%. Fue realizada ventilación controlada manual, siendo la manutención de la anestesia hecha con sevoflurano a 4% y mezcla de oxígeno/óxido nitroso a 50%. Al final del procedimiento los agentes anestésicos fueron descontinuados simultáneamente y fue administrado oxígeno a 100%. La anestesia fue satisfactoria, con buena estabilidad hemodinámica, sin ocurrencia de complicaciones durante el procedimiento y con un precoz despertar. CONCLUSIONES: El sevoflurano puede ofrecer nuevas perspectivas para la anestesia inhalatoria en pacientes con enfermedad neurológica que realizan procedimiento ambulatorial, ya que permite buena estabilidad hemodinamica y despertar precoz, preservando la fisiología cerebral.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Moyamoya disease is a progressive cerebrovascular disorder implying anesthetic challenges due to patients’ poor brain perfusion, in addition to being a major cause for stroke in young people. This report aimed at describing a case of Moyamoya’s disease in a patient submitted to general anesthesia with sevoflurane for a diagnostic procedure outside the surgery center. CASE REPORT: Male child, 13 years

  3. Intestinal circulation during inhalation anesthesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tverskoy, M.; Gelman, S.; Fowler, K.C.; Bradley, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the influence of inhalational agents on the intestinal circulation in an isolated loop preparation. Sixty dogs were studied, using three intestinal segments from each dog. Selected intestinal segments were pumped with aortic blood at a constant pressure of 100 mmHg. A mixture of 86 Rb and 9-microns spheres labeled with 141 Ce was injected into the arterial cannula supplying the intestinal loop, while mesenteric venous blood was collected for activity counting. A very strong and significant correlation was found between rubidium clearance and microsphere entrapment (r = 0.97, P less than 0.0001). Nitrous oxide anesthesia was accompanied by a higher vascular resistance (VR), lower flow (F), rubidium clearance (Cl-Rb), and microspheres entrapment (Cl-Sph) than pentobarbital anesthesia, indicating that the vascular bed in the intestinal segment was constricted and flow (total and nutritive) decreased. Halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane anesthesia were accompanied by a much lower arteriovenous oxygen content difference (AVDO 2 ) and oxygen uptake than pentobarbital or nitrous oxide. Compared with pentobarbital, enflurane anesthesia was not accompanied by marked differences in VR, F, Cl-Rb, and Cl-Sph; halothane at 2 MAC decreased VR and increased F and Cl-Rb while isoflurane increased VR and decreased F. alpha-Adrenoceptor blockade with phentolamine (1 mg . kg-1) abolished isoflurane-induced vasoconstriction, suggesting that the increase in VR was mediated via circulating catecholamines

  4. Alterações eletroneurofisiológicas em anestesia com sevoflurano: estudo comparativo entre pacientes saudáveis e pacientes com paralisia cerebral Alteraciones eletroneurofisiológicas en anestesia con sevoflurano: estudio comparativo entre pacientes saludables y pacientes con parálisis cerebral Electroneourophysiological changes in anesthesia with sevoflurane: comparative study between healthy and cerebral palsy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Silva de Mello

