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Sample records for haloperoxidase reactions catalyzed

  1. Purification and partial characterization of haloperoxidase from fresh water algae Cladophora glomerata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdel, E F; Kline, P C; Wani, S; Woods, A E

    2000-02-01

    Many haloperoxidases have been purified from diverse organisms, including lichen, fungi, bacteria, and marine algae. In this study a haloperoxidase was purified from the fresh water algae, Cladophora glomerata, by homogenization and centrifugation, ammonium sulfate fractionation, ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Molecular weight was determined by SDS-PAGE and by size exclusion HPLC and found to be approximately 43 kDa. The isoelectric point was determined to be approximately 8.1 by isoelectric focusing. The UV spectrum of the peroxidase showed a strong absorbance in the Soret band indicating a heme protein, unlike vanadium-dependent haloperoxidases from marine algae. Fresh water algal haloperoxidase catalyzed the iodination of tyrosine at a pH of 3.1. This haloperoxidase also catalyzes the oxidation of guaiacol and oxidation of iodide as well as catalyzing a peroxide-dependent reaction in both the presence and absence of chloride and bromide ions.

  2. Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 74 Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions Database (Web, free access)   The Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions Database contains thermodynamic data on enzyme-catalyzed reactions that have been recently published in the Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data (JPCRD). For each reaction the following information is provided: the reference for the data, the reaction studied, the name of the enzyme used and its Enzyme Commission number, the method of measurement, the data and an evaluation thereof.

  3. Palladium-catalyzed coupling reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Molnár, Árpád

    2013-01-01

    This handbook and ready reference brings together all significant issues of practical importance for interested readers in one single volume. While covering homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis, the text is unique in focusing on such important aspects as using different reaction media, microwave techniques or catalyst recycling. It also provides a comprehensive treatment of modern-day coupling reactions and emphasizes those topics that show potential for future development, such as continuous flow systems, water as a reaction medium, and catalyst immobilization, among others. With i

  4. Desaturation reactions catalyzed by soluble methane monooxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Y; Lipscomb, J D

    2001-09-01

    Soluble methane monooxygenase (MMO) is shown to be capable of catalyzing desaturation reactions in addition to the usual hydroxylation and epoxidation reactions. Dehydrogenated products are generated from MMO-catalyzed oxidation of certain substrates including ethylbenzene and cyclohexadienes. In the reaction of ethylbenzene, desaturation of ethyl C-H occurred along with the conventional hydroxvlations of ethyl and phenyl C-Hs. As a result, styrene is formed together with ethylphenols and phenylethanols. Similarly, when 1,3- and 1,4-cyclohexadienes were used as substrates, benzene was detected as a product in addition to the corresponding alcohols and epoxides. In all cases, reaction conditions were found to significantly affect the distribution among the different products. This new activity of MMO is postulated to be associated with the chemical properties of the substrates rather than fundamental changes in the nature of the oxygen and C-H activation chemistries. The formation of the desaturated products is rationalized by formation of a substrate cationic intermediate, possibly via a radical precursor. The cationic species is then proposed to partition between recombination (alcohol formation) and elimination (alkene production) pathways. This novel function of MMO indicates close mechanistic kinship between the hydroxylation and desaturation reactions catalyzed by the nonheme diiron clusters.

  5. Heterogeneously Catalyzed Oxidation Reactions Using Molecular Oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Matthias Josef

    Heterogeneously catalyzed selective oxidation reactions have attracted a lot of attention in recent time. The first part of the present thesis provides an overview over heterogeneous copper and silver catalysts for selective oxidations in the liquid phase and compared the performance and catalytic...... that both copper and silver can function as complementary catalyst materials to gold showing different catalytic properties and being more suitable for hydrocarbon oxidation reactions. Potential opportunities for future research were outlined. In an experimental study, the potential of silver as a catalyst...... revealed that all catalysts were more active in combination with ceria nanoparticles and that under the tested reaction conditions silver was equally or even more efficient than the gold catalysts. Calcination at 900 °C of silver on silica prepared by impregnation afforded a catalyst which was used...

  6. Representing Rate Equations for Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, Addison

    2011-01-01

    Rate equations for enzyme-catalyzed reactions are derived and presented in a way that makes it easier for the nonspecialist to see how the rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction depends upon kinetic constants and concentrations. This is done with distribution equations that show how the rate of the reaction depends upon the relative quantities of…

  7. Structure and function of vanadium haloperoxidases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, R.; Michibata, H.

    2012-01-01

    Vanadium haloperoxidases contain the bare metal oxide vanadate as a prosthetic group and differ strongly from the heme peroxidases in substrate specificity and molecular properties. The substrates of these enzymes are limited to halides and sulfides, which in the presence of hydrogen peroxide are

  8. Cyclodextrin-Catalyzed Organic Synthesis: Reactions, Mechanisms, and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Cai Bai

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cyclodextrins are well-known macrocyclic oligosaccharides that consist of α-(1,4 linked glucose units and have been widely used as artificial enzymes, chiral separators, chemical sensors, and drug excipients, owing to their hydrophobic and chiral interiors. Due to their remarkable inclusion capabilities with small organic molecules, more recent interests focus on organic reactions catalyzed by cyclodextrins. This contribution outlines the current progress in cyclodextrin-catalyzed organic reactions. Particular emphases are given to the organic reaction mechanisms and their applications. In the end, the future directions of research in this field are proposed.

  9. Metal-catalyzed asymmetric aldol reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Luiz C.; Lucca Junior, Emilio C. de; Ferreira, Marco A. B.; Polo, Ellen C., E-mail: ldias@iqm.unicamp.br [Universidade de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2012-12-15

    The aldol reaction is one of the most powerful and versatile methods for the construction of C-C bonds. Traditionally, this reaction was developed in a stoichiometric version; however, great efforts in the development of chiral catalysts for aldol reactions were performed in recent years. Thus, in this review article, the development of metal-mediated chiral catalysts in Mukaiyama-type aldol reaction, reductive aldol reaction and direct aldol reaction are discussed. Moreover, the application of these catalysts in the total synthesis of complex molecules is discussed. (author)

  10. Studies on the use of haloperoxidases in organic synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, M.C.R.

    1987-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the use of haloperoxidases in synthetic organic chemistry. Haloperoxidases are enzymes capable of halogenating a variety of organic compounds. They require hydrogen peroxide and halide ions as cosubstrates. The enzymes operate under mild conditions, compared to

  11. Method for predicting enzyme-catalyzed reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavacek, William S.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Mu, Fangping; Unkefer, Pat J.

    2013-03-19

    The reactivity of given metabolites is assessed using selected empirical atomic properties in the potential reaction center. Metabolic reactions are represented as biotransformation rules. These rules are generalized from the patterns in reactions. These patterns are not unique to reactants but are widely distributed among metabolites. Using a metabolite database, potential substructures are identified in the metabolites for a given biotransformation. These substructures are divided into reactants or non-reactants, depending on whether they participate in the biotransformation or not. Each potential substructure is then modeled using descriptors of the topological and electronic properties of atoms in the potential reaction center; molecular properties can also be used. A Support Vector Machine (SVM) or classifier is trained to classify a potential reactant as a true or false reactant using these properties.

  12. Stability and dynamics of reactors with heterogeneously catalyzed reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eigenberger, G [BASF A.G., Ludwigshafen am Rhein (Germany, F.R.)

    1978-12-01

    Our knowledge of causes and consequences of problems arising from instability and dynamic effects in reactors with heterogeneously catalyzed reactions has increased remarkably in recent years. Especially thermal effects, caused by the self-acceleration of an exothermic reaction in combination with heat and mass transport, are now well understood. In addition, kinetic effects, i.e. phenomena which have to be explained by the kinetic peculiarities of surface reactions, have attracted increasing interest. For both cases the state of the art will be reviewed, highlighting the physical and chemical causes of the observed phenomena.

  13. Asymmetric Stetter reactions catalyzed by thiamine diphosphate-dependent enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasparyan, Elena; Richter, Michael; Dresen, Carola; Walter, Lydia S; Fuchs, Georg; Leeper, Finian J; Wacker, Tobias; Andrade, Susana L A; Kolter, Geraldine; Pohl, Martina; Müller, Michael

    2014-12-01

    The intermolecular asymmetric Stetter reaction is an almost unexplored transformation for biocatalysts. Previously reported thiamine diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent PigD from Serratia marcescens is the first enzyme identified to catalyze the Stetter reaction of α,β-unsaturated ketones (Michael acceptor substrates) and α-keto acids. PigD is involved in the biosynthesis of the potent cytotoxic agent prodigiosin. Here, we describe the investigation of two new ThDP-dependent enzymes, SeAAS from Saccharopolyspora erythraea and HapD from Hahella chejuensis. Both show a high degree of homology to the amino acid sequence of PigD (39 and 51 %, respectively). The new enzymes were heterologously overproduced in Escherichia coli, and the yield of soluble protein was enhanced by co-expression of the chaperone genes groEL/ES. SeAAS and HapD catalyze intermolecular Stetter reactions in vitro with high enantioselectivity. The enzymes possess a characteristic substrate range with respect to Michael acceptor substrates. This provides support for a new type of ThDP-dependent enzymatic activity, which is abundant in various species and not restricted to prodigiosin biosynthesis in different strains. Moreover, PigD, SeAAS, and HapD are also able to catalyze asymmetric carbon-carbon bond formation reactions of aldehydes and α-keto acids, resulting in 2-hydroxy ketones.

  14. Stochastic simulation of enzyme-catalyzed reactions with disparate timescales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Debashis; Paul, Mark R; Baumann, William T; Cao, Yang; Tyson, John J

    2008-10-01

    Many physiological characteristics of living cells are regulated by protein interaction networks. Because the total numbers of these protein species can be small, molecular noise can have significant effects on the dynamical properties of a regulatory network. Computing these stochastic effects is made difficult by the large timescale separations typical of protein interactions (e.g., complex formation may occur in fractions of a second, whereas catalytic conversions may take minutes). Exact stochastic simulation may be very inefficient under these circumstances, and methods for speeding up the simulation without sacrificing accuracy have been widely studied. We show that the "total quasi-steady-state approximation" for enzyme-catalyzed reactions provides a useful framework for efficient and accurate stochastic simulations. The method is applied to three examples: a simple enzyme-catalyzed reaction where enzyme and substrate have comparable abundances, a Goldbeter-Koshland switch, where a kinase and phosphatase regulate the phosphorylation state of a common substrate, and coupled Goldbeter-Koshland switches that exhibit bistability. Simulations based on the total quasi-steady-state approximation accurately capture the steady-state probability distributions of all components of these reaction networks. In many respects, the approximation also faithfully reproduces time-dependent aspects of the fluctuations. The method is accurate even under conditions of poor timescale separation.

  15. Synthesis of heterocycles through transition-metal-catalyzed isomerization reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishøy, Mette; Nielsen, Thomas Eiland

    2014-01-01

    of structurally complex and diverse heterocycles. In this Concept article, we attempt to cover this area of research through a selection of recent versatile examples. A sea of opportunities! Transition-metal-catalyzed isomerization of N- and O-allylic compounds provides a mild, selective and synthetically...... versatile method to form iminium and oxocarbenium ions. Given the number of reactions involving these highly electrophilic intermediates, this concept provides a sea of opportunities for heterocycle synthesis, (see scheme; Nu=nucleophile). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim....

  16. Macrocyclic bis-thioureas catalyze stereospecific glycosylation reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yongho; Harper, Kaid C; Kuhl, Nadine; Kwan, Eugene E; Liu, Richard Y; Jacobsen, Eric N

    2017-01-13

    Carbohydrates are involved in nearly all aspects of biochemistry, but their complex chemical structures present long-standing practical challenges to their synthesis. In particular, stereochemical outcomes in glycosylation reactions are highly dependent on the steric and electronic properties of coupling partners; thus, carbohydrate synthesis is not easily predictable. Here we report the discovery of a macrocyclic bis-thiourea derivative that catalyzes stereospecific invertive substitution pathways of glycosyl chlorides. The utility of the catalyst is demonstrated in the synthesis of trans-1,2-, cis-1,2-, and 2-deoxy-β-glycosides. Mechanistic studies are consistent with a cooperative mechanism in which an electrophile and a nucleophile are simultaneously activated to effect a stereospecific substitution reaction. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. Reactions of ethyl diazoacetate catalyzed by methylrhenium trioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Z.; Espenson, H. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-11-03

    Methylrhenium trioxide (CH{sub 3}ReO{sub 3} or MTO) has found wise use in catalysis, including the epoxidation and metathesis of olefins, aldehyde olefination, and oxygen transfer. Extensive reports have now appeared in the area of MTO-catalyzed substrate oxidations with hydrogen peroxide. Certain catalytic applications of MTO for organic reactions that do not utilize peroxide have now been realized. In particular, a catalytic amount of MTO with ethyl diazoacetate (EDA) will convert aromatic imines to aziridines and convert aldehydes and ketones to epoxides. The aziridine preparation proceeds in high yields under anaerobic conditions more conveniently than with existing methods. Compounds with a three-membered heterocyclic ring can be obtained with the EDA/MTO catalytic system. Aromatic imines undergo cycloaddition reactions to give aziridines under mild conditions.

  18. Fe(II)/Fe(III)-Catalyzed Intramolecular Didehydro-Diels-Alder Reaction of Styrene-ynes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Hyeon Jin; Seong, Eun Young; Ahn, Kwang-Hyun; Kang, Eun Joo

    2018-02-02

    The intramolecular didehydro-Diels-Alder reaction of styrene-ynes was catalyzed by Fe(II) and Fe(III) to produce various naphthalene derivatives under microwave heating conditions. Mechanistic calculations found that the Fe(II) catalyst activates the styrenyl diene in an inverse-electron-demand Diels-Alder reaction, and the consecutive dehydrogenation reaction can be promoted by either Fe(II)-catalyzed direct dehydrogenation or an Fe(III)-catalyzed rearomatization/dehydrogenation pathway.

  19. Investigations Of Surface-Catalyzed Reactions In A Mars Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Max; Owens, W.; Meyers, J.; Fletcher, D. G.

    2011-05-01

    In the design of a thermal protection system (TPS) for a planetary entry vehicle, accurate modeling of the trajectory aero-heating poses a significant challenge owing to large uncertainties in chemical processes taking place at the surface. Even for surface-catalyzed reactions, which have been investigated extensively, there is no consensus on how they should be modeled; or, in some cases, on which reactions are likely to occur. Current TPS designs for Mars missions rely on a super-catalytic boundary condition, which assumes that all dissociated species recombine to the free stream composition.While this is recognized to be the the most conservative approach, discrepancies in aero-heating measurements in ground test facilities preclude less conservative design options, resulting in an increased TPS mass at the expense of scientific pay- load.Using two-photon absorption laser induced fluorescence in a 30 kW inductively coupled plasma torch facility, preliminary studies have been performed to obtain spatially-resolved measurements of the dominant species in a plasma boundary layer for a Martian atmosphere mixture over catalytic and non-catalytic surfaces.

  20. Modeling the reactions catalyzed by coenzyme B12-dependent enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandala, Gregory M; Smith, David M; Radom, Leo

    2010-05-18

    Enzymes accelerate chemical reactions with an exceptional selectivity that makes life itself possible. Understanding the factors responsible for this efficient catalysis is of utmost importance in our quest to harness the tremendous power of enzymes. Computational chemistry has emerged as an important adjunct to experimental chemistry and biochemistry in this regard, because it provides detailed insights into the relationship between structure and function in a systematic and straightforward manner. In this Account, we highlight our recent high-level theoretical investigations toward this end in studying the radical-based reactions catalyzed by enzymes dependent on coenzyme B(12) (or adenosylcobalamin, AdoCbl). In addition to their fundamental position in biology, the AdoCbl-dependent enzymes represent a valuable framework within which to understand Nature's method of efficiently handling high-energy species to execute very specific reactions. The AdoCbl-mediated reactions are characterized by the interchange of a hydrogen atom and a functional group on adjacent carbon atoms. Our calculations are consistent with the conclusion that the main role of AdoCbl is to provide a source of radicals, thus moving the 1,2-rearrangements onto the radical potential energy surface. Our studies also show that the radical rearrangement step is facilitated by partial proton transfer involving the substrate. Specifically, we observe that the energy requirements for radical rearrangement are reduced dramatically with appropriate partial protonation or partial deprotonation or sometimes (synergistically) both. Such interactions are particularly relevant to enzyme catalysis, because it is likely that the local amino acid environment in the active site of an enzyme can function in this capacity through hydrogen bonding. Finally, our calculations indicate that the intervention of a very stable radical along the reaction pathway may inactivate the enzyme, demonstrating that sustained

  1. Flavin-catalyzed redox tailoring reactions in natural product biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teufel, Robin

    2017-10-15

    Natural products are distinct and often highly complex organic molecules that constitute not only an important drug source, but have also pushed the field of organic chemistry by providing intricate targets for total synthesis. How the astonishing structural diversity of natural products is enzymatically generated in biosynthetic pathways remains a challenging research area, which requires detailed and sophisticated approaches to elucidate the underlying catalytic mechanisms. Commonly, the diversification of precursor molecules into distinct natural products relies on the action of pathway-specific tailoring enzymes that catalyze, e.g., acylations, glycosylations, or redox reactions. This review highlights a selection of tailoring enzymes that employ riboflavin (vitamin B2)-derived cofactors (FAD and FMN) to facilitate unusual redox catalysis and steer the formation of complex natural product pharmacophores. Remarkably, several such recently reported flavin-dependent tailoring enzymes expand the classical paradigms of flavin biochemistry leading, e.g., to the discovery of the flavin-N5-oxide - a novel flavin redox state and oxygenating species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Transition metal-catalyzed carboxylation reactions with carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ruben; Tortajada, Andreu; Juliá-Hernández, Francisco; Borjesson, Marino; Moragas, Toni

    2018-05-03

    Driven by the inherent synthetic potential of CO2 as an abundant, inexpensive and renewable C1 chemical feedstock, the recent years have witnessed renewed interest in devising catalytic CO2 fixations into organic matter. Although the formation of C-C bonds via catalytic CO2 fixation remained rather limited for a long period of time, a close look into the recent literature data indicates that catalytic carboxylation reactions have entered a new era of exponential growth, evolving into a mature discipline that allows for streamlining the synthesis of carboxylic acids, building blocks of utmost relevance in industrial endeavours. These strategies have generally proven broadly applicability and convenient to perform. However, substantial challenges still need to be addressed reinforcing the need to cover metal-catalyzed carboxylation arena in a conceptual and concise manner, delineating the underlying new principles that are slowly emerging in this vibrant area of expertise. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. First Novozym 435 lipase-catalyzed Morita-Baylis-Hillman reaction in the presence of amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xuemei; Zhang, Suoqin; Zheng, Liangyu

    2016-03-01

    The first Novozym 435 lipase-catalyzed Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) reaction with amides as co-catalyst was realized. Results showed that neither Novozym 435 nor amide can independently catalyze the reaction. This co-catalytic system that used a catalytic amount of Novozym 435 with a corresponding amount of amide was established and optimized. The MBH reaction strongly depended on the structure of aldehyde substrate, amide co-catalyst, and reaction additives. The optimized reaction yield (43.4%) was achieved in the Novozym 435-catalyzed MBH reaction of 2, 4-dinitrobenzaldehyde and cyclohexenone with isonicotinamide as co-catalyst and β-cyclodextrin as additive only in 2 days. Although enantioselectivity of Novozym 435 was not found, the results were still significant because an MBH reaction using lipase as biocatalyst was realized for the first time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A theoretical study of the alkylation reaction of toluene with methanol catalyzed by acidic mordenite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, A.M.; Rozanska, X.; Schoonheydt, R.A.; Santen, van R.A.; Hutschka, F.; Hafner, J.

    2001-01-01

    A theoretical study of the alkylation reaction of toluene with methanol catalyzed by the acidic Mordenite (Si/Al = 23) is reported. Cluster DFT as well as periodical structure DFT calculations have been performed. Full reaction energy diagrams of the elementary reaction steps that lead to the

  5. Recent developments in gold-catalyzed cycloaddition reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando López

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last years there have been extraordinary advances in the development of gold-catalyzed cycloaddition processes. In this review we will summarize some of the most remarkable examples, and present the mechanistic rational underlying the transformations.

  6. Copper-catalyzed oxidative Heck reactions between alkyltrifluoroborates and vinyl arenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liwosz, Timothy W; Chemler, Sherry R

    2013-06-21

    We report herein that potassium alkyltrifluoroborates can be utilized in oxidative Heck-type reactions with vinyl arenes. The reaction is catalyzed by a Cu(OTf)2/1,10-phenanthroline with MnO2 as the stoichiometric oxidant. In addition to the alkyl Heck, amination, esterification, and dimerization reactions of alkyltrifluoroborates are demonstrated under analogous reaction conditions. Evidence for an alkyl radical intermediate is presented.

  7. Transition-Metal-Catalyzed Decarbonylative Coupling Reactions: Concepts, Classifications, and Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Lin; Rueping, Magnus

    2018-01-01

    Transition metal‐catalyzed decarbonylative coupling reactions have emerged as a powerful alternative to conventional cross‐coupling protocols due to the advantages associated with the use of carbonyl‐containing functionalities as coupling electrophiles instead of commonly used organohalides or sulfates. A wide variety of novel transformations based on this concept have been successfully achieved, including decarbonylative carbon–carbon and carbon–heteroatom bond forming reactions. In this Review, we summarize the recent progress in this field and present a comprehensive overview of metal‐catalyzed decarbonylative coupling reactions with carbonyl derivatives.

  8. Transition-Metal-Catalyzed Decarbonylative Coupling Reactions: Concepts, Classifications, and Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Lin

    2018-05-14

    Transition metal‐catalyzed decarbonylative coupling reactions have emerged as a powerful alternative to conventional cross‐coupling protocols due to the advantages associated with the use of carbonyl‐containing functionalities as coupling electrophiles instead of commonly used organohalides or sulfates. A wide variety of novel transformations based on this concept have been successfully achieved, including decarbonylative carbon–carbon and carbon–heteroatom bond forming reactions. In this Review, we summarize the recent progress in this field and present a comprehensive overview of metal‐catalyzed decarbonylative coupling reactions with carbonyl derivatives.

  9. Sequential Au(I-catalyzed reaction of water with o-acetylenyl-substituted phenyldiazoacetates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbo Wang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The gold(I-catalyzed reaction of water with o-acetylenyl-substituted phenyldiazoacetates provides 1H-isochromene derivatives in good yields. The reaction follows a catalytic sequence of gold carbene formation/water O–H insertion/alcohol-alkyne cyclization. The gold(I complex is the only catalyst in each of these steps.

  10. Unexpected Reaction Pathway for butyrylcholinesterase-catalyzed inactivation of “hunger hormone” ghrelin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jianzhuang; Yuan, Yaxia; Zheng, Fang; Zhan, Chang-Guo

    2016-02-01

    Extensive computational modeling and simulations have been carried out, in the present study, to uncover the fundamental reaction pathway for butyrylcholinesterase (BChE)-catalyzed hydrolysis of ghrelin, demonstrating that the acylation process of BChE-catalyzed hydrolysis of ghrelin follows an unprecedented single-step reaction pathway and the single-step acylation process is rate-determining. The free energy barrier (18.8 kcal/mol) calculated for the rate-determining step is reasonably close to the experimentally-derived free energy barrier (~19.4 kcal/mol), suggesting that the obtained mechanistic insights are reasonable. The single-step reaction pathway for the acylation is remarkably different from the well-known two-step acylation reaction pathway for numerous ester hydrolysis reactions catalyzed by a serine esterase. This is the first time demonstrating that a single-step reaction pathway is possible for an ester hydrolysis reaction catalyzed by a serine esterase and, therefore, one no longer can simply assume that the acylation process must follow the well-known two-step reaction pathway.

  11. Synthesis of 2-vinylic indoles and derivatives via a Pd-catalyzed tandem coupling reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayol, Aude; Fang, Yuan-Qing; Lautens, Mark

    2006-09-14

    A novel one-step synthesis of valuable 2-vinylic indoles and their tricycle derivatives is described. This reaction, which utilizes a gem-dibromovinyl unit as a readily available starting material, occurs via an efficient Pd-catalyzed tandem Buchwald-Hartwig/Heck reaction.

  12. Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reactions of Perfluoro Organic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Ohashi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we summarize our recent development of palladium(0-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of perfluoro organic compounds with organometallic reagents. The oxidative addition of a C–F bond of tetrafluoroethylene (TFE to palladium(0 was promoted by the addition of lithium iodide, affording a trifluorovinyl palladium(II iodide. Based on this finding, the first palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of TFE with diarylzinc was developed in the presence of lithium iodide, affording α,β,β-trifluorostyrene derivatives in excellent yield. This coupling reaction was expanded to the novel Pd(0/PR3-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of TFE with arylboronates. In this reaction, the trifluorovinyl palladium(II fluoride was a key reaction intermediate that required neither an extraneous base to enhance the reactivity of organoboronates nor a Lewis acid additive to promote the oxidative addition of a C–F bond. In addition, our strategy utilizing the synergetic effect of Pd(0 and lithium iodide could be applied to the C–F bond cleavage of unreactive hexafluorobenzene (C6F6, leading to the first Pd(0-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of C6F6 with diarylzinc compounds.

  13. Cu(I)/Diamine-catalyzed Aryl-alkyne Coupling Reactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    CuI/ethylene diamine/K2CO3/dioxane is shown to be a useful system for the cross coupling reactions of various aryl iodides and bromides with aryl and alkyl alkynes. Compared to the conventional Sonogashira reactions, the new procedure is free of palladium and phosphines.

  14. Towards preparative peroxygenase-catalyzed oxyfunctionalization reactions in organic media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Fueyo, E.; Ni, Y.; Gomez Baraibar, A.; Alcalde, Miguel; van Langen, L.M.; Hollmann, F.

    2016-01-01

    The peroxygenase from Agrocybe aegerita (AaeUPO) has been evaluated for stereoselective oxyfunctionalization chemistry under non-aqueous reaction conditions. The stereoselective hydroxylation of ethylbenzene to (R)-1-phenylethanol was performed in neat substrate as reaction medium together with

  15. Nickel-catalyzed reactions of enone with ethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, A; Haba, T; Ohashi, M; Ogoshi, S

    2010-01-01

    The reaction of (E)-1-phenylbut-2-en-1-one with ethylene in the presence of a catalytic amount of Ni(cod) 2 and PCy 3 at room temperature gave two kinds of three-component addition products; one is 1,6-enone composed of an enone and two ethylene molecules, and the other is 1,5-diketone composed of two enones and an ethylene. The reactions might proceed via oxidative cyclization of an enone and an ethylene with nickel(0).

  16. The Manganese-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reaction and the Influence of Trace Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santilli, Carola; Beigbaghlou, Somayyeh Sarvi; Ahlburg, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The substrate scope of the MnCl2-catalyzed cross-coupling between aryl halides and Grignard reagents has been extended to several methyl-substituted aryl iodides by performing the reaction at elevated temperature in a microwave oven. A radical clock experiment revealed the presence of an aryl...

  17. Mild and Efficient Nickel-Catalyzed Heck Reactions with Electron-Rich Olefins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøgsig, Thomas; Kleimark, Jonatan; Lill, Sten O. Nilsson

    2012-01-01

    proved compatible, and the corresponding aryl methyl ketone could be secured after hydrolysis in yields approaching quantitative. Good functional group tolerance was observed matching the characteristics of the analogous Pd-catalyzed Heck reaction. The high levels of catalytic activity were explained...

  18. Crystal structure of a trapped phosphate intermediate in vanadium apochloroperoxidase catalyzing a dephosphorylation reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Macedo-Ribeiro, S.; Renirie, R.; Wever, R.; Messerschmidt, A.

    2008-01-01

    The crystal structure of the apo form of vanadium chloroperoxidase from Curvularia inaequalis reacted with para-nitrophenylphosphate was determined at a resolution of 1.5 Å. The aim of this study was to solve structural details of the dephosphorylation reaction catalyzed by this enzyme. Since the

  19. An efficient synthesis of isocoumarins via a CuI catalyzed cascade reaction process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    3-Alkyl isocoumarins are provided by CuI/amino acid-catalyzed Sonogashira coupling reaction of o-bromo benzoic acids and terminal alkynes and the subsequent additive cyclization. This cascade process allows synthesis of diverse isocoumarins by varying both coupling partners bearing a wide range of functional groups.

  20. Pd-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reactions of Amides and Aryl Mesylates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooleweerdt, Karin; Fors, Brett P.; Buchwald, Stephen L.

    2010-01-01

    A catalyst, based on a biarylphosphine ligand, for the Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of amides and aryl mesylates is described. This system allows an array of aryl and heteroaryl mesylates to be transformed into the corresponding N-arylamides in moderate to excellent yields. PMID:20420379

  1. S,O-Ligand-Promoted Palladium-Catalyzed C-H Functionalization Reactions of Nondirected Arenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naksomboon, K.; Valderas, C.; Gomez-Martinez, M.; Alvarez-Casao, Y.; Fernández Ibáñez, M.A.

    Pd(II)-catalyzed C-H functionalization of non directed arenes has been realized using an inexpensive and easily accessible type of bidentate S,O-ligand. The catalytic system shows high efficiency in the C-H olefination reaction of electron-rich and electron-poor arenes. This methodology is

  2. Direct activation of allylic alcohols in palladium catalyzed coupling reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gümrükçü, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The direct use of allylic alcohols in substitution reactions without pre-activation of the hydroxyl-group into a better leaving group or the use of additional stoichiometric in situ activators remains challenging due to the poor leaving group ability of the hydroxyl-group. Hence, it is important to

  3. Efficient Synthesis of Spirobarbiturates and Spirothiobarbiturates Bearing Cyclopropane Rings by Rhodium(II)-Catalyzed Reactions of Cyclic Diazo Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xue; Lee, Yong Rok

    2013-01-01

    Rhodium(II)-catalyzed reactions of cyclic diazo compounds derived from barbituric acid and thiobarbituric acid with a variety of styrene moieties were examined. These reactions provide rapid synthetic routes to the preparations of spirobarbiturates and spirothiobarbiturates bearing cyclopropane rings

  4. Efficient Synthesis of Spirobarbiturates and Spirothiobarbiturates Bearing Cyclopropane Rings by Rhodium(II)-Catalyzed Reactions of Cyclic Diazo Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xue; Lee, Yong Rok [Yeungnam Univ., Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    Rhodium(II)-catalyzed reactions of cyclic diazo compounds derived from barbituric acid and thiobarbituric acid with a variety of styrene moieties were examined. These reactions provide rapid synthetic routes to the preparations of spirobarbiturates and spirothiobarbiturates bearing cyclopropane rings.

  5. The three transglycosylation reactions catalyzed by cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Bacillus circulans (strain 251) proceed via different kinetic mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, Bart A. van der; Alebeek, Gert-Jan W.M. van; Uitdehaag, Joost C.M.; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) catalyzes three transglycosylation reactions via a double displacement mechanism involving a covalent enzyme-intermediate complex (substituted-enzyme intermediate). Characterization of the three transglycosylation reactions, however, revealed that they

  6. Pentanidium-catalyzed enantioselective phase-transfer conjugate addition reactions

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Ting

    2011-03-09

    A new chiral entity, pentanidium, has been shown to be an excellent chiral phase-transfer catalyst. The enantioselective Michael addition reactions of tert-butyl glycinate-benzophenone Schiff base with various α,β- unsaturated acceptors provide adducts with high enantioselectivities. A successful gram-scale experiment at a low catalyst loading of 0.05 mol % indicates the potential for practical applications of this methodology. Phosphoglycine ester analogues can also be utilized as the Michael donor, affording enantioenriched α-aminophosphonic acid derivatives and phosphonic analogues of (S)-proline. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  7. Enzyme-catalyzed and binding reaction kinetics determined by titration calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Lee D; Transtrum, Mark K; Quinn, Colette; Demarse, Neil

    2016-05-01

    Isothermal calorimetry allows monitoring of reaction rates via direct measurement of the rate of heat produced by the reaction. Calorimetry is one of very few techniques that can be used to measure rates without taking a derivative of the primary data. Because heat is a universal indicator of chemical reactions, calorimetry can be used to measure kinetics in opaque solutions, suspensions, and multiple phase systems and does not require chemical labeling. The only significant limitation of calorimetry for kinetic measurements is that the time constant of the reaction must be greater than the time constant of the calorimeter which can range from a few seconds to a few minutes. Calorimetry has the unique ability to provide both kinetic and thermodynamic data. This article describes the calorimetric methodology for determining reaction kinetics and reviews examples from recent literature that demonstrate applications of titration calorimetry to determine kinetics of enzyme-catalyzed and ligand binding reactions. A complete model for the temperature dependence of enzyme activity is presented. A previous method commonly used for blank corrections in determinations of equilibrium constants and enthalpy changes for binding reactions is shown to be subject to significant systematic error. Methods for determination of the kinetics of enzyme-catalyzed reactions and for simultaneous determination of thermodynamics and kinetics of ligand binding reactions are reviewed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Applications of Palladium-Catalyzed C-N Cross-Coupling Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Castillo, Paula; Buchwald, Stephen L

    2016-10-12

    Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions that form C-N bonds have become useful methods to synthesize anilines and aniline derivatives, an important class of compounds throughout chemical research. A key factor in the widespread adoption of these methods has been the continued development of reliable and versatile catalysts that function under operationally simple, user-friendly conditions. This review provides an overview of Pd-catalyzed N-arylation reactions found in both basic and applied chemical research from 2008 to the present. Selected examples of C-N cross-coupling reactions between nine classes of nitrogen-based coupling partners and (pseudo)aryl halides are described for the synthesis of heterocycles, medicinally relevant compounds, natural products, organic materials, and catalysts.

  9. Copper-catalyzed selective hydroamination reactions of alkynes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shi-Liang; Buchwald, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    The development of selective reactions that utilize easily available and abundant precursors for the efficient synthesis of amines is a longstanding goal of chemical research. Despite the centrality of amines in a number of important research areas, including medicinal chemistry, total synthesis and materials science, a general, selective, and step-efficient synthesis of amines is still needed. In this work we describe a set of mild catalytic conditions utilizing a single copper-based catalyst that enables the direct preparation of three distinct and important amine classes (enamines, α-chiral branched alkylamines, and linear alkylamines) from readily available alkyne starting materials with high levels of chemo-, regio-, and stereoselectivity. This methodology was applied to the asymmetric synthesis of rivastigmine and the formal synthesis of several other pharmaceutical agents, including duloxetine, atomoxetine, fluoxetine, and tolterodine. PMID:25515888

  10. Steroid hydroxylations: A paradigm for cytochrome P450 catalyzed mammalian monooxygenation reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estabrook, Ronald W.

    2005-01-01

    The present article reviews the history of research on the hydroxylation of steroid hormones as catalyzed by enzymes present in mammalian tissues. The report describes how studies of steroid hormone synthesis have played a central role in the discovery of the monooxygenase functions of the cytochrome P450s. Studies of steroid hydroxylation reactions can be credited with showing that: (a) the adrenal mitochondrial enzyme catalyzing the 11β-hydroxylation of deoxycorticosterone was the first mammalian enzyme shown by O 18 studies to be an oxygenase; (b) the adrenal microsomal enzyme catalyzing the 21-hydroxylation of steroids was the first mammalian enzyme to show experimentally the proposed 1:1:1 stoichiometry (substrate:oxygen:reduced pyridine nucleotide) of a monooxygenase reaction; (c) application of the photochemical action spectrum technique for reversal of carbon monoxide inhibition of the 21-hydroxylation of 17α-OH progesterone was the first demonstration that cytochrome P450 was an oxygenase; (d) spectrophotometric studies of the binding of 17α-OH progesterone to bovine adrenal microsomal P450 revealed the first step in the cyclic reaction scheme of P450, as it catalyzes the 'activation' of oxygen in a monooxygenase reaction; (e) purified adrenodoxin was shown to function as an electron transport component of the adrenal mitochondrial monooxygenase system required for the activity of the 11β-hydroxylase reaction. Adrenodoxin was the first iron-sulfur protein isolated and purified from mammalian tissues and the first soluble protein identified as a reductase of a P450; (f) fractionation of adrenal mitochondrial P450 and incubation with adrenodoxin and a cytosolic (flavoprotein) fraction were the first demonstration of the reconstitution of a mammalian P450 monooxygenase reaction

  11. Development of Fluorous Lewis Acid-Catalyzed Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joji Nishikido

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Organic synthetic methodology in the 21st century aims to conform to the principles of green sustainable chemistry (GSC and we may expect that in the future, the realization of GSC will be an important objective for chemical industries. An important aim of synthetic organic chemistry is to implement waste-free and environmentally-benign industrial processes using Lewis acids as versatile as aluminum choride. A key technological objective of our work in this area has been to achieve a “catalyst recycling system that utilizes the high activity and structural features of fluorous Lewis acid catalysts”. Thus, we have developed a series of novel fluorous Lewis acid catalysts, namely the ytterbium(III, scandium(III, tin(IV or hafnium(IV bis(perfluoroalkanesulfonylamides or tris(perfluoro- alkanesulfonylmethides. Our catalysts are recyclable and effective for acylations of alcohols and aromatics, Baeyer-Villiger reactions, direct esterifications and transesterifications in a fluorous biphasic system (FBS, in supercritical carbon dioxide and on fluorous silica gel supports.

  12. Palladium-catalyzed ring-opening reactions of cyclopropanated 7-oxabenzonorbornadiene with alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Tait

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Palladium-catalyzed ring-opening reactions of cyclopropanated 7-oxabenzonorbornadiene derivatives using alcohol nucleophiles were investigated. The optimal conditions were found to be 10 mol % PdCl2(CH3CN2 in methanol, offering yields up to 92%. The reaction was successful using primary, secondary and tertiary alcohol nucleophiles and was compatible with a variety of substituents on cyclopropanated oxabenzonorbornadiene. With unsymmetrical C1-substituted cyclopropanated 7-oxabenzonorbornadienes, the regioselectivity of the reaction was excellent, forming only one regioisomer in all cases.

  13. Glutathiolactaldehyde as a probe of the overall stereochemical course of glyoxalase-I catalyzed reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brush, E.J.; Kozarich, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    The overall stereochemical course of the reactions catalyzed by glyoxalase-I (GX-I) has remained elusive as the substrates are equilibrium mixtures of rapidly interconverting diastereomeric thiohemiacetals. However, with the discovery of inverse substrate processing by Kozarich and coworkers, it is possible to design GX-I substrate analogs that are intrinsically more stable than the thiohemiacetals. Hence, Chari and Kozarich reported that glutathiohydroxyacetone (GHA, GSCH 2 COCH 2 OH) undergoes GX-I catalyzed exchange of the pro-S hydroxymethyl proton with solvent deuterium. Their data suggest that GX-I processes a single diastereomeric thiohemiacetal, and are consistent with a cis-enediol intermediate. To test this hypothesis and to follow the overall stereochemistry on a single substrate, they have prepared glutathiolactaldehyde (GLA, GSCH 2 CHOHCHO) as a potential inverse substrate. Human erythrocyte GX-I catalyzes the isomerization of GLA to GHA as evidenced by UV and NMR spectra of the product. Solvent deuterium is incorporated into the hydroxymethyl position, and NMR data suggest that incorporation is stereospecific. Furthermore, 50% of the expected amount of GHA is produced indicating that only one diastereomer of GLA is processed by GX-I. Identification of the absolute stereochemistry of the substrate diastereomer will lead to a clarification of the overall stereochemical and mechanistic course of GX-I catalyzed reactions

  14. Curvularia Haloperoxidase: Antimicrobial Activity and Potential Application as a Surface Disinfectant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Eva H.; Albertsen, Line; Schäfer, Thomas; Johansen, Charlotte; Frisvad, Jens C.; Molin, Søren; Gram, Lone

    2003-01-01

    A presumed antimicrobial enzyme system, the Curvularia haloperoxidase system, was examined with the aim of evaluating its potential as a sanitizing agent. In the presence of hydrogen peroxide, Curvularia haloperoxidase facilitates the oxidation of halides, such as chloride, bromide, and iodide, to antimicrobial compounds. The Curvularia haloperoxidase system caused several-log-unit reductions in counts of bacteria (Pseudomonas spp., Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Aeromonas salmonicida, Shewanella putrefaciens, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Listeria monocytogenes), yeasts (Candida sp. and Rhodotorula sp.), and filamentous fungi (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tubigensis, Aspergillus versicolor, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Penicillium paxilli) cultured in suspension. Also, bacteria adhering to the surfaces of contact lenses were killed. The numbers of S. marcescens and S. epidermidis cells adhering to contact lenses were reduced from 4.0 and 4.9 log CFU to 1.2 and 2.7 log CFU, respectively, after treatment with the Curvularia haloperoxidase system. The killing effect of the Curvularia haloperoxidase system was rapid, and 106 CFU of E. coli cells/ml were eliminated within 10 min of treatment. Furthermore, the antimicrobial effect was short lived, causing no antibacterial effect against E. coli 10 min after the system was mixed. Bovine serum albumin (1%) and alginate (1%) inhibited the antimicrobial activity of the Curvularia haloperoxidase system, whereas glucose and Tween 20 did not affect its activity. In conclusion, the Curvularia haloperoxidase system is an effective sanitizing system and has the potential for a vast range of applications, for instance, for disinfection of contact lenses or medical devices. PMID:12902249

  15. Selectivity control in pd-catalyzed c-h functionalization reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Flores Gaspar, Areli

    2013-01-01

    Benzocyclobutenones are an intriguing four-membered ring ketone. In the present thesis, we have developed a new protocol for selectively preparing benzocyclobutenones through intramolecular acylation of aryl bromides via palladium catalyzed C-H bond functionalization reactions based on rac-BINAP ligand. We also found that a subtle modification on the ligand backbone lead to a new catalytic manifold for preparing configurationally-pure styrene derivatives, when using dcpp (bis-dicyclohexylphos...

  16. Enantioconvergent synthesis by sequential asymmetric Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons and palladium-catalyzed allylic substitution reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Torben Møller; Hansen, E. Louise; Kane, John

    2001-01-01

    A new method for enantioconvergent synthesis has been developed. The strategy relies on the combination of an asymmetric Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons (HWE) reaction and a palladium-catalyzed allylic substitution. Different $alpha@-oxygen-substituted, racemic aldehydes were initially transformed by asy...... the allylic stereocenter and the alkene geometry. Thus, a single $gamma@-substituted ester was obtained as the overall product, in high isomeric purity. The method was applied to a synthesis of a subunit of the iejimalides, a group of cytotoxic macrolides.......A new method for enantioconvergent synthesis has been developed. The strategy relies on the combination of an asymmetric Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons (HWE) reaction and a palladium-catalyzed allylic substitution. Different $alpha@-oxygen-substituted, racemic aldehydes were initially transformed...... by asymmetric HWE reactions into mixtures of two major $alpha@,$beta@-unsaturated esters, possessing opposite configurations at their allylic stereocenters as well as opposite alkene geometry. Subsequently, these isomeric mixtures of alkenes could be subjected to palladium-catalyzed allylic substitution...

  17. Interfacial mechanisms of heterogeneous Fenton reactions catalyzed by iron-based materials: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jie; Yang, Xiaofang; Men, Bin; Wang, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    The heterogeneous Fenton reaction can generate highly reactive hydroxyl radicals (OH) from reactions between recyclable solid catalysts and H2O2 at acidic or even circumneutral pH. Hence, it can effectively oxidize refractory organics in water or soils and has become a promising environmentally friendly treatment technology. Due to the complex reaction system, the mechanism behind heterogeneous Fenton reactions remains unresolved but fascinating, and is crucial for understanding Fenton chemistry and the development and application of efficient heterogeneous Fenton technologies. Iron-based materials usually possess high catalytic activity, low cost, negligible toxicity and easy recovery, and are a superior type of heterogeneous Fenton catalysts. Therefore, this article reviews the fundamental but important interfacial mechanisms of heterogeneous Fenton reactions catalyzed by iron-based materials. OH, hydroperoxyl radicals/superoxide anions (HO2/O2(-)) and high-valent iron are the three main types of reactive oxygen species (ROS), with different oxidation reactivity and selectivity. Based on the mechanisms of ROS generation, the interfacial mechanisms of heterogeneous Fenton systems can be classified as the homogeneous Fenton mechanism induced by surface-leached iron, the heterogeneous catalysis mechanism, and the heterogeneous reaction-induced homogeneous mechanism. Different heterogeneous Fenton systems catalyzed by characteristic iron-based materials are comprehensively reviewed. Finally, related future research directions are also suggested. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Mechanism of Cytochrome P450 17A1-Catalyzed Hydroxylase and Lyase Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonomo, Silvia; Jorgensen, Flemming Steen; Olsen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 17A1 (CYP17A1) catalyzes C17 hydroxylation of pregnenolone and progesterone and the subsequent C17–C20 bond cleavage (lyase reaction) to form androgen precursors. Compound I (Cpd I) and peroxo anion (POA) are the heme-reactive species underlying the two reactions. We have characte...... the concept that the selectivity of the steroidogenic CYPs is ruled by direct interactions with the enzyme, in contrast to the selectivity of drug-metabolizing CYPs, where the reactivity of the substrates dominates....... characterized the reaction path for both the hydroxylase and lyase reactions using density functional theory (DFT) calculations and the enzyme–substrate interactions by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Activation barriers for positions subject to hydroxylase reaction have values close to each other and span...

  19. Triosephosphate isomerase: energetics of the reaction catalyzed by the yeast enzyme expressed in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickbarg, E.B.; Knowles, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Triosephosphate isomerase from bakers' yeast, expressed in Escherichia coli strain DF502(p12), has been purified to homogeneity. The kinetics of the reaction in each direction have been determined at pH 7.5 and 30 degrees C. Deuterium substitution at the C-2 position of substrate (R)-glyceraldehyde phosphate and at the 1-pro-R position of substrate dihydroxyacetone phosphate results in kinetic isotope effects on kcat of 1.6 and 3.4, respectively. The extent of transfer of tritium from [1(R)- 3 H]dihydroxyacetone phosphate to product (R)-glyceraldehyde phosphate during the catalyzed reaction is only 3% after 66% conversion to product, indicating that the enzymic base that mediates proton transfer is in rapid exchange with solvent protons. When the isomerase-catalyzed reaction is run in tritiated water in each direction, radioactivity is incorporated both into the remaining substrate and into the product. In the exchange-conversion experiment with dihydroxyacetone phosphate as substrate, the specific radioactivity of remaining dihydroxyacetone phosphate rises as a function of the extent of reaction with a slope of about 0.3, while the specific radioactivity of the products is 54% that of the solvent. In the reverse direction with (R)-glyceraldehyde phosphate as substrate, the specific radioactivity of the product formed is only 11% that of the solvent, while the radioactivity incorporated into the remaining substrate (R)-glyceraldehyde phosphate also rises as a function of the extent of reaction with a slope of 0.3. These results have been analyzed according to the protocol described earlier to yield the free energy profile of the reaction catalyzed by the yeast isomerase

  20. Mechanisms of reactions of organoaluminium compounds with alkenes and alkynes catalyzed by Zr complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parfenova, L V; Khalilov, Leonard M; Dzhemilev, Usein M

    2012-01-01

    The results of studies dealing with mechanisms of hydro-, carbo- and cycloalumination of alkenes and alkynes catalyzed by zirconium complexes are generalized and systematized for the first time. Data about the structures of intermediates responsible for the formation of the target compounds are presented and the available data on the effect of the structure of organoaluminium compounds and the electronic and steric factors determining the catalytic activity of metal complexes in these reactions are considered in detail. Much attention is paid to studies of the influence of reaction conditions on the chemo-, regio- and stereoselectivity of the Zr-containing complex catalysts. The bibliography includes 217 references.

  1. Investigation of the complex reaction coordinate of acid catalyzed amide hydrolysis from molecular dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahn, Dirk

    2004-01-01

    The rate-determining step of acid catalyzed peptide hydrolysis is the nucleophilic attack of a water molecule to the carbon atom of the amide group. Therein the addition of the hydroxyl group to the amide carbon atom involves the association of a water molecule transferring one of its protons to an adjacent water molecule. The protonation of the amide nitrogen atom follows as a separate reaction step. Since the nucleophilic attack involves the breaking and formation of several bonds, the underlying reaction coordinate is rather complex. We investigate this reaction step from path sampling Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations. This approach does not require the predefinition of reaction coordinates and is thus particularly suited for investigating reaction mechanisms. From our simulations the most relevant components of the reaction coordinate are elaborated. Though the C···O distance of the oxygen atom of the water molecule performing the nucleophilic attack and the corresponding amide carbon atom is a descriptor of the reaction progress, a complete picture of the reaction coordinate must include all three molecules taking part in the reaction. Moreover, the proton transfer is found to depend on favorable solvent configurations. Thus, also the arrangement of non-reacting, i.e. solvent water molecules needs to be considered in the reaction coordinate

  2. Kinetics and optimization on discoloration of dyeing wastewater by schorl-catalyzed fenton-like reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Huan-Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kinetics and optimization on the discoloration of an active commercial dye, Argazol Blue BFBR (ABB by heterogeneous Fenton-like reaction catalyzed by natural schorl were investigated in this study. Kinetic investigations revealed that the first-order kinetic model was more favorable to describe the discoloration of ABB at different reaction conditions than the second-order and Behnajady-Modirshahla-Ghanbery models. The relationship between the reaction rate constant k and reaction temperature T followed the Arrhenius equation, with the apparent activation energy Ea of 51.31kJ•mol-1. The central composite design under the response surface methodology was employed for the experimental design and optimization of the ABB discoloration process. The significance of a second order polynomial model for predicting the optimal values of ABB discoloration was evaluated by the analysis of variance and 3D response surface plots for the interactions between two variables were constructed. Then, the optimum conditions were determined.

  3. Investigation of transition metal-catalyzed nitrene transfer reactions in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderson, Juliet M; Corbin, Joshua R; Schomaker, Jennifer M

    2018-04-11

    Transition metal-catalyzed nitrene transfer is a powerful method for incorporating new CN bonds into relatively unfunctionalized scaffolds. In this communication, we report the first examples of site- and chemoselective CH bond amination reactions in aqueous media. The unexpected ability to employ water as the solvent in these reactions is advantageous in that it eliminates toxic solvent use and enables reactions to be run at increased concentrations with lower oxidant loadings. Using water as the reaction medium has potential to expand the scope of nitrene transfer to encompass a variety of biomolecules and highly polar substrates, as well as enable pH control over the site-selectivity of CH bond amination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Elucidation of Mechanisms and Selectivities of Metal-Catalyzed Reactions using Quantum Chemical Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Stefano; Kalek, Marcin; Huang, Genping; Himo, Fahmi

    2016-05-17

    Quantum chemical techniques today are indispensable for the detailed mechanistic understanding of catalytic reactions. The development of modern density functional theory approaches combined with the enormous growth in computer power have made it possible to treat quite large systems at a reasonable level of accuracy. Accordingly, quantum chemistry has been applied extensively to a wide variety of catalytic systems. A huge number of problems have been solved successfully, and vast amounts of chemical insights have been gained. In this Account, we summarize some of our recent work in this field. A number of examples concerned with transition metal-catalyzed reactions are selected, with emphasis on reactions with various kinds of selectivities. The discussed cases are (1) copper-catalyzed C-H bond amidation of indoles, (2) iridium-catalyzed C(sp(3))-H borylation of chlorosilanes, (3) vanadium-catalyzed Meyer-Schuster rearrangement and its combination with aldol- and Mannich-type additions, (4) palladium-catalyzed propargylic substitution with phosphorus nucleophiles, (5) rhodium-catalyzed 1:2 coupling of aldehydes and allenes, and finally (6) copper-catalyzed coupling of nitrones and alkynes to produce β-lactams (Kinugasa reaction). First, the methodology adopted in these studies is presented briefly. The electronic structure method in the great majority of these kinds of mechanistic investigations has for the last two decades been based on density functional theory. In the cases discussed here, mainly the B3LYP functional has been employed in conjunction with Grimme's empirical dispersion correction, which has been shown to improve the calculated energies significantly. The effect of the surrounding solvent is described by implicit solvation techniques, and the thermochemical corrections are included using the rigid-rotor harmonic oscillator approximation. The reviewed examples are chosen to illustrate the usefulness and versatility of the adopted methodology in

  5. Flavin-N5 Covalent Intermediate in a Nonredox Dehalogenation Reaction Catalyzed by an Atypical Flavoenzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yumin; Kizjakina, Karina; Campbell, Ashley C; Korasick, David A; Tanner, John J; Sobrado, Pablo

    2018-01-04

    The flavin-dependent enzyme 2-haloacrylate hydratase (2-HAH) catalyzes the conversion of 2-chloroacrylate, a major component in the manufacture of acrylic polymers, to pyruvate. The enzyme was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and characterized. 2-HAH was shown to be monomeric in solution and contained a non-covalent, yet tightly bound, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). Although the catalyzed reaction was redox-neutral, 2-HAH was active only in the reduced state. A covalent flavin-substrate intermediate, consistent with the flavin-acrylate iminium ion, was trapped with cyanoborohydride and characterized by mass spectrometry. Small-angle X-ray scattering was consistent with 2-HAH belonging to the succinate dehydrogenase/fumarate reductase family of flavoproteins. These studies establish 2-HAH as a novel noncanonical flavoenzyme. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Precision Synthesis of Functional Polysaccharide Materials by Phosphorylase-Catalyzed Enzymatic Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-ichi Kadokawa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this review article, the precise synthesis of functional polysaccharide materials using phosphorylase-catalyzed enzymatic reactions is presented. This particular enzymatic approach has been identified as a powerful tool in preparing well-defined polysaccharide materials. Phosphorylase is an enzyme that has been employed in the synthesis of pure amylose with a precisely controlled structure. Similarly, using a phosphorylase-catalyzed enzymatic polymerization, the chemoenzymatic synthesis of amylose-grafted heteropolysaccharides containing different main-chain polysaccharide structures (e.g., chitin/chitosan, cellulose, alginate, xanthan gum, and carboxymethyl cellulose was achieved. Amylose-based block, star, and branched polymeric materials have also been prepared using this enzymatic polymerization. Since phosphorylase shows a loose specificity for the recognition of substrates, different sugar residues have been introduced to the non-reducing ends of maltooligosaccharides by phosphorylase-catalyzed glycosylations using analog substrates such as α-d-glucuronic acid and α-d-glucosamine 1-phosphates. By means of such reactions, an amphoteric glycogen and its corresponding hydrogel were successfully prepared. Thermostable phosphorylase was able to tolerate a greater variance in the substrate structures with respect to recognition than potato phosphorylase, and as a result, the enzymatic polymerization of α-d-glucosamine 1-phosphate to produce a chitosan stereoisomer was carried out using this enzyme catalyst, which was then subsequently converted to the chitin stereoisomer by N-acetylation. Amylose supramolecular inclusion complexes with polymeric guests were obtained when the phosphorylase-catalyzed enzymatic polymerization was conducted in the presence of the guest polymers. Since the structure of this polymeric system is similar to the way that a plant vine twines around a rod, this polymerization system has been named

  7. Asymmetric Brønsted acid-catalyzed aza-Diels–Alder reaction of cyclic C-acylimines with cyclopentadiene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Rueping

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A new chiral Brønsted acid-catalyzed aza-Diels–Alder reaction of cyclic C-acylimines with cyclopentadiene has been developed. The reaction provides optically active aza-tetracycles in good yields with high diastereo- and enantioselectivities under mild reaction conditions.

