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Sample records for halophenyl sulfonamide salt

  1. Salting-out homogenous extraction followed by ionic liquid/ionic liquid liquid-liquid micro-extraction for determination of sulfonamides in blood by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongling; Yu, Wei; Zhang, Hanqi; Gu, Fanbin; Jin, Xiangqun

    2016-12-01

    Salting-out homogenous extraction followed by ionic liquid/ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction system was developed and applied to the extraction of sulfonamides in blood. High-performance liquid chromatography was applied to the determination of the analytes. The blood sample was centrifuged to obtain the serum. After the proteins in the serum were removed in the presence of acetonitrile, ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, dipotassium hydrogen phosphate, ionic liquid 1-Hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate were added into the resulting solution. After the resulting mixture was ultrasonically shaken and centrifuged, the precipitate was separated. The acetonitrile was added in the precipitate and the analytes were extracted into the acetonitrile phase. The parameters affecting the extraction efficiency, such as volume of ionic liquid, amount of dipotassium hydrogen phosphate, volume of dispersant, extraction time and temperature were investigated. The limits of detection of sulfamethizole (STZ), sulfachlorpyridazine (SCP), sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and Sulfisoxazole (SSZ) were 4.78, 3.99, 5.21 and 3.77μgL -1 , respectively. When the present method was applied to the analysis of real blood samples, the recoveries of analytes ranged from 90.0% to 113.0% and relative standard deviations were lower than 7.2%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Tetracyclines, sulfonamides and metronidazole].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Trallero, Emilio; Iglesias, Luis

    2003-11-01

    Tetracyclines form a group of natural and semisynthetic products that acts inhibiting the bacterial protein synthesis. They are bacteriostatic agents, exhibiting activity against a wide range of organisms, but they are at the present of limited use because of their acquired resistance. Doxycycline is currently the most frequently used tetracycline in human medicine and it is included in the List of Essential Medicines of the World Health Organization. Sulfonamides are synthetic, broad-spectrum bacteriostatic antibiotics. They were the first effective systemic antimicrobial agents. Their mode of action is based on the inhibition of DNA synthesis. Due to their toxicity and high adquired resistance their use is currently very low. Metronidazole is the main compound of 5-nitroimidazole family. It is a very active bactericidal antibiotic against anaerobic and some microaerophilic bacteria and it is still very useful in the treatment of bacterian and parasitic infections.

  3. Quinoline-2-sulfonamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Kusz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C9H8N2O2S, the sulfamoyl –NH2 group is involved in intermolecular hydrogen bonding with the sulfonamide O and quinoline N atoms. In the crystal, molecules are linked into dimers via pairs of N—H...N hydrogen bonds, forming an R22(10 motif. The dimers are further assembled into chains parallel to the b axis through N—H...O hydrogen bonds, generating a C(4 motif. The crystal packing is additionally stabilized by intermolecular C—H...O interactions. The crystal studied was a non-merohedral twin with a domain ratio of 0.938 (2:0.062 (2. Density functional theory (DFT calculations, at the B3LYP/6–31 G(d,p level of theory, were used to optimize the molecular structure and to determine interaction energies for the title compound. The resulting interaction energy is ∼4.4 kcal mol−1 per bridge for the C(4 chain and ∼5.9 kcal mol−1 per bridge for the R22(10 motif.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of novel sulfonamides derivatives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3Department of Chemistry, Comsat Institute of Information & Technology Riawind road. Lahore ... Newer sulfonamides and their derivatives has obtained great attention in pharmaceutical field in ... MS data was recorded on Finnigan MAT 112 mass ..... potent and orally active sulfonamide ETB selective antagonists. Bioorg.

  5. Polymorphism in R-tamsulosin (an alpha blocker): The unexpected manifestation of a sulfonamide⋯o-diethoxybenzene heterosynthon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanubolu, Jagadeesh Babu; Sridhar, Balasubramanian; Ravikumar, Krishnan

    2014-12-01

    A two point Nsbnd H⋯O dimer or an infinite catemer are the most preferred motifs/synthons for sulfonamide structures. Such synthons are known to be so robust that they are only disrupted in the presence of highly activated O acceptors such as pyridine-N-oxide and sulfoxide. We demonstrate in this article that a multi-point synthon offered by much weaker ethoxy O and amine N acceptors can however strongly compete and disrupt the robust sulfonamide homosynthons. This has been illustrated with the synthon analysis in three polymorphic crystal structures of R-tamsulosin, an active drug used in the treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) and its hydrochloride salt. These crystalline solids are characterized by Single crystal X-ray diffraction (SC-XRD), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopy. Forms I, II of the free base and hydrochloride salt crystallize in the monoclinic P21, C2, and P21 space groups respectively with two molecules in the asymmetric unit (Z‧ = 2), whereas, form III of freebase crystallize in the orthorhombic P212121 space group with Z‧ = 1. Remarkably, all four crystal structures contain a totally unexpected sulfonamide⋯o-diethoxybenzene heterosynthon. The multi-point motifs observed in polymorphs are relatively stronger than those in the hydrochloride salt because of the gauche conformation of the tamsulosin linker chain which renders an additional hydrogen bond interaction with amine N acceptor, and resemble the crown ether sulfonamide recognition pattern. Observation of this new heterosynthon offers potential scope in the design of pharmaceutical cocrystals for sulfonamide bearing drug molecules. The present study also presents a detailed hydrogen bond motif analysis in 310 primary sulfonamide structures culled from the latest version of Cambridge Structural Database (CSD). The role of various competing groups is discussed in the context of understanding the most recurring

  6. Why sulfonamides are contraindicated in Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Vicky; Hsu, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    Sulfonamide antibiotics are not effective for the treatment of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF). Patients suspected of having RMSF based on history and physical exam should be treated with doxycycline and not a sulfonamide to avoid increased morbidity and mortality.

  7. Why sulfonamides are contraindicated in Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Vicky; Hsu, Sylvia

    2014-02-18

    Sulfonamide antibiotics are not effective for the treatment of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF). Patients suspected of having RMSF based on history and physical exam should be treated with doxycycline and not a sulfonamide to avoid increased morbidity and mortality.

  8. Hydroxylamine as an oxygen nucleophile: substitution of sulfonamide by a hydroxyl group in benzothiazole-2-sulfonamides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamps, J.A.G.; Belle, R.; Mecinovic, J.

    2013-01-01

    Benzothiazole-2-sulfonamides react with an excess of hydroxylamine in aqueous solutions to form 2-hydroxybenzothiazole, sulfur dioxide, and the corresponding amine. Mechanistic studies that employ a combination of structure-reactivity relationships, oxygen labeling experiments, and (in)direct

  9. Sulfonamide and carbamate derivatives of 6-chloropurine: synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Venkata Narayana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A series of new sulfonamide derivatives, 9-(substitutedbenzenesulfonyl-6-chloro-9H-purines 7(a-e and carbamate derivatives, 6-chloro-purine-9-carboxylic acid substituted alkyl/arylester 9(a-d, have been synthesized through an intermediate, sodium salt of 6-chloro-9(H-purine (6 which was prepared by the treatment of 6-chloro-9(H-purine (4 with sodium hydride. Structures of the newly synthesized compounds were elucidated by IR, NMR ( 1H and 13C, mass spectra and elemental analysis. Antimicrobial activity against three bacterial strains and three fungal strains at two different concentrations, 100 and 200 µg/mL including MIC values was investigated. Bio-screening data disclosed that most of the sulfonamide derivatives, 7a, 7c and 7d, and one carbamate derivative 9a showed promising antimicrobial activity having MIC values in the range of 18.0-25.0 µg/mL.

  10. Effect of humic acid (HA) on sulfonamide sorption by biochars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian, Fei; Sun, Binbin; Chen, Xi; Zhu, Lingyan; Liu, Zhongqi; Xing, Baoshan

    2015-01-01

    Effect of quantity and fractionation of loaded humic acid (HA) on biochar sorption for sulfonamides was investigated. The HA was applied in two different modes, i.e. pre-coating and co-introduction with sorbate. In pre-coating mode, the polar fractions of HA tended to interact with low-temperature biochars via H-bonding, while the hydrophobic fractions were likely to be adsorbed by high-temperature biochars through hydrophobic and π-π interactions, leading to different composition and structure of the HA adlayers. The influences of HA fractionation on biochar sorption for sulfonamides varied significantly, depending on the nature of interaction between HA fraction and sorbate. Meanwhile, co-introduction of HA with sulfonamides revealed that the effect of HA on sulfonamide sorption was also dependent on HA concentration. These findings suggest that the amount and fractionation of adsorbed HA are tailored by the surface properties of underlying biochars, which differently affect the sorption for organic contaminants. - Highlights: • Effect of quantity and fractionation of coated HA on sorption of sulfonamides by BC was studied. • Fractionation of coated HA is tailored by surface properties of BC. • Roles of HA in BC sorption depend on interaction between HA adlayer and sorbate. • Roles of HA in sulfonamide sorption by BC also depend on HA aqueous concentration. - The quantity and fractionation of adsorbed HA play a major role in sulfonamide sorption by biochars

  11. Transport of sulfonamide antibiotics in crop fields during monsoon season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Yol; Ruidisch, Marianne; Huwe, Bernd

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have documented the occurrence of veterinary sulfonamide antibiotics in groundwater and rivers located far from pollution sources, although their transport and fate is relatively unknown. In mountainous agricultural fields, the transport behaviour can be influenced by climate, slope and physico-chemical properties of the sulfonamides. The objective of this research is to describe the transport behaviour of three sulfonamide antibiotics (sulfamethoxazole, sulfadimethoxine and sulfamethazine) in sloped agricultural fields located in the Haean catchment, South Korea. During dry and monsoon seasons, a solute transport experiment was conducted in two typical sandy loam agricultural fields after application of antibiotics and potassium bromide as conservative tracers. Field measurement and modelling revealed that frequency and amount of runoff generation indicate a relation between slope and rain intensity during monsoon season. Since the steepness of slope influenced partitioning of precipitation between runoff and subsurface flow, higher loss of sulfonamide antibiotics and bromide by runoff was observed at the steeper sloped field. Bromide on topsoil rapidly infiltrated at high infiltration rates. On the contrary, the sulfonamides were relatively retarded in the upper soil layer due to adsorption onto soil particles. Presence of furrows and ridges affected the distribution of sulfonamide antibiotics in the subsurface due to gradient from wetter furrows to drier ridges induced by topography. Modelling results with HydroGeoSphere matched with background studies that describe physico-chemical properties of the sulfonamides interaction between soil and the antibiotic group, solute transport through vadose zone and runoff generation by storm events.

  12. Iatrogenic, sulfonamide-induced hypothyroid crisis in a Labrador Retriever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, K; Harkin, K; Schermerhorn, T

    2009-12-01

    This case report describes a sulfonamide-induced hypothyroid crisis in a 4-year-old Labrador Retriever bitch. Empirical therapy with high-dose trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for 10 days produced signs of weakness, ataxia and mental depression and the clinicopathological results supported hypothyroid-induced central nervous system depression. Short-term levothyroxine sodium therapy led to complete resolution of all clinical signs and follow-up thyroid hormone assays ruled out underlying thyroid pathology. This case report is the first to highlight this potentially life-threatening manifestation of sulfonamide-induced hypothyroidism. Sulfonamide combinations are widely used antimicrobials in veterinary medicine and early recognition of this syndrome is critical.

  13. Sulfonamidation of Aryl and Heteroaryl Halides through Photosensitized Nickel Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taehoon; McCarver, Stefan J; Lee, Chulbom; MacMillan, David W C

    2018-03-19

    Herein we report a highly efficient method for nickel-catalyzed C-N bond formation between sulfonamides and aryl electrophiles. This technology provides generic access to a broad range of N-aryl and N-heteroaryl sulfonamide motifs, which are widely represented in drug discovery. Initial mechanistic studies suggest an energy-transfer mechanism wherein C-N bond reductive elimination occurs from a triplet excited Ni II complex. Late-stage sulfonamidation in the synthesis of a pharmacologically relevant structure is also demonstrated. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Determination of sulfonamides in butter samples by ionic liquid magnetic bar liquid-phase microextraction high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lijie; Song, Ying; Hu, Mingzhu; Xu, Xu; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin; Ma, Qiang; Wang, Ziming

    2015-01-01

    A novel, simple, and environmentally friendly pretreatment method, ionic liquid magnetic bar liquid-phase microextraction, was developed for the determination of sulfonamides in butter samples by high-performance liquid chromatography. The ionic liquid magnetic bar was prepared by inserting a stainless steel wire into the hollow of a hollow fiber and immobilizing ionic liquid in the micropores of the hollow fiber. In the extraction process, the ionic liquid magnetic bars were used to stir the mixture of sample and extraction solvent and enrich the sulfonamides in the mixture. After extraction, the analyte-adsorbed ionic liquid magnetic bars were readily isolated with a magnet from the extraction system. It is notable that the present method was environmentally friendly since water and only several microliters of ionic liquid were used in the whole extraction process. Several parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized, including the type of ionic liquid, sample-to-extraction solvent ratio, the number of ionic liquid magnetic bars, extraction temperature, extraction time, salt concentration, stirring speed, pH of the extraction solvent, and desorption conditions. The recoveries were in the range of 73.25-103.85 % and the relative standard deviations were lower than 6.84 %. The experiment results indicated that the present method was effective for the extraction of sulfonamides in high-fat content samples.

  15. Antimalarial activity of compounds comprising a primary benzene sulfonamide fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Katherine T; Fisher, Gillian M; Sumanadasa, Subathdrage D M; Skinner-Adams, Tina; Moeker, Janina; Lopez, Marie; Poulsen, Sally-Ann

    2013-11-15

    Despite the urgent need for effective antimalarial drugs with novel modes of action no new chemical class of antimalarial drug has been approved for use since 1996. To address this, we have used a rational approach to investigate compounds comprising the primary benzene sulfonamide fragment as a potential new antimalarial chemotype. We report the in vitro activity against Plasmodium falciparum drug sensitive (3D7) and resistant (Dd2) parasites for a panel of fourteen primary benzene sulfonamide compounds. Our findings provide a platform to support the further evaluation of primary benzene sulfonamides as a new antimalarial chemotype, including the identification of the target of these compounds in the parasite. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Discovery of tertiary sulfonamides as potent liver X receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuercher, William J; Buckholz, Richard G; Campobasso, Nino; Collins, Jon L; Galardi, Cristin M; Gampe, Robert T; Hyatt, Stephen M; Merrihew, Susan L; Moore, John T; Oplinger, Jeffrey A; Reid, Paul R; Spearing, Paul K; Stanley, Thomas B; Stewart, Eugene L; Willson, Timothy M

    2010-04-22

    Tertiary sulfonamides were identified in a HTS as dual liver X receptor (LXR, NR1H2, and NR1H3) ligands, and the binding affinity of the series was increased through iterative analogue synthesis. A ligand-bound cocrystal structure was determined which elucidated key interactions for high binding affinity. Further characterization of the tertiary sulfonamide series led to the identification of high affinity LXR antagonists. GSK2033 (17) is the first potent cell-active LXR antagonist described to date. 17 may be a useful chemical probe to explore the cell biology of this orphan nuclear receptor.

  17. Analytik, Vorkommen und Verhalten aromatischer Sulfonamide in der aquatischen Umwelt

    OpenAIRE

    Hartig, Claudia

    2000-01-01

    Subject of this PhD-thesis are the analysis and behaviour of aromatic sulfonamides as organic micropollutants in the aquatic environment. On the grounds of their widespread application, bacteriostatics as well as benzene- and toluenesulfonamides (BTS) are investigated. Analysis of the sulfonamides consists of solid-phase extraction (LiChrolut EN) and HPLC-MS/MS. Limits of detection vary from 0.1-20 ng/L. The MS/MS detection is carried out in SRM mode. Matrix effects of the investigated second...

  18. Bithiophene sulfonamide-based molecular and polymeric semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J.; Xia, Yu; Drees, Martin; Melkonyan, Ferdinand; Zhao, Wei

    2017-05-30

    The present invention relates to new semiconducting compounds having at least one optionally substituted bithiophene sulfonamide moiety. The compounds disclosed herein can exhibit high carrier mobility and/or efficient light absorption/emission characteristics, and can possess certain processing advantages such as solution-processability and/or good stability at ambient conditions.

  19. Sorption of fluoroquinolones and sulfonamides in 13 Brazilian soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Rafael Marques Pereira; Alleoni, Luis Reynaldo Ferracciú; Tornisielo, Valdemar Luiz; Regitano, Jussara Borges

    2013-08-01

    Animal production is a leading economic activity in Brazil and antibiotics are widely used. However, the occurrence, behavior, and impacts of antibiotics in Brazilian soils are still poorly known. We evaluated the sorption behavior of four fluoroquinolones (norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, danofloxacin, and enrofloxacin) and five sulfonamides (sulfadiazine, sulfachloropyridazine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfadimidine, and sulfathiazole) in 13 Brazilian soils with contrasting physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties. Fluoroquinolone sorption was very high (Kd≥544 L kg(-1)) whereas sulfonamide sorption ranged from low to high (Kd=0.7-70.1 L kg(-1)), consistent with previous reports in the literature. Soil texture and cation exchange capacity were the soil attributes that most affected sorption. Cation exchange was the most important sorption mechanism for the fluoroquinolones in highly weathered tropical soils, although cation bridging and ion pairing could not be ruled out. Hydrophobic partition played an important role in the sorption of the sulfonamides, but sorption was also affected by non-hydrophobic interactions with organic and/or mineral surfaces. Sorption for both compound classes tended to be higher in soils with high Al and Fe oxihydroxide contents, but they were not correlated with Kd values. No direct effect of soil pH was seen. The fluoroquinolones are not expected to leach even in worst-case scenarios (soils rich in sand and poor in organic carbon), whereas soil attributes dictate leaching potential for the sulfonamides. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Review on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for sulfonamide residues in edible animal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyan; Wang, Shuo

    2009-10-31

    The current status of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for sulfonamides in edible animal products is reviewed. The attention was focused on the design and synthesis of haptens, conjugation to carrier protein, production of antibody, application of homologous and heterologous systems, as well as the molecular modeling of the haptens and sulfonamides. Researches have shown that sulfonamides seem to be particularly resistant to attempts to produce broad specificity antibodies. By summarizing the available research on sulfonamide ELISAs, it is hoped that it can be considered as a basis for further investigation aimed at developing the most efficient approaches for detection.

  1. Biosolid-borne tetracyclines and sulfonamides in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Shiny; Reinhold, Dawn

    2013-07-01

    Tetracyclines and sulfonamides used in human and animal medicine are released to terrestrial ecosystems from wastewater treatment plants or by direct manure application. The interactions between plants and these antibiotics are numerous and complex, including uptake and accumulation, phytometabolism, toxicity responses, and degradation in the rhizosphere. Uptake and accumulation of antibiotics have been studied in plants such as wheat, maize, potato, vegetables, and ornamentals. Once accumulated in plant tissue, organic contaminants can be metabolized through a sequential process of transformation, conjugation through glycosylation and glutathione pathways, and ultimately sequestration into plant tissue. While studies have yet to fully elucidate the phytometabolism of tetracyclines and sulfonamides, an in-depth review of plant and mammalian studies suggest multiple potential transformation and conjugation pathways for tetracyclines and sulfonamides. The presence of contaminants in the vicinity or within the plants can elicit stress responses and defense mechanisms that can help tolerate the negative effects of contaminants. Antibiotics can change microbial communities and enzyme activity in the rhizosphere, potentially inducing microbial antibiotic resistance. On the other hand, the interaction of microbes and root exudates on pharmaceuticals in the rhizosphere can result in degradation of the parent molecule to less toxic compounds. To fully characterize the environmental impacts of increased antibiotic use in human medicine and animal production, further research is essential to understand the effects of different antibiotics on plant physiology and productivity, uptake, translocation, and phytometabolism of antibiotics, and the role of antibiotics in the rhizosphere.

  2. Hazard of Sulfonamides and Detection Technology Research Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiahui; Wang, Guangyu

    2017-12-01

    As a kind of widely used antibiotic with typical characteristics, sulfonamides have been greatly applied in clinical medicine for long time. It can’t be effectively treated by pollutant disposal system during pharmaceutical process and utilization and will be discharged into natural environment to be one of the antibiotics with great effect. This kind of substance is difficult to be biodegraded and will be easy to accumulate in the environment, generating huge eco-toxicological effect with significant mutagenicity and teratogenic effect. It is the severe threat for ecological balance, human health and drinking water safety. Its environmental behavior and detection technology attract extensive attention home and abroad.

  3. [Interaction Between Sulfonamide Antibiotics Fates and Chicken Manure Composting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Wang, Jian-mei; Sun, Wan-chun; Fu, Jian-rong; Chen, Hong-jin; Ma, Jun-wei

    2016-05-15

    Based on aerobic manure composting with or without the addition of a mixture of sulfadimethoxine SM2 and sulfamonomethoxine SMM (1:1, m/m), changes in the physic-chemical properties of manure compost, the microbial community physiological profiles, the antibiotics concentration and the abundances of five antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during the composting were tracked. The results indicated that the introduction of sulfonamide antibiotics led to inhibition on the basal respiration of manure compost during the early composting period, delayed the formation of thermophilic temperature and reduced the conversion of nutrients such as organic matter, ammonia nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen. Meanwhile, the introduction of sulfonamide antibiotics dramatically affected the physiological profile of microbial community in manure in the middle stage of composting. HPLC-MS/MS results showed that both SMM and SM2 in manure were completely degraded within 14 days, while the degradation rate of SMM was faster than that of SM2. For both composting treatments with or without addition of exogenous antibiotics, the relative abundance of sull and sul2 showed an initial decline in the first 14 or 21 days and a slight increase thereafter. The addition of exogenous antibiotics showed insignificant enhancement on increasing the relative abundance of sul1 and IntI1 in manure, but resulted in an apparent increase in sul2 relative abundance. Although the fates of tetQ and tetW during composting were different from that of sulfonamide ARGs, the introduction of sulfonamide antibiotics into manure increased the relative abundance of tetracycline ARGs. Redundancy analysis indicated that composting temperature correlated negatively with sul1, sul2 and IntI1 relative abundance in manure but had no obvious relationship with tetQ and tetW relative abundance. All the ARGs detected in this work correlated negatively with C/N ratio and the nitrate nitrogen concentration of manure compost but

  4. Enzymatic Transformation and Bonding of Sulfonamide Antibiotics to Model Humic Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schwarz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonamides are consumed as pharmaceutical antibiotics and reach agricultural soils with excreta used as fertilizer. Subsequently, nonextractable residues rapidly form in soil, which has been researched in a couple of studies. To further elucidate conditions, strength, and mechanisms of the fixation to soil humic substances, three selected sulfonamides were investigated using the biochemical oligomerization of substituted phenols as a model for the humification process. Catechol, guaiacol, and vanillin were enzymatically reacted using laccase from Trametes versicolor. In the presence of the substituted phenols alone, the concentration of sulfonamides decreased. This decrease was even more pronounced when additional laccase was present. Upon the enzymatic oligomerization of the substituted phenols to a humic-like structure the sulfonamides were sorbed, transformed, sequestered, and nonextractable bound. Sulfonamides were transformed depending on their molecular properties. Fractions of different bonding strength were determined using a sequential extraction procedure. Isolated nonextractable products were analyzed by chromatographic, spectroscopic, and calorimetric methods to identify coupling and bonding mechanisms of the sulfonamides. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements suggested cross-linking of such incorporated sulfonamides in humic oligomers. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements showed clear differences between the vanillin-sulfapyridine oligomer and the parent sulfapyridine indicating bound residue formation through covalent binding.

  5. Development of flow-through and dip-stick immunoassays for screening of sulfonamide residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyan; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Shuo

    2008-08-20

    Two formats of membrane-based competitive enzyme immunoassays (flow-through and dip-stick) have been developed for the screening of sulfonamide residues in pig muscle and milk. Membrane was coated with anti-sulfonamide antibody and a sulfonamide hapten D2-horseradish peroxidase (HRP) conjugant was used as the labeled antigen for competitive assay of sulfonamides. Visual detection limits of the flow-through or dip-stick assay were 1-5 microg L(-1) or 1-10 microg L(-1) in buffer for seven sulfonamides, respectively. Assay validation was performed using samples spiked with single sulfonamide, spiked samples were tested using the developed strip assays and results were compared with those obtained by a validated high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) method. Results showed that the two strip assays were correlated well with HPLC, respectively. With assay times of 5 min (flow-through) and 15 min (dip-stick), these rapid tests could offer simple, rapid and cost-effective on-site screening tools to detect sulfonamides in pig muscle (flow-through or dip-stick) or milk (only dip-stick).

  6. Molecular dynamics-assisted pharmacophore modeling of caspase-3-isatin sulfonamide complex: Recognizing essential intermolecular contacts and features of sulfonamide inhibitor class for caspase-3 binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sivakumar Prasanth; Patel, Chirag N; Jha, Prakash C; Pandya, Himanshu A

    2017-12-01

    The identification of isatin sulfonamide as a potent small molecule inhibitor of caspase-3 had fuelled the synthesis and characterization of the numerous sulfonamide class of inhibitors to optimize for potency. Recent works that relied on the ligand-based approaches have successfully shown the regions of optimizations for sulfonamide scaffold. We present here molecular dynamics-based pharmacophore modeling of caspase-3-isatin sulfonamide crystal structure, to elucidate the essential non-covalent contacts and its associated pharmacophore features necessary to ensure caspase-3 optimal binding. We performed 20ns long dynamics of this crystal structure to extract global conformation states and converted into structure-based pharmacophore hypotheses which were rigorously validated using an exclusive focussed library of experimental actives and inactives of sulfonamide class by Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) statistic. Eighteen structure-based pharmacophore hypotheses with better sensitivity and specificity measures (>0.6) were chosen which collectively showed the role of pocket residues viz. Cys163 (S 1 sub-site; required for covalent and H bonding with Michael acceptor of inhibitors), His121 (S 1 ; π stack with bicyclic isatin moiety), Gly122 (S 1 ; H bond with carbonyl oxygen) and Tyr204 (S 2 ; π stack with phenyl group of the isatin sulfonamide molecule) as stringent binding entities for enabling caspase-3 optimal binding. The introduction of spatial pharmacophore site points obtained from dynamics-based pharmacophore models in a virtual screening strategy will be helpful to screen and optimize molecules belonging to sulfonamide class of caspase-3 inhibitors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Modularity and three-dimensional isostructurality of novel synthons in sulfonamide-lactam cocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolla, Geetha; Mittapalli, Sudhir; Nangia, Ashwini

    2015-07-01

    The design of novel supramolecular synthons for functional groups relevant to drugs is an essential prerequisite for applying crystal engineering in the development of novel pharmaceutical cocrystals. It has been convincingly shown over the past decade that molecular level control and modulation can influence the physicochemical properties of drug cocrystals. Whereas considerable advances have been reported on the design of cocrystals for carboxylic acids and carboxamide functional groups, the sulfonamide group, which is a cornerstone of sulfa drugs, is relatively unexplored for reproducible heterosynthon-directed crystal engineering. The occurrence of synthons and isostructurality in sulfonamide-lactam cocrystals (SO2NH2⋯CONH hydrogen bonding) is analyzed to define a strategy for amide-type GRAS (generally recognized as safe) coformers with sulfonamides. Three types of supramolecular synthons are identified for the N-H donor of sulfonamide hydrogen bonding to the C=O acceptor of amide. Synthon 1: catemer synthon C 2 (1)(4) chain motif, synthon 2: dimer-cyclic ring synthon R 2 (2)(8)R 4 (2)(8) motifs, and synthon 3: dimer-catemer synthon of R 2 (2)(8)C 1 (1)(4)D notation. These heterosynthons of the cocrystals observed in this study are compared with the N-H⋯O dimer R 2 (2)(8) ring and C(4) chain motifs of the individual sulfonamide structures. The X-ray crystal structures of sulfonamide-lactam cocrystals exhibit interesting isostructurality trends with the same synthon being present. One-dimensional, two-dimensional and three-dimensional isostructurality in crystal structures is associated with isosynthons and due to their recurrence, novel heterosynthons for sulfonamide cocrystals are added to the crystal engineer's toolkit. With the predominance of sulfa drugs in medicine, these new synthons provide rational strategies for the design of binary and potentially ternary cocrystals of sulfonamides.

  8. Selective Access to Heterocyclic Sulfonamides and Sulfonyl Fluorides via a Parallel Medicinal Chemistry Enabled Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joseph W; Chenard, Lois; Young, Joseph M

    2015-11-09

    A sulfur-functionalized aminoacrolein derivative is used for the efficient and selective synthesis of heterocyclic sulfonyl chlorides, sulfonyl fluorides, and sulfonamides. The development of a 3-step parallel medicinal chemistry (PMC) protocol for the synthesis of pyrazole-4-sulfonamides effectively demonstrates the utility of this reagent. This reactivity was expanded to provide rapid access to other heterocyclic sulfonyl fluorides, including pyrimidines and pyridines, whose corresponding sulfonyl chlorides lack suitable chemical stability.

  9. Salt Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Liming; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2002-01-01

    Studying salt stress is an important means to the understanding of plant ion homeostasis and osmo-balance. Salt stress research also benefits agriculture because soil salinity significantly limits plant productivity on agricultural lands. Decades of physiological and molecular studies have generated a large body of literature regarding potential salt tolerance determinants. Recent advances in applying molecular genetic analysis and genomics tools in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana are sh...

  10. Sea salt

    OpenAIRE

    Galvis-Sánchez, Andrea C.; Lopes, João Almeida; Delgadillo, Ivone; Rangel, António O. S. S.

    2013-01-01

    The geographical indication (GI) status links a product with the territory and with the biodiversity involved. Besides, the specific knowledge and cultural practices of a human group that permit transforming a resource into a useful good is protected under a GI designation. Traditional sea salt is a hand-harvested product originating exclusively from salt marshes from specific geographical regions. Once salt is harvested, no washing, artificial drying or addition of anti-caking agents are all...

  11. Nitrotriazole- and imidazole-based amides and sulfonamides as antitubercular agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Maria V; Bloomer, William D; Rosenzweig, Howard S; Arena, Alexander; Arrieta, Francisco; Rebolledo, Joseph C J; Smith, Diane K

    2014-11-01

    Twenty-three 3-nitrotriazole-based and 2-nitroimidazole-based amides and sulfonamides were screened for antitubercular (anti-TB) activity in aerobic Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv by using the BacTiter-Glo (BTG) microbial cell viability assay. In general, 3-nitrotriazole-based sulfonamides demonstrated anti-TB activity, whereas 3-nitrotriazole-based amides and 2-nitroimidazole-based amides and sulfonamides were inactive. Three 3-nitrotriazole-based sulfonamides (compounds 4, 2, and 7) demonstrated 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50), IC90, and MIC values of 0.38, 0.43, and 1.56 μM (compound 4), 0.57, 0.98, and 3.13 μM (compound 2), and 0.79, 0.87, and 3.13 μM (compound 7), respectively. For 3-nitrotriazole-based sulfonamides, anti-TB activity increased with lipophilicity, whereas the one-electron reduction potential (E1/2) did not play a role. 2-Nitroimidazole-based analogs, which were inactive in the BTG assay, were significantly more active in the low-oxygen assay and more active than the 3-nitrotriazoles. All active nitrotriazoles in the BTG assay were similarly active or more potent (lower MIC values) against resistant strains, with the exception of compounds 2, 3, 4, and 8, which demonstrated greater MIC values against isoniazid-resistant strains. Five 3-nitrotriazole-based sulfonamides demonstrated activity in infected murine J774 macrophages, causing log reductions similar to those seen with rifampin. However, some compounds caused toxicity in uninfected macrophages. In conclusion, the classes of 3-nitrotriazole-based amides and sulfonamides merit further investigation as potential antitubercular agents. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Crystal structures of 4-meth-oxy-N-(4-methyl-phenyl)benzene-sulfonamide and N-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-4-meth-oxy-benzene-sulfonamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Vinola Z; Preema, C P; Naveen, S; Lokanath, N K; Suchetan, P A

    2015-11-01

    Crystal structures of two N-(ar-yl)aryl-sulfonamides, namely, 4-meth-oxy-N-(4-methyl-phen-yl)benzene-sulfonamide, C14H15NO3S, (I), and N-(4-fluoro-phen-yl)-4-meth-oxy-benzene-sulfonamide, C13H12FNO3S, (II), were determined and analyzed. In (I), the benzene-sulfonamide ring is disordered over two orientations, in a 0.516 (7):0.484 (7) ratio, which are inclined to each other at 28.0 (1)°. In (I), the major component of the sulfonyl benzene ring and the aniline ring form a dihedral angle of 63.36 (19)°, while in (II), the planes of the two benzene rings form a dihedral angle of 44.26 (13)°. In the crystal structure of (I), N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds form infinite C(4) chains extended in [010], and inter-molecular C-H⋯πar-yl inter-actions link these chains into layers parallel to the ab plane. The crystal structure of (II) features N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds forming infinite one dimensional C(4) chains along [001]. Further, a pair of C-H⋯O inter-molecular inter-actions consolidate the crystal packing of (II) into a three-dimensional supra-molecular architecture.

  13. Biological and Docking Studies of Sulfonamide Derivatives of 4-Aminophenazone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, M.S.; Ismail, A.; Murtaza, S.; Shamim, S.; Tahir, M.N.; Usman Ali Rana, U.A.

    2016-01-01

    Sulfonamide derivatives of 4-aminophenazone (4APZ) were synthesized and accordingly characterized by spectroscopic techniques. These newly synthesized compounds were examined for their biological activities such as enzyme inhibition, analgesic, antibacterial, antioxidant and DNA interaction. A direct correlation between enzyme inhibition activity and concentration of the compounds was observed both by experimental and molecular docking studies. Analgesic activity of the compounds was investigated by formalin-induced paw licking (FIPL), acetic acid-induced writhing (AIW) and heat conduction methods in mice. Membrane stabilization effect was determined by hypotonicity-induced hemolysis. Bacterial strains, S. aureus, S. epidermidis, B. subtilis, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. mutans and A. odontolyticus were used for investigating the antibacterial potential of the compounds. Antioxidant potential was investigated by Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assay (FRAP) and DPPH free radical scavenging method. DNA interaction studies of the synthesized compounds showed weak interaction. Hyperchromic effect was observed along the series and large positive K values were obtained for most of the compounds. (author)

  14. Stability Indicating HPLC Method for the Determination of Chiral Purity of R-(-)-5-[2-aminopropyl]-2-methoxybenzene Sulfonamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasawar, G B; Farooqui, M N

    2009-09-01

    A chiral reverse phase liquid chromatographic method was developed for the enantiomeric resolution of racemic mixture of (-)-5-[2-aminopropyl]-2-methoxybenzene sulfonamide in bulk drug. The enantiomeric separation of sulfonamide was resolved on a Crownpak CR (+) column using perchloric acid buffer of pH 1.0 as mobile phase and with UV detection at 226 nm. The method is validated and proved to be robust. The limit of detection and quantification of S (-)-(5)-[2-aminopropyl]-2-methoxybenzene sulfonamide] was found to be 0.084 and 0.159 mug/ml, respectively for 20 mul injection volume. The percentage recovery of S (-)-(5)-[2-aminopropyl]-2-methoxybenzene sulfonamide] ranged from 99.57 to 101.88 in bulk drug samples of R (-)-(5)-[2- aminopropyl]-2-methoxybenzene sulfonamide].

  15. Removal and factors influencing removal of sulfonamides and trimethoprim from domestic sewage in constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan A; Yang, Yang; Dai, Yu-Nv; Chen, Chun-Xing; Wang, Su-Yu; Tao, Ran

    2013-10-01

    Twelve pilot-scale constructed wetlands with different configurations were set up in the field to evaluate the removal and factors that influence removal of sulfonamides (sulfadiazine, sulfapyridine, sulfacetamide, sulfamethazine and sulfamethoxazole) and trimethoprim from domestic sewage. The treatments included four flow types, three substrates, two plants and three hydraulic loading rates across two seasons (summer and winter). Most target antibiotics were efficiently removed by specific constructed wetlands; in particular, all types of constructed wetlands performed well for the degradation of sulfapyridine. Flow types were the most important influencing factor in this study, and the best removal of sulfonamides was achieved in vertical subsurface-flow constructed wetlands; however, the opposite phenomenon was found with trimethoprim. Significant relationships were observed between antibiotic degradation and higher temperature and redox potential, which indicated that microbiological pathways were the most probable degradation route for sulfonamides and trimethoprim in constructed wetlands. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Electrochemical Characterization of a Polymer Inclusion Membrane Made of Cellulose Triacetate and Aliquat 336 and Its Application to Sulfonamides Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana Benavente

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An electrochemical characterization of a polymer inclusion membrane (PIM fabricated with the ionic liquid (IL Aliquat 336 (26% and the polymer cellulose triacetate (CTA (76% is presented. Considering the use of PIMs in separation systems to remove pollutants from water, the characterization was performed with NaCl solutions by measuring membrane potential, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and salt diffusion and results were compared with those obtained from dry membranes. Results showed a significant reduction in the membrane diffusive permeability and electrical conductivity as well as the transport number of cation Na+ across the PIM when compared with solution values, which could be mainly related to the dense character of the membrane. Membrane application in the separation of different sulfonamides (sulfathiazole, sulfapyridine, sulfamethazine, and sulfamethoxazole from water, with 1 M NaCl solution as striping phase, was also considered. These results indicated that the different chemical characteristics of the compounds, as well as the compact structure of the PIM, limited the transport of the organic molecules though it.

  17. Identification and dynamic modeling of biomarkers for bacterial uptake and effect of sulfonamide antimicrobials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, Merle K.; Focks, Andreas; Siegfried, Barbara; Rentsch, Daniel; Krauss, Martin; Schwarzenbach, René P.; Hollender, Juliane

    2013-01-01

    The effects of sulfathiazole (STA) on Escherichia coli with glucose as a growth substrate was investigated to elucidate the effect-based reaction of sulfonamides in bacteria and to identify biomarkers for bacterial uptake and effect. The predominant metabolite was identified as pterine-sulfathiazole by LC-high resolution mass spectrometry. The formation of pterine-sulfathiazole per cell was constant and independent of the extracellular STA concentrations, as they exceeded the modeled half-saturation concentration K M S of 0.011 μmol L −1 . The concentration of the dihydrofolic acid precursor para-aminobenzoic acid (pABA) increased with growth and with concentrations of the competitor STA. This increase was counteracted for higher STA concentrations by growth inhibition as verified by model simulation of pABA dynamics. The EC value for the inhibition of pABA increase was 6.9 ± 0.7 μmol L −1 STA, which is similar to that calculated from optical density dynamics indicating that pABA is a direct biomarker for the SA effect. - Highlights: ► Elucidation of the effect-based reaction of sulfonamides in bacteria. ► Identification of a biomarker for uptake and effect-based reaction of sulfonamides. ► Investigation of a biomarker for the bacterial growth inhibition by sulfonamides. ► Quantitative mechanistic modeling of biomarker dynamics using enzyme kinetics. ► Mechanistic quantitative linking of sulfonamide concentrations and effects. - Identification of specific biomarkers for the uptake and effect-based reaction of sulfonamides in bacteria and resulting growth inhibition.

  18. Salt cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    If you are a professional associated with system and infrastructure management, looking at automated infrastructure and deployments, then this book is for you. No prior experience of Salt is required.

  19. Determination of sulfonamides in meat by liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dal Ho; Choi, Jong Oh; Kim, Jin Seog; Lee, Dai Woon

    2002-01-01

    Liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS) has been used for the determination of sulfonamides in meat. Five typical sulfonamides were selected as target compounds, and beef meat was selected as a matrix sample. As internal standards, sulfapyridine and isotope labeled sulfamethazine ( 13 C 6 -SMZ) were used. Compared to the results of recent reports, our results have shown improved precision to a RSD of 1.8% for the determination of sulfamethazine spiked with 75 ng/g level in meat

  20. Hydroxylamine-O-sulfonamide is a versatile lead compound for the development of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fiore, Anna; Vergara, Alessandro; Caterino, Marco; Alterio, Vincenzo; Monti, Simona M; Ombouma, Joanna; Dumy, Pascal; Vullo, Daniela; Supuran, Claudiu T; Winum, Jean-Yves; De Simone, Giuseppina

    2015-07-21

    Hydroxylamine-O-sulfonamide, a molecule incorporating two zinc-binding groups (ZBGs), has been investigated as a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (CAI) by means of kinetic, crystallographic and Raman spectroscopy studies, highlighting interesting results on its mechanism of action. These data can be exploited to design new, effective and selective CAIs.

  1. Deciphering the bacterial microbiome in huanglongbing-affected citrus treated with thermotherapy and sulfonamide antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a serious citrus disease that threatens the citrus industry. In previous studies, sulfonamide antibiotics and heat treatment suppressed ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las), but did not completely eliminate the Las. Furthermore, there are few reports studying the bacteria...

  2. Multicomponent ternary cocrystals of the sulfonamide group with pyridine-amides and lactams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolla, Geetha; Nangia, Ashwini

    2015-11-04

    SMBA was selected as a bifunctional sulfa drug to design ternary cocrystals with pyridine amides and lactam coformers. Supramolecular assembly of five ternary cocrystals of p-sulfonamide benzoic acid with nicotinamide and 2-pyridone is demonstrated and reproducible heterosynthons are identified for crystal engineering.

  3. Lysine sulfonamides as novel HIV-protease inhibitors: Nepsilon-acyl aromatic alpha-amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranix, Brent R; Lavallée, Jean-François; Sévigny, Guy; Yelle, Jocelyn; Perron, Valérie; LeBerre, Nicholas; Herbart, Dominik; Wu, Jinzi J

    2006-07-01

    A series of lysine sulfonamide analogues bearing Nepsilon-acyl aromatic amino acids were synthesized using an efficient synthetic route. Evaluation of these novel protease inhibitors revealed compounds with high potency against wild-type and multiple-protease inhibitor-resistant HIV viruses.

  4. Preparation and application of epitope magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers for enrichment of sulfonamide antibiotics in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yufeng; Wang, Cheng; Li, Xiangdao; Liu, Lifen

    2017-10-01

    Sulfonamides, which are widely used synthetic antibiotics, are hydrophilic and stable. They can easily migrate into the environment and aquatic animals, and increase the risk of cancer, drug resistance, and allergic symptoms if consumed by humans. Here, we developed an epitope magnetic imprinting approach to enrich multiple sulfonamide antibiotics from a water sample. Epitope magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (EMMIPs) were prepared by free-radical polymerization using vinyl-functioned Fe 3 O 4 as a core, sulfanilamide (SA) as a dummy template, methacrylic acid as a functional monomer, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross-linker. The performance of the EMMIPs was first evaluated by rebinding SA, and then an adsorption experiment was conducted to assess the extraction of multiple sulfonamide antibiotics containing the SA group. The binding experiments showed that the EMMIPs reached adsorption equilibrium in only 5 min with adsorption of SA at 2040 μg/g, compared with just 462 μg/g for the epitope magnetic non-imprinted polymers. EMMIPs were combined with HPLC for the detection of six sulfonamide antibiotics in surface water samples. The recoveries ranged from 79.3 to 92.4% and the relative standard deviations from 0.9 to 7.3%. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Interaction of nitrogen dioxide with sulfonamide-substituted phthalocyanines: Towards NO2 gas sensor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pochekailov, Sergii; Nožár, Juraj; Nešpůrek, Stanislav; Rakušan, J.; Karásková, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 169, 5 July (2012), s. 1-9 ISSN 0925-4005 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400720701; GA MPO FR-TI1/144 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : phthalocyanine * sulfonamide * nitrogen dioxide Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.535, year: 2012

  6. Synthesis of New Thiazole Derivatives Bearing A Sulfonamide Moiety Of Expected Anticancer And Radiosensitizing Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, S.Sh.I.

    2012-01-01

    In a search for new cytotoxic agents with improved antitumor activity and selectivity, some new pyrano thiazole and thiazolopyranopyrimidine derivatives bearing sulfonamide moiety were synthesized. The newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for their antitumor activity alone and in combination with γ-irradiation. These new compounds were docked inside the active site of carbonic anhydrase II to predict their mechanism of action.

  7. Fate of sulfonamide antibiotics in contact with activated sludge--sorption and biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng-Fu; Lin, Cheng-Fang; Wu, Chien-Ju; Ng, Kok-Kwang; Lin, Angela Yu-Chen; Hong, Pui-Kwan Andy

    2012-03-15

    The sorption and biodegradation of three sulfonamide antibiotics, namely sulfamethoxazole (SMX), sulfadimethoxine (SDM), and sulfamonomethoxine (SMM), in an activated sludge system were investigated. Experiments were carried out by contacting 100 μg/L of each sulfonamide compound individually with 2.56 g/L of MLSS at 25±0.5 °C, pH 7.0, and dissolved oxygen of 3.0±0.1 mg/L in a batch reactor over different periods of 2 d and 14 d. All sulfonamides were removed completely over 11-13 d. Sorptive equilibrium was established well within the first few hours, followed by a lag period of 1-3 days before biodegradation was to deplete the antibiotic compounds linearly in the ensuing 10 days. Apparent zeroth-order rate constants were obtained by regression analysis of measured aqueous concentration vs. time profiles to a kinetic model accounting for sorption and biodegradation; they were 8.1, 7.9, and 7.7 μg/L/d for SDM, SMX, and SMM, respectively, at activated sludge concentration of 2.56 g/L. The measured kinetics implied that with typical hydraulic retention time (e.g. 6 h) provided by WWTP the removal of sulfonamide compounds from the wastewater during the activated sludge process would approximate 2 μg/L. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Accumulation of sulfonamide resistance genes in arable soils due to repeated application of manure containing sulfadiazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Holger; Solehati, Qodiah; Zimmerling, Ute; Kleineidam, Kristina; Schloter, Michael; Müller, Tanja; Focks, Andreas; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören; Smalla, Kornelia

    2011-04-01

    Two soils were amended three times with pig manure. The abundance of sulfonamide resistance genes was determined by quantitative PCR 2 months after each application. In both soils treated with sulfadiazine-containing manure, the numbers of copies of sul1 and sul2 significantly increased compared to numbers after treatments with antibiotic-free manure or a control and accumulated with repeated applications.

  9. Enhanced removal of sulfonamide antibiotics by KOH-activated anthracite coal: Batch and fixed-bed studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, Linzi; Ai, Jing; Fu, Heyun; Chen, Wei; Zheng, Shourong; Xu, Zhaoyi; Zhu, Dongqiang

    2016-01-01

    The presence of sulfonamide antibiotics in aquatic environments poses potential risks to human health and ecosystems. In the present study, a highly porous activated carbon was prepared by KOH activation of an anthracite coal (Anth-KOH), and its adsorption properties toward two sulfonamides (sulfamethoxazole and sulfapyridine) and three smaller-sized monoaromatics (phenol, 4-nitrophenol and 1,3-dinitrobenzene) were examined in both batch and fixed-bed adsorption experiments to probe the interplay between adsorbate molecular size and adsorbent pore structure. A commercial powder microporous activated carbon (PAC) and a commercial mesoporous carbon (CMK-3) possessing distinct pore properties were included as comparative adsorbents. Among the three adsorbents Anth-KOH exhibited the largest adsorption capacities for all test adsorbates (especially the two sulfonamides) in both batch mode and fixed-bed mode. After being normalized by the adsorbent surface area, the batch adsorption isotherms of sulfonamides on PAC and Anth-KOH were displaced upward relative to the isotherms on CMK-3, likely due to the micropore-filling effect facilitated by the microporosity of adsorbents. In the fixed-bed mode, the surface area-normalized adsorption capacities of Anth-KOH for sulfonamides were close to that of CMK-3, and higher than that of PAC. The irregular, closed micropores of PAC might impede the diffusion of the relatively large-sized sulfonamide molecules and in turn led to lowered fixed-bed adsorption capacities. The overall superior adsorption of sulfonamides on Anth-KOH can be attributed to its large specific surface area (2514 m"2/g), high pore volume (1.23 cm"3/g) and large micropore sizes (centered at 2.0 nm). These findings imply that KOH-activated anthracite coal is a promising adsorbent for the removal of sulfonamide antibiotics from aqueous solution. - Highlights: • A high efficiency adsorbent for sulfonamide removal is prepared from anthracite. • Effects of

  10. Bath Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deaths and been blamed for a handful of suicides and murders. Two of the chemicals in bath salts (mephedrone and MDPV) are Schedule I class drugs. That means they have a high potential for abuse and no accepted medical use . People who are ...

  11. Enhanced removal of sulfonamide antibiotics by KOH-activated anthracite coal: Batch and fixed-bed studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Linzi; Ai, Jing; Fu, Heyun; Chen, Wei; Zheng, Shourong; Xu, Zhaoyi; Zhu, Dongqiang

    2016-04-01

    The presence of sulfonamide antibiotics in aquatic environments poses potential risks to human health and ecosystems. In the present study, a highly porous activated carbon was prepared by KOH activation of an anthracite coal (Anth-KOH), and its adsorption properties toward two sulfonamides (sulfamethoxazole and sulfapyridine) and three smaller-sized monoaromatics (phenol, 4-nitrophenol and 1,3-dinitrobenzene) were examined in both batch and fixed-bed adsorption experiments to probe the interplay between adsorbate molecular size and adsorbent pore structure. A commercial powder microporous activated carbon (PAC) and a commercial mesoporous carbon (CMK-3) possessing distinct pore properties were included as comparative adsorbents. Among the three adsorbents Anth-KOH exhibited the largest adsorption capacities for all test adsorbates (especially the two sulfonamides) in both batch mode and fixed-bed mode. After being normalized by the adsorbent surface area, the batch adsorption isotherms of sulfonamides on PAC and Anth-KOH were displaced upward relative to the isotherms on CMK-3, likely due to the micropore-filling effect facilitated by the microporosity of adsorbents. In the fixed-bed mode, the surface area-normalized adsorption capacities of Anth-KOH for sulfonamides were close to that of CMK-3, and higher than that of PAC. The irregular, closed micropores of PAC might impede the diffusion of the relatively large-sized sulfonamide molecules and in turn led to lowered fixed-bed adsorption capacities. The overall superior adsorption of sulfonamides on Anth-KOH can be attributed to its large specific surface area (2514 m(2)/g), high pore volume (1.23 cm(3)/g) and large micropore sizes (centered at 2.0 nm). These findings imply that KOH-activated anthracite coal is a promising adsorbent for the removal of sulfonamide antibiotics from aqueous solution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Stability Indicating HPLC Method for the Determination of Chiral Purity of R-(-)-5-[2-aminopropyl]-2-methoxybenzene Sulfonamide

    OpenAIRE

    Kasawar, G. B.; Farooqui, M. N.

    2009-01-01

    A chiral reverse phase liquid chromatographic method was developed for the enantiomeric resolution of racemic mixture of (-)-5-[2-aminopropyl]-2-methoxybenzene sulfonamide in bulk drug. The enantiomeric separation of sulfonamide was resolved on a Crownpak CR (+) column using perchloric acid buffer of pH 1.0 as mobile phase and with UV detection at 226 nm. The method is validated and proved to be robust. The limit of detection and quantification of S (-)-(5)-[2-aminopropyl]-2-methoxyben...

  13. L-Threonine-derived novel bifunctional phosphine-sulfonamide catalyst-promoted enantioselective aza-morita-Baylis-Hillman reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Zhong, Fangrui

    2011-03-18

    A series of novel bifunctional phosphine-sulfonamide organic catalysts were designed and readily prepared from natural amino acids, and they were utilized to promote enantioselective aza-Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) reactions. l-Threonine-derived phosphine-sulfonamide 9b was found to be the most efficient catalyst, affording the desired aza-MBH adducts in high yields and with excellent enantioselectivities. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  14. Prevalence and characterization of plasmids carrying sulfonamide resistance genes among Escherichia coli from pigs, pig carcasses and human

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Shuyu; Dalsgaard, Anders; Hammerum, Anette M; Porsbo, Lone J; Jensen, Lars B

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Sulfonamide resistance is very common in Escherichia coli. The aim of this study was to characterize plasmids carrying sulfonamide resistance genes (sul1, sul2 and sul3) in E. coli isolated from pigs and humans with a specific objective to assess the genetic diversity of plasmids involved in the mobility of sul genes. Methods A total of 501 E. coli isolates from pig feces, pig carcasses and human stools were tested for their susceptibility to selected antimicrobial. Multip...

  15. Rationalization of activity cliffs of a sulfonamide inhibitor of DNA methyltransferases with induced-fit docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Franco, José L; Méndez-Lucio, Oscar; Yoo, Jakyung

    2014-02-21

    Inhibitors of human DNA methyltransferases (DNMT) are of increasing interest to develop novel epi-drugs for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. As the number of compounds with reported DNMT inhibition is increasing, molecular docking is shedding light to elucidate their mechanism of action and further interpret structure-activity relationships. Herein, we present a structure-based rationalization of the activity of SW155246, a distinct sulfonamide compound recently reported as an inhibitor of human DNMT1 obtained from high-throughput screening. We used flexible and induce-fit docking to develop a binding model of SW155246 with a crystallographic structure of human DNMT1. Results were in excellent agreement with experimental information providing a three-dimensional structural interpretation of 'activity cliffs', e.g., analogues of SW155246 with a high structural similarity to the sulfonamide compound, but with no activity in the enzymatic assay.

  16. Distribution of quinolones, sulfonamides, tetracyclines in aquatic environment and antibiotic resistance in Indochina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru eSuzuki

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia has become the center of rapid industrial development and economic growth. However, this growth has far outpaced investment in public infrastructure, leading to the unregulated release of many pollutants, including wastewater-related contaminants such as antibiotics. Antibiotics are of major concern because they can easily be released into the environment from numerous sources, and can subsequently induce development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Recent studies have shown that for some categories of drugs this source-to-environment antibiotic resistance relationship is more complex. This review summarizes current understanding regarding the presence of quinolones, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines in aquatic environments of Indochina and the prevalence of bacteria resistant to them. Several noteworthy findings are discussed: 1 quinolone contamination and the occurrence of quinolone resistance are not correlated; 2 occurrence of the sul sulfonamide resistance gene varies geographically; and 3 microbial diversity might be related to the rate of oxytetracycline resistance.

  17. Synthesis and antimalarial activity of new 4-amino-7-chloroquinolyl amides, sulfonamides, ureas and thioureas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekoue-Kovi, Kekeli; Yearick, Kimberly; Iwaniuk, Daniel P; Natarajan, Jayakumar K; Alumasa, John; de Dios, Angel C; Roepe, Paul D; Wolf, Christian

    2009-01-01

    We report the synthesis and in vitro antimalarial activities of more than 50 7-chloro-4-aminoquinolyl-derived sulfonamides 3-8 and 11-26, ureas 19-22, thioureas 23-26, and amides 27-54. Many of the CQ analogues prepared for this study showed submicromolar antimalarial activity versus HB3 (chloroquine sensitive) and Dd2 (chloroquine resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum) and low resistance indices were obtained in most cases. Systematic variation of the side chain length and introduction of fluorinated aliphatic and aromatic termini revealed promising leads that overcome CQ resistance. In particular, sulfonamide 3 exhibiting a short side chain with a terminal dansyl moiety combined high antiplasmodial potency with a low resistance index and showed IC(50)s of 17.5 and 22.7 nM against HB3 and Dd2 parasites.

  18. Rationalization of Activity Cliffs of a Sulfonamide Inhibitor of DNA Methyltransferases with Induced-Fit Docking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Medina-Franco

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitors of human DNA methyltransferases (DNMT are of increasing interest to develop novel epi-drugs for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. As the number of compounds with reported DNMT inhibition is increasing, molecular docking is shedding light to elucidate their mechanism of action and further interpret structure–activity relationships. Herein, we present a structure-based rationalization of the activity of SW155246, a distinct sulfonamide compound recently reported as an inhibitor of human DNMT1 obtained from high-throughput screening. We used flexible and induce-fit docking to develop a binding model of SW155246 with a crystallographic structure of human DNMT1. Results were in excellent agreement with experimental information providing a three-dimensional structural interpretation of ‘activity cliffs’, e.g., analogues of SW155246 with a high structural similarity to the sulfonamide compound, but with no activity in the enzymatic assay.

  19. Piperazine sulfonamide BACE1 inhibitors: Design, synthesis, and in vivo characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cumming, Jared; Babu, Suresh; Huang, Ying; Carrol, Carolyn; Chen, Xia; Favreau, Leonard; Greenlee, William; Guo, Tao; Kennedy, Matthew; Kuvelkar, Reshma; Le, Thuy; Li, Guoqing; McHugh, Nansie; Orth, Peter; Ozgur, Lynne; Parker, Eric; Saionz, Kurt; Stamford, Andrew; Strickland, Corey; Tadesse, Dawit; Voigta, Johannes; Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Qi (Ligand); (Merck)

    2010-08-17

    With collaboration between chemistry, X-ray crystallography, and molecular modeling, we designed and synthesized a series of novel piperazine sulfonamide BACE1 inhibitors. Iterative exploration of the non-prime side and S2{prime} sub-pocket of the enzyme culminated in identification of an analog that potently lowers peripheral A{beta}{sub 40} in transgenic mice with a single subcutaneous dose.

  20. Deciphering the Bacterial Microbiome in Huanglongbing-Affected Citrus Treated with Thermotherapy and Sulfonamide Antibiotics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanyu Yang

    Full Text Available Huanglongbing (HLB is a serious citrus disease that threatens the citrus industry. In previous studies, sulfonamide antibiotics and heat treatment suppressed 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (Las, but did not completely eliminate the Las. Furthermore, there are few reports studying the bacterial microbiome of HLB-affected citrus treated by heat and sulfonamide antibiotics. In this study, combinations of heat (45°C or 40°C and sulfonamide treatment (sulfathiazole sodium-STZ, or sulfadimethoxine sodium-SDX were applied to HLB-affected citrus. The bacterial microbiome of HLB-affected citrus following thermotherapy and/or chemotherapy was characterized by PhyloChipTMG3-based metagenomics. Our results showed that the combination of thermotherapy at 45°C and chemotherapy with STZ and SDX was more effective against HLB than thermotherapy alone, chemotherapy alone, or a combination of thermotherapy at 40°C and chemotherapy. The PhyloChipTMG3-based results indicated that 311 empirical Operational Taxonomic Units (eOTUs were detected in 26 phyla. Cyanobacteria (18.01% were dominant after thermo-chemotherapy. Thermotherapy at 45°C decreased eOTUs (64.43% in leaf samples, compared with thermotherapy at 40°C (73.96% or without thermotherapy (90.68% and it also reduced bacterial family biodiversity. The eOTU in phylum Proteobacteria was reduced significantly and eOTU_28, representing "Candidatus Liberibacter," was not detected following thermotherapy at 45°C. Following antibiotic treatment with SDX and STZ, there was enhanced abundance of specific eOTUs belonging to the families Streptomycetaceae, Desulfobacteraceae, Chitinophagaceae, and Xanthomonadaceae, which may be implicated in increased resistance to plant pathogens. Our study further develops an integrated strategy for combating HLB, and also provides new insight into the bacterial microbiome of HLB-affected citrus treated by heat and sulfonamide antibiotics.

  1. Synthesis of Morpholine Containing Sulfonamides: Introduction of Morpholine Moiety on Amine Functional Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Singh

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonamides have been the center of drug structures as this group is quite stable & well tolerated in human beings. The synthesis of these structures was started in search of new pharmacological active reagents. These compounds are being tested for the desired activity (ICAM-1/LFA-1 Interaction inhibitors as anti-adhesion therapeutic agents, the biological activity & structure activity relationship will be published elsewhere. Synthesis of morpholine moiety from amino group is done by using reagent 2-chloroethanol.

  2. Surface runoff and transport of sulfonamide antibiotics and tracers on manured grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Michael; Stamm, Christian; Waul, Christopher; Singer, Heinz; Müller, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    Despite their common use in animal production the environmental fate of the veterinary sulfonamide antibiotics after excretion is only poorly understood. We performed irrigation experiments to investigate the transport of these substances with surface runoff on grassland. Liquid manure from pigs treated with sulfadimidine was spiked with sulfadiazine, sulfathiazole, the herbicide atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine), and the conservative tracer bromide and spread onto eight plots. Four plots received the same amounts of the spiked substances in aqueous solution (controls). Apart from the application matrix we varied the time between application and irrigation. Manure increased the runoff volume up to six times compared with the controls. It seemed that manure enhanced the runoff by sealing the soil surface. On manured plots the relative antibiotic concentrations in runoff were higher than on the controls, reaching an average of 0.3% (sulfadiazine), 0.8% (sulfathiazole), and 1.4% (sulfadimidine) of the input concentrations after a 1-d contact time. The corresponding values on the controls were 0.16% for sulfadiazine and 0.08% for sulfathiazole. After 3 d, the maximum values on the manured plots were even higher, whereas they had fallen below the limit of quantification on the controls. As a consequence, the sulfonamide losses were 10 to 40 times larger on the manured plots. The relative mobility of the sulfonamides on the control plots followed the trend expected from their chromatographic separation but the opposite was found on the manured plots. Hence it is important to consider explicitly the physical and chemical effects of manure when assessing the environmental fate of sulfonamides.

  3. Electrochemically modified carbon fiber bundles as selective sorbent for online solid-phase microextraction of sulfonamides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, Xu; Zhang, Wenpeng; Chen, Zilin

    2016-01-01

    The authors show that carbon fiber bundles electrochemically modified with the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) is a viable sorbent for online solid-phase microextraction (SPME) of the sulfonamides (sulfadiazine, sulfadimidine and sulfamethoxazole) prior to their determination by HPLC. The fibers were packed in a tube loop made from polyether ether ketone (PEEK) that was coupled to the HPLC system for online SPME. Preconcentration factors can reach values of up to 300, and the limit of detection (at an S/N ration of 3) can be as low as 0.05 ng⋅mL −1 . The method was applied to the analysis of the sulfonamides in spiked rat plasma with intra-day and inter-day RSDs of <3.33 and <4.57 %, and with recoveries in the range from 91.7 to 97.8 % in spiked plasma. The in-tube SPME was also applied to the determination of the 3 sulfonamides in rat plasma after oral administration (tablet powder) with high sensitivity. In addition to its efficient extraction, the PEEK tube based SPME has chemical and mechanical stability under even harsh conditions. (author)

  4. Effect of pH and soil structure on transport of sulfonamide antibiotics in agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Yol; Huwe, Bernd

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the effect of solution pH and soil structure on transport of sulfonamide antibiotics (sulfamethoxazole, sulfadimethoxine and sulfamethazine) in combination with batch sorption tests and column experiments. Sorption isotherms properly conformed to Freundlich model, and sorption potential of the antibiotics is as follows; sulfadimethoxine > sulfamethoxazole > sulfamethazine. Decreasing pH values led to increased sorption potential of the antibiotics on soil material in pH range of 4.0-8.0. This likely resulted from abundance of neutral and positive-charged sulfonamides species at low pH, which electrostatically bind to sorption sites on soil surface. Due to destruction of macropore channels, lower hydraulic conductivities of mobile zone were estimated in the disturbed soil columns than in the undisturbed soil columns, and eventually led to lower mobility of the antibiotics in disturbed column. The results suggest that knowledge of soil structure and solution condition is required to predict fate and distribution of sulfonamide antibiotics in environmental matrix. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Structural Basis for the Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori α-Carbonic Anhydrase by Sulfonamides.

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    Joyanta K Modak

    Full Text Available Periplasmic α-carbonic anhydrase of Helicobacter pylori (HpαCA, an oncogenic bacterium in the human stomach, is essential for its acclimation to low pH. It catalyses the conversion of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate using Zn(II as the cofactor. In H. pylori, Neisseria spp., Brucella suis and Streptococcus pneumoniae this enzyme is the target for sulfonamide antibacterial agents. We present structural analysis correlated with inhibition data, on the complexes of HpαCA with two pharmacological inhibitors of human carbonic anhydrases, acetazolamide and methazolamide. This analysis reveals that two sulfonamide oxygen atoms of the inhibitors are positioned proximal to the putative location of the oxygens of the CO2 substrate in the Michaelis complex, whilst the zinc-coordinating sulfonamide nitrogen occupies the position of the catalytic water molecule. The structures are consistent with acetazolamide acting as site-directed, nanomolar inhibitors of the enzyme by mimicking its reaction transition state. Additionally, inhibitor binding provides insights into the channel for substrate entry and product exit. This analysis has implications for the structure-based design of inhibitors of bacterial carbonic anhydrases.

