Selim, Samy; Hagagy, Nashwa
2016-03-01
We report draft genome sequence of Haloterrigena turkmenica strain WANU15, isolated from Soda Lake. The draft genome size is 2,950,899 bp with a G + C content of 64% and contains 49 RNA sequence. The genome sequence can be accessed at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession no. LKCV00000000.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Samy Selim
2016-03-01
Full Text Available We report draft genome sequence of Haloterrigena turkmenica strain WANU15, isolated from Soda Lake. The draft genome size is 2,950,899 bp with a G + C content of 64% and contains 49 RNA sequence. The genome sequence can be accessed at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession no. LKCV00000000.
Complete genome sequence of Haloterrigena turkmenica type strain (4k^{T})
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saunders, Elizabeth H. [DOE Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tindall, Brian [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany); Fahnrich, Regine [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany); Lapidus, Alla L. [DOE Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Copeland, Alex [DOE Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [DOE Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Lucas, Susan [DOE Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Chen, Feng [DOE Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Tice, Hope [DOE Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Cheng, Jan -Fang [DOE Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Han, Cliff [DOE Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Detter, John C. [DOE Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bruce, David [DOE Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Goodwin, Lynne A. [DOE Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chain, Patrick S. G. [DOE Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pitluck, Sam [DOE Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Pati, Amrita [DOE Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Ivanova, Natalia [DOE Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Mavromatis, Konstantinos [DOE Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Chen, Amy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Palaniappan, Krishna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Land, Miriam L. [DOE Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hauser, Loren John [DOE Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chang, Yun -Juan [DOE Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jeffries, Cynthia D. [DOE Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brettin, Thomas [DOE Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig (Germany); Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany); Bristow, James [DOE Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Eisen, Jonathan [DOE Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Markowitz, Victor [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hugenholtz, Philip [DOE Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Klenk, Hans -Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany); Kyrpides, Nikos C. [DOE Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA (United States)
2010-02-28
Haloterrigena turkmenica (Zvyagintseva and Tarasov 1987) Ventosa et al. 1999, comb. nov. is the type species of the genus Haloterrigena in the euryarchaeal family Halobacteriaceae. It is of phylogenetic interest because of the yet unclear position of the genera Haloterrigena and Natrinema within the Halobacteriaceae, which created some taxonomic problems historically. H. turkmenica, was isolated from sulfate saline soil in Turkmenistan, is a relatively fast growing, chemoorganotrophic, carotenoid-containing, extreme halophile, requiring at least 2 M NaCl for growth. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of the genus Haloterrigena, but the eighth genome sequence from a member of the family Halobacteriaceae. Furthermore, the 5,440,782 bp genome (including six plasmids) with its 5,287 protein-coding and 63 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
Novel Insights into the Diversity of Catabolic Metabolism from Ten Haloarchaeal Genomes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anderson, Iain; Scheuner, Carmen; Goker, Markus; Mavromatis, Kostas; Hooper, Sean D.; Porat, Iris; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos
2011-05-03
The extremely halophilic archaea are present worldwide in saline environments and have important biotechnological applications. Ten complete genomes of haloarchaea are now available, providing an opportunity for comparative analysis. We report here the comparative analysis of five newly sequenced haloarchaeal genomes with five previously published ones. Whole genome trees based on protein sequences provide strong support for deep relationships between the ten organisms. Using a soft clustering approach, we identified 887 protein clusters present in all halophiles. Of these core clusters, 112 are not found in any other archaea and therefore constitute the haloarchaeal signature. Four of the halophiles were isolated from water, and four were isolated from soil or sediment. Although there are few habitat-specific clusters, the soil/sediment halophiles tend to have greater capacity for polysaccharide degradation, siderophore synthesis, and cell wall modification. Halorhabdus utahensis and Haloterrigena turkmenica encode over forty glycosyl hydrolases each, and may be capable of breaking down naturally occurring complex carbohydrates. H. utahensis is specialized for growth on carbohydrates and has few amino acid degradation pathways. It uses the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway instead of the oxidative pathway, giving it more flexibility in the metabolism of pentoses. These new genomes expand our understanding of haloarchaeal catabolic pathways, providing a basis for further experimental analysis, especially with regard to carbohydrate metabolism. Halophilic glycosyl hydrolases for use in biofuel production are more likely to be found in halophiles isolated from soil or sediment.
Functions Like Convex Functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zlatko Pavić
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with convex sets, functions satisfying the global convexity property, and positive linear functionals. Jensen's type inequalities can be obtained by using convex combinations with the common center. Following the idea of the common center, the functional forms of Jensen's inequality are considered in this paper.
Functionalism! Functionalism! Do I Look Like Functionalism?
Boisson de Chazournes, Laurence
2016-01-01
In his EJIL Foreword, Jan Klabbers argues that the contemporary application of functionalism, understood as organizations being assigned functions, in order both to realize the common good and to deepen inter-state cooperation, is something of a theoretical straitjacket. However, can functionalism really be described as a ‘one-size-fits-all’ concept? It is the contention of this Comment that there are, in fact, different manifestations of the concept, including neo-functionalism and formal or...
Sun, Ying
2011-01-01
This article proposes an informative exploratory tool, the functional boxplot, for visualizing functional data, as well as its generalization, the enhanced functional boxplot. Based on the center outward ordering induced by band depth for functional data, the descriptive statistics of a functional boxplot are: the envelope of the 50% central region, the median curve, and the maximum non-outlying envelope. In addition, outliers can be detected in a functional boxplot by the 1.5 times the 50% central region empirical rule, analogous to the rule for classical boxplots. The construction of a functional boxplot is illustrated on a series of sea surface temperatures related to the El Niño phenomenon and its outlier detection performance is explored by simulations. As applications, the functional boxplot and enhanced functional boxplot are demonstrated on children growth data and spatio-temporal U.S. precipitation data for nine climatic regions, respectively. This article has supplementary material online. © 2011 American Statistical Association.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Della Pia, Eduardo Antonio; Hansen, Randi Westh; Zoonens, Manuela
2014-01-01
Amphipols are amphipathic polymers that stabilize membrane proteins isolated from their native membrane. They have been functionalized with various chemical groups in the past years for protein labeling and protein immobilization. This large toolbox of functionalized amphipols combined with their...... surfaces for various applications in synthetic biology. This review summarizes the properties of functionalized amphipols suitable for synthetic biology approaches....
Markushevich, A I
1966-01-01
Entire Functions focuses on complex numbers and the algebraic operations on them and the basic principles of mathematical analysis.The book first elaborates on the concept of an entire function, including the natural generalization of the concept of a polynomial and power series. The text then takes a look at the maximum absolute value and the order of an entire function, as well as calculations for the coefficients of power series representing a given function, use of integrals, and complex numbers. The publication elaborates on the zeros of an entire function and the fundamen
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Campi, Stefano; Gardner, Richard; Gronchi, Paolo
2012-01-01
Variants of the brightness function of a convex body K in n-dimensional Euclidean are investigated. The Lambertian lightness function L(K; v , w ) gives the total reflected light resulting from illumination by a light source at infinity in the direction w that is visible when looking...... in the direction v . The partial brightness function R( K ; v , w ) gives the area of the projection orthogonal to v of the portion of the surface of K that is both illuminated by a light source from the direction w and visible when looking in the direction v . A class of functions called lightness functions...... is introduced that includes L(K;.) and R(K;.) as special cases. Much of the theory of the brightness function like uniqueness, stability, and the existence and properties of convex bodies of maximal and minimal volume with finitely many function values equal to those of a given convex body, is extended...
Donchyts, G.; Baart, F.; Jagers, H.R.A.; Van Dam, A
2011-01-01
A new Application Programming Interface (API) is presented which simplifies working with geospatial coverages as well as many other data structures of a multi-dimensional nature. The main idea extends the Common Data Model (CDM) developed at the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR). The proposed function object model uses the mathematical definition of a vector-valued function. A geospatial coverage will be expressed as a vector-valued function whose dependent variables (the...
Because chemicals can adversely affect cognitive function in humans, considerable effort has been made to characterize their effects using animal models. Information from such models will be necessary to: evaluate whether chemicals identified as potentially neurotoxic by screenin...
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Anat Keinan; Ran Kivetz; Oded Netzer
2009-01-01
Spending money on luxuries often seems wasteful and decadent. We propose that adding a small utilitarian feature to a luxury product can serve as a functional alibi, justifying the indulgent purchase and reducing guilt...
Schwingenschuh, P; Deuschl, G
2016-01-01
Functional tremor is the commonest reported functional movement disorder. A confident clinical diagnosis of functional tremor is often possible based on the following "positive" criteria: a sudden tremor onset, unusual disease course, often with fluctuations or remissions, distractibility of the tremor if attention is removed from the affected body part, tremor entrainment, tremor variability, and a coactivation sign. Many patients show excessive exhaustion during examination. Other somatizations may be revealed in the medical history and patients may show additional functional neurologic symptoms and signs. In cases where the clinical diagnosis remains challenging, providing a "laboratory-supported" level of certainty aids an early positive diagnosis. In rare cases, in which the distinction from Parkinson's disease is difficult, dopamine transporter single-photon emission computed tomography (DAT-SPECT) can be indicated. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Jax, Kurt
2010-01-01
"In the face of decreasing biodiversity and ongoing global changes, maintaining ecosystem functioning is seen both as a means to preserve biological diversity as well as for safeguarding human well...
Farr, D R
1997-03-19
The concept of functional foods containing specific physiologically active components originated in Japan as a means of improving the health of the nation and thus, reducing the drain on the economy caused by escalating health costs. Some aspects of the Japanese physiologically functional foods programme will be discussed. There is a growing interest in this area from food manufacturers both in Europe and the USA, and a few functional food products are appearing on the market. It is likely that there will be competition between the food industry and the pharmaceutical industry in the grey area of overlapping interest. The regulatory aspects concerning functional foods have yet to be satisfactorily resolved, both in Europe and the USA, but consumer pressure promises to accelerate the incorporation of the concept of functional foods into western food regulations. There are early indications that in Europe, consumer perception of the benefits of functional foods compared to normal foods will not be the same as in Japan, nor will the consumer be as receptive. Some consumer groups question the necessity of such foods from a health point of view and see the concept rather as a marketing tool. We are likely to see a number of foods for which anti-carcinogenic and other well defined properties are likely to be claimed. The active components will be present in the raw materials or produced or enhanced by the manufacturing process.
Nambudiripad, K B M
2014-01-01
After presenting the theory in engineers' language without the unfriendly abstraction of pure mathematics, several illustrative examples are discussed in great detail to see how the various functions of the Bessel family enter into the solution of technically important problems. Axisymmetric vibrations of a circular membrane, oscillations of a uniform chain, heat transfer in circular fins, buckling of columns of varying cross-section, vibrations of a circular plate and current density in a conductor of circular cross-section are considered. The problems are formulated purely from physical considerations (using, for example, Newton's law of motion, Fourier's law of heat conduction electromagnetic field equations, etc.) Infinite series expansions, recurrence relations, manipulation of expressions involving Bessel functions, orthogonality and expansion in Fourier-Bessel series are also covered in some detail. Some important topics such as asymptotic expansions, generating function and Sturm-Lioville theory are r...
Bliss, Gilbert Ames
1933-01-01
This book, immediately striking for its conciseness, is one of the most remarkable works ever produced on the subject of algebraic functions and their integrals. The distinguishing feature of the book is its third chapter, on rational functions, which gives an extremely brief and clear account of the theory of divisors.... A very readable account is given of the topology of Riemann surfaces and of the general properties of abelian integrals. Abel's theorem is presented, with some simple applications. The inversion problem is studied for the cases of genus zero and genus unity. The chapter on t
Kleibeuker, JH; Thijs, JC
2004-01-01
Purpose of review Functional dyspepsia is a common disorder, most of the time of unknown etiology and with variable pathophysiology. Therapy has been and still is largely empirical. Data from recent studies provide new clues for targeted therapy based on knowledge of etiology and pathophysiologic
African Journals Online (AJOL)
It is a great honour to write the editorial for this month's CME component of the SAMJ. Functional neurosurgery is a subdivision of neurosurgery that does not always receive the recognition we feel that it deserves among general medical practitioners. It is definitely the less 'sexy' component of neurosurgery compared with ...
Kirkineska, L; Perifanis, V; Vasiliadis, T
2014-01-01
Functional hyposplenism is a condition accompanying many diseases such as sickle cell disease, celiac disease, alcoholic liver disease, hepatic cirrhosis, lymphomas and autoimmune disorders. It is characterised mostly by defective immune responses against infectious agents, especially encapsulated organisms, since the spleen is thought to play an important role in the production and maturation of B-memory lymphocytes and other substances like opsonins, both of which are considered crucial elements of the immune system for fighting infections. It is also associated with thrombocytosis, which might lead to thromboembolic events. Functional hyposplenism is diagnosed by the presence of Howell-Jolly bodies and pitted erythrocytes in the peripheral blood smear, and by nuclear imaging modalities such as spleen scintigraphy with the use of Technetium-99m and/or spleen scintigraphy with the use of heat-damaged Technetium-99m labeled erythrocytes. Severe infections accompanying functional hyposplenism can lead to the overwhelming post infection syndrome, which can often be fatal. Identifying patients with functional hyposplenism is important because simple measures such as vaccination against common infective microorganisms (e.g. Streptococcus pneumonia, Neisseria meningitides and Haemophilous influenzae) and antibiotic therapy when needed are considered beneficial in diminishing the frequency and gravity of the infections accompanying the syndrome.
Cronhjort, Yrsa (ed.); Hughes, Mark (ed.); Paakkanen, Mikko (ed.); Sahi, Karola (ed.); Tukiainen, Pekka (ed.); Tulamo, Tomi (ed.); Vahtikari, Katja (ed.)
2016-01-01
Design has been recognized as a key discipline to bring ideas to the market. In addition to current research on human perceptions and the functional capacities of wood, this publication demonstrates the potential of wood in various applications. The designs are the results of three design courses, implemented during 2015 and 2016 at Aalto University in Finland. The Masters student courses included two Wood Studios at Aalto University’s School of Arts, Design and Architecture and the Integrate...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, S. R.; Park, S. K.; Kim, J. J. [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, H. J.; Jeon, H. S.; Kim, D. Y. [Gang Nam Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
1984-09-15
Morphologic changes of spinal canal and dural sac during spinal movement (flexion-extension) were analysed and reported with the base of cross sectional anatomy, as early as 1942. After that, this movement was emphasized and used in myelography in many countries under the name of functional myelography, for accurate diagnosis of spinal stenosis as herniated disc, but nor used commonly in Korea. Authors analysed functional myelographic findings of 78 cases, 37 of normal and 41 of surgically confirmed herniated disc, to intend to confirm the necessity of spinal movement during myelography. The results were as follows; 1. In normal group, anterior border of dural sac is stright with flexion, but indented in extension at the level of intervertebral space and this indentation is less prominent at L5-S1. 2. In normal group with extension, posterior indentation of dural sac is more prominent at the level of intervertebral space than body, A-P diameter of dural sac is narrowed all the level of intervertebral space except L5-S1,and dural sac moved anteriorly (near to the posterior portion of spinal body or intervertebral space) at the level L5-S1 and all spinal body. 3. In disc patient, anterior indentation of dural sac is persist in both views (flexion and extension) and much more exaggerated with extension, but less prominent at L5-S1. 4. In herniated disc patient with extension, anterior movement of anterior dural border at the level of L5-S1 is much decreased than normal.
Kesavan, S
2009-01-01
The material presented in this book is suited for a first course in Functional Analysis which can be followed by Masters students. While covering all the standard material expected of such a course, efforts have been made to illustrate the use of various theorems via examples taken from differential equations and the calculus of variations, either through brief sections or through exercises. In fact, this book will be particularly useful for students who would like to pursue a research career in the applications of mathematics. The book includes a chapter on weak and weak topologies and their applications to the notions of reflexivity, separability and uniform convexity. The chapter on the Lebesgue spaces also presents the theory of one of the simplest classes of Sobolev spaces. The book includes a chapter on compact operators and the spectral theory for compact self-adjoint operators on a Hilbert space. Each chapter has large collection of exercises at the end. These illustrate the results of the text, show ...
Detellier, Christian
2018-01-04
The world resources of all clays are extremely large. Among the various types of clays, the world mine production of kaolin in 2016 was 37.0 Mt, the largest mined clay. Kaolin is traditionally used in ceramics, refractories and as paper coating and filling. But kaolin, as it is demonstrated in this paper, has a bright potential for use in non-traditional, high value-added, applications. This is particularly true for its principal component: the mineral species kaolinite which has a chemical structure allowing its functionalization, leading to a variety of potential applications. Kaolinite is a layered 1 : 1 clay mineral, the layer being made of two different sheets, a tetrahedral silica sheet and an octahedral alumina sheet. Large dipole-dipole interactions, in addition to a network of H-bonds, link the siloxane surface of a layer to the aluminol surface of another layer, making intercalation of guest species in kaolinite challenging. There is however a limited number of molecular units (molecules or salts) that can directly intercalate in kaolinite to form "pre-intercalates". Once intercalated these molecular units can be exchanged by a large number and variety of guests, providing access to the interlayer space of kaolinite, and to its reactive aluminol internal surfaces. The intercalation of molecules of pharmacological interest showed the potential of kaolinite to act as a slow-releasing agent for drugs, and the intercalation of polymers resulted in the creation of intercalated nanocomposites. The intercalation of ionic liquids gave materials with ionic conductivity properties in the solid-state. Intercalates are however unstable in water. One needed to make these organo-inorgano nanohybrid materials resistant to hydrolysis and more thermally stable. The network of aluminol groups on the internal surfaces of kaolinite offers the opportunity to design and create controlled organo-inorgano nanohybrid materials, taking advantage of their reactivity, in
Special functions & their applications
Lebedev, N N
1972-01-01
Famous Russian work discusses the application of cylinder functions and spherical harmonics; gamma function; probability integral and related functions; Airy functions; hyper-geometric functions; more. Translated by Richard Silverman.
Resummed coefficient function for the shape function
Aglietti, U.
2001-01-01
We present a leading evaluation of the resummed coefficient function for the shape function. It is also shown that the coefficient function is short-distance-dominated. Our results allow relating the shape function computed on the lattice to the physical QCD distributions.
Functional Training Revisited.
Siff, Mel C.
2002-01-01
Asserts that though functional training is vital in all sporting preparation, it is only one aspect of the overall process. The paper defines functional training; discusses facets of functionality, functionality and balancing drills, and functional training and periodization; and concludes that functionality is best defined in terms of the outcome…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mailund, Thomas
that state, in functional programming you model programs by describing how functions translate input data to output data. Functions themselves are considered to be data you can manipulate and much of the strength of functional programming comes from manipulating functions; that is, building more complex......Master functions and discover how to write functional programs in R. In this book, you'll make your functions pure by avoiding side-effects; you’ll write functions that manipulate other functions, and you’ll construct complex functions using simpler functions as building blocks. In Functional...... Programming in R, you’ll see how we can replace loops, which can have side-effects, with recursive functions that can more easily avoid them. In addition, the book covers why you shouldn't use recursion when loops are more efficient and how you can get the best of both worlds. Functional programming...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mailund, Thomas
Master functions and discover how to write functional programs in R. In this book, you'll make your functions pure by avoiding side-effects; you’ll write functions that manipulate other functions, and you’ll construct complex functions using simpler functions as building blocks. In Functional Pro...... code clearly and safely Build new functions from existing functions without necessarily writing any new functions, using point-free programming Create functions that carry data along with them......Master functions and discover how to write functional programs in R. In this book, you'll make your functions pure by avoiding side-effects; you’ll write functions that manipulate other functions, and you’ll construct complex functions using simpler functions as building blocks. In Functional...... Programming in R, you’ll see how we can replace loops, which can have side-effects, with recursive functions that can more easily avoid them. In addition, the book covers why you shouldn't use recursion when loops are more efficient and how you can get the best of both worlds. Functional programming...
Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel
... for Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Hepatic ( ... or kidneys ) is working. What Is a Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel? A liver function panel is a ...
... Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Platelet Function Tests Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At ... Also Known As Platelet Aggregation Studies PFT Platelet Function Assay PFA Formal Name Platelet Function Tests This ...
Extraocular muscle function testing
... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003397.htm Extraocular muscle function testing To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Extraocular muscle function testing examines the function of the eye muscles. ...
Random functions and turbulence
Panchev, S
1971-01-01
International Series of Monographs in Natural Philosophy, Volume 32: Random Functions and Turbulence focuses on the use of random functions as mathematical methods. The manuscript first offers information on the elements of the theory of random functions. Topics include determination of statistical moments by characteristic functions; functional transformations of random variables; multidimensional random variables with spherical symmetry; and random variables and distribution functions. The book then discusses random processes and random fields, including stationarity and ergodicity of random
Functional microorganisms for functional food quality.
Gobbetti, M; Cagno, R Di; De Angelis, M
2010-09-01
Functional microorganisms and health benefits represent a binomial with great potential for fermented functional foods. The health benefits of fermented functional foods are expressed either directly through the interactions of ingested live microorganisms with the host (probiotic effect) or indirectly as the result of the ingestion of microbial metabolites synthesized during fermentation (biogenic effect). Since the importance of high viability for probiotic effect, two major options are currently pursued for improving it--to enhance bacterial stress response and to use alternative products for incorporating probiotics (e.g., ice cream, cheeses, cereals, fruit juices, vegetables, and soy beans). Further, it seems that quorum sensing signal molecules released by probiotics may interact with human epithelial cells from intestine thus modulating several physiological functions. Under optimal processing conditions, functional microorganisms contribute to food functionality through their enzyme portfolio and the release of metabolites. Overproduction of free amino acids and vitamins are two classical examples. Besides, bioactive compounds (e.g., peptides, γ-amino butyric acid, and conjugated linoleic acid) may be released during food processing above the physiological threshold and they may exert various in vivo health benefits. Functional microorganisms are even more used in novel strategies for decreasing phenomenon of food intolerance (e.g., gluten intolerance) and allergy. By a critical approach, this review will aim at showing the potential of functional microorganisms for the quality of functional foods.
Every storage function is a state function
Trentelman, H.L.; Willems, J.C.
1997-01-01
It is shown that for linear dynamical systems with quadratic supply rates, a storage function can always be written as a quadratic function of the state of an associated linear dynamical system. This dynamical system is obtained by combining the dynamics of the original system with the dynamics of
Implementing function spreadsheets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sestoft, Peter
2008-01-01
: that of turning an expression into a named function. Hence they proposed a way to define a function in terms of a worksheet with designated input and output cells; we shall call it a function sheet. The goal of our work is to develop implementations of function sheets and study their application to realistic...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Agerbo, Heidi
2017-01-01
Approximately a decade ago, it was suggested that a new function should be added to the lexicographical function theory: the interpretive function(1). However, hardly any research has been conducted into this function, and though it was only suggested that this new function was relevant to incorp......Approximately a decade ago, it was suggested that a new function should be added to the lexicographical function theory: the interpretive function(1). However, hardly any research has been conducted into this function, and though it was only suggested that this new function was relevant...... to incorporate into lexicographical theory, some scholars have since then assumed that this function exists(2), including the author of this contribution. In Agerbo (2016), I present arguments supporting the incorporation of the interpretive function into the function theory and suggest how non-linguistic signs...... can be treated in specific dictionary articles. However, in the current article, due to the results of recent research, I argue that the interpretive function should not be considered an individual main function. The interpretive function, contrary to some of its definitions, is not connected...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mailund, Thomas
2017-01-01
Master functions and discover how to write functional programs in R. In this book, you'll make your functions pure by avoiding side-effects; you’ll write functions that manipulate other functions, and you’ll construct complex functions using simpler functions as building blocks. In Functional...... Programming in R, you’ll see how we can replace loops, which can have side-effects, with recursive functions that can more easily avoid them. In addition, the book covers why you shouldn't use recursion when loops are more efficient and how you can get the best of both worlds. Functional programming...... is a style of programming, like object-oriented programming, but one that focuses on data transformations and calculations rather than objects and state. Where in object-oriented programming you model your programs by describing which states an object can be in and how methods will reveal or modify...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mailund, Thomas
Master functions and discover how to write functional programs in R. In this book, you'll make your functions pure by avoiding side-effects; you’ll write functions that manipulate other functions, and you’ll construct complex functions using simpler functions as building blocks. In Functional...... Programming in R, you’ll see how we can replace loops, which can have side-effects, with recursive functions that can more easily avoid them. In addition, the book covers why you shouldn't use recursion when loops are more efficient and how you can get the best of both worlds. Functional programming...... is a style of programming, like object-oriented programming, but one that focuses on data transformations and calculations rather than objects and state. Where in object-oriented programming you model your programs by describing which states an object can be in and how methods will reveal or modify...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mailund, Thomas
is a style of programming, like object-oriented programming, but one that focuses on data transformations and calculations rather than objects and state. Where in object-oriented programming you model your programs by describing which states an object can be in and how methods will reveal or modify......Master functions and discover how to write functional programs in R. In this book, you'll make your functions pure by avoiding side-effects; you’ll write functions that manipulate other functions, and you’ll construct complex functions using simpler functions as building blocks. In Functional...... Programming in R, you’ll see how we can replace loops, which can have side-effects, with recursive functions that can more easily avoid them. In addition, the book covers why you shouldn't use recursion when loops are more efficient and how you can get the best of both worlds. Functional programming...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bysted, Tommy Kristensen; Hamila, R.; Gabbouj, M.
1998-01-01
A new correlation function called the Teager correlation function is introduced in this paper. The connection between this function, the Teager energy operator and the conventional correlation function is established. Two applications are presented. The first is the minimization of the Teager error...... norm and the second one is the use of the instantaneous Teager correlation function for simultaneous estimation of TDOA and FDOA (Time and Frequency Difference of Arrivals)....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Raket, Lars Lau
We propose a direction it the field of statistics which we will call functional object analysis. This subfields considers the analysis of functional objects defined on continuous domains. In this setting we will focus on model-based statistics, with a particularly emphasis on mixed......-effect formulations, where the observed functional signal is assumed to consist of both fixed and random functional effects. This thesis takes the initial steps toward the development of likelihood-based methodology for functional objects. We first consider analysis of functional data defined on high...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Markvorsen, Steen
2007-01-01
We consider a specific function of two variables whose graph surface resembles a blue lagoon. The function has a saddle point $p$, but when the function is restricted to any given straight line through $p$ it has a {\\em{strict local minimum}} along that line at $p$.......We consider a specific function of two variables whose graph surface resembles a blue lagoon. The function has a saddle point $p$, but when the function is restricted to any given straight line through $p$ it has a {\\em{strict local minimum}} along that line at $p$....
Functionalized boron nitride nanotubes
Sainsbury, Toby; Ikuno, Takashi; Zettl, Alexander K
2014-04-22
A plasma treatment has been used to modify the surface of BNNTs. In one example, the surface of the BNNT has been modified using ammonia plasma to include amine functional groups. Amine functionalization allows BNNTs to be soluble in chloroform, which had not been possible previously. Further functionalization of amine-functionalized BNNTs with thiol-terminated organic molecules has also been demonstrated. Gold nanoparticles have been self-assembled at the surface of both amine- and thiol-functionalized boron nitride Nanotubes (BNNTs) in solution. This approach constitutes a basis for the preparation of highly functionalized BNNTs and for their utilization as nanoscale templates for assembly and integration with other nanoscale materials.
Sun, Ying
2012-08-03
This article proposes functional median polish, an extension of univariate median polish, for one-way and two-way functional analysis of variance (ANOVA). The functional median polish estimates the functional grand effect and functional main factor effects based on functional medians in an additive functional ANOVA model assuming no interaction among factors. A functional rank test is used to assess whether the functional main factor effects are significant. The robustness of the functional median polish is demonstrated by comparing its performance with the traditional functional ANOVA fitted by means under different outlier models in simulation studies. The functional median polish is illustrated on various applications in climate science, including one-way and two-way ANOVA when functional data are either curves or images. Specifically, Canadian temperature data, U. S. precipitation observations and outputs of global and regional climate models are considered, which can facilitate the research on the close link between local climate and the occurrence or severity of some diseases and other threats to human health. © 2012 International Biometric Society.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gardner, Richard J.; Kiderlen, Markus
A structural theory of operations between real-valued (or extended-real-valued) functions on a nonempty subset A of Rn is initiated. It is shown, for example, that any operation ∗ on a cone of functions containing the constant functions, which is pointwise, positively homogeneous, monotonic......, and associative, must be one of 40 explicitly given types. In particular, this is the case for operations between pairs of arbitrary, or continuous, or differentiable functions. The term pointwise means that (f ∗g)(x) = F(f(x), g(x)), for all x ∈ A and some function F of two variables. Several results in the same...... spirit are obtained for operations between convex functions or between support functions. For example, it is shown that ordinary addition is the unique pointwise operation between convex functions satisfying the identity property, i.e., f ∗ 0 = 0 ∗ f = f, for all convex f, while other results classify Lp...
Functional Maximum Autocorrelation Factors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Rasmus; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg
2005-01-01
Purpose. We aim at data where samples of an underlying function are observed in a spatial or temporal layout. Examples of underlying functions are reflectance spectra and biological shapes. We apply functional models based on smoothing splines and generalize the functional PCA in...... (temporally or spatially) neighbouring observations. This is useful when 'noise' components have higher variance than the interesting signal components. We adapt the multivariate MAF transform to the functional setting. It is assumed that relevant signal components exhibit correlation across the layout...... of observations. Where the functional PCA can be solved as an eigenvalue problem functional MAF becomes a generalized eigenvalue problem. Results We apply the methods to temporally varying outlines of the cardiac wall as observed in MR scans as well as to reflectance spectra in earth observations. The functional...
Lott, Steven
2015-01-01
This book is for developers who want to use Python to write programs that lean heavily on functional programming design patterns. You should be comfortable with Python programming, but no knowledge of functional programming paradigms is needed.
Functionalized diamond nanoparticles
Beaujuge, Pierre M.
2014-10-21
A diamond nanoparticle can be functionalized with a substituted dienophile under ambient conditions, and in the absence of catalysts or additional reagents. The functionalization is thought to proceed through an addition reaction.
Smart hydrogel functional materials
Chu, Liang-Yin; Ju, Xiao-Jie
2014-01-01
This book systematically introduces smart hydrogel functional materials with the configurations ranging from hydrogels to microgels. It serves as an excellent reference for designing and fabricating artificial smart hydrogel functional materials.
Kidney function tests are common lab tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working. Such tests include: ... Oh MS, Briefel G. Evaluation of renal function, water, electrolytes ... and Management by Laboratory Methods . 23rd ed. Philadelphia, ...
Notional-Functional Syllabuses.
Finocchiaro, Mary
1979-01-01
This article discusses the value of the notional-functional approach to language teaching and considers some sociolinguistic, psycholinguistic, and linguistic features of the notional-functional syllabus. (CFM)
Flammer, Carson
2005-01-01
Intended to facilitate the use and calculation of spheroidal wave functions, this applications-oriented text features a detailed and unified account of the properties of these functions. Addressed to applied mathematicians, mathematical physicists, and mathematical engineers, it presents tables that provide a convenient means for handling wave problems in spheroidal coordinates.Topics include separation of the scalar wave equation in spheroidal coordinates, angle and radial functions, integral representations and relations, and expansions in spherical Bessel function products. Additional subje
Pseudolinear functions and optimization
Mishra, Shashi Kant
2015-01-01
Pseudolinear Functions and Optimization is the first book to focus exclusively on pseudolinear functions, a class of generalized convex functions. It discusses the properties, characterizations, and applications of pseudolinear functions in nonlinear optimization problems.The book describes the characterizations of solution sets of various optimization problems. It examines multiobjective pseudolinear, multiobjective fractional pseudolinear, static minmax pseudolinear, and static minmax fractional pseudolinear optimization problems and their results. The authors extend these results to locally
Mingotti, Nicola
2015-01-01
This work aims at the exposition of two different results we have obtained in Functional Data Analysis. The first is a variable selection method in Functional Regression which is an adaptation of the well known Lasso technique. The second is a brand new Random Walk test for Functional Time Series. Being the results afferent to different areas of Functional Data Analysis, as well as of general Statistics, the introduction will be divided in three parts. Firstly we expose the fundament...
Functional neurological disorders: imaging.
Voon, V
2014-10-01
Functional neurological disorders, also known as conversion disorder, are unexplained neurological symptoms. These symptoms are common and can be associated with significant consequences. This review covers the neuroimaging literature focusing on functional motor symptoms including motor functioning and upstream influences including self-monitoring and internal representations, voluntariness and arousal and trauma. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier SAS.
Diplomacy and diplomatic functions
PhD Associate Professor Oana Iucu
2011-01-01
Through the main lines of this study we try to introduce specific approaches of diplomacy, diplomatic mission, diplomatic visits and diplomatic functions. Functions of diplomacy: representation, negotiation, information, diplomatic protection, international cooperation, consular function have been developed and analyzed more in depth
Diplomacy and diplomatic functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
PhD Associate Professor Oana Iucu
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Through the main lines of this study we try to introduce specific approaches of diplomacy, diplomatic mission, diplomatic visits and diplomatic functions. Functions of diplomacy: representation, negotiation, information, diplomatic protection, international cooperation, consular function have been developed and analyzed more in depth
Nonparametric Transfer Function Models
Liu, Jun M.; Chen, Rong; Yao, Qiwei
2009-01-01
In this paper a class of nonparametric transfer function models is proposed to model nonlinear relationships between ‘input’ and ‘output’ time series. The transfer function is smooth with unknown functional forms, and the noise is assumed to be a stationary autoregressive-moving average (ARMA) process. The nonparametric transfer function is estimated jointly with the ARMA parameters. By modeling the correlation in the noise, the transfer function can be estimated more efficiently. The parsimonious ARMA structure improves the estimation efficiency in finite samples. The asymptotic properties of the estimators are investigated. The finite-sample properties are illustrated through simulations and one empirical example. PMID:20628584
Radial Characteristics Functions.
WISCONSIN UNIV MADISON MATHEMATICS RESEARCH CENTERRadial Characteristics Functions.Technical summary rept.,SAskey,Richard ;MRC-TSR-1262DA-31-124...ARO(D)-462*Fourier transformation, Measure theory, Bessel functions, TheoremsPolya theorem, * Characteristic functionsIn 1918 Polya proved that the...transform could be inverted, so that the function is positive definite, and if it is one when x is zero, it is a characteristic function. An extension of this result to n-dimensions is presented. (Modified author abstract)
Transfer function combinations
Zhou, Liang
2012-10-01
Direct volume rendering has been an active area of research for over two decades. Transfer function design remains a difficult task since current methods, such as traditional 1D and 2D transfer functions, are not always effective for all data sets. Various 1D or 2D transfer function spaces have been proposed to improve classification exploiting different aspects, such as using the gradient magnitude for boundary location and statistical, occlusion, or size metrics. In this paper, we present a novel transfer function method which can provide more specificity for data classification by combining different transfer function spaces. In this work, a 2D transfer function can be combined with 1D transfer functions which improve the classification. Specifically, we use the traditional 2D scalar/gradient magnitude, 2D statistical, and 2D occlusion spectrum transfer functions and combine these with occlusion and/or size-based transfer functions to provide better specificity. We demonstrate the usefulness of the new method by comparing to the following previous techniques: 2D gradient magnitude, 2D occlusion spectrum, 2D statistical transfer functions and 2D size based transfer functions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
INTEGRATING THE LOGISTIC FUNCTION WITHIN ENTERPRISE'S FUNCTIONS
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Cosmina Remes; Eugen Remes
2013-01-01
.... By grouping logistic activities within the same function, optimal management of the relationships within the enterprise, as well as interactions between such, is facilitated. Within current competitive context, characterized by a variety of customized offers, reduction of products life span, increasing requirements of the consumers who become ever more demanding, logistics occupies a key position within the continuous quest for the highest quality.
Counting with symmetric functions
Mendes, Anthony
2015-01-01
This monograph provides a self-contained introduction to symmetric functions and their use in enumerative combinatorics. It is the first book to explore many of the methods and results that the authors present. Numerous exercises are included throughout, along with full solutions, to illustrate concepts and also highlight many interesting mathematical ideas. The text begins by introducing fundamental combinatorial objects such as permutations and integer partitions, as well as generating functions. Symmetric functions are considered in the next chapter, with a unique emphasis on the combinatorics of the transition matrices between bases of symmetric functions. Chapter 3 uses this introductory material to describe how to find an assortment of generating functions for permutation statistics, and then these techniques are extended to find generating functions for a variety of objects in Chapter 4. The next two chapters present the Robinson-Schensted-Knuth algorithm and a method for proving Pólya’s enu...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Heinrich Begehr
2006-11-01
Full Text Available The harmonic Green and Neumann function and a particular Robin function are used to construct bi-harmonic Green, Neumann and particular Robin functions. Moreover hybrid bi-harmonic Green functions are given. They all are constructed via a convolution of the mentioned harmonic particular fundamental solutions. In case of the unit disc they are explicitly expressed. Besides these 9 bi-harmonic Green functions there is another bi-harmonic Green function in explicit form for the unit disc not defined by convolution. Related boundary value problems are not all well posed. In case they are, the unique solutions are given. For the other cases solvability conditions are determined and the unique solutions found. There are all together 12 Dirichlet kind boundary value problems for the inhomogeneous bi-harmonic equation treated. The investigation is restricted to the two dimensional case and complex notation is used.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yazdani, Hossein; Ortiz-Arroyo, Daniel; Kwasnicka, Halina
2016-01-01
spaces, in addition to their similarity in the vector space. Prioritized Weighted Feature Distance (PWFD) works similarly as WFD, but provides the ability to give priorities to desirable features. The accuracy of the proposed functions are compared with other similarity functions on several data sets......In data science, there are important parameters that affect the accuracy of the algorithms used. Some of these parameters are: the type of data objects, the membership assignments, and distance or similarity functions. This paper discusses similarity functions as fundamental elements in membership...... assignments. The paper introduces Weighted Feature Distance (WFD), and Prioritized Weighted Feature Distance (PWFD), two new distance functions that take into account the diversity in feature spaces. WFD functions perform better in supervised and unsupervised methods by comparing data objects on their feature...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E
1988-01-01
Twenty-five patients with functional bowel disease were given fructose, sorbitol, fructose-sorbitol mixtures, and sucrose. The occurrence of malabsorption was evaluated by means of hydrogen breath tests and the gastrointestinal symptoms, if any, were recorded. One patient could not be evaluated...... with functional bowel disease. The findings may have direct influence on the dietary guidance given to a major group of patients with functional bowel disease and may make it possible to define separate entities in this disease complex....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomsen, Søren Steffen
2009-01-01
well-known designs, and also some design and cryptanalysis in which the author took part. The latter includes a construction method for hash functions and four designs, of which one was submitted to the SHA-3 hash function competition, initiated by the U.S. standardisation body NIST. It also includes...... cryptanalysis of the construction method MDC-2, and of the hash function MD2....
Normal Functions as a New Way of Defining Computable Functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leszek Dubiel
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Report sets new method of defining computable functions. This is formalization of traditional function descriptions, so it allows to define functions in very intuitive way. Discovery of Ackermann function proved that not all functions that can be easily computed can be so easily described with Hilbert's system of recursive functions. Normal functions lack this disadvantage.
Normal Functions As A New Way Of Defining Computable Functions
Leszek Dubiel
2004-01-01
Report sets new method of defining computable functions. This is formalization of traditional function descriptions, so it allows to define functions in very intuitive way. Discovery of Ackermann function proved that not all functions that can be easily computed can be so easily described with Hilbert's system of recursive functions. Normal functions lack this disadvantage.
Normal Functions As A New Way Of Defining Computable Functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leszek Dubiel
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Report sets new method of defining computable functions. This is formalization of traditional function descriptions, so it allows to define functions in very intuitive way. Discovery of Ackermann function proved that not all functions that can be easily computed can be so easily described with Hilbert’s system of recursive functions. Normal functions lack this disadvantage.
Subordination by convex functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rosihan M. Ali
2006-01-01
Full Text Available For a fixed analytic function g(z=z+∑n=2∞gnzn defined on the open unit disk and γ<1, let Tg(γ denote the class of all analytic functions f(z=z+∑n=2∞anzn satisfying ∑n=2∞|angn|≤1−γ. For functions in Tg(γ, a subordination result is derived involving the convolution with a normalized convex function. Our result includes as special cases several earlier works.
Renormalization Group Functional Equations
Curtright, Thomas L
2011-01-01
Functional conjugation methods are used to analyze the global structure of various renormalization group trajectories. With minimal assumptions, the methods produce continuous flows from step-scaling {\\sigma} functions, and lead to exact functional relations for the local flow {\\beta} functions, whose solutions may have novel, exotic features, including multiple branches. As a result, fixed points of {\\sigma} are sometimes not true fixed points under continuous changes in scale, and zeroes of {\\beta} do not necessarily signal fixed points of the flow, but instead may only indicate turning points of the trajectories.
Coded Network Function Virtualization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Al-Shuwaili, A.; Simone, O.; Kliewer, J.
2016-01-01
Network function virtualization (NFV) prescribes the instantiation of network functions on general-purpose network devices, such as servers and switches. While yielding a more flexible and cost-effective network architecture, NFV is potentially limited by the fact that commercial off-the-shelf ha......Network function virtualization (NFV) prescribes the instantiation of network functions on general-purpose network devices, such as servers and switches. While yielding a more flexible and cost-effective network architecture, NFV is potentially limited by the fact that commercial off...