  8. Silver-catalyzed formal inverse electron-demand Diels-Alder reaction of 1,2-diazines and siloxy alkynes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkmen, Yunus E; Montavon, Timothy J; Kozmin, Sergey A; Rawal, Viresh H

    2012-06-06

    A highly effective silver-catalyzed formal inverse electron-demand Diels-Alder reaction of 1,2-diazines and siloxy alkynes has been developed. The reactions provide ready access to a wide range of siloxy naphthalenes and anthracenes, which are formed in good to high yields, under mild reaction conditions, using low catalyst loadings.

  9. Influence of hydroxylamine conformation on stereocontrol in Pd-catalyzed isoxazolidine-forming reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemen, Georgia S; Giampietro, Natalie C; Hay, Michael B; Wolfe, John P

    2009-03-20

    Palladium-catalyzed carboamination reactions between N-Boc-O-(but-3-enyl)hydroxylamine derivatives and aryl or alkenyl bromides afford cis-3,5- and trans-4,5-disubstituted isoxazolidines in good yield with up to >20:1 dr. The diastereoselectivity observed in the formation of cis-3,5-disubstituted isoxazolidines is superior to selectivities typically obtained in other transformations, such as 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions, that provide these products. In addition, the stereocontrol in the C-N bond-forming Pd-catalyzed carboamination reactions of N-Boc-O-(but-3-enyl)hydroxylamines is significantly higher than that of related C-O bond-forming carboetherification reactions of N-benzyl-N-(but-3-enyl)hydroxylamine derivatives. This is likely due to a stereoelectronic preference for cyclization via transition states in which the Boc group is placed in a perpendicular orientation relative to the plane of the developing ring, which derives from the conformational equilibria of substituted hydroxylamines.

  10. Vanadium pentoxide nanoparticles mimic vanadium haloperoxidases and thwart biofilm formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalio, Filipe; André, Rute; Hartog, Aloysius F.; Stoll, Brigitte; Jochum, Klaus Peter; Wever, Ron; Tremel, Wolfgang

    2012-08-01

    Marine biofouling--the colonization of small marine microorganisms on surfaces that are directly exposed to seawater, such as ships' hulls--is an expensive problem that is currently without an environmentally compatible solution. Biofouling leads to increased hydrodynamic drag, which, in turn, causes increased fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Tributyltin-free antifouling coatings and paints based on metal complexes or biocides have been shown to efficiently prevent marine biofouling. However, these materials can damage the environment through metal leaching (for example, of copper and zinc) and bacteria resistance. Here, we show that vanadium pentoxide nanowires act like naturally occurring vanadium haloperoxidases to prevent marine biofouling. In the presence of bromide ions and hydrogen peroxide, the nanowires catalyse the oxidation of bromide ions to hypobromous acid (HOBr). Singlet molecular oxygen (1O2) is formed and this exerts strong antibacterial activity, which prevents marine biofouling without being toxic to marine biota. Vanadium pentoxide nanowires have the potential to be an alternative approach to conventional anti-biofouling agents.

  11. [Study of ATP-independent stages of reaction catalyzed by phage T4 RNA-ligase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagrebel'nyĭ, S N; Zernov, Iu P

    1986-01-01

    The isotope exchange between [5'-32P]pAP and A(5')ppAp catalyzed by enzyme was shown not to take place in the absence of the acceptor; i. e. the necessity of the acceptor presence during the second step of the process was demonstrated. The isotope exchange reaction between [5'32P]pAp and (pA)5p was studied. It was demonstrated that acceptor (pA)4, slightly whereas the acceptor (pU)4 completely inhibits the isotope reaction. The isotope reaction exchange between [5'-32P]pAp and (pU)4pAp does not take place. The question of existence of adenylated donor elimination mechanism in the presence of "poor" acceptors is considered on the basis of the data obtained.

  12. Titanocene(III)-Catalyzed Three-Component Reaction of Secondary Amides, Aldehydes, and Electrophilic Alkenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiao; He, Jiang; Li, Heng-Hui; Wang, Ao; Dai, Xi-Jie; Wang, Ai-E; Huang, Pei-Qiang

    2015-11-09

    An umpolung Mannich-type reaction of secondary amides, aliphatic aldehydes, and electrophilic alkenes has been disclosed. This reaction features the one-pot formation of C-N and C-C bonds by a titanocene-catalyzed radical coupling of the condensation products, from secondary amides and aldehydes, with electrophilic alkenes. N-substituted γ-amido-acid derivatives and γ-amido ketones can be efficiently prepared by the current method. Extension to the reaction between ketoamides and electrophilic alkenes allows rapid assembly of piperidine skeletons with α-amino quaternary carbon centers. Its synthetic utility has been demonstrated by a facile construction of the tricyclic core of marine alkaloids such as cylindricine C and polycitorol A. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Asymmetric Formal Aza-Diels-Alder Reaction of Trifluoromethyl Hemiaminals with Enones Catalyzed by Primary Amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng; Cha, Lide; Li, Lijun; Hu, Yanbin; Li, Yanan; Zha, Zhenggen; Wang, Zhiyong

    2016-04-15

    A primary amine-catalyzed asymmetric formal aza-Diels-Alder reaction of trifluoromethyl hemiaminals with enones was developed via a chiral gem-diamine intermediate. This novel protocol allowed facile access to structurally diverse trifluoromethyl-substituted piperidine scaffolds with high stereoselectivity. The utility of this method was further demonstrated through a concise approach to biologically active 4-hydroxypiperidine. More importantly, a stepwise mechanism involving an asymmetric induction process was proposed to rationalize the positive correlation between the chirality of the gem-diamine intermediate and the formal aza-Diels-Alder product.

  14. Ruthenium-catalyzed reactions--a treasure trove of atom-economic transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Barry M; Frederiksen, Mathias U; Rudd, Michael T

    2005-10-21

    The demand for new chemicals spanning the fields of health care to materials science combined with the pressure to produce these substances in an environmentally benign fashion pose great challenges to the synthetic chemical community. The maximization of synthetic efficiency by the conversion of simple building blocks into complex targets remains a fundamental goal. In this context, ruthenium complexes catalyze a number of non-metathesis conversions and allow the rapid assembly of complex molecules with high selectivity and atom economy. These complexes often exhibit unusual reactivity. Careful consideration of the mechanistic underpinnings of the transformations can lead to the design of new reactions and the discovery of new reactivity.

  15. Mechanistic Implications for the Ni(I-Catalyzed Kumada Cross-Coupling Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Iffland

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Herein we report on the cross-coupling reaction of phenylmagnesium bromide with aryl halides using the well-defined tetrahedral Ni(I complex, [(TriphosNiICl] (Triphos = 1,1,1-tris(diphenylphosphinomethylethane. In the presence of 0.5 mol % [(TriphosNiICl], good to excellent yields (75–97% of the respective coupling products within a reaction time of only 2.5 h at room temperature were achieved. Likewise, the tripodal Ni(IIcomplexes [(κ2-TriphosNiIICl2] and [(κ3-TriphosNiIICl](X (X = ClO4, BF4 were tested as potential pre-catalysts for the Kumada cross-coupling reaction. While the Ni(II complexes also afford the coupling products in comparable yields, mechanistic investigations by UV/Vis and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy indicate a Ni(I intermediate as the catalytically active species in the Kumada cross-coupling reaction. Based on experimental findings and density functional theory (DFT calculations, a plausible Ni(I-catalyzed reaction mechanism for the Kumada cross-coupling reaction is presented.

  16. Au-Cu core-shell nanocube-catalyzed click reactions for efficient synthesis of diverse triazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madasu, Mahesh; Hsia, Chi-Fu; Huang, Michael H

    2017-06-01

    Au-Cu core-shell nanocubes and octahedra synthesized in aqueous solution were employed to catalyze a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction between phenylacetylene and benzyl azide in water at 50 °C for 3 h. Interestingly, the nanocubes were far more efficient in catalyzing this reaction, giving 91% yield of a regioselective 1,4-triazole product, while octahedra only recorded 46% yield. The Au-Cu nanocubes were subsequently employed to catalyze the click reaction between benzyl azide and a broad range of aromatic and aliphatic alkynes. The product yields ranged from 78 to 99%. Clearly the Au-Cu cubes exposing {100} surfaces are an excellent and green catalyst for click reactions.

  17. A 11-Steps Total Synthesis of Magellanine through a Gold(I)-Catalyzed Dehydro Diels-Alder Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Philippe; Bétournay, Geneviève; Barabé, Francis; Barriault, Louis

    2017-05-22

    We have developed an innovative strategy for the formation of angular carbocycles via a gold(I)-catalyzed dehydro Diels-Alder reaction. This transformation provides rapid access to a variety of complex angular cores in excellent diastereoselectivities and high yields. The usefulness of this Au I -catalyzed cycloaddition was further demonstrated by accomplishing a 11-steps total synthesis of (±)-magellanine. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Haloperoxidase-like activity in spruce forest soil. A source of volatile halogenated organic compounds?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laturnus, F.; Mehrtens, G.; Grøn, C.

    1995-01-01

    Haloperoxidase-like activity was monitored in samples from a podzol soil in an uncontaminated spruce forest at Klosterhede, Denmark. Activity for the oxidation of chloride and bromide was found. The pH optima for chlorination and bromination ranged between pH 2.5 and 4: Very high activity, up to 4...

  19. The Palladium-Catalyzed Aerobic Kinetic Resolution of Secondary Alcohols: Reaction Development, Scope, and Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ebner, Davidâ C.

    2009-12-07

    The first palladium-catalyzed enantioselective oxidation of secondary alcohols has been developed, utilizing the readily available diamine (-)-sparteine as a chiral ligand and molecular oxygen as the stoichiometric oxidant. Mechanistic insights regarding the role of the base and hydrogen-bond donors have resulted in several improvements to the original system. Namely, addition of cesium carbonate and tert-butyl alcohol greatly enhances reaction rates, promoting rapid resolutions. The use of chloroform as solvent allows the use of ambient air as the terminal oxidant at 23 degrees C, resulting in enhanced catalyst selectivity. These improved reaction conditions have permitted the successful kinetic resolution of benzylic, allylic, and cyclopropyl secondary alcohols to high enantiomeric excess with good-to-excellent selectivity factors. This catalyst system has also been applied to the desymmetrization of meso-diols, providing high yields of enantioenriched hydroxyketones.

  20. Negative resists for i-line lithography utilizing acid-catalyzed intramolecular dehydration reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Takumi; Uchino, Shou-ichi; Hattori, Keiko T.; Onozuka, Toshihiko; Shirai, Seiichiro; Moriuchi, Noboru; Hashimoto, Michiaki; Koibuchi, S.

    1994-05-01

    Chemical amplification negative resist system composed of a novolak resin, a carbinol and an acid generator is investigated for i-line phase-shift lithography. The reaction in this resist is based on an acid-catalyzed intramolecular dehydration reaction. The dehydration products act as aqueous-base dissolution inhibitors, and carbinol compounds in unexposed areas work as dissolution promoters. The resist composed of a novolak resin, 1,4-bis((alpha) -hydroxyisopropyl) benzene (DIOL-1) and 2- naphthoylmethyltetramethylenesulfonium triflate (PAG-2) gives the best lithographic performance in terms of sensitivity and resolution. Line-and-space patterns of 0.275 micrometers are obtained using an i-line stepper (NA:0.45) in conjunction with a phase shifting mask.

  1. The Palladium-Catalyzed Aerobic Kinetic Resolution of Secondary Alcohols: Reaction Development, Scope, and Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ebner, Davidâ C.; Bagdanoff, Jeffreyâ T.; Ferreira, Ericâ M.; McFadden, Ryanâ M.; Caspi, Danielâ D.; Trend, Raissaâ M.; Stoltz, Brianâ M.

    2009-01-01

    The first palladium-catalyzed enantioselective oxidation of secondary alcohols has been developed, utilizing the readily available diamine (-)-sparteine as a chiral ligand and molecular oxygen as the stoichiometric oxidant. Mechanistic insights regarding the role of the base and hydrogen-bond donors have resulted in several improvements to the original system. Namely, addition of cesium carbonate and tert-butyl alcohol greatly enhances reaction rates, promoting rapid resolutions. The use of chloroform as solvent allows the use of ambient air as the terminal oxidant at 23 degrees C, resulting in enhanced catalyst selectivity. These improved reaction conditions have permitted the successful kinetic resolution of benzylic, allylic, and cyclopropyl secondary alcohols to high enantiomeric excess with good-to-excellent selectivity factors. This catalyst system has also been applied to the desymmetrization of meso-diols, providing high yields of enantioenriched hydroxyketones.

  2. Palladium-catalyzed domino C,N-coupling/carbonylation/Suzuki coupling reaction: an efficient synthesis of 2-aroyl-/heteroaroylindoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthuis, Martin; Pontikis, Renée; Florent, Jean-Claude

    2009-10-15

    A convenient one-pot synthesis of 2-aroylindoles using a domino palladium-catalyzed C,N-coupling/carbonylation/C,C-coupling sequence is described. The reaction involved easily prepared 2-gem-dibromovinylanilines and boronic acids under carbon monoxide. Optimized reaction conditions allowed the construction of a wide variety of highly functionalized 2-aroyl-/heteroaroylindoles in satisfactory yields.

  3. On the Effect of Microwave Energy on Lipase-Catalyzed Polycondensation Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Pellis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Microwave energy (MWe is, nowadays, widely used as a clean synthesis tool to improve several chemical reactions, such as drug molecule synthesis, carbohydrate conversion and biomass pyrolysis. On the other hand, its exploitation in enzymatic reactions has only been fleetingly investigated and, hence, further study of MWe is required to reach a precise understanding of its potential in this field. Starting from the authors’ experience in clean synthesis and biocatalyzed reactions, this study sheds light on the possibility of using MWe for enhancing enzyme-catalyzed polycondensation reactions and pre-polymer formation. Several systems and set ups were investigated involving bulk and organic media (solution phase reactions, different enzymatic preparations and various starting bio-based monomers. Results show that MWe enables the biocatalyzed synthesis of polyesters and pre-polymers in a similar way to that reported using conventional heating with an oil bath, but in a few cases, notably bulk phase polycondensations under intense microwave irradiation, MWe leads to a rapid enzyme deactivation.

  4. State of the art and prospective of lipase-catalyzed transesterification reaction for biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amini, Zeynab; Ilham, Zul; Ong, Hwai Chyuan; Mazaheri, Hoora; Chen, Wei-Hsin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Enzymatic transesterification process is less energy intensive and robust. • Nano-materials are promising immobilization supports for lipase. • Packed-bed reactors are appropriate for scale-up use. • Potential recombinant, whole cell and recombinant whole cell lipases were enlisted. • Genetic engineering is a promising prospect in biodiesel area. - Abstract: The world demand for fuel as energy sources have arisen the need for generating alternatives such as biofuel. Biodiesel is a renewable fuel used particularly in diesel engines. Currently, biodiesel is mainly produced through transesterification reactions catalyzed by chemical catalysts, which produces higher fatty acid alkyl esters in shorter reaction time. Although extensive investigations on enzymatic transesterification by downstream processing were carried out, enzymatic transesterification has yet to be used in scale-up since commercial lipases are chiefly limited to the cost as well as long reaction time. While numerous lipases were studied and proven to have the high catalytic capacity, still enzymatic reaction requires more investigation. To fill this gap, finding optimal conditions for the reaction such as alcohol and oil choice, water content, reaction time and temperature through proper reaction modelling and simulations as well as the appropriate design and use of reactors for large scale production are crucial issues that need to be accurately addressed. Furthermore, lipase concentration, alternative lipase resources through whole cell technology and genetic engineering, recent immobilizing materials including nanoparticles, and the capacity of enzyme to be reused are important criteria to be neatly investigated. The present work reviews the current biodiesel feedstock, catalysis, general and novel immobilizing materials, bioreactors for enzymatic transesterification, potential lipase resources, intensification technics, and process modelling for enzymatic

  5. Determination of selenium via the fluorescence quenching effect of selenium on hemoglobin-catalyzed peroxidative reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-Hong; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Tian, Feng-Shou

    2015-05-01

    A new method for the determination of selenium based on its fluorescence quenching on the hemoglobin-catalyzed reaction of H2 O2 and l-tyrosine has been established. The effect of pH, foreign ions and the optimization of variables on the determination of selenium was examined. The calibration curve was found to be linear between the fluorescence quenching (F0 /F) and the concentration of selenium within the range of 0.16-4.00 µg/mL. The detection limit was 1.96 ng/mL and the relative standard deviation was 3.14%. This method can be used for the determination of selenium in Se-enriched garlic bulbs with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Transition Metal Catalyzed Reactions of Carbohydrates: a Nonoxidative Approach to Oxygenated Organics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, Mark

    1997-01-08

    There is a critical need for new environmentally friendly processes in the United States chemical industry as legislative and economic pressures push the industry to zero-waste and cradle-to-grave responsibility for the products they produce. Carbohydrates represent a plentiful, renewable resource, which for some processes might economically replace fossil feedstocks. While the conversion of biomass to fuels, is still not generally economical, the selective synthesis of a commodity or fine chemical, however, could compete effectively if appropriate catalytic conversion systems can be found. Oxygenated organics, found in a variety of products such as nylon and polyester, are particularly attractive targets. We believe that with concerted research efforts, homogeneous transition metal catalyzed reactions could play a significant role in bringing about this future green chemistry technology.

  7. Degradation of Perfluorooctanoic Acid and Perfluoroctane Sulfonate by Enzyme Catalyzed Oxidative Humification Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Q.

    2016-12-01

    Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are alkyl based chemicals having multiple or all hydrogens replaced by fluorine atoms, and thus exhibit high thermal and chemical stability and other unusual characteristics. PFASs have been widely used in a wide variety of industrial and consumer products, and tend to be environmentally persistent. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are two representative PFASs that have drawn particular attention because of their ubiquitous presence in the environment, resistance to degradation and toxicity to animals. This study examined the decomposition of PFOA and PFOS in enzyme catalyzed oxidative humification reactions (ECOHR), a class of reactions that are ubiquitous in the environment involved in natural organic humification. Reaction rates and influential factors were examined, and high-resolution mass spectrometry was used to identify possible products. Fluorides and partially fluorinated compounds were identified as likely products from PFOA and PFOS degradation, which were possibly formed via a combination of free radical decomposition, rearrangements and coupling processes. The findings suggest that PFOA and PFOS may be transformed during humification, and ECOHR can potentially be used for the remediation of these chemicals.

  8. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange reaction of 2-methylpyridine catalyzed by several fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Hirohumi; Fukuzumi, Kazuo.

    1976-01-01

    Hydrogen-deuterium exchange reaction of 2-methylpyridine has been studied by using several fatty acids as catalysts. The reaction was carried out in a sealed pyrex tube at 120 0 C, and the contents of the products were determined by mass spectrometry. Reaction of 2-methylpyridine with monodeuteroacetic acid (1 : 1, mol/mol) arrived at a equilibrium (d 0 reversible d 1 reversible d 2 reversible d 3 ) in 2 hr (d 0 41%, d 1 42%, d 2 15%, d 3 2%). No exchange was observed for the reaction of pyridine with monodeuteroacetic acid. The conversion-time curves of typical series reactions (d 0 → d 1 → d 2 → d 3 ) were obtained for the fatty acid catalyzed exchange in deuterium oxide. The effect of the fatty acid RCO 2 H (substrate : fatty acid : D 2 O=1 : 0.86 : 27.6, mol/mol/mol) on the conversion was in the order of R; C 1 --C 3 4 --C 10 , where the reaction mixtures were homogeneous in the case of C 1 --C 3 and were heterogeneous in the case of C 4 --C 10 . The effects of the initial concentration of the substrates and the catalysts (RCO 2 H) on the total conversion were studied by using some fatty acids (R; C 2 , C 4 and C 9 ) in deuterium oxide (for 2 hr). The total conversion of the substrate increases with increasing the concentration of the acids. The total conversion decreases in the case of R=C 9 , but, increases in the case of R=C 2 with increasing the concentration of the substrate. In the case of reactions with low concentrations of the substrate, the reactivity was in the order of C 9 >C 4 >C 2 , while with high concentrations, the reactivity was in the order of C 4 >C 2 >C 9 and C 9 >C 4 >C 2 with high and low concentrations of the acids, respectively. A possible reaction mechanism was proposed and discussed. (auth.)

  9. Palladium-catalyzed three-component reaction of N-tosyl hydrazones, isonitriles and amines leading to amidines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Qiang; Jiang, Yan; Yu, Jin-Tao; Cheng, Jiang

    2015-12-04

    A palladium-catalyzed three-component reaction between N-tosyl hydrazones, aryl isonitriles and amines was developed, leading to amidines in moderate to good yields. This procedure features the rapid construction of amidine frameworks with high diversity and complexity. Ketenimines serve as intermediates, which encounter nucleophilic attack by amines to produce amidines.

  10. An Efficient Synthesis of Substituted Quinolines via Indium(III) Chloride Catalyzed Reaction of Imines with Alkynes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Mei; Fu, Weijun; Xun, Chen; Zou, Guanglong

    2012-01-01

    An efficient synthetic method for the preparation of quinolines through indium(III) chloride-catalyzed tandem addition-cyclization-oxidation reactions of imines with alkynes was developed. The processes can provide a diverse range of quinoline derivatives in good yields from simple imines and alkynes

  11. Synthesis of 1,1-Diborylalkenes through a Bronsted Base Catalyzed Reaction between Terminal Alkynes and Bis(pinacolato)diboron

    OpenAIRE

    Morinaga, Akira; Nagao, Kazunori; Ohmiya, Hirohisa; Sawamura, Masaya

    2015-01-01

    A method for the synthesis of 1,1-diborylalkenes through a Bronsted base catalyzed reaction between terminal alkynes and bis(pinacolato)diboron has been developed. The procedure allows direct synthesis of functionalized 1,1-diborylalkenes from various terminal alkynes including propiolates, propiolamides, and 2-ethynylazoles.

  12. Nafion®-catalyzed microwave-assisted Ritter reaction: An atom-economic solvent-free synthesis of amides

    Science.gov (United States)

    An atom-economic solvent-free synthesis of amides by the Ritter reaction of alcohols and nitriles under microwave irradiation is reported. This green protocol is catalyzed by solid supported Nafion®NR50 with improved efficiency and reduced waste production.

  13. Diazo compounds and N-tosylhydrazones: novel cross-coupling partners in transition-metal-catalyzed reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qing; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Jianbo

    2013-02-19

    Transition-metal-catalyzed carbene transformations and cross-couplings represent two major reaction types in organometallic chemistry and organic synthesis. However, for a long period of time, these two important areas have evolved separately, with essentially no overlap or integration. Thus, an intriguing question has emerged: can cross-coupling and metal carbene transformations be merged into a single reaction cycle? Such a combination could facilitate the development of novel carbon-carbon bond-forming methodologies. Although this concept was first explored about 10 years ago, rapid developments inthis area have been achieved recently. Palladium catalysts can be used to couple diazo compounds with a wide variety of organic halides. Under oxidative coupling conditions, diazo compounds can also react with arylboronic acids and terminal alkynes. Both of these coupling reactions form carbon-carbon double bonds. As the key step in these catalytic processes, Pd carbene migratory insertion plays a vital role in merging the elementary steps of Pd intermediates, leading to novel carbon-carbon bond formations. Because the diazo substrates can be generated in situ from N-tosylhydrazones in the presence of base, the N-tosylhydrazones can be used as reaction partners, making this type of cross-coupling reaction practical in organic synthesis. N-Tosylhydrazones are easily derived from the corresponding aldehydes or ketones. The Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling of N-tosylhydrazones is considered a complementary reaction to the classic Shapiro reaction for converting carbonyl functionalities into carbon-carbon double bonds. It can also serve as an alternative approach for the Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling of carbonyl compounds, which is usually achieved via triflates. The combination of carbene formation and cross-coupling in a single catalytic cycle is not limited to Pd-catalyzed reactions. Recent studies of Cu-, Rh-, Ni-, and Co-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions with diazo

  14. Palladium(II-catalyzed Heck reaction of aryl halides and arylboronic acids with olefins under mild conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanveer Mahamadali Shaikh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of general and selective Pd(II-catalyzed Heck reactions were investigated under mild reaction conditions. The first protocol has been developed employing an imidazole-based secondary phosphine oxide (SPO ligated palladium complex (6 as a precatalyst. The catalytic coupling of aryl halides and olefins led to the formation of the corresponding coupled products in excellent yields. A variety of substrates, both electron-rich and electron-poor olefins, were converted smoothly to the targeted products in high yields. Compared with the existing approaches employing SPO–Pd complexes in a Heck reaction, the current strategy features mild reaction conditions and broad substrate scope. Furthermore, we described the coupling of arylboronic acids with olefins, which were catalyzed by Pd(OAc2 and employed N-bromosuccinimide as an additive under ambient conditions. The resulted biaryls have been obtained in moderate to good yields.

  15. Insights into the formation of carlactone from in-depth analysis of the CCD8-catalyzed reactions

    KAUST Repository

    Bruno, Mark

    2017-02-10

    Strigolactones (SLs) are a new class of phytohormones synthesized from carotenoids via carlactone. The complex structure of carlactone is not easily deducible from its precursor, a cis-configured β-carotene cleavage product, and is thus formed via a poorly understood series of reactions and molecular rearrangements, all catalyzed by only one enzyme, the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 8 (CCD8). Moreover, the reactions leading to carlactone are expected to form a second, yet unidentified product. In this study, we used (13) C and (18) O-labelling to shed light on the reactions catalyzed by CCD8. The characterization of the resulting carlactone by LC-MS and NMR, and the identification of the assumed, less accessible second product allowed us to formulate a minimal reaction mechanism for carlactone generation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Insights into the formation of carlactone from in-depth analysis of the CCD8-catalyzed reactions

    KAUST Repository

    Bruno, Mark; Vermathen, Martina; Alder, Adrian; Wü st, Florian; Schaub, Patrick; van der Steen, Rob; Beyer, Peter; Ghisla, Sandro; Al-Babili, Salim

    2017-01-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) are a new class of phytohormones synthesized from carotenoids via carlactone. The complex structure of carlactone is not easily deducible from its precursor, a cis-configured β-carotene cleavage product, and is thus formed via a poorly understood series of reactions and molecular rearrangements, all catalyzed by only one enzyme, the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 8 (CCD8). Moreover, the reactions leading to carlactone are expected to form a second, yet unidentified product. In this study, we used (13) C and (18) O-labelling to shed light on the reactions catalyzed by CCD8. The characterization of the resulting carlactone by LC-MS and NMR, and the identification of the assumed, less accessible second product allowed us to formulate a minimal reaction mechanism for carlactone generation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Copper-Catalyzed Sulfonyl Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition Reactions: Simultaneous Generation and Trapping of Copper-Triazoles and -Ketenimines for the Synthesis of Triazolopyrimidines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallagangula, Madhu; Namitharan, Kayambu

    2017-07-07

    First simultaneous generation and utilization of both copper-triazole and -ketenimine intermediates in copper-catalyzed sulfonyl azide-alkyne cycloaddition reactions is achieved for the one-pot synthesis of triazolopyrimidines via a novel copper-catalyzed multicomponent cascade of sulfonyl azides, alkynes, and azirines. Significantly, the reaction proceeds under very mild conditions in good yields.

  18. Synthesis of 2-monoacylglycerols and structured triacylglycerols rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids by enzyme catalyzed reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Alicia; Esteban, Luis; Martín, Lorena; Jiménez, María José; Hita, Estrella; Castillo, Beatriz; González, Pedro A; Robles, Alfonso

    2012-08-10

    This paper studies the synthesis of structured triacylglycerols (STAGs) by a four-step process: (i) obtaining 2-monoacylglycerols (2-MAGs) by alcoholysis of cod liver oil with several alcohols, catalyzed by lipases Novozym 435, from Candida antartica and DF, from Rhizopus oryzae, (ii) purification of 2-MAGs, (iii) formation of STAGs by esterification of 2-MAGs with caprylic acid catalyzed by lipase DF, from R. oryzae, and (iv) purification of these STAGs. For the alcoholysis of cod liver oil, absolute ethanol, ethanol 96% (v/v) and 1-butanol were compared; the conditions with ethanol 96% were then optimized and 2-MAG yields of around 54-57% were attained using Novozym 435. In these 2-MAGs, DHA accounted for 24-31% of total fatty acids. In the operational conditions this lipase maintained a stable level of activity over at least 11 uses. These results were compared with those obtained with lipase DF, which deactivated after only three uses. The alcoholysis of cod liver oil and ethanol 96% catalyzed by Novozym 435 was scaled up by multiplying the reactant amounts 100-fold and maintaining the intensity of treatment constant (IOT=3g lipase h/g oil). In these conditions, the 2-MAG yield attained was about 67%; these 2-MAGs contained 36.6% DHA. The synthesized 2-MAGs were separated and purified from the alcoholysis reaction products by solvent extraction using solvents of low toxicity (ethanol and hexane); 2-MAG recovery yield and purity of the target product were approximately 96.4% and 83.9%, respectively. These 2-MAGs were transformed to STAGs using the optimal conditions obtained in a previous work. After synthesis and purification, 93% pure STAGs were obtained, containing 38% DHA at sn-2 position and 60% caprylic acid (CA) at sn-1,3 positions (of total fatty acids at these positions), i.e. the major TAG is the STAG with the structure CA-DHA-CA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Possible pathophysiological roles of transglutaminase-catalyzed reactions in the pathogenesis of human neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica Serretiello

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Transglutaminases (TG, E.C. 2.3.2.13 are related and ubiquitous enzymes that catalyze the cross linking of a glutaminyl residue of a protein/peptide substrate to a lysyl residue of a protein/peptide co-substrate. These enzymes are also capable of catalyzing other post-translational reactions important for cell life. The distribution and the physiological roles of human TGs have been widely studied in numerous cell types and tissues and recently their roles in several diseases have begun to be identified. It has been hypothesized that transglutaminase activity is directly involved in the pathogenetic mechanisms responsible for several human diseases. In particular, tissue TG (tTG, TG2, a member of the TG enzyme family, has been recently shown to be involved in the molecular mechanisms responsible for a very widespread human pathology, Celiac Disease (CD, one of the most common food intolerances described in the western population. The main food agent that provokes the strong and diffuse clinical symptoms has been known for several years to be gliadin, a protein present in a very large number of human foods derived from vegetables. Recently, some biochemical and immunological aspects of this very common disease have been clarified, and “tissue” transglutaminase, a multifunctional and ubiquitous enzyme, has been identified as one of the major factors. The aim of this review is to summarize the most recent findings concerning the relationships between the biochemical properties of the transglutaminase activity and the basic molecular mechanisms responsible for some human diseases, with particular reference to neuropsychiatric disorders. Possible molecular links between CD and neuropsychiatric disorders, and the use of transglutaminase inhibitors are also discussed.

  20. The bacterial catabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Characterization of three hydratase-aldolase-catalyzed reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake A. LeVieux

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are highly toxic, pervasive environmental pollutants with mutagenic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic properties. There is interest in exploiting the nutritional capabilities of microbes to remove PAHs from various environments including those impacted by improper disposal or spills. Although there is a considerable body of literature on PAH degradation, the substrates and products for many of the enzymes have never been identified and many proposed activities have never been confirmed. This is particularly true for high molecular weight PAHs (e.g., phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene. As a result, pathways for the degradation of these compounds are proposed to follow one elucidated for naphthalene with limited experimental verification. In this pathway, ring fission produces a species that can undergo a non-enzymatic cyclization reaction. An isomerase opens the ring and catalyzes a cis to trans double bond isomerization. The resulting product is the substrate for a hydratase-aldolase, which catalyzes the addition of water to the double bond of an α,β-unsaturated ketone, followed by a retro-aldol cleavage. Initial kinetic and mechanistic studies of the hydratase-aldolase in the naphthalene pathway (designated NahE and two hydratase-aldolases in the phenanthrene pathway (PhdG and PhdJ have been completed. Crystallographic work on two of the enzymes (NahE and PhdJ provides a rudimentary picture of the mechanism and a platform for future work to identify the structural basis for catalysis and the individual specificities of these hydratase-aldolases.

  1. Palladium-catalyzed cyclization reactions of 2-vinylthiiranes with heterocumulenes. Regioselective and enantioselective formation of thiazolidine, oxathiolane, and dithiolane derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larksarp, C; Sellier, O; Alper, H

    2001-05-18

    The first palladium-catalyzed ring-expansion reaction of 2-vinylthiiranes with heterocumulenes to form sulfur-containing five-membered-ring heterocycles is described. This regioselective reaction requires 5 mol % of Pd(2)(dba)(3).CHCl(3) and 10 mol % of bidendate phosphine ligand (dppp, BINAP), at 50-80 degrees C, in THF. The reaction of 2-vinylthiiranes with carbodiimides, isocyanates, and ketenimines affords 1,3-thiazolidine derivatives, whereas the reaction with diphenylketene or isothiocyanates results in the formation of 1,3-oxathiolane or 1,3-dithiolane compounds in good to excellent isolated yields and in up to 78% ee.

  2. Gold-Catalyzed Formal C-C Bond Insertion Reaction of 2-Aryl-2-diazoesters with 1,3-Diketones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Mo; Li, Ke; Zhu, Shou-Fei

    2018-06-29

    The transition-metal-catalyzed formal C-C bond insertion reaction of diazo compounds with monocarbonyl compounds is well established, but the related reaction of 1,3-diketones instead gives C-H bond insertion products. Herein, we report a protocol for a gold-catalyzed formal C-C bond insertion reaction of 2-aryl-2-diazoesters with 1,3-diketones, which provides efficient access to polycarbonyl compounds with an all-carbon quaternary center. The aryl ester moiety plays a crucial role in the unusual chemoselectivity, and the addition of a Brønsted acid to the reaction mixture improves the yield of the C-C bond insertion product. A reaction mechanism involving cyclopropanation of a gold carbenoid with an enolate and ring-opening of the resulting donor-acceptor-type cyclopropane intermediate is proposed. This mechanism differs from that of the traditional Lewis-acid-catalyzed C-C bond insertion reaction of diazo compounds with monocarbonyl compounds, which involves a rearrangement of a zwitterion intermediate as a key step. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Curvularia haloperoxidase: Antimicrobial activity and potential application as a surface disinfectant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, E.H.; Albertsen, Line; Johansen, Charlotte

    2003-01-01

    , to antimicrobial compounds. The Curvularia haloperoxidase system caused several-log-unit reductions in counts of bacteria (Pseudomonas spp., Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Aeromonas salmonicida, Shewanella putrefaciens, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Listeria monocytogenes), yeasts (Candida sp....... and Rhodotorula sp.), and filamentous fungi (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tubigensis, Aspergillus versicolor, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Penicillium paxilli) cultured in suspension. Also, bacteria adhering to the surfaces of contact lenses were killed. The numbers of S. marcescens and S...

  4. DNA and Protein Requirements for Substrate Conformational Changes Necessary for Human Flap Endonuclease-1-catalyzed Reaction*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algasaier, Sana I.; Exell, Jack C.; Bennet, Ian A.; Thompson, Mark J.; Gotham, Victoria J. B.; Shaw, Steven J.; Craggs, Timothy D.; Finger, L. David; Grasby, Jane A.

    2016-01-01

    Human flap endonuclease-1 (hFEN1) catalyzes the essential removal of single-stranded flaps arising at DNA junctions during replication and repair processes. hFEN1 biological function must be precisely controlled, and consequently, the protein relies on a combination of protein and substrate conformational changes as a prerequisite for reaction. These include substrate bending at the duplex-duplex junction and transfer of unpaired reacting duplex end into the active site. When present, 5′-flaps are thought to thread under the helical cap, limiting reaction to flaps with free 5′-termini in vivo. Here we monitored DNA bending by FRET and DNA unpairing using 2-aminopurine exciton pair CD to determine the DNA and protein requirements for these substrate conformational changes. Binding of DNA to hFEN1 in a bent conformation occurred independently of 5′-flap accommodation and did not require active site metal ions or the presence of conserved active site residues. More stringent requirements exist for transfer of the substrate to the active site. Placement of the scissile phosphate diester in the active site required the presence of divalent metal ions, a free 5′-flap (if present), a Watson-Crick base pair at the terminus of the reacting duplex, and the intact secondary structure of the enzyme helical cap. Optimal positioning of the scissile phosphate additionally required active site conserved residues Tyr40, Asp181, and Arg100 and a reacting duplex 5′-phosphate. These studies suggest a FEN1 reaction mechanism where junctions are bound and 5′-flaps are threaded (when present), and finally the substrate is transferred onto active site metals initiating cleavage. PMID:26884332

  5. Structural characterization of tartrate dehydrogenase: a versatile enzyme catalyzing multiple reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, Radhika; Viola, Ronald E.

    2010-01-01

    The first structure of an NAD-dependent tartrate dehydrogenase (TDH) has been solved to 2 (angstrom) resolution by single anomalous diffraction (SAD) phasing as a complex with the intermediate analog oxalate, Mg 2+ and NADH. This TDH structure from Pseudomonas putida has a similar overall fold and domain organization to other structurally characterized members of the hydroxy-acid dehydrogenase family. However, there are considerable differences between TDH and these functionally related enzymes in the regions connecting the core secondary structure and in the relative positioning of important loops and helices. The active site in these complexes is highly ordered, allowing the identification of the substrate-binding and cofactor-binding groups and the ligands to the metal ions. Residues from the adjacent subunit are involved in both the substrate and divalent metal ion binding sites, establishing a dimer as the functional unit and providing structural support for an alternating-site reaction mechanism. The divalent metal ion plays a prominent role in substrate binding and orientation, together with several active-site arginines. Functional groups from both subunits form the cofactor-binding site and the ammonium ion aids in the orientation of the nicotinamide ring of the cofactor. A lysyl amino group (Lys192) is the base responsible for the water-mediated proton abstraction from the C2 hydroxyl group of the substrate that begins the catalytic reaction, followed by hydride transfer to NAD. A tyrosyl hydroxyl group (Tyr141) functions as a general acid to protonate the enolate intermediate. Each substrate undergoes the initial hydride transfer, but differences in substrate orientation are proposed to account for the different reactions catalyzed by TDH.

  6. Possibilities and scope of the double isotope effect method in the elucidation of mechanisms of enzyme catalyzed reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, H L; Medina, R [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising (Germany, F.R.). Lehrstuhl fuer Allgemeine Chemie und Biochemie

    1991-01-01

    Kinetic isotope effects on enzyme catalyzed reactions are indicative for the first irreversible in a sequence of individual steps. Hints on the relative velocities of other steps can only be obtained from the partitioning factor R and its dependence on external reaction conditions. In general, the experimental data needed are obtained from isotope abundance measurements in a defined position of the substrate or product as a function of turnover. This method does not reveal events dealing with neighbour atoms or preceding the main isotope sensitive step. In the method presented here, the analytical measurement is extended to the second atom involved in a bond fission of formation (Double Isotope Effect Method). It is shown that the additional results obtained support the identification of the main isotopically sensitive step and its relative contribution to the overall reaction rate, the identification of other kinetically significant steps and the differentiation between stepwise and concerted reaction mechanisms. The method and its advantages are demonstrated on reactions comprising C-N-bond splitting (urease and arginase reaction), C-C-bound fission (reactions catalyzed by pyruvate-dehydrogenase, pyruvate-formiate-lyase and lactate-oxidase), C-O-bound formation (ribulose-bisphosphate-oxygenase reaction), and N-O-bond fission (nitrate- and nitrite-reductase reactions). (orig.).

  7. The conversion of dimethyl ether over Pt/H-ZSM5. A bifunctional catalyzed reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, C.W.R.; Wolthuizen, J.P.; Hooff, van J.H.C.; Imelik, B.; Naccache, C.; Coudurier, G.

    1985-01-01

    At low temperatures dimethylether mixed with hydrogen reacts over a platinum loaded H-ZSM5 catalyst selectivity to methane. Two successive steps can be distinguished; first the acid-catalyzed formation of a trimethyloxoniumion, followed by a metal-catalyzed hydrogenation to methane. Experiments with

  8. Copper-Catalyzed Oxidative Reaction of β-Keto Sulfones with Alcohols via C-S Bond Cleavage: Reaction Development and Mechanism Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Bingnan; Wang, Wenmin; Wang, Yang; Qi, Zhenghang; Tian, Jiaqi; Zhou, Jie; Wang, Xiaochen; Han, Jianlin; Ma, Jing; Pan, Yi

    2018-02-16

    A Cu-catalyzed cascade oxidative radical process of β-keto sulfones with alcohols has been achieved by using oxygen as an oxidant. In this reaction, β-keto sulfones were converted into sulfinate esters under the oxidative conditions via cleavage of C-S bond. Experimental and computational studies demonstrate that a new pathway is involved in this reaction, which proceeds through the formation of the key four-coordinated Cu II intermediate, O-O bond homolysis induced C-S bond cleavage and Cu-catalyzed esterification to form the final products. This reaction provides a new strategy to sulfonate esters and enriches the research content of C-S bond cleavage and transformations. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Catalyzed Vinylogous Mukaiyama Aldol Reaction of α-Keto Esters and α-Trifluoromethyl Ketones

    KAUST Repository

    Du, Guang-Fen; Wang, Ying; Xing, Fen; Xue, Mei; Guo, Xu-Hong; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Dai, Bin

    2015-01-01

    © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York · Synthesis 2016. N-Heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-catalyzed vinylogous Mukaiyama aldol reaction of ketones was developed. Under the catalysis of 5 mol% NHC, α-keto esters and α-trifluoromethyl ketones reacted with 2-(trimethysilyloxy)furan efficiently to produce γ-substituted butenolides containing adjacent quaternary and tertiary carbon centers in high yields with good diastereoselectivities.

  10. Supercritical CO2 as a reaction medium for synthesis of capsaicin analogues by lipase-catalyzed transacylation of capsaicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobata, Kenji; Kobayashi, Mamiko; Kinpara, Sachiyo; Watanabe, Tatsuo

    2003-09-01

    Capsaicin analogues having different acyl moiety were synthesized by lipase-catalyzed transacylation of capsaicin with a corresponding acyl donor in supercritical CO2 as a reaction medium. Transacylation with methyl tetradecanoate using Novozym 435 as a catalyst gave vanillyl tetradecanamide in a 54% yield at 80 degrees C and 19 MPa over 72 h. Vanillyl (Z)-9-octadecenamide, olvanil, was synthesized from triolein in a 21% yield over 7 d.

  11. Recent Advances in Recoverable Systems for the Copper-Catalyzed Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition Reaction (CuAAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Mandoli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The explosively-growing applications of the Cu-catalyzed Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction between organic azides and alkynes (CuAAC have stimulated an impressive number of reports, in the last years, focusing on recoverable variants of the homogeneous or quasi-homogeneous catalysts. Recent advances in the field are reviewed, with particular emphasis on systems immobilized onto polymeric organic or inorganic supports.

  12. Unified mechanism of alkali and alkaline earth catalyzed gasification reactions of carbon by CO2 and H2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S.G.; Yang, R.T.

    1997-01-01

    From molecular orbital calculations, a unified mechanism is proposed for the gasification reactions of graphite by CO2 and H2O, both uncatalyzed and catalyzed by alkali and alkaline earth catalysts. In this mechanism, there are two types of oxygen intermediates that are bonded to the active edge carbon atoms: an in-plane semiquinone type, Cf(O), and an off-plane oxygen bonded to two saturated carbon atoms that are adjacent to the semiquinone species, C(O)Cf(O). The rate-limiting step is the decomposition of these intermediates by breaking the C-C bonds that are connected to Cf(O). A new rate equation is derived for the uncatalyzed reactions, and that for the catalyzed reactions is readily available from the proposed mechanism. The proposed mechanism can account for several unresolved experimental observations: TPD and TK (transient kinetics) desorption results of the catalyzed systems, the similar activation energies for the uncatalyzed and catalyzed reactions, and the relative activities of the alkali and alkaline earth elements. The net charge of the edge carbon active site is substantially changed by gaining electron density from the alkali or alkaline earth element (by forming C-O-M, where M stands for metal). The relative catalytic activities of these elements can be correlated with their abilities of donating electrons and changing the net charge of the edge carbon atom. As shown previously (Chen, S. G.; Yang, R. T. J. Catal. 1993, 141, 102), only clusters of the alkali compounds are active. This derives from the ability of the clusters to dissociate CO2 and H2O to form O atoms and the mobility of the dissociated O atoms facilitated by the clusters.

  13. Rhodium(III)-catalyzed three-component reaction of imines, alkynes, and aldehydes through C-H activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ji-Rong; Song, Qiang; Zhu, Yu-Qin; Qin, Liu; Qian, Zhi-Yong; Dong, Lin

    2014-12-15

    An efficient rhodium(III)-catalyzed tandem three-component reaction of imines, alkynes and aldehydes through CH activation has been developed. High stereo- and regioselectivity, as well as good yields were obtained in most cases. The simple and atom-economical approach offers a broad scope of substrates, providing polycyclic skeletons with potential biological properties. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. 1H NMR studies of substrate hydrogen exchange reactions catalyzed by L-methionine gamma-lyase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esaki, N.; Nakayama, T.; Sawada, S.; Tanaka, H.; Soda, K.

    1985-01-01

    Hydrogen exchange reactions of various L-amino acids catalyzed by L-methionine gamma-lyase (EC 4.4.1.11) have been studied. The enzyme catalyzes the rapid exchange of the alpha- and beta-hydrogens of L-methionine and S-methyl-L-cysteine with deuterium from the solvent. The rate of alpha-hydrogen exchange was about 40 times faster than that of the enzymatic elimination reaction of the sulfur-containing amino acids. The enzyme also catalyzes the exchange reaction of alpha- and beta-hydrogens of the straight-chain L-amino acids which are not susceptible to elimination. The exchange rates of the alpha-hydrogen and the total beta-hydrogens of L-alanine and L-alpha-aminobutyrate with deuterium followed first-order kinetics. For L-norvaline, L-norleucine, S-methyl-L-cysteine, and L-methionine, the rate of alpha-hydrogen exchange followed first-order kinetics, but the rate of total beta-hydrogen exchange decreased due to a primary isotope effect at the alpha-position. L-Phenylalanine and L-tryptophan slowly underwent alpha-hydrogen exchange. The pro-R hydrogen of glycine was deuterated stereospecifically

  15. Combined cross-linked enzyme aggregates of horseradish peroxidase and glucose oxidase for catalyzing cascade chemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Le Truc; Yang, Kun-Lin

    2017-05-01

    Cascade reactions involved unstable intermediates are often encountered in biological systems. In this study, we developed combined cross-linked enzyme aggregates (combi-CLEA) to catalyze a cascade reaction which involves unstable hydrogen peroxide as an intermediate. The combi-CLEA contains two enzymes̶ glucose oxidase (GOx) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) which are cross-linked together as solid aggregates. The first enzyme GOx catalyzes the oxidation of glucose and produces hydrogen peroxide, which is used by the second enzyme HRP to oxidize 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS). The apparent reaction rate of the cascade reaction reaches 10.5±0.5μM/min when the enzyme ratio is 150:1 (GOx:HRP). Interestingly, even in the presence of catalase, an enzyme that quickly decomposes hydrogen peroxide, the reaction rate only decreases by 18.7% to 8.3±0.3μM/min. This result suggests that the intermediate hydrogen peroxide is not decomposed by catalase due to a short diffusion distance between GOx and HRP in the combi-CLEA. Scanning electron microscopy images suggest that combi-CLEA particles are hollow spheres and have an average diameter around 250nm. Because of their size, combi-CLEA particles can be entrapped inside a nylon membrane for detecting glucose by using the cascade reaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Rhodium-Catalyzed Insertion Reaction of PhP Group of Pentaphenylcyclopentaphosphine with Acyclic and Cyclic Disulfides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisawa, Mieko; Sawahata, Kyosuke; Yamada, Tomoki; Sarkar, Debayan; Yamaguchi, Masahiko

    2018-02-16

    Organophosphorus compounds with a phosphorus atom attached to a phenyl group and two organothio/organoseleno groups were synthesized using the rhodium-catalyzed insertion reaction of the PhP group of pentaphenylcyclopentaphosphine (PhP) 5 with acyclic disulfides and diselenides. The method was applied to the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds containing the S-P-S group by the reaction of (PhP) 5 and cyclic disulfides such as 1,2-dithietes, 1,2-dithiocane, 1,4,5-dithiopane, and 1,2-dithiolanes.

  17. Solvent- and ligand-induced switch of selectivity in gold(I-catalyzed tandem reactions of 3-propargylindoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Sanz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The selectivity of our previously described gold-catalyzed tandem reaction, 1,2-indole migration followed by aura-iso-Nazarov cyclization, of 3-propargylindoles bearing (heteroaromatic substituents at both the propargylic and terminal positions, was reversed by the proper choice of the catalyst and the reaction conditions. Thus, 3-(inden-2-ylindoles, derived from an aura-Nazarov cyclization (instead of an aura-iso-Nazarov cyclization, were obtained in moderate to good yields from a variety of 3-propargylindoles.

  18. Kinetic and thermodynamic study of the reaction catalyzed by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin del Campo, Julia S.; Patino, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The reaction catalyzed by one enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway was studied. → A spectrophotometric method is proposed for kinetic and thermodynamic analysis. → The pH and the temperature influences are reported on physical chemical properties. → Relative concentrations of substrates are also important in the catalytic process. - Abstract: The enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD, EC 1.1.1.49) from Leuconostoc mesenteroides has a dual coenzyme specificity with oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD ox ) and oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate as electron acceptors. The G6PD coenzyme selection is determined by the metabolic cellular prevailing conditions. In this study a kinetic and thermodynamic analysis is presented for the reaction catalyzed by G6PD from L. mesenteroides with NAD ox as coenzyme in phosphate buffer. For this work, an in situ spectrophotometric technique was employed based on the detection of one product of the reaction. Substrate and coenzyme concentrations as well as temperature and pH effects were evaluated. The apparent equilibrium constant, the Michaelis constant, and the turnover number were determined as a function of each experimental condition. The standard transformed Gibbs energy of reaction was determined from equilibrium constants at different initial conditions. For the product 6-phospho-D-glucono-1,5-lactone, a value of the standard Gibbs energy of formation is proposed, Δ f G o = -1784 ± 5 kJ mol -1 .

  19. Kinetic and thermodynamic study of the reaction catalyzed by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin del Campo, Julia S. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados - Unidad Merida, Carretera antigua a Progreso Km. 6, A.P. 73 Cordemex, 97310, Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Patino, Rodrigo, E-mail: rtarkus@mda.cinvestav.mx [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados - Unidad Merida, Carretera antigua a Progreso Km. 6, A.P. 73 Cordemex, 97310, Merida, Yucatan (Mexico)

    2011-04-20

    Research highlights: {yields} The reaction catalyzed by one enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway was studied. {yields} A spectrophotometric method is proposed for kinetic and thermodynamic analysis. {yields} The pH and the temperature influences are reported on physical chemical properties. {yields} Relative concentrations of substrates are also important in the catalytic process. - Abstract: The enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD, EC 1.1.1.49) from Leuconostoc mesenteroides has a dual coenzyme specificity with oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD{sub ox}) and oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate as electron acceptors. The G6PD coenzyme selection is determined by the metabolic cellular prevailing conditions. In this study a kinetic and thermodynamic analysis is presented for the reaction catalyzed by G6PD from L. mesenteroides with NAD{sub ox} as coenzyme in phosphate buffer. For this work, an in situ spectrophotometric technique was employed based on the detection of one product of the reaction. Substrate and coenzyme concentrations as well as temperature and pH effects were evaluated. The apparent equilibrium constant, the Michaelis constant, and the turnover number were determined as a function of each experimental condition. The standard transformed Gibbs energy of reaction was determined from equilibrium constants at different initial conditions. For the product 6-phospho-D-glucono-1,5-lactone, a value of the standard Gibbs energy of formation is proposed, {Delta}{sub f}G{sup o} = -1784 {+-} 5 kJ mol{sup -1}.

  20. Nickel-Catalyzed Decarbonylative Silylation, Borylation, and Amination of Arylamides via a Deamidative Reaction Pathway

    KAUST Repository

    Rueping, Magnus; Lee, Shao-Chi; Guo, Lin; Yue, Huifeng; Liao, Hsuan-Hung

    2017-01-01

    A nickel-catalyzed decarbonylative silylation, borylation, and amination of amides has been developed. This new methodology allows the direct interconversion of amides to arylsilanes, arylboronates, and arylamines and enables a facile route for carbon–heteroatom bond formations in a straightforward and mild fashion.

  1. Nickel-Catalyzed Decarbonylative Silylation, Borylation, and Amination of Arylamides via a Deamidative Reaction Pathway

    KAUST Repository

    Rueping, Magnus

    2017-10-23

    A nickel-catalyzed decarbonylative silylation, borylation, and amination of amides has been developed. This new methodology allows the direct interconversion of amides to arylsilanes, arylboronates, and arylamines and enables a facile route for carbon–heteroatom bond formations in a straightforward and mild fashion.

  2. Cu(OAc)2 catalyzed Sonogashira cross-coupling reaction in amines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Mei Guo; Chen Liang Deng; Jin Heng Li

    2007-01-01

    A simple Cu(OAc)2 catalyzed Sonogashira coupling protocol is presented. It was found that the couplings of a variety of aryl halides with terminal alkynes were conducted smoothly to afford the corresponding desired products in moderate to excellent yields, using Cu(OAc)2 as the catalyst and Et3N as the solvent.

  3. Beta-D-xylosidase from Selenomonas ruminantium: thermodynamics of enzyme-catalyzed and noncatalyzed reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beta-D-xylosidase/alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase from Selenomonas ruminantium (SXA) is the most active enzyme known for catalyzing hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylooligosaccharides to D-xylose. Temperature dependence for hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-xylopyranoside (4NPX), 4-nitrophenyl-alpha-L-arabi...