    2003-04-01

    Hospitales del Aparato Locomotor, divididos en 2 grupos: 1. PC - 12 niños con PC tipo espástica; 2. Control (C - 12 niños sin enfermedad del SNC. La anestesia fue realizada con sevoflurano asociado a N2O a 60% en ventilación asistida. Las variables BIS y ondas N9, N13, N19 y P/N 22 del PESS - latencia y amplitud - fueron evaluadas en las fracciones expiradas de sevoflurano (FEsev de 1,2 y 2,5% (0,5 y 1 CAM. Fueron monitoradas la temperatura y la P ET CO2. Para análisis fueron utilizadas media y desvio-patrón para el BIS, y media de la variación porcentual de los valores de latencia y amplitud de las ondas del PESS, en las dos concentraciones del anestésico. RESULTADOS: No hubo diferencia de sexo, edad, peso y temperatura entre los grupos. Bajo efecto de la anestesia, los valores de BIS fueron mas reducidos en el grupo PC, siendo la diferencia entre los grupos estadísticamente significante con la FEsev 2,5% (30,3 x 37,5; p BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There are very few studies on anesthetic drugs pharmacodynamics in patients with Cerebral Palsy (CP. This study aimed at comparing electroneurophysiological responses in healthy and CP patients, using bispectral index (BIS and short-latency somatosensory evoked potential (SEP to monitore sevoflurane-induced central nervous system (CNS electroneurophysiological changes. METHODS: Twenty four patients aged 3 to 18 years, scheduled for surgical procedures were allocated in two groups: 1. CP - 12 patients with spastic CP; 2. Control (C - 12 patients with no neurological disease. Anesthesia was induced with sevoflurane and 60% N2O in assisted ventilation. BIS and N9, N13, N19 and N/P22 SEP waveforms - amplitude and latency - were recorded at baseline and at 1.2% and 2.5% end-tidal sevoflurane concentration (ETsev, corresponding to 0.5 and 1 MAC, respectively. Monitoring consisted of temperature, ETsev and P ET CO2. For statistical analysis, BIS mean and standard deviation as well as means percentage variation of SEP waveforms

  5. Interference of anaesthetics with radioligand binding in neuroreceptor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elfving, Betina; Knudsen, Gitte Moos [Neurobiology Research Unit N9201, University hospital Rigshospitalet, 9 Blegdamsvej, 2100, Copenhagen (Denmark); Bjoernholm, Berith [Department of Computational Chemistry, H. Lundbeck A/S, Copenhagen-Valby (Denmark)

    2003-06-01

    Evaluations of new emission tomography ligands are usually carried out in animals. In order to keep the animals in a restricted position during the scan session, anaesthesia is almost inevitable. In ex vivo rat studies we investigated the interference of ketamine/xylazine, zoletile mixture, isoflurane and halothane with the serotonin re-uptake site, the serotonin{sub 2A} receptor and the dopamine re-uptake site by use of [{sup 3}H]-(S)-citalopram, [{sup 18}F]altanserin and [{sup 125}I]PE2I, respectively. Ketamine/xylazine decreased the target-to-background ratio (mean {+-} SD) of [{sup 3}H]-(S)-citalopram from 1.5{+-}0.19 to 0.81{+-}0.19 (P<0.05), whereas isoflurane and halothane increased the ratio from 1.5{+-}0.19 to 1.9{+-}0.24 and 2.1{+-}0.13 (P<0.05), respectively. Only with the zoletile mixture did the ratio remain unaltered. None of the tested anaesthetics affected the target-to-background ratio of [{sup 18}F]altanserin. The [{sup 125}I]PE2I target-to-background ratio decreased with both ketamine/xylazine (from 12.4{+-}0.81 to 10.1{+-}1.4, P<0.05) and isoflurane (from 12.4{+-}0.81 to 9.5{+-}1.1, P<0.05) treated rats, whereas treatment with zoletile mixture and halothane left the ratio unaltered. It is concluded that prior to performance of neuroreceptor radioligand studies, the possible interaction between radioligands and anaesthetics should be carefully evaluated. (orig.)

  6. Methods to produce calibration mixtures for anesthetic gas monitors and how to perform volumetric calculations on anesthetic gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, P L; Nielsen, J; Kann, T

    1992-10-01

    A simple procedure for making calibration mixtures of oxygen and the anesthetic gases isoflurane, enflurane, and halothane is described. One to ten grams of the anesthetic substance is evaporated in a closed, 11,361-cc glass bottle filled with oxygen gas at atmospheric pressure. The carefully mixed gas is used to calibrate anesthetic gas monitors. By comparison of calculated and measured volumetric results it is shown that at atmospheric conditions the volumetric behavior of anesthetic gas mixtures can be described with reasonable accuracy using the ideal gas law. A procedure is described for calculating the deviation from ideal gas behavior in cases in which this is needed.