  6. Simultaneous occurrence of nitrates and sulfonamide antibiotics in two ground water bodies of Catalonia (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Galán, M. a. Jesús; Garrido, Teresa; Fraile, Josep; Ginebreda, Antoni; Díaz-Cruz, M. Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2010-03-01

    SummaryIn the present work the occurrence of 19 selected sulfonamides, including one acetylated metabolite, was investigated in ground water samples taken from two ground water bodies in Catalonia (Plana de Vic and La Selva). Both include areas designated as nitrate vulnerable zones, according to Directive 91/676/EEC. A fully automated analytical methodology based on on-line solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (on-line SPE-LC-MS/MS) was developed for this purpose. The high selectivity and sensitivity achieved (limits of detection between 0.005 and 0.8 ng/L) permitted to demonstrate the ubiquity of these antibiotics in both ground water bodies. Results showed a wide range of concentrations, from 0.01 ng/L up to 3460.57 ng/L. Since sulfonamides are related to livestock veterinary practices, they can be used as a specific indicator of manure contamination. However, the presence of sulfonamides appeared not to be directly related to the concentration of nitrates, as it is reflected on the low correlation coefficients found.

  7. Effects of pig slurry on the sorption of sulfonamide antibiotics in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele-Bruhn, S; Aust, M O

    2004-07-01

    Sorption of p-aminobenzoic acid (pABA) and five sulfonamide antibiotics to loess Chernozem topsoil amended with varied additions of pig slurry was investigated in batch trials. In unfertilized soil, partition coefficients (Kd) of sulfonamides ranged from 0.3 to 2.0. Strong sorption nonlinearity (1/n = 0.5 to 0.8) was best fitted by the Freundlich isotherm (R2 = 0.7 to 1.0) and was indicative for specific sorption mechanisms. Adsorption to pig slurry was much stronger, and nondesorbable portions were increased compared with soil. However, in a mixture of soil and slurry (50:1 w/w), sorption of the antibiotics was significantly decreased at a lower concentration range of pABA and the sulfonamides. This was attributed to competitive adsorption of dissolved organic matter (DOM) constituents from manure. An increase in pig slurry amendment resulted in increased total organic matter, DOM concentration, and ionic strength, but pH decreased. As a result, the nonadsorbed portions of pABA, sulfanilamide, and sulfadiazine (logD(ow) 0.1)--remained nearly constant in the presence of increased manure input. The pH changes caused by manure amendment strongly affected ionisation status of the latter compounds, thus resulting in increased adsorption, which compensated the mobilizing effect of DOM. It is suggested that the effect of manure be considered in test methods to determine the soil retention of pharmaceutical substances.

  8. Cooking without salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000760.htm Cooking without salt To use the sharing features on ... other dishes to add zest. Try Salt-free Cooking Explore cooking with salt substitutes. Add a splash ...

  9. [Occurrence of quinolone and sulfonamide antibiotics in swine and cattle manures from large-scale feeding operations of Guangdong Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yi-Ping; Luo, Xiao-Dong; Mo, Ce-Hui; Li, Yan-Wen; Wu, Xiao-Lian; Liu, Xing-Yue

    2011-04-01

    The occurrence and distribution of four quinolones and four sulfonamides in swine and cattle feces sampled from twenty large-scale feeding operations in different areas of Guangdong province were detected using solid phase extraction (SPE) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Quinolone and sulfonamide compounds were observed in all pig dung samples. Their total concentrations ranged from 24.5 microg/kg to 1516.2 microg/kg (F. W.) with an average of 581.0 microg/kg and ranged from 1925.9-13399.5 microg/kg with an average of 4403.9 microg/kg respectively. The dominant compounds in pig feces were ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin for quinolones and sulfamerazine and sulfamethoxazole for sulfonamides. Quinolone compounds which dominated with norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin were also observed in all cattle dung samples, its total concentrations ranged from 73.2 microg/kg to 1328.0 microg/kg which averaged 572.9 microg/kg. While the positive rates of sulfonamide compounds detected in cattle dung samples were above 90%, predominated by sulfamethoxazole and sulfamerazine. Concentration and distribution of both quinolone and sulfonamide compounds in swine and cattle dungs of different feeding operations varied greatly. Relatively high concentrations of the two kinds of antibiotics were found in both swine and cattle dungs from Guangzhou area, while sulfameter and sulfamethazine in cattle dungs from Foshan and Shenzhen areas were below the limit of detection.

  10. Vibrational Spectra And Potential Energy Distributions of Normal Modes of N,N'-Etilenbis(P-Toluen sulfonamide)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alyar, S.

    2008-01-01

    N-substituted sulfonamides are well known for their diuretic, antidiabetic, antibacterial and antifungal, anticancer e.g., and are widely used in the therapy of patients. These important bioactive properties are strongly affected by the special features of -CH 2 -SO 2 -NR-linker and intramolecular motion Thus, the studies of energetic and spatial properties on N-substituted sulfonamides are of great importance to improve our understanding of their biological activities and enhance abilities to predict new drugs. Density Functional Theory B3LYP /6-31G(d,p) level has been applied to obtain the vibrational force field for the most stable conformation of N,N'-etilenbis(p-toluensulfonamit)(ptsen)having sulfonamide moiety. The results of these calculation have been compared with spectroscopic data to verify accuracy of calculation and applicability of the DFT approach to ptsen. Additionally, complete normal coordinate analyses with quantum mechanical scaling (SQM) were performed to derive the potential energy distributions (PE)

  11. Solid-State Examination of Conformationally Diverse Sulfonamide Receptors Based on Bis(2-anilinoethynyl)pyridine, -Bipyridine, and -Thiophene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Orion B; Johnson, Charles A; Vonnegut, Chris L; Fajardo, Kevin A; Zakharov, Lev N; Johnson, Darren W; Haley, Michael M

    2015-03-04

    Utilizing an induced-fit model and taking advantage of rotatable acetylenic C(sp)-C(sp 2 ) bonds, we disclose the synthesis and solid-state structures of a series of conformationally diverse bis-sulfonamide arylethynyl receptors using either pyridine, 2,2'-bipyridine, or thiophene as the core aryl group. Whereas the bipyridine and thiophene structures do not appear to bind guests in the solid state, the pyridine receptors form 2 + 2 dimers with water molecules, two halides, or one of each, depending on the protonation state of the pyridine nitrogen atom. Isolation of a related bis-sulfonimide derivative demonstrates the importance of the sulfonamide N-H hydrogen bonds in dimer formation. The pyridine receptors form monomeric structures with larger guests such as BF 4 - or HSO 4 - , where the sulfonamide arms rotate to the side opposite the pyridine N atom.

  12. Solid-State Examination of Conformationally Diverse Sulfonamide Receptors Based on Bis(2-anilinoethynyl)pyridine, -Bipyridine, and -Thiophene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Orion B.; Johnson, Charles A.; Vonnegut, Chris L.; Fajardo, Kevin A.; Zakharov, Lev N.; Johnson, Darren W.; Haley, Michael M.

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing an induced-fit model and taking advantage of rotatable acetylenic C(sp)–C(sp2) bonds, we disclose the synthesis and solid-state structures of a series of conformationally diverse bis-sulfonamide arylethynyl receptors using either pyridine, 2,2′-bipyridine, or thiophene as the core aryl group. Whereas the bipyridine and thiophene structures do not appear to bind guests in the solid state, the pyridine receptors form 2 + 2 dimers with water molecules, two halides, or one of each, depending on the protonation state of the pyridine nitrogen atom. Isolation of a related bis-sulfonimide derivative demonstrates the importance of the sulfonamide N–H hydrogen bonds in dimer formation. The pyridine receptors form monomeric structures with larger guests such as BF4− or HSO4−, where the sulfonamide arms rotate to the side opposite the pyridine N atom. PMID:26405435

  13. Matrix solid-phase dispersion coupled with homogeneous ionic liquid microextraction for the determination of sulfonamides in animal tissues using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhibing; He, Mengyu; Jiang, Chunzhu; Zhang, Fengqing; Du, Shanshan; Feng, Wennan; Zhang, Hanqi

    2015-12-01

    Matrix solid-phase dispersion coupled with homogeneous ionic liquid microextraction was developed and applied to the extraction of some sulfonamides, including sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine, sulfathiazole, sulfachloropyridazine, sulfadoxine, sulfisoxazole, and sulfaphenazole, in animal tissues. High-performance liquid chromatography was applied to the separation and determination of the target analytes. The solid sample was directly treated by matrix solid-phase dispersion and the eluate obtained was treated by homogeneous ionic liquid microextraction. The ionic liquid was used as the extraction solvent in this method, which may result in the improvement of the recoveries of the target analytes. To avoid using organic solvent and reduce environmental pollution, water was used as the elution solvent of matrix solid-phase dispersion. The effects of the experimental parameters on recoveries, including the type and volume of ionic liquid, type of dispersant, ratio of sample to dispersant, pH value of elution solvent, volume of elution solvent, amount of salt in eluate, amount of ion-pairing agent (NH4 PF6 ), and centrifuging time, were evaluated. When the present method was applied to the analysis of animal tissues, the recoveries of the analytes ranged from 85.4 to 118.0%, and the relative standard deviations were lower than 9.30%. The detection limits for the analytes were 4.3-13.4 μg/kg. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Efficacy of sulfonamides and Baycox(®) against Isospora suis in experimental infections of suckling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachim, Anja; Mundt, Hans-Christian

    2011-12-01

    Sulfonamide treatment of piglets against neonatal coccidiosis has frequently been suggested in the literature. In order to evaluate the efficacy of sulfonamides against experimental Isospora suis infections in suckling piglets (oral infection with 1,500 sporulated oocysts of I. suis per piglet on the fourth day of life), two trials were conducted. In trial I, oral sulfadimidine (group Sulfa-Oral) was applied in doses of 100 mg/kg of body weight (BW) 1 day before infection and 75 mg/kg BW daily for the following 5 days, and sulfamethoxypyrimidine (SMP) was applied parenterally in daily doses of 75 mg/kg BW for the same time period. In trial II, SMP was applied parenterally in doses of 75 mg/kg BW (a) from the day of infection daily for 7 days (SMP-Standard), (b) for 2 days starting on the day of infection (SMP-Early), (c) for 3 days starting 2 days post-infection (d.p.i.; SMP-Middle), (d) for 2 days starting 5 d.p.i. (SMP-Late), and (e) every other day from the day of infection until 6 d.p.i. (SMP-Alternating), as well as (f) orally in doses of 75 mg/kg BW from the day of infection for 7 days (SMP-Oral). The sulfonamide-treated groups were compared to a toltrazuril-treated group (single oral treatment with Baycox® 5% suspension, 20 mg/kg BW 2 d.p.i.) and to a water-treated Control group. Each group consisted of seven to nine piglets. The parameters evaluated were oocyst excretion and fecal consistency/diarrhea from 4 to 15 d.p.i. Sulfa-Oral, SMP-Early, and SMP-Late had no significant effect in reduction of oocyst excretion and diarrhea, whereas treatment for 3-7 days with SMP reduced both parasite shedding and diarrhea significantly. Oral treatment with SMP was comparable to parenteral application. Baycox® in a single application had the most pronounced effect and completely suppressed oocyst excretion and diarrhea during the examination period. It could be shown that repeated application of sulfonamides, provided that the appropriate time period after infection

  15. Adsorption of sulfonamides to demineralized pine wood biochars prepared under different thermochemical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Mengxing; Chen, Wei; Xu, Zhaoyi; Zheng, Shourong; Zhu, Dongqiang

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to understand the key factors and mechanisms controlling adsorption of sulfonamides to biochars. Batch adsorption experiments were performed for sulfamethoxazole and sulfapyridine to three pine-wood biochars prepared under different thermochemical conditions: pyrolysis at 400 °C (C400) and 500 °C (C500), and pyrolysis at 500 °C followed with hydrogenation (C500-H). For both sulfonamides, the adsorbent surface area-normalized adsorption was stronger to C500 than to C400. This is attributable to the enhanced π–π electron-donor–acceptor interaction with the carbon surface of C500 due to the higher degree of graphitization. Despite the relatively large difference in surface O-functionality content between C500 (12.2%) and C500-H (6.6%), the two biochars exhibited nearly identical adsorbent surface area-normalized adsorption, indicating negligible role of surface O-functionalities in the adsorption to these adsorbents. Effects of solution chemistry conditions (pH, Cu 2+ , and dissolved soil humic acid) on adsorption were examined. -- Highlights: • Adsorption to biochars is dominated by π–π electron-donor–acceptor (EDA) interaction. • Graphitic surfaces of biochars are predominant adsorption sites. • Surface O-functionalities of biochars play minor roles in adsorption. • Adsorption affinities are markedly affected by Cu ions and humic acids. -- Adsorption of sulfonamides to biochars is dominated by π–π electron-donor–acceptor (EDA) interaction with the graphitic surface

  16. Malaria parasite carbonic anhydrase: inhibition of aromatic/heterocyclic sulfonamides and its therapeutic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krungkrai, Sudaratana R; Krungkrai, Jerapan

    2011-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) is responsible for the majority of life-threatening cases of human malaria, causing 1.5-2.7 million annual deaths. The global emergence of drug-resistant malaria parasites necessitates identification and characterization of novel drug targets and their potential inhibitors. We identified the carbonic anhydrase (CA) genes in P. falciparum. The pfCA gene encodes anα-carbonic anhydrase, a Zn2+-metalloenzme, possessing catalytic properties distinct from that of the human host CA enzyme. The amino acid sequence of the pfCA enzyme is different from the analogous protozoan and human enzymes. A library of aromatic/heterocyclic sulfonamides possessing a large diversity of scaffolds were found to be very good inhibitors for the malarial enzyme at moderate-low micromolar and submicromolar inhibitions. The structure of the groups substituting the aromatic-ureido- or aromatic-azomethine fragment of the molecule and the length of the parent sulfonamide were critical parameters for the inhibitory properties of the sulfonamides. One derivative, that is, 4- (3, 4-dichlorophenylureido)thioureido-benzenesulfonamide (compound 10) was the most effective in vitro Plasmodium falciparum CA inhibitor, and was also the most effective antimalarial compound on the in vitro P. falciparum growth inhibition. The compound 10 was also effective in vivo antimalarial agent in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei, an animal model of drug testing for human malaria infection. It is therefore concluded that the sulphonamide inhibitors targeting the parasite CA may have potential for the development of novel therapies against human malaria. PMID:23569766

  17. Thermodynamic aspects of solubility and partitioning processes of some sulfonamides in the solvents modeling biological media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perlovich, German L.; Ryzhakov, Alex M.; Strakhova, Nadezda N.; Kazachenko, Vladimir P.; Schaper, Klaus-Jürgen; Raevsky, Oleg A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Solubility processes of some sulfonamide isomers in water and 1-octanol were investigated. • Transfer processes from water to 1-octanol were evaluated by analysis of enthalpic and entropic terms. • Impact of various substituents in phenyl rings on solubility and transfer processes was studied. -- Abstract: The thermodynamic aspects of solubility processes of sulfonamides (SAs) with the general structures 4-NH 2 –C 6 H 4 –SO 2 NH–C 6 H 2 (R 1 )(R 2 )-R 3 (R 1 = 2-CH 3 , 2-Cl; R 2 = 4-CH 3 , 4-Cl; R 3 =5-H, 5-Cl), 4-NH 2 -2-Cl–C 6 H 3 –SO 2 NH–C 6 H 3 (R 1 )-R 2 (R 1 = 2-H, 2-Cl; R 2 = 4-H, 4-Cl) and 4-NH 2 -2-CH 3 –C 6 H 3 –SO 2 NH–C 6 H 3 (R 1 )-R 2 (R 1 = 2-H, 2-Cl, 2-NO 2 ; R 2 = 4-H, 4-Cl) in water and 1-octanol (as phases modeling various drug delivery pathways) were studied using the isothermal saturation method. For the sulfonamides with various substituents in phenyl rings the processes of transfer from water to 1-octanol were studied by a diagram method combined with analysis of enthalpic and entropic terms. Distinguishing between enthalpy and entropy, as is possible through the present approach, leads to the insight that the contribution of these terms is different for different molecules (entropy- or enthalpy-determined). Thus, in contrast to the interpretation of only the Gibbs energy of transfer (extensively used for pharmaceuticals in the form of the partition coefficient, logP), the analysis of thermodynamic functions of the transfer process provides additional mechanistic information. This may be important for further evaluation of the physiological distribution of drug molecules and may provide a better understanding of biopharmaceutical properties of drugs

  18. Novel 1,4-naphthoquinone-based sulfonamides: Synthesis, QSAR, anticancer and antimalarial studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingaew, Ratchanok; Prachayasittikul, Veda; Worachartcheewan, Apilak; Nantasenamat, Chanin; Prachayasittikul, Supaluk; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2015-10-20

    A novel series of 1,4-naphthoquinones (33-44) tethered by open and closed chain sulfonamide moieties were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxic and antimalarial activities. All quinone-sulfonamide derivatives displayed a broad spectrum of cytotoxic activities against all of the tested cancer cell lines including HuCCA-1, HepG2, A549 and MOLT-3. Most quinones (33-36 and 38-43) exerted higher anticancer activity against HepG2 cell than that of the etoposide. The open chain analogs 36 and 42 were shown to be the most potent compounds. Notably, the restricted sulfonamide analog 38 with 6,7-dimethoxy groups exhibited the most potent antimalarial activity (IC₅₀ = 2.8 μM). Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) study was performed to reveal important chemical features governing the biological activities. Five constructed QSAR models provided acceptable predictive performance (Rcv 0.5647-0.9317 and RMSEcv 0.1231-0.2825). Four additional sets of structurally modified compounds were generated in silico (34a-34d, 36a-36k, 40a-40d and 42a-42k) in which their activities were predicted using the constructed QSAR models. A comprehensive discussion of the structure-activity relationships was made and a set of promising compounds (i.e., 33, 36, 38, 42, 36d, 36f, 42e, 42g and 42f) was suggested for further development as anticancer and antimalarial agents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Design, synthesis, characterization and computational docking studies of novel sulfonamide derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Hira; Maryam, Arooma; Bokhari, Saleem Ahmed; Ashiq, Ayesha; Rauf, Sadaf Abdul; Khalid, Rana Rehan; Qureshi, Fahim Ashraf; Siddiqi, Abdul Rauf

    2018-01-01

    This study reports three novel sulfonamide derivatives 4-Chloro-N-[(4-methylphenyl) sulphonyl]-N-propyl benzamide ( 1A ), N-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-4-methyl benzene sulfonamide ( 1B ) and 4-methyl-N-(2-nitrophenyl) benzene sulfonamide ( 1C ). The compounds were synthesised from starting material 4-methylbenzenesulfonyl chloride and their structure was studied through 1 H-NMR and 13 C-NMR spectra. Computational docking was performed to estimate their binding energy against bacterial p -amino benzoic acid (PABA) receptor, the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS). The derivatives were tested in vitro for their antimicrobial activity against Gram+ and Gram- bacteria including E. coli, B. subtilis, B. licheniformis and B. linen. 1A was found active only against B. linen ; 1B was effective against E. coli, B. subtilis and B. linen whereas 1C showed activity against E. coli, B. licheniformis and B. linen . 1C showed maximum activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 50, 100 and 150 µg/mL against E. coli, B. licheniformis and B. linen respectively. 1C exhibited maximum affinity to DHPS with binding free energy of -8.1 kcal/mol. It enriched in the top 0.5 % of a library of 7663 compounds, ranked in order of their binding affinity against DHPS. 1C was followed by 1B which showed a moderate to low level MIC of 100, 250 and 150 µg/mL against E. coli, B. subtilis and B. linen respectively, whereas 1A showed a moderate level MIC of 100 µg/mL but only against B. linen . These derivatives may thus serve as potential anti-bacterial alternatives against resistant pathogens.

  20. Antimicrobial activity of some sulfonamide derivatives on clinical isolates of Staphylococus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekdemir Yunus

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus is a non-motile, gram positive, non-sporforming, facultative anaerobic microorganism. It is one of the important bacteria as a potential pathogen specifically for nosocomial infections. The sulfonamide derivative medicines are preferred to cure infection caused by S. aureus due to methicillin resistance. Methods Antimicrobial activity of four sulfonamide derivatives have been investigated against 50 clinical isolates of S. aureus and tested by using MIC and disc diffusion methods. 50 clinical isolate which collected from specimens of patients who are given medical treatment in Ondokuz Mayis University Medical School Hospital. A control strain of S. aureus ATCC 29213 was also tested. Results The strongest inhibition was observed in the cases of I [N-(2-hydroxy-4-nitro-phenyl-4-methyl-benzensulfonamid], and II [N-(2-hydroxy-5-nitro-phenyl-4-methyl-benzensulfonamid] against S. aureus. Compound I [N-(2-hydroxy-4-nitro-phenyl-4-methyl-benzensulfonamid] showed higher effect on 21 S. aureus MRSAisolates than oxacillin antibiotic. Introducing an electron withdrawing on the ring increased the antimicrobial activity remarkably. Conclusion This study may help to suggest an alternative possible leading compound for development of new antimicrobial agents against MRSA and MSSA resistant S. aureus. It was also shown here that that clinical isolates of 50 S. aureus have various resistance patterns against to four sulfonamide derivatives. It may also be emphasized here that in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing results for S. aureus need standardization with further studies and it should also have a correlation with in vivo therapeutic response experiments.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of curcumin-sulfonamide hybrids: Biological evaluation and molecular docking studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banuppriya, Govindharasu; Sribalan, Rajendran; Padmini, Vediappen

    2018-03-01

    Curcumin-sulfonamide hybrids (4a-e) were synthesized and their in vitro antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities were studied. The synthesized compounds showed a very good potent activity towards antioxidant and anti-inflammatory studies rather than its parent as well as standard. These compounds have exhibited an excellent toxicity effect to the cancer cell lines such as A549 and AGS. The compounds 4a and 4c have showed good anticancer activity than curcumin. The molecular docking studies were also performed against various Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) enzymes. The DFT calculations were also done in order to support the docking results.

  2. Determination of sulfonamides and trimethoprim using high temperature HPLC with simultaneous temperature and solvent gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giegold, Sascha; Teutenberg, Thorsten; Tuerk, Jochen; Kiffmeyer, Thekla; Wenclawiak, Bernd

    2008-10-01

    A fast HPLC method for the analysis of eight selected sulfonamides (SA) and trimethoprim has been developed with the use of high temperature HPLC. The separation could be achieved in less than 1.5 min on a 50 mm sub 2 microm column with simultaneous solvent and temperature gradient programming. Due to the lower viscosity of the mobile phase and the increased mass transfer at higher temperatures, the separation could be performed on a conventional HPLC system obtaining peak widths at half height between 0.6 and 1.3 s.

  3. 4-Methyl-N-(1-methyl-1H-indazol-5-yl)benzene­sulfonamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicha, Hakima; Oulemda, Bassou; Rakib, El Mostapha; Saadi, Mohamed; El Ammari, Lahcen

    2013-01-01

    In the title compound, C15H15N3O2S, the fused ring system is close to planar, the largest deviation from the mean plane being 0.030 (2) Å, and makes a dihedral angle of 48.84 (9)° with the benzene ring belonging to the methyl­benzene­sulfonamide moiety. In the crystal, mol­ecules are ­connected through N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds and weak C—H⋯O contacts, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to (001). PMID:24427093

  4. Development of an analytical method for determination of sulfonamide residues in eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Azzeddine, Chams

    2009-01-01

    For the determination of sulfonamide residues in eggs, Premitest is selected for screening, providing a qualitative biological approach, it is inexpensive, fast, multi-elements and easy to implement. The H. P.L.C. / UV is the quantitative method of choice for confirmation and determination of these contaminants. During my internship, I had the opportunity to participate in the development of this method. It is recognized slower and more expensive but more specific and more sensitive. In this report, I present this optimized method and some criteria checked during my internship. Other criteria are to be completed to validate the method that will be subsequently used for routine analysis.

  5. Preclinical evaluation of carbon-11 and fluorine-18 sulfonamide derivatives for in vivo radiolabeling of erythrocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Gheysens, Olivier; Akurathi, Vamsidhar; Chekol, Rufael; Dresselaers, Tom; Celen, Sofie; Koole, Michel; Dauwe, Dieter; Cleynhens, Bernard J; Claus, Piet; Janssens, Stefan; Verbruggen, Alfons M; Nuyts, Johan; Himmelreich, Uwe; Bormans, Guy M

    2013-01-01

    Background To date, few PET tracers for in vivo labeling of red blood cells (RBCs) are available. In this study, we report the radiosynthesis and in vitro and in vivo evaluation of 11C and 18F sulfonamide derivatives targeting carbonic anhydrase II (CA II), a metallo-enzyme expressed in RBCs, as potential blood pool tracers. A proof-of-concept in vivo imaging study was performed to demonstrate the feasibility to assess cardiac function and volumes using electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated positron ...

  6. Efficient synthesis of sulfonamide derivatives on solid supports catalyzed using solvent-free and microwave-assisted methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camargo-Ordonez, Argelia; Moreno-Reyes, Christian; Olazaran-Santibanez, Fabian; Martinez-Hernandez, Sheila; Bocanegra-Garcia, Virgilio; Rivera, Gildardo [Universidad Autonoma de Tamaulipas, Reynosa (Mexico). Dep. de Farmacia y Quimica Medicinal

    2011-07-01

    In this work we report the synthesis of sulfonamide derivatives using a conventional procedure and with solid supports, such as silica gel, florisil, alumina, 4A molecular sieves, montmorillonite KSF, and montmorillonite K10 using solvent-free and microwave-assisted methods. Our results show that solid supports have a catalytic activity in the formation of sulfonamide derivatives. We found that florisil, montmorillonite KSF, and K10 could be used as inexpensive alternative catalysts that are easily separated from the reaction media. Additionally, solvent-free and microwave-assisted methods were more efficient in reducing reaction time and in increasing yield. (author)

  7. Efficient synthesis of sulfonamide derivatives on solid supports catalyzed using solvent-free and microwave-assisted methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo-Ordonez, Argelia; Moreno-Reyes, Christian; Olazaran-Santibanez, Fabian; Martinez-Hernandez, Sheila; Bocanegra-Garcia, Virgilio; Rivera, Gildardo

    2011-01-01

    In this work we report the synthesis of sulfonamide derivatives using a conventional procedure and with solid supports, such as silica gel, florisil, alumina, 4A molecular sieves, montmorillonite KSF, and montmorillonite K10 using solvent-free and microwave-assisted methods. Our results show that solid supports have a catalytic activity in the formation of sulfonamide derivatives. We found that florisil, montmorillonite KSF, and K10 could be used as inexpensive alternative catalysts that are easily separated from the reaction media. Additionally, solvent-free and microwave-assisted methods were more efficient in reducing reaction time and in increasing yield. (author)

  8. The role of the acidity of N-heteroaryl sulfonamides as inhibitors of bcl-2 family protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touré, B Barry; Miller-Moslin, Karen; Yusuff, Naeem; Perez, Lawrence; Doré, Michael; Joud, Carol; Michael, Walter; DiPietro, Lucian; van der Plas, Simon; McEwan, Michael; Lenoir, Francois; Hoe, Madelene; Karki, Rajesh; Springer, Clayton; Sullivan, John; Levine, Kymberly; Fiorilla, Catherine; Xie, Xiaoling; Kulathila, Raviraj; Herlihy, Kara; Porter, Dale; Visser, Michael

    2013-02-14

    Overexpression of the antiapoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins is commonly associated with cancer cell survival and resistance to chemotherapeutics. Here, we describe the structure-based optimization of a series of N-heteroaryl sulfonamides that demonstrate potent mechanism-based cell death. The role of the acidic nature of the sulfonamide moiety as it relates to potency, solubility, and clearance is examined. This has led to the discovery of novel heterocyclic replacements for the acylsulfonamide core of ABT-737 and ABT-263.

  9. Electron Spin Resonance Studies of Carbonic Anhydrase: Transition Metal Ions and Spin-Labeled Sulfonamides*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, June S.; Mushak, Paul; Coleman, Joseph E.

    1970-01-01

    Electron spin resonance (esr) spectra of Cu(II) and Co(II) carbonic anhydrase, and a spin-labeled sulfonamide complex of the Zn(II) enzyme, are reported. The coordination geometry of Cu(II) bound in the enzyme appears to have approximately axial symmetry. Esr spectra of enzyme complexes with metal-binding anions also show axial symmetry and greater covalency, in the order ethoxzolamide cyanide complex suggests the presence of two, and probably three, equivalent nitrogen ligands from the protein. Esr spectra of the Co(II) enzyme and its complexes show two types of Co(II) environment, one typical of the native enzyme and the 1:1 CN- complex, and one typical of a 2:1 CN- complex. Co(II) in the 2:1 complex appears to be low-spin and probably has a coordination number of 5. Binding of a spin-labeled sulfonamide to the active center immobilizes the free radical. The similarity of the esr spectra of spin-labeled Zn(II) and Co(II) carbonic anhydrases suggests that the conformation at the active center is similar in the two metal derivatives. PMID:4320976

  10. Removal of tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and quinolones by industrial-scale composting and anaerobic digestion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hang; Pu, Chengjun; Yu, Xiaolu; Sun, Ying; Chen, Junhao

    2018-02-15

    This study evaluated and compared the removal of antibiotics by industrial-scale composting and anaerobic digestion at different seasons. Twenty compounds belonged to three classes of widely used veterinary antibiotics (i.e., tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and quinolones) were investigated. Results show that of the three groups of antibiotics, tetracyclines were dominant in swine feces and poorly removed by anaerobic digestion with significant accumulation in biosolids, particularly in winter. Compared to that in winter, a much more effective removal (> 97%) by anaerobic digestion was observed for sulfonamides in summer. By contrast, quinolones were the least abundant antibiotics in swine feces and exhibited a higher removal by anaerobic digestion in winter than in summer. The overall removal of antibiotics by aerobic composting could be more than 90% in either winter or summer. Nevertheless, compost products from livestock farms in Beijing contained much higher antibiotics than commercial organic fertilizers. Thus, industrial composting standards should be strictly applied to livestock farms to further remove antibiotics and produce high quality organic fertilizer.

  11. Development and Characterization of Novel Films Based on Sulfonamide-Chitosan Derivatives for Potential Wound Dressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Maria Dragostin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop new films based on chitosan functionalized with sulfonamide drugs (sulfametoxydiazine, sulfadiazine, sulfadimetho-xine, sulfamethoxazol, sulfamerazine, sulfizoxazol in order to enhance the biological effects of chitosan. The morphology and physical properties of functionalized chitosan films as well the antioxidant effects of sulfonamide-chitosan derivatives were investigated. The chitosan-derivative films showed a rough surface and hydrophilic properties, which are very important features for their use as a wound dressing. The film based on chitosan-sulfisoxazol (CS-S6 showed the highest swelling ratio (197% and the highest biodegradation rate (63.04% in comparison to chitosan film for which the swelling ratio was 190% and biodegradation rate was only 10%. Referring to the antioxidant effects the most active was chitosan-sulfamerazine (CS-S5 which was 8.3 times more active than chitosan related to DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging ability. This compound showed also a good ferric reducing power and improved total antioxidant capacity.

  12. Rapid startup of thermophilic anaerobic digester to remove tetracycline and sulfonamides resistance genes from sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rui; Yang, Zhao-Hui; Wang, Qing-Peng; Bai, Yang; Liu, Jian-Bo; Zheng, Yue; Zhang, Yan-Ru; Xiong, Wei-Ping; Ahmad, Kito; Fan, Chang-Zheng

    2018-01-15

    Spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) originating from sewage sludge is highlighted as an eminent health threat. This study established a thermophilic anaerobic digester using one-step startup strategy to quickly remove tetracycline and sulfonamides resistance genes from sewage sludge. At least 20days were saved in the startup period from mesophilic to thermophilic condition. Based on the results of 16S rDNA amplicons sequencing and predicted metagenomic method, the successful startup largely relied on the fast colonization of core thermophilic microbial population (e.g. Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria). Microbial metabolic gene pathways for substrate degradation and methane production was also increased by one-step mode. In addition, real-time quantitative PCR approach revealed that most targeted tetracycline and sulfonamides resistance genes ARGs (sulI, tetA, tetO, tetX) were substantially removed during thermophilic digestion (removal efficiency>80%). Network analysis showed that the elimination of ARGs was attributed to the decline of their horizontal (intI1 item) and vertical (potential hosts) transfer-related elements under high-temperature. This research demonstrated that rapid startup thermophilic anaerobic digestion of wastewater solids would be a suitable technology for reducing quantities of various ARGs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Preliminary investigation on the occurrence of several sulfonamide antibiotics in the Haihe River Basin of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S. L.; Zhang, J.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Y. Z.; Liang, S. T.; Liu, C.; Wang, Z.

    2017-08-01

    Several samples collected from lakes, rivers and reservoirs in Haihe river basin of China were analyzed for 8 sulfonamide antibiotics by using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). All water samples were enriched with HLB extraction cartridges. The antibiotics were separated by gradient elution with methanol as the mobile phase adding 0.1% formic acid. The eluate was then analyzed by the mode of multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.4-1.0 ng/L and 1.0-3.0 ng/L respectively. The method was used for the analysis of 13 samples from Haihe river basin in China. The results showed that sulfamethoxazole was present in all water samples with maximum concentration of 107.59 ng/L. Sulfadiazine was also frequently detected, concentrations ranging from 2.81 ng/L to 85.35 ng/L. Other sulfonamide antibiotics were not detected in most water samples, especially for those samples from drinking water resources.

  14. Spectroscopic characterization, antimicrobial activity, DFT computation and docking studies of sulfonamide Schiff bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Sudipa; Mandal, Santi M.; Mondal, Tapan Kumar; Sinha, Chittaranjan

    2017-01-01

    Schiff bases synthesised from the condensation of 2-(hydroxy)naphthaldehyde and sulfonamides (sufathiazole (STZ), sulfapyridine (SPY), sulfadiazine (SDZ), sulfamerazine (SMZ) and sulfaguanidine (SGN)) are characterized by different spectroscopic data (FTIR, UV-Vis, Mass, NMR) and two of them, (E)-4-(((2-hydroxynaphthalen-1-yl)methylene)amino)-N-(thiazol-2-yl)benzenesulfonamide (1a) and (E)-N-(diaminomethylene)-4-(((2-hydroxynaphthalen-1-yl)methylene)amino)benzenesulfonamide (1e) have been confirmed by single crystal X-ray structure determination. Antimicrobial activities of the Schiff bases have been evaluated against certified and resistant Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus facelis) and Gram negative (Streptococcus pyogenes, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumonia) pathogens. Performance of Schiff base against the resistant pathogens are better than standard stain and MIC data lie 32-128 μg/ml while parent sulfonamides are effectively inactive (MIC >512 μg/ml). The DFT optimized structures of the Schiff bases have been used to accomplish molecular docking studies with DHPS (dihydropteroate synthase) protein structure (downloaded from Protein Data Bank) to establish the most preferred mode of interaction. ADMET filtration, Cytotoxicity (MTT assay) and haemolysis assay have been examined for evaluation of druglike character.

  15. Elimination patterns of worldwide used sulfonamides and tetracyclines during anaerobic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielmeyer, Astrid; Breier, Bettina; Groißmeier, Kathrin; Hamscher, Gerd

    2015-10-01

    Antibiotics such as sulfonamides and tetracyclines are frequently used in veterinary medicine. Due to incomplete absorption in the animal gut and/or unmetabolized excretion, the substances can enter the environment by using manure as soil fertilizer. The anaerobic fermentation process of biogas plants is discussed as potential sink for antibiotic compounds. However, negative impacts of antibiotics on the fermentation process are suspected. The elimination of sulfadiazine, sulfamethazine, tetracycline and chlortetracycline in semi-continuous lab-scale fermenters was investigated. Both biogas production and methane yield were not negatively affected by concentrations up to 38 mg per kg for sulfonamides and 7 mg per kg for tetracyclines. All substances were partly eliminated with elimination rates between 14% and 89%. Both matrix and structure of the target molecule influenced the elimination rate. Chlortetracycline was mainly transformed into iso-chlortetracycline. In all other cases, the elimination pathways remained undiscovered; however, sorption processes seem to have a negligible impact. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of manure-related DOM on sulfonamide transport in arable soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dan; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören; Arenz-Leufen, Martina Gesine; Jacques, Diederik; Lichtner, Peter; Engelhardt, Irina

    2016-09-01

    Field application of livestock manure introduces colloids and veterinary antibiotics, e.g. sulfonamides (SAs), into farmland. The presence of manure colloids may potentially intensify the SAs-pollution to soils and groundwater by colloid-facilitated transport. Transport of three SAs, sulfadiazine (SDZ), sulfamethoxypyridazine (SMPD), and sulfamoxole (SMOX), was investigated in saturated soil columns with and without manure colloids from sows and farrows, weaners, and fattening pigs. Experimental results showed that colloid-facilitated transport of SMOX was significant in the presence of manure colloids from fattening pigs with low C/N ratio, high SUVA280 nm and protein C, while manure colloids from sows and farrows and weaners had little effect on SMOX transport. In contrast, only retardation was observed for SDZ and SMPD when manure colloids were present. Breakthrough curves (BTCs) of colloids and SAs were replicated well by a newly developed numerical model that considers colloid-filtration theory, competitive kinetic sorption, and co-transport processes. Model results demonstrate that mobile colloids act as carriers for SMOX, while immobile colloids block SMOX from sorbing onto the soil. The low affinity of SMOX to sorb on immobile colloids prevents aggregation and also promotes SMOX's colloid-facilitated transport. Conversely, the high affinity of SDZ and SMPD to sorb on all types of immobile colloids retarded their transport. Thus, manure properties play a fundamental role in increasing the leaching risk of hydrophobic sulfonamides.

  17. Soil bacterial consortia and previous exposure enhance the biodegradation of sulfonamides from pig manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islas-Espinoza, Marina; Reid, Brian J; Wexler, Margaret; Bond, Philip L

    2012-07-01

    Persistence or degradation of synthetic antibiotics in soil is crucial in assessing their environmental risks. Microbial catabolic activity in a sandy loamy soil with pig manure using 12C- and 14C-labelled sulfamethazine (SMZ) respirometry showed that SMZ was not readily degradable. But after 100 days, degradation in sulfadiazine-exposed manure was 9.2%, far greater than soil and organic manure (0.5% and 0.11%, respectively, p library from the treatment with highest degradation showed that most bacteria belonged to α, β and γ classes of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Acidobacteria. Proteobacteria (α, β and γ), Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes which were the most abundant classes on day 1 also decreased most following prolonged exposure. From the matrix showing the highest degradation rate, 17 SMZ-resistant isolates biodegraded low levels of 14C-labelled SMZ when each species was incubated separately (0.2-1.5%) but biodegradation was enhanced when the four isolates with the highest biodegradation were incubated in a consortium (Bacillus licheniformis, Pseudomonas putida, Alcaligenes sp. and Aquamicrobium defluvium as per 16S rRNA gene sequencing), removing up to 7.8% of SMZ after 20 days. One of these species (B. licheniformis) was a known livestock and occasional human pathogen. Despite an environmental role of these species in sulfonamide bioremediation, the possibility of horizontal transfer of pathogenicity and resistance genes should caution against an indiscriminate use of these species as sulfonamide degraders.

  18. Thermodynamic aspects of solubility, solvation and partitioning processes of some sulfonamides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlovich, German L., E-mail: glp@isc-ras.r [Department of Computer-Aided Molecular Design, Institute of Physiologically Active Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, 142432 Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Institute of Solution Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, 153045 Ivanovo (Russian Federation); Ryzhakov, Alex M. [Institute of Solution Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, 153045 Ivanovo (Russian Federation); Strakhova, Nadezda N.; Kazachenko, Vladimir P. [Department of Computer-Aided Molecular Design, Institute of Physiologically Active Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, 142432 Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Schaper, Klaus-Juergen [Research Center Borstel, Leibniz Center for Medicine and Biosciences, D-23845 Borstel (Germany); Raevsky, Oleg A. [Department of Computer-Aided Molecular Design, Institute of Physiologically Active Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, 142432 Chernogolovka (Russian Federation)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} The thermodynamic aspects of sublimation processes of some sulfonamides were studied by investigating the temperature dependence of vapor pressure using the transpiration method. {yields} Solubility processes of the compounds in water, phosphate buffer with pH 7.4 and n-octanol were investigated and corresponding thermodynamic functions were calculated as well. {yields} Thermodynamic characteristics of the sulfonamides solvation were evaluated. - Abstract: The thermodynamic aspects of sublimation processes of three sulfonamides with the general structures C{sub 6}H{sub 5}-SO{sub 2}NH-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}-R (R = 4-NO{sub 2}) and 4-NH{sub 2}-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}-SO{sub 2}NH-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}-R (R = 4-NO{sub 2}; 4-CN) were studied by investigating the temperature dependence of vapor pressure using the transpiration method. These data together with those obtained earlier for C{sub 6}H{sub 5}-SO{sub 2}NH-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}-R (R = 4-Cl) and 4-NH{sub 2}-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}-SO{sub 2}NH-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}-R (R = 4-Cl; 4-OMe; 4-C{sub 2}H{sub 5}) were analyzed and compared. A correlation was derived between sublimation Gibbs free energies and the sum of H-bond acceptor factors of the molecules. Solubility processes of the compounds in water, phosphate buffer with pH 7.4 and n-octanol (as phases modeling various drug delivery pathways) were investigated and corresponding thermodynamic functions were calculated as well. Thermodynamic characteristics of the sulfonamides solvation were evaluated. Also in this case a correlation between solubility/solvation Gibbs free energy values and the sum of H-bond acceptor factors was observed. For the sulfonamides with various substituents at para-position the processes of transfer from one solvent (water or buffer) to n-octanol were studied by a diagram method combined with analysis of enthalpic and entropic terms. Distinguishing between enthalpy and entropy, as is possible through the present approach, leads to the insight

  19. Sulfonamide inhibition studies of two β-carbonic anhydrases from the ascomycete fungus Sordaria macrospora, CAS1 and CAS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vullo, Daniela; Lehneck, Ronny; Pöggeler, Stefanie; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2018-12-01

    The two β-carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) recently cloned and purified from the ascomycete fungus Sordaria macrospora, CAS1 and CAS2, were investigated for their inhibition with a panel of 39 aromatic, heterocyclic, and aliphatic sulfonamides and one sulfamate, many of which are clinically used agents. CAS1 was efficiently inhibited by tosylamide, 3-fluorosulfanilamide, and 3-chlorosulfanilamide (K I s in the range of 43.2-79.6 nM), whereas acetazolamide, methazolamide, topiramate, ethoxzolamide, dorzolamide, and brinzolamide were medium potency inhibitors (K I s in the range of 360-445 nM). CAS2 was less sensitive to sulfonamide inhibitors. The best CAS2 inhibitors were 5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-sulfonamide (the deacetylated acetazolamide precursor) and 4-hydroxymethyl-benzenesulfonamide, with K I s in the range of 48.1-92.5 nM. Acetazolamide, dorzolamide, ethoxzolamide, topiramate, sulpiride, indisulam, celecoxib, and sulthiame were medium potency CAS2 inhibitors (K I s of 143-857 nM). Many other sulfonamides showed affinities in the high micromolar range or were ineffective as CAS1/2 inhibitors. Small changes in the structure of the inhibitor led to important differences of the activity. As these enzymes may show applications for the removal of anthropically generated polluting gases, finding modulators of their activity may be crucial for designing environmental-friendly CO 2 capture processes.

  20. Rapid method for quantification of nine sulfonamides in bovine milk using HPLC/MS/MS and without using SPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebot, Carolina; Regal, Patricia; Miranda, Jose Manuel; Fente, Cristina; Cepeda, Alberto

    2013-12-01

    Sulfonamides are antimicrobial agents widely employed in animal production and their residues in food could be an important risk to human health. In the dairy industry, large quantities of milk are monitored daily for the presence of sulfonamides. A simple and low-cost extraction protocol followed by a liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous detection of nine sulfonamides in whole milk. The method was validated at the maximum residue limits established by European legislation. The limits of quantification obtained for most sulfonamides were between 12.5 and 25 μg kg(-1), detection capabilities ranged from 116 to 145 μg kg(-1), and recoveries, at 100 μg kg(-1), were greater than 89±12.5%. The method was employed to analyse 100 raw whole bovine milk samples collected from dairy farms in the northwest region of Spain. All of the samples were found to be compliant, but two were positive; one for sulfadiazine and the other for sulfamethoxipyridazine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Accumulation of Sulfonamide Resistance Genes in Arable Soils Due to Repeated Application of Manure Containing Sulfadiazine ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Heuer, Holger; Solehati, Qodiah; Zimmerling, Ute; Kleineidam, Kristina; Schloter, Michael; Müller, Tanja; Focks, Andreas; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören; Smalla, Kornelia

    2011-01-01

    Two soils were amended three times with pig manure. The abundance of sulfonamide resistance genes was determined by quantitative PCR 2 months after each application. In both soils treated with sulfadiazine-containing manure, the numbers of copies of sul1 and sul2 significantly increased compared to numbers after treatments with antibiotic-free manure or a control and accumulated with repeated applications.

  2. [Historical roles of salt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, E; Ritz, C

    2004-12-17

    Recently increasing evidence has been provided pointing to a close relation of salt consumption to hypertension as well as to target organ damage. It is interesting to note that the discussion concerning salt is unusually emotional. This may be explained, at least in part, by the fact that since ancient times salt had deep symbolic significance, as exemplified, mostly subconsciously, by many customs and expressions still in current use. In the past salt was essential to preserve food. The past importance of salt as a commodity can well be compared with that of oil today. These and further historical aspects of the role of salt are briefly dealt with in this article.

  3. Sorption and biodegradation of sulfonamide antibiotics by activated sludge: experimental assessment using batch data obtained under aerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng-Fu; Lin, Cheng-Fang; Lin, Angela Yu-Chen; Hong, Pui-Kwan Andy

    2011-05-01

    This study investigated the adsorption, desorption, and biodegradation characteristics of sulfonamide antibiotics in the presence of activated sludge with and without being subjected to NaN(3) biocide. Batch experiments were conducted and the relative contributions of adsorption and biodegradation to the observed removal of sulfonamide antibiotics were determined. Three sulfonamide antibiotics including sulfamethoxazole (SMX), sulfadimethoxine (SDM), and sulfamonomethoxine (SMM), which had been detected in the influent and the activated sludge of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in Taiwan, were selected for this study. Experimental results showed that the antibiotic compounds were removed via sorption and biodegradation by the activated sludge, though biodegradation was inhibited in the first 12 h possibly due to competitive inhibition of xenobiotic oxidation by readily biodegradable substances. The affinity of sulfonamides to sterilized sludge was in the order of SDM > SMM > SMX. The sulfonamides existed predominantly as anions at the study pH of 6.8, which resulted in a low level of adsorption to the activated sludge. The adsorption/desorption isotherms were of a linear form, as well described by the Freundlich isotherm with the n value approximating unity. The linear distribution coefficients (K(d)) were determined from batch equilibrium experiments with values of 28.6 ± 1.9, 55.7 ± 2.2, and 110.0 ± 4.6 mL/g for SMX, SMM, and SDM, respectively. SMX, SMM, and SDM desorb reversibly from the activated sludge leaving behind on the solids 0.9%, 1.6%, and 5.2% of the original sorption dose of 100 μg/L. The sorbed antibiotics can be introduced into the environment if no further treatments were employed to remove them from the biomass. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sea Salt vs. Table Salt: What's the Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and healthy eating What's the difference between sea salt and table salt? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D. The main differences between sea salt and table salt are in their taste, texture ...

  5. Low-salt diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-sodium diet; Salt restriction ... control many functions. Too much sodium in your diet can be bad for you. For most people, ... you limit salt. Try to eat a balanced diet. Buy fresh vegetables and fruits whenever possible. They ...

  6. Molten salt breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    MSBR Study Group formed in October 1974 has studied molten salt breeder reactor and its various aspects. Usage of a molten salt fuel, extremely interesting as reactor chemistry, is a great feature to MSBR; there is no need for separate fuel making, reprocessing, waste storage facilities. The group studied the following, and these results are presented: molten salt technology, molten salt fuel chemistry and reprocessing, reactor characteristics, economy, reactor structural materials, etc. (Mori, K.)

  7. Role of the sulfonamide moiety of Ru(II) half-sandwich complexes in the asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of 3,4-dihydroisoquinolines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matuška, O.; Zápal, J.; Hrdličková, R.; Mikoška, M.; Pecháček, J.; Vilhanová, B.; Václavík, Jiří; Kuzma, M.; Kačer, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 1 (2016), s. 215-222 ISSN 1878-5190 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : ruthenium * asymmetric transfer hydrogenation * dihydroisoquinolines * sulfonamide Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.264, year: 2016

  8. Ionic treatment for removal of sulfonamide and tetracycline classes of antibiotic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Keun-Joo; Son, Hee-Jong; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2007-01-01

    Self-decomposition and removal of antibiotics by ionic treatment was evaluated in this study. Seven sulfonamide classes (SA) and seven tetracycline classes (TA) of antibiotic were selected for this purpose. According to this study, self-decomposition of SAs and TAs was slow, and a considerable amount of antibiotics still remained after 15 days. Ionic treatment was effective for removal of SAs and TAs, but organic interference was observed. When dissolved organic (DOC) was present in raw water, the removal performance of antibiotics generally deteriorated due to competition with organics. SAs and TAs, which were present in ionic form at neutral pH, were removed through ion exchange. Their removal efficiencies were closely related to their chemical structure. Antibiotics with stronger electronegativity were easier to remove by ionic treatment. Equilibrium equations for removal of SAs and TAs by ionic treatment were also presented

  9. Recent advances in sample preparation techniques and methods of sulfonamides detection - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrienko, Stanislava G; Kochuk, Elena V; Apyari, Vladimir V; Tolmacheva, Veronika V; Zolotov, Yury A

    2014-11-19

    Sulfonamides (SAs) have been the most widely used antimicrobial drugs for more than 70 years, and their residues in foodstuffs and environmental samples pose serious health hazards. For this reason, sensitive and specific methods for the quantification of these compounds in numerous matrices have been developed. This review intends to provide an updated overview of the recent trends over the past five years in sample preparation techniques and methods for detecting SAs. Examples of the sample preparation techniques, including liquid-liquid and solid-phase extraction, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and QuEChERS, are given. Different methods of detecting the SAs present in food and feed and in environmental, pharmaceutical and biological samples are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Synthesis and in silico studies of novel sulfonamides having oxadiazole ring: As β-glucuronidase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Muhammad; Baharudin, Mohd Syukri; Ismail, Nor Hadiani; Selvaraj, Manikandan; Salar, Uzma; Alkadi, Khaled A A; Khan, Khalid Mohammed

    2017-04-01

    Novel sulfonamides having oxadiazole ring were synthesized by multistep reaction and evaluated to check in vitro β-glucuronidase inhibitory activity. Luckily, except compound 13, all compounds were found to demonstrate good inhibitory activity in the range of IC 50 =2.40±0.01-58.06±1.60μM when compared to the standard d-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (IC 50 =48.4±1.25μM). Structure activity relationship was also presented. However, in order to ensure the SAR as well as the molecular interactions of compounds with the active site of enzyme, molecular docking studies on most active compounds 19, 16, 4 and 6 was carried out. All derivatives were fully characterized by 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR and EI-MS spectroscopic techniques. CHN analysis was also presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Insights into functional-group-tolerant polymerization catalysis with phosphine-sulfonamide palladium (II) complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Jian, Zhongbao

    2014-12-08

    Two series of cationic palladium(II) methyl complexes {[(2-MeOC6H4)2PC6H4SO2NHC6H3(2,6-R1,R2)]PdMe}2[A]2 (X1+-A: R1=R2=H: H1+-A; R1=R2=CH(CH3)2: DIPP1+-A; R1=H, R2=CF3: CF31+-A; A=BF4 or SbF6) and neutral palladium(II) methyl complexes {[(2-MeOC6H4)2PC6H4SO2NC6H3(2,6-R1,R2)]PdMe(L)} (X1-acetone: L=acetone; X1-dmso: L=dimethyl sulfoxide; X1-pyr: L=pyridine) chelated by a phosphine-sulfonamide were synthesized and fully characterized. Stoichiometric insertion of methyl acrylate (MA) into all complexes revealed that a 2,1 regiochemistry dominates in the first insertion of MA. Subsequently, for the cationic complexes X1+-A, β-H elimination from the 2,1-insertion product X2+-AMA-2,1 is overwhelmingly favored over a second MA insertion to yield two major products X4+-AMA-1,2 and X5+-AMA. By contrast, for the weakly coordinated neutral complexes X1-acetone and X1-dmso, a second MA insertion of the 2,1-insertion product X2MA-2,1 is faster than β-H elimination and gives X3MA as major products. For the strongly coordinated neutral complexes X1-pyr, no second MA insertion and no β-H elimination (except for DIPP2-pyrMA-2,1) were observed for the 2,1-insertion product X2-pyrMA-2,1. The cationic complexes X1+-A exhibited high catalytic activities for ethylene dimerization, affording butenes (C4) with a high selectivity of up to 97.7% (1-butene: 99.3%). Differences in activities and selectivities suggest that the phosphine-sulfonamide ligands remain coordinated to the metal center in a bidentate fashion in the catalytically active species. By comparison, the neutral complexes X1-acetone, X1-dmso, and X1-pyr showed very low activity towards ethylene to give traces of oligomers. DFT analyses taking into account the two possible coordination modes (O or N) of the sulfonamide ligand for the cationic system CF31+ suggested that the experimentally observed high activity in ethylene dimerization is the result of a facile first ethylene insertion into the O-coordinated PdMe isomer and

  12. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Bis-4,6-sulfonamidated 5,7-Dinitrobenzofuroxans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Galkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new series of bis-4,6-sulfonamidated 5,7-dinitrbenzofuroxans  7–11 had been synthesized and tested for antimicrobial activity. The structures of new sulfanilamide derivatives were characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry (MALDITOF. The synthesized compounds were tested for their in vitro antimicrobial activity using the disk diffusion method against Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus; the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis; the fungal strain Aspergillus niger; and the yeast-like pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. Our results indicate that the compounds 7–11 exhibit potent antimicrobial activity. The stability of the compounds was evaluated by TG and DSC methods.

  13. Synthesis, Pharmacological Profile and Docking Studies of New Sulfonamides Designed as Phosphodiesterase-4 Inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Karine da Costa Nunes

    Full Text Available Prior investigations showed that increased levels of cyclic AMP down-regulate lung inflammatory changes, stimulating the interest in phosphodiesterase (PDE4 as therapeutic target. Here, we described the synthesis, pharmacological profile and docking properties of a novel sulfonamide series (5 and 6a-k designed as PDE4 inhibitors. Compounds were screened for their selectivity against the four isoforms of human PDE4 using an IMAP fluorescence polarized protocol. The effect on allergen- or LPS-induced lung inflammation and airway hyper-reactivity (AHR was studied in A/J mice, while the xylazine/ketamine-induced anesthesia test was employed as a behavioral correlate of emesis in rodents. As compared to rolipram, the most promising screened compound, 6a (LASSBio-448 presented a better inhibitory index concerning PDE4D/PDE4A or PDE4D/PDE4B. Accordingly, docking analyses of the putative interactions of LASSBio-448 revealed similar poses in the active site of PDE4A and PDE4C, but slight unlike orientations in PDE4B and PDE4D. LASSBio-448 (100 mg/kg, oral, 1 h before provocation, inhibited allergen-induced eosinophil accumulation in BAL fluid and lung tissue samples. Under an interventional approach, LASSBio-448 reversed ongoing lung eosinophilic infiltration, mucus exacerbation, peribronchiolar fibrosis and AHR by allergen provocation, in a mechanism clearly associated with blockade of pro-inflammatory mediators such as IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and eotaxin-2. LASSBio-448 (2.5 and 10 mg/kg also prevented inflammation and AHR induced by LPS. Finally, the sulfonamide derivative was shown to be less pro-emetic than rolipram and cilomilast in the assay employed. These findings suggest that LASSBio-448 is a new PDE4 inhibitor with marked potential to prevent and reverse pivotal pathological features of diseases characterized by lung inflammation, such as asthma.

  14. Electrochemical degradation of sulfonamides at BDD electrode: Kinetics, reaction pathway and eco-toxicity evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabiańska, Aleksandra; Białk-Bielińska, Anna; Stepnowski, Piotr [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdansk, ul. Wita Stwosza 63, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Stolte, Stefan [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdansk, ul. Wita Stwosza 63, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); UFT-Centre of Environmental Research and Sustainable Technology, University of Bremen, Leobener Straße UFT, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Siedlecka, Ewa Maria, E-mail: ewa.siedlecka@ug.edu.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdansk, ul. Wita Stwosza 63, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • SNs were electrochemically oxidized at BDD in one compartment reactor. • The efficiency of SN degradation was the highest in effluents from municipal WWTP. • The electro-degradation SNs based on oxidation but reduction was also possible. • Electrochemical oxidation of SNs led in some cases to mixtures toxic to L. minor. - Abstract: The investigation dealt with electrochemical oxidation of five sulfonamides (SNs): sulfadiazine (SDZ), sulfathiazole (STZ), sulfamerazine (SMR), sulfamethazine (SMN) and sulfadimethoxine (SDM) in aqueous solution at boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode. All studied sulfonamides were degraded according to a pseudo first order kinetics. The structure of SNs had no significant effect on the values of pseudo first order rate constants. Increased degradation efficiency was observed in higher temperature and in acidic pH. Due to the presence of chlorine and nitrate SNs were more effectively oxidized from municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents than from pure supporting electrolyte Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The intermediates identified by LC–MS and GC–MS analysis suggested that the hydroxyl radicals attack mainly the S-N bond, but also the aromatic ring systems (aniline, pyrimidine or triazole) of SNs. Finally, the toxicity of the SNs solutions and effluents after electrochemical treatment was assessed through the measurement of growth inhibition of green algae (Scenedesmus vacualatus) and duckweed (Lemna minor). Toxicity of SMR, STZ, SMN solutions before and after electrochemical oxidation and SDM solution after the process in L. minor test was observed. No significant toxicity of studied SNs was observed in algae test.

  15. Electrochemical degradation of sulfonamides at BDD electrode: Kinetics, reaction pathway and eco-toxicity evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabiańska, Aleksandra; Białk-Bielińska, Anna; Stepnowski, Piotr; Stolte, Stefan; Siedlecka, Ewa Maria

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • SNs were electrochemically oxidized at BDD in one compartment reactor. • The efficiency of SN degradation was the highest in effluents from municipal WWTP. • The electro-degradation SNs based on oxidation but reduction was also possible. • Electrochemical oxidation of SNs led in some cases to mixtures toxic to L. minor. - Abstract: The investigation dealt with electrochemical oxidation of five sulfonamides (SNs): sulfadiazine (SDZ), sulfathiazole (STZ), sulfamerazine (SMR), sulfamethazine (SMN) and sulfadimethoxine (SDM) in aqueous solution at boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode. All studied sulfonamides were degraded according to a pseudo first order kinetics. The structure of SNs had no significant effect on the values of pseudo first order rate constants. Increased degradation efficiency was observed in higher temperature and in acidic pH. Due to the presence of chlorine and nitrate SNs were more effectively oxidized from municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents than from pure supporting electrolyte Na 2 SO 4 . The intermediates identified by LC–MS and GC–MS analysis suggested that the hydroxyl radicals attack mainly the S-N bond, but also the aromatic ring systems (aniline, pyrimidine or triazole) of SNs. Finally, the toxicity of the SNs solutions and effluents after electrochemical treatment was assessed through the measurement of growth inhibition of green algae (Scenedesmus vacualatus) and duckweed (Lemna minor). Toxicity of SMR, STZ, SMN solutions before and after electrochemical oxidation and SDM solution after the process in L. minor test was observed. No significant toxicity of studied SNs was observed in algae test

  16. Diazonium salt-mediated synthesis of new amino, hydroxy, propargyl, and maleinimido-containing superparamagnetic Fe@C nanoparticles as platforms for linking bio-entities or organocatalytic moieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunge, Alexander; Magerusan, Lidia; Morjan, Ion; Turcu, Rodica; Borodi, Gheorghe; Liebscher, Jürgen

    2015-09-01

    New magnetic Fe@C nanoparticles in the size range of about 20-50 nm functionalized with amino, hydroxy, propargyl, or maleinimido groups were synthesized by reaction with aryl diazonium salts. Aryl diazonium salts wherein the functional groups are linked via a sulfonamide moiety turned out to be advantageous over those with direct linkage. The obtained Fe@C nanoparticles represent magnetic nanoplatforms for linking bio-entities and organocatalysts using amide formation, CuAAC, or thiol-ene click chemistry as exemplified by selected examples. The Fe@C nanoparticles obtained exhibit supramolecular behavior with high value of saturation magnetization rendering them attractive for practical applications in biomedicine and organocatalysis.

  17. Rapid trace level determination of sulfonamide residues in honey with online extraction using short C-18 column by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Muhammad; Na, Na; Safdar, Muhammad; Lu, Xin; Ma, Lin; He, Lan; Ouyang, Jin

    2013-11-01

    A sensitive and inexpensive quantification method with online extraction using a short C-18 column for sulfonamide residues in honey by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector was developed and validated. In sample preparation, acid hydrolysis was used to break the N-glycoside bond between the honey sugar and sulfonamide drugs and derivatization of sulfonamide residues with fluorescamine was conducted at pH 3.5 using a citrate buffer (0.5M) in the honey matrix. The chromatography was carried out on Zorbax Extended C-18 (250mm×4.6mm; 5μm) column, using a mixture of acetonitrile and an acetate buffer (pH 4.50, 20mM) as a mobile phase. A Zorbax Extended C-18 (12mm×4.6mm; 5μm) column was used for online extraction of fifteen sulfonamide residues from honey sample with the help of a two position valve. The limit of quantification of sulfonamide residues in honey was less than 3ngg(-1), and the percentage recovery of study compounds in spiked honey sample was from 80% for sulfacetamide to 100% of sulfachloropyridazine. The developed method has excellent linearity for all studied sulfonamides with a correlation coefficient 0.993. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Design and synthesis of novel sulfonamide-containing bradykinin hB2 receptor antagonists. 1. Synthesis and SAR of alpha,alpha-dimethylglycine sulfonamides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattori, Daniela; Rossi, Cristina; Fincham, Christopher I; Berettoni, Marco; Calvani, Federico; Catrambone, Fernando; Felicetti, Patrizia; Gensini, Martina; Terracciano, Rosa; Altamura, Maria; Bressan, Alessandro; Giuliani, Sandro; Maggi, Carlo A; Meini, Stefania; Valenti, Claudio; Quartara, Laura

    2006-06-15

    We recently published the extensive in vivo pharmacological characterization of MEN 16132 (J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 2005, 616-623; Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2005, 528, 7), a member of the sulfonamide-containing human B(2) receptor (hB(2)R) antagonists. Here we report, in detail, how this family of compounds was designed, synthesized, and optimized to provide a group of products with subnanomolar affinity for the hB(2)R and high in vivo potency after topical administration to the respiratory tract. The series was designed on the basis of indications from the X-ray structures of the key structural motifs A and B present in known antagonists and is characterized by the presence of an alpha,alpha-dialkyl amino acid. The first lead (17) of the series was submitted to extensive chemical work to elucidate the structural requirements to increase hB(2) receptor affinity and antagonist potency in bioassays expressing the human B(2) receptor (hB(2)R). The following structural features were selected: a 2,4-dimethylquinoline moiety and a piperazine linker acylated with a basic amino acid. The representative lead compound 68 inhibited the specific binding of [(3)H]BK to hB(2)R with a pKi of 9.4 and antagonized the BK-induced inositolphosphate (IP) accumulation in recombinant cell systems expressing the hB(2)R with a pA(2) of 9.1. Moreover, compound 68 when administered (300 nmol/kg) intratracheally in the anesthetized guinea pig, was able to significantly inhibit BK-induced bronchoconstriction for up to 120 min after its administration, while having a lower and shorter lasting effect on hypotension.

  19. Submarine Salt Karst Terrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Augustin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Karst terrains that develop in bodies of rock salt (taken as mainly of halite, NaCl are special not only for developing in one of the most soluble of all rocks, but also for developing in one of the weakest rocks. Salt is so weak that many surface-piercing salt diapirs extrude slow fountains of salt that that gravity spread downslope over deserts on land and over sea floors. Salt fountains in the deserts of Iran are usually so dry that they flow at only a few cm/yr but the few rain storms a decade so soak and weaken them that they surge at dm/day for a few days. We illustrate the only case where the rates at which different parts of one of the many tens of subaerial salt karst terrains in Iran flows downslope constrains the rates at which its subaerial salt karst terrains form. Normal seawater is only 10% saturated in NaCl. It should therefore be sufficiently aggressive to erode karst terrains into exposures of salt on the thousands of known submarine salt extrusions that have flowed or are still flowing over the floors of hundreds of submarine basins worldwide. However, we know of no attempt to constrain the processes that form submarine salt karst terrains on any of these of submarine salt extrusions. As on land, many potential submarine karst terrains are cloaked by clastic and pelagic sediments that are often hundreds of m thick. Nevertheless, detailed geophysical and bathymetric surveys have already mapped likely submarine salt karst terrains in at least the Gulf of Mexico, and the Red Sea. New images of these two areas are offered as clear evidence of submarine salt dissolution due to sinking or rising aggressive fluids. We suggest that repeated 3D surveys of distinctive features (± fixed seismic reflectors of such terrains could measure any downslope salt flow and thus offer an exceptional opportunity to constrain the rates at which submarine salt karst terrains develop. Such rates are of interest to all salt tectonicians and the many

  20. Genotoxic, Cytotoxic, Antigenotoxic, and Anticytotoxic Effects of Sulfonamide Chalcone Using the Ames Test and the Mouse Bone Marrow Micronucleus Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Ribeiro E Silva

    Full Text Available Chalcones present several biological activities and sulfonamide chalcone derivatives have shown important biological applications, including antitumor activity. In this study, genotoxic, cytotoxic, antigenotoxic, and anticytotoxic activities of the sulfonamide chalcone N-{4-[3-(4-nitrophenylprop-2-enoyl]phenyl} benzenesulfonamide (CPN were assessed using the Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation test (Ames test and the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test. The results showed that CPN caused a small increase in the number of histidine revertant colonies in S. typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100, but not statistically significant (p > 0.05. The antimutagenicity test showed that CPN significantly decreased the number of His+ revertants in strain TA98 at all doses tested (p 0.05. Additionally, CPN co-administered with MMC significantly increased PCE/NCE ratio at all doses tested, demonstrating its anticytotoxic effect. In summary, CPN presented genotoxic, cytotoxic, antigenotoxic, and anticytotoxic properties.