  4. Pd-catalyzed ethylene methoxycarbonylation with Brønsted acid ionic liquids as promoter and phase-separable reaction media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Suarez, Eduardo J.; Khokarale, Santosh Govind; Nguyen van Buu, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Brønsted acid ionic liquids (BAILs) were prepared and applied as combined acid promoters and reaction media in Pd–phosphine catalyzed methoxycarbonylation of ethylene to produce methyl propionate. The BAILs served as alternatives to common mineral acids required for the reaction, e.g. methanesulf......Brønsted acid ionic liquids (BAILs) were prepared and applied as combined acid promoters and reaction media in Pd–phosphine catalyzed methoxycarbonylation of ethylene to produce methyl propionate. The BAILs served as alternatives to common mineral acids required for the reaction, e...

  5. Optimizing Metalloporphyrin-Catalyzed Reduction Reactions for In Situ Remediation of DOE Contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlautman, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Past activities have resulted in a legacy of contaminated soil and groundwater at Department of Energy facilities nationwide. Uranium and chromium are among the most frequently encountered and highest-priority metal and radionuclide contaminants at DOE installations. Abiotic chemical reduction of uranium and chromium at contaminated DOE sites can be beneficial because the reduced metal species are less soluble in water, less mobile in the environment, and less toxic to humans and ecosystems. Although direct biological reduction has been reported for U(VI) and Cr(VI) in laboratory studies and at some field sites, the reactions can sometimes be slow or even inhibited due to unfavorable environmental conditions. One promising approach for the in-situ remediation of DOE contaminants is to develop electron shuttle catalysts that can be delivered precisely to the specific subsurface locations where contaminants reside. Previous research has shown that reduction of oxidized organic and inorganic contaminants often can be catalyzed by electron shuttle systems. Metalloporphyrins and their derivatives are well known electron shuttles for many biogeochemical systems, and thus were selected to study their catalytic capabilities for the reduction of chromium and uranium in the presence of reducing agents. Zero valent iron (ZVI) was chosen as the primary electron donor in most experimental systems. Research proceeded in three phases and the key findings of each phase are reported here. Phase I examined Cr(VI) reduction and utilized micro- and nano-sized ZVI as the electron donors. Electron shuttle catalysts tested were cobalt- and iron-containing metalloporphyrins and Vitamin B12. To aid in the recycle and reuse of the nano-sized ZVI and soluble catalysts, sol-gels and calcium-alginate gel beads were tested as immobilization/support matrices. Although the nano-sized ZVI could be incorporated within the alginate gel beads, preliminary attempts to trap it in sol-gels were not

  6. Optimizing Metalloporphyrin-Catalyzed Reduction Reactions for In Situ Remediation of DOE Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlautman, Mark A. [Clemson University, Clemson, SC (United States)

    2013-07-14

    Past activities have resulted in a legacy of contaminated soil and groundwater at Department of Energy facilities nationwide. Uranium and chromium are among the most frequently encountered and highest-priority metal and radionuclide contaminants at DOE installations. Abiotic chemical reduction of uranium and chromium at contaminated DOE sites can be beneficial because the reduced metal species are less soluble in water, less mobile in the environment, and less toxic to humans and ecosystems. Although direct biological reduction has been reported for U(VI) and Cr(VI) in laboratory studies and at some field sites, the reactions can sometimes be slow or even inhibited due to unfavorable environmental conditions. One promising approach for the in-situ remediation of DOE contaminants is to develop electron shuttle catalysts that can be delivered precisely to the specific subsurface locations where contaminants reside. Previous research has shown that reduction of oxidized organic and inorganic contaminants often can be catalyzed by electron shuttle systems. Metalloporphyrins and their derivatives are well known electron shuttles for many biogeochemical systems, and thus were selected to study their catalytic capabilities for the reduction of chromium and uranium in the presence of reducing agents. Zero valent iron (ZVI) was chosen as the primary electron donor in most experimental systems. Research proceeded in three phases and the key findings of each phase are reported here. Phase I examined Cr(VI) reduction and utilized micro- and nano-sized ZVI as the electron donors. Electron shuttle catalysts tested were cobalt- and iron-containing metalloporphyrins and Vitamin B12. To aid in the recycle and reuse of the nano-sized ZVI and soluble catalysts, sol-gels and calcium-alginate gel beads were tested as immobilization/support matrices. Although the nano-sized ZVI could be incorporated within the alginate gel beads, preliminary attempts to trap it in sol-gels were not

  7. Cu-catalyzed esterification reaction via aerobic oxygenation and C-C bond cleavage: an approach to α-ketoesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun; Feng, Peng; Jiao, Ning

    2013-10-09

    The Cu-catalyzed novel aerobic oxidative esterification reaction of 1,3-diones for the synthesis of α-ketoesters has been developed. This method combines C-C σ-bond cleavage, dioxygen activation and oxidative C-H bond functionalization, as well as provides a practical, neutral, and mild synthetic approach to α-ketoesters which are important units in many biologically active compounds and useful precursors in a variety of functional group transformations. A plausible radical process is proposed on the basis of mechanistic studies.

  8. The reaction mechanism for dehydration process catalyzed by type I dehydroquinate dehydratase from Gram-negative Salmonella enterica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuan; Li, Ze-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental reaction mechanism for the dehydration process catalyzed by type I dehydroquinate dehydratase from Gram-negative Salmonella enterica has been studied by density functional theory calculations. The results indicate that the dehydration process undergoes a two-step cis-elimination mechanism, which is different from the previously proposed one. The catalytic roles of both the highly conserved residue His143 and the Schiff base formed between the substrate and Lys170 have also been elucidated. The structural and mechanistic insight presented here may direct the design of type I dehydroquinate dehydratase enzyme inhibitors as non-toxic antimicrobials, anti-fungals, and herbicides.

  9. Bulk gold catalyzed oxidation reactions of amines and isocyanides and iron porphyrin catalyzed N-H and O-H bond insertion/cyclization reactions of diamines and aminoalcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klobukowski, Erik [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This work involves two projects. The first project entails the study of bulk gold as a catalyst in oxidation reactions of isocyanides and amines. The main goal of this project was to study the activation and reactions of molecules at metal surfaces in order to assess how organometallic principles for homogeneous processes apply to heterogeneous catalysis. Since previous work had used oxygen as an oxidant in bulk gold catalyzed reactions, the generality of gold catalysis with other oxidants was examined. Amine N-oxides were chosen for study, due to their properties and use in the oxidation of carbonyl ligands in organometallic complexes. When amine N-oxides were used as an oxidant in the reaction of isocyanides with amines, the system was able to produce ureas from a variety of isocyanides, amines, and amine N-oxides. In addition, the rate was found to generally increase as the amine N-oxide concentration increased, and decrease with increased concentrations of the amine. Mechanistic studies revealed that the reaction likely involves transfer of an oxygen atom from the amine N-oxide to the adsorbed isocyanide to generate an isocyanate intermediate. Subsequent nucleophilic attack by the amine yields the urea. This is in contrast to the bulk gold-catalyzed reaction mechanism of isocyanides with amines and oxygen. Formation of urea in this case was proposed to proceed through a diaminocarbene intermediate. Moreover, formation of the proposed isocyanate intermediate is consistent with the reactions of metal carbonyl ligands, which are isoelectronic to isocyanides. Nucleophilic attack at coordinated CO by amine N-oxides produces CO{sub 2} and is analogous to the production of an isocyanate in this gold system. When the bulk gold-catalyzed oxidative dehydrogenation of amines was examined with amine N-oxides, the same products were afforded as when O{sub 2} was used as the oxidant. When the two types of oxidants were directly compared using the same reaction system and

  10. Laccase-catalyzed removal of the antimicrobials chlorophene and dichlorophen from water: Reaction kinetics, pathway and toxicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huanhuan; Peng, Jianbiao; Li, Jianhua; Mao, Liang; Wang, Zunyao; Gao, Shixiang

    2016-11-05

    As active agents in cleaning and disinfecting products, antimicrobials have been widely spread in the environment and have drawn extensive attention as potential threats to the ecological system and human health. In this study, the laccase-catalyzed removal of two emerging antimicrobials, chlorophene (CP) and dichlorophen (DCP), was investigated under simulated environmental conditions. Intrinsic reaction kinetics showed that the removal of CP and DCP followed second-order reaction kinetics, first-order with respect to both the enzyme and the substrate concentration. It was also found that fulvic acid could suppress the transformation of CP and DCP by reversing the oxidation reactions through its action as a scavenger of the free radical intermediates produced from reactions between laccase and the substrates. Several reaction products were identified by a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer, and detailed reaction pathways were proposed. For both CP and DCP, direct polymerization was the principal pathway, and the coupling patterns were further corroborated based on molecular modeling. The nucleophilic substitution of chlorine by the hydroxyl group was observed, and further oxidation products capable of coupling with each other were also found. Additionally, toxicity evaluation tests using Scenedesmus obliquus confirmed that the toxicity of CP and DCP was effectively eliminated during the reaction processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Regioselective syntheses of 1,2-benzothiazines by rhodium-catalyzed annulation reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ying; Bolm, Carsten

    2015-10-12

    Rhodium-catalyzed directed carbene insertions into aromatic CH bonds of S-aryl sulfoximines lead to intermediates, which upon dehydration provide 1,2-benzothiazines in excellent yields. The domino-type process is regioselective and shows a high functional-group tolerance. It is scalable, and the only by-products are dinitrogen and water. Three illustrative transformations underscore the synthetic value of the products. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Theoretical Study on the Aza-Diels-Alder Reaction Catalyzed by PHCl2 Lewis Acid via Pnicogen Bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghoobi, Fereshteh; Sohrabi Mahboub, Mahdi

    2018-03-15

    The reaction mechanism of the Aza-Diels-Alder (A-D-A) cycloaddition reaction between X 2 C═NNH 2 , where X = H, F, Cl, Br, and 1,3-butadiene catalyzed by a PHCl 2 Lewis acid was characterized using density functional theory calculations. The influences of various substituents of X on the studied reaction were analyzed using the activation strain model (ASM), which is also termed as the distortion-interaction model. Calculations showed that the smallest and largest values of the activation energies belong to the substituents of F and Br, respectively. The activation energy of the studied reactions was decreased within 8.6 kcal·mol -1 in the presence of PHCl 2 catalyst. Investigations showed that the pnicogen bonding is adequately capable of activating the A-D-A reaction. The quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) and natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis were implemented to understand the nature of C 4,Cbut ···C XIm and C 1,Cbut ···N XIm bonds at the TS structures. Additionally, the energy decomposition analysis (EDA) based on the ETS-NOCV scheme was used to characterize the nature of C 4,Cbut ···C XIm and C 1,Cbut ···N XIm bond. The results of the study mirror the fact that the PHCl 2 Lewis acid may be suggested as a simple suitable catalyst for experimental studies on the A-D-A reactions.

  13. Switchable Diastereoselectivity in the Fluoride Promoted Vinylogous Mukaiyama-Michael Reaction of 2-Trimethylsilyloxyfuran Catalyzed by Crown Ethers

    KAUST Repository

    Della Sala, Giorgio

    2017-05-31

    The fluoride promoted vinylogous Mukaiyama-Michael reaction (VMMR) of 2-trimethylsilyloxyfuran with diverse α,β-unsaturated ketones is described. The TBAF catalyzed VMMR afforded high anti-diastereoselectivity irrespective of the solvents used. The KF/crown ethers catalytic systems proved to be highly efficient in terms of yields and resulted in a highly diastereoselective unprecedented solvent/catalyst switchable reaction. Anti-adducts were obtained as single diastereomers or with excellent diastereoselectivities when benzo-15-crown-5 in CH2Cl2 was employed. On the other hand, high syn-diastereoselectivities (from 76:24 to 96:4) were achieved by employing dicyclohexane-18-crown-6 in toluene. Based on DFT calculations, the catalysts/solvents-dependent switchable diastereoselectivities are proposed to be the result of loose or tight cation-dienolate ion pairs.

  14. Ligand-Controlled Synthesis of Azoles via Ir-Catalyzed Reactions of Sulfoxonium Ylides with 2-Amino Heterocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Alicia M; Chan, Vincent S; Napolitano, José G; Krabbe, Scott W; Schomaker, Jennifer M; Shekhar, Shashank

    2016-05-20

    An iridium-catalyzed method was developed for the synthesis of imidazo-fused pyrrolopyrazines. The presence or absence of a nitrogenated ligand controlled the outcome of the reaction, leading to simple β-keto amine products in the absence of added ligand and the cyclized 7- and 8-substituted-imidazo[1,2-a]pyrrolo[2,3-e]pyrazine products in the presence of ligand. This catalyst control was conserved across a variety of ylide and amine coupling partners. The substrate was shown to act as a ligand for the iridium catalyst in the absence of other ligands via NMR spectroscopy. Kinetic studies indicated that formation of the Ir-carbene was reversible and the slow step of the reaction. These mechanistic investigations suggest that the β-keto amine products form via an intramolecular carbene N-H insertion, and the imidazopyrrolopyrazines form via an intermolecular carbene N-H insertion.

  15. Twisted Amides: From Obscurity to Broadly Useful Transition-Metal-Catalyzed Reactions by N-C Amide Bond Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengwei; Szostak, Michal

    2017-05-29

    The concept of using amide bond distortion to modulate amidic resonance has been known for more than 75 years. Two classic twisted amides (bridged lactams) ingeniously designed and synthesized by Kirby and Stoltz to feature fully perpendicular amide bonds, and as a consequence emanate amino-ketone-like reactivity, are now routinely recognized in all organic chemistry textbooks. However, only recently the use of amide bond twist (distortion) has advanced to the general organic chemistry mainstream enabling a host of highly attractive N-C amide bond cross-coupling reactions of broad synthetic relevance. In this Minireview, we discuss recent progress in this area and present a detailed overview of the prominent role of amide bond destabilization as a driving force in the development of transition-metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions by N-C bond activation. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Lipase-catalyzed glycerolysis of fats and oils in ionic liquids: a further study on the reaction system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Zheng; Xu, Xuebing

    2006-01-01

    Candida antarctica lipase B-catalyzed glycerolysis of sunflower oil in a tetraammonium-based ionic liquid (IL) was studied to elucidate its distinct characteristics and to evaluate the contributions of important parameters. Mass transfer limitations and occurring partial phase separation were found...... and enzyme loading study. Interestingly, increasing water activity resulted in a decreasing initial reaction rate and a prolonged induction period, which possibly resulted from an elevated solvation barrier and the phase separation at higher water content. Studies on thermodynamics of glycerolysis show......) equation, and the viscosity of the mixture is strongly agitation-dependent. A comparable diffusion time constant of the oil molecule in the IL to that of the reaction shows that the glycerolysis in the IL is controlled both diffusionally and kinetically, as experimentally verified by agitation effect...

  17. Imidazole-based Vanadium Complexes as Haloperoxidase Models ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two homogeneous catalysts were prepared by reaction vanadyl sulphate with the free ligands. The activity of the catalysts was evaluated for the hydrogen peroxide facilitated oxidation of styrene and ethylbenzene and thioanisole. A maximum conversion of 99.9 % for styrene and 10.6 % for ethylbenzene was achieved.

  18. Kinetic Studies on Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions: Oxidation of Glucose, Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide and Their Combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhimin; Raffel, Ryan A.; Souid, Abdul-Kader; Goodisman, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    The kinetics of the glucose oxidase-catalyzed reaction of glucose with O2, which produces gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide, and the catalase-assisted breakdown of hydrogen peroxide to generate oxygen, have been measured via the rate of O2 depletion or production. The O2 concentrations in air-saturated phosphate-buffered salt solutions were monitored by measuring the decay of phosphorescence from a Pd phosphor in solution; the decay rate was obtained by fitting the tail of the phosphorescence intensity profile to an exponential. For glucose oxidation in the presence of glucose oxidase, the rate constant determined for the rate-limiting step was k = (3.0 ± 0.7) ×104 M−1s−1 at 37°C. For catalase-catalyzed H2O2 breakdown, the reaction order in [H2O2] was somewhat greater than unity at 37°C and well above unity at 25°C, suggesting different temperature dependences of the rate constants for various steps in the reaction. The two reactions were combined in a single experiment: addition of glucose oxidase to glucose-rich cell-free media caused a rapid drop in [O2], and subsequent addition of catalase caused [O2] to rise and then decrease to zero. The best fit of [O2] to a kinetic model is obtained with the rate constants for glucose oxidation and peroxide decomposition equal to 0.116 s−1 and 0.090 s−1 respectively. Cellular respiration in the presence of glucose was found to be three times as rapid as that in glucose-deprived cells. Added NaCN inhibited O2 consumption completely, confirming that oxidation occurred in the cellular mitochondrial respiratory chain. PMID:19348778

  19. Tailored Cyclic and Linear Polycarbosilazanes by Barium-Catalyzed N-H/H-Si Dehydrocoupling Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, Clément; Orione, Clément; Carpentier, Jean-François; Sarazin, Yann

    2016-03-07

    Ba[CH(SiMe3 )2 ]2 (THF)3 catalyzes the fast and controlled dehydrogenative polymerization of Ph2 SiH2 and p-xylylenediamine to afford polycarbosilazanes. The structure (cyclic versus linear; end-groups) and molecular weight of the macromolecules can be tuned by adjusting the Ph2 SiH2 /diamine feed ratio. A detailed analysis of the resulting materials (mol. wt up to ca. 10 000 g mol(-1) ) is provided. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Cationic Pd(II-catalyzed C–H activation/cross-coupling reactions at room temperature: synthetic and mechanistic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Nishikata

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cationic palladium(II complexes have been found to be highly reactive towards aromatic C–H activation of arylureas at room temperature. A commercially available catalyst [Pd(MeCN4](BF42 or a nitrile-free cationic palladium(II complex generated in situ from the reaction of Pd(OAc2 and HBF4, effectively catalyzes C–H activation/cross-coupling reactions between aryl iodides, arylboronic acids and acrylates under milder conditions than those previously reported. The nature of the directing group was found to be critical for achieving room temperature conditions, with the urea moiety the most effective in promoting facile coupling reactions at an ortho C–H position. This methodology has been utilized in a streamlined and efficient synthesis of boscalid, an agent produced on the kiloton scale annually and used to control a range of plant pathogens in broadacre and horticultural crops. Mechanistic investigations led to a proposed catalytic cycle involving three steps: (1 C–H activation to generate a cationic palladacycle; (2 reaction of the cationic palladacycle with an aryl iodide, arylboronic acid or acrylate, and (3 regeneration of the active cationic palladium catalyst. The reaction between a cationic palladium(II complex and arylurea allowed the formation and isolation of the corresponding palladacycle intermediate, characterized by X-ray analysis. Roles of various additives in the stepwise process have also been studied.

  1. Stereospecific nickel-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of alkyl ethers: enantioselective synthesis of diarylethanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Buck L H; Swift, Elizabeth C; Waetzig, Joshua D; Jarvo, Elizabeth R

    2011-01-26

    Secondary benzylic ethers undergo stereospecific substitution reactions with Grignard reagents in the presence of nickel catalysts. Reactions proceed with inversion of configuration and high stereochemical fidelity. This reaction allows for facile enantioselective synthesis of biologically active diarylethanes from readily available optically enriched carbinols.

  2. Cobalt catalyzed peroxymonosulfate oxidation of tetrabromobisphenol A: Kinetics, reaction pathways, and formation of brominated by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Yuefei [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Kong, Deyang [Nanjing Institute of Environmental Science, Ministry of Environmental Protection of PRC, Nanjing 210042 (China); Lu, Junhe, E-mail: jhlu@njau.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Jin, Hao; Kang, Fuxing; Yin, Xiaoming; Zhou, Quansuo [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)

    2016-08-05

    Highlights: • Cobalt catalyzed peroxymonosulfate oxidation of tetrabromobisphenol A. • Phenolic moiety was the reactive site for sulfate radical attack. • Pathways include β-scission, oxidation, debromination and coupling reactions. • Brominated disinfection by-products were found during TBBPA degradation. • Humic acid inhibited TBBPA degradation but promoted DBPs formation. - Abstract: Degradation of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), a flame retardant widely spread in the environment, in Co(II) catalyzed peroxymonosulfate (PMS) oxidation process was systematically explored. The second-order-rate constant for reaction of sulfate radical (SO{sub 4}{sup ·−}) with TBBPA was determined to be 5.27 × 10{sup 10} M{sup −1} s{sup −1}. Apparently, degradation of TBBPA showed first-order kinetics to the concentrations of both Co(II) and PMS. The presence of humic acid (HA) and bicarbonate inhibited TBBPA degradation, most likely due to their competition for SO{sub 4}{sup ·−}. Degradation of TBBPA was initiated by an electron abstraction from one of the phenolic rings. Detailed transformation pathways were proposed, including β-scission of isopropyl bridge, phenolic ring oxidation, debromination and coupling reactions. Further oxidative degradation of intermediates in Co(II)/PMS process yielded brominated disinfection by-products (Br-DBPs) such as bromoform and brominated acetic acids. Evolution profile of Br-DBPs showed an initially increasing and then decreasing pattern with maximum concentrations occurring around 6–10 h. The presence of HA enhanced the formation of Br-DBPs significantly. These findings reveal potentially important, but previously unrecognized, formation of Br-DBPs during sulfate radical-based oxidation of bromide-containing organic compounds that may pose toxicological risks to human health.

  3. Phospholipids chiral at phosphorus. Steric course of the reactions catalyzed by phosphatidylserine synthase from Escherichia coli and yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raetz, C.R.H.; Carman, G.M.; Dowhan, W.; Jiang, R.T.; Waszkuc, W.; Loffredo, W.; Tsai, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    The steric courses of the reactions catalyzed by phosphatidylserine (PS) synthase from Escherichia coli and yeast were elucidated by the following procedure. R/sub P/ and S/sub P/ isomers of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-[ 17 O, 18 O]phosphoethanolamine ([ 17 O, 18 O]DPPE) were synthesized and converted to (R/sub P/)- and (S/sub P/)-1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-[ 16 O, 17 O, 18 O]DPPA), respectively, by incubating with phospholipase D. Condensation of [ 16 O, 17 O, 18 O]DPPA with cytidine 5'-monophosphomorpholidate in pyridine gave the desired substrate for PS synthase, [ 17 O, 18 O]cytidine 5'-diphospho-1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycerol ([ 17 O, 18 O]CDP-DPG), as a mixture of several isotopic and configurational isomers. Incubation of [ 17 O, 18 O]CDP-DPG), as a mixture of several isotopic and configurational isomers. Incubation of [ 17 O, 18 O] CDP-DPG with a mixture of L-serine, PS synthase and PS decarboxylase gave [ 17 O, 18 O]DPPE. The configuration and isotopic enrichments of the starting [ 17 O, 18 O]DPPE and the product were analyzed by 31 P NMR following trimethylsilylation of the DPPE. The results indicate that the reaction of E. coli PS synthase proceeds with retention of configuration at phosphorus, which suggests a two-step mechanism involving a phosphatidyl-enzyme intermediate, while the yeast PS synthase catalyzes the reaction with inversion of configuration, which suggests a single-displacement mechanism. Such results lend strong support to the ping-pong mechanism proposed for the E. coli enzyme and the sequential Bi-Bi mechanism proposed for the yeast enzyme, both based on previous isotopic exchange experiments

  4. Tetramethyl guanidine (TMG catalyzed synthesis of novel a -amino phosphonates by one-pot reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Annar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available An efficient method has been developed for the synthesis of a -amino phosphonates (4a-j by the three component one-pot reaction of equimolar quantities of 2-amino methyl furan (1, dimethyl / diethyl phosphite (2 and various aldehydes (3a-j in dry toluene at reflux conditions via Kabachnik – Fields reaction in high yields (70-80% in the presence of tetramethyl guanidine (TMG as catalyst. The TMG can be easily recovered from the reaction mixture after completion of the reaction and can be reused. Their antimicrobial activity has also been evaluated.

  5. Controlling site selectivity in Pd-catalyzed oxidative cross-coupling reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Thomas W; Hull, Kami L; Sanford, Melanie S

    2011-03-30

    This paper presents a detailed investigation of the factors controlling site selectivity in the Pd-mediated oxidative coupling of 1,3-disubstituted and 1,2,3-trisubstituted arenes (aryl-H) with cyclometalating substrates (L~C-H). The influence of both the concentration and the steric/electronic properties of the quinone promoter are studied in detail. In addition, the effect of steric/electronic modulation of the carboxylate ligand is discussed. Finally, we demonstrate that substitution of the carboxylate for a carbonate X-type ligand leads to a complete reversal in site selectivity for many arene substrates. The origins of these trends in site selectivity are discussed in the context of the mechanism of Pd-catalyzed oxidative cross-coupling.

  6. Hydrophosphination of alkynes and related reactions catalyzed by rare-earth amides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaki, Ken; Komeyama, Kimihiro; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kawabata, Tomonori; Takehira, Katsuomi

    2006-01-01

    Intermolecular hydrophosphination of alkynes with Ph 2 PH was effectively catalyzed by Yb-imine complex [Yb(η 2 -Ph 2 CNPh)(hmpa) 3 ], in which the empirical rate law was described as v = k [catalyst] 2 [alkyne] 1 [phosphine] . The active catalysts were proved to be ytterbium(II) mono- and diphosphido species generated in situ. Although trivalent phosphido complex [Yb(PPh 2 ) 3 (hmpa) n ], gave the same results as the divalent complexes, Yb metals of the both complexes seemed to keep their original oxidation state unchanged. When Ph 2 PH was substituted by Ph 2 P-SiMe 3 , silylphosphination of aromatic internal alkynes took place to afford 1-trimethylsilyl-2-diphenylphosphinoalkenes in moderate yields. Moreover, one-pot synthesis of 1-diphenylphosphino-1,3-butadienes from terminal alkynes and Ph 2 PH has been achieved using Y[N(SiMe 3 ) 2 ] 3 catalyst through the alkyne dimerization and subsequent hydrophosphination

  7. Assessment Of Surface-Catalyzed Reaction Products From High Temperature Materials In Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Luke Daniel

    Current simulations of atmospheric entry into both Mars and Earth atmospheres for the design of thermal protections systems (TPS) typically invoke conservative assumptions regarding surface-catalyzed recombination and the amount of energy deposited on the surface. The need to invoke such assumptions derives in part from lack of adequate experimental data on gas-surface interactions at trajectory relevant conditions. Addressing this issue, the University of Vermont's Plasma Test and Diagnostics Laboratory has done extensive work to measure atomic specie consumption by measuring the concentration gradient over various material surfaces. This thesis extends this work by attempting to directly diagnose molecular species production in air plasmas. A series of spectral models for the A-X and B-X systems of nitric oxide (NO), and the B-X system of boron monoxide (BO) have been developed. These models aim to predict line positions and strengths for the respective molecules in a way that is best suited for the diagnostic needs of the UVM facility. From the NO models, laser induced fluorescence strategies have been adapted with the intent of characterizing the relative quantity and thermodynamic state of NO produced bysurface-catalyzed recombination, while the BO model adds a diagnostic tool for the testing of diboride-based TPS materials. Boundary layer surveys of atomic nitrogen and NO have been carried out over water-cooled copper and nickel surfaces in air/argon plasmas. Translation temperatures and relative number densities throughout the boundary layer are reported. Additional tests were also conducted over a water-cooled copper surface to detect evidence of highly non-equilibrium effects in the form of excess population in elevated vibrational levels of the A-X system of NO. The tests showed that near the sample surface there is a much greater population in the upsilon'' = 1ground state than is predicted by a Boltzmann distribution.

  8. Selective coupling reaction between 2,6-diiodoanisoles and terminal alkynes catalyzed by Pd(PPh32Cl2 and CuI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan F. C. Rossini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The cross-coupling reaction between aryl halides and terminal alkynes, catalyzed by palladium complexes and copper (I salts, consists in an efficient synthetic tool for the formation of C-C bonds, resulting in disubstituted acetylenic compounds. Accordingly, in this work we present our preliminary results involving the selective cross-coupling reaction between 2,6-diiodoanisoles and terminal alkynes, catalyzed by Pd(PPh32Cl2 and CuI, in the formation of 2-iodo-alkynylanisoles (scheme 1.

  9. Multidentate Di-N-heterocyclic carbene ligands for transition metal catalyzed hydrogenation reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijter, S.N.

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic catalysts play an important role in creating a more sustainable society. The use of catalysts has environmental as well as economic advantages. They speed up reactions without being consumed in the reaction itself. Moreover, they reduce the amount of byproducts and waste significantly.

  10. Influence of gamma radiation reaction on the hydroesterification of butenes catalyzed by metal carbonyls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velde, J. van der.

    1976-01-01

    In the hydro carboxylation reaction, which first has been studied by Reppe, olefine and acetylene compounds are processed with carbon monoxide and water at high pressures and high temperatures in the presence of metal carbonyls. This reaction can be enhanced considerably by application of ionizing radiation. Lower pressures and in particular lower temperatures can be used if gamma irradiation is performed during carboxylation. For the experiments a mixture of buten-1 and buten-2 as well as pure buten-1 and pure buten-2 has been used to study the behaviour of these olefines with respect to the isomerization of the reaction products and to the olefines not transformed in the reaction process. Replacing water, methanol has been used as a reaction component, thus obtaining directly the respective carbonyl acid esters, which can be analysed quantitatively and qualitatively with respect to their isomeric composition by gaschromatography. (orig./HK) [de

  11. Low-temperature superacid catalysis: Reactions of n - butane and propane catalyzed by iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsz-Keung, Cheung; d`Itri, J.L.; Lange, F.C.; Gates, B.C. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The primary goal of this project is to evaluate the potential value of solid superacid catalysts of the sulfated zirconia type for light hydrocarbon conversion. The key experiments catalytic testing of the performance of such catalysts in a flow reactor fed with streams containing, for example, n-butane or propane. Fe- and Mn-promoted sulfated zirconia was used to catalyze the conversion of n-butane at atmospheric pressure, 225-450{degrees}C, and n-butane partial pressures in the range of 0.0025-0.01 atm. At temperatures <225{degrees}C, these reactions were accompanied by cracking; at temperatures >350{degrees}C, cracking and isomerization occurred. Catalyst deactivation, resulting at least in part from coke formation, was rapid. The primary cracking products were methane, ethane, ethylene, and propylene. The observation of these products along with an ethane/ethylene molar ratio of nearly 1 at 450{degrees}C is consistent with cracking occurring, at least in part, by the Haag-Dessau mechanism, whereby the strongly acidic catalyst protonates n-butane to give carbonium ions. The rate of methane formation from n-butane cracking catalyzed by Fe- and Mn-promoted sulfated zirconia at 450{degrees}C was about 3 x 10{sup -8} mol/(g of catalyst {center_dot}s). The observation of butanes, pentanes, and methane as products is consistent with Olah superacid chemistry, whereby propane is first protonated by a very strong acid to form a carbonium ion. The carbonium ion then decomposes into methane and an ethyl cation which undergoes oligocondensation reactions with propane to form higher molecular weight alkanes. The results are consistent with the identification of iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia as a superacid.

  12. Monitoring mass transport in heterogeneously catalyzed reactions by field-gradient NMR for assessing reaction efficiency in a single pellet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buljubasich, L.; Blümich, B.; Stapf, S.

    2011-09-01

    An important aspect in assessing the performance of a catalytically active reactor is the accessibility of the reactive sites inside the individual pellets, and the mass transfer of reactants and products to and from these sites. Optimal design often requires a suitable combination of micro- and macropores in order to facilitate mass transport inside the pellet. In an exothermic reaction, fluid exchange between the pellet and the surrounding medium is enhanced by convection, and often by the occurrence of gas bubbles. Determining mass flow in the vicinity of a pellet thus represents a parameter for quantifying the reaction efficiency and its dependence on time or external reaction conditions. Field gradient Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) methods are suggested as a tool for providing parameters sensitive to this mass flow in a contact-free and non-invasive way. For the example of bubble-forming hydrogen peroxide decomposition in an alumina pellet, the dependence of the mean-squared displacement of fluid molecules on spatial direction, observation time and reaction time is presented, and multi-pulse techniques are employed in order to separate molecular displacements from coherent and incoherent motion on the timescale of the experiment. The reaction progress is followed until the complete decomposition of H 2O 2.

  13. Pd-catalyzed coupling reaction on the organic monolayer: Sonogashira reaction on the silicon (1 1 1) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Mengnan; Zhang Yuan; He Jinmei; Cao Xiaoping; Zhang Junyan

    2008-01-01

    Iodophenyl-terminated organic monolayers were prepared by thermally induced hydrosilylation on hydrogen-terminated silicon (1 1 1) surfaces. The films were characterized by ellipsometry, contact-angle goniometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). To modify the surface chemistry and the structure of the monolayers, the Sonogashira coupling reaction was performed on the as-prepared monolayers. The iodophenyl groups on the film surfaces reacted with 1-ethynyl-4-fluorobenzene or the 1-chloro-4-ethynylbenzene under the standard Sonogashira reaction conditions for attaching conjugated molecules via the formation of C-C bonds. It is expected that this surface coupling reaction will present a new method to modify the surface chemistry and the structure of monolayers

  14. Efficient buchwald hartwig reaction catalyzed by spions-bis(NHC-Pd(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Ghotbinejad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A powerful and convenient reaction procedure for the C-N coupling reaction (the Buchwald-Hartwig reaction, yielding products of N-arylanilines and N-arylamines in both conventional heating and microwave irradiation has been reported. The protocol utilizes a stable and new supper ferromagnetic nanoparticle chelating N-heterocyclic dicarbene palladium(II complex (Pd-NHC as catalyst which helps/allows us to complete the reaction with only 0.002 mol% Pd producing high yield products. We also examined the reusability of the catalyst. It was found that the catalyst could be recovered by external magnetic field and  reused for seven times without obvious loss in catalytic activity.

  15. An investigation of molybdenum and molybdenum oxide catalyzed hydrocarbon formation reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tysoe, W.T.

    1995-09-01

    The document is divided into: experiments on model catalysts at high pressure, reaction studies on metallic Mo, surface chemistry experiments (metallic surfaces in ultrahigh vacuum; Mo(CO){sub 6} adsorption on alumina), and theoretical calculations.

  16. DNA-Catalyzed Henry Reaction in Pure Water and the Striking Influence of Organic Buffer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen Häring

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this manuscript we report a critical evaluation of the ability of natural DNA to mediate the nitroaldol (Henry reaction at physiological temperature in pure water. Under these conditions, no background reaction took place (i.e., control experiment without DNA. Both heteroaromatic aldehydes (e.g., 2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde and aromatic aldehydes bearing strong or moderate electron-withdrawing groups reacted satisfactorily with nitromethane obeying first order kinetics and affording the corresponding β-nitroalcohols in good yields within 24 h. In contrast, aliphatic aldehydes and aromatic aldehydes having electron-donating groups either did not react or were poorly converted. Moreover, we discovered that a number of metal-free organic buffers efficiently promote the Henry reaction when they were used as reaction media without adding external catalysts. This constitutes an important observation because the influence of organic buffers in chemical processes has been traditionally underestimated.

  17. Transition metal catalyzed carbonylation reactions carbonylative activation of C-X bonds

    CERN Document Server

    Beller, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    This book provides students and researchers in organic synthesis with a detailed discussion of carbonylation from the basics through to applications. It discusses the past, present and future of carbonylation reactions.

  18. Infrared laser induced organic reactions. 2. Laser vs. thermal inducment of unimolecular and hydrogen bromide catalyzed bimolecular dehydration of alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danen, W.C.

    1979-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that a mixture of reactant molecules can be induced by pulsed infrared laser radiation to react via a route which is totally different from the pathway resulting from heating the mixture at 300 0 C. The high-energy unimolecular elimination of H 2 O from ethanol in the presence of 2-propanol and HBr can be selectively induced with a pulsed CO 2 laser in preference to either a lower energy bimolecular HBr-catalyzed dehydration or the more facile dehydration of 2-propanol. Heating the mixture resulted in the almost exclusive reaction of 2-propanol to produce propylene. It was demonstrated that the bimolecular ethanol + HBr reaction cannot be effectively induced by the infrared laser radiation as evidenced by the detrimental effect on the yield of ethylene as the HBr pressure was increased. The selective, nonthermal inducement of H 2 O elimination from vibrationally excited ethanol in the presence of 2-propanol required relatively low reactant pressures. At higher pressures intermolecular V--V energy transfer allowed the thermally more facile dehydration from 2-propanol to become the predominant reaction channel

  19. Theoretical insights into the sites and mechanisms for base catalyzed esterification and aldol condensation reactions over Cu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neurock, Matthew; Tao, Zhiyuan; Chemburkar, Ashwin; Hibbitts, David D; Iglesia, Enrique

    2017-04-28

    Condensation and esterification are important catalytic routes in the conversion of polyols and oxygenates derived from biomass to fuels and chemical intermediates. Previous experimental studies show that alkanal, alkanol and hydrogen mixtures equilibrate over Cu/SiO 2 and form surface alkoxides and alkanals that subsequently promote condensation and esterification reactions. First-principle density functional theory (DFT) calculations were carried out herein to elucidate the elementary paths and the corresponding energetics for the interconversion of propanal + H 2 to propanol and the subsequent C-C and C-O bond formation paths involved in aldol condensation and esterification of these mixtures over model Cu surfaces. Propanal and hydrogen readily equilibrate with propanol via C-H and O-H addition steps to form surface propoxide intermediates and equilibrated propanal/propanol mixtures. Surface propoxides readily form via low energy paths involving a hydrogen addition to the electrophilic carbon center of the carbonyl of propanal or via a proton transfer from an adsorbed propanol to a vicinal propanal. The resulting propoxide withdraws electron density from the surface and behaves as a base catalyzing the activation of propanal and subsequent esterification and condensation reactions. These basic propoxides can readily abstract the acidic C α -H of propanal to produce the CH 3 CH (-) CH 2 O* enolate, thus initiating aldol condensation. The enolate can subsequently react with a second adsorbed propanal to form a C-C bond and a β-alkoxide alkanal intermediate. The β-alkoxide alkanal can subsequently undergo facile hydride transfer to form the 2-formyl-3-pentanone intermediate that decarbonylates to give the 3-pentanone product. Cu is unique in that it rapidly catalyzes the decarbonylation of the C 2n intermediates to form C 2n-1 3-pentanone as the major product with very small yields of C 2n products. This is likely due to the absence of Brønsted acid sites

  20. Recent progress in transition-metal-catalyzed reduction of molecular dinitrogen under ambient reaction conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishibayashi, Yoshiaki

    2015-10-05

    This paper describes our recent progress in catalytic nitrogen fixation by using transition-metal-dinitrogen complexes as catalysts. Two reaction systems for the catalytic transformation of molecular dinitrogen into ammonia and its equivalent such as silylamine under ambient reaction conditions have been achieved by the molybdenum-, iron-, and cobalt-dinitrogen complexes as catalysts. Many new findings presented here may provide new access to the development of economical nitrogen fixation in place of the Haber-Bosch process.

  1. Rh(II)-catalyzed reactions of differentially substituted bis(diazo) functionalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonderoff, Sara A; Padwa, Albert

    2013-08-16

    The chemoselective reaction of donor/acceptor (D/A) and acceptor/acceptor (A/A) diazo moieties in the same molecule was examined using 3-diazo-1-(ethyl 2-diazomalonyl)indolin-2-one under rhodium(II) catalysis. The D/A diazo group undergoes selective cyclopropanation as well as XH-insertion, leaving behind the second diazo group for a further intramolecular dipolar cycloaddition reaction.

  2. Pd(II/HPMoV-Catalyzed Direct Oxidative Coupling Reaction of Benzenes with Olefins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasutaka Ishii

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The direct aerobic coupling reaction of arenes with olefins was successfully achieved by the use of Pd(OAc2/molybdovanadophosphoric acid (HPMoV as a key catalyst under 1 atm of dioxygen. This catalytic system could be extended to the coupling reaction of various substituted benzenes with olefins such as acrylates, aclrolein, and ethylene through the direct aromatic C-H bond activation.

  3. Degradation of Anthraquinone Dye Reactive Blue 4 in Pyrite Ash Catalyzed Fenton Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Becelic-Tomin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrite ash (PA is created by burning pyrite in the chemical production of sulphuric acid. The high concentration of iron oxide, mostly hematite, present in pyrite ash, gives the basis for its application as a source of catalytic iron in a modified Fenton process for anthraquinone dye reactive blue 4 (RB4 degradation. The effect of various operating variables such as catalyst and oxidant concentration, initial pH and RB4 concentration on the abatement of total organic carbon, and dye has been assessed in this study. Here we show that degradation of RB4 in the modified Fenton reaction was efficient under the following conditions: pH=2.5; [PA]0=0.2 g L−1; [H2O2]0=5 mM and initial RB4 concentration up to 100 mg L−1. The pyrite ash Fenton reaction can overcome limitations observed from the classic Fenton reaction, such as the early termination of the Fenton reaction. Metal (Pb, Zn, and Cu content of the solution after the process suggests that an additional treatment step is necessary to remove the remaining metals from the water. These results provide basic knowledge to better understand the modified, heterogeneous Fenton process and apply the PA Fenton reaction for the treatment of wastewaters which contains anthraquinone dyes.

  4. Catalyzed oxidation reactions. IV. Picolinic acid catalysis of chromic acid oxidations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocek, J.; Peng, T.Y.

    1977-01-01

    Picolinic acid and several closely related acids are effective catalysts in the chromic acid oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols; the oxidation of other substrates is accelerated only moderately. The reaction is first order in chromium-(VI), alcohol, and picolinic acid; it is second order in hydrogen ions at low acidity and approaches acidity independence at high perchloric acid concentrations. A primary deuterium kinetic isotope effect is observed at high but not at low acidities. At low acidity the reaction has a considerably lower activation energy and more negative activation entropy than at higher acidities. The reactive intermediate in the proposed mechanism is a negatively charged termolecular complex formed from chromic acid, picolinic acid, and alcohol. The rate-limiting step of the reaction changes with the acidity of the solution. At higher acidities the intermediate termolecular complex is formed reversibly and the overall reaction rate is determined by the rate of its decomposition into reaction products; at low acidities the formation of the complex is irreversible and hence rate limiting. Picolinic acids with a substituent in the 6 position show a greatly reduced catalytic activity. This observation is interpreted as suggesting a square pyramidal or octahedral structure for the reactive chromium (VI) intermediate. The temperature dependence of the deuterium isotope effect has been determined and the significance of the observed large values for E/sub a//sup D/ - E/sub a//sup H/ and A/sup D//A/sup H/ is discussed

  5. [Mechanism of reaction catalyzed by RNA-ligase from bacteriophage T4].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagrebel'nyĭ, S N; Zernov, Iu P

    1987-01-01

    The dissociation constants of the complexes of RNA-ligase with acceptors, donors and the adenylylated donor A(5')ppAp have been determined on the basis of the inhibition of ATP-pyrophosphate exchange reaction. The dissociation constants of the complexes of the enzyme with "poor" acceptors (oligouridilates) have been shown to be slightly different from those with "good" acceptors (oligoadenylates). The dependence of the reaction velocity of the formation of ligation products on the concentration of acceptors (pA)4, (pU)4 and the adenylylated donor A(5)ppAp has been studied. On the basis of the data obtained the conclusion about the random addition mechanism has been drawn. The reaction takes place in the steady-state conditions in the case of (pA)4 and in the equilibrium conditions--in the case of (pU)4.

  6. Influence of the reaction conditions on the enzyme catalyzed transesterification of castor oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade, Thalles Allan; Errico, Massimiliano; Christensen, Knud Villy

    2017-01-01

    The identification of the influence of the reaction parameters is of paramount importance when defining a process design. In this work, non-edible castor oil was reacted with methanol to produce a possible component for biodiesel blends, using liquid enzymes as the catalyst. Temperature, alcohol......-to-oil molar ratio, enzyme and added water contents were the reaction parameters evaluated in the transesterification reactions. The optimal conditions, giving the optimal final FAME yield and FFA content in the methyl ester-phase was identified. At 35 °C, 6.0 methanol-to-oil molar ratio, 5 wt% of enzyme and 5...... wt% of water contents, 94 % of FAME yield and 6.1 % of FFA in the final composition were obtained. The investigation was completed with the analysis of the component profiles, showing that at least 8 hours are necessary to reach a satisfactory FAME yield together with a minor FFA content....

  7. Kinetics based reaction optimization of enzyme catalyzed reduction of formaldehyde to methanol with synchronous cofactor regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marpani, Fauziah; Sárossy, Zsuzsa; Pinelo, Manuel; Meyer, Anne S

    2017-12-01

    Enzymatic reduction of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) to methanol (CH 3 OH) can be accomplished using a designed set-up of three oxidoreductases utilizing reduced pyridine nucleotide (NADH) as cofactor for the reducing equivalents electron supply. For this enzyme system to function efficiently a balanced regeneration of the reducing equivalents during reaction is required. Herein, we report the optimization of the enzymatic conversion of formaldehyde (CHOH) to CH 3 OH by alcohol dehydrogenase, the final step of the enzymatic redox reaction of CO 2 to CH 3 OH, with kinetically synchronous enzymatic cofactor regeneration using either glucose dehydrogenase (System I) or xylose dehydrogenase (System II). A mathematical model of the enzyme kinetics was employed to identify the best reaction set-up for attaining optimal cofactor recycling rate and enzyme utilization efficiency. Targeted process optimization experiments were conducted to verify the kinetically modeled results. Repetitive reaction cycles were shown to enhance the yield of CH 3 OH, increase the total turnover number (TTN) and the biocatalytic productivity rate (BPR) value for both system I and II whilst minimizing the exposure of the enzymes to high concentrations of CHOH. System II was found to be superior to System I with a yield of 8 mM CH 3 OH, a TTN of 160 and BPR of 24 μmol CH 3 OH/U · h during 6 hr of reaction. The study demonstrates that an optimal reaction set-up could be designed from rational kinetics modeling to maximize the yield of CH 3 OH, whilst simultaneously optimizing cofactor recycling and enzyme utilization efficiency. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. High Pressure Diels Alder Reactions of 1-Vinyl-2,2,6-trimethylcyclohexene Catalyzed by Chiral Lewis Acids; An Enantioselective Route to a Drimane Sesquiterpene Precursor.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knol, Joop; Meetsma, Auke; Feringa, Bernard

    1995-01-01

    The Diels Alder reaction of 1-vinyl-2,2,6-trimethylcyclohexene and 3-((E)-3-(methoxycarbonyl)propenoyl)-1,3-oxazolidin-2-one under high pressure, catalyzed by a chiral bis-imine copper(II) complex, yields a drimane sesquiterpene precursor in a highly regio- and diastereoselective manner with

  9. Bicyclic Guanidine Catalyzed Asymmetric Tandem Isomerization Intramolecular-Diels-Alder Reaction: The First Catalytic Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (+)-alpha-Yohimbine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wei; Jiang, Danfeng; Kee, Choon-Wee; Liu, Hongjun; Tan, Choon-Hong

    2016-02-04

    Hydroisoquinoline derivatives were prepared in moderate to good enantioselectivities via a bicyclic guanidine-catalyzed tandem isomerization intramolecular-Diels-Alder (IMDA) reaction of alkynes. With this synthetic method, the first enantioselective synthesis of (+)-alpha-yohimbine was completed in 9 steps from the IMDA products. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Uptake kinetics and biodistribution of C-14-D-luciferin-a radiolabeled substrate for the firefly luciferase catalyzed bioluminescence reaction : impact on bioluminescence based reporter gene imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, Frank; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Bhaumik, Srabani; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Firefly luciferase catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of D-luciferin to oxyluciferin in the presence of cofactors, producing bioluminescence. This reaction is used in optical bioluminescence-based molecular imaging approaches to detect the expression of the firefly luciferase reporter

  11. Cu-catalyzed C(sp³)-H bond activation reaction for direct preparation of cycloallyl esters from cycloalkanes and aromatic aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jincan; Fang, Hong; Han, Jianlin; Pan, Yi

    2014-05-02

    Cu-catalyzed dehydrogenation-olefination and esterification of C(sp(3))-H bonds of cycloalkanes with TBHP as an oxidant has been developed. The reaction involves four C-H bond activations and gives cycloallyl ester products directly from cycloalkanes and aromatic aldehydes.

  12. Visible-light photoredox catalyzed synthesis of pyrroloisoquinolines via organocatalytic oxidation/[3 + 2] cycloaddition/oxidative aromatization reaction cascade with Rose Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vila

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Pyrrolo[2,1-a]isoquinoline alkaloids have been prepared via a visible light photoredox catalyzed oxidation/[3 + 2] cycloaddition/oxidative aromatization cascade using Rose Bengal as an organo-photocatalyst. A variety of pyrroloisoquinolines have been obtained in good yields under mild and metal-free reaction conditions.

  13. One-pot synthesis of 2H-pyrans by indium(III) chloride-catalyzed reactions. efficient synthesis of pyranocoumarins, pyranophenalenones, and pyranoquinolinones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Rok; Kim, Do Hoon; Shim, Jae Jin; Kim, Seog K.; Park, Jung Hag; Cha, Jin Soon; Lee, Chong Soon

    2002-01-01

    An efficient synthesis of 2H-pyrans is achieved by indium (III) chloride-catalyzed reactions of 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds with a variety of α.β-unsaturated aldehydes in moderates yields. This method has been applied to the synthesis of pyranocoumarins, pyranophenaleneones, and pyranoquinolinone alkaloids

  14. Syntheses of the hexahydroindene cores of indanomycin and stawamycin by combinations of iridium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylations and intramolecular Diels-Alder reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, Martin; Satyanarayana, Gedu; Förster, Sebastian; Helmchen, Günter

    2013-01-02

    Short and concise syntheses of the hexahydroindene cores of the antibiotics indanomycin (X-14547 A) and stawamycin are presented. Key methods used are an asymmetric iridium-catalyzed allylic alkylation, a modified Julia olefination, a Suzuki-Miyaura coupling, and an intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. One-pot synthesis of 2H-pyrans by indium(III) chloride-catalyzed reactions. efficient synthesis of pyranocoumarins, pyranophenalenones, and pyranoquinolinones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Rok; Kim, Do Hoon; Shim, Jae Jin; Kim, Seog K.; Park, Jung Hag; Cha, Jin Soon; Lee, Chong Soon [Yeungnam Univ., Kyongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-08-01

    An efficient synthesis of 2H-pyrans is achieved by indium (III) chloride-catalyzed reactions of 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds with a variety of {alpha}.{beta}-unsaturated aldehydes in moderates yields. This method has been applied to the synthesis of pyranocoumarins, pyranophenaleneones, and pyranoquinolinone alkaloids.

  16. A coumarin-specific prenyltransferase catalyzes the crucial biosynthetic reaction for furanocoumarin formation in parsley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamat, Fazeelat; Olry, Alexandre; Munakata, Ryosuke; Koeduka, Takao; Sugiyama, Akifumi; Paris, Cedric; Hehn, Alain; Bourgaud, Frédéric; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2014-02-01

    Furanocoumarins constitute a sub-family of coumarin compounds with important defense properties against pathogens and insects, as well as allelopathic functions in plants. Furanocoumarins are divided into two sub-groups according to the alignment of the furan ring with the lactone structure: linear psoralen and angular angelicin derivatives. Determination of furanocoumarin type is based on the prenylation position of the common precursor of all furanocoumarins, umbelliferone, at C6 or C8, which gives rise to the psoralen or angelicin derivatives, respectively. Here, we identified a membrane-bound prenyltransferase PcPT from parsley (Petroselinum crispum), and characterized the properties of the gene product. PcPT expression in various parsley tissues is increased by UV irradiation, with a concomitant increase in furanocoumarin production. This enzyme has strict substrate specificity towards umbelliferone and dimethylallyl diphosphate, and a strong preference for the C6 position of the prenylated product (demethylsuberosin), leading to linear furanocoumarins. The C8-prenylated derivative (osthenol) is also formed, but to a much lesser extent. The PcPT protein is targeted to the plastids in planta. Introduction of this PcPT into the coumarin-producing plant Ruta graveolens showed increased consumption of endogenous umbelliferone. Expression of PcPT and a 4-coumaroyl CoA 2'-hydroxylase gene in Nicotiana benthamiana, which does not produce furanocoumarins, resulted in formation of demethylsuberosin, indicating that furanocoumarin production may be reconstructed by a metabolic engineering approach. The results demonstrate that a single prenyltransferase, such as PcPT, opens the pathway to linear furanocoumarins in parsley, but may also catalyze the synthesis of osthenol, the first intermediate committed to the angular furanocoumarin pathway, in other plants. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Chiral Nickel(II) Complex Catalyzed Enantioselective Doyle-Kirmse Reaction of α-Diazo Pyrazoleamides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaobin; Tang, Yu; Yang, Wei; Tan, Fei; Lin, Lili; Liu, Xiaohua; Feng, Xiaoming

    2018-03-07

    Although high enantioselectivity of [2,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement of sulfonium ylides (Doyle-Kirmse reaction) has proven surprisingly elusive using classic chiral Rh(II) and Cu(I) catalysts, in principle it is due to the difficulty in fine discrimination of the heterotopic lone pairs of sulfur and chirality inversion at sulfur of sulfonium ylides. Here, we show that the synergistic merger of new α-diazo pyrazoleamides and a chiral N, N'-dioxide-nickel(II) complex catalyst enables a highly enantioselective Doyle-Kirmse reaction. The pyrazoleamide substituent serves as both an activating and a directing group for the ready formation of a metal-carbene- and Lewis-acid-bonded ylide intermediate in the assistance of a dual-tasking nickel(II) complex. An alternative chiral Lewis-acid-bonded ylide pathway greatly improves the product enantiopurity even for the reaction of a symmetric diallylsulfane. The majority of transformations over a series of aryl- or vinyl-substituted α-diazo pyrazoleamindes and sulfides proceed rapidly (within 5-20 min in most cases) with excellent results (up to 99% yield and 96% ee), providing a breakthrough in enantioselective Doyle-Kirmse reaction.

  18. RUTHENIUM-CATALYZED TANDEM OLEFIN MIGRATION-ALDOL AND MANNICH-TYPE REACTIONS IN IONIC LIQUID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the presence of a catalytic amount of RuCl2(PPh3)3, a cross-coupling of 3-buten-2-ol with aldehydes and imines was developed via a tandem olefin migration--aldol--Mannich reaction in bmim[PF6]. With In(OAc)3 as a co-catalyst, a-vinylbenzyl alcohol and aldehydes underwent sim...

  19. In(OTf)3 catalyzed allylation reaction of imines with tetraallyltin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Ning Wei; Ling Yan Liu; Bing Wang; Wei Xing Chang; Jing Li

    2009-01-01

    In the presence of catalytic amount of In(OTf)3 (10 mol%), a series of aldimines reacted with tetraallyltin in a 2:1 molar ratio to afford the corresponding homoallylic amines in good yields. The good atom efficiency was achieved under mild reaction conditions and a new protocol (allyl)4Sn/In(OTf)3 for simple imines was developed.