  7. The effect of inhalant anesthetic and body temperature on peri-anesthetic serum concentrations of transdermally administered fentanyl in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettifer, Glenn R; Hosgood, Giselle

    2004-04-01

    To determine whether moderate hypothermia during anesthesia significantly affects the serum concentration of transdermally delivered fentanyl and whether halothane or isoflurane affect these concentrations. Randomized cross-over experimental trial. Six mature, healthy Beagles (three males, three females) weighing 10.6 +/- 0.43 kg. A 50-microg hour(-1) fentanyl patch was applied 36 hours prior to anesthesia. Anesthesia was induced at time 0 (t = 0). Each dog received four treatments: isoflurane + normothermia (ISO-NORM), isoflurane + hypothermia (ISO-HYPO), halothane + normothermia (HAL-NORM), and halothane + hypothermia (HAL-HYPO). Dogs were intubated and maintained at 1.5 times MAC. Animals in the hypothermia treatments were cooled to 35 degrees C during anesthesia. Serum fentanyl analysis was performed at -36, -24, -12, 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 18, and 26 hours. Direct arterial blood pressures and arterial blood gases were monitored. The mean body temperatures (+/-SEM) during the anesthetic period for the four treatments were: ISO-NORM = 37.7 +/- 0.07 degrees C, ISO-HYPO = 35.8 +/- 0.1 degrees C, HAL-NORM = 37.7 +/- 0.06 degrees C, and HAL-HYPO = 35.8 +/- 0.13 degrees C. The mean (+/-SEM) serum fentanyl concentrations (SFC) for both hypothermia treatments were significantly lower than baseline concentrations at t = 1 hour and persisted for the duration of anesthesia for the ISO-HYPO treatment but only from t = 1 to 2 hours for the HAL-HYPO treatment. Serum fentanyl concentrations returned to baseline within one hour of the end of anesthesia, regardless of body temperature. There were no significant differences between treatments for systolic or diastolic blood pressure but mean blood pressures were higher during normothermia versus hypothermia during the last hour of anesthesia. Hypothermia during inhalation anesthesia produced a significant reduction in SFC using transdermal administration and was more protracted with isoflurane

  8. Computerized monitoring of depth of anaesthesia with isoflurane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, C E; Christensen, K N; Rosenfalck, A

    1989-01-01

    concentration, mean arterial pressure, ECG and temperature. Signal processing was made offline. Spectral information from 2-s EEG segments was extracted using autoregressive modelling. Repetitive hierarchical clustering was used to define a common learning set of basic patterns. With this learning set, the EEG...

  9. Volatile anesthetics influence blood-brain barrier integrity by modulation of tight junction protein expression in traumatic brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge C Thal

    Full Text Available Disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB results in cerebral edema formation, which is a major cause for high mortality after traumatic brain injury (TBI. As anesthetic care is mandatory in patients suffering from severe TBI it may be important to elucidate the effect of different anesthetics on cerebral edema formation. Tight junction proteins (TJ such as zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1 and claudin-5 (cl5 play a central role for BBB stability. First, the influence of the volatile anesthetics sevoflurane and isoflurane on in-vitro BBB integrity was investigated by quantification of the electrical resistance (TEER in murine brain endothelial monolayers and neurovascular co-cultures of the BBB. Secondly brain edema and TJ expression of ZO-1 and cl5 were measured in-vivo after exposure towards volatile anesthetics in native mice and after controlled cortical impact (CCI. In in-vitro endothelial monocultures, both anesthetics significantly reduced TEER within 24 hours after exposure. In BBB co-cultures mimicking the neurovascular unit (NVU volatile anesthetics had no impact on TEER. In healthy mice, anesthesia did not influence brain water content and TJ expression, while 24 hours after CCI brain water content increased significantly stronger with isoflurane compared to sevoflurane. In line with the brain edema data, ZO-1 expression was significantly higher in sevoflurane compared to isoflurane exposed CCI animals. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed disruption of ZO-1 at the cerebrovascular level, while cl5 was less affected in the pericontusional area. The study demonstrates that anesthetics influence brain edema formation after experimental TBI. This effect may be attributed to modulation of BBB permeability by differential TJ protein expression. Therefore, selection of anesthetics may influence the barrier function and introduce a strong bias in experimental research on pathophysiology of BBB dysfunction. Future research is required to investigate