  1. Inhibition of the α-carbonic anhydrase from Vibrio cholerae with amides and sulfonamides incorporating imidazole moieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vita, Daniela; Angeli, Andrea; Pandolfi, Fabiana; Bortolami, Martina; Costi, Roberta; Di Santo, Roberto; Suffredini, Elisabetta; Ceruso, Mariangela; Del Prete, Sonia; Capasso, Clemente; Scipione, Luigi; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2017-12-01

    We discovered novel and selective sulfonamides/amides acting as inhibitors of the α-carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) from the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae (VchCA). This Gram-negative bacterium is the causative agent of cholera and colonises the upper small intestine where sodium bicarbonate is present at a high concentration. The secondary sulfonamides and amides investigated here were potent, low nanomolar VchCA inhibitors whereas their inhibition of the human cytosolic isoforms CA I and II was in the micromolar range or higher. The molecules represent an interesting lead for antibacterial agents with a possibly new mechanism of action, although their CA inhibition mechanism is unknown for the moment.

  2. Mechanistic link between uptake of sulfonamides and bacteriostatic effect: model development and application to experimental data from two soil microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focks, Andreas; Klasmeier, Jörg; Matthies, Michael

    2010-07-01

    Sulfonamides (SA) are antibiotic compounds that are widely used as human and veterinary pharmaceuticals. They are not rapidly biodegradable and have been detected in various environmental compartments. Effects of sulfonamides on microbial endpoints in soil have been reported from laboratory incubation studies. Sulfonamides inhibit the growth of sensitive microorganisms by competitive binding to the dihydropteroate-synthase (DHPS) enzyme of folic acid production. A mathematical model was developed that relates the extracellular SA concentration to the inhibition of the relative bacterial growth rate. Two factors--the anionic accumulation factor (AAF) and the cellular affinity factor (CAF)--determine the effective concentration of an SA. The AAF describes the SA uptake into bacterial cells and varies with both the extra- and intracellular pH values and with the acidic pKa value of an SA. The CAF subsumes relevant cellular and enzyme properties, and is directly proportional to the DHPS affinity constant for an SA. Based on the model, a mechanistic dose-response relationship is developed and evaluated against previously published data, where differences in the responses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Panthoea agglomerans toward changing medium pH values were found, most likely as a result of their diverse pH regulation. The derived dose-response relationship explains the pH and pKa dependency of mean effective concentration values (EC50) of eight SA and two soil bacteria based on AAF and CAF values. The mathematical model can be used to extrapolate sulfonamide effects to other pH values and to calculate the CAF as a pH-independent measure for the SA effects on microbial growth. Copyright (c) 2010 SETAC.

  3. Reduction in lipophilicity improved the solubility, plasma–protein binding, and permeability of tertiary sulfonamide RORc inverse agonists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauber, Benjamin P.; René, Olivier; de Leon Boenig, Gladys; Burton, Brenda; Deng, Yuzhong; Eidenschenk, Céline; Everett, Christine; Gobbi, Alberto; Hymowitz, Sarah G.; Johnson, Adam R.; La, Hank; Liimatta, Marya; Lockey, Peter; Norman, Maxine; Ouyang, Wenjun; Wang, Weiru; Wong, Harvey (Genentech); (Argenta)

    2014-08-01

    Using structure-based drug design principles, we identified opportunities to reduce the lipophilicity of our tertiary sulfonamide RORc inverse agonists. The new analogs possessed improved RORc cellular potencies with >77-fold selectivity for RORc over other nuclear receptors in our cell assay suite. The reduction in lipophilicity also led to an increased plasma–protein unbound fraction and improvements in cellular permeability and aqueous solubility.

  4. Sulfonamide-Resistant Bacteria and Their Resistance Genes in Soils Fertilized with Manures from Jiangsu Province, Southeastern China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Na; Yang, Xiaohong; Jiao, Shaojun; Zhang, Jun; Ye, Boping; Gao, Shixiang

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes are recognized as new environmental pollutants that warrant special concern. There were few reports on veterinary antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes in China. This work systematically analyzed the prevalence and distribution of sulfonamide resistance genes in soils from the environments around poultry and livestock farms in Jiangsu Province, Southeastern China. The results showed that the animal manure application made the spread and abundance of a...

  5. Prevalence of Sulfonamide Resistance Genes in Bacterial Isolates from Manured Agricultural Soils and Pig Slurry in the United Kingdom▿

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne-Bailey, K. G.; Gaze, W. H.; Kay, P.; Boxall, A. B. A.; Hawkey, P. M.; Wellington, E. M. H.

    2008-01-01

    The prevalences of three sulfonamide resistance genes, sul1, sul2, and sul3 and sulfachloropyridazine (SCP) resistance were determined in bacteria isolated from manured agricultural clay soils and slurry samples in the United Kingdom over a 2-year period. Slurry from tylosin-fed pigs amended with SCP and oxytetracycline was used for manuring. Isolates positive for sul genes were further screened for the presence of class 1 and 2 integrons. Phenotypic resistance to SCP was significantly higher...

  6. Rh(III)-catalyzed oxidative olefination of N-(1-naphthyl)sulfonamides using activated and unactivated alkenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuting; Gong, Xue; Zhao, Miao; Song, Guoyong; Deng, Jian; Li, Xingwei

    2011-11-04

    Rhodium(III)-catalyzed oxidative olefination of N-(1-naphthyl)sulfonamides has been achieved at the peri position. Three categories of olefins have been successfully applied. Activated olefins reacted to afford five-membered azacycles as a result of oxidative olefination-hydroamination. Unactivated olefins reacted to give the olefination product. 2-fold oxidative C-C and C-N coupling was achieved for allylbenzenes. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  7. A history of salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, M; Capasso, G; Di Leo, V A; De Santo, N G

    1994-01-01

    The medical history of salt begins in ancient times and is closely related to different aspects of human history. Salt may be extracted from sea water, mineral deposits, surface encrustations, saline lakes and brine springs. In many inland areas, wood was used as a fuel source for evaporation of brine and this practice led to major deafforestation in central Europe. Salt played a central role in the economies of many regions, and is often reflected in place names. Salt was also used as a basis for population censuses and taxation, and salt monopolies were practised in many states. Salt was sometimes implicated in the outbreak of conflict, e.g. the French Revolution and the Indian War of Independence. Salt has also been invested with many cultural and religious meanings, from the ancient Egyptians to the Middle Ages. Man's innate appetite for salt may be related to his evolution from predominantly vegetarian anthropoids, and it is noteworthy that those people who live mainly on protein and milk or who drink salty water do not generally salt their food, whereas those who live mainly on vegetables, rice and cereals use much more salt. Medicinal use tended to emphasize the positive aspects of salt, e.g. prevention of putrefaction, reduction of tissue swelling, treatment of diarrhea. Evidence was also available to ancient peoples of its relationship to fertility, particularly in domestic animals. The history of salt thus represents a unique example for studying the impact of a widely used dietary substance on different important aspects of man's life, including medical philosophy.

  8. Worth its salt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The idea that all underground salt deposits can serve as storage sites for toxic and nuclear waste does not always hold water—literally. According to Daniel Ronen and Brian Berkowitz of Israel's Weizmann Institute of Science and Yoseph Yechieli of the Geological Survey of Israel, some buried salt layers are in fact highly conductive of liquids, suggesting that wastes buried in their confines could easily leech into groundwater and nearby soil.When drilling three wells into a 10,000-year-old salt layer near the Dead Sea, the researchers found that groundwater had seeped into the layer and had absorbed some of its salt.

  9. Conformer-Specific IR Spectroscopy of Laser-Desorbed Sulfonamide Drugs: Tautomeric and Conformational Preferences of Sulfanilamide and its Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlemann, Thomas; Seidel, Sebastian; Müller, Christian W.

    2017-06-01

    Molecules containing the sulfonamide group R^{1}-SO_2-NHR^{2} have a longstanding history as antimicrobial agents. Even though nowadays they are not commonly used in treating humans anymore, they continue to be studied as effective inhibitors of metalloenzyme carbonic anhydrases. These enzymes are important targets for a variety of diseases, such as, for instance, breast cancer, glaucoma, and obesity. Here we present the results of our laser desorption single-conformation UV and IR study of sulfanilamide (NH_2Ph-SO_2-NHR, R=H), a variety of singly substituted derivatives, and their monohydrated complexes. Depending on the substituent, the sulfonamide group can either adopt an amino or an imino tautomeric form. The form prevalent in the crystal is not necessarily also the tautomeric form we identified in the molecular beam after laser desorbing the sample. Furthermore, we explored the effect of complexation with a single water molecule on the tautomeric and conformational preferences of the sulfonamides. Our conformer-specific IR spectra in the NH and OH stretch region (3200-3750 \\wn) suggest that the intra- and intermolecular interactions governing the structures of the monomers and water complexes are surprisingly diverse. We have undertaken both Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM) and Interacting Quantum Atoms (IQA) analyses of calculated electron densities to quantitatively characterize the nature and strengths of the intra- and intermolecular interactions prevalent in the monomer and water complex structures.

  10. Prevalence of sulfonamide resistance genes in bacterial isolates from manured agricultural soils and pig slurry in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne-Bailey, K G; Gaze, W H; Kay, P; Boxall, A B A; Hawkey, P M; Wellington, E M H

    2009-02-01

    The prevalences of three sulfonamide resistance genes, sul1, sul2, and sul3 and sulfachloropyridazine (SCP) resistance were determined in bacteria isolated from manured agricultural clay soils and slurry samples in the United Kingdom over a 2-year period. Slurry from tylosin-fed pigs amended with SCP and oxytetracycline was used for manuring. Isolates positive for sul genes were further screened for the presence of class 1 and 2 integrons. Phenotypic resistance to SCP was significantly higher in isolates from pig slurry and postapplication soil than in those from preapplication soil. Of 531 isolates, 23% carried sul1, 18% sul2, and 9% sul3 only. Two percent of isolates contained all three sul genes. Class 1 and class 2 integrons were identified in 5% and 11.7%, respectively, of sul-positive isolates. In previous reports, sul1 was linked to class 1 integrons, but in this study only 8% of sul1-positive isolates carried the intI1 gene. Sulfonamide-resistant pathogens, including Shigella flexneri, Aerococcus spp., and Acinetobacter baumannii, were identified in slurry-amended soil and soil leachate, suggesting a potential environmental reservoir. Sulfonamide resistance in Psychrobacter, Enterococcus, and Bacillus spp. is reported for the first time, and this study also provides the first description of the genotypes sul1, sul2, and sul3 outside the Enterobacteriaceae and in the soil environment.

  11. Prevalence of Sulfonamide Resistance Genes in Bacterial Isolates from Manured Agricultural Soils and Pig Slurry in the United Kingdom▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne-Bailey, K. G.; Gaze, W. H.; Kay, P.; Boxall, A. B. A.; Hawkey, P. M.; Wellington, E. M. H.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalences of three sulfonamide resistance genes, sul1, sul2, and sul3 and sulfachloropyridazine (SCP) resistance were determined in bacteria isolated from manured agricultural clay soils and slurry samples in the United Kingdom over a 2-year period. Slurry from tylosin-fed pigs amended with SCP and oxytetracycline was used for manuring. Isolates positive for sul genes were further screened for the presence of class 1 and 2 integrons. Phenotypic resistance to SCP was significantly higher in isolates from pig slurry and postapplication soil than in those from preapplication soil. Of 531 isolates, 23% carried sul1, 18% sul2, and 9% sul3 only. Two percent of isolates contained all three sul genes. Class 1 and class 2 integrons were identified in 5% and 11.7%, respectively, of sul-positive isolates. In previous reports, sul1 was linked to class 1 integrons, but in this study only 8% of sul1-positive isolates carried the intI1 gene. Sulfonamide-resistant pathogens, including Shigella flexneri, Aerococcus spp., and Acinetobacter baumannii, were identified in slurry-amended soil and soil leachate, suggesting a potential environmental reservoir. Sulfonamide resistance in Psychrobacter, Enterococcus, and Bacillus spp. is reported for the first time, and this study also provides the first description of the genotypes sul1, sul2, and sul3 outside the Enterobacteriaceae and in the soil environment. PMID:19064898

  12. Insights into functional-group-tolerant polymerization catalysis with phosphine-sulfonamide palladium(II) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Zhongbao; Falivene, Laura; Wucher, Philipp; Roesle, Philipp; Caporaso, Lucia; Cavallo, Luigi; Göttker-Schnetmann, Inigo; Mecking, Stefan

    2015-01-26

    Two series of cationic palladium(II) methyl complexes {[(2-MeOC6 H4 )2 PC6 H4 SO2 NHC6 H3 (2,6-R(1) ,R(2) )]PdMe}2 [A]2 ((X) 1(+) -A: R(1) =R(2) =H: (H) 1(+) -A; R(1) =R(2) =CH(CH3 )2 : (DIPP) 1(+) -A; R(1) =H, R(2) =CF3 : (CF3) 1(+) -A; A=BF4 or SbF6 ) and neutral palladium(II) methyl complexes {[(2-MeOC6 H4 )2 PC6 H4 SO2 NC6 H3 (2,6-R(1) ,R(2) )]PdMe(L)} ((X) 1-acetone: L=acetone; (X) 1-dmso: L=dimethyl sulfoxide; (X) 1-pyr: L=pyridine) chelated by a phosphine-sulfonamide were synthesized and fully characterized. Stoichiometric insertion of methyl acrylate (MA) into all complexes revealed that a 2,1 regiochemistry dominates in the first insertion of MA. Subsequently, for the cationic complexes (X) 1(+) -A, β-H elimination from the 2,1-insertion product (X) 2(+) -AMA-2,1 is overwhelmingly favored over a second MA insertion to yield two major products (X) 4(+) -AMA-1,2 and (X) 5(+) -AMA . By contrast, for the weakly coordinated neutral complexes (X) 1-acetone and (X) 1-dmso, a second MA insertion of the 2,1-insertion product (X) 2MA-2,1 is faster than β-H elimination and gives (X) 3MA as major products. For the strongly coordinated neutral complexes (X) 1-pyr, no second MA insertion and no β-H elimination (except for (DIPP) 2-pyrMA-2,1 ) were observed for the 2,1-insertion product (X) 2-pyrMA-2,1 . The cationic complexes (X) 1(+) -A exhibited high catalytic activities for ethylene dimerization, affording butenes (C4 ) with a high selectivity of up to 97.7 % (1-butene: 99.3 %). Differences in activities and selectivities suggest that the phosphine-sulfonamide ligands remain coordinated to the metal center in a bidentate fashion in the catalytically active species. By comparison, the neutral complexes (X) 1-acetone, (X) 1-dmso, and (X) 1-pyr showed very low activity towards ethylene to give traces of oligomers. DFT analyses taking into account the two possible coordination modes (O or N) of the sulfonamide ligand for the cationic system (CF3) 1(+) suggested

  13. Design, Synthesis, and Evaluation of Dihydrobenzo[cd]indole-6-sulfonamide as TNF-alpha Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaobing; Zhang, Xiaoling; Tang, Bo; Liu, Hongbo; Shen, Qi; Liu, Ying; Lai, Luhua

    2018-04-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) plays a pivotal role in inflammatory response. Dysregulation of TNF can lead to a variety of disastrous pathological effects, including auto-inflammatory diseases. Antibodies that directly targeting TNF-α have been proven effective in suppressing symptoms of these disorders. Compared to protein drugs, small molecule drugs are normally orally available and less expensive. Till now, peptide and small molecule TNF-α inhibitors are still in the early stage of development, and much more efforts should be made. In a previously study, we reported a TNF-α inhibitor, EJMC-1 with modest activity. Here, we optimized this compound by shape screen and rational design. In the first round, we screened commercial compound library for EJMC-1 analogs based on shape similarity. Out of the 68 compounds tested, 20 compounds showed better binding affinity than EJMC-1 in the SPR competitive binding assay. These 20 compounds were tested in cell assay and the most potent compound was 2-oxo-N-phenyl-1,2-dihydrobenzo[cd]indole-6-sulfonamide (S10) with an IC50 of 14 M, which was 2.2-fold stronger than EJMC-1. Based on the docking analysis of S10 and EJMC-1 binding with TNF-α, in the second round, we designed S10 analogues, purchased 7 of them and synthesized 7 new compounds. The best compound, 4e showed an IC50 value of 3 M in cell assay, which was 14-fold stronger than EJMC-1. 4e was among the most potent TNF-α organic compound inhibitors reported so far. Our study demonstrated that 2-oxo-N-phenyl-1,2-dihydrobenzo[cd]indole-6-sulfonamide analogues could be developed as potent TNF-α inhibitors. 4e can be further optimized for its activity and properties. Our study provides insights into designing small molecule inhibitors directly targeting TNF-α and for protein-protein interaction inhibitor design.

  14. Prevalence and characterization of plasmids carrying sulfonamide resistance genes among Escherichia coli from pigs, pig carcasses and human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuyu; Dalsgaard, Anders; Hammerum, Anette M; Porsbo, Lone J; Jensen, Lars B

    2010-07-30

    Sulfonamide resistance is very common in Escherichia coli. The aim of this study was to characterize plasmids carrying sulfonamide resistance genes (sul1, sul2 and sul3) in E. coli isolated from pigs and humans with a specific objective to assess the genetic diversity of plasmids involved in the mobility of sul genes. A total of 501 E. coli isolates from pig feces, pig carcasses and human stools were tested for their susceptibility to selected antimicrobial. Multiplex PCR was conducted to detect the presence of three sul genes among the sulfonamide-resistant E. coli isolates. Fifty-seven sulfonamide-resistant E. coli were selected based on presence of sul resistance genes and subjected to conjugation and/or transformation experiments. S1 nuclease digestion followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to visualize and determine the size of plasmids. Plasmids carrying sul genes were characterized by PCR-based replicon typing to allow a comparison of the types of sul genes, the reservoir and plasmid present. A total of 109/501 isolates exhibited sulfonamide resistance. The relative prevalences of sul genes from the three reservoirs (pigs, pig carcasses and humans) were 65%, 45% and 12% for sul2, sul1, and sul3, respectively. Transfer of resistance through conjugation was observed in 42/57 isolates. Resistances to streptomycin, ampicillin and trimethoprim were co-transferred in most strains. Class 1 integrons were present in 80% of sul1-carrying plasmids and 100% of sul3-carrying plasmids, but only in 5% of sul2-carrying plasmids. The sul plasmids ranged from 33 to 160-kb in size and belonged to nine different incompatibility (Inc) groups: FII, FIB, I1, FIA, B/O, FIC, N, HI1 and X1. IncFII was the dominant type in sul2-carrying plasmids (52%), while IncI1 was the most common type in sul1 and sul3-carrying plasmids (33% and 45%, respectively). Multireplicons were found associated with all three sul genes. Sul genes were distributed widely in E. coli isolated

  15. Prevalence and characterization of plasmids carrying sulfonamide resistance genes among Escherichia coli from pigs, pig carcasses and human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammerum Anette M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sulfonamide resistance is very common in Escherichia coli. The aim of this study was to characterize plasmids carrying sulfonamide resistance genes (sul1, sul2 and sul3 in E. coli isolated from pigs and humans with a specific objective to assess the genetic diversity of plasmids involved in the mobility of sul genes. Methods A total of 501 E. coli isolates from pig feces, pig carcasses and human stools were tested for their susceptibility to selected antimicrobial. Multiplex PCR was conducted to detect the presence of three sul genes among the sulfonamide-resistant E. coli isolates. Fifty-seven sulfonamide-resistant E. coli were selected based on presence of sul resistance genes and subjected to conjugation and/or transformation experiments. S1 nuclease digestion followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to visualize and determine the size of plasmids. Plasmids carrying sul genes were characterized by PCR-based replicon typing to allow a comparison of the types of sul genes, the reservoir and plasmid present. Results A total of 109/501 isolates exhibited sulfonamide resistance. The relative prevalences of sul genes from the three reservoirs (pigs, pig carcasses and humans were 65%, 45% and 12% for sul2, sul1, and sul3, respectively. Transfer of resistance through conjugation was observed in 42/57 isolates. Resistances to streptomycin, ampicillin and trimethoprim were co-transferred in most strains. Class 1 integrons were present in 80% of sul1-carrying plasmids and 100% of sul3-carrying plasmids, but only in 5% of sul2-carrying plasmids. The sul plasmids ranged from 33 to 160-kb in size and belonged to nine different incompatibility (Inc groups: FII, FIB, I1, FIA, B/O, FIC, N, HI1 and X1. IncFII was the dominant type in sul2-carrying plasmids (52%, while IncI1 was the most common type in sul1 and sul3-carrying plasmids (33% and 45%, respectively. Multireplicons were found associated with all three sul genes

  16. Molten salt reactors: chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This work is a critical analysis of the 1000 MW MSBR project. Behavior of rare gases in the primary coolant circuit, their extraction from helium. Coating of graphite by molybdenum, chemistry of protactinium and niobium produced in the molten salt, continuous reprocessing of the fuel salt and use of stainless steel instead of hastelloy are reviewed [fr

  17. Salt Tolerance in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsui-Hung Phang; Guihua Shao; Hon-Ming Lam

    2008-01-01

    Soybean is an Important cash crop and its productivity is significantly hampered by salt stress. High salt Imposes negative impacts on growth, nodulation, agronomy traits, seed quality and quantity, and thus reduces the yield of soybean. To cope with salt stress, soybean has developed several tolerance mechanisms, including: (I) maintenance of ion homeostasis; (ii) adjustment in response to osmotic stress; (iii) restoration of osmotic balance; and (iv) other metabolic and structural adaptations. The regulatory network for abiotic stress responses in higher plants has been studied extensively in model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana. Some homologous components involved in salt stress responses have been identified in soybean. In this review, we tried to integrate the relevant works on soybean and proposes a working model to descdbe Its salt stress responses at the molecular level.

  18. Geomechanics of bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serata, S.; Milnor, S.W.

    1979-01-01

    Creep data from the literature search is reinterpreted by SGI, resulting in a better understanding of the temperature and stress state dependence of the octahedral creep rate and the octahedral shear strength. The concept of a transition strength between the elastic and the plastic states is in agreement with the data. The elastic and rheological properties of salt are described, and a set of constitutive equations is presented. The dependence of material properties on parameters such as temperature is considered. Findings on the permeability of salt are summarized, and the in-situ behavior of openings in bedded salt is described based on extensive engineering experience. A stress measuring system utilizing a finite element computer code is discussed. Geological factors affecting the stability of salt openings are considered, and the Stress Control Technique for designing stable openings in bedded salt formations is explained

  19. Salt og forbrugervalg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Trine; Grunert, Klaus G

    af saltreducerede fødevarer og deres købsintention af disse. Dette blev undersøgt ved at måle forbrugerens viden om salt, anvendelse af salt, ønske om reduktion af salt og købsintention af saltreducerede fødevarer i en web-baseret undersøgelse. Efter den web-baserede undersøgelse, blev de samme mål...... undersøgt, men i et supermarked, hvor deltagerne blev inddelt i fire grupper for at undersøge effekten af priming og saltmærkning. Desuden blev der foretaget 15 kvalitative interviews, for at studere hvem og hvad der karakteriserer de deltagere i eksperimentet, som enten ender med ingen salt......-reducerede produkter at købe eller som ender med at købe alle de salt-reducerede produkter....

  20. Lowering Salt in Your Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Lowering Salt in Your Diet Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Subscribe: FDA Consumer Health Information Everyone needs some salt to function. Also known as sodium chloride, salt ...

  1. Water purification using organic salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  2. Refractive index modulation in the polyurethane films containing diazo sulfonamide chromophores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortyl, E. [Insitute of Organic and Polymer Technology, WrocIaw University of Technology, 50-384 WrocIaw (Poland); Kucharski, S. [Insitute of Organic and Polymer Technology, WrocIaw University of Technology, 50-384 WrocIaw (Poland)]. E-mail: stanislaw.kucharski@pwr.wroc.pl; Gotszalk, T. [Faculty of Microsystem Electronics and Photonics, WrocIaw University of Technology, 50-384 WrocIaw (Poland)

    2005-05-23

    The series of photochromic polyurethanes was obtained by modification of precursor polymers prepared from 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI), hexamethylene 1,6-diisocyanate (HDI) or toluene 2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) and N,N'-di-(2-hydroxyethyl) aniline. The precursor polymers were functionalized by an azo-coupling reaction to form the polymers with different degrees of functionalization and various heterocyclic sulfonamide groups. Ellipsometric measurements showed a decrease of the refractive index during illumination of thin polymer films with white light. The change of real part of the refractive index was in the range of 0.0033-0.0296 depending on the polymer kind and chromophore content. It was found that photocurrent was generated in the polymer films deposited onto indium tin oxide (ITO) glass plates. For the polyurethanes containing sulfathiazole groups in side chains the current density was up to 180 nA/cm{sup 2}. The formation of diffraction grating in the polymer films was easily achieved using linearly polarized laser light (532 nm) in a standard two beam coupling (TBC) system. The diffraction efficiency of the first diffraction beam was dependent on the chromophore content reaching ca. 12% for the derivatives of sulfamethoxazole.

  3. Synthesis and description of intermolecular interactions in new sulfonamide derivatives of tranexamic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad Nadeem; Danish, Muhammad; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Khatoon, Sadia; Mustafa, Ghulam; Zolotarev, Pavel N.; Butt, Rabia Ayub; Şahin, Onur

    2016-01-01

    Tranexamic acid (4-aminomethyl-cyclohexanecarboxylic acid) was reacted with sulfonyl chlorides to produce structurally related four sulfonamide derivatives using simple and environmental friendly method to check out their three-dimensional behavior and van der Walls interactions. The molecules were crystallized in different possibilities, as it is/after alkylation at its O and N atoms/along with a co-molecule. All molecules were crystallized in monoclinic crystal system with space group P21/n, P21/c and P21/a. X-ray studies reveal that the molecules stabilized themselves by different kinds of hydrogen bonding interactions. The molecules are getting connected through O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds to form inversion dimers which are further connected through N-H⋯O interactions. The molecules in which N and O atoms were alkylated showed non-classical interaction and generated centro-symmetric R22(24) ring motif. The co-crystallized host and guest molecules are connected to each other via O-H⋯O interactions to generate different ring motifs. By means of the ToposPro software an analysis of the topologies of underlying nets that correspond to molecular packings and hydrogen-bonded networks in structures under consideration was carried out.

  4. Multiresidue determination of fluoroquinolone, sulfonamide, trimethoprim, and chloramphenicol antibiotics in urban waters in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xianzhi; Tan, Jianhua; Tang, Caiming; Yu, Yiyi; Wang, Zhendi

    2008-01-01

    A feasible method has been optimized to simultaneously determine multiclass antibiotic residues, including sulfonamides, fluoroquinolones, trimethoprim, and chloramphenicol in urban riverine water and wastewater by off-line solid phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode-array ultraviolet detector and a fluorescence detector. Internal standard and standard addition methods were used in combination to identify and quantify these antibiotics to compensate for the matrix interference. The method quantification limits (MQLs) were determined to be 0.035 to 0.100 microg/L and 0.100 to 0.300 microg/L for the riverine water and wastewater, respectively. Recoveries of the investigated antibiotics ranged from 63 to 126%. Sulfamethoxazole was the most frequently detected antibiotic residue in Guangzhou section of the Major Pearl River, South China, with a maximum level of 0.510 microg/L. Fluoroquinolone antibiotics were relatively less detected with a maximum level of 0.459 microg/L. The maximum concentration of sulfamethoxazole reached 5.597 microg/L in the raw wastewater from a large-scale sewage treatment plant in Guangzhou city. Around 30% of sulfamethoxazole might survive the primary clarification and biotreatment processes in the sewage treatment plant. None of the investigated antibiotics have been found above MQLs in the final effluent after chlorine disinfection.

  5. The effect of miscellaneous oral dosage forms on the environmental pollution of sulfonamides in pig holdings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Jessica; Zessel, Katrin; Schulz, Jochen; Finke, Jan Henrik; Müller-Goymann, Christel Charlotte; Kietzmann, Manfred

    2016-04-01

    Due to antibiotic treatment of humans and animals, the prevalence of bacterial resistances increases worldwide. Especially in livestock farming, large quantities of faeces contaminated with antibiotics pose a risk of the carryover of the active ingredient to the environment. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was the evaluation of the benefit of different oral dosage forms (powder, pellets, granula) in pigs concerning the environmental pollution of sulfadiazine. Two subtherapeutic dosages were evaluated in powder mixtures to gain information about their potential to pollute the pig barn. Furthermore, a new group of pigs was kept in the stable after powder feeding of another pig group to determine the possible absorption of environmentally distributed antibiotics. Pigs were orally treated with three dosage forms. Simultaneously, sedimentation and airborne dust were collected and plasma and urine levels were determined. All formulations result in comparable plasma and urine levels, but massive differences in environmental pollution (powder > pellets, granula). Pigs housing in a contaminated barn exhibit traces of sulfadiazine in plasma and urine. Using pharmaceutical formulations like pellets or granula, the environmental pollution of sulfonamides can significantly be diminished due to massive dust reduction during feeding.

  6. Synthesis of piperazine sulfonamide analogs as diabetic-II inhibitors and their molecular docking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Muhammad; Irshad, Maryam; Imran, Syahrul; Chigurupati, Sridevi; Selvaraj, Manikandan; Rahim, Fazal; Ismail, Nor Hadiani; Nawaz, Faisal; Khan, Khalid Mohammed

    2017-12-01

    Piperazine Sulfonamide analogs (1-19) have been synthesized, characterized by different spectroscopic techniques and evaluated for α-amylase Inhibition. Analogs 1-19 exhibited a varying degree of α-amylase inhibitory activity with IC 50 values ranging in between 1.571 ± 0.05 to 3.98 ± 0.397 μM when compared with the standard acarbose (IC 50  = 1.353 ± 0.232 μM). Compound 1, 2, 3 and 7 showed significant inhibitory effects with IC 50 value 2.348 ± 0.444, 2.064 ± 0.04, 1.571 ± 0.05 and 2.118 ± 0.204 μM, respectively better than the rest of the series. Structure activity relationships were established. Molecular docking studies were performed to understand the binding interaction of the compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Fate of sulfonamides, macrolides, and trimethoprim in different wastewater treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goebel, Anke; McArdell, Christa S.; Joss, Adriano; Siegrist, Hansruedi; Giger, Walter

    2007-01-01

    The elimination of sulfonamides, macrolides and trimethoprim from raw wastewater was investigated in several municipal wastewater treatment plants. Primary treatment provided no significant elimination for the investigated substances. Similar eliminations were observed in the secondary treatment of two conventional activated sludge (CAS) systems and a fixed-bed reactor (FBR). Sulfamethoxazole, including the fraction present as N 4 -acetyl-sulfamethoxazole, was eliminated by approximately 60% in comparison to about 80% in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) independently of the solid retention time (SRT), indicating a positive correlation of the observed elimination to the organic substrate concentration. The elimination for macrolides and trimethoprim varied significantly between the different sampling campaigns in the two CAS systems and in the FBR. In the MBR, these analytes were eliminated up to 50% at SRT of 16 ± 2 and 33 ± 3 d. Trimethoprim, clarithromycin and dehydro-erythromycin showed a higher elimination of up to 90% at a SRT of 60-80 d indicating a correlation with reduced substrate loading (SL). Together with the high SRT, the SL may lead to an increased biodiversity of the active biomass, resulting in a broader range of degradation pathways available. Two investigated sand filters showed different elimination behavior. One led to a significant elimination of most macrolides (17-23%) and trimethoprim (74 ± 14%), while no elimination was observed in the other sand filter investigated

  8. A survey of perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides in indoor and outdoor air using passive air samplers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoeib, M.; Harner, T. [Meteorological Service of Canada, Environment Canada (Canada); Wilford, B.; Jones, K. [Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom). Environmental Science; Zhu, J. [Chemistry Research Division, Health Canada, Tunney' s Pasture, Ottawa (Canada)

    2004-09-15

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) has recently emerged as a priority environmental pollutant due to its widespread detection in biological samples from remote regions including the Arctic and the Mid-North Pacific Ocean. Because PFOS is fairly involatile, it is hypothesized that its occurrence in remote regions is the result of atmospheric transport of more volatile precursor compounds such as the perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides (PFASs). PFASs are used in variety of consumer products for water and oil resistance including surface treatments for fabric, upholstery, carpet, paper and leather. In a recent pilot study employing high volume air samples, indoor air concentrations of PFASs were approximately 100 times greater than outdoor levels. This is of significance because people typically spend about 90% of their time indoors 5 and this exposure may serve as an important uptake pathway. Indoor air also serves as a source of PFASs to the outside where PFASs are ultimately transported and distributed throughout the environment. The current study is intended to be a more comprehensive survey of indoor and outdoor air allowing more confident conclusions to be made. Passive air samplers comprised of polyurethane foam (PUF) disks were used. These are quiet, non-intrusive samplers that operate without the aid of a pump or electricity. Air movement delivers chemical to the sampler which has a high retention capacity for persistent organic pollutants (POPs). PUF disks samplers have been previously used successfully to monitor different classes of hydrophobic persistent organic pollutants POPs.

  9. Residual veterinary antibiotics in pig excreta after oral administration of sulfonamides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jinrong; Zhao, Tao; Liu, Qingyun; He, Jinhua; He, Dechun; Wu, Genyi; Li, Yongtao; Jiang, Chengai; Xu, Zhencheng

    2016-04-01

    Sulfonamides (SAs) are applied widely as feed additives in the farming of livestock and poultry. It can lead to the excretion of large amounts of SAs in manure and result in persistent environmental pollution. We evaluated the fate of four SAs, sulfamerazine (SM1), sulfachloropyridazine (SCP), sulfadimoxine (SDM') and sulfaquinoxaline (SQ), from oral administration to excretion in urine and feces in pigs. The four SAs were added to homemade feed to make them reach the required concentration gradient, which were 0, 50 and 100 mg/kg (low, normal and high concentrations, respectively). In different treatments, excretions of the four SAs were 35.68-86.88 %. With regard to total excretion, the order was SQ > SCP > SM1 > SDM' for all treatments. The concentration of SAs in the feed had significant effects on the amount of the four SAs excreted every day. The concentration of SAs in feces and in the urine for different treatments was 15.03-26.55 and 14.54-69.22 %, respectively. In each treatment, excretions of SCP, SDM' and SQ in feces were lower than that in urine. The four SAs remained longer in urine than in feces. Excretions in urine and feces were lower if SAs were administered orally rather than by injection.

  10. Traceability of sulfonamide antibiotic treatment by immunochemical analysis of farm animal hair samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, Javier; Gratacós-Cubarsí, Marta; Sánchez-Baeza, Francisco; Garcia Regueiro, Jose-Antonio; Castellari, Massimo; Marco, M-Pilar

    2009-10-01

    The use of hair to trace use of unauthorized substances, therapeutic agents, or their misuse is becoming very attractive since residues can be detected for a long time after treatment. For this purpose, an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been evaluated for its capability to trace sulfonamide antibiotic treatment by analyzing cattle and pig hair samples. Pigmented and nonpigmented hair samples from control and sulfamethazine (SMZ)-treated pigs and calves were collected, extracted under different alkaline conditions, and analyzed by ELISA after just diluting the extracts with the assay buffer. Data analysis following the European recommendations for screening methods demonstrates that the ELISA can detect SMZ in hair samples with a limit of detection (90% of the zero dose (IC(90))) between 30 and 75 ng g(-1). The same samples have been analyzed by HPLC after a dual solid-phase extraction. The ELISA results matched very well those obtained by the chromatographic method, demonstrating that the immunochemical method can be used as a screening tool to trace animal treatments. Between the benefits of this method are the possibility to directly analyze hair extracts with sufficient detectability and its high-throughput capability. Preliminary validation data are reported using an experimental approach inspired on the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC criteria for screening methods.

  11. Crushed Salt Constitutive Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, G.D.

    1999-01-01

    The constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt is presented in this report. Two mechanisms -- dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solution -- are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Upon complete consolidation, the crushed-salt model reproduces the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) model typically used for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) host geological formation salt. New shear consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on WIPP and southeastern New Mexico salt. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to the database produced two sets of material parameter values for the model -- one for the shear consolidation tests and one for a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests. Using the parameter values determined from the fitted database, the constitutive model is validated against constant strain-rate tests. Shaft seal problems are analyzed to demonstrate model-predicted consolidation of the shaft seal crushed-salt component. Based on the fitting statistics, the ability of the model to predict the test data, and the ability of the model to predict load paths and test data outside of the fitted database, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt reasonably well

  12. Molten salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchter, J.C.; Dufour, P.; Guidez, J.; Simon, N.; Renault, C.

    2014-01-01

    Molten salt reactors are one of the 6 concepts retained for the 4. generation of nuclear reactors. The principle of this reactor is very innovative: the nuclear fuel is dissolved in the coolant which allows the online reprocessing of the fuel and the online recovery of the fission products. A small prototype: the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE - 8 MWt) was operating a few years in the sixties in the USA. The passage towards a fast reactor by the suppression of the graphite moderator leads to the concept of Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR) which is presently studied through different European projects such as MOST, ALISIA and EVOL. Worldwide the main topics of research are: the adequate materials resisting to the high level of corrosiveness of the molten salts, fuel salt reprocessing, the 3-side coupling between neutron transport, thermohydraulics and thermo-chemistry, the management of the changing chemical composition of the salt, the enrichment of lithium with Li 7 in the case of the use of lithium fluoride salt and the use of MSFR using U 233 fuel (thorium cycle). The last part of the article presents a preliminary safety analysis of the MSFR. (A.C.)

  13. Gases in molten salts

    CERN Document Server

    Tomkins, RPT

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains tabulated collections and critical evaluations of original data for the solubility of gases in molten salts, gathered from chemical literature through to the end of 1989. Within the volume, material is arranged according to the individual gas. The gases include hydrogen halides, inert gases, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and halogens. The molten salts consist of single salts, binary mixtures and multicomponent systems. Included also, is a special section on the solubility of gases in molten silicate systems, focussing on slags and fluxes.

  14. Sulfonamide antibiotic removal and nitrogen recovery from synthetic urine by the combination of rotating advanced oxidation contactor and methylene urea synthesis process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukahori, S; Fujiwara, T; Ito, R; Funamizu, N

    2015-01-01

    The combination of nitrogen recovery and pharmaceutical removal processes for livestock urine treatment were investigated to suppress the discharge of pollutants and recover nitrogen as resources. We combined methylene urea synthesis from urea and adsorption and photocatalytic decomposition of sulfonamide antibiotic using rotating advanced oxidation contactor (RAOC) contained for obtaining both safe fertilizer and reclaimed water. The methylene urea synthesis could recover urea in synthetic urine, however, almost all sulfonamide antibiotic was also incorporated, which is unfavorable from a safety aspect if the methylene urea is to be used as fertilizer. Conversely, RAOC could remove sulfonamide antibiotic without consuming urea. It was also confirmed that the methylene urea could be synthesized from synthetic urine treated by RAOC. Thus, we concluded that RAOC should be inserted prior to the nitrogen recovery process for effective treatment of urine and safe use of methylene urea as fertilizer.

  15. What Are Bath Salts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bath salts can produce: feelings of joy increased social interaction increased sex drive paranoia nervousness hallucinations (see or ... Institutes of Health; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Cite this article APA Style MLA Style ...

  16. Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts")

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  17. Mass transport in bedded salt and salt interbeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Y.; Pigford, T.H.; Chambre, P.L.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1989-08-01

    Salt is the proposed host rock for geologic repositories of nuclear waste in several nations because it is nearly dry and probably impermeable. Although experiments and experience at potential salt sites indicate that salt may contain brine, the low porosity, creep, and permeability of salt make it still a good choice for geologic isolation. In this paper we summarize several mass-transfer and transport analyses of salt repositories. The mathematical details are given in our technical reports

  18. Molten salt reactor type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This document is one of the three parts of a first volume devoted to the compilations of American data on the molten salt reactor concept. Emphasize is put essentially on the fuel salt of the primary circuit inside which fission reactions occur. The reasons why the (LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 -UF 4 ) salt was chosen for the M.S.B.R. concept are examined; the physical, physicochemical and chemical properties of this salt are discussed with its interactions with the structural materials and its evolution in time. An important part of this volume is devoted to the continuous reprocessing of the active salt, the project designers having deemed advisable to take advantage at best from the availability of a continuous purification, in a thermal breeding. The problem of tritium formation and distribution inside the reactor is also envisaged and the fundamentals of the chemistry of the secondary coolant salt are given. The solutions proposed are: the hydrogen scavenging of the primary circuit, a reduction in metal permeability by an oxyde layer deposition on the side in contact with the vapor, and tritium absorption through an isotope exchange with the hydroxifluoroborate [fr

  19. Continuous degradation of a mixture of sulfonamides by Trametes versicolor and identification of metabolites from sulfapyridine and sulfathiazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E.; Jesús García-Galán, Ma.; Blánquez, Paqui; Díaz-Cruz, M. Silvia; Barceló, Damià; Caminal, Glòria; Vicent, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Degradation of sulfapyridine and sulfathiazole by Trametes versicolor was evaluated. ► The role of laccase and cytochrome P450 was determined. ► Degradation metabolites were identified for sulfapyridine (8) and sulfathiazole (5). ► A mixture of three sulfonamides was degraded in a continuous fluidized bed reactor. - Abstract: In this study, we assessed the degradation of the sulfonamides sulfapyridine (SPY) and sulfathiazole (STZ) by the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Complete degradation was accomplished in fungal cultures at initial pollutant concentrations of approximately 10 mg L −1 , although a longer period of time was needed to completely remove STZ in comparison to SPY. When cytochrome P450 inhibitors were added to the fungal cultures, STZ degradation was partially suppressed, while no additional effect was observed for SPY. Experiments with purified laccase and laccase mediators caused the removal of greater than 75% of each antibiotic. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QqTOF-MS) analyses allowed the identification of a total of eight degradation intermediates of SPY in both the in vivo and the laccase experiments, being its desulfonated moiety the commonly detected product. For STZ, a total of five products were identified. A fluidized bed reactor with T. versicolor pellets degraded a mixture of sulfonamides (SPY, STZ and sulfamethazine, SMZ) by greater than 94% each at a hydraulic residence time of 72 h. Because wastewater contains many diverse pollutants, these results highlight the potential of T. versicolor as a bioremediation agent not only for the removal of antibiotics but also for the elimination of a wide range of contaminants.

  20. Continuous degradation of a mixture of sulfonamides by Trametes versicolor and identification of metabolites from sulfapyridine and sulfathiazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Carlos E., E-mail: CarlosEsteban.Rodriguez@uab.cat [Unitat asociada de Biocatalisi Aplicada IQAC-CSIC, Escola d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Centro de Investigacion en Contaminacion Ambiental, Universidad de Costa Rica, 2060 San Jose (Costa Rica); Jesus Garcia-Galan, Ma. [Departament de Quimica Ambiental, IDAEA-CSIC, C/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034, Barcelona (Spain); Blanquez, Paqui [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Escola d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Diaz-Cruz, M. Silvia [Departament de Quimica Ambiental, IDAEA-CSIC, C/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034, Barcelona (Spain); Barcelo, Damia [Departament de Quimica Ambiental, IDAEA-CSIC, C/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034, Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Parc Cientific i Tecnologic de la Universitat de Girona, C/Emili Grahit, 101 Edifici H2O, E-17003 Girona (Spain); Caminal, Gloria [Unitat asociada de Biocatalisi Aplicada IQAC-CSIC, Escola d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Vicent, Teresa [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Escola d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-04-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Degradation of sulfapyridine and sulfathiazole by Trametes versicolor was evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The role of laccase and cytochrome P450 was determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Degradation metabolites were identified for sulfapyridine (8) and sulfathiazole (5). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A mixture of three sulfonamides was degraded in a continuous fluidized bed reactor. - Abstract: In this study, we assessed the degradation of the sulfonamides sulfapyridine (SPY) and sulfathiazole (STZ) by the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Complete degradation was accomplished in fungal cultures at initial pollutant concentrations of approximately 10 mg L{sup -1}, although a longer period of time was needed to completely remove STZ in comparison to SPY. When cytochrome P450 inhibitors were added to the fungal cultures, STZ degradation was partially suppressed, while no additional effect was observed for SPY. Experiments with purified laccase and laccase mediators caused the removal of greater than 75% of each antibiotic. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QqTOF-MS) analyses allowed the identification of a total of eight degradation intermediates of SPY in both the in vivo and the laccase experiments, being its desulfonated moiety the commonly detected product. For STZ, a total of five products were identified. A fluidized bed reactor with T. versicolor pellets degraded a mixture of sulfonamides (SPY, STZ and sulfamethazine, SMZ) by greater than 94% each at a hydraulic residence time of 72 h. Because wastewater contains many diverse pollutants, these results highlight the potential of T. versicolor as a bioremediation agent not only for the removal of antibiotics but also for the elimination of a wide range of contaminants.

  1. Sulfonamide-resistant bacteria and their resistance genes in soils fertilized with manures from Jiangsu Province, Southeastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Wang

    Full Text Available Antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes are recognized as new environmental pollutants that warrant special concern. There were few reports on veterinary antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes in China. This work systematically analyzed the prevalence and distribution of sulfonamide resistance genes in soils from the environments around poultry and livestock farms in Jiangsu Province, Southeastern China. The results showed that the animal manure application made the spread and abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs increasingly in the soil. The frequency of sulfonamide resistance genes was sul1 > sul2 > sul3 in pig-manured soil DNA and sul2 > sul1 > sul3 in chicken-manured soil DNA. Further analysis suggested that the frequency distribution of the sul genes in the genomic DNA and plasmids of the SR isolates from manured soil was sul2 > sul1 > sul3 overall (p<0.05. The combination of sul1 and sul2 was the most frequent, and the co-existence of sul1 and sul3 was not found either in the genomic DNA or plasmids. The sample type, animal type and sampling time can influence the prevalence and distribution pattern of sulfonamide resistance genes. The present study also indicated that Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Shigella were the most prevalent sul-positive genera in the soil, suggesting a potential human health risk. The above results could be important in the evaluation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes from manure as sources of agricultural soil pollution; the results also demonstrate the necessity and urgency of the regulation and supervision of veterinary antibiotics in China.

  2. Synthesis of some new heterocyclic compounds bearing a sulfonamide moiety and studying their combined anticancer effect with γ-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hossary, E.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    In search for new cytotoxic agents with improved anticancer profile, some new halogen-containing quinoline and pyrimido[4,5-b]quinoline derivatives bearing a free sulfonamide moiety were synthesized. All the newly synthesized target compounds were subjected to in vitro anticancer screening against human breast cancer cell line (MCF7). The most potent compounds, as concluded from the in vitro anticancer screening, were selected to be evaluated again for their in vitro anticancer activity in combination with radiation. Also, the newly synthesized compounds were docked in the active site of the carbonic anhydrase enzyme

  3. Prevalence and characterization of plasmids carrying sulfonamide resistance genes among Escherichia coli from pigs, pig carcasses and human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shuyu, Wu; Dalsgaard, A.; Hammerum, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    isolates. Fifty-seven sulfonamide-resistant E. coli were selected based on presence of sul resistance genes and subjected to conjugation and/or transformation experiments. S1 nuclease digestion followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to visualize and determine the size of plasmids. Plasmids...... and humans) were 65%, 45% and 12% for sul2, sul1, and sul3, respectively. Transfer of resistance through conjugation was observed in 42/57 isolates. Resistances to streptomycin, ampicillin and trimethoprim were co-transferred in most strains. Class 1 integrons were present in 80% of sul1-carrying plasmids...

  4. Studying the interaction between three synthesized heterocyclic sulfonamide compounds with hemoglobin by spectroscopy and molecular modeling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeeminejad, Samane; Assaran Darban, Reza; Beigoli, Sima; Saberi, Mohammad Reza; Chamani, Jamshidkhan

    2017-11-01

    The interaction between synthesized heterocyclic benzene sulfonamide compounds, N-(7-benzyl-56-biphenyl-2m-tolyl-7H-pyrrolo[23-d]pyrimidine-4-yl)-benzene sulfonamide (HBS 1 ), N-(7-benzyl-56-biphenyl-2-m-tolyl-7H-pyrrolo[23-d] pyrimidine-4-yl)-4-methyl- benzene sulfonamide (HBS 2 ), and N-(7-benzyl-56-biphenyl-2-m-tolyl-7H-pyrrolo[23-d]pyrimidine-4-yl)-4-chloro-benzene sulfonamide (HBS 3 ) with Hb was studied by fluorescence quenching, zeta potentional, circular dichroism, and molecular modeling techniques. The fluorescence spectroscopy experiments were performed in order to study the conformational changes, possibly due to a discrete reorganization of Trp residues during binding between HBS derivatives and Hb. The variation of the K SV value suggested that hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions were the predominant intermolecular forces stabilizing the complex. The K SV1 ans K SV2 values of HBS derivatives with Hb are .6 × 10 13 and 3 × 10 13  M -1 for Hb-HBS 1 , 1 × 10 13 and 4 × 10 13  M -1 for Hb-HBS 2 , .9 × 10 13 , and 6 × 10 13  M -1 for Hb-HBS 3 , respectively. The molecular distances between Hb and HBS derivatives in binary and ternary systems were estimated according to Förster's theory of dipole-dipole non-radiation energy transfer. The quantitative analysis data of circular dichroism spectra demonstrated that the binding of the three HBS derivatives to Hb induced conformational changes in Hb. Changes in the zeta potential of the Hb-HBS derivatives complexes demonstrated a hydrophobic adsorption of the anionic ligand onto the surface of Hb as well as both electrostatic and hydrophobic adsorption in the case of the complex. The modeling data thus confirmed the experimental results. This study is expected to provide important insight into the interaction of Hb with three HBS derivatives to use in various toxicological and therapeutic processes.

  5. A new sulfonamide resistance gene (sul3) in Escherichia coli is widespread in the pig population of Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreten, Vincent; Boerlin, Patrick

    2003-03-01

    A new gene, sul3, which specifies a 263-amino-acid protein similar to a dihydropteroate synthase encoded by the 54-kb conjugative plasmid pVP440 from Escherichia coli was characterized. Expression of the cloned sul3 gene conferred resistance to sulfamethoxazole on E. coli. Two copies of the insertion element IS15Delta/26 flanked the region containing sul3. The sul3 gene was detected in one-third of the sulfonamide-resistant pathogenic E. coli isolates from pigs in Switzerland.

  6. A New Sulfonamide Resistance Gene (sul3) in Escherichia coli Is Widespread in the Pig Population of Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Perreten, Vincent; Boerlin, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    A new gene, sul3, which specifies a 263-amino-acid protein similar to a dihydropteroate synthase encoded by the 54-kb conjugative plasmid pVP440 from Escherichia coli was characterized. Expression of the cloned sul3 gene conferred resistance to sulfamethoxazole on E. coli. Two copies of the insertion element IS15Δ/26 flanked the region containing sul3. The sul3 gene was detected in one-third of the sulfonamide-resistant pathogenic E. coli isolates from pigs in Switzerland.

  7. The origin of enantioselectivity in the l-threonine-derived phosphine-sulfonamide catalyzed aza-Morita-Baylis-Hillman reaction: Effects of the intramolecular hydrogen bonding

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Richmond

    2013-01-01

    l-Threonine-derived phosphine-sulfonamide 4 was identified as the most efficient catalyst to promote enantioselective aza-Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) reactions, affording the desired aza-MBH adducts with excellent enantioselectivities. Density functional theory (DFT) studies were carried out to elucidate the origin of the observed enantioselectivity. The importance of the intramolecular N-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding interaction between the sulfonamide and enolate groups was identified to be crucial in inducing a high degree of stereochemical control in both the enolate addition to imine and the subsequent proton transfer step, affording aza-MBH reactions with excellent enantioselectivity. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  8. Cooperativity of complex salt bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Gvritishvili, Anzor G.; Gribenko, Alexey V.; Makhatadze, George I.

    2008-01-01

    The energetic contribution of complex salt bridges, in which one charged residue (anchor residue) forms salt bridges with two or more residues simultaneously, has been suggested to have importance for protein stability. Detailed analysis of the net energetics of complex salt bridge formation using double- and triple-mutant cycle analysis revealed conflicting results. In two cases, it was shown that complex salt bridge formation is cooperative, i.e., the net strength of the complex salt bridge...

  9. Fundamental Properties of Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Y Gutknecht; Guy L Fredrickson

    2012-11-01

    Thermal properties of molten salt systems are of interest to electrorefining operations, pertaining to both the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program (FCR&D) and Spent Fuel Treatment Mission, currently being pursued by the Department of Energy (DOE). The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely impacted by the build-up of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided, during electrorefining operations, include (i) fissile elements build up in the salt that might approach the criticality limits specified for the vessel, (ii) electrolyte freezing at the operating temperature of the electrorefiner due to changes in the liquidus temperature, and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution). The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can be monitored by studying the thermal characteristics of the molten salts as a function of impurity concentration. Simulated salt compositions consisting of the selected rare earth and alkaline earth chlorides, with a eutectic mixture of LiCl-KCl as the carrier electrolyte, were studied to determine the melting points (thermal characteristics) using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The experimental data were used to model the liquidus temperature. On the basis of the this data, it became possible to predict a spent fuel treatment processing scenario under which electrorefining could no longer be performed as a result of increasing liquidus temperatures of the electrolyte.

  10. Sulfonamide inhibition studies of the β-carbonic anhydrase from the newly discovered bacterium Enterobacter sp. B13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eminoğlu, Ayşenur; Vullo, Daniela; Aşık, Aycan; Çolak, Dilşat Nigar; Çanakçı, Sabriye; Beldüz, Ali Osman; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-04-01

    The genome of the newly identified bacterium Enterobacter sp. B13 encodes for a β-class carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1), EspCA. This enzyme was recently cloned, and characterized kinetically by this group (J. Enzyme Inhib. Med. Chem. 2016, 31). Here we report an inhibition study with sulfonamides and sulfamates of this enzyme. The best EspCA inhibitors were some sulfanylated sulfonamides with elongated molecules, metanilamide, 4-aminoalkyl-benzenesulfonamides, acetazolamide, and deacetylated methazolamide (KIs in the range of 58.7-96.5nM). Clinically used agents such as methazolamide, ethoxzolamide, dorzolamide, brinzolamide, benzolamide, zonisamide, sulthiame, sulpiride, topiramate and valdecoxib were slightly less effective inhibitors (KIs in the range of 103-138nM). Saccharin, celecoxib, dichlorophenamide and many simple benzenesulfonamides were even less effective as EspCA inhibitors, with KIs in the range of 384-938nM. Identification of effective inhibitors of this bacterial enzyme may lead to pharmacological tools useful for understanding the physiological role(s) of the β-class CAs in bacterial pathogenicity/virulence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Antibacterial activity of sulfamethoxazole transformation products (TPs): general relevance for sulfonamide TPs modified at the para position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewsky, Marius; Wagner, Danny; Delay, Markus; Bräse, Stefan; Yargeau, Viviane; Horn, Harald

    2014-10-20

    Sulfonamide antibiotics undergo transformation in the aquatic environment through biodegradation, photolysis, or hydrolysis. In this study, the residual antibacterial activity of 11 transformation products (TPs) of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) was investigated with regard to their in vitro growth and luminescence inhibition on Vibrio fischeri (30 min and 24 h exposure). Two transformation products, 4-hydroxy-SMX and N(4)-hydroxy-acetyl-SMX, were synthesized in-house and confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Results of individual compound experiments showed that TPs modified at the para amino group still exhibit clear antibacterial effects, whereas TPs resulting from breakdown of the SMX structure lost this mechanism of action. 4-NO2- and 4-OH-SMX were found to inhibit growth to a clearly greater extent than the parent compound, SMX. In contrast, the N(4)-acetyl- and N(4)-hydroxy-acetyl-derivatives retain less than 10 and 5% of the effect of SMX on growth and luminescence inhibition, respectively. The effect of a mixture of para-modified TPs was observed to be additive. Considering the homologous series of sulfa drugs widely prescribed and their common mechanism of action, the potential environmental impact must consider the total amount of sulfonamide antibiotics and their derivative TPs, which might end up in a water body. Extrapolating the results obtained here for the para TPs of SMX to other sulfa drugs and determining the persistence and occurrence of these compounds in the aquatic environment is required for improved risk assessment.

  12. Spiramycin/cotrimoxazole versus pyrimethamine/sulfonamide and spiramycin alone for the treatment of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, P; Buonsenso, D; Barone, G; Serranti, D; Calzedda, R; Ceccarelli, M; Speziale, D; Ricci, R; Masini, L

    2015-02-01

    To compare the effectiviness of spiramycin/cotrimoxazole (Sp/C) versus pyrimethamine/sulfonamide (Pyr/Sul) and spiramycin alone (Spy) on mother-to-child transmission of toxoplasmosis infection in pregnancy. Retrospective study of pregnant women evaluated for suspected toxoplasmosis between 1992 and 2011. A total of 120 mothers and their 123 newborns were included. Prenatal treatment consisted of spiramycin in 43 mothers (35%), spiramycin/cotrimoxazole in 70 (56.9%) and pyrimethamine/sulfonamide in 10 (8.1%). A trend toward reduction in toxoplasmosis transmission was found when Sp/C was compared with Pyr/Sul and particularly with Spy alone (P=0.014). In particular, Spy increased the risk of congenital infection when compared with Sp/C (odds ratio (OR) 4.368; 95% CI: 1.253 to 15.219), but there was no significant reduction when Sp/C was compared with Pyr/Sul (OR 1.83; 95% CI: 0.184 to 18.274). The treatment based on Sp/C has significant efficacy in reducing maternal-fetal transmission of Toxoplasma gondii when compared with Pyr/Sul and particularly to Spy. Randomized controlled trials would be required.

  13. Excellent performance of copper based metal organic framework in adsorptive removal of toxic sulfonamide antibiotics from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Muhammad Rizwan; Abid, Hussein Rasool; Sun, Hongqi; Periasamy, Vijay; Tadé, Moses O; Wang, Shaobin

    2016-09-15

    The increasing concerns on toxicity of sulfonamide antibiotics in water require a prompt action to establish efficient wastewater treatment processes for their removal. In this study, adsorptive removal of a model sulfonamide antibiotic, sulfachloropyridazine (SCP), from wastewater is presented for the first time using a metal organic framework (MOF). A high surface area and thermally stable MOF, HKUST-1, was synthesized by a facile method. Batch adsorption studies were systematically carried out using HKUST-1. The high surface area and unsaturated metal sites resulted in a significant adsorption capacity with faster kinetics. Most of the SCP was removed in 15min and the kinetic data were best fitted with the pseudo second order model. Moreover, isothermal data were best fitted with the Langmuir model. The thermodynamic results showed that the adsorption is a spontaneous and endothermic process. The adsorption capacity of HKUST-1 is 384mg/g at 298K which is the highest compared to most of the materials for the antibiotics. The high adsorption capacity is attributed mainly to π-π stacking, hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Chlorination and oxidation of sulfonamides by free chlorine: Identification and behaviour of reaction products by UPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, Vanessa de Jesus; Cardoso, Vitor Vale; Benoliel, Maria João; Almeida, Cristina M M

    2016-01-15

    Sulfonamides (SAs) are one class of the most widely used antibiotics around the world and have been frequently detected in municipal wastewater and surface water in recent years. Their transformation in waste water treatment plants (WWTP) and in water treatment plants (WTP), as well as, their fate and transport in the aquatic environment are of concern. The reaction of six sulfonamides (sulfamethoxazole, sulfapyridine, sulfamethazine, sulfamerazine, sulfathiazole and sulfadiazine) with free chlorine was investigated at a laboratory scale in order to identify the main chlorination by-products. A previously validated method, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, was used to analyse SAs and their chlorination by-products. At room temperature, pH 6-7, reaction times of up to 2 h and an initial concentration of 2 mg/L of free chlorine, the majority of SAs suffered degradation of around 65%, with the exception of sulfamethoxazole and sulfathiazole (20%). The main reaction of SAs with free chlorine occurred in the first minute. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Room Temperature Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of New Sulfonamides Containing N,N-Diethyl-Substituted Amido Moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olayinka O. Ajani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonamide drugs which have brought about an antibiotic revolution in medicine are associated with a wide range of biological activities. We have synthesized a series of α-tolylsulfonamide, 1–11 and their substituted N,N-diethyl-2-(phenylmethylsulfonamido alkanamide derivatives, 12–22 in improved and excellent yields in aqueous medium at room temperature through highly economical synthetic routes. The chemical structures of the synthesized compounds 1–22 were confirmed by analytical and spectral data such as IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR, and mass spectra. The in vitro antibacterial activity of these compounds along with standard clinical reference, streptomycin, was investigated on two key targeted organisms. It was observed that 1-(benzylsulfonylpyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid, 2 emerged as the most active compound against Staphylococcus aureus at MIC value of 1.8 μg/mL while 4-(3-(diethylamino-3-oxo-2-(phenylmethylsulfonamido propylphenyl phenylmethanesulfonate, 22 was the most active sulfonamide scaffold on Escherichia coli at MIC value of 12.5 μg/mL.

  16. Development and validation of an LC-UV method for the determination of sulfonamides in animal feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P; Companyó, R

    2012-05-01

    A simple LC-UV method was developed for the determination of residues of eight sulfonamides (sulfachloropyridazine, sulfadiazine, sulfadimidine, sulfadoxine, sulfamethoxypyridazine, sulfaquinoxaline, sulfamethoxazole, and sulfadimethoxine) in six types of animal feed. C18, Oasis HLB, Plexa and Plexa PCX stationary phases were assessed for the clean-up step and the latter was chosen as it showed greater efficiency in the clean-up of interferences. Feed samples spiked with sulfonamides at 2 mg/kg were used to assess the trueness (recovery %) and precision of the method. Mean recovery values ranged from 47% to 66%, intra-day precision (RSD %) from 4% to 15% and inter-day precision (RSD %) from 7% to 18% in pig feed. Recoveries and intra-day precisions were also evaluated in rabbit, hen, cow, chicken and piglet feed matrices. Calibration curves with standards prepared in mobile phase and matrix-matched calibration curves were compared and the matrix effects were ascertained. The limits of detection and quantification in the feeds ranged from 74 to 265 µg/kg and from 265 to 868 µg/kg, respectively. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Sulfonamide-resistant bacteria and their resistance genes in soils fertilized with manures from Jiangsu Province, Southeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Na; Yang, Xiaohong; Jiao, Shaojun; Zhang, Jun; Ye, Boping; Gao, Shixiang

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes are recognized as new environmental pollutants that warrant special concern. There were few reports on veterinary antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes in China. This work systematically analyzed the prevalence and distribution of sulfonamide resistance genes in soils from the environments around poultry and livestock farms in Jiangsu Province, Southeastern China. The results showed that the animal manure application made the spread and abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) increasingly in the soil. The frequency of sulfonamide resistance genes was sul1 > sul2 > sul3 in pig-manured soil DNA and sul2 > sul1 > sul3 in chicken-manured soil DNA. Further analysis suggested that the frequency distribution of the sul genes in the genomic DNA and plasmids of the SR isolates from manured soil was sul2 > sul1 > sul3 overall (psulfonamide resistance genes. The present study also indicated that Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Shigella were the most prevalent sul-positive genera in the soil, suggesting a potential human health risk. The above results could be important in the evaluation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes from manure as sources of agricultural soil pollution; the results also demonstrate the necessity and urgency of the regulation and supervision of veterinary antibiotics in China.