  20. The Effect of Temperature on the Enzyme-Catalyzed Reaction: Insights from Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aledo, Juan Carlos; Jimenez-Riveres, Susana; Tena, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    When teaching the effect of temperature on biochemical reactions, the problem is usually oversimplified by confining the thermal effect to the catalytic constant, which is identified with the rate constant of the elementary limiting step. Therefore, only positive values for activation energies and values greater than 1 for temperature coefficients…

  1. Metal-catalyzed Asymmetric Hetero-Diels-Alder Reactions of Unactivated Dienes with Glyoxylates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Mogens; Yao, Sulan; Graven, Anette

    1998-01-01

    The development of a catalytic asymmetric hetero-Diels-Alder methodology for the reaction of unactivated dienes with glyoxylates is presented. Several different asymmetric catalysts can be used, but copper-bisoxazolines and aluminium-BINOL give the highest yield, and the best chemo...

  2. (SalenMn(III Catalyzed Asymmetric Epoxidation Reactions by Hydrogen Peroxide in Water: A Green Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Paolo Ballistreri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Enantioselective epoxidation reactions of some chosen reactive alkenes by a chiral Mn(III salen catalyst were performed in H2O employing H2O2 as oxidant and diethyltetradecylamine N-oxide (AOE-14 as surfactant. This procedure represents an environmentally benign protocol which leads to e.e. values ranging from good to excellent (up to 95%.

  3. Degradation of sulfadimethoxine catalyzed by laccase with soybean meal extract as natural mediator: Mechanism and reaction pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shangtao; Luo, Qi; Huang, Qingguo

    2017-08-01

    Natural laccase-mediator systems have been well recognized as an eco-friendly and energy-saving approach in environmental remediation, whose further application is however limited by the high cost of natural mediators and relatively long treatment time span. This study evaluated the water extract of soybean meal, a low-cost compound system, in mediating the laccase catalyzed degradation of a model contaminant of emerging concern, sulfadimethoxine (SDM), and demonstrated it as a promising alternative mediator for soil and water remediation. Removal of 73.3% and 65.6% was achieved in 9 h using soybean meal extract (SBE) as the mediating system for laccase-catalyzed degradation of sulfadimethoxine at the concentration of 1 ppm and 10 ppm, respectively. Further degradation of sulfadimethoxine was observed with multiple SBE additions. Using SBE as mediator increased the 9-h removal of SDM at 1 ppm initial concentration by 52.9%, 49.4%, and 36.3% in comparison to the system mediated by 1-Hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT), p-Coumaric acid (COU) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS), respectively. With the detection of stable coupling products formed with radical scavenger (5,5-Dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide, DMPO), three phenolic compounds (vanillin, apocynin, and daidzein) in SBE were confirmed to serve as mediators for Trametes versicolor laccase. Reaction pathways were proposed based on the results of High Resolution Mass Spectrometry. SO 2 excursion happened during SDM transformation, leading to elimination of antimicrobial activity. Therefore, as a natural, phenol rich, and affordable compound system, the future application of SBE in wastewater and soil remediation is worth exploring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Enzymatic Synthesis and Structural Characterization of Theanderose through Transfructosylation Reaction Catalyzed by Levansucrase from Bacillus subtilis CECT 39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Aceituno, Laura; Sanz, Maria Luz; de Las Rivas, Blanca; Muñoz, Rosario; Kolida, Sofia; Jimeno, Maria Luisa; Moreno, F Javier

    2017-12-06

    This work addresses the high-yield and fast enzymatic production of theanderose, a naturally occurring carbohydrate, also known as isomaltosucrose, whose chemical structure determined by NMR is α-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-α-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-fructofuranose. The ability of isomaltose to act as an acceptor in the Bacillus subtilis CECT 39 levansucrase-catalyzed transfructosylation reaction to efficiently produce theanderose in the presence of sucrose as a donor is described by using four different sucrose:isomaltose concentration ratios. The maximum theanderose concentration ranged from 122.4 to 130.4 g L -1 , was obtained after only 1 h and at a moderate temperature (37 °C), leading to high productivity (109.7-130.4 g L -1 h -1 ) and yield (up to 37.3%) values. The enzymatic synthesis was highly regiospecific, since no other detectable acceptor reaction products were formed. The development of efficient and cost-effective procedures for the biosynthesis of unexplored but appealing oligosaccharides as potential sweeteners, such as theanderose, could help to expand its potential applications which are currently limited by their low availability.

  5. Tunable differentiation of tertiary C-H bonds in intramolecular transition metal-catalyzed nitrene transfer reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Joshua R; Schomaker, Jennifer M

    2017-04-13

    Metal-catalyzed nitrene transfer reactions are an appealing and efficient strategy for accessing tetrasubstituted amines through the direct amination of tertiary C-H bonds. Traditional catalysts for these reactions rely on substrate control to achieve site-selectivity in the C-H amination event; thus, tunability is challenging when competing C-H bonds have similar steric or electronic features. One consequence of this fact is that the impact of catalyst identity on the selectivity in the competitive amination of tertiary C-H bonds has not been well-explored, despite the potential for progress towards predictable and catalyst-controlled C-N bond formation. In this communication, we report investigations into tunable and site-selective nitrene transfers between tertiary C(sp 3 )-H bonds using a combination of transition metal catalysts, including complexes based on Ag, Mn, Rh and Ru. Particularly striking was the ability to reverse the selectivity of nitrene transfer by a simple change in the identity of the N-donor ligand supporting the Ag(i) complex. The combination of our Ag(i) catalysts with known Rh 2 (ii) complexes expands the scope of successful catalyst-controlled intramolecular nitrene transfer and represents a promising springboard for the future development of intermolecular C-H N-group transfer methods.

  6. Regio-, Diastereo-, and Enantioselective Nitroso-Diels-Alder Reaction of 1,3-Diene-1-carbamates Catalyzed by Chiral Phosphoric Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pous, Jonathan; Courant, Thibaut; Bernadat, Guillaume; Iorga, Bogdan I; Blanchard, Florent; Masson, Géraldine

    2015-09-23

    Chiral phosphoric acid-catalyzed asymmetric nitroso-Diels-Alder reaction of nitrosoarenes with carbamate-dienes afforded cis-3,6-disubstituted dihydro-1,2-oxazines in high yields with excellent regio-, diastereo-, and enantioselectivities. Interestingly, we observed that the catalyst is able not only to control the enantioselectivity but also to reverse the regioselectivity of the noncatalyzed nitroso-Diels-Alder reaction. The regiochemistry reversal and asynchronous concerted mechanism were confirmed by DFT calculations.

  7. FeCl3- and GaCl3-Catalyzed Dehydrative Coupling Reaction of Chromone-Derived Morita-Baylis-Hillman Alcohols with Terminal Alkynes%FeCl3- and GaCl3-Catalyzed Dehydrative Coupling Reaction of Chromone-Derived Morita-Baylis-Hillman Alcohols with Terminal Alkynes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武陈; 曾皓; 刘哲; 刘利; 王东; 陈拥军

    2011-01-01

    FeCl3- and GaCl3-catalyzed dehydrative coupling reactions of chromone-derived Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) alcohols with terminal alkynes were developed. The reactions provided exclusively a-regioselective and acetylene-substituted products in good yields.

  8. Pd-catalyzed versus uncatalyzed, PhI(OAc)2-mediated cyclization reactions of N6-([1,1'-biaryl]-2-yl)adenine nucleosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satishkumar, Sakilam; Poudapally, Suresh; Vuram, Prasanna K; Gurram, Venkateshwarlu; Pottabathini, Narender; Sebastian, Dellamol; Yang, Lijia; Pradhan, Padmanava; Lakshman, Mahesh K

    2017-11-09

    In this work we have assessed reactions of N 6 -([1,1'-biaryl]-2-yl)adenine nucleosides with Pd(OAc) 2 and PhI(OAc) 2 , via a Pd II /Pd IV redox cycle. The substrates are readily obtained by Pd/Xantphos-catalyzed reaction of adenine nucleosides with 2-bromo-1,1'-biaryls. In PhMe, the N 6 -biarylyl nucleosides gave C6-carbazolyl nucleoside analogues by C-N bond formation with the exocyclic N 6 nitrogen atom. In the solvent screening for the Pd-catalyzed reactions, an uncatalyzed process was found to be operational. It was observed that the carbazolyl products could also be obtained in the absence of a metal catalyst by reaction with PhI(OAc) 2 in 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP). Thus, under Pd catalysis and in HFIP, reactions proceed to provide carbazolyl nucleoside analogues, with some differences. If reactions of N 6 -biarylyl nucleoside substrates were conducted in MeCN, formation of aryl benzimidazopurinyl nucleoside derivatives was observed in many cases by C-N bond formation with the N 1 ring nitrogen atom of the purine (carbazole and benzimidazole isomers are readily separated by chromatography). Whereas Pd II /Pd IV redox is responsible for carbazole formation under the metal-catalyzed conditions, in HFIP and MeCN radical cations and/or nitrenium ions can be intermediates. An extensive set of radical inhibition experiments was conducted and the data are presented.

  9. Process limitations of a whole-cell P450 catalyzed reaction using a CYP153A-CPR fusion construct expressed in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundemo, M. T.; Notonier, S.; Striedner, G.

    2016-01-01

    fatty acids at the terminal position. ω-Hydroxylated fatty acids can be used in the field of high-end polymers and in the cosmetic and fragrance industry. Here, we have identified the limitations for implementation of a whole-cell P450-catalyzed reaction by characterizing the chosen biocatalyst as well......Cytochrome P450s are interesting biocatalysts due to their ability to hydroxylate non-activated hydrocarbons in a selective manner. However, to date only a few P450-catalyzed processes have been implemented in industry due to the difficulty of developing economically feasible processes...

  10. How low does iron go? Chasing the active species in fe-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, Robin B

    2015-05-19

    The catalytic cross-coupling reactions of organic halides or related substrates with organometallic nucleophiles form the cornerstone of many carbon-carbon bond-forming processes. While palladium-based catalysts typically mediate such reactions, there are increasing concerns about the long-term sustainability of palladium in synthesis. This is due to the high cost of palladium, coupled with its low natural abundance, environmentally deleterious extraction (∼6 g of metal are produced per ton of ore), toxicity, and competition for its use from the automotive and consumer electronics sectors. Therefore, there is a growing interest in replacing palladium-based catalysts with those incorporating more earth-abundant elements. With its low cost, high natural abundance, and low toxicity, iron makes a particularly appealing alternative, and accordingly, the development of iron-catalyzed cross-coupling is undergoing explosive growth. However, our understanding of the mechanisms that underpin the iron-based catalytic cycles is still very much in its infancy. Mechanistic insight into catalytic reactions is not only academically important but also allows us to maximize the efficiency of processes or even to develop entirely new transformations. Key to the development of robust mechanistic models for cross-coupling is knowing the lowest oxidation state in the cycle. Once this is established, we can explore subsequent redox processes and build the catalytic manifold. Until we know with confidence what the lowest oxidation state is, any cycles proposed are largely just guesswork. To date, Fe(-II), Fe(-I), Fe(0), Fe(I), and Fe(II) have been proposed as contenders for the lowest-oxidation-state species in the cycle in iron-catalyzed cross-coupling; the aim of this Account is to pull together the various pieces of evidence in support, or otherwise, of each of these suggestions in turn. There currently exists no direct evidence that oxidation states below Fe(0) are active in the

  11. An Alternative Reaction Pathway for Iridium Catalyzed Water Oxidation Driven by CAN

    KAUST Repository

    Bucci, Alberto

    2016-06-10

    The generation of solar fuels by means of a photosynthetic apparatus strongly relies on the development of an efficient water oxidation catalyst (WOC). Cerium ammonium nitrate (CAN) is the most commonly used sacrificial oxidant to explore the potentiality of WOCs. It is usually assumed that CAN has the unique role to oxidatively energize WOCs, making them capable to offer a low energy reaction pathway to transform H2O to O2. Herein we show that CAN might have a much more relevant and direct role in WO, mainly related to the capture and liberation of O–O containing molecular moieties.

  12. Cascade olefin isomerization/intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction catalyzed by N-heterocyclic carbenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Marcin; Lupton, David W

    2014-05-19

    The addition of an N-heterocyclic carbene to the carbonyl group of an α,β,γ,δ-unsaturated enol ester affords a hemiacetal azolium intermediate that enables a cascade olefin isomerization/Diels-Alder reaction, for which mechanistic studies implicate Lewis base catalysis. Preliminary studies into the utility of the products have been undertaken with reductive and oxidative cleavage, giving materials for potential use in complex-target synthesis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. An Alternative Reaction Pathway for Iridium Catalyzed Water Oxidation Driven by CAN

    KAUST Repository

    Bucci, Alberto; Menendez Rodriguez, Gabriel; Bellachioma, Gianfranco; Zuccaccia, Cristiano; Poater, Albert; Cavallo, Luigi; Macchioni, Alceo

    2016-01-01

    The generation of solar fuels by means of a photosynthetic apparatus strongly relies on the development of an efficient water oxidation catalyst (WOC). Cerium ammonium nitrate (CAN) is the most commonly used sacrificial oxidant to explore the potentiality of WOCs. It is usually assumed that CAN has the unique role to oxidatively energize WOCs, making them capable to offer a low energy reaction pathway to transform H2O to O2. Herein we show that CAN might have a much more relevant and direct role in WO, mainly related to the capture and liberation of O–O containing molecular moieties.

  14. Universal, colorimetric microRNA detection strategy based on target-catalyzed toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yeonkyung; Lee, Chang Yeol; Kang, Shinyoung; Kim, Hansol; Park, Ki Soo; Park, Hyun Gyu

    2018-02-01

    In this work, we developed a novel, label-free, and enzyme-free strategy for the colorimetric detection of microRNA (miRNA), which relies on a target-catalyzed toehold-mediated strand displacement (TMSD) reaction. The system employs a detection probe that specifically binds to the target miRNA and sequentially releases a catalyst strand (CS) intended to trigger the subsequent TMSD reaction. Thus, the presence of target miRNA releases the CS that mediates the formation of an active G-quadruplex DNAzyme which is initially caged and inactivated by a blocker strand. In addition, a fuel strand that is supplemented for the recycling of the CS promotes another TMSD reaction, consequently generating a large number of active G-quadruplex DNAzymes. As a result, a distinct colorimetric signal is produced by the ABTS oxidation promoted by the peroxidase mimicking activity of the released G-quadruplex DNAzymes. Based on this novel strategy, we successfully detected miR-141, a promising biomarker for human prostate cancer, with high selectivity. The diagnostic capability of this system was also demonstrated by reliably determining target miR-141 in human serum, showing its great potential towards real clinical applications. Importantly, the proposed approach is composed of separate target recognition and signal transduction modules. Thus, it could be extended to analyze different target miRNAs by simply redesigning the detection probe while keeping the same signal transduction module as a universal signal amplification unit, which was successfully demonstrated by analyzing another target miRNA, let-7d.

  15. Asymmetric effect of mechanical stress on the forward and reverse reaction catalyzed by an enzyme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin Joseph

    Full Text Available The concept of modulating enzymatic activity by exerting a mechanical stress on the enzyme has been established in previous work. Mechanical perturbation is also a tool for probing conformational motion accompanying the enzymatic cycle. Here we report measurements of the forward and reverse kinetics of the enzyme Guanylate Kinase from yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The enzyme is held in a state of stress using the DNA spring method. The observation that mechanical stress has different effects on the forward and reverse reaction kinetics suggests that forward and reverse reactions follow different paths, on average, in the enzyme's conformational space. Comparing the kinetics of the stressed and unstressed enzyme we also show that the maximum speed of the enzyme is comparable to the predictions of the relaxation model of enzyme action, where we use the independently determined dissipation coefficient [Formula: see text] for the enzyme's conformational motion. The present experiments provide a mean to explore enzyme kinetics beyond the static energy landscape picture of transition state theory.

  16. Chemical Reactions Catalyzed by Metalloporphyrin-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Aparecida Dias de Freitas Castro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The synthetic versatility and the potential application of metalloporphyrins (MP in different fields have aroused researchers’ interest in studying these complexes, in an attempt to mimic biological systems such as cytochrome P-450. Over the last 40 years, synthetic MPs have been mainly used as catalysts for homogeneous or heterogeneous chemical reactions. To employ them in heterogeneous catalysis, chemists have prepared new MP-based solids by immobilizing MP onto rigid inorganic supports, a strategy that affords hybrid inorganic-organic materials. More recently, materials obtained by supramolecular assembly processes and containing MPs as building blocks have been applied in a variety of areas, like gas storage, photonic devices, separation, molecular sensing, magnets, and heterogeneous catalysis, among others. These coordination polymers, known as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs, contain organic ligands or complexes connected by metal ions or clusters, which give rise to a 1-, 2- or 3-D network. These kinds of materials presents large surface areas, Brønsted or redox sites, and high porosity, all of which are desirable features in catalysts with potential use in heterogeneous phases. Building MOFs based on MP is a good way to obtain solid catalysts that offer the advantages of bioinspired systems and zeolitic materials. In this mini review, we will adopt a historical approach to present the most relevant MP-based MOFs applicable to catalytic reactions such as oxidation, reduction, insertion of functional groups, and exchange of organic functions.

  17. Gold-catalyzed tandem hydroamination/formal aza-Diels-Alder reaction of homopropargyl amino esters: a combined computational and experimental mechanistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miró, Javier; Sánchez-Roselló, María; González, Javier; del Pozo, Carlos; Fustero, Santos

    2015-03-27

    A tandem gold-catalyzed hydroamination/formal aza-Diels-Alder reaction is described. This process, which employs quaternary homopropargyl amino ester substrates, leads to the formation of an intrincate tetracyclic framework and involves the generation of four bonds and five stereocenters in a highly diastereoselective manner. Theoretical calculations have allowed us to propose a suitable mechanistic rationalization for the tandem protocol. Additionally, by studying the influence of the ligands on the rate of the gold-catalyzed reactions, it was possible to establish optimum conditions in which to perform the process with a variety of substituents on the amino ester substrates. Notably, the asymmetric version of the tandem reaction was also evaluated. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Graphene oxide for acid catalyzed-reactions: Effect of drying process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, H. P.; Hua, W. M.; Yue, Y. H.; Gao, Z.

    2017-03-01

    Graphene oxides (GOs) were prepared by Hummers method through various drying processes, and characterized by XRD, SEM, FTIR, XPS and N2 adsorption. Their acidities were measured using potentiometric titration and acid-base titration. The catalytic properties were investigated in the alkylation of anisole with benzyl alcohol and transesterification of triacetin with methanol. GOs are active catalysts for both reaction, whose activity is greatly affected by their drying processes. Vacuum drying GO exhibits the best performance in transesterification while freezing drying GO is most active for alkylation. The excellent catalytic behavior comes from abundant surface acid sites as well as proper surface functional groups, which can be obtained by selecting appropriate drying process.

  19. Theoretical study on platinum-catalyzed isotope exchange reaction mechanism of hydrogen and liquid water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Sheng; Wang Heyi; Luo Shunzhong

    2009-04-01

    Based on electron and vibration approximate means and the density function theory B3LYP, the ΔG degree and equilibrium pressures of adsorption and dissociation reactions of H 2 and water vapor on Pt surface have been calculated. The adsorption, dissociation and coadsorption actions of H 2 and water were analyzed. According to the ΔG degree, hydrogen molecule combines with metal atoms in single atom, and water vapor molecule has no tendency to dissociate on Pt surface. The dissociation of hydrogen molecule would hold back the direct adsorption of water vapor molecules on Pt surface. The structures of Pt-H (OH 2 ) n + (n=1, 2, 3) hydroniums were optimized. According to the mulliken overlap populations, Pt-H (OH 2 ) + is not stable or produced. Hydrogen isotope exchange occurs between hydration layer and D atoms which adsorb on Pt surface via intermediates (H 2 O) n D + (ads) (n≥2). (authors)

  20. Cooperative Effects Between Arginine and Glutamic Acid in the Amino Acid-Catalyzed Aldol Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Guillem; Moyano, Albert

    2016-08-01

    Catalysis of the aldol reaction between cyclohexanone and 4-nitrobenzaldehyde by mixtures of L-Arg and of L-Glu in wet dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) takes place with higher enantioselectivity (up to a 7-fold enhancement in the anti-aldol for the 1:1 mixture) than that observed when either L-Glu or L-Arg alone are used as the catalysts. These results can be explained by the formation of a catalytically active hydrogen-bonded complex between both amino acids, and demonstrate the possibility of positive cooperative effects in catalysis by two different α-amino acids. Chirality 28:599-605, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Selective Production of Renewable para-Xylene by Tungsten Carbide Catalyzed Atom-Economic Cascade Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Tao; Li, Changzhi; Li, Lin; Zhao, Zongbao Kent; Zhang, Bo; Cong, Yu; Wang, Aiqin

    2018-02-12

    Tungsten carbide was employed as the catalyst in an atom-economic and renewable synthesis of para-xylene with excellent selectivity and yield from 4-methyl-3-cyclohexene-1-carbonylaldehyde (4-MCHCA). This intermediate is the product of the Diels-Alder reaction between the two readily available bio-based building blocks acrolein and isoprene. Our results suggest that 4-MCHCA undergoes a novel dehydroaromatization-hydrodeoxygenation cascade process by intramolecular hydrogen transfer that does not involve an external hydrogen source, and that the hydrodeoxygenation occurs through the direct dissociation of the C=O bond on the W 2 C surface. Notably, this process is readily applicable to the synthesis of various (multi)methylated arenes from bio-based building blocks, thus potentially providing a petroleum-independent solution to valuable aromatic compounds. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Comparative analyses of laccase-catalyzed amination reactions for production of novel β-lactam antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolasch, Annett; Manda, Katrin; Schlüter, Rabea; Lalk, Michael; Witt, Sabine; Seefeldt, Simone; Hammer, Elke; Schauer, Frieder; Jülich, Wolf-Dieter; Lindequist, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    Seven novel β-lactam antibiotics with activities against Gram-positive bacterial strains, among them methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci, were synthesized by amination of 2,5-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid in usable yields (30-60%). These products protected mice against an infection with S. aureus lethal to the control animals. The results show the usefulness of laccase for the synthesis of potential new antibiotics, in addition to the interdependence of the laccase substrates, the amino coupling partners, and the product formation, yield, and activity. The syntheses of β-lactam antibiotics with 2,5-dihydroxyaromatic acid substructures (para-substituted) are then compared with those of 3,4-dihydroxyaromatic acid substructures (ortho-substituted). Para-substituted laccase substrates were better reaction partners in these syntheses than ortho-substituted compounds. Copyright © 2012 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Mission to Mars by catalyzed nuclear reactions of the commercialized cold fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Tae Ho

    2016-01-01

    The chemical compound source is deficient to reach to the power as much as the journey to Mars, unless the massive equipment is installed like the nuclear fusion reactor. However, there is very significant limitations of making up the facility due to the propellant power. Therefore, the light and cheap energy source, Low energy nuclear reactions (LENRs), powered rocket has been proposed. In this paper, the power conditions by LENRs are analyzed. After the successful Apollo mission to Moon of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the U.S. government, the civilian companies have proposed for the manned mission to Mars for the commercial journey purposes. The nuclear power has been a critical issue for the energy source in the travel, especially, by the LENR of LENUCO, Champaign, USA. As the velocity of the rocket increases, the mass flow rate decreases. It could be imaginable to take the reasonable velocity of spacecraft. The energy of the travel system is and will be created for the better one in economical and safe method. There is the imagination of boarding pass for spacecraft ticket shows the selected companies of cold fusion products. In order to solve the limitations of the conventional power sources like the chemical and solar energies, it is reasonable to design LENR concept. Since the economical and safe spacecraft is very important in the long journey on and beyond the Mars orbit, a new energy source, LENR, should be studied much more

  4. Quantum chemical modeling of zeolite-catalyzed methylation reactions: toward chemical accuracy for barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svelle, Stian; Tuma, Christian; Rozanska, Xavier; Kerber, Torsten; Sauer, Joachim

    2009-01-21

    The methylation of ethene, propene, and t-2-butene by methanol over the acidic microporous H-ZSM-5 catalyst has been investigated by a range of computational methods. Density functional theory (DFT) with periodic boundary conditions (PBE functional) fails to describe the experimentally determined decrease of apparent energy barriers with the alkene size due to inadequate description of dispersion forces. Adding a damped dispersion term expressed as a parametrized sum over atom pair C(6) contributions leads to uniformly underestimated barriers due to self-interaction errors. A hybrid MP2:DFT scheme is presented that combines MP2 energy calculations on a series of cluster models of increasing size with periodic DFT calculations, which allows extrapolation to the periodic MP2 limit. Additionally, errors caused by the use of finite basis sets, contributions of higher order correlation effects, zero-point vibrational energy, and thermal contributions to the enthalpy were evaluated and added to the "periodic" MP2 estimate. This multistep approach leads to enthalpy barriers at 623 K of 104, 77, and 48 kJ/mol for ethene, propene, and t-2-butene, respectively, which deviate from the experimentally measured values by 0, +13, and +8 kJ/mol. Hence, enthalpy barriers can be calculated with near chemical accuracy, which constitutes significant progress in the quantum chemical modeling of reactions in heterogeneous catalysis in general and microporous zeolites in particular.

  5. Synthesis of L-Ascorbyl Flurbiprofenate by Lipase-Catalyzed Esterification and Transesterification Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-ying Xin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of L-ascorbyl flurbiprofenate was achieved by esterification and transesterification in nonaqueous organic medium with Novozym 435 lipase as biocatalyst. The conversion was greatly influenced by the kinds of organic solvents, speed of agitation, catalyst loading amount, reaction time, and molar ratio of acyl donor to L-ascorbic acid. A series of solvents were investigated, and tert-butanol was found to be the most suitable from the standpoint of the substrate solubility and the conversion for both the esterification and transesterification. When flurbiprofen was used as acyl donor, 61.0% of L-ascorbic acid was converted against 46.4% in the presence of flurbiprofen methyl ester. The optimal conversion of L-ascorbic acid was obtained when the initial molar ratio of acyl donor to ascorbic acid was 5 : 1. kinetics parameters were solved by Lineweaver-Burk equation under nonsubstrate inhibition condition. Since transesterification has lower conversion, from the standpoint of productivity and the amount of steps required, esterification is a better method compared to transesterification.

  6. Mission to Mars by catalyzed nuclear reactions of the commercialized cold fusion power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Tae Ho [Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The chemical compound source is deficient to reach to the power as much as the journey to Mars, unless the massive equipment is installed like the nuclear fusion reactor. However, there is very significant limitations of making up the facility due to the propellant power. Therefore, the light and cheap energy source, Low energy nuclear reactions (LENRs), powered rocket has been proposed. In this paper, the power conditions by LENRs are analyzed. After the successful Apollo mission to Moon of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the U.S. government, the civilian companies have proposed for the manned mission to Mars for the commercial journey purposes. The nuclear power has been a critical issue for the energy source in the travel, especially, by the LENR of LENUCO, Champaign, USA. As the velocity of the rocket increases, the mass flow rate decreases. It could be imaginable to take the reasonable velocity of spacecraft. The energy of the travel system is and will be created for the better one in economical and safe method. There is the imagination of boarding pass for spacecraft ticket shows the selected companies of cold fusion products. In order to solve the limitations of the conventional power sources like the chemical and solar energies, it is reasonable to design LENR concept. Since the economical and safe spacecraft is very important in the long journey on and beyond the Mars orbit, a new energy source, LENR, should be studied much more.

  7. Characteristics and Applicability of Phytase of the Yeast Pichia anomala in Synthesizing Haloperoxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Swati; Satyanarayana, Tulasi

    2015-07-01

    The phytase of the yeast Pichia anomala is a histidine acid phosphatase based on signature sequences and catalytic amino acids identified by site-directed mutagenesis. Among modulators, N-bromosuccinimide and butanedione inhibit phytase, while Ca(2+) and Ni(2+) stimulate slightly. Vanadate exhibits competitive inhibition of phytase, making it bifunctional to act as haloperoxidase. Molecular docking supports vanadate to share its binding site with phytate. The T 1/2, activation energy (E a ), temperature quotient (Q 10), activation energy of thermal inactivation (Ed), and enthalpy (ΔH d (0) ) of the enzyme are 4.0 min (80 °C), 27.72 kJ mol(-1), 2.1, 410.62 kJ mol(-1), and ∼407.8 kJ mol(-1) (65-80 °C), respectively. The free energy of the process (ΔG d (o) ) increases from 49.56 to 71.58 kJ mol(-1) with rise in temperature, while entropy of inactivation (ΔS d (0) ) remains constant at ∼1.36 kJ mol(-1) K(-1). The supplementation of whole wheat dough with rPPHY resulted in 72.5 % reduction in phytic acid content of bread. These characteristics confirm that the phytase has adequate thermostability for its applicability as a food and feed additive.

  8. Phosphoryl transfer is not rate-limiting for the ROCK I-catalyzed kinase reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futer, Olga; Saadat, Ahmad R; Doran, John D; Raybuck, Scott A; Pazhanisamy, S

    2006-06-27

    Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase, ROCK, is implicated in Rho-mediated cell adhesion and smooth muscle contraction. Animal models suggest that the inhibition of ROCK can ameliorate conditions, such as vasospasm, hypertension, and inflammation. As part of our effort to design novel inhibitors of ROCK, we investigated the kinetic mechanism of ROCK I. Steady-state bisubstrate kinetics, inhibition kinetics, isotope partition analysis, viscosity effects, and presteady-state kinetics were used to explore the kinetic mechanism. Plots of reciprocals of initial rates obtained in the presence of nonhydrolyzable ATP analogues and the small molecule inhibitor of ROCK, Y-27632, against the reciprocals of the peptide concentrations yielded parallel lines (uncompetitive pattern). This pattern is indicative of an ordered binding mechanism, with the peptide adding first. The staurosporine analogue K252a, however, gave a noncompetitive pattern. When a pulse of (33)P-gamma-ATP mixed with ROCK was chased with excess unlabeled ATP and peptide, 0.66 enzyme equivalent of (33)P-phosphate was incorporated into the product in the first turnover. The presence of ATPase activity coupled with the isotope partition data is a clear evidence for the existence of a viable [E-ATP] complex in the kinase reaction and implicates a random binding mechanism. The k(cat)/K(m) parameters were fully sensitive to viscosity (viscosity effects of 1.4 +/- 0.2 and 0.9 +/- 0.3 for ATP and peptide 5, respectively), and therefore, the barriers to dissociation of either substrate are higher than the barrier for the phosphoryl transfer step. As a consequence, not all the binding steps are at fast equilibrium. The observation of a burst in presteady-state kinetics (k(b) = 10.2 +/- 2.1 s(-)(1)) and the viscosity effect on k(cat) of 1.3 +/- 0.2 characterize the phosphoryl transfer step to be fast and the release of product and/or the enzyme isomerization step accompanying it as rate-limiting at V(max) conditions. From

  9. Synthesis of Imidazopyridines via Copper-Catalyzed, Formal Aza-[3 + 2] Cycloaddition Reaction of Pyridine Derivatives with α-Diazo Oxime Ethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangjune; Kim, Hyunseok; Son, Jeong-Yu; Um, Kyusik; Lee, Sooho; Baek, Yonghyeon; Seo, Boram; Lee, Phil Ho

    2017-10-06

    The Cu-catalyzed, formal aza-[3 + 2] cycloaddition reaction of pyridine derivatives with α-diazo oxime ethers in trifluoroethanol was used to synthesize imidazopyridines via the release of molecular nitrogen and elimination of alcohol. These methods enabled modular synthesis of a wide range of N-heterobicyclic compounds such as imidazopyridazines, imidazopyrimidines, and imidazopyrazines with an α-imino Cu-carbenoid generated from the α-diazo oxime ethers and copper.

  10. Sonogashira Reaction of Aryl and Heteroaryl Halides with Terminal Alkynes Catalyzed by a Highly Efficient and Recyclable Nanosized MCM-41 Anchored Palladium Bipyridyl Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yuan Mou

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A heterogeneous catalyst, nanosized MCM-41-Pd, was used to catalyze the Sonogashira coupling of aryl and heteroaryl halides with terminal alkynes in the presence of CuI and triphenylphosphine. The coupling products were obtained in high yields using low Pd loadings to 0.01 mol%, and the nanosized MCM-41-Pd catalyst was recovered by centrifugation of the reaction solution and re-used in further runs without significant loss of reactivity.

  11. Visible-Light Photoredox-Catalyzed Giese Reaction: Decarboxylative Addition of Amino Acid Derived α-Amino Radicals to Electron-Deficient Olefins

    KAUST Repository

    Millet, Anthony; Lefebvre, Quentin; Rueping, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    A tin- and halide-free, visible-light photoredox-catalyzed Giese reaction was developed. Primary and secondary α-amino radicals were generated readily from amino acids in the presence of catalytic amounts of an iridium photocatalyst. The reactivity of the α-amino radicals has been evaluated for the functionalization of a variety of activated olefins. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

  12. Visible-Light Photoredox-Catalyzed Giese Reaction: Decarboxylative Addition of Amino Acid Derived α-Amino Radicals to Electron-Deficient Olefins

    KAUST Repository

    Millet, Anthony

    2016-06-20

    A tin- and halide-free, visible-light photoredox-catalyzed Giese reaction was developed. Primary and secondary α-amino radicals were generated readily from amino acids in the presence of catalytic amounts of an iridium photocatalyst. The reactivity of the α-amino radicals has been evaluated for the functionalization of a variety of activated olefins. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

  13. Cyclic aldimines as superior electrophiles for Cu-catalyzed decarboxylative Mannich reaction of β-ketoacids with a broad scope and high enantioselectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng-Xia; Nie, Jing; Cai, Hua; Ma, Jun-An

    2014-05-02

    A novel Cu-catalyzed enantioselective decarboxylative Mannich reaction of cyclic aldimines with β-ketoacids is described. The cyclic structure of these aldimines, in which the C═N bond is constrained in the Z geometry, appears to be important, allowing Mannich condensation to proceed in high yields with excellent enantioselectivities. A chiral chroman-4-amine was synthesized from the decarboxylative Mannich product in several steps without loss of enantioselectivity.

  14. A hydrogen-bonding network is important for oxidation and isomerization in the reaction catalyzed by cholesterol oxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Chen, Lin; Sampson, Nicole S.; Vrielink, Alice

    2009-01-01

    The importance of active-site electrostatics for oxidative and reductive half-reactions in a redox flavoenzyme (cholesterol oxidase) have been investigated by a combination of biochemistry and atomic resolution crystallography. A detailed examination of active-site dynamics demonstrates that the oxidation of substrate and the re-oxidation of the flavin cofactor by molecular oxygen are linked by a single active-site asparagine. Cholesterol oxidase is a flavoenzyme that catalyzes the oxidation and isomerization of 3β-hydroxysteroids. Structural and mutagenesis studies have shown that Asn485 plays a key role in substrate oxidation. The side chain makes an NH⋯π interaction with the reduced form of the flavin cofactor. A N485D mutant was constructed to further test the role of the amide group in catalysis. The mutation resulted in a 1800-fold drop in the overall k cat . Atomic resolution structures were determined for both the N485L and N485D mutants. The structure of the N485D mutant enzyme (at 1.0 Å resolution) reveals significant perturbations in the active site. As predicted, Asp485 is oriented away from the flavin moiety, such that any stabilizing interaction with the reduced flavin is abolished. Met122 and Glu361 form unusual hydrogen bonds to the functional group of Asp485 and are displaced from the positions they occupy in the wild-type active site. The overall effect is to disrupt the stabilization of the reduced FAD cofactor during catalysis. Furthermore, a narrow transient channel that is shown to form when the wild-type Asn485 forms the NH⋯π interaction with FAD and that has been proposed to function as an access route of molecular oxygen, is not observed in either of the mutant structures, suggesting that the dynamics of the active site are altered

  15. One-Pot Synthesis of Novel Chiral β-Amino Acid Derivatives by Enantioselective Mannich Reactions Catalyzed by Squaramide Cinchona Alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kankan Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An efficient one-pot synthesis of novel β-amino acid derivatives containing a thiadiazole moiety was developed using a chiral squaramide cinchona alkaloid as organocatalyst. The reactions afforded chiral β-amino acid derivatives in moderate yields and with moderate to excellent enantioselectivities. The present study demonstrated for the first time the use of a Mannich reaction catalyzed by a chiral bifunctional organocatalyst for the one-pot synthesis of novel β-amino acid derivatives bearing a 1,3,4-thiadiazole moiety on nitrogen.

  16. Reconstitution of Vanadium Haloperoxidase's Catalytic Activity by Boric Acid-Towards a Potential Biocatalytic Role of Boron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalio, Filipe; Wiese, Stefanie; Brandt, Wolfgang; Wessjohann, Ludger

    2017-04-11

    Boron's unusual properties inspired major advances in chemistry. In nature, the existence and importance of boron has been fairly explored (e.g. bacterial signaling, plant development) but its role as biological catalyst was never reported. Here, we show that boric acid [B(OH) 3 ] can restore chloroperoxidase activity of Curvularia inaequalis recombinant apo-haloperoxidase's (HPO) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and chloride ions. Molecular modeling and semi-empirical PM7 calculations support a thermodynamically highly favored (bio)catalytic mechanism similarly to vanadium haloperoxidases (V-HPO) in which [B(OH) 3 ] is assumedly located in apo-HPO's active site and a monoperoxyborate [B(OH) 3 (OOH) - ] intermediate is formed and stabilized by interaction with specific active site amino acids leading ultimately to the formation of HOCl. Thus, B(OH) 3 -HPO provides the first evidence towards the future exploitation of boron's role in biological systems. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. N,N'-dioxide/nickel(II)-catalyzed asymmetric inverse-electron-demand hetero-diels-alder reaction of β,γ-unsaturated α-ketoesters with enecarbamates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuhang; Zhu, Yin; Lin, Lili; Zhang, Yulong; Zheng, Jianfeng; Liu, Xiaohua; Feng, Xiaoming

    2014-12-08

    N,N'-Dioxide/nickel(II) complexes have been developed to catalyze the inverse-electron-demand hetero-Diels-Alder reaction of β,γ-unsaturated α-ketoesters with acyclic enecarbamates. After detailed screening of the reaction parameters, mild optimized reaction conditions were established, affording 3,4-dihydro-2H-pyranamines in up to 99 % yield, 99 % ee and more than 95:5 d.r. The catalytic system was also efficient for β-substituted acyclic enecarbamates, affording more challenging 2,3,4-trisubstituted 3,4-dihydro-2H-pyranamine with three contiguous stereogenic centers in excellent yields, diastereoselectivities, and enantioselectivities. The reaction could be scaled up to a gram scale with no deterioration of either enantioselectivity or yield. Based on these experiments and on previous reports, a possible transition state was proposed. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Visible-light-induced, Ir-catalyzed reactions of N-methyl-N-((trimethylsilylmethylaniline with cyclic α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Lenhart

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available N-Methyl-N-((trimethylsilylmethylaniline was employed as reagent in visible-light-induced, iridium-catalyzed addition reactions to cyclic α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. Typical reaction conditions included the use of one equivalent of the reaction substrate, 1.5 equivalents of the aniline and 2.5 mol % (in MeOH or 1.0 mol % (in CH2Cl2 [Ir(ppy2(dtbbpy]BF4 as the catalyst. Two major reaction products were obtained in combined yields of 30–67%. One product resulted from aminomethyl radical addition, the other product was a tricyclic compound, which is likely formed by attack of the intermediately formed α-carbonyl radical at the phenyl ring. For five-membered α,β-unsaturated lactone and lactam substrates, the latter products were the only products isolated. For the six-membered lactones and lactams and for cyclopentenone the simple addition products prevailed.

  19. Enhanced removal of aqueous acetaminophen by a laccase-catalyzed oxidative coupling reaction under a dual-pH optimization strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kaidong; Huang, Ke; Jiang, Guoqiang

    2018-03-01

    Acetaminophen is one kind of pharmaceutical contaminant that has been detected in municipal water and is hard to digest. A laccase-catalyzed oxidative coupling reaction is a potential method of removing acetaminophen from water. In the present study, the kinetics of radical polymerization combined with precipitation was studied, and the dual-pH optimization strategy (the enzyme solution at pH7.4 being added to the substrate solution at pH4.2) was proposed to enhance the removal efficiency of acetaminophen. The reaction kinetics that consisted of the laccase-catalyzed oxidation, radical polymerization and precipitation were studied by UV in situ, LC-MS and DLS (dynamic light scattering) in situ. The results showed that the laccase-catalyzed oxidation is the rate-limiting step in the whole process. The higher rate of enzyme-catalyzed oxidation under a dual-pH optimization strategy led to much faster formation of the dimer, trimer and tetramer. Similarly, the formation of polymerized products that could precipitate naturally from water was faster. Under the dual-pH optimization strategy, the initial laccase activity was increased approximately 2.9-fold, and the activity remained higher for >250s, during which approximately 63.7% of the total acetaminophen was transformed into biologically inactive polymerized products, and part of these polymerized products precipitated from the water. Laccase belongs to the family of multi-copper oxidases, and the present study provides a universal method to improve the activity of multi-copper oxidases for the high-performance removal of phenol and its derivatives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of an α-pinene-derived organic nitrate: kinetics, products, reaction mechanisms, and atmospheric impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindelaub, Joel D.; Borca, Carlos H.; Hostetler, Matthew A.; Slade, Jonathan H.; Lipton, Mark A.; Slipchenko, Lyudmila V.; Shepson, Paul B.

    2016-12-01

    The production of atmospheric organic nitrates (RONO2) has a large impact on air quality and climate due to their contribution to secondary organic aerosol and influence on tropospheric ozone concentrations. Since organic nitrates control the fate of gas phase NOx (NO + NO2), a byproduct of anthropogenic combustion processes, their atmospheric production and reactivity is of great interest. While the atmospheric reactivity of many relevant organic nitrates is still uncertain, one significant reactive pathway, condensed phase hydrolysis, has recently been identified as a potential sink for organic nitrate species. The partitioning of gas phase organic nitrates to aerosol particles and subsequent hydrolysis likely removes the oxidized nitrogen from further atmospheric processing, due to large organic nitrate uptake to aerosols and proposed hydrolysis lifetimes, which may impact long-range transport of NOx, a tropospheric ozone precursor. Despite the atmospheric importance, the hydrolysis rates and reaction mechanisms for atmospherically derived organic nitrates are almost completely unknown, including those derived from α-pinene, a biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) that is one of the most significant precursors to biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA). To better understand the chemistry that governs the fate of particle phase organic nitrates, the hydrolysis mechanism and rate constants were elucidated for several organic nitrates, including an α-pinene-derived organic nitrate (APN). A positive trend in hydrolysis rate constants was observed with increasing solution acidity for all organic nitrates studied, with the tertiary APN lifetime ranging from 8.3 min at acidic pH (0.25) to 8.8 h at neutral pH (6.9). Since ambient fine aerosol pH values are observed to be acidic, the reported lifetimes, which are much shorter than that of atmospheric fine aerosol, provide important insight into the fate of particle phase organic nitrates. Along with rate constant

  1. Label-Free and Ultrasensitive Biomolecule Detection Based on Aggregation Induced Emission Fluorogen via Target-Triggered Hemin/G-Quadruplex-Catalyzed Oxidation Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiyin; Chang, Jiafu; Gai, Panpan; Li, Feng

    2018-02-07

    Fluorescence biosensing strategy has drawn substantial attention due to their advantages of simplicity, convenience, sensitivity, and selectivity, but unsatisfactory structure stability, low fluorescence quantum yield, high cost of labeling, and strict reaction conditions associated with current fluorescence methods severely prohibit their potential application. To address these challenges, we herein propose an ultrasensitive label-free fluorescence biosensor by integrating hemin/G-quadruplex-catalyzed oxidation reaction with aggregation induced emission (AIE) fluorogen-based system. l-Cysteine/TPE-M, which is carefully and elaborately designed and developed, obviously contributes to strong fluorescence emission. In the presence of G-rich DNA along with K + and hemin, efficient destruction of l-cysteine occurs due to hemin/G-quadruplex-catalyzed oxidation reactions. As a result, highly sensitive fluorescence detection of G-rich DNA is readily realized, with a detection limit down to 33 pM. As a validation for the further development of the proposed strategy, we also successfully construct ultrasensitive platforms for microRNA by incorporating the l-cysteine/TPE-M system with target-triggered cyclic amplification reaction. Thus, this proposed strategy is anticipated to find use in basic biochemical research and clinical diagnosis.

  2. Cu(II)-catalyzed esterification reaction via aerobic oxidative cleavage of C(CO)-C(alkyl) bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ran; He, Liang-Nian; Liu, An-Hua; Song, Qing-Wen

    2016-02-04

    A novel Cu(II)-catalyzed aerobic oxidative esterification of simple ketones for the synthesis of esters has been developed with wide functional group tolerance. This process is assumed to go through a tandem sequence consisting of α-oxygenation/esterification/nucleophilic addition/C-C bond cleavage and carbon dioxide is released as the only byproduct.

  3. A note on the Noyori model for chiral amplification in the aminoalcohol-catalyzed reaction of aldehydes with dialkylzinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVAN GUTMAN

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available The Noyori model of chiral amplification in the alkylation of aldehydes by means of dialkylzinc, catalyzed by chiral aminoalcohols, is further elaborated. A direct, but approximate, relation is obtained between the enantiomeric excess of the catalyst added and the enantiomeric excess of the product.

  4. Intermolecular rhodium-catalyzed [2 + 2 + 2] carbocyclization reactions of 1,6-enynes with symmetrical and unsymmetrical alkynes†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Evans, P.; Sawyer, James R.; Lai, Kwong Wah; Huffman, John C.

    2006-01-01

    The crossed intermolecular rhodium-catalyzed [2 + 2 + 2] carbocyclization of carbon and heteroatom tethered 1,6-enynes can be accomplished with symmetrical and unsymmetrical alkynes, to afford the corresponding bicyclohexadienes in an efficient and highly selective manner. PMID:16075089

  5. Direct Synthesis of 5-Aryl Barbituric Acids by Rhodium(II)-Catalyzed Reactions of Arenes with Diazo Compounds**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Daniel; Burns, David J; Lam, Hon Wai

    2015-01-01

    A commercially available rhodium(II) complex catalyzes the direct arylation of 5-diazobarbituric acids with arenes, allowing straightforward access to 5-aryl barbituric acids. Free N—H groups are tolerated on the barbituric acid, with no complications arising from N—H insertion processes. This method was applied to the concise synthesis of a potent matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor. PMID:25959544

  6. Computational study for the circular redox reaction of N2O with CO catalyzed by fullerometallic cations C60Fe+ and C70Fe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anafcheh, Maryam; Naderi, Fereshteh; Khodadadi, Zahra; Ektefa, Fatemeh; Ghafouri, Reza; Zahedi, Mansour

    2017-03-01

    We applied density functional calculations to study the circular redox reaction mechanism of N 2 O with CO catalyzed by fullerometallic cations C 60 Fe + and C 70 Fe + . The on-top sites of six-membered rings (η 6 ) of fullerene cages are the most preferred binding sites for Fe + cation, and the hexagon to pentagon migration of Fe + is unlikely under ambient thermodynamic conditions. The initial ion/molecule reaction, N 2 O rearrangement and N 2 abstraction on the considered fullerometallic cations are easier than those on the bare Fe + cation in the gas phase. Generally, our results indicate that fullerometallic ions, C 60 Fe + and C 70 Fe + , are more favorable substrates for redox reaction of N 2 O with CO in comparison to the other previously studied carbon nanostructures such as graphene and nanotubes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Gold-Catalyzed Cyclization of Furan-Ynes bearing a Propargyl Carbonate Group: Intramolecular Diels-Alder Reaction with In Situ Generated Allenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ning; Xie, Xin; Chen, Haoyi; Liu, Yuanhong

    2016-09-26

    Gold-catalyzed cyclization of various furan-ynes with a propargyl carbonate or ester moiety results in the formation of a series of polycyclic aromatic ring systems. The reactions can be rationalized through a tandem gold-catalyzed 3,3-rearrangement of the propargyl carboxylate moiety in furan-yne substrates to form an allenic intermediate, which is followed by an intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction of furan and subsequent ring-opening of the oxa-bridged cycloadduct. It was found that the steric and electronic properties of phosphine ligands on the gold catalyst had a significant impact on the reaction outcome. In the case of 1,5-furan-yne, the cleavage of the oxa-bridge in the cycloadduct with concomitant 1,2-migration of the R(1) group occurs to furnish anthracen-1(2H)-ones bearing a quaternary carbon center. For 1,4-furan-yne, a facile aromatization of the cycloadduct takes place to give 9-oxygenated anthracene derivatives. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) catalyzes transacylation of intact cholesteryl esters. Evidence for the partial reversal of the forward LCAT reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorci-Thomas, M.; Babiak, J.; Rudel, L.L.

    1990-01-01

    Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) catalyzes the intravascular synthesis of lipoprotein cholesteryl esters by converting cholesterol and lecithin to cholesteryl ester and lysolecithin. LCAT is unique in that it catalyzes sequential reactions within a single polypeptide sequence. In this report we find that LCAT mediates a partial reverse reaction, the transacylation of lipoprotein cholesteryl oleate, in whole plasma and in a purified, reconstituted system. As a result of the reverse transacylation reaction, a linear accumulation of [3H]cholesterol occurred during incubations of plasma containing high density lipoprotein labeled with [3H]cholesteryl oleate. When high density lipoprotein labeled with cholesteryl [14C]oleate was also included in the incubation the labeled fatty acyl moiety remained in the cholesteryl [14C]oleate pool showing that the formation of labeled cholesterol did not result from hydrolysis of the doubly labeled cholesteryl esters. The rate of release of [3H]cholesterol was only about 10% of the forward rate of esterification of cholesterol using partially purified human LCAT and was approximately 7% in whole monkey plasma. Therefore, net production of cholesterol via the reverse LCAT reaction would not occur. [3H]Cholesterol production from [3H]cholesteryl oleate was almost completely inhibited by a final concentration of 1.4 mM 5,5'-dithiobis(nitrobenzoic acid) during incubation with either purified LCAT or whole plasma. Addition of excess lysolecithin to the incubation system did not result in the formation of [14C]oleate-labeled lecithin, showing that the reverse reaction found here for LCAT was limited to the last step of the reaction. To explain these results we hypothesize that LCAT forms a [14C]oleate enzyme thioester intermediate after its attack on the cholesteryl oleate molecule

  9. A chiral Brønsted acid-catalyzed highly enantioselective Mannich-type reaction of α-diazo esters with in situ generated N-acyl ketimines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unhale, Rajshekhar A; Sadhu, Milon M; Ray, Sumit K; Biswas, Rayhan G; Singh, Vinod K

    2018-04-03

    A chiral phosphoric acid-catalyzed asymmetric Mannich-type reaction of α-diazo esters with in situ generated N-acyl ketimines, derived from 3-hydroxyisoindolinones has been demonstrated in this communication. A variety of isoindolinone-based α-amino diazo esters bearing a quaternary stereogenic center were afforded in high yields (up to 99%) with excellent enantioselectivities (up to 99% ee). Furthermore, the synthetic utility of the products has been depicted by the hydrogenation of the diazo moiety of adducts.

  10. Theoretical study on the reaction mechanisms of Michael chirality addition between propionaldehyde and nitroalkene catalyzed by an enantioselective catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinming; Li, Ling; Sun, Xuejun; Wang, Yajun; Du, Dongmei; Fu, Hui

    2018-06-01

    The asymmetric Michael addition between propionaldehyde and nitroalkene catalyzed by 8-(ethoxycarbonyl)-1,2,3,3a,8,8a-hexahydropyrrolo[2,3-b]indole-2-carboxylic acid has obtained relatively high yields and excellent enantioselectivities at room temperature. In this study, the molecular structures and optical activity of the most stable conformation I are optimized at B3LYP/6-311++ G(d,p) level. We find that levorotatory conformation I catalyzing the same Michael addition can produce laevo-product A and dextrorotatory conformation I' can obtain the dextral-product A'. These results have guiding significance for further studying on the new chemzymes and the mechanism of the obtained different chiral products. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Synthesis of Novel Aliphatic N-sulfonylamidino Thymine Derivatives by Cu(I)-catalyzed Three-component Coupling Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Krstulović, Luka; Ismaili, Hamit; Višnjevac, Aleksandar; Glavaš-Obrovac, Ljubica; Žinić, Biserka

    2012-01-01

    A series of new aliphatic N-sulfonylamidino thymine derivatives containing nucleobase, N-sulfonyl and amidine pharmacophores in the structure were synthesized by Cu(I)-catalyzed threecomponent coupling of 1-propargyl thymine, benzenesulfonyl azides and amines or ammonium salts. Preliminary in vitro antitumor screening (human cervix adenocarcinoma -HeLa and leukemia cells - Jurkat) revealed promising activities of N,N-diethyl- (2) and N-4-cyanobenzyl- (6) derivatives of 4-acetamido...

  12. Asymmetric Diels-Alder Reaction of α,β-Unsaturated Oxazolidin-2-one Derivatives Catalyzed by a Chiral Fe(III)-Bipyridine Diol Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mao; Carreras, Virginie; Jalba, Angela; Ollevier, Thierry

    2018-02-16

    An asymmetric Fe III -bipyridine diol catalyzed Diels-Alder reaction of α,β-unsaturated oxazolidin-2-ones has been developed. Among various Fe II /Fe III salts, Fe(ClO 4 ) 3 ·6H 2 O was selected as the Lewis acid of choice. The use of a low catalyst loading (2 mol % of Fe(ClO 4 ) 3 ·6H 2 O and 2.4 mol % of Bolm's ligand) afforded high yields (up to 99%) and high enantiomeric excesses (up to 98%) of endo-cycloadducts for the Diels-Alder reaction between cyclopentadiene and substituted acryloyloxazolidin-2-ones. Other noncyclic dienes led to decreased enantioselectivities. A proposed model supports the observed stereoinduction.