  10. Interference of anaesthetics with radioligand binding in neuroreceptor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elfving, Betina; Knudsen, Gitte Moos; Bjoernholm, Berith

    2003-01-01

    Evaluations of new emission tomography ligands are usually carried out in animals. In order to keep the animals in a restricted position during the scan session, anaesthesia is almost inevitable. In ex vivo rat studies we investigated the interference of ketamine/xylazine, zoletile mixture, isoflurane and halothane with the serotonin re-uptake site, the serotonin 2A receptor and the dopamine re-uptake site by use of [ 3 H]-(S)-citalopram, [ 18 F]altanserin and [ 125 I]PE2I, respectively. Ketamine/xylazine decreased the target-to-background ratio (mean ± SD) of [ 3 H]-(S)-citalopram from 1.5±0.19 to 0.81±0.19 (P 18 F]altanserin. The [ 125 I]PE2I target-to-background ratio decreased with both ketamine/xylazine (from 12.4±0.81 to 10.1±1.4, P<0.05) and isoflurane (from 12.4±0.81 to 9.5±1.1, P<0.05) treated rats, whereas treatment with zoletile mixture and halothane left the ratio unaltered. It is concluded that prior to performance of neuroreceptor radioligand studies, the possible interaction between radioligands and anaesthetics should be carefully evaluated. (orig.)

  11. Determinação das substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico como indicador da peroxidação lipídica em ratos tratados com sevoflurano Determinación de las substancias reativas al ácido tiobarbitúrico como indicador de la peroxidación lipídica en ratones tratados con sevoflurano Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances as an index of lipid peroxidation in sevoflurane-treated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Lucena Bezerra

    2004-10-01

    biotransformación dos éteres sobre la acción del citocromo P450, uno de los posibles mecanismos de toxicidad hepática y renal promovida por eses compuestos. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar los niveles de substancias reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico (SRAT, como indicador de la peroxidación lipídica, en ratones que recibieron sevoflurano, previamente tratados o no con isoniazida, inductora enzimática del citocromo P450 2E1. MÉTODO: Los animales fueron distribuidos aleatoriamente en 4 grupos que recibieron respectivamente: G1 - oxígeno a 100% 1 l.min-1/60 minutos por 5 días consecutivos; G2 - sevoflurano a 4% en oxígeno a 100%, 1 l.min-1/60 minutos por 5 días consecutivos; G3 - isoniazida (50 mg.kg-1.dia por vía intraperitoneal durante 4 días consecutivos, en seguida fue tratado como el G1, en G4 - isoniazida 50 mg.kg-1.dia por vía intraperitoneal durante 4 días consecutivos, siendo tratado, posteriormente, como el G2. Después de 12 horas del último tratamiento, se sacrificaran los animales y fue colectado el plasma para la análisis de las SRAT, siendo removido el lóbulo izquierdo del hígado y de los riñones para examen histológico. RESULTADOS: Los resultados mostraron aumento en las tasas de SRAT en el G3 y G4, con elevación discreta en G2. El estudio histológico reveló necrosis focal en el hígado de ratones pre-tratados con isoniazida (G3. CONCLUSIONES: El sevoflurano promovió peroxidación lipídica apenas cuando asociado a la isoniazida.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Sevoflurane is a fluorinated ether with low blood solubility and biotransformed by an oxidative enzymatic liver system involving cytochrome P450 2E1. Lipid peroxidation occurs during ethers biotransformation process under action of cytochrome P450, a possible mechanism for liver and kidney toxicity promoted by such compounds. This study aimed at determining the levels of substances reactive to thiobarbituric acid (TBARS, as an index for lipid peroxidation in sevoflurane

  12. Emergence agitation in paediatric patients using sevoflurane and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method:In this randomised controlled trial, 60 children aged between 2 and 6 years were enrolled and randomly divided into two groups. ... pressure, drugs, fear/anxiety and the child's temperament.3,7 ..... Middle East J Anaesthesiol. 2011 ...