Perceptual Audio Hashing Functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Emin Anarım
2005-07-01
Full Text Available Perceptual hash functions provide a tool for fast and reliable identification of content. We present new audio hash functions based on summarization of the time-frequency spectral characteristics of an audio document. The proposed hash functions are based on the periodicity series of the fundamental frequency and on singular-value description of the cepstral frequencies. They are found, on one hand, to perform very satisfactorily in identification and verification tests, and on the other hand, to be very resilient to a large variety of attacks. Moreover, we address the issue of security of hashes and propose a keying technique, and thereby a key-dependent hash function.
Functional Additive Mixed Models
Scheipl, Fabian; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Greven, Sonja
2014-01-01
We propose an extensive framework for additive regression models for correlated functional responses, allowing for multiple partially nested or crossed functional random effects with flexible correlation structures for, e.g., spatial, temporal, or longitudinal functional data. Additionally, our framework includes linear and nonlinear effects of functional and scalar covariates that may vary smoothly over the index of the functional response. It accommodates densely or sparsely observed functional responses and predictors which may be observed with additional error and includes both spline-based and functional principal component-based terms. Estimation and inference in this framework is based on standard additive mixed models, allowing us to take advantage of established methods and robust, flexible algorithms. We provide easy-to-use open source software in the pffr() function for the R-package refund. Simulations show that the proposed method recovers relevant effects reliably, handles small sample sizes well and also scales to larger data sets. Applications with spatially and longitudinally observed functional data demonstrate the flexibility in modeling and interpretability of results of our approach. PMID:26347592
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lind, Morten
2011-01-01
Multilevel Flow Modeling (MFM) has been proposed as a tool for representing goals and functions of complex industrial plants and suggested as a basis for reasoning about control situations. Lind presents an introduction to MFM but do not describe how control functions are used in the modeling....... The purpose of the present paper is to serve as a companion paper to this introduction by explaining the basic principles used in MFM for representation of control functions. A theoretical foundation for modeling control functions is presented and modeling examples are given for illustration....
Knopp, Konrad
1945-01-01
This is a one-volume edition of Parts I and II of the classic five-volume set The Theory of Functions prepared by renowned mathematician Konrad Knopp. Concise, easy to follow, yet complete and rigorous, the work includes full demonstrations and detailed proofs.Part I stresses the general foundation of the theory of functions, providing the student with background for further books on a more advanced level.Part II places major emphasis on special functions and characteristic, important types of functions, selected from single-valued and multiple-valued classes.
Hengeveld, K.; Mackenzie, J.L.; Heine, B.; Narrog, H.
2010-01-01
Functional Discourse Grammar (FDG) is a typologically based structural-functional theory of language. It has a top-down organization to achieve psychological adequacy, and takes the Discourse Act as its basic unit of analysis to achieve pragmatic adequacy. Although itself strictly a model of
Pick, Luboš; John, Oldrich; Fucík, Svatopluk
2012-01-01
This is the first part of the second revised and extended edition of a well established monograph. It is an introduction to function spaces defined in terms of differentiability and integrability classes. It provides a catalogue of various spaces and benefits as a handbook for those who use function spaces to study other topics such as partial differential equations. Volum
Neurophysiology of functional imaging
van Eijsden, Pieter; Hyder, Fahmeed; Rothman, Douglas L.; Shulman, Robert G.
2009-01-01
The successes of PET and fMRI in non-invasively localizing sensory functions had encouraged efforts to transform the subjective concepts of cognitive psychology into objective physical measures. The assumption was that mental functions could be decomposed into non-overlapping, context-independent
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Voos, Avery; Pelphrey, Kevin
2013-01-01
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), with its excellent spatial resolution and ability to visualize networks of neuroanatomical structures involved in complex information processing, has become the dominant technique for the study of brain function and its development. The accessibility of in-vivo pediatric brain-imaging techniques…
The aim of the Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit (DFFRU), ERRC, ARS, USDA, is to improve human health and well being by developing functional food and consumer products that utilize milk and fruit and vegetable processing residues of specialty crops. Major research approaches involve: biotec...
Herbert, Sandra
2012-01-01
This paper reports on the different gesture types employed by twenty-three Year 10 students as they endeavoured to explain their understanding of rate of change associated with the functions resulting from two different computer simulations. These gestures also have application to revealing students' understanding of functions. However,…
Luten, J.B.
2009-01-01
This book reviews the research on seafood and health, the use and quality aspects of marine lipids and seafood proteins as ingredients in functional foods and consumer acceptance of (marine) functional food. The first chapter covers novel merging areas where seafood may prevent disease and improve
Monadic Functional Reactive Programming
A.J. van der Ploeg (Atze); C Shan
2013-01-01
htmlabstractFunctional Reactive Programming (FRP) is a way to program reactive systems in functional style, eliminating many of the problems that arise from imperative techniques. In this paper, we present an alternative FRP formulation that is based on the notion of a reactive computation: a
Communicating concurrent functions
Diertens, B.
2011-01-01
In this article we extend the framework of execution of concurrent functions on different abstract levels from previous work with communication between the concurrent functions. We classify the communications and identify problems that can occur with these communications. We present solutions for
Piecewise polynomial functions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carlson, R. E.
1976-01-01
This report contains a series of talks presented during the summer of 1975 at LLL on the general topic of piecewise polynomial functions. Such functions offer simple, accurate, economical, and flexible procedures for solving a wide variety of problems. The emphasis is on curve fitting, surface fitting, and applications to finite element approximations. This discussion is not intended as an all-inclusive, general presentation of piecewise polynomials. Rather, attention is directed to the basic of cubic (and bicubic) interpolation and approximation, since they represent a good first choice for many problems when increased accuracy over linear (or bilinear) approximations is desired. The text is divided into sections on univariate functions, cubic splines, bivariate functions, blending functions, and nonrectangular domains. 10 figures, 1 table. (RWR)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gauravaram, Praveen; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde
2010-01-01
-Damg{\\aa}rd construction are followed in almost all widely used standard hash functions such as MD5 and SHA-1. In the last few years, collision attacks on the MD5 and SHA-1 hash functions have been demonstrated and weaknesses in the Merkle-Damg{\\aa}rd construction have been exposed. The impact of these attacks on some......Cryptographic hash functions are an important tool of cryptography and play a fundamental role in efficient and secure information processing. A hash function processes an arbitrary finite length input message to a fixed length output referred to as the hash value. As a security requirement, a hash...... value should not serve as an image for two distinct input messages and it should be difficult to find the input message from a given hash value. Secure hash functions serve data integrity, non-repudiation and authenticity of the source in conjunction with the digital signature schemes. Keyed hash...
Ramsay, J O
1997-01-01
Scientists today collect samples of curves and other functional observations. This monograph presents many ideas and techniques for such data. Included are expressions in the functional domain of such classics as linear regression, principal components analysis, linear modelling, and canonical correlation analysis, as well as specifically functional techniques such as curve registration and principal differential analysis. Data arising in real applications are used throughout for both motivation and illustration, showing how functional approaches allow us to see new things, especially by exploiting the smoothness of the processes generating the data. The data sets exemplify the wide scope of functional data analysis; they are drwan from growth analysis, meterology, biomechanics, equine science, economics, and medicine. The book presents novel statistical technology while keeping the mathematical level widely accessible. It is designed to appeal to students, to applied data analysts, and to experienced researc...
Pair Correlation Function Integrals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wedberg, Nils Hejle Rasmus Ingemar; O'Connell, John P.; Peters, Günther H.J.
2011-01-01
We describe a method for extending radial distribution functions obtained from molecular simulations of pure and mixed molecular fluids to arbitrary distances. The method allows total correlation function integrals to be reliably calculated from simulations of relatively small systems. The long......-distance behavior of radial distribution functions is determined by requiring that the corresponding direct correlation functions follow certain approximations at long distances. We have briefly described the method and tested its performance in previous communications [R. Wedberg, J. P. O’Connell, G. H. Peters......, and J. Abildskov, Mol. Simul. 36, 1243 (2010); Fluid Phase Equilib. 302, 32 (2011)], but describe here its theoretical basis more thoroughly and derive long-distance approximations for the direct correlation functions. We describe the numerical implementation of the method in detail, and report...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vedel, Mette
2016-01-01
the triad value function. Next, the applicability and validity of the concept is examined in a case study of four closed vertical supply chain triads. Findings - The case study demonstrates that the triad value function facilitates the analysis and understanding of an apparent paradox; that distributors...... are not dis-intermediated in spite of their limited contribution to activities in the triads. The results indicate practical adequacy of the triad value function. Research limitations/implications - The triad value function is difficult to apply in the study of expanded networks as the number of connections...... expands exponentially with the number of ties in the network. Moreover, it must be applied in the study of service triads and open vertical supply chain triads to further verify the practical adequacy of the concept. Practical implications - The triad value function cannot be used normatively...
Submodular functions and optimization
Fujishige, Satoru
2005-01-01
It has widely been recognized that submodular functions play essential roles in efficiently solvable combinatorial optimization problems. Since the publication of the 1st edition of this book fifteen years ago, submodular functions have been showing further increasing importance in optimization, combinatorics, discrete mathematics, algorithmic computer science, and algorithmic economics, and there have been made remarkable developments of theory and algorithms in submodular functions. The 2nd edition of the book supplements the 1st edition with a lot of remarks and with new two chapters: "Submodular Function Minimization" and "Discrete Convex Analysis." The present 2nd edition is still a unique book on submodular functions, which is essential to students and researchers interested in combinatorial optimization, discrete mathematics, and discrete algorithms in the fields of mathematics, operations research, computer science, and economics. Key features: - Self-contained exposition of the theory of submodular ...
Minguzzi, E.
2010-09-01
Every time function on spacetime gives a (continuous) total preordering of the spacetime events which respects the notion of causal precedence. The problem of the existence of a (semi-)time function on spacetime and the problem of recovering the causal structure starting from the set of time functions are studied. It is pointed out that these problems have an analog in the field of microeconomics known as utility theory. In a chronological spacetime the semi-time functions correspond to the utilities for the chronological relation, while in a K-causal (stably causal) spacetime the time functions correspond to the utilities for the K + relation (Seifert’s relation). By exploiting this analogy, we are able to import some mathematical results, most notably Peleg’s and Levin’s theorems, to the spacetime framework. As a consequence, we prove that a K-causal (i.e. stably causal) spacetime admits a time function and that the time or temporal functions can be used to recover the K + (or Seifert) relation which indeed turns out to be the intersection of the time or temporal orderings. This result tells us in which circumstances it is possible to recover the chronological or causal relation starting from the set of time or temporal functions allowed by the spacetime. Moreover, it is proved that a chronological spacetime in which the closure of the causal relation is transitive (for instance a reflective spacetime) admits a semi-time function. Along the way a new proof avoiding smoothing techniques is given that the existence of a time function implies stable causality, and a new short proof of the equivalence between K-causality and stable causality is given which takes advantage of Levin’s theorem and smoothing techniques.
The Enzyme Function Initiative†
Gerlt, John A.; Allen, Karen N.; Almo, Steven C.; Armstrong, Richard N.; Babbitt, Patricia C.; Cronan, John E.; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra; Imker, Heidi J.; Jacobson, Matthew P.; Minor, Wladek; Poulter, C. Dale; Raushel, Frank M.; Sali, Andrej; Shoichet, Brian K.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.
2011-01-01
The Enzyme Function Initiative (EFI) was recently established to address the challenge of assigning reliable functions to enzymes discovered in bacterial genome projects; in this Current Topic we review the structure and operations of the EFI. The EFI includes the Superfamily/Genome, Protein, Structure, Computation, and Data/Dissemination Cores that provide the infrastructure for reliably predicting the in vitro functions of unknown enzymes. The initial targets for functional assignment are selected from five functionally diverse superfamilies (amidohydrolase, enolase, glutathione transferase, haloalkanoic acid dehalogenase, and isoprenoid synthase), with five superfamily-specific Bridging Projects experimentally testing the predicted in vitro enzymatic activities. The EFI also includes the Microbiology Core that evaluates the in vivo context of in vitro enzymatic functions and confirms the functional predictions of the EFI. The deliverables of the EFI to the scientific community include: 1) development of a large-scale, multidisciplinary sequence/structure-based strategy for functional assignment of unknown enzymes discovered in genome projects (target selection, protein production, structure determination, computation, experimental enzymology, microbiology, and structure-based annotation); 2) dissemination of the strategy to the community via publications, collaborations, workshops, and symposia; 3) computational and bioinformatic tools for using the strategy; 4) provision of experimental protocols and/or reagents for enzyme production and characterization; and 5) dissemination of data via the EFI’s website, enzymefunction.org. The realization of multidisciplinary strategies for functional assignment will begin to define the full metabolic diversity that exists in nature and will impact basic biochemical and evolutionary understanding, as well as a wide range of applications of central importance to industrial, medicinal and pharmaceutical efforts. PMID
Special Issue: "Functional Dendrimers".
Tomalia, Donald A
2016-08-09
This special issue entitled "Functional Dendrimers" focuses on the manipulation of at least six "critical nanoscale design parameters" (CNDPs) of dendrimers including: size, shape, surface chemistry, flexibility/rigidity, architecture and elemental composition. These CNDPs collectively define properties of all "functional dendrimers". This special issue contains many interesting examples describing the manipulation of certain dendrimer CNDPs to create new emerging properties and, in some cases, predictive nanoperiodic property patterns (i.e., dendritic effects). The systematic engineering of CNDPs provides a valuable strategy for optimizing functional dendrimer properties for use in specific applications.
Luke, Yudell L
2014-01-01
Integrals of Bessel Functions concerns definite and indefinite integrals, the evaluation of which is necessary to numerous applied problems. A massive compendium of useful information, this volume represents a resource for applied mathematicians in many areas of academia and industry as well as an excellent text for advanced undergraduates and graduate students of mathematics.Starting with an extensive introductory chapter on basic formulas, the treatment advances to indefinite integrals, examining them in terms of Lommel and Bessel functions. Subsequent chapters explore airy functions, incomp
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos A. Berenstein
1980-01-01
Full Text Available We show that any mean-periodic function f can be represented in terms of exponential-polynomial solutions of the same convolution equation f satisfies, i.e., u∗f=0(μ∈E′(ℝn. This extends to n-variables the work of L. Schwartz on mean-periodicity and also extends L. Ehrenpreis' work on partial differential equations with constant coefficients to arbitrary convolutors. We also answer a number of open questions about mean-periodic functions of one variable. The basic ingredient is our work on interpolation by entire functions in one and several complex variables.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2016-01-01
on the subject. It covers new basic research on skin markers, including results on filaggrin and on methods for the assessment of the barrier function. Biological variation and aspects of skin barrier function restoration are discussed as well. Further sections are dedicated to clinical implications of skin...... barrier integrity, factors influencing the penetration of the skin, influence of wet work, and guidance for prevention and saving the barrier. Distinguished researchers have contributed to this book, providing a comprehensive and thorough overview of the skin barrier function. Researchers in the field...
Mathai, AM
2009-01-01
The two main topics emphasized in this book, special functions and fractional calculus, are currently under fast development in theory and application to many problems in statistics, physics, and engineering, particularly in condensed matter physics, plasma physics, and astrophysics. The book begins by setting forth definitions, contours, existence conditions, and particular cases of the H-function. The authors then deal with Laplace, Fourier, Hankel, and other transforms. As these relations are explored, fractional calculus and its relations to H-functions emerge with important results on fra
Triebel, Hans
2012-01-01
This book deals with the constructive Weierstrassian approach to the theory of function spaces and various applications. The first chapter is devoted to a detailed study of quarkonial (subatomic) decompositions of functions and distributions on euclidean spaces, domains, manifolds and fractals. This approach combines the advantages of atomic and wavelet representations. It paves the way to sharp inequalities and embeddings in function spaces, spectral theory of fractal elliptic operators, and a regularity theory of some semi-linear equations. The book is self-contained, although some parts may
Functional Task Test: Data Review
Cromwell, Ronita
2014-01-01
After space flight there are changes in multiple physiological systems including: Cardiovascular function; Sensorimotor function; and Muscle function. How do changes in these physiological system impact astronaut functional performance?
... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Normal Functioning Family Page Content Article Body Is there any way ...
Discrete Wigner function dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Klimov, A B; Munoz, C [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Guadalajara, Revolucion 1500, 44410, Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)
2005-12-01
We study the evolution of the discrete Wigner function for prime and the power of prime dimensions using the discrete version of the star-product operation. Exact and semiclassical dynamics in the limit of large dimensions are considered.
Fundamentals of functional analysis
Farenick, Douglas
2016-01-01
This book provides a unique path for graduate or advanced undergraduate students to begin studying the rich subject of functional analysis with fewer prerequisites than is normally required. The text begins with a self-contained and highly efficient introduction to topology and measure theory, which focuses on the essential notions required for the study of functional analysis, and which are often buried within full-length overviews of the subjects. This is particularly useful for those in applied mathematics, engineering, or physics who need to have a firm grasp of functional analysis, but not necessarily some of the more abstruse aspects of topology and measure theory normally encountered. The reader is assumed to only have knowledge of basic real analysis, complex analysis, and algebra. The latter part of the text provides an outstanding treatment of Banach space theory and operator theory, covering topics not usually found together in other books on functional analysis. Written in a clear, concise manner,...
Bioprinting: Functional droplet networks
Durmus, Naside Gozde; Tasoglu, Savas; Demirci, Utkan
2013-06-01
Tissue-mimicking printed networks of droplets separated by lipid bilayers that can be functionalized with membrane proteins are able to spontaneously fold and transmit electrical currents along predefined paths.
Lectures on Functional Analysis
Kurepa, Svetozar; Kraljević, Hrvoje
1987-01-01
This volume consists of a long monographic paper by J. Hoffmann-Jorgensen and a number of shorter research papers and survey articles covering different aspects of functional analysis and its application to probability theory and differential equations.
Center for Functional Nanomaterials
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN) explores the unique properties of materials and processes at the nanoscale. The CFN is a user-oriented research center...
Degenerate Gauss hypergeometric functions
Vidunas, Raimundas
2007-01-01
This is a study of terminating and ill-defined Gauss hypergeometric functions. Corresponding hypergeometric equations have a degenerate set of of 24 Kummer's solutions. We describe those solutions and relations between them.
Functional Use Database (FUse)
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There are five different files for this dataset: 1. A dataset listing the reported functional uses of chemicals (FUse) 2. All 729 ToxPrint descriptors obtained from...
Assessment of splenic function
de Porto, A.P.N.A.; Lammers, A.J.J.; Bennink, R.J.; ten Berge, R.J.M.; Speelman, P.; Hoekstra, J.B.L.
2010-01-01
Hyposplenic patients are at risk of overwhelming post-splenectomy infection (OPSI), which carries mortality of up to 70%. Therefore, preventive measures are warranted. However, patients with diminished splenic function are difficult to identify. In this review we discuss immunological,
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Rechberger, Christian; Thomsen, Søren Steffen
2007-01-01
In this paper we propose the Grindahl hash functions, which are based on components of the Rijndael algorithm. To make collision search sufficiently difficult, this design has the important feature that no low-weight characteristics form collisions, and at the same time it limits access to the st......In this paper we propose the Grindahl hash functions, which are based on components of the Rijndael algorithm. To make collision search sufficiently difficult, this design has the important feature that no low-weight characteristics form collisions, and at the same time it limits access...... to the state. We propose two concrete hash functions, Grindahl-256 and Grindahl-512 with claimed security levels with respect to collision, preimage and second preimage attacks of 2^128 and 2^256, respectively. Both proposals have lower memory requirements than other hash functions at comparable speeds...
Space race functional responses
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Sjödin, Henrik; Brännström, Åke; Englund, Göran
2015-01-01
We derive functional responses under the assumption that predators and prey are engaged in a space race in which prey avoid patches with many predators and predators avoid patches with few or no prey...
... myelopathy), or brain damage ( stroke or other brain injury) The loss of muscle function after these types of events can be ... Periodic paralysis Focal nerve injury Polio Spinal cord injury Stroke
Observable structure functions.
Montero, Javier
1993-01-01
Considers the concept of structure function in reliability theory. Complete lattices are considered in order to model the space of performance levels for both system and components, leading to a general concept of structure function. Measurability with respect to the associate order topology is also assumed. On one hand, some basic concepts in classical reliability theory are translated into this context, where a particular measure has been defined over the space of components. On the other h...
Potential energy function (PEF)
Guelachvili, G.
This document is part of Subvolume B `Linear Triatomic Molecules', Part 9, of Volume 20 `Molecular Constants mostly from Infrared Spectroscopy' of Landolt-Börnstein Group II `Molecules and Radicals'. Part of the introduction, it discusses the potential energy function (PEF) of linear molecules, including the PEF expanded as Taylor series, the transformation of the PEF to curvilinear valence coordinates, Morse functions and dimensionless normal coordinates, as well as specific forms of the PEF.
Production Functions Behaving Badly
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fredholm, Thomas
This paper reconsiders Anwar Shaikh's critique of the neoclassical theory of growth and distribution based on its use of aggregate production functions. This is done by reconstructing and extending Franklin M. Fisher's 1971 computer simulations, which Shaikh used to support his critique. Together...... with other recent extensions to Shaikh's seminal work, my results support and strengthen the evidence against the use of aggregate production functions....
Griffel, DH
2002-01-01
A stimulating introductory text, this volume examines many important applications of functional analysis to mechanics, fluid mechanics, diffusive growth, and approximation. Detailed enough to impart a thorough understanding, the text is also sufficiently straightforward for those unfamiliar with abstract analysis. Its four-part treatment begins with distribution theory and discussions of Green's functions. Essentially independent of the preceding material, the second and third parts deal with Banach spaces, Hilbert space, spectral theory, and variational techniques. The final part outlines the
[Functional (psychogenic) vertigo].
Diukova, G M; Zamergrad, M V; Golubev, V L; Adilova, S M; Makarov, S A
Psychogenic (functional) vertigo is in second place by frequency after benign positional paroxysmal vertigo. It is often difficult to make the diagnosis, diagnostic program is expensive and traditional treatment often is not effective. This literature review covers current concepts on the terminology, clinical signs, pathogenesis and treatment approaches with regard to functional vertigo. Special attention is given to cerebral mechanisms of the pathogenesis including cognitive aspects.
Regulatory functions of microtubules.
Vasiliev, J M; Samoylov, V I
2013-01-01
This mini-review summarizes literature and original data about the role of microtubules in interphase animal cells. Recent data have shown that functioning of microtubules is essential for such diverse phenomena as directional cell movements, distribution of organelles in the cytoplasm, and neuronal memory in the central nervous system. It is suggested that microtubules can act as an important regulatory system in eukaryotic cells. Possible mechanisms of these functions are discussed.
McGraw, John T [Placitas, NM; Zimmer, Peter C [Albuquerque, NM; Ackermann, Mark R [Albuquerque, NM
2012-01-24
Methods and apparatus for a structure function monitor provide for generation of parameters characterizing a refractive medium. In an embodiment, a structure function monitor acquires images of a pupil plane and an image plane and, from these images, retrieves the phase over an aperture, unwraps the retrieved phase, and analyzes the unwrapped retrieved phase. In an embodiment, analysis yields atmospheric parameters measured at spatial scales from zero to the diameter of a telescope used to collect light from a source.
Mahamood, Rasheedat Modupe
2017-01-01
This book presents the concept of functionally graded materials as well as their use and different fabrication processes. The authors describe the use of additive manufacturing technology for the production of very complex parts directly from the three dimension computer aided design of the part by adding material layer after layer. A case study is also presented in the book on the experimental analysis of functionally graded material using laser metal deposition process.
Functional Neuroimaging in Psychopathy.
Del Casale, Antonio; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Rapinesi, Chiara; Di Pietro, Simone; Alessi, Maria Chiara; Di Cesare, Gianluigi; Criscuolo, Silvia; De Rossi, Pietro; Tatarelli, Roberto; Girardi, Paolo; Ferracuti, Stefano
2015-01-01
Psychopathy is associated with cognitive and affective deficits causing disruptive, harmful and selfish behaviour. These have considerable societal costs due to recurrent crime and property damage. A better understanding of the neurobiological bases of psychopathy could improve therapeutic interventions, reducing the related social costs. To analyse the major functional neural correlates of psychopathy, we reviewed functional neuroimaging studies conducted on persons with this condition. We searched the PubMed database for papers dealing with functional neuroimaging and psychopathy, with a specific focus on how neural functional changes may correlate with task performances and human behaviour. Psychopathy-related behavioural disorders consistently correlated with dysfunctions in brain areas of the orbitofrontal-limbic (emotional processing and somatic reaction to emotions; behavioural planning and responsibility taking), anterior cingulate-orbitofrontal (correct assignment of emotional valence to social stimuli; violent/aggressive behaviour and challenging attitude) and prefrontal-temporal-limbic (emotional stimuli processing/response) networks. Dysfunctional areas more consistently included the inferior frontal, orbitofrontal, dorsolateral prefrontal, ventromedial prefrontal, temporal (mainly the superior temporal sulcus) and cingulated cortices, the insula, amygdala, ventral striatum and other basal ganglia. Emotional processing and learning, and several social and affective decision-making functions are impaired in psychopathy, which correlates with specific changes in neural functions. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Handbook of functional equations functional inequalities
2014-01-01
As Richard Bellman has so elegantly stated at the Second International Conference on General Inequalities (Oberwolfach, 1978), “There are three reasons for the study of inequalities: practical, theoretical, and aesthetic.” On the aesthetic aspects, he said, “As has been pointed out, beauty is in the eye of the beholder. However, it is generally agreed that certain pieces of music, art, or mathematics are beautiful. There is an elegance to inequalities that makes them very attractive.” The content of the Handbook focuses mainly on both old and recent developments on approximate homomorphisms, on a relation between the Hardy–Hilbert and the Gabriel inequality, generalized Hardy–Hilbert type inequalities on multiple weighted Orlicz spaces, half-discrete Hilbert-type inequalities, on affine mappings, on contractive operators, on multiplicative Ostrowski and trapezoid inequalities, Ostrowski type inequalities for the Riemann–Stieltjes integral, means and related functional inequalities, Weighted G...
Sun, Yong; Kurths, Jürgen; Zhan, Meng
2017-08-01
Power grids and their properties have been studied broadly in many aspects. In this paper, we propose a novel concept, power-flow-based power grid, as a typical power-functional network, based on the calculation of power flow distribution from power electrical engineering. We compare it with structural networks based on the shortest path length and effective networks based on the effective electrical distance and study the relationship among these three kinds of networks. We find that they have roughly positive correlations with each other, indicating that in general any close nodes in the topological structure are actually connected in function. However, we do observe some counter-examples that two close nodes in a structural network can have a long distance in a power-functional network, namely, two physically connected nodes can actually be separated in function. In addition, we find that power grids in the structural network tend to be heterogeneous, whereas those in the effective and power-functional networks tend to be homogeneous. These findings are expected to be significant not only for power grids but also for various other complex networks.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Samson Z Assefa
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Sleep is a ubiquitous component of animal life including birds and mammals. The exact function of sleep has been one of the mysteries of biology. A considerable number of theories have been put forward to explain the reason(s for the necessity of sleep. To date, while a great deal is known about what happens when animals sleep, there is no definitive comprehensive explanation as to the reason that sleep is an inevitable part of animal functioning. It is well known that sleep is a homeostatically regulated body process, and that prolonged sleep deprivation is fatal in animals. In this paper, we present some of the theories as to the functions of sleep and provide a review of some hypotheses as to the overall physiologic function of sleep. To better understand the purpose for sleeping, we review the effects of sleep deprivation on physical, neurocognitive and psychic function. A better understanding of the purpose for sleeping will be a great advance in our understanding of the nature of the animal kingdom, including our own.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pankaj Talwar
2015-01-01
Full Text Available With absolute normal semen analysis parameters it may not be necessary to shift to specialized tests early but in cases with borderline parameters or with history of fertilization failure in past it becomes necessary to do a battery of tests to evaluate different parameters of spermatozoa. Various sperm function tests are proposed and endorsed by different researchers in addition to the routine evaluation of fertility. These tests detect function of a certain part of spermatozoon and give insight on the events in fertilization of the oocyte. The sperms need to get nutrition from the seminal plasma in the form of fructose and citrate (this can be assessed by fructose qualitative and quantitative estimation, citrate estimation. They should be protected from the bad effects of pus cells and reactive oxygen species (ROS (leukocyte detection test, ROS estimation. Their number should be in sufficient in terms of (count, structure normal to be able to fertilize eggs (semen morphology. Sperms should have intact and functioning membrane to survive harsh environment of vagina and uterine fluids (vitality and hypo-osmotic swelling test, should have good mitochondrial function to be able to provide energy (mitochondrial activity index test. They should also have satisfactory acrosome function to be able to burrow a hole in zona pellucida (acrosome intactness test, zona penetration test. Finally, they should have properly packed DNA in the nucleus to be able to transfer the male genes (nuclear chromatic decondensation test to the oocyte during fertilization.
[Headache and functional symptoms].
Villate, Sebastián; Arroyo, José; Bessolo, Eduardo; Crespín, Fabiana
2015-04-16
Headaches are a common reason for visiting neurology clinics. They have their origin in a variety of causes and their specific diagnosis deteriorates as it overlaps with other chronic painful pathologies. Somatic functional syndromes are characterised by chronic painful conditions that have a negative effect on quality of life, and are accompanied by functional symptoms with no organic cause. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of functional symptoms in patients who visited due to headaches. The sample included all the patients who visited the walk-in neurology clinic because of headaches between March and September 2014. A semi-structured survey was carried out in order to evaluate obsessive personality traits, bruxism, gastrointestinal symptoms, anxiety, depression and sleep disorders. During the period under study, 125 patients visited due to headache. In all, 68.7% of patients with migraine presented functional symptoms and only 32.7% in the case of other headaches (p = 0.0001). Functional symptoms were prevalent in patients with headache, mainly in those with migraine.
Advanced carbon nanotubes functionalization
Setaro, A.
2017-10-01
Similar to graphene, carbon nanotubes are materials made of pure carbon in its sp2 form. Their extended conjugated π-network provides them with remarkable quantum optoelectronic properties. Frustratingly, it also brings drawbacks. The π-π stacking interaction makes as-produced tubes bundle together, blurring all their quantum properties. Functionalization aims at modifying and protecting the tubes while hindering π-π stacking. Several functionalization strategies have been developed to circumvent this limitation in order for nanotubes applications to thrive. In this review, we summarize the different approaches established so far, emphasizing the balance between functionalization efficacy and the preservation of the tubes’ properties. Much attention will be given to a functionalization strategy overcoming the covalent-noncovalent dichotomy and to the implementation of two advanced functionalization schemes: (a) conjugation with molecular switches, to yield hybrid nanosystems with chemo-physical properties that can be tuned in a controlled and reversible way, and; (b) plasmonic nanosystems, whose ability to concentrate and enhance the electromagnetic fields can be taken advantage of to enhance the optical response of the tubes.
Space race functional responses.
Sjödin, Henrik; Brännström, Åke; Englund, Göran
2015-02-22
We derive functional responses under the assumption that predators and prey are engaged in a space race in which prey avoid patches with many predators and predators avoid patches with few or no prey. The resulting functional response models have a simple structure and include functions describing how the emigration of prey and predators depend on interspecific densities. As such, they provide a link between dispersal behaviours and community dynamics. The derived functional response is general but is here modelled in accordance with empirically documented emigration responses. We find that the prey emigration response to predators has stabilizing effects similar to that of the DeAngelis-Beddington functional response, and that the predator emigration response to prey has destabilizing effects similar to that of the Holling type II response. A stability criterion describing the net effect of the two emigration responses on a Lotka-Volterra predator-prey system is presented. The winner of the space race (i.e. whether predators or prey are favoured) is determined by the relationship between the slopes of the species' emigration responses. It is predicted that predators win the space race in poor habitats, where predator and prey densities are low, and that prey are more successful in richer habitats. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Tendon functional extracellular matrix.
Screen, Hazel R C; Berk, David E; Kadler, Karl E; Ramirez, Francesco; Young, Marian F
2015-06-01
This article is one of a series, summarizing views expressed at the Orthopaedic Research Society New Frontiers in Tendon Research Conference. This particular article reviews the three workshops held under the "Functional Extracellular Matrix" stream. The workshops focused on the roles of the tendon extracellular matrix, such as performing the mechanical functions of tendon, creating the local cell environment, and providing cellular cues. Tendon is a complex network of matrix and cells, and its biological functions are influenced by widely varying extrinsic and intrinsic factors such as age, nutrition, exercise levels, and biomechanics. Consequently, tendon adapts dynamically during development, aging, and injury. The workshop discussions identified research directions associated with understanding cell-matrix interactions to be of prime importance for developing novel strategies to target tendon healing or repair. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Spaces of continuous functions
Groenewegen, G L M
2016-01-01
The space C(X) of all continuous functions on a compact space X carries the structure of a normed vector space, an algebra and a lattice. On the one hand we study the relations between these structures and the topology of X, on the other hand we discuss a number of classical results according to which an algebra or a vector lattice can be represented as a C(X). Various applications of these theorems are given. Some attention is devoted to related theorems, e.g. the Stone Theorem for Boolean algebras and the Riesz Representation Theorem. The book is functional analytic in character. It does not presuppose much knowledge of functional analysis; it contains introductions into subjects such as the weak topology, vector lattices and (some) integration theory.
Choice probability generating functions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fosgerau, Mogens; McFadden, Daniel; Bierlaire, Michel
2010-01-01
This paper establishes that every random utility discrete choice model (RUM) has a representation that can be characterized by a choice-probability generating function (CPGF) with specific properties, and that every function with these specific properties is consistent with a RUM. The choice...... probabilities from the RUM are obtained from the gradient of the CPGF. Mixtures of RUM are characterized by logarithmic mixtures of their associated CPGF. The paper relates CPGF to multivariate extreme value distributions, and reviews and extends methods for constructing generating functions for applications....... The choice probabilities of any ARUM may be approximated by a cross-nested logit model. The results for ARUM are extended to competing risk survival models....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Line A.; Zois, Nora Elisabeth; Pedersen, Henrik D.
2007-01-01
Background: Clinical studies investigating platelet function in dogs have had conflicting results that may be caused by normal physiologic variation in platelet response to agonists. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate platelet function in clinically healthy dogs of 4...... different breeds by whole-blood aggregometry and with a point-of-care platelet function analyzer (PFA-100), and to evaluate the effect of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) administration on the results from both methods. Methods: Forty-five clinically healthy dogs (12 Cavalier King Charles Spaniels [CKCS], 12...... applied. However, the importance of these breed differences remains to be investigated. The PFA-100 method with Col + Epi as agonists, and ADP-induced platelet aggregation appear to be sensitive to ASA in dogs....
Functional Programming Using F#
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Michael Reichhardt; Rischel, Hans
This comprehensive introduction to the principles of functional programming using F# shows how to apply basic theoretical concepts to produce succinct and elegant programs. It demonstrates the role of functional programming in a wide spectrum of applications including databases and systems....... Coverage also includes advanced features in the .NET library, the imperative features of F# and topics such as text processing, sequences, computation expressions and asynchronous computation. With a broad spectrum of examples and exercises, the book is perfect for courses in functional programming...... and for self-study. Enhancing its use as a text is an accompanying website with downloadable programs, lecture slides, a mini-projects and links to further F# sources....
Protein Functionalized Nanodiamond Arrays
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liu YL
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Various nanoscale elements are currently being explored for bio-applications, such as in bio-images, bio-detection, and bio-sensors. Among them, nanodiamonds possess remarkable features such as low bio-cytotoxicity, good optical property in fluorescent and Raman spectra, and good photostability for bio-applications. In this work, we devise techniques to position functionalized nanodiamonds on self-assembled monolayer (SAMs arrays adsorbed on silicon and ITO substrates surface using electron beam lithography techniques. The nanodiamond arrays were functionalized with lysozyme to target a certain biomolecule or protein specifically. The optical properties of the nanodiamond-protein complex arrays were characterized by a high throughput confocal microscope. The synthesized nanodiamond-lysozyme complex arrays were found to still retain their functionality in interacting with E. coli.
Histamine and astrocyte function.
Jurič, Damijana M; Kržan, Mojca; Lipnik-Stangelj, Metoda
2016-09-01
Astrocytes support the brain through numerous functional interactions in health and disease. The recent advances in our knowledge of astrocyte involvement in various neurological disorders raised up several questions about their role and functioning in the central nervous system. From the evidence discussed in this review, we show that histamine importantly influences the main astrocytic activities such as ion homeostasis, energy metabolism, neurotransmitter clearance, neurotrophic activity and immune response. These processes are mediated through at least three histamine receptor subtypes, H1, H2 and H3, expressed on the astrocyte surface. Thus, we recognize histamine as an important player in the modulation of astrocytic functions that deserves further considerations in exploring involvement of astrocytes in neurological disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Functional illiteracy in Slovenia
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ester Možina
1999-12-01
Full Text Available The author draws attention to the fact that, in determining functional illiteracy, there remain many terminological disagreements and diverse opinions regarding illiteracy. Furthermore, there are also different methods for measuring writing abilities, thus leading to disparate results. The introductory section presents the dilemmas relating to the term of functional illiteracy, while the second part is concerned with the various methods for measuring literacy. Thus, the author also critically assesses the research studies aimed at evaluating the scope of literacy amongst adults in Slovenia during the past decade. ln this paper, she has adopted a methodology which would not determine what is functional and what is not in our society, in order to avoid limiting the richness of individual writing praxis.
Axler, Sheldon; Ramey, Wade
2013-01-01
This is a book about harmonic functions in Euclidean space. Readers with a background in real and complex analysis at the beginning graduate level will feel comfortable with the material presented here. The authors have taken unusual care to motivate concepts and simplify proofs. Topics include: basic properties of harmonic functions, Poisson integrals, the Kelvin transform, spherical harmonics, harmonic Hardy spaces, harmonic Bergman spaces, the decomposition theorem, Laurent expansions, isolated singularities, and the Dirichlet problem. The new edition contains a completely rewritten chapter on spherical harmonics, a new section on extensions of Bocher's Theorem, new exercises and proofs, as well as revisions throughout to improve the text. A unique software package-designed by the authors and available by e-mail - supplements the text for readers who wish to explore harmonic function theory on a computer.
Quantal density functional theory
Sahni, Viraht
2016-01-01
This book deals with quantal density functional theory (QDFT) which is a time-dependent local effective potential theory of the electronic structure of matter. The treated time-independent QDFT constitutes a special case. In the 2nd edition, the theory is extended to include the presence of external magnetostatic fields. The theory is a description of matter based on the ‘quantal Newtonian’ first and second laws which is in terms of “classical” fields that pervade all space, and their quantal sources. The fields, which are explicitly defined, are separately representative of electron correlations due to the Pauli exclusion principle, Coulomb repulsion, correlation-kinetic, correlation-current-density, and correlation-magnetic effects. The book further describes Schrödinger theory from the new physical perspective of fields and quantal sources. It also describes traditional Hohenberg-Kohn-Sham DFT, and explains via QDFT the physics underlying the various energy functionals and functional derivatives o...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rosenstand, Claus Andreas Foss; Laursen, Per Kyed
2013-01-01
to the product quality. The area of interest is the vision driven digital media industry in general; however, the point of departure is the game industry due to its aesthetic complexity. The article's contribution to the area is a power graph, which shows the functional power of the leading functions according...... to a general digital media creation cycle. This is used to point out potential power conflicts and their consequences. It is concluded that there is normally more conflict potential in vision driven digital media creation than in digital media creation in general or in software development. The method...
Sarason, Donald
2007-01-01
Complex Function Theory is a concise and rigorous introduction to the theory of functions of a complex variable. Written in a classical style, it is in the spirit of the books by Ahlfors and by Saks and Zygmund. Being designed for a one-semester course, it is much shorter than many of the standard texts. Sarason covers the basic material through Cauchy's theorem and applications, plus the Riemann mapping theorem. It is suitable for either an introductory graduate course or an undergraduate course for students with adequate preparation. The first edition was published with the title Notes on Co
GADRAS Detector Response Function.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mitchell, Dean J.; Harding, Lee; Thoreson, Gregory G; Horne, Steven M.
2014-11-01
The Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) applies a Detector Response Function (DRF) to compute the output of gamma-ray and neutron detectors when they are exposed to radiation sources. The DRF is fundamental to the ability to perform forward calculations (i.e., computation of the response of a detector to a known source), as well as the ability to analyze spectra to deduce the types and quantities of radioactive material to which the detectors are exposed. This document describes how gamma-ray spectra are computed and the significance of response function parameters that define characteristics of particular detectors.
Characterisation of Functional Surfaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lonardo, P.M.; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Bruzzone, A.A.
2004-01-01
Characterisation of surfaces is of fundamental importance to control the manufacturing process and the functional performance of the part. Many applications concern contact and tribology problems, which include friction, wear and lubrication. This paper presents the techniques and instruments...... for characterisation of surfaces, discussing their operating principles and metrological properties. A review of the conventional 2D and new 3D roughness parameters is given, considering both the current standards and new proposals for texture quantification, with a particular attention to the methods orientated...... towards a functional characterisation of surfaces....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Glaveanu, Vlad Petre
2014-01-01
of their manifold functions that integrates aesthetic and utilitarian, individual and social roles. Ornaments help us to identify and locate, tell or communicate, remind and organise our action, they guide our attention, express and individualise, can generate an experience, beautify as well as re......-present. These functions are illustrated with examples from a study of Easter egg decoration practices in northern Romania. In the end, the ‘meta-function’ of emergence is discussed and consideration is given to the spatial and temporal contexts of ornaments. Future opportunities for theorising ornamentation...