  13. Copper(I)-Catalyzed Asymmetric Desymmetrization through Inverse-Electron-Demand aza-Diels-Alder Reaction: Efficient Access to Tetrahydropyridazines Bearing a Unique α-Chiral Silane Moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Liang; Zhou, Yu; Song, Zhi-Min; Tao, Hai-Yan; Lin, Zhenyang; Wang, Chun-Jiang

    2017-04-11

    An unprecedented copper(I)-catalyzed asymmetric desymmetrization of 5-silylcyclopentadienes with in situ formed azoalkene was realized through an inverse-electron-demand aza-Diels-Alder reaction (IEDDA) pathway, in which 5-silylcyclopentadienes served as efficient enophiles. This new protocol provides a facile access to the biologically important heterocyclic tetrahydropyridazines containing a unique α-chiral silane motif and three adjoining stereogenic centers in generally good yield (up to 92 %) with exclusive regioselectivity, high diastereoselectivity (>20:1 diastereomeric ratio), and excellent enantioselectivity (up to 98 % enantiomeric excess). DFT calculations and control experiments further confirmed the proposed reaction mechanism. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Reaction of CO2 with propylene oxide and styrene oxide catalyzed by a chromium(III) amine-bis(phenolate) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Rebecca K; Devaine-Pressing, Katalin; Dawe, Louise N; Kozak, Christopher M

    2013-07-07

    A diamine-bis(phenolate) chromium(III) complex, {CrCl[O2NN'](BuBu)}2 catalyzes the copolymerization of propylene oxide with carbon dioxide. The synthesis of this metal complex is straightforward and it can be obtained in high yields. This catalyst incorporates a tripodal amine-bis(phenolate) ligand, which differs from the salen or salan ligands typically used with Cr and Co complexes that have been employed as catalysts for the synthesis of such polycarbonates. The catalyst reported herein yields low molecular weight polymers with narrow polydispersities when the reaction is performed at room temperature. Performing the reaction at elevated temperatures causes the selective synthesis of propylene carbonate. The copolymerization activity for propylene oxide and carbon dioxide, as well as the coupling of carbon dioxide and styrene oxide to give styrene carbonate are presented.

  15. Synthesis of Cyclohexane-Fused Isocoumarins via Cationic Palladium(II)-Catalyzed Cascade Cyclization Reaction of Alkyne-Tethered Carbonyl Compounds Initiated by Intramolecular Oxypalladation of Ester-Substituted Aryl Alkynes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianbo; Han, Xiuling; Lu, Xiyan

    2016-04-15

    A cationic Pd(II)-catalyzed cascade cyclization reaction of alkyne-tethered carbonyl compounds was developed. This reaction is initiated by intramolecular oxypalladation of alkynes with an ester group followed by 1,2-addition of the formed C-Pd(II) bond to the carbonyl group, providing a highly efficient method for the synthesis of cyclohexane-fused isocoumarins.

  16. Unraveling the reaction mechanism on nitrile hydration catalyzed by [Pd(OH2)4]2+: insights from theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tílvez, Elkin; Menéndez, María I; López, Ramón

    2013-07-01

    Density functional theory methodologies combined with continuum and discrete-continuum descriptions of solvent effects were used to investigate the [Pd(OH2)4](2+)-catalyzed acrylonitrile hydration to yield acrylamide. According to our results, the intramolecular hydroxide attack mechanism and the external addition mechanism of a water molecule with rate-determining Gibbs energy barriers in water solution of 27.6 and 28.3 kcal/mol, respectively, are the most favored. The experimental kinetic constants of the hydration started by hydroxide, k(OH), and water, k(H2O), attacks for the cis-[Pd(en)(OH2)2](2+)-catalyzed dichloroacetonitrile hydration rendered Gibbs energy barriers whose energy difference, 0.7 kcal/mol, is the same as that obtained in the present study. Our investigation reveals the nonexistence of the internal attack of a water ligand for Pd-catalyzed nitrile hydration. At the low pHs used experimentally, the equilibrium between [Pd(OH2)3(nitrile)](2+) and [Pd(OH2)2(OH)(nitrile)](+) is completely displaced to [Pd(OH2)3(nitrile)](2+). Experimental studies in these conditions stated that water acts as a nucleophile, but they could not distinguish whether it was a water ligand, an external water molecule, or a combination of both possibilities. Our theoretical explorations clearly indicate that the external water mechanism becomes the only operative one at low pHs. On the basis of this mechanistic proposal it is also possible to ascribe an (1)H NMR signal experimentally detected to the presence of a unidentate iminol intermediate and to explain the influence of nitrile concentration reported experimentally for nitriles other than acrylonitrile in the presence of aqua-Pd(II) complexes. Therefore, our theoretical point of view on the mechanism of nitrile hydration catalyzed by aqua-Pd(II) complexes can shed light on these relevant processes at a molecular level as well as afford valuable information that can help in designing new catalysts in milder and more

  17. Direct Synthesis of 5-Aryl Barbituric Acids by Rhodium(II)-Catalyzed Reactions of Arenes with Diazo Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Daniel; Burns, David J; Lam, Hon Wai

    2015-06-15

    A commercially available rhodium(II) complex catalyzes the direct arylation of 5-diazobarbituric acids with arenes, allowing straightforward access to 5-aryl barbituric acids. Free N-H groups are tolerated on the barbituric acid, with no complications arising from N-H insertion processes. This method was applied to the concise synthesis of a potent matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  18. A computational study on Lewis acid-catalyzed diastereoselective acyclic radical allylation reactions with unusual selectivity dependence on temperature and epimer precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, Miglena K; Santos, A Gil

    2014-12-05

    In stereoselective radical reactions, it is accepted that the configuration of the radical precursor has no impact on the levels of stereoinduction, as a prochiral radical intermediate is planar, with two identical faces, independently of its origin. However, Sibi and Rheault (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2000, 122, 8873-8879) remarkably obtained different selectivities in the trapping of radicals originated from two epimeric bromides, catalyzed by chelating Lewis acids. The selectivity rationalization was made on the basis of different conformational properties of each epimer. However, in this paper we show that the two epimers have similar conformational properties, which implies that the literature proposal is unable to explain the experimental results. We propose an alternative mechanism, in which the final selectivity is dependent on different reaction rates for radical formation from each epimer. By introducing a different perspective of the reaction mechanism, our model also allows the rationalization of different chemical yields obtained from each epimer, a result not rationalized by the previous model. Adaptation to other radical systems, under different reaction conditions, is also possible.

  19. Rhodium-catalyzed [5 + 2 + 1] cycloaddition of ene-vinylcyclopropanes and CO: reaction design, development, application in natural product synthesis, and inspiration for developing new reactions for synthesis of eight-membered carbocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Yu, Zhi-Xiang

    2015-08-18

    Practical syntheses of natural products and their analogues with eight-membered carbocyclic skeletons are important for medicinal and biological investigations. However, methods and strategies to construct the eight-membered carbocycles are limited. Therefore, developing new methods to synthesize the eight-membered carbocycles is highly desired. In this Account, we describe our development of three rhodium-catalyzed cycloadditions for the construction of the eight-membered carbocycles, which have great potential in addressing the challenges in the synthesis of medium-sized ring systems. The first reaction described in this Account is our computationally designed rhodium-catalyzed two-component [5 + 2 + 1] cycloaddition of ene-vinylcyclopropanes (ene-VCPs) and CO for the diastereoselective construction of bi- and tricyclic cyclooctenones. The design of this reaction is based on the hypothesis that the C(sp(3))-C(sp(3)) reductive elimination of the eight-membered rhodacycle intermediate generated from the rhodium-catalyzed cyclopropane cleavage and alkene insertion, giving Wender's [5 + 2] cycloadduct, is not easy. Under CO atmosphere, CO insertion may occur rapidly, converting the eight-membered rhodacycle into a nine-membered rhodacycle, which then undergoes an easy C(sp(2))-C(sp(3)) reductive elimination process and furnishes the [5 + 2 + 1] product. This hypothesis was supported by our preliminary DFT studies and also served as inspiration for the development of two [7 + 1] cycloadditions: the [7 + 1] cycloaddition of buta-1,3-dienylcyclopropanes (BDCPs) and CO for the construction of cyclooctadienones, and the benzo/[7 + 1] cycloaddition of cyclopropyl-benzocyclobutenes (CP-BCBs) and CO to synthesize the benzocyclooctenones. The efficiency of these rhodium-catalyzed cycloadditions can be revealed by the application in natural product synthesis. Two eight-membered ring-containing natural products, (±)-asterisca-3(15),6-diene and (+)-asteriscanolide, have been

  20. Oxidation reactions catalyzed by cobalt ions in a photocatalytic system based on solutions of lecit hin vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetkov, I.M.; Lymar, S.V.; Parmon, V.N.; Zamaraev, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    The features of the light-induced transfer of electrons through the membranes of lecithin vesicles with an electron carrier, viz., cetyl viologen, incorporated in the lipid bilayer have been studied with the use of the water-soluble trisbipyridyl complex of ruthenium (II) as a photocatalyst. It has been shown that additions of cobalt ions to the systems just indicated are capable of catalyzing the oxidation processes of organic compounds (most probably, of lecithin), the role of the oxidizing agent being played by Ru(bpy) 3 3+ , which forms upon the transfer of an electron to the acceptor Fe(CN) 6 3- through the lipid membrane The possibility of the utilization of the photocatalytic oxidation of water to oxygen under the action of visible light has been discussed

  1. Equilibrium coverage of OHad in correlation with platinum catalyzed fuel cell reactions in HClO4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Yujia; Arenz, Matthias; Wiberg, Gustav Karl Henrik

    2015-01-01

    We employ a recently developed stripping protocol to examine the equilibrium coverage of oxygenated species and their influence on the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR). In particular we aim to distinguish between dynamic and steady state conditions...

  2. Hexacationic Dendriphos ligands in the Pd-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction: scope and mechanistic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snelders, D.J.M.; van Koten, G.; Klein Gebbink, R.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The combination of Pd2dba3·CHCl3and hexacationic triarylphosphine-based Dendriphos ligands (1-3) leads to a highly active catalytic system in the Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction. Under relatively mild reaction conditions, nonactivated aryl bromides and activated aryl chlorides can be coupled

  3. Palladium on Carbon-Catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura Coupling Reaction Using an Efficient and Continuous Flow System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Hattori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuous flow Suzuki-Miyaura reaction between various haloarenes and arylboronic acids was successfully achieved within only ca. 20 s during the single-pass through a cartridge filled with palladium on carbon (Pd/C. No palladium leaching was observed in the collected reaction solution by atomic absorption spectrometry (detection limit: 1 ppm.

  4. Evaluation of the Optimal Reaction Conditions for the Methanolysis and Ethanolysis of Castor Oil Catalyzed by Immobilized Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade, Thalles Allan; Al-Kabalawi, Ibrahim; Errico, Massimiliano

    This study aims to compare the efficiency of the transesterification of castor oil with methanol and ethanol as part of the biodiesel production, using immobilized enzyme Lipozyme IM as catalyst. Different reaction conditions were evaluated and optimized, including the reaction temperature, alcohol...

  5. Synthesis of Bioactive 2-(Arylaminothiazolo[5,4-f]-quinazolin-9-ones via the Hügershoff Reaction or Cu- Catalyzed Intramolecular C-S Bond Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Hédou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A library of thirty eight novel thiazolo[5,4-f]quinazolin-9(8H-one derivatives (series 8, 10, 14 and 17 was prepared via the Hügershoff reaction and a Cu catalyzed intramolecular C-S bond formation, helped by microwave-assisted technology when required. The efficient multistep synthesis of the key 6-amino-3-cyclopropylquinazolin-4(3H-one (3 has been reinvestigated and performed on a multigram scale from the starting 5-nitroanthranilic acid. The inhibitory potency of the final products was evaluated against five kinases involved in Alzheimer’s disease and showed that some molecules of the 17 series described in this paper are particularly promising for the development of novel multi-target inhibitors of kinases.

  6. Unraveling the role of entropy in tuning unimolecular vs . bimolecular reaction rates: The case of olefin polymerization catalyzed by transition metals

    KAUST Repository

    Falivene, Laura

    2018-04-24

    Olefin polymerization catalyzed by Group 4 transition metals is studied here as test case to reveal the entropy effects when bimolecular and unimolecular reactions are computed for processes occurring in solution. Catalytic systems characterized by different ligand frameworks, metal, and growing polymeric chain for which experimental data are available have been selected in order to validate the main approaches to entropy calculation. Applying the “standard” protocol results in a strong disagreement with the experimental results and the methods introducing a direct correction of the translational entropy term based on a single experimental parameter emerge as the most reliable. The general and powerful computational tool achieved in this study can represent a further step towards the “catalyst design” to control and predict the molecular mass of the resulting polymers.

  7. New process of the preparation of catalyzed gas diffusion electrode for PEM fuel cells based on ultrasonic direct solution spray reaction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oishi, K.; Savadogo, O. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Laboratoire de nouveaux materiaux pour l' energie et l' electrochimie

    2008-07-01

    This paper reported on a newly developed process for in-situ catalyst deposition on gas diffusion electrodes (GDE) for polymer electrolyte fuel cells. This process has the potential to reduce the number of steps for catalyzed GDE fabrication. In addition, the process offers economic advantages for the fuel cell commercialization. In this study, a home-made catalyst maker with ultrasonic spray method was used to prepare a solution of the carbon supported platinum catalyst on the GDL. The sprayed catalyst powder consisted of carbon support. The catalyst particles did not prevent gas flow channels on the GDL. The catalyst layer was shown to be located only on the top surface of the GDL and was not packed into its flow channel. Results of Cross-section SEM image, crystallization, micro structure and electro-catalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction were also discussed. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  8. Eosin Y photoredox catalyzed net redox neutral reaction for regiospecific annulation to 3-sulfonylindoles via anion oxidation of sodium sulfinate salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohokale, Rajendra S; Tambe, Shrikant D; Kshirsagar, Umesh A

    2018-01-24

    An eosin Y photoredox catalyzed net redox neutral process for 3-sulfonylindoles via the anionic oxidation of sodium sulfinate salts and its radical cascade cyclization with 2-alkynyl-azidoarenes was developed with visible light as a mediator. The reaction offers metal and oxidant/reductant free, visible light mediated vicinal sulfonamination of alkynes to 2-aryl/alkyl-3-sulfonylindoles and proceeds via the generation of a sulfur-centered radical through direct oxidation of the sulfinate anion by an excited photocatalyst with a reductive quenching cycle. The mild conditions, use of an organic dye as photo-catalyst, bench stability and easily accessible starting materials make the present approach green and attractive.

  9. New Palladium-Catalyzed Domino Reaction with Intramolecular Ring Closure of an N-(2-Chloro-3-heteroaryl) arylamide: First Synthesis of Oxazolo[4,5-b] pyrazines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demmer, Charles S.; Hansen, Jacob C.; Kehler, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of novel planar heterocycles is at the heart of basic research as such scaffolds constitute key building blocks in important diverse areas of research: drug discovery, material sciences, and pesticides. The well-known benzoxazole is often contained in drug candidates but tweaking its...... lipophilicity and target interaction points are often desired. In this respect, the oxazolo[4,5-b]pyrazine is an attractive heterocyclic scaffold as it possesses increased water solubility as well as two additional hydrogen bonding acceptors. We here report a new Pd(II)-catalyzed domino reaction comprising...... the first Pd(II)-assisted intramolecular cyclization of an N-(2-chloro-3-heteroaryl)arylamide and validate its value by application to the first synthesis of 2-substituted oxazolo[4,5-b]pyrazines. We demonstrate that a bidentate phosphorus ligand as well as the presence of an aromatic nitrogen atom...

  10. Roles of the redox-active disulfide and histidine residues forming a catalytic dyad in reactions catalyzed by 2-ketopropyl coenzyme M oxidoreductase/carboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofoed, Melissa A; Wampler, David A; Pandey, Arti S; Peters, John W; Ensign, Scott A

    2011-09-01

    NADPH:2-ketopropyl-coenzyme M oxidoreductase/carboxylase (2-KPCC), an atypical member of the disulfide oxidoreductase (DSOR) family of enzymes, catalyzes the reductive cleavage and carboxylation of 2-ketopropyl-coenzyme M [2-(2-ketopropylthio)ethanesulfonate; 2-KPC] to form acetoacetate and coenzyme M (CoM) in the bacterial pathway of propylene metabolism. Structural studies of 2-KPCC from Xanthobacter autotrophicus strain Py2 have revealed a distinctive active-site architecture that includes a putative catalytic triad consisting of two histidine residues that are hydrogen bonded to an ordered water molecule proposed to stabilize enolacetone formed from dithiol-mediated 2-KPC thioether bond cleavage. Site-directed mutants of 2-KPCC were constructed to test the tenets of the mechanism proposed from studies of the native enzyme. Mutagenesis of the interchange thiol of 2-KPCC (C82A) abolished all redox-dependent reactions of 2-KPCC (2-KPC carboxylation or protonation). The air-oxidized C82A mutant, as well as wild-type 2-KPCC, exhibited the characteristic charge transfer absorbance seen in site-directed variants of other DSOR enzymes but with a pK(a) value for C87 (8.8) four units higher (i.e., four orders of magnitude less acidic) than that for the flavin thiol of canonical DSOR enzymes. The same higher pK(a) value was observed in native 2-KPCC when the interchange thiol was alkylated by the CoM analog 2-bromoethanesulfonate. Mutagenesis of the flavin thiol (C87A) also resulted in an inactive enzyme for steady-state redox-dependent reactions, but this variant catalyzed a single-turnover reaction producing a 0.8:1 ratio of product to enzyme. Mutagenesis of the histidine proximal to the ordered water (H137A) led to nearly complete loss of redox-dependent 2-KPCC reactions, while mutagenesis of the distal histidine (H84A) reduced these activities by 58 to 76%. A redox-independent reaction of 2-KPCC (acetoacetate decarboxylation) was not decreased for any of the

  11. Data characterizing the energetics of enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis and transglycosylation reactions by DFT cluster model calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitrayut Jitonnom

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this paper are related to the research article entitled “QM/MM modeling of the hydrolysis and transfructosylation reactions of fructosyltransferase from Aspergillus japonicas, an enzyme that produces prebiotic fructooligosaccharide” (Jitonnom et al., 2018 [1]. This paper presents the procedure and data for characterizing the whole relative energy profiles of hydrolysis and transglycosylation reactions whose elementary steps differ in chemical composition. The data also reflects the choices of the QM cluster model, the functional/basis set method and the equations in determining the reaction energetics.

  12. Direct Kinetic Evidence for the Formation of an Acylpyridinium Intermediate in Synthetic p-Nitrophenyl Esterase-Catalyzed Hydrolysis Reactions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Guang-Jia

    1996-01-01

    .... The deacylation rate was also found to exhibit a maximum for the same substrate 2 (n=6). These results are similar to those previously reported with cholesterol esterase as catalyst for the same hydrolysis reaction...

  13. Facile one-pot synthesis of 1-amido alkyl-2-naphthols by RuCl2(PPh3)3-catalyzed multi-component reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xiaoyan; Lee, Yong Rok; Kim, Sung Hong

    2012-01-01

    We have developed an efficient and general synthesis of 1-amidoalkyl-2-naphthols by RuCl 2 (PPh 3 ) 3 -catalyzed one-pot multi-component reaction of 2-naphthol with aromatic aldehydes and amides. The advantages of these methodologies are easy handling, mild reaction conditions, and use of an effective and non-toxic catalyst. Molecules bearing 1,3-amino oxygenated functional groups have been reported to exhibit a variety of biological and pharmacological activities including nucleoside antibiotics and HIV protease inhibitors such as ritonavir and lipinavir. Importantly, 1-amidoalkyl-2-naphthols can be easily converted to biologically active 1-aminomethyl-2-naphthols by amide hydrolysis. These compounds also exhibit potent antihypertensive, adrenoceptor-blocking, and Ca +2 channel-blocking activities. Because of the importance of these compounds, numerous methods for the synthesis of 1-amidoalkyl-2-naphthols have been described. The reported methods mainly include one-pot three-component reactions of 2-naphthol, aromatic aldehydes, and amides

  14. The contribution of vanadium and titanium on improving methylene blue decolorization through heterogeneous UV-Fenton reaction catalyzed by their co-doped magnetite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Xiaoliang; Zhong, Yuanhong; Zhu, Sanyuan; Ma, Lingya; Yuan, Peng; Zhu, Jianxi; He, Hongping; Jiang, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ti-V co-doped magnetite has strong catalytic activity in UV-Fenton reaction. ► Ti 4+ is more positive to adsorption and catalytic activity of magnetite than V 3+ . ► Mechanism of substitution increasing the adsorption and catalytic activity. ► The obtained results are benefit for application of magnetite in treating wastewater. - Abstract: This study investigated the methylene blue (MB) decolorization through heterogeneous UV-Fenton reaction catalyzed by V-Ti co-doped magnetites, with emphasis on comparing the contribution of V and Ti cations on improving the adsorption and catalytic activity of magnetite. In the well crystallized spinel structure, both Ti 4+ and V 3+ occupied the octahedral sites. Ti 4+ showed a more obvious effect on increasing specific surface area and superficial hydroxyl amount than V 3+ did, resulting in a significant improvement of the adsorption ability of magnetite to MB. The UV introduction greatly accelerated MB degradation. And magnetite with more Ti and less V displayed better catalytic activity in MB degradation through heterogeneous UV-Fenton reaction. The transformation of degradation products and individual contribution from vanadium and titanium on improving adsorption and catalytic activity of magnetite were also investigated. These new insights are of high importance for well understanding the interface interaction between contaminants and metal doped magnetites, and the environmental application of natural and synthetic magnetites.

  15. Palladium-Catalyzed Heck Coupling Reaction of Aryl Bromides in Aqueous Media Using Tetrahydropyrimidinium Salts as Carbene Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Özdemir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and stereoselective catalytic system for the Heck cross coupling reaction using novel 1,3-dialkyl-3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidinium salts (1, LHX and Pd(OAc2 loading has been reported. The palladium complexes derived from the salts 1a-f prepared in situ exhibit good catalytic activity in the Heck coupling reaction of aryl bromides under mild conditions.

  16. Curing reactions of bismaleimide resins catalyzed by triphenylphosphine. High resolution solid-state 13C NMR study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibahara, Sumio; Enoki, Takashi; Yamamoto, Takahisa; Motoyoshiya, Jiro; Hayashi, Sadao.

    1996-01-01

    The curing reactions of bismaleimide resins consisted of N,N'-4,4'-diphenylmethanebismaleimide (BMI) and o,o'-diallylbisphenol-A (DABA) in the presence of triphenylphosphine (TPP) as a catalyst were investigated. DSC measurements showed that the catalytic effect of TPP on the curing reaction of BMI was more in the presence of DABA than in its absence. In order to explore this curing reaction, N-phenylmaleimide (PMI) and o-allylphenol (AP) were selected as model compounds. The products of the PMI/TPP system were oligomers and polymers of PMI, whereas the main product of the PMI/AP/TPP system was the PMI trimer which had the five-membered ring formed via the phosphonium ylide intermediate. In these model reactions, 13 C NMR was found to be useful to distinguish between trimerization and polymerization of PMI. On the basis of the results of the model reactions, the curing reactions of bismaleimide resins were investigated by high resolution solid state 13 C NMR techniques. In the BMI/TPP system, maleimides polymerize above 175degC, but the polymerization does not proceed at 120degC. On the other hand, maleimides trimerize above 120degC in the presence of DABA and TPP. The mechanism of the trimerization is briefly discussed. (author)

  17. Rhodium Catalyzed Decarbonylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Suárez, Eduardo José; Kahr, Klara; Riisager, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Rhodium catalyzed decarbonylation has developed significantly over the last 50 years and resulted in a wide range of reported catalyst systems and reaction protocols. Besides experimental data, literature also includes mechanistic studies incorporating Hammett methods, analysis of kinetic isotope...

  18. Two Palladium-Catalyzed Domino Reactions from One Set of Substrates/Reagents: Efficient Synthesis of Substituted Indenes and cis-Stilbenoid Hydrocarbons from the Same Internal Alkynes and Hindered Grignard Reagents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Cheng-Guo; Yeung, Pik; Hu, Qiao-Sheng

    2008-01-01

    Two types of domino reactions from the same internal alkynes and hindered Grignard reagents based on carbopalladation, Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction and C-H activation strategy are described. The realization of these domino reactions relied on the control of the use of the ligand and the reaction temperature. Our study provides an efficient access to useful polysubstituted indenes and cis-substituted stilbenes, and may offer new means to the development of tandem/domino reactions in a more efficient way. PMID:17217305

  19. Solvent-dependent reactions for the synthesis of β-keto-benzo-δ-sultone scaffolds via DBU-catalyzed O-sulfonylation/intramolecular Baylis-Hillman/1,3-H shift or dehydration tandem sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandi, Mehdi; Bozcheloei, Abolfazl Hasani; Nazari, Seyed Hadi; Sadeghzadeh, Masoud

    2011-12-16

    We have developed a solvent-dependent method for the synthesis of novel benzo-δ-sultone scaffolds. A variety of benzylbenzo[e][1,2]oxathiin-4(3H)-one-2,2-dioxides were obtained in high yields in DMF using a one-pot, DBU-catalyzed condensation of 2-hydroxybenzaldehydes with a number of (E)-2-phenylethenesulfonyl chlorides. On the other hand, the initially prepared 2-formylphenyl-(E)-2-phenylethenesulfonate derivatives underwent DBU-catalyzed reactions to a series of 3-[methoxy(phenyl)methyl]benzo[e][1,2]oxathiine-2,2-dioxides in moderate to good yields in MeOH. These reactions presumably proceed via DBU-catalyzed O-sulfonylation/intramolecular Baylis-Hillman/1,3-H shift or dehydration tandem sequences, respectively.

  20. The major/minor concept: dependence of the selectivity of homogeneously catalyzed reactions on reactivity ratio and concentration ratio of the intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Thomas; Dai, Zhenya; Drexler, Hans-Joachim; Hapke, Marko; Preetz, Angelika; Heller, Detlef

    2008-07-07

    The homogeneously catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of prochiral olefins with cationic Rh(I) complexes is one of the best-understood selection processes. For some of the catalyst/substrate complexes, experimental proof points out the validation of the major/minor principle; the concentration-deficient minor substrate complex, which has very high reactivity, yields the excess enantiomer. As exemplified by the reaction system of [Rh(dipamp)(MeOH)2]+/methyl (Z)-alpha-acetamidocinnamate (dipamp=1,2-bis((o-methoxyphenyl)phenylphosphino)ethane), all six of the characteristic reaction rate constants have been previously identified. Recently, it was found that the major substrate complex can also yield the major enantiomer (lock-and-key principle). The differential equation system that results from the reaction sequence can be solved numerically for different hydrogen partial pressures by including the known equilibrium constants. The result displays the concentration-time dependence of all species that exist in the catalytic cycle. On the basis of the known constants as well as further experimental evidence, this work focuses on the examination of all principal possibilities resulting from the reaction sequence and leading to different results for the stereochemical outcome. From the simulation, the following conclusions can be drawn: 1) When an intermediate has extreme reactivity, its stationary concentration can become so small that it can no longer be the source of product selectivity; 2) in principle, the major/minor and lock-and-key principles can coexist depending on the applied pressure; 3) thermodynamically determined intermediate ratios can be completely converted under reaction conditions for a selection process; and 4) the increase in enantioselectivity with increasing hydrogen partial pressure, a phenomenon that is experimentally proven but theoretically far from being well-understood, can be explained by applying both the lock-and-key as well as the major

  1. Evaluation of the Optimal Reaction Conditions for the Methanolysis and Ethanolysis of Castor Oil Catalyzed by Immobilized Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade, Thalles Allan; Al-Kabalawi, Ibrahim F.; Errico, Massimiliano

    :1 methanol-to-oil molar ratio, 5 wt% of enzymes, 7.5 wt% of water, 50 wt% n-hexane, at 50 °C. The fatty acid methyl esters content was 96.8 % and 1.0 % FFA. Regarding the reactions with ethanol, 98.0 % fatty acid ethyl ester was obtained and 1.3 % FFA, when the reaction was carried out at 60 °C, 4:1 ethanol......As an alternative to the use of chemical catalysts, immobilized enzyme Lipozyme 435 was evaluated as catalyst for biodiesel production, comparing its efficiency in the castor oil transesterification with methanol and ethanol. Different reaction conditions were assessed and optimized, including...... the reaction temperature (35 – 60 °C), alcohol-to-oil molar ratio (from 3:1 to 6:1), amount of catalyst (from 3 to 15 wt% by weight of oil), addition of water (0 – 15 wt%), and use of n-hexane as a solvent (0 – 75 wt%). For the transesterification with methanol, the optimal reaction conditions were 3...

  2. Solvent-Free Biginelli Reactions Catalyzed by Hierarchical Zeolite Utilizing a Ball Mill Technique: A Green Sustainable Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameen Shahid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A sustainable, green one-pot process for the synthesis of dihydropyrimidinones (DHPMs derivatives by a three-component reaction of β-ketoester derivatives, aldehyde and urea or thiourea over the alkali-treated H-ZSM-5 zeolite under ball-milling was developed. Isolation of the product with ethyl acetate shadowed by vanishing of solvent was applied. The hierachical zeolite catalyst (MFI27_6 showed high yield (86%–96% of DHPMs in a very short time (10–30 min. The recyclability of the catalyst for the subsequent reactions was examined in four subsequent runs. The catalyst was shown to be robust without a detectable reduction in catalytic activity, and high yields of products showed the efficient protocol of the Biginelli reactions.

  3. Pre-steady-state kinetics of Escherichia coli aspartate aminotransferase catalyzed reactions and thermodynamic aspects of its substrate specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuramitsu, Seiki; Hiromi, Keitaro; Hayashi, Hideyuki; Morino, Yoshimasa; Kagamiyama, Hiroyuki

    1990-01-01

    The four half-transamination reactions [the pyridoxal form of Escherichia coli aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) with aspartate or glutamate and the pyridoxamine form of the enzyme with oxalacetate or 2-oxoglutarate] were followed in a stopped-flow spectrometer by monitoring the absorbance change at either 333 or 358 nm. The reaction progress curves in all cases gave fits to a monophasic exponential process. Kinetic analyses of these reactions showed that each half-reaction is composed of the following three processes: (1) the rapid binding of an amino acid substrate to the pyridoxal form of the enzyme; (2) the rapid binding of the corresponding keto acid to the pyridoxamine form of the enzyme; (3) the rate-determining interconversion between the two complexes. This mechanism was supported by the findings that the equilibrium constants for half- and overall-transamination reactions and the steady-state kinetic constants agreed well with the predicted values on the basis of the above mechanism using pre-steady-state kinetic parameters. The significant primary kinetic isotope effect observed in the reaction with deuterated amino acid suggests that the withdrawal of the α-proton of the substrates is rate determining. The pyridoxal form of E. coli AspAT reacted with a variety of amino acids as substrates. The substrate specificity of the E. coli enzyme was much broader than that of pig isoenzymes, reflecting some subtle but distinct difference in microenvironment accommodating the side chain of the substrate between e. coli and mammalian AspATs

  4. Solvent 1H/2H isotopic effects in the reaction of the L-Tyrosine oxidation catalyzed by Tyrosinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowska, M.; Kanska, M.

    2006-01-01

    Tyrosinase is well known catalyst in the oxidation of L-Tyrosine to L-DOPA and following oxidation of L-DOPA to dopachinone. The aim of communication is to present the results of studies on the solvent isotopic effects (SIE) in the above reactions for the 1 H/ 2 H in the 3',5' and 2',6' substituted tyrosine. Obtained dependence of the reaction rate on the substrate concentration were applied for optimization of the kinetic parameters, k cat and k cat /K m , in the Michaelis-Menten equation. As a result - better understanding of the L-DOPA creation can be achieved

  5. One- and two-dimensional chemical exchange nuclear magnetic resonance studies of the creatine kinase catalyzed reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gober, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The equilibrium chemical exchange dynamics of the creatine kinase enzyme system were studied by one- and two-dimensional 31 P NMR techniques. Pseudo-first-order reaction rate constants were measured by the saturation transfer method under an array of experimental conditions of pH and temperature. Quantitative one-dimensional spectra were collected under the same conditions in order to calculate the forward and reverse reaction rates, the K eq , the hydrogen ion stoichiometry, and the standard thermodynamic functions. The pure absorption mode in four quadrant two-dimensional chemical exchange experiment was employed so that the complete kinetic matrix showing all of the chemical exchange process could be realized

  6. Lewis Acid Catalyzed Asymmetric Three-Component Coupling Reaction: Facile Synthesis of α-Fluoromethylated Tertiary Alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikawa, Kohsuke; Kondo, Daisuke; Honda, Kazuya; Mikami, Koichi

    2015-12-01

    A chiral dicationic palladium complex is found to be an efficient Lewis acid catalyst for the synthesis of α-fluoromethyl-substituted tertiary alcohols using a three-component coupling reaction. The reaction transforms three simple and readily available components (terminal alkyne, arene, and fluoromethylpyruvate) to valuable chiral organofluorine compounds. This strategy is completely atom-economical and results in perfect regioselectivities and high enantioselectivities of the corresponding tertiary allylic alcohols in good to excellent yields. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Suzuki coupling reactions catalyzed by poly(N-ethyl-4-vinylpyridinium bromide stabilized palladium nanoparticles in aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available InIn this work, it was investigated to use of poly(N-ethyl-4-vinylpyridinium bromide stabilized palladium nanoparticles in the Suzuki reaction between phenylboronic acid and aryl halides in aqueous solution. The nanoparticles were isolated and re-used several times with low loss of activity.

  8. Molecular-weight-enlarged multiple-pincer ligands: synthesis and application in palladium-catalyzed allylic substitution reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronde, N.J.; Totev, D.; Müller, Christian; Lutz, M.; Spek, A.L.; Vogt, D.

    2009-01-01

    Three different pincer ligand systems are synthesized via nucleophilic substitution reactions of polyaromatic benzyl bromides as support molecules and phenol derivatives as ligand precursors. Retention tests using a polymeric nanofiltration membrane show moderate to good retention in THF and CH2Cl2.

  9. Ionic liquids as recyclable and separable reaction media in Rh-catalyzed decarbonylation of aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malcho, Phillip; Garcia-Suarez, Eduardo J.; Riisager, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been applied as recyclable reaction media in the decarbonylation of aldehydes in the presence of a rhodium-phosphine complex catalyst. The performance of several new catalytic systems based on imidazolium-based ILs and [Rh(dppp)2]Cl (dppp: 1,3-diphenylphosphinopropane) were...

  10. Cobalt-Embedded Nitrogen-Rich Carbon Nanotubes Efficiently Catalyze Hydrogen Evolution Reaction at All pH Values

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zou, X.; Huang, X.; Goswami, A.; Silva, R.; Sathe, B. R.; Mikmeková, Eliška; Asefa, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 17 (2014), s. 4372-4376 ISSN 1433-7851 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : carbon nanotubes * cobalt nanoparticles * electrocatalysis * hydrogen evolution reaction * water splitting Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 11.261, year: 2014

  11. Studies of Heterogeneously Catalyzed Liquid-Phase Alcohol Oxidation on Platinum bySum-frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy and Reaction Rate Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Christopher [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Compared to many branches of chemistry, the molecular level study of catalytically active surfaces is young. Only with the invention of ultrahigh vacuum technology in the past half century has it been possible to carry out experiments that yield useful molecular information about the reactive occurrences at a surface. The reason is two-fold: low pressure is necessary to keep a surface clean for an amount of time long enough to perform an experiment, and most atomic scale techniques that are surface speci c (x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, etc.) cannot be used at ambient pressures, because electrons, which act as chemical probes in these techniques, are easily scattered by molecules. Sum-frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy is one technique that can provide molecular level information from the surface without the necessity for high vacuum. Since the advent of SFG as a surface spectroscopic tool it has proved its worth in the studies of surface catalyzed reactions in the gas phase, with numerous reactions in the gas phase having been investigated on a multitude of surfaces. However, in situ SFG characterization of catalysis at the solid-liquid interface has yet to be thoroughly pursued despite the broad interest in the use of heterogeneous catalysts in the liquid phase as replacements for homogeneous counterparts. This work describes an attempt to move in that direction, applying SFG to study the solid-liquid interface under conditions of catalytic alcohol oxidation on platinum.

  12. L-myo-inosose-1 as a probable intermediate in the reaction catalyzed by myo-inositol oxygenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naber, N.I.; Swan, J.S.; Hamilton, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    In previous investigations, it was necessary to have Fe(II) and cysteine present in order to assay the catalytic activity of purified hog kidney myo-inositol oxygenase. In the present study it was found that, if this purified nonheme iron enzyme is slowly frozen in solution with glutathione and stored at -20 degrees C, it is fully active in the absence of activators if catalase is present to remove adventitious H 2 O 2 . With this simpler assay system it was possible to clarify the effects of several variables on the enzymic reaction. Thus, the maximum velocity is pH-dependent with a maximum around pH 9.5, but the apparent Km for myo-inositol (air atmosphere) remains constant at 5.0 mM throughout a broad pH range. The enzyme is quite specific for its substrate myo-inositol, is very sensitive to oxidants and reductants, but is not affected by a variety of complexing agents, nucleotides, sulfhydryl reagents, etc. In other experiments it was found that L-myo-inosose-1, a potential intermediate in the enzymic reaction, is a potent competitive inhibitor (Ki = 62 microM), while other inososes and a solution thought to contain D-glucodialdehyde, another potential intermediate, are weak inhibitors. Also, both a kinetic deuterium isotope effect (kH/kD = 2.1) and a tritium isotope effect (kH/kT = 7.5) are observed for the enzymic reaction when [1-2H]- and [1-3H]-myo-inositol are used as reactants. These latter results are considered strong evidence that the oxygenase reaction proceeds by a pathway involving L-myo-inosose-1 as an intermediate rather than by an alternative pathway that would have D-glucodialdehyde as the intermediate

  13. Study of hydrogen consumption reaction catalyzed by Pd ions in the simulated high-level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    To ensure the safety for storage of high-level liquid waste (HLLW) in tanks is one of the most important safety issues in a reprocessing plant since almost all radioactive materials under processing are collected in these tanks. Accordingly the behavior of radiolytically formed hydrogen (H 2 ) in these tanks is one of key issues and has been studied by several researchers because it might cause an explosion. They reported that not all of H 2 formed in HLLW comes out in the gas phase because H 2 is consumed by some un-clarified secondary reaction which may be caused by the irradiation and/or by the catalytic effect of certain fission product (FP) in HLLW. In order to clarify such effect, we carried out the experiments using the simulated high level liquid waste (SHLLW) with and without palladium (Pd) group ions under irradiation and non-irradiation conditions. As a result, it was found that H 2 consumption reaction is not caused by radiation as was understood so far but is caused by a catalytic effect of Pd ion in SHLLW. That is, H 2 is reacting with HNO 3 and forming H 2 O and NOx. Using the catalytic reaction rate constant measured in the experiments, the analysis showed that the H 2 concentration in the gas phase of an HLLW tank does not reach its explosion limit of 4% even if the sweeping air stops for a long time. (authors)

  14. Influence of the reaction conditions on the enzyme catalyzed transesterification of castor oil: A possible step in biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Thalles A; Errico, Massimiliano; Christensen, Knud V

    2017-11-01

    The identification of the influence of the reaction parameters is of paramount importance when defining a process design. In this work, non-edible castor oil was reacted with methanol to produce a possible component for biodiesel blends, using liquid enzymes as the catalyst. Temperature, alcohol-to-oil molar ratio, enzyme and added water contents were the reaction parameters evaluated in the transesterification reactions. The optimal conditions, giving the optimal final FAME yield and FFA content in the methyl ester-phase was identified. At 35°C, 6.0 methanol-to-oil molar ratio, 5wt% of enzyme and 5wt% of water contents, 94% of FAME yield and 6.1% of FFA in the final composition were obtained. The investigation was completed with the analysis of the component profiles, showing that at least 8h are necessary to reach a satisfactory FAME yield together with a minor FFA content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Delineating pMDI model reactions with loblolly pine via solution-state NMR spectroscopy. Part 1, Catalyzed reactions with wood models and wood polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Yelle; John Ralph; Charles R. Frihart

    2011-01-01

    To better understand adhesive interactions with wood, reactions between model compounds of wood and a model compound of polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (pMDI) were characterized by solution-state NMR spectroscopy. For comparison, finely ground loblolly pine sapwood, milled-wood lignin and holocellulose from the same wood were isolated and derivatized with...

  16. Ruthenium-Catalyzed Formal Dehydrative [4 + 2] Cycloaddition of Enamides and Alkynes for the Synthesis of Highly Substituted Pyridines: Reaction Development and Mechanistic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jicheng; Xu, Wenbo; Yu, Zhi-Xiang; Wang, Jian

    2015-07-29

    Reported herein is a ruthenium-catalyzed formal dehydrative [4 + 2] cycloaddition of enamides and alkynes, representing a mild and economic protocol for the construction of highly substituted pyridines. Notably, the features of broad substrate scope, high efficiency, good functional group tolerance, and excellent regioselectivities were observed for this reaction. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations and experiments have been carried out to understand the mechanism and regiochemistry. DFT calculations suggested that this formal dehydrative [4 + 2] reaction starts with a concerted metalation deprotonation of the enamide by the acetate group in the Ru catalyst, which generates a six-membered ruthenacycle intermediate. Then alkyne inserts into the Ru-C bond of the six-membered ruthenacycle, giving rise to an eight-membered ruthenacycle intermediate. The carbonyl group (which comes originally from the enamide substrate and is coordinated to the Ru center in the eight-membered ruthenacycle intermediate) then inserts into the Ru-C bond to give an intermediate, which produces the final pyridine product through further dehydration. Alkyne insertion step is a regio-determining step and prefers to have the aryl groups of the used alkynes stay away from the catalyst in order to avoid repulsion of aryl group with the enamide moiety in the six-membered ruthenacycle and to keep the conjugation between the aryl group and the triple C-C bond of the alkynes. Consequently, the aryl groups of the used alkynes are in the β-position of the final pyridines, and the present reaction has high regioselectivity.

  17. TM0416, a Hyperthermophilic Promiscuous Nonphosphorylated Sugar Isomerase, Catalyzes Various C5 and C6 Epimerization Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sun-Mi; Cao, Thinh-Phat; Choi, Jin Myung; Kim, Seong-Bo; Lee, Sang-Jae; Lee, Sung Haeng; Lee, Dong-Woo

    2017-05-15

    There is currently little information on nonphosphorylated sugar epimerases, which are of potential interest for producing rare sugars. We found a gene (the TM0416 gene) encoding a putative d-tagatose-3-epimerase-related protein from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima We overexpressed the TM0416 gene in Escherichia coli and purified the resulting recombinant protein for detailed characterization. Amino acid sequence alignment and a structural similarity search revealed that TM0416 is a putative nonphosphorylated sugar epimerase. The recombinant enzyme exhibited maximal C-3 epimerization of l-ribulose to l-xylulose at ∼80°C and pH 7 in the presence of 1 mM Mn 2+ In addition, this enzyme showed unusually high activity for the epimerization of d-tagatose to d-sorbose, with a conversion yield of 20% after 6 h at 80°C. Remarkably, the enzyme catalyzed the isomerization of d-erythrose or d-threose to d-erythrulose significantly, with conversion yields of 71% and 54.5%, respectively, after 6 h at 80°C at pH 7. To further investigate the substrate specificity of TM0416, we determined its crystal structures in complex with divalent metal ions and l-erythrulose at resolutions of 1.5 and 1.6 Å. Detailed inspection of the structural features and biochemical data clearly demonstrated that this metalloenzyme, with a freely accessible substrate-binding site and neighboring hydrophobic residues, exhibits different and promiscuous substrate preferences, compared with its mesophilic counterparts. Therefore, this study suggests that TM0416 can be functionally classified as a novel type of l-ribulose 3-epimerase (R3E) with d-erythrose isomerase activity. IMPORTANCE Rare sugars, which occur naturally in small amounts, have attracted considerable attention in the food and drug industries. However, there is little information on nonphosphorylated sugar epimerases, which might potentially be applied for the production of rare sugars. This study describes the

  18. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens levansucrase-catalyzed the synthesis of fructooligosaccharides, oligolevan and levan in maple syrup-based reaction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengxi; Seo, Sooyoun; Karboune, Salwa

    2015-11-20

    Maple syrups with selected degree Brix (°Bx) (15, 30, 60) were investigated as reaction systems for levansucrase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The enzymatic conversion of sucrose present in the maple syrup and the production of the transfructosylation products were assessed over a time course of 48h. At 30°C, the use of maple syrup 30°Bx led to the highest levansucrase activity (427.53μmol/mg protein/min), while maple syrup 66°Bx led to the highest converted sucrose concentration (1.53M). In maple syrup 30°Bx, oligolevans (1080%). In maple syrup 66°Bx, the most abundant products were oligolevans at 30°C and levans (DP≥30) at 8°C. The acceptor specificity study revealed the ability of B. amyloliquefaciens levansucrase to synthesize a variety of hetero-fructooligosaccharides (FOSs) in maple syrups 15°Bx and 30°Bx enriched with various disaccharides, with lactose being the preferred fructosyl acceptor. The current study is the first to investigate maple-syrup-based reaction systems for the synthesis of FOSs/oligolevans/levans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. CYP-450 isoenzymes catalyze the generation of hazardous aromatic amines after reaction with the azo dye Sudan III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoni, Thalita Boldrin; Lizier, Thiago M; Assis, Marilda das Dores; Zanoni, Maria Valnice B; de Oliveira, Danielle Palma

    2013-07-01

    This work describes the mutagenic response of Sudan III, an adulterant food dye, using Salmonella typhimurium assay and the generation of hazardous aromatic amines after different oxidation methods of this azo dye. For that, we used metabolic activation by S9, catalytic oxidation by ironporphyrin and electrochemistry oxidation in order to simulate endogenous oxidation conditions. The oxidation reactions promoted discoloration from 65% to 95% of Sudan III at 1 × 10(-4)molL(-1) and generation of 7.6 × 10(-7)molL(-1) to 0.31 × 10(-4)molL(-1) of aniline, o-anisidine, 2-methoxi-5-methylaniline, 4-aminobiphenyl, 4,4'-oxydianiline; 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane and 2,6-dimethylaniline. The results were confirmed by LC-MS-MS experiments. We also correlate the mutagenic effects of Sudan III using S. typhimurium with the strain TA1535 in the presence of exogenous metabolic activation (S9) with the metabolization products of this compound. Our findings clearly indicate that aromatic amines are formed due to oxidative reactions that can be promoted by hepatic cells, after the ingestion of Sudan III. Considering that, the use of azo compounds as food dyestuffs should be carefully controlled. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Efficient transfer hydrogenation reaction Catalyzed by a dearomatized PN 3P ruthenium pincer complex under base-free Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    He, Lipeng

    2012-03-01

    A dearomatized complex [RuH(PN 3P)(CO)] (PN 3PN, N′-bis(di-tert-butylphosphino)-2,6-diaminopyridine) (3) was prepared by reaction of the aromatic complex [RuH(Cl)(PN 3P)(CO)] (2) with t-BuOK in THF. Further treatment of 3 with formic acid led to the formation of a rearomatized complex (4). These new complexes were fully characterized and the molecular structure of complex 4 was further confirmed by X-ray crystallography. In complex 4, a distorted square-pyramidal geometry around the ruthenium center was observed, with the CO ligand trans to the pyridinic nitrogen atom and the hydride located in the apical position. The dearomatized complex 3 displays efficient catalytic activity for hydrogen transfer of ketones in isopropanol. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Glycerolysis of sardine oil catalyzed by a water dependent lipase in different tert-alcohols as reaction medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solaesa, Á. G.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of monoacylglycerol rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA via enzymatic glycerolysis of sardine oil in a homogeneous system was evaluated. Reactions were conducted in two different tert-alcohols. Based on the phase equilibrium data, the amount of solvent added to create a homogeneous system has been calculated and optimized. The immobilized lipase used in this work was Lipozyme RM IM from Rhizomucor miehei, a water dependent lipase. The amount of water added as well as other reaction parameters were studied to evaluate the optimum conditions for monoacylglycerol obtencion. An initial reactant mole ratio glycerol to sardine oil 3:1, 12 wt% of water based on glycerol content and 10 wt% of lipase loading (based on weight of reactants, achieved a MAG yield of around 70%, with nearly 28 wt% PUFA, with low free fatty acid content (lower than 18 wt%.En este trabajo se ha estudiado la producción de monoacilglicéridos, ricos en ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (AGPI, mediante glicerolisis enzimática de aceite de sardina. La reacción se ha llevado a cabo en dos tert-alcoholes para conseguir de esta forma un medio homogéneo de reacción. La cantidad de disolvente añadida al medio de reacción se ha optimizado y calculado en base al equilibrio de fases de los componentes del sistema. La lipasa empleada como biocatalizador ha sido la enzima inmovilizada Lipozyme RM IM de Rhizomucor miehei, una lipasa dependiente de agua. Se ha estudiado el efecto de distintos parámetros cinéticos, así como de la cantidad de agua añadida al medio de reacción, en la producción de monoacilglicéridos. De los resultados obtenidos, se puede concluir que, para una relación molar inicial de reactantes glicerol:aceite de sardina de 3:1, un 12 % en peso de agua en base al glicerol y un 10 % en peso de lipasa, en base al peso de reactantes; se puede llegar a conseguir un rendimiento en monoacilglicéridos alrededor del 70 % en peso, con casi un 28 % en

  2. A Novel Glucosylation Reaction on Anthocyanins Catalyzed by Acyl-Glucose–Dependent Glucosyltransferase in the Petals of Carnation and Delphinium[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuba, Yuki; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Tera, Masayuki; Okamura, Masachika; Abe, Yutaka; Okamoto, Emi; Nakamura, Haruka; Funabashi, Hisakage; Takatsu, Makoto; Saito, Mikako; Matsuoka, Hideaki; Nagasawa, Kazuo; Ozeki, Yoshihiro

    2010-01-01

    Glucosylation of anthocyanin in carnations (Dianthus caryophyllus) and delphiniums (Delphinium grandiflorum) involves novel sugar donors, aromatic acyl-glucoses, in a reaction catalyzed by the enzymes acyl-glucose–dependent anthocyanin 5(7)-O-glucosyltransferase (AA5GT and AA7GT). The AA5GT enzyme was purified from carnation petals, and cDNAs encoding carnation Dc AA5GT and the delphinium homolog Dg AA7GT were isolated. Recombinant Dc AA5GT and Dg AA7GT proteins showed AA5GT and AA7GT activities in vitro. Although expression of Dc AA5GT in developing carnation petals was highest at early stages, AA5GT activity and anthocyanin accumulation continued to increase during later stages. Neither Dc AA5GT expression nor AA5GT activity was observed in the petals of mutant carnations; these petals accumulated anthocyanin lacking the glucosyl moiety at the 5 position. Transient expression of Dc AA5GT in petal cells of mutant carnations is expected to result in the transfer of a glucose moiety to the 5 position of anthocyanin. The amino acid sequences of Dc AA5GT and Dg AA7GT showed high similarity to glycoside hydrolase family 1 proteins, which typically act as β-glycosidases. A phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences suggested that other plant species are likely to have similar acyl-glucose–dependent glucosyltransferases. PMID:20971893

  3. Kinetics of an acid-base catalyzed reaction (aspartame degradation) as affected by polyol-induced changes in buffer pH and pK values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuy, S; Bell, L N

    2009-01-01

    The kinetics of an acid-base catalyzed reaction, aspartame degradation, were examined as affected by the changes in pH and pK(a) values caused by adding polyols (sucrose, glycerol) to phosphate buffer. Sucrose-containing phosphate buffer solutions had a lower pH than that of phosphate buffer alone, which contributed, in part, to reduced aspartame reactivity. A kinetic model was introduced for aspartame degradation that encompassed pH and buffer salt concentrations, both of which change with a shift in the apparent pK(a) value. Aspartame degradation rate constants in sucrose-containing solutions were successfully predicted using this model when corrections (that is, lower pH, lower apparent pK(a) value, buffer dilution from the polyol) were applied. The change in buffer properties (pH, pK(a)) from adding sucrose to phosphate buffer does impact food chemical stability. These effects can be successfully incorporated into predictive kinetic models. Therefore, pH and pK(a) changes from adding polyols to buffer should be considered during food product development.

  4. Rapid and accurate liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantification of ten metabolic reactions catalyzed by hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Rong; Ma, Bingliang; Wu, Jiasheng; Wang, Tianming; Ma, Yueming

    2015-10-01

    The hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes play a central role in the biotransformation of endogenous and exogenous substances. A sensitive high-throughput liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry assay was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of the products of ten metabolic reactions catalyzed by hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes. After the substrates were incubated separately, the samples were pooled and analyzed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry using an electrospray ionization source in the positive and negative ion modes. The method exhibited linearity over a broad concentration range, insensitivity to matrix effects, and high accuracy, precision, and stability. The novel method was successfully applied to study the kinetics of phenacetin-O deethylation, coumarin-7 hydroxylation, bupropion hydroxylation, taxol-6 hydroxylation, omeprazole-5 hydroxylation, dextromethorphan-O demethylation, tolbutamide-4 hydroxylation, chlorzoxazone-6 hydroxylation, testosterone-6β hydroxylation, and midazolam-1 hydroxylation in rat liver microsomes. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. SOLVENT EFFECTS ON THE HYDRATION OF CYCLOHEXENE CATALYZED BY A STRONG ACID ION-EXCHANGE RESIN .2. EFFECT OF SULFOLANE ON THE REACTION-KINETICS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PANNEMAN, HJ; BEENACKERS, AACM

    The kinetics of the' hydration of cyclohexene, catalyzed by a strong acid ion-exchange resin, have been studied in a packed bed reactor at temperatures between 353 and 413 K and a pressure of 20 bar. The kinetic rate constants were measured as a function of temperature and solvent composition (0-90

  6. Pyridine synthesis by reactions of allyl amines and alkynes proceeding through a Cu(OAc)2 oxidation and Rh(III)-catalyzed N-annulation sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Su; Park, Jung-Woo; Jun, Chul-Ho

    2012-11-28

    A new methodology has been developed for the synthesis of pyridines from allyl amines and alkynes, which involves sequential Cu(II)-promoted dehydrogenation of the allylamine and Rh(III)-catalyzed N-annulation of the resulting α,β-unsaturated imine and alkyne.

  7. Three-component reactions of kojic acid: Efficient synthesis of Dihydropyrano[3,2-b]chromenediones and aminopyranopyrans catalyzed with Nano-Bi2O3-ZnO and Nano-ZnO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Zirak

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of pyrano-chromenes and pyrano-pyrans was developed by three-component reactions of kojic acid and aromatic aldehydes with dimethone and malononitrile, catalyzed with nano-Bi2O3-ZnO and nano-ZnO, respectively. Reactions proceeded smoothly and the corresponding heterocyclic products were obtained in good to high yields. Nano ZnO and nano Bi2O3-ZnO were prepared by sol-gel method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM techniques. Supporting Bi3+ on ZnO nanoparticles as Bi2O3, is the main novelty of this work. The simple reaction procedure, easy separation of products, low catalyst loading, reusability of the catalyst are some advantageous of this protocol.

