WorldWideScience

Sample records for halon fire bottles

  1. Acoustic Emission Test for Aircraft Halon 1301 Fire Extinguisher Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    An acoustic emission test for aircraft Halon 1301 bottles has been developed, a prototype acoustic emission test system constructed, and over 200 used bottles tested at the repair facilities of the two manufacturers of these bottles. The system monit...

  2. 76 FR 31798 - Airworthiness Directives; L'Hotellier Portable Halon 1211 Fire Extinguishers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... Portable Halon 1211 Fire Extinguishers AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION: Final rule... fire extinguishers. This action requires replacing each unairworthy portable fire extinguisher with an airworthy portable fire extinguisher. This amendment is prompted by an ongoing investigation that has...

  3. 46 CFR 167.45-1 - Steam, carbon dioxide, and halon fire extinguishing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam, carbon dioxide, and halon fire extinguishing....45-1 Steam, carbon dioxide, and halon fire extinguishing systems. (a) General requirements. (1...-extinguishing system. On such vessels contracted for prior to January 1, 1962, a steam smothering system may be...

  4. 75 FR 221 - Airworthiness Directives; Fire Fighting Enterprises Limited Portable Halon 1211 Fire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ...-01-03] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Fire Fighting Enterprises Limited Portable Halon 1211 Fire Extinguishers as Installed on Various Transport Airplanes, Small Airplanes, and Rotorcraft AGENCY... the required specification, have been supplied to the aviation industry for use in fire extinguishing...

  5. Chemical Fire Suppressants: How Can We Replace Halon?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fleming, James

    1999-01-01

    .... Army study to identify effective agents. Halon 1301, bromotrifluoromethane, with its low boiling point is extremely effective in total flooding applications, which rely on the agent completely filling the space to be protected...

  6. The Use of Halons as Fire Suppressants - A Literature Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-10-05

    observable effect on any of the metals except for the 1020 steel, which rusted in air after the exposure to wet hdon 1301. Fielding [15,161 reports some of...Conmstock and R. W. Oberst, "Comparative Inhalation Toxicities of Four q- alo - genated Hydrocaybons to Rats and Mice in the Presence of Gasoline Fires

  7. Development of a minimum performance standard for hand-held fire extinguishers as a replacement for Halon 1211 on civilian transport category aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-01

    One or more Halon 1211 hand-held fire extinguishers are specified in Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) Part 25.851 as a requirement on transport category aircraft with 31 or more seats. Halon 1211 has been linked to the destruction of the ozone layer...

  8. Environmental code of practice on halons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbonneau, J.M. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada) Ozone Protection Programs Section

    1998-12-01

    Halons are used in fire protection because they are effective fire extinguishing agents, are electrically non-conductive, non-corrosive, and non-toxic at recommended concentrations. However, they are significant contributors to the depletion of the atmospheric ozone layer. The purpose of this code of practice on halons is to protect the ozone layer by reducing and eventually eliminating halon emissions to the atmosphere. The code of practice is intended for halon owners and users and shows how to manage halon stocks while addressing environmental concerns regarding depletion of the ozone layer. The code of practice encourages: (1) reducing the potential for unwanted releases of halons, (2) the recycling of halons to minimize unwanted emissions, (3) the use of alternatives to halon in fire protection, and (4) an orderly phase-out of halons in existing fire protection systems. 1 tab., 5 appendices

  9. 75 FR 7342 - Airworthiness Directives; SICLI Halon 1211 Portable Fire Extinguishers as Installed on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... Portable Fire Extinguishers as Installed on Various Airplanes and Rotorcraft AGENCY: Federal Aviation... subsequently been used to fill P/N 1708337B4 portable fire extinguishers that are now likely to be installed in..., ] extinguisher activation may lead to release of toxic fumes, possibly causing injury to aircraft occupants...

  10. Development of a Minimum Performance Standard for Hand-Held Fire Extinguishers as a Replacement for Halon 1211 on Civilian Transport Category Aircraft

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Webster, Harry

    2002-01-01

    ... 25.851 as a requirement on transport category aircraft with 31 or more seats. Halon 1211 has been linked to the destruction of the ozone layer and production of new Halon 1211 has been halted per the Montreal Protocol in 1993...

  11. TECHNOLOGIES FOR CFC/HALON DESTRUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report presents an overview of the current status of possible technologies used to destroy chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons chemicals implicated in the destruction of the stratospheric ozone layer. The Montreal Protocol an international treaty to control the production a...