Cruz, Leonardo Magalhães; Trefflich, Sheyla; Weiss, Vinícius Almir; Castro, Mauro Antônio Alves
2017-01-01
Protein function is a concept that can have different interpretations in different biological contexts, and the number and diversity of novel proteins identified by large-scale "omics" technologies poses increasingly new challenges. In this review we explore current strategies used to predict protein function focused on high-throughput sequence analysis, as for example, inference based on sequence similarity, sequence composition, structure, and protein-protein interaction. Various prediction strategies are discussed together with illustrative workflows highlighting the use of some benchmark tools and knowledge bases in the field.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, A S; Hansen, H; Høgenhaven, H
1988-01-01
Two groups of epilepsy patients (28 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and 15 patients with primary generalized epilepsy) entered a study of personality traits related to epilepsy, based on a modification of Bellak's semistructured interview for assessment of ego strength. Two groups of subjects...... than 15 years when the disease began. The number of anticonvulsants administered did not influence the results. No difference on adaptive level of ego functioning was found between the group with primary generalized epilepsy and the group with temporal lobe epilepsy. Similarly, the temporal lobe...... epilepsy group with predominantly right-sided and left-sided EEG changes, respectively, showed similar adaptive levels of ego functioning....
Chromatin Structure and Function
Wolffe, Alan P
1999-01-01
The Third Edition of Chromatin: Structure and Function brings the reader up-to-date with the remarkable progress in chromatin research over the past three years. It has been extensively rewritten to cover new material on chromatin remodeling, histone modification, nuclear compartmentalization, DNA methylation, and transcriptional co-activators and co-repressors. The book is written in a clear and concise fashion, with 60 new illustrations. Chromatin: Structure and Function provides the reader with a concise and coherent account of the nature, structure, and assembly of chromatin and its active
Adding functionality to garments
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Hunter, L
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Consumers expect the garments they buy to meet a multiplicity of end use and wear conditions, and this means manufacturers need to build functionality, or multifunctionality, into the garments they produce. This chapter discusses the ways in which...
[Glitazones and pancreatic function].
Girard, J
2005-04-01
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by two abnormalities, insulin resistance and insulin secretion defects. Their exact mechanisms and their interrelation are still a matter of debates. Development of hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes requires insulin secretion abnormalities. As the principal function of pancreatic beta-cell is insulin secretion, mainly in response to a glucose stimulus, it is of utmost importance to study abnormal beta-pancreatic function during the development of type 2 diabetes. The animal model of choice for such studies is the ZDF (Zucker Diabetic Fatty) rat. Two hypothesis are commonly discussed to explain the progressive beta-cell failure during type 2 diabetes evolution: glucotoxicity, mainly related to chronic hyperglycaemia effect on secretory beta-cell function and to defective glucose utilization in skeletal muscles, and lipotoxicity, as a consequence of triglyceride accumulation in the islets of Langerhans. In fact, likely, these two phenomenons are linked together, this glucolipotoxicity leading to a cellular apoptosis, through mechanisms we describe. Thiazolidinediones (glitazones) are synthetic PPARgamma ligands. Their beneficial effect on glycaemic control in type 2 diabetic patients are well established. Several studies in ZDF rats, using rosiglitazone as a preventive diabetes treatment (early administration) or a curative one (starting administration when diabetes is well established), indicate, in this animal model, that rosiglitazone has a protective effect on pancreatic beta-cell and preserve its secretory function. These studies are described and discussed, as well as their practical implications.
Linear Classification Functions.
Huberty, Carl J.; Smith, Jerry D.
Linear classification functions (LCFs) arise in a predictive discriminant analysis for the purpose of classifying experimental units into criterion groups. The relative contribution of the response variables to classification accuracy may be based on LCF-variable correlations for each group. It is proved that, if the raw response measures are…
Functional Communication Training
Durand, V. Mark; Moskowitz, Lauren
2015-01-01
Thirty years ago, the first experimental demonstration was published showing that educators could improve significant challenging behavior in children with disabilities by replacing these behaviors with forms of communication that served the same purpose, a procedure called functional communication training (FCT). Since the publication of that…
Chromosome structure and function
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Risley, M.S.
1986-01-01
This book presents topics in chromosome structure and function. Topics covered include: the structure of interphase chromatin; chromatin structure, gene expression and differentiation; organization of mitotic chromosomes; organization of meiotic chromosomes and synaptonimal complexes; the lampbrush chromsome of animal oocytes; dosage compensation in mammals: x chromosome inactivation; and polytene chromosomes.
Deimling, Klaus
1985-01-01
topics. However, only a modest preliminary knowledge is needed. In the first chapter, where we introduce an important topological concept, the so-called topological degree for continuous maps from subsets ofRn into Rn, you need not know anything about functional analysis. Starting with Chapter 2, where infinite dimensions first appear, one should be familiar with the essential step of consider ing a sequence or a function of some sort as a point in the corresponding vector space of all such sequences or functions, whenever this abstraction is worthwhile. One should also work out the things which are proved in § 7 and accept certain basic principles of linear functional analysis quoted there for easier references, until they are applied in later chapters. In other words, even the 'completely linear' sections which we have included for your convenience serve only as a vehicle for progress in nonlinearity. Another point that makes the text introductory is the use of an essentially uniform mathematical languag...
Patel, Ruchin G
2017-02-01
The nose is a complex structure important in facial aesthetics and in respiratory physiology. Nasal defects can pose a challenge to reconstructive surgeons who must re-create nasal symmetry while maintaining nasal function. A basic understanding of the underlying nasal anatomy is thus necessary for successful nasal reconstruction. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Automatic Functional Harmonic Analysis
de Haas, W.B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304841250; Magalhães, J.P.; Wiering, F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/141928034; Veltkamp, R.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/084742984
2013-01-01
Music scholars have been studying tonal harmony intensively for centuries, yielding numerous theories and models. Unfortunately, a large number of these theories are formulated in a rather informal fashion and lack mathematical precision. In this article we present HarmTrace, a functional model of
Holographic Three point Functions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bissi, Agnese
gravitons and a point like graviton and its dual counterpart, namely two Schur polynomials and a single trace chiral primary. Secondly we compute the one loop correction to planar, non extremal three point functions of two heavy and one light operators, both from the gauge and string side in the Frolov...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bang, Anne Louise
2007-01-01
sensing of fabrics in function. It is proposed that tactile and visual sensing of fabrics is a way to investigate and express emotional utility values. The further purpose is to use experiments with repertory grid models as part of the mapping of the entire research project and also as a basis...
Functional Tooth Regeneration.
Oshima, Masamitsu; Ogawa, Miho; Tsuji, Takashi
2017-01-01
Three-dimensional organogenesis in vivo is principally regulated by the spatiotemporal developmental process that relies on the cellular behavior such as cell growth, migration, differentiation, and cell-to-cell interaction. Organ development and morphogenesis have been elucidated to be regulated by the proper transient expression of various signaling molecules including cytokines, extracellular matrix, and adhesion molecules based on the epithelial and mesenchymal interactions. Current bioengineering technology for regenerating three-dimensional organ has progressed to the replication of organogenesis, thereby enabling the development of fully functional bioengineered organs using bioengineered organ germs that are generated from immature stem cells via tissue engineering technology in vitro.To achieve precise replication of organogenesis, we have developed a novel three-dimensional cell manipulation method designated the organ germ method, and enabled the generation of a structurally correct and fully functional bioengineered tooth in vivo. This method is also expected to be utilized for analyzing gene and protein functions during organogenesis. Here, we describe protocols for the tooth germ reconstitution by using the organ germ method and for the functional analysis of tooth development in vitro and in vivo.
Objectification and Semiotic Function
Santi, George
2011-01-01
The objective of this paper is to study students' difficulties when they have to ascribe the same meaning to different representations of the same mathematical object. We address two theoretical tools that are at the core of Radford's cultural semiotic and Godino's onto-semiotic approaches: objectification and the semiotic function. The analysis…
Laboratory Density Functionals
Giraud, B. G.
2007-01-01
We compare several definitions of the density of a self-bound system, such as a nucleus, in relation with its center-of-mass zero-point motion. A trivial deconvolution relates the internal density to the density defined in the laboratory frame. This result is useful for the practical definition of density functionals.
Semiclassical multicomponent wave function
Mostovoy, M.V.
1994-01-01
A consistent method for obtaining the semiclassical multicomponent wave function for any value of adiabatic parameter is discussed and illustrated by examining the motion of a neutral particle in a nonuniform magnetic field. The method generalizes the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization rule to
Functional ingredients from microalgae
Buono, S.; Langellotti, A.L.; Martello, A.; Rinna, F.; Fogliano, V.
2014-01-01
A wide variety of natural sources are under investigation to evaluate their possible use for new functional ingredient formulation. Some records attested the traditional and ancient use of wild harvested microalgae as human food but their cultivation for different purposes started about 40 years
Partly occupied Wannier functions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thygesen, Kristian Sommer; Hansen, Lars Bruno; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel
2005-01-01
We introduce a scheme for constructing partly occupied, maximally localized Wannier functions (WFs) for both molecular and periodic systems. Compared to the traditional occupied WFs the partly occupied WFs possess improved symmetry and localization properties achieved through a bonding-antibondin...
Psychological functioning after hysterectomy.
Wijma, Klaas
1984-01-01
During the past lew years a number of publications regarding the negative effects of hysterectomy have been published in the professional literature as well as in the lay press. This dissertation is a report of a study on the psychological functioning of women after hysterectomy, performed because
Empirical microeconomics action functionals
Baaquie, Belal E.; Du, Xin; Tanputraman, Winson
2015-06-01
A statistical generalization of microeconomics has been made in Baaquie (2013), where the market price of every traded commodity, at each instant of time, is considered to be an independent random variable. The dynamics of commodity market prices is modeled by an action functional-and the focus of this paper is to empirically determine the action functionals for different commodities. The correlation functions of the model are defined using a Feynman path integral. The model is calibrated using the unequal time correlation of the market commodity prices as well as their cubic and quartic moments using a perturbation expansion. The consistency of the perturbation expansion is verified by a numerical evaluation of the path integral. Nine commodities drawn from the energy, metal and grain sectors are studied and their market behavior is described by the model to an accuracy of over 90% using only six parameters. The paper empirically establishes the existence of the action functional for commodity prices that was postulated to exist in Baaquie (2013).
A Functional HAZOP Methodology
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liin, Netta; Lind, Morten; Jensen, Niels
2010-01-01
and investigated in a HAZOP study of an industrial scale Indirect Vapor Recompression Distillation pilot Plant (IVaRDiP) at DTU-Chemical and Biochemical Engineering. The study shows that the functional HAZOP methodology provides a very efficient paradigm for facilitating HAZOP studies and for enabling reasoning...... to reveal potential hazards in safety critical operations....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ramesh Kalindri
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Currently, software engineers are increasingly turning to the option of automating functional tests, but not always have successful in this endeavor. Reasons range from low planning until over cost in the process. Some principles that can guide teams in automating these tests are described in this article.
Executive functions in synesthesia
Rouw, R.; van Driel, J.; Knip, K.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.
2013-01-01
In grapheme-color synesthesia, a number or letter can evoke two different and possibly conflicting (real and synesthetic) color sensations at the same time. In this study, we investigate the relationship between synesthesia and executive control functions. First, no general skill differences were
Completely monotonic functions related to logarithmic derivatives of entire functions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Henrik Laurberg
2011-01-01
The logarithmic derivative l(x) of an entire function of genus p and having only non-positive zeros is represented in terms of a Stieltjes function. As a consequence, (-1)p(xml(x))(m+p) is a completely monotonic function for all m ≥ 0. This generalizes earlier results on complete monotonicity...... of functions related to Euler's psi-function. Applications to Barnes' multiple gamma functions are given....
World, Michael J
2013-06-01
The lack of need for immediate renal replacement treatment for military trauma victims suggests that the current policy of restricting operational deployment of those Service personnel with active inflammatory renal disease and significantly impaired renal function, combined with good prehospital care for all trauma casualties, is probably correct. No published estimates of renal function in civilian or military trauma victims in the earliest period following injury have been retrieved. The purpose of the present retrospective study was to assess the renal function of military trauma victims on arrival in the Emergency Department of the field hospital. The case records of 287 military trauma casualties with severe injury (New Injury Severity Score, NISS≥16) were retrospectively reviewed to assess renal function by calculating estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the serum creatine concentration obtained immediately on arrival in the Emergency Department of the field hospitals in Iraq and Afghanistan, 2005-2009. Correlations were attempted between eGFR and other clinical and laboratory variables. Hospital case notes recording management following repatriation were retrieved in 221/287 (77%) cases. None had required immediate renal support in the field. Serum creatine concentration on arrival in the field hospital with demographic data permitting calculation of eGFR was recorded in 158 cases. Median eGFR=76 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (range=43-144). Statistically significant correlations were found among eGFR and pulse rate (r=-0.3, p=0.0002), body temperature (r=0.24, p=0.01) and mean arterial pressure (r=0.2, p=0.02). No statistically significant correlation was found among eGFR and NISS, white cell count, or respiration rate. A stepwise multivariate regression analysis of 106 cases suggested that the best combination of clinical observations to predict renal function were pulse rate and body temperature but the prediction was overoptimistic at lower e
EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONING IN SCHIZOPHRENIA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gricel eOrellana
2013-06-01
Full Text Available The executive function (EF is a set of abilities, which allows us to invoke voluntary control of our behavioral responses. These functions enable human beings to develop and carry out plans, make up analogies, obey social rules, solve problems, adapt to unexpected circumstances, do many tasks simultaneously and locate episodes in time and place. EF includes divided attention and sustained attention, working memory, set-shifting, flexibility, planning and the regulation of goal directed behavior and can be defined as a brain function underlying the human faculty to act or think not only in reaction to external events but also in relation with internal goals and states. EF is mostly associated with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC. Besides EF, PFC is involved in self-regulation of behavior, i.e. the ability to regulate behavior according to internal goals and constraints, particularly in less structured situations. Self-regulation of behavior is subtended by ventral medial /orbital PFC. Impairment of EF is one of the most commonly observed deficits in schizophrenia through the various disease stages. Impairment in tasks measuring conceptualization, planning, cognitive flexibility, verbal fluency, ability to solve complex problems and working memory occur in schizophrenia. Disorders detected by executive tests are consistent with evidence from functional neuroimaging, which have shown PFC dysfunction in patients while performing these kinds of tasks. Schizophrenics also exhibit deficit in odor identifying, decision-making and self-regulation of behavior suggesting dysfunction of the orbital PFC. However, impairment in executive tests is explained by dysfunction of prefronto-striato-thalamic, prefronto-parietal and prefronto-temporal neural networks mainly. Disorders in executive functions may be considered central facts with respect to schizophrenia and it has been suggested that negative symptoms may be explained by that executive dysfunction.
Engineering living functional materials.
Chen, Allen Y; Zhong, Chao; Lu, Timothy K
2015-01-16
Natural materials, such as bone, integrate living cells composed of organic molecules together with inorganic components. This enables combinations of functionalities, such as mechanical strength and the ability to regenerate and remodel, which are not present in existing synthetic materials. Taking a cue from nature, we propose that engineered 'living functional materials' and 'living materials synthesis platforms' that incorporate both living systems and inorganic components could transform the performance and the manufacturing of materials. As a proof-of-concept, we recently demonstrated that synthetic gene circuits in Escherichia coli enabled biofilms to be both a functional material in its own right and a materials-synthesis platform. To demonstrate the former, we engineered E. coli biofilms into a chemical-inducer-responsive electrical switch. To demonstrate the latter, we engineered E. coli biofilms to dynamically organize biotic-abiotic materials across multiple length scales, template gold nanorods, gold nanowires, and metal/semiconductor heterostructures, and synthesize semiconductor nanoparticles (Chen, A. Y. et al. (2014) Synthesis and patterning of tunable multiscale materials with engineered cells. Nat. Mater. 13, 515-523.). Thus, tools from synthetic biology, such as those for artificial gene regulation, can be used to engineer the spatiotemporal characteristics of living systems and to interface living systems with inorganic materials. Such hybrids can possess novel properties enabled by living cells while retaining desirable functionalities of inorganic systems. These systems, as living functional materials and as living materials foundries, would provide a radically different paradigm of materials performance and synthesis-materials possessing multifunctional, self-healing, adaptable, and evolvable properties that are created and organized in a distributed, bottom-up, autonomously assembled, and environmentally sustainable manner.
Uniqueness property for quasiharmonic functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sevdiyor A. Imomkulov
2014-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper we consider a class of continuous functions, called quasiaharmonic functions, admitting best approximations by harmonic polynomials. In this class we prove a uniqueness theorem by analogy with the analytic functions.
Notes on the ellipsoidal function
Liang, Chang-Hong
2017-01-01
This book focuses on the ellipsoidal function, which serves as an evolution and extension of the circular function (trigonometric function) and elliptic function. It presents an in-depth discussion of the ellipsoidal function (algebra) theory and the conformal mapping (geometry) theory of the ellipsoid function, demonstrating the outstanding performance of the ellipsoid function response filter. Applications of the ellipsoidal function include the capacitance of ellipsoidal conductors and the surface area of ellipsoids, which in turn correspond to ellipsoidal integrals of the first kind and the second kind, respectively. The book offers a valuable reference guide for undergraduates, graduate students and researchers in the related fields. .
Differentiation of real functions
Bruckner, Andrew
1994-01-01
Topics related to the differentiation of real functions have received considerable attention during the last few decades. This book provides an efficient account of the present state of the subject. Bruckner addresses in detail the problems that arise when dealing with the class \\Delta ' of derivatives, a class that is difficult to handle for a number of reasons. Several generalized forms of differentiation have assumed importance in the solution of various problems. Some generalized derivatives are excellent substitutes for the ordinary derivative when the latter is not known to exist; others are not. Bruckner studies generalized derivatives and indicates "geometric" conditions that determine whether or not a generalized derivative will be a good substitute for the ordinary derivative. There are a number of classes of functions closely linked to differentiation theory, and these are examined in some detail. The book unifies many important results from the literature as well as some results not previously pub...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bech-Larsen, Tino; Scholderer, Joachim
2007-01-01
The fact that the European markets for functional foods generally are less developed, compared to the US and the Japanese markets, has often been attributed to a restrictive and inconsistent health claim legislation in and between the European countries. With the European Parliament's second...... reading of the main principles of the harmonized regulation COM/2003/0424, this situation is about to change. This article reviews the regulatory aspects, the results of consumer research and the marketing strategies regarding the use of health claims for functional foods in Europe, and it comments...... on the lack of correspondence between the new regulation and the marketing experiences and research as regard consumer reactions to health claims....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, S H; Wagner, G; Heitmann, B L
2007-01-01
OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on the relationship between obesity and sexual function. METHOD: A search in the medical literature from 1966 and onwards was carried out through Medline and Embase for publications on obesity, in combination with Medical Subject Heading words related to sexual...... function and dysfunction. COMMENTS: Four prospective and seven cross-sectional studies were found describing association between obesity and erectile dysfunction (ED). One cross-sectional study was found describing obesity and female sexual dysfunction (FSD). The prospective studies on ED all demonstrated...... activity among both men and women after weight loss intervention. CONCLUSION: Support for the assumption that obesity is associated with ED was found in both prospective and cross-sectional studies. FSD was not adequately described in the literature and prospective studies are needed here. Results from...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, A S; Hansen, H; Høgenhaven, H
1988-01-01
Two groups of epilepsy patients (28 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and 15 patients with primary generalized epilepsy) entered a study of personality traits related to epilepsy, based on a modification of Bellak's semistructured interview for assessment of ego strength. Two groups of subjects...... served as controls: 15 patients with a non-neurological but relapsing disorder, psoriasis, and 15 healthy volunteers. Compared with the group of healthy volunteers, a decreased adaptive level of ego functioning was found in the epilepsy groups, regardless of seizure types and EEG findings, and...... than 15 years when the disease began. The number of anticonvulsants administered did not influence the results. No difference on adaptive level of ego functioning was found between the group with primary generalized epilepsy and the group with temporal lobe epilepsy. Similarly, the temporal lobe...
Cooper, Shaun
2017-01-01
Theta functions were studied extensively by Ramanujan. This book provides a systematic development of Ramanujan’s results and extends them to a general theory. The author’s treatment of the subject is comprehensive, providing a detailed study of theta functions and modular forms for levels up to 12. Aimed at advanced undergraduates, graduate students, and researchers, the organization, user-friendly presentation, and rich source of examples, lends this book to serve as a useful reference, a pedagogical tool, and a stimulus for further research. Topics, especially those discussed in the second half of the book, have been the subject of much recent research; many of which are appearing in book form for the first time. Further results are summarized in the numerous exercises at the end of each chapter.
[Sexual function, physical handicap].
Sevène, Arnaud
2014-10-01
While the right to a sexual life for disabled people is not contested, their sexuality cannot be summed up in a debate for or against sexual assistance. In a similar way, sexual function can only be understood in light of all the difficulties related to disability. Medical progress can improve sexual function and solve many problems in order to facilitate access to procreation. However, these are not well known and are reserved to specialized teams. Many disabled persons are totally autonomous in their sexuality, but for some who require medical assistance, it is necessary to support them in a process of creation where therapeutic interventions consist of facilitating or stimulating the patient's own resources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Executive functions in synesthesia.
Rouw, Romke; van Driel, Joram; Knip, Koen; Richard Ridderinkhof, K
2013-03-01
In grapheme-color synesthesia, a number or letter can evoke two different and possibly conflicting (real and synesthetic) color sensations at the same time. In this study, we investigate the relationship between synesthesia and executive control functions. First, no general skill differences were obtained between synesthetes and non-synesthetes in classic executive control paradigms. Furthermore, classic executive control effects did not interact with synesthetic behavioral effects. Third, we found support for our hypothesis that inhibition of a synesthetic color takes effort and time. Finally, individual differences analyses showed no relationship between the two skills; performance on a 'normal' Stroop task does not predict performance on a synesthetic Stroop task. Across four studies, the current results consistently show no clear relationship between executive control functions and synesthetic behavioral effects. This raises the question of which mechanisms are at play in synesthetic 'management' during the presence of two conflicting (real and synesthetic) sensations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Towards the Innovation Function
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paulo Antônio Zawislak
2008-12-01
Full Text Available This paper explores the main elements that influence innovation and the relationships among them. It is pointed out that innovation results from an entrepreneurial action inside an established institutional context, sustained by resources, abilities and competences and with the support of the necessary financial capital. Therefore, it is proposed that innovation is a function (just as the microeconomic production function composed of entrepreneurship, institutions, capabilities and capital. Each one of these elements is explored individually, so that later the relationships among them can be analyzed. It is still suggested that the size of the firm is a moderator in the relationship between these elements and innovation. The study’s contribution it is the development of a conceptual model.
Choice Probability Generating Functions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fosgerau, Mogens; McFadden, Daniel L; Bierlaire, Michel
This paper considers discrete choice, with choice probabilities coming from maximization of preferences from a random utility field perturbed by additive location shifters (ARUM). Any ARUM can be characterized by a choice-probability generating function (CPGF) whose gradient gives the choice...... probabilities, and every CPGF is consistent with an ARUM. We relate CPGF to multivariate extreme value distributions, and review and extend methods for constructing CPGF for applications....
LENUS (Irish Health Repository)
Lang, E E
2010-06-01
Vestibular symptoms of vertigo, dizziness and dysequilibrium are common complaints which can be disabling both physically and psychologically. Routine examination of the ear nose and throat and neurological system are often normal in these patients. An accurate history and thorough clinical examination can provide a diagnosis in the majority of patients. However, in a subgroup of patients, vestibular function testing may be invaluable in arriving at a correct diagnosis and ultimately in the optimal treatment of these patients.
Generalised twisted partition functions
Petkova, V B
2001-01-01
We consider the set of partition functions that result from the insertion of twist operators compatible with conformal invariance in a given 2D Conformal Field Theory (CFT). A consistency equation, which gives a classification of twists, is written and solved in particular cases. This generalises old results on twisted torus boundary conditions, gives a physical interpretation of Ocneanu's algebraic construction, and might offer a new route to the study of properties of CFT.
Improved Heterogeneous Distance Functions
Wilson, D. R.; Martinez, T. R.
1996-01-01
Instance-based learning techniques typically handle continuous and linear input values well, but often do not handle nominal input attributes appropriately. The Value Difference Metric (VDM) was designed to find reasonable distance values between nominal attribute values, but it largely ignores continuous attributes, requiring discretization to map continuous values into nominal values. This paper proposes three new heterogeneous distance functions, called the Heterogeneous Value Difference M...
Cybernetic functioning in stuttering
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ursula Zsilavecz
1981-08-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate different kinds of masking noise and DAF, in order to identify the condition which would elicit the highest incidence of fluency in a group of stutterers. The study demonstrates that masking noise and DAF can be effectively applied as an aid in a therapy programme, viz. noise can effectively be put to use so as to encourage and reinforce somesthesia. Stuttering is viewed as defective functioning in the cybernetic system.
Masato, SUZUKI; Japan Society of Exercise and Sports Physiology; Department of Laboratory Medicine, The Jikeidai University School of Medicine
1996-01-01
Research on renal function during exercise is very rare in the sports medicine area because it has no direct bearing on the performance of exercise. However, the kidneys play an important role in maintaining a constant internal state, which, when disturbed by exercise in a hot environment, is normalized by means of enhanced conservation of water and electrolytes by the kidneys. It is the purpose of this article to review the previous literature, to relate some of our findings on renal functio...
[The shared nursing function].
Fleury, Cynthia
The Chair of Philosophy at Hôtel-Dieu hospital in Paris, is a place for the sharing of knowledge and recognition. It provides a place where the subjective, institutional and political dimension of care can be considered, by all stakeholders: patients, nurses, families and citizens. The aim is to invent a shared nursing function. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Cybernetic functioning in stuttering
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ursula Zsilavecz
1981-11-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate different kinds of masking noise and DAF, in order to identify the condition which would elicit the highest incidence of fluency in a group of stutterers. The study demonstrates that masking noise and DAF can be effectively applied as an aid in a therapy programme, viz. noise can effectively be put to use so as to encourage and reinforce somesthesia. Stuttering is viewed as defective functioning in the cybernetic system.
On Certain Multivalent Functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mamoru Nunokawa
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Let 𝒮*(p,α be the class of functions f(z which are analytic and p-valently starlike of order α in the open unit disk E. The object of the present paper is to derive an interesting condition for f(z to be in the class 𝒮*(p,α.
Oden, J Tinsley
2010-01-01
The textbook is designed to drive a crash course for beginning graduate students majoring in something besides mathematics, introducing mathematical foundations that lead to classical results in functional analysis. More specifically, Oden and Demkowicz want to prepare students to learn the variational theory of partial differential equations, distributions, and Sobolev spaces and numerical analysis with an emphasis on finite element methods. The 1996 first edition has been used in a rather intensive two-semester course. -Book News, June 2010
Functional neuropeptidomics in invertebrates.
De Haes, Wouter; Van Sinay, Elien; Detienne, Giel; Temmerman, Liesbet; Schoofs, Liliane; Boonen, Kurt
2015-07-01
Neuropeptides are key messengers in almost all physiological processes. They originate from larger precursors and are extensively processed to become bioactive. Neuropeptidomics aims to comprehensively identify the collection of neuropeptides in an organism, organ, tissue or cell. The neuropeptidome of several invertebrates is thoroughly explored since they are important model organisms (and models for human diseases), disease vectors and pest species. The charting of the neuropeptidome is the first step towards understanding peptidergic signaling. This review will first discuss the latest developments in exploring the neuropeptidome. The physiological roles and modes of action of neuropeptides can be explored in two ways, which are largely orthogonal and therefore complementary. The first way consists of inferring the functions of neuropeptides by a forward approach where neuropeptide profiles are compared under different physiological conditions. Second is the reverse approach were neuropeptide collections are used to screen for receptor-binding. This is followed by localization studies and functional tests. This review will focus on how these different functional screening methods contributed to the field of invertebrate neuropeptidomics and expanded our knowledge of peptidergic signaling. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neuroproteomics: Applications in Neuroscience and Neurology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John W. Erdman
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Lutein is one of the most prevalent carotenoids in nature and in the human diet. Together with zeaxanthin, it is highly concentrated as macular pigment in the foveal retina of primates, attenuating blue light exposure, providing protection from photo-oxidation and enhancing visual performance. Recently, interest in lutein has expanded beyond the retina to its possible contributions to brain development and function. Only primates accumulate lutein within the brain, but little is known about its distribution or physiological role. Our team has begun to utilize the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta model to study the uptake and bio-localization of lutein in the brain. Our overall goal has been to assess the association of lutein localization with brain function. In this review, we will first cover the evolution of the non-human primate model for lutein and brain studies, discuss prior association studies of lutein with retina and brain function, and review approaches that can be used to localize brain lutein. We also describe our approach to the biosynthesis of 13C-lutein, which will allow investigation of lutein flux, localization, metabolism and pharmacokinetics. Lastly, we describe potential future research opportunities.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G.R. Finnie
1997-05-01
Full Text Available Accurate estimation of the size and development effort for software projects requires estimation models which can be used early enough in the development life cycle to be of practical value. Function Point Analysis (FPA has become possibly the most widely used estimation technique in practice. However the technique was developed in the data processing environment of the 1970's and, despite undergoing considerable reassessment and formalisation, still attracts criticism for the weighting scoring it employs and for the way in which the function point score is adapted for specific system characteristics. This paper reviews the validity of the weighting scheme and the value of adjusting for system characteristics by studying their effect in a sample of 299 software developments. In general the value adjustment scheme does not appear to cater for differences in productivity. The weighting scheme used to adjust system components in terms of being simple, average or complex also appears suspect and should be redesigned to provide a more realistic estimate of system functionality.
Medici, Marco; Visser, Theo J; Peeters, Robin P
2017-03-01
Recent studies show that subtle variations in thyroid function, including subclinical thyroid dysfunction, and even variation in thyroid function within the normal range, are associated with morbidity and mortality. It is estimated that 40-65% of the inter-individual variation in serum TSH and FT4 levels is determined by genetic factors. To identify these factors, various linkage and candidate gene studies have been performed in the past, which have identified only a few genes. In the last decade, genome-wide association studies identified many new genes, while recent whole-genome sequencing efforts have also been proven to be effective. In the current review, we provide a systematic overview of these studies, including strengths and limitations. We discuss new techniques which will further clarify the genetic basis of thyroid function in the near future, as well as the potential use of these genetic markers in personalizing the management of thyroid disease patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ruppel, Gregg L; Enright, Paul L
2012-01-01
Pulmonary function testing is often considered the basis for diagnosis in many categories of pulmonary disease. Although most of the testing methodologies are well established and widely employed, there are still many questions regarding how tests should be performed, how to ensure that reliable data are produced, what reference values and rules should be used, and how pulmonary function tests (PFTs) should be interpreted to best support clinical decision making. This conference was organized around a set of questions aimed at many of these issues. Each presenter was asked to address a specific topic regarding what tests should be done, how those test should be performed to answer a particular clinical question, and to relate test results to an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment of the patient. These topics included testing of adults and children, with concentration on important disease entities such as COPD, asthma, and unexplained dyspnea. Special emphasis was given to discussing reference values, lower limits of normal, interpretive strategies to optimize disease classification, and those factors directly affecting data quality. Established techniques for spirometry, lung volumes, diffusing capacity, exercise testing, and bronchial challenges were compared and contrasted with new technologies, and with technologies that might be part of pulmonary function laboratories in the near future.
Hexagonalization of correlation functions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fleury, Thiago [Instituto de Física Teórica, UNESP - University Estadual Paulista,ICTP South American Institute for Fundamental Research,Rua Dr. Bento Teobaldo Ferraz 271, 01140-070, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Komatsu, Shota [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline St N Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada)
2017-01-30
We propose a nonperturbative framework to study general correlation functions of single-trace operators in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory at large N. The basic strategy is to decompose them into fundamental building blocks called the hexagon form factors, which were introduced earlier to study structure constants using integrability. The decomposition is akin to a triangulation of a Riemann surface, and we thus call it hexagonalization. We propose a set of rules to glue the hexagons together based on symmetry, which naturally incorporate the dependence on the conformal and the R-symmetry cross ratios. Our method is conceptually different from the conventional operator product expansion and automatically takes into account multi-trace operators exchanged in OPE channels. To illustrate the idea in simple set-ups, we compute four-point functions of BPS operators of arbitrary lengths and correlation functions of one Konishi operator and three short BPS operators, all at one loop. In all cases, the results are in perfect agreement with the perturbative data. We also suggest that our method can be a useful tool to study conformal integrals, and show it explicitly for the case of ladder integrals.
Imaging of brain function based on the analysis of functional ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Conclusion: Acupuncture at LR3 mainly specifically activated the brain functional network that participates in visual function, associative function, and emotion cognition, which are similar to the features on LR3 in tradition Chinese medicine. These brain areas constituted a neural network structure with specific functions that ...
Strange functions in real analysis
Kharazishvili, AB
2005-01-01
Weierstrass and Blancmange nowhere differentiable functions, Lebesgue integrable functions with everywhere divergent Fourier series, and various nonintegrable Lebesgue measurable functions. While dubbed strange or "pathological," these functions are ubiquitous throughout mathematics and play an important role in analysis, not only as counterexamples of seemingly true and natural statements, but also to stimulate and inspire the further development of real analysis.Strange Functions in Real Analysis explores a number of important examples and constructions of pathological functions. After introducing the basic concepts, the author begins with Cantor and Peano-type functions, then moves to functions whose constructions require essentially noneffective methods. These include functions without the Baire property, functions associated with a Hamel basis of the real line, and Sierpinski-Zygmund functions that are discontinuous on each subset of the real line having the cardinality continuum. Finally, he considers e...
[Functional pathophysiology of consciousness].
Jellinger, Kurt A
2009-01-01
Consciousness (Latin conscientia "moral conscience"), according to the English philosopher John Locke (1632-1704) [103], is the awareness of all that occurs in the mind of a person, whereas the American philosopher John Searle (2000) defined it as "inner qualitative, subjective states and processes of awareness". In modern science it is defined as a continuous state of full awareness of the Self and one's relationship to the external and internal environment, describing the degree of wakefulness in which an organism recognizes stimuli. This widely discussed biological term for complex neuronal processes that allow an individuum to recognize itself and its environment and to act accordingly, has been and still is the subject of much research in philosophy and natural/neuroscience. Its definition is often used for awareness and recognition, too. While the Egyptians in the papyrus Edwin Smith already recognized the brain as the seat of consciousness, René Descartes (1644 [36]) believed its special structure should be "a small gland in the middle", but the anatomical structures and physiological processes involved in consciousness were elucidated only in the middle of the 20th century. Neuronal substrates include several functional networks that are hierarchically organized and cooperate functionally. The lowest level is the mesencephalic formatio reticularis and its projections to the thalamus that were identified als ascending reticular system (ARAS) by the classical experiments of Moruzzi and Magoun, whereas later analyses of patients with impaired consciousness provided further insights. The mesencephalic ARAS as motor of the function of higher structures projects 1. via the reticular thalamus diffusely to the cortex, 2. via hypothalamus to the basal forebrain and limbic system, and 3. to the medial raphe of the brainstem and locus coeruleus and their diffuse cortical projections. The reticular system is stimulated directly and indirectly via numerous collaterals
Functional training: functional for what and for whom?
Marzo Edir Da Silva-Grigoletto; Ciro Jose Brito; Juan Ramon Heredia
2014-01-01
The prescription of neuromuscular conditioning programs aimed at the development and maintenance of activities of daily living (ADLs) has been based on functionality. The functional training proposal needs further academic discussion. The present study presents a critical view on the functional training, assumptions, characteristics and definitions. The mere exercise selection does not make it a functional training, as there are no exercises that have greater or lesser functionality. For trai...
Application of radial basis function to approximate functional integral equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Reza Firouzdor
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In the present paper, Radial Basis Function (RBF interpolation is applied to approximate the numerical solution of both Fredlholm and Volterra functional integral equations. RBF interpolation is based on linear combinations of terms which include a single univariate function. Applying RBF in functional integral equation, a linear system $ \\Psi C=G $ will be obtain in which by defining coefficient vector $ C $, target function will be approximiated. Finally, validity of the method is illustrated by some examples.
Functional Foods for Women's Health.
Lindeman, Alice K.
2002-01-01
Describes functional foods for women's health (foods or food ingredients that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition), explaining that both whole and modified foods can be included as functional foods. The paper discusses the history, regulation, and promotion of functional foods; consumer interest in functional foods; how to incorporate…
Functional genomics of cancer.
Liu, Edison T
2008-06-01
Cancer genomics has focused on the discovery of genetic mutations and chromosomal structural rearrangements that either increase susceptibility to cancer or support the cancer phenotype. Though each individual mutation may induce specific cancer phenotypes, it is the interaction of the functional changes in transcription and proteins that give the characteristics of cancer. Whereas molecular biology focuses on the impact of individual genes on the cancer state, functional genomics assesses the comprehensive genetic alterations in a cancer cell and seeks to integrate the dynamic changes in these networks so that cancer phenotypes can be explained. Most commonly, the transcriptome is the target of analysis because of the maturity, completeness, and speed of the technologies, but progressively the proteome is being studied in the same comprehensive manner. The focus of this review, however, will be on the functional consequences of cancer genomic alterations with special reference to the transcriptome and in the perturbed gene expression found in cancer states. The developments in the past two years (which is our time horizon) have been heavily driven by the applications of the new ultra high-throughput sequencing approaches assisted by computational discovery strategies. The precision and comprehensiveness of the analyses are astonishing. The collective results, when taken together, suggest that despite the large range of mutational and epigenetic events, there is a convergence onto a finite number of pathways that drive cancer behavior. Moreover, the interconnectivity of regulatory control mechanisms suggest that the earlier concepts distinguishing driver from passenger abnormalities may undervalue the contribution of the numerous aberrations that have small but additive effects on cancer virulence.
Perioperative functional residual capacity.
Wahba, R W
1991-04-01
The literature dealing with the magnitude, mechanism and effects of reduced FRC in the perioperative period is reviewed. During general anaesthesia FRC is reduced by approximately 20%. The reduction is greater in the obese and in patients with COPD. The most likely mechanism is the loss of inspiratory muscle tone of the muscles acting on the rib cage. Gas trapping is an additional mechanism. Lung compliance decreases and airways resistance increases, in large part, due to decreased FRC. The larynx is displaced anteriorly and elongated, making laryngoscopy and intubation more difficult. The change in FRC creates or increases intrapulmonary shunt and areas of low ventilation to perfusion. This is due to the occurrence of compression atelectasis, and to regional changes in mechanics and airway closure which tend to reduce ventilation to dependent lung zones which are still well perfused. Abdominal and thoracic operations tend to increase shunting further. Large tidal volume but not PEEP will improve oxygenation, although both increase FRC. Both FRC and vital capacity are reduced following abdominal and thoracic surgery in a predictable pattern. The mechanism is the combined effect of incisional pain and reflex dysfunction of the diaphragm. Additional effects of thoracic surgery include pleural effusion, cooling of the phrenic nerve and mediastinal widening. Postoperative hypoxaemia is a function of reduced FRC and airway closure. There is no real difference among the various methods of active lung expansion in terms of the speed of restoration of lung function, or in preventing postoperative atelectasis/pneumonia. Epidural analgesia does not influence the rate of recovery of lung function, nor does it prevent atelectasis/pneumonia.
Gastrointestinal Physiology and Function.
Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley; Johnson, Anthony C; Grundy, David
2017-01-01
The gastrointestinal (GI) system is responsible for the digestion and absorption of ingested food and liquids. Due to the complexity of the GI tract and the substantial volume of material that could be covered under the scope of GI physiology, this chapter briefly reviews the overall function of the GI tract, and discusses the major factors affecting GI physiology and function, including the intestinal microbiota, chronic stress, inflammation, and aging with a focus on the neural regulation of the GI tract and an emphasis on basic brain-gut interactions that serve to modulate the GI tract. GI diseases refer to diseases of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon, and rectum. The major symptoms of common GI disorders include recurrent abdominal pain and bloating, heartburn, indigestion/dyspepsia, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, and constipation. GI disorders rank among the most prevalent disorders, with the most common including esophageal and swallowing disorders, gastric and peptic ulcer disease, gastroparesis or delayed gastric emptying, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Many GI disorders are difficult to diagnose and their symptoms are not effectively managed. Thus, basic research is required to drive the development of novel therapeutics which are urgently needed. One approach is to enhance our understanding of gut physiology and pathophysiology especially as it relates to gut-brain communications since they have clinical relevance to a number of GI complaints and represent a therapeutic target for the treatment of conditions including inflammatory diseases of the GI tract such as IBD and functional gut disorders such as IBS.
Prediction of protein functions based on function-function correlation relations.
Ng, Ka-Lok; Ciou, Jin-Shuei; Huang, Chien-Hung
2010-03-01
A protein function pair approach, based on protein-protein interaction (PPI) data, is proposed to predict protein functions. Randomization tests are performed on the PPI dataset, which resulted in a protein function correlation scoring value which is used to rank the relative importance of a function pair. It has been found that certain classes of protein functions tend to be correlated together. Scoring values of these correlation pairs allow us to predict the functionality of a protein given that it interacts with proteins having well-defined function annotations. The jackknife test is used to validate the function pair method. The protein function pair approach achieves a prediction sensitivity comparable to an approach using more sophisticated method. The main advantages of this approach are as follows: (i) a set of function-function correlation relations are derived and intuitive biological interpretation can be achieved, and (ii) its simplicity, only two parameters are needed. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bhatia, Rajendra
2009-01-01
These notes are a record of a one semester course on Functional Analysis given by the author to second year Master of Statistics students at the Indian Statistical Institute, New Delhi. Students taking this course have a strong background in real analysis, linear algebra, measure theory and probability, and the course proceeds rapidly from the definition of a normed linear space to the spectral theorem for bounded selfadjoint operators in a Hilbert space. The book is organised as twenty six lectures, each corresponding to a ninety minute class session. This may be helpful to teachers planning a course on this topic. Well prepared students can read it on their own.