  13. The efiect of sevoflurane induction on the myocardial performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    single numeric value and correlates well with conventional haemodynamic measures .... significant decrement of the IVCT (–3.37; p-value 0.0005). Isovolumic .... with invasive measurement of ventricular function in a porcine model. J Am Soc ...

  14. Cardiopulmonary alterations with romifidine, tiletamine/zolazepam and halothane in horses

    OpenAIRE

    Polydoro, Alexandre da Silva; Natalini, Cláudio Corrêa; Schossler, João Eduardo Wallau; Hennemann, Carla Rosane de Aguiar; Cassol, Débora Socal; Futema, Fábio

    1997-01-01

    Dez equinos foram submetidos a anestesia com romifidina (80 mig/kg via intravenosa), indução com a associação tiletamina/zolazepam (1,1mg/kg em solução a 5% via intravenosa) e manutenção com halotano. A avaliação cardiorrespiratória foi realizada pela mensuração dos parâmetros de freqüências cardíaca e respiratória, pressão arterial média invasiva, equilíbrio ácido-base por hemogasometria arterial e perfil hematológico de hematócrito, proteína plasmática total e glicemia. Foram mensurados os ...

  15. Effects of constant rate infusion of anesthetic or analgesic drugs on general anesthesia with isoflurane: A retrospective study in 200 dogs Efeitos da infusão intravenosa contínua de fármacos anestésicos ou analgésicos sobre a anestesia geral com isoflurano: Estudo retrospectivo em 200 cães

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia de Amorim Cerejo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Constant rate infusion (CRI shows several advantages in balanced anesthesia, such as reduction of requirement for inhaled anesthetics and control of pain. The most commonly used drugs in these protocols are local anesthetics, dissociative, and opioids, which may be administered alone or in combinations. We evaluated the records of 200 dogs that underwent various surgical procedures with anesthetic or analgesic CRI in the perioperative period during 2011 and 2012 at the Veterinary Hospital of Franca University (Unifran, and identified possible complications during the transoperative period. Records evaluated included clinical state, laboratory tests, drugs used in premedication and induction, and CRI protocol. Acepromazine and morphine were the main drugs used in premedication. Propofol was used to induce anesthesia alone or in combination with other agents. We evaluated records of the 25 different CRI protocols. Fentanyl was the main drug employed in CRI, either alone or in combination. There were 128 episodes of anesthetic complications during CRI;the most common were hypotension, hypertension, and tachycardia, which occurred in 43 (32%, 35 (26.3%, and 19 (14.2% dogs, respectively. Cardiac arrhythmia was reported in only 4 dogs. Signs of respiratory depression were present in dogs treated with 6 different CRI protocols. The consumption of isoflurane (vol % reduced between 15.7% and 21.05% after 30minutes of the CRI in the fentanyl and fentanyl–lidocaine–ketamine CRI groups (pO uso de técnicas de infusão contínua (IC possui inúmeras vantagens na anestesia balanceada, como a redução do requerimento de anestésicos inalatórios e controle da dor. Os fármacos mais comumente utilizados nestes protocolos são os anestésicos locais, dissociativos e opioides, que podem ser administrados isoladamente ou em associações. Foram avaliados os prontuários de 200 cães que foram submetidos a diversos procedimentos cirúrgicos com IC de anest

  16. Effects of laparoscopy on the cardiorespiratory system of brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira anesthetized with ketamine/ xylazine/ midazolam combination and isoflurane Efeitos da laparoscopia sobre o sistema cardiorrespiratório de veados-catingueiro (Mazama gouazoubira anestesiados com a associação cetamina/xilazina/midazolam e isofluorano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Salles Munerato