  12. Halon-1301, a new Groundwater Age Tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Monique; van der Raaij, Rob; Morgenstern, Uwe; Jackson, Bethanna

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater dating is an important tool to assess groundwater resources in regards to direction and time scale of groundwater flow and recharge and to assess contamination risks and manage remediation. To infer groundwater age information, a combination of different environmental tracers, such as tritium and SF6, are commonly used. However ambiguous age interpretations are often faced, due to a limited set of available tracers and limitations of each tracer method when applied alone. There is a need for additional, complementary groundwater age tracers. We recently discovered that Halon-1301, a water soluble and entirely anthropogenic gaseous substance, may be a promising candidate [Beyer et al, 2014]. Halon-1301 can be determined along with SF6, SF5CF3 and CFC-12 in groundwater using a gas chromatography setup with attached electron capture detector developed by Busenberg and Plummer [2008]. Halon-1301 has not been assessed in groundwater. This study assesses the behaviour of Halon-1301 in water and its suitability as a groundwater age tracer. We determined Halon-1301 in 17 groundwater and various modern (river) waters sites located in 3 different groundwater systems in the Wellington Region, New Zealand. These waters have been previously dated with tritium, CFC-12, CFC-11 and SF6 with mean residence times ranging from 0.5 to over 100 years. The waters range from oxic to anoxic and some show evidence of CFC contamination or degradation. This allows us to assess the different properties affecting the suitability of Halon-1301 as groundwater age tracer, such as its conservativeness in water and local contamination potential. The samples are analysed for Halon-1301 and SF6simultaneously, which allows identification of issues commonly faced when using gaseous tracers such as contamination with modern air during sampling. Overall we found in the assessed groundwater samples Halon-1301 is a feasible new groundwater tracer. No sample indicated significantly elevated

  13. Preliminary Screening Procedures and Criteria for Replacements for Halons 1211 and 1301

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    supported vertically in the center of the column with the top of the specimen 100 mm below the top of the open column. The entire top of the specimen...70 24. Poeschl, P.M., "Large Scale Halon 1301 Fire Test Program,* Fire Journal 67, p. 35, 1973. 25. Wiersma , S., and Alger, R., "Extinguishment of...extinguisher (- 10 f in volume). The storage temperature and the specific criteria on which to base stability predictions were open to question and

  14. Fire Suppression by Halon 2402. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    heat transfer. hy/ CpG * (K/C p) a (B-31) and ky Yavg/G = (Om1 avg/p) b (8-32) where h is the heat transfer coefficient in BtuI(h)(ft 2 )(-F), k is...approximately twice that for the gas injection. There are several possible reasons for this. The FID response may be nonlinear (the liquid sample...flamev ionization detector ( FID ). (b) Column: 25-meter long, 0.2 nmn diameter, 5-percent pheny! 9 percent methyl silicone WCOT capillary column, or

  15. Indirect Global Warming Potentials of Halons Using Atmospheric Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, D.; Patten, K. O.; Wuebbles, D. J.

    2007-05-01

    Emission of bromochlorofluorocarbons, or Halons, results in stratospheric ozone depletion. This leads to cooling of the climate system in the opposite direction to direct warming contribution of the Halons as greenhouse gases. This cooling is a key indirect effect of Halons on radiative forcing or climate. The Global Warming Potential (GWP) is a relative index used to compare the climate impact of an emitted greenhouse gas, relative to an equal amount of carbon dioxide. Until now, indirect GWPs have been calculated based on the concept of Equivalent Effective Stratospheric Chlorine (EESC), which oversimplifies the complex processes in the atmosphere. As a step towards obtaining indirect GWPs through a more robust approach, 2-D and 3-D global chemical transport models (CTM) were used as the computational tool to derive more realistic ozone changes caused by pulse perturbation of Halons at the surface. Indirect GWPs of Halon-1211 and -1301 for a 100-year time horizon were explicitly calculated based on the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) 2-D global CTM and radiative transport model (RTM) and the 3-D CTM, MOZART-3.1. The 2-D and 3-D model simulations show acceptable temporal variations in the atmosphere as well as derived lifetimes and direct GWP values of the Halons. The 2-D model-based indirect GWPs for a 100-year horizon are -16,294 for Halon-1211 and -33,648 for Halon-1301. 3-D indirect GWP for Halon-1211 is -18,216. The indirect GWPs for Halon-1211 presented here are much smaller than previous published results using the previous simplified appraoch.

  16. Effervescent Fine Water Mist Fire Extinguisher for Microgravity Environments Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fire suppression systems provide an essential safety function onboard spacecraft. The transition away from halon-based systems has presented an opportunity for...