Choice probability generating functions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fosgerau, Mogens; McFadden, Daniel; Bierlaire, Michel
2013-01-01
This paper considers discrete choice, with choice probabilities coming from maximization of preferences from a random utility field perturbed by additive location shifters (ARUM). Any ARUM can be characterized by a choice-probability generating function (CPGF) whose gradient gives the choice...... probabilities, and every CPGF is consistent with an ARUM. We relate CPGF to multivariate extreme value distributions, and review and extend methods for constructing CPGF for applications. The choice probabilities of any ARUM may be approximated by a cross-nested logit model. The results for ARUM are extended...
Gelfand, I M; Shnol, E E
1969-01-01
The second in a series of systematic studies by a celebrated mathematician I. M. Gelfand and colleagues, this volume presents students with a well-illustrated sequence of problems and exercises designed to illuminate the properties of functions and graphs. Since readers do not have the benefit of a blackboard on which a teacher constructs a graph, the authors abandoned the customary use of diagrams in which only the final form of the graph appears; instead, the book's margins feature step-by-step diagrams for the complete construction of each graph. The first part of the book employs simple fu
Bayes multiple decision functions.
Wu, Wensong; Peña, Edsel A
2013-01-01
This paper deals with the problem of simultaneously making many (M) binary decisions based on one realization of a random data matrix X. M is typically large and X will usually have M rows associated with each of the M decisions to make, but for each row the data may be low dimensional. Such problems arise in many practical areas such as the biological and medical sciences, where the available dataset is from microarrays or other high-throughput technology and with the goal being to decide which among of many genes are relevant with respect to some phenotype of interest; in the engineering and reliability sciences; in astronomy; in education; and in business. A Bayesian decision-theoretic approach to this problem is implemented with the overall loss function being a cost-weighted linear combination of Type I and Type II loss functions. The class of loss functions considered allows for use of the false discovery rate (FDR), false nondiscovery rate (FNR), and missed discovery rate (MDR) in assessing the quality of decision. Through this Bayesian paradigm, the Bayes multiple decision function (BMDF) is derived and an efficient algorithm to obtain the optimal Bayes action is described. In contrast to many works in the literature where the rows of the matrix X are assumed to be stochastically independent, we allow a dependent data structure with the associations obtained through a class of frailty-induced Archimedean copulas. In particular, non-Gaussian dependent data structure, which is typical with failure-time data, can be entertained. The numerical implementation of the determination of the Bayes optimal action is facilitated through sequential Monte Carlo techniques. The theory developed could also be extended to the problem of multiple hypotheses testing, multiple classification and prediction, and high-dimensional variable selection. The proposed procedure is illustrated for the simple versus simple hypotheses setting and for the composite hypotheses setting
Aumasson, Jean-Philippe; Phan, Raphael; Henzen, Luca
2014-01-01
This is a comprehensive description of the cryptographic hash function BLAKE, one of the five final contenders in the NIST SHA3 competition, and of BLAKE2, an improved version popular among developers. It describes how BLAKE was designed and why BLAKE2 was developed, and it offers guidelines on implementing and using BLAKE, with a focus on software implementation. In the first two chapters, the authors offer a short introduction to cryptographic hashing, the SHA3 competition, and BLAKE. They review applications of cryptographic hashing, they describe some basic notions such as security de
Functional Constipation in Pediatrics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luis De la Torre Mondragón
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Constipation is a common disease and one of the most frequent reasons of visits in pediatric clinics, complications related to constipation denote an inadequate diagnosis and/or treatment. This article is addressed for physicians who provide care to children with functional constipation and, it proposes in a practical manner how to diagnose this problem, emphasizing the essential information that should be obtained from the clinical history and from the workup helpful for its diagnosis. The “bowel management program” is the proposed treatment; this pro- gram has a rate success higher than 90%, even, in patients with severe chronic constipation with frequent relapses and multiple treatments.
Matrix string partition function
Kostov, Ivan K; Kostov, Ivan K.; Vanhove, Pierre
1998-01-01
We evaluate quasiclassically the Ramond partition function of Euclidean D=10 U(N) super Yang-Mills theory reduced to a two-dimensional torus. The result can be interpreted in terms of free strings wrapping the space-time torus, as expected from the point of view of Matrix string theory. We demonstrate that, when extrapolated to the ultraviolet limit (small area of the torus), the quasiclassical expressions reproduce exactly the recently obtained expression for the partition of the completely reduced SYM theory, including the overall numerical factor. This is an evidence that our quasiclassical calculation might be exact.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sinden, Richard R.; E. Pearson, Christopher; N. Potaman, Vladimir
1998-01-01
This chapter discusses the structure and function of DNA. DNA occupies a critical role in cells, because it is the source of all intrinsic genetic information. Chemically, DNA is a very stable molecule, a characteristic important for a macromolecule that may have to persist in an intact form...... for a long period of time before its information is accessed by the cell. Although DNA plays a critical role as an informational storage molecule, it is by no means as unexciting as a computer tape or disk drive. The structure of the DNA described by Watson and Crick in 1953 is a right handed helix of two...
Functional and Operatorial Statistics
Dabo-niang, Sophie
2008-01-01
An increasing number of statistical problems and methods involve infinite-dimensional aspects. This is due to the progress of technologies which allow us to store more and more information while modern instruments are able to collect data much more effectively due to their increasingly sophisticated design. This evolution directly concerns statisticians, who have to propose new methodologies while taking into account such high-dimensional data (e.g. continuous processes, functional data, etc.). The numerous applications (micro-arrays, paleo- ecological data, radar waveforms, spectrometric curv
Ramanujan's mock theta functions.
Griffin, Michael; Ono, Ken; Rolen, Larry
2013-04-09
In his famous deathbed letter, Ramanujan introduced the notion of a mock theta function, and he offered some alleged examples. Recent work by Zwegers [Zwegers S (2001) Contemp Math 291:268-277 and Zwegers S (2002) PhD thesis (Univ of Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands)] has elucidated the theory encompassing these examples. They are holomorphic parts of special harmonic weak Maass forms. Despite this understanding, little attention has been given to Ramanujan's original definition. Here, we prove that Ramanujan's examples do indeed satisfy his original definition.
Functional explanation and the problem of functional equivalence.
DiFrisco, James
2017-10-01
The legitimacy of functional explanations in biology is threatened by a problem first identified by Hempel: the problem of functional equivalence. In order for the prevalence of a trait to be explained by its function, the function would have to explain why that very trait is prevalent and not some other functionally equivalent trait. But functions alone cannot meet this explanatory demand. I argue that this is a problem not only for Nagelian deductive-nomological models but also for etiological models of functional explanation. I contrast these models with a dual model of adaptive explanation and design explanation. This dual model largely circumvents the problem of functional equivalence, but divests functions of much explanatory power. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Varicocele and testicular function
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexander W Pastuszak
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Testicular varicocele, a dilation of the veins of the pampiniform plexus thought to increase testicular temperature via venous congestion, is commonly associated with male infertility. Significant study has clarified the negative impact of varicocele on semen parameters and more recent work has shed light on its detrimental effects on the molecular and ultrastructural features of sperm and the testicular microenvironment, as well as more clearly defined the positive impacts of treatment on couples′ fertility. The relationship between varicocele and testicular endocrine function, while known for some time based on histologic evaluation, has become more apparent in the clinical setting with a growing link between varicocele and hypogonadism. Finally, in the pediatric setting, while future study will clarify the impact of varicocele on fertility and testicular function, recent work supports a parallel effect of varicocele in adolescents and adults, suggesting a re-evaluation of current treatment approaches in light of the progressive nature of the condition and potential increased risk of future disease.
Amusia and musical functioning.
Alossa, Nicoletta; Castelli, Lorys
2009-01-01
Music, as language, is a universal and specific trait to humans; it is a complex ability with characteristics that are unique compared to other cognitive abilities. Nevertheless, several issues are still open to debate, such as, for example, whether music is a faculty that is independent from the rest of the cognitive system, and whether musical skills are mediated by a single mechanism or by a combination of processes that are independent from one another. Moreover, the anatomical correlations of music have yet to be clarified. The goal of this review is to illustrate the current condition of the neuropsychology of music and to describe different approaches to the study of the musical functions. Hereby, we will describe the neuropsychological findings, suggesting that music is a special function carried out by different and dedicated processes that are probably subserved by different anatomical regions of the brain. Moreover, we will review the evidence obtained by working with brain-damaged patients suffering from music agnosia, a selective impairment in music recognition. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Verbal Functions in Psychopathy.
de Almeida Brites, José; Ladera, Valentina; Perea, Victoria; García, Ricardo
2015-12-01
The aim of this study was to compare the verbal functions and language skills of male psychopathic individuals (in prison and outside) with non-psychopaths. The purpose was therefore to analyze phonological processing, reading and writing skills, the meaning of words and images, and the understanding of sentences. Ninety individuals with an average age of 38.19 (SD = 7.67) voluntarily participated in this study. The data were collected in different settings: prisons, a private charitable organization, and private clinics and health centers. All participants completed the Psychopathy Checklist Revised and the Psycholinguistic Assessment of Language Processing in Aphasia, to assess psychopathy traits and language skills, respectively. Participants were allocated into four different groups: incarcerated psychopathic offenders (n = 13), non-incarcerated psychopathic non-offenders living in the community (n = 13), incarcerated non-psychopathic offenders (n = 25), and non-psychopathic non-offenders living in the community (n = 39). The results showed that the verbal functions and language skills between psychopaths and non-psychopaths are very similar, showing a common profile. The data presented indicate the need for more specific work opportunities for both groups within the correctional setting, with the use of appropriate language and individualized programs as necessary. © The Author(s) 2014.
Pleural function and lymphatics.
Negrini, D; Moriondo, A
2013-02-01
The pleural space plays an important role in respiratory function as the negative intrapleural pressure regimen ensures lung expansion and in the mean time maintains the tight mechanical coupling between the lung and the chest wall. The efficiency of the lung-chest wall coupling depends upon pleural liquid volume, which in turn reflects the balance between the filtration of fluid into and its egress out of the cavity. While filtration occurs through a single mechanism passively driving fluid from the interstitium of the parietal pleura into the cavity, several mechanisms may co-operate to remove pleural fluid. Among these, the pleural lymphatic system emerges as the most important one in quantitative terms and the only one able to cope with variable pleural fluid volume and drainage requirements. In this review, we present a detailed account of the actual knowledge on: (a) the complex morphology of the pleural lymphatic system, (b) the mechanism supporting pleural lymph formation and propulsion, (c) the dependence of pleural lymphatic function upon local tissue mechanics and (d) the effect of lymphatic inefficiency in the development of clinically severe pleural and, more in general, respiratory pathologies. © 2012 The Authors Acta Physiologica © 2012 Scandinavian Physiological Society.
da Silva, Elaine Zayas Marcelino; Jamur, Maria Célia
2014-01-01
Since first described by Paul Ehrlich in 1878, mast cells have been mostly viewed as effectors of allergy. It has been only in the past two decades that mast cells have gained recognition for their involvement in other physiological and pathological processes. Mast cells have a widespread distribution and are found predominantly at the interface between the host and the external environment. Mast cell maturation, phenotype and function are a direct consequence of the local microenvironment and have a marked influence on their ability to specifically recognize and respond to various stimuli through the release of an array of biologically active mediators. These features enable mast cells to act as both first responders in harmful situations as well as to respond to changes in their environment by communicating with a variety of other cells implicated in physiological and immunological responses. Therefore, the critical role of mast cells in both innate and adaptive immunity, including immune tolerance, has gained increased prominence. Conversely, mast cell dysfunction has pointed to these cells as the main offenders in several chronic allergic/inflammatory disorders, cancer and autoimmune diseases. This review summarizes the current knowledge of mast cell function in both normal and pathological conditions with regards to their regulation, phenotype and role. PMID:25062998
Furfuryl alcohol functionalized
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xing Chen
2017-09-01
Full Text Available In this study, graphene was functionalized with furfuryl alcohol (FA through the Diels–Alder reaction. The as-prepared FA functionalized graphene (FAG was characterized by XRD, Raman, TEM, AFM, FT-IR and TG. The sorption performance of the obtained FAG toward radionuclides was evaluated. The maximum sorption capacities from the Langmuir model were calculated to be 1.178, 1.947, 1.431 and 1.608 mmol g−1 for U(VI, Eu(III, Sr(II, and Co(II, respectively, at T = 303 K and pH = 3.0, indicating the hierarchical binding affinity of the FAG surface toward the radionuclides in the order Eu(III > Co(II > Sr(II > U(VI. Based on the experimental results presented in this study, it is clear that FAG can be potentially used as a promising candidate for the sorption of radionuclides.
Roupas, Nikolaos D; Georgopoulos, Neoklis A
2011-01-01
To highlight the recent developments in the field of menstrual function in sports and to provide an overview of our current understanding in regard to the pathophysiology, evaluation and management strategies of exercise-related reproductive dysfunction. A PUBMED search was carried out and all articles published from 1980 to 2010 with title words related to exercise, athletes, menstrual function and primary and secondary amenorrhea were reviewed. The review structure includes a pathophysiology overview, menstrual dysfunction among different athletic disciplines, clinical manifestations, evaluation and management strategies, with particular emphasis on recent data regarding the use of oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy. Exercise-related reproductive dysfunction appears to be multifactorial in origin and remains a diagnosis of exclusion. Recent findings underscore the endocrine role of adipose tissue in the regulation of metabolism and reproduction, providing further data on our understanding of the pathophysiology of exercise-related reproductive dysfunction. Clinical manifestations range from primary amenorrhea or delayed menarche to luteal phase deficiency, oligomenorrhea, anovulation and secondary amenorrhea. Amenorrhea constitutes the most serious clinical consequence and is associated with bone pathology. Early diagnosis, thorough evaluation and individualized management (ranging from diet and exercise, or behavior adjustments to pharmacologic treatment) should be achieved in order to preserve bone mass.
Construction of bent functions from near-bent functions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Leander, Gregor; McGuire, G.
2009-01-01
We give a construction of bent functions in dimension 2m from near-bent functions in dimension 2m - 1. in particular, we give the first ever examples of non-weakly-normal bent functions in dimensions 10 and 12, which demonstrates the significance of our construction.......We give a construction of bent functions in dimension 2m from near-bent functions in dimension 2m - 1. in particular, we give the first ever examples of non-weakly-normal bent functions in dimensions 10 and 12, which demonstrates the significance of our construction....
Applying the functional abnormality ontology pattern to anatomical functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hoehndorf Robert
2010-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Several biomedical ontologies cover the domain of biological functions, including molecular and cellular functions. However, there is currently no publicly available ontology of anatomical functions. Consequently, no explicit relation between anatomical structures and their functions is expressed in the anatomy ontologies that are available for various species. Such an explicit relation between anatomical structures and their functions would be useful both for defining the classes of the anatomy and the phenotype ontologies accurately. Results We provide an ontological analysis of functions and functional abnormalities. From this analysis, we derive an approach to the automatic extraction of anatomical functions from existing ontologies which uses a combination of natural language processing, graph-based analysis of the ontologies and formal inferences. Additionally, we introduce a new relation to link material objects to processes that realize the function of these objects. This relation is introduced to avoid a needless duplication of processes already covered by the Gene Ontology in a new ontology of anatomical functions. Conclusions Ontological considerations on the nature of functional abnormalities and their representation in current phenotype ontologies show that we can extract a skeleton for an ontology of anatomical functions by using a combination of process, phenotype and anatomy ontologies automatically. We identify several limitations of the current ontologies that still need to be addressed to ensure a consistent and complete representation of anatomical functions and their abnormalities. Availability The source code and results of our analysis are available at http://bioonto.de.
Homogeneous Functionalization of Methane.
Gunsalus, Niles Jensen; Koppaka, Anjaneyulu; Park, Sae Hume; Bischof, Steven M; Hashiguchi, Brian G; Periana, Roy A
2017-07-12
One of the remaining "grand challenges" in chemistry is the development of a next generation, less expensive, cleaner process that can allow the vast reserves of methane from natural gas to augment or replace oil as the source of fuels and chemicals. Homogeneous (gas/liquid) systems that convert methane to functionalized products with emphasis on reports after 1995 are reviewed. Gas/solid, bioinorganic, biological, and reaction systems that do not specifically involve methane functionalization are excluded. The various reports are grouped under the main element involved in the direct reactions with methane. Central to the review is classification of the various reports into 12 categories based on both practical considerations and the mechanisms of the elementary reactions with methane. Practical considerations are based on whether or not the system reported can directly or indirectly utilize O2 as the only net coreactant based only on thermodynamic potentials. Mechanistic classifications are based on whether the elementary reactions with methane proceed by chain or nonchain reactions and with stoichiometric reagents or catalytic species. The nonchain reactions are further classified as CH activation (CHA) or CH oxidation (CHO). The bases for these various classifications are defined. In particular, CHA reactions are defined as elementary reactions with methane that result in a discrete methyl intermediate where the formal oxidation state (FOS) on the carbon remains unchanged at -IV relative to that in methane. In contrast, CHO reactions are defined as elementary reactions with methane where the carbon atom of the product is oxidized and has a FOS less negative than -IV. This review reveals that the bulk of the work in the field is relatively evenly distributed across most of the various areas classified. However, a few areas are only marginally examined, or not examined at all. This review also shows that, while significant scientific progress has been made
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henglein, Fritz
2009-01-01
What is a sorting function—not a sorting function for a given ordering relation, but a sorting function with nothing given? Formulating four basic properties of sorting algorithms as defining requirements, we arrive at intrinsic notions of sorting and stable sorting: A function is a sorting...... are derivable without compromising data abstraction. Finally we point out that stable sorting functions as default representations of ordering relations have the advantage of permitting linear-time sorting algorithms; inequality tests forfeit this possibility....... function if and only it is an intrinsically parametric permutation function. It is a stable sorting function if and only if it is an intrinsically stable permutation function. We show that ordering relations can be represented isomorphically as inequality tests, comparators and stable sorting functions...
Soil function and "malfunction"
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elio Coppola
2008-04-01
Full Text Available Most of the scientists define soil from an “agronomic” point of view as the natural system delegated to sustain plantgrowth and agricultural productions on the whole. In this paper soil importance, even in “environmental and social”terms, is pointed out, considering soil as a natural body with its own functional characteristics, regardless ofits agronomic role and productive ability. Some studies show that soil acts as a thermal buffer and detoxifies thecirculating liquid phase. Actually soil is also the depository of the cultural heritage of the society who used it, bothas keeper of relics and manufactured products and as an expression of transformation processes and evolution trendcaused by man’s action itself.The need to protect and preserve soil has to be emphasized by stating its main importance not only as a maintenancesource for all the living beings but also as a factor of environmental control.
Integration a functional approach
Bichteler, Klaus
1998-01-01
This book covers Lebesgue integration and its generalizations from Daniell's point of view, modified by the use of seminorms. Integrating functions rather than measuring sets is posited as the main purpose of measure theory. From this point of view Lebesgue's integral can be had as a rather straightforward, even simplistic, extension of Riemann's integral; and its aims, definitions, and procedures can be motivated at an elementary level. The notion of measurability, for example, is suggested by Littlewood's observations rather than being conveyed authoritatively through definitions of (sigma)-algebras and good-cut-conditions, the latter of which are hard to justify and thus appear mysterious, even nettlesome, to the beginner. The approach taken provides the additional benefit of cutting the labor in half. The use of seminorms, ubiquitous in modern analysis, speeds things up even further. The book is intended for the reader who has some experience with proofs, a beginning graduate student for example. It might...
Physically Functional Materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2002-01-01
acids or peptides having azobenzenes or other physicially functional groups, e.g., photoresponsive groups, as side chains. These compounds may be synthesized using solid phase peptide synthesis techniques. Materials, e.g., thin films, comprising such compounds may be used for optical storage...... of information (holographic data storage), nonlinear optics (NLO), as photoconductors, photonic band-gap materials, electrically conducting materials, electroluminescent materials, piezo-electric materials, pyroelectric materials, magnetic materials, ferromagnetic materials, ferroelectric materials......, photorefractive materials, or materials in which light-induced conformational changes can be produced. Optical anisotropy may reversibly be generated with polarized laser light whereby a hologram is formed. First order diffraction efficiencies of up to around 80% have been obtained....
Functional structure of stomodeum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chependyuk Т.А.
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Purpose: identification of the structure providing outflow of liquid from stomodeum in the process of formation. Material and Methods. 150 stomodea have been investigated for the ways of removal of liquid by the following methods: stage-by-stage freezing, contrasting and macerations. Result. One of the ways of removal of liquid from enamel of a being formed tooth is the crypt canal. Conclusion. Function of the channel of a crypt of developing teeth consists of removal of biological specific dental fluid from a surface of enamel of stomodeum in a mouth in the following options: on an oral surface of alveolar processes, near a periodontal fissure, or directly in a periodontium of a milk tooth — predecessor.
Functionally Graded Materials Database
Kisara, Katsuto; Konno, Tomomi; Niino, Masayuki
2008-02-01
Functionally Graded Materials Database (hereinafter referred to as FGMs Database) was open to the society via Internet in October 2002, and since then it has been managed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). As of October 2006, the database includes 1,703 research information entries with 2,429 researchers data, 509 institution data and so on. Reading materials such as "Applicability of FGMs Technology to Space Plane" and "FGMs Application to Space Solar Power System (SSPS)" were prepared in FY 2004 and 2005, respectively. The English version of "FGMs Application to Space Solar Power System (SSPS)" is now under preparation. This present paper explains the FGMs Database, describing the research information data, the sitemap and how to use it. From the access analysis, user access results and users' interests are discussed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, C K; Andersen, K; Kragh-Sørensen, P
2000-01-01
Statistical analysis of cost data is often difficult because of highly skewed data resulting from a few patients who incur high costs relative to the majority of patients. When the objective is to predict the cost for an individual patient, the literature suggests that one should choose...... on these criteria, a two-part model was chosen. In this model, the probability of incurring any costs was estimated using a logistic regression, while the level of the costs was estimated in the second part of the model. The choice of model had a substantial impact on the predicted health care costs, e...... a regression model based on the quality of its predictions. In exploring the econometric issues, the objective of this study was to estimate a cost function in order to estimate the annual health care cost of dementia. Using different models, health care costs were regressed on the degree of dementia, sex, age...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Winther, Sally
. The first part of this thesis explores this by identifying and investigating two novel kinase regulators of brown adipocyte function. Study 1 demonstrates that spleen tyrosine kinase is a hitherto undescribed regulator of brown adipocyte differentiation and activation. Study 2 identifies glycogen synthase...... kinase 3 as a negative regulator of the canonical p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascade. Thus both studies add novel regulatory layers to the growing understanding of brown adipocyte signal transduction. Activated BAT also exerts great influence on whole body glucose homeostasis......, of great interest for diabetes treatment. The second part of this thesis explores this by investigating glycolytic flux in activated brown adipocytes. Study 3 identifies hypoxia-inducible factor 1α as an important regulator of glycolytic gene expression in brown adipocytes. Study 4 establishes...
[Functional neuroanatomy of emotions].
Schwerdtner, Johannes; Sommer, Monika; Weber, Tatjana; Müller, Jürgen
2004-11-01
In the present study, functional neuroanatomy of the frontal lobe and limbic system could be uncovered as emotion processing neural substrates. fMRI was used to test the influence of induced emotions on a non-affective, attention-demanding, cognitive task. 6 Psychopaths versus 7 controls were analyzed by fMRI with a simon-paradigm after emotion induction. Emotion induction differentially influenced cortical activation patterns in emotion related brain areas like the amygdala and the medial prefrontal cortex. Structural-morphological neural areas of emotion regulation in "psychopathy" show variant activation patterns in fMRI. The neural basis of emotional impairment could be a dysfunctional medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala.
Treatment of Functional Constipation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H Karami
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Childhood constipation is ofton a long_term problem requiring treatment over months or years. There is no single treatment metod for constipation and many children do not respond and continue to have chronic problems. Treatment is consisted of: Disimpaction,Drug adminstration , Diet modilation, and behaverial therapy. It is necessary in all cases that not responding to conventional therapy, un diagnosed organic causes, non proper drug, short course therapy, behaverial disorder and withholding should be considered. Internal anal achalasia, Neural tube defect, Neurointestinal dysplasia. and food allergy are the most important predisposing factors in treatment failer . PEG is drug of choice for treatment and therapy must be continued for several months or years. Psycologic consulting should be considered in patients with severe behaverial disorder. Key words: Children, Functional Constipation, Treatment.
Thermogenesis and thyroid function.
Freake, H C; Oppenheimer, J H
1995-01-01
The past 10 years have seen tremendous progress in the definition of the nuclear mechanism of action of thyroid hormones. Although the way in which these nuclear mechanisms underlie the 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3)-dependent stimulation of metabolic rate remains to be clarified, evidence favoring non-nuclear pathways is limited. Clearly, T3 stimulates both the production and consumption of energy within cells. It also exerts a number of parallel effects that result in increased oxygen consumption, e.g. on mitochondrial structure and composition; on the metabolism of lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins, and on cardiac function. Additionally, T3 may increase the proton permeability of the inner mitochondrial membrane, which implies that it may decrease the efficiency of energy production. These metabolic effects of T3 appear to be restricted to homeothermic-animals, representing a coordinated response to the challenge of maintaining body temperature.
Teaching Function at University
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alma Elena Figueroa Rubalcava
2008-08-01
Full Text Available A peremptory change in education and the higher education at universities is occurriyng. Since 60´s to date theoretical issues on the role of education are continuously on modification more rapidly than the teaching and learning practices that need more time to be realized. In this paper is presented a broad scope of main national and international organizations that propose, promote and systematize those educational changes since a half century ago and specially, those that impact the formation tendency based on competences. On other side, and not pretending be exhaustive, in this paper is highlighted a list of educational competences that teachers need to develop if they pretend to realize their teaching functions with high quality standards, mainly those related with velocity involvement as curriculum constructor.
Baryons with functional methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fischer Christian S.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We summarise recent results on the spectrum of ground-state and excited baryons and their form factors in the framework of functional methods. As an improvement upon similar approaches we explicitly take into account the underlying momentum-dependent dynamics of the quark-gluon interaction that leads to dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. For light octet and decuplet baryons we find a spectrum in very good agreement with experiment, including the level ordering between the positive- and negative-parity nucleon states. Comparing the three-body framework with the quark-diquark approximation, we do not find significant differences in the spectrum for those states that have been calculated in both frameworks. This situation is different in the electromagnetic form factor of the Δ, which may serve to distinguish both pictures by comparison with experiment and lattice QCD.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Naito Yuji
2006-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Appropriate nutrition is an essential prerequisite for effective improvement of athletic performance, conditioning, recovery from fatigue after exercise, and avoidance of injury. Nutritional supplements containing carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals have been widely used in various sporting fields to provide a boost to the recommended daily allowance. In addition, several natural food components have been found to show physiological effects, and some of them are considered to be useful for promoting exercise performance or for prevention of injury. However, these foods should only be used when there is clear scientific evidence and with understanding of the physiological changes caused by exercise. This article describes various "functional foods" that have been reported to be effective for improving exercise performance or health promotion, along with the relevant physiological changes that occur during exercise.
Frustration, function and folding.
Ferreiro, Diego U; Komives, Elizabeth A; Wolynes, Peter G
2017-11-01
Natural protein molecules are exceptional polymers. Encoded in apparently random strings of amino-acids, these objects perform clear physical tasks that are rare to find by simple chance. Accurate folding, specific binding, powerful catalysis, are examples of basic chemical activities that the great majority of polypeptides do not display, and are thought to be the outcome of the natural history of proteins. Function, a concept genuine to Biology, is at the core of evolution and often conflicts with the physical constraints. Locating the frustration between discrepant goals in a recurrent system leads to fundamental insights about the chances and necessities that shape the encoding of biological information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Madjid Mirzavaziri
2010-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the notion of an ℱ-metric, as a function valued distance mapping, on a set X and we investigate the theory of ℱ-metrics paces. We show that every metric space may be viewed as an F-metric space and every ℱ-metric space (X,δ can be regarded as a topological space (X,τδ. In addition, we prove that the category of the so-called extended F-metric spaces properly contains the category of metric spaces. We also introduce the concept of an `ℱ-metric space as a completion of an ℱ-metric space and, as an application to topology, we prove that each normal topological space is `ℱ-metrizable.
Commentary: freedom and function.
Buchanan, Alec
2008-01-01
While the question of whether our actions are determined or are the result of free will is a deep one in philosophy, it does not need to be answered for forensic psychiatrists to give evidence in court. As Stephen Morse has pointed out, the absence of free will is not named as an excusing condition. The insanity defense, for instance, requires proof of functional impairment, to which psychiatrists can usefully testify. Of the approaches available to determinism, my own preference is that of Herbert Hart: until we know that determinism is true, we will continue to prefer a system that requires persons to have made proper choices to act as they did before we hold them responsible. This seems to resemble Dr. Felthous' preferred option, that mentally responsible choices are choices made in the presence of a relatively natural ability to have decided otherwise.
Triebel, Hans
1983-01-01
The book deals with the two scales Bsp,q and Fsp,q of spaces of distributions, where -8functions, Fourier multipliers and interpolation assertions. These topics are treated in Chapter 2, which is the heart
Lyapunov functionals and stability of stochastic functional differential equations
Shaikhet, Leonid
2013-01-01
Stability conditions for functional differential equations can be obtained using Lyapunov functionals. Lyapunov Functionals and Stability of Stochastic Functional Differential Equations describes the general method of construction of Lyapunov functionals to investigate the stability of differential equations with delays. This work continues and complements the author’s previous book Lyapunov Functionals and Stability of Stochastic Difference Equations, where this method is described for discrete- and continuous-time difference equations. The text begins with a description of the peculiarities of deterministic and stochastic functional differential equations. There follow basic definitions for stability theory of stochastic hereditary systems, and a formal procedure of Lyapunov functionals construction is presented. Stability investigation is conducted for stochastic linear and nonlinear differential equations with constant and distributed delays. The proposed method is used for stability investigation of di...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giuseppe Dattoli
1996-05-01
Full Text Available q analog of bessel functions, symmetric under the interchange of q and q^ −1 are introduced. The definition is based on the generating function realized as product of symmetric q-exponential functions with appropriate arguments. Symmetric q-Bessel function are shown to satisfy various identities as well as second-order q-differential equations, which in the limit q → 1 reproduce those obeyed by the usual cylindrical Bessel functions. A brief discussion on the possible algebraic setting for symmetric q-Bessel functions is also provided.
Functional integrals for the partition functions of dual strings
Nahm, W
1977-01-01
The partition functions and helicity partition functions of the known dual strings can be obtained from functional integrals. These integrals are defined using a cut-off which is essentially equivalent to Ramanujan's definition of divergent sums. This leads to a very compact algorithm. (13 refs).
Parallel transaction processing in functional languages, towards practical functional databases
Wevers, L.; Huisman, Marieke; de Keijzer, Ander
2013-01-01
This paper shows how functional languages can be adapted for transaction processing, and discusses the implementation of a parallel runtime system for such functional transaction processing languages. We extend functional languages with current state variables and result state variables to allow the
Variational energy functionals of the Green function tested on molecules
Dahlen, NE; Von Barth, U; Dahlen, Nils Erik
2005-01-01
It was recently proposed to use variational functionals based on manybody perturbation theory for the calculation of the total energies of many-electron systems. The accuracy of such functionals depends on the degree of sophistication of the underlying perturbation expansions. The energy functionals
A certain sequence of functions involving the Aleph function
Agarwal, P.; Chand, M.; Onur Kiymaz, İ.; Çetinkaya, A.
2016-01-01
Sequences of functions play an important role in approximation theory. In this paper, we aim to establish a (presumably new) sequence of functions involving the Aleph function by using operational techniques. Some generating relations and finite summation formulas of the sequence presented here are also considered.
A certain sequence of functions involving the Aleph function
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Agarwal P.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Sequences of functions play an important role in approximation theory. In this paper, we aim to establish a (presumably new sequence of functions involving the Aleph function by using operational techniques. Some generating relations and finite summation formulas of the sequence presented here are also considered.
Computer Experiments for Function Approximations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chang, A; Izmailov, I; Rizzo, S; Wynter, S; Alexandrov, O; Tong, C
2007-10-15
This research project falls in the domain of response surface methodology, which seeks cost-effective ways to accurately fit an approximate function to experimental data. Modeling and computer simulation are essential tools in modern science and engineering. A computer simulation can be viewed as a function that receives input from a given parameter space and produces an output. Running the simulation repeatedly amounts to an equivalent number of function evaluations, and for complex models, such function evaluations can be very time-consuming. It is then of paramount importance to intelligently choose a relatively small set of sample points in the parameter space at which to evaluate the given function, and then use this information to construct a surrogate function that is close to the original function and takes little time to evaluate. This study was divided into two parts. The first part consisted of comparing four sampling methods and two function approximation methods in terms of efficiency and accuracy for simple test functions. The sampling methods used were Monte Carlo, Quasi-Random LP{sub {tau}}, Maximin Latin Hypercubes, and Orthogonal-Array-Based Latin Hypercubes. The function approximation methods utilized were Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) and Support Vector Machines (SVM). The second part of the study concerned adaptive sampling methods with a focus on creating useful sets of sample points specifically for monotonic functions, functions with a single minimum and functions with a bounded first derivative.
Function-function correlated multi-label protein function prediction over interaction networks.
Wang, Hua; Huang, Heng; Ding, Chris
2013-04-01
Many previous works in protein function prediction make predictions one function at a time, fundamentally, which assumes the functional categories to be isolated. However, biological processes are highly correlated and usually intertwined together to happen at the same time; therefore, it would be beneficial to consider protein function prediction as one indivisible task and treat all the functional categories as an integral and correlated prediction target. By leveraging the function-function correlations, it is expected to achieve improved overall predictive accuracy. To this end, we develop a network-based protein function prediction approach, under the framework of multi-label classification in machine learning, to utilize the function-function correlations. Besides formulating the function-function correlations in the optimization objective explicitly, we also exploit them as part of the pairwise protein-protein similarities implicitly. The algorithm is built upon the Green's function over a graph, which not only employs the global topology of a network but also captures its local structures. In addition, we propose an adaptive decision boundary method to deal with the unbalanced distribution of protein annotation data. Finally, we quantify the statistical confidence of predicted functions to facilitate post-processing of proteomic analysis. We evaluate the proposed approach on Saccharomyces cerevisiae data, and the experimental results demonstrate very encouraging results.
Acupuncture for functional dyspepsia.
Lan, Lei; Zeng, Fang; Liu, Guan J; Ying, Li; Wu, Xi; Liu, Mailan; Liang, Fan-Rong
2014-10-13
Functional dyspepsia (FD) has been a worldwide complaint. More effective therapies are needed with fewer adverse effects than are seen with conventional medications. Acupuncture, as a traditional therapeutic method, has been widely used for functional gastrointestinal disorders in the East. Manual acupuncture and electroacupuncture have been recognized treatments for FD, but to date, no robust evidence has been found for the effectiveness and safety of these interventions in the treatment of this condition. This review was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of manual acupuncture and electroacupuncture in the treatment of FD. Trials meeting the inclusion criteria were identified through electronic searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED), Chinese Biology Medicine Disc (CBMdisc), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), the Wanfang Database, the VIP Database, and six trial registries. Handsearching was done to screen the reference sections of potential trials and reviews. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included if investigators reported efficacy and safety of manual acupuncture or electroacupuncture for patients with FD diagnosed by Rome II or Rome III criteria, compared with medications, blank control, or sham acupuncture. Data were extracted by independent review authors. Study limitations were assessed by using the tool of The Cochrane Collabration for assessing risk of bias. For dichotomous data, risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) would be applied, and for continuous data, mean differences (MDs) and 95% CIs. A fixed-effect model was applied in the meta-analysis, or a descriptive analysis was performed. The quality of evidence for the outcome measure was assessed by the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methods. Seven studies were included in the review, involving 542
Interpolation in Spaces of Functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Mosaleheh
2006-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper we consider the interpolation by certain functions such as trigonometric and rational functions for finite dimensional linear space X. Then we extend this to infinite dimensional linear spaces
Methylmercury toxicity and functional programming
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Grandjean, Philippe
2007-01-01
PURPOSE: Adverse health effects of developmental toxicants may induce abnormal functional programming that leads to lasting functional deficits. This notion is considered from epidemiological evidence using developmental methylmercury neurotoxicity as an example. MOST IMPORTANT FINDINGS: Accumula...
Prediction Error During Functional and Non-Functional Action Sequences
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielbo, Kristoffer Laigaard; Sørensen, Jesper
2013-01-01
By means of the computational approach the present study investigates the difference between observation of functional behavior (i.e. actions involving necessary integration of subparts) and non-functional behavior (i.e. actions lacking necessary integration of subparts) in terms of prediction...... recurrent networks were made and the results are presented in this article. The simulations show that non-functional action sequences do indeed increase prediction error, but that context representations, such as abstract goal information, can modulate the error signal considerably. It is also shown...... that the networks are sensitive to boundaries between sequences in both functional and non-functional actions....
Microbial Functional Gene Diversity Predicts Groundwater Contamination and Ecosystem Functioning.
He, Zhili; Zhang, Ping; Wu, Linwei; Rocha, Andrea M; Tu, Qichao; Shi, Zhou; Wu, Bo; Qin, Yujia; Wang, Jianjun; Yan, Qingyun; Curtis, Daniel; Ning, Daliang; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Wu, Liyou; Yang, Yunfeng; Elias, Dwayne A; Watson, David B; Adams, Michael W W; Fields, Matthew W; Alm, Eric J; Hazen, Terry C; Adams, Paul D; Arkin, Adam P; Zhou, Jizhong
2018-02-20
Contamination from anthropogenic activities has significantly impacted Earth's biosphere. However, knowledge about how environmental contamination affects the biodiversity of groundwater microbiomes and ecosystem functioning remains very limited. Here, we used a comprehensive functional gene array to analyze groundwater microbiomes from 69 wells at the Oak Ridge Field Research Center (Oak Ridge, TN), representing a wide pH range and uranium, nitrate, and other contaminants. We hypothesized that the functional diversity of groundwater microbiomes would decrease as environmental contamination (e.g., uranium or nitrate) increased or at low or high pH, while some specific populations capable of utilizing or resistant to those contaminants would increase, and thus, such key microbial functional genes and/or populations could be used to predict groundwater contamination and ecosystem functioning. Our results indicated that functional richness/diversity decreased as uranium (but not nitrate) increased in groundwater. In addition, about 5.9% of specific key functional populations targeted by a comprehensive functional gene array (GeoChip 5) increased significantly ( P < 0.05) as uranium or nitrate increased, and their changes could be used to successfully predict uranium and nitrate contamination and ecosystem functioning. This study indicates great potential for using microbial functional genes to predict environmental contamination and ecosystem functioning. IMPORTANCE Disentangling the relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning is an important but poorly understood topic in ecology. Predicting ecosystem functioning on the basis of biodiversity is even more difficult, particularly with microbial biomarkers. As an exploratory effort, this study used key microbial functional genes as biomarkers to provide predictive understanding of environmental contamination and ecosystem functioning. The results indicated that the overall functional gene richness
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sorichter, S. [Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg, Abteilung Pneumologie, Freiburg (Germany)
2009-08-15
The term lung function is often restricted to the assessment of volume time curves measured at the mouth. Spirometry includes the assessment of lung volumes which can be mobilised with the corresponding flow-volume curves. In addition, lung volumes that can not be mobilised, such as the residual volume, or only partially as FRC and TLC can be measured by body plethysmography combined with the determination of the airway resistance. Body plethysmography allows the correct positioning of forced breathing manoeuvres on the volume-axis, e.g. before and after pharmacotherapy. Adding the CO single breath transfer factor (T{sub LCO}), which includes the measurement of the ventilated lung volume using He, enables a clear diagnosis of different obstructive, restrictive or mixed ventilatory defects with and without trapped air. Tests of reversibility and provocation, as well as the assessment of inspiratory mouth pressures (PI{sub max}, P{sub 0.1}) help to classify the underlying disorder and to clarify treatment strategies. For further information and to complete the diagnostic of disturbances of the ventilation, diffusion and/or perfusion (capillar-)arterial bloodgases at rest and under physical strain sometimes amended by ergospirometry are recommended. Ideally, lung function measurements are amended by radiological and nuclear medicine techniques. (orig.) [German] Unter dem Begriff Lungenfunktion wird die Bestimmung der Lungenvolumina am Mund verstanden. Dabei werden die mobilisierbaren Lungenvolumina mit den zugehoerigen Fluss-Volumen-Kurven mittels Spirometrie und Ganzkoerperplethysmographie (GKP) und die nicht (RV) und teilweise mobilisierbaren Lungenvolumina (FRC, TLC) einschliesslich der Atemwegswiderstaende bestimmt. Die GKP ermoeglicht zusaetzlich die korrekte (Volumenachsen-)Positionierung der forcierten Atemmanoever. Dieses erlaubt eine uebersichtlichere graphische Darstellung z. B. vor und nach der Applikation pharmakologisch wirksamer Substanzen. Wird die GKP
Combinatorially Generated Piecewise Activation Functions
Chen, Justin
2016-01-01
In the neuroevolution literature, research has primarily focused on evolving the number of nodes, connections, and weights in artificial neural networks. Few attempts have been made to evolve activation functions. Research in evolving activation functions has mainly focused on evolving function parameters, and developing heterogeneous networks by selecting from a fixed pool of activation functions. This paper introduces a novel technique for evolving heterogeneous artificial neural networks t...