  18. Molten salt breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Kazuo; Tsukada, Kineo; Nakahara, Yasuaki; Oomichi, Toshihiko; Oono, Hideo.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To simplify the structure, as well as improve the technical reliability and safety by the elimination of a proton beam entering window. Constitution: The nuclear reactor container main body is made of Hastelloy N and provided at the inner surface with two layers of graphite shields except for openings. An aperture was formed in the upper surface of the container, through which protons accelerated by a linear accelerator are directly entered to the liquid surface of molten salts such as 7LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 , 7LiF-NaF-ThF 4 , 7LiF-Rb-UF 4 , NaF-KF-UF 4 and the like. The heated molten salts are introduced by way of a pipeway into a heat exchanger where the heat is transferred to coolant salts and electric generation is conducted by way of heated steams. (Furukawa, Y.)

  19. Mineral resource of the month: salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostick, Dennis S.

    2010-01-01

    The article presents information on various types of salt. Rock salt is either found from underground halite deposits or near the surface. Other types of salt include solar salt, salt brine, and vacuum pan salt. The different uses of salt are also given including its use as a flavor enhancer, as a road deicing agent, and to manufacture sodium hydroxide.

  20. Molten salt reactor type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This document is one of the three parts of a first volume devoted to the compilations of American data on the molten salt reactor concept. This part 'CIRCUITS' regroups under a condensed form - in French and using international units - the essential information contained in both basic documents of the American project for a molten-salt breeder power plant. This part is only dealing with things relating to the CEA-EDF workshop 'CIRCUITS'. It is not concerned with information on: the reactor and the moderator replacement, the primary and secondary salts, and the fuel salt reprocessing, that are dealt with in parts 'CORE' and 'CHEMISTRY' respectively. The possible evolutions in the data - and solutions - taken by the American designers for their successive projects (1970 to 1972) are shown. The MSBR power plant comprises three successive heat transfer circuits. The primary circuit (Hastelloy N), radioactive and polluted, containing the fuel salt, includes the reactor, pumps and exchangers. The secondary circuit (pipings made of modified Hastelloy N) contaminated in the exchanger, ensures the separation between the fuel and the fluid operating the turbo-alternator. The water-steam circuit feeds the turbine with steam. This steam is produced in the steam generator flowed by the secondary fluid. Some subsidiary circuits (discharge and storage of the primary and secondary salts, ventilation of the primary circuit ...) complete the three principal circuits which are briefly described. All circuits are enclosed inside the controlled-atmosphere building of the nuclear boiler. This building also ensures the biological protection and the mechanical protection against outer aggressions [fr

  1. Investigation of antigen-antibody interactions of sulfonamides with a monoclonal antibody in a fluorescence polarization immunoassay using 3D-QSAR models

    Science.gov (United States)

    A three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) model of sulfonamide analogs binding a monoclonal antibody (MAbSMR) produced against sulfamerazine was carried out by Distance Comparison (DISCOtech), comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA), and comparative molecular si...

  2. Distribution of sulfonamide resistance genes in Escherichia coli and Salmonella isolates from swine and chickens at abattoirs in Ontario and Québec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Gosia K; Pearl, David L; Parkman, Julia; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Deckert, Anne; Boerlin, Patrick

    2009-09-01

    Sulfonamide-resistant Escherichia coli and Salmonella isolates from pigs and chickens in Ontario and Québec were screened for sul1, sul2, and sul3 by PCR. Each sul gene was distributed differently across populations, with a significant difference between distribution in commensal E. coli and Salmonella isolates and sul3 restricted mainly to porcine E. coli isolates.

  3. Distribution of Sulfonamide Resistance Genes in Escherichia coli and Salmonella Isolates from Swine and Chickens at Abattoirs in Ontario and Québec, Canada ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Gosia K.; Pearl, David L.; Parkman, Julia; Reid-Smith, Richard J.; Deckert, Anne; Boerlin, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Sulfonamide-resistant Escherichia coli and Salmonella isolates from pigs and chickens in Ontario and Québec were screened for sul1, sul2, and sul3 by PCR. Each sul gene was distributed differently across populations, with a significant difference between distribution in commensal E. coli and Salmonella isolates and sul3 restricted mainly to porcine E. coli isolates. PMID:19633109

  4. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the...

  5. to salt stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tony

    2012-02-14

    Feb 14, 2012 ... 3Inner Mongolia Industrial Engineering Research, Center of University for Castor, Tongliao 028042, ... strengthen and improve salt stress tolerance in plants. .... 2 µl cDNA, 1 µl each of 4 µM forward and reverse primer, 0.2 µl.

  6. Molten salt reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, D.D.

    1980-01-01

    Molten salt reactor is an advanced breeder concept which is suited for the utilization of thorium for nuclear power production. This reactor is based on the use of solutions of uranium or plutonium fluorides in LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 as fuel. Unlike the conventional reactors, no external coolant is used in the reactor core and the fuel salt itself is circulated through heat exchangers to transfer the fission produced heat to a secondary salt (NaF-NaBF 4 ) for steam generation. A part of the fuel stream is continuously processed to isolate 233 Pa, so that it can decay to fissile 233 U without getting converted to 234 Pa, and for the removal of neutron absorbing fission products. This on-line processing scheme makes this reactor concept to achieve a breeding ratio of 1.07 which is the highest for any thermal breeder reactor. Experimental studies at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, have established the use of plutonium as fuel for this reactor. This molten salt reactor concept is described and the work conducted at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre is summarised. (auth.)

  7. Molten salt electrorefining method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Hitoshi; Shoji, Yuichi; Matsumaru, Ken-ichi.

    1994-01-01

    A molten cadmium phase (lower side) and a molten salt phase (upper side) are filled in an electrolytic bath. A basket incorporating spent nuclear fuels is inserted/disposed in the molten cadmium phase. A rotatable solid cathode is inserted/disposed in the molten salt phase. The spent fuels, for example, natural uranium, incorporated in the basket is dissolved in the molten cadmium phase. In this case, the uranium concentration in the molten salt phase is determined as from 0.5 to 20wt%. Then, electrolysis is conducted while setting a stirring power for stirring at least the molten salt phase of from 2.5 x 10 2 to 1 x 10 4 based on a reynolds number. Crystalline nuclei of uranium are precipitated uniformly on the surface of the solid cathode, and they grow into fine dendrites. With such procedures, since short-circuit between the cathode precipitates and the molten cadmium phase (anode) is scarcely caused, to improve the recovering rate of uranium. (I.N.)

  8. Borehole closure in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuenkajorn, K.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1988-12-01

    Constitutive law parameters are determined from salt behavior characterization experiments. The results are applied to predict creep (time-dependent) closure of boreholes in salt specimens subjected to various loading configurations. Rheological models (linear and nonlinear viscoelastic and viscoplastic models), empirical models, and physical theory models have been formulated from the results of uniaxial creep tests, strain and stress rate controlled uniaxial tests, constant strain rate triaxial tests, cyclic loading tests, and seismic velocity measurements. Analytical solutions for a thick-walled cylinder subjected to internal and external pressures and for a circular hole in an infinite plate subjected to a biaxial or uniaxial stressfield have been derived from each of the linear viscoelastic models and from one of the empirical laws. The experimental results indicate that the salt samples behave as an elastic-viscoplastic material. The elastic behavior tends to be linear and time-independent. The plastic deformation is time-dependent. The stress increment to strain rate increment ratio gradually decreases as the stress level increases. The transient potential creep law seems to give the simplest satisfactory governing equation describing the viscoplastic behavior of salt during the transient phase. 204 refs., 27 figs., 29 tabs

  9. Salt repository design approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a summary discussion of the approaches that have been and will be taken in design of repository facilities for use with disposal of radioactive wastes in salt formations. Since specific sites have yet to be identified, the discussion is at a general level, supplemented with illustrative examples where appropriate. 5 references, 1 figure

  10. Learning SaltStack

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Colton

    2015-01-01

    If you are a system administrator who manages multiple servers, then you know how difficult it is to keep your infrastructure in line. If you've been searching for an easier way, this book is for you. No prior experience with SaltStack is required.

  11. C18-coated stir bar sorptive extraction combined with high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of sulfonamides in milk and milk powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chunhe; Hu, Bin

    2012-02-15

    A simple, rapid, sensitive, inexpensive and less sample consuming method of C(18)-stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE)-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was proposed for the determination of six sulfonamides in milk and milk powder samples. C(18) silica particles coated stir bar was prepared by adhesion method, and two kinds of adhesive glue, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) sol and epoxy glue were tried. It was found that the C(18)-coated stir bar prepared by PDMS sol as adhesive glue is more robust than that prepared by epoxy glue when liquid desorption was employed, in terms of both lifetime and organic solvent tolerance. The preparation of C(18) stir bar was simple with good mechanic strength and the stir bar could be reused for more than 20 times. Granular coating has relatively high specific surface area and is propitious to sorptive extraction based process. Compared to conventional PDMS SBSE coating, C(18) coating shows good affinity to the target polar/weak polar sulfonamides. To achieve optimum SBSE extraction performance, several parameters including extraction and desorption time, ionic strength, sample pH and stirring speed were investigated. The detection limits of the proposed method for six sulfonamides were in the range of 0.9-10.5 μg/L for milk and 2.7-31.5 μg/kg for milk powder. Good linearities were obtained for sulfonamides with the correlation coefficients (R) above 0.9922. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of sulfonamides in milk and milk powder samples and satisfied recoveries of spiked target compounds in real samples were obtained. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Salt ingestion caves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundquist Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Large vertebrate herbivores, when they find a salt-bearing layer of rock, say in a cliff face, can produce sizable voids where, overgenerations, they have removed and consumed salty rock. The cavities formed by this natural animal process constitute a uniqueclass of caves that can be called salt ingestion caves. Several examples of such caves are described in various publications. Anexample in Mississippi U.S.A., Rock House Cave, was visited by the authors in 2000. It seems to have been formed by deer orbison. Perhaps the most spectacular example is Kitum Cave in Kenya. This cave has been excavated to a length over 100 metersby elephants. An ancient example is La Cueva del Milodon in Chile, which is reported to have been excavated by the now extinctmilodon, a giant ground sloth. Still other possible examples can be cited. This class of caves deserves a careful definition. First, thecavity in rock should meet the size and other conventions of the locally accepted definition of a cave. Of course this requirement differsin detail from country to country, particularly in the matter of size. The intent is to respect the local conventions. The characteristicthat human entry is possible is judged to be a crucial property of any recognized cave definition. Second, the cavity should besignificantly the result of vertebrate animal consumption of salt-bearing rock. The defining process is that rock removed to form thecave is carried away in the digestive track of an animal. While sodium salts are expected to be the norm, other salts for which thereis animal hunger are acceptable. Also some other speleogenesis process, such as solution, should not be excluded as long as it issecondary in formation of a cave in question.

  13. Salt supply to and significance of asymmetric salt diapirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyi, H.; Burliga, S.; Chemia, Zurab

    2012-01-01

    Salt diapirs can be asymmetric both internally and externally reflecting their evolution history. As such, this asymmetry bear a significant amount of information about the differential loading (± lateral forces) and in turn the salt supply that have shaped the diapir. In two dimensions......, In this study we compare results of analogue and numerical models of diapirs with two natural salt diapris (Klodawa and Gorleben diapirs) to explain their salt supply and asymmetric evolution. In a NW-SE section, the Gorleben salt diapir possesses an asymmetric external geometry represented by a large...... southeastern overhang due to salt extrusion during Middle Cretaceous followed by its burial in Tertiary. This external asymmetry is also reflected in the internal configuration of the diapir which shows different rates of salt flow on the two halves of the structure. The asymmetric external and internal...

  14. Test procedures for salt rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusseault, M.B.

    1985-01-01

    Potash mining, salt mining, design of solution caverns in salt rocks, disposal of waste in salt repositories, and the use of granular halite backfill in underground salt rock mines are all mining activities which are practised or contemplated for the near future. Whatever the purpose, the need for high quality design parameters is evident. The authors have been testing salt rocks in the laboratory in a number of configurations for some time. Great care has been given to the quality of sample preparation and test methodology. This paper describes the methods, presents the elements of equipment design, and shows some typical results

  15. Synthesis of chiral pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazine sulfonamides with tyrosinase and urease inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojzych, Mariusz; Tarasiuk, Paweł; Kotwica-Mojzych, Katarzyna; Rafiq, Muhammad; Seo, Sung-Yum; Nicewicz, Michał; Fornal, Emilia

    2017-12-01

    A new series of sulfonamide derivatives of pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazine with chiral amino group has been synthesized and characterized. The compounds were tested for their tyrosinase and urease inhibitory activity. Evaluation of prepared derivatives demonstrated that compounds (8b) and (8j) are most potent mushroom tyrosinase inhibitors whereas all of the obtained compounds showed higher urease inhibitory activity than the standard thiourea. The compounds (8a), (8f) and (8i) exhibited excellent enzyme inhibitory activity with IC 50 0.037, 0.044 and 0.042 μM, respectively, while IC 50 of thiourea is 20.9 μM.

  16. Sulfonamide-Based Inhibitors of Aminoglycoside Acetyltransferase Eis Abolish Resistance to Kanamycin in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garzan, Atefeh; Willby, Melisa J.; Green, Keith D.; Gajadeera, Chathurada S.; Hou, Caixia; Tsodikov, Oleg V.; Posey, James E.; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

    2016-12-08

    A two-drug combination therapy where one drug targets an offending cell and the other targets a resistance mechanism to the first drug is a time-tested, yet underexploited approach to combat or prevent drug resistance. By high-throughput screening, we identified a sulfonamide scaffold that served as a pharmacophore to generate inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis acetyltransferase Eis, whose upregulation causes resistance to the aminoglycoside (AG) antibiotic kanamycin A (KAN) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Rational systematic derivatization of this scaffold to maximize Eis inhibition and abolish the Eis-mediated KAN resistance of M. tuberculosis yielded several highly potent agents. A crystal structure of Eis in complex with one of the most potent inhibitors revealed that the inhibitor bound Eis in the AG-binding pocket held by a conformationally malleable region of Eis (residues 28–37) bearing key hydrophobic residues. These Eis inhibitors are promising leads for preclinical development of innovative AG combination therapies against resistant TB.

  17. Thermochemical Properties of Nicotine Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riggs DM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC results presented in this report clearly show that the thermal stability and the endothermic peak nicotine release temperatures are different for different nicotine salts and these temperatures appear to be linked to the general microstructural details of the salt itself. In addition, the peak nicotine release temperatures are highly dependent upon the sample size used. The heat of vaporization for neat (non-protonated nicotine is also sample-size dependent. The TGA data showed that the least stable of the salts tested at elevated temperatures was the liquid salt nicotine triacetate followed by the crystalline materials (e.g., nicotine gallate and finally, the amorphous salts (e.g., nicotine alginate. The DSC results revealed that the liquid and crystalline salts exhibit nicotine release endotherms that are strongly related to the sample weight being tested. The amorphous salts show nicotine endotherm peak temperatures that are nearly independent of the sample weight. The range of peak nicotine release temperatures varied depending upon the specific salts and the sample size from 83 oC to well over 200 oC. Based on these results, the evolution of nicotine from the nicotine salt should be expected to vary based on the composition of the salt, the details of its microstructure, and the amount of nicotine salt tested.

  18. Effect of biochar amendment on the control of soil sulfonamides, antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and gene enrichment in lettuce tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Mao; Sun, Mingming; Feng, Yanfang; Wan, Jinzhong; Xie, Shanni; Tian, Da; Zhao, Yu; Wu, Jun; Hu, Feng; Li, Huixin; Jiang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Biochar can prevent soil sulfonamides from accumulating in lettuce tissues. • ARB enrichment in lettuce tissues decreased significantly after biochar amendment. • Impedance effect of biochar addition on soil ARGs was also quite effective. • Biochar application can be a practical strategy to protect vegetable safety. - Abstract: Considering the potential threat of vegetables growing in antibiotic-polluted soil with high abundance of antibiotic-resistant genes (ARGs) against human health through the food chain, it is thus urgent to develop novel control technology to ensure vegetable safety. In the present work, pot experiments were conducted in lettuce cultivation to assess the impedance effect of biochar amendment on soil sulfonamides (SAs), antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB), and ARG enrichment in lettuce tissues. After 100 days of cultivation, lettuce cultivation with biochar amendment exhibited the greatest soil SA dissipation as well as the significant improvement of lettuce growth indices, with residual soil SAs mainly existing as the tightly bound fraction. Moreover, the SA contents in roots and new/old leaves were reduced by one to two orders of magnitude compared to those without biochar amendment. In addition, isolate counts for SA-resistant bacterial endophytes in old leaves and sul gene abundances in roots and old leaves also decreased significantly after biochar application. However, neither SA resistant bacteria nor sul genes were detected in new leaves. It was the first study to demonstrate that biochar amendment can be a practical strategy to protect lettuce safety growing in SA-polluted soil with rich ARB and ARGs.

  19. Multi-component analysis of tetracyclines, sulfonamides and tylosin in swine manure by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Anne Marie; Halling-Sørensen, Bent

    2006-03-01

    A multi-component method focussing on thorough sample preparation has been developed for simultaneous analysis of swine manure for three classes of antibiotic-tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and tylosin. Liquid manure was initially freeze-dried and homogenised by pulverization before extraction by pressurised liquid extraction. The extraction was performed at 75 degrees C and 2,500 psig in three steps using two cycles with 0.2 mol L(-1) citric acid buffer (pH 4.7) and one cycle with a mixture of 80% methanol with 0.2 mol L(-1) citric acid (pH 3). After liquid-liquid extraction with heptane to remove lipids, the pH of the manure was adjusted to 3 with formic acid and the sample was vacuum-filtered through 0.6 mum glass-fibre filters. Finally the samples were pre-concentrated by tandem SPE (SAX-HLB). Recoveries were determined for manure samples spiked at three concentrations (50-5,000 microg kg(-1) dry matter); quantification was achieved by matrix-matched calibration. Recoveries were >70% except for oxytetracycline (42-54%), sulfadiazine (59-73%), and tylosin (9-35%) and did not vary with concentration or from day-to-day. Limits of quantification (LOQ) for all compounds, determined as a signal-to-noise ratio of 10, were in the range 10-100 microg kg(-1) dry matter. The suitability of the method was assessed by analysis of swine manure samples from six different pig-production sites, e.g. finishing pigs, sows, or mixed production. Residues of antibiotics were detected in all samples. The largest amounts were found for tetracyclines (up to 30 mg kg(-1) dry matter for the sum of CTC and ECTC). Sulfonamides were detected at concentrations up to 2 mg kg(-1) dry matter (SDZ); tylosin was not detected in any samples.

  20. Determination of six sulfonamide antibiotics, two metabolites and trimethoprim in wastewater by isotope dilution liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le-Minh, Nhat; Stuetz, Richard M; Khan, Stuart J

    2012-01-30

    A highly sensitive method for the analysis of six sulfonamide antibiotics (sulfadiazine, sulfathiazole, sulfapyridine, sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine and sulfamethoxazole), two sulfonamide metabolites (N(4)-acetyl sulfamethazine and N(4)-acetyl sulfamethoxazole) and the commonly co-applied antibiotic trimethoprim was developed for the analysis of complex wastewater samples. The method involves solid phase extraction of filtered wastewater samples followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectral detection. Method detection limits were shown to be matrix-dependent but ranged between 0.2 and 0.4 ng/mL for ultrapure water, 0.4 and 0.7 ng/mL for tap water, 1.4 and 5.9 ng/mL for a laboratory-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) mixed liquor, 0.7 and 1.7 ng/mL for biologically treated effluent and 0.5 and 1.5 ng/g dry weight for MBR activated sludge. An investigation of analytical matrix effects was undertaken, demonstrating the significant and largely unpredictable nature of signal suppression observed for variably complex matrices compared to an ultrapure water matrix. The results demonstrate the importance of accounting for such matrix effects for accurate quantitation, as done in the presented method by isotope dilution. Comprehensive validation of calibration linearity, reproducibility, extraction recovery, limits of detection and quantification are also presented. Finally, wastewater samples from a variety of treatment stages in a full-scale wastewater treatment plant were analysed to illustrate the effectiveness of the method. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of biochar amendment on the control of soil sulfonamides, antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and gene enrichment in lettuce tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Mao [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Sun, Mingming [Soil Ecology Lab, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Feng, Yanfang, E-mail: fengyanfang@163.com [Institute of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing 210014 (China); Wan, Jinzhong [Nanjing Institute of Environmental Science, Ministry of Environmental Protection of China, Nanjing 210042 (China); Xie, Shanni; Tian, Da [Soil Ecology Lab, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Zhao, Yu [Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Photonic and Electronic Materials, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wu, Jun; Hu, Feng; Li, Huixin [Soil Ecology Lab, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Jiang, Xin, E-mail: Jiangxin@issas.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Biochar can prevent soil sulfonamides from accumulating in lettuce tissues. • ARB enrichment in lettuce tissues decreased significantly after biochar amendment. • Impedance effect of biochar addition on soil ARGs was also quite effective. • Biochar application can be a practical strategy to protect vegetable safety. - Abstract: Considering the potential threat of vegetables growing in antibiotic-polluted soil with high abundance of antibiotic-resistant genes (ARGs) against human health through the food chain, it is thus urgent to develop novel control technology to ensure vegetable safety. In the present work, pot experiments were conducted in lettuce cultivation to assess the impedance effect of biochar amendment on soil sulfonamides (SAs), antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB), and ARG enrichment in lettuce tissues. After 100 days of cultivation, lettuce cultivation with biochar amendment exhibited the greatest soil SA dissipation as well as the significant improvement of lettuce growth indices, with residual soil SAs mainly existing as the tightly bound fraction. Moreover, the SA contents in roots and new/old leaves were reduced by one to two orders of magnitude compared to those without biochar amendment. In addition, isolate counts for SA-resistant bacterial endophytes in old leaves and sul gene abundances in roots and old leaves also decreased significantly after biochar application. However, neither SA resistant bacteria nor sul genes were detected in new leaves. It was the first study to demonstrate that biochar amendment can be a practical strategy to protect lettuce safety growing in SA-polluted soil with rich ARB and ARGs.

  2. Purification and inhibition studies with anions and sulfonamides of an α-carbonic anhydrase from the Antarctic seal Leptonychotes weddellii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincinelli, Alessandra; Martellini, Tania; Innocenti, Alessio; Scozzafava, Andrea; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2011-03-15

    A high activity α-carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) has been purified from various tissues of the Antarctic seal Leptonychotes weddellii. The new enzyme, denominated lwCA, has a catalytic activity for the physiologic CO(2) hydration to bicarbonate reaction, similar to that of the high activity human isoform hCA II, with a k(cat) of 1.1×10(6) s(-1), and a k(cat)/K(m) of 1.4×10(8) M(-1) s(-1). The enzyme was highly inhibited by cyanate, thiocyanate, cyanide, bicarbonate, carbonate, as well as sulfamide, sulfamate, phenylboronic/phenylarsonic acids (K(I)s in the range of 46-100 μM). Many clinically used sulfonamides, such as acetazolamide, methazolamide, dorzolamide, brinzolamide and benzolamide were low nanomolar inhibitors, with K(I)s in the range of 5.7-67 nM. Dichlorophenamide, zonisamide, saccharin and hydrochlorothiazide were weaker inhibitors, with K(I)s in the range of 513-5390 nM. The inhibition profile with anions and sulfonamides of the seal enzyme was rather different from those of the human isoforms hCA I and II. The high sensitivity to bicarbonate inhibition of lwCA, unlike that of the human enzymes, may reflect an evolutionary adaptation to the deep water, high CO(2) partial pressure and hypoxic conditions in which Weddell seals spend much of their life. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The material flow of salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostick, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    Salt (NaCl) is a universal mineral commodity used by virtually every person in the world. Although a very common mineral today, at one time it was considered as precious as gold in certain cultures. This study traces the material flow of salt from its origin through the postconsumer phase of usage. The final disposition of salt in the estimated 14,000 different uses, grouped into several macrocategories, is traced from the dispersive loss of salt into the environment to the ultimate disposal of salt-base products into the waste stream after consumption. The base year for this study is 1990, in which an estimated 196 million short tons of municipal solid waste was discarded by the US population. Approximately three-fourths of domestic salt consumed is released to the environment and unrecovered while about one-fourth is discharged to landfills and incinerators as products derived from salt. Cumulative historical domestic production, trade, and consumption data have been compiled to illustrate the long-term trends within the US salt industry and the cumulative contribution that highway deicing salt has had on the environment. Salt is an important component of drilling fluids in well drilling. It is used to flocculate and to increase the density of the drilling fluid in order to overcome high down-well gas pressures. Whenever drilling activities encounter salt formations, salt is added to the drilling fluid to saturate the solution and minimize the dissolution within the salt strata. Salt is also used to increase the set rate of concrete in cemented casings. This subsector includes companies engaged in oil, gas, and crude petroleum exploration and in refining and compounding lubricating oil. It includes SIC major groups 13 and 29. 13 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs

  4. Where Does Road Salt Go - a Static Salt Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, C. W.; Liu, F.; Moriarty, V. W.

    2017-12-01

    Each winter, more than 15 million tons of road salt is applied in the United States for the de-icing purpose. Considerable amount of chloride in road salt flows into streams/drainage systems with the snow melt runoff and spring storms, and eventually goes into ecologically sensitive low-lying areas in the watershed, such as ponds and lakes. In many watersheds in the northern part of US, the chloride level in the water body has increased significantly in the past decades, and continues an upward trend. The environmental and ecological impact of the elevated chloride level can no longer be ignored. However although there are many studies on the biological impact of elevated chloride levels, there are few investigations on how the spatially distributed road salt application affects various parts of the watershed. In this presentation, we propose a static road salt model as a first-order metric to address spacial distribution of salt loading. Derived from the Topological Wetness Index (TWI) in many hydrological models, this static salt model provides a spatial impact as- sessment of road salt applications. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the static model, National Elevation Dataset (NED) of ten-meter resolution of Lake George watershed in New York State is used to generate the TWI, which is used to compute a spatially dis- tributed "salt-loading coefficient" of the whole watershed. Spatially varying salt applica- tion rate is then aggregated, using the salt-loading coefficients as weights, to provide salt loading assessments of streams in the watershed. Time-aggregated data from five CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth) sensors in selected streams are used for calibration. The model outputs and the sensor data demonstrate a strong linear correlation, with the R value of 0.97. The investigation shows that the static modeling approach may provide an effective method for the understanding the input and transport of road salt to within watersheds.

  5. Novel 3-Nitro-1H-1,2,4-triazole-based Amides and Sulfonamides as Potential anti-Trypanosomal Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Maria V.; Bloomer, William D.; Rosenzweig, Howard S.; Chatelain, Eric; Kaiser, Marcel; Wilkinson, Shane R.; McKenzie, Caroline; Ioset, Jean-Robert

    2012-01-01

    A series of novel 3-nitro-1H-1,2,4-triazole-(and in some cases 2-nitro-1H-imidazole)-based amides and sulfonamides were characterized for their in vitro anti-trypanosomal and antileishmanial activities as well as mammalian toxicity. Out of 36 compounds tested, 29 (mostly 3-nitro-1H-1,2,4-triazoles) displayed significant activity against T. cruzi intracellular amastigotes (IC50 ranging from 28 nM to 3.72 μM) without concomitant toxicity to L6 host cells (selectivity 66 to 2782). Twenty three of these active compounds were more potent (up to 58 fold) than the reference drug benznidazole, tested in parallel. In addition, 9 nitrotriazoles which were moderately active (0.5 μM ≤ IC50 amides and sulfonamides are potent anti-trypanosomal agents. PMID:22550999

  6. Generic aspects of salt repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laughon, R.B.

    1979-01-01

    The history of geological disposal of radioactive wastes in salt is presented from 1957 when a panel of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council recommended burial in bedded salt deposits. Early work began in the Kansas, portion of the Permian Basin where simulated wastes were placed in an abandoned salt mine at Lyons, Kansas, in the late 1960's. This project was terminated when the potential effect of nearby solution mining activities could not be resolved. Evaluation of bedded salts resumed a few years later in the Permian Basin in southeastern New Mexico, and search for suitable sites in the 1970's resulted in the formation of the National Waste Terminal Storage Program in 1976. Evaluation of salt deposits in many regions of the United States has been virtually completed and has shown that deposits having the greatest potential for radioactive waste disposal are those of the largest depositional basins and salt domes of the Gulf Coast region

  7. Development of High Throughput Salt Separation System with Integrated Liquid Salt Separation - Salt Distillation Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Sangwoon; Park, K. M.; Kim, J. G.; Jeong, J. H.; Lee, S. J.; Park, S. B.; Kim, S. S.

    2013-01-15

    The capacity of a salt distiller should be sufficiently large to reach the throughput of uranium electro-refining process. In this study, an assembly composing a liquid separation sieve and a distillation crucible was developed for the sequential operation of a liquid salt separation and a vacuum distillation in the same tower. The feasibility of the sequential salt separation was examined by the rotation test of the sieve-crucible assembly and sequential operation of a liquid salt separation and a vacuum distillation. The adhered salt in the uranium deposits was removed successfully. The salt content in the deposits was below 0.1 wt% after the sequential operation of the liquid salt separation - salt distillation. From the results of this study, it could be concluded that efficient salt separation can be realized by the sequential operation of liquid salt separation and vacuum distillation in one distillation tower since the operation procedures are simplified and no extra operation of cooling and reheating is necessary.

  8. Sulfonamide antibiotic removal and nitrogen recovery from synthetic urine by the combination of rotating advanced oxidation contactor and methylene urea synthesis process

    OpenAIRE

    Fukahori, S.; Fujiwara, T.; Ito, R.; Funamizu, N.

    2015-01-01

    The combination of nitrogen recovery and pharmaceutical removal processes for livestock urine treatment were investigated to suppress the discharge of pollutants and recover nitrogen as resources. We combined methylene urea synthesis from urea and adsorption and photocatalytic decomposition of sulfonamide antibiotic using rotating advanced oxidation contactor (RAOC) contained for obtaining both safe fertilizer and reclaimed water. The methylene urea synthesis could recover urea in synthetic u...

  9. Computer Based Design and Synthesis of Some Novel Thiazole Derivatives Bearing a Sulfonamide Moiety and Studying Their Potential Synergistic Anticancer Effect With γ-Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, A.M.M.

    2011-01-01

    In a search for new cytotoxic agents with improved antitumor activity and selectivity, some new thiazole, thiazolo pyrimidine, thiazolo pyrane and thiazolo pyrano pyrimidine derivatives bearing sulfonamide moiety were synthesized. The newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for their antitumor activity alone and in combination with γ-irradiation. These new compounds were docked inside the active site of carbonic anhydrase II to predict their mechanism of action.

  10. Zechstein salt Denmark. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyngsie Jacobsen, F.; Soenderholm, M.; Springer, N.; Gutzon Larsen, J.; Lagoni, P.; Fabricius, J.

    1984-01-01

    The Salt Research Project EFP-81 has mainly been aiming upon an elucidation of the stratigraphy of the Danish Zechstein evaporites. Also an attempt to clarify the connection between the fabric and the strength of the strongly deformed domal rock salt is performed. The unravelling of the stratigraphy is carried out by means of renewed interpretations of new and old data from all the wells drilling in the Danish Permian basin in connection with a revaluation of the core descriptions. By means of trace elements analysis it is possible to some extent to distinguish between Zestein 1 and 2 ''grey salt''. A description of the transition zone between Zechstein 1 and 2 is carried out. New methods of fabric analyses are introduced and the strength measurements of the rock salt are treated statistically in connection with new defined rock salt parameters. An investigation of fluid inclusions in halite and quartz crystals from dome salt has resulted in the determination of salinity and chemical composition of the brines present in the salt. Temperatures and corresponding pressures during the evolution of the salt pillow and salt dome have been established. The dehydration conditions of natural carnallite in situ are clarified. (author)

  11. Salt formations offer disposal alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funderburk, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses how three U.S. firms are spending millions to permit and build underground disposal sites in salt formations. These companies claim salt is the ideal geological medium for holding hazardous wastes. Two Texas locations and one in Michigan have been targeted as future sites for hazardous waste disposal. The Michigan site, outside Detroit, is a former salt mine 2,000 feet beneath the Ford Motor Co. (Detroit) assembly works in Dearborn. Both Texas sites are atop salt domes---one east and one west of Houston

  12. Fused salt electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ares, Osvaldo; Botbol, Jose.

    1989-01-01

    Working conditions for zirconium preparation by fused salt electrolysis were studied. For such purpose, a cell was built for operation under argon atmosphere. A graphite crucible served as anode, with steel cathodes. Proper design allowed cathode rechange under the inert atmosphere. Cathodic deposits of zirconium powder occluded salts from the bath. After washing with both water and hydrochloric acid, the metallic powder was consolidated by fusion. Optimum operating conditions were found to arise from an electrolyte of 12% potassium hexafluorzirconate -88% sodium chloride, at 820 deg C and 5 A/cm 2 cathodic current density. Deposits contained 35% of metal and current efficiency reached 66%. The powder contained up to 600 ppm of chlorine and 1.700 ppm of fluorine; after fusion, those amounts decreased to 2 ppm and 3 ppm respectively, with low proportion of metallic impurities. Though oxygen proportion was 4.500 ppm, it should be lowered by improving working conditions, as well as working on an ampler scale. (Author)

  13. Syntheses of Novel 4-Substituted N-(5-amino-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylpyridine-3-sulfonamide Derivatives with Potential Antifungal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Szafrański

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Candidiasis represent a serious threat for patients with altered immune responses. Therefore, we have undertaken the synthesis of compounds comprising a pyridine-3-sulfonamide scaffold and known antifungally active 1,2,4-triazole substituents. Thus a series of novel 4-substituted N-(5-amino-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylpyridine-3-sulfonamides have been synthesized by multistep reactions starting from 4-chloropyridine-3-sulfonamide via N′-cyano-N-[(4-substitutedpyridin-3-ylsulfonyl]carbamimidothioates which were further converted with hydrazine hydrate to the corresponding 1,2,4-triazole derivatives 26–36. The final compounds were evaluated for antifungal activity against strains of the genera Candida, Geotrichum, Rhodotorula, and Saccharomycess isolated from patients with mycosis. Many of them show greater efficacy than fluconazole, mostly towards Candida albicans and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa species, with MIC values ≤ 25 µg/mL. A docking study of the most active compounds 26, 34 and 35 was performed showing the potential mode of binding to Candida albicans lanosterol 14α-demethylase. Also in vitro cytotoxicity of selected compounds have been evaluated on the NCI-60 cell line panel.

  14. Synthesis and enzyme inhibitory studies of some new N-alkylated/aralkylated N-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-2,3-drobenzo-(1,4)-dioxin-6-sulfonamides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, M.A.; Islam, M.; Rehman, A.U.; Siddiqui, S.Z.

    2016-01-01

    The research endeavor was aimed to synthesize N-alkyl/aralkylated-N-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-2,3-dihydrobenzo-(1,4)-dioxine-6 sulfonamides and to evaluate their enzyme inhibitory potential. The target molecules were synthesized in two steps. The first step involved the reaction of 4-ethoxyaniline (1) with N-2,3-dihydrobenzo(1,4)-dioxin-6-sulfonyl chloride (2) under dynamic pH control maintained by 10% aqueous Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ to yield N-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-2,3-dihydrobenzo-(1,4)-dioxine-6-sulfonamide (3). In second step parent compound 3 was reacted with various alkyl/aralkyl halides (4a-l) in N,N'-dimethylformamide and catalytic amount of lithium hydride to accomplish some new N-alkyl/aralkylated-N-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-2,3-dihydrobenzo-(1,4)-dioxine-6 sulfonamides (5a-l). Probable structures of the synthesized compounds were characterized by contemporary spectral techniques i.e. IR, 1H-NMR and EIMS and were finally evaluated for enzyme inhibitory potential against a-glucosidase and urease. The synthesized compounds exhibited moderate to weak therapeutic potential throughout the series. (author)

  15. Molten salt fueled reactors with a fast salt draining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventre, Edmond; Blum, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to a molten salt nuclear reactor which comprises a new arrangement for shutting it down in complete safety. This nuclear reactor has a molten salt primary circuit comprising, in particular, the core of this reactor. It includes a leak tight vessel the capacity of which is appreciably greater than that of the molten salt volume of the circuit and placed so that the level of the molten salt, when all the molten salt of the circuit is contained in this vessel, is less than that of the base of the core. There are facilities for establishing and maintaining an inert gas pressure in the vessel above the molten salt, for releasing the compressed gas and for connecting the vessel to the primary circuit entering this vessel at a lower level than that of the molten salt and enabling molten salt to enter or leave the vessel according to the pressure of the inert gas. The particular advantage of this reactor is that it can be shut down safely since the draining of the primary circuit no longer results from a 'positive action' but from the suppression of an arrangement essential for the operation of the reactor consisting of the build-up of the said inert gas pressure in the said vessel [fr

  16. Experiments in connection with Salt Domes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escher, B.G.; Kuenen, Ph.H.

    1928-01-01

    The different theories concerning the origin of Salt Domes in Roumania, Germany, Texas, Louisiana, Colorado and Utah are discussed. In Roumania the salt occurs in cores of “Diapir” anticlines. The existance of hills of salt indicates, that the salt is still pushing upwards. In Germany the salt

  17. Salt disposal: Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    This report presents the findings of a study conducted for the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. Permanent disposal options are examined for salt resulting from the excavation of a waste repository in the bedded salt deposits of the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah. The study is based on a repository salt backfill compaction of 60% of the original density which leaves a total of 8 million tons of 95% pure salt to be disposed of over a 30-year period. The feasibility, impacts, and mitigation methods are examined for five options: commercial disposal, permanent onsite surface disposal, permanent offsite disposal, deepwell injection, and ocean and Great Salt Lake disposal. The study concludes the following: Commercial marketing of all repository salt would require a subsidy for transportation to major salt markets. Permanent onsite surface storage is both economically and technically feasible. Permanent offsite disposal is technically feasible but would incur additional transportation costs. Selection of an offsite location would provide a means of mitigating impacts associated with surface storage at the repository site. Deepwell injection is an attractive disposal method; however, the large water requirement, high cost of development, and poor performance of similar operating brine disposal wells eliminates this option from consideration as the primary means of disposal for the Paradox Basin. Ocean disposal is expensive because of high transportation cost. Also, regulatory approval is unlikely. Ocean disposal should be eliminated from further consideration in the Paradox Basin. Great Salt Lake disposal appears to be technically feasible. Great Salt Lake disposal would require state approval and would incur substantial costs for salt transportation. Permanent onsite disposal is the least expensive method for disposal of all repository salt

  18. Diazonium salt-mediated synthesis of new amino, hydroxy, propargyl, and maleinimido-containing superparamagnetic Fe@C nanoparticles as platforms for linking bio-entities or organocatalytic moieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunge, Alexander; Magerusan, Lidia; Morjan, Ion; Turcu, Rodica; Borodi, Gheorghe; Liebscher, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    New magnetic Fe@C nanoparticles in the size range of about 20–50 nm functionalized with amino, hydroxy, propargyl, or maleinimido groups were synthesized by reaction with aryl diazonium salts. Aryl diazonium salts wherein the functional groups are linked via a sulfonamide moiety turned out to be advantageous over those with direct linkage. The obtained Fe@C nanoparticles represent magnetic nanoplatforms for linking bio-entities and organocatalysts using amide formation, CuAAC, or thiol-ene click chemistry as exemplified by selected examples. The Fe@C nanoparticles obtained exhibit supramolecular behavior with high value of saturation magnetization rendering them attractive for practical applications in biomedicine and organocatalysis.

  19. Diazonium salt-mediated synthesis of new amino, hydroxy, propargyl, and maleinimido-containing superparamagnetic Fe@C nanoparticles as platforms for linking bio-entities or organocatalytic moieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunge, Alexander; Magerusan, Lidia [National Institute of Research and Development for Isotopic and Molecular Technologies (Romania); Morjan, Ion [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics (Romania); Turcu, Rodica; Borodi, Gheorghe; Liebscher, Jürgen, E-mail: liebscher@chemie.hu-berlin.de [National Institute of Research and Development for Isotopic and Molecular Technologies (Romania)

    2015-09-15

    New magnetic Fe@C nanoparticles in the size range of about 20–50 nm functionalized with amino, hydroxy, propargyl, or maleinimido groups were synthesized by reaction with aryl diazonium salts. Aryl diazonium salts wherein the functional groups are linked via a sulfonamide moiety turned out to be advantageous over those with direct linkage. The obtained Fe@C nanoparticles represent magnetic nanoplatforms for linking bio-entities and organocatalysts using amide formation, CuAAC, or thiol-ene click chemistry as exemplified by selected examples. The Fe@C nanoparticles obtained exhibit supramolecular behavior with high value of saturation magnetization rendering them attractive for practical applications in biomedicine and organocatalysis.

  20. Improvement to molten salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bienvenu, Claude.

    1975-01-01

    The invention proposes a molten salt nuclear reactor whose core includes a mass of at least one fissile element salt to which can be added other salts to lower the melting temperature of the mass. This mass also contains a substance with a low neutron capture section that does not give rise to a chemical reaction or to an azeotropic mixture with these salts and having an atmospheric boiling point under that of the mass in operation. Means are provided for collecting this substance in the vapour state and returning it as a liquid to the mass. The kind of substance chosen will depend on that of the molten salts (fissile element salts and, where required, salts to lower the melting temperature). In actual practice, the substance chosen will have an atmospheric pressure boiling point of between 600 and 1300 0 C and a melting point sufficiently below 600 0 C to prevent solidification and clogging in the return line of the substance from the exchanger. Among the materials which can be considered for use, mention is made of magnesium, rubidium, cesium and potassium but metal cesium is not employed in the case of many fissile salts, such as fluorides, which it would reduced to the planned working temperatures [fr

  1. Caenorhabditis elegans response to salt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.O. Umuerri (Oluwatoroti Omowayewa)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes my work, where I used genetic methods to identify new genes involved in salt taste in C. elegans. In addition, I used calcium imaging to characterize the cellular response of C. elegans to salt. The thesis is divided into five sections and each section is summarized

  2. Molten salt reactor type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This document is one of the three parts of a first volume devoted to the compilations of American data on the molten salt reactor concept. This part describes the MSBR core (data presented are from ORNL 4541). The principal characteristics of the core are presented in tables together with plane and elevation drawings, stress being put upon the reflector, and loading and unloading. Neutronic, and thermal and hydraulic characteristics (core and reflectors) are more detailed. The reasons why a graphite with a tight graphite layer has been chosen are briefly exposed. The physical properties of the standard graphite (irradiation behavior) have been determined for an isotropic graphite with fine granulometry; its dimensional variations largely ressemble that of Gilsonite. The mechanical stresses computed (Wigner effect) do not implicate in any way the graphite stack [fr

  3. The Salt II Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, D.

    1991-01-01

    The first strategic arms limitation talks resulted in two agreements: the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty and the Interim Agreement to Limit Strategic Offensive Arms. Senator Henry M. (Scoop) Jackson (D-Wa.) was concerned about the numerical advantage granted to the USSR by the Latter agreement and proposed an amendment that would prohibit future negotiators from granting the Soviet Union similar terms. This paper discusses the second round of SALT negotiations which opened in November 1972 and continued under presidents Richard M. Nixon, Gerald Ford, and Jimmy Carter. As the negotiators met, U.S. and Soviet scientists and engineers continued their work to develop new nuclear weapons and launchers. Particularly problematic were modern, large ballistic missiles, cruise missiles, and the Soviet Backfire bomber

  4. Salt resistant crop plants

    KAUST Repository

    Roy, Stuart J.

    2014-04-01

    Soil salinity is a major constraint to agriculture. To improve salinity tolerance of crops, various traits can be incorporated, including ion exclusion, osmotic tolerance and tissue tolerance. We review the roles of a range of genes involved in salt tolerance traits. Different tissues and cells are adapted for specific and often diverse function, so it is important to express the genes in specific cell-types and to pyramid a range of traits. Modern biotechnology (marker- assisted selection or genetic engineering) needs to be increasingly used to introduce the correct combination of genes into elite crop cultivars. Importantly, the effects of introduced genes need to be evaluated in the field to determine their effect on salinity tolerance and yield improvement.

  5. Salt brickwork as long-term sealing in salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, F.; Yaramanci, U.

    1993-01-01

    Radioactive wastes can be disposed of in deep salt formations. Rock salt is a suitable geologic medium because of its unique characteristics. Open boreholes, shafts and drifts are created to provide physical access to the repository. Long-term seals must be emplaced in these potential pathways to prevent radioactive release into the biosphere. The sealing materials must be mechanically and, most important, geochemically stable within the host rock. Salt bricks made from compressed salt-powder are understood to be the first choice long-term sealing material. Seals built of salt bricks will be ductile. Large sealing systems are built by combining the individual bricks with mortar. Raw materials for mortar are fine-grained halite powder and ground saliferous clay. This provides for the good adhesive strength of the mortar to the bricks and the high shear-strength of the mortar itself. To test the interaction of rock salt with an emplaced long-term seal, experiments will be carried out in situ, in the Asse salt mine in Germany. Simple borehole sealing experiments will be performed in horizontal holes and a complicated drift sealing experiment is planned, to demonstrate the technology of sealing a standard size drift or shaft inside a disturbed rock mass. Especially, the mechanical stability of the sealing system has to be demonstrated

  6. Kinetics and thermodynamics of interaction between sulfonamide antibiotics and humic acids: Surface plasmon resonance and isothermal titration microcalorimetry analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Juan; Yu, Han-Qing; Sheng, Guo-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • HA would significantly affect the migration and transformation of SMZ. • Kinetics and thermodynamics of HA–SMZ interactions were studied using SPR and ITC. • The interaction is enhanced by increasing ionic strength and decreasing temperature. • Hydrogen bond and electrostatic interaction play important roles in the process. - Abstract: The presence of sulfonamide antibiotics in the environments has been recognized as a crucial issue. Their migration and transformation in the environment is determined by natural organic matters that widely exist in natural water and soil. In this study, the kinetics and thermodynamics of interactions between humic acids (HA) and sulfamethazine (SMZ) were investigated by employing surface plasmon resonance (SPR) combined with isothermal titration microcalorimetry (ITC) technologies. Results show that SMZ could be effectively bound with HA. The binding strength could be enhanced by increasing ionic strength and decreasing temperature. High pH was not favorable for the interaction. Hydrogen bond and electrostatic interaction may play important roles in driving the binding process, with auxiliary contribution from hydrophobic interaction. The results implied that HA existed in the environment may have a significant influence on the migration and transformation of organic pollutants through the binding process.

  7. Effect of biochar amendment on the control of soil sulfonamides, antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and gene enrichment in lettuce tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Mao; Sun, Mingming; Feng, Yanfang; Wan, Jinzhong; Xie, Shanni; Tian, Da; Zhao, Yu; Wu, Jun; Hu, Feng; Li, Huixin; Jiang, Xin

    2016-05-15

    Considering the potential threat of vegetables growing in antibiotic-polluted soil with high abundance of antibiotic-resistant genes (ARGs) against human health through the food chain, it is thus urgent to develop novel control technology to ensure vegetable safety. In the present work, pot experiments were conducted in lettuce cultivation to assess the impedance effect of biochar amendment on soil sulfonamides (SAs), antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB), and ARG enrichment in lettuce tissues. After 100 days of cultivation, lettuce cultivation with biochar amendment exhibited the greatest soil SA dissipation as well as the significant improvement of lettuce growth indices, with residual soil SAs mainly existing as the tightly bound fraction. Moreover, the SA contents in roots and new/old leaves were reduced by one to two orders of magnitude compared to those without biochar amendment. In addition, isolate counts for SA-resistant bacterial endophytes in old leaves and sul gene abundances in roots and old leaves also decreased significantly after biochar application. However, neither SA resistant bacteria nor sul genes were detected in new leaves. It was the first study to demonstrate that biochar amendment can be a practical strategy to protect lettuce safety growing in SA-polluted soil with rich ARB and ARGs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Food Sample Preparation for the Determination of Sulfonamides by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography: State-of-the-Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Bitas

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are a common practice in veterinary medicine, mainly for therapeutic purposes. Sectors of application include livestock farming, aquacultures, and bee-keeping, where bacterial infections are frequent and can be economically damaging. However, antibiotics are usually administered in sub-therapeutic doses as prophylactic and growth promoting agents. Due to their excessive use, antibiotic residues can be present in foods of animal origin, which include meat, fish, milk, eggs, and honey, posing health risks to consumers. For this reason, authorities have set maximum residue limits (MRLs of certain antibiotics in food matrices, while analytical methods for their determination have been developed. This work focuses on antibiotic extraction and determination, part of which was presented at the “1st Conference in Chemistry for Graduate, Postgraduate Students and PhD Candidates at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki”. Taking a step further, this paper is a review of the most recent sample preparation protocols applied for the extraction of sulfonamide antibiotics from food samples and their determination with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, covering a five-year period.

  9. Kinetics and thermodynamics of interaction between sulfonamide antibiotics and humic acids: Surface plasmon resonance and isothermal titration microcalorimetry analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Juan; Yu, Han-Qing; Sheng, Guo-Ping, E-mail: gpsheng@ustc.edu.cn

    2016-01-25

    Highlights: • HA would significantly affect the migration and transformation of SMZ. • Kinetics and thermodynamics of HA–SMZ interactions were studied using SPR and ITC. • The interaction is enhanced by increasing ionic strength and decreasing temperature. • Hydrogen bond and electrostatic interaction play important roles in the process. - Abstract: The presence of sulfonamide antibiotics in the environments has been recognized as a crucial issue. Their migration and transformation in the environment is determined by natural organic matters that widely exist in natural water and soil. In this study, the kinetics and thermodynamics of interactions between humic acids (HA) and sulfamethazine (SMZ) were investigated by employing surface plasmon resonance (SPR) combined with isothermal titration microcalorimetry (ITC) technologies. Results show that SMZ could be effectively bound with HA. The binding strength could be enhanced by increasing ionic strength and decreasing temperature. High pH was not favorable for the interaction. Hydrogen bond and electrostatic interaction may play important roles in driving the binding process, with auxiliary contribution from hydrophobic interaction. The results implied that HA existed in the environment may have a significant influence on the migration and transformation of organic pollutants through the binding process.

  10. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. A general approach for the preparation of water-soluble sulfonamides incorporating polyamino-polycarboxylate tails and of their metal complexes possessing long-lasting, topical intraocular pressure-lowering properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scozzafava, Andrea; Menabuoni, Luca; Mincione, Francesco; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2002-03-28

    Reaction of polyamino-polycarboxylic acids or their dianhydrides with aromatic/heterocyclic sulfonamides possessing a free amino/imino/hydrazino/hydroxy group afforded mono- and bis-sulfonamides containing polyamino-polycarboxylic acid moieties in their molecule. The acids/anhydrides used in synthesis included IDA, NTA, EDDA, EDTA and EDTA dianhydride, DTPA and DTPA dianhydride, EGTA and EGTA dianhydride, and EDDHA, among others. All the newly prepared derivatives showed strong affinity toward isozymes I, II, and IV of carbonic anhydrase (CA). Metal complexes of the new compounds have also been prepared. Metal ions used in such preparations included di- and trivalent main-group and transition cations, such as Zn(II), Cu(II), Al(III), etc. Some of the new sulfonamides/disulfonamides obtained in this way, as well as their metal complexes, behaved as nanomolar CA inhibitors against isozymes II and IV, being slightly less effective in inhibiting isozyme I. Some of these sulfonamides as well as their metal complexes strongly lowered intraocular pressure (IOP) when applied topically, directly into the normotensive/glaucomatous rabbit eye, as 1-2% water solutions/suspensions. The good water solubility of these sulfonamide CA inhibitors, correlated with the neutral pH of their water solutions used in the ophthalmologic applications and the long duration of action of the IOP-lowering effect, makes them interesting candidates for developing novel types of antiglaucoma drugs devoid of serious topical side effects.

  11. Moltex Energy's stable salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, R.; Laurie, J.

    2016-01-01

    A stable salt reactor is a molten salt reactor in which the molten fuel salt is contained in fuel rods. This concept was invented in 1951 and re-discovered and improved recently by Moltex Energy Company. The main advantage of using molten salt fuel is that the 2 problematic fission products cesium and iodine do not exist in gaseous form but rather in a form of a salt that present no danger in case of accident. Another advantage is the strongly negative temperature coefficient for reactivity which means the reactor self-regulates. The feasibility studies have been performed on a molten salt fuel composed of sodium chloride and plutonium/uranium/lanthanide/actinide trichloride. The coolant fluid is a mix of sodium and zirconium fluoride salts that will need low flow rates. The addition of 1 mol% of metal zirconium to the coolant fluid reduces the risk of corrosion with standard steels and the addition of 2% of hafnium reduces the neutron dose. The temperature of the coolant is expected to reach 650 Celsius degrees at the exit of the core. This reactor is designed to be modular and it will be able to burn actinides. (A.C.)

  12. Impacts of using salt and salt brine for roadway deicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Idaho Transportation Department (ITD) uses a variety of methods to help ensure safe travel on the state highway system : following winter storm events. These methods include plowing, use of sand to improve traction, and use of salt and chemical : com...

  13. Molten salts in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirian, J.; Saint-James

    1959-01-01

    Collection of references dealing with the physicochemical studies of fused salts, in particular the alkali and alkali earth halides. Numerous binary, ternary and quaternary systems of these halides with those of uranium and thorium are examined, and the physical properties, density, viscosity, vapour pressure etc... going from the halides to the mixtures are also considered. References relating to the corrosion of materials by these salts are included and the treatment of the salts with a view to recuperation after irradiation in a nuclear reactor is discussed. (author) [fr

  14. Rock salt constitutive modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickell, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    The Serata model is the best operational model available today because it incorporates: (1) a yield function to demarcate between viscoelastic and viscoplastic behavior of rock salt; (2) a pressure and temperature dependence for yield stresses; and (3) a standard linear solid, which can be readily extended into the non-linear regime, to represent creep behavior. Its only deficiencies appear to be the lack of secondary creep behavior (a free dashpot) and some unsettling arbitrariness about the Poisson's ratio (ν → 0.5) argument for viscoplasticity. The Sandia/WIPP model will have good primary and secondary creep capability, but lacks the viscoplastic behavior. In some cases, estimated inelastic strains may be underpredicted. If a creep acceleration mechanism associated with brine inclusions is observed, this model may require extensive revision. Most of the other models available (SAI, RE-SPEC, etc.) are only useful for short-term calculations, because they employ temporal power law (t/sup n/) primary creep representations. These models are unsatisfactory because they cannot represent dual mechanisms with differing characteristic times. An approach based upon combined creep and plasticity is recommended in order to remove the remaining deficiency in the Serata model. DOE/Sandia/WIPP should be encouraged to move aggressively in this regard

  15. Inhalation by design: novel ultra-long-acting β(2)-adrenoreceptor agonists for inhaled once-daily treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease that utilize a sulfonamide agonist headgroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glossop, Paul A; Lane, Charlotte A L; Price, David A; Bunnage, Mark E; Lewthwaite, Russell A; James, Kim; Brown, Alan D; Yeadon, Michael; Perros-Huguet, Christelle; Trevethick, Michael A; Clarke, Nicholas P; Webster, Robert; Jones, Rhys M; Burrows, Jane L; Feeder, Neil; Taylor, Stefan C J; Spence, Fiona J

    2010-09-23

    A novel series of potent and selective sulfonamide derived β(2)-adrenoreceptor agonists are described that exhibit potential as inhaled ultra-long-acting bronchodilators for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Analogues from this series mediate very long-lasting smooth muscle relaxation in guinea pig tracheal strips. The sulfonamide agonist headgroup confers high levels of intrinsic crystallinity that could relate to the acidic sulfonamide motif supporting a zwitterionic form in the solid state. Optimization of pharmacokinetic properties was achieved through targeted introduction of a phenolic moiety to support rapid phase II clearance, thereby minimizing systemic exposure following inhalation and reducing systemically mediated adverse events. Compound 38 (PF-610355) is identified as a clinical candidate from this series, with in vivo duration of action studies confirming its potential for once-daily use in humans. Compound 38 is currently in advanced phase II clinical studies.

  16. INORGANIC AND ORGANIC ONIUM SALTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nitrosonium NO ion absorbs in the infrared between 1/2400 and 1/ 2150 cm. Salts of complex fluoro-acids absorb at higher frequencies than salts...halide adducts generally contain nitrosonium ions . Hexaphenylditin does not undergo marked heterolytic dissociation in nitromethane solution...influencing the covalent-ionic equilibrium are discussed. Infrared spectrum nitrosonium ion ; ionic character in lattice and position nitrosonium ion absorption

  17. Microbiology of solar salt ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javor, B.

    1985-01-01

    Solar salt ponds are shallow ponds of brines that range in salinity from that of normal seawater (3.4 percent) through NaCl saturation. Some salterns evaporate brines to the potash stage of concentration (bitterns). All the brines (except the bitterns, which are devoid of life) harbor high concentrations of microorganisms. The high concentrations of microorganisms and their adaptation to life in the salt pond are discussed.

  18. Molten-salt converter reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, A.M.

    1975-01-01

    Molten-salt reactors appear to have substantial promise as advanced converters. Conversion ratios of 0.85 to 0.9 should be attainable with favourable fuel cycle costs, with 235 U valued at $12/g. An increase in 235 U value by a factor of two or three ($10 to $30/lb. U 3 O 8 , $75/SWU) would be expected to increase the optimum conversion ratio, but this has not been analyzed in detail. The processing necessary to recover uranium from the fuel salt has been partially demonstrated in the MSRE. The equipment for doing this would be located at the reactor, and there would be no reliance on an established recycle industry. Processing costs are expected to be quite low, and fuel cycle optimization depends primarily on inventory and burnup or replacement costs for the fuel and for the carrier salt. Significant development problems remain to be resolved for molten-salt reactors, notably the control of tritium and the elimination of intergranular cracking of Hastelloy-N in contact with tellurium. However, these problems appear to be amenable to solution. It is appropriate to consider separating the development schedule for molten-salt reactors from that for the processing technology required for breeding. The Molten-Salt Converter Reactor should be a useful reactor in its own right and would be an advance towards the achievement of true breeding in thermal reactors. (author)

  19. Liking, salt taste perception and use of table salt when consuming reduced-salt chicken stews in light of South Africa's new salt regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kock, H L; Zandstra, E H; Sayed, N; Wentzel-Viljoen, E

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of salt reduction on liking, salt taste perception, and use of table salt when consuming chicken stew in light of South Africa's new salt recommendations. In total, 432 South-African consumers (aged 35.2 ± 12.3 years) consumed a full portion of a chicken stew meal once at a central location. Four stock cube powders varying in salt content were used to prepare chicken stews: 1) no reduction - 2013 Na level; regular salt level as currently available on the South African market (24473 mg Na/100 g), 2) salt reduction smaller than 2016 level, i.e. 10%-reduced (22025 mg Na/100 g), 3) 2016 salt level, as per regulatory prescriptions (18000 mg Na/100 g), 4) 2019 salt level, as per regulatory prescriptions (13000 mg Na/100 g). Consumers were randomly allocated to consume one of the four meals. Liking, salt taste perception, and use of table salt and pepper were measured. Chicken stews prepared with reduced-salt stock powders were equally well-liked as chicken stews with the current salt level. Moreover, a gradual reduction of the salt in the chicken stews resulted in a reduced salt intake, up to an average of 19% for the total group compared to the benchmark 2013 Na level stew. However, 19% of consumers compensated by adding salt back to full compensation in some cases. More salt was added with increased reductions of salt in the meals, even to the point of full compensation. Further investigation into the impacts of nutrition communication and education about salt reduction on salt taste perception and use is needed. This research provides new consumer insights on salt use and emphasises the need for consumer-focused behaviour change approaches, in addition to reformulation of products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for seven sulfonamide residues and investigation of matrix effects from different food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyan; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yan; Fang, Guozhen; Zheng, Wenjie; Wang, Shuo

    2007-03-21

    Direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were developed to detect a broad range of sulfonamides in various matrices. Screening for this class of antibiotics in pig muscle, chicken muscle, fish, and egg extracts was accomplished by simple, rapid extraction methods carried out with only phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) buffer. Twenty milliliters of extract solution was added to 4 g of sample to extract the sulfonamide residues, and sample extracts diluted with assay buffer were directly analyzed by ELISA; matrix effects could be avoided with 1:5 dilution of pig muscle, chicken muscle, and egg extracts with PBS and 1:5 dilution of fish extract with 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA)-PBS. For liver sample, the extraction method was a little more complicated; 2 g of sample was added to 20 mL of ethanol, mixed, and then centrifuged. The solvent of 10 mL of the upper liquid was removed, and the residues were dissolved in 10 mL of PBS and then filtered; the filtrate was diluted two-fold with 0.5% BSA-PBS for ELISA. These common methods were able to detect seven sulfonamide residues such as sulfisozole, sulfathiazole, sufameter, sulfamethoxypyridazine, sulfapyridine, sulfamethizole, and sulfachlorpyridazine in pig muscle, liver, chicken muscle, egg, and fish. The assay's detection limits for these compounds were less than 100 microg kg-1. Various extraction methods were tested, and the average recovery (n=3) of 100 microg kg-1 for the matrices was found to range from 77.3 to 123.7%.

  1. Structure and thermodynamics of molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papatheodorou, G.N.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter investigates single-component molten salts and multicomponent salt mixtures. Molten salts provide an important testing ground for theories of liquids, solutions, and plasmas. Topics considered include molten salts as liquids (the pair potential, the radial distribution function, methods of characterization), single salts (structure, thermodynamic correlations), and salt mixtures (the thermodynamics of mixing; spectroscopy and structure). Neutron and X-ray scattering techniques are used to determine the structure of molten metal halide salts. The corresponding-states theory is used to obtain thermodynamic correlations on single salts. Structural information on salt mixtures is obtained by using vibrational (Raman) and electronic absorption spectroscopy. Charge-symmetrical systems and charge-unsymmetrical systems are used to examine the thermodynamics of salt mixtures

  2. Highly efficient regioselective synthesis, spectroscopic characterizations and DFT calculations of novel hydroxymethylated 1,4-disubstituted-1,2,3-triazole-based sulfonamides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Elmira; Mirjafary, Zohreh; Saeidian, Hamid

    2018-04-01

    The novel hydroxymethylated 1,4-disubstituted-1,2,3-triazole-based sulfonamides were synthesized in excellent yields and high regioselectivity via a one-pot, two-step, three-component reaction of N-propargylsulfonamides, sodium azide, and epoxide derivatives under green conditions. Green and mild reaction condition, commercially readily available and inexpensive starting materials, wide scope and easy work-up are the key features of the present method. The Li+ and Na+ ion affinities of the model structure have been also investigated by density functional theory (DFT) studies to find the applicability of these products as ligand in coordination chemistry.