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopy is not widely used as a tool to perform assisted reproduction techniques in South American cervids; thus, scarce information in literature is available regarding its effects and appropriate anesthetic protocols to perform it. This study evaluated the effect of laparoscopy on heart rate (HR, respiration rate (RR, saturation of oxyhemoglobin (SpO2 and rectal temperature (RT of six female brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira anesthetized with ketamine (5mg/kg, xylazine (0.3mg/kg, midazolam (0.5mg/kg combination i.v. and isoflurane. Twelve laparoscopies were performed and each animal was used twice with a 40-day interval. After anesthetized, the animals were placed in dorsal recumbency to perform laparoscopy procedure using abdominal CO2 insufflations (14.2 ± 2.39mmHg; M ± SE. The main events of the laparoscopy procedure were divided into three periods: animal without (P1 and with abdominal insufflation (P2 and abdominal insufflation with the hips raised at 45º (P3. As a control, the animals were anesthetized again 40 days after the last laparoscopy, and were maintained in a dorsal recumbency for the same average duration of the previous anesthesia and no laparoscopy procedure was conducted. The period of anesthesia for the controls was also divided into P1, P2, and P3 considering the average duration of these periods in previous laparoscopies performed. Data were analyzed through the (ANOVA variance analysis followed by Tukey test and values at PA laparoscopia ainda é pouco utilizada como ferramenta para técnicas de reprodução assistida em cervídeos sul-americanos, não havendo informações sobre seus efeitos e protocolos anestésicos seguros para sua realização. Objetivaramse avaliar as possíveis alterações na freqüência cardíaca (FC, respiratória (FR, saturação de oxihemoglobina (SpO2 e temperatura retal (TR durante a laparoscopia para visualização dos órgãos reprodutivos de seis fêmeas de veado

  17. Economic and Environmental Considerations During Low Fresh Gas Flow Volatile Agent Administration After Change to a Nonreactive Carbon Dioxide Absorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Richard H; Dexter, Franklin; Maguire, David P; Agarwalla, Niraj K; Gratch, David M

    2016-04-01

    Reducing fresh gas flow (FGF) during general anesthesia reduces costs by decreasing the consumption of volatile anesthetics and attenuates their contribution to greenhouse gas pollution of the environment. The sevoflurane FGF recommendations in the Food and Drug Administration package insert relate to concern over potential toxicity from accumulation in the breathing circuit of compound A, a by-product of the reaction of the volatile agent with legacy carbon dioxide absorbents containing strong alkali such as sodium or potassium hydroxide. Newer, nonreactive absorbents do not produce compound A, making such restrictions moot. We evaluated 4 hypotheses for sevoflurane comparing intervals before and after converting from a legacy absorbent (soda lime) to a nonreactive absorbent (Litholyme): (1) intraoperative FGF would be reduced; (2) sevoflurane consumption per minute of volatile agent administration would be reduced; (3) cost savings due to reduced sevoflurane consumption would (modestly) exceed the incremental cost of the premium absorbent; and (4) residual wastage in discarded sevoflurane bottles would be trash after filling vaporizers. The time from reaching a PICO2 = 3 mm Hg for 3 minutes until agent exhaustion (PICO2 = 5 mm Hg for 5 minutes) was evaluated. A total of N = 20,235 cases were analyzed (80.2% sevoflurane, 15.1% desflurane, and 4.7% isoflurane). Intraoperative FGF was reduced for cases in which sevoflurane was administered by 435 mL/min (95% confidence interval [CI], 391 to 479 mL/min; P administration decreased by 0.039 mL/min (95% CI, 0.029 to 0.049 mL/min; P 50%) canisters. We showed that an anesthesia department can transition to a premium, nonreactive carbon dioxide absorbent in a manner that is at least cost neutral by reducing FGF below the lower flow limits recommended in the sevoflurane package insert. This was achieved, in part, by electronically monitoring PICO2, automatically notifying the anesthesia technicians when to change the