  8. Gold-catalyzed aerobic epoxidation of trans-stilbene in methylcyclohexane. Part II: Identification and quantification of a key reaction intermediate

    KAUST Repository

    Guillois, Kevin

    2013-03-01

    The gold-catalyzed aerobic oxidations of alkenes are thought to rely on the in situ synthesis of hydroperoxide species, which have however never been clearly identified. Here, we show direct experimental evidence for the presence of 1-methylcyclohexyl hydroperoxide in the aerobic co-oxidation of stilbene and methylcyclohexane catalyzed by the Au/SiO2-R972 optimized catalyst prepared in Part I. Determination of its response in gas chromatography, by triphenylphosphine titration followed by 31P NMR, allows to easily follow its concentration throughout the co-oxidation process and to clearly highlight the simultaneous existence of the methylcyclohexane autoxidation pathway and the stilbene epoxidation pathway. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Gold-catalyzed aerobic epoxidation of trans-stilbene in methylcyclohexane. Part II: Identification and quantification of a key reaction intermediate

    KAUST Repository

    Guillois, Kevin; Mangematin, Sté phane; Tuel, Alain; Caps, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    The gold-catalyzed aerobic oxidations of alkenes are thought to rely on the in situ synthesis of hydroperoxide species, which have however never been clearly identified. Here, we show direct experimental evidence for the presence of 1-methylcyclohexyl hydroperoxide in the aerobic co-oxidation of stilbene and methylcyclohexane catalyzed by the Au/SiO2-R972 optimized catalyst prepared in Part I. Determination of its response in gas chromatography, by triphenylphosphine titration followed by 31P NMR, allows to easily follow its concentration throughout the co-oxidation process and to clearly highlight the simultaneous existence of the methylcyclohexane autoxidation pathway and the stilbene epoxidation pathway. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Can laccases catalyze bond cleavage in lignin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Line; Sitarz, Anna Katarzyna; Kalyani, Dayanand

    2015-01-01

    illustrations of the putative laccase catalyzed reactions, including the possible reactions of the reactive radical intermediates taking place after the initial oxidation of the phenol-hydroxyl groups, we show that i) Laccase activity is able to catalyze bond cleavage in low molecular weight phenolic lignin......-substituted phenols, benzenethiols, polyphenols, and polyamines, which may be oxidized. In addition, the currently available analytical methods that can be used to detect enzyme catalyzed changes in lignin are summarized, and an improved nomenclature for unequivocal interpretation of the action of laccases on lignin...

  11. Piper-betle-shaped nano-S-catalyzed synthesis of 1-amidoalkyl-2-naphthols under solvent-free reaction condition: a greener "nanoparticle-catalyzed organic synthesis enhancement" approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Vijay K; Borah, Madhurjya; Thakur, Ashim J

    2013-04-05

    Nano-S prepared by an annealing process showed excellent catalytic activity for the synthesis of 1-amidoalkyl-2-naphthols under solvent-free reaction condition at 50 °C. The catalyst could be reused up to the fifth cycle without loss in its action. The green-ness of the present protocol was also measured using green metrics drawing its superiority.

  12. Lipase-catalyzed asymmetric synthesis of naphtho[2,3-c]furan-1(3H)-one derivatives by a one-pot dynamic kinetic resolution/intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction: Total synthesis of (-)-himbacine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Koji; Kawanishi, Shinji; Oki, Yasuhiro; Kamiya, Marin; Hanada, Ryosuke; Egi, Masahiro; Akai, Shuji

    2018-04-01

    One-pot sequential reactions using the acyl moieties installed by enzymatic dynamic kinetic resolution of alcohols have been little investigated. In this work, the acryloyl moiety installed via the lipase/oxovanadium combo-catalyzed dynamic kinetic resolution of a racemic dienol [4-(cyclohex-1-en-1-yl)but-3-en-2-ol or 1-(cyclohex-1-en-1-yl)but-2-en-1-ol] with a (Z)-3-(phenylsulfonyl)acrylate underwent an intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction in a one-pot procedure to produce an optically active naphtho[2,3-c]furan-1(3H)-one derivative (98% ee). This method was successfully applied to the asymmetric total synthesis of (-)-himbacine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Caffeine-catalyzed gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCiccio, Angela M; Lee, Young-Ah Lucy; Glettig, Dean L; Walton, Elizabeth S E; de la Serna, Eva L; Montgomery, Veronica A; Grant, Tyler M; Langer, Robert; Traverso, Giovanni

    2018-07-01

    Covalently cross-linked gels are utilized in a broad range of biomedical applications though their synthesis often compromises easy implementation. Cross-linking reactions commonly utilize catalysts or conditions that can damage biologics and sensitive compounds, producing materials that require extensive post processing to achieve acceptable biocompatibility. As an alternative, we report a batch synthesis platform to produce covalently cross-linked materials appropriate for direct biomedical application enabled by green chemistry and commonly available food grade ingredients. Using caffeine, a mild base, to catalyze anhydrous carboxylate ring-opening of diglycidyl-ether functionalized monomers with citric acid as a tri-functional crosslinking agent we introduce a novel poly(ester-ether) gel synthesis platform. We demonstrate that biocompatible Caffeine Catalyzed Gels (CCGs) exhibit dynamic physical, chemical, and mechanical properties, which can be tailored in shape, surface texture, solvent response, cargo release, shear and tensile strength, among other potential attributes. The demonstrated versatility, low cost and facile synthesis of these CCGs renders them appropriate for a broad range of customized engineering applications including drug delivery constructs, tissue engineering scaffolds, and medical devices. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. 2-Acetylthiamin pyrophosphate (acetyl-TPP) pH-rate profile for hydrolysis of acetyl-TPP and isolation of acetyl-TPP as a transient species in pyruvate dehydrogenase catalyzed reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruys, K.J.; Datta, A.; Frey, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    Rate constants for the hydrolysis of acetyl-TPP were measured pH values of 2.5 and 7.5 and plotted as log k obs versus pH. The pH-rate profile defined two legs, each with a slope of +1 but separated by a region of decreased slope between pH 4 and pH 6. The rates were insensitive to buffer concentrations. Each leg of the profile reflected specific-base-catalyzed hydrolysis of acetyl-TPP, analogous to the hydrolysis of 2-acetyl-3,4-dimethylthiazolium ion. The separation of the two legs of this profile has been shown to be caused by the ionization of a group exhibiting a pK a of 4.73 within acetyl-TPP that is remote from the acetyl group, the aminopyrimidine ring, which is promoted below pH 4.73. The protonation level of this ring has been shown to control the equilibrium partitioning of acetyl-TPP among its carbinolamine, keto, and hydrate forms. The differential partitioning of these species is a major factor causing the separation between the two legs of the pH-rate profile. The characteristic pH-rate profile and the availability of synthetic acetyl-TPP have facilitated the isolation and identification of [1- 14 C]acetyl-TPP from acid-quenched enymatic reaction mixtures at steady states. [1- 14 C]Acetyl-TPP was identified as a transient species in reactions catalyzed by the PDH complex or the pyruvate dehydrogenase component of the complex (E 1 ). The pH-rate profile for hydrolysis of [1- 14 C]-acetyl-TPP, isolated from enzymatic reactions was found to be indistinguishable from that for authentic acetyl-TPP, which constituted positive identification of the 14 C-labeled enzymic species

  15. catalyzed oxidation of formamidine derivative by hexacyanoferrate(III

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    triazol-3-yl) formamidine (ATF) by hexacyanoferrate(III) (HCF) was studied spectrophotometrically in aqueous alkalinemedium. Both uncatalyzed and catalyzed reactions showed first order kinetics with respect to [HCF],whereas the reaction ...

  16. catalyzed oxidation of formamidine derivative by hexacyanoferrate(III)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Both uncatalyzed and catalyzed reactions showed first order kinetics with respect to [HCF], whereas ... The rate laws associated with the reaction mechanisms ... activation and thermodynamic parameters have been computed and discussed.

  17. Highly Enantioselective Construction of Tertiary Thioethers and Alcohols via Phosphine-Catalyzed Asymmetric γ-Addition reactions of 5H-Thiazol-4-ones and 5H-Oxazol-4-ones: Scope and Mechanistic Understandings

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Tianli

    2015-06-02

    Phosphine-catalyzed highly enantioselective γ-additions of 5H-thiazol-4-ones and 5H-oxazol-4-ones to allenoates have been developed for the first time. With the employment of amino-acid derived bifunctional phosphines, a wide range of substituted 5H-thiazol-4-one and 5H-oxazol-4-one derivatives bearing heteroarom (S or O)-containing tertiary chiral centers were constructed in high yields and excellent enantioselectivities. The reported method provides a facile access to enantioenriched tertiary thioether/alcohols. The mechanism of γ-addition reaction was investigated by performing DFT calculations, and the hydrogen bonding interactions between the Brønsted acid moiety of the phosphine catalysts and the “C=O” unit of donor molecules were shown to be crucial in asymmetric induction.

  18. Production of edible carbohydrates from formaldehyde in a spacecraft. pH variations in the calcium hydroxide catalyzed formose reaction. Final Report, 1 Jul. 1973 - 30 Jun. 1974. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, A. H.; Kohler, J. T.; John, T.

    1974-01-01

    The study of the calcium hydroxide catalyzed condensation of formaldehyde was extended to a batch reactor system. Decreases in pH were observed, often in the acid regime, when using this basic catalyst. This observation was shown to be similar to results obtained by others using less basic catalysts in the batch mode. The relative rates of these reactions are different in a batch reactor than in a continuous stirred tank reactor. This difference in relative rates is due to the fact that at any degree of advancement in the batch system, the products have a history of previous products, pH, and dissolved catalyst. The relative rate differences can be expected to yield a different nature of product sugars for the two types of reactors.

  19. Highly Enantioselective Construction of Tertiary Thioethers and Alcohols via Phosphine-Catalyzed Asymmetric γ-Addition reactions of 5H-Thiazol-4-ones and 5H-Oxazol-4-ones: Scope and Mechanistic Understandings

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Tianli; Yu, Zhaoyuan; Hoon, Ding Long; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Lan, Yu; Lu, Yixin

    2015-01-01

    Phosphine-catalyzed highly enantioselective γ-additions of 5H-thiazol-4-ones and 5H-oxazol-4-ones to allenoates have been developed for the first time. With the employment of amino-acid derived bifunctional phosphines, a wide range of substituted 5H-thiazol-4-one and 5H-oxazol-4-one derivatives bearing heteroarom (S or O)-containing tertiary chiral centers were constructed in high yields and excellent enantioselectivities. The reported method provides a facile access to enantioenriched tertiary thioether/alcohols. The mechanism of γ-addition reaction was investigated by performing DFT calculations, and the hydrogen bonding interactions between the Brønsted acid moiety of the phosphine catalysts and the “C=O” unit of donor molecules were shown to be crucial in asymmetric induction.

  20. Studies on Pd/NiFe2O4 catalyzed ligand-free Suzuki reaction in aqueous phase: synthesis of biaryls, terphenyls and polyaryls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh B. Waghmode

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Palladium supported on nickel ferrite (Pd/NiF2O4 was found to be a highly active catalyst for the Suzuki coupling reaction between various aryl halides and arylboronic acids. The reaction gave excellent yields (70–98% under ligand free conditions in a 1:1 DMF/H2O solvent mixture, in short reaction times (10–60 min. The catalyst could be recovered easily by applying an external magnetic field. The polyaryls were similarly synthesized.

  1. Asymmetric NHC-catalyzed aza-Diels-Alder reactions: Highly enantioselective route to α-amino acid derivatives and DFT calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Limin; Wang, Fei; Lee, Richmond; Lv, Yunbo; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Zhong, Guofu

    2014-01-01

    A facile N-heterocyclic carbene catalytic enantioselective aza-Diels-Alder reaction of oxodiazenes with α-chloroaldehydes as dienophile precursors is reported, with excellent enantioselectivity (ee > 99%) and excellent yield (up to 93%). DFT study

  2. The origin of enantioselectivity in the l-threonine-derived phosphine-sulfonamide catalyzed aza-Morita-Baylis-Hillman reaction: Effects of the intramolecular hydrogen bonding

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Richmond; Zhong, Fangrui; Zheng, Bin; Meng, Yuezhong; Lu, Yixin; Huang, Kuo-Wei

    2013-01-01

    in inducing a high degree of stereochemical control in both the enolate addition to imine and the subsequent proton transfer step, affording aza-MBH reactions with excellent enantioselectivity. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  3. CuI-catalyzed photochemical or thermal reactions of 3-(2-azidobenzylidene)lactams. Application to the synthesis of fused indoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zongjun; Ren, Yuwei; Li, Bing; Lu, Shenci; Zhang, Wei

    2010-06-14

    Photochemical or thermal reactions of 3-(2-azidobenzylidene)-lactams afforded fused indoles such as indolo[3,2-c]quinolin-6-ones, pyrido[4,3-b]indol-1-ones and other similar compounds in moderate to high yields via cyclization-ring expansion reactions. The photolytic process was much more facile than the thermal process and could be further improved by addition of CuI.

  4. The Brønsted Acid-Catalyzed, Enantioselective Aza-Diels-Alder Reaction for the Direct Synthesis of Chiral Piperidones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weilbeer, Claudia; Sickert, Marcel; Naumov, Sergei; Schneider, Christoph

    2017-01-12

    We disclose herein the first enantioselective aza-Diels-Alder reaction of β-alkyl-substituted vinylketene silyl-O,O-acetals and imines furnishing a broad range of optically highly enriched 4-alkyl-substituted 2-piperidones. As a catalyst for this one-pot reaction we employed a chiral phosphoric acid which effects a vinylogous Mannich reaction directly followed by ring-closure to the lactam. Subsequent fully diastereoselective transformations including hydrogenation, enolate alkylation, and lactam alkylation/reduction processes converted the cycloadducts into various highly substituted piperidines of great utility for the synthesis of natural products and medicinally active compounds. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. An efficient synthesis of novel pyrano[2,3-d]- and furopyrano[2,3-d]pyrimidines via indium-catalyzed multi-component domino reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gohain Mukut

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Various novel pyrano [2,3-d]pyrimidines 5 and furopyrano [2,3-d]pyrimidines 7 were synthesized in 80–99% yields via a multicomponent domino Knoevenagel/hetero-Diels-Alder reaction of 1,3-dimethyl barbituric acid with an aromatic aldehyde and ethyl vinyl ether/2,3-dihydrofuran in presence of 1 mol% of indium(III chloride. The reaction also proceeds in aqueous media without using any catalyst, but the yield is comparatively less (65–70%.

  6. Cu catalyzed oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural to 2,5-diformylfuran and 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid under benign reaction conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas S.; Sádaba, Irantzu; Garcia, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    containing promoters (NCPs) to obtain excellent yields. In acetonitrile a 95% DFF yield was obtained after 24h with ambient pressure of dioxygen at room temperature in the presence of different NCPs, which – to our knowledge – is the best result reported thus far for this reaction. The use of NCPs made...... it further possible to apply various traditional solvents, e.g. acetone, methanol and methyl isobutyl ketone for the reaction. The latter can be used as extraction solvent for HMF synthesis in aqueous media and thus integrate the two processes. Additionally, HMF was oxidized to 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid...

  7. The origin of enantioselectivity in the l-threonine-derived phosphine-sulfonamide catalyzed aza-Morita-Baylis-Hillman reaction: Effects of the intramolecular hydrogen bonding

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Richmond

    2013-01-01

    l-Threonine-derived phosphine-sulfonamide 4 was identified as the most efficient catalyst to promote enantioselective aza-Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) reactions, affording the desired aza-MBH adducts with excellent enantioselectivities. Density functional theory (DFT) studies were carried out to elucidate the origin of the observed enantioselectivity. The importance of the intramolecular N-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding interaction between the sulfonamide and enolate groups was identified to be crucial in inducing a high degree of stereochemical control in both the enolate addition to imine and the subsequent proton transfer step, affording aza-MBH reactions with excellent enantioselectivity. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  8. Density functional theory analysis of the reaction pathway for methane oxidation to acetic acid catalyzed by Pd2+ in sulfuric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chempath, Shaji; Bell, Alexis T

    2006-04-12

    Density functional theory has been used to investigate the thermodynamics and activation barriers associated with the direct oxidation of methane to acetic acid catalyzed by Pd2+ cation in concentrated sulfuric acid. Pd2+ cations in such solutions are ligated by two bisulfate anions and by one or two molecules of sulfuric acid. Methane oxidation is initiated by the addition of CH4 across one of the Pd-O bonds of a bisulfate ligand to form Pd(HSO4)(CH3)(H2SO4)2. The latter species will react with CO to produce Pd(HSO4)(CH3CO)(H2SO4)2. The most likely path to the final products is found to be via oxidation of Pd(HSO4)(CH3)(H2SO4)2 and Pd(HSO4)(CH3CO)(H2SO4)2 to form Pd(eta2-HSO4)(HSO4)2(CH3)(H2SO4) and Pd(eta2-HSO4)(HSO4)2(CH3CO)(H2SO4), respectively. CH3HSO4 or CH3COHSO4 is then produced by reductive elimination from the latter two species, and CH(3)COOH is then formed by hydrolysis of CH3COHSO4. The loss of Pd2+ from solution to form Pd(0) or Pd-black is predicted to occur via reduction with CO. This process is offset, though, by reoxidation of palladium by either H2SO4 or O2.

  9. Ultrasound-assisted synthesis of β-amino ketones via a Mannich reaction catalyzed by Fe3O4 magnetite nanoparticles as an efficient, recyclable and heterogeneous catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghi Saadatjoo

    2017-02-01

    The present methodology offers several advantages, such as good yields, short reaction times and a recyclable catalyst with a very easy work up. In addition, the obtained results indicated that MNPs can be used as an effective and inexpensive catalyst for stereoselective synthesis of β-amino carbonyl by a one-pot three component condensation of aldehydes, ketones and amines.

  10. Build/Couple/Pair Strategy Combining the Petasis 3-Component Reaction with Ru-Catalyzed Ring-Closing Metathesis and Isomerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ascic, Erhad; Le Quement, Sebastian Thordal; Ishøy, Mette

    2012-01-01

    A “build/couple/pair” pathway for the systematic synthesis of structurally diverse small molecules is presented. The Petasis 3-component reaction was used to synthesize anti-amino alcohols displaying pairwise reactive combinations of alkene moieties. Upon treatment with a ruthenium alkylidene...

  11. Efficient C-O and C-N bond forming cross-coupling reactions catalyzed by core-shell structured Cu/Cu2O nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Elshewy, Ahmed M.

    2013-01-01

    linkages in organic molecules. Despite significant advancements in this field, the construction of C-O and C–N bonds is still a major challenge for organic chemists, due to the involvement of harsh reaction conditions or the use of expensive catalysts

  12. Synthesis of 1-amidoalkyl-2-naphthols based on a three-component reaction catalyzed by boric acid as a solid heterogeneous catalyst under solvent-free conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahed Karimi-Jaberi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An efficient method for the preparation of 1-amidoalkyl-2-naphthols has been described using a multi-component, one-pot condensation reaction of 2-naphthol, aldehydes and amides in the presence of boric acid under solvent-free conditions.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v26i3.18

  13. Palladium-catalyzed aerobic regio- and stereo-selective olefination reactions of phenols and acrylates via direct dehydrogenative C(sp2)-O cross-coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yun-Bin; Xie, Dan; Zang, Zhong-Lin; Zhou, Cheng-He; Cai, Gui-Xin

    2018-04-26

    An efficient olefination protocol for the oxidative dehydrogenation of phenols and acrylates has been achieved using a palladium catalyst and O2 as the sole oxidant. This reaction exhibits high regio- and stereo-selectivity (E-isomers) with moderate to excellent isolated yields and a wide substrate scope (32 examples) including ethyl vinyl ketone and endofolliculina.

  14. Study on the reactive transient α-λ3-iodanyl-acetophenone complex in the iodine(III)/PhI(I) catalytic cycle of iodobenzene-catalyzed α-acetoxylation reaction of acetophenone by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao-Yang; Zhou, Juan; Guo, Yin-Long

    2012-03-30

    Hypervalent iodine compounds are important and widely used oxidants in organic chemistry. In 2005, Ochiai reported the PhI-catalyzed α-acetoxylation reaction of acetophenone by the oxidation of PhI with m-chloroperbenzoic acid (m-CPBA) in acetic acid. However, until now, the most critical reactive α-λ(3)-iodine alkyl acetophenone intermediate (3) had not been isolated or directly detected. Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) was used to intercept and characterize the transient reactive α-λ(3)-iodine alkyl acetophenone intermediate in the reaction solution. The trivalent iodine species was detected when PhI and m-CPBA in acetic acid were mixed, which indicated the facile oxidation of a catalytic amount of PhI(I) to the iodine(III) species by m-CPBA. Most importantly, 3·H(+) was observed at m/z 383 from the reaction solution and this ion gave the protonated α-acetoxylation product 4·H(+) at m/z 179 in MS/MS by an intramolecular reductive elimination of PhI. These ESI-MS/MS studies showed the existence of the reactive α-λ(3)-iodine alkyl acetophenone intermediate 3 in the catalytic cycle. Moreover, the gas-phase reactivity of 3·H(+) was consistent with the proposed solution-phase reactivity of the α-λ(3)-iodine alkyl acetophenone intermediate 3, thus confirming the reaction mechanism proposed by Ochiai. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Kinetics and mechanism of aquation and formation reactions of carbonato complexes. XII. Deuterium solvent isotope effect on the rate of acid-catalyzed decarboxylation of the carbonatobis (ethylenediamine) cobalt(III) complex ion. A mechanistic reappraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, G.M.; Hyde, K.E.

    1978-01-01

    A recent study of the acid-catalyzed decarboxylation of the carbonatotetrakis(pyridine)cobalt(III) complex ion showed there to be rate acceleration in D 2 O solvent, consistent with a proton-preequilibration mechanism. This observation directly contradicts the results of a similar study made some years ago of the analogous ion, carbonatobis(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III), for which there appeared to be deceleration in D 2 O solvent. A reinvestigation of the latter reaction over a much wider acidity range has now shown the earlier work to be in error. The previously proposed generalized mechanism for aquation of chelated carbonato complex ions of the form CoN 4 CO 3 + (N 4 identical with various tetramine ligand groupings of uni-, bi-, or quadridentate type) has thus been revised to include a proton equilibration step. An unexpected complication arises in the interpretation of the data for the bis(ethylenediamine) complex ion in the acidity range 0.1 + ] + ] term, overtakes and exceeds the true first-order rate constant for CO 2 release. The interesting implications of this unusual first-order successive reaction system are fully explored in the context of the present study

  16. Efficient C-O and C-N bond forming cross-coupling reactions catalyzed by core-shell structured Cu/Cu2O nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Elshewy, Ahmed M.

    2013-12-01

    Oxygen and Nitrogen containing compounds are of utmost importance due to their interesting and diverse biological activities. The construction of the C-O and C–N bonds is of significance as it opens avenues for the introduction of ether and amine linkages in organic molecules. Despite significant advancements in this field, the construction of C-O and C–N bonds is still a major challenge for organic chemists, due to the involvement of harsh reaction conditions or the use of expensive catalysts or ligands in many cases. Thus, it is a challenge to develop alternative, milder, cheaper and more reproducible methodologies for the construction of these types of bonds. Herein, we introduce a new efficient ligand free catalytic system for C-O and C-N bond formation reactions.

  17. Asymmetric NHC-catalyzed aza-Diels-Alder reactions: Highly enantioselective route to α-amino acid derivatives and DFT calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Limin

    2014-08-01

    A facile N-heterocyclic carbene catalytic enantioselective aza-Diels-Alder reaction of oxodiazenes with α-chloroaldehydes as dienophile precursors is reported, with excellent enantioselectivity (ee > 99%) and excellent yield (up to 93%). DFT study showed that cis-TSa, formed from a top face approach of oxodiazene to cis-IIa, is the most favorable transition state and is consistent with the experimental observations. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  18. Selective C–C Coupling Reaction of Dimethylphenol to Tetramethyldiphenoquinone Using Molecular Oxygen Catalyzed by Cu Complexes Immobilized in Nanospaces of Structurally-Ordered Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zen Maeno

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Two high-performance Cu catalysts were successfully developed by immobilization of Cu ions in the nanospaces of poly(propylene imine (PPI dendrimer and magadiite for the selective C–C coupling of 2,6-dimethylphenol (DMP to 3,3',5,5'-tetramethyldiphenoquinone (DPQ with O2 as a green oxidant. The PPI dendrimer encapsulated Cu ions in the internal nanovoids to form adjacent Cu species, which exhibited significantly high catalytic activity for the regioselective coupling reaction of DMP compared to previously reported enzyme and metal complex catalysts. The magadiite-immobilized Cu complex acted as a selective heterogeneous catalyst for the oxidative C–C coupling of DMP to DPQ. This heterogeneous catalyst was recoverable from the reaction mixture by simple filtration, reusable without loss of efficiency, and applicable to a continuous flow reactor system. Detailed characterization using ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, electronic spin resonance (ESR, and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS spectroscopies and the reaction mechanism investigation revealed that the high catalytic performances of these Cu catalysts were ascribed to the adjacent Cu species generated within the nanospaces of the PPI dendrimer and magadiite.

  19. Mechanistic Study of Ni/CeO{sub 2}-catalyzed CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} Reaction Using Flow and Static Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jin-Gyu; Roh, Joong-Seok; Kim, Ji-Yeong; Lee, Sung-Han; Choi, Jonng-Gill [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    Ni/CeO{sub 2} catalysts with different Ni loadings (5, 7, 10, 12, and 14 wt% Ni) were prepared by an impregnation method and examined for the CO{sub 2} reforming of methane using flow and static reactors. Their catalytic activities and selectivities were measured under CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4}/Ar (=5/5/40 cm{sup 3}/min) flow at 450-800 .deg. C using a flow reactor system with an on-line gas chromatography. At flexed temperature, the CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} conversions varied only slightly with the Ni wt%, whereas the H{sub 2}/CO ratio increased with increasing Ni wt%. The conversions increased with temperature, reaching 98% at 800 .deg. C. The H{sub 2}/CO ratio varied with temperature in the range of 450-800 .deg. C, from less than 1 below 550 .deg. C to close to 1 at 550-600 .deg. C and then back to less than 1 above 600 .deg. C. The apparent activation energies were determined to be 43.1 kJ/mol for the CO{sub 2} consumption and 50.2 kJ/mol for the CH{sub 4} consumption based on the rates measured for the reforming reaction over 5 wt% Ni/CeO{sub 2} catalyst at 550-750 .deg. C. Additionally, the catalytic reforming reaction at low pressure (40 Torr) was investigated by a static reactor system by using a differential photoacoustic cell, in which the rates were measured from the CO{sub 2} photoacoustic signal data at early reaction times over the temperature range of 460-610 .deg. C. Apparent activation energies of 25.5-30.1 kJ/mol were calculated from the CO{sub 2} disappearance rates. The CO{sub 2} adsorption on the Ni/CeO{sub 2} catalyst was investigated by the CO{sub 2} photoacoustic spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Feasible side reactions during the catalytic CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} reaction were suggested on the basis of the kinetic and spectroscopic results.

  20. Reaction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    19 oct. 2017 ... Reaction to Mohamed Said Nakhli et al. concerning the article: "When the axillary block remains the only alternative in a 5 year old child". .... Bertini L1, Savoia G, De Nicola A, Ivani G, Gravino E, Albani A et al ... 2010;7(2):101-.

  1. Synthesis of Chitin Oligosaccharides Using Dried Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Cells Containing a Transglycosylation Reaction-Catalyzing β-N-Acetylhexosaminidase as a Whole-Cell Catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Asaki; Takahashi, Narumi; Moriyama, Mei; Hirano, Takako; Hakamata, Wataru; Nishio, Toshiyuki

    2018-02-01

    Bacterial strain NYT501, which we previously isolated from soil, was identified as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and it was confirmed that this strain produces an intracellular β-N-acetylhexosaminidase exhibiting transglycosylation activity. Several properties of this enzyme were characterized using a partially purified enzyme preparation. Using N,N'-diacetylchitobiose (GlcNAc) 2 and N,N',N″-triacetylchitotriose (GlcNAc) 3 as substrates and dried cells of this bacterium as a whole-cell catalyst, chitin oligosaccharides of higher degrees of polymerization were synthesized. (GlcNAc) 3 was generated from (GlcNAc) 2 as the major transglycosylation product, and a certain amount of purified sample of the trisaccharide was obtained. By contrast, in the case of the reaction using (GlcNAc) 3 as a substrate, the yield of higher-degree polymerization oligosaccharides was comparatively low.

  2. Mechanism of the reaction catalyzed by dihydrofolate reductase from Escherichia coli: pH and deuterium isotope effects with NADPH as the variable substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, J.F.; Stone, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    The variations with pH of the kinetic parameters and primary deuterium isotope effects for the reaction of NADPH with dihydrofolate reductase from Escherichia coli have been determined. The aims of the investigations were to elucidate the chemical mechanism of the reaction and to obtain information about the location of the rate-limiting steps. The V and V/K/sub NADPH/ profiles indicate that a single ionizing group at the active center of the enzyme must be protonated for catalysis, whereas the K/sub i/ profiles show that the binding of NADPH to the free enzyme and of ATP-ribose to the enzyme-dihydrofolate complex is pH independent. From the results of deuterium isotope effects on V/K/sub NADPH/, it is concluded that NADPH behaves as a sticky substrate. It is this stickiness that raises artificially the intrinsic pK value of 6.4 for the Asp-27 residue of the enzyme-dihydrofolate complex to an observed value of 8.9. Thus, the binary enzyme complex is largely protonated at neutral pH. The elevation of the intrinsic pK value of 6.4 for the ternary enzyme-NADPH-dihydrofolate complex to 8.5 is not due to the kinetic effects of substrates. Rather, it is the consequence of the lower, pH-independent rate of product release and the faster pH-dependent catalytic step. The data for deuterium isotope and deuterium solvent isotope effects are consistent with the postulate that, for the reduction of dihydrofolate to tetrahydrofolate, protonation precedes hydride transfer. A scheme is proposed for the indirect transfer of a proton from the enzyme to dihydrofolate

  3. Atypical profiles and modulations of heme-enzymes catalyzed outcomes by low amounts of diverse additives suggest diffusible radicals' obligatory involvement in such redox reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoj, Kelath Murali; Parashar, Abhinav; Venkatachalam, Avanthika; Goyal, Sahil; Satyalipsu; Singh, Preeti Gunjan; Gade, Sudeep K; Periyasami, Kalaiselvi; Jacob, Reeba Susan; Sardar, Debosmita; Singh, Shanikant; Kumar, Rajan; Gideon, Daniel A

    2016-06-01

    Peroxidations mediated by heme-enzymes have been traditionally studied under a single-site (heme distal pocket), non-sequential (ping-pong), two-substrates binding scheme of Michaelis-Menten paradigm. We had reported unusual modulations of peroxidase and P450 reaction outcomes and explained it invoking diffusible reactive species [Manoj, 2006; Manoj et al., 2010; Andrew et al., 2011, Parashar et al., 2014 & Venkatachalam et al., 2016]. A systematic investigation of specific product formation rates was undertaken to probe the hypothesis that involvement of diffusible reactive species could explain undefined substrate specificities and maverick modulations (sponsored by additives) of heme-enzymes. When the rate of specific product formation was studied as a function of reactants' concentration or environmental conditions, we noted marked deviations from normal profiles. We report that heme-enzyme mediated peroxidations of various substrates are inhibited (or activated) by sub-equivalent concentrations of diverse redox-active additives and this is owing to multiple redox equilibriums in the milieu. At low enzyme and peroxide concentrations, the enzyme is seen to recycle via a one-electron (oxidase) cycle, which does not require the substrate to access the heme centre. Schemes are provided that explain the complex mechanistic cycle, kinetics & stoichiometry. It is not obligatory for an inhibitor or substrate to interact with the heme centre for influencing overall catalysis. Roles of diffusible reactive species explain catalytic outcomes at low enzyme and reactant concentrations. The current work highlights the scope/importance of redox enzyme reactions that could occur "out of the active site" in biological or in situ systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société française de biochimie et biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  4. Role of Ser-257 in the sliding mechanism of NADP(H) in the reaction catalyzed by the Aspergillus fumigatus flavin-dependent ornithine N5-monooxygenase SidA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirey, Carolyn; Badieyan, Somayesadat; Sobrado, Pablo

    2013-11-08

    SidA (siderophore A) is a flavin-dependent N-hydroxylating monooxygenase that is essential for virulence in Aspergillus fumigatus. SidA catalyzes the NADPH- and oxygen-dependent formation of N(5)-hydroxyornithine. In this reaction, NADPH reduces the flavin, and the resulting NADP(+) is the last product to be released. The presence of NADP(+) is essential for activity, as it is required for stabilization of the C4a-hydroperoxyflavin, which is the hydroxylating species. As part of our efforts to determine the molecular details of the role of NADP(H) in catalysis, we targeted Ser-257 for site-directed mutagenesis and performed extensive characterization of the S257A enzyme. Using a combination of steady-state and stopped-flow kinetic experiments, substrate analogs, and primary kinetic isotope effects, we show that the interaction between Ser-257 and NADP(H) is essential for stabilization of the C4a-hydroperoxyflavin. Molecular dynamics simulation results suggest that Ser-257 functions as a pivot point, allowing the nicotinamide of NADP(+) to slide into position for stabilization of the C4a-hydroperoxyflavin.

  5. Enhanced hydrogen production from water via a photo-catalyzed reaction using chalcogenide d-element nanoparticles induced by UV light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Naggar, Ahmed M A; Nassar, Ibrahim M; Gobara, Heba M

    2013-10-21

    Hydrogen has the potential to meet the requirements as a clean non-fossil fuel in the future. The photocatalytic production of H2 through water splitting has been demonstrated and enormous efforts have been published. The present work is an attempt to enhance the production of H2 during water splitting using synthesized nanoparticles based on chalcogenide d-element semiconductors via a photochemical reaction under UV-light in the presence of methanol as a hole-scavenger. In general, the enhanced activity of a semiconductor is most likely due to the effective charge separation of photo generated electrons and holes in the semiconductors. Hence, the utilization of different semiconductors in combination can consequently provide better hydrogen production. Accordingly in this research work, two different semiconductors, with different concentrations, either used individually or combined together were introduced. They in turn produced a high concentration of H2 as detected and measured using gas chromatography. Herein, data revealed that the nano-structured semiconductors prepared through this work are a promising candidate in the production of an enhanced H2 flux under visible UV radiation.

  6. Enyne Metathesis Catalyzed by Ruthenium Carbene Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Carina Storm; Madsen, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Enyne metathesis combines an alkene and an alkyne into a 1,3-diene. The first enyne metathesis reaction catalyzed by a ruthenium carbene complex was reported in 1994. This review covers the advances in this transformation during the last eight years with particular emphasis on methodology...

  7. Enzyme-Catalyzed Transetherification of Alkoxysilanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter G. Taylor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the first evidence of an enzyme-catalyzed transetherification of model alkoxysilanes. During an extensive enzymatic screening in the search for new biocatalysts for silicon-oxygen bond formation, we found that certain enzymes promoted the transetherification of alkoxysilanes when tert-butanol or 1-octanol were used as the reaction solvents.

  8. Synthesis of heterocycles via transition-metal-catalyzed hydroarylation of alkynes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yoshihiko

    2014-03-07

    Transition-metal (TM)-catalyzed hydroarylation reactions of alkynes have received much attention, because they enable the net insertion of alkyne C-C triple bonds into C-H bonds of aromatic precursors, resulting in regio- and stereo-selective formation of synthetically useful arylalkenes. Taking advantage of this feature, TM-catalyzed alkyne hydroarylations have been successfully used for the synthesis of heterocycles. TM-catalyzed alkyne hydroarylations can be classified into three major categories depending on the type of reaction and precursors involved: (1) palladium-catalyzed reductive Heck reactions of alkynes with aryl halides, (2) TM-catalyzed conjugate arylation reactions of activated alkynes with arylboronic acids, and (3) TM-catalyzed aromatic C-H alkenylations with alkynes. This review surveys heterocycle synthesis via TM-catalyzed hydroarylation of alkynes according to the above classification, with an emphasis on the scope and limitations, as well as the underlying mechanisms.

  9. The Effect of WO3 Modification of ZrO2 Support on the Ni-Catalyzed Dry Reforming of Biogas Reaction for Syngas Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos D. Charisiou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The time-on-stream catalytic performance and stability of 8 wt. % Ni catalyst supported on two commercially available catalytic supports, ZrO2 and 15 wt.% WO3-ZrO2, was investigated under the biogas dry reforming reaction for syngas production, at 750°C and a biogas quality equal to CH4/CO2 = 1.5, that represents a common concentration of real biogas. A number of analytical techniques such as N2 adsorption/desorption (BET method, XRD, H2-TPR, NH3- and CO2-TPD, SEM, ICP, thermal analysis (TGA/DTG and Raman spectroscopy were used in order to determine textural, structural and other physicochemical properties of the catalytic materials, and the type of carbon deposited on the catalytic surface of spent samples. These techniques were used in an attempt to understand better the effects of WO3-induced modifications on the catalyst morphology, physicochemical properties and catalytic performance. Although Ni dispersion and reducibility characteristics were found superior on the modified Ni/WZr sample than that on Ni/Zr, its dry reforming of methane (DRM performance was inferior; a result attributed to the enhanced acidity and complete loss of the basicity recorded on this catalyst, an effect that competes and finally overshadows the benefits of the other superior properties. Raman studies revealed that the degree of graphitization decreases with the insertion of WO3 in the crystalline structure of the ZrO2 support, as the ID/IG peak intensity ratio is 1.03 for the Ni/Zr and 1.29 for the Ni/WZr catalyst.

  10. Rhodium-Catalyzed Dehydrogenative Borylation of Cyclic Alkenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondoh, Azusa; Jamison, Timothy F.

    2010-01-01

    A rhodium-catalyzed dehydrogenative borylation of cyclic alkenes is described. This reaction provides direct access to cyclic 1-alkenylboronic acid pinacol esters, useful intermediates in organic synthesis. Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling applications are also presented. PMID:20107646

  11. Catalyzing RE Project Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Kate; Elgqvist, Emma; Walker, Andy; Cutler, Dylan; Olis, Dan; DiOrio, Nick; Simpkins, Travis

    2016-09-01

    This poster details how screenings done with REopt - NREL's software modeling platform for energy systems integration and optimization - are helping to catalyze the development of hundreds of megawatts of renewable energy.

  12. Exploring possible reaction pathways for the o-atom transfer reactions to unsaturated substrates catalyzed by a [Ni-NO2 ] ↔ [Ni-NO] redox couple using DFT methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsipis, Athanassios C

    2017-07-15

    The (nitro)(N-methyldithiocarbamato)(trimethylphospane)nickel(II), [Ni(NO 2 )(S 2 CNHMe)(PMe 3 )] complex catalyses efficiently the O-atom transfer reactions to CO and acetylene. Energetically feasible sequence of elementary steps involved in the catalytic cycle of the air oxidation of CO and acetylene are proposed promoted by the Ni(NO 2 )(S 2 CNHMe)(PMe 3 )] ↔ Ni(NO 2 )(S 2 CNHMe)(PMe 3 ) redox couple using DFT methods both in vacuum and dichloromethane solutions. The catalytic air oxidation of HC≡CH involves formation of a five-member metallacycle intermediate, via a [3 + 2] cyclo-addition reaction of HC≡CH to the Ni-N = O moiety of the Ni(NO 2 )(S 2 CNHMe)(PMe 3 )] complex, followed by a β H-atom migration toward the C α carbon atom of the coordinated acetylene and release of the oxidation product (ketene). The geometric and energetic reaction profile for the reversible [Ni( κN1-NO 2 )(S 2 CNHMe)(PMe 3 )] ⇌ [Ni( κO,O2-ONO)(S 2 CNHMe)(PMe 3 )] linkage isomerization has also been modeled by DFT calculations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Catalyzed reactions at illuminated semiconductor interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrighton, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    Many desirable minority carrier chemical redox processes are too slow to compete with e - -h + recombination at illuminated semiconductor/liquid electrolyte junction interfaces. Reductions of H 2 O to H 2 or CO 2 to compounds having C--H bonds are too slow to compete with e - -h + recombination at illuminated p-type semiconductors, for example. Approaches to improve the rate of the desired processes involving surface modification techniques are described. Photoanodes are plagued by the additional problem of oxidative decomposition under illumination with > or =E/sub g/ illumination. The photo-oxidation of Cl - , Br - , and H 2 O is considered to illustrate the concepts involved. Proof of concept experiments establish that catalysis can be effective in dramatically improving direct solar fuel production; efficiencies of >10% have been demonstrated

  14. Glicerólise de óleo de peixe catalisada por lipase comercial de Rhizomucor miehei em meio com surfactante de grau alimentício Glycerolysis of fish oil catalyzed by a commercial lipase from Rhizomucor miehei in reaction media containing food grade surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Silva Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 enriched partial acylglycerols are beneficial for human health. The aim of this study was to obtain monoacylglycerols (MAG and diacylglycerols (DAG by means of glycerolysis of fish oil catalyzed by a lipase from Rhizomucor miehei in the presence of food grade surfactants (Tween 65, 80 or 85. Glycerolysis was successful in the reaction media for all the tested surfactants, showing their potential for use as additives in such a system. The best results, however, were obtained for the reaction medium in the absence of surfactant whose peroxide value was the lowest after glycerolysis.

  15. Muon catalyzed fusion under compressive conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cripps, G.; Goel, B.; Harms, A.A.

    1991-01-01

    The viability of a symbiotic combination of Muon Catalyzed Fusion (μCF) and high density generation processes has been investigated. The muon catalyzed fusion reaction rates are formulated in the temperature and density range found under moderate compressive conditions. Simplified energy gain and power balance calculations indicate that significant energy gain occurs only if standard type deuterium-tritium (dt) fusion is ignited. A computer simulation of the hydrodynamics and fusion kinetics of a spherical deuterium-tritium pellet implosion including muons is performed. Using the muon catalyzed fusion reaction rates formulated and under ideal conditions, the pellet ignites (and thus has a significant energy gain) only if the initial muon concentration is approximately 10 17 cm -3 . The muons need to be delivered to the pellet within a very short-time (≅ 1 ns). The muon pulse required in order to make the high density and temperature muon catalyzed fusion scheme viable is beyond the present technology for muon production. (orig.) [de

  16. Biodiesel production by enzyme-catalyzed transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenković Olivera S.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The principles and kinetics of biodiesel production from vegetable oils using lipase-catalyzed transesterification are reviewed. The most important operating factors affecting the reaction and the yield of alkyl esters, such as: the type and form of lipase, the type of alcohol, the presence of organic solvents, the content of water in the oil, temperature and the presence of glycerol are discussed. In order to estimate the prospects of lipase-catalyzed transesterification for industrial application, the factors which influence the kinetics of chemically-catalysed transesterification are also considered. The advantages of lipase-catalyzed transesterification compared to the chemically-catalysed reaction, are pointed out. The cost of down-processing and ecological problems are significantly reduced by applying lipases. It was also emphasized that lipase-catalysed transesterification should be greatly improved in order to make it commercially applicable. The further optimization of lipase-catalyzed transesterification should include studies on the development of new reactor systems with immobilized biocatalysts and the addition of alcohol in several portions, and the use of extra cellular lipases tolerant to organic solvents, intracellular lipases (i.e. whole microbial cells and genetically-modified microorganisms ("intelligent" yeasts.

  17. Kinetics of aggregation growth with competition between catalyzed birth and catalyzed death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haifeng; Gao Yan; Lin Zhenquan

    2008-01-01

    An aggregation growth model of three species A, B and C with the competition between catalyzed birth and catalyzed death is proposed. Irreversible aggregation occurs between any two aggregates of the like species with the constant rate kernels I n (n = 1,2,3). Meanwhile, a monomer birth of an A species aggregate of size k occurs under the catalysis of a B species aggregate of size j with the catalyzed birth rate kernel K(k,j) = Kkj v and a monomer death of an A species aggregate of size k occurs under the catalysis of a C species aggregate of size j with the catalyzed death rate kernel L(k,j)=Lkj v , where v is a parameter reflecting the dependence of the catalysis reaction rates of birth and death on the size of catalyst aggregate. The kinetic evolution behaviours of the three species are investigated by the rate equation approach based on the mean-field theory. The form of the aggregate size distribution of A species a k (t) is found to be dependent crucially on the competition between the catalyzed birth and death of A species, as well as the irreversible aggregation processes of the three species: (1) In the v k (t) satisfies the conventional scaling form; (2) In the v ≥ 0 case, the competition between the catalyzed birth and death dominates the process. When the catalyzed birth controls the process, a k (t) takes the conventional or generalized scaling form. While the catalyzed death controls the process, the scaling description of the aggregate size distribution breaks down completely

  18. Iron-catalyzed intermolecular cycloaddition of diazo surrogates with hexahydro-1,3,5-triazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pei; Zhu, Chenghao; Xu, Guangyang; Sun, Jiangtao

    2017-09-26

    We report here an unprecedented iron-catalyzed cycloaddition reaction of diazo surrogates with hexahydro-1,3,5-triazines, providing five-membered heterocycles in moderate to high yields under mild reaction conditions. This cycloaddition features C-N and C-C bond formation using a cheap iron catalyst. Importantly, different to our former report on a gold-catalyzed system, both donor/donor and donor/acceptor diazo substrates are tolerated in this iron-catalyzed protocol.

  19. Transition Metal Catalyzed Synthesis of Carboxylic Acids, Imines, and Biaryls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santilli, Carola; Madsen, Robert

    the carboxylate.  Manganese catalyzed radical Kumada-type reaction between aryl halidesand aryl Grignard reagents. The reaction between aryl halides and aryl Grignard reagents catalyzed by MnCl2 has been extended to several methyl-substituted aryl iodide reagents byperforming the reaction at 120 ˚C in a microwave...... oven (Scheme ii). A limitation of the heterocoupling process is the concomitant dehalogenation of the aryl halide and homocoupling of the Grignard reagent leading low to moderate yields of the desired heterocoupling product. The mechanism of the cross-coupling process was investigated by performing two...

  20. Rhenium and Manganese-Catalyzed Selective Alkenylation of Indoles

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Chengming

    2018-04-06

    An efficient rhenium‐catalyzed regioselective C‐H bond alkenylation of indoles is reported. The protocol operates well for internal as well as terminal alkynes, affording products in good to excellent yields. Furthermore, a manganese catalyzed, acid free, regioselective C2‐alkenylation of indoles with internal alkynes is described. The directing groups can be easily removed after the reaction and the resulting products can be used as valuable building blocks for the synthesis of diverse heterocyclic compounds.

  1. Toward Efficient Palladium-Catalyzed Allylic C-H Alkylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Fristrup, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Recent breakthroughs have proved that direct palladium (II)-catalyzed allylic C-H alkylation can be achieved. This new procedure shows that the inherent requirement for a leaving group in the Tsuji-Trost palladium-catalyzed allylic alkylation can be lifted. These initial reports hold great promise...... for the development of allylic C-H alkylation into a widely applicable methodology, thus providing a means to enhance synthetic efficiency in these reactions....

  2. Rhenium and Manganese-Catalyzed Selective Alkenylation of Indoles

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Chengming; Rueping, Magnus

    2018-01-01

    An efficient rhenium‐catalyzed regioselective C‐H bond alkenylation of indoles is reported. The protocol operates well for internal as well as terminal alkynes, affording products in good to excellent yields. Furthermore, a manganese catalyzed, acid free, regioselective C2‐alkenylation of indoles with internal alkynes is described. The directing groups can be easily removed after the reaction and the resulting products can be used as valuable building blocks for the synthesis of diverse heterocyclic compounds.

  3. Palladium(II)-catalyzed oxidation of L-tryptophan by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dium(II)] were obtained. The reaction exhibits fractional-second order kinetics with respect to [H ... compounds. Its use- fulness may be due to its unequivocal stability, water. ∗ ... metals are known to catalyze many oxidation–reduction reactions because they ... prepared by dissolving potassium hexacyanoferrate(II). (SD Fine ...

  4. Manganese-Catalyzed Aerobic Heterocoupling of Aryl Grignard Reagents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghaleshahi, Hajar Golshahi; Antonacci, Giuseppe; Madsen, Robert

    2017-01-01

    An improved protocol has been developed for the MnCl2-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of two arylmagnesium bromides under dioxygen. The reaction was achieved by using the Grignard reagents in a 2:1 ratio and 20 % of MnCl2. Very good yields of the heterocoupling product were obtained when the li...

  5. CU(II): catalyzed hydrazine reduction of ferric nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karraker, D.G.

    1981-11-01

    A method is described for producing ferrous nitrate solutions by the cupric ion-catalyzed reduction of ferric nitrate with hydrazine. The reaction is complete in about 1.5 hours at 40 0 C. Hydrazoic acid is also produced in substantial quantities as a reaction byproduct

  6. UDP-glucuronyltransferase-catalyzed deconjugation of bilirubin monoglucuronide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuypers, H. T.; ter Haar, E. M.; Jansen, P. L.

    1984-01-01

    Bilirubin monoglucuronide is rapidly deconjugated when incubated with UDP and rat liver microsomal preparations at pH 5.1. The following evidence was found that this reaction is catalyzed by UDP-glucuronyltransferase: (i) unconjugated bilirubin and UDP-glucuronic acid were identified as the reaction

  7. Muon-catalyzed fusion revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1984-12-15

    A negative muon can induce nuclear fusion in the reaction of deuteron and triton nuclei giving a helium nucleus, a neutron and an emerging negative muon. The muon forms a tightlybound deuteron-triton-muon molecule and fusion follows in about 10{sup -12}s. Then the muon is free again to induce further reactions. Thus the muon can serve as a catalyst for nuclear fusion, which can proceed without the need for the high temperatures which are needed in the confinement and inertial fusion schemes. At room temperature, up to 80 fusions per muon have recently been observed at the LAMPF machine at Los Alamos, and it is clear that this number can be exceeded. These and other results were presented at a summer Workshop on Muon-Catalyzed Fusion held in Jackson, Wyoming. Approximately fifty scientists attended from Austria, Canada, India, Italy, Japan, South Africa, West Germany, and the United States. The Workshop itself is symbolic of the revival of interest in this subject.

  8. Kinetics of Bio-Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, John

    2015-01-01

    his chapter predicts the specific rates of reaction by means of a mathematical expression, the kinetics of the reaction. This expression can be derived through a mechanistic interpretation of an enzymatically catalyzed reaction, but it is essentially of empirical nature for cell reactions. The mo...

  9. Base-catalyzed tandem Michael/dehydro-Diels-Alder reaction of α,α-dicyanoolefins with electron-deficient 1,3-conjugated enynes: a facile entry to angularly fused polycycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingrui; Zhang, Junliang

    2014-01-07

    Angularly fused carbocyclic frameworks and their heteroatom-substituted analogues exist in many natural products that display a broad and interesting range of biological activities. Preparation of polycyclic products by cycloaddition reactions have been the long-standing hot topic in the synthetic community. Dehydro-Diels-Alder (DDA) reactions are one class of dehydropericyclic reactions that are derived conceptually by systematic removal of hydrogen atom pairs. A base-promoted tandem Michael addition and DDA reaction of α,α-dicyanoolefins with electron-deficient 1,3-conjugated enynes was realized in which a DDA reaction takes place between the arylalkynes and electron-deficient tetrasubstituted olefin. The control experiments support the stepwise anionic reaction pathway rather than the concerted reaction pathway. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Rhodium-catalyzed chemo- and regioselective decarboxylative addition of β-ketoacids to alkynes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changkun; Grugel, Christian P; Breit, Bernhard

    2016-04-30

    A highly efficient rhodium-catalyzed chemo- and regioselective addition of β-ketoacids to alkynes is reported. Applying a Rh(i)/(S,S)-DIOP catalyst system, γ,δ-unsaturated ketones were prepared with exclusively branched selectivity under mild conditions. This demonstrates that readily available alkynes can be an alternative entry to allyl electrophiles in transition-metal catalyzed allylic alkylation reactions.

  11. Catalyzing alignment processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Erik Hagelskjær; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes how environmental management systems (EMS) spur the circulation of processes that support the constitution of environmental issues as specific environ¬mental objects and objectives. EMS catalyzes alignmentprocesses that produce coherence among the different elements involved......, the networks of environmental professionals that work in the environmental organisation, in consulting and regulatory enforcement, and dominating business cultures. These have previously been identified in the literature as individually significant in relation to the evolving environmental agendas...... they are implemented in and how the changing context is reflected in the environmental objectives that are established and prioritised. Our argument is, that the ability of the standard to achieve an impact is dependant on the constitution of ’coherent’ environmental issues in the context, where the management system...

  12. Unusual reactions of diazocarbonyl compounds with α,β-unsaturated δ-amino esters: Rh(II-catalyzed Wolff rearrangement and oxidative cleavage of N–H-insertion products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerij A. Nikolaev

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Rh(II-сatalyzed reactions of aroyldiazomethanes, diazoketoesters and diazodiketones with α,β-unsaturated δ-aminoesters, in contrast to reactions of diazomalonates and other diazoesters, give rise to the Wolff rearrangement and/or oxidative cleavage of the initially formed N–H-insertion products. These oxidation processes are mediated by Rh(II catalysts possessing perfluorinated ligands. The formation of pyrrolidine structures, characteristic for catalytic reactions of diazoesters, was not observed in these processes at all.

  13. Synthesis of glycoluril catalyzed by potassium hydroxide under ultrasound irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji-Tai; Liu, Xiao-Ru; Sun, Ming-Xuan

    2010-01-01

    Synthesis of the glycolurils catalyzed by potassium hydroxide was carried out in 17-75% yield at 40 degrees C in EtOH under ultrasound irradiation. Compared to the method using stirring, the main advantage of the present procedure is milder conditions and shorter reaction time.

  14. Palladium-catalyzed allylation of tautomerizable heterocycles with alkynes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chuan-Jun; Chen, Dong-Kai; Chen, Hong; Wang, Hong; Jin, Hongwei; Huang, Xifu; Gao, Jianrong

    2017-07-21

    A method for the allylic amidation of tautomerizable heterocycles was developed by a palladium catalyzed allylation reaction with 100% atom economy. A series of structurally diverse N-allylic substituted heterocycles can be synthesized in good yields with high chemo-, regio-, and stereoselectivities under mild conditions.

  15. Manganese Catalyzed α-Olefination of Nitriles by Primary Alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Subrata; Das, Uttam Kumar; Ben-David, Yehoshoa; Milstein, David

    2017-08-30

    Catalytic α-olefination of nitriles using primary alcohols, via dehydrogenative coupling of alcohols with nitriles, is presented. The reaction is catalyzed by a pincer complex of an earth-abundant metal (manganese), in the absence of any additives, base, or hydrogen acceptor, liberating dihydrogen and water as the only byproducts.

  16. Highly selective cobalt-catalyzed hydrovinylation of styrene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grutters, M.M.P.; Müller, C.; Vogt, D.