Reversible synthesis of incompletely specified Boolean functions using functional decomposition
Rawski, Mariusz; Szotkowski, Piotr
2017-08-01
Conventional microelectronic technology reaches its limits, and reversible logic circuits might address at least one of the problems: unwanted energy dissipation. Unfortunately, current methods of reversible function synthesis have certain limitations, including suboptimal handling of incompletely specified Boolean functions and yielding circuit sizes (and costs) that can be vastly improved upon. This paper presents the application of functional decomposition as a crucial step in synthesis of reversible logic that cost-efficiently implements incompletely specified Boolean functions. A decomposition of an incompletely specified Boolean function into a network of smaller sub-functions, subsequently synthesized into reversible blocks and composed into a reversible system, yields significantly better results than direct reversible synthesis of the original, incompletely specified Boolean function. The experimental results presented in this paper demonstrate the potential of the proposed approach.
Functional neuroanatomy of tics.
Neuner, Irene; Schneider, Frank; Shah, N Jon
2013-01-01
The therapeutic success of haloperidol in the treatment of Tourette syndrome (TS) put an end to the discussion about a "hysteric" or "neurotic" origin of TS. The cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit has been identified as an underlying neurobiological correlate of TS. In this review we explore the main findings of structural alterations in TS including cortical areas, basal ganglia, hippocampus, amygdala, midbrain, and cerebellum. Based on the structural changes we examine the functional pattern described by the findings of fMRI and (15)O-PET/(18)FDG PET investigations. From the neuroimaging findings a cortical origin of the generation of tics is indicated. Future research on the neuronal footprint of TS should be directed towards addressing the question of which patterns of connectivity distinguish individuals in whom tics disappear during early adulthood from those in whom the tics persist. The understanding of this pathomechanism could provide a key on how to influence dysconnectivity in TS, for example, by more specific pharmaceutical intervention or by individually adopted EEG and/or fMRI neurofeedback. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Demand functions and reflexivity
Polyrakis, Ioannis A.
2008-02-01
In the theory of ordered spaces and in microeconomic theory two important notions, the notion of the base for a cone which is defined by a continuous linear functional and the notion of the budget set are equivalent. In economic theory the maximization of the preference relation of a consumer on any budget set defines the demand correspondence which at any price vector indicates the preferred vectors of goods and this is one of the fundamental notions of this theory. Contrary to the finite-dimensional economies, in the infinite-dimensional ones, the existence of the demand correspondence is not ensured. In this article we show that in reflexive spaces (and in some other classes of Banach spaces), there are only two classes of closed cones, i.e. cones whose any budget set is bounded and cones whose any budget set is unbounded. Based on this dichotomy result, we prove that in the first category of these cones the demand correspondence exists and that it is upper hemicontinuous. We prove also a characterization of reflexive spaces based on the existence of the demand correspondences.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marcilene C. Heidmann Soccol
2003-06-01
Full Text Available Functional food presents specific physiological properties, supplies nutrients and can be naturally found in formulated food or added to it. Seafood plays an important role in human diet, representing the largest stock available of w-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic (EPA and docosahexaenoic (DHA. Scientific researchers have intensified their studies on fatty acids due to their importance in preventing and/or curing diseases, especially cardiovascular and inflammatory ones. This review describes the most important aspects of w-3 fatty acids found in fish, as well as their roles in the mechanism involved in the prevention and control of diseases.O pescado é um importante constituinte da dieta humana e possui a maior reserva de ácidos graxos polinsaturados, especialmente o eicosapentanóico (EPA e o docosahexanóico (DHA da série w-3. Têm-se intensificado as pesquisas científicas a respeito desses ácidos graxos por estes estarem envolvidos na prevenção e/ou cura de doenças, principalmente cardiovasculares e inflamatórias. Esta revisão teve como objetivo discutir os aspectos mais importantes dos ácidos graxos w-3 presentes no pescado, bem como, os seus mecanismos de ação, envolvidos na prevenção e controle de doenças.
Soil function and "malfunction"
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elio Coppola
2011-02-01
Full Text Available Most of the scientists define soil from an “agronomic” point of view as the natural system delegated to sustain plant
growth and agricultural productions on the whole. In this paper soil importance, even in “environmental and social”
terms, is pointed out, considering soil as a natural body with its own functional characteristics, regardless of
its agronomic role and productive ability. Some studies show that soil acts as a thermal buffer and detoxifies the
circulating liquid phase. Actually soil is also the depository of the cultural heritage of the society who used it, both
as keeper of relics and manufactured products and as an expression of transformation processes and evolution trend
caused by man’s action itself.
The need to protect and preserve soil has to be emphasized by stating its main importance not only as a maintenance
source for all the living beings but also as a factor of environmental control.
Travers, Andrew; Muskhelishvili, Georgi
2015-06-01
The proposal of a double-helical structure for DNA over 60 years ago provided an eminently satisfying explanation for the heritability of genetic information. But why is DNA, and not RNA, now the dominant biological information store? We argue that, in addition to its coding function, the ability of DNA, unlike RNA, to adopt a B-DNA structure confers advantages both for information accessibility and for packaging. The information encoded by DNA is both digital - the precise base specifying, for example, amino acid sequences - and analogue. The latter determines the sequence-dependent physicochemical properties of DNA, for example, its stiffness and susceptibility to strand separation. Most importantly, DNA chirality enables the formation of supercoiling under torsional stress. We review recent evidence suggesting that DNA supercoiling, particularly that generated by DNA translocases, is a major driver of gene regulation and patterns of chromosomal gene organization, and in its guise as a promoter of DNA packaging enables DNA to act as an energy store to facilitate the passage of translocating enzymes such as RNA polymerase. © 2015 FEBS.
Functional amyloids in bacteria.
Romero, Diego; Kolter, Roberto
2014-06-01
The term amyloidosis is used to refer to a family of pathologies altering the homeostasis of human organs. Despite having a name that alludes to starch content, the amyloid accumulations are made up of proteins that polymerize as long and rigid fibers. Amyloid proteins vary widely with respect to their amino acid sequences but they share similarities in their quaternary structure; the amyloid fibers are enriched in β-sheets arranged perpendicular to the axis of the fiber. This structural feature provides great robustness, remarkable stability, and insolubility. In addition, amyloid proteins specifically stain with certain dyes such as Congo red and thioflavin-T. The aggregation into amyloid fibers, however, it is not restricted to pathogenic processes, rather it seems to be widely distributed among proteins and polypeptides. Amyloid fibers are present in insects, fungi and bacteria, and they are important in maintaining the homeostasis of the organism. Such findings have motivated the use of the term "functional amyloid" to differentiate these amyloid proteins from their toxic siblings. This review focuses on systems that have evolved in bacteria that control the expression and assembly of amyloid proteins on cell surfaces, such that the robustness of amyloid proteins are used towards a beneficial end. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.
COTTAGE CHEESE PRODUCTS FUNCTIONALITY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. V. Golubeva
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Cottage cheese products holds a significant place among the dairy and milk-containing products. The range of products includes cheese: cheese, pastes, creams, cakes, etc. Such diversity can be attributed to their popularity among the population and benefit brought by the body from regular use. Curd protein is much better and easier to digest by the body than protein fish, meat or milk. Rich curd products lysine and methionine. Minerals contained in cheese products have a positive effect on bone formation and structure of tissues. The composition of curd products, in addition to cheese and dairy ingredients may include non-dairy ingredients origin. Today, for the production of cheese products use the most advanced technologies to further enrich its structure and significantly improve the nutritional value. Pine nut is widely used in the manufacture of many dairy products. But, in most cases, the production of dairy products as a filler used pine nut cake, which deprives the finished product valuable cedar oil. The authors proposed a technology for producing curd product with the addition of pine nuts and honey (pine nuts and fructose. Compatible with cream cheese filling insertion determined sensory organoleptic point scale. he optimum dosage of components: pine nuts – 5 %, honey – 10 % fructose – 7 %. Technological process of cottage cheese product is different from the traditional operations training components and their introduction into the finished cheese. Identify indicators of quality of the new product. Production of curd products thus expanding the range of dairy products functional orientation.
Adolfsson, Oskar; Meydani, Simin Nikbin; Russell, Robert M
2004-08-01
In recent years, numerous studies have been published on the health effects of yogurt and the bacterial cultures used in the production of yogurt. In the United States, these lactic acid-producing bacteria (LAB) include Lactobacillus and Streptococcus species. The benefits of yogurt and LAB on gastrointestinal health have been investigated in animal models and, occasionally, in human subjects. Some studies using yogurt, individual LAB species, or both showed promising health benefits for certain gastrointestinal conditions, including lactose intolerance, constipation, diarrheal diseases, colon cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, Helicobacter pylori infection, and allergies. Patients with any of these conditions could possibly benefit from the consumption of yogurt. The benefits of yogurt consumption to gastrointestinal function are most likely due to effects mediated through the gut microflora, bowel transit, and enhancement of gastrointestinal innate and adaptive immune responses. Although substantial evidence currently exists to support a beneficial effect of yogurt consumption on gastrointestinal health, there is inconsistency in reported results, which may be due to differences in the strains of LAB used, in routes of administration, or in investigational procedures or to the lack of objective definition of "gut health." Further well-designed, controlled human studies of adequate duration are needed to confirm or extend these findings.
Muniz, R.; Martinez, El; Szafran, J.; Dalton, A.
2011-01-01
The Function Point Analysis (FPA) Depot is a web application originally designed by one of the NE-C3 branch's engineers, Jamie Szafran, and created specifically for the Software Development team of the Launch Control Systems (LCS) project. The application consists of evaluating the work of each developer to be able to get a real estimate of the hours that is going to be assigned to a specific task of development. The Architect Team had made design change requests for the depot to change the schema of the application's information; that information, changed in the database, needed to be changed in the graphical user interface (GUI) (written in Ruby on Rails (RoR and the web service/server side in Java to match the database changes. These changes were made by two interns from NE-C, Ricardo Muniz from NE-C3, who made all the schema changes for the GUI in RoR and Edwin Martinez, from NE-C2, who made all the changes in the Java side.
Weinstein, Steven
2016-01-01
Noise is widely understood to be something that interferes with a signal or process. Thus, it is generally thought to be destructive, obscuring signals and interfering with function. However, early in the 20th century, mechanical engineers found that mechanisms inducing additional vibration in mechanical systems could prevent sticking and hysteresis. This so-called "dither" noise was later introduced in an entirely different context at the advent of digital information transmission and recording in the early 1960s. Ironically, the addition of noise allows one to preserve information that would otherwise be lost when the signal or image is digitized. As we shall see, the benefits of added noise in these contexts are closely related to the phenomenon which has come to be known as stochastic resonance, the original version of which appealed to noise to explain how small periodic fluctuations in the eccentricity of the earth's orbit might be amplified in such a way as to bring about the observed periodic transiti...
Functional electrospun membranes
Ognibene, G.; Fragalà, M. E.; Cristaldi, D. A.; Blanco, I.; Cicala, G.
2016-05-01
In this study we combined electrospun PES nanofibers with ZnO nanostructures in order to obtain a hierarchical nanostructured hybrid material to be use for active water filtration membranes. It benefits of flexibility and high surface area of the polymeric nanofibers as well as of additional functionalities of ZnOnanostructures. First, randomly oriented nanofibers with diameters of 716nm ±365 nm were electrospun on a glass fibers substrate from a solution of PES and DMF-TOL(1:1). ZnO nanorods were grown onto the surface of electrospun PES fibers by a Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) process. It was preceed by a seeding process necessary to form nucleation sites for the subsequent radially aligned growth of ZnO nanowires. The morfology of the fibers and the effect of the seeding time have been analysed by SEM. The amount of ZnO nanowires grown over electrospun nanofibers was determined as 45% by weight. The high purity and crystallinity of the asobtained products are confirmed by XRD since all reflection peaks can be indexed to hexagonal wurtzite ZnO.
Comments on the slope function
Kim, Minkyoo
2016-01-01
The exact slope function was first proposed in $SL(2)$ sector and generalized to $SU(2)$ sector later. In this note, we consider the slope function in $SU(1|1)$ sector of ${\\cal N}=4$ SYM. We derive the quantity through the method invented by N. Gromov and discuss about its validity. Further, we give comments on the slope function in deformed SYM.
Functional unit for a processor
Rohani, A.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.
2013-01-01
The invention relates to a functional unit for a processor, such as a Very Large Instruction Word Processor. The invention further relates to a processor comprising at least one such functional unit. The invention further relates to a functional unit and processor capable of mitigating the effect of
Functional requirements of road lighting.
Schreuder, D.A.
1975-01-01
The functional, technical and visual requirements for public lighting are discussed. The improvement of the presentation of information to the road user is the main functional requirement. The visual requirements can be deduced from the functional requirement of enabling drivers to follow the
Disgust: Evolved function and structure
Tybur, J.M.; Lieberman, D.; Kurzban, R.; DeScioli, P.
2013-01-01
Interest in and research on disgust has surged over the past few decades. The field, however, still lacks a coherent theoretical framework for understanding the evolved function or functions of disgust. Here we present such a framework, emphasizing 2 levels of analysis: that of evolved function and
The leaky aquifer function revisited
N.M. Temme (Nico)
2009-01-01
textabstractThis papers discusses the leaky aquifer function considered in a recent paper by Frank Harris in the Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics (2008). We describe properties of an integral representing this function and give details on how to compute this function with a single
Staircase and Fractional Part Functions
Amram, Meirav; Dagan, Miriam; Ioshpe, Michael; Satianov, Pavel
2016-01-01
The staircase and fractional part functions are basic examples of real functions. They can be applied in several parts of mathematics, such as analysis, number theory, formulas for primes, and so on; in computer programming, the floor and ceiling functions are provided by a significant number of programming languages--they have some basic uses in…
Divisors, measures and critical functions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 119; Issue 3. Divisors ... Keywords. Trace function; divisors; minimal polynomial; critical function. ... We define the critical function for a class of transcendental numbers, that generalizes the notion of minimal polynomial of an algebraic number. Our results ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Per Printz
1999-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to describe a neural network (SNN), that is based on Shannons ideas of reconstruction of a real continuous function from its samples. The basic function, used in this network, is the Sinc-function. Two learning algorithms are described. A simple one called IM...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Per Printz
1998-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to describe a neural network (SNN), that is based on Shannons ideas of reconstruction of a real continuous function from its samples. The basic function, used in this network, is the Sinc-function. Two learning algorithms are described. A simple one called IM...
Extended screened exchange functional derived from transcorrelated density functional theory
Umezawa, Naoto
2017-09-01
We propose a new formulation of the correlation energy functional derived from the transcorrelated method in use in density functional theory (TC-DFT). An effective Hamiltonian, HTC, is introduced by a similarity transformation of a many-body Hamiltonian, H , with respect to a complex function F: HTC=1/F H F . It is proved that an expectation value of HTC for a normalized single Slater determinant, Dn, corresponds to the total energy: E [n ] = ⟨Ψn|H |Ψn ⟩ /⟨Ψn|Ψn ⟩ = ⟨Dn|HTC|Dn ⟩ under the two assumptions: (1) The electron density n (r ) associated with a trial wave function Ψn = DnF is v -representable and (2) Ψn and Dn give rise to the same electron density n (r ). This formulation, therefore, provides an alternative expression of the total energy that is useful for the development of novel correlation energy functionals. By substituting a specific function for F, we successfully derived a model correlation energy functional, which resembles the functional form of the screened exchange method. The proposed functional, named the extended screened exchange (ESX) functional, is described within two-body integrals and is parametrized for a numerically exact correlation energy of the homogeneous electron gas. The ESX functional does not contain any ingredients of (semi-)local functionals and thus is totally free from self-interactions. The computational cost for solving the self-consistent-field equation is comparable to that of the Hartree-Fock method. We apply the ESX functional to electronic structure calculations for a solid silicon, H- ion, and small atoms. The results demonstrate that the TC-DFT formulation is promising for the systematic improvement of the correlation energy functional.
Functional equations with causal operators
Corduneanu, C
2003-01-01
Functional equations encompass most of the equations used in applied science and engineering: ordinary differential equations, integral equations of the Volterra type, equations with delayed argument, and integro-differential equations of the Volterra type. The basic theory of functional equations includes functional differential equations with causal operators. Functional Equations with Causal Operators explains the connection between equations with causal operators and the classical types of functional equations encountered by mathematicians and engineers. It details the fundamentals of linear equations and stability theory and provides several applications and examples.
Proposals for iterated hash functions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Thomsen, Søren Steffen
2006-01-01
some generic attacks. We also give a concrete proposal for a new hash function construction, given a secure compression function which, unlike in typical existing constructions, is not required to be resistant to all types of collisions. Finally, we show how members of the SHA-family can be turned......The past few years have seen an increase in the number of attacks on cryptographic hash functions. These include attacks directed at specific hash functions, and generic attacks on the typical method of constructing hash functions. In this paper we discuss possible methods for protecting against...... into constructions of our proposed type....
Proposals for Iterated Hash Functions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Thomsen, Søren Steffen
2008-01-01
some generic attacks. We also give a concrete proposal for a new hash function construction, given a secure compression function which, unlike in typical existing constructions, is not required to be resistant to all types of collisions. Finally, we show how members of the SHA-family can be turned......The past few years have seen an increase in the number of attacks on cryptographic hash functions. These include attacks directed at specific hash functions, and generic attacks on the typical method of constructing hash functions. In this paper we discuss possible methods for protecting against...... into constructions of our proposed type....
Banach spaces of analytic functions
Hoffman, Kenneth
2007-01-01
A classic of pure mathematics, this advanced graduate-level text explores the intersection of functional analysis and analytic function theory. Close in spirit to abstract harmonic analysis, it is confined to Banach spaces of analytic functions in the unit disc.The author devotes the first four chapters to proofs of classical theorems on boundary values and boundary integral representations of analytic functions in the unit disc, including generalizations to Dirichlet algebras. The fifth chapter contains the factorization theory of Hp functions, a discussion of some partial extensions of the f
Functional Analysis in Interdisciplinary Applications
Nursultanov, Erlan; Ruzhansky, Michael; Sadybekov, Makhmud
2017-01-01
This volume presents current research in functional analysis and its applications to a variety of problems in mathematics and mathematical physics. The book contains over forty carefully refereed contributions to the conference “Functional Analysis in Interdisciplinary Applications” (Astana, Kazakhstan, October 2017). Topics covered include the theory of functions and functional spaces; differential equations and boundary value problems; the relationship between differential equations, integral operators and spectral theory; and mathematical methods in physical sciences. Presenting a wide range of topics and results, this book will appeal to anyone working in the subject area, including researchers and students interested to learn more about different aspects and applications of functional analysis.
[Functional gastrointestinal disorders].
Moser, Gabriele
2006-08-01
The functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) are the most frequent clinical conditions seen in practice. The FGID are associated with significant work absenteeism, impaired quality of life and increased medical costs. Most patients also suffer from psychosocial problems. Therefore it is important to define the patient's complaints in terms of a biopsychosocial disorder rather than just a medical illness. Physicians must acknowledge the relevance of the psychosocial aspects to prepare the patient for a referral to a specialist (in psychosomatic medicine or a psychotherapist) and to get the patient interested in the psychological factors involved as well as further explore their cause. Most of the research on psychotherapy in FGID to date has focused on the irritable bowel syndrome, and different methods of treatments have been studied (e. g., cognitive-behavioral therapy, dynamic psychotherapy, hypnotherapy, and relaxation). Randomised controlled studies have shown that psychotherapy is superior to conventional medical therapy. Hypnotherapy seems to be very successful. Predictors of a positive response to psychological treatment generally are: (1) awareness that stress exacerbates their bowel symptoms, (2) mild anxiety or depression, (3) the predominant bowel symptom is abdominal pain or diarrhea and not constipation, (4) the abdominal pain waxes and wanes in response to eating, defecation, or stress rather than being constant pain, and (5) the symptoms are of relatively short duration. Psychotherapy is initially relatively expensive because it requires multiple, long sessions. However, its benefits persist or even increase over time, and in the long run, there may be a reduction in clinic visits and health care costs which offsets the initial cost of psychological treatment.
On hash functions using checksums
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gauravaram, Praveen; Kelsey, John; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde
2008-01-01
We analyse the security of iterated hash functions that compute an input dependent checksum which is processed as part of the hash computation. We show that a large class of such schemes, including those using non-linear or even one-way checksum functions, is not secure against the second preimage...... attack of Kelsey and Schneier, the herding attack of Kelsey and Kohno, and the multicollision attack of Joux. Our attacks also apply to a large class of cascaded hash functions. Our second preimage attacks on the cascaded hash functions improve the results of Joux presented at Crypto'04. We also apply...... our attacks to the MD2 and GOST hash functions. Our second preimage attacks on the MD2 and GOST hash functions improve the previous best known short-cut second preimage attacks on these hash functions by factors of at least $2^{26}$ and $2^{54}$, respectively....
On hash functions using checksums
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gauravaram, Praveen; Kelsey, John; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde
2010-01-01
We analyse the security of iterated hash functions that compute an input dependent checksum which is processed as part of the hash computation. We show that a large class of such schemes, including those using non-linear or even one-way checksum functions, is not secure against the second preimage...... attack of Kelsey and Schneier, the herding attack of Kelsey and Kohno and the multicollision attack of Joux. Our attacks also apply to a large class of cascaded hash functions. Our second preimage attacks on the cascaded hash functions improve the results of Joux presented at Crypto'04. We also apply our...... attacks to the MD2 and GOST hash functions. Our second preimage attacks on the MD2 and GOST hash functions improve the previous best known short-cut second preimage attacks on these hash functions by factors of at least 226 and 254, respectively. Our herding and multicollision attacks on the hash...
Functional Programming in Computer Science
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anderson, Loren James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Davis, Marion Kei [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016-01-19
We explore functional programming through a 16-week internship at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Functional programming is a branch of computer science that has exploded in popularity over the past decade due to its high-level syntax, ease of parallelization, and abundant applications. First, we summarize functional programming by listing the advantages of functional programming languages over the usual imperative languages, and we introduce the concept of parsing. Second, we discuss the importance of lambda calculus in the theory of functional programming. Lambda calculus was invented by Alonzo Church in the 1930s to formalize the concept of effective computability, and every functional language is essentially some implementation of lambda calculus. Finally, we display the lasting products of the internship: additions to a compiler and runtime system for the pure functional language STG, including both a set of tests that indicate the validity of updates to the compiler and a compiler pass that checks for illegal instances of duplicate names.
Hexagon functions and the three-loop remainder function
Dixon, Lance J.; von Hippel, Matt; Pennington, Jeffrey
2013-01-01
We present the three-loop remainder function, which describes the scattering of six gluons in the maximally-helicity-violating configuration in planar N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory, as a function of the three dual conformal cross ratios. The result can be expressed in terms of multiple Goncharov polylogarithms. We also employ a more restricted class of "hexagon functions" which have the correct branch cuts and certain other restrictions on their symbols. We classify all the hexagon functions through transcendental weight five, using the coproduct for their Hopf algebra iteratively, which amounts to a set of first-order differential equations. The three-loop remainder function is a particular weight-six hexagon function, whose symbol was determined previously. The differential equations can be integrated numerically for generic values of the cross ratios, or analytically in certain kinematics limits, including the near-collinear and multi-Regge limits. These limits allow us to impose constraints from the operato...
A functional RG equation for the c-function
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Codello, A.; D'Odorico, G.; Pagani, C.
2014-01-01
After showing how to prove the integrated c-theorem within the functional RG framework based on the effective average action, we derive an exact RG flow equation for Zamolodchikov's c-function in two dimensions by relating it to the flow of the effective average action. In order to obtain a non...... to use heat kernel techniques to compute the RG running of the c-function....
Respiratory function and functional capacity in chronic stroke patients 1
Machado, Anna Cláudia Martinez; Silva, Nathália Grasielle Marinho; Diniz, Gisele do Carmo Leite; Pessoa, Bruno Porto; Scalzo, Paula Luciana
2016-01-01
Abstract Introduction: Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) or stroke results in weakness of the trunk muscles and physical unfitness. Objectives: To evaluate respiratory changes caused by stroke and correlate them with the functional capacity of chronic stroke patients who were treated at the Clinical Center of Physical Therapy of the Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais, Betim. Methods: Fifteen patients were recruited for assessment of respiratory function and functional capacity. W...
Harmonic Morphisms Projecting Harmonic Functions to Harmonic Functions
Mustafa, M. T.
2012-01-01
For Riemannian manifolds $M$ and $N$ , admitting a submersion $\\varphi $ with compact fibres, we introduce the projection of a function via its decomposition intohorizontal and vertical components. By comparing the Laplacians on $M$ and $N$ , we determine conditions under which a harmonic function on $U={\\varphi }^{-1}(V)\\subset M$ projects down, via its horizontal component, to a harmonic function on $V\\subset N$ .
An atlas of functions: with equator, the atlas function calculator
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Oldham, Keith
2008-01-01
... of arguments. The first edition of An Atlas of Functions, the product of collaboration between a mathematician and a chemist, appeared during an era when the programmable calculator was the workhorse for the numerical evaluation of functions. That role has now been taken over by the omnipresent computer, and therefore the second edition delegates this duty to Equator, the Atlas function calculator. This is a software program that, as well as carrying out other tasks, will calculate va...
Function Analysis and Decomposistion using Function Analysis Systems Technique
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wixson, James Robert
1999-06-01
The "Father of Value Analysis", Lawrence D. Miles, was a design engineer for General Electric in Schenectady, New York. Miles developed the concept of function analysis to address difficulties in satisfying the requirements to fill shortages of high demand manufactured parts and electrical components during World War II. His concept of function analysis was further developed in the 1960s by Charles W. Bytheway, a design engineer at Sperry Univac in Salt Lake City, Utah. Charles Bytheway extended Mile's function analysis concepts and introduced the methodology called Function Analysis Systems Technique (FAST) to the Society of American Value Engineers (SAVE) at their International Convention in 1965 (Bytheway 1965). FAST uses intuitive logic to decompose a high level, or objective function into secondary and lower level functions that are displayed in a logic diagram called a FAST model. Other techniques can then be applied to allocate functions to components, individuals, processes, or other entities that accomplish the functions. FAST is best applied in a team setting and proves to be an effective methodology for functional decomposition, allocation, and alternative development.
Function Analysis and Decomposistion using Function Analysis Systems Technique
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
J. R. Wixson
1999-06-01
The "Father of Value Analysis", Lawrence D. Miles, was a design engineer for General Electric in Schenectady, New York. Miles developed the concept of function analysis to address difficulties in satisfying the requirements to fill shortages of high demand manufactured parts and electrical components during World War II. His concept of function analysis was further developed in the 1960s by Charles W. Bytheway, a design engineer at Sperry Univac in Salt Lake City, Utah. Charles Bytheway extended Mile's function analysis concepts and introduced the methodology called Function Analysis Systems Techniques (FAST) to the Society of American Value Engineers (SAVE) at their International Convention in 1965 (Bytheway 1965). FAST uses intuitive logic to decompose a high level, or objective function into secondary and lower level functions that are displayed in a logic diagram called a FAST model. Other techniques can then be applied to allocate functions to components, individuals, processes, or other entities that accomplish the functions. FAST is best applied in a team setting and proves to be an effective methodology for functional decomposition, allocation, and alternative development.
Transfer Function Identification Using Orthogonal Fourier Transform Modeling Functions
Morelli, Eugene A.
2013-01-01
A method for transfer function identification, including both model structure determination and parameter estimation, was developed and demonstrated. The approach uses orthogonal modeling functions generated from frequency domain data obtained by Fourier transformation of time series data. The method was applied to simulation data to identify continuous-time transfer function models and unsteady aerodynamic models. Model fit error, estimated model parameters, and the associated uncertainties were used to show the effectiveness of the method for identifying accurate transfer function models from noisy data.
On conditional hazard function estimate for functional mixing data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
abbes rabhi
2015-02-01
Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of nonparametric estimation of the conditional hazard function for functional mixing data. In particular, given a strictly stationary random variables $\\displaystyle Z_i=\\left(X_i,\\ Y_i\\right_{i\\in\\mathbb{N}}$, we investigate a kernel estimate of the conditional hazard function of univariate response variable $Y_i$ given the functional variable $X_i$. The mean squared convergence rate is given and the asymptotic normality of the proposed estimator is proven.
Self stigmatization, cognitive functions and social functioning in mood disorders
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gulsum Ozge Doganavsargil Baysal
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Purpose: Internalized stigmatization (IS generally has a negative effect on diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation and prognosis of diseases. The purpose of this study is to compare patients with bipolar disorder and unipolar depression both are in remission in terms of IS and social functioning (SF, cognitive function and secondly to consider relationship between IS, cognitive functions and SF. Methods: This cross-sectional study is carried out with bipolar (BD and unipolar depression (UD patients in remission, admitted to the psychiatry outpatient clinics of Akdeniz University Hospital. The sample size is estimated as 35 patients. Basic independent variable is the type of disease and dependent variables are; IS, cognitive functions and SF. Performed scales are: The internalized stigma of mental ilness scale, the social functioning scale and for the assesment of cognitive functions: Wisconsin card sorting, stroop test, test of verbal memory process. Results.Concerning the results there was negative corelation between IS and SF scores in all groups. There was only significant relationship between verbal memory and IS in UD patients. There was not any significant relationship between IS and cognitive function in BD patients. Conclusion: This study indicates that in terms of cognitive functions, patients with unipolar depression are effected as much as the patients with bipolar disorder also manifesting the inverse relation between IS and SF, however cognitive functions were relevant to IS only in UD patients. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(3.000: 390-402
Discovery of functional and approximate functional dependencies in relational databases
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ronald S. King
2003-01-01
Full Text Available This study develops the foundation for a simple, yet efficient method for uncovering functional and approximate functional dependencies in relational databases. The technique is based upon the mathematical theory of partitions defined over a relation's row identifiers. Using a levelwise algorithm the minimal non-trivial functional dependencies can be found using computations conducted on integers. Therefore, the required operations on partitions are both simple and fast. Additionally, the row identifiers provide the added advantage of nominally identifying the exceptions to approximate functional dependencies, which can be used effectively in practical data mining applications.
Mechanics of advanced functional materials
Wang, Biao
2013-01-01
Mechanics of Advanced Functional Materials emphasizes the coupling effect between the electric and mechanical field in the piezoelectric, ferroelectric and other functional materials. It also discusses the size effect on the ferroelectric domain instability and phase transition behaviors using the continuum micro-structural evolution models. Functional materials usually have a very wide application in engineering due to their unique thermal, electric, magnetic, optoelectronic, etc., functions. Almost all the applications demand that the material should have reasonable stiffness, strength, fracture toughness and the other mechanical properties. Furthermore, usually the stress and strain fields on the functional materials and devices have some important coupling effect on the functionality of the materials. Much progress has been made concerning the coupling electric and mechanical behaviors such as the coupled electric and stress field distribution in piezoelectric solids, ferroelectric domain patterns in ferr...
The structure of rigid functions
Balka, Richárd; Elekes, Márton
2008-09-01
A function is called vertically rigid if graph(cf) is isometric to graph(f) for all c[not equal to]0. We prove Jankovic's conjecture by showing that a continuous function is vertically rigid if and only if it is of the form a+bx or a+bekx (). We answer the question of Cain, Clark and Rose by showing that there exists a Borel measurable vertically rigid function which is not of the above form. We discuss the Lebesgue and Baire measurable case, consider functions bounded on some interval and functions with at least one point of continuity. We also introduce horizontally rigid functions, and show that a certain structure theorem can be proved without assuming any regularity.
Diagnostic Approach to Functional Recovery
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Havsteen, Inger; Madsen, Kristoffer H; Christensen, Hanne Krarup
2013-01-01
available and does not pose any adverse effects, repeated fMRI measurements provide unprecedented possibilities to prospectively assess the time course of reorganization in functional neural networks after stroke and relate the temporospatial dynamics of reorganization at the systems level to functional......, only up to 20-25% of patients are eligible to causal treatment. Further, care in a specialized stroke unit improves prognosis in all patients independent of age and stroke severity. Even when it is not possible to prevent tissue loss, the surviving brain areas of functional brain networks have...... a substantial capacity to reorganize after a focal ischemic (or hemorrhagic) brain lesion. This functional reorganization contributes to functional recovery after stroke. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provides a valuable tool to capture the spatial and temporal activity changes in response...
KIDNEY FUNCTION TESTS IN CHILDREN
Winter, Chester C.
1961-01-01
Total renal function is best determined by urinalysis and serum creatinine determination. This may be supplemented, under controlled conditions, by fractional urinary phenosulfonphthalein clearance. The excretory urogram, while invaluable as a diagnostic test, lacks quantitative value as a function test. Until recently, individual renal function determinations depended upon the difficult and tedious cystoscopy and bilateral ureteral catheterization and skilled laboratory techniques. Frequently the necessity of anesthesia artificially depressed kidney function. Since 1956, the radioisotope kidney function test has offered an external, innocuous means of assessing individual renal blood flow, function and drainage plus evaluation of vesico-ureteral reflux. The method has distinct advantages for evaluation of pediatric urological problems. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7 PMID:13785917
The relativity of biological function.
Laubichler, Manfred D; Stadler, Peter F; Prohaska, Sonja J; Nowick, Katja
2015-12-01
Function is a central concept in biological theories and explanations. Yet discussions about function are often based on a narrow understanding of biological systems and processes, such as idealized molecular systems or simple evolutionary, i.e., selective, dynamics. Conflicting conceptions of function continue to be used in the scientific literature to support certain claims, for instance about the fraction of "functional DNA" in the human genome. Here we argue that all biologically meaningful interpretations of function are necessarily context dependent. This implies that they derive their meaning as well as their range of applicability only within a specific theoretical and measurement context. We use this framework to shed light on the current debate about functional DNA and argue that without considering explicitly the theoretical and measurement contexts all attempts to integrate biological theories are prone to fail.
Erectile function after radical prostatectomy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fode, Mikkel; Frey, Anders; Jakobsen, Henrik
2016-01-01
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess postprostatectomy erectile function compared to preoperative status by subjective patient perception and the abbreviated International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) questionnaire. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study used data from a prospectively...... collected database and a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study in patients following radical prostatectomy. Erectile function was assessed with the IIEF-5 and the question "Is your erectile function as good as before the surgery (yes/no)". Patients were included if they were sexually active before...... surgery and had at least 1 year of follow-up. The main outcome measure was the proportion of patients returning to self-perceived baseline erectile function. Secondary outcome measures included the proportion of patients returning to baseline erectile function according to the IIEF-5 and predictors...
[Current issues in functional dyspepsia].
Park, Jong Kyu; Huh, Kyu Chan; Shin, Cheol Min; Lee, Hyuk; Yoon, Young Hoon; Song, Kyung Ho; Min, Byung Hoon; Choi, Kee Don
2014-09-25
Functional dyspepsia is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders encountered in clinical practice. Functional dyspepsia is currently defined by Rome III criteria as the chronic dyspeptic symptoms (postprandial fullness, early satiety, epigastric pain or burning) in the absence of underling structural or metabolic disease that readily explain the symptoms. According to the Rome III consensus, functional dyspepsia can be subdivided into postprandial distress syndrome (PDS) and epigastric pain syndrome (EPS). Although the Rome III criteria have been published more than 8 years ago, not much effort has been put into validating these criteria and direct scientific evidence supporting the validity of the subdividing functional dyspepsia into PDS and EPS are lacking. This article is intended to review the validity of the Rome III criteria on the subdivisions of functional dyspepsia, i.e. PDS and EPS. The impact of sleep disorder, Helicobacter pylori-associated dyspepsia, and the emerging drug therapies in functional dyspepsia will also be discussed in this article.
Covering Numbers for Semicontinuous Functions
2016-04-29
Considering the metric space of extended real-valued lower semicontinuous functions under the epi-distance, the paper gives an upper bound on the...the latter class of functions as well, but now under the hypo-distance metric . Keywords: covering numbers, metric entropy numbers, semicontinuous...functions, epi-distance, Attouch-Wets topology , epi-convergence, epi-spline, approximation theory. Date: April 29, 2016 1 Introduction Covering numbers of
Domains of bosonic functional integrals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Botelho, Luiz C.L. [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica]|[Para Univ., Belem, PA (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica
1998-07-01
We propose a mathematical framework for bosonic Euclidean quantum field functional integrals based on the theory of integration on the dual algebraic vector space of classical field sources. We present a generalization of the Minlos-Dao Xing theorem and apply it to determine exactly the domain of integration associated to the functional integral representation of the two-dimensional quantum electrodynamics Schwinger generating functional. (author)
Systems of Benevolent Utility Functions
Bergstrom, Ted
1999-01-01
Suppose that each person's utility depends on his or her own consumption as well as on the utilities of others. We consider the question of when a system of interdependent utility functions induces unique utility functions over allocations and identifies the class of transformations on interdependent utility functions that are equivalent in the sense of inducing the same preferences over allocations. We show that well-behaved systems of this kind can be studied by means of the theory of domin...
Dansk skepsis mod "functional foods"
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bech-Larsen, Tino
2000-01-01
MAPP Centret har undersøgt danske, finske og amerikanske forbrugeres holdninger til functional foods og til genmodificerede fødevarer. Undersøgelsen er baseret på personlige interviews med 1500 danske, finske og nordamerikanske forbrugere. På trods af den store udbredelse af functional foods i USA......, viste undersøgelsen, at finnerne faktisk var mere positive over for functional foods end amerikanerne. De danske forbrugere var klart de mest skeptiske....
Functional footprinting of regulatory DNA.
Vierstra, Jeff; Reik, Andreas; Chang, Kai-Hsin; Stehling-Sun, Sandra; Zhou, Yuanyue; Hinkley, Sarah J; Paschon, David E; Zhang, Lei; Psatha, Nikoletta; Bendana, Yuri R; O'Neil, Colleen M; Song, Alexander H; Mich, Andrea K; Liu, Pei-Qi; Lee, Gary; Bauer, Daniel E; Holmes, Michael C; Orkin, Stuart H; Papayannopoulou, Thalia; Stamatoyannopoulos, George; Rebar, Edward J; Gregory, Philip D; Urnov, Fyodor D; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A
2015-10-01
Regulatory regions harbor multiple transcription factor (TF) recognition sites; however, the contribution of individual sites to regulatory function remains challenging to define. We describe an approach that exploits the error-prone nature of genome editing-induced double-strand break repair to map functional elements within regulatory DNA at nucleotide resolution. We demonstrate the approach on a human erythroid enhancer, revealing single TF recognition sites that gate the majority of downstream regulatory function.
Functional foods in human nutrition
ZEVLOVÁ, Veronika
2013-01-01
Bachelor thesis deals with functional food and their role in human nutrition. The history of functional food, their characteristics, components, evaluation of individual species and the impact on the health of the consumer is described here. A lot of researches are focused on the topic of functional food, but no legally definition have been established yet. Even in the Czech Republic or the EU. Only the certain designations are used, which have a small deviations in different countries. Funct...
de Cooman, Gert; Troffaes, Matthias C. M.; Miranda, Enrique
2008-11-01
We study n-monotone functionals, which constitute a generalisation of n-monotone set functions. We investigate their relation to the concepts of exactness and natural extension, which generalise coherence and natural extension in the behavioural theory of imprecise probabilities. We improve upon a number of results in the literature, and prove among other things a representation result for exact n-monotone functionals in terms of Choquet integrals.
Speech and Language Functions that Require a Functioning Broca's Area
Davis, Cameron; Kleinman, Jonathan T.; Newhart, Melissa; Gingis, Leila; Pawlak, Mikolaj; Hillis, Argye E.
2008-01-01
A number of previous studies have indicated that Broca's area has an important role in understanding and producing syntactically complex sentences and other language functions. If Broca's area is critical for these functions, then either infarction of Broca's area or temporary hypoperfusion within this region should cause impairment of these…
Elastodynamics response of Green's function and influence function ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The article reports on a methodology to synthesize the response of Green's function and influence function in fluid saturated incompressible porous half space. As an application, the disturbance due to concentrated and distributed loads in normal and tangential direction is investigated by employing the Laplace and Fourier ...
Supersymmetry Inspired QCD Beta Function
Ryttov, Thomas A
2008-01-01
We propose an all orders beta function for ordinary Yang-Mills theories with or without fermions inspired by the Novikov-Shifman-Vainshtein-Zakharov beta function of N=1 supersymmetric gauge theories. The beta function allows us to bound the conformal window. When restricting to one adjoint Weyl fermion we show how the proposed beta function matches the one of supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. The running of the pure Yang-Mills coupling is computed and the deviation from the two loop result is presented. We then compare the deviation with the one obtained from lattice data also with respect to the two loop running.
Microscopically Based Nuclear Energy Functionals
Bogner, S. K.
2009-05-01
A major goal of the SciDAC project "Building a Universal Nuclear Energy Density Functional" is to develop next-generation nuclear energy density functionals that give controlled extrapolations away from stability with improved performance across the mass table. One strategy is to identify missing physics in phenomenological Skyrme functionals based on our understanding of the underlying internucleon interactions and microscopic many-body theory. In this contribution, I describe ongoing efforts to use the density matrix expansion of Negele and Vautherin to incorporate missing finite-range effects from the underlying two- and three-nucleon interactions into phenomenological Skyrme functionals.
Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN)
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The CFN at Brookhaven National Laboratory focuses on understanding the chemical and physical response of nanomaterials to make functional materials such as sensors,...