  3. Gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization for fluorotelomer alcohols and perfluorinated sulfonamides determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portolés, Tania; Rosales, Luis E; Sancho, Juan V; Santos, F Javier; Moyano, Encarnación

    2015-09-25

    Ionization and in source-fragmentation behavior of four fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOH) (4:2 FTOH, 6:2 FTOH, 8:2 FTOH and 10:2 FTOH) and four N-alkyl fluorooctane sulfonamides/-ethanols (N-MeFOSA, N-EtFOSA, N-MeFOSE and N-EtFOSE) by APCI has been studied and compared with the traditionally used EI and CI. Protonated molecule was the base peak of the APCI spectrum in all cases giving the possibility of selecting it as a precursor ion for MS/MS experiments. Following, CID fragmentation showed common product ions for all FOSAs/FOSEs (C4F7 and C3F5). Nevertheless, the different functionality gave characteristic pattern fragmentations. For instance, FTOHs mainly loss H2O+HF, FOSAs showed the losses of SO2 and HF while FOSEs showed the losses of H2O and SO2. Linearity, repeatability and LODs have been studied obtaining instrumental LODs between 1 and 5fg. Finally, application to river water and influent and effluent waste water samples has been carried out in order to investigate the improvements in detection capabilities of this new source in comparison with the traditionally used EI/CI sources. Matrix effects in APCI have been evaluated in terms of signal enhancement/suppression when comparing standards in solvent and matrix. No matrix effects were observed and concentrations found in samples were in the range of 1-100pgL(-1) far below the LODs achieved with methods previously reported. Unknown related perfluoroalkyl substances, as methyl-sulfone and methyl-sulfoxide analogues for FTOHs, were also discovered and tentatively identified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Occurrence of sulfonylurea, sulfonamide, imidazolinone, and other herbicides in rivers, reservoirs and ground water in the Midwestern United States, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglin, W.A.; Furlong, E.T.; Burkhardt, M.R.; Peter, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    Sulfonylurea (SU), sulfonamide (SA), and imidazolinone (IMI) herbicides are relatively new classes of chemical compounds that function by inhibiting the action of a plant enzyme, stopping plant growth, and eventually killing the plant. These compounds generally have low mammalian toxicity, but plants demonstrate a wide range in sensitivity to SUs, SAs, and IMIs with over a 10000-fold difference in observed toxicity levels for some compounds. SUs, SAs, and IMIs are applied either pre- or post-emergence to crops commonly at 1/50th or less of the rate of other herbicides. Little is known about their occurrence, fate, or transport in surface water or ground water in the USA. To obtain information on the occurrence of SU, SA, and IMI herbicides in the Midwestern United States, 212 water samples were collected from 75 surface-water and 25 ground-water sites in 1998. These samples were analyzed for 16 SU, SA and IMI herbicides by USGS Methods Research and Development Program staff using high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Samples were also analyzed for 47 pesticides or pesticide degradation products. At least one of the 16 SUs, SAs or IMIs was detected above the method reporting limit (MRL) of 0.01 ??g/l in 83% of 130 stream samples. Imazethapyr was detected most frequently (71% of samples) followed by flumetsulam (63% of samples) and nicosulfuron (52% of samples). The sum of SU, SA and IMI concentrations exceeded 0.5 ??g/l in less than 10% of stream samples. Acetochlor, alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine and metolachlor were all detected in 90% or more of 129 stream samples. The sum of the concentration of these five herbicides exceeded 50 ??g/l in approximately 10% of stream samples. At least one SU, SA, or IMI herbicide was detected above the MRL in 24% of 25 ground-water samples and 86% of seven reservoir samples. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

  5. Sulfonamide and tetracycline resistance genes in total- and culturable-bacterial assemblages in South African aquatic environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru eSuzuki

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB are ubiquitous in the natural environment. The introduction of effluent derived antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs into aquatic environments is of concern in the spreading of genetic risk. This study showed the prevalence of sulfonamide and tetracycline resistance genes, sul1, sul2, sul3 and tet(M, in the total bacterial assemblage and colony forming bacterial assemblage in river and estuarine water and sewage treatment plants (STP in South Africa. There was no correlation between antibiotic concentrations and ARGs, suggesting the targeted ARGs are spread in a wide area without connection to selection pressure. Among sul genes, sul1 and sul2 were major genes in the total (over 10-2 copies/16S and colony forming bacteria assemblages (approx 10-1 copies/16S. In urban waters, the sul3 gene was mostly not detectable in total and culturable assemblages, suggesting sul3 is not abundant. tet(M was found in natural assemblages with 10-3 copies/16S level in STP, but was not detected in colony forming bacteria, suggesting the non-culturable (yet-to-be cultured bacterial community in urban surface waters and STP effluent possess the tet(M gene. Sulfamethoxazole resistant (SMXr and oxytetracycline resistant (OTCr bacterial communities in urban waters possessed not only sul1 and sul2 but also sul3 and tet(M genes. These genes are widely distributed in SMXr and OTCr bacteria. In conclusion, urban river and estuarine water and STP effluent in the Durban area were highly contaminated with ARGs, and the yet-to-be cultured bacterial community may act as a non-visible ARG reservoir in certain situations.

  6. Phenotypic and genotypic bacterial antimicrobial resistance in liquid pig manure is variously associated with contents of tetracyclines and sulfonamides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzel, C S; Harms, K S; Küchenhoff, H; Kunz, A; Müller, C; Meyer, K; Schwaiger, K; Bauer, J

    2010-05-01

    Antibiotic residues as well as antibiotic-resistant bacteria in environmental samples might pose a risk to human health. This study aimed to investigate the association between antibiotic residues and bacterial antimicrobial resistance in liquid pig manure used as fertilizer. Concentrations of tetracyclines (TETs) and sulfonamides (SULs) were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in 305 pig manure samples; antibiotic contents were correlated to the phenotypic resistance of Escherichia coli (n = 613) and enterococci (n = 564) towards up to 24 antibiotics. In 121 samples, the concentration of the TET resistance genes tet(M), tet(O) and tet(B) was quantified by real-time-PCR. TETs were found in 54% of the samples. The median sum concentration of all investigated TETs in the positive samples was 0.73 mg kg(-1). SULs were found with a similar frequency (51%) and a median sum concentration of 0.15 mg kg(-1) in the positive samples. Associated with the detection of TETs and/or SULs, resistance rates were significantly elevated for several substances - some of them not used in farm animals, e.g. chloramphenicol and synercid. In addition, multiresistant isolates were found more often in samples containing antibiotics. Analysis of the resistance genes tet(M) and tet(O) already showed a significant increase in their concentrations - but not in tet(B) - in the lowest range of total TET concentration. Mean tet(M) concentrations increased by the factor of 4.5 in the TET concentration range of 0.1-1 mg kg(-1), compared to negative manure samples. Antibiotic contamination of manure seems to be associated with a variety of changes in bacterial resistance, calling for a prudent use of antibiotics in farm animals. This study provides an interdisciplinary approach to assess antimicrobial resistance by combining the microbiological analysis of bacterial resistance with high quality chemical analysis of antibiotic residues in a representative number of environmental

  7. Sulfamethoxazole and COD increase abundance of sulfonamide resistance genes and change bacterial community structures within sequencing batch reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xueping; Pang, Weihai; Dou, Chunling; Yin, Daqiang

    2017-05-01

    The abundant microbial community in biological treatment processes in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) may potentially enhance the horizontal gene transfer of antibiotic resistance genes with the presence of antibiotics. A lab-scale sequencing batch reactor was designed to investigate response of sulfonamide resistance genes (sulI, sulII) and bacterial communities to various concentrations of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of wastewater. The SMX concentrations (0.001 mg/L, 0.1 mg/L and 10 mg/L) decreased with treatment time and higher SMX level was more difficult to remove. The presence of SMX also significantly reduced the removal efficiency of ammonia nitrogen, affecting the normal function of WWTPs. All three concentrations of SMX raised both sulI and sulII genes with higher concentrations exhibiting greater increases. The abundance of sul genes was positive correlated with treatment time and followed the second-order reaction kinetic model. Interestingly, these two genes have rather similar activity. SulI and sulII gene abundance also performed similar response to COD. Simpson index and Shannon-Weiner index did not show changes in the microbial community diversity. However, the 16S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing results showed the bacterial community structures varied during different stages. The results demonstrated that influent antibiotics into WWTPs may facilitate selection of ARGs and affect the wastewater conventional treatment as well as the bacteria community structures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Thermal conductivity of crushed salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, K.

    Heat transfer through an annular space filled with crushed salt depends primarily on the thermal conductivity, lambda, of the material. This report gives a formula with which lambda can be computed. The formula includes two quantities that can be influenced through screening of the salt smalls: the porosity, psi, and the fraction, alpha, of the more highly resistive heat-flow paths. The report computes and presents graphically the thermal conductivities for various values of psi and alpha. Heat-transfer properties are computed and compared for an annular space filled with crushed salt and for an air gap. The comparison shows that the properties of the annular space are larger only up to a certain temperature, because the properties of the air gap increase exponentially while those f the annular space increase only in an approximately linear way. Experimental results from Project Salt Vault in the U.S. are in good agreement with the calculations performed. Trials in Temperature Experimental Field 2 at the Asse II salt mine will provide an additional check on the calculations. 3 figures, 3 tables

  9. Fracture and Healing of Rock Salt Related to Salt Caverns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, K.S.; Fossum, A.F.; Munson, D.E.

    1999-01-01

    In recent years, serious investigations of potential extension of the useful life of older caverns or of the use of abandoned caverns for waste disposal have been of interest to the technical community. All of the potential applications depend upon understanding the reamer in which older caverns and sealing systems can fail. Such an understanding will require a more detailed knowledge of the fracture of salt than has been necessary to date. Fortunately, the knowledge of the fracture and healing of salt has made significant advances in the last decade, and is in a position to yield meaningful insights to older cavern behavior. In particular, micromechanical mechanisms of fracture and the concept of a fracture mechanism map have been essential guides, as has the utilization of continuum damage mechanics. The Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, which is summarized extensively in this work was developed specifically to treat both the creep and fracture of salt, and was later extended to incorporate the fracture healing process known to occur in rock salt. Fracture in salt is based on the formation and evolution of microfractures, which may take the form of wing tip cracks, either in the body or the boundary of the grain. This type of crack deforms under shear to produce a strain, and furthermore, the opening of the wing cracks produce volume strain or dilatancy. In the presence of a confining pressure, microcrack formation may be suppressed, as is often the case for triaxial compression tests or natural underground stress situations. However, if the confining pressure is insufficient to suppress fracture, then the fractures will evolve with time to give the characteristic tertiary creep response. Two first order kinetics processes, closure of cracks and healing of cracks, control the healing process. Significantly, volume strain produced by microfractures may lead to changes in the permeability of the salt, which can become a major concern in

  10. Sulfonamide-Linked Ciprofloxacin, Sulfadiazine and Amantadine Derivatives as a Novel Class of Inhibitors of Jack Bean Urease; Synthesis, Kinetic Mechanism and Molecular Docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channar, Pervaiz Ali; Saeed, Aamer; Albericio, Fernando; Larik, Fayaz Ali; Abbas, Qamar; Hassan, Mubashir; Raza, Hussain; Seo, Sung-Yum

    2017-08-16

    Sulfonamide derivatives serve as an important building blocks in the drug design discovery and development (4D) process. Ciprofloxacin-, sulfadiazine- and amantadine-based sulfonamides were synthesized as potent inhibitors of jack bean urease and free radical scavengers. Molecular diversity was explored and electronic factors were also examined. All 24 synthesized compounds exhibited excellent potential against urease enzyme. Compound 3e (IC 50 = 0.081 ± 0.003 µM), 6a (IC 50 = 0.0022 ± 0.0002 µM), 9e (IC 50 = 0.0250 ± 0.0007 µM) and 12d (IC 50 = 0.0266 ± 0.0021 µM) were found to be the lead compounds compared to standard (thiourea, IC 50 = 17.814 ± 0.096 µM). Molecular docking studies were performed to delineate the binding affinity of the molecules and a kinetic mechanism of enzyme inhibition was propounded. Compounds 3e , 6a and 12d exhibited a mixed type of inhibition, while derivative 9e revealed a non-competitive mode of inhibition. Compounds 12a , 12b , 12d , 12e and 12f showed excellent radical scavenging potency in comparison to the reference drug vitamin C.

  11. Analytical methods for multiresidue determination of sulfonamides and trimethoprim in meat and ground water samples by CE-MS and CE-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Chinchilla, Jorge J; García-Campaña, Ana M; Gámiz-Gracia, Laura

    2007-11-01

    This paper presents two methods based on CZE-MS detection and CZE-MS/MS detection developed for the multiresidue determination of ten sulfonamides (sulfapyridine, sulfadoxin, sulfamethazine, sulfadimethoxine, sulfameter, sulfamerazine, sulfachlorpyridazine, sulfadiazine, sulfamethoxazole, and sulfamethizole) and a potentiator, trimethoprim (TMP), whose contents are regulated by the EU Council Regulation no. 2377/90 in animal edible tissues. Experimental designs were employed to optimize the electrospray conditions. MS/MS experiments using an IT as analyzer operating in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode were carried out to achieve the minimum number of points according to the 2002/657/EC European Decision for unambiguous identification. The proposed procedures have been compared in terms of the performance characteristics and trueness. The limits of detection and quantification were in all cases lower than the maximum residue limits legislated for these compounds and the recoveries were satisfactory, being possible the application for their monitoring in foodstuff of animal origin and in environmental samples, allowing the determination of sulfonamides and TMP residues in meat and in superficial water in the low microg/L range.

  12. Thorough investigation of the retention mechanisms and retention behavior of amides and sulfonamides on amino column in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Marko; Stojanović, Biljana Jančić

    2013-08-02

    In this paper detailed analysis of a mixture of four amides (tropicamide, nicotinamide, tiracetam, and piracetam) and six sulfonamides (sulfanilamide, sulfacetamide, sulfamethoxazole, sulfafurazole, furosemide, and bumetanide) on aminopropyl column in hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) was carried out. Since, there are no papers on the topic of the assessment of the contribution of ion-exchange retention mechanism involved in the separation of the acidic compounds on aminopropyl column in HILIC mode, the authors utilized the retention data of the acidic sulfonamides for this purpose. Next, broad range of the aqueous buffer concentrations in the mobile phase was examined providing the separation under either HILIC or RP conditions. Turning points between these two mechanisms were determined and then the fitting of the experimental data in the localized and non-localized adsorption models in both RP and HILIC regions was assessed. Since not many papers in the literature were dealing with the estimation of factor influence on the retention behavior of neutral and acidic compounds on aminopropyl column in HILIC, Box-Behnken design and Response Surface Methodology were applied. On the basis of the obtained data, ten quadratic models were proposed and their adequacy was confirmed using ANOVA test. Furthermore, retention data was graphically evaluated by the construction of 3D response surface plots. Finally, good predictive ability of the suggested models was proved with five additional verification experiments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Salt site performance assessment activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kircher, J.F.; Gupta, S.K.

    1983-01-01

    During this year the first selection of the tools (codes) for performance assessments of potential salt sites have been tentatively selected and documented; the emphasis has shifted from code development to applications. During this period prior to detailed characterization of a salt site, the focus is on bounding calculations, sensitivity and with the data available. The development and application of improved methods for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis is a focus for the coming years activities and the subject of a following paper in these proceedings. Although the assessments to date are preliminary and based on admittedly scant data, the results indicate that suitable salt sites can be identified and repository subsystems designed which will meet the established criteria for protecting the health and safety of the public. 36 references, 5 figures, 2 tables

  14. Field experiments in salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, K.

    1986-01-01

    Field experiments in salt formations started as early as 1965 with Project Salt Vault in the Lyons Mine, Kansas, U.S.A., and with the purchase of the Asse salt mine by the German Federal Government. Underground tests concentrated on the heat dissipation around buried high-level radioactive wastes and the geomechanical consequences of their disposal. Near-field investigations cover the properties of water and gas release, radiolysis and corrosion. Further objectives of field experiments are the development and underground testing of a handling system for high-level wastes. The performance of an underground test disposal for such wastes is not only considered to be necessary for technical and scientific reasons but also for improving public acceptance of the concept of radioactive waste disposal. (author)

  15. The molten salt reactor adventure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacPherson, H.G.

    1985-01-01

    A personal history of the development of molten salt reactors in the United States is presented. The initial goal was an aircraft propulsion reactor, and a molten fluoride-fueled Aircraft Reactor Experiment was operated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1954. In 1956, the objective shifted to civilian nuclear power, and reactor concepts were developed using a circulating UF 4 -ThF 4 fuel, graphite moderator, and Hastelloy N pressure boundary. The program culminated in the successful operation of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment in 1965 to 1969. By then the Atomic Energy Commission's goals had shifted to breeder development; the molten salt program supported on-site reprocessing development and study of various reactor arrangements that had potential to breed. Some commercial and foreign interest contributed to the program which, however, was terminated by the government in 1976. The current status of the technology and prospects for revived interest are summarized

  16. Salt splitting with ceramic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurath, D.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop ceramic membrane technologies for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions. This technology has the potential to reduce the low-level waste (LLW) disposal volume, the pH and sodium hydroxide content for subsequent processing steps, the sodium content of interstitial liquid in high-level waste (HLW) sludges, and provide sodium hydroxide free of aluminum for recycle within processing plants at the DOE complex. Potential deployment sites include Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The technical approach consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON). As the name implies, sodium ions are transported rapidly through these ceramic crystals even at room temperatures

  17. Salt effects in electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seip, Knut Fredrik; Jensen, Henrik; Kieu, Thanh Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was performed on samples containing substantial amounts of NaCl to investigate how the presence of salts affected the recovery, repeatability, and membrane current in the extraction system. A group of 17 non-polar basic drugs with various physical chemical...... this loss and the physical chemical properties of these substances was seen. The recovery loss was hypothesized to be caused by ion pairing in the SLM, and a mathematical model for the extraction recovery in the presence of salts was made according to the experimental observations. Some variations...... to the EME system reduced this recovery loss, such as changing the SLM solvent from NPOE to 6-undecanone, or by using a different EME setup with more favorable volume ratios. This was in line with the ion pairing hypothesis and the mathematical model. This thorough investigation of how salts affect EME...

  18. Molten fluoride fuel salt chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, L.M.; Del Cul, G.D.; Dai, S.; Metcalf, D.H.

    1995-01-01

    The chemistry of molten fluorides is traced from their development as fuels in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment with important factors in their selection being discussed. Key chemical characteristics such as solubility, redox behavior, and chemical activity are explained as they relate to the behavior of molten fluoride fuel systems. Development requirements for fitting the current state of the chemistry to modern nuclear fuel system are described. It is concluded that while much is known about molten fluoride behavior which can be used effectively to reduce the amount of development required for future systems, some significant molten salt chemical questions must still be addressed. copyright American Institute of Physics 1995

  19. Salted, dried and smoked fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamprecht, E.; Riley, F.R.; Vermaak, K.; Venn, C.

    1986-01-01

    Heat resistance tests were carried out using a heat resistant strain of red halophiles isolated from a commercial salt and comparing this with three known species, i.e. Halobacterium halobium, H. salinarum and H. antirubrum. These four halophic strains were used to prepare artificially infected salts which were then subjected to three different forms of heat treatment: heat-treatment in oil bath, microwave heating and gamma radiation. The conclusion was made that gamma radiation appears to be less effective than microwave heating at the levels tested

  20. Simulation of salt production process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraveva, E. A.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper an approach to the use of simulation software iThink to simulate the salt production system has been proposed. The dynamic processes of the original system are substituted by processes simulated in the abstract model, but in compliance with the basic rules of the original system, which allows one to accelerate and reduce the cost of the research. As a result, a stable workable simulation model was obtained that can display the rate of the salt exhaustion and many other parameters which are important for business planning.

  1. Relationship Between Salt Intake, Salt-Taste Threshold and Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Sodium intake measured as 24-hour urinary sodium is increased in subjects with hypertension attesting to sodium intake as a risk factor for the development of high blood pressure. Subjects with high salt taste threshold also have increased urinary sodium excretion which may predispose them to deveploment ...

  2. Thermodynamic characterization of salt components for Molten Salt Reactor fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capelli, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is a promising future nuclear fission reactor technology with excellent performance in terms of safety and reliability, sustainability, proliferation resistance and economics. For the design and safety assessment of this concept, it is extremely important to have a

  3. Salt tectonics in Santos Basin, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirk, David G.; Nielsen, Malene; Raven, Madeleine [Maersk Oil and Gas, Copenhagen (Denmark); Menezes, Paulo [Maersk Oil and Gas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    From Albian to end Cretaceous times, the inboard part of the Santos Basin in Brazil was affected by extension as salt flowed basinwards under the effect of gravity. Salt rollers, flip-flop salt diapirs and the famous Albian Gap were all formed by this process. Outboard of these extensional structures, contraction was taken up in a wide zone of thickened salt where salt collected. The overburden was carried on top of the salt as it flowed down-dip, with up to 40 km of translation recorded in Albian strata. (author)

  4. Molten salt thermal energy storage systems: salt selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maru, H.C.; Dullea, J.F.; Huang, V.S.

    1976-08-01

    A research program aimed at the development of a molten salt thermal energy storage system commenced in June 1976. This topical report describes Work performed under Task I: Salt Selection is described. A total of 31 inorganic salts and salt mixtures, including 9 alkali and alkaline earth carbonate mixtures, were evaluated for their suitability as heat-of-fusion thermal energy storage materials at temperatures of 850 to 1000/sup 0/F. Thermophysical properties, safety hazards, corrosion, and cost of these salts were compared on a common basis. We concluded that because alkali carbonate mixtures show high thermal conductivity, low volumetric expansion on melting, low corrosivity and good stability, they are attractive as heat-of-fusion storage materials in this temperature range. A 35 wt percent Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-65 wt percent K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ (50 mole percent Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-50 mole percent K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/) mixture was selected as a model system for further experimental work. This is a eutectoid mixture having a heat of fusion of 148 Btu/lb (82 cal/g) that forms an equimolar compound, LiKCO/sub 3/. The Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ mixture is intended to serve as a model system to define heat transfer characteristics, potential problems, and to provide ''first-cut'' engineering data required for the prototype system. The cost of a thermal energy storage system containing this mixture cannot be predicted until system characteristics are better defined. However, our comparison of different salts indicated that alkali and alkaline earth chlorides may be more attractive from a salt cost point of view. The long-term corrosion characteristics and the effects of volume change on melting for the chlorides should be investigated to determine their overall suitability as a heat-of-fusion storage medium.

  5. A facile synthesis of new 5-aryl-thiophenes bearing sulfonamide moiety via Pd(0-catalyzed Suzuki–Miyaura cross coupling reactions and 5-bromothiophene-2-acetamide: As potent urease inhibitor, antibacterial agent and hemolytically active compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mnaza Noreen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports a convenient approach for the synthesis of thiophene sulfonamide derivatives (3a–3k via Suzuki cross coupling reaction. This method of synthesis involved the reactions of various aryl boronic acids and esters with 5-bromthiophene-2-sulfonamide (2 under mild and suitable temperature conditions. The compounds synthesized in the present study were subjected to urease inhibition and hemolytic activities. The substitution pattern and the electronic effects of different functional groups (i.e., Cl, CH3, OCH3, F etc. available on the aromatic ring are found to have significant effect on the overall results. The compound 5-Phenylthiophene-2-sulfonamide 3a showed the highest urease inhibition activity with IC50 value ∼ 30.8 μg/mL compared with the thiourea (used as standard having IC50 value ∼ 43 μg/mL. Moreover, almost all of the compounds were examined for the hemolytic activity against triton X-100 with positive results obtained in most of the cases. In addition, the antibacterial activities of the derivatives of 5-arylthiophene-2-sulfonamide and 5-bromothiophene-2-acetamide were also investigated during the course of the study.

  6. Occurrence of sulfonamide residues along the Ebro River basin: removal in wastewater treatment plants and environmental impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Galán, M Jesús; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2011-02-01

    Sulfonamides (SAs) have become one of the antibiotic families most frequently found in all kind of environmental waters. In the present work, the presence of 16 SAs and one of their acetylated metabolites in different water matrices of the Ebro River basin has been evaluated during two different sampling campaigns carried out in 2007 and 2008. Influent and effluent samples from seven wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), together with a total of 28 river water samples were analyzed by on-line solid phase extraction-liquid chromathography-tandem mass spectrometry (on-line SPE-LC-MS/MS). Sulfamethoxazole and sulfapyridine were the SAs most frequently detected in WWTPs (96-100%), showing also the highest concentrations, ranging from 27.2 ng L(-1) to 596 ng L(-1) for sulfamethoxazole and from 3.7 ng L(-1) to 227 ng L(-1) for sulfapyridine. Sulfamethoxazole was also the SA most frequently detected in surface waters (85% of the samples) at concentrations between 11 ng L(-1) and 112 ng L(-1). In order to assess the effectiveness of the wastewater treatment in degrading SAs, removal efficiencies in the seven WWTPs were calculated for each individual SA (ranging from 4% to 100%) and correlated to the corresponding hydraulic retention times or residence times of the SAs in the plants. SAs half-lives were also estimated, ranging from to 2.5 hours (sulfadimethoxine) to 128 h (sulfamethazine). The contribution of the WWTPs to the presence of SAs depends on both the load of SAs discharging on the surface water from the WWTP effluent but also on the flow of the receiving waters in the discharge sites and the dilution exerted; WWTP4 exerts the highest pressure on the receiving water course. Finally, the potential environmental risk posed by SAs was evaluated calculating the hazard quotients (HQ) to different non-target organisms in effluent and river water. The degree of susceptibility resulted in algae>daphnia>fish. Sulfamethoxazole was the only SA posing a risk to algae in

  7. Electronically tuned sulfonamide-based probes with ultra-sensitivity for Ga"3"+ or Al"3"+ detection in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Ashwani; Chae, Pil Seok

    2017-01-01

    Three electronically tuned fluorescent probes (1–3) were synthesized by conjugating a fluorescent unit to N,N-bis-(hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine. Probe 1 bearing an electron-deficient naphthalenedimide unit did not give a fluorescence response to the presence of various metal ions including monovalent metal ions (Na"+, K"+, and Ag"+), divalent metal ions (Ca"2"+, Cd"2"+, Co"2"+, Ni"2"+, Cu"2"+, Hg"2"+, Pb"2"+, and Zn"2"+) and trivalent metal ions (Al"3"+, Ga"3"+, Fe"3"+, and Cr"3"+) in an aqueous solution. By contrast, probes 2 and 3 possessing 1,8-naphthalimide and pyrene fluorophores, respectively, exhibited selective fluorescent “OFF-ON” behaviors as a result of Ga"3"+/Al"3"+ binding among the diverse metal ions, suggesting the importance of fluorophore electronic character with regard to metal ion sensing. The ethylenediamine analog of probe 3, corresponding to probe 4, was unable to yield a significant change in fluorescence intensity in the presence of any metal ions tested here, revealing the essential role of two hydroxyl groups for metal ion binding. A high association constant of K_a = 2.99 × 10"5 M"−"1 was obtained for probe 3 with Ga"3"+, with a limit of detection (LOD) of 10 nM. This LOD is the lowest value known for Ga"3"+ detection using chemical sensors. Along with an increase in aggregate sizes, PET suppression of probes upon metal ion binding was the primary contributor to the enhancement in fluorescence emission necessary for the sensitive detection of the target ions. The probe-metal ion complexes were fully characterized via TEM, FE-SEM, "1H NMR, fluorescence spectroscopy techniques and DFT calculations. - Highlights: • Three electronically tuned sulfonamide-based probes (probes 1, 2, and 3) were developed for metal ion-sensing. • Probes 2 and 3 exhibited AIE behavior with increasing water-content. • Probes 2 and 3 displayed a selective fluorescence “OFF-ON“ behavior for Ga"3"+ detection with the LOD of 10 nM. • PET

  8. The pharmacokinetics and safety of ABT-751, a novel, orally bioavailable sulfonamide antimitotic agent: results of a phase 1 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hande, Kenneth R; Hagey, Anne; Berlin, Jordan; Cai, Yingna; Meek, Kysa; Kobayashi, Hiro; Lockhart, A Craig; Medina, Diane; Sosman, Jeffrey; Gordon, Gary B; Rothenberg, Mace L

    2006-05-01

    Microtubules play a critical role in many cellular functions, including cell division and mitosis. ABT-751 is a novel sulfonamide antimitotic that binds to the colchicine site on beta-tubulin that leads to a block in the cell cycle at the G2M phase, resulting in cellular apoptosis. ABT-751 was investigated in this phase 1 trial designed to assess its maximum tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), tolerability, and pharmacokinetics. ABT-751 was administered on a daily (q.d.) or twice daily (b.i.d.) oral schedule for 7 days every 3 weeks to 39 patients with refractory solid tumors. Toxicity was monitored weekly. Plasma and urine ABT-751 and metabolite pharmacokinetics were determined. The MTD for the q.d. schedule was 250 mg/d. DLTs during cycle 1 were abdominal pain, constipation, and fatigue. The MTD on the b.i.d. schedule was 150 mg. Cycle 1 of therapy with the 175 mg b.i.d. schedule was tolerated without DLT. However, six of seven patients reported grade 3 toxicity (ileus, constipation, abdominal pain, or fatigue), which occurred in cycle 2 or 3. ABT-751 was absorbed after oral administration with an overall mean T(max) of about 2 hours. The pharmacokinetics of ABT-751 were dose-proportional and time-independent. There was minimal accumulation of ABT-751 after multiple q.d. and b.i.d. doses. Efficacious concentrations, as determined from preclinical models (0.5-1.5 microg/mL), were achieved in all subjects. ABT-751 metabolism occurred primarily by glucuronidation and sulfation. No complete or partial tumor responses were noted, but one patient had a minor response, and four patients had stable disease lasting at least 6 months. The MTD and recommended phase 2 doses for ABT-751 were 250 mg q.d. and 150 mg b.i.d. on a 7-day schedule given every 3 weeks, due to subsequent cycle toxicities at 175 mg b.i.d. dosing. Toxicities were abdominal pain, constipation, and neuropathy.

  9. Sources of household salt in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooste, Pieter L

    2005-01-01

    Marketing of non-iodized salt through unconventional distribution channels is one of the factors weakening the national salt iodization program in South Africa. The aim of this study was therefore to quantify the various sources of household salt, and to relate this information to socio-economic status. Questionnaire information was collected by personal interview during home visits from a multistage, cluster, probability sample of 2164 adults representative of the adult population. Nationally 77.7% of households obtained their table salt from the typical food shops distributing iodized salt. However, in the nine different provinces between 8 and 37.3% of households used unconventional sources, distributing mainly non-iodized salt, to obtain their household salt. These alternative sources include distributors of agricultural salt, small general dealer shops called spaza shops, in peri-urban and rural townships, street vendors and salt saches placed in the packaging of maize meal bags. Country-wide around 30% of low socio-economic households obtained their salt from unconventional sources compared to less than 5% in high socio-economic households, emphasizing the vulnerability of low socio-economic groups to the use of non-iodized salt. Intervention strategies should mobilize all role players involved in unconventional marketing channels of household salt to provide only iodized salt to consumers, as required by law.

  10. Association constants of telluronium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovach, N.A.; Rivkin, B.B.; Sadekov, T.D.; Shvajka, O.P.

    1996-01-01

    Association constants in acetonitrile of triphenyl telluronium salts, which are dilute electrolytes, are determined through the conductometry method. Satisfactory correlation dependence of constants of interion association and threshold molar electroconductivity on the Litvinenko-Popov constants for depositing groups is identified. 6 refs

  11. Properties of organic salt superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whangbo, M.H.; Jung, D.; Evain, M.; Williams, J.M.; Beno, M.A.; Schultz, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    Structural and electronic properties of the β- and κ-phase superconducting salts of organic donor molecules are compared. Importance of donor... donor and donor...anion interactions involving the C-H bonds in setting the lattice softness, the electron-phonon coupling constant, and the superconducting transitions temperature are discussed

  12. Salt decontamination demonstration test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, E.B.; Heng, C.J.

    1983-06-01

    The Salt Decontamination Demonstration confirmed that the precipitation process could be used for large-scale decontamination of radioactive waste sale solution. Although a number of refinements are necessary to safely process the long-term requirement of 5 million gallons of waste salt solution per year, there were no observations to suggest that any fundamentals of the process require re-evaluation. Major accomplishments were: (1) 518,000 gallons of decontaminated filtrate were produced from 427,000 gallons of waste salt solution from tank 24H. The demonstration goal was to produce a minimum of 200,000 gallons of decontaminated salt solution; (2) cesium activity in the filtrate was reduced by a factor of 43,000 below the cesium activity in the tank 24 solution. This decontamination factor (DF) exceeded the demonstration goal of a DF greater than 10,000; (3) average strontium-90 activity in the filtrate was reduced by a factor of 26 to less than 10 3 d/m/ml versus a goal of less than 10 4 d/m/ml; and (4) the concentrated precipitate was washed to a final sodium ion concentration of 0.15 M, well below the 0.225 M upper limit for DWPF feed. These accomplishments were achieved on schedule and without incident. Total radiation exposure to personnel was less than 350 mrem and resulted primarily from sampling precipitate slurry inside tank 48. 3 references, 6 figures, 2 tables

  13. thermic oil and molten salt

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Boukelia T.E, Mecibah M.S and Laouafi A

    1 mai 2016 ... [27] Zavoico, AB. Solar Power Tower Design Basis Document. Tech. rep, Sandia National. Laboratories, SAND2001-2100, 2001. How to cite this article: Boukelia T.E, Mecibah M.S and Laouafi A. Performance simulation of parabolic trough solar collector using two fluids (thermic oil and molten salt).

  14. Dietary salt reduction for control of hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Tjan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In developed as well as developing countries, the four main factors affecting blood pressure are high salt intake, low potassium intake, overweight, and low physical activity level. This is also true for the increase in blood pressure with advancing age, occurring in all societies. It is now accepted that excess dietary salt raises blood pressure levels, whereas dietary salt reduction reduces blood pressure and prevents vascular complications.(1 The effect of salt on blood pressure is presumably due to the inability of the kidneys to excrete large amounts of salt, as humans are evolutionary adapted to ingest and excrete less than 1 gram of salt per day.(2 In this connection it should be noted that the more important element in common salt (sodium chloride is the sodium ion, and any restrictions applying to common salt also apply to all food items that contain sodium ions, such as sodium glutamate and baking soda.

  15. Evaluation of ionic liquids supported on silica as a sorbent for fully automated online solid-phase extraction with LC-MS determination of sulfonamides in bovine milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Meire Ribeiro; Mauro Lanças, Fernando

    2018-03-10

    Sulfonamides are antibiotics widely used in the treatment of diseases in dairy cattle. However, their indiscriminate use for disease control may lead to their presence in tissues and milk and their determination requires a sample preparation step as part of an analytical approach. Among the several sample preparation techniques available, those based upon the use of sorptive materials have been widely employed. Recently, the application of ionic liquids immobilized on silica surfaces or polymeric materials has been evaluated for such an application. This manuscript addresses the evaluation of silica-based ionic liquid obtained by a sol-gel synthesis process by basic catalysis as sorbent for online solid-phase extraction with liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for sulfonamides determination. Infrared vibrational spectroscopy confirmed the presence of the ionic liquid on the silica surface, suggesting that the ionic liquid was anchored on to the silica surface. Other sorbents varying the ionic liquid alkyl chain were also synthesized and evaluated by off-line solid-phase extraction in the sulfonamide extraction. As the length of the alkyl chain increased, the amount of extracted sulfonamides decreased, possibly due to a decrease in the electrostatic interaction caused by the reduction in the polarity, as well as the presence of a hexafluorophosphate anion that increases the hydrophobic character of the material. The use of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate as a selective ionic liquid sorbent enabled the isolation and sulfonamide preconcentration in bovine milk by online solid-phase extraction with liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The limit of quantification for the method developed was 5-7, 5 μg/mL, with extraction recoveries ranging between 74 and 93% and intra- and interassay between 1.5-12.5 and 2.3-13.1, respectively. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag Gmb

  16. High temperature salting of fish mince

    OpenAIRE

    Talabi, S.O.; Sorinmade, S.O.; Nwanekezie, R.U.; Aliu, A.

    1986-01-01

    Freshly caught miscellaneous fish were transported to the laboratory, gutted and washed before mechanical separation into bone and mince. Seven batches of the mince were then treated with seven different concentrations (Wt/Wt) of sodium chloride before cooking. The cooked mince was divided into two groups, pressed and unpressed. Percentage residual salt of the salted cooked mince, cooked water and salted pressed mince was determined. Also, the moisture content of the salted cooked mince and s...

  17. Reconsolidated Salt as a Geotechnical Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Francis D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gadbury, Casey [USDOE Carlsbad Field Office, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Salt as a geologic medium has several attributes favorable to long-term isolation of waste placed in mined openings. Salt formations are largely impermeable and induced fractures heal as stress returns to equilibrium. Permanent isolation also depends upon the ability to construct geotechnical barriers that achieve nearly the same high-performance characteristics attributed to the native salt formation. Salt repository seal concepts often include elements of reconstituted granular salt. As a specific case in point, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant recently received regulatory approval to change the disposal panel closure design from an engineered barrier constructed of a salt-based concrete to one that employs simple run-of-mine salt and temporary bulkheads for isolation from ventilation. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is a radioactive waste disposal repository for defense-related transuranic elements mined from the Permian evaporite salt beds in southeast New Mexico. Its approved shaft seal design incorporates barrier components comprising salt-based concrete, bentonite, and substantial depths of crushed salt compacted to enhance reconsolidation. This paper will focus on crushed salt behavior when applied as drift closures to isolate disposal rooms during operations. Scientific aspects of salt reconsolidation have been studied extensively. The technical basis for geotechnical barrier performance has been strengthened by recent experimental findings and analogue comparisons. The panel closure change was accompanied by recognition that granular salt will return to a physical state similar to the halite surrounding it. Use of run-of-mine salt ensures physical and chemical compatibility with the repository environment and simplifies ongoing disposal operations. Our current knowledge and expected outcome of research can be assimilated with lessons learned to put forward designs and operational concepts for the next generation of salt repositories. Mined salt

  18. Reconsolidated Salt as a Geotechnical Barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Francis D.; Gadbury, Casey

    2015-01-01

    Salt as a geologic medium has several attributes favorable to long-term isolation of waste placed in mined openings. Salt formations are largely impermeable and induced fractures heal as stress returns to equilibrium. Permanent isolation also depends upon the ability to construct geotechnical barriers that achieve nearly the same high-performance characteristics attributed to the native salt formation. Salt repository seal concepts often include elements of reconstituted granular salt. As a specific case in point, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant recently received regulatory approval to change the disposal panel closure design from an engineered barrier constructed of a salt-based concrete to one that employs simple run-of-mine salt and temporary bulkheads for isolation from ventilation. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is a radioactive waste disposal repository for defense-related transuranic elements mined from the Permian evaporite salt beds in southeast New Mexico. Its approved shaft seal design incorporates barrier components comprising salt-based concrete, bentonite, and substantial depths of crushed salt compacted to enhance reconsolidation. This paper will focus on crushed salt behavior when applied as drift closures to isolate disposal rooms during operations. Scientific aspects of salt reconsolidation have been studied extensively. The technical basis for geotechnical barrier performance has been strengthened by recent experimental findings and analogue comparisons. The panel closure change was accompanied by recognition that granular salt will return to a physical state similar to the halite surrounding it. Use of run-of-mine salt ensures physical and chemical compatibility with the repository environment and simplifies ongoing disposal operations. Our current knowledge and expected outcome of research can be assimilated with lessons learned to put forward designs and operational concepts for the next generation of salt repositories. Mined salt

  19. Salt-assisted and salt-suppressed sol-gel transitions of methylcellulose in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Wang, C; Tam, K C; Li, L

    2004-02-03

    The effects of various salts on the sol-gel transition of aqueous methylcellulose (MC) solutions have been studied systematically by means of a micro differential scanning calorimeter. It was found that the heating process was endothermic while the cooling process was exothermic for both MC solutions with and without salts. The addition of salts did not change the patterns of gelation and degelation of MC. However, the salts could shift the sol-gel transition and the gel-sol transition to lower or higher temperatures from a pure MC solution, depending on the salt type. These opposite effects were termed the salt-assisted and salt-suppressed sol-gel transitions. Either the salt-assisted transition or the salt-suppressed sol-gel transition was a function of salt concentration. In addition, each salt was found to have its own concentration limit for producing a stable aqueous solution of MC at a given concentration of MC, which was related to the anionic charge density of the salt. Cations were proved to have weaker effects than anions. The "salt-out strength", defined as the salt effect per mole of anion, was obtained for each anion studied. The thermodynamic mechanisms involved in the salt-assisted and salt-suppressed sol-gel transitions are discussed.

  20. Dicarbonic acid anilides containing radioactive iodine (iodine 131, 123, 125, or 132) as well as their metal and amine salts; methods for the preparation of these compounds and of radioactive functional diagnostics containing them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buttermann, G.

    1976-01-01

    A method for the preparation of dicarbonic acid anilides containing radioactive iodine is described. The initial substances are N,N dimethyl-p-toluene sulfonamide, N,N bis-dimethyl aminosulfon, or dimethyl sulfon, or mixtures of these, which are heated in aqueous solution or in a melt with an alkali or alkaline earth radioiodide as carrier-free as possible. From the water-soluble salts of the obtained iodine-labelled dicarbonic acid anilides aqueous solutions are produced with 1 mg up to 5 g iodine-labelled dicarbonic acid anilide per 10 ml and an activity of 0.025 and 25 mCi per ml with physiologically compatible bases as radioactive functional diagnostics. (RB) [de

  1. Community solar salt production in Goa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Kabilan; Salgaonkar, Bhakti B; Das, Deepthi; Bragança, Judith M

    2012-12-01

    Traditional salt farming in Goa, India has been practised for the past 1,500 years by a few communities. Goa's riverine estuaries, easy access to sea water and favourable climatic conditions makes salt production attractive during summer. Salt produced through this natural evaporation process also played an important role in the economy of Goa even during the Portuguese rule as salt was the chief export commodity. In the past there were 36 villages involved in salt production, which is now reduced to 9. Low income, lack of skilled labour, competition from industrially produced salt, losses incurred on the yearly damage of embankments are the major reasons responsible for the reduction in the number of salt pans.Salt pans (Mithagar or Mithache agor) form a part of the reclaimed waterlogged khazan lands, which are also utilised for aquaculture, pisciculture and agriculture. Salt pans in Goa experience three phases namely, the ceased phase during monsoon period of June to October, preparatory phase from December to January, and salt harvesting phase, from February to June. After the monsoons, the salt pans are prepared manually for salt production. During high tide, an influx of sea water occurs, which enters the reservoir pans through sluice gates. The sea water after 1-2 days on attaining a salinity of approximately 5ºBé, is released into the evaporator pans and kept till it attains a salinity of 23 - 25ºBé. The brine is then released to crystallizer pans, where the salt crystallises out 25 - 27ºBé and is then harvested.Salt pans form a unique ecosystem where succession of different organisms with varying environmental conditions occurs. Organisms ranging from bacteria, archaea to fungi, algae, etc., are known to colonise salt pans and may influence the quality of salt produced.The aim of this review is to describe salt farming in Goa's history, importance of salt production as a community activity, traditional method of salt production and the biota

  2. Accelerator molten-salt breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Kazuo; Kuroi, Hideo; Kato, Yoshio; Oomichi, Toshihiko.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain fission products and to transmute transuranium elements and other radioactive wastes by the use of Accelerator Molten-Salt Breeder Reactor. Constitution: Beams from an accelerator pipe at one end of a target vessel is injected through a window into target molten salts filled inside of the target vessel. The target molten salts are subjected to pump recycling or spontaneous convection while forcively cooled by blanket molten salts in an outer vessel. Then, energy is recovered from the blanket molten salts or the target molten salts at high temperatures through electric power generation or the like. Those salts containing such as thorium 232 and uranium 238 are used as the blanket molten salts so that fission products may be produced by neutrons generated in the target molten salts. PbCl 2 -PbF 2 and LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 can be used as the target molten salts and as the blanket molten salts respectively. (Seki, T.)

  3. Thermophysical properties of reconsolidating crushed salt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Stephen J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Urquhart, Alexander [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Reconsolidated crushed salt is being considered as a backfilling material placed upon nuclear waste within a salt repository environment. In-depth knowledge of thermal and mechanical properties of the crushed salt as it reconsolidates is critical to thermal/mechanical modeling of the reconsolidation process. An experimental study was completed to quantitatively evaluate the thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt as a function of porosity and temperature. The crushed salt for this study came from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). In this work the thermal conductivity of crushed salt with porosity ranging from 1% to 40% was determined from room temperature up to 300°C, using two different experimental methods. Thermal properties (including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat) of single-crystal salt were determined for the same temperature range. The salt was observed to dewater during heating; weight loss from the dewatering was quantified. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt decreases with increasing porosity; conversely, thermal conductivity increases as the salt consolidates. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt for a given porosity decreases with increasing temperature. A simple mixture theory model is presented to predict and compare to the data developed in this study.

  4. Molten salt reactors: reactor cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    In this critical analysis of the MSBR I project are examined the problems concerning the reactor core. Advantages of breeding depend essentially upon solutions to technological problems like continuous reprocessing or graphite behavior under neutron irradiation. Graphite deformation, moderator unloading, control rods and core instrumentation require more studies. Neutronics of the core, influence of core geometry and salt composition, fuel evolution, and thermohydraulics are reviewed [fr

  5. Crystal structure of 5,5′-bis(dimethylamino-N,N′-(3-methyl-3-azapentane-1,5-diyldi(naphthalene-1-sulfonamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyketa V. Horne

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C29H37N5O4S2, two arms substituted with dansyl derivatives are connected to a central tertiary amine, where the dihedral angle between the planes of two dansyl units is 56.39 (4°. Each arm contains a sulfonamide functional group and both N—H groups in the compound are pointed to the same side. The central part of the molecule is disordered over three sets of sites with a refined occupancy ratio of 0.547 (4:0.328 (4:0.125 (3. No intramolecular π–π or hydrogen-bonding interactions are observed. In the crystal, molecules are linked via pairs of N—H...O interactions involving the same acceptor atom, forming inversion dimers. In addition, C—H...O interactions exist between molecules, providing further stabilization of dimers.

  6. Kinetics and Mechanism of Electron Transfer Reaction: Oxidation of Sulfanilic Acid by N-Chloro-p-Toluene Sulfonamide in Acid Perchlorate Medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailani, Riya; Bhasin, Meneka; Khandelwal, C. L.; Sharma, P. D. [Univ. of Rajasthan, Jaipur (India)

    2014-01-15

    The kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of sulfanilic acid by N-chloro-p-toluene sulfonamide (chloramine-T) have been studied in acid medium. The species of chloramine-T were analysed on the basis of experimental observations and predominantly reactive species was taken into account for proposition of most plausible reaction mechanism. The derived rate law (1) conforms to such a mechanism. All kinetic parameters were evaluated. Activation parameters such as energy and entropy of activation were calculated to be (61.67 ± 0.47) kJ mol{sup -1} and (-62.71 ± 2.48) JK{sup -1}mol{sup -1} respectively employing Eyring equation.

  7. Mixing of zeolite powders and molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, C.; Zyryanov, V.N.; Lewis, M.A.; Ackerman, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Transuranics and fission products in a molten salt can be incorporated into zeolite A by an ion exchange process and by a batch mixing or blending process. The zeolite is then mixed with glass and consolidated into a monolithic waste form for geologic disposal. Both processes require mixing of zeolite powders with molten salt at elevated temperatures (>700 K). Complete occlusion of salt and a uniform distribution of chloride and fission products are desired for incorporation of the powders into the final waste form. The relative effectiveness of the blending process was studied over a series of temperature, time, and composition profiles. The major criteria for determining the effectiveness of the mixing operations were the level and uniformity of residual free salt in the mixtures. High operating temperatures (>775 K) improved salt occlusion. Reducing the chloride levels in the mixture to below 80% of the full salt capacity of the zeolite significantly reduced the free salt level in the final product

  8. Bile salts as semiochemicals in fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchinger, Tyler J.; Li, Weiming; Johnson, Nicholas S.

    2014-01-01

    Bile salts are potent olfactory stimuli in fishes; however the biological functions driving such sensitivity remain poorly understood. We provide an integrative review of bile salts as semiochemicals in fish. First, we present characteristics of bile salt structure, metabolism, and function that are particularly relevant to chemical communication. Bile salts display a systematic pattern of structural variation across taxa, are efficiently synthesized, and are stable in the environment. Bile salts are released into the water via the intestine, urinary tract, or gills, and are highly water soluble. Second, we consider the potential role of bile salts as semiochemicals in the contexts of detecting nearby fish, foraging, assessing risk, migrating, and spawning. Lastly, we suggest future studies on bile salts as semiochemicals further characterize release into the environment, behavioral responses by receivers, and directly test the biological contexts underlying olfactory sensitivity.

  9. Yttria hydroxy-salt binders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcombe, C.E. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Binder phase (primarily chloride or nitrate) formation was examined in YX 3 --NaOH--H 2 O, Y 2 O 3 --acid--H 2 O, and Y 2 O 3 --salt--H 2 O systems. The cementitious phase consisted mostly of plate- (or needle-) shaped hydroxy salts of the general formula Y 2 (OH)/sub 6-m/X/sub m/ nH 2 O, where m and n normally equal one. These binders were examined by x-ray diffraction and thermal analysis techniques. Nitrate binders decompose to Y 2 O 3 by 600 0 C, whereas chloride binders form oxychlorides that sublime or convert to Y 2 O 3 after oxygen replacement of chlorine (in air) at > 1000 0 C. Although nitric and hydrochloric acid solutions form porous ( 2 O 3 powder, salt solutions (i.e., NH 4 NO 3 , Mg(NO 3 ) 2 , NH 4 Cl, and YCl 3 approx. = 6H 2 O) slow the reaction considerably (48 h to 4 weeks), allowing 70- to 80%-dense cements to form. The effects of formation conditions on physical properties of binders were studied. Examination of scandium and lanthanide oxides showed that several behave in the same way as yttria

  10. Ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and derivatization of sulfonamides in river water, honey, milk, and animal plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Xu; Su Rui; Zhao Xin; Liu Zhuang; Zhang Yupu; Li Dan; Li Xueyuan; Zhang Hanqi [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Wang Ziming, E-mail: analchem@jlu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2011-11-30

    Graphical abstract: The extraction and derivatization efficiency of SAs is dependent on type and volume of extraction solvent, type and volume of disperser, microwave power and irradiation time, volume of derivatization reagent, pH of sample solution as well as ionic strength. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new, rapid and sensitive method for determining sulfonamides (SAs) was proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Derivatization, extraction and preconcentration of SAs were performed in one step. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IL-based MADLLME and derivatization were first applied for the determination of SAs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trace SAs in river water, honey, milk, and pig plasma were determined. - Abstract: The ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (IL-based MADLLME) and derivatization was applied for the pretreatment of six sulfonamides (SAs) prior to the determination by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). By adding methanol (disperser), fluorescamine solution (derivatization reagent) and ionic liquid (extraction solvent) into sample, extraction, derivatization, and preconcentration were continuously performed. Several experimental parameters, such as the type and volume of extraction solvent, the type and volume of disperser, amount of derivatization reagent, microwave power, microwave irradiation time, pH of sample solution, and ionic strength were investigated and optimized. When the microwave power was 240 W, the analytes could be derivatized and extracted simultaneously within 90 s. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of river water, honey, milk, and pig plasma samples, and the recoveries of analytes obtained were in the range of 95.0-110.8, 95.4-106.3, 95.0-108.3, and 95.7-107.7, respectively. The relative standard deviations varied between 1.5% and 7.3% (n = 5). The results showed that the proposed method was a rapid, convenient and feasible method for the determination

  11. Physical structure and genetic expression of the sulfonamide-resistance plasmid pLS80 and its derivatives in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Bacillus subtilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, P.; Espinosa, M.; Lacks, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    The 10-kb chromosomal fragment of Streptococcus pneumoniae cloned in pLS80 contains the sul-d allele of the pneumococcal gene for dihydropteroate synthase. As a single copy in the chromosome this allele confers resistance to sulfanilamide at 0.2 mg/ml; in the multicopy plasmid it confers resistance to 2.0 mg/ml. The sul-d mutation was mapped by restriction analysis to a 0.4-kb region. A spontaneous deletion beginning approx. 1.5 kb to the right of the sul-d mutation prevented gene function, possibly by removing a promoter. This region could be restored by chromosomal facilitation and be demonstrated in the plasmid by selection for sulfonamide resistance. Under selection for a vector marker, tetracycline resistance, only the deleted plasmid was detectable, apparently as a result of plasmid segregation and the advantageous growth rates of cells with smaller plasmids. When such cells were selected for sulfonamide resistance, the deleted region returned to the plasmid, presumably by equilibration between the chromosome and the plasmid pool, to give a low frequency (approx. 10/sup -3/) of cells resistant to sulfanilamide at 2.0 mg/ml. Models for the mechanisms of chromosomal facilitation and equilibration are proposed. Several derivatives of pLS80 could be transferred to Bacillus subtilis, where they conferred resistance to sulfanilamide at 2 mg/ml, thereby demonstrating cross-species expression of the pneumococcal gene. Transfer of the plasmids to B. subtilis gave rise to large deletions to the left of the sul-d marker, but these deletions did not interfere with the sul-d gene function. Restriction maps of pLS80 and its variously deleted derivatives are presented.

  12. Spectroscopic [FT-IR and FT-Raman] and molecular modeling (MM) study of benzene sulfonamide molecule using quantum chemical calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinod, K. S.; Periandy, S.; Govindarajan, M.

    2016-07-01

    The spectroscopic and molecular modeling (MM) study includes, FT-IR, FT-Raman and 13C NMR and 1H NMR spectra of the Benzene sulfonamide were recorded for the analysis. The observed experimental and theoretical frequencies (IR and Raman) were assigned according to their distinctive region. The present study of this title molecule have been carried out by hybrid computational calculations of HF and DFT (B3LYP) methods with 6-311+G(d,p) and 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets and the corresponding results are tabulated. The structural modifications of the compound due to the substitutions of NH2 and SO2 were investigated. The minimum energy conformers of the compound were studied using conformational analysis. The alternations of the vibrational pattern of the base structure related to the substitutions were analyzed. The thermodynamic parameters (such as zero-point vibrational energy, thermal energy, specific heat capacity, rotational constants, entropy, and dipole moment) of Benzene sulfonamide have been calculated. The donor acceptor interactions of the compound and the corresponding UV transitions are found out using NBO analysis. The NMR spectra were simulated by using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method with B3LYP methods and the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set and their spectra were simulated and the chemical shifts related to TMS were compared. A quantum computational study on the electronic and optical properties absorption wavelengths, excitation energy, dipole moment and frontier molecular orbital energies, were performed by HF and DFT methods. The energy gap of the present compound was calculated related to HOMO and LUMO energies which confirm the occurring of charge transformation between the base and ligand group. Besides frontier molecular orbitals (FMO), molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) was performed. The thermodynamic properties (heat capacity, entropy, and enthalpy) of the title compound at different temperatures were calculated in gas phase and

  13. Validation of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of sulfonamides, trimethoprim and dapsone in muscle, egg, milk and honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varenina, Ivana; Bilandžić, Nina; Kolanović, Božica Solomun; Božić, Đurđica; Sedak, Marija; Đokić, Maja; Varga, Ines

    2016-01-01

    A quantitative multi-residue method that includes 13 sulfonamides, trimethoprim and dapsone was developed and validated according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC for muscle, milk egg and honey samples. For all matrices, the same extraction procedure was used. Samples were extracted with an acetone/dichloromethane mixture and cleaned up on aromatic sulfonic acid (SO3H) SPE cartridges. After elution and concentration steps, analytes were identified and quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Data were acquired according to the multiple reaction-monitoring approach (MRM) and analytes were quantified both by the isotope dilution and the matrix-matched approaches calculating the response factors for the scanned product ions. The developed method shows good linearity, specificity, precision (repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility), and trueness. Estimated CCβ for sulfonamides ranged between 5.6 and 8.2 µg kg(-1) for eggs, between 11.1 and 69.9 µg kg(-1) for milk, between 64.7 and 87.9 µg kg(-1) for muscle, and between 2.7 and 5.3 µg kg(-1) for honey. CCβ values for dapsone were 3.1, 0.6, 0.7 and 1.5 µg kg(-1) and for trimethoprim were 3.1, 6.7, 81.7 and 3.0 µg kg(-1) calculated for eggs, milk, muscle and honey, respectively. Recovery for all matrices was in the range from 89.1% and 109.7%. In matrix effect testing, no significant deviations were found between different samples of muscle and milk; however, a matrix effect was observed when testing different types of honey. The validation results demonstrate that the method is suitable for routine veterinary drug analysis and confirmation of suspect samples.

  14. Synthesis and structure of 1,3-dimethyl-5-(p-sulfonamide-phenylazo)-6-aminouracil and its Ni(II) complex: Topological insights and investigation for noncovalent interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Diptanu; Roy, Subhadip; Purkayastha, Atanu; Bauzá, Antonio; Choudhury, Rupasree; Ganguly, Rakesh; Frontera, Antonio; Misra, Tarun Kumar

    2017-08-01

    The azo-derivative, 1,3-dimethyl-5-(p-sulfonamide-phenylazo)-6-aminouracil (HL) containing 6-aminouracil (a biomolecule) and sulfonamide functionality (commonly found in sulfa-drugs), and its Ni(II) complex, NiIIL2 were synthesized. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies show that the ligand (HL) consists of an E conformation about the azo-linkage with a nearly planar geometry and the complex possesses distorted square planar geometry. The H-bonded underlying networks of HL and NiIIL2 were topologically classified revealing distinct topological types, namely tts and hxl, respectively. Moreover, topology of molecular packings in HL and NiIIL2 has also been discussed. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations, at the M06-2X/def2TZVP level of theory, are employed to characterize a great variety of non-covalent interactions that explicitly show the importance of antiparallel stacking interactions established by π--π+ interactions and H-bonds in the self-assembled dimmers in HL and lp-π/C-H⋯π interactions in NiIIL2. The results of NMR and UV-vis spectroscopies evidence that the ligand exists in hydrazone-imine-keto (B) tautomeric form in solution. The ligand absorption bands consist of the overlapping bands of π→π* and n→π* transitions. The complex experiences electronic transitions that consist of basically ILCT in character with some sort of participation of the atomic d-orbitals of the nickel. The pKa value of the ligand is found to be 4.09.

  15. Ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction and derivatization of sulfonamides in river water, honey, milk, and animal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xu; Su Rui; Zhao Xin; Liu Zhuang; Zhang Yupu; Li Dan; Li Xueyuan; Zhang Hanqi; Wang Ziming

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The extraction and derivatization efficiency of SAs is dependent on type and volume of extraction solvent, type and volume of disperser, microwave power and irradiation time, volume of derivatization reagent, pH of sample solution as well as ionic strength. Highlights: ► A new, rapid and sensitive method for determining sulfonamides (SAs) was proposed. ► Derivatization, extraction and preconcentration of SAs were performed in one step. ► IL-based MADLLME and derivatization were first applied for the determination of SAs. ► Trace SAs in river water, honey, milk, and pig plasma were determined. - Abstract: The ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (IL-based MADLLME) and derivatization was applied for the pretreatment of six sulfonamides (SAs) prior to the determination by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). By adding methanol (disperser), fluorescamine solution (derivatization reagent) and ionic liquid (extraction solvent) into sample, extraction, derivatization, and preconcentration were continuously performed. Several experimental parameters, such as the type and volume of extraction solvent, the type and volume of disperser, amount of derivatization reagent, microwave power, microwave irradiation time, pH of sample solution, and ionic strength were investigated and optimized. When the microwave power was 240 W, the analytes could be derivatized and extracted simultaneously within 90 s. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of river water, honey, milk, and pig plasma samples, and the recoveries of analytes obtained were in the range of 95.0–110.8, 95.4–106.3, 95.0–108.3, and 95.7–107.7, respectively. The relative standard deviations varied between 1.5% and 7.3% (n = 5). The results showed that the proposed method was a rapid, convenient and feasible method for the determination of SAs in liquid samples.

  16. Laser desorption single-conformation UV and IR spectroscopy of the sulfonamide drug sulfanilamide, the sulfanilamide-water complex, and the sulfanilamide dimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlemann, Thomas; Seidel, Sebastian; Müller, Christian W

    2017-06-07

    We have studied the conformational preferences of the sulfonamide drug sulfanilamide, its dimer, and its monohydrated complex through laser desorption single-conformation UV and IR spectroscopy in a molecular beam. Based on potential energy curves for the inversion of the anilinic and the sulfonamide NH 2 groups calculated at DFT level, we suggest that the zero-point level wave function of the sulfanilamide monomer is appreciably delocalized over all four conformer wells. The sulfanilamide dimer, and the monohydrated complex each exhibit a single isomer in the molecular beam. The isomeric structures of the sulfanilamide dimer and the monohydrated sulfanilamide complex were assigned based on their conformer-specific IR spectra in the NH and OH stretch region. Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM) analysis of the calculated electron density in the water complex suggests that the water molecule is bound side-on in a hydrogen bonding pocket, donating one O-HO[double bond, length as m-dash]S hydrogen bond and accepting two hydrogen bonds, a NHO and a CHO hydrogen bond. QTAIM analysis of the dimer electron density suggests that the C i symmetry dimer structure exhibits two dominating N-HO[double bond, length as m-dash]S hydrogen bonds, and three weaker types of interactions: two CHO bonds, two CHN bonds, and a chalcogen OO interaction. Most interestingly, the molecular beam dimer structure closely resembles the R dimer unit - the dimer unit with the greatest interaction energy - of the α, γ, and δ crystal polymorphs. Interacting Quantum Atoms analysis provides evidence that the total intermolecular interaction in the dimer is dominated by the short-range exchange-correlation contribution.

  17. Development and validation of an ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of sulfonamides, quinolones and benzimidazoles in bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiao-Lin; Chen, Guo; Zhu, Li; Yang, Ting; Zhao, Jian; Wang, Lei; Wu, Yin-Liang

    2014-07-01

    A simple, sensitive and reliable analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 38 veterinary drugs (18 sulfonamides, 11 quinolones and 9 benzimidazoles) and 8 metabolites of benzimidazoles in bovine milk by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-positive electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Samples were extracted with acidified acetonitrile, cleaned up with Oasis(®) MCX cartridges, and analyzed by LC-MS/MS on an Acquity UPLC(®) BEH C18 column with gradient elution. The method allows such multi-analyte measurements within a 13min runtime while the specificity is ensured through the MRM acquisition mode. The method was validated according to the European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC determining specificity, decision limit (CCα), detection capability (CCβ), recovery, precision, linearity and stability. For compounds which have MRLs in bovine milk, the CCα values fall into a range from 11 to 115μg/kg, and the CCβ values fall within a range of 12-125μg/kg. For compounds which have not MRLs in bovine milk, the CCα values fall into a range from 0.01 to 0.08μg/kg, and the CCβ values fall within a range of 0.02-0.11μg/kg. The mean recoveries of the 46 analytes were between 87 and 119%. The calculated RSD values of repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility experiments were below 11% and 15% for the 46 compounds, respectively. The method was demonstrated to be suitable for the simultaneous determination of sulfonamides, quinolones and benzimidazoles in bovine milk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ultrasonic characterization of pork meat salting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Pérez, J V; De Prados, M; Pérez-Muelas, N; Cárcel, J A; Benedito, J

    2012-01-01

    Salting process plays a key role in the preservation and quality of dry-cured meat products. Therefore, an adequate monitoring of salt content during salting is necessary to reach high quality products. Thus, the main objective of this work was to test the ability of low intensity ultrasound to monitor the salting process of pork meat. Cylindrical samples (diameter 36 mm, height 60±10 mm) of Biceps femoris were salted (brine 20% NaCl, w/w) at 2 °C for 1, 2, 4 and 7 days. During salting and at each experimental time, three cylinders were taken in order to measure the ultrasonic velocity at 2 °C. Afterwards, the cylinders were split in three sections (height 20 mm), measuring again the ultrasonic velocity and determining the salt and the moisture content by AOAC standards. In the whole cylinders, moisture content was reduced from 763 (g/kg sample) in fresh samples to 723 (g/kg sample) in samples salted for 7 days, while the maximum salt gain was 37.3 (g/kg sample). Although, moisture and salt contents up to 673 and 118 (g/kg sample) were reached in the sections of meat cylinders, respectively. During salting, the ultrasonic velocity increased due to salt gain and water loss. Thus, significant (p 2 = 0.975) and moisture (R 2 = 0.863) contents. In addition, the change of the ultrasonic velocity with the increase of the salt content showed a good agreement with the Kinsler equation. Therefore, low intensity ultrasound emerges as a potential technique to monitor, in a non destructive way, the meat salting processes carried out in the food industry.