  18. Does chronic occupational exposure to volatile anesthetic agents influence the rate of neutrophil apoptosis?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Goto, Y

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this preliminary investigation was to determine whether the rate of neutrophil apoptosis in health care workers is influenced by exposure to volatile anesthetic agents. METHODS: Percentage neutrophil apoptosis (Annexin-V FITC assay) was measured in health care workers (n = 20) and unexposed volunteers (n = 10). For the health care workers, time weighted personal exposure monitoring to N2O, sevoflurane and isoflurane was carried out. RESULTS: The sevoflurane and isoflurane concentrations to which health care workers were exposed were less than recommended levels in all 20 cases. Percent apoptosis was less at 24 (but not at one and 12) hr culture in health care workers [50.5 (9.7)%; P = 0.008] than in unexposed volunteers [57.3 (5.1)%]. CONCLUSION: Inhibition of neutrophil apoptosis at 24 hr culture was demonstrated in health care workers chronically exposed to volatile anesthetic agents. Exposure was well below recommended levels in the both scavenged and unscavenged work areas in which the study was carried out. Further study is required to assess the effect of greater degrees of chronic exposure to volatile anesthetic agents on neutrophil apoptosis.

  19. Comparison of use of an infrared anesthetic gas monitor and refractometry for measurement of anesthetic agent concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrisko, Tamas D; Klide, Alan M

    2011-10-01

    To assess agreement between anesthetic agent concentrations measured by use of an infrared anesthetic gas monitor (IAGM) and refractometry. SAMPLE-4 IAGMs of the same type and 1 refractometer. Mixtures of oxygen and isoflurane, sevoflurane, desflurane, or N(2)O were used. Agent volume percent was measured simultaneously with 4 IAGMs and a refractometer at the common gas outlet. Measurements obtained with each of the 4 IAGMs were compared with the corresponding refractometer measurements via the Bland-Altman method. Similarly, Bland-Altman plots were also created with either IAGM or refractometer measurements and desflurane vaporizer dial settings. Bias ± 2 SD for comparisons of IAGM and refractometer measurements was as follows: isoflurane, -0.03 ± 0.18 volume percent; sevoflurane, -0.19 ± 0.23 volume percent; desflurane, 0.43 ± 1.22 volume percent; and N(2)O, -0.21 ± 1.88 volume percent. Bland-Altman plots comparing IAGM and refractometer measurements revealed nonlinear relationships for sevoflurane, desflurane, and N(2)O. Desflurane measurements were notably affected; bias ± limits of agreement (2 SD) were small (0.1 ± 0.22 volume percent) at < 12 volume percent, but both bias and limits of agreement increased at higher concentrations. Because IAGM measurements did not but refractometer measurements did agree with the desflurane vaporizer dial settings, infrared measurement technology was a suspected cause of the nonlinear relationships. Given that the assumption of linearity is a cornerstone of anesthetic monitor calibration, this assumption should be confirmed before anesthetic monitors are used in experiments.

  20. Effect of day/night administration of three different inhalational anesthetics on melatonin levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocmen, Elvan; Erdost, Hale Aksu; Duru, Leyla S; Akan, Pinar; Cimrin, Dilek; Gokmen, Ali N

    2016-06-01

    The nocturnal peak of melatonin can be altered after anesthesia and surgery. We aimed to examine the melatonin levels during the day and night after anesthesia with three commonly used inhalational anesthetics. Forty-eight male Wistar albino rats were randomized into eight groups. Rats were administered anesthesia between 7:00 am and 1:00 pm (day groups) or 7:00 pm and 1:00 am (night groups) for 6 hours. At the end of the anesthesia, blood samples were collected for assessing melatonin levels. Mean values of melatonin levels after 6 hours of anesthesia during daytime were 43.17±12.95 for control, 59.79±27.83 for isoflurane, 50.75±34.28 for sevoflurane