Value Distribution of Meromorphic Functions
Zheng, Jianhua
2011-01-01
"Value Distribution of Meromorphic Functions" focuses on functions meromorphic in an angle or on the complex plane, T directions, deficient values, singular values, potential theory in value distribution and the proof of the celebrated Nevanlinna conjecture. The book introduces various characteristics of meromorphic functions and their connections, several aspects of new singular directions, new results on estimates of the number of deficient values, new results on singular values and behaviours of subharmonic functions which are the foundation for further discussion on the proof of
Harmonic functions with varying coefficients
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jacek Dziok
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Complex-valued harmonic functions that are univalent and sense preserving in the open unit disk can be written in the form f = h + g ‾ $f=h+\\overline{g}$ , where h and g are analytic. In this paper we investigate some classes of univalent harmonic functions with varying coefficients related to Janowski functions. By using the extreme points theory we obtain necessary and sufficient convolution conditions, coefficients estimates, distortion theorems, and integral mean inequalities for these classes of functions. The radii of starlikeness and convexity for these classes are also determined.
Functional statistics and related fields
Bongiorno, Enea; Cao, Ricardo; Vieu, Philippe
2017-01-01
This volume collects latest methodological and applied contributions on functional, high-dimensional and other complex data, related statistical models and tools as well as on operator-based statistics. It contains selected and refereed contributions presented at the Fourth International Workshop on Functional and Operatorial Statistics (IWFOS 2017) held in A Coruña, Spain, from 15 to 17 June 2017. The series of IWFOS workshops was initiated by the Working Group on Functional and Operatorial Statistics at the University of Toulouse in 2008. Since then, many of the major advances in functional statistics and related fields have been periodically presented and discussed at the IWFOS workshops. .
Prestarlike functions with negative coefficients
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Silverman
1979-01-01
Full Text Available The extreme points for prestarlike functions having negative coefficients are determined. Coefficient, distortion and radii of univalence, starlikeness, and convexity theorems are also obtained.
Supersymmetry Inspired QCD Beta Function
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ryttov, Thomas; Sannino, Francesco
2008-01-01
We propose an all orders beta function for ordinary Yang-Mills theories with or without fermions inspired by the Novikov-Shifman-Vainshtein-Zakharov beta function of N=1 supersymmetric gauge theories. The beta function allows us to bound the conformal window. When restricting to one adjoint Weyl...... fermion we show how the proposed beta function matches the one of supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. The running of the pure Yang-Mills coupling is computed and the deviation from the two loop result is presented. We then compare the deviation with the one obtained from lattice data also with respect...
Reduced Mastication Impairs Memory Function.
Fukushima-Nakayama, Y; Ono, Takehito; Hayashi, M; Inoue, M; Wake, H; Ono, Takashi; Nakashima, T
2017-08-01
Mastication is an indispensable oral function related to physical, mental, and social health throughout life. The elderly tend to have a masticatory dysfunction due to tooth loss and fragility in the masticatory muscles with aging, potentially resulting in impaired cognitive function. Masticatory stimulation has influence on the development of the central nervous system (CNS) as well as the growth of maxillofacial tissue in children. Although the relationship between mastication and cognitive function is potentially important in the growth period, the cellular and molecular mechanisms have not been sufficiently elucidated. Here, we show that the reduced mastication resulted in impaired spatial memory and learning function owing to the morphological change and decreased activity in the hippocampus. We used an in vivo model for reduced masticatory stimuli, in which juvenile mice were fed with powder diet and found that masticatory stimulation during the growth period positively regulated long-term spatial memory to promote cognitive function. The functional linkage between mastication and brain was validated by the decrease in neurons, neurogenesis, neuronal activity, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the hippocampus. These findings taken together provide in vivo evidence for a functional linkage between mastication and cognitive function in the growth period, suggesting a need for novel therapeutic strategies in masticatory function-related cognitive dysfunction.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dahl, Jens Peder; Varro, S.; Wolf, A.
2007-01-01
We derive explicit expressions for the Wigner function of wave functions in D dimensions which depend on the hyperradius-that is, of s waves. They are based either on the position or the momentum representation of the s wave. The corresponding Wigner function depends on three variables......: the absolute value of the D-dimensional position and momentum vectors and the angle between them. We illustrate these expressions by calculating and discussing the Wigner functions of an elementary s wave and the energy eigenfunction of a free particle....
Family functioning in neglectful families.
Gaudin, J M; Polansky, N A; Kilpatrick, A C; Shilton, P
1996-04-01
Family functioning in 103 neglectful and 102 non-neglectful low-income families is examined using self-report and observational measures. Neglectful mothers reported their families as having more family conflict and less expression of feelings, but not less cohesive. Ratings of observed and videotaped family interactions indicated neglect families were less organized, more chaotic, less verbally expressive, showed less positive and more negative affect than comparison families. However, there were wide differences on measures of functioning among neglect families. Three distinct types of neglectful family functioning are identified and interventions for each type are suggested to improve parental-family functioning.
A deterministic width function model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. E. Puente
2003-01-01
Full Text Available Use of a deterministic fractal-multifractal (FM geometric method to model width functions of natural river networks, as derived distributions of simple multifractal measures via fractal interpolating functions, is reported. It is first demonstrated that the FM procedure may be used to simulate natural width functions, preserving their most relevant features like their overall shape and texture and their observed power-law scaling on their power spectra. It is then shown, via two natural river networks (Racoon and Brushy creeks in the United States, that the FM approach may also be used to closely approximate existing width functions.
Generalized functionals of Brownian motion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. U. Ahmed
1994-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we discuss some recent developments in the theory of generalized functionals of Brownian motion. First we give a brief summary of the Wiener-Ito multiple Integrals. We discuss some of their basic properties, and related functional analysis on Wiener measure space. then we discuss the generalized functionals constructed by Hida. The generalized functionals of Hida are based on L2-Sobolev spaces, thereby, admitting only Hs, s∈R valued kernels in the multiple stochastic integrals. These functionals are much more general than the classical Wiener-Ito class. The more recent development, due to the author, introduces a much more broad class of generalized functionals which are based on Lp-Sobolev spaces admitting kernels from the spaces p,s, s∈R. This allows analysis of a very broad class of nonlinear functionals of Brownian motion, which can not be handled by either the Wiener-Ito class or the Hida class. For s≤0, they represent generalized functionals on the Wiener measure space like Schwarz distributions on finite dimensional spaces. In this paper we also introduce some further generalizations, and construct a locally convex topological vector space of generalized functionals. We also present some discussion on the applications of these results.
O'Rourke, Norm; King, David B; Cappeliez, Philippe
2017-03-01
The current study examines the temporal stability of the tripartite model of reminiscence functions in which eight separate reminiscence functions map onto three second-order factors which contribute significantly to measurement of an overarching reminiscence latent construct. We collected online responses from 411 adults 50+ years of age. Confirmatory factor analytic models were computed at three points of data collection over 16 months. Invariance analyses were next undertaken to simultaneously compare the measurement properties to assess within-person stability of reminiscence functions over time. The tripartite structure of reminiscence functions was replicated at each point of data collection. As hypothesised, self-positive and self-negative functions are consistent across points of data collection, whereas prosocial functions vary over time. The temporal stability of the self functions may be attributed to enduring characteristics of the individual such as personality traits and life attitudes, as well as their solitary nature. Previous research indicates that consistency of self-positive reminiscence functions has ensuing benefits for physical health and psychological well-being; the opposite is true for self-negative functions. The temporal variation of prosocial functions may be due to the varying availability of others to share memories and their responsiveness to the emotional context.
Technical Rebuilding of Movement Function Using Functional Electrical Stimulation
Gföhler, Margit
To rebuild lost movement functions, neuroprostheses based on functional electrical stimulation (FES) artificially activate skeletal muscles in corresponding sequences, using both residual body functions and artificial signals for control. Besides the functional gain, FES training also brings physiological and psychological benefits for spinal cord-injured subjects. In this chapter, current stimulation technology and the main components of FES-based neuroprostheses including enhanced control systems are presented. Technology and application of FES cycling and rowing, both approaches that enable spinal cord-injured subjects to participate in mainstream activities and improve their health and fitness by exercising like able-bodied subjects, are discussed in detail, and an overview of neuroprostheses that aim at restoring movement functions for daily life as walking or grasping is given.
Functional Biogeography: exploring biogeographic patterns based on ecosystem functioning
Cabello, J.; Cazorla, B. P.; Peñas, J.; Alcaraz-Segura, D.; Paruelo, J. M.
2016-12-01
Biogeography is the study of the distribution of species and ecosystems across space and time and of the underlying biotic and abiotic factors, mechanisms, and processes. So far, biogeography has been based on structural and compositional components, i.e. species and vegetation types, neglecting the functional components of biodiversity. Remote sensing can contribute to focus on such dimension, through the estimation of descriptors considered as essential biodiversity variables of ecosystem function. Our aims was: 1) To describe biogeographical patterns of ecosystem functions; 2) To characterize the ecosystem functional profile of traditional biogeographical units; 3) To identify coincidences between spatial patterns of biological regions based on ecosystem functioning and those derived from biogeographical and biomes approaches. We worked at the European continent level, and based our approach on the Ecosystem Functional Types (EFTs) concept: patches of the land-surface with similar carbon gain dynamics. EFTs were derived from three functional attributes obtained from the seasonal curve of spectral vegetation indices: annual mean (a proxy of primary production), seasonal coefficient of variation (descriptor of seasonality), and date of maximum (phenology). For these ecosystem functional attributes we identified differences (i.e. Boreal and Artic) and similarities (i.e. Steppic and Anatolian) between regions. In addition, we found clear dominance of EFTs with high productivity in the Atlantic region, with medium productivity in the Boreal region, and with low productivity in the the Artic region. This approach allowed us to better understand the spatial patterns of essential ecosystem functions through the biogeographical gradients, and to contribute to the operationalization of a functional biogeography perspective.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kihara Daisuke
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background A new paradigm of biological investigation takes advantage of technologies that produce large high throughput datasets, including genome sequences, interactions of proteins, and gene expression. The ability of biologists to analyze and interpret such data relies on functional annotation of the included proteins, but even in highly characterized organisms many proteins can lack the functional evidence necessary to infer their biological relevance. Results Here we have applied high confidence function predictions from our automated prediction system, PFP, to three genome sequences, Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Plasmodium falciparum (malaria. The number of annotated genes is increased by PFP to over 90% for all of the genomes. Using the large coverage of the function annotation, we introduced the functional similarity networks which represent the functional space of the proteomes. Four different functional similarity networks are constructed for each proteome, one each by considering similarity in a single Gene Ontology (GO category, i.e. Biological Process, Cellular Component, and Molecular Function, and another one by considering overall similarity with the funSim score. The functional similarity networks are shown to have higher modularity than the protein-protein interaction network. Moreover, the funSim score network is distinct from the single GO-score networks by showing a higher clustering degree exponent value and thus has a higher tendency to be hierarchical. In addition, examining function assignments to the protein-protein interaction network and local regions of genomes has identified numerous cases where subnetworks or local regions have functionally coherent proteins. These results will help interpreting interactions of proteins and gene orders in a genome. Several examples of both analyses are highlighted. Conclusion The analyses demonstrate that applying high confidence predictions from PFP
New tools for functional mammalian
Brummelkamp, T.R.; Bernards, R.A.
2003-01-01
Knowledge of the function of individual genes that encode components of cellsignalling pathways is crucial to our understanding of normal growth control and its deregulation in cancer, but we have functional information for only ~15% of human genes at present. Several new technologies have
Geometric Operators on Boolean Functions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Falster, Peter
In truth-functional propositional logic, any propositional formula represents a Boolean function (according to some valuation of the formula). We describe operators based on Decartes' concept of constructing coordinate systems, for translation of a propositional formula to the image of a Boolean...
Reflections on parallel functional languages
Vrancken, J.L.M.
Are parallel functional languages feasible? The large majority of the current projects investigating this question are based on MIMD machines and the current set of implementation methods for functional languages which is graph rewriting and combinators. We regret that we have to come to a
BESSEL FUNCTIONS FOR AXISYMMETRIC ELASTICITY ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The potential functions are then made to satisfy the governing field equations and the associated boundary conditions for the particular problem of a point load at the origin of the semi-infinite linear elastic isotropic soil mass. The unknown parameters of the function are thus determined and used to find the stresses, strains ...
Parotid gland function after radiotherapy
Roesink, Judith Maria
2005-01-01
Radiotherapy is a common treatment for head and neck cancer patients. Unfortunately, it produces serious acute and long-term side effects to the oral cavity. One severe complication is the loss of salivary gland function, which can persists for many years. Saliva has multiple functions relating to
Beta Function and Anomalous Dimensions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco
2011-01-01
We demonstrate that it is possible to determine the coefficients of an all-order beta function linear in the anomalous dimensions using as data the two-loop coefficients together with the first one of the anomalous dimensions which are universal. The beta function allows to determine the anomalous...
Preterm Cognitive Function into Adulthood
Breeman, L.D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/390776114; Jaekel, Julia; Baumann, Nicole; Bartmann, Peter; Wolke, Dieter
2015-01-01
BACKGROUND: Very preterm (VP; gestational age ,32 weeks) and very low birth weight (VLBW; abstract ,1500 g) births are related to impaired cognitive function across the life span. It is not known how stable cognitive functions are from childhood to adulthood for VP/VLBW compared with term-born
Functional Analysis in Virtual Environments
Vasquez, Eleazar, III; Marino, Matthew T.; Donehower, Claire; Koch, Aaron
2017-01-01
Functional analysis (FA) is an assessment procedure involving the systematic manipulation of an individual's environment to determine why a target behavior is occurring. An analog FA provides practitioners the opportunity to manipulate variables in a controlled environment and formulate a hypothesis for the function of a behavior. In previous…
Functionalized silica materials for electrocatalysis
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Electrocatalysis is an important phenomenon which is utilized in metal–air batteries, fuel cells, electrochemical sensors, etc. ... Owing to the uniform dispersion of electrocatalysts (metal complex and/or metal nanoparticles (NPs)) on the functionalized and non-functionalized silica, an enormous increase in the redox current ...
Functional End Groups in Polytetrahydrofuran
Caroli, Giuseppe; Loos, Katja
2013-01-01
Polytetrahydrofuran (PTHF) is a very widespread polymer, which is used in numerous applications. Very frequently, its functional end groups play a key role, in that they are exploited to perform further reactions. However, only limited work is available to date on the preparation of functionalized
Cosmetic and Functional Nasal Deformities
... nasal complaints. Nasal deformity can be categorized as “cosmetic” or “functional.” Cosmetic deformity of the nose results in a less ... taste , nose bleeds and/or recurrent sinusitis . A cosmetic or functional nasal deformity may occur secondary to ...
Multiple functions of photosystem II
Rensen, van J.J.S.; Curwiel, V.B.
2000-01-01
The most important function of photosystem II (PSII) is its action as a water-plastoquinone oxido-reductase. At the expense of light energy, water is split, and oxygen and plastoquinol are formed. In addition to this most important activity, PSII has additional functions, especially in the
Graph parameters and semigroup functions
Lovász, L.; Schrijver, A.
2008-01-01
We prove a general theorem on semigroup functions that implies characterizations of graph partition functions in terms of the positive semidefiniteness (‘reflection positivity’) and rank of certain derived matrices. The theorem can be applied to undirected and directed graphs as well as hypergraphs.
Sexual function and male cancer
L. Incrocci (Luca)
2013-01-01
textabstractQuality of life in general and sexual functioning in particular have become very important in cancer patients. Biological factors such as anatomic alterations, physiological changes and secondary effect of medical interventions may preclude normal sexual functioning even when sexual
Functions in Biological Kind Classification
Lombrozo, Tania; Rehder, Bob
2012-01-01
Biological traits that serve functions, such as a zebra's coloration (for camouflage) or a kangaroo's tail (for balance), seem to have a special role in conceptual representations for biological kinds. In five experiments, we investigate whether and why functional features are privileged in biological kind classification. Experiment 1…
Developmental Changes in Executive Functioning
Lee, Kerry; Bull, Rebecca; Ho, Ringo M. H.
2013-01-01
Although early studies of executive functioning in children supported Miyake et al.'s (2000) three-factor model, more recent findings supported a variety of undifferentiated or two-factor structures. Using a cohort-sequential design, this study examined whether there were age-related differences in the structure of executive functioning among…
Gordon, Sheldon P.; Gordon, Florence S.
2010-01-01
One of the most important applications of the definite integral in a modern calculus course is the mean value of a function. Thus, if a function "f" is defined on an interval ["a", "b"], then the mean, or average value, of "f" is given by [image omitted]. In this note, we will investigate the meaning of other statistics associated with a function…
Cranial functional (psychogenic) movement disorders.
Kaski, Diego; Bronstein, Adolfo M; Edwards, Mark J; Stone, Jon
2015-12-01
Functional (psychogenic) neurological symptoms are frequently encountered in neurological practice. Cranial movement disorders--affecting the eyes, face, jaw, tongue, or palate--are an under-recognised feature of patients with functional symptoms. They can present in isolation or in the context of other functional symptoms; in particular, for functional eye movements, positive clinical signs such as convergence spasms can be triggered by the clinical examination. Although the specialty of functional neurological disorders has expanded, appreciation of cranial functional movement disorders is still insufficient. Identification of the positive features of cranial functional movement disorders such as convergence and unilateral platysmal spasm might lend diagnostic weight to a suspected functional neurological disorder. Understanding of the differential diagnosis, which is broad and includes many organic causes (eg, stroke), is essential to make an early and accurate diagnosis to prevent complications and initiate appropriate management. Increased understanding of these disorders is also crucial to drive clinical trials and studies of individually tailored therapies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Microencapsulation and functional bioactive foods
Food, the essential unit of human nutrition has been both wholesome and safe through human history ensuring the continuity of the human race. Functionalized foods are the rediscovery of the need to provide all nutrients through foods without adulteration. The functional components of foods include...
On the Continuity of Functions
Takaci, D.; Pesic, D.; Tatar, J.
2006-01-01
In this paper, results of a questionnaire about continuity of functions are analysed. The tested students attend Novi Sad grammar school. The aim of this test was to check the student's theoretical and visual knowledge of continuous functions at the end of their high school education. The questions were given with and without the graphs of…
Incentives in Supply Function Equilibrium
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vetter, Henrik
2014-01-01
The author analyses delegation in homogenous duopoly under the assumption that the firm-managers compete in supply functions. In supply function equilibrium, managers’ decisions are strategic complements. This reverses earlier findings in that the author finds that owners give managers incentives...
Functional keratin as structural platforms
Wool with up to 95% keratin by weight is a rich and pure source of proteinous biomaterial. As polymeric polyamide it exhibits high functionality through amide, carboxyl, sulfoxide, sulfide, and thiosulfide functions. Solubilized wool was transformed into keratin morphologies with the unique characte...
Pharmacologic Effects on Mitochondrial Function
Cohen, Bruce H.
2010-01-01
The vast majority of energy necessary for cellular function is produced in mitochondria. Free-radical production and apoptosis are other critical mitochondrial functions. The complex structure, electrochemical properties of the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM), and genetic control from both mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA (nDNA) are…
Function Estimation Employing Exponential Splines
Dose, V.; Fischer, R.
2005-11-01
We introduce and discuss the use of the exponential spline family for Bayesian nonparametric function estimation. Exponential splines span the range of shapes between the limiting cases of traditional cubic spline and piecewise linear interpolation. They are therefore particularly suited for problems where both, smooth and rapid function changes occur.
Correlation Functions and Power Spectra
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Jan
2006-01-01
The present lecture note is a supplement to the textbook Digital Signal Processing by J. Proakis and D.G. Manolakis used in the IMM/DTU course 02451 Digital Signal Processing and provides an extended discussion of correlation functions and power spectra. The definitions of correlation functions...
Functional genomics by mass spectrometry
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Jens S.; Mann, M
2000-01-01
Systematic analysis of the function of genes can take place at the oligonucleotide or protein level. The latter has the advantage of being closest to function, since it is proteins that perform most of the reactions necessary for the cell. For most protein based ('proteomic') approaches to gene f...
Protein function prediction based on data fusion and functional interrelationship.
Meng, Jun; Wekesa, Jael-Sanyanda; Shi, Guan-Li; Luan, Yu-Shi
2016-04-01
One of the challenging tasks of bioinformatics is to predict more accurate and confident protein functions from genomics and proteomics datasets. Computational approaches use a variety of high throughput experimental data, such as protein-protein interaction (PPI), protein sequences and phylogenetic profiles, to predict protein functions. This paper presents a method that uses transductive multi-label learning algorithm by integrating multiple data sources for classification. Multiple proteomics datasets are integrated to make inferences about functions of unknown proteins and use a directed bi-relational graph to assign labels to unannotated proteins. Our method, bi-relational graph based transductive multi-label function annotation (Bi-TMF) uses functional correlation and topological PPI network properties on both the training and testing datasets to predict protein functions through data fusion of the individual kernel result. The main purpose of our proposed method is to enhance the performance of classifier integration for protein function prediction algorithms. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of Bi-TMF on multi-sources datasets in yeast, human and mouse benchmarks. Bi-TMF outperforms other recently proposed methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hexagon functions and the three-loop remainder function
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dixon, Lance J.; Drummond, James M.; von Hippel, Matt; Pennington, Jeffrey
2013-12-01
We present the three-loop remainder function, which describes the scattering of six gluons in the maximally-helicity-violating configuration in planar NN = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory, as a function of the three dual conformal cross ratios. The result can be expressed in terms of multiple Goncharov polylogarithms. We also employ a more restricted class of hexagon functions which have the correct branch cuts and certain other restrictions on their symbols. We classify all the hexagon functions through transcendental weight five, using the coproduct for their Hopf algebra iteratively, which amounts to a set of first-order differential equations. The three-loop remainder function is a particular weight-six hexagon function, whose symbol was determined previously. The differential equations can be integrated numerically for generic values of the cross ratios, or analytically in certain kinematic limits, including the near-collinear and multi-Regge limits. These limits allow us to impose constraints from the operator product expansion and multi-Regge factorization directly at the function level, and thereby to fix uniquely a set of Riemann ζ valued constants that could not be fixed at the level of the symbol. The near-collinear limits agree precisely with recent predictions by Basso, Sever and Vieira based on integrability. The multi-Regge limits agree with the factorization formula of Fadin and Lipatov, and determine three constants entering the impact factor at this order. We plot the three-loop remainder function for various slices of the Euclidean region of positive cross ratios, and compare it to the two-loop one. For large ranges of the cross ratios, the ratio of the three-loop to the two-loop remainder function is relatively constant, and close to -7.
Elementary functions algorithms and implementation
Muller, Jean-Michel
2016-01-01
This textbook presents the concepts and tools necessary to understand, build, and implement algorithms for computing elementary functions (e.g., logarithms, exponentials, and the trigonometric functions). Both hardware- and software-oriented algorithms are included, along with issues related to accurate floating-point implementation. This third edition has been updated and expanded to incorporate the most recent advances in the field, new elementary function algorithms, and function software. After a preliminary chapter that briefly introduces some fundamental concepts of computer arithmetic, such as floating-point arithmetic and redundant number systems, the text is divided into three main parts. Part I considers the computation of elementary functions using algorithms based on polynomial or rational approximations and using table-based methods; the final chapter in this section deals with basic principles of multiple-precision arithmetic. Part II is devoted to a presentation of “shift-and-add” algorithm...
Cryptographic Boolean functions and applications
Cusick, Thomas W
2009-01-01
Boolean functions are the building blocks of symmetric cryptographic systems. Symmetrical cryptographic algorithms are fundamental tools in the design of all types of digital security systems (i.e. communications, financial and e-commerce).Cryptographic Boolean Functions and Applications is a concise reference that shows how Boolean functions are used in cryptography. Currently, practitioners who need to apply Boolean functions in the design of cryptographic algorithms and protocols need to patch together needed information from a variety of resources (books, journal articles and other sources). This book compiles the key essential information in one easy to use, step-by-step reference. Beginning with the basics of the necessary theory the book goes on to examine more technical topics, some of which are at the frontier of current research.-Serves as a complete resource for the successful design or implementation of cryptographic algorithms or protocols using Boolean functions -Provides engineers and scient...
Electronic Structure of Matter Wave Functions and Density Functionals.
Kohn, W
1999-01-01
Since the 1920's Schroedinger wave functions have been the principal theoretical concept for understanding and computing the electronic structure of matter. More recently, Density Functional Theory (DFT), couched in terms of the electronic density distribution, n(r), has provided a new perspective and new computational possibilities, especially for systems consisting of very many (up to ~1000) atoms. In this talk some fundamental limitations of wave function methods for very-many-atom-systems will be discussed. The DFT approach will be explained together with some physical/chemical applications and a discussion of its strenghts and weaknesses.
Functional Performance Testing in Athletes with Functional Ankle Instability
Sharma, Nidhi; Sharma, Archna; Singh Sandhu, Jaspal
2011-01-01
Purpose To determine if functional performance deficits are present in athletes with functional ankle instability (FAI) compared to healthy athletes using various functional performance tests. Methods Sixty two athletes (mean age-21.7±1.8years; height-168.2±9.1cm; weight-63.8±11.0kg) participated in this case control study. Athletes were divided into two groups: athletes with FAI (FAI group, n=31) and healthy athletes (Non-FAI group, n=31). The FAI group was further divided into two subgroups...
Lienert, Matthias; Petrat, Sören; Tumulka, Roderich
2017-08-01
In non-relativistic quantum mechanics of N particles in three spatial dimensions, the wave function ψ( q 1, …, q N , t) is a function of 3N position coordinates and one time coordinate. It is an obvious idea that in a relativistic setting, such functions should be replaced by ϕ((t 1, q 1), …, (tN, q N )), a function of N space-time points called a multi-time wave function because it involves N time variables. Its evolution is determined by N Schrödinger equations, one for each time variable; to ensure that simultaneous solutions to these N equations exist, the N Hamiltonians need to satisfy a consistency condition. This condition is automatically satisfied for non-interacting particles, but it is not obvious how to set up consistent multi-time equations with interaction. For example, interaction potentials (such as the Coulomb potential) make the equations inconsistent, except in very special cases. However, there have been recent successes in setting up consistent multi-time equations involving interaction, in two ways: either involving zero-range (δ potential) interaction or involving particle creation and annihilation. The latter equations provide a multi-time formulation of a quantum field theory. The wave function in these equations is a multi-time Fock function, i.e., a family of functions consisting of, for every n = 0, 1, 2, …, an n-particle wave function with n time variables. These wave functions are related to the Tomonaga-Schwinger approach and to quantum field operators, but, as we point out, they have several advantages.
Conceptualizing functional cognition in stroke.
Donovan, Neila J; Kendall, Diane L; Heaton, Shelley C; Kwon, Sooyeon; Velozo, Craig A; Duncan, Pamela W
2008-01-01
Up to 65% of individuals demonstrate poststroke cognitive impairments, which may increase hospital stay and caregiver burden. Randomized stroke clinical trials have emphasized physical recovery over cognition. Neuropsychological assessments have had limited utility in randomized clinical trials. These issues accentuate the need for a measure of functional cognition (the ability to accomplish everyday activities that rely on cognitive abilities, such as locating keys, conveying information, or planning activities). The aim of the study was to present the process used to establish domains of functional cognition for development of computer adaptive measure of functional cognition for stroke. Functional cognitive domains involved in identifying relevant neuropsychological constructs from the literature were conceptualized and finalized after advisory panel feedback from experts in neurology, neuropsychology, aphasiology, clinical trials, and epidemiology. The following 17 domains were proposed: receptive aphasia, expressive aphasia, agraphia, alexia, calculation, visuospatial, visuoperceptual, visuoconstruction, attention, language usage, executive functions, orientation, processing speed, memory, working memory, mood, awareness and abstract reasoning. The advisory panel recommended retaining the first 12 domains. Recommended changes included: to address only encoding and retrieval of recent information in the memory domain; to add domains for limb apraxia and poststroke depression; and to keep orientation as a separate domain or reclassify it under memory or attention. The final 10 domains included: language, reading and writing, numeric/calculation, limb praxis, visuospatial function, social use of language, emotional function, attention, executive function, and memory. Conceptualizing domains of functional cognition is the first step in developing a computer adaptive measure of functional cognition for stroke. Additional steps include developing, refining, and
Leite Gusmao Junior, Joao Bosco
2017-01-01
In this doctoral thesis, I investigate how the ecological function of sediment-living animals, such as cockles and worms, is affected by environmental pollution, changes in their habitat, and the arrival of new species. The functions of the sediment-living organism are important for ecosystems such
Functional impairment and mental health functioning among Vietnamese children
Dang, Hoang-Minh; Weiss, Bahr; Trung, Lam T.
2015-01-01
Purpose Functional impairment is a key indicator of need for mental health services among children and adolescents, often a stronger predictor of service usage than mental health symptoms themselves. Functional impairment may be of particular importance in low and middle income countries (LMIC) because of its potential to focus policy on treatment of child mental health problems which is generally given low priority in LMIC. However, few studies have assessed functional impairment in LMIC. The present study assessed rates of functional impairment among children in Vietnam, as a case example of an LMIC, as well as effects of other risk/protective factors of particular relevance to LMIC (e.g., whether the family lived in an urban or rural area; family structure variables such as grandparents living with the family). Methods 1,314 parents of children 6–16 years old from 10 Vietnamese provinces were interviewed. Results The overall rate of functional impairment among Vietnamese children was 20%, similar to rates in high income countries such as Germany and the United States, suggesting that LMIC status may not be associated with dramatic increases in functional impairment in children. Functional impairment was significantly greater among mental health cases than non-cases, with increases of over 550% associated with mental health caseness. A number of other risk factors (e.g., marital status) had smaller but significant effects. Conclusions Mental health problems are a major but not the sole contributor to functional impairment among Vietnamese children. The pragmatic significance of this research lies in its potential to affect public awareness and policy related to child mental health in LMIC. PMID:26315942
Functional MRI in double cortex: functionality of heterotopia.
Pinard, J; Feydy, A; Carlier, R; Perez, N; Pierot, L; Burnod, Y
2000-04-11
A 12-year-old boy with epilepsy and subcortical laminar heterotopia (band heterotopia) underwent a functional MRI protocol to study voluntary motor activity in the hand. Finger tapping produced an activation of a contralateral limited and focused frontal cortical area both in the subcortical band heterotopia and the overlying cortex. Despite its epileptogenic activity, subcortical laminar heterotopia seems to be responsible for part of the functional activity of the brain. This has to be pointed out for epilepsy surgery resecting cortical dysplasia.
A Note on Entire Functions That Share Two Small Functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jun-Fan Chen
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This note is to show that if f is a nonconstant entire function that shares two pairs of small functions ignoring multiplicities with its first derivative f', then there exists a close linear relationship between f and f'. This result is a generalization of some results obtained by Rubel and Yang, Mues and Steinmetz, Zheng and Wang, and Qiu. Moreover, examples are provided to show that the conditions in the result are sharp.
Functional assessment of nutrition status.
Russell, Mary Krystofiak
2015-04-01
Functional status assessment has been recommended as a part of a complete nutrition assessment for decades, but the specific components of this assessment have eluded a consensus definition. The recent Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics/American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition consensus criteria for identification of malnutrition include functional assessment determined by handgrip dynamometry, with the understanding that this technique is not practical for use in some patient populations. Other techniques for functional assessment include physical performance measures such as timed gait and chair stands, as well as activities of daily living tools such as the Katz Index, Lawton Scale, and Karnofsky Scale Index. Manual muscle testing and computed tomography scan assessment of lean tissue are other tools that show promise in correlating functional and nutrition assessments. Functional assessment parameters may be least well correlated with nutrition status in older individuals. Despite a number of scientific studies of a variety of tools for functional assessment, there is to date no definitive tool for use in all individuals in all settings. Nutrition scientists and clinicians must continue to collaborate with colleagues in physical and occupational therapy, geriatrics, and nursing to refine current functional assessment tools to more effectively correlate with nutrition and malnutrition assessment parameters. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.
Triebel, Hans
1992-01-01
Theory of Function Spaces II deals with the theory of function spaces of type Bspq and Fspq as it stands at the present. These two scales of spaces cover many well-known function spaces such as Hölder-Zygmund spaces, (fractional) Sobolev spaces, Besov spaces, inhomogeneous Hardy spaces, spaces of BMO-type and local approximation spaces which are closely connected with Morrey-Campanato spaces. Theory of Function Spaces II is self-contained, although it may be considered an update of the author’s earlier book of the same title. The book’s 7 chapters start with a historical survey of the subject, and then analyze the theory of function spaces in Rn and in domains, applications to (exotic) pseudo-differential operators, and function spaces on Riemannian manifolds. ------ Reviews The first chapter deserves special attention. This chapter is both an outstanding historical survey of function spaces treated in the book and a remarkable survey of rather different techniques developed in the last 50 years. It is s...
Hybrid functionals applied to perovskites.
Franchini, Cesare
2014-06-25
After being used for years in the chemistry community to describe molecular properties, hybrid functionals have been increasingly and successfully employed for a wide range of solid state problems which are not accurately accessible by standard density functional theory. In particular, the upsurge of interest in transition metal perovskite-based compounds, motivated by their technological relevance and functional ductility, has incentivized the use of hybrid functionals for realistic applications, as hybrid functionals appear to be capable of capturing the complex correlated physics of this class of oxide material, characterized by a subtle coupling between several competing interactions (lattice, orbital, spin). Here we present a map of recent applications of hybrid functionals to perovskites, aiming to cover an ample spectra of cases, including the 'classical' 3d compounds (manganites, titanates, nickelates, ferrites, etc.), less conventional examples from the the 4d (technetiates) and 5d (iridates) series, and the (non-transition metal) sp perovskite BaBiO3. We focus our attention on the technical aspects of the hybrid functional formalism, such as the role of the mixing and (for range-separated hybrids) screening parameters, and on an extended array of physical phenomena: pressure- and doping-induced insulator-to-metal and structural phase transitions, multiferroism, surface and interface effects, charge ordering and localization effects, and spin-orbit coupling.
Cognitive control and attentional functions.
Mackie, Melissa-Ann; Van Dam, Nicholas T; Fan, Jin
2013-08-01
Cognitive control is essential to flexible, goal-directed behavior under uncertainty, yet its underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. Because attentional functions are known to allocate mental resources and prioritize the information to be processed, we propose that the attentional functions of alerting, orienting, and executive control and the interactions among them contribute to cognitive control in the service of uncertainty reduction. To test this hypothesis, we examined the relationship between cognitive control and attentional functions. We used the Majority Function Task (MFT) to manipulate uncertainty in order to evoke cognitive control along with the Revised Attention Network Test (ANT-R) to measure the efficiency and the interactions of attentional functions. A backwards, stepwise regression model revealed that performance on the MFT could be significantly predicted by attentional functions and their interactions as measured by the ANT-R. These results provide preliminary support for our theory that the attentional functions are involved in the implementation of cognitive control as required to reduce uncertainty, though further investigation is needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mitochondria functionality and sperm quality.
Amaral, Alexandra; Lourenço, Bárbara; Marques, Mónica; Ramalho-Santos, João
2013-01-01
Although mitochondria are best known for being the eukaryotic cell powerhouses, these organelles participate in various cellular functions besides ATP production, such as calcium homoeostasis, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the intrinsic apoptotic pathway and steroid hormone biosynthesis. The aim of this review was to discuss the putative roles of mitochondria in mammalian sperm function and how they may relate to sperm quality and fertilisation ability, particularly in humans. Although paternal mitochondria are degraded inside the zygote, sperm mitochondrial functionality seems to be critical for fertilisation. Indeed, changes in mitochondrial integrity/functionality, namely defects in mitochondrial ultrastructure or in the mitochondrial genome, transcriptome or proteome, as well as low mitochondrial membrane potential or altered oxygen consumption, have been correlated with loss of sperm function (particularly with decreased motility). Results from genetically engineered mouse models also confirmed this trend. On the other hand, increasing evidence suggests that mitochondria derived ATP is not crucial for sperm motility and that glycolysis may be the main ATP supplier for this particular aspect of sperm function. However, there are contradictory data in the literature regarding sperm bioenergetics. The relevance of sperm mitochondria may thus be associated with their role in other physiological features, particularly with the production of ROS, which in controlled levels are needed for proper sperm function. Sperm mitochondria may also serve as intracellular Ca²⁺ stores, although their role in signalling is still unclear.
Functional genomics of intracellular bacteria.
de Barsy, Marie; Greub, Gilbert
2013-07-01
During the genomic era, a large amount of whole-genome sequences accumulated, which identified many hypothetical proteins of unknown function. Rapidly, functional genomics, which is the research domain that assign a function to a given gene product, has thus been developed. Functional genomics of intracellular pathogenic bacteria exhibit specific peculiarities due to the fastidious growth of most of these intracellular micro-organisms, due to the close interaction with the host cell, due to the risk of contamination of experiments with host cell proteins and, for some strict intracellular bacteria such as Chlamydia, due to the absence of simple genetic system to manipulate the bacterial genome. To identify virulence factors of intracellular pathogenic bacteria, functional genomics often rely on bioinformatic analyses compared with model organisms such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. The use of heterologous expression is another common approach. Given the intracellular lifestyle and the many effectors that are used by the intracellular bacteria to corrupt host cell functions, functional genomics is also often targeting the identification of new effectors such as those of the T4SS of Brucella and Legionella.
Mitochondrial function, ornamentation, and immunocompetence.
Koch, Rebecca E; Josefson, Chloe C; Hill, Geoffrey E
2017-08-01
Understanding the mechanisms that link ornamental displays and individual condition is key to understanding the evolution and function of ornaments. Immune function is an aspect of individual quality that is often associated with the expression of ornamentation, but a general explanation for why the expression of some ornaments seems to be consistently linked to immunocompetence remains elusive. We propose that condition-dependent ornaments may be linked to key aspects of immunocompetence through co-dependence on mitochondrial function. Mitochondrial involvement in immune function is rarely considered outside of the biomedical literature, but the role of mitochondria as the primary energy producers of the cell and the centres of biosynthesis, the oxidative stress response, and cellular signalling place them at the hub of a variety of immune pathways. A promising new mechanistic explanation for correlations between a wide range of ornamental traits and the properties of individual quality is that mitochondrial function may be the 'shared pathway' responsible for links between ornament production and individual condition. Herein, we first review the role of mitochondria as both signal transducers and metabolic regulators of immune function. We then describe connections between hormonal pathways and mitochondria, with implications for both immune function and the expression of ornamentation. Finally, we explore the possibility that ornament expression may link directly to mitochondrial function. Considering condition-dependent traits within the framework of mitochondrial function has the potential to unify central tenets within the study of sexual selection, eco-immunology, oxidative stress ecology, stress and reproductive hormone biology, and animal physiology. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society.
Spectral functions and transport coefficients from the functional renormalization group
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tripolt, Ralf-Arno
2015-06-03
In this thesis we present a new method to obtain real-time quantities like spectral functions and transport coefficients at finite temperature and density using the Functional Renormalization Group approach. Our non-perturbative method is thermodynamically consistent, symmetry preserving and based on an analytic continuation from imaginary to real time on the level of the flow equations. We demonstrate the applicability of this method by calculating mesonic spectral functions as well as the shear viscosity for the quark-meson model. In particular, results are presented for the pion and sigma spectral function at finite temperature and chemical potential, with a focus on the regime near the critical endpoint in the phase diagram of the quark-meson model. Moreover, the different time-like and space-like processes, which give rise to a complex structure of the spectral functions, are discussed. Finally, based on the momentum dependence of the spectral functions, we calculate the shear viscosity and the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio using the corresponding Green-Kubo formula.
Computational Methods and Function Theory
Saff, Edward; Salinas, Luis; Varga, Richard
1990-01-01
The volume is devoted to the interaction of modern scientific computation and classical function theory. Many problems in pure and more applied function theory can be tackled using modern computing facilities: numerically as well as in the sense of computer algebra. On the other hand, computer algorithms are often based on complex function theory, and dedicated research on their theoretical foundations can lead to great enhancements in performance. The contributions - original research articles, a survey and a collection of problems - cover a broad range of such problems.
Accurate computation of Mathieu functions
Bibby, Malcolm M
2013-01-01
This lecture presents a modern approach for the computation of Mathieu functions. These functions find application in boundary value analysis such as electromagnetic scattering from elliptic cylinders and flat strips, as well as the analogous acoustic and optical problems, and many other applications in science and engineering. The authors review the traditional approach used for these functions, show its limitations, and provide an alternative ""tuned"" approach enabling improved accuracy and convergence. The performance of this approach is investigated for a wide range of parameters and mach
Nutrition, inflammation, and cognitive function.
Wärnberg, Julia; Gomez-Martinez, Sonia; Romeo, Javier; Díaz, Ligia-Esperanza; Marcos, Ascensión
2009-02-01
Inflammation, particularly low-grade chronic inflammation, appears to affect several brain functions, from early brain development to the development of neurodegenerative disorders and perhaps some psychiatric diseases. On the other hand, nutrition and dietary components and patterns have a plethora of anti- and pro-inflammatory effects that could be linked to cognitive function. Even a modest effect of nutrition on cognitive decline could have significant implications for public health. This paper summarizes the available evidence regarding inflammation as a key mechanism in cognitive function and nutritional pro- or anti-inflammatory effects with the purpose of linking the apparent disparate disciplines of nutrition, immunity, and neurology.
Hilbertian kernels and spline functions
Atteia, M
1992-01-01
In this monograph, which is an extensive study of Hilbertian approximation, the emphasis is placed on spline functions theory. The origin of the book was an effort to show that spline theory parallels Hilbertian Kernel theory, not only for splines derived from minimization of a quadratic functional but more generally for splines considered as piecewise functions type. Being as far as possible self-contained, the book may be used as a reference, with information about developments in linear approximation, convex optimization, mechanics and partial differential equations.