  19. A generic approach for expanding homolog-targeted residue screening of sulfonamides using a fast matrix separation and class-specific fragmentation-dependent acquisition with a hybrid quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Chunlin [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Pharmacy and Life Science, University of South China, Hengyang 421001 (China); Guo Bin, E-mail: binnguo@126.com [Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Research (Ministry of Education of China), Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China); Wang Xiaoying [Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Research (Ministry of Education of China), Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China); Li Jie [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Pharmacy and Life Science, University of South China, Hengyang 421001 (China); Zhu Weitao; Chen Bo [Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Research (Ministry of Education of China), Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China); Ouyang Shan [Food Inspection and Quarantine Center, Shenzhen Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau of the People' s Republic of China, Shenzhen 518067 (China); Yao Shouzhuo [Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Research (Ministry of Education of China), Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China)

    2012-08-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Generic homolog-targeted screening approach for multi-residual sulfonamide analogs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single-tube extraction/partitioning-multifunction adsorption cleanup for direct injection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Class-specific fragmentation for expanding coverage of N{sup 4}-acetyl and N-OH metabolites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PreS-IDA-EPI in LC-QqLIT for simultaneous screening and confirmation of real samples. - Abstract: A generic and efficient homolog-targeted approach was used to expand screening and detection of target class of sulfonamides and structural analogs, based on a fast single-tube extraction/partitioning-multifunction adsorption cleanup (SEP/MAC) for class-specific fragmentation-dependent acquisition with a liquid chromatography-hybrid triple-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer (LC-QqLIT). By combining the two-stage process conducted in a single tube as one-pot protocol, the straightforward SEP/MAC procedure was optimized to offer clean extracts with reasonable recovery (71-109% with RSDs < 20%) and decreased matrix interferences (-9 to 19%) of multiresidual sulfonamide extraction from different tissue samples. The novel use of neutral loss scan of 66 Da (NLS) or precursor ion scanning of m/z 108 (PreS) in positive ion mode was found to achieve more comprehensive coverage of protonated molecular ions of a wide array of sulfonamides including N{sup 4}-acetyl and hydroxylamine metabolites plus their possible dimers. Moreover, the PreS-triggered automatically enhanced product ion spectral acquisition enabled simultaneous screening, profiling and confirmation of an unlimited number of analytes belonging to the sulfonamide class within a single analysis. The validation and application results of the generic SEP/MAC-based LC-QqLIT strategy consistently demonstrated favorable performances with acceptable accuracy (67-116%), precision (RSDs < 25%), and sensitivity (LOQs {<=} 7.5 ng

  20. Salt bridges: geometrically specific, designable interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, Jason E; Kulp, Daniel W; DeGrado, William F

    2011-03-01

    Salt bridges occur frequently in proteins, providing conformational specificity and contributing to molecular recognition and catalysis. We present a comprehensive analysis of these interactions in protein structures by surveying a large database of protein structures. Salt bridges between Asp or Glu and His, Arg, or Lys display extremely well-defined geometric preferences. Several previously observed preferences are confirmed, and others that were previously unrecognized are discovered. Salt bridges are explored for their preferences for different separations in sequence and in space, geometric preferences within proteins and at protein-protein interfaces, co-operativity in networked salt bridges, inclusion within metal-binding sites, preference for acidic electrons, apparent conformational side chain entropy reduction on formation, and degree of burial. Salt bridges occur far more frequently between residues at close than distant sequence separations, but, at close distances, there remain strong preferences for salt bridges at specific separations. Specific types of complex salt bridges, involving three or more members, are also discovered. As we observe a strong relationship between the propensity to form a salt bridge and the placement of salt-bridging residues in protein sequences, we discuss the role that salt bridges might play in kinetically influencing protein folding and thermodynamically stabilizing the native conformation. We also develop a quantitative method to select appropriate crystal structure resolution and B-factor cutoffs. Detailed knowledge of these geometric and sequence dependences should aid de novo design and prediction algorithms. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Compatibility of molten salt and structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Masahiro

    1994-01-01

    As the important factors for considering the compatibility of fuel salt and coolant salt with structural materials in molten salt reactors, there are the moisture remaining in molten salt and the fluorine potential in molten salt. In this study, as for the metals which are the main components of corrosion resistant alloys, the corrosion by the moisture remaining in molten salt and the dependence of the corrosion on fluorine potential were examined. As the molten salts, an eutectic molten salt LiF-BeF 2 was mainly used, and LiF-KF was used in combination. As the metallic materials, Cr, Ni and Cu which are the main components of corrosion resistant and heat resistant alloys, Hastelloy and Monel, were used. In the experiment, the metal pieces were immersed in the molten salt, and by sampling the molten salt, the change with time lapse of the concentration of the dissolved metals was examined. Besides, the electrochemical measurement was carried out for Cr, of which the corrosion was remarkable, and the change with time lapse of the dissolved ions was examined. The experimental setup, the experimental method, and the results of the immersion test and the electrochemical test are reported. The experiment on the corrosion of metals depending on fluorine potential is also reported. (K.I.)

  2. Discretionary salt use in airline meal service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, S; Wellman, N S; Dierkes, K E; Johnson, P M

    1987-02-01

    Salt use in airline meal service was studied through observation of returned meal trays of 932 passengers. Observation and weighing of salt packets on returned trays revealed that 64% of passengers did not salt their airline dinner, while 6% used the entire salt packet, 0.92 gm NaCl (362 mg Na). Average discretionary salt use among the 234 passengers (25%) who added salt was 0.57 gm NaCl (232 mg Na). Estimates of total sodium in the four airline dinners averaged 2.0 gm NaCl (786 mg Na). Laboratory assays of menu items produced by the airline foodservice differed 3% to 19% from estimated values. Sodium content of the four airline dinner menus was similar and did not affect salt use. Discretionary salt use was related to the total amount of entrée consumed but was not affected by the amount of salad consumed. It is postulated that salt use in the "captive" airline situation is predicated on consistent, habitual practices. Lowering sodium consumption in this setting may require alteration in both food preparation methods and quantity of salt presented in the packets.

  3. Compatibility of molten salt and structural materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, Masahiro [Toyohashi Univ. of Technology, Aichi (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    As the important factors for considering the compatibility of fuel salt and coolant salt with structural materials in molten salt reactors, there are the moisture remaining in molten salt and the fluorine potential in molten salt. In this study, as for the metals which are the main components of corrosion resistant alloys, the corrosion by the moisture remaining in molten salt and the dependence of the corrosion on fluorine potential were examined. As the molten salts, an eutectic molten salt LiF-BeF{sub 2} was mainly used, and LiF-KF was used in combination. As the metallic materials, Cr, Ni and Cu which are the main components of corrosion resistant and heat resistant alloys, Hastelloy and Monel, were used. In the experiment, the metal pieces were immersed in the molten salt, and by sampling the molten salt, the change with time lapse of the concentration of the dissolved metals was examined. Besides, the electrochemical measurement was carried out for Cr, of which the corrosion was remarkable, and the change with time lapse of the dissolved ions was examined. The experimental setup, the experimental method, and the results of the immersion test and the electrochemical test are reported. The experiment on the corrosion of metals depending on fluorine potential is also reported. (K.I.).

  4. Thermal performances of molten salt steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Yibo; He, Canming; Lu, Jianfeng; Ding, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal performances of molten salt steam generator were experimentally studied. • Overall heat transfer coefficient reached maximum with optimal molten salt flow rate. • Energy efficiency first rose and then decreased with salt flow rate and temperature. • Optimal molten salt flow rate and temperature existed for good thermal performance. • High inlet water temperature benefited steam generating rate and energy efficiency. - Abstract: Molten salt steam generator is the key technology for thermal energy conversion from high temperature molten salt to steam, and it is used in solar thermal power station and molten salt reactor. A shell and tube type molten salt steam generator was set up, and its thermal performance and heat transfer mechanism were studied. As a coupling heat transfer process, molten salt steam generation is mainly affected by molten salt convective heat transfer and boiling heat transfer, while its energy efficiency is also affected by the heat loss. As molten salt temperature increased, the energy efficiency first rose with the increase of heat flow absorbed by water/steam, and then slightly decreased for large heat loss as the absorbed heat flow still rising. At very high molten salt temperature, the absorbed heat flow decreased as boiling heat transfer coefficient dropping, and then the energy efficiency quickly dropped. As the inlet water temperature increased, the boiling region in the steam generator remarkably expanded, and then the steam generation rate and energy efficiency both rose with the overall heat transfer coefficient increasing. As the molten salt flow rate increased, the wall temperature rose and the boiling heat transfer coefficient first increased and then decreased according to the boiling curve, so the overall heat transfer coefficient first increased and then decreased, and then the steam generation rate and energy efficiency of steam generator both had maxima.

  5. Salt splitting using ceramic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurath, D.E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Many radioactive aqueous wastes in the DOE complex have high concentrations of sodium that can negatively affect waste treatment and disposal operations. Sodium can decrease the durability of waste forms such as glass and is the primary contributor to large disposal volumes. Waste treatment processes such as cesium ion exchange, sludge washing, and calcination are made less efficient and more expensive because of the high sodium concentrations. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Ceramatec Inc. (Salt Lake City UT) are developing an electrochemical salt splitting process based on inorganic ceramic sodium (Na), super-ionic conductor (NaSICON) membranes that shows promise for mitigating the impact of sodium. In this process, the waste is added to the anode compartment, and an electrical potential is applied to the cell. This drives sodium ions through the membrane, but the membrane rejects most other cations (e.g., Sr{sup +2}, Cs{sup +}). The charge balance in the anode compartment is maintained by generating H{sup +} from the electrolysis of water. The charge balance in the cathode is maintained by generating OH{sup {minus}}, either from the electrolysis of water or from oxygen and water using an oxygen cathode. The normal gaseous products of the electrolysis of water are oxygen at the anode and hydrogen at the cathode. Potentially flammable gas mixtures can be prevented by providing adequate volumes of a sweep gas, using an alternative reductant or destruction of the hydrogen as it is generated. As H{sup +} is generated in the anode compartment, the pH drops. The process may be operated with either an alkaline (pH>12) or an acidic anolyte (pH <1). The benefits of salt splitting using ceramic membranes are (1) waste volume reduction and reduced chemical procurement costs by recycling of NaOH; and (2) direct reduction of sodium in process streams, which enhances subsequent operations such as cesium ion exchange, calcination, and vitrification.

  6. 168 Hours Salt Fog Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Ubaidah Saidin; Muhamad Daud; Siti Radiah Mohd Kamarudin

    2011-01-01

    This report explained the test conducted in salt fog chamber to evaluate the effectiveness of mild steel, coated with rust converter, for 168 hours in artificial seawater exposure. The samples were compared with mild steel coated with commercial primer. The tests were conducted followed ASTM B117. Individual pictures were taken of each sample before the tests began, at 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144 and 168 hours to see the progression of the corrosion. Results showed that the samples coated with rust converter provide a good significant protection against corrosion phenomenon than the samples coated with commercial primer that available in the market. (author)

  7. Seismic anisotropy in deforming salt bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasse, P.; Wookey, J. M.; Kendall, J. M.; Dutko, M.

    2017-12-01

    Salt is often involved in forming hydrocarbon traps. Studying salt dynamics and the deformation processes is important for the exploration industry. We have performed numerical texture simulations of single halite crystals deformed by simple shear and axial extension using the visco-plastic self consistent approach (VPSC). A methodology from subduction studies to estimate strain in a geodynamic simulation is applied to a complex high-resolution salt diapir model. The salt diapir deformation is modelled with the ELFEN software by our industrial partner Rockfield, which is based on a finite-element code. High strain areas at the bottom of the head-like strctures of the salt diapir show high amount of seismic anisotropy due to LPO development of halite crystals. The results demonstrate that a significant degree of seismic anisotropy can be generated, validating the view that this should be accounted for in the treatment of seismic data in, for example, salt diapir settings.

  8. High throughput salt separation from uranium deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, S.W.; Park, K.M.; Kim, J.G.; Kim, I.T.; Park, S.B., E-mail: swkwon@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst. (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    It is very important to increase the throughput of the salt separation system owing to the high uranium content of spent nuclear fuel and high salt fraction of uranium dendrites in pyroprocessing. Multilayer porous crucible system was proposed to increase a throughput of the salt distiller in this study. An integrated sieve-crucible assembly was also investigated for the practical use of the porous crucible system. The salt evaporation behaviors were compared between the conventional nonporous crucible and the porous crucible. Two step weight reductions took place in the porous crucible, whereas the salt weight reduced only at high temperature by distillation in a nonporous crucible. The first weight reduction in the porous crucible was caused by the liquid salt penetrated out through the perforated crucible during the temperature elevation until the distillation temperature. Multilayer porous crucibles have a benefit to expand the evaporation surface area. (author)

  9. Waste treatment using molten salt oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.D.; Stewart, A.E.

    1996-01-01

    MSO technology can be characterized as a submerged oxidation process; the basic concept is to introduce air and wastes into a bed of molten salt, oxidize the organic wastes in the molten salt, use the heat of oxidation to keep the salt molten and remove the salt for disposal or processing and recycling. The molten salt (usually sodium carbonate at 900-1000 C) provides four waste management functions: providing a heat transfer medium, catalyzing the oxidation reaction, preventing the formation of acid gases by forming stable salts, and efficiently capturing ash particles and radioactive materials by the combined effects of wetting, encapsulation and dissolution. The MSO process requires no wet scrubbing system for off-gas treatment. The process has been developed through bench-scale and pilot-scale testing, with successful destruction demonstration of a wide variety of hazardous and mixed (radioactive and hazardous wastes). (author). 24 refs, 2 tabs, 2 figs

  10. Multiresidue analysis of 22 sulfonamides and their metabolites in animal tissues using quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe extraction and high resolution mass spectrometry (hybrid linear ion trap-Orbitrap).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, H; Arnaudguilhem, C; Jaber, F; Lobinski, R

    2014-08-15

    A new high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-HRMS) method was developed for a simultaneous multi-residue analysis of 22 sulfonamides (SAs) and their metabolites in edible animal (pig, beef, sheep and chicken) tissues. Sample preparation was optimized on the basis of the "QuEChERS" protocol. The analytes were identified using their LC retention times and accurate mass; the identification was further confirmed by multi-stage high mass accuracy (Pig kidney" with ǀ Z-scoreǀpig, beef, sheep, and chicken) allowing the simultaneous quantification of target sulfonamides at concentration levels above the MRL/2 and the identification of untargeted compounds such as N(4)-acetyl metabolites using multi-stage high mass accuracy mass spectrometry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Salt Block II: description and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohlfelder, J.J.

    1980-06-01

    A description of and results from the Salt Block II experiment, which involved the heating of and measurement of water transport within a large sample of rock salt, are presented. These results include the measurement of water released into a heated borehole in the sample as well as measured temperatures within the salt. Measured temperatures are compared with the results of a mathematical model of the experiment

  12. Dissolution of the Mors salt dome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstroem Jensen, K.E.

    1982-01-01

    Regardless of the interpretation of the measured salinity profiles above the Mors salt dome, they can at most be the result of dissolution rates of about 0.004 mm per year. This means that it would take more than 2.5 mill. years to dissolve 10 m of salt. Variations in groun water velocity and cap rock porosity will not significantly change this condition. The stability of the Mors salt dome is therefore not affected by dissolution of the dome. (EG)

  13. Coastal salt-marshes in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    JULIAN SHEHU; ALMA IMERI; RUDINA KOCI; ALFRED MULLAJ

    2014-01-01

    The salt marshes of Albania comprise a narrow belt along the Adriatic and Ionian Seas. They have been the subject of a range of human activities causing habitat loss. Enclosure for agricultural use, ports and other infrastructure has reduced many salt marshes to a narrow fringe along estuary shores. Salt marshes are important for a range of interests. In particular they support a range of specialist plant communities and associated animals (especially breeding and wintering birds) and often h...

  14. Evaluation of salt content in school meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Alexandra Colaço Lourenço Viegas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: High blood pressure is a major rick factor for cardiovascular disease, and it is closely associated with salt intake. Schools are considered ideal environments to promote health and proper eating habits. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the amount of salt in meals served in school canteens and consumers' perceptions about salt. METHODS: Meals, including all the components (bread, soup, and main dish were retrieved from school canteens. Salt was quantified by a portable salt meter. For food perception we constructed a questionnaire that was administered to high school students. RESULTS: A total of 798 food samples were analysed. Bread had the highest salt content with a mean of 1.35 g/100 g (SD=0.12. Salt in soups ranged from 0.72 g/100 g to 0.80 g/100 g (p=0.05 and, in main courses, from 0.71 g/100 to 0.97 g/100g (p=0.05. The salt content of school meals is high with a mean value of 2.83 to 3.82 g of salt per meal. Moreover, a high percentage of students consider meals neither salty nor bland, which shows they are used to the intensity/amount of salt consumed. CONCLUSION: The salt content of school meals is high, ranging from 2 to 5 times more than the Recommended Dietary Allowances for children, clearly exceeding the needs for this population, which may pose a health risk. Healthy choices are only possible in environments where such choices are possible. Therefore, salt reduction strategies aimed at the food industry and catering services should be implemented, with children and young people targeted as a major priority.

  15. Multiresidue Method for Quantification of Sulfonamides and Trimethoprim in Tilapia Fillet by Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry Using QuEChERS for Sample Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Kátia S D; Assalin, Márcia R; Vallim, José H; Jonsson, Claudio M; Queiroz, Sonia C N; Reyes, Felix G R

    2018-01-01

    A multiresidue method for detecting and quantifying sulfonamides (sulfapyridine, sulfamerazine, sulfathiazole, sulfamethazine, sulfadimethoxine, sulfamethoxazole, and sulfamethoxypyridazine) and trimethoprim in tilapia fillet ( Oreochromis niloticus ) using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry was developed and validated. The sample preparation was optimized using the QuEChERS approach. The chromatographic separation was performed using a C18 column and 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile as the mobile phase in the isocratic elution mode. Method validation was performed based on the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and Brazilian guideline. The validation parameters evaluated were linearity ( r  ≥ 0.99); limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ), 1 ng·g -1 and 5 ng·g -1 , respectively; intraday and interdays precision (CV lower than 19.4%). The decision limit (CC α 102.6-120.0 ng·g -1 and 70 ng·g -1 for sulfonamides and trimethoprim, respectively) and detection capability (CC β 111.7-140.1 ng·g -1 and 89.9 ng·g -1 for sulfonamides and trimethoprim, respectively) were determined. Analyses of tilapia fillet samples from fish exposed to sulfamethazine through feed (incurred samples) were conducted in order to evaluate the method. This new method was demonstrated to be fast, sensitive, and suitable for monitoring sulfonamides and trimethoprim in tilapia fillet in health surveillance programs, as well as to be used in pharmacokinetics and residue depletion studies.

  16. Applications of molten salts in plutonium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowersox, D.F.; Christensen, D.C.; Williams, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Plutonium is efficiently recovered from scrap at Los Alamos by a series of chemical reactions and separations conducted at temperatures ranging from 700 to 900 0 C. These processes usually employ a molten salt or salt eutectic as a heat sink and/or reaction medium. Salts for these operations were selected early in the development cycle. The selection criteria are being reevaluated. In this article we describe the processes now in use at Los Alamos and our studies of alternate salts and eutectics

  17. Fuel processing for molten-salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hightower, J.R. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Research devoted to development of processes for the isolation of protactinium and for the removal of fission products from molten-salt breeder reactors is reported. During this report period, engineering development progressed on continuous fluorinators for uranium removal, the metal transfer process for rare-earth removal, the fuel reconstitution step, and molten salt--bismuth contactors to be used in reductive extraction processes. The metal transfer experiment MTE-3B was started. In this experiment all parts of the metal transfer process for rare-earth removal are demonstrated using salt flow rates which are about 1 percent of those required to process the fuel salt in a 1000-MW(e) MSBR. During this report period the salt and bismuth phases were transferred to the experimental vessels, and two runs with agitator speeds of 5 rps were made to measure the rate of transfer of neodymium from the fluoride salt to the Bi--Li stripper solution. The uranium removed from the fuel salt by fluorination must be returned to the processed salt in the fuel reconstitution step before the fuel salt is returned to the reactor. An engineering experiment to demonstrate the fuel reconstitution step is being installed. In this experiment gold-lined equipment will be used to avoid introducing products of corrosion by UF 6 and UF 5 . Alternative methods for providing the gold lining include electroplating and mechanical fabrication

  18. Brine Transport Experiments in Granular Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Amy B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boukhalfa, Hakim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-06

    To gain confidence in the predictive capability of numerical models, experimental validation must be performed to ensure that parameters and processes are correctly simulated. The laboratory investigations presented herein aim to address knowledge gaps for heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) disposal in bedded salt that remain after examination of prior field and laboratory test data. Primarily, we are interested in better constraining the thermal, hydrological, and physicochemical behavior of brine, water vapor, and salt when moist salt is heated. The target of this work is to use run-of-mine (RoM) salt; however during FY2015 progress was made using high-purity, granular sodium chloride.

  19. Granular Salt Summary: Reconsolidation Principles and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Frank; Popp, Till; Wieczorek, Klaus; Stuehrenberg, Dieter

    2014-07-01

    The purposes of this paper are to review the vast amount of knowledge concerning crushed salt reconsolidation and its attendant hydraulic properties (i.e., its capability for fluid or gas transport) and to provide a sufficient basis to understand reconsolidation and healing rates under repository conditions. Topics covered include: deformation mechanisms and hydro-mechanical interactions during reconsolidation; the experimental data base pertaining to crushed salt reconsolidation; transport properties of consolidating granulated salt and provides quantitative substantiation of its evolution to characteristics emulating undisturbed rock salt; and extension of microscopic and laboratory observations and data to the applicable field scale.

  20. Vacuum distillation of plutonium pyrochemical salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourges, Gilles; Faure, S.; Fiers, B.; Saintignon, S.; Lemoine, O.; Cardona-Barrau, D.; Devillard, D.

    2012-01-01

    A pyrochemical process is developed to upgrade the safety of plutonium spent salts interim storage. The feed material, consisting of alkali or alkali-earth chlorides containing various Pu and Am species, is first oxidized to convert the actinides into oxides. Then the chlorides are removed by vacuum distillation which requires temperature from 750 degrees C to 1100 degrees C. After a comprehensive R and D program, full-scale equipment was built to test the distillation of active salts. Tests with NaCl/KCl oxidized spent salt give decontamination factor of chlorides higher than 20000. The distilled salt meets the radiologic requirements to be discarded as low level waste. (authors)

  1. Anaglyph, Salt Lake City, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This anaglyph image provides a stereoscopic map view of north central Utah that includes all of these Olympic sites. In the south, next to Utah Lake, Provo hosts the ice hockey competition. In the north, northeast of the Great Salt Lake, Ogden hosts curling and the nearby Snowbasin ski area hosts the downhill events. In between, southeast of the Great Salt Lake, Salt Lake City hosts the Olympic Village and the various skating events. Further east, across the Wasatch Mountains, the Park City ski resort hosts the bobsled, ski jumping, and snowboarding events. The Winter Olympics are always hosted in mountainous terrain. This view shows the dramatic landscape that makes the Salt Lake City region a world-class center for winter sports.The stereoscopic effect of this anaglyph was created by first draping a Landsat satellite image over a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed

  2. ERG review of salt constitutive law, salt stress determinations, and salt corrosion and modeling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balon, J.E.

    1986-03-01

    The Engineering Review Group (ERG) was established by the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) to help evaluate engineering-related issues in the US Department of Energy's nuclear waste repository program. The August 1983 meeting of the ERG reviewed a RE/SPEC technical report containing a review of eight constitutive laws that have been proposed to model the creep of salt over the ranges of stress and temperature anticipated in a nuclear repository. This report documents the ERG's comments and recommendations on this subject and the ONWI responses to the specific points raised by the ERG

  3. In vitro selection of induced mutants to salt-tolerance: Inducible gene regulation for salt tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winicov, I [Department of Microbiology and Biochemistry, Univ. of Nevada-Reno, Reno, NV (United States)

    1997-07-01

    A selection protocol to obtain salt tolerant calli, followed by regeneration and progeny-test of the regenerated plants for salt tolerance in rice was investigated. Callus cultures were initiated from salt-sensitive US elite rice lines and cv. `Pokkali`. Salt-tolerant cell lines were selected from these by a single step selection procedure. The selected salt-tolerant lines grew well on medium with {+-} 0.5% or 1% NaCl, while the parent lines occasionally survived, but did not grow at these salt concentrations. Plants were regenerated from these cell lines through different passages on medium containing salt. Seed was collected from the regenerated plants and salt tolerance of R2 seedlings was compared with those regenerated without salt selection. Salt-tolerance was measured by survival and productive growth of newly germinated seedlings in Hoagland solution with 0.3% and 0.5% NaCl for 4 weeks. Heritable improvement in salt tolerance was obtained in R2 seedlings from one plant regenerated after 5 months selection. Survival and growth of these seedlings was equivalent to that from `Pokkali` seedlings. These results show that cellular tolerance can provide salt-tolerance in rice plants. (author). 6 refs, 2 tabs.

  4. Balancing sub- and supra-salt strain in salt-influenced rifts: Implications for extension estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Alexander J.; Jackson, Christopher A.-L.; Duffy, Oliver B.

    2017-09-01

    The structural style of salt-influenced rifts may differ from those formed in predominantly brittle crust. Salt can decouple sub- and supra-salt strain, causing sub-salt faults to be geometrically decoupled from, but kinematically coupled to and responsible for, supra-salt forced folding. Salt-influenced rifts thus contain more folds than their brittle counterparts, an observation often ignored in extension estimates. Fundamental to determining whether sub- and supra-salt structures are kinematically coherent, and the relative contributions of thin- (i.e. gravity-driven) and thick-skinned (i.e. whole-plate stretching) deformation to accommodating rift-related strain, is our ability to measure extension at both structural levels. We here use published physical models of salt-influenced extension to show that line-length estimates yield more accurate values of sub- and supra-salt extension compared to fault-heave, before applying these methods to seismic data from the Halten Terrace, offshore Norway. We show that, given the abundance of ductile deformation in salt-influenced rifts, significant amounts of extension may be ignored, leading to the erroneous interpretations of thin-skinned, gravity-gliding. If a system is kinematically coherent, supra-salt structures can help predict the occurrence and kinematics of sub-salt faults that may be poorly imaged and otherwise poorly constrained.

  5. Salt Reductions in Some Foods in The Netherlands: Monitoring of Food Composition and Salt Intake.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temme, Elisabeth H M; Hendriksen, Marieke A H; Milder, Ivon E J; Toxopeus, Ido B; Westenbrink, Susanne; Brants, Henny A M; van der A, Daphne L

    2017-01-01

    High salt intake increases blood pressure and thereby the risk of chronic diseases. Food reformulation (or food product improvement) may lower the dietary intake of salt. This study describes the changes in salt contents of foods in the Dutch market over a five-year period (2011-2016) and

  6. In vitro selection of induced mutants to salt-tolerance: Inducible gene regulation for salt tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winicov, I.

    1997-01-01

    A selection protocol to obtain salt tolerant calli, followed by regeneration and progeny-test of the regenerated plants for salt tolerance in rice was investigated. Callus cultures were initiated from salt-sensitive US elite rice lines and cv. 'Pokkali'. Salt-tolerant cell lines were selected from these by a single step selection procedure. The selected salt-tolerant lines grew well on medium with ± 0.5% or 1% NaCl, while the parent lines occasionally survived, but did not grow at these salt concentrations. Plants were regenerated from these cell lines through different passages on medium containing salt. Seed was collected from the regenerated plants and salt tolerance of R2 seedlings was compared with those regenerated without salt selection. Salt-tolerance was measured by survival and productive growth of newly germinated seedlings in Hoagland solution with 0.3% and 0.5% NaCl for 4 weeks. Heritable improvement in salt tolerance was obtained in R2 seedlings from one plant regenerated after 5 months selection. Survival and growth of these seedlings was equivalent to that from 'Pokkali' seedlings. These results show that cellular tolerance can provide salt-tolerance in rice plants. (author). 6 refs, 2 tabs

  7. Salt and cocrystals of sildenafil with dicarboxylic acids: solubility and pharmacokinetic advantage of the glutarate salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanphui, Palash; Tothadi, Srinu; Ganguly, Somnath; Desiraju, Gautam R

    2013-12-02

    Sildenafil is a drug used to treat erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Because of poor aqueous solubility of the drug, the citrate salt, with improved solubility and pharmacokinetics, has been marketed. However, the citrate salt requires an hour to reach its peak plasma concentration. Thus, to improve solubility and bioavailability characteristics, cocrystals and salts of the drug have been prepared by treating aliphatic dicarboxylic acids with sildenafil; the N-methylated piperazine of the drug molecule interacts with the carboxyl group of the acid to form a heterosynthon. Salts are formed with oxalic and fumaric acid; salt monoanions are formed with succinic and glutaric acid. Sildenafil forms cocrystals with longer chain dicarboxylic acids such as adipic, pimelic, suberic, and sebacic acids. Auxiliary stabilization via C-H···O interactions is also present in these cocrystals and salts. Solubility experiments of sildenafil cocrystal/salts were carried out in 0.1N HCl aqueous medium and compared with the solubility of the citrate salt. The glutarate salt and pimelic acid cocrystal dissolve faster than the citrate salt in a two hour dissolution experiment. The glutarate salt exhibits improved solubility (3.2-fold) compared to the citrate salt in water. Solubilities of the binary salts follow an inverse correlation with their melting points, while the solubilities of the cocrystals follow solubilities of the coformer. Pharmacokinetic studies on rats showed that the glutarate salt exhibits doubled plasma AUC values in a single dose within an hour compared to the citrate salt. The high solubility of glutaric acid, in part originating from the strained conformation of the molecule and its high permeability, may be the reason for higher plasma levels of the drug.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of the core-shell magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (Fe₃O₄@MIPs) adsorbents for effective extraction and determination of sulfonamides in the poultry feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xuan; Gao, Ruixia; He, Xiwen; Chen, Langxing; Zhang, Yukui

    2012-07-06

    In this study, we present a general method to prepare the core-shell magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) nanoparticles (NPs) for sulfamethazine (SMZ). The resulting Fe₃O₄@MIPs NPs possess a highly improved imprinting effect, fast adsorption kinetics and high adsorption capacity, and can be applied to extract sulfonamide in the poultry feed. In this protocol, the magnetite NPs were synthesized by co-precipitating Fe²⁺ and Fe³⁺ in an ammonia solution first. Silica was then coated on the Fe₃O₄ NPs using a sol-gel method to obtain silica shell magnetic NPs. Subsequently, the vinyl groups were grated onto silica-modified Fe₃O₄ surface by 3-methacryloyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane. Finally, the MIPs films were formed on the surface of Fe₃O₄@SiO₂ by the copolymerization of vinyl end groups with functional monomer, methacrylic acid, cross-linking agent, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, the initiator azo-bis-isobutyronitrile and template molecule, sulfamethazine. The morphology, magnetic, adsorption and recognition properties of Fe₃O₄@MIPs NPs were characterized using transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and re-binding experiments. The results showed that the binding sites of Fe₃O₄@MIPs were good accessibility, fast adsorption rate and the maximum adsorption capacity of Fe₃O₄@MIPs to SMZ was 344.8 μg g⁻¹. The selectivity of the obtained Fe₃O₄@MIPs NPs were elucidated by the different rebinding capability of SMZ and structural related sulfonamides in the mixed solution. The results indicated that the Fe₃O₄@MIPs had high imprinting factor 9.5 and significant selectivity. A method was developed for enrichment and determination of SMZ in the poultry feed samples with recoveries of duck and chicken feed ranging from 63.3 to 76.5% and 68.7 to 74.7%, respectively and the relative standard deviations (RSD

  9. Mined salt storage feasibility: Engineering study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    This study addresses a method of eliminating the surface storage of mined salt at the Deaf Smith repository site. It provides rough estimates of the logistics and costs of transporting 3.7 million tons of salt from the repository to the salt disposal site near Carlsbad, New Mexico and returning it to the repository for decommissioning backfill. The study assumes that a railcar/truck system will be installed and that the excavated salt will be transported from the repository to an existing potash mine located near Carlsbad, New Mexico approximately 300 miles from the repository. The 3.7 million tons of salt required for repository decommissioning backfill can be stored in the potash mines along with the excess salt, with no additional capital costs required for either a railcar or a truck transportation system. The capital cost for facilities to reclaim the 3.7 million tons of salt from the potash mine is estimated to be $4,400,000 with either a rail or truck transportation system. Segregating the 3.7 million tons of backfill salt in a surface storage area at the potash mine requires a capital cost of $13,900,000 with a rail system or $11,400,000 with a truck system. Transportation costs are estimated at $0.08/ton-mile for rail and $0.13/ton-mile for truck. 2 figs., 5 tabs

  10. Specific investigations related to salt rock behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vons, L.H.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper results are given of work in various countries in rather unrelated areas of research. Nevertheless, since the studies have been undertaken to better understand salt behaviour, both from mechanical and chemical points of view, some connection between the studies can be found. In the French contribution the geological conditions have been investigated that might promote or prevent the formation of salt domes from layers in view of possible use of the latter type of formation. This was done theoretically by the finite element method, and a start was made with centrifuge tests. The density of a number of samples from salt and overburden from the Bresse basin was measured and it was shown that a favourable condition exists in this region for waste disposal. In the German contribution various subjects are touched upon, one being the effect of water on the mobility in the early stages of salt dome formation. Evidence was found for an anisotropy in salt. One Dutch contribution describes results of studies on the effect of small amounts of water on the rheology of salt. The results imply that flow laws obtained for salt at rapid strain rates and/or low confining pressure cannot be reliably extrapolated to predict the long term behaviour of wet or even very dry material under natural conditions. Preliminary results on the effect of water upon ion-mobility indicate a certain pseudo-absorptive capacity of salt e.g. for Sr

  11. Fundamentals of molten-salt thermal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-08-01

    This book has been published by the Society of Molten-Salt Thermal Technology to publish a part of the achievement of its members. This book is composed of seven chapters. The chapter 1 is Introduction. The chapter 2 explains the physical properties of molten salts, such as thermal behavior, surface tension, viscosity, electrical conductivity and others. The chapter 3 presents the compatibility with construction materials. Corrosion in molten salts, the electrochemical behavior of fluoride ions on carbon electrodes in fluoride melts, the behaviors of hastelloy N and metals in melts are items of this chapter. The equipments and instruments for molten salts are described in chapter 4. The heat transfer in molten salts is discussed in chapter 5. The chapter 6 explains the application of molten salt technology. The molten salt technology can be applied not only to thermal engineering and energy engineering but also to chemical and nuclear engineerings, and the technical fundamentals, current development status, technical problems and the perspective for the future are outlined. The chapter 7 is the summary of this book. The commercialization of molten salt power reactors is discussed at the end of this book. (Kato, T.)

  12. Salt extraction by poulticing : an NMR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voronina, V.

    2011-01-01

    The crystallization of salts is widely recognized as one of the most significant causes of damage to many cultural objects consisting of porous materials, such as monuments, sculptures, historic buildings, wall paintings, etc. A common response to salt damage problems are treatments aimed at

  13. Metal Production by Molten Salt Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grjotheim, K.; Kvande, H.; Qingfeng, Li

    Chemistry and electrochemistry of molten salts are reviewed. Technological aspects of electrolytic production of aluminium, magnesium, and other metals are comprehensively surveyed.......Chemistry and electrochemistry of molten salts are reviewed. Technological aspects of electrolytic production of aluminium, magnesium, and other metals are comprehensively surveyed....

  14. Electrokinetic removal of salt from brick masonry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2006-01-01

    A method to effectively remove salts from masonry is lacking. The present study aims at determining the removal efficiency of salts from bricks in an applied low current electric DC field. At first an investigation on removal of NaCl and Na(NO3)2 from spiked bricks in laboratory scale was conducted...

  15. Disposition of the fluoride fuel and flush salts from the Molten Salt Reactor experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peretz, F.J.

    1996-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) is an 8 MW reactor that was operated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1965 through 1969. The reactor used a unique liquid salt fuel, composed of a mixture of LIF, BeF 2 , ZrF 4 , and UF 4 , and operated at temperatures above 600 degrees C. The primary fuel salt circulation system consisted of the reactor vessel, a single fuel salt pump, and a single primary heat exchanger. Heat was transferred from the fuel salt to a coolant salt circuit in the primary heat exchanger. The coolant salt was similar to the fuel salt, except that it contains only LiF (66%) and BeF, (34%). The coolant salt passed from the primary heat exchanger to an air-cooled radiator and a coolant salt pump, and then returned to the primary heat exchanger. Each of the salt loops was provided with drain tanks, located such that the salt could be drained out of either circuit by gravity. A single drain tank was provided for the non-radioactive coolant salt. Two drain tanks were provided for the fuel salt. Since the fuel salt contained radioactive fuel, fission products, and activation products, and since the reactor was designed such that the fuel salt could be drained immediately into the drain tanks in the event of a problem in the fuel salt loop, the fuel salt drain tanks were provided with a system to remove the heat generated by radioactive decay. A third drain tank connected to the fuel salt loop was provided for a batch of flush salt. This batch of salt, similar in composition to the coolant salt, was used to condition the fuel salt loop after it had been exposed to air and to flush the fuel salt loop of residual fuel salt prior to accessing the reactor circuit for maintenance or experimental activities. This report discusses the disposition of the fluoride fuel and flush salt

  16. Structure–Conductivity Relationships in Ordered and Disordered Salt-Doped Diblock Copolymer/Homopolymer Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irwin, Matthew T.; Hickey, Robert J.; Xie, Shuyi; So, Soonyong; Bates, Frank S.; Lodge, Timothy P. (UMM)

    2016-11-21

    We examine the relationship between structure and ionic conductivity in salt-containing ternary polymer blends that exhibit various microstructured morphologies, including lamellae, a hexagonal phase, and a bicontinuous microemulsion, as well as the disordered phase. These blends consist of polystyrene (PS, Mn ≈ 600 g/mol) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO, Mn ≈ 400 g/mol) homopolymers, a nearly symmetric PS–PEO block copolymer (Mn ≈ 4700 g/mol), and lithium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonamide (LiTFSI). These pseudoternary blends exhibit phase behavior that parallels that of well-studied ternary polymer blends consisting of A and B homopolymers compatibilized by an AB diblock copolymer. The utility of this framework is that all blends have nominally the same number of ethylene oxide, styrene, Li+, and TFSI– units, yet can exhibit a variety of microstructures depending on the relative ratio of the homopolymers to the block copolymer. For the systems studied, the ratio r = [Li+]/[EO] is maintained at 0.06, and the volume fraction of PS homopolymer is kept equal to that of PEO homopolymer plus salt. The total volume fraction of homopolymer is varied from 0 to 0.70. When heated through the order–disorder transition, all blends exhibit an abrupt increase in conductivity. However, analysis of small-angle X-ray scattering data indicates significant structure even in the disordered state for several blend compositions. By comparing the nature and structure of the disordered states with their corresponding ordered states, we find that this increase in conductivity through the order–disorder transition is most likely due to the elimination of grain boundaries. In either disordered or ordered states, the conductivity decreases as the total amount of homopolymer is increased, an unanticipated observation. This trend with increasing homopolymer loading is hypothesized to result from an increased density of

  17. Actinide removal from molten salts by chemical oxidation and salt distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeese, J.A.; Garcia, E.; Dole, V.R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Actinide removal from molten salts can be accomplished by a two step process where the actinide is first oxidized to the oxide using a chemical oxidant such as calcium carbonate or sodium carbonate. After the actinide is precipitated as an oxide the molten salt is distilled away from the actinide oxides leaving a oxide powder heel and an actinide free distilled salt that can be recycled back into the processing stream. This paper discusses the chemistry of the oxidation process and the physical conditions required to accomplish a salt distillation. Possible application of an analogous process sequence for a proposed accelerator driven transmutation molten salt process is also discussed.

  18. Actinide removal from molten salts by chemical oxidation and salt distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeese, James A.; Garcia, Eduardo; Dole, Vonda R.; Griego, Walter J.

    1995-01-01

    Actinide removal from molten salts can be accomplished by a two step process where the actinide is first oxidized to the oxide using a chemical oxidant such as calcium carbonate or sodium carbonate. After the actinide is precipitated as an oxide the molten salt is distilled away from the actinide oxides leaving a oxide powder heel and an actinide free distilled salt that can be recycled back into the processing stream. This paper discusses the chemistry of the oxidation process and the physical conditions required to accomplish a salt distillation. Possible application of an analogous process sequence for a proposed accelerator driven transmutation molten salt process is also discussed

  19. Dam construction in salt rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockmann, N.; Beinlich, A.; Flach, D.; Jockwer, N.; Klarr, K.; Krogmann, P.; Miehe, R.; Schmidt, M.W.; Schwaegermann, H.F.; Walter, F.; Yaramanci, U.

    1991-11-01

    Barriers are a major component of the satefy concept for the Gorleben repository. The construction and performance of dams are currently tested within the framework of a project carried out in the Asse salt mine. A measuring programme has been established to give evidence of the sealing capacities of a barrier consisting of an abatement, long-term sealing material, and a hydraulic sealing system. Tests are to be made to verify the barrier's performance for shorter of long time periods (up to about 500 years). The tests are assisted by computed models established for the project. The long-term safety aspects to be studied include such conditions as permeability changes due to mechanical impacts, circulation conditions at the roadside, and the serviceable life and efficiency of the sealing components. (DG) [de

  20. Titanium for salt water service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadiyar, H.S.; Shibad, P.R.

    1980-01-01

    Titanium has potential as major material of construction in desalination plants, in condensers and heat exchangers, in view of its excellent corrosion resistance to salt water upto at least 120deg C. The advantages of titanium in such applications are brought out. The various specific problems such as pitting, crevice and galvanic corrosion and the preventive methods, for adopting titanium have been discussed. The hydriding problem can be overcome by suitably controlling the operating parameters such as temperature and surface preparation. A case has been made to prove the economic viability of titanium in comparison to Al-brass and Cu-Ni alloy. The future of titanium seems to be very promising in view of the negligible tube failures and outages. (auth.)

  1. Fluid migration studies in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shefelbine, H.C.; Raines, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    This discussion will be limited to the migration of water trapped in the rock salt under the influence of the heat field produced by nuclear waste. This is of concern because hypotheticl scenarios have been advanced in which this fluid movement allows radionuclides to escape to the biosphere. While portions of these scenarios are supported by observation, none of the complete scenarios has been demonstrated. The objectives of the present fluid migration studies are two-fold: 1. determine the character of the trapped fluid in terms of quantity, habitat and chemical constituents; and 2. define the mechanisms that cause the fluid to migrate toward heat sources. Based on the observations to date, fluid migration will not have a major impact on repository integrity. However, the above objectives will be pursued until the impacts, if any, can be quantified

  2. Hopper Growth of Salt Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desarnaud, Julie; Derluyn, Hannelore; Carmeliet, Jan; Bonn, Daniel; Shahidzadeh, Noushine

    2018-06-07

    The growth of hopper crystals is observed for many substances, but the mechanism of their formation remains ill understood. Here we investigate their growth by performing evaporation experiments on small volumes of salt solutions. We show that sodium chloride crystals that grow very fast from a highly supersaturated solution form a peculiar form of hopper crystal consisting of a series of connected miniature versions of the original cubic crystal. The transition between cubic and such hopper growth happens at a well-defined supersaturation where the growth rate of the cubic crystal reaches a maximum (∼6.5 ± 1.8 μm/s). Above this threshold, the growth rate varies as the third power of supersaturation, showing that a new mechanism, controlled by the maximum speed of surface integration of new molecules, induces the hopper growth of cubic crystals in cascade.

  3. Chemical characterisation of himalayan rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.U.; Din, M.U.

    2017-01-01

    Present study involves the chemical evaluation of rock salt samples collected from the plugging sites of Himalayan salt (Khewra salt mines and Kalabagh salt mines) for their moisture content, water insoluble matter, calcium, magnesium, sulphate content and trace minerals such as Fe,Cu,Cd,Pb,As,Ag and Zn determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Moisture content of Khewra and Kalabagh salt samples ranged from 0.03 wt. % to 0.09 wt. % and 0.06 % to 0.08 %, respectively. Water insoluble matter ranged from 0.08 wt. % to 1.4 wt. % and 1.5 wt. % to 2.8wt. % for Khewra and Kalabagh salt samples, respectively. Sulphate content for Khewra salt sample was from 0.39 % to 0.91 % and for Kalabagh salt mines from 0.75 wt. % to 0.95 wt. %. For Khewra salt mines calcium ranged 0.15 wt. % to 0.32 wt. % and for Kalabagh salt samples from 0.1 wt. % to 0.27 wt. %. Magnesium ranged from 0.11 wt. % to 0.35 wt. % for Khewra salt mines, while for Kalabagh salt samples its range was 0.18 wt. % to 0.89 wt. %. Trace metals had the concentration ranges between 0.2 to 1.85 mg/kg for copper; between 0.21 to 0.42 mg/kg for manganese; between 0.04 to 0.06 mg/kg for zinc; between 0.12 to 0.18 mg/kg for arsenic and between 0.03 and 0.05 mg/kg for lead while cadmium content was either below the method's detection limits or in very trace amounts. The results show that the concentrations of all the parameters studied are below the limits set by World Health Organization (WHO) and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Therefore, it can be concluded from the paper that the Himalayan salt from the plugging sites of Khewra and Kalabagh salt mines are safe to use. (author)

  4. Vitrification in the presence of salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marra, J.C.; Andrews, M.K.; Schumacher, R.F.

    1994-01-01

    Glass is an advantageous material for the immobilization of nuclear wastes because of the simplicity of processing and its unique ability to accept a wide variety of waste elements into its network structure. Unfortunately, some anionic species which are present in the nuclear waste streams have only limited solubility in oxide glasses. This can result in either vitrification concerns or it can affect the integrity, of the final vitrified waste form. The presence of immiscible salts can also corrode metals and refractories in the vitrification unit as well as degrade components in the off-gas system. The presence of a molten salt layer on the melt may alter the batch melting rate and increase operational safety concerns. These safety concerns relate to the interaction of the molten salt and the melter cooling fluids. Some preliminary data from ongoing experimental efforts examining the solubility of molten salts in glasses and the interaction of salts with melter component materials is included

  5. Molten salt processes in special materials preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurthy, N.; Suri, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    As a class, molten salts are the largest collection of non aqueous inorganic solvents. On account of their stability at high temperature and compatibility to a number of process requirements, molten salts are considered indispensable to realize many of the numerous benefits of high temperature technology. They play a crucial role and form the basis for numerous elegant processes for the preparation of metals and materials. Molten salt are considered versatile heat transfer media and have led to the evolution of many interesting reactor concepts in fission and possibly in fusion. They also have been the basis of thinking for few novel processes for power generation. While focusing principally on the actual utilization of molten salts for a variety of materials preparation efforts in BARC, this lecture also covers a few of the other areas of technological applications together with the scientific basis for considering the molten salts in such situations. (author)

  6. SEPARATION OF METAL SALTS BY ADSORPTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, D.M.

    1959-01-20

    It has been found that certain metal salts, particularly the halides of iron, cobalt, nickel, and the actinide metals, arc readily absorbed on aluminum oxide, while certain other salts, particularly rare earth metal halides, are not so absorbed. Use is made of this discovery to separate uranium from the rare earths. The metal salts are first dissolved in a molten mixture of alkali metal nitrates, e.g., the eutectic mixture of lithium nitrate and potassium nitrate, and then the molten salt solution is contacted with alumina, either by slurrying or by passing the salt solution through an absorption tower. The process is particularly valuable for the separation of actinides from lanthanum-group rare earths.

  7. Alternative methods of salt disposal at the seven salt sites for a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This study discusses the various alternative salt management techniques for the disposal of excess mined salt at seven potentially acceptable nuclear waste repository sites: Deaf Smith and Swisher Counties, Texas; Richton and Cypress Creek Domes, Mississippi; Vacherie Dome, Louisiana; and Davis and Lavender Canyons, Utah. Because the repository development involves the underground excavation of corridors and waste emplacement rooms, in either bedded or domed salt formations, excess salt will be mined and must be disposed of offsite. The salt disposal alternatives examined for all the sites include commercial use, ocean disposal, deep well injection, landfill disposal, and underground mine disposal. These alternatives (and other site-specific disposal methods) are reviewed, using estimated amounts of excavated, backfilled, and excess salt. Methods of transporting the excess salt are discussed, along with possible impacts of each disposal method and potential regulatory requirements. A preferred method of disposal is recommended for each potentially acceptable repository site. 14 refs., 5 tabs

  8. Systematic Evaluation of Salt Cavern Well Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, B. L.; Lord, D. L.; Lord, A. S.; Bettin, G.; Sobolik, S. R.; Park, B. Y.

    2017-12-01

    The U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) holds a reserve of crude oil ( 700 million barrels) to help ease any interruptions in oil import to the United States. The oil is stored in a set of 63 underground caverns distributed across four sites along the U.S. Gulf Coast. The caverns were solution mined into salt domes at each of the four sites. The plastic nature of the salt is beneficial for the storage of crude oil as it heals any fractures that may occur in the salt. The SPR is responsible for operating and maintaining the nearly 120 wells used to access the storage caverns over operational lifetimes spanning decades. Salt creep can induce deformation of the well casing which must be remediated to insure cavern and well integrity. This is particularly true at the interface between the plastic salt and the rigid caprock. The Department of Energy, the SPR Management and Operations contractor, and Sandia National Laboratories has developed a multidimensional well-grading system for the salt cavern access wells. This system is designed to assign numeric grades to each well indicating its risk of losing integrity and remediation priority. The system consists of several main components which themselves may consist of sub-components. The main components consider such things as salt cavern pressure history, results from geomechanical simulations modeling salt deformation, and measurements of well casing deformation due to salt creep. In addition, the geology of the salt domes and their overlying caprock is also included in the grading. These multiple factors are combined into summary values giving the monitoring and remediation priority for each well. Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International Inc. for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA0003525.

  9. Augmenting the salt tolerance in wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Augmenting the salt tolerance in wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) through exogenously applied silicon. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... physiology and biochemistry of wheat genotypes (salt sensitive; Auqab-2000 and salt tolerant; SARC-5) ...

  10. Molten salt oxidation of organic hazardous waste with high salt content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chengqian; Chi, Yong; Jin, Yuqi; Jiang, Xuguang; Buekens, Alfons; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Jian

    2018-02-01

    Organic hazardous waste often contains some salt, owing to the widespread use of alkali salts during industrial manufacturing processes. These salts cause complications during the treatment of this type of waste. Molten salt oxidation is a flameless, robust thermal process, with inherent capability of destroying the organic constituents of wastes, while retaining the inorganic ingredients in the molten salt. In the present study, molten salt oxidation is employed for treating a typical organic hazardous waste with a high content of alkali salts. The hazardous waste derives from the production of thiotriazinone. Molten salt oxidation experiments have been conducted using a lab-scale molten salt oxidation reactor, and the emissions of CO, NO, SO 2 , HCl and dioxins are studied. Impacts are investigated from the composition of the molten salts, the types of feeding tube, the temperature of molten carbonates and the air factor. Results show that the waste can be oxidised effectively in a molten salt bath. Temperature of molten carbonates plays the most important role. With the temperature rising from 600 °C to 750 °C, the oxidation efficiency increases from 91.1% to 98.3%. Compared with the temperature, air factor has but a minor effect, as well as the composition of the molten salts and the type of feeding tube. The molten carbonates retain chlorine with an efficiency higher than 99.9% and the emissions of dioxins are below 8 pg TEQ g -1 sample. The present study shows that molten salt oxidation is a promising alternative for the disposal of organic hazardous wastes containing a high salt content.

  11. Evaluation of dried salted pork ham and neck quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Kunová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was analysed chemical and physical parameters of dried salted pork ham and neck. Dry-cured meat is a traditional dry-cured product obtained after 12 - 24 months of ripening under controlled environmental conditions.  Ham and neck was salted by nitrite salt mixture during 1 week. Salted meat products were dried at 4 °C and relative humidity 85% 1 week after salting. The quality of dry-cured meat is influenced by the processing technology, for example length of drying and ripening period. The average moisture of dried salted pork ham was 63.77% and dried salted pork neck was 59.26%. The protein content was 24.87% in dried salted pork ham and significantly lower (20.51% in dried salted pork neck. The value of intramuscular fat in dried salted pork ham was 4.97% and 14.40% in dried salted pork neck. The salt content was 5.39% in dried salted pork ham and 4.83% in dried salted pork neck. The cholesterol content was 1.36 g.kg-1 in dried salted pork ham and significant lower in dried salted pork neck (0.60 g.kg-1. The value of lightness was 44.36 CIE L* in dried salted pork ham and significantly lower in dried salted pork neck (40.74 CIE L*. The pH value was 5.84 in dried salted pork ham and 5.80 in dried salted pork neck. The shear work was 9.99 kg.s-1 in dried salted pork ham and 6.34 in dried salted pork neck. The value of water activity (aw was 0.929 in dried salted pork ham and similar 0.921 in dried salted pork neck. 

  12. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Evaluation of Some Novel Thiazole, Pyridone, Pyrazole, Chromene, Hydrazone Derivatives Bearing a Biologically Active Sulfonamide Moiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Elham S.; Abdel Fattah, Azza M.; Attaby, Fawzy A.; Al-Shayea, Oqba N.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed for the synthesis of new heterocyclic compounds incorporating sulfamoyl moiety suitable for use as antimicrobial agents via a versatile, readily accessible N-[4-(aminosulfonyl)phenyl]-2-cyanoacetamide (3). The 2-pyridone derivatives were obtained via reaction of cyanoacetamide with acetylacetone or arylidenes malononitrile. Cycloaddition reaction of cyanoacetamide with salicyaldehyde furnished chromene derivatives. Diazotization of 3 with the desired diazonium chloride gave the hydrazone derivatives 13a–e. Also, the reactivity of the hydrazone towards hydrazine hydrate to give Pyrazole derivatives was studied. In addition, treatment of 3 with elemental sulfur and phenyl isothiocyanate or malononitrile furnished thiazole and thiophene derivatives respectively. Reaction of 3 with phenyl isothiocyanate and KOH in DMF afforded the intermediate salt 17 which reacted in situ with 3-(2-bromoacetyl)-2H-chromen-2-one and methyl iodide afforded the thiazole and ketene N,S-acetal derivatives respectively. Finally, reaction of 3 with carbon disulfide and 1,3-dibromopropane afforded the N-[4-(aminosulfonyl) phenyl]-2-cyano-2-(1,3-dithian-2-ylidene)acetamide product 22. All newly synthesized compounds were elucidated by considering the data of both elemental and spectral analysis. The compounds were evaluated for both their in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities and showed promising results. PMID:24445259

  13. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Evaluation of Some Novel Thiazole, Pyridone, Pyrazole, Chromene, Hydrazone Derivatives Bearing a Biologically Active Sulfonamide Moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham S. Darwish

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed for the synthesis of new heterocyclic compounds incorporating sulfamoyl moiety suitable for use as antimicrobial agents via a versatile, readily accessible N-[4-(aminosulfonylphenyl]-2-cyanoacetamide (3. The 2-pyridone derivatives were obtained via reaction of cyanoacetamide with acetylacetone or arylidenes malononitrile. Cycloaddition reaction of cyanoacetamide with salicyaldehyde furnished chromene derivatives. Diazotization of 3 with the desired diazonium chloride gave the hydrazone derivatives 13a–e. Also, the reactivity of the hydrazone towards hydrazine hydrate to give Pyrazole derivatives was studied. In addition, treatment of 3 with elemental sulfur and phenyl isothiocyanate or malononitrile furnished thiazole and thiophene derivatives respectively. Reaction of 3 with phenyl isothiocyanate and KOH in DMF afforded the intermediate salt 17 which reacted in situ with 3-(2-bromoacetyl-2H-chromen-2-one and methyl iodide afforded the thiazole and ketene N,S-acetal derivatives respectively. Finally, reaction of 3 with carbon disulfide and 1,3-dibromopropane afforded the N-[4-(aminosulfonyl phenyl]-2-cyano-2-(1,3-dithian-2-ylideneacetamide product 22. All newly synthesized compounds were elucidated by considering the data of both elemental and spectral analysis. The compounds were evaluated for both their in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities and showed promising results.

  14. Correlation of Creep Behavior of Domal Salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, D.E.

    1999-01-01

    The experimentally determined creep responses of a number of domal salts have been reported in, the literature. Some of these creep results were obtained using standard (conventional) creep tests. However, more typically, the creep data have come from multistage creep tests, where the number of specimens available for testing was small. An incremental test uses abrupt changes in stress and temperature to produce several time increments (stages) of different creep conditions. Clearly, the ability to analyze these limited data and to correlate them with each other could be of considerable potential value in establishing the mechanical characteristics of salt domes, both generally and specifically. In any analysis, it is necessary to have a framework of rules to provide consistency. The basis for the framework is the Multimechanism-Deformation (M-D) constitutive model. This model utilizes considerable general knowledge of material creep deformation to supplement specific knowledge of the material response of salt. Because the creep of salt is controlled by just a few micromechanical mechanisms, regardless of the origin of the salt, certain of the material parameters are values that can be considered universal to salt. Actual data analysis utilizes the methodology developed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) program, and the response of a bedded pure WIPP salt as the baseline for comparison of the domal salts. Creep data from Weeks Island, Bryan Mound, West Hackberry, Bayou Choctaw, and Big Hill salt domes, which are all sites of Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) storage caverns, were analyzed, as were data from the Avery Island, Moss Bluff, and Jennings salt domes. The analysis permits the parameter value sets for the domal salts to be determined in terms of the M-D model with various degrees of completeness. In turn this permits detailed numerical calculations simulating cavern response. Where the set is incomplete because of the sparse database, reasonable

  15. Exploring QSAR with E-state index: selectivity requirements for COX-2 versus COX-1 binding of terphenyl methyl sulfones and sulfonamides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Santanu; Sengupta, Chandana; Roy, Kunal

    2004-09-20

    An attempt has been made to explore selectivity requirements for cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) versus cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) binding of terphenyl methyl sulfones and sulfonamides using electrotopological state (E-state) index and suitable indicator parameters. Multiple linear regression analyses produced statistically acceptable equations: the best relation based on 'all-possible-subsets regression' for COX-1 binding (n=18) showed predicted variance and explained variance of 0.675 and 0.777, respectively, while in case of the best equation for COX-2 binding (n=38), these values rose to 0.842 and 0.874, respectively. For the selectivity relation (n=17), predicted variance and explained variance values were 0.601 and 0.687, respectively. Based on the results of the analyses, three important sites have been suggested: sites A (methylsulfonyl or aminosulfonyl moiety), B (central phenyl ring), and C (terminal phenyl ring containing different substituents). All three sites are important for COX-2 binding while sites B and C are important for COX-1 binding. For COX-2 selectivity, only site C plays an important role. The study shows the utility of E-state index in developing statistically acceptable model having direct physicochemical significance.

  16. Simple and sensitive monitoring of sulfonamide veterinary residues in milk by stir bar sorptive extraction based on monolithic material and high performance liquid chromatography analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaojia; Qiu, Ningning; Yuan, Dongxing

    2009-11-13

    A simple, rapid, and sensitive method for the quantitative monitoring of five sulfonamide antibacterial residues (SAs) in milk was developed by stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) coupling to high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The analytes were concentrated by SBSE based on poly (vinylimidazole-divinylbenzene) monolithic material as coating. The extraction procedure was very simple, milk was diluted with water then directly sorptive extraction without elimination of fats and protein in samples was required. To achieve optimum extraction performance for SAs, several parameters, including extraction and desorption time, desorption solvent, ionic strength and pH value of sample matrix were investigated. Under the optimized experimental conditions, low detection limits (S/N=3) quantification limits (S/N=10) of the proposed method for the target compounds were achieved within the range of 1.30-7.90 ng/mL and 4.29-26.3 ng/mL from spiked milk, respectively. Good linearities were obtained for SAs with the correlation coefficients (R(2)) above 0.996. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of SAs compounds in different milk samples and satisfied recoveries of spiked target compounds in real samples were obtained.

  17. Microwave-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of ionic liquid for the determination of sulfonamides in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ying; Wu, Lijie; Lu, Chunmei; Li, Na; Hu, Mingzhu; Wang, Ziming

    2014-12-01

    An easy, quick, and green method, microwave-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of ionic liquid, was first developed and applied to the extraction of sulfonamides in environmental water samples. 1-Ethy-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, which is a solid-state ionic liquid at room temperature, was used as extraction solvent in the present method. After microwave irradiation for 90 s, the solid-state ionic liquid was melted into liquid phase and used to finish the extraction of the analytes. The ionic liquid and sample matrix can be separated by freezing and centrifuging. Several experimental parameters, including amount of extraction solvent, microwave power and irradiation time, pH of sample solution, and ionic strength, were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum experimental conditions, good linearity was observed in the range of 2.00-400.00 μg/L with the correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9995 to 0.9999. The limits of detection for sulfathiazole, sulfachlorpyridazine, sulfamethoxazole, and sulfaphenazole were 0.39, 0.33, 0.62, and 0.85 μg/L, respectively. When the present method was applied to the analysis of environmental water samples, the recoveries of the analytes ranged from 75.09 to 115.78% and relative standard deviations were lower than 11.89%. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Photodegradation mechanism of sulfonamides with excited triplet state dissolved organic matter: A case of sulfadiazine with 4-carboxybenzophenone as a proxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yingjie; Wei, Xiaoxuan; Chen, Jingwen; Xie, Hongbin; Zhang, Ya-nan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Excited triplet state of dissolved organic matter ( 3 DOM * ) is largely responsible for the enhanced photodegradation of sulfadiazine. • Electron followed by proton transfer is a major mechanism for the reactions of sulfadiazine with 3 DOM * proxies. • Two reaction sites (amino- or sulfonyl-N) and sulfadiazine radicals were identified in the reactions of sulfadiazine with 3 DOM * proxies. - Abstract: Excited triplet states of dissolved organic matter ( 3 DOM*) are important players for photodegradation sulfonamide antibiotics (SAs) in sunlit natural waters. However, the triplet-mediated reaction mechanism was poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the reaction adopting sulfadiazine as a representative SA and 4-carboxybenzophenone (CBBP)as a proxy of DOM. Results showed that the excited triplet state of CBBP ( 3 CBBP*) is responsible for the photodegradation of sulfadiazine. The reaction of 3 CBBP* with substructure model compounds verified there are two reaction sites (amino-or sulfonyl-N atoms) of sulfadiazine. Density functional theory calculations were performed, which unveiled that electrons transfer from the N reaction sites to the carbonyl oxygen atom of 3 CBBP* moiety, followed by proton transfers, leading to the formation of sulfadiazine radicals. Laser flash photolysis experiments were performed to confirm the mechanism. Thus, this study identified that the photodegradation mechanism of SAs initiated by 3 DOM*, which is important for understanding the photochemical fate, predicting the photoproducts, and assessing the ecological risks of SAs in the aquatic environment

  19. Simultaneous determination of sulfonamides, tetracyclines and tiamulin in swine wastewater by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, Weiwei; Qiang, Zhimin; Adams, Craig; Zhang, Heqing; Chen, Liping

    2008-08-22

    Little is known about the contamination level of antibiotics in swine wastewater in China. The highly complex matrix of swine wastewater, which generally has a chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration as high as 15,000 mg/L, makes it difficult to detect antibiotics at trace levels. In this work, a highly selective and sensitive analytical method was developed for simultaneous determination of three classes of commonly used veterinary antibiotics including five sulfonamides, three tetracyclines and one macrolide in swine wastewater using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The method detection limits (MDL) in the swine wastewater were determined to be between 5 and 91 ng/L, depending on specific antibiotics. Except sulfamethizole, all the other eight antibiotics were detected in the swine wastewaters collected from three concentrated swine feeding plants located in the Beijing (China) area, showing a concentration range of 0.62-32.67 microg/L. These results reveal the representative concentration levels of selected antibiotics in the swine wastewaters of Beijing area.

  20. Effects of corresponding and non-corresponding contaminants on the fate of sulfonamide and quinolone resistance genes in the Laizhou Bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qianwei; Na, Guangshui; Zhang, Linxiao; Lu, Zihao; Gao, Hui; Li, Ruijing; Jin, Shuaichen

    2018-03-01

    The environmental behaviors and migration patterns of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have attracted considerable research interest. However, there has been little research concerning the effects of corresponding and non-corresponding contaminants on the fate of ARGs in coastal environments. In the present study, the distribution of intI1, sul1, sul2, qnrS and aac(6')-Ib were analyzed in water and sediment samples of Laizhou Bay in the context of corresponding and non-corresponding contaminants. The abundance of intI1, sul1 and sul2 genes exhibited a clear decreasing trend extending from the inner estuary to the coastal area. Strong and positive correlations existed between sul1/sul2 and sulfonamide antibiotic residues in sediments, and between the abundances of intI1 and sul1/sul2. Statistical analyses indicated that non-corresponding contaminants were partially correlated with ARG abundances. These results suggest that non-corresponding contaminants may have direct or indirect influences on the abundances of ARGs and intI1 in the Laizhou Bay. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of trace levels of sulfonamide and tetracycline antimicrobials in groundwater and surface water using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, M.E.; Meyer, M.; Thurman, E.M.

    2001-01-01

    A method has been developed for the trace analysis of two classes of antimicrobials consisting of six sulfonamides (SAs) and five tetracyclines (TCs), which commonly are used for veterinary purposes and agricultural feed additives and are suspected to leach into ground and surface water. The method used solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) with positive ion electrospray. The unique combination of a metal chelation agent (Na2EDTA) with a macroporous copolymer resulted in quantitative recoveries by solid-phase extraction (mean recovery, 98 ?? 12%) at submicrogram-per-liter concentrations. An ammonium formate/formic acid buffer with a methanol/water gradient was used to separate the antimicrobials and to optimize the signal intensity. Mass spectral fragmentation and ionization characteristics were determined for each class of compounds for unequivocal identification. For all SAs, a characteristic m/z 156 ion representing the sulfanilyl fragment was identified. TCs exhibited neutral losses of 17 amu resulting from the loss of ammonia and 35 amu from the subsequent loss of water. Unusual matrix effects were seen only for TCs in this first survey of groundwater and surface water samples from sites around the United States, requiring that TCs be quantitated using the method of standard additions.

  2. Simultaneous determination of 17 sulfonamides and the potentiators ormetoprim and trimethoprim in salmon muscle by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Ross A; Burns, B Garth; van de Riet, Jeffrey M; North, David H; Darvesh, Rozina

    2007-01-01

    A simple, robust method using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) for the simultaneous determination of 17 sulfonamides [sulfanilamide (SNL), sulfacetamide (SAA), sulfaguanidine (SGD), sulfapyridine (SPY), sulfadiazine (SDZ), sulfathiazole (STZ), sulfamerazine (SMR), sulfamethoxazole (SOZ), sulfamoxole (SXL), sulfisoxazole (SXZ), sulfamethizole (SML), sulfamethazine (SMZ), sulfamethoxypyridazine (SMP), sulfamonomethoxine (SMM), sulfachloropyridazine (SCP), sulfaquinoxaline (SQX), and sulfadimethoxine (SDM)] and 2 potentiators [ormetoprim (OMP) and trimethoprim (TMP)] in fish tissue has been developed. The analytes were extracted from homogenized fish tissue with water-acetonitrile (50 + 50). The extract was clarified by centrifugation and a portion defatted with hexane. The analytes were partitioned into chloroform and evaporated to dryness. The redissolved residue was applied to a C18 reversed-phase column with a water-acetonitrile (0.1% acetic acid) gradient. All of the compounds were completely separated and detected in <10 min at 30 degrees C using LC/MS/MS. Standard curves were linear over the range of 0.02 to 5 ng injected. The limit of detection varied from 0.1 ng/g for SMZ and OMP to 0.9 ng/g for SXL and SOZ. Recoveries varied from 100% for SDM, SOZ, and SQX and 85% for SMR, OMP, and TMP to approximately 30% for SAA. Relative standard deviations for repeat analysis varied from 4% for SMZ and SCP to 23% for SAA.