  17. INVESTIGATION OF POSSIBLE USES OF CFC/HALON CHEMICALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report documents an investigation of the possibility of alternate uses for surplus chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)/halon chemicals as they are replaced in their traditional service roles. hese uses may be beneficial new products or substances that are nonhazardous to the environment...

  18. Halon Replacement Program for Aviation, Aircraft Engine Nacelle Application Phase II - Operational Comparison of Selected Extinguishants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bennett, John A

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the work performed under Phase II - Operational Comparison of Selected Extinguishants - of the Halon Replacement Program for Aviation for the Aircraft Engine Nacelle Application...

  19. Qualification of an Acceptable Alternative to Halon 1211 DOD Flightline Extinguishers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    expensive (because of a U.S. excise tax applied to newly produced or imported Halon 1211). The tax rate is based on the stratospheric ozone depleting...the excise tax ). Therefore, the excise tax alone to import Halon 1211 in 2008 would be $33.60 per pound, and the minimum cost for 150 pounds of Halon...would be over $5,000. The excise tax alone exceeds the anticipated cost of purchasing new systems—both hardware and agent—by more than a third, and

  20. 76 FR 36392 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation Model GV and GV-SP Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... third Halon fire extinguisher bottle is installed in the auxiliary power unit (APU) fragment impact zone... certain airplanes having a third fire extinguisher bottle, and removing the third fire extinguisher bottle... that the third fire extinguisher bottle is mounted in a small-fragment impact zone. We are proposing...

  1. Bottled Water and Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Bottled Water Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Consumers drink ... questions about bottled water and fluoride. Does bottled water contain fluoride? Bottled water products may contain fluoride, ...

  2. Explicit calculation of indirect global warming potentials for halons using atmospheric models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Wuebbles

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of Global Warming Potentials (GWPs has been extensively used in policy consideration as a relative index for comparing the climate impact of an emitted greenhouse gas (GHG, relative to carbon dioxide with equal mass emissions. Ozone depletion due to emission of chlorinated or brominated halocarbons leads to cooling of the climate system in the opposite direction to the direct warming contribution by halocarbons as GHGs. This cooling is a key indirect effect of the halocarbons on climatic radiative forcing, which is accounted for by indirect GWPs. With respect to climate, it is critical to understand net influences considering direct warming and indirect cooling effects especially for Halons due to the greater ozone-depleting efficiency of bromine over chlorine. Until now, the indirect GWPs have been calculated using a parameterized approach based on the concept of Equivalent Effective Stratospheric Chlorine (EESC and the observed ozone depletion over the last few decades. As a step towards obtaining indirect GWPs through a more robust approach, we use atmospheric models to explicitly calculate the indirect GWPs of Halon-1211 and Halon-1301 for a 100-year time horizon. State-of-the-art global chemistry-transport models (CTMs were used as the computational tools to derive more realistic ozone depletion changes caused by an added pulse emission of the two major Halons at the surface. The radiative forcings on climate from the ozone changes have been calculated for indirect GWPs using an atmospheric radiative transfer model (RTM. The simulated temporal variations of global average total column Halons after a pulse perturbation follow an exponential decay with an e-folding time which is consistent with the expected chemical lifetimes of the Halons. Our calculated indirect GWPs for the two Halons are much smaller than those from past studies but are within a single standard deviation of WMO (2007 values and the direct GWP values derived

  3. 75 FR 13646 - Public Meeting With Interested Persons To Discuss the Proposed AC 20-42D, Hand Fire Extinguishers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ..., Hand Fire Extinguishers for Use in Aircraft ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Federal... received regarding proposed advisory circular (AC) 20-42D, Hand Fire Extinguishers for use in Aircraft... extinguishers in aircraft. The proposed AC also identifies three FAA approved replacement agents for Halon 1211...

  4. Banning the Bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliser, Janna

    2010-01-01

    Bottled water is ubiquitous, taken for granted, and seemingly benign. Americans are consuming bottled water in massive amounts and spending a lot of money: In 2007, Americans spent $11.7 billion on 8.8 billions gallons of bottled water (Gashler 2008). That same year, two million plastic water bottles were used in the United States every five…

  5. 76 FR 73483 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation Model GV and GV-SP Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... manufacturer that the third fire extinguisher bottle is mounted in a small-fragment impact zone. This AD requires inspecting to determine whether a third Halon fire extinguisher bottle is installed in the... manual to add restrictions for APU usage for certain airplanes having a third fire extinguisher bottle...