Wavelet analysis of multifractal functions
Jaffard, Stephane
1995-09-01
Multifractal signals are characterized by a local Holder exponent that may change completely from point to point. We show that wavelet methods are an extremely efficient tool for determining the exact Holder exponent of a function, or at least, for getting some information about this Holder exponent, such as the Spectrum of Singularities. We construct functions that have a given Holder exponent in a deterministic setting and also in a probabilistic setting (we then obtain the Multifractional Brownian Motion); we also study the Multifractal Formalism for Functions and give some results about its validity.
Functional methods in differential equations
Hokkanen, Veli-Matti
2002-01-01
In recent years, functional methods have become central to the study of theoretical and applied mathematical problems. As demonstrated in this Research Note, functional methods can not only provide more generality, but they can also unify results and techniques and lead to better results than those obtained by classical methods. Presenting entirely original results, the authors use functional methods to explore a broad range of elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic boundary value problems and various classes of abstract differential and integral equations. They show that while it is crucial to choose an appropriate functional framework, this approach can lead to mathematical models that better describe concrete physical phenomena. In particular, they reach a concordance between the physical sense and the mathematical sense for the solutions of some special models. Beyond its importance as a survey of the primary techniques used in the area, the results illuminated in this volume will prove valuable in a wealth ...
"Analytical" vector-functions I
Todorov, Vladimir Todorov
2017-12-01
In this note we try to give a new (or different) approach to the investigation of analytical vector functions. More precisely a notion of a power xn; n ∈ ℕ+ of a vector x ∈ ℝ3 is introduced which allows to define an "analytical" function f : ℝ3 → ℝ3. Let furthermore f (ξ )= ∑n =0 ∞ anξn be an analytical function of the real variable ξ. Here we replace the power ξn of the number ξ with the power of a vector x ∈ ℝ3 to obtain a vector "power series" f (x )= ∑n =0 ∞ anxn . We research some properties of the vector series as well as some applications of this idea. Note that an "analytical" vector function does not depend of any basis, which may be used in research into some problems in physics.
Advances in fuzzy implication functions
Beliakov, Gleb; Sola, Humberto; Pradera, Ana
2013-01-01
Fuzzy implication functions are one of the main operations in fuzzy logic. They generalize the classical implication, which takes values in the set {0,1}, to fuzzy logic, where the truth values belong to the unit interval [0,1]. These functions are not only fundamental for fuzzy logic systems, fuzzy control, approximate reasoning and expert systems, but they also play a significant role in mathematical fuzzy logic, in fuzzy mathematical morphology and image processing, in defining fuzzy subsethood measures and in solving fuzzy relational equations. This volume collects 8 research papers on fuzzy implication functions. Three articles focus on the construction methods, on different ways of generating new classes and on the common properties of implications and their dependencies. Two articles discuss implications defined on lattices, in particular implication functions in interval-valued fuzzy set theories. One paper summarizes the sufficient and necessary conditions of solutions for one distributivity equation...
Function and Argument in Begriffsschrift
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Badesa, C.; Bertran-San Millán, Joan
2017-01-01
Roč. 38, č. 4 (2017), s. 316-341 ISSN 0144-5340 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : identity * Frege * logic * function * argument Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion Impact factor: 0.286, year: 2016
Functions Of Land Administration System
Oksana Sakal'
2012-01-01
The theoretical basis and essence of some common and specific functions of land administration system as an integral mechanism of effective land use and land administration levels (case-study for forest and other land available for afforestation) are analysed.
Bacterial Exopolysaccharides: Functionality and Prospects
Nwodo, Uchechukwu U.; Green, Ezekiel; Okoh, Anthony I.
2012-01-01
Diverse structural, functional and valuable polysaccharides are synthesized by bacteria of all taxa and secreted into the external environment. These polysaccharides are referred to as exopolysaccharides and they may either be homopolymeric or heteropolymeric in composition and of diverse high molecular weights (10 to 1000 kDa). The material properties of exopolysaccharides have revolutionized the industrial and medical sectors due to their retinue of functional applications and prospects. These applications have been extensive in areas such as pharmacological, nutraceutical, functional food, cosmeceutical, herbicides and insecticides among others, while prospects includes uses as anticoagulant, antithrombotic, immunomodulation, anticancer and as bioflocculants. Due to the extensive applications of bacterial exopolysaccharides, this overview provides basic information on their physiologic and morphologic functions as well as their applications and prospects in the medical and industrial sectors. PMID:23203046
Sexual function after transvaginal cholecystectomy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Donatsky, Anders M; Jørgensen, Lars N; Meisner, Søren
2014-01-01
INTRODUCTION: Despite several benefits, patients are concerned that transvaginal cholecystectomy has a negative impact on sexual health. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the impact of transvaginal cholecystectomy on postoperative dyspareunia and sexual function. METHOD: A lit...
Functional aspects of protein flexibility
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Teilum, Kaare; Olsen, Johan G; Kragelund, Birthe B
2009-01-01
Proteins are dynamic entities, and they possess an inherent flexibility that allows them to function through molecular interactions within the cell, among cells and even between organisms. Appreciation of the non-static nature of proteins is emerging, but to describe and incorporate...... this into an intuitive perception of protein function is challenging. Flexibility is of overwhelming importance for protein function, and the changes in protein structure during interactions with binding partners can be dramatic. The present review addresses protein flexibility, focusing on protein-ligand interactions....... The thermodynamics involved are reviewed, and examples of structure-function studies involving experimentally determined flexibility descriptions are presented. While much remains to be understood about protein flexibility, it is clear that it is encoded within their amino acid sequence and should be viewed...
[The development of visual function].
Niessen, F; Montezer, N
2002-11-01
Development of vision mainly takes place during the first year of life. Visual function cannot be restricted to the measurement of visual acuity. Indeed it is a plural function including functions of environment exploration, relative appreciation of objects, control of body position and movements organization, acquisition of knowledge and communication. From an analytical point of view visual function comprises sensorial (such as visual acuity), cognitive (cerebral processing of sensorial information) and oculomotor elements. Synthetically it may be seen as a neuro-visual loop organized around the eye, by turns sensor (vision) and effector (look). This neurovisual loop representation is of interest as it allows better recognition and analysis of the neurovisual pathologies encountered in children with cerebral injuries, especially former premature infants.
Aging and functional brain networks
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Tomasi, D; Volkow, N D
2012-01-01
.... To test this hypothesis, we evaluated resting-state data sets corresponding to 913 healthy subjects from a public magnetic resonance imaging database using functional connectivity density mapping (FCDM...
Functions and Mechanisms of Sleep
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mark R. Zielinski
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Sleep is a complex physiological process that is regulated globally, regionally, and locally by both cellular and molecular mechanisms. It occurs to some extent in all animals, although sleep expression in lower animals may be co-extensive with rest. Sleep regulation plays an intrinsic part in many behavioral and physiological functions. Currently, all researchers agree there is no single physiological role sleep serves. Nevertheless, it is quite evident that sleep is essential for many vital functions including development, energy conservation, brain waste clearance, modulation of immune responses, cognition, performance, vigilance, disease, and psychological state. This review details the physiological processes involved in sleep regulation and the possible functions that sleep may serve. This description of the brain circuitry, cell types, and molecules involved in sleep regulation is intended to further the reader’s understanding of the functions of sleep.
Functionalized carbon nanotubes: biomedical applications
Vardharajula, Sandhya; Ali, Sk Z; Tiwari, Pooja M; Eroğlu, Erdal; Vig, Komal; Dennis, Vida A; Singh, Shree R
2012-01-01
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are emerging as novel nanomaterials for various biomedical applications. CNTs can be used to deliver a variety of therapeutic agents, including biomolecules, to the target disease sites. In addition, their unparalleled optical and electrical properties make them excellent candidates for bioimaging and other biomedical applications. However, the high cytotoxicity of CNTs limits their use in humans and many biological systems. The biocompatibility and low cytotoxicity of CNTs are attributed to size, dose, duration, testing systems, and surface functionalization. The functionalization of CNTs improves their solubility and biocompatibility and alters their cellular interaction pathways, resulting in much-reduced cytotoxic effects. Functionalized CNTs are promising novel materials for a variety of biomedical applications. These potential applications are particularly enhanced by their ability to penetrate biological membranes with relatively low cytotoxicity. This review is directed towards the overview of CNTs and their functionalization for biomedical applications with minimal cytotoxicity. PMID:23091380
Television and children's executive function.
Lillard, Angeline S; Li, Hui; Boguszewski, Katie
2015-01-01
Children spend a lot of time watching television on its many platforms: directly, online, and via videos and DVDs. Many researchers are concerned that some types of television content appear to negatively influence children's executive function. Because (1) executive function predicts key developmental outcomes, (2) executive function appears to be influenced by some television content, and (3) American children watch large quantities of television (including the content of concern), the issues discussed here comprise a crucial public health issue. Further research is needed to reveal exactly what television content is implicated, what underlies television's effect on executive function, how long the effect lasts, and who is affected. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Special Functions for Applied Scientists
Mathai, A M
2008-01-01
Special Functions for Applied Scientists provides the required mathematical tools for researchers active in the physical sciences. The book presents a full suit of elementary functions for scholars at the PhD level and covers a wide-array of topics and begins by introducing elementary classical special functions. From there, differential equations and some applications into statistical distribution theory are examined. The fractional calculus chapter covers fractional integrals and fractional derivatives as well as their applications to reaction-diffusion problems in physics, input-output analysis, Mittag-Leffler stochastic processes and related topics. The authors then cover q-hypergeometric functions, Ramanujan's work and Lie groups. The latter half of this volume presents applications into stochastic processes, random variables, Mittag-Leffler processes, density estimation, order statistics, and problems in astrophysics. Professor Dr. A.M. Mathai is Emeritus Professor of Mathematics and Statistics, McGill ...
Chemical product and function dataset
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Merged product weight fraction and chemical function data. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Isaacs , K., M. Goldsmith, P. Egeghy , K....
Functionalized carbon nanotubes: biomedical applications.
Vardharajula, Sandhya; Ali, Sk Z; Tiwari, Pooja M; Eroğlu, Erdal; Vig, Komal; Dennis, Vida A; Singh, Shree R
2012-01-01
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are emerging as novel nanomaterials for various biomedical applications. CNTs can be used to deliver a variety of therapeutic agents, including biomolecules, to the target disease sites. In addition, their unparalleled optical and electrical properties make them excellent candidates for bioimaging and other biomedical applications. However, the high cytotoxicity of CNTs limits their use in humans and many biological systems. The biocompatibility and low cytotoxicity of CNTs are attributed to size, dose, duration, testing systems, and surface functionalization. The functionalization of CNTs improves their solubility and biocompatibility and alters their cellular interaction pathways, resulting in much-reduced cytotoxic effects. Functionalized CNTs are promising novel materials for a variety of biomedical applications. These potential applications are particularly enhanced by their ability to penetrate biological membranes with relatively low cytotoxicity. This review is directed towards the overview of CNTs and their functionalization for biomedical applications with minimal cytotoxicity.
Integral of Non Positive Functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Endou Noboru
2017-10-01
Full Text Available In this article, we formalize in the Mizar system [1, 7] the Lebesgue type integral and convergence theorems for non positive functions [8],[2]. Many theorems are based on our previous results [5], [6].
Acquired Functional Asplenia in Sarcoidosis
Stone, Richard W.; McDaniel, Willie R.; Armstrong, Earl M.; Young, Roscoe C.; Higginbotham-Ford, Edith A.
1985-01-01
Sarcoidosis is a recently identified cause of functional asplenia that can be diagnosed by radionuclide imaging. A 31-year-old woman with a five-year history of histologically compatible sarcoidosis was found to have nonvisualization of the spleen on technetium 99m sulfur colloid (radiopharmaceutical) liver-spleen scan. This scintigraphic finding was accompanied by poikilocytosis and Howell-Jolly bodies in the peripheral blood smear. A subsequent gallium 67 citrate scan reflected an abnormal increase in concentration of activity in the spleen, suggesting an active inflammatory process. Based upon this constellation of findings, it was concluded that acquired functional asplenia is the result of reticuloendothelial cell replacement via infiltration of the spleen by epithelioid cell granulomas of active sarcoidosis. This case also illustrates the reversibility of functional asplenia of sarcoidosis following adrenocorticosteroid therapy. Functional asplenia in sarcoidosis is now found to have a recognizable radionuclide imaging pattern. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3 PMID:3908697
Selective Functionalization of Tailored Nanostructures
Slingenbergh, Winand; Boer, Sanne K. de; Cordes, Thorben; Browne, Wesley R.; Feringa, Ben L.; Hoogenboom, Jacob P.; Hosson, Jeff Th.M. De; Dorp, Willem F. van
2012-01-01
The controlled positioning of nanostructures with active molecular components is of importance throughout nanoscience and nanotechnology. We present a novel three-step method to produce nanostructures that are selectively decorated with functional molecules. We use fluorophores and nanoparticles to
Selenoprotein function and muscle disease
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Lescure, Alain; Rederstorff, Mathieu; Krol, Alain; Guicheney, Pascale; Allamand, Valérie
2009-01-01
The crucial role of the trace element selenium in livestock and human health, in particular in striated muscle function, has been well established but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood...
Functional Remediation for Bipolar Disorder
Martínez-Arán, Anabel; Torrent, Carla; Solé, Brisa; Bonnín, C. Mar; Rosa, Adriane R; Sánchez-Moreno, José; Vieta, Eduard
2011-01-01
Neurocognitive impairment constitutes a core feature of bipolar illness. The main domains affected are verbal memory, attention, and executive functions. Deficits in these areas as well as difficulties to get functional remission seem to be increased associated with illness progression. Several studies have found a strong relationship between neurocognitive impairment and low functioning in bipolar disorder, as previously reported in other illnesses such as schizophrenia. Cognitive remediation strategies, adapted from work conducted with traumatic brain injury patients and applied to patients with schizophrenia, also need to be adapted to individuals with bipolar disorders. Early intervention using functional remediation, involves neurocognitive techniques and training, but also psychoeducation on cognition-related issues and problem-solving within an ecological framework. PMID:21687565
Functional microbiology of soda lakes
Sorokin, D.Y.; Banciu, H.L.; Muyzer, G.
2015-01-01
Soda lakes represent unique permanently haloalkaline system. Despite the harsh conditions, they are inhabited by abundant, mostly prokaryotic, microbial communities. This review summarizes results of studies of main functional groups of the soda lake prokaryotes responsible for carbon, nitrogen and
Towards a reversible functional language
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yokoyama, Tetsuo; Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert
2012-01-01
We identify concepts of reversibility for a functional language by means of a set of semantic rules with specific properties. These properties include injectivity along with local backward determinism, an important operational property for an efficient reversible language. We define a concise...... reversible first-order functional language in which access to the backward semantics is provided to the programmer by inverse function calls. Reversibility guarantees that in this language a backward run (inverse interpretation) is as fast as the corresponding forward run itself. By adopting a symmetric...... first-match policy for case expressions, we can write overlapping patterns in case branches, as is customary in ordinary functional languages, and also in leaf expressions, unlike existing inverse interpreter methods, which enables concise programs. In patterns, the use of a duplication...
Moonlighting peptides with emerging function.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jonathan G Rodríguez Plaza
Full Text Available Hunter-killer peptides combine two activities in a single polypeptide that work in an independent fashion like many other multi-functional, multi-domain proteins. We hypothesize that emergent functions may result from the combination of two or more activities in a single protein domain and that could be a mechanism selected in nature to form moonlighting proteins. We designed moonlighting peptides using the two mechanisms proposed to be involved in the evolution of such molecules (i.e., to mutate non-functional residues and the use of natively unfolded peptides. We observed that our moonlighting peptides exhibited two activities that together rendered a new function that induces cell death in yeast. Thus, we propose that moonlighting in proteins promotes emergent properties providing a further level of complexity in living organisms so far unappreciated.
Functional Performance Testing in Athletes with Functional Ankle Instability
Sharma, Nidhi; Sharma, Archna; Singh Sandhu, Jaspal
2011-01-01
Purpose To determine if functional performance deficits are present in athletes with functional ankle instability (FAI) compared to healthy athletes using various functional performance tests. Methods Sixty two athletes (mean age-21.7±1.8years; height-168.2±9.1cm; weight-63.8±11.0kg) participated in this case control study. Athletes were divided into two groups: athletes with FAI (FAI group, n=31) and healthy athletes (Non-FAI group, n=31). The FAI group was further divided into two subgroups: FAI with giving way (FAI-GW), FAI with no giving way (FAI-NGW). Functional performance was assessed with the single-limb hopping test, figure-of-8 hop test, side-hop test, single-limb hurdle test, square hop test and single hop test. Results Significant differences (PFAI and Non-FAI groups; between FAI-GW, FAI-NGW and Non-FAI groups. Additionally, the involved limb performed significantly worse (PFAI-GW group for the above-mentioned FPTs. Conclusion Significant functional performance deficits were observed in the FAI group in all tests except single hop test with greater deficits observed in the FAI-GW group. Hence, these tests can be used to determine the presence of FAI. However no deficits were identified for the test involving sagittal plane functional activities suggesting that this test can not be used as a criterion to discriminate individuals with FAI. It was further ascertained that functional performance was not affected by limb dominance. PMID:22375246
GRID INFORMATION SECURITY FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENT
Amy Poh Ai Ling; Mukaidono Masao
2011-01-01
This paper describes the background of smart information infrastructure and the needs for smart grid information security. It introduces the conceptual analysis to the methodology with the application ofhermeneutic circle and information security functional requirement identification. Information security for the grid market cover matters includes automation and communications industry that affects the operation of electric power systems and the functioning of the utilities that manage them ...
Functionalized hyperbranched polyethylene powder supports.
Bergbreiter, D E; Tao, G; Kippenberger, A M
2000-09-07
[reaction: see text] Polyethylene powders with useful loadings of functional groups are accessible by hyperbranched grafting chemistry. Using a 200 microm diameter high-density powder, loadings of up to 0.4 mmol/g of CO(2)H groups are attained. The carboxylic acid groups in the resulting powders can be further functionalized covalently or ionically and resulting powders have the physical durability and solvent resistance associated with polyethylene itself.
Formalism and functionalism in linguistics.
Newmeyer, Frederick J
2010-05-01
Formalism and functionalism in linguistics are often taken to be diametrically opposed approaches. However, close examination of the relevant phenomena reveals that the two are complementary, rather than being irrevocably in opposition to each other. One can be a formal linguist and a functional linguist at the same time, without there being any contradiction. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Chemical Design of Functional Nanomaterials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Egeblad, Kresten
This thesis deals with a very specific class of functional nanomaterials known as mesoporous zeolites. Zeolites are a class of crystalline aluminosilicate minerals characterized by featuring pores or cavities of molecular dimensions as part of their crystal structure. Mesoporous zeolites are zeol......This thesis deals with a very specific class of functional nanomaterials known as mesoporous zeolites. Zeolites are a class of crystalline aluminosilicate minerals characterized by featuring pores or cavities of molecular dimensions as part of their crystal structure. Mesoporous zeolites...
Biosynthetic Polymers as Functional Materials
Carlini, Andrea S.; Adamiak, Lisa; Gianneschi, Nathan C.
2016-01-01
The synthesis of functional polymers encoded with biomolecules has been an extensive area of research for decades. As such, a diverse toolbox of polymerization techniques and bioconjugation methods has been developed. The greatest impact of this work has been in biomedicine and biotechnology, where fully synthetic and naturally derived biomolecules are used cooperatively. Despite significant improvements in biocompatible and functionally diverse polymers, our success in the field is constrain...
Drug treatment of functional dyspepsia.
Mönkemüller, Klaus; Malfertheiner, Peter
2006-05-07
Symptomatic improvement of patients with functional dyspepsia after drug therapy is often incomplete and obtained in not more than 60% of patients. This is likely because functional dyspepsia is a heterogeneous disease. Although great advance has been achieved with the consensus definitions of the Rome I and II criteria, there are still some aspects about the definition of functional dyspepsia that require clarification. The Rome criteria explicitly recognise that epigastric pain or discomfort must be the predominant complaint in patients labelled as suffering from functional dyspepsia. However, this strict definition can create problems in the daily primary care clinical practice, where the patient with functional dyspepsia presents with multiple symptoms. Before starting drug therapy it is recommended to provide the patient with an explanation of the disease process and reassurance. A thorough physical examination and judicious use of laboratory data and endoscopy are also indicated. In general, the approach to treat patients with functional dyspepsia based on their main symptom is practical and effective. Generally, patients should be treated with acid suppressive therapy using proton-pump inhibitors if the predominant symptoms are epigastric pain or gastroesophageal reflux symptoms. Although the role of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) in functional dyspepsia continues to be a matter of debate, recent data indicate that there is modest but clear benefit of eradication of H pylori in patients with functional dyspepsia. In addition, H pylori is a gastric carcinogen and if found it should be eliminated. Although there are no specific diets for patients with FD, it may be helpful to guide the patients on healthy exercise and eating habits.
Selective functionalization of carbon nanotubes
Strano, Michael S. (Inventor); Usrey, Monica (Inventor); Barone, Paul (Inventor); Dyke, Christopher A. (Inventor); Tour, James M. (Inventor); Kittrell, W. Carter (Inventor); Hauge, Robert H. (Inventor); Smalley, Richard E. (Inventor)
2009-01-01
The present invention is directed toward methods of selectively functionalizing carbon nanotubes of a specific type or range of types, based on their electronic properties, using diazonium chemistry. The present invention is also directed toward methods of separating carbon nanotubes into populations of specific types or range(s) of types via selective functionalization and electrophoresis, and also to the novel compositions generated by such separations.
Inductance and hypergeometric functions. II
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Karlsson, Per W.
2000-01-01
A previously obtained integral for the self-inductance of a solenoid is further transformed. The resulting formula involves double Kampé de Fériet functions which are analytic continuations rather than power series.......A previously obtained integral for the self-inductance of a solenoid is further transformed. The resulting formula involves double Kampé de Fériet functions which are analytic continuations rather than power series....
Functionalized magnetic nanoparticle analyte sensor
Yantasee, Wassana; Warner, Maryin G; Warner, Cynthia L; Addleman, Raymond S; Fryxell, Glen E; Timchalk, Charles; Toloczko, Mychailo B
2014-03-25
A method and system for simply and efficiently determining quantities of a preselected material in a particular solution by the placement of at least one superparamagnetic nanoparticle having a specified functionalized organic material connected thereto into a particular sample solution, wherein preselected analytes attach to the functionalized organic groups, these superparamagnetic nanoparticles are then collected at a collection site and analyzed for the presence of a particular analyte.
Function Concepts for Machine Parts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mortensen, Niels Henrik
1999-01-01
The majority of resources, like time and costs, consumed in industrial product development can be related to detailed design, i.e. the materialisation of machine parts (German Maschinenteile). Existing design theories based on a systems approach, e.g. Haberfellner [5] all have function, i...... to be identification of a purposeful behaviour concept, i.e. function for a machine part. The contribution is based on the theory of technical systems, Hubka and the domain theory, Andreasen....
Automatic computation of transfer functions
Atcitty, Stanley; Watson, Luke Dale
2015-04-14
Technologies pertaining to the automatic computation of transfer functions for a physical system are described herein. The physical system is one of an electrical system, a mechanical system, an electromechanical system, an electrochemical system, or an electromagnetic system. A netlist in the form of a matrix comprises data that is indicative of elements in the physical system, values for the elements in the physical system, and structure of the physical system. Transfer functions for the physical system are computed based upon the netlist.
Structure, fragmentation and fracture functions
Canal-Garcia, C A
2000-01-01
We address the partonic description of the proton, the photon and the "color singlet, " as seen in inclusive and semi-inclusive DIS, in e /sup +/e/sup $/collisions, and in diffractive processes, respectively. Their formal treatment using structure, fragmentation, and fracture functions is outlined giving an insight into the perturbative QCD framework for these functions. Examples and comparisons with experimental data from LEP, HERA, and Tevatron are also covered. (52 refs).
Cardiopulmonary function and laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Wahba, R W; Béïque, F; Kleiman, S J
1995-01-01
This review analyzes the literature dealing with cardiopulmonary function during and pulmonary function following laparoscopic cholecystectomy in order to describe the patterns of changes in these functions and the mechanisms involved as well as to identify areas of concern and lacunae in our knowledge. Information was obtained from a Medline literature search and the annual meeting supplements of Anesthesiology, Anesth Analg, Br J Anaesth, and Can J Anaesth. The principal findings were that changes in cardiovascular function due to the insufflation are characterized by an immediate decrease in cardiac index and an increase in mean arterial blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance. In the next few minutes there is partial restoration of cardiac index and resistance but blood pressure and heart rate do not change. The pattern is the result of the interaction between increased abdominal pressure, neurohumoral responses and absorbed CO2. Pulmonary function changes are characterized by reduced compliance without large alterations in PaO2, but tissue oxygenation can be adversely affected due to reduced O2 delivery. A major difficulty in maintaining normocarbia is due to the abdominal distention reducing pulmonary compliance and to CO2 absorption. End tidal CO2 tension is not a reliable index of PaCO2, particularly in ASA III-IV patients. The pattern of lung function following LC is characterized by a transient reduction in lung volumes and capacities with a restrictive breathing pattern and the loss of the abdominal contribution to breathing. Atelectasis also occurs. These changes are qualitatively similar to but of a lesser magnitude than those following "open" abdominal operations. It is concluded that the changes in cardiopulmonary function during laparoscopic upper abdominal surgery lead us to suggest judicious invasive monitoring and careful interpretation in ASA III-IV patients. Lung function following extensive procedures in sick patients has not been
African Journals Online (AJOL)
. Thirteen patients had abdominoperineal excision of the rectum, with en-bloc resection of the ..... we suggest that clear instructions are given to day-care surgery patients who have had spinal anaesthesia. Headache when they occur usually ...
Functional diversity of aquatic ciliates.
Weisse, Thomas
2017-10-01
This paper first reviews the concept of functional diversity in general terms and then applies it to free-living aquatic ciliates. Ciliates are extremely versatile organisms and display an enormous functional diversity as key elements of pelagic food webs, acting as predators of bacteria, algae, other protists and even some metazoans. Planktonic ciliates are important food for zooplankton, and mixotrophic and functionally autotrophic species may significantly contribute to primary production in the ocean and in lakes. The co-occurrence of many ciliate species in seemingly homogenous environments indicates a wide range of their ecological niches. Variation in space and time may foster co-occurrence and prevent violating the competitive exclusion principle among ciliates using the same resources. Considering that many ciliates may be dormant and/or rare in many habitats, ciliate species diversity must be higher than can be deduced from simple sampling techniques; molecular methods of identification clearly point to this hidden diversity. From a functional point of view, the question is how much of this diversity represents redundancy. A key challenge for future research is to link the ecophysiological performance of naturally co-occurring ciliates to their functional genes. To this end, more experimental research is needed with with functionally different species. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.
Functional neuroimaging and childhood autism
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boddaert, Nathalie [Service de Radiologie Pediatrique, Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital, Paris (France); Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, DRM, DSV, CEA, Orsay (France); Zilbovicius, Monica [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, DRM, DSV, CEA, Orsay (France); INSERM, Tours (France)
2002-01-01
Childhood autism is now widely viewed as being of developmental neurobiological origin. Yet, localised structural and functional brain correlates of autism have to be established. Structural brain-imaging studies performed in autistic patients have reported abnormalities such as increased total brain volume and cerebellar abnormalities. However, none of these abnormalities fully account for the full range of autistic symptoms. Functional brain imaging, such as positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and functional MRI (fMRI) have added a new perspective to the study of normal and pathological brain functions. In autism, functional studies have been performed at rest or during activation. However, first-generation functional imaging devices were not sensitive enough to detect any consistent dysfunction. Recently, with improved technology, two independent groups have reported bilateral hypoperfusion of the temporal lobes in autistic children. In addition, activation studies, using perceptive and cognitive paradigms, have shown an abnormal pattern of cortical activation in autistic patients. These results suggest that different connections between particular cortical regions could exist in autism. The purpose of this review is to present the main results of rest and activation studies performed in autism. (orig.)
The Boundary Function Method. Fundamentals
Kot, V. A.
2017-03-01
The boundary function method is proposed for solving applied problems of mathematical physics in the region defined by a partial differential equation of the general form involving constant or variable coefficients with a Dirichlet, Neumann, or Robin boundary condition. In this method, the desired function is defined by a power polynomial, and a boundary function represented in the form of the desired function or its derivative at one of the boundary points is introduced. Different sequences of boundary equations have been set up with the use of differential operators. Systems of linear algebraic equations constructed on the basis of these sequences allow one to determine the coefficients of a power polynomial. Constitutive equations have been derived for initial boundary-value problems of all the main types. With these equations, an initial boundary-value problem is transformed into the Cauchy problem for the boundary function. The determination of the boundary function by its derivative with respect to the time coordinate completes the solution of the problem.
Anorectal functional abnormalities in Egyptian children with chronic functional constipation.
Fathy, Abeer; Megahed, Ahmed; Barakat, Tarik; Abdalla, Ahmed F
2013-03-01
Chronic functional constipation represents 95% of the cases of paediatric constipation. Epidemiologic data, pathophysiology and anorectal functional abnormalities vary greatly among different reports across different populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate these data in Egyptian children with chronic functional constipation. This study included 150 children with chronic functional constipation (101 males, 49 females; mean age 6 ± 3.1 years); a control group of 50 age- and sex-matched healthy children were enrolled for standardisation of the manometry technique. A structured symptom questionnaire and clinical examination including digital rectal examination in addition to anorectal manometry were done for all included children. Defaecation dynamics were assessed in all children 5 years or older using anorectal manometry with integrated electromyogram of the external anal sphincter and the puborectalis muscle. The maximal tolerable volume was significantly higher in the constipated children than in the control group (p=0.03). No significant differences existed between constipated and control children regarding other anorectal manometric parameters. Abnormal defaecation dynamics were detected in 35 out of 95 tested patients (36.8%). Increased maximal tolerable volume is the most striking manometric feature in Egyptian children with chronic functional constipation. Abnormal defaecation dynamics were detected in about one-third of the tested patients. Standardisation of the measurement techniques and obtaining normal ranges for anorectal manometric parameters for each laboratory are recommended. Copyright © 2013 Arab Journal of Gastroenterology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Whole-brain functional connectivity identification of functional dyspepsia.
Nan, Jiaofen; Liu, Jixin; Li, Guoying; Xiong, Shiwei; Yan, Xuemei; Yin, Qing; Zeng, Fang; von Deneen, Karen M; Liang, Fanrong; Gong, Qiyong; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie
2013-01-01
Recent neuroimaging studies have shown local brain aberrations in functional dyspepsia (FD) patients, yet little attention has been paid to the whole-brain resting-state functional network abnormalities. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether FD disrupts the patterns of whole-brain networks and the abnormal functional connectivity could reflect the severity of the disease. The dysfunctional interactions between brain regions at rest were investigated in FD patients as compared with 40 age- and gender- matched healthy controls. Multivariate pattern analysis was used to evaluate the discriminative power of our results for classifying patients from controls. In our findings, the abnormal brain functional connections were mainly situated within or across the limbic/paralimbic system, the prefrontal cortex, the tempo-parietal areas and the visual cortex. About 96% of the subjects among the original dataset were correctly classified by a leave one-out cross-validation approach, and 88% accuracy was also validated in a replication dataset. The classification features were significantly associated with the patients' dyspepsia symptoms, the self-rating depression scale and self-rating anxiety scale, but it was not correlated with duration of FD patients (p>0.05). Our results may indicate the effectiveness of the altered brain functional connections reflecting the disease pathophysiology underling FD. These dysfunctional connections may be the epiphenomena or causative agents of FD, which may be affected by clinical severity and its related emotional dimension of the disease rather than the clinical course.
Network-based functional enrichment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Poirel Christopher L
2011-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many methods have been developed to infer and reason about molecular interaction networks. These approaches often yield networks with hundreds or thousands of nodes and up to an order of magnitude more edges. It is often desirable to summarize the biological information in such networks. A very common approach is to use gene function enrichment analysis for this task. A major drawback of this method is that it ignores information about the edges in the network being analyzed, i.e., it treats the network simply as a set of genes. In this paper, we introduce a novel method for functional enrichment that explicitly takes network interactions into account. Results Our approach naturally generalizes Fisher’s exact test, a gene set-based technique. Given a function of interest, we compute the subgraph of the network induced by genes annotated to this function. We use the sequence of sizes of the connected components of this sub-network to estimate its connectivity. We estimate the statistical significance of the connectivity empirically by a permutation test. We present three applications of our method: i determine which functions are enriched in a given network, ii given a network and an interesting sub-network of genes within that network, determine which functions are enriched in the sub-network, and iii given two networks, determine the functions for which the connectivity improves when we merge the second network into the first. Through these applications, we show that our approach is a natural alternative to network clustering algorithms. Conclusions We presented a novel approach to functional enrichment that takes into account the pairwise relationships among genes annotated by a particular function. Each of the three applications discovers highly relevant functions. We used our methods to study biological data from three different organisms. Our results demonstrate the wide applicability of our methods. Our algorithms are
Building indifferentiable compression functions from the PGV compression functions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gauravaram, P.; Bagheri, Nasour; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde
2016-01-01
, Rogaway and Shrimpton formally proved this result in the ideal cipher model. However, in the indifferentiability security framework introduced by Maurer, Renner and Holenstein, all these 12 schemes are easily differentiable from a fixed input-length random oracle (FIL-RO) even when their underlying block...... are indifferentiable from a FIL-RO. To our knowledge, this is the first result showing that two independent block ciphers are sufficient to design indifferentiable single-block-length compression functions.......Preneel, Govaerts and Vandewalle (PGV) analysed the security of single-block-length block cipher based compression functions assuming that the underlying block cipher has no weaknesses. They showed that 12 out of 64 possible compression functions are collision and (second) preimage resistant. Black...
Functional foods: Latin American perspectives.
Lajolo, Franco M
2002-11-01
The perspectives of Latin America as a potential producer and consumer of functional foods will depend largely on the level of information and income of the population, credibility of the products, research investments and regulatory practices. The characteristics of Latin America are diverse at the regional and sub-regional levels. However, as part of the demographic and epidemiological transition currently underway, common trends can be identified such as increasing urbanization and life expectancy, the occurrence of obesity and malnutrition, increasing incidences of chronic diseases and causes of mortality rates, all of which suggests the importance of diet and functional foods in public health policies. The Latin American population in general has no knowledge of functional foods, but in the more urbanized areas there is an increasingly health-conscious consumer, aware of the importance of food for health, due to the media and local traditions. More investment in research is important to explore the existing plant biodiversity that is a rich source of new foods and bioactive compounds, some of which are already used for health improvement and well-being. Clinical validation of functional foods should consider functional food science concepts and also the diverse cultural and genetic background of the local population. In Latin American scientific and regulatory communities, the functional foods concept has been associated with foods having health benefits beyond those of basic nutrition but is not defined officially in the emerging regulatory codes. Regulation existing in some countries is focused on safety and efficacy; both functional and health claims are allowed (risk reduction) provided they have scientific validation. This allowed introduction on the market of several products with health claims, some of them submitted to post-marketing surveillance.
Functional imaging in Parkinson disease.
Nandhagopal, R; McKeown, Martin J; Stoessl, A Jon
2008-04-15
Functional imaging techniques represent useful tools to assess in vivo the neurochemical alterations and functional connectivity in Parkinson disease (PD). Here, the authors review the various approaches and potential application of these imaging techniques to the study of PD. Radiotracer imaging using dopaminergic markers facilitates assessment of pre- and postsynaptic nigrostriatal integrity, while imaging with other appropriate radiotracers explores nondopaminergic neurotransmitter function, local metabolism, blood flow, and mechanisms potentially related to disease progression and pathogenesis. Activation studies using functional MRI detect blood oxygen level dependent signal, as an indirect marker of neuronal activity. Functional imaging techniques have been applied to infer the potential role of inflammation and other factors in etiopathogenesis as well as to study compensatory and regulatory mechanisms in early PD and subclinical disease in genetic forms of PD. Imaging studies also help to understand the neurobiological basis of motor and nonmotor complications. Recent reports suggest a role for striatal dopaminergic transmission in modulating neurobehavioral processes including the placebo effect in PD. Although functional imaging has been employed to monitor disease progression, the discordance between clinical outcome and imaging measures after therapeutic interventions precludes their use as surrogate end points in clinical trials. Beyond these limitations and potential challenges, imaging techniques continue to find wide application in the study of PD. Functional imaging can provide meaningful insights into mechanisms underlying various aspects of motor and nonmotor dysfunction in Parkinson disease and the role of striatal dopaminergic transmission in behavioral processes beyond motor control. These modalities hold promise to study the preclinical phase and to elucidate further the benefits and complications of surgical interventions and the utility of
Nanoarchitectonics with Porphyrin Functionalized DNA
2017-01-01
Conspectus DNA is well-known as bearer of the genetic code. Since its structure elucidation nearly seven decades ago by Watson, Crick, Wilkins, and Franklin, much has been learned about its detailed structure, function, and genetic coding. The development of automated solid-phase synthesis, and with it the availability of synthetic DNA with any desired sequence in lengths of up to hundreds of bases in the best case, has contributed much to the advancement of the field of DNA research. In addition, classic organic synthesis has allowed introduction of a very large number of modifications in the DNA in a sequence specific manner, which have initially been targeted at altering the biological function of DNA. However, in recent years DNA has become a very attractive scaffold in supramolecular chemistry, where DNA is taken out of its biological role and serves as both stick and glue molecule to assemble novel functional structures with nanometer precision. The attachment of functionalities to DNA has led to the creation of supramolecular systems with applications in light harvesting, energy and electron transfer, sensing, and catalysis. Functional DNA is clearly having a significant impact in the field of bioinspired nanosystems. Of particular interest is the use of porphyrins in supramolecular chemistry and bionanotechnology, because they are excellent functional groups due to their electronic properties that can be tailored through chemical modifications of the aromatic core or through insertion of almost any metal of the periodic table into the central cavity. The porphyrins can be attached either to the nucleobase, to the phosphate group, or to the ribose moiety. Additionally, noncovalent templating through Watson–Crick base pairing forms an alternative and attractive approach. With this, the combination of two seemingly simple molecules gives rise to a highly complex system with unprecedented possibilities for modulation of function, and with it applications
Consequences of CKD on Functioning.
Kittiskulnam, Piyawan; Sheshadri, Anoop; Johansen, Kirsten L
2016-07-01
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is highly prevalent in the United States and throughout the world,(1) with approximately 13% of adults affected.(2) In addition, according to recent estimates, almost half of patients with CKD stages 3 to 5 are 70 years of age and older.(2) In the United States, the number of prevalent end-stage renal disease cases continues to increase in patients older than age 65. In light of the demographic characteristics of patients with CKD and ESRD, there has been considerable focus on associations between CKD and cardiovascular outcomes.(3) Until recently, less attention had been paid to other consequences of CKD in general and among older individuals with CKD in particular, but there is now solid evidence linking CKD with impairments of physical function, cognitive function, and emotional function and quality of life. This review summarizes available literature on these topics, focusing specifically on physical functioning and frailty, cognitive function, emotional health, including depression and anxiety, and health-related quality of life. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Functional neuroimaging in specific phobia.
Del Casale, Antonio; Ferracuti, Stefano; Rapinesi, Chiara; Serata, Daniele; Piccirilli, Massimo; Savoja, Valeria; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Manfredi, Giovanni; Angeletti, Gloria; Tatarelli, Roberto; Girardi, Paolo
2012-06-30
Specific phobias (SPs) are common, with lifetime prevalence estimates of 10%. Our current understanding of their pathophysiology owes much to neuroimaging studies, which enabled us to construct increasingly efficient models of the underlying neurocircuitry. We provide an updated, comprehensive review and analyze the relevant literature of functional neuroimaging studies in specific phobias. Findings are presented according to the functional neuroanatomy of patients with SPs. We performed a careful search of the major medical and psychological databases by crossing SP with each neuroimaging technique. Functional neuroimaging, mostly using symptom provocation paradigms, showed abnormal activations in brain areas involved in emotional perception and early amplification, mainly the amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex, thalamus, and insula. The insula, thalamus and other limbic/paralimbic structures are particularly involved in SPs with prominent autonomic arousal. Emotional modulation is also impaired after exposure to phobic stimuli, with abnormal activations reported for the prefrontal, orbitofrontal and visual cortices. Other cortices and the cerebellum also appear to be involved in the pathophysiology of this disorder. Functional neuroimaging identified neural substrates that differentiate SPs from other anxiety disorders and separate SP subtypes from one another; the results support current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition-Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic subtyping of SPs. Functional neuroimaging shows promise as a means of identifying treatment-response predictors. Improvement in these techniques may help in clarifying the neurocircuitry underlying SP, for both research and clinical-therapeutic purposes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bernoulli numbers and zeta functions
Arakawa, Tsuneo; Kaneko, Masanobu
2014-01-01
Two major subjects are treated in this book. The main one is the theory of Bernoulli numbers and the other is the theory of zeta functions. Historically, Bernoulli numbers were introduced to give formulas for the sums of powers of consecutive integers. The real reason that they are indispensable for number theory, however, lies in the fact that special values of the Riemann zeta function can be written by using Bernoulli numbers. This leads to more advanced topics, a number of which are treated in this book: Historical remarks on Bernoulli numbers and the formula for the sum of powers of consecutive integers; a formula for Bernoulli numbers by Stirling numbers; the Clausen–von Staudt theorem on the denominators of Bernoulli numbers; Kummer's congruence between Bernoulli numbers and a related theory of p-adic measures; the Euler–Maclaurin summation formula; the functional equation of the Riemann zeta function and the Dirichlet L functions, and their special values at suitable integers; various formulas of ...