  3. Surface sulfonamide modification of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-based block copolymer micelles to alter pH and temperature responsive properties for controlled intracellular uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyphert, Erika L; von Recum, Horst A; Yamato, Masayuki; Nakayama, Masamichi

    2018-06-01

    Two different surface sulfonamide-functionalized poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-based polymeric micelles were designed as pH-/temperature-responsive vehicles. Both sulfadimethoxine- and sulfamethazine-surface functionalized micelles were characterized to determine physicochemical properties, hydrodynamic diameters, zeta potentials, temperature-dependent size changes, and lower critical solution temperatures (LCST) in both pH 7.4 and 6.8 solutions (simulating both physiological and mild low pH conditions), and tested in the incorporation of a proof-of-concept hydrophobic antiproliferative drug, paclitaxel. Cellular uptake studies were conducted using bovine carotid endothelial cells and fluorescently labeled micelles to evaluate if there was enhanced cellular uptake of the micelles in a low pH environment. Both variations of micelles showed enhanced intracellular uptake under mildly acidic (pH 6.8) conditions at temperatures slightly above their LCST and minimal uptake at physiological (pH 7.4) conditions. Due to the less negative zeta potential of the sulfamethazine-surface micelles compared to sulfadimethoxine-surface micelles, and the proximity of their LCST to physiological temperature (37°C), the sulfamethazine variation was deemed more amenable for clinically relevant temperature and pH-stimulated applications. Nevertheless, we believe both polymeric micelle variations have the capacity to be implemented as an intracellular drug or gene delivery system in response to mildly acidic conditions. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 1552-1560, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Trace analysis of trimethoprim and sulfonamide, macrolide, quinolone, and tetracycline antibiotics in chlorinated drinking water using liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Z.; Weinberg, H.S.; Meyer, M.T.

    2007-01-01

    A multirun analytical method has been developed and validated for trace determination of 24 antibiotics including 7 sulfonamides, 3 macrolides, 7 quinolones, 6 tetracyclines, and trimethoprim in chlorine-disinfected drinking water using a single solid-phase extraction method coupled to liquid chromatography with positive electrospray tandem mass spectrometry detection. The analytes were extracted by a hydrophilic-lipophilic balanced resin and eluted with acidified methanol (0.1% formic acid), resulting in analyte recoveries generally above 90%. The limits of quantitation were mostly below 10 ng/L in drinking water. Since the concentrated sample matrix typically caused ion suppression during electrospray ionization, the method of standard addition was used for quantitation. Chlorine residuals in drinking water can react with some antibiotics, but ascorbic acid was found to be an effective chlorine quenching agent without affecting the analysis and stability of the antibiotics in water. A preliminary occurrence study using this method revealed the presence of some antibiotics in drinking waters, including sulfamethoxazole (3.0-3.4 ng/L), macrolides (1.4-4.9 ng/L), and quinolones (1.2-4.0 ng/L). ?? 2007 American Chemical Society.

  5. Synthesis of carbon-coated magnetic nanocomposite (Fe3O4@C) and its application for sulfonamide antibiotics removal from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaolei; Qiang, Zhimin; Chang, Jih-Hsing; Ben, Weiwei; Qu, Jiuhui

    2014-05-01

    The occurrence of antibiotics in the environment has recently raised serious concerns regarding their potential threat to human health and aquatic ecosystem. A new magnetic nanocomposite, Fe3O4@C (Fe3O4 coated with carbon), was synthesized, characterized, and then applied to remove five commonly-used sulfonamides (SAs) from water. Due to its combinational merits of the outer functionalized carbon shell and the inner magnetite core, Fe3O4@C exhibited a high adsorption affinity for selected SAs and a fast magnetic separability. The adsorption kinetics of SAs on Fe3O4@C could be expressed by the pseudo second-order model. The adsorption isotherms were fitted well with the Dual-mode model, revealing that the adsorption process consisted of an initial partitioning stage and a subsequent hole-filling stage. Solution pH exerted a strong impact on the adsorption process with the maximum removal efficiencies (74% to 96%) obtained at pH 4.8 for all selected SAs. Electrostatic force and hydrogen bonding were two major driving forces for adsorption, and electron-donor-acceptor interactions may also make a certain contribution. Because the synthesized Fe3O4@C showed comprehensive advantages of high adsorptivity, fast magnetic separability, and prominent reusability, it has potential applications in water treatment. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Distribution of sulfonamides in liquid and solid anaerobic digestates: effects of hydraulic retention time and swine manure to rice straw ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hongmei; Xu, Caiyun; Du, Jing; Wu, Huashan; Huang, Hongying; Chang, Zhizhou; Xu, Yueding; Zhou, Lixiang

    2017-02-01

    The effects of hydraulic retention time (20 and 15 days) and swine manure to rice straw ratios on distribution of sulfonamides (SAs) in liquid and solid anaerobic digestates were studied using bench-scale completely stirred tank reactors at (37 ± 1) °C. Results showed that anaerobic digestion (AD) treatment exhibited a good removal effect on sulfadiazine (SDZ), sulfadimidine (SM2) and sulfachloropyridazine (SCP), especially at HRT = 20 days and co-digestion with swine manure and rice straw. The removal rates of SDZ and SM2 were more than 90%, but only 72.8% for SCP. The residual SAs were mainly remained in solid digestates, with residual rates ranging from 28.8% to 71.3%, 40.6% to 88.0, and 82.7% to 97.0% for SDZ, SM2 and SCP, respectively. Due to lower pKa and higher log K ow of SCP, its residue in solid digestates was far more than SDZ and SM2. Higher HRT and co-digestion could improve the degradation of SAs, which can also be put down to the occurrence of cometabolism of SAs and COD.

  7. Ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and derivatization of sulfonamides in river water, honey, milk, and animal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xu; Su, Rui; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Zhuang; Zhang, Yupu; Li, Dan; Li, Xueyuan; Zhang, Hanqi; Wang, Ziming

    2011-11-30

    The ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (IL-based MADLLME) and derivatization was applied for the pretreatment of six sulfonamides (SAs) prior to the determination by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). By adding methanol (disperser), fluorescamine solution (derivatization reagent) and ionic liquid (extraction solvent) into sample, extraction, derivatization, and preconcentration were continuously performed. Several experimental parameters, such as the type and volume of extraction solvent, the type and volume of disperser, amount of derivatization reagent, microwave power, microwave irradiation time, pH of sample solution, and ionic strength were investigated and optimized. When the microwave power was 240 W, the analytes could be derivatized and extracted simultaneously within 90 s. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of river water, honey, milk, and pig plasma samples, and the recoveries of analytes obtained were in the range of 95.0-110.8, 95.4-106.3, 95.0-108.3, and 95.7-107.7, respectively. The relative standard deviations varied between 1.5% and 7.3% (n=5). The results showed that the proposed method was a rapid, convenient and feasible method for the determination of SAs in liquid samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Disposable MoS2-Arrayed MALDI MS Chip for High-Throughput and Rapid Quantification of Sulfonamides in Multiple Real Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yaju; Tang, Minmin; Liao, Qiaobo; Li, Zhoumin; Li, Hui; Xi, Kai; Tan, Li; Zhang, Mei; Xu, Danke; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2018-04-27

    In this work, we demonstrate, for the first time, the development of a disposable MoS 2 -arrayed matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) chip combined with an immunoaffinity enrichment method for high-throughput, rapid, and simultaneous quantitation of multiple sulfonamides (SAs). The disposable MALDI MS chip was designed and fabricated by MoS 2 array formation on a commercial indium tin oxide (ITO) glass slide. A series of SAs were analyzed, and clear deprotonated signals were obtained in negative-ion mode. Compared with MoS 2 -arrayed commercial steel plate, the prepared MALDI MS chip exhibited comparable LDI efficiency, providing a good alternative and disposable substrate for MALDI MS analysis. Furthermore, internal standard (IS) was previously deposited onto the MoS 2 array to simplify the experimental process for MALDI MS quantitation. 96 sample spots could be analyzed within 10 min in one single chip to perform quantitative analysis, recovery studies, and real foodstuff detection. Upon targeted extraction and enrichment by antibody conjugated magnetic beads, five SAs were quantitatively determined by the IS-first method with the linear range of 0.5-10 ng/mL ( R 2 > 0.990). Good recoveries and repeatability were obtained for spiked pork, egg, and milk samples. SAs in several real foodstuffs were successfully identified and quantified. The developed method may provide a promising tool for the routine analysis of antibiotic residues in real samples.

  9. Context-driven Salt Seeking Test (Rats)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Stephen E.; Smith, Kyle S.

    2018-01-01

    Changes in reward seeking behavior often occur through incremental learning based on the difference between what is expected and what actually happens. Behavioral flexibility of this sort requires experience with rewards as better or worse than expected. However, there are some instances in which behavior can change through non-incremental learning, which requires no further experience with an outcome. Such an example of non-incremental learning is the salt appetite phenomenon. In this case, animals such as rats will immediately seek out a highly-concentrated salt solution that was previously undesired when they are put in a novel state of sodium deprivation. Importantly, this adaptive salt-seeking behavior occurs despite the fact that the rats never tasted salt in the depleted state, and therefore never tasted it as a highly desirable reward. The following protocol is a method to investigate the neural circuitry mediating adaptive salt seeking using a conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure. The procedure is designed to provide an opportunity to discover possible dissociations between the neural circuitry mediating salt seeking and salt consumption to replenish the bodily deficit after sodium depletion. Additionally, this procedure is amenable to incorporating a number of neurobiological techniques for studying the brain basis of this behavior.

  10. Permanent Disposal of Nuclear Waste in Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, F. D.

    2016-12-01

    Salt formations hold promise for eternal removal of nuclear waste from our biosphere. Germany and the United States have ample salt formations for this purpose, ranging from flat-bedded formations to geologically mature dome structures. Both nations are revisiting nuclear waste disposal options, accompanied by extensive collaboration on applied salt repository research, design, and operation. Salt formations provide isolation while geotechnical barriers reestablish impermeability after waste is placed in the geology. Between excavation and closure, physical, mechanical, thermal, chemical, and hydrological processes ensue. Salt response over a range of stress and temperature has been characterized for decades. Research practices employ refined test techniques and controls, which improve parameter assessment for features of the constitutive models. Extraordinary computational capabilities require exacting understanding of laboratory measurements and objective interpretation of modeling results. A repository for heat-generative nuclear waste provides an engineering challenge beyond common experience. Long-term evolution of the underground setting is precluded from direct observation or measurement. Therefore, analogues and modeling predictions are necessary to establish enduring safety functions. A strong case for granular salt reconsolidation and a focused research agenda support salt repository concepts that include safety-by-design. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Author: F. D. Hansen, Sandia National Laboratories

  11. Sequestration of CO2 in salt caverns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusseault, M.B.; Rothenburg, L.; Bachu, S.

    2002-01-01

    The greenhouse effect is thought to be greatly affected by anthropogenic and naturally generated gases, such as carbon dioxide. The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere could be effected through the permanent storage of carbon dioxide in dissolved salt caverns. A large number of suitable salt deposits are located in Alberta, especially the Lotsberg Salt of east-central Alberta. A major advantage of this deposit is its proximity to present and future point sources of carbon dioxide associated with fossil fuel development projects. Using the perspective of the long term fate of the stored carbon dioxide, the authors presented the characteristics of the Lotsberg Salt and the overlying strata. A high level of security against leakage and migration of the gas back to the biosphere is ensured by several features discussed in the paper. The authors propose a procedure that would be applicable for the creation, testing, and filling of a salt cavern. Achieving a long term prediction of the behavior of the cavern during slow closure, coupled to the pressure and volume behavior of the gas within the cavern represents the critical factor. The authors came up with an acceptable prediction by using a semi-analytical model. The use of salt caverns for the permanent sequestration of carbon dioxide has not yet faced technical obstacles that would prevent it. The authors argue that sequestration of carbon dioxide in salt caverns represents an environmentally acceptable option in Alberta. 11 refs., 3 figs

  12. Site characterization plan: Gulf Coast salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    The National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for developing technology and providing facilities for safe, environmentally acceptable, permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation has been intensively investigating Gulf Coast Salt Dome Basin salt domes and bedded salt in Texas and Utah since 1978. In the Gulf Coast, the application of screening criteria in the region phase led to selection of eight domes for further study in the location phase. Further screening in the area phase identified four domes for more intensive study in the location phase: Oakwood Dome, Texas; Vacherie Dome, Louisiana; and Richton Dome and Cypress Creek Dome, Mississippi. For each dome, this Site Characterization Plan identifies specific hydrologic, geologic, tectonic, geochemical, and environmental key issues that are related to the DOE/NWTS screening criteria or affect the feasibility of constructing an exploratory shaft. The Site Characterization Plan outlines studies need to: (1) resolve issues sufficiently to allow one or more salt domes to be selected and compared to bedded salt sites in order to determine a prime salt site for an exploratory shaft; (2) conduct issue-related studies to provide a higher level of confidence that the preferred salt dome site is viable for construction of an exploratory shaft; and (3) provide a vehicle for state input to issues. Extensive references, 7 figures, 20 tables

  13. Sampling device for radioactive molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shindo, Masato

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a device for accurately sampling molten salts to which various kinds of metals in a molten salt storage tank are mixed for analyzing them during a spent fuel dry type reprocessing. Namely, the device comprises a sampling tube having an opened lower end to be inserted into the radioactive molten salts stored in a tank and keeps reduced pressure from the upper end, and a pressure reducing pipeline having one end connected to the sampling tube and other end connected to an evacuating pump. In this device, the top end of the sampling tube is inserted to a position for sampling the radioactive molten salts (molten salts). The pressure inside the evacuating pipeline connected to the upper portion of the sampling tube is reduced for a while. In this case, the inside of the pressure reducing pipeline is previously evacuated by the evacuating pump so as to keep a predetermined pressure. Since the pressure in the sampling tube is lowered, molten salts are inserted into the sampling tube, the sampling tube is withdrawn, and the molten salts flown in the sampling tube are analyzed. (I.S.)

  14. Spectroscopic Characterization of Omeprazole and Its Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Vrbanec

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During drug development, it is important to have a suitable crystalline form of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API. Mostly, the basic options originate in the form of free base, acid, or salt. Substances that are stable only within a certain pH range are a challenge for the formulation. For the prazoles, which are known to be sensitive to degradation in an acid environment, the formulation is stabilized with alkaline additives or with the application of API formulated as basic salts. Therefore, preparation and characterization of basic salts are needed to monitor any possible salinization of free molecules. We synthesized salts of omeprazole from the group of alkali metals (Li, Na, and K and alkaline earth metals (Mg, Ca. The purpose of the presented work is to demonstrate the applicability of vibrational spectroscopy to discriminate between the OMP and OMP-salt molecules. For this reason, the physicochemical properties of 5 salts were probed using infrared and Raman spectroscopy, NMR, TG, DSC, and theoretical calculation of vibrational frequencies. We found out that vibrational spectroscopy serves as an applicable spectroscopic tool which enables an accurate, quick, and nondestructive way to determine the characteristic of OMP and its salts.

  15. Pluronic®-bile salt mixed micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vijay; Ray, Debes; Bahadur, Anita; Ma, Junhe; Aswal, V K; Bahadur, Pratap

    2018-06-01

    The present study was aimed to examine the interaction of two bile salts viz. sodium cholate (NaC) and sodium deoxycholate (NaDC) with three ethylene polyoxide-polypropylene polyoxide (PEO-PPO-PEO) triblock copolymers with similar PPO but varying PEO micelles with a focus on the effect of pH on mixed micelles. Mixed micelles of moderately hydrophobic Pluronic ® P123 were examined in the presence of two bile salts and compared with those from very hydrophobic L121 and very hydrophilic F127. Both the bile salts increase the cloud point (CP) of copolymer solution and decreased apparent micelle hydrodynamic diameter (D h ). SANS study revealed that P123 forms small spherical micelles showing a decrease in size on progressive addition of bile salts. The negatively charged mixed micelles contained fewer P123 molecules but progressively rich in bile salt. NaDC being more hydrophobic displays more pronounced effect than NaC. Interestingly, NaC shows micellar growth in acidic media which has been attributed to the formation of bile acids by protonation of carboxylate ion and subsequent solubilization. In contrast, NaDC showed phase separation at higher concentration. Nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) experiments provided information on interaction and location of bile salts in micelles. Results are discussed in terms of hydrophobicity of bile salts and Pluronics ® and the site of bile salt in polymer micelles. Proposed molecular interactions are useful to understand more about bile salts which play important role in physiological processes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The variability of reported salt levels in fast foods across six countries: opportunities for salt reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, Elizabeth; Webster, Jacqueline; Woodward, Mark; Czernichow, Sebastien; Yuan, Wen Lun; Jenner, Katharine; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Jacobson, Michael; Campbell, Norm; Neal, Bruce

    2012-06-12

    Several fast food companies have made commitments to reduce the levels of salt in the foods they serve, but technical issues are often cited as a barrier to achieving substantial reductions. Our objective was to examine the reported salt levels for products offered by leading multinational fast food chains. Data on salt content for products served by six fast food chains operating in Australia, Canada, France, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States were collected by survey in April 2010. Mean salt contents (and their ranges) were calculated and compared within and between countries and companies. We saw substantial variation in the mean salt content for different categories of products. For example, the salads we included in our survey contained 0.5 g of salt per 100 g, whereas the chicken products we included contained 1.6 g. We also saw variability between countries: chicken products from the UK contained 1.1 g of salt per 100 g, whereas chicken products from the US contained 1.8 g. Furthermore, the mean salt content of food categories varied between companies and between the same products in different countries (e.g., McDonald's Chicken McNuggets contain 0.6 g of salt per 100 g in the UK, but 1.6 g of salt per 100 g in the US). The salt content of fast foods varies substantially, not only by type of food, but by company and country in which the food is produced. Although the reasons for this variation are not clear, the marked differences in salt content of very similar products suggest that technical reasons are not a primary explanation. In the right regulatory environment, it is likely that fast food companies could substantially reduce the salt in their products, translating to large gains for population health.

  17. Salt-bridge energetics in halophilic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayek, Arnab; Sen Gupta, Parth Sarthi; Banerjee, Shyamashree; Mondal, Buddhadev; Bandyopadhyay, Amal K

    2014-01-01

    Halophilic proteins have greater abundance of acidic over basic and very low bulky hydrophobic residues. Classical electrostatic stabilization was suggested as the key determinant for halophilic adaptation of protein. However, contribution of specific electrostatic interactions (i.e. salt-bridges) to overall stability of halophilic proteins is yet to be understood. To understand this, we use Adaptive-Poison-Boltzmann-Solver Methods along with our home-built automation to workout net as well as associated component energy terms such as desolvation energy, bridge energy and background energy for 275 salt-bridges from 20 extremely halophilic proteins. We then perform extensive statistical analysis on general and energetic attributes on these salt-bridges. On average, 8 salt-bridges per 150 residues protein were observed which is almost twice than earlier report. Overall contributions of salt-bridges are -3.0 kcal mol-1. Majority (78%) of salt-bridges in our dataset are stable and conserved in nature. Although, average contributions of component energy terms are equal, their individual details vary greatly from one another indicating their sensitivity to local micro-environment. Notably, 35% of salt-bridges in our database are buried and stable. Greater desolvation penalty of these buried salt-bridges are counteracted by stable network salt-bridges apart from favorable equal contributions of bridge and background terms. Recruitment of extensive network salt-bridges (46%) with a net contribution of -5.0 kcal mol-1 per salt-bridge, seems to be a halophilic design wherein favorable average contribution of background term (-10 kcal mol-1) exceeds than that of bridge term (-7 kcal mol-1). Interiors of proteins from halophiles are seen to possess relatively higher abundance of charge and polar side chains than that of mesophiles which seems to be satisfied by cooperative network salt-bridges. Overall, our theoretical analyses provide insight into halophilic signature in its

  18. Modeling of Salt Solubilities in Mixed Solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiavone-Filho, O.; Rasmussen, Peter

    2000-01-01

    A method to correlate and predict salt solubilities in mixed solvents using a UNIQUAC+Debye-Huckel model is developed. The UNIQUAC equation is applied in a form with temperature-dependent parameters. The Debye-Huckel model is extended to mixed solvents by properly evaluating the dielectric...... constants and the liquid densities of the solvent media. To normalize the activity coefficients, the symmetric convention is adopted. Thermochemical properties of the salt are used to estimate the solubility product. It is shown that the proposed procedure can describe with good accuracy a series of salt...

  19. Synthesis, structure, and properties of azatriangulenium salts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, B.W.; Krebs, Frederik C

    2001-01-01

    amines and, by virtue of its stepwise and irreversible nature, provides a powerful tool for the preparation of a wide variety of new heterocyclic carbenium salts. Several derivatives of the three new oxygen- and/or nitrogen-bridged triangulenium salts, azadioxa- (6), diazaoxa- (7......), and triazatriangulenium (4), have been synthesized and their physicochemical properties have been investigated. Crystal structures for compounds 2 b-PF6: 2d-PF6, 4b-BF4, 4c-BF4, 6e-BF4, and 8 are reported. The different packing modes found for the triazatriagulenium salts are discussed in relation to the electrostatic...

  20. Inertia-confining thermonuclear molten salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Kazuo; Yamanaka, Chiyoe; Nakai, Sadao; Imon, Shunji; Nakajima, Hidenori; Nakamura, Norio; Kato, Yoshio.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the heat generating efficiency while improving the reactor safety and thereby maintaining the energy balance throughout the reactor. Constitution: In an inertia-confining type D-T thermonuclear reactor, the blanket is made of lithium-containing fluoride molten salts (LiF.BeF 2 , LiF.NaF.KF, LiF.KF, etc) which are cascaded downwardly in a large thickness (50 - 100 cm) along the inner wall of the thermonuclear reaction vessel, and neutrons generated by explosive compression are absorbed to lithium in the molten salts to produce tritium, Heat transportation is carried out by the molten salts. (Ikeda, J.)

  1. Evaluation of constitutive models for crushed salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Hurtado, L.D.; Hansen, F.D.

    1996-01-01

    Three constitutive models are recommended as candidates for describing the deformation of crushed salt. These models are generalized to three-dimensional states of stress to include the effects of mean and deviatoric stress and modified to include effects of temperature, grain size, and moisture content. A database including hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and southeastern New Mexico salt is used to determine material parameters for the models. To evaluate the capability of the models, parameter values obtained from fitting the complete database are used to predict the individual tests. Finite element calculations of a WIPP shaft with emplaced crushed salt demonstrate the model predictions

  2. "Tepid" Geysers above salt caverns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérest, Pierre; Brouard, Benoît; Zakharov, Vassily

    2018-06-01

    The formation of a brine geyser erupting from the wellhead of a large underground salt cavern is described. In most cases, the brine outflow from an opened cavern is slow; it results from the cavern creep closure and the thermal expansion of the cavern brine. These two processes are smooth; however, the brine outflow often is bumpy, as it is modulated by atmospheric pressure variations that generate an elastic increase (or decrease) of both cavern and brine volumes. In addition, when the flow is fast enough, the brine thermodynamic behavior in the wellbore is adiabatic. The cold brine expelled from the cavern wellhead is substituted with warm brine entering the borehole bottom, resulting in a lighter brine column. The brine outflow increases. In some cases, the flow becomes so fast that inertia terms must be taken into account. A geyser forms, coming to an end when the pressure in the cavern has dropped sufficiently. A better picture is obtained when head losses are considered. A closed-form solution can be reached. This proves that two cases must be distinguished, depending on whether the cold brine initially contained in the wellbore is expelled fully or not. It can also be shown that geyser formation is a rare event, as it requires both that the wellbore be narrow and that the cavern be very compressible. This study stemmed from an actual example in which a geyser was observed. However, scarce information is available, making any definite interpretation difficult. xml:lang="fr"

  3. Salt Reductions in Some Foods in The Netherlands: Monitoring of Food Composition and Salt Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temme, Elisabeth H M; Hendriksen, Marieke A H; Milder, Ivon E J; Toxopeus, Ido B; Westenbrink, Susanne; Brants, Henny A M; van der A, Daphne L

    2017-07-22

    High salt intake increases blood pressure and thereby the risk of chronic diseases. Food reformulation (or food product improvement) may lower the dietary intake of salt. This study describes the changes in salt contents of foods in the Dutch market over a five-year period (2011-2016) and differences in estimated salt intake over a 10-year period (2006-2015). To assess the salt contents of foods; we obtained recent data from chemical analyses and from food labels. Salt content of these foods in 2016 was compared to salt contents in the 2011 version Dutch Food Composition Database (NEVO, version 2011), and statistically tested with General Linear Models. To estimate the daily dietary salt intake in 2006, 2010, and 2015, men and women aged 19 to 70 years were recruited through random population sampling in Doetinchem, a small town located in a rural area in the eastern part of the Netherlands. The characteristics of the study population were in 2006: n = 317, mean age 49 years, 43% men, in 2010: n = 342, mean age 46 years, 45% men, and in 2015: n = 289, mean age 46 years, 47% men. Sodium and potassium excretion was measured in a single 24-h urine sample. All estimates were converted to a common metric: salt intake in grams per day by multiplication of sodium with a factor of 2.54. In 2016 compared to 2011, the salt content in certain types of bread was on average 19 percent lower and certain types of sauce, soup, canned vegetables and legumes, and crisps had a 12 to 26 percent lower salt content. Salt content in other types of foods had not changed significantly. Between 2006, 2010 and 2015 the estimated salt intake among adults in Doetinchem remained unchanged. In 2015, the median estimated salt intake was 9.7 g per day for men and 7.4 g per day for women. As in 2006 and 2010, the estimated salt intake in 2015 exceeded the recommended maximum intake of 6 g per day set by the Dutch Health Council. In the Netherlands, the salt content of bread, certain sauces, soups

  4. Salt Reductions in Some Foods in The Netherlands: Monitoring of Food Composition and Salt Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth H. M. Temme

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives. High salt intake increases blood pressure and thereby the risk of chronic diseases. Food reformulation (or food product improvement may lower the dietary intake of salt. This study describes the changes in salt contents of foods in the Dutch market over a five-year period (2011–2016 and differences in estimated salt intake over a 10-year period (2006–2015. Methods. To assess the salt contents of foods; we obtained recent data from chemical analyses and from food labels. Salt content of these foods in 2016 was compared to salt contents in the 2011 version Dutch Food Composition Database (NEVO, version 2011, and statistically tested with General Linear Models. To estimate the daily dietary salt intake in 2006, 2010, and 2015, men and women aged 19 to 70 years were recruited through random population sampling in Doetinchem, a small town located in a rural area in the eastern part of the Netherlands. The characteristics of the study population were in 2006: n = 317, mean age 49 years, 43% men, in 2010: n = 342, mean age 46 years, 45% men, and in 2015: n = 289, mean age 46 years, 47% men. Sodium and potassium excretion was measured in a single 24-h urine sample. All estimates were converted to a common metric: salt intake in grams per day by multiplication of sodium with a factor of 2.54. Results. In 2016 compared to 2011, the salt content in certain types of bread was on average 19 percent lower and certain types of sauce, soup, canned vegetables and legumes, and crisps had a 12 to 26 percent lower salt content. Salt content in other types of foods had not changed significantly. Between 2006, 2010 and 2015 the estimated salt intake among adults in Doetinchem remained unchanged. In 2015, the median estimated salt intake was 9.7 g per day for men and 7.4 g per day for women. As in 2006 and 2010, the estimated salt intake in 2015 exceeded the recommended maximum intake of 6 g per day set by the Dutch Health Council

  5. Salt Selection for the LS-VHTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.F.; Clarno, K.T.

    2006-01-01

    Molten fluorides were initially developed for use in the nuclear industry as the high temperature fluid-fuel for a Molten Salt Reactor (MSR). The Office of Nuclear Energy is exploring the use of molten fluorides as a primary coolant (rather than helium) in an Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR) design, also know as the Liquid-Salt cooled Very High Temperature Reactor (LS-VHTR). This paper provides a review of relevant properties for use in evaluation and ranking of candidate coolants for the LS-VHTR. Nuclear, physical, and chemical properties were reviewed and metrics for evaluation are recommended. Chemical properties of the salt were examined for the purpose of identifying factors that effect materials compatibility (i.e., corrosion). Some preliminary consideration of economic factors for the candidate salts is also presented. (authors)

  6. Liquid salt environment stress-rupture testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Weiju; Holcomb, David E.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Wilson, Dane F.

    2016-03-22

    Disclosed herein are systems, devices and methods for stress-rupture testing selected materials within a high-temperature liquid salt environment. Exemplary testing systems include a load train for holding a test specimen within a heated inert gas vessel. A thermal break included in the load train can thermally insulate a load cell positioned along the load train within the inert gas vessel. The test specimen can include a cylindrical gage portion having an internal void filled with a molten salt during stress-rupture testing. The gage portion can have an inner surface area to volume ratio of greater than 20 to maximize the corrosive effect of the molten salt on the specimen material during testing. Also disclosed are methods of making a salt ingot for placement within the test specimen.

  7. South Bay Salt Pond Mercury Studies Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP South Bay Salt Pond Mercury Studies Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  8. Immobilization of IFR salt wastes in mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.F.; Johnson, T.R.

    1988-01-01

    Portland cement-base mortars are being considered for immobilizing chloride salt wastes from the fuel cycle of an integral fast reactor (IFR). The IFR is a sodium-cooled fast reactor with metal fuel. It has a close-coupled fuel cycle in which fission products are separated from the actinides in an electrochemical cell operating at 500 degrees C. This cell has a cadmium anode and a liquid salt electrolyte. The salt will be a low-melting mixture of alkaline and alkaline earth chlorides. This paper discusses one method being considered for immobilizing this treated salt, to disperse it in a portland cement-base motar, which would then be sealed in corrosion-resistant containers. For this application, the grout must be sufficiently fluid that it can be pumped into canisters where it will solidify into a strong, leach-resistant material

  9. Salt marsh construction costs and shrimp production

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Continuing wetland loss in Galveston Bay, Texas (USA) has led to the development of various salt marsh restoration projects. These constructed wetlands often attempt...

  10. Plutonium and americium separation from salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagan, P.G.; Miner, F.J.

    1976-01-01

    Salts or materials containing plutonium and americium are dissolved in hydrochloric acid, heated, and contacted with an alkali metal carbonate solution to precipitate plutonium and americium carbonates which are thereafter readily separable from the solution

  11. Overview of ONWI'S Salt site selection program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madia, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    In the past year, activities in the salt site selection program of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) have focused on narrowing the number and size of areas under consideration as candidate repository sites. The progressive focusing is illustrated. Bedded salt, in the Permian Basin of West Texas and the Paradox Basin of Utah, and salt domes in the Gulf Coast Salt Dome Region (including parts of East Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi) have been the subjects of geologic, environmental, and socioeconomic characterization of progressively greater detail as the screening process has proceeded. Detailed, field-oriented research and testing have superceded broad-based studies relying heavily on literature and other existing data. Coinciding with the increased field activities has been the publication of results and recommendations resulting from earlier program efforts

  12. Potential for creation of a salt dome following disposal of radioactive waste in a salt layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charo, L.; Habib, P.

    1987-01-01

    The study aims at quantifying the possibility of creation of a salt dome from a salt layer in which heat-emitting radioactive waste would be buried. Volume 1 describes the results of numerical computer simulations, and of laboratory-scale models in centrifuges. Volume 2 envisages, in a geological perspective, the origin of salt domes, the mechanisms of their formation, and the associated parameters [fr

  13. Potential for creation of a salt dome following disposal of radioactive waste in a salt layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fries, G.

    1987-01-01

    The study aims at quantifying the possibility of creation of a salt dome from a salt layer in which heat-emitting radioactive waste would be buried. Volume 1 describes the results of numerical computer simulations, and of laboratory-scale models in centrifuges. Volume 2 envisages, in a geological perspective, the origin of salt domes, the mechanisms of thei formation, and the associated parameters [fr

  14. SALT4: a two-dimensional displacement discontinuity code for thermomechanical analysis in bedded salt deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    SALT4 is a two-dimensional analytical/displacement-discontinuity code designed to evaluate temperatures, deformation, and stresses associated with underground disposal of radioactive waste in bedded salt. This code was developed by the University of Minnesota. This documentation describes the mathematical equations of the physical system being modeled, the numerical techniques utilized, and the organization of the computer code, SALT4. The SALT4 code takes into account: (1) viscoelastic behavior in the pillars adjacent to excavations; (2) transversely isotropic elastic moduli such as those exhibited by bedded or stratified rock; and (2) excavation sequence. Major advantages of the SALT4 code are: (1) computational efficiency; (2) the small amount of input data required; and (3) a creep law consistent with laboratory experimental data for salt. The main disadvantage is that some of the assumptions in the formulation of SALT4, i.e., temperature-independent material properties, render it unsuitable for canister-scale analysis or analysis of lateral deformation of the pillars. The SALT4 code can be used for parameter sensitivity analyses of two-dimensional, repository-scale, thermal and thermomechanical response in bedded salt during the excavation, operational, and post-closure phases. It is especially useful in evaluating alternative patterns and sequences of excavation or waste canister placement. SALT4 can also be used to verify fully numerical codes. This is similar to the use of analytic solutions for code verification. Although SALT4 was designed for analysis of bedded salt, it is also applicable to crystalline rock if the creep calculation is suppressed. In Section 1.5 of this document the code custodianship and control is described along with the status of verification, validation and peer review of this report

  15. ADR salt pill design and crystal growth process for hydrated magnetic salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirron, Peter J. (Inventor); DiPirro, Michael J. (Inventor); Canavan, Edgar R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A process is provided for producing a salt pill for use in very low temperature adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators (ADRs). The method can include providing a thermal bus in a housing. The thermal bus can include an array of thermally conductive metal conductors. A hydrated salt can be grown on the array of thermally conductive metal conductors. Thermal conductance can be provided to the hydrated salt.

  16. Cum grano salis - NAA of selected salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauser, G.; Sterba, J.H.; Poljanc, K.; Bichler, M.; Buchtela, K.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the trace element concentrations of salt samples from different regions, in particular Austria, Germany, Pakistan, Poland, Switzerland, and Ukraine. Investigated types of salt were Rock-, Sea-, Lake-, and Evaporated Salt. The main objective was to find out whether the consumption of salt can contribute significantly to the daily human requirements of trace elements. Therefore, trace element concentrations in the untreated samples were compared to those of specially treated samples, simulating digestive uptake using a simple model. Salt is a non-trivial matrix for Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) because of very high background activities from 38 Cl and 24 Na, as well as the bremsstrahlung of 32 P (originating from 35 Cl(n,α) 32 P). Because of this fact, detection limits in salt are higher compared to other matrices. Nevertheless, several elements could be detected, namely Al, Ba, Br, (Ca), Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, and Zn, some of them only in single samples. In most samples the concentrations of trace elements in salt were too low to show biological effects. Salt can therefore only significantly contribute the essential elements sodium, chlorine, and, if added on purpose, fluorine and iodine to human nutrition. The contribution of all other traces in salt to the average daily human requirements can be neglected. Thus, from an analytical point of view, there is no health reason to use unpurified salt. There are, however, a few drawbacks to the use of unpurified salt, as hygroscopic compounds like MgCl 2 , and even toxic heavy metals like chromium or thorium. Especially rare earth element (REE) concentrations can often be used to obtain a chemical fingerprint, which can be used to identify the origin of an unknown sample. In the case of this study, the sample number from each region was too small to collect significant data. Therefore more analytical information is needed

  17. Molten salts processes and generic simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Toru; Minato, Kazuo

    2001-01-01

    Development of dry separation process (pyrochemical process) using molten salts for the application of spent-nuclear fuel reprocessing requires a rather complete fundamental database as well as process simulation technique with wide applicability. The present report concerns recent progress and problems in this field taking behaviors of co-electrodeposition of UO 2 and PuO 2 in molten salts as an example, and using analytical simulation of local equilibrium combined with generic diffusion. (S. Ohno)

  18. Molten salts processes and generic simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Toru; Minato, Kazuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-12-01

    Development of dry separation process (pyrochemical process) using molten salts for the application of spent-nuclear fuel reprocessing requires a rather complete fundamental database as well as process simulation technique with wide applicability. The present report concerns recent progress and problems in this field taking behaviors of co-electrodeposition of UO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} in molten salts as an example, and using analytical simulation of local equilibrium combined with generic diffusion. (S. Ohno)

  19. Electrochemical ion separation in molten salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoerke, Erik David; Ihlefeld, Jon; Waldrip, Karen; Wheeler, Jill S.; Brown-Shaklee, Harlan James; Small, Leo J.; Wheeler, David R.

    2017-12-19

    A purification method that uses ion-selective ceramics to electrochemically filter waste products from a molten salt. The electrochemical method uses ion-conducting ceramics that are selective for the molten salt cations desired in the final purified melt, and selective against any contaminant ions. The method can be integrated into a slightly modified version of the electrochemical framework currently used in pyroprocessing of nuclear wastes.

  20. Salt on roads and the environment (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessberg, Philipp von; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2000-01-01

    This report descripes the extent of use of salt on roads in Denmark and the environmental consequences of this. Alternative strategies for reducing the risk of greasy roads and different ways of alleviating the vegetation are also discussed.The different consequences for the environment...... that this report discusses are:- The ground water.- Lakes and streams.- Plants and trees along roads.The consequences for the economy through usage of salt on roads has not been carried out....

  1. Salt toxicosis in waterfowl in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windingstad, Ronald M.; Kartch, Fred X.; Stroud, Richard K.; Smith, Milton R.

    1987-01-01

    About 150 waterfowl died and another 250 became weak and lethargic from suspected salt poisoning after using White Lake, a highly saline lake in Mountrail County, North Dakota. Frigid temperatures made fresh water unavailable, forcing the birds to ingest the saline waters with resultant toxic effects. Sick birds recovered when removed from the salt water and released into fresh water marshes. Brain sodium levels were higher in dead geese submitted for necropsy than in controls.

  2. Parametric studies on the fuel salt composition in thermal molten salt breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, K.; Kloosterman, J.L.; Lathouwers, D.; Van der Hagen, T.H.J.J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the salt composition and the fuel cycle of a graphite moderated molten salt self-breeder reactor operating on the thorium cycle is investigated. A breeder molten salt reactor is always coupled to a fuel processing plant which removes the fission products and actinides from the core. The efficiency of the removal process(es) has a large influence on the breeding capacity of the reactor. The aim is to investigate the effect on the breeding ratio of several parameters such as the composition of the molten salt, moderation ratio, power density and chemical processing. Several fuel processing strategies are studied. (authors)

  3. Assessment of crushed salt consolidation and fracture healing processes in a nuclear waste repository in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    For a nuclear waste repository in salt, two aspects of salt behavior are expected to contribute to favorable conditions for waste isolation. First, consolidation of crushed salt backfill due to creep closure of the underground openings may result in a backfill barrier with low permeability. Second, fractures created in the salt by excavation may heal under the influence of stress and temperature following sealing. This report reviews the status of knowledge regarding crushed salt consolidation and fracture healing, provides analyses which predict the rates at which the processes will occur under repository conditions, and develops requirements for future study. Analyses of the rate at which crushed salt will consolidate are found to be uncertain because of unexplained wide variation in the creep properties of crushed salt obtained from laboratory testing, and because of uncertainties in predictions of long term closure rates of openings in salt. This uncertainty could be resolved to a large degree by additional laboratory testing of crushed salt. Similarly, additional testing of fracture healing processes is required to confirm that healing will be effective under repository conditions. Extensive references, 27 figures, 5 tables

  4. Molten salts and nuclear energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Brun, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Molten salts (fluorides or chlorides) were considered near the beginning of research into nuclear energy production. This was initially due to their advantageous physical and chemical properties: good heat transfer capacity, radiation insensitivity, high boiling point, wide range solubility for actinides. In addition it was realised that molten salts could be used in numerous situations: high temperature heat transfer, core coolants with solid fuels, liquid fuel in a molten salt reactor, solvents for spent nuclear solid fuel in the case of pyro-reprocessing and coolant and tritium production in the case of fusion. Molten salt reactors, one of the six innovative concepts chosen by the Generation IV international forum, are particularly interesting for use as either waste incinerators or thorium cycle systems. As the neutron balance in the thorium cycle is very tight, the possibility to perform online extraction of some fission product poisons from the salt is very attractive. In this article the most important questions that must be addressed to demonstrate the feasibility of molten salt reactor will be reviewed

  5. Mass transfer and transport in salt repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.; Chambre, P.L.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1989-02-01

    Salt is a unique rock isolation of nuclear waste because it is ''dry'' and nearly impermeable. In this paper we summarize some mass-transfer and transport analyses of salt repositories. First we analyses brine migration. Heating by high-level waste can cause brine in grain boundaries to move due to pressure-gradients. We analyze brine migration treating salt as a thermoelastic solid and found that brine migration is transient and localized. We use previously developed techniques to estimate release rates from waste packages by diffusion. Interbeds exist in salt and may be conduits for radionuclide migration. We analyze steady-state migration due to brine flow in the interbed, as a function of the Peclet number. Then we analyze transient mass transfer, both into the interbed and directly to salt, due only to diffusion. Finally we compare mass transfer rates of a waste cylinder in granite facing a fracture and in salt facing an interbed. In all cases, numerical illustrations of the analytic solution are given. 10 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Immobilization of IFR salt wastes in mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, D.F.; Johnson, T.R.

    1988-01-01

    Portland cement-base mortars are being considered for immobilizing chloride salt wastes produced by the fuel cycles of Integral Fast Reactors (IFR). The IFR is a sodium-cooled fast reactor with metal alloy fuels. It has a close-coupled fuel cycle in which fission products are separated from the actinides in an electrochemical cell operating at 500/degree/C. This cell has a liquid cadmium anode in which the fuels are dissolved and a liquid salt electrolyte. The salt will be a mixture of either lithium, potassium, and sodium chlorides or lithium, calcium, barium, and sodium chlorides. One method being considered for immobilizing the treated nontransuranic salt waste is to disperse the salt in a portland cement-base mortar that will be sealed in corrosion-resistant containers. For this application, the grout must be sufficiently fluid that it can be pumped into canister-molds where it will solidify into a strong, leach-resistant material. The set times must be longer than a few hours to allow sufficient time for processing, and the mortar must reach a reasonable compressive strength (/approximately/7 MPa) within three days to permit handling. Because fission product heating will be high, about 0.6 W/kg for a mortar containing 10% waste salt, the effects of elevated temperatures during curing and storage on mortar properties must be considered

  7. Thermal Characterization of Molten Salt Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Y. Gutknecht; Guy L. Fredrickson

    2011-09-01

    The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner (ER) may be adversely affected by the buildup of sodium, fission products, and transuranics in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided are the following: (1) salt freezing due to an unexpected change in the liquidus temperature, (2) phase separation or non-homogeneity of the molten salt due to the precipitation of solids or formation of immiscible liquids, and (3) any mechanism that can result in the separation and concentration of fissile elements from the molten salt. Any of these situations would result in an off-normal condition outside the established safety basis for electrorefiner (ER) operations. The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can potentially be monitored through the thermal characterization of the salts, which can be a function of impurity concentration. This report describes the experimental results of typical salts compositions, which consist of chlorides of potassium, lithium, strontium, samarium, praseodymium, lanthanum, barium, cerium, cesium, neodymium, sodium and gadolinium chlorides as a surrogate for both uranium and plutonium, used for the processing of used nuclear fuels.

  8. A universal salt model based on under-ground precipitation of solid salts due to supercritical water `out-salting'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueslåtten, H.; Hovland, M. T.

    2010-12-01

    One of the common characteristics of planets Earth and Mars is that both host water (H2O) and large accumulations of salt. Whereas Earth’s surface-environment can be regarded as ‘water-friendly’ and ‘salt hostile’, the reverse can be said for the surface of Mars. This is because liquid water is stable on Earth, and the atmosphere transports humidity around the globe, whereas on planet Mars, liquid water is unstable, rendering the atmosphere dry and, therefore, ‘salt-friendly’. The riddle as to how the salt accumulated in various locations on those two planets, is one of long-lasting and great debate. The salt accumulations on Earth are traditionally termed ‘evaporites’, meaning that they formed as a consequence of the evaporation of large masses of seawater. How the accumulations on Mars formed is much harder to explain, as an ocean only existed briefly. Although water molecules and OH-groups may exist in abundance in bound form (crystal water, adsorbed water, etc.), the only place where free water is expected to be stable on Mars is within underground faults, fractures, and crevices. Here it likely occurs as brine or in the form of ice. Based on these conditions, a key to understanding the accumulation of large deposits of salt on both planets is linked to how brines behave in the subsurface when pressurized and heated beyond their supercritical point. At depths greater than about 3 km (P>300 bars) water will no longer boil in a steam phase. Rather, it becomes supercritical and will attain the phase of supercritical water vapor (SCRIW) with a specific gravity of typically 0.3 g/cm3. An important characteristic of SCRIW is its inability to dissolve the common sea salts. The salt dissolved in the brines will therefore precipitate as solid particles when brines (seawater on the Earth) move into the supercritical P&T-domain (T>400°C, P>300 bars). Numerical modeling of a hydrothermal system in the Atlantis II Deep of the Red Sea indicates that a

  9. Detection of salt bridges to lysines in solution in barnase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul Erik; Williamson, Michael P.; Hounslow, Andrea M.

    2013-01-01

    We show that salt bridges involving lysines can be detected by deuterium isotope effects on NMR chemical shifts of the sidechain amine. Lys27 in the ribonuclease barnase is salt bridged, and mutation of Arg69 to Lys retains a partially buried salt bridge. The salt bridges are functionally important....

  10. Molecular markers associated with salt tolerance in Egyptian wheats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salinity affects plant growth by the osmotic stress of the salt around the roots, as well as by toxicity caused by excessive accumulation of salt in leaves. In the present study, seven common (Triticum aestivum) and two durum (T. turgidum ssp. Durum) wheat genotypes were subjected to salt stress for 2 weeks. Salt stress ...

  11. A generic approach for expanding homolog-targeted residue screening of sulfonamides using a fast matrix separation and class-specific fragmentation-dependent acquisition with a hybrid quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Chunlin; Guo Bin; Wang Xiaoying; Li Jie; Zhu Weitao; Chen Bo; Ouyang Shan; Yao Shouzhuo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Generic homolog-targeted screening approach for multi-residual sulfonamide analogs. ► Single-tube extraction/partitioning-multifunction adsorption cleanup for direct injection. ► Class-specific fragmentation for expanding coverage of N 4 -acetyl and N-OH metabolites. ► PreS–IDA–EPI in LC–QqLIT for simultaneous screening and confirmation of real samples. - Abstract: A generic and efficient homolog-targeted approach was used to expand screening and detection of target class of sulfonamides and structural analogs, based on a fast single-tube extraction/partitioning-multifunction adsorption cleanup (SEP/MAC) for class-specific fragmentation-dependent acquisition with a liquid chromatography–hybrid triple-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer (LC–QqLIT). By combining the two-stage process conducted in a single tube as one-pot protocol, the straightforward SEP/MAC procedure was optimized to offer clean extracts with reasonable recovery (71–109% with RSDs 4 -acetyl and hydroxylamine metabolites plus their possible dimers. Moreover, the PreS-triggered automatically enhanced product ion spectral acquisition enabled simultaneous screening, profiling and confirmation of an unlimited number of analytes belonging to the sulfonamide class within a single analysis. The validation and application results of the generic SEP/MAC-based LC–QqLIT strategy consistently demonstrated favorable performances with acceptable accuracy (67–116%), precision (RSDs −1 ) to meet the acceptance criteria for all the sulfonamide–tissue combinations. Thus, the integration of the matrix-independent SEP/MAC procedure and the multiparameter matching algorithm with the unit-resolution LC–QqLIT instrument can serve as a valuable semi-targeted discovery strategy for rapid screening and reliable quantitative/confirmatory analysis of real samples.

  12. [4-t-butylphenyl]-N-(4-imidazol-1-yl phenyl)sulfonamide (ISCK03) inhibits SCF/c-kit signaling in 501mel human melanoma cells and abolishes melanin production in mice and brownish guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Yong Joo; Baek, Heung Su; Ahn, Soo Mi; Shin, Hyun Jung; Chang, Ih-Seop; Hwang, Jae Sung

    2007-09-01

    It is well known that c-kit is related to pigmentation as well as to the oncology target protein. The objective of this study was to discover a skin-whitening agent that regulates c-kit activity. We have developed a high-throughput screening system using recombinant human c-kit protein. Approximately 10,000 synthetic compounds were screened for their effect on c-kit activity. Phenyl-imidazole sulfonamide derivatives showed inhibitory activity on c-kit phosphorylation in vitro. The effects of one derivative, [4-t-butylphenyl]-N-(4-imidazol-1-yl phenyl)sulfonamide (ISCK03), on stem-cell factor (SCF)/c-kit cellular signaling in 501mel human melanoma cells were examined further. Pretreatment of 501mel cells with ISCK03 inhibited SCF-induced c-kit phosphorylation dose dependently. ISCK03 also inhibited p44/42 ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation, which is known to be involved in SCF/c-kit downstream signaling. However ISCK03 did not inhibit hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-induced phosphorylation of p44/42 ERK proteins. To determine the in vivo potency of ISCK03, it was orally administered to depilated C57BL/6 mice. Interestingly, oral administration of ISCK03 induced the dose-dependent depigmentation of newly regrown hair, and this was reversed with cessation of ISCK03 treatment. Finally, to investigate whether the inhibitory effect of ISCK03 on SCF/c-kit signaling abolished UV-induced pigmentation, ISCK03 was applied to UV-induced pigmented spots on brownish guinea pig skin. The topical application of ISCK03 promoted the depigmentation of UV-induced hyperpigmented spots. Fontana-Masson staining analysis showed epidermal melanin was diminished in spots treated with ISCK03. These results indicate that phenyl-imidazole sulfonamide derivatives are potent c-kit inhibitors and might be used as skin-whitening agents.

  13. Salt content labelling of foods in supermarkets in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. NÄRHINEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the extent to which lightly salted food products are included in the assortments of Finnish supermarkets and prominently placed on shelves. The study was carried out in eastern Finland in four supermarkets of different food chains. Six food groups of importance for people's salt intake were considered. The food labels of 689 packaged food products were checked for salt and sodium information on the basis of Finnish regulations on salt. Products with reduced salt contents were found in most food groups but not among whole-meat or ready-to-eat foods. Half of the products with reduced amounts of salt were labelled "lightly salted". All four supermarkets had a similar assortment of lightly salted products. From the public health point of view, the food industry should increase the supply of lightly salted products, and make a special effort to develop lightly salted ready-to-eat foods.

  14. Low molecular weight salts combined with fluorinated solvents for electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, Konstantin; Yip, Ka Ki; Lin, Tzu-Yuan; Lei, Norman; Guerrero-Zavala, Guillermo; Kwong, Kristie W.

    2015-11-10

    Provided are electrochemical cells and electrolytes used to build such cells. An electrolyte includes at least one salt having a molecular weight less than about 250. Such salts allow forming electrolytes with higher salt concentrations and ensure high conductivity and ion transport in these electrolytes. The low molecular weight salt may have a concentration of at least about 0.5M and may be combined with one or more other salts, such as linear and cyclic imide salts and/or methide salts. The concentration of these additional salts may be less than that of the low molecular weight salt, in some embodiments, twice less. The additional salts may have a molecular weight greater than about 250. The electrolyte may also include one or more fluorinated solvents and may be capable of maintaining single phase solutions at between about -30.degree. C. to about 80.degree. C.

  15. Salt consumption and the effect of salt on mineral metabolism in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schryver, H F; Parker, M T; Daniluk, P D; Pagan, K I; Williams, J; Soderholm, L V; Hintz, H F

    1987-04-01

    The voluntary salt consumption of mature unexercised horses was measured weekly for up to 45 weeks. Voluntary intake among horses was quite variable ranging from 19 to 143 g of salt per day and was inversely related to total salt intake (salt in feeds plus voluntary intake). Mean daily voluntary salt consumption was 53 g. Season of the year did not influence voluntary intake. In preference tests which evaluated every two choice combination of 0.2% and 4% NaCl in test diets fed daily for four days, ponies generally preferred diets containing the lower amount of salt. In similar preference studies which used NaHCO3 as a sodium source, ponies always preferred the diet containing the lower level of NaHCO3. Metabolism studies employing diets containing 1, 3 or 5% NaCl showed that urinary excretion was the major excretory pathway for sodium and chloride. Fecal excretion, intestinal absorption and retention of sodium were not affected by level of salt intake. Urinary calcium excretion was unaffected by salt intake but calcium and phosphorus absorption and retention were enhanced when ponies were fed diets containing 3 or 5% sodium chloride. Magnesium and copper metabolism were unaffected by salt intake. Horses voluntarily consume relatively large amounts of sodium chloride but it is likely that not all voluntary consumption is related to the salt requirement of the horse. Habit and taste preference could also be involved. Salt consumption at the levels used in these studies does not appear to be detrimental to the metabolism of other minerals in the horse.

  16. Dual-cloud point extraction coupled to high performance liquid chromatography for simultaneous determination of trace sulfonamide antimicrobials in urine and water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nong, Chunyan; Niu, Zongliang; Li, Pengyao; Wang, Chunping; Li, Wanyu; Wen, Yingying

    2017-04-15

    Dual-cloud point extraction (dCPE) was successfully developed for simultaneous extraction of trace sulfonamides (SAs) including sulfamerazine (SMZ), sulfadoxin (SDX), sulfathiazole (STZ) in urine and water samples. Several parameters affecting the extraction were optimized, such as sample pH, concentration of Triton X-114, extraction temperature and time, centrifugation rate and time, back-extraction solution pH, back-extraction temperature and time, back-extraction centrifugation rate and time. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was applied for the SAs analysis. Under the optimum extraction and detection conditions, successful separation of the SAs was achieved within 9min, and excellent analytical performances were attained. Good linear relationships (R 2 ≥0.9990) between peak area and concentration for SMZ and STZ were optimized from 0.02 to 10μg/mL, for SDX from 0.01 to 10μg/mL. Detection limits of 3.0-6.2ng/mL were achieved. Satisfactory recoveries ranging from 85 to 108% were determined with urine, lake and tap water spiked at 0.2, 0.5 and 1μg/mL, respectively, with relative standard deviations (RSDs, n=6) of 1.5-7.7%. This method was demonstrated to be convenient, rapid, cost-effective and environmentally benign, and could be used as an alternative tool to existing methods for analysing trace residues of SAs in urine and water samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Acylhydrazone bond dynamic covalent polymer gel monolithic column online coupling to high-performance liquid chromatography for analysis of sulfonamides and fluorescent whitening agents in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengjiang; Luo, Xialin; Wei, Tianfu; Hu, Yufei; Li, Gongke; Zhang, Zhuomin

    2017-10-13

    A new dynamic covalent polymer (DCP) gel was well designed and constructed based on imine chemistry. Polycondensation of 4,4'-biphenyldicarboxaldehyde and 1,3,5-benzenetricarbohydrazide via Schiff-base reaction resulted in an acylhydrazone bond gel (AB-gel) DCP. AB-gel DCP had three-dimensional network of interconnected nanoparticles with hierarchically porous structure. AB-gel DCP was successfully fabricated as a monolithic column by an in-situ chemical bonding method for online enrichment and separation purpose with excellent permeability. AB-gel DCP based monolithic column showed remarkable adsorption affinity towards target analytes including sulfonamides (SAs) and fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) due to its strong π-π affinity, hydrophobic effect and hydrogen bonding interaction. Then, AB-gel DCP based monolithic column was applied for online separation and analysis of trace SAs and FWAs in food samples coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Sulfathiazole (ST) and sulfadimidine (SM2) in one positive weever sample were actually found and determined with concentrations of 273.8 and 286.3μg/kg, respectively. 2,5-Bis(5-tert-butyl-2-benzoxazolyl) thiophene (FWA184) was actually quantified in one tea infusion sample with the concentration of 268.5ng/L. The spiked experiments suggested the good recoveries in range of 74.5-110% for SAs in weever and shrimp samples with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 9.7% and in range of 74.0-113% for FWAs in milk and tea infusion samples with RSDs less than 9.0%. AB-gel DCP monolithic column was proved to be a promising sample preparation medium for online separation and analysis of trace analytes in food samples with complex matrices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of a method for assaying sulfonamide antimicrobial residues in cheese: hot-water extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardi, Giorgio; Bogialli, Sara; Curini, Roberta; Di Corcia, Antonio; Laganá, Aldo

    2006-06-28

    Several sulfonamide antimicrobials (SAAs) are largely used in veterinary medicine. A rapid, specific, and sensitive procedure for determining 12 SAAs in cheese is presented. The method is based on the matrix solid-phase dispersion technique followed by liquid chromatography (LC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS) equipped with an electrospray ion source. Target compounds were extracted from Mozzarella, Asiago, Parmigiano, Emmenthal, and Camembert cheese samples by 6 mL of water modified with 10% methanol and heated at 120 degrees C. The addition of methanol to hot water served to improve remarkably extraction yields of the most lipophilic SAAs, that is, sulfadimethoxine and sulfaquinoxaline. After acidification and filtration, 100 microL of the aqueous extract was injected in the LC column. MS data acquisition was performed in the multireaction monitoring mode, selecting two precursor-to-product ion transitions for each target compound. Methanol-modified hot water appeared to be an efficient extractant, because absolute recovery ranged between 67 and 88%. Using sulfamoxole as surrogate analyte, recovery of the 12 analytes spiked in the five types of cheese considered at the 50 ng/g level ranged between 75 and 105% with RSD not higher than 11%. Statistical analysis of the mean recovery data showed that the extraction efficiency was not affected by the type of cheese analyzed. This result indicates this method could be applied to other cheese types not considered here. The accuracy of the method was determined at three spike levels, that is, 20, 50, and 100 ng/g, and varied between 73 and 102% with relative standard deviations ranging between 4 and 12%. On the basis of a signal-to-noise ratio of 10, limits of quantification were estimated to be <1 ng/g.

  19. Detection of Class 1 and 2 Integrons, β-Lactamase Genes and Molecular Characterization of Sulfonamide Resistance in Escherichia coli Isolates Recovered from Poultry in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jam Kashif§, Rehana Buriro§, Javed Memon, Muhammad Yaqoob, Jamila Soomro§, Diao Dongxue, Huang Jinhu and Wang Liping*

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to detect integrons, β-lactamase genes and to characterize sulfonamide resistant E. coli isolates recovered from poultry. All the isolates (n=38 were investigated for the presence of integrons, Sul1, Sul2, Sul3 genes by PCR. Class 1 and class 2 integron were present in 79 and 16%, respectively. Additional resistance gene cassette embedded in class 1 and 2 integrons was aadA1, aadA5, dfrA17 and aadA22, dfrA, respectively. Sul1 and Sul2 genes were detected in 42.1 and 60.5% isolates, respectively. Both the Sul1 and Sul2 were present in 23% isolates. However, Sul3 gene was not present. Co-existence of Sul1 and Sul2 with class 1 integrons was found in 28.9 and 60.5% of class 1 integron positive isolates, respectively. Whereas, a less percentage of isolates showed a low level of resistance to β-lactams and no blaCTX-M, blaSHV and blaTEM was found. The MIC results showed resistance to sulfadiazine and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim in 88 and 84% isolates, resistance to penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin was 52, 52 and 44%, respectively. Chloramphenicol, florfenicol, tetracycline and gentamycin resistance was found in 51, 5, 42 and 67% isolates, respectively. This study revealed high frequency of class 1 integrons, Sul genes among poultry E. coli isolates, therefore further spread of Sul genes and integrons is predictable.

  20. Fluoro-Phenyl-Styrene-Sulfonamide, a Novel Inhibitor of σB Activity, Prevents the Activation of σB by Environmental and Energy Stresses in Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringus, Daina L.; Gaballa, Ahmed; Helmann, John D.; Wiedmann, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Sigma B (σB) is an alternative sigma factor that regulates the general stress response in Bacillus subtilis and in many other Gram-positive organisms. σB activity in B. subtilis is tightly regulated via at least three distinct pathways within a complex signal transduction cascade in response to a variety of stresses, including environmental stress, energy stress, and growth at high or low temperatures. We probed the ability of fluoro-phenyl-styrene-sulfonamide (FPSS), a small-molecule inhibitor of σB activity in Listeria monocytogenes, to inhibit σB activity in B. subtilis through perturbation of signal transduction cascades under various stress conditions. FPSS inhibited the activation of σB in response to multiple categories of stress known to induce σB activity in B. subtilis. Specifically, FPSS prevented the induction of σB activity in response to energy stress, including entry into stationary phase, phosphate limitation, and azide stress. FPSS also inhibited chill induction of σB activity in a ΔrsbV strain, suggesting that FPSS does not exclusively target the RsbU and RsbP phosphatases or the anti–anti-sigma factor RsbV, all of which contribute to posttranslational regulation of σB activity. Genetic and biochemical experiments, including artificial induction of σB, analysis of the phosphorylation state of the anti–anti-sigma factor RsbV, and in vitro transcription assays, indicate that while FPSS does not bind directly to σB to inhibit activity, it appears to prevent the release of B. subtilis σB from its anti-sigma factor RsbW. PMID:23524614

  1. Evidence of the Earliest Salt Production Found in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Being critical in the development of the human civilization, the ancient salt-making has been an important research issue for both historians and archaeologists. Since salt dissolves in water, it is difficult to tell whether the salt in archaeological samples was caused by human production of salt or underground water. So how to judge the existence of salt production has been a world-wide problem in archaeology and archaeometry.

  2. Anticipating hidden text salting in emails (extended abstract)

    OpenAIRE

    Lioma, Christina; Moens, Marie-Francine; Gomez, Juan Carlos; De Beer, Jan; Bergholz, Andre; Paass, Gerhard; Horkan, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Salting is the intentional addition or distortion of content, aimed to evade automatic filtering. Salting is usually found in spam emails. Salting can also be hidden in phishing emails, which aim to steal personal information from users. We present a novel method that detects hidden salting tricks as visual anomalies in text. We solely use these salting tricks to successfully classify emails as phishing (F-measure >90%).

  3. Chemical and physical parameters of dried salted pork meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronela Cviková

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was analysed and evaluated chemical and physical parameters of dried salted pork neck and ham. Dried salted meat is one of the main meat products typically produced with a variety of flavors and textures. Neck (14 samples and ham (14 samples was salted by nitrite salt mixture during 1week. The nitrite salt mixture for salting process (dry salting was used. This salt mixture contains: salt, dextrose, maltodextrin, flavourings, stabilizer E316, taste enhancer E621, nitrite mixture. The meat samples were dried at 4 °C and relative humudity 85% after 1 week salting. The weight of each sample was approximately 1 kg. After salting were vacuum-packed and analysed after 1 week. The traditional dry-cured meat such as dry-cured ham and neck obtained after 12 - 24 months of ripening under controlled conditions. The average protein content was significantly (p <0.001 lower in dried pork neck in comparison with dried salted pork ham. The average intramuscular fat was significantly (p <0.001 lower in dried pork ham in comparison with dried salted pork neck. The average moisture was significantly lower (p ≤0.05 in dried salted ham in comparison with dried pork neck. The average pH value was 5.50 in dried salted pork ham and 5.75 in dried salted pork neck. The content of arginine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, leucine and threonine in dried salted ham was significantly lower (p <0.001 in comparison with dried salted pork neck. The proportion of analysed amino acids from total proteins was 56.31% in pork salted dried ham and 56.50% in pork salted dried neck.  Normal 0 21 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE

  4. Evaluation of Taste Properties of Commercially Available Salts

    OpenAIRE

    ISHIKAWA, Kyoko; SUGIMOTO, Maho; KUMAGAI, Masanori; MATSUNAGA, Ryuji

    2006-01-01

    This study examined commercially available salts'taste properties. The salts were used in preparation of four dishes: asazuke of cucumber, asazuke of Chinese cabbage, clear soup, and green soybean rice. The respective tastes of the salts in those prepared foods differed from those of the salts alone. We evaluated the parameters: saltiness, mildness, unpleasantness, and palatability. Differences of the salt samples affected the perception of saltiness. Results of taste sensor analyses showed t...