  6. Fire Extinguishing Agents for Protection of Occupied Spaces in Military Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-14

    U.S. ARMY TANK AUTOMOTIVE RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT AND ENGINEERING CENTER Fire Extinguishing Agents for Protection of Occupied Spaces in Military...platforms, including Automatic Fire Extinguishing Systems (AFES). • Legacy vehicles use Halon 1301 or HFC-227BC to protect the crew. 1301 has high...not comprehensive. Agents used in US Ground Vehicle Automatic Fire Extinguishing Systems (AFES) Current Applications UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution

  7. Stopping the Bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is coming later. The next week, eliminate another bottle feeding and provide milk in a cup instead. Try to do this when your baby is sitting at the table in a high chair. Generally, the last bottle to stop should be the nighttime bottle. That ...

  8. Green Fiber Bottle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didone, Mattia; Tosello, Guido

    The ambition of the Green Fiber Bottle (GFB) project is to manufacture a fully biodegradable bottle. Carlsberg is the intended end user, and they aim to package their beer in the new bottle. The new product is intended to replace the existing plastic and glass bottles, and thus reducing their imp......The ambition of the Green Fiber Bottle (GFB) project is to manufacture a fully biodegradable bottle. Carlsberg is the intended end user, and they aim to package their beer in the new bottle. The new product is intended to replace the existing plastic and glass bottles, and thus reducing...... their impact on the environment, especially the oceans. For example, the life span of a plastic bottle in the ocean is 500 years, and during its degradation, the plastic is reduced to micro pieces, which causes the starvation of several marine animals. The new bottle is completely made from molded paper pulp......, which is a renewable resource. Nevertheless, due to food and drugs limitations, only virgin paper fibers must be employed in the production. The bottle could then be left to biodegrade in nature or enter a recycle system, along with other paper-based product. In order to contain the liquid, the bottle...

  9. Fine-Water-Mist Multiple-Orientation-Discharge Fire Extinguisher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butz, James R.; Turchi, Craig S.; Kimball, Amanda; McKinnon, Thomas; Riedel, Edward

    2010-01-01

    A fine-water-mist fire-suppression device has been designed so that it can be discharged uniformly in any orientation via a high-pressure gas propellant. Standard fire extinguishers used while slightly tilted or on their side will not discharge all of their contents. Thanks to the new design, this extinguisher can be used in multiple environments such as aboard low-gravity spacecraft, airplanes, and aboard vehicles that may become overturned prior to or during a fire emergency. Research in recent years has shown that fine water mist can be an effective alternative to Halons now banned from manufacture. Currently, NASA uses carbon dioxide for fire suppression on the International Space Station (ISS) and Halon chemical extinguishers on the space shuttle. While each of these agents is effective, they have drawbacks. The toxicity of carbon dioxide requires that the crew don breathing apparatus when the extinguishers are deployed on the ISS, and Halon use in future spacecraft has been eliminated because of international protocols on substances that destroy atmospheric ozone. A major advantage to the new system on occupied spacecraft is that the discharged system is locally rechargeable. Since the only fluids used are water and nitrogen, the system can be recharged from stores of both carried aboard the ISS or spacecraft. The only support requirement would be a pump to fill the water and a compressor to pressurize the nitrogen propellant gas. This system uses a gaseous agent to pressurize the storage container as well as to assist in the generation of the fine water mist. The portable fire extinguisher hardware works like a standard fire extinguisher with a single storage container for the agents (water and nitrogen), a control valve assembly for manual actuation, and a discharge nozzle. The design implemented in the proof-of-concept experiment successfully extinguished both open fires and fires in baffled enclosures.

  10. Bottled Water Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of dollars each year to buy it (Beverage Marketing Corporation, 2004) Some people drink bottled water as ... has been treated to meet the U.S. Pharmacopeia definition of purified water. Purified water is essentially free ...

  11. BOTTLE MATERIAL AND CLEANSING PROCEDURES OF INFANT FEEDING BOTTLES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuan, Wen-Hui; Chen, Yi-Lang

    2016-01-01

    The cleanliness of feeding bottles is vital for child health. Although machine cleansing of bottles in the food industry has been established, mechanical and manual cleansing methods are highly variable...