Dórea, José G; da Costa, Teresa Helena M
2005-06-01
Definitions of functional food vary but are essentially based on foods' ability to enhance the quality of life, or physical and mental performance, of regular consumers. The worldwide use of coffee for social engagement, leisure, enhancement of work performance and well-being is widely recognised. Depending on the quantities consumed, it can affect the intake of some minerals (K, Mg, Mn, Cr), niacin and antioxidant substances. Epidemiological and experimental studies have shown positive effects of regular coffee-drinking on various aspects of health, such as psychoactive responses (alertness, mood change), neurological (infant hyperactivity, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases) and metabolic disorders (diabetes, gallstones, liver cirrhosis), and gonad and liver function. Despite this, most reviews do not mention coffee as fulfilling the criteria for a functional food. Unlike other functional foods that act on a defined population with a special effect, the wide use of coffee-drinking impacts a broad demographic (from children to the elderly), with a wide spectrum of health benefits. The present paper discusses coffee-drinking and health benefits that support the concept of coffee as a functional food.
``Backpack'' Functionalized Living Immune Cells
Swiston, Albert; Um, Soong Ho; Irvine, Darrell; Cohen, Robert; Rubner, Michael
2009-03-01
We demonstrate that functional polymeric ``backpacks'' built from polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) can be attached to a fraction of the surface area of living, individual lymphocytes. Backpacks containing fluorescent polymers, superparamagnetic nanoparticles, and commercially available quantum dots have been attached to B and T-cells, which may be spatially manipulated using a magnetic field. Since the backpack does not occlude the entire cellular surface from the environment, this technique allows functional synthetic payloads to be attached to a cell that is free to perform its native functions, thereby synergistically utilizing both biological and synthetic functionalities. For instance, we have shown that backpack-modified T-cells are able to migrate on surfaces for several hours following backpack attachment. Possible payloads within the PEM backpack include drugs, vaccine antigens, thermally responsive polymers, nanoparticles, and imaging agents. We will discuss how this approach has broad potential for applications in bioimaging, single-cell functionalization, immune system and tissue engineering, and cell-based therapeutics where cell-environment interactions are critical.
Functional theories of thermoelectric phenomena
Eich, F. G.; Di Ventra, M.; Vignale, G.
2017-02-01
We review the progress that has been recently made in the application of time-dependent density functional theory to thermoelectric phenomena. As the field is very young, we emphasize open problems and fundamental issues. We begin by introducing the formal structure of thermal density functional theory, a density functional theory with two basic variables—the density and the energy density—and two conjugate fields—the ordinary scalar potential and Luttinger’s thermomechanical potential. The static version of this theory is contrasted with the familiar finite-temperature density functional theory, in which only the density is a variable. We then proceed to constructing the full time-dependent non equilibrium theory, including the practically important Kohn-Sham equations that go with it. The theory is shown to recover standard results of the Landauer theory for thermal transport in the steady state, while showing greater flexibility by allowing a description of fast thermal response, temperature oscillations and related phenomena. Several results are presented here for the first time, i.e. the proof of invertibility of the thermal response function in the linear regime, the full expression of the thermal currents in the presence of Luttinger’s thermomechanical potential, an explicit prescription for the evaluation of the Kohn-Sham potentials in the adiabatic local density approximation, a detailed discussion of the leading dissipative corrections to the adiabatic local density approximation and the thermal corrections to the resistivity that follow from it.
Dopaminergic function and intertemporal choice.
Joutsa, J; Voon, V; Johansson, J; Niemelä, S; Bergman, J; Kaasinen, V
2015-01-06
The discounting of delayed rewards, also known as temporal or delay discounting, is intrinsic to everyday decisions and can be impaired in pathological states such as addiction disorders. Preclinical and human studies suggest a role for dopaminergic function in temporal discounting but this relationship has not yet been verified using molecular imaging of the living human brain. Here, we evaluated dopaminergic function in temporal discounting using positron emission tomography (PET) with two different dopaminergic ligands assessing three populations in whom temporal discounting has been shown to be impaired. First, we show using [11C]raclopride PET that in pathological gamblers, greater temporal discounting correlates with decreased ventral striatal binding potential, convergent with translational findings of lower nucleus accumbens D2/D3 receptor density in high-impulsive rodents. Temporal discounting also correlates with lower ventral striatal dopamine release in response to high-reward magnitude suggesting that dopamine-mediated devaluation of larger delayed rewards may drive choice preferences. Second, we show using [18F]fluorodopa PET that in Parkinson's disease, temporal discounting correlates with greater left caudate dopaminergic terminal function. Finally, in subjects with Parkinson's disease and dopamine medication-induced behavioral addictions, temporal discounting is further correlated with greater dopaminergic terminal function in the anterior putamen. These findings provide insights into the relationship between striatal dopamine function and temporal discounting, and its potential role in pathological disorders and mechanisms underlying treatment interventions.
Parametric functional principal component analysis.
Sang, Peijun; Wang, Liangliang; Cao, Jiguo
2017-09-01
Functional principal component analysis (FPCA) is a popular approach in functional data analysis to explore major sources of variation in a sample of random curves. These major sources of variation are represented by functional principal components (FPCs). Most existing FPCA approaches use a set of flexible basis functions such as B-spline basis to represent the FPCs, and control the smoothness of the FPCs by adding roughness penalties. However, the flexible representations pose difficulties for users to understand and interpret the FPCs. In this article, we consider a variety of applications of FPCA and find that, in many situations, the shapes of top FPCs are simple enough to be approximated using simple parametric functions. We propose a parametric approach to estimate the top FPCs to enhance their interpretability for users. Our parametric approach can also circumvent the smoothing parameter selecting process in conventional nonparametric FPCA methods. In addition, our simulation study shows that the proposed parametric FPCA is more robust when outlier curves exist. The parametric FPCA method is demonstrated by analyzing several datasets from a variety of applications. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.
Distribution functions of probabilistic automata
Vatan, F.
2001-01-01
Each probabilistic automaton M over an alphabet A defines a probability measure Prob sub(M) on the set of all finite and infinite words over A. We can identify a k letter alphabet A with the set {0, 1,..., k-1}, and, hence, we can consider every finite or infinite word w over A as a radix k expansion of a real number X(w) in the interval [0, 1]. This makes X(w) a random variable and the distribution function of M is defined as usual: F(x) := Prob sub(M) { w: X(w) automata in detail. Automata with continuous distribution functions are characterized. By a new, and much more easier method, it is shown that the distribution function F(x) is an analytic function if it is a polynomial. Finally, answering a question posed by D. Knuth and A. Yao, we show that a polynomial distribution function F(x) on [0, 1] can be generated by a prob abilistic automaton iff all the roots of F'(x) = 0 in this interval, if any, are rational numbers. For this, we define two dynamical systems on the set of polynomial distributions and study attracting fixed points of random composition of these two systems.
Functional and motor gastrointestinal disorders.
Mearin, Fermín; Rey, Enrique; Balboa, Agustín
2016-09-01
This article discusses the most interesting presentations at Digestive Disease Week, held in San Diego, in the field of functional and motor gastrointestinal disorders. One of the most important contributions was undoubtedly the presentation of the new Rome IV diagnostic criteria for functional gastrointestinal disorders. We therefore devote some space in this article to explaining these new criteria in the most common functional disorders. In fact, there has already been discussion of data comparing Rome IV and Rome III criteria in the diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome, confirming that the new criteria are somewhat more restrictive. From the physiopathological point of view, several studies have shown that the aggregation of physiopathological alterations increases symptom severity in distinct functional disorders. From the therapeutic point of view, more data were presented on the efficacy of acotiamide and its mechanisms of action in functional dyspepsia, the safety and efficacy of domperidone in patients with gastroparesis, and the efficacy of linaclotide both in irritable bowel syndrome and constipation. In irritable bowel syndrome, more data have come to light on the favourable results of a low FODMAP diet, with emphasis on its role in modifying the microbiota. Finally, long-term efficacy data were presented on the distinct treatment options in achalasia. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Melatonin, immune function and aging
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Perumal SR Pandi
2005-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Aging is associated with a decline in immune function (immunosenescence, a situation known to correlate with increased incidence of cancer, infectious and degenerative diseases. Innate, cellular and humoral immunity all exhibit increased deterioration with age. A decrease in functional competence of individual natural killer (NK cells is found with advancing age. Macrophages and granulocytes show functional decline in aging as evidenced by their diminished phagocytic activity and impairment of superoxide generation. There is also marked shift in cytokine profile as age advances, e.g., CD3+ and CD4+ cells decline in number whereas CD8+ cells increase in elderly individuals. A decline in organ specific antibodies occurs causing reduced humoral responsiveness. Circulating melatonin decreases with age and in recent years much interest has been focused on its immunomodulatory effect. Melatonin stimulates the production of progenitor cells for granulocytes-macrophages. It also stimulates the production of NK cells and CD4+ cells and inhibits CD8+ cells. The production and release of various cytokines from NK cells and T-helper lymphocytes also are enhanced by melatonin. Melatonin presumably regulates immune function by acting on the immune-opioid network, by affecting G protein-cAMP signal pathway and by regulating intracellular glutathione levels. Melatonin has the potential therapeutic value to enhance immune function in aged individuals and in patients in an immunocompromised state.
Functional tasks exercise improves daily function in older women
Vreede, P.L. de
2006-01-01
Ageing is characterised by a reduction in physical reserve, the physiological capacity in excess of that needed for daily activities, that provides a margin of safety that absorbs age- or disease-related changes without a loss in function. When physical capacity falls below the ability required for
A partition function approximation using elementary symmetric functions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ramu Anandakrishnan
Full Text Available In statistical mechanics, the canonical partition function [Formula: see text] can be used to compute equilibrium properties of a physical system. Calculating [Formula: see text] however, is in general computationally intractable, since the computation scales exponentially with the number of particles [Formula: see text] in the system. A commonly used method for approximating equilibrium properties, is the Monte Carlo (MC method. For some problems the MC method converges slowly, requiring a very large number of MC steps. For such problems the computational cost of the Monte Carlo method can be prohibitive. Presented here is a deterministic algorithm - the direct interaction algorithm (DIA - for approximating the canonical partition function [Formula: see text] in [Formula: see text] operations. The DIA approximates the partition function as a combinatorial sum of products known as elementary symmetric functions (ESFs, which can be computed in [Formula: see text] operations. The DIA was used to compute equilibrium properties for the isotropic 2D Ising model, and the accuracy of the DIA was compared to that of the basic Metropolis Monte Carlo method. Our results show that the DIA may be a practical alternative for some problems where the Monte Carlo method converge slowly, and computational speed is a critical constraint, such as for very large systems or web-based applications.
The catalystic function of leadership in efficient group functioning ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that group efficiency is a function of group internal and external factors, which in turn can be mobilised through effective leadership. For this purpose seven commercial farmer study groups were studied. Significant correlations were found between the majority of group ...
Pelvic floor: anatomy and function.
Bharucha, A E
2006-07-01
The pelvic floor is a dome-shaped striated muscular sheet that encloses the bladder, uterus, and rectum, and, together with the anal sphincters, has an important role in regulating storage and evacuation of urine and stool. This article reviews the anatomy, nerve supply, pharmacology, and functions of the anal sphincters and the pelvic floor. The internal and external anal sphincters are primarily responsible for maintaining faecal continence at rest and when continence is threatened, respectively. Defecation is a somato-visceral reflex regulated by dual nerve supply (i.e. somatic and autonomic) to the anorectum. The net effects of sympathetic and cholinergic stimulation are to increase and reduce anal resting pressure, respectively. Faecal incontinence and functional defecatory disorders may result from structural changes and/or functional disturbances in the mechanisms of faecal continence and defecation.
Flat affect and social functioning
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Simonsen, Erik; Evensen, Julie; Røsberg, Jan Ivar
2012-01-01
Background: Affective flattening has been described as enduring, but long term follow-up studies of first episode psychosis patients are lacking. Objective: The aim of this study was to follow the symptom development of flat affect (FA), over a 10 year follow-up period, with focus on prevalence...... as having never-present, improving, deteriorating, fluctuating or enduring FA. The groups were compared on baseline variables, variables at 10 year follow-up, and social functioning throughout the follow-up period. Results: Twenty nine percent never displayed FA, 66% had improving, deteriorating...... or fluctuating FA, while 5% of patients had enduring FA. Premorbid social function predicted enduring FA. The patients with enduring, fluctuating and deteriorating FA did poorer on all outcome variables, including remission and recovery rates. The enduring FA group did significantly poorer in social functioning...
Functional imaging of neuroendocrine tumors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Binderup, Tina; Knigge, Ulrich; Loft, Annika
2010-01-01
UNLABELLED: Functional techniques are playing a pivotal role in the imaging of cancer today. Our aim was to compare, on a head-to-head basis, 3 functional imaging techniques in patients with histologically verified neuroendocrine tumors: somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) with (111)In......-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-octreotide, scintigraphy with (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), and (18)F-FDG PET. METHODS: Ninety-six prospectively enrolled patients with neuroendocrine tumors underwent SRS, (123)I-MIBG scintigraphy, and (18)F-FDG PET on average within 40 d. The functional images were fused with low......-positive, of which 3 were also (123)I-MIBG scintigraphy-positive, giving a combined overall sensitivity of 96%. SRS also exceeded (123)I-MIBG scintigraphy and (18)F-FDG PET based on the number of lesions detected (393, 185, and 225, respectively) and tumor subtypes. (123)I-MIBG scintigraphy was superior to (18)F...
Green's Functions and Finite Elements
Hartmann, Friedel
2013-01-01
This book elucidates how Finite Element methods look like from the perspective of Green’s functions, and shows new insights into the mathematical theory of Finite Elements. Practically, this new view on Finite Elements enables the reader to better assess solutions of standard programs and to find better model of a given problem. The book systematically introduces the basic concepts how Finite Elements fulfill the strategy of Green’s functions and how approximating of Green’s functions. It discusses in detail the discretization error and shows that are coherent with the strategy of “goal oriented refinement”. The book also gives much attention to the dependencies of FE solutions from the parameter set of the model.
Radionuclide evaluation of renal function
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bueschen, A.J.; Witten, D.M.
1979-06-01
The renal scintillation camera study and the excretory urogram should be considered to be complementary studies. The renal scintillation camera study provides an accurate evaluation of changes in total, differential, and segmental renal function but affords only a gross assessment of anatomic changes. The excretory urogram provides superior information about renal anatomic changes but only inferior information about functional changes of the kidney. The advantages of a renal scintillation camera study with regard to the patient are that it is done in a state of normal hydration, it requires no bowel preparation, it is not associated with allergic reactions, it provides a low radiation exposure, and it is a noninvasive procedure for differential renal function which requires no ureteral catheters.
Scattering functions of Platonic solids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Xin [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute; Shew, Chwen-Yang [City University of New York (CUNY); He, Lilin [ORNL; Meilleur, Flora [ORNL; Myles, Dean A A [ORNL; Liu, Emily [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute; Zhang, Yang [ORNL; Smith, Greg [ORNL; Herwig, Kenneth W [ORNL; Pynn, Roger [ORNL; Chen, Wei-Ren [ORNL
2011-01-01
The single-particle small-angle scattering properties of five Platonic solids, including the tetrahedron, hexahedron, octahedron, dodecahedron and icosahedron, are systematically investigated. For each given geometry, the Debye spatial autocorrelation function, pair distance distribution function and intraparticle structure factor (form factor) are calculated and compared with the corresponding scattering function of a spherical reference system. From the theoretical models, the empirical relationship between the dodecahedral and icosahedral structural characteristics and those of the equivalent spheres is found. Moreover, the single-particle scattering properties of icosahedral and spherical shells with identical volume are investigated, and the prospect of using different data analysis approaches to explore their structural differences is presented and discussed.
Scattering functions of Platonic solids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Wei-Ren [ORNL; Herwig, Kenneth W [ORNL; Li, Xin [ORNL; Liu, Emily [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); Pynn, Roger [ORNL; Shew, Chwen-Yang [City University of New York (CUNY); Smith, Gregory Scott [ORNL; Myles, Dean A A [ORNL; He, Lilin [ORNL; Meilleur, Flora [ORNL
2011-01-01
In this report the single-particle scattering properties of five Platonic solids, including tetrahedron, hexahedron, octahedron, dodecahedron and icosahedron, are investigated in a systematic manner. For each given geometry, the Debye spatial autocorrelation function (r), pair distance distribution function (PDDF) p (r) and intraparticle structure factor (form factor) P (Q) are respectively calculated and compared to the corresponding scattering function of the spherical referential system. Based on our theoretical models, the empirical relationship between the dodecahedral and icosahedral structural characteristics and those of the equivalent spheres is found. Moreover, the single-particle scattering properties of the icosahedral and the spherical shells with the same volume are further investigated and the prospect of using different data analysis approaches to explore their structural difference is also presented and discussed.
Lung function measurements in children
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Poorisrisak, Porntiva
2010-01-01
and highlights the need for developing methods for verification of resistance measures to assure accuracy. Normative data were subsequently generated. Importantly other centers using such normative data should first consider proper calibration before applying reference values. Study II-III: Acute respiratory...... function and bronchial responsiveness. We found no differences within MZ twin pairs with respect to pulmonary function, fractional exhaled nitric oxide, asthma prevalence, asthma medication use, or sensitization. Secondary aim was to compare prospectively the baseline lung function and bronchial...... responsiveness in infants who later develop RSV bronchiolitis with infants who do not develop such severe infection. In a prospective birth cohort study of 411 infants of asthmatic mothers 22 infants developed RSV bronchiolitis. Infants with and without RSV bronchiolitis did not differ significantly in baseline...
Functionally Graded Mo sintered steels
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Manuel Cisneros-Belmonte
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Functionally graded materials (FGM, the multi-materials, strive to satisfy the numerous requirements demanded of parts in a given combination of compositions and microstructures. The required material compatibility lead the manufacturing process and the achieving of an interface, not always diffuse. Powder metallurgy is one of the techniques used in manufacturing functionally graded materials, in particular the compaction matrix of the possible techniques for forming these materials. In this paper, a process of forming a functionally graded steel based on the use of a high molybdenum steel with cooper and other steel with copper, without molybdenum, is proposed with the aim of concentrating this element to the surface of the workpiece, increasing the mechanical strength. The study is completed with the evaluation of physical properties (density and porosity distribution, mechanical properties (hardness, tensile strength and elongation and microstructural analysis by optical and scanning electron microscopy.
Correlation functions on conical defects
Smolkin, Michael
2015-01-01
We explore the new technique developed recently in \\cite{Rosenhaus:2014woa} and suggest a correspondence between the $N$-point correlation functions on spacetime with conical defects and the $(N+1)$-point correlation functions in regular Minkowski spacetime. This correspondence suggests a new systematic way to evaluate the correlation functions on spacetimes with conical defects. We check the correspondence for the expectation value of a scalar operator and of the energy momentum tensor in a conformal field theory and obtain the exact agreement with the earlier derivations for cosmic string spacetime. We then use this correspondence and do the computations for a generic scalar operator and a conserved vector current. For generic unitary field theory we compute the expectation value of the energy momentum tensor using the known spectral representation of the $2$-point correlators of stress-energy tensor in Minkowski spacetime.
Orthogonal Polynomials and Special Functions
Assche, Walter
2003-01-01
The set of lectures from the Summer School held in Leuven in 2002 provide an up-to-date account of recent developments in orthogonal polynomials and special functions, in particular for algorithms for computer algebra packages, 3nj-symbols in representation theory of Lie groups, enumeration, multivariable special functions and Dunkl operators, asymptotics via the Riemann-Hilbert method, exponential asymptotics and the Stokes phenomenon. The volume aims at graduate students and post-docs working in the field of orthogonal polynomials and special functions, and in related fields interacting with orthogonal polynomials, such as combinatorics, computer algebra, asymptotics, representation theory, harmonic analysis, differential equations, physics. The lectures are self-contained requiring only a basic knowledge of analysis and algebra, and each includes many exercises.
Extension of Mittag-Leffler function
Rahman, G.; K.S. Nisar; Mubeen, S; Arshad, M.
2017-01-01
In this paper, we present an extension of Mittag-Leffler function by using the extension of beta functions (\\"{O}zergin et al. in J. Comput. Appl. Math. 235 (2011), 4601-4610) and obtain some integral representation of this newly defined function. Also, we present the Mellin transform of this function in terms of Wright hypergeometric function. Furthermore, we show that the extended fractional derivative of the usual Mittag-Leffler function gives the extension of Mittag-Leffler function.
Functional Basis of Microorganism Classification.
Zhu, Chengsheng; Delmont, Tom O; Vogel, Timothy M; Bromberg, Yana
2015-08-01
Correctly identifying nearest "neighbors" of a given microorganism is important in industrial and clinical applications where close relationships imply similar treatment. Microbial classification based on similarity of physiological and genetic organism traits (polyphasic similarity) is experimentally difficult and, arguably, subjective. Evolutionary relatedness, inferred from phylogenetic markers, facilitates classification but does not guarantee functional identity between members of the same taxon or lack of similarity between different taxa. Using over thirteen hundred sequenced bacterial genomes, we built a novel function-based microorganism classification scheme, functional-repertoire similarity-based organism network (FuSiON; flattened to fusion). Our scheme is phenetic, based on a network of quantitatively defined organism relationships across the known prokaryotic space. It correlates significantly with the current taxonomy, but the observed discrepancies reveal both (1) the inconsistency of functional diversity levels among different taxa and (2) an (unsurprising) bias towards prioritizing, for classification purposes, relatively minor traits of particular interest to humans. Our dynamic network-based organism classification is independent of the arbitrary pairwise organism similarity cut-offs traditionally applied to establish taxonomic identity. Instead, it reveals natural, functionally defined organism groupings and is thus robust in handling organism diversity. Additionally, fusion can use organism meta-data to highlight the specific environmental factors that drive microbial diversification. Our approach provides a complementary view to cladistic assignments and holds important clues for further exploration of microbial lifestyles. Fusion is a more practical fit for biomedical, industrial, and ecological applications, as many of these rely on understanding the functional capabilities of the microbes in their environment and are less concerned with
Wavelets in functional data analysis
Morettin, Pedro A; Vidakovic, Brani
2017-01-01
Wavelet-based procedures are key in many areas of statistics, applied mathematics, engineering, and science. This book presents wavelets in functional data analysis, offering a glimpse of problems in which they can be applied, including tumor analysis, functional magnetic resonance and meteorological data. Starting with the Haar wavelet, the authors explore myriad families of wavelets and how they can be used. High-dimensional data visualization (using Andrews' plots), wavelet shrinkage (a simple, yet powerful, procedure for nonparametric models) and a selection of estimation and testing techniques (including a discussion on Stein’s Paradox) make this a highly valuable resource for graduate students and experienced researchers alike.
Longitudinal heavy quark structure function
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khorramian, Ali N. [Physics Department, Semnan University, Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Particles and Accelerators, IPM - Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics, P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: khorramiana@theory.ipm.ac.ir; Atashbar Tehrani, S. [Physics Department, Semnan University, Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Particles and Accelerators, IPM - Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics, P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: atashbar@ipm.ir; Mirjalili, A. [Physics Department, Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Particles and Accelerators, IPM - Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics, P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: mirjalili@ipm.ir
2009-01-15
In this paper we study the heavy-quark contribution to the proton non-singlet structure functions F{sub L}{sup NS}(x,Q{sup 2}). In this way we use very recently results for massive operator matrix elements, which contribute to the heavy flavor Wilson coefficients in unpolarized deeply inelastic scattering in the region Q{sup 2}>>m{sup 2}. The method of QCD analysis of non-singlet structure function, based on their Jacobi polynomials reconstruction from perturbative QCD predictions for the Mellin moments, is also described.
Lung function after acute bronchiolitis.
Henry, R L; Milner, A. D.; Stokes, G M; Hodges, I G; Groggins, R C
1983-01-01
We performed 211 lung function measurements on 93 children in the first year after they had been admitted with acute bronchiolitis. During the convalescent phase of the illness, 77% of the infants were hyperinflated with a thoracic gas volume greater than 40 ml/kg and 3 months later 43% were hyperinflated. Twelve months after the initial illness, 17% still had lung function abnormalities and most of these children have had lower respiratory tract symptoms. For the group as a whole about 60% h...
Review: functional properties of kefir.
Guzel-Seydim, Zeynep B; Kok-Tas, Tugba; Greene, Annel K; Seydim, Atif C
2011-03-01
Kefir is a unique cultured dairy product due to combined lactic acid and alcoholic fermentation of lactose in milk. Kefir is produced by microbial activity of "kefir grains" which have a relatively stable and specific balance of lactic acid bacteria and yeast. Due to the claimed health benefits of kefir which include reduction of lactose intolerance symptoms, stimulation of the immune system, lowering cholesterol, and antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties, kefir has become an important functional dairy food and consequently, research on kefir has increased in the past decade. In the following review, recent studies on the functional properties of kefir are reviewed.
Smart card multiple function badge
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nelson, R.A.
1993-06-01
Smart cards are credit card-sized computers with integrated data storage, an operating system to manage the data, and built-in security features that protect the data. They are used to distribute information to remote sites, providing the same or greater reliability, data integrity, and information security than a network system. However, smart cards may provide greater functionality at a lower cost than network systems. The US Department of Energy Hanford Site is developing the smart card to be used as a multiple function identification badge that will service various data management requirements on the Site. This paper discusses smart card technology and the proposed Hanford Site applications.
Poly(ethylene oxide) functionalization
Pratt, Russell Clayton
2014-04-08
A simple procedure is provided by which the hydroxyl termini of poly(ethylene oxide) can be appended with functional groups to a useful extent by reaction and precipitation. The polymer is dissolved in warmed toluene, treated with an excess of organic base and somewhat less of an excess of a reactive acylating reagent, reacted for several hours, then precipitated in isopropanol so that the product can be isolated as a solid, and salt byproducts are washed away. This procedure enables functionalization of the polymer while not requiring laborious purification steps such as solvent-solvent extraction or dialysis to remove undesirable side products.
Fuento: functional enrichment for bioinformatics.
Weichselbaum, David; Zagrovic, Bojan; Polyansky, Anton A
2017-08-15
The currently available functional enrichment software focuses mostly on gene expression analysis, whereby server- and graphical-user-interface-based tools with specific scope dominate the field. Here we present an efficient, user-friendly, multifunctional command-line-based functional enrichment tool (fu-en-to), tailored for the bioinformatics researcher. Source code and binaries freely available for download at github.com/DavidWeichselbaum/fuento, implemented in C ++ and supported on Linux and OS X. newant@gmail.com or bojan.zagrovic@univie.ac.at.
Good Towers of Function Fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bassa, Alp; Beelen, Peter; Nguyen, Nhut
2014-01-01
In this paper, we will give an overview of known and new techniques on how one can obtain explicit equations for candidates of good towers of function fields. The techniques are founded in modular theory (both the classical modular theory and the Drinfeld modular theory). In the classical modular...... setup, optimal towers can be obtained, while in the Drinfeld modular setup, good towers over any non-prime field may be found. We illustrate the theory with several examples, thus explaining some known towers as well as giving new examples of good explicitly defined towers of function fields....
[Function and disease in manganese].
Kimura, Mieko
2016-07-01
Manganese is a metal that has been known named a Greek word "Magnesia" meaning magnesia nigra from Roman Empire. Manganese provide the wide range of metablic function and the multiple abnomalities from its deficiency or toxicity. In 1931, the essentiality of manganese was demonstrated with the authoritative poor growth and declined reproduction in its deficiency. Manganese deficiency has been recognized in a number of species and its signs are impaired growth, impaired reproduction, ataxia, skeletal abnormalities and disorders in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Manganese toxicity is also acknowledged as health hazard for animals and humans. Here manganese nutrition, metabolism and metabolic function are summarized.
[Perception, expression and psychosomatic functions].
Bühler, K E
1988-01-01
The investigation starts with the mind/body-problem and with epistemological peculiarities of psychophysical processes. Every monism has to be conceived at least as a dualism of properties. As a special kind of dualism the functionalism is an example against the type/type-identity thesis but not against the token-/token-identity thesis. But the last one is no serious alternative for genuine psychological methods. But also the functionalism does not offer a complete psychological theory: there is an ambivalence concerning the secondary qualities and also concerning intentionality. Bodily expressions were analyzed according the semiotic theory of Charles Sanders Peirce.
The functions of mathematical physics
Hochstadt, Harry
2012-01-01
A modern classic, this clearly written, incisive textbook provides a comprehensive, detailed survey of the functions of mathematical physics, a field of study straddling the somewhat artificial boundary between pure and applied mathematics.In the 18th and 19th centuries, the theorists who devoted themselves to this field - pioneers such as Gauss, Euler, Fourier, Legendre, and Bessel - were searching for mathematical solutions to physical problems. Today, although most of the functions have practical applications, in areas ranging from the quantum-theoretical model of the atom to the vibrating
Reslts on fuzzy soft functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bekir TANAY
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The concept of fuzzy soft function is mentioned by Aygünoğlu et al and Kharal et al in their papers (named Introduction to Fuzzy Soft Groups (2009 and Mappings on Fuzzy Soft Classes (2009, respectively. In this paper, some results on the fuzzy soft image and preimage of set theoretic operations of fuzzy soft sets under a fuzzy soft function are studied. Also the notion of fuzzy soft equality is introduced and some related results are given.
Vector Games with Potential Function
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lucia Pusillo
2017-09-01
Full Text Available The theory of non cooperative games with potential function was introduced by Monderer and Shapley in 1996. Such games have interesting properties, among which is the existence of equilibria in pure strategies. The paper by Monderer and Shapley has inspired many game theory researchers. In the present paper, many classes of multiobjective games with potential functions are studied. The notions of generalized, best-reply and Pareto potential games are introduced in a multicriteria setting. Some properties and Pareto equilibria are investigated.
EVENT PLANNING USING FUNCTION ANALYSIS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lori Braase; Jodi Grgich
2011-06-01
Event planning is expensive and resource intensive. Function analysis provides a solid foundation for comprehensive event planning (e.g., workshops, conferences, symposiums, or meetings). It has been used at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to successfully plan events and capture lessons learned, and played a significant role in the development and implementation of the “INL Guide for Hosting an Event.” Using a guide and a functional approach to planning utilizes resources more efficiently and reduces errors that could be distracting or detrimental to an event. This integrated approach to logistics and program planning – with the primary focus on the participant – gives us the edge.
Weights of Exact Threshold Functions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Babai, László; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Podolskii, Vladimir V.
2010-01-01
We consider Boolean exact threshold functions defined by linear equations, and in general degree d polynomials. We give upper and lower bounds on the maximum magnitude (absolute value) of the coefficients required to represent such functions. These bounds are very close and in the linear case...... and the Boolean cube {0,1} n . In the process we construct new families of ill-conditioned matrices. We further stratify the problem (in the linear case) in terms of the dimension k of the affine subspace spanned by the solutions, and give upper and lower bounds in this case as well. Our bounds here in terms of k...
On Systems of Linear Quaternion Functions
Ell, Todd A.
2007-01-01
A method of reducing general quaternion functions of first degree, i.e., linear quaternion functions, to quaternary canonical form is given. Linear quaternion functions, once reduced to canonical form, can be maintained in this form under functional composition. furthermore, the composition operation is symbolically identical to quaternion multiplication, making manipulation and reduction of systems of linear quaternion functions straight forward.
Constructing new APN functions from known ones
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Budaghyan, L.; Carlet, C.; Leander, Gregor
2009-01-01
We present a method for constructing new quadratic APN functions from known ones. Applying this method to the Gold power functions we construct an APN function x(3) + tr(x(9)) over F2(n). It is proven that for n >= 7 this function is CCZ-inequivalent to the Gold functions, and in the case n = 7...
Placebo Sleep Affects Cognitive Functioning
Draganich, Christina; Erdal, Kristi
2014-01-01
The placebo effect is any outcome that is not attributed to a specific treatment but rather to an individual's mindset (Benson & Friedman, 1996). This phenomenon can extend beyond its typical use in pharmaceutical drugs to involve aspects of everyday life, such as the effect of sleep on cognitive functioning. In 2 studies examining whether…
Functional Properties of Wheat Gluten
筒井, 知己; ツツイ, トモミ; TOMOMI, TSUTSUI
1989-01-01
Glutens were obtained from nine varieties of wheat. These glutens diffred in amino acid composition. Gluten of american durum and Canadian western No 1 wheat indicated higher emulsifying properties. On the contrary, gluten of hard winter indicated higher forming properties. But these functional properties were not correrated to the content of hydrophobic amino acid of gluten.
Selfsimilarity of "Riemann's nondifferentiable function"
Duistermaat, J.J.
1994-01-01
This is an expository article about the series f(x) = 1 X n=1 1 n 2 sin(n 2 x); which according to Weierstrass was presented by Riemann as an example of a continuous function without a derivative. An explanation is given of innitely many selfsimilarities of the graph, from which the known results
The biological function of consciousness
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brian eEarl
2014-08-01
Full Text Available This research is an investigation of whether consciousness—one’s ongoing experience—influences one’s behavior and, if so, how. Analysis of the components, structure, properties, and temporal sequences of consciousness has established that, (1 contrary to one’s intuitive understanding, consciousness does not have an active, executive role in determining behavior; (2 consciousness does have a biological function; and (3 consciousness is solely information in various forms. Consciousness is associated with a flexible response mechanism (FRM for decision-making, planning, and generally responding in nonautomatic ways. The FRM generates responses by manipulating information and, to function effectively, its data input must be restricted to task-relevant information. The properties of consciousness correspond to the various input requirements of the FRM; and when important information is missing from consciousness, functions of the FRM are adversely affected; both of which indicate that consciousness is the input data to the FRM. Qualitative and quantitative information (shape, size, location, etc., is incorporated into the input data by a qualia array of colors, sounds, and so on, which makes the input conscious. This view of the biological function of consciousness provides an explanation why we have experiences; why we have emotional and other feelings, and why their loss is associated with poor decision-making; why blindsight patients do not spontaneously initiate responses to events in their blind field; why counter-habitual actions are only possible when the intended action is in mind; and the reason for inattentional blindness.
Iacovacci, Jacopo; Rahmede, Christoph; Arenas, Alex; Bianconi, Ginestra
2016-10-01
Recently it has been recognized that many complex social, technological and biological networks have a multilayer nature and can be described by multiplex networks. Multiplex networks are formed by a set of nodes connected by links having different connotations forming the different layers of the multiplex. Characterizing the centrality of the nodes in a multiplex network is a challenging task since the centrality of the node naturally depends on the importance associated to links of a certain type. Here we propose to assign to each node of a multiplex network a centrality called Functional Multiplex PageRank that is a function of the weights given to every different pattern of connections (multilinks) existent in the multiplex network between any two nodes. Since multilinks distinguish all the possible ways in which the links in different layers can overlap, the Functional Multiplex PageRank can describe important non-linear effects when large relevance or small relevance is assigned to multilinks with overlap. Here we apply the Functional Page Rank to the multiplex airport networks, to the neuronal network of the nematode C. elegans, and to social collaboration and citation networks between scientists. This analysis reveals important differences existing between the most central nodes of these networks, and the correlations between their so-called pattern to success.
A Taste of Functional Programming–
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 8. A Taste of Functional Programming – I. Madhavan Mukund. General Article Volume 12 Issue 8 August 2007 pp 27-48. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/012/08/0027-0048 ...
Design principles for riboswitch function.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chase L Beisel
2009-04-01
Full Text Available Scientific and technological advances that enable the tuning of integrated regulatory components to match network and system requirements are critical to reliably control the function of biological systems. RNA provides a promising building block for the construction of tunable regulatory components based on its rich regulatory capacity and our current understanding of the sequence-function relationship. One prominent example of RNA-based regulatory components is riboswitches, genetic elements that mediate ligand control of gene expression through diverse regulatory mechanisms. While characterization of natural and synthetic riboswitches has revealed that riboswitch function can be modulated through sequence alteration, no quantitative frameworks exist to investigate or guide riboswitch tuning. Here, we combined mathematical modeling and experimental approaches to investigate the relationship between riboswitch function and performance. Model results demonstrated that the competition between reversible and irreversible rate constants dictates performance for different regulatory mechanisms. We also found that practical system restrictions, such as an upper limit on ligand concentration, can significantly alter the requirements for riboswitch performance, necessitating alternative tuning strategies. Previous experimental data for natural and synthetic riboswitches as well as experiments conducted in this work support model predictions. From our results, we developed a set of general design principles for synthetic riboswitches. Our results also provide a foundation from which to investigate how natural riboswitches are tuned to meet systems-level regulatory demands.
Structure and Function of Wood
Alex C. Wiedenhoeft
2012-01-01
Wood is a complex biological structure, a composite of many cell types and chemistries acting together to serve the needs of living plant. Attempting to understand wood inthe context of wood technology, we have often overlooked the basic fact that wood evolved over the course of millions of years to serve three main functions in plants-conduction of water from the...
Autotaxin : biochemical and functional studies
Houben, Anna Jacoba Sara
2012-01-01
This thesis focuses on autotaxin (ATX), the main enzyme responsible for the production of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). The ATX-LPA receptor axis has a wide implication in health and disease. The studies described in this thesis aim at characterizing the biochemical and functional properties of ATX,
Correlation functions in quantum gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gies, Holger; Knorr, Benjamin; Lippoldt, Stefan [Theoretisch-Physikalisches Institut, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena (Germany)
2016-07-01
We present some aspects of non-perturbative correlation functions of quantum gravity. In particular, the influence of curvature on gravitational correlations is investigated. Possible future applications of this include, e.g., genuine quantum gravity effects in black hole physics and gravitational waves.
Factor XII : form determines function
de Maat, S; Maas, C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304821241
Factor XII is a mysterious plasma protein without a clear physiologic function. It was identified as a clotting factor, but has no clear role in hemostasis. However, FXII also contributes to the production of bradykinin, a short-lived inflammatory peptide. A growing body of mechanistic research from
Functional Anatomy of Gerstmann Syndrome
J Gordon Millichap
2010-01-01
Structural and functional neuroimaging was used to examine a common denominator for the clinical triad of Gerstmann syndrome (a selective association of acalculia, finger agnosia, left-right disorientation, and agraphia) in a study at centers in Gif-sur-Yvette and Orsay, France; and University College, London, UK.
Finding related functional neuroimaging volumes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Finn Årup; Hansen, Lars Kai
2004-01-01
We describe a content-based image retrieval technique for finding related functional neuroimaging experiments by voxelization of sets of stereotactic coordinates in Talairach space, comparing the volumes and reporting related volumes in a sorted list. Voxelization is accomplished by convolving ea...
Peptide-functionalized polyphenylene dendrimers
Herrmann, Andreas; Mihov, Gueorgui; Vandermeulen, Guido W.M.; Klok, Harm-Anton; Müllen, Klaus
2003-01-01
This contribution describes the synthesis of polyphenylene dendrimers that are functionalized with up to 16 lysine residues or substituted with short peptide sequences composed of 5 lysine or glutamic acid repeats and a C- or N-terminal cysteine residue. Polyphenylene dendrimers were prepared via a
Term rewriting with traversal functions
J.J. Vinju (Jurgen); M.G.J. van den Brand (Mark); P. Klint (Paul)
2003-01-01
htmlabstractTerm rewriting is an appealing technique for performing program analysis and program transformation. Tree (term) traversal is frequently used but is not supported by standard term rewriting. We extend many-sorted, first-order term rewriting with traversal functions that automate tree
Functional barriers: Properties and evaluation
Feigenbaum, A.; Dole, P.; Aucejo, S.; Dainelli, D.; Cruz Garcia, C. de la; Hankemeier, T.; N'Gono, Y.; Papaspyrides, C.D.; Paseiro, P.; Pastorelli, S.; Pavlidou, S.; Pennarun, P.Y.; Saillard, P.; Vidal, L.; Vitrac, O.; Voulzatis, Y.
2005-01-01
Functional barriers are multilayer structures deemed to prevent migration of some chemicals released by food-contact materials into food. In the area of plastics packaging, different migration behaviours of mono- and multilayer structures are assessed in terms of lag time and of their influence of
LUNG FUNCTION TESTING IN CHILDREN
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matjaž Fležar
2004-03-01
Full Text Available Background. Lung function testing in children above five years old is standardised similarly as is in adult population (1. Nevertheless bronchial provocation testing can be more hazardous since the calibre and reactivity of childhood airway is different. We analysed the frequency of different lung function testing procedures and addressed the safety issues of bronchial provocation testing in children.Methods. We analysed lung function testing results in 517 children, older than 5 years, tested in our laboratory in threeyear period. Spirometry was done in every patient, metacholine provocation test was used as a part of diagnostic work-up in suspected asthma. In case of airway obstruction, bronchodilator test with salbutamol was used instead of a metacholine provocation test.Results. The most common procedure in children was spirometry with bronchial provocation test as a part of diagnostic work-up of obstructive syndrome (mostly asthma. 291 children required metacholine test and 153 tests were interpreted as positive. The decline in expiratory flows (forced expiratory flow in first second – FEV1 in positive tests was greater than in adult population as was the dose of metacholine, needed to induce bronchoconstriction. The compliance of children was better than in adults.Conclusions. Lung function testing in children is reliable and safe and can be done in a well-standardised laboratory that follows the regulations of such testing in adults.