  5. “Use salt and foods high in salt sparingly”: A food-based dietary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Legislating the levels of salt in processed food is only one part of this national strategy. All health professionals and educators should also provide appropriate nutritional recommendations that will educate, motivate and enable consumers to change their nutritional behaviour to reduce salt intake to less than 5 g per day, ...

  6. Uninephrectomy in young age or chronic salt loading causes salt-sensitive hypertension in adult rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlström, Mattias; Sällström, Johan; Skøtt, Ole

    2007-01-01

    animals raised with normal-salt diet (UNX) or high-salt diet (UNX+HS). In the adult animals, renal and cardiovascular functions were evaluated and blood pressure recorded telemetrically under different sodium conditions (normal, high, and low). Hypertension was present in UNX+HS (122+/-9 mm Hg), UNX (101......+/-3 mm Hg), and HS (96+/-1 mm Hg) groups on normal-salt diets compared with the controls (84+/-2 mm Hg), and the blood pressure was salt sensitive (high- versus normal-salt diet; 23+/-3, 9+/-2, 7+/-2, and 1+/-1 mm Hg, respectively). The hypertensive groups (UNX+HS, UNX, and HS) had increased diuresis......The importance of nephron endowment and salt intake for the development of hypertension is under debate. The present study was designed to investigate whether reduced nephron number, after completion of nephrogenesis, or chronic salt loading causes renal injury and salt-sensitive hypertension...

  7. Plutonium and americium recovery from spent molten-salt-extraction salts with aluminum-magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cusick, M.J.; Sherwood, W.G.; Fitzpatrick, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    Development work was performed to determine the feasibility of removing plutonium and americium from spent molten-salt-extraction (MSE) salts using Al-Mg alloys. If the product buttons from this process are compatible with subsequent aqueous processing, the complex chloride-to-nitrate aqueous conversion step which is presently required for these salts may be eliminated. The optimum alloy composition used to treat spent 8 wt % MSE salts in the past yielded poor phase-disengagement characteristics when applied to 30 mol % salts. After a limited investigation of other alloy compositions in the Al-Mg-Pu-Am system, it was determined that the Al-Pu-Am system could yield a compatible alloy. In this system, experiments were performed to investigate the effects of plutonium loading in the alloy, excess magnesium, age of the spent salt on actinide recovery, phase disengagement, and button homogeneity. Experimental results indicate that 95 percent plutonium recoveries can be attained for fresh salts. Further development is required for backlog salts generated prior to 1981. A homogeneous product alloy, as required for aqueous processing, could not be produced

  8. Comparative miRomics of Salt-Tolerant and Salt-Sensitive Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goswami Kavita

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Increase in soil salt causes osmotic and ionic stress to plants, which inhibits their growth and productivity. Rice production is also hampered by salinity and the effect of salt is most severe at the seedling and reproductive stages. Salainity tolerance is a quantitative property controlled by multiple genes coding for signaling molecules, ion transporters, metabolic enzymes and transcription regulators. MicroRNAs are key modulators of gene-expression that act at the post-transcriptional level by translation repression or transcript cleavage. They also play an important role in regulating plant’s response to salt-stress. In this work we adopted the approach of comparative and integrated data-mining to understand the miRNA-mediated regulation of salt-stress in rice. We profiled and compared the miRNA regulations using natural varieties and transgenic lines with contrasting behaviors in response to salt-stress. The information obtained from sRNAseq, RNAseq and degradome datasets was integrated to identify the salt-deregulated miRNAs, their targets and the associated metabolic pathways. The analysis revealed the modulation of many biological pathways, which are involved in salt-tolerance and play an important role in plant phenotype and physiology. The end modifications of the miRNAs were also studied in our analysis and isomiRs having a dynamic role in salt-tolerance mechanism were identified.

  9. Study Effect of Salt Washing Process on Content and Iodium Stability of Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Saksono

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Salt Washing Process on Content and Iodium Stability of Salt. Salt washing process should increase the saltquality. It should clean the salt from sludge or clay and also reduce the impurity compound such as Mg, Ca and the reductor content. The objective of these reseach is to assess the effect of washing process on the content og hygroscopic impurities compound (Ca and Mg, and reductor content of salt. The research also investigate the water absorbing, pH, KIO3 content as function of time to obtain effect of washing process on KIO3 stability in salt. The experiment result shows that the lowest content of Mg and reductor compound 0.016 % wt and 2.65 ppm respectively which is reached at the fi ne salt washing process using 27 % wt brine. The analysis of water content indicates an increase the Ca and Mg content, causing an water absorbtion in salt , However the effect on pH the is not clear.

  10. Removal of uranium and salt from the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peretz, F.J.; Rushton, J.E.; Faulkner, R.L.; Walker, K.L.; Del Cul, G.D.

    1998-01-01

    In 1994, migration of 233 U was discovered to have occurred at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This paper describes the actions now underway to remove uranium from the off-gas piping and the charcoal bed, to remove and stabilize the salts, and to convert the uranium to a stable oxide for long-term storage

  11. Mitochondrial membranes with mono- and divalent salt: Changes induced by salt ions on structure and dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pöyry, S.; Róg, T.; Karttunen, M.E.J.; Vattulainen, I.

    2009-01-01

    We employ atomistic simulations to consider how mono- (NaCl) and divalent (CaCl2) salt affects properties of inner and outer membranes of mitochondria. We find that the influence of salt on structural properties is rather minute, only weakly affecting lipid packing, conformational ordering, and

  12. High salt meals in staff canteens of salt policy makers: observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brewster, L.M.; Berentzen, C.A.; van Montfrans, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the salt content of hot meals served at the institutions of salt policy makers in the Netherlands. Observational study. 18 canteens at the Department of Health, the Health Council, the Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority, university hospitals, and affiliated non-university

  13. Natural gas and condensate occurrence in salt, specifically in the salt stock Gorleben-Rambow. Literature study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    The study on the natural gas and condensate occurrence in salt, specifically in the salt stock Gorleben-Rambow covers the topics development of salt deposits, salt stocks, crude oil and natural gas, gas and condensate inclusions in evaporite. Experimental data on crude oil borehole studies in Gorleben, natural gas drill holes in the salt stock Rambow, Luechow Z1 - saltstock Wustrow, gas indications, gas occurrences and gas detection are summarized.

  14. Characterization of the molten salt reactor experiment fuel and flush salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.F.; Peretz, F.J.

    1996-01-01

    Wise decisions about the handling and disposition of spent fuel from the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) must be based upon an understanding of the physical, chemical, and radiological properties of the frozen fuel and flush salts. These open-quotes staticclose quotes properties can be inferred from the extensive documentation of process history maintained during reactor operation and the knowledge gained in laboratory development studies. Just as important as the description of the salt itself is an understanding of the dynamic processes which continue to transform the salt composition and govern its present and potential physicochemical behavior. A complete characterization must include a phenomenological characterization in addition to the typical summary of properties. This paper reports on the current state of characterization of the fuel and flush salts needed to support waste management decisions

  15. Molten salt hazardous waste disposal process utilizing gas/liquid contact for salt recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grantham, L.F.; McKenzie, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    The products of a molten salt combustion of hazardous wastes are converted into a cooled gas, which can be filtered to remove hazardous particulate material, and a dry flowable mixture of salts, which can be recycled for use in the molten salt combustion, by means of gas/liquid contact between the gaseous products of combustion of the hazardous waste and a solution produced by quenching the spent melt from such molten salt combustion. The process results in maximizing the proportion of useful materials recovered from the molten salt combustion and minimizing the volume of material which must be discarded. In a preferred embodiment a spray dryer treatment is used to achieve the desired gas/liquid contact

  16. Alternatives for definse waste-salt disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, R.W.; McDonell, W.R.

    1983-01-01

    Alternatives for disposal of decontaminated high-level waste salt at Savannah River were reviewed to estimate costs and potential environmental impact for several processes. In this review, the reference process utilizing intermediate-depth burial of salt-concrete (saltcrete) monoliths was compared with alternatives including land application of the decontaminated salt as fertilizer for SRP pine stands, ocean disposal with and without containment, and terminal storage as saltcake in existing SRP waste tanks. Discounted total costs for the reference process and its modifications were in the same range as those for most of the alternative processes; uncontained ocean disposal with truck transport to Savannah River barges and storage as saltcake in SRP tanks had lower costs, but presented other difficulties. Environmental impacts could generally be maintained within acceptable limits for all processes except retention of saltcake in waste tanks, which could result in chemical contamination of surrounding areas on tank collapse. Land application would require additional salt decontamination to meet radioactive waste disposal standards, and ocean disposal without containment is not permitted in existing US practice. The reference process was judged to be the only salt disposal option studied which would meet all current requirements at an acceptable cost

  17. Salt-specific effects in lysozyme solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Janc

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of additions of low-molecular-mass salts on the properties of aqueous lysozyme solutions are examined by using the cloud-point temperature, T_{cloud}, measurements. Mixtures of protein, buffer, and simple salt in water are studied at pH=6.8 (phosphate buffer and pH=4.6 (acetate buffer. We show that an addition of buffer in the amount above I_{buffer} = 0.6 mol dm^{-3} does not affect the T_{cloud} values. However, by replacing a certain amount of the buffer electrolyte by another salt, keeping the total ionic strength constant, we can significantly change the cloud-point temperature. All the salts de-stabilize the solution and the magnitude of the effect depends on the nature of the salt. Experimental results are analyzed within the framework of the one-component model, which treats the protein-protein interaction as highly directional and of short-range. We use this approach to predict the second virial coefficients, and liquid-liquid phase diagrams under conditions, where T_{cloud} is determined experimentally.

  18. Borehole locations on seven interior salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simcox, A.C.; Wampler, S.L.

    1982-08-01

    This report is designed as an inventory of all wells known to have been drilled within a five-mile radius of each of seven salt domes within the Interior Salt Basin in east Texas, northern Louisiana and Mississippi. There are 72 boreholes that entered salt above an elevation of -3000 feet mean sea level. For these, details of location, drilling dates, depth of casing and cement, elevation of top of caprock and salt, etc., are given on tables in the appendix. Of the seven domes, Oakwood has the largest number of boreholes, thirty-eight (including two sidetracked wells) that enter the salt stock above -3000 feet mean sea level; another dome in northeast Texas, Keechi, has eight; in northern Louisiana, Rayburn's has four and Vacherie has five; in southern Mississippi, Cypress Creek has seven, Lampton has one, and Richton has nine. In addition, all wells known outside the supra-domal area, but within a five-mile radius of the center of the 7 domes are separately catalogued

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Processable Polyaniline Salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gul, Salma; Bilal, Salma; Shah, Anwar-ul-Haq Ali

    2013-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) is one of the most promising candidates for possible technological applications. PANI has potential applications in batteries, anion exchanger, tissue engineering, inhibition of steel corrosion, fuel cell, sensors and so on. However, its insolubility in common organic solvents limits its range of applications. In the present study an attempt has been made to synthesize soluble polyaniline salt via inverse polymerization pathway using benzoyl peroxide as oxidant and dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSA) as dopant as well as a surfactant. A mixture of chloroform and 2-butanol was used as dispersion medium for the first time. The influence of synthesis parameters such as concentration of aniline, benzoyl peroxide and DBSA on the yield and other properties of the resulting PANI salt was studied. The synthesized PANI salt was found to be completely soluble in DMSO, DMF, chloroform and in a mixture of toluene and 2-propanol. The synthesized polymer salt was also characterized with cyclic voltam-metry, SEM, XRD, UV-Vis spectroscopy and viscosity measurements. TGA was used to analyze the thermal properties of synthesized polymer. The extent of doping of the PANI salt was determined from UV-Vis spectra and TGA analysis. The activation energy for the degradation of the polymer was calculated with the help of TGA.

  20. Volatility of atmospherically relevant alkylaminium carboxylate salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavi, Avi; Segre, Enrico; Gomez-Hernandez, Mario; Zhang, Renyi; Rudich, Yinon

    2015-05-14

    Heterogeneous neutralization reactions of ammonia and alkylamines with sulfuric acid play an important role in aerosol formation and particle growth. However, little is known about the physical and chemical properties of alkylaminium salts of organic acids. In this work we studied the thermal stability and volatility of alkylaminium carboxylate salts of short aliphatic alkylamines with monocarboxylic and dicarboxylic acids. The enthalpy of vaporization and saturation vapor pressure at 298 K were derived using the kinetic model of evaporation and the Clausius-Clapeyron relation. The vapor pressure of alkylaminium dicarboxylate salts is ∼10(-6) Pa, and the vaporization enthalpy ranges from 73 to 134 kJ mol(-1). Alkylaminium monocarboxylate salts show high thermal stability, and their thermograms do not follow our evaporation model. Hence, we inferred their vapor pressure from their thermograms as comparable to that of ammonium sulfate (∼10(-9) Pa). Further characterization showed that alkylaminium monocarboxylates are room temperature protic ionic liquids (RTPILs) that are more hygroscopic than ammonium sulfate (AS). We suggest that the irregular thermograms result from an incomplete neutralization reaction leading to a mixture of ionic and nonionic compounds. We conclude that these salts are expected to contribute to new particle formation and particle growth under ambient conditions and can significantly enhance the CCN activity of mixed particles in areas where SO2 emissions are regulated.

  1. Waste salt recovery, recycle, and destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, R.G.

    1992-12-01

    Starting in 1943 and continuing into the 1970s, radioactive wastes resulting from plutonium processing at Hanford were stored underground in 149 single shell tanks. Of these tanks, 66 are known or believedto be leaking, and over a period are believed to have leaked about 750,000 gal into the surrounding soil. The bulk of the aqueous solution has been removed and transferred to double shell tanks, none of which are leaking. The waste consists of 37 million gallons of salt cake and sludge. Most of the salt cake is sodium nitrate and other sodium salts. A substantial fraction of the sludge is sodium nitrate. Small amounts of the radionuclides are present in the sludge as oxides or hydroxides. In addition, some of the tanks contain organic compounds and ferrocyanide complexes, many of which have undergone radiolytic induced chemical changes during the years of storage. As part of the Hanford site remediation effort, the tank wastes must be removed, treated, and the residuals must be immobilized and disposed of in an environmentally acceptable manner. Removal methods of the waste from the tanks fall generally into three approaches: dry removal, slurry removal, and solution removed. The latter two methods are likely to result in some additional leakage to the surrounding soil, but that may be acceptable if the tank can be emptied and remediated before the leaked material permeates deeply into the soil. This effort includes three parts: salt splitting, acid separation, and destruction, with initial emphasis on salt splitting

  2. Organic waste processing using molten salt oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, M. G., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal means of oxidizing (destroying) the organic constituents of mixed wastes, hazardous wastes, and energetic materials while retaining inorganic and radioactive constituents in the salt. For this reason, MSO is considered a promising alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes. The U. S. Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management (DOE/EM) is currently funding research that will identify alternatives to incineration for the treatment of organic-based mixed wastes. (Mixed wastes are defined as waste streams which have both hazardous and radioactive properties.) One such project is Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Expedited Technology Demonstration of Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO). The goal of this project is to conduct an integrated demonstration of MSO, including off-gas and spent salt treatment, and the preparation of robust solid final forms. Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has constructed an integrated pilot-scale MSO treatment system in which tests and demonstrations are presently being performed under carefully controlled (experimental) conditions. The system consists of a MSO process vessel with dedicated off-gas treatment, a salt recycle system, feed preparation equipment, and equipment for preparing ceramic final waste forms. In this paper we describe the integrated system and discuss its capabilities as well as preliminary process demonstration data. A primary purpose of these demonstrations is to identify the most suitable waste streams and waste types for MSO treatment.

  3. The effects of tree establishment on water and salt dynamics in naturally salt-affected grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosetto, Marcelo D; Jobbágy, Esteban G; Tóth, Tibor; Di Bella, Carlos M

    2007-07-01

    Plants, by influencing water fluxes across the ecosystem-vadose zone-aquifer continuum, can leave an imprint on salt accumulation and distribution patterns. We explored how the conversion of native grasslands to oak plantations affected the abundance and distribution of salts on soils and groundwater through changes in the water balance in naturally salt-affected landscapes of Hortobagy (Hungary), a region where artificial drainage performed approximately 150 years ago lowered the water table (from -2 to -5 m) decoupling it from the surface ecosystem. Paired soil sampling and detailed soil conductivity transects revealed consistently different salt distribution patterns between grasslands and plantations, with shallow salinity losses and deep salinity gains accompanying tree establishment. Salts accumulated in the upper soil layers during pre-drainage times have remained in drained grasslands but have been flushed away under tree plantations (65 and 83% loss of chloride and sodium, respectively, in the 0 to -0.5 m depth range) as a result of a five- to 25-fold increase in infiltration rates detected under plantations. At greater depth, closer to the current water table level, the salt balance was reversed, with tree plantations gaining 2.5 kg sodium chloride m(-2) down to 6 m depth, resulting from groundwater uptake and salt exclusion by tree roots in the capillary fringe. Diurnal water table fluctuations, detected in a plantation stand but not in the neighbouring grasslands, together with salt mass balances suggest that trees consumed approximately 380 mm groundwater per year, re-establishing the discharge regime and leading to higher salt accumulation rates than those interrupted by regional drainage practices more than a century ago. The strong influences of vegetation changes on water dynamics can have cascading consequences on salt accumulation and distribution, and a broad ecohydrological perspective that explicitly considers vegetation-groundwater links is

  4. Solution, thermal and optical properties of bis(pyridinium salt)s as ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Tae Soo; Koh, Jung Jae; Han, Haesook; Bhowmik, Pradip K.

    2013-01-01

    Bis(pyridinium salt)s containing different alkyl chain lengths and various organic counterions were prepared by the ring-transmutation reaction of bis(pyrylium tosylate) with aliphatic amines in dimethyl sulfoxide at 130–135 °C for 18 h and their tosylate counterions were exchanged to other anions such as triflimide, methyl orange, and dioctyl sulfosuccinate by the metathesis reaction in a common organic solvent. Their chemical structures were established by using 1 H, 19 F, and 13 C NMR spectra. The thermal properties of bis(pyridinium salt)s were studied by DSC and TGA measurements. Some of the dicationic salts provided low melting points below 100 °C and some of them displayed amorphous properties. Polarized optical microscopy studies revealed the crystal structures prior to melting temperatures in some cases. Their optical properties were examined by using UV–Vis and photoluminescent spectrometers; and they emitted blue light both in the solution and solid states regardless of their microstructures, counterions, and the polarity of organic solvents. However, most of these salts exhibited hypsochromic shifts in their emission peaks in the solid state when compared with those of their solution spectra. Due to unique properties of methyl orange anion as a pH indicator, two of the salts showed different color change in varying concentrations of triflic acid in common organic solvents, demonstrating their potential use as an acid sensor in methanol, acetonitrile and acetone. Highlights: ► Luminescent dicationic salts were synthesized by ring-transmutation and metathesis reactions. ► Thermal and optical properties of dicationic salts are affected by the size of anion structures. ► Due to the methyl orange counterions, some dicationic salts showed pH- sensing property

  5. Modeling Episodic Ephemeral Brine Lake Evaporation and Salt Crystallization on the Bonneville Salt Flats, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T.; Harman, C. J.; Kipnis, E. L.; Bowen, B. B.

    2017-12-01

    Public concern about apparent reductions in the areal extent of the Bonneville Salt Flat (BSF) and perceived changes in inundation frequency has motivated renewed interest in the hydrologic and geochemical behavior of this salt playa. In this study, we develop a numerical modeling framework to simulate the relationship between hydrometeorologic variability, brine evaporation and salt crystallization processes on BSF. The BSF, locates in Utah, is the remnant of paleo-lake Bonneville, and is capped by up to 1 meter of salt deposition over a 100 km2 area. The BSF has two distinct hydrologic periods each year: a winter wet periods with standing surface brine and the summer dry periods when the brine is evaporated, exposing the surface salt crust. We develop a lumped non-linear dynamical models coupling conservation expressions from water, dissolved salt and thermal energy to investigate the seasonal and diurnal behavior of brine during the transition from standing brine to exposed salt at BSF. The lumped dynamic models capture important nonlinear and kinetic effects introduced by the high ionic concentration of the brine, including the pronounced effect of the depressed water activity coefficient on evaporation. The salt crystallization and dissolution rate is modeled as a kinetic process linearly proportional to the degree of supersaturation of brine. The model generates predictions of the brine temperature and the solute and solvent masses controlled by diurnal net radiation input and aerodynamic forcing. Two distinct mechanisms emerge as potential controls on salt production and dissolution: (1) evapo-concentration and (2) changes in solubility related to changes in brine temperature. Although the evaporation of water is responsible for ultimate disappearance of the brine each season ,variation in solubility is found to be the dominant control on diurnal cycles of salt precipitation and dissolution in the BSF case. Most salt is crystallized during nighttime, but the

  6. Molten salt burner fuel behaviour and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatiev, V.V.; Zakirov, R.Y.; Grebenkine, K.F.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to discuss the feasibility of molten salt reactor technology for treatment of Pu, minor actinides and fission products, when the reactor and fission product clean-up unit are planned as an integral system. This contribution summarises the available R and D which led to selection of the fuel compositions for the molten salt reactor of the TRU burner type (MSB). Special characteristics of behaviour of TRUs and fission products during power operation of MSB concepts are presented. The present paper briefly reviews the processing developments underlying the prior molten salt reactor programmes and relates them to the separation requirements of the MSB concept, including the permissible range of processing cycle times and removal times. Status and development needs in the thermodynamic properties of fluorides, fission product clean-up methods and container materials compatibility with the working fluids for the fission product clean-up unit are discussed. (authors)

  7. Thorium Molten-Salt Nuclear Energy Synergetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Kazuo; Lecocq, A.; Kato, Yoshio; Mitachi, Kohshi.

    1990-01-01

    In the next century, the 'fission breeder' concept will not be practical to solve the global energy problems, including environmental and North-South problems. As a new measure, a simple rational Th molten salt breeding fuel cycle system, named 'Thorium Molten-Salt Nuclear Energy Synergetics (THORIMS-NES)', which composed of simple power stations and fissile producers, is proposed. This is effective to establish the essential improvement in issues of resources, safety, power-size flexibility, anti-nuclear proliferation and terrorism, radiowaste, economy, etc. securing the simple operation, maintenance, chemical processing, and rational breeding fuel cycle. As examples, 155 MWe fuel self-sustaining power station 'FUJI-II', 7 MWe pilot-plant 'miniFUJI-II', 1 GeV-300 mA proton Accelerator Molten-Salt Breeder 'AMSB', and their combined fuel cycle system are explained. (author)

  8. Salt effects in surfactant-free microemulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöttl, Sebastian; Horinek, Dominik

    2018-06-01

    The weakly associated micellar aggregates found in the so-called "pre-ouzo region" of the surfactant-free microemulsion water/ethanol/1-octanol are sensitive to changes in the system composition and also to the presence of additives like salt. In this work, we study the influence of two salts, sodium iodide and lithium chloride, on aggregates in water/ethanol/1-octanol by molecular dynamics simulations. In both cases, ethanol concentration in the nonpolar phase and at the interface is increased due to a salting out effect on ethanol in the aqueous pseudo-phase. In addition, minor charging of the interface as a consequence of differential adsorption of anions and cations occurs. However, this charge separation is overall weakened by the erratic surface of octanol aggregates, where polar hydroxyl groups and hydrophobic patches are both present. Furthermore, ethanol at the interface shields hydrophobic patches and reduces the preferential adsorption of iodide and lithium.

  9. Transient behaviour of deep underground salt caverns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimi-Jafari, M.

    2007-11-01

    This work deals with the transient behaviour of deep underground salt caverns. It has been shown that a cavern is a complex system, in which there are mechanical, thermal, chemical and hydraulic evolutions. The importance of the transient evolutions, particularly the role of the 'reverse' creep in the interpretation of the tightness test in a salt cavern is revealed. Creep is characterized by a formulation of the behaviour law which presents the advantage, in a practical point of view, to only have a reduced number of parameters while accounting of the essential of what it is observed. The initiation of the rupture in the effective traction in a salt cavern rapidly pressurized is discussed. A model fitted to a very long term behaviour (after abandonment) is developed too. In this case too, a lot of phenomena, more or less coupled, occur, when the existing literature took only into account some phenomena. (O.M.)

  10. Precipitates/Salts Model Sensitivity Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariner, P.

    2001-01-01

    The objective and scope of this calculation is to assist Performance Assessment Operations and the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) Department in modeling the geochemical effects of evaporation on potential seepage waters within a potential repository drift. This work is developed and documented using procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', in support of ''Technical Work Plan For Engineered Barrier System Department Modeling and Testing FY 02 Work Activities'' (BSC 2001a). The specific objective of this calculation is to examine the sensitivity and uncertainties of the Precipitates/Salts model. The Precipitates/Salts model is documented in an Analysis/Model Report (AMR), ''In-Drift Precipitates/Salts Analysis'' (BSC 2001b). The calculation in the current document examines the effects of starting water composition, mineral suppressions, and the fugacity of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) on the chemical evolution of water in the drift

  11. Molten salt reactors. The AMSTER concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergnes, J.; Garzenne, C.; Lecarpentier, D.; Mouney, H.

    2001-01-01

    This article presents the concept of actinide molten salt transmuter (AMSTER). This reactor is graphite-moderated and is dedicated to the burning of actinides. The main difference with a molten salt reactor is that its liquid fuel undergoes an on-line partial reprocessing in which fission products are extracted and heavy nuclei are reintroduced into the fuel. In order to maintain the reactivity regular injections of 235 U-salt are made. In classical reactors, fuel burn-up is limited by the swelling of the cladding and the radiation fuel pellets resistance, in AMSTER there is no limitation to the irradiation time of the fuel, so all the actinides can be burnt or transmuted. (A.C.)

  12. Brine flow in heated geologic salt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Malama, Bwalya

    2013-03-01

    This report is a summary of the physical processes, primary governing equations, solution approaches, and historic testing related to brine migration in geologic salt. Although most information presented in this report is not new, we synthesize a large amount of material scattered across dozens of laboratory reports, journal papers, conference proceedings, and textbooks. We present a mathematical description of the governing brine flow mechanisms in geologic salt. We outline the general coupled thermal, multi-phase hydrologic, and mechanical processes. We derive these processes governing equations, which can be used to predict brine flow. These equations are valid under a wide variety of conditions applicable to radioactive waste disposal in rooms and boreholes excavated into geologic salt.

  13. Salt intake and eating habits of school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Yuko; Iwayama, Keiko; Suzuki, Hirotoshi; Sakata, Satoko; Hayashi, Shinichiro; Iwashima, Yoshio; Takata, Akira; Kawano, Yuhei

    2016-11-01

    Salt restriction is important for the prevention and treatment of hypertension; however, salt consumption is still high in Japan. Improvements in dietary habits, including salt reduction in childhood, may contribute to the prevention of hypertension. The aim of the present study was to investigate the salt intake of school-aged children and the relationship between their diet diary and actual salt intake. The subjects comprised 580 schoolchildren (471 elementary school pupils and 109 junior high school pupils) who wanted to evaluate their salt intake in Kuji, a northeast coastal area in Japan. We estimated salt intake using spot urine samples and a formula. Lifestyle was assessed using a questionnaire. We also evaluated the salt intake and the lifestyles of 440 parents. The estimated salt intakes of elementary school pupils, junior high school pupils and their parents were 7.1±1.5, 7.6±1.5 and 8.0±1.7 g per day, respectively. The proportion of lower-grade children who achieved the recommended salt intake was low. In the multivariate analysis, the estimated salt intake of school-aged children correlated with their age, estimated salt intake of their parents and the menu priorities of the household. The estimated salt intake of the parents was associated with female gender, obesity, age and the habitual consumption of bread and noodles. In conclusion, the estimated salt intake of school-aged children positively correlated with the estimated salt intake of their parents, and the proportion of lower-grade children who achieved the recommended salt intake was low. Guidance on salt restriction for children and their parents may reduce the salt intake of school-aged children.

  14. Fast Spectrum Molten Salt Reactor Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehin, Jess C [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Flanagan, George F [ORNL; Patton, Bruce W [ORNL; Howard, Rob L [ORNL; Harrison, Thomas J [ORNL

    2011-07-01

    During 2010, fast-spectrum molten-salt reactors (FS-MSRs) were selected as a transformational reactor concept for light-water reactor (LWR)-derived heavy actinide disposition by the Department of Energy-Nuclear Energy Advanced Reactor Concepts (ARC) program and were the subject of a preliminary scoping investigation. Much of the reactor description information presented in this report derives from the preliminary studies performed for the ARC project. This report, however, has a somewhat broader scope-providing a conceptual overview of the characteristics and design options for FS-MSRs. It does not present in-depth evaluation of any FS-MSR particular characteristic, but instead provides an overview of all of the major reactor system technologies and characteristics, including the technology developments since the end of major molten salt reactor (MSR) development efforts in the 1970s. This report first presents a historical overview of the FS-MSR technology and describes the innovative characteristics of an FS-MSR. Next, it provides an overview of possible reactor configurations. The following design features/options and performance considerations are described including: (1) reactor salt options-both chloride and fluoride salts; (2) the impact of changing the carrier salt and actinide concentration on conversion ratio; (3) the conversion ratio; (4) an overview of the fuel salt chemical processing; (5) potential power cycles and hydrogen production options; and (6) overview of the performance characteristics of FS-MSRs, including general comparative metrics with LWRs. The conceptual-level evaluation includes resource sustainability, proliferation resistance, economics, and safety. The report concludes with a description of the work necessary to begin more detailed evaluation of FS-MSRs as a realistic reactor and fuel cycle option.

  15. Reducing the Salt Added to Takeaway Food: Within-Subjects Comparison of Salt Delivered by Five and 17 Holed Salt Shakers in Controlled Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Goffe

    Full Text Available To determine if the amount of salt delivered by standard salt shakers commonly used in English independent takeaways varies between those with five and 17 holes; and to determine if any differences are robust to variations in: the amount of salt in the shaker, the length of time spent shaking, and the person serving.Four laboratory experiments comparing the amount of salt delivered by shakers. Independent variables considered were: type of shaker used (five or 17 holes, amount of salt in the shaker before shaking commences (shaker full, half full or nearly empty, time spent shaking (3s, 5s or 10s, and individual serving.Controlled, laboratory, conditions.A quota-based convenience sample of 10 participants (five women aged 18-59 years.Amount of salt delivered by salt shakers.Across all trials, the 17 holed shaker delivered a mean (SD of 7.86g (4.54 per trial, whilst the five holed shaker delivered 2.65g (1.22. The five holed shaker delivered a mean of 33.7% of the salt of the 17 holed shaker. There was a significant difference in salt delivered between the five and 17 holed salt shakers when time spent shaking, amount of salt in the shaker and participant were all kept constant (p<0.001. This difference was robust to variations in the starting weight of shakers, time spent shaking and participant shaking (pssalt shakers have the potential to reduce the salt content of takeaway food, and particularly food from Fish & Chip shops, where these shakers are particularly used. Further research will be required to determine the effects of this intervention on customers' salt intake with takeaway food and on total dietary salt intake.

  16. Nonlinear Analysis of Cavities in Rock Salt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, N. S.; Krenk, Steen

    1979-01-01

    The paper covers some material and computational aspects of the rock mechanics of leached cavities in salt. A material model is presented in which the instantaneous stiffness of the salt is obtained by interpolation between the unloaded state and a relevant failure state. The model enables predic...... prediction of short term triaxial behaviour from uniaxial stress-strain curves. Key results from a nonlinear finite element calculation of a gas-filled cavity are given, and the general features are related to a simple nonlinear method of stress evaluation....

  17. Migration of brine inclusions in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    Theories of the migration of brine inclusions in salt are interpreted as simple physical processes, and theories by Russian and U.S. workers are shown to yield the same results. The migration theory is used to predict threshold temperature gradients below which migration of brine inclusions should not occur. The predicted threshold gradients are compared with the temperature gradients expected at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. The theory of a threshold gradient helps explain the existence of brine inclusions in natural salt deposits

  18. Hot water, fresh beer, and salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, F.S.

    1990-01-01

    In the ''hot chocolate effect'' the best musical scales (those with the finest tone quality, largest range, and best tempo) are obtained by adding salt to a glass of hot water supersaturated with air. Good scales can also be obtained by adding salt to a glass of freshly opened beer (supersaturated with CO 2 ) provided you first (a) get rid of much of the excess CO 2 so as to produce smaller, hence slower, rising bubbles, and (b) get rid of the head of foam, which damps the standing wave and ruins the tone quality. Finally the old question, ''Do ionizing particles produce bubbles in fresh beer?'' is answered experimentally

  19. COBALT SALTS PRODUCTION BY USING SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila V. Dyakova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the extracting cobalt salts by using mixtures on the basis of tertiary amine from multicomponent solutions from the process of hydrochloride leaching of cobalt concentrate. The optimal composition for the extraction mixture, the relationship between the cobalt distribution coefficients and modifier’s nature and concentration, and the saltingout agent type have been determined. A hydrochloride extraction technology of cobalt concentrate yielding a purified concentrated cobalt solution for the production of pure cobalt salts has been developed and introduced at Severonikel combine.

  20. Salt crystallization tests: Focus on their objective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charola, A. Elena; Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge; Chwast, Jacek

    Many factors influence the durability of a building material, such as its mechanical resistance, exposure conditions and the presence of soluble salts in it. Since the latter interact with each other, it is difficult to relate any of them to the specific damage observed. Lubelli et al. [1] have r...... compatibility of restoration mortars, and another where the efflorescence of gypsum for brick masonry is evaluated. These methods have proven their reliability and lead to the conclusion that salt tests should be designed for specific objectives....

  1. The enigma of cooking salt crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolskaya, E.

    1987-01-01

    Two Soviet experts, Vladimir Gromov and Valentin Krylov, have discovered an unexpected phenomenon on irradiating cooking salt crystals with electrons. When the crystals are subsequently ground the rate at which they are dissolved increases, but not always. The electrons cause the salt molecules to polarize thus creating an internal electric field. This acts against the double electric layer which is inevitably formed in the part of the solution touching the crystal surface. So, if the permittivity of the solution is much greater than that of the molecules of the crystal, the rate of dissolution is increased, and vice versa. (G.T.H.)

  2. Hot water, fresh beer, and salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Frank S.

    1990-11-01

    In the ``hot chocolate effect'' the best musical scales (those with the finest tone quality, largest range, and best tempo) are obtained by adding salt to a glass of hot water supersaturated with air. Good scales can also be obtained by adding salt to a glass of freshly opened beer (supersaturated with CO2) provided you first (a) get rid of much of the excess CO2 so as to produce smaller, hence slower, rising bubbles, and (b) get rid of the head of foam, which damps the standing wave and ruins the tone quality. Finally the old question, ``Do ionizing particles produce bubbles in fresh beer?'' is answered experimentally.

  3. SALT Spectroscopy of Evolved Massive Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniazev, A. Y.; Gvaramadze, V. V.; Berdnikov, L. N.

    2017-06-01

    Long-slit spectroscopy with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) of central stars of mid-infrared nebulae detected with the Spitzer Space Telescope and Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) led to the discovery of numerous candidate luminous blue variables (cLBVs) and other rare evolved massive stars. With the recent advent of the SALT fiber-fed high-resolution echelle spectrograph (HRS), a new perspective for the study of these interesting objects is appeared. Using the HRS we obtained spectra of a dozen newly identified massive stars. Some results on the recently identified cLBV Hen 3-729 are presented.

  4. Salt Stability - The Effect of pHmax on Salt to Free Base Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yi-Ling; Merritt, Jeremy M; Yu, Weili; Taylor, Lynne S

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how the disproportionation process can be impacted by the properties of the salt, specifically pHmax. Five miconazole salts and four sertraline salts were selected for this study. The extent of conversion was quantified using Raman spectroscopy. A mathematical model was utilized to estimate the theoretical amount of conversion. A trend was observed that for a given series of salts of a particular basic compound (both sertraline and miconazole are bases), the extent of disproportionation increases as pHmax decreases. Miconazole phosphate monohydrate and sertraline mesylate, although exhibiting significantly different pHmax values (more than 2 units apart), underwent a similar extent of disproportionation, which may be attributed to the lower buffering capacity of sertraline salts. This work shows that the disproportionation tendency can be influenced by pHmax and buffering capacity and thus highlights the importance of selecting the appropriate salt form during the screening process in order to avoid salt-to-free form conversion.

  5. Fundamental study on the salt distillation from the mixtures of rare earth precipitates and LiCl-KCl eutectic salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, H. C.; Eun, H. C.; Cho, Y. Z.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, I. T.

    2008-01-01

    An electrorefining process of spent nuclear fuel generates waste salt containing some radioactive metal chlorides. The most effective method to reduce salt waste volume is to separate radioactive metals from non-radioactive salts. A promising approach is to change radioactive metal chlorides into salt-insoluble oxides by an oxygen sparging. Following this, salt distillation process is available to effectively separate the precipitated particulate metal oxides from salt. This study investigated the distillation rates of LiCl-KCl eutectic salt under different vacuums at elevated temperatures. The first part study investigated distillation rates of eutectic salt under different vacuums at high temperatures by using thermo-gravimetric furnace system. In the second part, we tested the removal of eutectic salt from the RE precipitates by using the laboratory vacuum distillation furnace system. Investigated variables were the temperature of mixture, the degree of vacuum and the time

  6. Salt intake and dietary sources of salt on weekdays and weekend days in Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowson, Caryl; Lim, Karen; Land, Mary-Ann; Webster, Jacqui; Shaw, Jonathan E; Chalmers, John; Flood, Victoria; Woodward, Mark; Grimes, Carley

    2018-02-01

    To assess if there is a difference in salt intake (24 h urine collection and dietary recall) and dietary sources of salt (Na) on weekdays and weekend days. A cross-sectional study of adults who provided one 24 h urine collection and one telephone-administered 24 h dietary recall. Community-dwelling adults living in the State of Victoria, Australia. Adults (n 598) who participated in a health survey (53·5 % women; mean age 57·1 (95 % CI 56·2, 58·1) years). Mean (95 % CI) salt intake (dietary recall) was 6·8 (6·6, 7·1) g/d and 24 h urinary salt excretion was 8·1 (7·8, 8·3) g/d. Mean dietary and 24 h urinary salt (age-adjusted) were 0·9 (0·1, 1·6) g/d (P=0·024) and 0·8 (0·3, 1·6) g/d (P=0·0017), respectively, higher at weekends compared with weekdays. There was an indication of a greater energy intake at weekends (+0·6 (0·02, 1·2) MJ/d, P=0·06), but no difference in Na density (weekday: 291 (279, 304) mg/MJ; weekend: 304 (281, 327) mg/MJ; P=0·360). Cereals/cereal products and dishes, meat, poultry, milk products and gravy/sauces accounted for 71 % of dietary Na. Mean salt intake (24 h urine collection) was more than 60 % above the recommended level of 5 g salt/d and 8-14 % more salt was consumed at weekends than on weekdays. Substantial reductions in the Na content of staple foods, processed meat, sauces, mixed dishes (e.g. pasta), convenience and takeaway foods are required to achieve a significant consistent reduction in population salt intake throughout the week.

  7. Assessment of a Salt Reduction Intervention on Adult Population Salt Intake in Fiji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arti Pillay

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Reducing population salt intake is a global public health priority due to the potential to save lives and reduce the burden on the healthcare system through decreased blood pressure. This implementation science research project set out to measure salt consumption patterns and to assess the impact of a complex, multi-faceted intervention to reduce population salt intake in Fiji between 2012 and 2016. The intervention combined initiatives to engage food businesses to reduce salt in foods and meals with targeted consumer behavior change programs. There were 169 participants at baseline (response rate 28.2% and 272 at 20 months (response rate 22.4%. The mean salt intake from 24-h urine samples was estimated to be 11.7 grams per day (g/d at baseline and 10.3 g/d after 20 months (difference: −1.4 g/day, 95% CI −3.1 to 0.3, p = 0.115. Sub-analysis showed a statistically significant reduction in female salt intake in the Central Division but no differential impact in relation to age or ethnicity. Whilst the low response rate means it is not possible to draw firm conclusions about these changes, the population salt intake in Fiji, at 10.3 g/day, is still twice the World Health Organization’s (WHO recommended maximum intake. This project also assessed iodine intake levels in women of child-bearing age and found that they were within recommended guidelines. Existing policies and programs to reduce salt intake and prevent iodine deficiency need to be maintained or strengthened. Monitoring to assess changes in salt intake and to ensure that iodine levels remain adequate should be built into future surveys.

  8. High Temperature Fluoride Salt Test Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, Adam M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cunningham, Richard Burns [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Fugate, David L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Holcomb, David Eugene [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kisner, Roger A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peretz, Fred J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Robb, Kevin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilson, Dane F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yoder, Jr, Graydon L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Effective high-temperature thermal energy exchange and delivery at temperatures over 600°C has the potential of significant impact by reducing both the capital and operating cost of energy conversion and transport systems. It is one of the key technologies necessary for efficient hydrogen production and could potentially enhance efficiencies of high-temperature solar systems. Today, there are no standard commercially available high-performance heat transfer fluids above 600°C. High pressures associated with water and gaseous coolants (such as helium) at elevated temperatures impose limiting design conditions for the materials in most energy systems. Liquid salts offer high-temperature capabilities at low vapor pressures, good heat transport properties, and reasonable costs and are therefore leading candidate fluids for next-generation energy production. Liquid-fluoride-salt-cooled, graphite-moderated reactors, referred to as Fluoride Salt Reactors (FHRs), are specifically designed to exploit the excellent heat transfer properties of liquid fluoride salts while maximizing their thermal efficiency and minimizing cost. The FHR s outstanding heat transfer properties, combined with its fully passive safety, make this reactor the most technologically desirable nuclear power reactor class for next-generation energy production. Multiple FHR designs are presently being considered. These range from the Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) [1] design originally developed by UC-Berkeley to the Small Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (SmAHTR) and the large scale FHR both being developed at ORNL [2]. The value of high-temperature, molten-salt-cooled reactors is also recognized internationally, and Czechoslovakia, France, India, and China all have salt-cooled reactor development under way. The liquid salt experiment presently being developed uses the PB-AHTR as its focus. One core design of the PB-AHTR features multiple 20 cm diameter, 3.2 m long fuel channels

  9. Chemistry and technology of Molten Salt Reactors - history and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlir, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Molten Salt Reactors represent one of promising future nuclear reactor concept included also in the Generation IV reactors family. This reactor type is distinguished by an extraordinarily close connection between the reactor physics and chemical technology, which is given by the specific features of the chemical form of fuel, representing by molten fluoride salt and circulating through the reactor core and also by the requirements of continuous 'on-line' reprocessing of the spent fuel. The history of Molten Salt Reactors reaches the period of fifties and sixties, when the first experimental Molten Salt Reactors were constructed and tested in ORNL (US). Several molten salt techniques dedicated to fresh molten salt fuel processing and spent fuel reprocessing were studied and developed in those days. Today, after nearly thirty years of discontinuance, a renewed interest in the Molten Salt Reactor technology is observed. Current experimental R and D activities in the area of Molten Salt Reactor technology are realized by a relatively small number of research institutions mainly in the EU, Russia and USA. The main effort is directed primarily to the development of separation processes suitable for the molten salt fuel processing and reprocessing technology. The techniques under development are molten salt/liquid metal extraction processes, electrochemical separation processes from the molten salt media, fused salt volatilization techniques and gas extraction from the molten salt medium

  10. Routine determination of sulfonylurea, imidazolinone, and sulfonamide herbicides at nanogram-per-liter concentrations by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, E.T.; Burkhardt, M.R.; Gates, Paul M.; Werner, S.L.; Battaglin, W.A.

    2000-01-01

    Sulfonylurea (SU), imidazolinone (IMI), and sulfonamide (SA) herbicides are new classes of low-application-rate herbicides increasingly used by farmers. Some of these herbicides affect both weed and crop species at low dosages and must be carefully used. Less is known about the effect of these compounds on non-crop plant species, but a concentration of 100 ng/l in water has been proposed as the threshold for possible plant toxicity for most of these herbicides. Hence, analytical methods must be capable of detecting SUs, IMIs, and SAs at concentrations less than 100 ng/l in ambient water samples. The authors developed a two-cartridge, solid-phase extraction method for isolating 12 SU, 3 IMI, and 1 SA herbicides by using high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS) to identify and quantify these herbicides to 10 ng/l. This method was used to analyze 196 surface- and ground-water samples collected from May to August 1998 throughout the Midwestern United States, and more than 100 quality-assurance and quality-control samples. During the 16 weeks of the study, the HPLC/ESI-MS maintained excellent calibration linearity across the calibration range from 5 to 500 ng/l, with correlation coefficients of 0.9975 or greater. Continuing calibration verification standards at 100-ng/l concentration were analyzed throughout the study, and the average measured concentrations for individual herbicides ranged from 93 to 100 ng/l. Recovery of herbicides from 27 reagent-water samples spiked at 50 and 100 ng/l ranged from 39 to 92%, and averaged 73%. The standard deviation of recoveries ranged from 14 to 26%, and averaged 20%. This variability reflects multiple instruments, operators, and the use of automated and manual sample preparation. Spiked environmental water samples had similar recoveries, although for some herbicides, the sample matrix enhanced recoveries by as much as 200% greater than the spiked concentration. This matrix

  11. Electronically tuned sulfonamide-based probes with ultra-sensitivity for Ga{sup 3+} or Al{sup 3+} detection in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Ashwani, E-mail: ashwanirubal@gmail.com; Chae, Pil Seok, E-mail: pchae@hanyang.ac.kr

    2017-03-15

    Three electronically tuned fluorescent probes (1–3) were synthesized by conjugating a fluorescent unit to N,N-bis-(hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine. Probe 1 bearing an electron-deficient naphthalenedimide unit did not give a fluorescence response to the presence of various metal ions including monovalent metal ions (Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, and Ag{sup +}), divalent metal ions (Ca{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Hg{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, and Zn{sup 2+}) and trivalent metal ions (Al{sup 3+}, Ga{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 3+}, and Cr{sup 3+}) in an aqueous solution. By contrast, probes 2 and 3 possessing 1,8-naphthalimide and pyrene fluorophores, respectively, exhibited selective fluorescent “OFF-ON” behaviors as a result of Ga{sup 3+}/Al{sup 3+} binding among the diverse metal ions, suggesting the importance of fluorophore electronic character with regard to metal ion sensing. The ethylenediamine analog of probe 3, corresponding to probe 4, was unable to yield a significant change in fluorescence intensity in the presence of any metal ions tested here, revealing the essential role of two hydroxyl groups for metal ion binding. A high association constant of K{sub a} = 2.99 × 10{sup 5} M{sup −1} was obtained for probe 3 with Ga{sup 3+}, with a limit of detection (LOD) of 10 nM. This LOD is the lowest value known for Ga{sup 3+} detection using chemical sensors. Along with an increase in aggregate sizes, PET suppression of probes upon metal ion binding was the primary contributor to the enhancement in fluorescence emission necessary for the sensitive detection of the target ions. The probe-metal ion complexes were fully characterized via TEM, FE-SEM, {sup 1}H NMR, fluorescence spectroscopy techniques and DFT calculations. - Highlights: • Three electronically tuned sulfonamide-based probes (probes 1, 2, and 3) were developed for metal ion-sensing. • Probes 2 and 3 exhibited AIE behavior with increasing water-content. • Probes 2 and 3 displayed a

  12. Salt repository project closeout status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    This report provides an overview of the scope and status of the US Department of Energy (DOE's) Salt Repository Project (SRP) at the time when the project was terminated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. The report reviews the 10-year program of siting a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste in rock salt formations. Its purpose is to aid persons interested in the information developed during the course of this effort. Each area is briefly described and the major items of information are noted. This report, the three salt Environmental Assessments, and the Site Characterization Plan are the suggested starting points for any search of the literature and information developed by the program participants. Prior to termination, DOE was preparing to characterize three candidate sites for the first mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The sites were in Nevada, a site in volcanic tuff; Texas, a site in bedded salt (halite); and Washington, a site in basalt. These sites, identified by the screening process described in Chapter 3, were selected from the nine potentially acceptable sites shown on Figure I-1. These sites were identified in accordance with provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. 196 refs., 21 figs., 11 tabs

  13. Fluid inclusions in salt: an annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isherwood, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    An annotated bibliography is presented which was compiled while searching the literature for information on fluid inclusions in salt for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's study on the deep-geologic disposal of nuclear waste. The migration of fluid inclusions in a thermal gradient is a potential hazard to the safe disposal of nuclear waste in a salt repository. At the present time, a prediction as to whether this hazard precludes the use of salt for waste disposal can not be made. Limited data from the Salt-Vault in situ heater experiments in the early 1960's (Bradshaw and McClain, 1971) leave little doubt that fluid inclusions can migrate towards a heat source. In addition to the bibliography, there is a brief summary of the physical and chemical characteristics that together with the temperature of the waste will determine the chemical composition of the brine in contact with the waste canister, the rate of fluid migration, and the brine-canister-waste interactions

  14. The Path to Nitrate Salt Disposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, David John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-16

    The topic is presented in a series of slides arranged according to the following outline: LANL nitrate salt incident as thermal runaway (thermally sensitive surrogates, full-scale tests), temperature control for processing, treatment options and down selection, assessment of engineering options, anticipated control set for treatment, and summary of the overall steps for RNS.

  15. Crushed-salt constitutive model update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Mellegard, K.D.; Hansen, F.D.

    1998-01-01

    Modifications to the constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--defined previously but used separately are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. New creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the shear consolidation tests and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests produced two sets of material parameter values for the model. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the model but demonstrates improvement over earlier work with the previous models. Key improvements are the ability to capture lateral strain reversal and better resolve parameter values. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the model to predict the test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well

  16. Geothermal studies of seven interior salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    This report defines and compares the geothermal environments of eight selected Gulf Coast salt domes. The thermal regimes in and around Gulf Coast salt domes are not well documented. The data base used for this study is an accumulation of bottom-hole temperature readings from oil and gas exploration wells and temperature logs run for the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program. The bottom-hole tempreatures were corrected in order to estimate the actual geothermal environments. Prior thermal studies and models indicate temperatures in and around salt domes are elevated above the norm by 1 0 F to 25 0 F. Using existing geothermal data and accepted theory, geothermal gradients for the selected domes and surrounding sediments were estimated. This study concludes that salt domes within a given basin have similar geothermal gradients, but that the basins differ in average geothermal gradients. This relationship is probably controlled by deep basement structural trends. No evidence of residual heat of emplacement was found associated with any of the selected domes

  17. Crushed-salt constitutive model update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Mellegard, K.D. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Modifications to the constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--defined previously but used separately are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. New creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the shear consolidation tests and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests produced two sets of material parameter values for the model. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the model but demonstrates improvement over earlier work with the previous models. Key improvements are the ability to capture lateral strain reversal and better resolve parameter values. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the model to predict the test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well.

  18. Constitutive behavior of reconsolidating crushed salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, G.D.; Mellegard, K.D.; Hansen, F.D.

    1998-02-01

    The constitutive model used to describe deformation of crushed salt is presented in this paper. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Recently completed creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from shear consolidation tests and a combination of shear and hydrostatic tests produces two sets of material parameter values for the model. Changes in material parameter values from test group to test group indicate the empirical nature of the model but show significant improvement over earlier work. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on fitting statistics and ability of the model to predict test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well

  19. Investigation of molten salt fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Kenichi; Konomura, Mamoru

    2002-01-01

    On survey research for practicability strategy of fast reactor (FR) (phase 1), to extract future practicability image candidates of FR from wide options, in addition to their survey and investigation objects of not only solid fuel reactors of conventional research object but also molten salt reactor as a flowing fuel reactor, investigation on concept of molten salt FR plant was carried out. As a part of the first step of the survey research for practicability strategy, a basic concept on plant centered at nuclear reactor facility using chloride molten salt reactor capable of carrying out U-Pu cycle was examined, to perform a base construction to evaluate economical potential for a practical FBR. As a result, a result could be obtained that because of inferior fuel inventory and heat transmission to those in Na cooling reactor in present knowledge, mass of reactor vessel and intermediate heat exchanger were to widely increased to expect reduction of power generation unit price even on considering cheapness of its fuel cycle cost. Therefore, at present step further investigation on concept design of the chloride molten salt reactor plant system is too early in time, and it is at a condition where basic and elementary researches aiming at upgrading of economical efficiency such as wide reduction of fuel inventory, a measure expectable for remarkable rationalization effect of reprocessing system integrating a reactor to a processing facility, and so on. (G.K.)

  20. Solid waste disposal into salt mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repke, W.

    1981-01-01

    The subject is discussed as follows: general introduction to disposal of radioactive waste; handling of solid nuclear waste; technology of final disposal, with specific reference to salt domes; conditioning of radioactive waste; safety barriers for radioactive waste; practice of final disposal in other countries. (U.K.)

  1. Specific Investigations Related to Salt Rock Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vons, L. H.; Zelikson, A.; Charo, L.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper results are given of work in various countries in rather unrelated areas of research. Nevertheless, since the studies have been undertaken to better understand salt behaviour, both from mechanical and chemical points of view, some connection between the studies can be found. Studies...

  2. Investigations of salt mortar containing saliferous clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, F.

    1992-01-01

    Saliferous clay mortar might be considered for combining individual salt bricks into a dense and tight long-term seal. A specific laboratory program was started to test mortars consisting of halite powder and grey saliferous clay of the Stassfurt from the Bleicherode salt mine. Clay fractions between 0 and 45% were used. The interest focused upon obtaining good workabilities of the mixtures as well as upon the permeability and compression strength of the dried mortar samples. Test results: 1) Without loss of quality the mortar can be mixed using fresh water. Apprx. 18 to 20 weight-% of the solids must be added as mixing water. 2) The porosity and the permeability of the mortar samples increases distinctly when equally coarse-grained salt power is used for mixing. 3) The mean grain size and the grain size distribution of the saliferous clay and the salt powder should be very similar to form a useful mortar. 4) The permeability of the mortar samples decreases with increasing clay fraction from 2 10 -12 m 2 to 2 10 -14 m 2 . The investigated samples, however, were large and dried at 100degC. 5) The uniaxial compressive strength of the clay mortar equals, at an average, only 4 MPa and decreases clearly with increasing clay fraction. Moist mortar samples did not show any measurable compressive strength. 6) Moistened saliferous clay mortar may show little temporary swelling. (orig./HP)

  3. 7 CFR 58.721 - Salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Salt. 58.721 Section 58.721 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCT...

  4. 7 CFR 58.437 - Salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Salt. 58.437 Section 58.437 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCT...

  5. 7 CFR 58.328 - Salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Salt. 58.328 Section 58.328 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCT...

  6. Temperature profiles from Salt Valley, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, J. H.; Lachenbruch, A. H.; Smith, E. P.

    Temperature profiles were obtained in the nine drilled wells as part of a thermal study of the Salt Valley anticline, Paradox Basin, Utha. Thermal conductivities were also measured on 10 samples judged to be representative of the rocks encountered in the deepest hole. The temperature profiles and thermal conductivities are presented, together with preliminary interpretive remarks and suggestions for additional work.

  7. Disposal of Savannah River Plant waste salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukes, M.D.

    1982-01-01

    Approximately 26-million gallons of soluble low-level waste salts will be produced during solidification of 6-million gallons of high-level defense waste in the proposed Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). Soluble wastes (primarily NaNO 3 , NaNO 2 , and NaOH) stored in the waste tanks will be decontaminated by ion exchange and solidified in concrete. The resulting salt-concrete mixture, saltcrete, will be placed in a landfill on the plantsite such that all applicable federal and state disposal criteria are met. Proposed NRC guidelines for the disposal of waste with the radionuclide content of SRP salt would permit shallow land burial. Federal and state rules require that potentially hazardous chemical wastes (mainly nitrate-nitrate salts in the saltcrete) be contained to the degree necessary to meet drinking water standards in the ground water beneath the landfill boundary. This paper describes the proposed saltcrete landfill and tests under way to ensure that the landfill will meet these criteria. The work includes laboratory and field tests of the saltcrete itself, a field test of a one-tenth linear scale model of the entire landfill system, and a numerical model of the system

  8. Salt tolerance in wheat - an overview. (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, M.

    2005-01-01

    Considerable efforts have been made during the past few years to overcome the problem of salinity through the development of salt tolerant lines of important crop species using screening, breeding and molecular biology techniques. In view of considerable importance of spring wheat as a major staple food crop of many countries, plant scientists have directed there attention to identify and develop salt tolerant genotypes that can be of direct use on salt-affected soils. Although considerable progress in understanding individual phenomenon and genes involved in plant response to salinity stress has been made over the past few years, underlying physiological mechanisms producing salt tolerant plants is still unclear. It has been suggested that salt tolerance of plants could be improved by defining genes or characters. Twenty years ago, it was suggested that genes located on the D genome of bread wheat confer salinity tolerance to hexaploid wheat by reducing Na/sup +/ accumulation in the leaf tissue and increasing discrimination in favour of K/sup +/. However, recently, low Na/sup +/ accumulation and high K/sup +/Na/sup +/ discrimination, of similar magnitude to bread wheat, in several selections of durum wheat has been observed, supporting the notion that salt tolerance is controlled by multiple genes, which are distributed throughout the entire set of chromosomes. In addition, various physiological selection criteria such as compatible osmolytes (glycinebetaine, proline, trehalose, mannitol etc.), antioxidants, carbon discrimination, high K/sup +//Na/sup +/ ratio etc. have been discussed. Although tolerance to salinity is known to have a multigenic inheritance, mediated by a large number of genes, knowledge of heritability and the genetic mode of salinity tolerance is still lacking because few studies have yet been conducted in these areas. Indeed, genetic information is lagging behind the physiological information. Modern methods such as recombinant DNA technology

  9. Advanced heat exchanger development for molten salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabharwall, Piyush, E-mail: Piyush.Sabharwall@inl.gov [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Clark, Denis; Glazoff, Michael [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Zheng, Guiqiu; Sridharan, Kumar; Anderson, Mark [University of Wisconsin, Madison (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Hastelloy N and 242, shows corrosion resistance to molten salt at nominal operating temperatures. • Both diffusion welds and sheet material in Hastelloy N were corrosion tested in at 650, 700, and 850 °C for 200, 500, and 1000 h. • Thermal gradients and galvanic couples in the molten salts enhance corrosion rates. • Corrosion rates found were typically <10 mils per year. - Abstract: This study addresses present work concerned with advanced heat exchanger development for molten salt in nuclear and non-nuclear thermal systems. The molten salt systems discussed herein use alloys, such as Hastelloy N and 242, that show good corrosion resistance in molten salt at nominal operating temperatures up to 700 °C. These alloys were diffusion welded, and the corresponding information is presented. Test specimens were prepared for exposing diffusion welds to molten salt environments. Hastelloy N and 242 were found to be weldable by diffusion welding, with ultimate tensile strengths about 90% of base metal values. Both diffusion welds and sheet material in Hastelloy N were corrosion tested in 58 mol% KF and 42 mol% ZrF{sub 4} at 650, 700, and 850 °C for 200, 500, and 1000 h. Corrosion rates were similar between welded and nonwelded materials, typically <100 μm per year after 1000 h of corrosion tests. No catastrophic corrosion was observed in the diffusion welded regions. For materials of construction, nickel-based alloys and alloys with dense nickel coatings are effectively inert to corrosion in fluorides, but not so in chlorides. Hence, additional testing of selected alloys for resistance to intergranular corrosion is needed, as is a determination of corrosion rate as a function of the type of salt impurity and alloy composition, with respect to chromium and carbon, to better define the best conditions for corrosion resistance. Also presented is the division of the nuclear reactor and high-temperature components per American Society of Mechanical

  10. Identifying salt stress-responsive transcripts from Roselle ( Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). Identifying the potentially novel transcripts responsible for salt stress tolerance in roselle will increase knowledge of the molecular mechanism underlying salt stress responses. In this study, differential display reverse ...

  11. Experiments and Modeling in Support of Generic Salt Repository Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourret, Suzanne Michelle; Stauffer, Philip H.; Weaver, Douglas James; Caporuscio, Florie Andre; Otto, Shawn; Boukhalfa, Hakim; Jordan, Amy B.; Chu, Shaoping; Zyvoloski, George Anthony; Johnson, Peter Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Salt is an attractive material for the disposition of heat generating nuclear waste (HGNW) because of its self-sealing, viscoplastic, and reconsolidation properties (Hansen and Leigh, 2012). The rate at which salt consolidates and the properties of the consolidated salt depend on the composition of the salt, including its content in accessory minerals and moisture, and the temperature under which consolidation occurs. Physicochemical processes, such as mineral hydration/dehydration salt dissolution and precipitation play a significant role in defining the rate of salt structure changes. Understanding the behavior of these complex processes is paramount when considering safe design for disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) in salt formations, so experimentation and modeling is underway to characterize these processes. This report presents experiments and simulations in support of the DOE-NE Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) for development of drift-scale, in-situ field testing of HGNW in salt formations.

  12. Compound list: imatinib, methanesulfonate salt [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available imatinib, methanesulfonate salt IMA 00186 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-t...ggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/imatinib%2C_methanesulfonate_salt.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ...

  13. Potentiometric titration curves of aluminium salt solutions and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potentiometric titration curves of aluminium salt solutions and its species conversion ... of aluminium salt solutions under the moderate slow rate of base injection. ... silicate radical, and organic acid radical on the titration curves and its critical ...

  14. Salt Concentration Differences Alter Membrane Resistance in Reverse Electrodialysis Stacks

    KAUST Repository

    Geise, Geoffrey M.; Curtis, Andrew J.; Hatzell, Marta C.; Hickner, Michael A.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Membrane ionic resistance is usually measured by immersing the membrane in a salt solution at a single, fixed concentration. While salt concentration is known to affect membrane resistance when the same concentration is used on both sides

  15. Genetic analysis of Myanmar Vigna species in responses to salt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic analysis of Myanmar Vigna species in responses to salt stress at the ... of reduction was highly dependent on different genotypes and salinity levels. ... the mechanism of salt tolerance and for the provision of genetic resources for ...

  16. Formation and development of salt crusts on soil surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Sheng; Shin, Hosung; Santamarina, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The salt concentration gradually increases at the soil free surface when the evaporation rate exceeds the diffusive counter transport. Eventually, salt precipitates and crystals form a porous sodium chloride crust with a porosity of 0.43 ± 0.14. After detaching from soils, the salt crust still experiences water condensation and salt deliquescence at the bottom, brine transport across the crust driven by the humidity gradient, and continued air-side precipitation. This transport mechanism allows salt crust migration away from the soil surface at a rate of 5 μm/h forming salt domes above soil surfaces. The surface characteristics of mineral substrates and the evaporation rate affect the morphology and the crystal size of precipitated salt. In particular, substrate hydrophobicity and low evaporation rate suppress salt spreading.

  17. What molecular mechanism is adapted by plants during salt stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    What molecular mechanism is adapted by plants during salt stress tolerance? ... Salt stress harmfully shocks agricultural yield throughout the world affecting production whether it is for subsistence or economic outcomes. ... from 32 Countries:.

  18. Fatality of salt stress to plants: Morphological, physiological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fatality of salt stress to plants: Morphological, physiological and biochemical aspects. ... This adverse effect of salt stress appears on whole plant level at almost all growth stages including germination, seedling, vegetative ... from 32 Countries:.

  19. Formation and development of salt crusts on soil surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Sheng

    2015-12-14

    The salt concentration gradually increases at the soil free surface when the evaporation rate exceeds the diffusive counter transport. Eventually, salt precipitates and crystals form a porous sodium chloride crust with a porosity of 0.43 ± 0.14. After detaching from soils, the salt crust still experiences water condensation and salt deliquescence at the bottom, brine transport across the crust driven by the humidity gradient, and continued air-side precipitation. This transport mechanism allows salt crust migration away from the soil surface at a rate of 5 μm/h forming salt domes above soil surfaces. The surface characteristics of mineral substrates and the evaporation rate affect the morphology and the crystal size of precipitated salt. In particular, substrate hydrophobicity and low evaporation rate suppress salt spreading.

  20. Experiments and Modeling in Support of Generic Salt Repository Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourret, Suzanne Michelle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Weaver, Douglas James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Otto, Shawn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boukhalfa, Hakim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jordan, Amy B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zyvoloski, George Anthony [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Johnson, Peter Jacob [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-19

    Salt is an attractive material for the disposition of heat generating nuclear waste (HGNW) because of its self-sealing, viscoplastic, and reconsolidation properties (Hansen and Leigh, 2012). The rate at which salt consolidates and the properties of the consolidated salt depend on the composition of the salt, including its content in accessory minerals and moisture, and the temperature under which consolidation occurs. Physicochemical processes, such as mineral hydration/dehydration salt dissolution and precipitation play a significant role in defining the rate of salt structure changes. Understanding the behavior of these complex processes is paramount when considering safe design for disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) in salt formations, so experimentation and modeling is underway to characterize these processes. This report presents experiments and simulations in support of the DOE-NE Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) for development of drift-scale, in-situ field testing of HGNW in salt formations.