    2006-01-01

    The hydrovinylation reaction is a codimerization of a 1,3-diene or vinyl arene and ethene with great potential for fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals. For the first time, enantioselective cobalt-catalyzed hydrovinylations of styrene were achieved with a cobalt-based system bearing a chiral

  17. One-Pot and Efficient Synthesis of Triazolo[1,2-a]indazole-triones via Reaction of Arylaldehydes with Urazole and Dimedone Catalyzed by Silica Nanoparticles Prepared from Rice Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadollah Hassankhani

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel synthesis of triazolo[1,2-a]indazole-1,3,8-trione derivatives by reaction of urazole, dimedone and aromatic aldehydes under conventional heating and microwave irradiation and solvent-free conditions using silica nanoparticles prepared from rice husk ash as catalyst is described. The new method features high yields, multicomponent reactions and environmental friendliness.

  18. One-pot and efficient synthesis of triazolo[1,2-a]indazole-triones via reaction of arylaldehydes with urazole and dimedone catalyzed by silica nanoparticles prepared from rice husk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidian, Hooshang; Fozooni, Samieh; Hassankhani, Asadollah; Mohammadi, Sayed Zia

    2011-10-26

    A novel synthesis of triazolo[1,2-a]indazole-1,3,8-trione derivatives by reaction of urazole, dimedone and aromatic aldehydes under conventional heating and microwave irradiation and solvent-free conditions using silica nanoparticles prepared from rice husk ash as catalyst is described. The new method features high yields, multicomponent reactions and environmental friendliness.

  19. Manganese Catalyzed C–H Halogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wei; Groves, John T.

    2015-06-16

    The remarkable aliphatic C–H hydroxylations catalyzed by the heme-containing enzyme, cytochrome P450, have attracted sustained attention for more than four decades. The effectiveness of P450 enzymes as highly selective biocatalysts for a wide range of oxygenation reactions of complex substrates has driven chemists to develop synthetic metalloporphyrin model compounds that mimic P450 reactivity. Among various known metalloporphyrins, manganese derivatives have received considerable attention since they have been shown to be versatile and powerful mediators for alkane hydroxylation and olefin epoxidation. Mechanistic studies have shown that the key intermediates of the manganese porphyrin-catalyzed oxygenation reactions include oxo- and dioxomanganese(V) species that transfer an oxygen atom to the substrate through a hydrogen abstraction/oxygen recombination pathway known as the oxygen rebound mechanism. Application of manganese porphyrins has been largely restricted to catalysis of oxygenation reactions until recently, however, due to ultrafast oxygen transfer rates. In this Account, we discuss recently developed carbon–halogen bond formation, including fluorination reactions catalyzed by manganese porphyrins and related salen species. We found that biphasic sodium hypochlorite/manganese porphyrin systems can efficiently and selectively convert even unactivated aliphatic C–H bonds to C–Cl bonds. An understanding of this novel reactivity derived from results obtained for the oxidation of the mechanistically diagnostic substrate and radical clock, norcarane. Significantly, the oxygen rebound rate in Mn-mediated hydroxylation is highly correlated with the nature of the trans-axial ligands bound to the manganese center (L–MnV$=$O). Based on the ability of fluoride ion to decelerate the oxygen rebound step, we envisaged that a relatively long-lived substrate radical could be trapped by a Mn–F fluorine source, effecting carbon–fluorine bond

  20. Rhodium(II)-catalyzed enantioselective synthesis of troponoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murarka, Sandip; Jia, Zhi-Jun; Merten, Christian; Daniliuc, Constantin-G; Antonchick, Andrey P; Waldmann, Herbert

    2015-06-22

    We report a rhodium(II)-catalyzed highly enantioselective 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction between the carbonyl moiety of tropone and carbonyl ylides to afford troponoids in good to high yields with excellent enantioselectivity. We demonstrate that α-diazoketone-derived carbonyl ylides, in contrast to carbonyl ylides derived from diazodiketoesters, undergo [6+3] cycloaddition reactions with tropone to yield the corresponding bridged heterocycles with excellent stereoselectivity. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Heterogeneously catalyzed reactive extraction for biomass valorization into chemicals and fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordomskiy, V.; Khodakov, A.Y.; Nijhuis, T.A.; Schouten, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the heterogeneously catalyzed reactive extraction and separation in reaction steps in organic and aqueous phases during the transformation of biomass derived products. Two approaches are demonstrated for decomposing and preserving routes for biomass transformation into valuable

  2. Noncanonical Reactions of Flavoenzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Sobrado

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes containing flavin cofactors are predominantly involved in redox reactions in numerous cellular processes where the protein environment modulates the chemical reactivity of the flavin to either transfer one or two electrons. Some flavoenzymes catalyze reactions with no net redox change. In these reactions, the protein environment modulates the reactivity of the flavin to perform novel chemistries. Recent mechanistic and structural data supporting novel flavin functionalities in reactions catalyzed by chorismate synthase, type II isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase, UDP-galactopyranose mutase, and alkyl-dihydroxyacetonephosphate synthase are presented in this review. In these enzymes, the flavin plays either a direct role in acid/base reactions or as a nucleophile or electrophile. In addition, the flavin cofactor is proposed to function as a “molecular scaffold” in the formation of UDP-galactofuranose and alkyl-dihydroxyacetonephosphate by forming a covalent adduct with reaction intermediates.

  3. Gold-Catalyzed Cyclizations of Alkynol-Based Compounds: Synthesis of Natural Products and Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Almendros

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has witnessed dramatic growth in the number of reactions catalyzed by gold complexes because of their powerful soft Lewis acid nature. In particular, the gold-catalyzed activation of propargylic compounds has progressively emerged in recent years. Some of these gold-catalyzed reactions in alkynes have been optimized and show significant utility in organic synthesis. Thus, apart from significant methodology work, in the meantime gold-catalyzed cyclizations in alkynol derivatives have become an efficient tool in total synthesis. However, there is a lack of specific review articles covering the joined importance of both gold salts and alkynol-based compounds for the synthesis of natural products and derivatives. The aim of this Review is to survey the chemistry of alkynol derivatives under gold-catalyzed cyclization conditions and its utility in total synthesis, concentrating on the advances that have been made in the last decade, and in particular in the last quinquennium.

  4. Metal-catalyzed living radical polymerization and radical polyaddition for precision polymer synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizutani, M; Satoh, K [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Kamigaito, M, E-mail: kamigait@apchem.nagoya-u.ac.j

    2009-08-01

    The metal-catalyzed radical addition reaction can be evolved into two different polymerization mechanisms, i.e.; chain- and step-growth polymerizations, while both the polymerizations are based on the same metal-catalyzed radical formation reaction. The former is a widely employed metal-catalyzed living radical polymerization or atom transfer radical polymerization of common vinyl monomers, and the latter is a novel metal-catalyzed radical polyaddition of designed monomer with an unconjugated C=C double bond and a reactive C-Cl bond in one molecule. The simultaneous ruthenium-catalyzed living radical polymerization of methyl acrylate and radical polyaddition of 3-butenyl 2-chloropropionate was achieved with Ru(Cp*)Cl(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2} to afford the controlled polymers, in which the homopolymer segments with the controlled chain length were connected by the ester linkage.

  5. Iodine-Catalyzed Isomerization of Dimethyl Muconate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Settle, Amy E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Berstis, Laura R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Shuting [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rorrer, Nicholas [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hu, Haiming [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richards, Ryan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beckham, Gregg T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Crowley, Michael F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vardon, Derek R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-12

    cis,cis-Muconic acid is a platform biobased chemical that can be upgraded to drop-in commodity and novel monomers. Among the possible drop-in products, dimethyl terephthalate can be synthesized via esterification, isomerization, Diels-Alder cycloaddition, and dehydrogenation. The isomerization of cis,cis-dimethyl muconate (ccDMM) to the trans,trans-form (ttDMM) can be catalyzed by iodine; however, studies have yet to address (i) the mechanism and reaction barriers unique to DMM, and (ii) the influence of solvent, potential for catalyst recycle, and recovery of high-purity ttDMM. To address this gap, we apply a joint computational and experimental approach to investigate iodine-catalyzed isomerization of DMM. Density functional theory calculations identified unique regiochemical considerations due to the large number of halogen-diene coordination schemes. Both transition state theory and experiments estimate significant barrier reductions with photodissociated iodine. Solvent selection was critical for rapid kinetics, likely due to solvent complexation with iodine. Under select conditions, ttDMM yields of 95% were achieved in <1 h with methanol, followed by high purity recovery (>98%) with crystallization. Lastly, post-reaction iodine can be recovered and recycled with minimal loss of activity. Overall, these findings provide new insight into the mechanism and conditions necessary for DMM isomerization with iodine to advance the state-of-the-art for biobased chemicals.

  6. Catalyzed deuterium fueled tokamak reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southworth, F.H.

    1977-01-01

    Catalyzed deuterium fuel presents several advantages relative to D-T. These are, freedom from tritium breeding, high charged particle power fraction and lowered neutron energy deposition in the blanket. Higher temperature operation, lower power densities and increased confinement are simultaneously required. However, the present study has developed designs which have capitalized upon the advantages of catalyzed deuterium to overcome the difficulties associated with the fuel while obtaining high efficiency

  7. New Palladium-Catalyzed Approaches to Heterocycles and Carbocycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Qinhua [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-12-19

    The tert-butylimines of o-(1-alkynyl)benzaldehydes and analogous pyridinecarbaldehydes have been cyclized under very mild reaction conditions in the presence of I2, ICl, PhSeCl, PhSCl and p-O2NC6H4SCl to give the corresponding halogen-, selenium- and sulfur-containing disubstituted isoquinolines and naphthyridines, respectively. Monosubstituted isoquinolines and naphthyridines have been synthesized by the metal-catalyzed ring closure of these same iminoalkynes. This methodology accommodates a variety of iminoalkynes and affords the anticipated heterocycles in moderate to excellent yields. The Pd(II)-catalyzed cyclization of 2-(1-alkynyl)arylaldimines in the presence of various alkenes provides an efficient way to synthesize a variety of 4-(1-alkenyl)-3-arylisoquinolines in moderate to excellent yields. The introduction of an ortho-methoxy group on the arylaldimine promotes the Pd-catalyzed cyclization and stabilizes the resulting Pd(II) intermediate, improving the yields of the isoquinoline products. Highly substituted naphthalenes have been synthesized by the palladium-catalyzed annulation of a variety of internal alkynes, in which two new carbon-carbon bonds are formed in a single step under relatively mild reaction conditions. This method has also been used to synthesize carbazoles, although a higher reaction temperature is necessary. The process involves arylpalladation of the alkyne, followed by intramolecular Heck olefination and double bond isomerization. This method accommodates a variety of functional groups and affords the anticipated highly substituted naphthalenes and carbazoles in good to excellent yields. Novel palladium migratiodarylation methodology for the synthesis of complex fused polycycles has been developed, in which one or more sequential Pd-catalyzed intramolecular migration processes involving C-H activation are employed. The chemistry works best with electron-rich aromatics, which is in agreement

  8. Ethanol oxidation reactions catalyzed by water molecules: CH3CH2OH+n H2O→ CH3CHO+ H2+n H2O (n=0,1,2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H.; Hisaoka, S.; Nitta, T.

    2002-09-01

    Ab initio density functional theory calculations have been performed to investigate the catalytic role of water molecules in the oxidation reaction of ethanol: CH3CH2OH+n H2O→ CH3CHO+ H2+n H2O (n=0,1,2) . The results show that the potential energy barrier for the reaction is 88.0 kcal/mol in case of n=0, while it is reduced by ˜34 kcal/mol when two water molecules are involved ( n=2) in the reaction. As a result, the rate constant increases to 3.31×10 -4 s-1, which shows a significant catalytic role of water molecules in the ethanol oxidation reactions.

  9. Asymmetric H-D exchange reactions of fluorinated aromatic ketones

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Yujun

    2012-01-01

    Chiral bicyclic guanidine catalyzes the asymmetric H-D exchange reactions. Up to 30% ee was achieved. DFT calculations were employed to elucidate and explain the origin of the reaction\\'s stereoselectivity. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  10. Intermolecular Dehydrative Coupling Reaction of Arylketones with Cyclic Alkenes Catalyzed by a Well-Defined Cationic Ruthenium-Hydride Complex: A Novel Ketone Olefination Method via Vinyl C–H Bond Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Chae S.; Lee, Do W.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The cationic ruthenium-hydride complex [(η6-C6H6)(PCy3)(CO)RuH]+BF4− was found to be a highly effective catalyst for the intermolecular olefination reaction of arylketones with cycloalkenes. The preliminary mechanistic analysis revealed that electrophilic ruthenium-vinyl complex is the key species for mediating both vinyl C–H bond activation and the dehydrative olefination steps of the coupling reaction. PMID:20567607

  11. Mechanism of Brønsted acid catalyzed conversion of carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, G.; Pidko, E.A.; Hensen, E.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive DFT study of acid-catalyzed glucose and fructose reactions in water covering more than 100 potential reaction paths is performed with the aim to identify the main reaction channels for obtaining such desirable biorefinery platform products as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and

  12. Molecular Design of a Chiral Brønsted Acid with Two Different Acidic Sites: Regio-, Diastereo-, and Enantioselective Hetero-Diels-Alder Reaction of Azopyridinecarboxylate with Amidodienes Catalyzed by Chiral Carboxylic Acid-Monophosphoric Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momiyama, Norie; Tabuse, Hideaki; Noda, Hirofumi; Yamanaka, Masahiro; Fujinami, Takeshi; Yamanishi, Katsunori; Izumiseki, Atsuto; Funayama, Kosuke; Egawa, Fuyuki; Okada, Shino; Adachi, Hiroaki; Terada, Masahiro

    2016-09-07

    A chiral Brønsted acid containing two different acidic sites, chiral carboxylic acid-monophosphoric acid 1a, was designed to be a new and effective concept in catalytic asymmetric hetero-Diels-Alder reactions of azopyridinecarboxylate with amidodienes. The multipoint hydrogen-bonding interactions among the carboxylic acid, monophosphoric acid, azopyridinecarboxylate, and amidodiene achieved high catalytic and chiral efficiency, producing substituted 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridazines with excellent stereocontrol in a single step. This constitutes the first example of regio-, diastereo-, and enantioselective azo-hetero-Diels-Alder reactions by chiral Brønsted acid catalysis.

  13. Diastereo- and enantioselective iridium-catalyzed allylation of cyclic ketone enolates: synergetic effect of ligands and barium enolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenyong; Chen, Ming; Hartwig, John F

    2014-11-12

    We report asymmetric allylic alkylation of barium enolates of cyclic ketones catalyzed by a metallacyclic iridium complex containing a phosphoramidite ligand derived from (R)-1-(2-naphthyl)ethylamine. The reaction products contain adjacent quaternary and tertiary stereocenters. This process demonstrates that unstabilized cyclic ketone enolates can undergo diastereo- and enantioselective Ir-catalyzed allylic substitution reactions with the proper choice of enolate countercation. The products of these reactions can be conveniently transformed to various useful polycarbocyclic structures.

  14. Copper-catalyzed decarboxylative trifluoromethylation of allylic bromodifluoroacetates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambler, Brett R; Altman, Ryan A

    2013-11-01

    The development of new synthetic fluorination reactions has important implications in medicinal, agricultural, and materials chemistries. Given the prevalence and accessibility of alcohols, methods to convert alcohols to trifluoromethanes are desirable. However, this transformation typically requires four-step processes, specialty chemicals, and/or stoichiometric metals to access the trifluoromethyl-containing product. A two-step copper-catalyzed decarboxylative protocol for converting allylic alcohols to trifluoromethanes is reported. Preliminary mechanistic studies distinguish this reaction from previously reported Cu-mediated reactions.

  15. Novel big-bang element synthesis catalyzed by supersymmetric particle stau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamimura, Masayasu; Kino, Yasushi; Hiyama, Emiko

    2010-01-01

    The extremely low isotope ratio of 6 Li had remained as a drawback of the Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) until Pospelov proposed the 6 Li synthesis reaction catalyzed by negatively charged electroweak-scale particle X - in 2006. He remarked the catalytic enhancement of 6 Li production by about 10 8 times, as well as the life and initial abundance of X - . The present authors classified BBN catalyzed reaction into six types, i.e. (1) non-resonant transfer, (2) resonant transfer, (3) non-resonant radiative capture, (4) resonant radiative capture, (5) three-body breakup and (6) charge transfer reactions to predict absolute values of cross sections which cannot be observed experimentally. Starting from the three-body treatment for those reactions, 6 Li problems, the life-time and abundance of stau are discussed. Large change of element composition at 'late-time' big bang, generation of 9 Be by stau catalyzed reaction, 7 Li problem and stau catalyzed reactions are also discussed. Finally their relations with the supersymmetry theory and dark matter are mentioned. The basic nuclear calculations are providing quantitative base for the 'effect of nuclear reactions catalyzed by the supersymmetric particle stau on big bang nucleosynthesis'. (S. Funahashi)

  16. PEG1000-Based Dicationic Acidic Ionic Liquid Catalyzed One-Pot Synthesis of 4-Aryl-3-Methyl-1-Phenyl-1H-Benzo[h]pyrazolo [3,4-b]quinoline-5,10-Diones via Multicomponent Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ming Ren

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel and green approach for efficient and rapid synthesis of 4-aryl-3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-benzo[h]pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline-5,10-diones has been accomplished by the one-pot condensation reaction of aromatic aldehydes, 3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-amine and 2-hydroxynaphthalene-1,4-dione using PEG1000-based dicationic acidic ionic liquid (PEG1000-DAIL as a catalyst was reported. Recycling studies have shown that the PEG1000-DAIL can be readily recovered and reused several times without significant loss of activity. The key advantages are the short reaction time, high yields, simple workup, and recovered catalyst.

  17. Enhancing the muon-catalyzed fusion yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.E.

    1987-01-01

    Much has been learned about muon-catalyzed fusion since the last conference on emerging nuclear energy systems. Here the authors consider what they have learned about enhancing the muon-catalyzed fusion energy yield

  18. Mechanism of Intramolecular Rhodium- and Palladium-Catalyzed Alkene Alkoxyfunctionalizations

    KAUST Repository

    Vummaleti, Sai V. C.; Alghamdi, Miasser; Poater, Albert; Falivene, Laura; Scaranto, Jessica; Beetstra, Dirk J.; Morton, Jason G.; Cavallo, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Density functional theory calculations have been used to investigate the reaction mechanism for the [Rh]-catalyzed intramolecular alkoxyacylation ([Rh] = [RhI(dppp)+] (dppp, 1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane) and [Pd]/BPh3 dual catalytic system assisted intramolecular alkoxycyanation ([Pd] = Pd-Xantphos) using acylated and cyanated 2-allylphenol derivatives as substrates, respectively. Our results substantially confirm the proposed mechanism for both [Rh]- and [Pd]/ BPh3-mediated alkoxyfunctionalizations, offering a detailed geometrical and energetical understanding of all the elementary steps. Furthermore, for the [Rh]-mediated alkoxyacylation, our observations support the hypothesis that the quinoline group of the substrate is crucial to stabilize the acyl metal complex and prevent further decarbonylation. For [Pd]/BPh3-catalyzed alkoxycyanation, our findings clarify how the Lewis acid BPh3 cocatalyst accelerates the only slow step of the reaction, corresponding to the oxidative addition of the cyanate O-CN bond to the Pd center. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  19. Mechanism of Intramolecular Rhodium- and Palladium-Catalyzed Alkene Alkoxyfunctionalizations

    KAUST Repository

    Vummaleti, Sai V. C.

    2015-11-13

    Density functional theory calculations have been used to investigate the reaction mechanism for the [Rh]-catalyzed intramolecular alkoxyacylation ([Rh] = [RhI(dppp)+] (dppp, 1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane) and [Pd]/BPh3 dual catalytic system assisted intramolecular alkoxycyanation ([Pd] = Pd-Xantphos) using acylated and cyanated 2-allylphenol derivatives as substrates, respectively. Our results substantially confirm the proposed mechanism for both [Rh]- and [Pd]/ BPh3-mediated alkoxyfunctionalizations, offering a detailed geometrical and energetical understanding of all the elementary steps. Furthermore, for the [Rh]-mediated alkoxyacylation, our observations support the hypothesis that the quinoline group of the substrate is crucial to stabilize the acyl metal complex and prevent further decarbonylation. For [Pd]/BPh3-catalyzed alkoxycyanation, our findings clarify how the Lewis acid BPh3 cocatalyst accelerates the only slow step of the reaction, corresponding to the oxidative addition of the cyanate O-CN bond to the Pd center. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  20. Iron-catalyzed diboration and carboboration of alkynes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Naohisa; Hatakeyama, Takuji; Nakamura, Masaharu

    2015-03-09

    An iron-catalyzed diboration reaction of alkynes with bis(pinacolato)diboron (B2pin2) and external borating agents (MeOB(OR)2) affords diverse symmetrical or unsymmetrical cis-1,2-diborylalkenes. The simple protocol for the diboration reaction can be extended to the iron-catalyzed carboboration of alkynes with primary and, unprecedentedly, secondary alkyl halides, affording various tetrasubstituted monoborylalkenes in a highly stereoselective manner. DFT calculations indicate that a boryliron intermediate adds across the triple bond of an alkyne to afford an alkenyliron intermediate, which can react with the external trapping agents, borates and alkyl halides. In situ trapping experiments support the intermediacy of the alkenyl iron species using radical probe stubstrates. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Studies on the catalysts for coal liquefaction. ; Specific behaviours of coals of different ranks in their hydrogenolysis reactions catalyzed by various kinds of catalysts. Sekitan ekikayo shokubai ni kansuru kenkyu. ; Suisoka bunkai seiseibutsu sosei ni oyobosu kakushu shokubai no koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takechi, Y; Ikenaga, N; Oda, H; Yokokawa, C [Kansai University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1991-11-07

    Three kinds of coals with different rank of 76, 85 and 87C% were hydrocracked to study the specific reaction behavior of four kinds of 1coal liquefaction catalysts such as CuCrO4, Fe2O3+S, MoO3-TiO2 and MoS3-Al2O3. The reaction was conducted without any solvent to find out the specific phenomenon of each combination of coal and catalyst, and terminated at the point where nearly 30% of an initial amount of coal is converted to benzene-soluble. The products were separated by GPC into four fractions, and their average molecular weights and intrinsic viscosities were measured to study characteristics of each combination. As a result, the molecular weight distribution was obviously dependent on the combination of coal and catalyst, and no specific relation was observed between the molecular weight and intrinsic viscosity. The molecular of each fraction had a bar shape with an elliptic section indicating no apparent correlation with the molecular weight. 3 refs., 1 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. A facile synthesis of new 5-aryl-thiophenes bearing sulfonamide moiety via Pd(0-catalyzed Suzuki–Miyaura cross coupling reactions and 5-bromothiophene-2-acetamide: As potent urease inhibitor, antibacterial agent and hemolytically active compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mnaza Noreen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports a convenient approach for the synthesis of thiophene sulfonamide derivatives (3a–3k via Suzuki cross coupling reaction. This method of synthesis involved the reactions of various aryl boronic acids and esters with 5-bromthiophene-2-sulfonamide (2 under mild and suitable temperature conditions. The compounds synthesized in the present study were subjected to urease inhibition and hemolytic activities. The substitution pattern and the electronic effects of different functional groups (i.e., Cl, CH3, OCH3, F etc. available on the aromatic ring are found to have significant effect on the overall results. The compound 5-Phenylthiophene-2-sulfonamide 3a showed the highest urease inhibition activity with IC50 value ∼ 30.8 μg/mL compared with the thiourea (used as standard having IC50 value ∼ 43 μg/mL. Moreover, almost all of the compounds were examined for the hemolytic activity against triton X-100 with positive results obtained in most of the cases. In addition, the antibacterial activities of the derivatives of 5-arylthiophene-2-sulfonamide and 5-bromothiophene-2-acetamide were also investigated during the course of the study.

  3. Red Seaweed Enzyme-Catalyzed Bromination of Bromophenol Red: An Inquiry-Based Kinetics Laboratory Experiment for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jittam, Piyachat; Boonsiri, Patcharee; Promptmas, Chamras; Sriwattanarothai, Namkang; Archavarungson, Nattinee; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Panijpan, Bhinyo

    2009-01-01

    Haloperoxidase enzymes are of interest for basic and applied bioscientists because of their increasing importance in pharmaceutical industry and environmental cleanups. In a guided inquiry-based laboratory experiment for life-science, agricultural science, and health science undergraduates, the bromoperoxidase from a red seaweed was used to…

  4. Calcium(ii)-catalyzed enantioselective conjugate additions of amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Brice E; Dicken, Rachel D; Redfern, Louis R; Stern, Charlotte M; Krzywicki, Greg G; Scheidt, Karl A

    2018-02-14

    The direct enantioselective chiral calcium(ii)·phosphate complex (Ca[CPA] 2 )-catalyzed conjugate addition of unprotected alkyl amines to maleimides was developed. This mild catalytic system represents a significant advance towards the general convergent asymmetric amination of α,β-unsaturated electrophiles, providing medicinally relevant chiral aminosuccinimide products in high yields and enantioselectivities. Furthermore, the catalyst can be reused directly from a previously chromatographed reaction and still maintain both high yield and selectivity.

  5. Base catalyzed synthesis of bicyclo[3.2.1]octane scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehringer, Régis; Geoffroy, Philippe; Miesch, Michel

    2015-07-07

    The base-catalyzed reaction of achiral 1,3-cyclopentanediones tethered to activated olefins afforded in high yields bicyclo[3.2.1]octane-6,8-dione or bicyclo[3.2.1]octane-6-carboxylate derivatives bearing respectively three or five stereogenic centers. The course of the reaction is closely related to the reaction time and to the base involved in the reaction.

  6. Synthesis of 2-Amino-3-hydroxy-3H-indoles via Palladium-Catalyzed One-Pot Reaction of Isonitriles, Oxygen, and N-Tosylhydrazones Derived from 2-Acylanilines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Haoke; Dai, Qiang; Jiang, Yan; Cheng, Jiang

    2017-08-04

    A cyanide-free one-pot procedure was developed to access 2-amino-3-hydroxy-3H-indoles, which involved: (1) in situ formation of ketenimines by the reaction of N'-(1-(2-aminophenyl)ethylidene)-p-tosylhydrazones with isonitriles; (2) the intramolecular nucleophilic attack of ketenimines by the amino in phenyl furnishing the ring closure leading to 2-aminoindoles; (3) the oxidation of 2-aminoindoles by O 2 leading to 2-amino-3-hydroxy-3H-indoles. This strategy represents not only a key compliment to the sporadic synthetic methods toward 2-amino-3-hydroxy-3H-indoles but also progress in N-tosylhydrazone, isonitrile, and ketenimine chemistry.

  7. Mecanismo de fotodegradação de compostos orgânicos catalisada por TiO2 Mechanism reactions of photodegradation of organic compounds catalyzed by TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Lourenço Ziolli

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Conventional technology used in the treatment of wastewater has been pointed as a major environmental problem for sustainable development, since minimization is not addressed accordingly. Advanced oxidation processes (AOP, based on the formation of hydroxyl radical (•OH, a powerful oxidant agent, have been considered to be a potential technology for the destruction of many toxic compounds. Photocatalysis using solar light, an AOP, has been studied for nearly 20 years and recently attracted great interest as a clean-up technology. However, solar detoxification processes have not yet achieved commercial success. This article presents an overview of reaction mechanisms at the surface of semiconductors used as photocatalysts (specially TiO2, when heterogeneous photocatalysis is used to remove hazardous compounds from contaminated sites.

  8. Cost analysis of simulated base-catalyzed biodiesel production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasić, Marija B.; Stamenković, Olivera S.; Veljković, Vlada B.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Two semi-continuous biodiesel production processes from sunflower oil are simulated. • Simulations were based on the kinetics of base-catalyzed methanolysis reactions. • The total energy consumption was influenced by the kinetic model. • Heterogeneous base-catalyzed process is a preferable industrial technology. - Abstract: The simulation and economic feasibility evaluation of semi-continuous biodiesel production from sunflower oil were based on the kinetics of homogeneously (Process I) and heterogeneously (Process II) base-catalyzed methanolysis reactions. The annual plant’s capacity was determined to be 8356 tonnes of biodiesel. The total energy consumption was influenced by the unit model describing the methanolysis reaction kinetics. The energy consumption of the Process II was more than 2.5 times lower than that of the Process I. Also, the simulation showed the Process I had more and larger process equipment units, compared with the Process II. Based on lower total capital investment costs and biodiesel selling price, the Process II was economically more feasible than the Process I. Sensitivity analysis was conducted using variable sunflower oil and biodiesel prices. Using a biodiesel selling price of 0.990 $/kg, Processes I and II were shown to be economically profitable if the sunflower oil price was 0.525 $/kg and 0.696 $/kg, respectively

  9. Iridium‐Catalyzed Dehydrogenative Decarbonylation of Primary Alcohols with the Liberation of Syngas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Esben Paul Krogh; Madsen, Robert

    2012-01-01

    A new iridium‐catalyzed reaction in which molecular hydrogen and carbon monoxide are cleaved from primary alcohols in the absence of any stoichiometric additives has been developed. The dehydrogenative decarbonylation was achieved with a catalyst generated in situ from [Ir(coe)2Cl]2 (coe=cyclooct......A new iridium‐catalyzed reaction in which molecular hydrogen and carbon monoxide are cleaved from primary alcohols in the absence of any stoichiometric additives has been developed. The dehydrogenative decarbonylation was achieved with a catalyst generated in situ from [Ir(coe)2Cl]2 (coe...... to excellent yields. Ethers, esters, imides, and aryl halides are stable under the reaction conditions, whereas olefins are partially saturated. The reaction is believed to proceed by two consecutive organometallic transformations that are catalyzed by the same iridium(I)–BINAP species. First, dehydrogenation...

  10. Automated Quantum Mechanical Predictions of Enantioselectivity in a Rhodium-Catalyzed Asymmetric Hydrogenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yanfei; Wheeler, Steven E

    2017-07-24

    A computational toolkit (AARON: An automated reaction optimizer for new catalysts) is described that automates the density functional theory (DFT) based screening of chiral ligands for transition-metal-catalyzed reactions with well-defined reaction mechanisms but multiple stereocontrolling transition states. This is demonstrated for the Rh-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of (E)-β-aryl-N-acetyl enamides, for which a new C 2 -symmetric phosphorus ligand is designed. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. CuO-Nanoparticles Catalyzed Synthesis of 1,4-Disubstituted-1,2,3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    John Paul Raj

    2018-04-13

    Apr 13, 2018 ... has been developed for the synthesis of 1,2,3-triazoles. A library of 1 ... Kuang et al., described Cu-catalyzed synthesis of 1H-. 1,2,3-triazoles from 1 ..... Tornøe C W, Christensen C and Meldal M 2002 Peptido- triazoles on solid ... 2015 Copper-catalyzed [3+2] cycloaddition/oxidation reactions between ...

  12. Novel Platinum-Catalyzed Ring-Opening of 1,2-Cyclopropanated Sugars with Alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Jürgen; Madsen, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Reaction of 1,2-cyclopropanated sugars with a catalytic amount ofZeise's dimer [Pt(C2H4)Cl2]2 and an alcohol gives 2-C-branched glycosides by a novel platinum catalyzed ring-opening. A wide variety of alcohols can participate in this ring-opening reaction giving 2-C-branched glycosides ranging from...

  13. Study of selective oxidation of methane catalyzed by solid superacid in unique reaction field; Tokushu hannoba no kotai chokyosan wo mochiiru methane no sentaku sanka hanno ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misonoo, M; Tatsumi, T; Mizuno, T; Inumaru, T [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Selective oxidation of lower alkanes by use of heteropolymeric compounds is studied. Alkanes are activated on Cs2.5H0.5PW12O40 serving as catalyst, and their activity and selectivity improve when the catalyst is developed into a dual function catalyst in which Cs and Pt are combined. A success is reported of the synthesis of a heteropolymeric acid in which two molecules of the coordination element wolfram are replaced with a transition metal of the first period, on which acid the oxidation of cyclohexane is enhanced. Cs2.5Ni0.08H1.34PVMo11O40 as a metal/heteropolymeric acid dual function catalyst enables the direct oxidation (9% recovered at 340{degree}C) of isobutane into a methacrylic acid, which is attributed to the harmonious coordination of the oxidizing work of the catalyst and acidity. It is possible to oxidize propane into the acrylic acid, but not ethane into the acetic acid. In the case of Pd/Cs2.5H1.5PVMo11O40, the formic acid, methanol, etc., are produced upon addition of hydrogen to the system. This reaction in the hydrogen/oxygen system is supposed to take place via activated oxygen seeds as in the case of oxidation by hydrogen peroxide. 10 refs.

  14. Asymmetric Chemoenzymatic Reductive Acylation of Ketones by a Combined Iron-Catalyzed Hydrogenation-Racemization and Enzymatic Resolution Cascade

    KAUST Repository

    El-Sepelgy, Osama; Brzozowska, Aleksandra; Rueping, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    . By merging the iron-catalyzed redox reactions with enantioselective enzymatic acylations a wide range of benzylic, aliphatic and (hetero)aromatic ketones, as well as diketones, were reductively acylated. The corresponding products were isolated with high

  15. Silver-Catalyzed Aldehyde Olefination Using Siloxy Alkynes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianwei; Keller, Valerie A; Meyer, S Todd; Kozmin, Sergey A

    2010-03-20

    We describe the development of a silver-catalyzed carbonyl olefination employing electron rich siloxy alkynes. This process constitutes an efficient synthesis of trisubstituted unsaturated esters, and represents an alternative to the widely utilized Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons reaction. Excellent diastereoselectivities are observed for a range of aldehydes using either 1-siloxy-1-propyne or 1-siloxy-1-hexyne. This mild catalytic process also enables chemoselective olefination of aldehydes in the presence of either ester or ketone functionality. Furthermore, since no by-products are generated, this catalytic process is perfectly suited for development of sequential reactions that can be carried out in a single flask.

  16. Asymmetric H-D exchange reactions of fluorinated aromatic ketones

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Yujun; Lim, XiaoZhi; Pan, Yuanhang; Zong, Lili; Feng, Wei; Tan, Choonhong; Huang, Kuo-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Chiral bicyclic guanidine catalyzes the asymmetric H-D exchange reactions. Up to 30% ee was achieved. DFT calculations were employed to elucidate and explain the origin of the reaction's stereoselectivity. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  17. Nickel-catalyzed coupling reaction of alkyl halides with aryl Grignard reagents in the presence of 1,3-butadiene: mechanistic studies of four-component coupling and competing cross-coupling reactions† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed experimental and computational results, procedures, characterization data, copies of NMR charts, and crystallographic data. CCDC 1572238. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c7sc04675h

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Asuka; Yokoyama, Wataru; Min, Xin; Hisaki, Ichiro; Kuniyasu, Hitoshi

    2018-01-01

    We describe the mechanism, substituent effects, and origins of the selectivity of the nickel-catalyzed four-component coupling reactions of alkyl fluorides, aryl Grignard reagents, and two molecules of 1,3-butadiene that affords a 1,6-octadiene carbon framework bearing alkyl and aryl groups at the 3- and 8-positions, respectively, and the competing cross-coupling reaction. Both the four-component coupling reaction and the cross-coupling reaction are triggered by the formation of anionic nickel complexes, which are generated by the oxidative dimerization of two molecules of 1,3-butadiene on Ni(0) and the subsequent complexation with the aryl Grignard reagents. The C–C bond formation of the alkyl fluorides with the γ-carbon of the anionic nickel complexes leads to the four-component coupling product, whereas the cross-coupling product is yielded via nucleophilic attack of the Ni center toward the alkyl fluorides. These steps are found to be the rate-determining and selectivity-determining steps of the whole catalytic cycle, in which the C–F bond of the alkyl fluorides is activated by the Mg cation rather than a Li or Zn cation. ortho-Substituents of the aryl Grignard reagents suppressed the cross-coupling reaction leading to the selective formation of the four-component products. Such steric effects of the ortho-substituents were clearly demonstrated by crystal structure characterizations of ate complexes and DFT calculations. The electronic effects of the para-substituent of the aryl Grignard reagents on both the selectivity and reaction rates are thoroughly discussed. The present mechanistic study offers new insight into anionic complexes, which are proposed as the key intermediates in catalytic transformations even though detailed mechanisms are not established in many cases, and demonstrates their synthetic utility as promising intermediates for C–C bond forming reactions, providing useful information for developing efficient and straightforward

  18. Transesterification of oil mixtures catalyzed by microencapsulated cutinase in reversed micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenes, Sara M; Lemos, Francisco; Cabral, Joaquim M S

    2010-03-01

    Recombinant cutinase from Fusarium solani pisi was used to catalyze the transesterification reaction between a mixture of triglycerides (oils) and methanol in reversed micelles of bis(2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT) in isooctane for the purposes of producing biodiesel. The use of a bi-phase lipase-catalyzed system brings advantages in terms of catalyst re-use and the control of water activity in the medium and around the enzyme micro-environment. Small-scale batch studies were performed to study the influence of the initial enzyme and alcohol concentrations, and the substrates molar ratio. Conversions in excess of 75 were obtained with reaction times under 24 h, which makes this enzymatic process highly competitive when compared to similar lipase catalyzed reactions for biodiesel production using methanol.

  19. An optimized hydrogen target for muon catalyzed fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gheisari, R., E-mail: gheisari@pgu.ac.i [Physics Department, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr 75169 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-04-01

    This paper deals with the optimization of the processes involved in muon catalyzed fusion. Muon catalyzed fusion ({mu}CF) is studied in all layers of the solid hydrogen structure H/0.1%T+D{sub 2}+HD. The layer H/T acts as an emitter source of energetic t{mu} atoms, due to the so-called Ramsauer-Townsend effect. These t{mu} atoms are slowed down in the second layer (degrader) and are forced to take place nuclear fusion in HD. The degrader affects time evolution of t{mu} atomic beam. This effect has not been considered until now in {mu}CF-multilayered targets. Due to muon cycling and this effect, considerable reactions occur in the degrader. In our calculations, it is shown that the fusion yield equals 180{+-}1.5. It is possible to separate events that overlap in time.

  20. Cytochrome c catalyzes the in vitro synthesis of arachidonoyl glycine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCue, Jeffrey M.; Driscoll, William J.; Mueller, Gregory P.

    2008-01-01

    Long chain fatty acyl glycines are an emerging class of biologically active molecules that occur naturally and produce a wide array of physiological effects. Their biosynthetic pathway, however, remains unknown. Here we report that cytochrome c catalyzes the synthesis of N-arachidonoyl glycine (NAGly) from arachidonoyl coenzyme A and glycine in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The identity of the NAGly product was verified by isotope labeling and mass analysis. Other heme-containing proteins, hemoglobin and myoglobin, were considerably less effective in generating arachidonoyl glycine as compared to cytochrome c. The reaction catalyzed by cytochrome c in vitro points to its potential role in the formation of NAGly and other long chain fatty acyl glycines in vivo

  1. Post-Ugi gold-catalyzed diastereoselective domino cyclization for the synthesis of diversely substituted spiroindolines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available An Ugi four-component reaction of propargylamine with 3-formylindole and various acids and isonitriles produces adducts which are subjected to a cationic gold-catalyzed diastereoselective domino cyclization to furnish diversely substituted spiroindolines. All the reactions run via an exo-dig attack in the hydroarylation step followed by an intramolecular diastereoselective trapping of the imminium ion. The whole sequence is atom economic and the application of a multicomponent reaction assures diversity.

  2. Stabilization of oil-in-water emulsions by enzyme catalyzed oxidative gelation of sugar beet pectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz; Chronakis, Ioannis S.; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Enzyme catalyzed oxidative cross-linking of feruloyl groups can promote gelation of sugar beet pectin (SBP). It is uncertain how the enzyme kinetics of this cross-linking reaction are affected in emulsion systems and whether the gelation affects emulsion stability. In this study, SBP (2.5% w...... larger average particle sizes than the emulsions in which the SBP was homogenized into the emulsion system during emulsion preparation (referred as Mix B). Mix B type emulsions were stable. Enzyme catalyzed oxidative gelation of SBP helped stabilize the emulsions in Mix A. The kinetics of the enzyme...... catalyzed oxidative gelation of SBP was evaluated by small angle oscillatory measurements for horseradish peroxidase (HRP) (EC 1.11.1.7) and laccase (EC 1.10.3.2) catalysis, respectively. HRP catalyzed gelation rates, determined from the slopes of the increase of elastic modulus (G0) with time, were higher...

  3. Heterogeneous base-catalyzed methanolysis of vegetable oils: State of art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović Marija R.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, homogeneous base-catalyzed methanolysis is most frequently used method for industrial biodiesel production. High requirements for the quality of feedstocks and the problems related to a huge amount of wastewaters have led to the development of novel biodiesel production technologies. Among them, the most important is heterogeneous base-catalyzed methanolysis, which has been intensively investigated in the last decade in order to develop new catalytic systems, to optimize the reaction conditions and to recycle catalysts. These studies are a base for developing continuous biodiesel production on industrial scale in near future. The present work summarizes up-to-date studies on biodiesel production by heterogeneous base-catalyzed methanolysis. The main goals were to point out the application of different base compounds as catalysts, the methods of catalyst preparation, impregnation on carriers and recycling as well as the possibilities to improve existing base-catalyzed biodiesel production processes and to develop novel ones.

  4. Chloride-catalyzed corrosion of plutonium in glovebox atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, M.; Haschke, J.M.; Allen, T.H.; Morales, L.A.; Jarboe, D.M.; Puglisi, C.V.

    1998-04-01

    Characterization of glovebox atmospheres and the black reaction product formed on plutonium surfaces shows that the abnormally rapid corrosion of components in the fabrication line is consistent with a complex salt-catalyzed reaction involving gaseous hydrogen chloride (HCl) and water. Analytical data verify that chlorocarbon and HCl vapors are presented in stagnant glovebox atmospheres. Hydrogen chloride concentrations approach 7 ppm at some locations in the glovebox line. The black corrosion product is identified as plutonium monoxide monohydride (PuOH), a product formed by hydrolysis of plutonium in liquid water and salt solutions at room temperature. Plutonium trichloride (PuCl 3 ) produced by reaction of HCl at the metal surface is deliquescent and apparently forms a highly concentrated salt solution by absorbing moisture from the glovebox atmosphere. Rapid corrosion is attributed to the ensuing salt-catalyzed reaction between plutonium and water. Experimental results are discussed, possible involvement of hydrogen fluoride (HF) is examined, and methods of corrective action are presented in this report

  5. Synthesis of Fluoroalkoxy Substituted Arylboronic Esters by Iridium-Catalyzed Aromatic C–H Borylation

    KAUST Repository

    Batool, Farhat

    2015-08-17

    The preparation of fluoroalkoxy arylboronic esters by iridium-catalyzed aromatic C–H borylation is described. The fluoroalkoxy groups employed include trifluoromethoxy, difluoromethoxy, 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethoxy, and 2,2-difluoro-1,3-benzodioxole. The borylation reactions were carried out neat without the use of a glovebox or Schlenk line. The regioselectivities available through the iridium-catalyzed C–H borylation are complementary to those obtained by the electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions of fluoroalkoxy arenes. Fluoroalkoxy arylboronic esters can serve as versatile building blocks.

  6. Nitrous oxide-forming codenitrification catalyzed by cytochrome P450nor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Fei; Takaya, Naoki; Shoun, Hirofumi

    2004-02-01

    Intact cells of the denitrifying fungus Fusarium oxysporum were previously shown to catalyze codenitrification to form a hybrid nitrous oxide (N2O) species from nitrite and other nitrogen compounds such as azide and ammonia. Here we show that cytochrome P450nor can catalyze the codenitrification reaction to form N2O from nitric oxide (NO) but not nitrite, and azide or ammonia. The results show that the direct substrate of the codenitrification by intact cells should not be nitrite but NO, which is formed from nitrite by the reaction of a dissimilatory nitrite reductase.

  7. Silver-Catalyzed Dehydrogenative Synthesis of Carboxylic Acids from Primary Alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghalehshahi, Hajar Golshadi; Madsen, Robert

    2017-01-01

    A simple silver-catalyzed protocol has been developed for the acceptorless dehydrogenation of primary alcohols into carboxylic acids and hydrogen gas. The procedure uses 2.5 % Ag2 CO3 and 2.5-3 equiv of KOH in refluxing mesitylene to afford the potassium carboxylate which is then converted...... into the acid with HCl. The reaction can be applied to a variety of benzylic and aliphatic primary alcohols with alkyl and ether substituents, and in some cases halide, olefin, and ester functionalities are also compatible with the reaction conditions. The dehydrogenation is believed to be catalyzed by silver...

  8. Synthesis of Fluoroalkoxy Substituted Arylboronic Esters by Iridium-Catalyzed Aromatic C–H Borylation

    KAUST Repository

    Batool, Farhat; Parveen, Shehla; Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M.; Sioud, Salim; Gao, Xin; Munawar, Munawar A.; Chotana, Ghayoor A.

    2015-01-01

    The preparation of fluoroalkoxy arylboronic esters by iridium-catalyzed aromatic C–H borylation is described. The fluoroalkoxy groups employed include trifluoromethoxy, difluoromethoxy, 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethoxy, and 2,2-difluoro-1,3-benzodioxole. The borylation reactions were carried out neat without the use of a glovebox or Schlenk line. The regioselectivities available through the iridium-catalyzed C–H borylation are complementary to those obtained by the electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions of fluoroalkoxy arenes. Fluoroalkoxy arylboronic esters can serve as versatile building blocks.

  9. Catalytic Wittig and aza-Wittig reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqi Lao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This review surveys the literature regarding the development of catalytic versions of the Wittig and aza-Wittig reactions. The first section summarizes how arsenic and tellurium-based catalytic Wittig-type reaction systems were developed first due to the relatively easy reduction of the oxides involved. This is followed by a presentation of the current state of the art regarding phosphine-catalyzed Wittig reactions. The second section covers the field of related catalytic aza-Wittig reactions that are catalyzed by both phosphine oxides and phosphines.

  10. Zinc catalyzed Guanylation reaction of Amines with Carbodiimides ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We report the highly chemo-selective catalytic addition of N–H bonds from ... an important class of compounds present in biologi- cally and pharmaceutically active molecules. They have received considerable attention due to their electronic.

  11. Mo-catalyzed cross-metathesis reaction of propynylferrocene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bobula, T.; Hudlický, J.; Novák, P.; Gyepes, R.; Císařová, I.; Štěpnička, P.; Kotora, Martin

    -, č. 25 (2008), s. 3911-3920 ISSN 1434-1948 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LC06070 Program:LC Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : alkynes * metallocenes * metathesis * electrochemistry * X-ray diffraction Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.694, year: 2008

  12. BIOMIMETIC REACTIONS CATALYZED BY CYCLODEXTRINS AND THEIR DERIVATIVES. (R826653)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  13. Energy Accommodation from Surface Catalyzed Reactions in Air Plasmas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Understanding energy transport at the gas-surface interface between catalytic/reacting surfaces exposed to highly dissociated plasmas remains a significant research...

  14. Synthesis of Arylthiopyrimidines by Copper-catalyzed Aerobic Oxidative C-S Cross-coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ok Suk; Kim, Hyeji; Sohn, Jeong-Hun [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hee-Seung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hyunik [Yonsung Fine Chemicals R and D Center, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Copper-catalyzed C–S cross-coupling reactions have been considered as powerful tools in synthetic chemistry and utilized for diverse heterocycle syntheses. In the reactions, the aspects of no need of ligands has been particular advantage over other metal catalysis. We have developed a Cu-catalyzed cascade reaction for the synthesis of fully substituted 2-arylthiopyrimidines from 3,4-dihydropyrimidine-2(1H)-thiones (DHPMs) under aerobic conditions. This cascade reaction of DHPM with aryl iodide proceeds presumably via sequential tautomerization, C–S cross-coupling, and oxidative dehydrogenation (oxidation followed by elimination). Considering that DHPM substrates were easily synthesized by Biginelli three component coupling reaction of aryl aldehyde, β-ketoester, and thiourea, the present method provides a direct access toward diverse 2-arylthiopyrimidines which have been used as a prominent substructure of drug molecules.

  15. Mechanistic insight into benzenethiol catalyzed amide bond formations from thioesters and primary amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuhr-Hansen, Nicolai; Bork, Nicolai; Strømgaard, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    The influence of arylthiols on cysteine-free ligation, i.e. the reaction between an alkyl thioester and a primary amine forming an amide bond, was studied in a polar aprotic solvent. We reacted the ethylthioester of hippuric acid with cyclohexylamine in the absence or presence of various quantities...... of thiophenol (PhSH) in a slurry of disodium hydrogen phosphate in dry DMF. Quantitative conversions into the resulting amide were observed within a few hours in the presence of equimolar amounts of thiophenol. Ab initio calculations showed that the reaction mechanism in DMF is similar to the well-known aqueous...... reaction mechanism. The energy barrier of the catalyzed amidation reaction is approximately 40 kJ mol(-1) lower than the non-catalyzed amidation reaction. At least partially this can be explained by a hydrogen bond from the amine to the π-electrons of the thiophenol, stabilizing the transition state...

  16. Mechanisms of bacterially catalyzed reductive dehalogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picardal, Flynn William [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Nine bacteria were tested for the ability to dehalogenate tetrachloromethane (CT), tetrachloroethene (PCE), and 1, 1, 1-trichloroethane (TCA) under anaerobic conditions. Three bacteria were able to reductively dehalogenate CT. Dehalogenation ability was not readily linked to a common metabolism or changes in culture redox potential. None of the bacteria tested were able to dehalogenate PCE or TCA. One of the bacteria capable of dehalogenating CT, Shewanella putrefaciens, was chosen as a model organism to study mechanisms of bacterially catalyzed reductive dehalogenation. The effect of a variety of alternate electron acceptors on CT dehalogenation ability by S. putrefaciens was determined. oxygen and nitrogen oxides were inhibitory but Fe (III), trimethylamine oxide, and fumarate were not. A model of the electron transport chain of S. putrefaciens was developed to explain inhibition patterns. A period of microaerobic growth prior to CT exposure increased the ability of S. putrefaciens to dehalogenate CT. A microaerobic growth period also increased cytochrome concentrations. A relationship between cytochrome content and dehalogenation ability was developed from studies in which cytochrome concentrations in S. putrefaciens were manipulated by changing growth conditions. Stoichiometry studies using 14C-CT suggested that CT was first reduced to form a trichloromethyl radical. Reduction of the radical to produce chloroform and reaction of the radical with cellular biochemicals explained observed product distributions. Carbon dioxide or other fully dehalogenated products were not found.

  17. Rh-catalyzed linear hydroformylation of styrene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boymans, E.H.; Janssen, M.C.C.; Mueller, C.; Lutz, M.; Vogt, D.

    2012-01-01

    Usually the Rh-catalyzed hydroformylation of styrene predominantly yields the branched, chiral aldehyde. An inversion of regioselectivity can be achieved using strong p-acceptor ligands. Binaphthol-based diphosphite and bis(dipyrrolyl-phosphorodiamidite) ligands were applied in the Rh-catalyzed

  18. Quinone-Catalyzed Selective Oxidation of Organic Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendlandt, Alison E.

    2016-01-01

    Lead In Quinones are common stoichiometric reagents in organic chemistry. High potential para-quinones, such as DDQ and chloranil, are widely used and typically promote hydride abstraction. In recent years, many catalytic applications of these methods have been achieved by using transition metals, electrochemistry or O2 to regenerate the oxidized quinone in situ. Complementary studies have led to the development of a different class of quinones that resemble the ortho-quinone cofactors in Copper Amine Oxidases and mediate efficient and selective aerobic and/or electrochemical dehydrogenation of amines. The latter reactions typically proceed via electrophilic transamination and/or addition-elimination reaction mechanisms, rather than hydride abstraction pathways. The collective observations show that the quinone structure has a significant influence on the reaction mechanism and have important implications for the development of new quinone reagents and quinone-catalyzed transformations. PMID:26530485

  19. On the Temperature Dependence of Enzyme-Catalyzed Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcus, Vickery L; Prentice, Erica J; Hobbs, Joanne K; Mulholland, Adrian J; Van der Kamp, Marc W; Pudney, Christopher R; Parker, Emily J; Schipper, Louis A

    2016-03-29

    One of the critical variables that determine the rate of any reaction is temperature. For biological systems, the effects of temperature are convoluted with myriad (and often opposing) contributions from enzyme catalysis, protein stability, and temperature-dependent regulation, for example. We have coined the phrase "macromolecular rate theory (MMRT)" to describe the temperature dependence of enzyme-catalyzed rates independent of stability or regulatory processes. Central to MMRT is the observation that enzyme-catalyzed reactions occur with significant values of ΔCp(‡) that are in general negative. That is, the heat capacity (Cp) for the enzyme-substrate complex is generally larger than the Cp for the enzyme-transition state complex. Consistent with a classical description of enzyme catalysis, a negative value for ΔCp(‡) is the result of the enzyme binding relatively weakly to the substrate and very tightly to the transition state. This observation of negative ΔCp(‡) has important implications for the temperature dependence of enzyme-catalyzed rates. Here, we lay out the fundamentals of MMRT. We present a number of hypotheses that arise directly from MMRT including a theoretical justification for the large size of enzymes and the basis for their optimum temperatures. We rationalize the behavior of psychrophilic enzymes and describe a "psychrophilic trap" which places limits on the evolution of enzymes in low temperature environments. One of the defining characteristics of biology is catalysis of chemical reactions by enzymes, and enzymes drive much of metabolism. Therefore, we also expect to see characteristics of MMRT at the level of cells, whole organisms, and even ecosystems.

  20. Amino acid-catalyzed conversion of citral : cis-trans isomerization and its conversion into 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one and acetaldehyde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolken, W.A.M.; Have, R. ten; Werf, M.J. van der

    2000-01-01

    Under alkaline conditions, amino acids or proteins catalyze the deacetylation of citral, a major aroma component, resulting in methylheptenone and acetaldehyde formation. 3-Hydroxycitronellal is an intermediate in this reaction. Amino acids also catalyze the cis-trans isomerization of the pure

  1. Acid base catalyzed transesterification kinetics of waste cooking oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Siddharth; Sharma, M.P.; Rajvanshi, Shalini [Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India)

    2011-01-15

    The present study reports the results of kinetics study of acid base catalyzed two step transesterification process of waste cooking oil, carried out at pre-determined optimum temperature of 65 C and 50 C for esterification and transesterification process respectively under the optimum condition of methanol to oil ratio of 3:7 (v/v), catalyst concentration 1%(w/w) for H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and NaOH and 400 rpm of stirring. The optimum temperature was determined based on the yield of ME at different temperature. Simply, the optimum concentration of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and NaOH was determined with respect to ME Yield. The results indicated that both esterification and transesterification reaction are of first order rate reaction with reaction rate constant of 0.0031 min{sup -1} and 0.0078 min{sup -1} respectively showing that the former is a slower process than the later. The maximum yield of 21.50% of ME during esterification and 90.6% from transesterification of pretreated WCO has been obtained. This is the first study of its kind which deals with simplified kinetics of two step acid-base catalyzed transesterification process carried under the above optimum conditions and took about 6 h for complete conversion of TG to ME with least amount of activation energy. Also various parameters related to experiments are optimized with respect to ME yield. (author)

  2. Development of target capsules for muon catalyzed fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, K.D.; Jones, S.E.; Caffrey, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    A series of Muon Catalyzed Fusion experiments has been conducted at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility to determine how many fusion reactions one muon would catalyze under various temperature, pressure, contamination, and tritium concentration conditions. Target capsules to contain deuterium and tritium at elevated temperatures and pressures were engineered for a maximum temperature of 540 K (512 0 F) and a maximum pressure of 103 MPa (15,000 psig). Experimental data collected with these capsules indicated that the number of fusion reactions per muon continued to increase with temperature up to the 540-K design limit. Theory had indicated that the reaction rate should peak at approximately 540 K, but this was not confirmed during the experiments. A second generation of capsules which have a maximum design temperature of 800 K (980 0 F) and a maximum design pressure of 103 MPa (15,000 psig) has now been engineered. These new capsules will be used to further study the muon catalysis rate versus deuterium-tritium mixture temperature

  3. Iodine - catalyzed prins cyclization of aliphatic and aromatic ketones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishore, K.R.; Reddy, K.; Silva Junior, Luiz F.

    2013-01-01

    Iodine-catalyzed Prins cyclization of homoallylic alcohols and ketones was investigated. Anhydrous conditions and inert atmosphere are not required in this metal-free protocol. The reaction of 2-(3,4-dihydronaphthalene-1-yl)propan-1-ol with six aliphatic symmetric ketones gave the desired products in 67-77% yield. Cyclization was performed with four aliphatic unsymmetric ketones, leading to corresponding pyrans in 66-76% yield. Prins cyclization was also accomplished with four aromatic ketones in 37-66% yield. Finally, Prins cyclization of the monoterpene isopulegol and acetone was successfully achieved. (author)

  4. Iodine - catalyzed prins cyclization of aliphatic and aromatic ketones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishore, K.R.; Reddy, K.; Silva Junior, Luiz F., E-mail: luizfsjr@iq.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IQ/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Fundamental

    2013-09-15

    Iodine-catalyzed Prins cyclization of homoallylic alcohols and ketones was investigated. Anhydrous conditions and inert atmosphere are not required in this metal-free protocol. The reaction of 2-(3,4-dihydronaphthalene-1-yl)propan-1-ol with six aliphatic symmetric ketones gave the desired products in 67-77% yield. Cyclization was performed with four aliphatic unsymmetric ketones, leading to corresponding pyrans in 66-76% yield. Prins cyclization was also accomplished with four aromatic ketones in 37-66% yield. Finally, Prins cyclization of the monoterpene isopulegol and acetone was successfully achieved. (author)

  5. Palladium-Catalyzed alpha-Arylation of Tetramic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Morten; Dorwald, F. Z.; Peschke, B.

    2009-01-01

    A mild, racemization-free, palladium-Catalyzed alpha-arylation of tetramic acids (2,4-pyrrolidinediones) has been developed. Various amino acid-derived tetramic acids were cleanly arylated by treatment with 2 mol % of Pd(OAc)(2), 4 mol % of a sterically demanding biaryl phosphine, 2.3 equiv of K2CO...... no effect on their reactivity: both electron-rich and electron-poor aryl chlorides and bromides or triflates led to good yields. Ortho-substituted aryl halides and heteroaryl halides, however, did not undergo the title reaction....

  6. Comparing Ru and Fe-catalyzed olefin metathesis

    KAUST Repository

    Poater, Albert; Chaitanya Vummaleti, Sai Vikrama; Pump, Eva; Cavallo, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Density functional theory calculations have been used to explore the potential of Fe-based complexes with an N-heterocyclic carbene ligand, as olefin metathesis catalysts. Apart from a less endothermic reaction energy profile, a small reduction in the predicted upper energy barriers (≈ 2 kcal mol -1) is calculated in the Fe catalyzed profile with respect to the Ru catalysed profile. Overall, this study indicates that Fe-based catalysts have the potential to be very effective olefin metathesis catalysts. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  7. Site-specific DNA transesterification catalyzed by a restriction enzyme

    OpenAIRE

    Sasnauskas, Giedrius; Connolly, Bernard A.; Halford, Stephen E.; Siksnys, Virginijus

    2007-01-01

    Most restriction endonucleases use Mg2+ to hydrolyze phosphodiester bonds at specific DNA sites. We show here that BfiI, a metal-independent restriction enzyme from the phospholipase D superfamily, catalyzes both DNA hydrolysis and transesterification reactions at its recognition site. In the presence of alcohols such as ethanol or glycerol, it attaches the alcohol covalently to the 5′ terminus of the cleaved DNA. Under certain conditions, the terminal 3′-OH of one DNA strand can attack the t...

  8. Synthesis of Dihydrobenzofurans via Palladium-Catalyzed Heteroannulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozhkov, Roman Vladimirovich [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Palladium-catalyzed heteroannulation of 1,3-dienes with 3-iodo-2-alkenols, and 2-iodo-2-alkenols, as well as their amino analogs, affords the corresponding cyclic ethers and amines respectively. The presence of a β-hydrogen in the vinylic halide results in β-hydride elimination giving the corresponding alkyne. The presence of a bulky group in the α-position of the vinylic halide results in failure or reduced amounts of annulation products. A chloride source, pyridine base and electron-rich phosphine are essential for this reaction.

  9. Ruthenium-Catalyzed Dehydrogenative Decarbonylation of Primary Alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazziotta, Andrea; Madsen, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Dehydrogenative decarbonylation of a primary alcohol involves the release of both dihydrogen and carbon monoxide to afford the one-carbon shorter product. The transformation has now been achieved with a ruthenium-catalyzed protocol by using the complex Ru(COD)Cl2 and the hindered monodentate ligand...... P(o-tolyl)3 in refluxing p-cymene. The reaction can be applied to both benzylic and long chain linear aliphatic alcohols. The intermediate aldehyde can be observed during the transformation, which is therefore believed to proceed through two separate catalytic cycles involving first dehydrogenation...... of the alcohol and then decarbonylation of the resulting aldehyde....

  10. Rh-Catalyzed Annulations of N-Methoxybenzamides and Ketenimines: Sterically and Electronically Controlled Synthesis of Isoquinolinones and Isoindolinones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaorong; Zhang, Zhiyin; Zhao, Hongyang; Lu, Ping; Wang, Yanguang

    2017-04-07

    Rhodium-catalyzed C-H activation/annulation reactions of ketenimines with N-methoxybenzamides are reported. The outcome of reactions is dependent on the structure of ketenimines. The β-alkyl-substituted ketenimines furnish 3-iminoisoquinolin-1(2H)-ones in a formal [4 + 2] annulation manner, while the β-ester substituted ketenimines afford 3-aminoisoindolin-1-ones in a formal [4 + 1] annulation manner. The synthesized [4 + 2] products undergo an intramolecular Cu-catalyzed C-N coupling to be converted to benzo[4,5]imidazo[1,2-b]isoquinolin-11-ones, which can be directly prepared from ketenimines and N-methoxybenzamides by a one-pot Rh-catalyzed annulation/Cu-catalyzed C-N coupling sequence.

  11. Transesterification of used vegetable oil catalyzed by barium oxide under simultaneous microwave and ultrasound irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Guerra, Edith; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Transesterification reaction mediated by simultaneous microwave and ultrasound irradiations with barium oxide (BaO) heterogeneous catalyst. - Highlights: • Synergistic effect of simultaneous microwave/ultrasound irradiations was evaluated. • Yields were higher for the MW/US reactions compared to MW or US individually. • BaO catalyzed MW/US transesterification reaction is more environmental-friendly. • BaO catalyzed MW/US transesterification reaction provides better biodiesel yields. • Optimum power density must be identified for energy-efficient biodiesel production. - Abstract: This study presents a novel application of simultaneous microwave and ultrasound (MW/US) irradiations on transesterification of used vegetable oil catalyzed by barium oxide, heterogeneous catalyst. Experiments were conducted to study the optimum process conditions, synergistic effect of microwave and ultrasound irradiations and the effect of power density. From the process parametric optimization study, the following conditions were determined as optimum: 6:1 methanol to oil ratio, 0.75% barium oxide catalyst by wt.%, and 2 min of reaction time at a combined power output rate of 200 W (100/100 MW/US). The biodiesel yields were higher for the simultaneous MW/US mediated reactions (∼93.5%) when compared to MW (91%) and US (83.5%) irradiations individually. Additionally, the effect of power density and a discussion on the synergistic effect of the microwave and ultrasound mediated reactions were presented. A power density of 7.6 W/mL appears to be effective for MW, and MW/US irradiated reactions (94.4% and 94.7% biodiesel yields respectively), while a power density of 5.1 W/mL was appropriate for ultrasound irradiation (93.5%). This study concludes that the combined microwave and ultrasound irradiations result in a synergistic effect that reduces the heterogeneity of the transesterification reaction catalyzed by heterogeneous catalysts to enhance the biodiesel

  12. Pd-catalyzed Z-selective semihydrogenation of alkynes: determining the type of active species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drost, R.M.; Rosar, V.; Marta, S.D.; Lutz, M.; Demitri, N.; Milani, B.; de Bruin, B.; Elsevier, C.J.

    2015-01-01

    A protocol was developed to distinguish between well-defined molecular and nanoparticle-based catalysts for the Pd-catalyzed semihydrogenation reaction of alkynes to Z-alkenes. The protocol applies quantitative partial poisoning and dynamic light scattering methods, which allow the institution of

  13. Pd-Catalyzed Z-Selective Semihydrogenation of Alkynes : Determining the Type of Active Species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drost, Ruben M.; Rosar, Vera; Marta, Silvia Dalla; Lutz, Martin; Demitri, Nicola; Milani, Barbara; De Bruin, Bas; Elsevier, Cornelis J.

    2015-01-01

    A protocol was developed to distinguish between well-defined molecular and nanoparticle-based catalysts for the Pd-catalyzed semihydrogenation reaction of alkynes to Z-alkenes. The protocol applies quantitative partial poisoning and dynamic light scattering methods, which allow the institution of

  14. Rh(III-Catalyzed, Highly Selectively Direct C–H Alkylation of Indoles with Diazo Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Wan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rh(III-catalyzed regioselective alkylation of indoles with diazo compounds as a highly efficient and atom-economic protocol for the synthesis of alkyl substituted indoles has been developed. The reaction could proceed under mild conditions and afford a series of desired products in good to excellent yields.

  15. Mechanistic investigation of the gold-catalyzed aerobic oxidation of alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Peter; Johansen, Louise Bahn; Christensen, Claus Hviid

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism for the gold-catalyzed aerobic oxidation of alcohols was studied using a series of para-substituted benzyl alcohols (Hammett methodology). The competition experiments clearly show that the rate-determining step of the reaction involves the generation of a partial positive charge in ...

  16. Visible light catalyzed methylsulfoxidation of (het)aryl diazonium salts using DMSO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Mukund M D; Rastogi, Namrata

    2016-06-30

    The visible light catalyzed methylsulfoxidation of (het)aryl diazonium salts using DMSO is illustrated. This is the first example of DMSO being used as the source of the methylsulfinyl group. The procedure tolerates a wide range of functional groups on (het)aryl diazonium salts and provides aryl methyl sulfoxides in excellent yields under mild reaction conditions.

  17. Cross-Coupling of Amides with Alkylboranes via Nickel-Catalyzed C–N Bond Cleavage

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Xiangqian; Hsiao, Chien-Chi; Guo, Lin; Rueping, Magnus

    2018-01-01

    A protocol for the nickel-catalyzed alkylation of amides was established. The use of alkylboranes as nucleophilic partners allowed the use of mild reaction conditions and compatibility of various functional groups with respect to both coupling partners. The catalytic alkylation proceeded selectively at the amides in the presence of other functional groups as well as other carboxylic acid derived moieties.

  18. Synthesis of trifluoromethylated acetylenes via copper-catalyzed trifluoromethylation of alkynyltrifluoroborates

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Huidong

    2012-12-01

    A new method for the synthesis of trifluoromethylated acetylenes is developed which involves the copper-catalyzed trifluoromethylation of alkynyltrifluoroborates with an electrophilic trifluoromethylating reagent. This method offers significant advantages such as efficiency and mild and base-free reaction conditions. A plausible mechanism is proposed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Copper-Catalyzed Electrophilic Amination of Organoaluminum Nucleophiles with O-Benzoyl Hydroxylamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuangliu; Yang, Zhiyong; Chen, Xu; Li, Yimei; Zhang, Lijun; Fang, Hong; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Xiancui; Wang, Shaowu

    2015-06-19

    A copper-catalyzed electrophilic amination of aryl and heteroaryl aluminums with N,N-dialkyl-O-benzoyl hydroxylamines that affords the corresponding anilines in good yields has been developed. The catalytic reaction proceeds very smoothly under mild conditions and exhibits good substrate scope. Moreover, the developed catalytic system is also well suited for heteroaryl aluminum nucleophiles, providing facile access to heteroaryl amines.

  20. Beckmann rearrangement of aldoximes catalyzed by transition metal salts: mechanical aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leusink, A.J.; Meerbeek, T.G.; Noltes, J.G.

    1977-01-01

    The Beckmann rearrangement of aldoximes catalyzed by transition metal salts like palladium and nickel acetylacetonates is shown to be a dehydration‐hydration reaction in which the anti‐oxime is converted into nitrile and the nitrile is converted into amide.

  1. NHC-catalyzed cleavage of vicinal diketones and triketones followed by insertion of enones and ynones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaki, Ken; Hino, Makoto; Ohno, Akira; Komeyama, Kimihiro; Yoshida, Hiroto; Fukuoka, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Thiazolium carbene-catalyzed reactions of 1,2-diketones and 1,2,3-triketones with enones and ynones have been investigated. The diketones gave α,β-double acylation products via unique Breslow intermediates isolable as acid salts, whereas the triketones formed stable adducts with the NHC instead of the coupling products.

  2. NHC-catalyzed cleavage of vicinal diketones and triketones followed by insertion of enones and ynones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Takaki

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Thiazolium carbene-catalyzed reactions of 1,2-diketones and 1,2,3-triketones with enones and ynones have been investigated. The diketones gave α,β-double acylation products via unique Breslow intermediates isolable as acid salts, whereas the triketones formed stable adducts with the NHC instead of the coupling products.

  3. Unprecedentedly mild direct Pd-catalyzed arylation of oxazolo[4,5-b]pyridine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuravlev, Fedor

    2006-01-01

    Pd-catalyzed C-2 arylation of oxazolo[4,5-b]pyridine proceeds efficiently at 30 degrees C and tolerates a variety of aryl halides, including derivatized amino acids for which no racemization was observed during the reaction. Experimental evidence for facile deprotonation of oxazolo[4,5-b...

  4. The mechanism of the phosphine-free palladium-catalyzed hydroarylation of alkynes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlquist, Mårten Sten Gösta; Fabrizi, G.; Cacchi, S.

    2006-01-01

    The mechanism of the Pd-catalyzed hydroarylation and hydrovinylation reaction of alkynes has been studied by a combination of experimental and theoretical methods (B3LYP), with an emphasis on the phosphine-free version. The regioselectivity of the hydroarylation and hydrovinylation shows unexpected...

  5. Cross-Coupling of Amides with Alkylboranes via Nickel-Catalyzed C–N Bond Cleavage

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Xiangqian

    2018-05-09

    A protocol for the nickel-catalyzed alkylation of amides was established. The use of alkylboranes as nucleophilic partners allowed the use of mild reaction conditions and compatibility of various functional groups with respect to both coupling partners. The catalytic alkylation proceeded selectively at the amides in the presence of other functional groups as well as other carboxylic acid derived moieties.

  6. Gold-catalyzed heterocyclizations in alkynyl- and allenyl-β-lactams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Almendros

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available New gold-catalyzed methods using the β-lactam scaffold have been recently developed for the synthesis of different sized heterocycles. This overview focuses on heterocyclization reactions of allenic and alkynic β-lactams which rely on the activation of the allene and alkyne component. The mechanism as well as the regio- and stereoselectivity of the cyclizations are also discussed.

  7. Palladium-catalyzed aerobic oxidative cross-coupling of arylhydrazines with terminal alkynes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yingwei; Song, Qiuling

    2015-09-04

    The palladium-catalyzed Sonogashira-type aerobic oxidative coupling of arylhydrazines with terminal alkynes via C-N bond cleavage has been developed; internal alkynes were afforded with a broad substrate scope. This reaction proceeds under copper- and base-free conditions with molecular oxygen as the sole oxidant and nitrogen and water as the only by-products.

  8. Au-Catalyzed Synthesis of 2-Alkylindoles from N-Arylhydroxylamines and Terminal Alkynes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanzhao; Ye, Longwu

    2012-01-01

    The first gold-catalyzed addition of N-arylhydroxylamines to aliphatic terminal alkynes is developed to access O-alkenyl-N-arylhydroxylamines, which undergo facile in situ sequential 3,3-rearrangements and cyclodehydrations to afford 2-alkylindoles with regiospecificity and under exceptionally mild reaction conditions. PMID:21637891

  9. Ruthenium-catalyzed cyclization of N-carbamoyl indolines with alkynes: an efficient route to pyrroloquinolinones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, Ramasamy; Jeganmohan, Masilamani

    2015-09-21

    A regioselective synthesis of substituted pyrroloquinolinones via a ruthenium-catalyzed oxidative cyclization of substituted N-carbamoyl indolines with alkynes is described. The cyclization reaction was compatible with various symmetrical and unsymmetrical alkynes including substituted propiolates. Later, we performed the aromatization of pyrroloquinolinones into indole derivatives in the presence of 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyanobenzoquinone (DDQ).

  10. Gold-catalyzed Alkyne Hydroxylation: Synthesis of 2-Substituted Benzo[b]furan Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yuan; XIN Zhi-Jun; XUE Ji-Jun; LI Ying

    2008-01-01

    A strategy concerning the synthesis of 2-substituted benzo[b]furan compounds from o-alkynyl phenols via a gold-catalyzed alkyne hydroxylation is described, which allows the rapid synthesis of various 2-substituted benzo[b]furan derivatives in excellent yields under mild conditions. The o-alkynyl phenol precursors were readily prepared with a Sonogashira coupling reaction.

  11. Synthesis of a novel chemotype via sequential metal-catalyzed cycloisomerizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Leng

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Sequential cycloisomerizations of diynyl o-benzaldehyde substrates to access novel polycyclic cyclopropanes are reported. The reaction sequence involves initial Cu(I-mediated cycloisomerization/nucleophilic addition to an isochromene followed by diastereoselective Pt(II-catalyzed enyne cycloisomerization.

  12. Large acceleration of a-chymotrypsin-catalyzed dipeptide formation by 18-crown-6 in organic solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Unen, D.J.; Engbersen, Johannes F.J.; Reinhoudt, David

    1998-01-01

    The effects of 18-crown-6 on the synthesis of peptides catalyzed by α-chymotrypsin are reported. Lyophilization of the enzyme in the presence of 50 equivalents of 18-crown-6 results in a 425-fold enhanced activity when the reaction between the 2-chloroethylester of N-acetyl-L-phenylalanine and

  13. Enzyme-Catalyzed Synthesis of Saccharide Acrylate Monomers from Nonedible Biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterman, Wouter M. J.; Brouwer, Sander; Loos, Katja

    Various cellulase preparations were found to catalyze the transglycosidation between cotton linters and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate. The conversion and enzyme activity were found to be optimal in reaction mixtures that contained 5 vol% of the acrylate. The structures of the products were revealed by

  14. Ruthenium-Catalyzed Transformations of Alcohols: Mechanistic Investigations and Methodology Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarov, Ilya; Madsen, Robert; Fristrup, Peter

    with dimethoxyisopropylidene and pyridilidene ligands could be more active than RuCl2(IiPr)(p-cymene) used in the mechanistic investigation. Two analogs of the calculated complexes were synthesized but were not isolated in a pure form. The amidation reaction catalyzed by a mixture containing the N-ethyl pyridilidene...

  15. An Efficient Green Synthesis of 3-Amino-1 H -chromenes Catalyzed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Efficient Green Synthesis of 3-Amino-1 H -chromenes Catalyzed by ZnO Nanoparticles Thin-film. ... South African Journal of Chemistry ... The mild reaction conditions, reusability of the catalyst, easy work-up and high yields of products make the present protocol sustainable and advantageous compared to conventional ...

  16. Room-temperature base-free copper-catalyzed trifluoromethylation of organotrifluoroborates to trifluoromethylarenes

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yuanyuan; Fang, Xin; Lin, Xiaoxi; Li, Huaifeng; He, Weiming; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Yuan, Yaofeng; Weng, Zhiqiang

    2012-01-01

    An efficient room temperature copper-catalyzed trifluoromethylation of organotrifluoroborates under the base free condition using an electrophilic trifluoromethylating reagent is demonstrated. The corresponding trifluoromethylarenes were obtained in good to excellent yields and the reaction tolerates a wide range of functional groups. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Copper-catalyzed trifluoromethylation of arylsulfinate salts using an electrophilic trifluoromethylation reagent

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Xiaoxi

    2013-03-01

    A copper-catalyzed method for the trifluoromethylation of arylsulfinates with Togni\\'s reagent has been developed, affording aryltrifluoromethylsulfones in moderate to good yields. A wide range of functional groups in arylsulfinates are compatible with the reaction conditions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Room-temperature base-free copper-catalyzed trifluoromethylation of organotrifluoroborates to trifluoromethylarenes

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yuanyuan

    2012-12-01

    An efficient room temperature copper-catalyzed trifluoromethylation of organotrifluoroborates under the base free condition using an electrophilic trifluoromethylating reagent is demonstrated. The corresponding trifluoromethylarenes were obtained in good to excellent yields and the reaction tolerates a wide range of functional groups. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Synthesis of trifluoromethylated acetylenes via copper-catalyzed trifluoromethylation of alkynyltrifluoroborates

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Huidong; Huang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Zhiwei; Li, Huaifeng; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Yuan, Yaofeng; Weng, Zhiqiang

    2012-01-01

    A new method for the synthesis of trifluoromethylated acetylenes is developed which involves the copper-catalyzed trifluoromethylation of alkynyltrifluoroborates with an electrophilic trifluoromethylating reagent. This method offers significant advantages such as efficiency and mild and base-free reaction conditions. A plausible mechanism is proposed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Syntheses of Calix[4]Pyrroles by Amberlyst-15 Catalyzed Cyclocondensations of Pyrrole with Selected Ketones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanuja Bisht

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A facile and efficient protocol is reported for the synthesis of calix[4]pyrrolesand N-confused calix[4]pyrroles in moderate to excellent yields by reaction of dialkyl orcycloalkyl ketones with pyrrole catalyzed by reusable AmberlystTM-15 under eco-friendlyconditions.

  1. Synthesis of Nitriles via Palladium-Catalyzed Water Shuffling from Amides to Acetonitrile

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wandi; Haskins, Christopher W.; Yang, Yang; Dai, Mingji

    2014-01-01

    Palladium-catalyzed synthesis of nitriles from amides has been described. Two similar, but complementary reaction conditions have been identified to convert various amides including α,β,γ,δ-unsaturated amides, cinnamides, aromatic amides and alkyl amides to the corresponding nitriles in good to excellent yield.

  2. Synthesis of nitriles via palladium-catalyzed water shuffling from amides to acetonitrile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wandi; Haskins, Christopher W; Yang, Yang; Dai, Mingji

    2014-12-07

    Palladium-catalyzed synthesis of nitriles from amides has been described. Two similar, but complementary reaction conditions have been identified to convert various amides including α,β,γ,δ-unsaturated amides, cinnamides, aromatic amides and alkyl amides to the corresponding nitriles in good to excellent yield.

  3. Monitoring lipase-catalyzed butterfat interesterification with rapesee oil by Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Hong; Mu, Huiling; Xu, Xuebing

    2006-01-01

    This work demonstrates the application of FT-NIR spectroscopy to monitor the enzymatic interesterification process for butterfat modification. The reactions were catalyzed by Lipozyme TL IM at 70 C for the blend of butterfat/rapeseed oil (70/30, w/w) in a packed-bed reactor. The blend and intere...

  4. Copper(I)-catalyzed olefination of N-sulfonylhydrazones with sulfones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuai; Gao, Yunpeng; Chen, Ri; Wang, Kang; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Jianbo

    2016-03-25

    The Cu(I)-catalyzed olefination of N-sulfonylhydrazones with sulfones via metal carbene intermediates is reported. This reaction uses readily available starting materials and is operationally simple, thus representing a practical method for the construction of carbon-carbon double bonds. Mechanistically, Cu(I) carbene formation and subsequent carbene migratory insertion are proposed as the key steps.

  5. Redox-Neutral Rh(III)-Catalyzed Olefination of Carboxamides with Trifluoromethyl Allylic Carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jihye; Han, Sangil; Jeon, Mijin; Mishra, Neeraj Kumar; Lee, Seok-Yong; Lee, Jong Suk; Kwak, Jong Hwan; Um, Sung Hee; Kim, In Su

    2016-11-18

    The rhodium(III)-catalyzed olefination of various carboxamides with α-CF 3 -substituted allylic carbonate is described. This reaction provides direct access to linear CF 3 -allyl frameworks with complete trans-selectivity. In particular, a rhodium catalyst provided Heck-type γ-CF 3 -allylation products via the β-O-elimination of rhodacycle intermediate and subsequent olefin migration process.

  6. Rh(III)-catalyzed olefination of N-sulfonyl imines: synthesis of ortho-olefinated benzaldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Wu, Lamei; Li, Xingwei

    2013-12-20

    Rh(III)-catalyzed olefination of N-sulfonyl imines using acrylates and styrenes has been achieved for the synthesis of ortho-olefinated benaldehydes. This reaction proceeds via a chelation assisted C-H olefination/in situ hydrolysis process.

  7. Solid Acid-Catalyzed Cellulose Hydrolysis Monitored by In Situ ATR-IR Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zakzeski, J.; Grisel, R.J.H.; Smit, A.T.; Weckhuysen, B.M.

    2012-01-01

    The solid acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose was studied under elevated temperatures and autogenous pressures using in situ ATR-IR spectroscopy. Standards of cellulose and pure reaction products, which include glucose, fructose, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), levulinic acid (LA), formic acid, and

  8. Enantioselective Evans-Tishchenko Reduction of b-Hydroxyketone Catalyzed by Lithium Binaphtholate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Nakajima

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lithium diphenylbinaphtholate catalyzed the enantioselective Evans-Tishchenko reduction of achiral b-hydroxyketones to afford monoacyl-protected 1,3-diols with high stereoselectivities. In the reaction of racemic b-hydroxyketones, kinetic optical resolution occurred in a highly stereoselective manner.

  9. Homocoupling of benzyl halides catalyzed by POCOP-nickel pincer complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Tao

    2012-08-01

    Two types of POCOP-nickel(II) pincer complexes were prepared by mixing POCOP pincer ligands and NiX 2 in toluene at reflux. The resulting nickel complexes efficiently catalyze the homocoupling reactions of benzyl halides in the presence of zinc. The coupled products were obtained in excellent to quantitative yields. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Lipase-catalyzed transesterification of soybean oil and phytosterol in supercritical CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lizhi; Llibin, Sun; Li, Jun; Qi, Liangjun; Zhang, Xu; Yu, Dianyu; Walid, Elfalleh; Jiang, Lianzhou

    2015-12-01

    The transesterification of phytosterol and soybean oil was performed using Novozym 435 in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2). The transesterification reaction was conducted in soybean oil containing 5-25% phytosterol at 55-95 °C and free-water solvent. The effects of temperature, reaction time, phytosterol concentration, lipase dosage and reaction pressure on the conversion rate of transesterification were investigated. The optimal reaction conditions were the reaction temperature (85 °C), reaction time (1 h), phytosterol concentration (5%), reaction pressure (8 Mpa) and lipase dosage (1%). The highest conversion rate of 92% could be achieved under the optimum conditions. Compared with the method of lipase-catalyzed transesterification of phytosterol and soybean oil at normal pressure, the transesterification in SC-CO2 reduced significantly the reaction temperature and reaction time.

  11. Removal of emerging pollutants by Ru/TiO2-catalyzed permanganate oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Sun, Bo; Xiong, Xinmei; Gao, Naiyun; Song, Weihua; Du, Erdeng; Guan, Xiaohong; Zhou, Gongming

    2014-10-15

    TiO2 supported ruthenium nanoparticles, Ru/TiO2 (0.94‰ as Ru), was synthesized to catalyze permanganate oxidation for degrading emerging pollutants (EPs) with diverse organic moieties. The presence of 1.0 g L(-1) Ru/TiO2 increased the second order reaction rate constants of bisphenol A, diclofenac, acetaminophen, sulfamethoxazole, benzotriazole, carbamazepine, butylparaben, diclofenac, ciprofloxacin and aniline at mg L(-1) level (5.0 μM) by permanganate oxidation at pH 7.0 by 0.3-119 times. The second order reaction rate constants of EPs with permanganate or Ru/TiO2-catalyzed permanganate oxidation obtained at EPs concentration of mg L(-1) level (5.0 μM) underestimated those obtained at EPs concentration of μg L(-1) level (0.050 μM). Ru/TiO2-catalyzed permanganate could decompose a mixture of nine EPs at μg L(-1) level efficiently and the second order rate constant for each EP was not decreased due to the competition of other EPs. The toxicity tests revealed that Ru/TiO2-catalyzed permanganate oxidation was effective not only for elimination of EPs but also for detoxification. The removal rates of sulfamethoxazole by Ru/TiO2-catalyzed permanganate oxidation in ten successive cycles remained almost constant in ultrapure water and slightly decreased in Songhua river water since the sixth run, indicating the satisfactory stability of Ru/TiO2. Ru/TiO2-catalyzed permanganate oxidation was selective and could remove selected EPs spiked in real waters more efficiently than chlorination. Therefore, Ru/TiO2-catalyzed permanganate oxidation is promising for removing EPs with electron-rich moieties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Preparation of biodiesel from waste cooking oil via two-step catalyzed process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yong; Liu Pengzhan; Ou Shiyi; Zhang Zhisen

    2007-01-01

    Waste cooking oils (WCO), which contain large amounts of free fatty acids produced in restaurants, are collected by the environmental protection agency in the main cities of China and should be disposed in a suitable way. In this research, a two step catalyzed process was adopted to prepare biodiesel from waste cooking oil whose acid value was 75.92 ± 0.036 mgKOH/g. The free fatty acids of WCO were esterified with methanol catalyzed by ferric sulfate in the first step, and the triglycerides (TGs) in WCO were transesterified with methanol catalyzed by potassium hydroxide in the second step. The results showed that ferric sulfate had high activity to catalyze the esterification of free fatty acids (FFA) with methanol, The conversion rate of FFA reached 97.22% when 2 wt% of ferric sulfate was added to the reaction system containing methanol to TG in10:1 (mole ratio) composition and reacted at 95 deg. C for 4 h. The methanol was vacuum evaporated, and transesterification of the remained triglycerides was performed at 65 deg. C for 1 h in a reaction system containing 1 wt% of potassium hydroxide and 6:1 mole ratio of methanol to TG. The final product with 97.02% of biodiesel, obtained after the two step catalyzed process, was analyzed by gas chromatography. This new process has many advantages compared with the old processes, such as no acidic waste water, high efficiency, low equipment cost and easy recovery of the catalyst

  13. Alkanes from Bioderived Furans by using Metal Triflates and Palladium-Catalyzed Hydrodeoxygenation of Cyclic Ethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hai-Jie; Deng, Jin; Cui, Min-Shu; Li, Xing-Long; Liu, Xin-Xin; Zhu, Rui; Wu, Wei-Peng; Fu, Yao

    2015-12-21

    Using a metal triflate and Pd/C as catalysts, alkanes were prepared from bioderived furans in a one-pot hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) process. During the reaction, the metal triflate plays a crucial role in the ring-opening HDO of furan compounds. The entire reaction process has goes through two major phases: at low temperatures, saturation of the exocyclic double bond and furan ring are catalyzed by Pd/C; at high temperatures, the HDO of saturated furan compounds is catalyzed by the metal triflate. The reaction mechanism was verified by analyzing the changes of the intermediates during the reaction. In addition, different metal triflates, solvents, and catalyst recycling were also investigated. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Efficient Method for the Determination of the Activation Energy of the Iodide-Catalyzed Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, William; Lee, James; Abid, Nauman; DeMeo, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    An experiment is described that determines the activation energy (E[subscript a]) of the iodide-catalyzed decomposition reaction of hydrogen peroxide in a much more efficient manner than previously reported in the literature. Hydrogen peroxide, spontaneously or with a catalyst, decomposes to oxygen and water. Because the decomposition reaction is…

  15. Parameters affecting diacylglycerol formation during the production of specific-structured lipids by lipase-catalyzed interesterification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing; Mu, Huiling; Skands, Anja

    1999-01-01

    Diacylglycerols (DAGs) are important intermediates in lipase-catalyzed interesterification, but a high DAG concentration in the reaction mixture results in a high DAG content in the final product. We have previously shown that a high DAG concentration in the reaction mixture increases the degree ...

  16. Palladium-Catalyzed Carbenylative Cross-Coupling and Carbenylative Amination Utilizing Vinylcarbenes

    OpenAIRE

    Agee, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    This work focuses on the use of N-tosylhydrazones derived from α,β-unsaturated aldehydes – precursors to vinylcarbene ligands – in palladium-catalyzed carbenylative cross-coupling and carbenylative amination reactions. These carbenylative reactions were used to form η3-allylpalladium intermediates that generate stereogenic centers at the carbene center. An initial acyclic model system was used to intercept a well-known prochiral 1,3-diphenylallyl intermediate to probe the feasibility of enant...

  17. An Efficient Method for the N-Bromosuccinimide Catalyzed Synthesis of Indolyl-Nitroalkanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Fa Yao

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and practical method for the synthesis of indolyl-nitroalkane derivatives catalyzed by N-bromosuccinimide is described. The generality of this method was demonstrated by synthesizing an array of diverse 3-substituted indole derivatives by the reaction of different β-nitrostyrenes with various substituted indoles. Simple reaction conditions accompanied by good yields of indolyl-nitroalkanes are the merits of this methodology.

  18. γ-Alumina Nanoparticle Catalyzed Efficient Synthesis of Highly Substituted Imidazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandapalli Palakshi Reddy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available γ-Alumina nano particle catalyzed multi component reaction of benzil, arylaldehyde and aryl amines afforded the highly substituted 1,2,4,5-tetraaryl imidazoles with good to excellent yield in less reaction time under the sonication as well as the conventional methods. Convenient operational simplicity, mild conditions and the reusability of catalyst were the other advantages of this developed protocol.

  19. Polymer Concentration-Controlled Substrate Specificity in Solvolysis of p-Nitrophenyl Alkanoates Catalyzed by 4-(Dialkylamino)pyridine- Functionalized Polymer in Aqueous Methanol Solution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Guang-Jia

    1996-01-01

    The substrate specificity in solvolysis reactions of p-nitrophenyl alkanoates 2 (n=2-18) catalyzed by 4-(dialkylamino)pyridine-functionalized polymer 1 can be controlled by the concentration of 1 in 1...

  20. Catalytic Asymmetric Piancatelli Rearrangement: Brønsted Acid Catalyzed 4π Electrocyclization for the Synthesis of Multisubstituted Cyclopentenones

    KAUST Repository

    Cai, Yunfei; Tang, Yurong; Atodiresei, Iuliana; Rueping, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    The first catalytic asymmetric Piancatelli reaction is reported. Catalyzed by a chiral Brønsted acid, the rearrangement of a wide range of furylcarbinols with a series of aniline derivatives provides valuable aminocyclopentenones in high yields

  1. Kinetic Behavior of Aggregation-Exchange Growth Process with Catalyzed-Birth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Anjia; Chen Yu; Lin Zhenquan; Ke Jianhong

    2007-01-01

    We propose an aggregation model of a two-species system to mimic the growth of cities' population and assets, in which irreversible coagulation reactions and exchange reactions occur between any two aggregates of the same species, and the monomer-birth reactions of one species occur by the catalysis of the other species. In the case with population-catalyzed birth of assets, the rate kernel of an asset aggregate B k of size k grows to become an aggregate B k+1 through a monomer-birth catalyzed by a population aggregate A j of size j is J(k,j) = Jkj λ . And in mutually catalyzed birth model, the birth rate kernels of population and assets are H(k,j) = Hkj η and J(k,j) = Jkj λ , respectively. The kinetics of the system is investigated based on the mean-field theory. In the model of population-catalyzed birth of assets, the long-time asymptotic behavior of the assets aggregate size distribution obeys the conventional or modified scaling form. In mutually catalyzed birth system, the asymptotic behaviors of population and assets obey the conventional scaling form in the case of η = λ = 0, and they obey the modified scaling form in the case of η = 0,λ = 1. In the case of η = λ = 1, the total mass of population aggregates and that of asset aggregates both grow much faster than those in population-catalyzed birth of assets model, and they approaches to infinite values in finite time.

  2. Silica metal-oxide vesicles catalyze comprehensive prebiotic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzarri, Bruno Mattia; Botta, Lorenzo; Pérez-Valverde, Maritza Iveth; Saladino, Raffaele; Di Mauro, Ernesto; Garcia Ruiz, Juan Manuel

    2018-03-30

    It has recently been demonstrated that mineral self-assembled structures catalyzing prebiotic chemical reactions may form in natural waters derived from serpentinization, a geological process widespread in the early stages of Earth-like planets. We have synthesized self-assembled membranes by mixing microdrops of metal solutions with alkaline silicate solutions in the presence of formamide (NH2CHO), a single carbon molecule, at 80ºC. We found that these bilayer membranes, made of amorphous silica and metal oxide-hydroxide nanocrystals, catalyze the condensation of formamide, yielding the four nucleobases of RNA, three aminoacids and several carboxylic acids in a single pot experiment. Besides manganese, iron and magnesium, two abundant elements in the earliest Earth crust that are key in serpentinization reactions, are enough to produce all these biochemical compounds. These results suggest that the transition from inorganic geochemistry to prebiotic organic chemistry is common on a universal scale and, most probably, earlier than ever thought for our planet. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Acid-catalyzed kinetics of indium tin oxide etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Seong-Oh; Hilton, Diana L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore); Centre for Biomimetic Sensor Science, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Drive, 637553 (Singapore); Cho, Nam-Joon, E-mail: njcho@ntu.edu.sg [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore); Centre for Biomimetic Sensor Science, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Drive, 637553 (Singapore); School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 62 Nanyang Drive, 637459 (Singapore)

    2014-08-28

    We report the kinetic characterization of indium tin oxide (ITO) film etching by chemical treatment in acidic and basic electrolytes. It was observed that film etching increased under more acidic conditions, whereas basic conditions led to minimal etching on the time scale of the experiments. Quartz crystal microbalance was employed in order to track the reaction kinetics as a function of the concentration of hydrochloric acid and accordingly solution pH. Contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy experiments determined that acid treatment increases surface hydrophilicity and porosity. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experiments identified that film etching is primarily caused by dissolution of indium species. A kinetic model was developed to explain the acid-catalyzed dissolution of ITO surfaces, and showed a logarithmic relationship between the rate of dissolution and the concentration of undisassociated hydrochloric acid molecules. Taken together, the findings presented in this work verify the acid-catalyzed kinetics of ITO film dissolution by chemical treatment, and support that the corresponding chemical reactions should be accounted for in ITO film processing applications. - Highlights: • Acidic conditions promoted indium tin oxide (ITO) film etching via dissolution. • Logarithm of the dissolution rate depended linearly on the solution pH. • Acid treatment increased ITO surface hydrophilicity and porosity. • ITO film etching led to preferential dissolution of indium species over tin species.

  4. Muon-catalyzed fusion: A new direction in fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    In four years of intensive research, muon-catalyzed fusion has been raised from the level of a scientific curiosity to a potential means of achieving clean fusion energy. This novel approach to fusion is based on the fact that a sub-atomic particle known as a ''muon'' can induce numerous energy-releasing fusion reactions without the need for high temperatures or plasmas. Thus, the muon serves as a catalyst to facilitate production for fusion energy. The success of the research effort stems from the recent discovery of resonances in the reaction cycle which make the muon-induced fusion process extremely efficient. Prior estimates were pessimistic in that only one fusion per muon was expected. In that case energy balance would be impossible since energy must be invested to generate the muons. However, recent work has gone approximately half-way to energy balance and further improvements are being worked on. There has been little time to assess the full implications of these discoveries. However, various ways to use muon-catalyzed fusion for electrical power production are now being explored

  5. Muon-catalyzed fusion: a new direction in fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    In four years of intensive research, muon-catalyzed fusion has been raised from the level of a scientific curiosity to a potential means of achieving clean fusion energy. This novel approach to fusion is based on the fact that a sub-atomic particle known as a ''muon'' can induce numerous energy-releasing fusion reactions without the need for high temperatures or plasmas. Thus, the muon serves as a catalyst to facilitate production for fusion energy. The success of the research effort stems from the recent discovery of resonances in the reaction cycle which make the muon-induced fusion process extremely efficient. Prior estimates were pessimistic in that only one fusion per muon was expected. In that case energy balance would be impossible since energy must be invested to generate the muons. However, recent work has gone approximately half-way to energy balance and further improvements are being worked on. There has been little time to assess the full implications of these discoveries. However, various ways to use muon-catalyzed fusion for electrical power production are now being explored

  6. Iron Catalyzed Cycloaddition of Alkynenitriles and Alkynes

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Souza, Brendan R.; Lane, Timothy K.

    2011-01-01

    The combination of Fe(OAc)2 and an electron-donating, sterically-hindered pyridyl bisimine ligand catalyzes the cycloaddition of alkynenitriles and alkynes. A variety of substituted pyridines were obtained in good yields. PMID:21557582

  7. Hemoglobin-catalyzed fluorometric method for the determination of glutathione

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruiqiang; Tang, Lin; Li, Hua; Wang, Yi; Gou, Rong; Guo, Yuanyuan; Fang, Yudong; Chen, Fengmei

    2016-01-01

    A new spectrofluorometric method for the determination of glutathione based on the reaction catalyzed by hemoglobin was reported. The reaction product gave a highly fluorescent intensity with the excitation and emission wavelengths of 320.0 nm and 413.0 nm, respectively. The optimum experimental conditions were investigated. Results showed that low concentration glutathione enhanced the fluorescence intensity significantly. The line ranges were 1.0 × 10-6-1.0 × 10-5 mol L-1 of glutathione and 6.0 × 10-10 mol L-1-1.0 × 10-8 mol L-1, respectively. The detection limit was calculated to be 1.1 × 10-11 mol L-1. The recovery test by the standard addition method gave values in the range of 90.78%-102.20%. This method was used for the determination of glutathione in synthetic and real samples with satisfactory results.

  8. Glycolysis of poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) catalyzed by an enzyme system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, T.F.; Mano, V.

    2010-01-01

    In this work we report the studies of PHB glycolysis catalyzed by lipase Amano PS (Pseudomonas cepacia) in the presence of 1,2-ethanediol (ethylene glycol). The reactions were performed in toluene:dichloroethane 3:1 (v/v) at 60 deg C, varying reaction time and concentration of ethylene glycol. PHB and the products of glycolysis (polyols) were characterized by FTIR, 1 H-NMR, and TG. The FTIR spectra of polyols showed no significant change compared to the spectrum of PHB. The 1 H-NMR spectra of the products of glycolysis showed signs of interest between 3 and 4.7 ppm, related to the ethylene glycol protons inserted in the polymer chain. By analyzing the thermograms we observed that the polyols are more thermally stable than PHB. (author)

  9. Radiochemical methods for studying lipase-catalyzed interesterification of lipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuch, R.; Mukherjee, K.D.

    1987-01-01

    Reactions involving lipase-catalyzed interesterification of lipids, which are of commendable interest in biotechnology, have been monitored and assayed by radiochemical methods using 14 C-labeled substrates. Medium chain (C 12 plus C 14 ) triacylglycerols were reacted in the presence of an immobilized lipase from Mucor miehei and hexane at 45 0 C with methyl [1- 14 C]oleate, [1- 14 C]oleic acid, [carboxyl- 14 C]trioleoylglycerol, [1- 14 C]octadecenyl alcohol, and [U- 14 C]glycerol, each of known specific activity. The reactions were monitored and the rate of interesterification determined by radio thin layer chromatography from the incorporation of radioactivity into acyl moieties of triacylglycerols (from methyl oleate, oleic acid, and trioleoylglycerol), alkyl moieties of wax esters (from octadecenyl alcohol), and into glycerol backbone of monoacylglycerols and diacylglycerols (from glycerol). (orig.)

  10. Enantioselective Intramolecular CH-Insertions upon Cu-Catalyzed Decomposition of Phenyliodonium Ylides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Boléa

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The Cu-catalyzed intramolecular CH insertion of phenyliodonium ylide 5b has been investigated at 0° C in the presence of several chiral ligands. Enantioselectivities vary in the range of 38–72 %, and are higher than those resulting from reaction of the diazo compound 5c at 65° C. The results are consistent with a carbenoid mechanism for Cu-catalyzed decomposition of phenyliodonium ylides.

  11. Mechanism of iron catalyzed oxidation of SO/sub 2/ in oxygenated solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freiberg, J

    1975-01-01

    Previous experimental work concerning the iron catalyzed oxidation of SO/sub 2/ in oxygenated acid solutions failed to provide a consistent reaction mechanism and rate expression. As iron is one of the main constituents of urban atmospheric aerosols, the rate studies of heterogeneous sulphate formation in polluted city air were hampered. The present study develops a new theory for the iron catalyzed oxidation of SO/sub 2/. The resulting new rate expression is general enough to account for the results of previous experimental investigations that were performed in different ranges of SO/sub 2/ and catalyst concentrations.

  12. Iridium/Bipyridine-Catalyzed ortho-Selective C-H Borylation of Phenol and Aniline Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Liang; Kanai, Motomu; Kuninobu, Yoichiro

    2017-11-03

    An iridium-catalyzed ortho-selective C-H borylation of phenol and aniline derivatives has been successfully developed. Iridium/bipyridine-catalyzed C-H borylation generally occurred at the meta- and para-positions of aromatic substrates. Introduction of an electron-withdrawing substituent on the bipyridine-type ligand and a methylthiomethyl group on the hydroxy and amino groups of the phenol and aniline substrates, however, dramatically altered the regioselectivity, affording exclusively ortho-borylated products. The reaction proceeded in good to excellent yields with good functional group tolerance. C-H borylation was applied to the synthesis of a calcium receptor modulator.

  13. Interesterification of rapeseed oil catalyzed by tin octoate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galia, Alessandro; Centineo, Alessio; Saracco, Guido; Schiavo, Benedetto; Scialdone, Onofrio

    2014-01-01

    The interesterification of rapeseed oil was performed for the first time by using tin octoate as Lewis acid homogeneous catalysts and methyl or ethyl acetate as acyl acceptors in a batch reactor, within the temperature range 393–483 K. The yields in fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and triacetin (TA) after 20 h of reaction time increased from 8% and 2%–to 61% and 22%, respectively, when the reaction temperature increased from 423 to 483 K. An optimum value of 40 for the acyl acceptor to oil molar ratio was found to be necessary to match good fatty acid alkyl ester yields with high enough reaction rate. The rate of generation of esters was significantly higher when methyl acetate was used as acyl acceptor instead of its ethyl homologue. The collected results suggest that tin octoate can be used as effective catalyst for the interesterification of rapeseed oil with methyl or ethyl acetate being highly soluble in the reaction system, less expensive than enzymes and allowing the operator to work under milder conditions than supercritical interesterification processes. - Highlights: • We study the interesterification of rapeseed oil catalyzed by tin(II) octoate. • Tin(II) octoate is an effective homogeneous catalyst at 483 K. • The acyl acceptor to oil molar ratio must be optimized. • Higher rate of reaction is obtained with methyl acetate as acyl acceptor

  14. Room-temperature Pd-catalyzed C-H chlorination by weak coordination: one-pot synthesis of 2-chlorophenols with excellent regioselectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiuyun; Sun, Yonghui; Zhang, Chao; Rao, Yu

    2014-02-07

    A room-temperature Pd(II)-catalyzed regioselective chlorination reaction has been developed for a facile one-pot synthesis of a broad range of 2-chlorophenols. The reaction demonstrates an excellent regioselectivity and reactivity for C-H chlorination. This reaction represents one of the rare examples of mild C-H functionalization at ambient temperature.

  15. Hydrogenation of ethene catalyzed by Ir atom deposited on γ-Al2O3(001) surface: From ab initio calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yongchang; Sun, Zhaolin; Song, Lijuan; Li, Qiang; Xu, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Ethene hydrogenation reaction, catalyzed by an iridium atom adsorbed on γ-Al 2 O 3 (001) surface, is studied via ab initio calculations based on density functional theory (DFT). The catalyzed reaction process and activation energy are compared with the counterparts of a reaction occurs in vacuum condition. It is found that the activation energy barrier is substantially lowered by the adsorbed Ir atom on the γ-Al 2 O 3 (001). The catalyzed reaction is modeled in two steps: (1) Hydrogen molecular dissolution and then bonded with C 2 H 4 molecular. (2) Desorption of the C 2 H 6 molecular from the surface. -- Highlights: ► The ethene hydrogenation reaction is simulated with nudged elastic band methods. ► The catalytic effect of the Ir atom on γ-Al 2 O 3 (001) surface is modeled. ► Details of the catalytic reaction are exhibited.

  16. Enantioselective [3+3] atroposelective annulation catalyzed by N-heterocyclic carbenes

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Changgui

    2018-02-05

    Axially chiral molecules are among the most valuable substrates in organic synthesis. They are typically used as chiral ligands or catalysts in asymmetric reactions. Recent progress for the construction of these chiral molecules is mainly focused on the transition-metal-catalyzed transformations. Here, we report the enantioselective NHC-catalyzed (NHC: N-heterocyclic carbenes) atroposelective annulation of cyclic 1,3-diones with ynals. In the presence of NHC precatalyst, base, Lewis acid and oxidant, a catalytic C–C bond formation occurs, providing axially chiral α-pyrone−aryls in moderate to good yields and with high enantioselectivities. Control experiments indicated that alkynyl acyl azoliums, acting as active intermediates, are employed to atroposelectively assemble chiral biaryls and such a methodology may be creatively applied to other useful NHC-catalyzed asymmetric transformations.

  17. Manganese-Catalyzed Aminomethylation of Aromatic Compounds with Methanol as a Sustainable C1 Building Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalir, Matthias; Pittenauer, Ernst; Allmaier, Günter; Kirchner, Karl

    2017-07-05

    This study represents the first example of a manganese-catalyzed environmentally benign, practical three-component aminomethylation of activated aromatic compounds including naphtols, phenols, pyridines, indoles, carbazoles, and thiophenes in combination with amines and MeOH as a C1 source. These reactions proceed with high atom efficiency via a sequence of dehydrogenation and condensation steps which give rise to selective C-C and C-N bond formations, thereby releasing hydrogen and water. A well-defined hydride Mn(I) PNP pincer complex, recently developed in our laboratory, catalyzes this process in a very efficient way, and a total of 28 different aminomethylated products were synthesized and isolated yields of up to 91%. In a preliminary study, a related Fe(II) PNP pincer complex was shown to catalyze the methylation of 2-naphtol rather than its aminomethylation displaying again the divergent behavior of isoelectronic Mn(I) and Fe(II) PNP pincer systems.

  18. Aza Cope Rearrangement of Propargyl Enammonium Cations Catalyzed By a Self-Assembled `Nanozyme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hastings, Courntey J.; Fiedler, Dorothea; Bergman, Robert G.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2008-02-27

    The tetrahedral [Ga{sub 4}L{sub 6}]{sup 12-} assembly (L = N,N-bis(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-1,5-diaminonaphthalene) encapsulates a variety of cations, including propargyl enammonium cations capable of undergoing the aza Cope rearrangement. For propargyl enammonium substrates that are encapsulated in the [Ga{sub 4}L{sub 6}]{sup 12-} assembly, rate accelerations of up to 184 are observed when compared to the background reaction. After rearrangement, the product iminium ion is released into solution and hydrolyzed allowing for catalytic turnover. The activation parameters for the catalyzed and uncatalyzed reaction were determined, revealing that a lowered entropy of activation is responsible for the observed rate enhancements. The catalyzed reaction exhibits saturation kinetics; the rate data obey the Michaelis-Menten model of enzyme kinetics, and competitive inhibition using a non-reactive guest has been demonstrated.

  19. Recent advances in transition metal-catalyzed Csp2-monofluoro-, difluoro-, perfluoromethylation and trifluoromethylthiolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégory Landelle

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, transition metal-mediated reactions have joined the toolbox of chemists working in the field of fluorination for Life-Science oriented research. The successful execution of transition metal-catalyzed carbon–fluorine bond formation has become a landmark achievement in fluorine chemistry. This rapidly growing research field has been the subject of some excellent reviews. Our approach focuses exclusively on transition metal-catalyzed reactions that allow the introduction of –CFH2, –CF2H, –CnF2n+1 and –SCF3 groups onto sp² carbon atoms. Transformations are discussed according to the reaction-type and the metal employed. The review will not extend to conventional non-transition metal methods to these fluorinated groups.

  20. Palladium-catalyzed aryl C-H olefination with unactivated, aliphatic alkenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Arghya; Bag, Sukdev; Kancherla, Rajesh; Maiti, Debabrata

    2014-10-01

    Palladium-catalyzed coupling between aryl halides and alkenes (Mizoroki-Heck reaction) is one of the most popular reactions for synthesizing complex organic molecules. The limited availability, problematic synthesis, and higher cost of aryl halide precursors (or their equivalents) have encouraged exploration of direct olefination of aryl carbon-hydrogen (C-H) bonds (Fujiwara-Moritani reaction). Despite significant progress, the restricted substrate scope, in particular noncompliance of unactivated aliphatic olefins, has discouraged the use of this greener alternative. Overcoming this serious limitation, we report here a palladium-catalyzed chelation-assisted ortho C-H bond olefination of phenylacetic acid derivatives with unactivated, aliphatic alkenes in good to excellent yields with high regio- and stereoselectivities. The versatility of this operationally simple method has been demonstrated through drug diversification and sequential C-H olefination for synthesizing divinylbenzene derivatives.