  12. BOTTLE MATERIAL AND CLEANSING PROCEDURES OF INFANT FEEDING BOTTLES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Wen-Hui; Chen, Yi-Lang

    2016-01-01

    The cleanliness of feeding bottles is vital for child health. Although machine cleansing of bottles in the food industry has been established, mechanical and manual cleansing methods are highly variable. This study was undertaken to determine the differences in the cleanliness of bottles that were cleaned using various combinations of bottle materials [glass and polypropylene (PP)], rinsing water volumes (1/3, 1/2, and 2/3 capacity of a bottle), and sustained shaking times (5 seconds and 20 seconds). Total organic carbon (TOC) and conductivity measurements were respectively used to evaluate the rinsed quantities of organic and inorganic formula residue from feeding bottles. The results indicated that glass bottles filled with rinsing water to 2/3 of their capacity showed the most efficient cleansing performance. However, the PP bottles exhibited a relatively poor cleansing result, particularly for organic cleanliness. The organic residue tends to accumulate on the PP bottle interior because of the aggregation of compounds with similar properties. The shaking time hardly influenced the cleanliness. The glass bottle was superior to the PP bottle in both organic and inorganic cleanliness, and organic constituents were more difficult to rinse from the bottle than the inorganic constituents were.

  13. Energy implications of bottled water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleick, P. H.; Cooley, H. S.

    2009-01-01

    As bottled water use continues to expand around the world, there is growing interest in the environmental, economical, and social implications of that use, including concerns about waste generation, proper use of groundwater, hydrologic effects on local surface and groundwater, economic costs, and more. A key concern is how much energy is required to produce and use bottled water. This paper estimates the energy footprint required for various phases of bottled water production, transportation, and use. We do not develop a single comprehensive life-cycle energy estimate because of differences among water sources, bottling processes, transportation costs, and other factors, but we quantify key energy inputs necessary for site-specific assessments. We also apply these inputs to three site-specific examples of the energy required from production to the point of use: local bottled water produced and used in Los Angeles, water bottled in the South Pacific and shipped by cargo ship to Los Angeles, and water bottled in France and shipped in various ways to Los Angeles. For water transported short distances, the energy requirements of bottled water are dominated by the energy used to produce the plastic bottles. Long-distance transport, however, can lead to energy costs comparable to, or even larger than, those of producing the bottle. All other energy costs—for processing, bottling, sealing, labeling, and refrigeration—are far smaller than those for the production of the bottle and transportation. These data can be used to generate specific estimates for different sources, treatments, and delivery options.

  14. HOT AEROSOL FIRE EXTINGUISHING AGENTS AND THE ASSOCIATED TECHNOLOGIES: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotian Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSince the phase out of Halon extinguishers in the 1980s, hot aerosol fire suppression technology has gained much attention. Unlike traditional inert gas, foam, water mist and Halon fire suppression agents, hot aerosol fire extinguishing agents do not need to be driven out by pressurized gases and can extinguish class A, B, C, D and K fires at 30 to 200 g/m3. Generally, hot aerosol fire extinguishing technology has developed from a generation I oil tank suppression system to a generation III strontium salt based S-type system. S-type hot aerosol fire extinguishing technology greatly solves the corrosion problem of electrical devices and electronics compared to potassium salt based generation I & II hot aerosol fire extinguishing technology. As substitutes for Halon agents, the ODP and GWP values of hot fire extinguishing aerosols are nearly zero, but those fine aerosol particles can cause adverse health effects once inhaled by human. As for configurations of hot aerosol fire extinguishing devices, fixed or portable cylindrical canisters are the most common among generation II & III hot aerosol fire extinguishers across the world, while generation I hot aerosol fire suppression systems are integrated with the oil tank as a whole. Some countries like the U.S., Australia, Russia and China, etc. have already developed standards for manufacturing and quality control of hot aerosol fire extinguishing agents and norms for hot aerosol fire extinguishing system design under different fire protection scenarios. Coolants in hot aerosol fire suppression systems, which are responsible for reducing hot aerosol temperature to avoid secondary fire risk are reviewed for the first time. Cooling effects are generally achieved through vaporization and endothermic chemical decomposition of coolants. Finally, this review discussed areas applying generation I, II or III hot aerosol fire suppression technologies. The generation III hot aerosol fire extinguishing

  15. Highly Effective, Low Toxicity, Low Environmental Impact Total Flooding Fire Suppressants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, S. M.; Dhooge, P. M.; Nimitz, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    Halon 1301 (CF3Br) has been used for decades as the primary fire suppression agent for areas where powder agents cannot be used because of concerns for sensitive equipment. Halon 1301 is an excellent extinguishing agent, effective at about 3% in air and quite non-toxic. It has an effective exposure limit much greater than its extinguishing concentration, so it can be used in normally occupied areas. The ability of a chemical to destroy stratospheric ozone is its ozone-depletion potential (ODP). ODP is the amount of ozone destroyed per pound of a chemical, relative to the standard CFC-11 with an ODP = 1.0. Because halons have been implicated in stratospheric ozone depletion, their production was stopped at the end of 1995 under the provisions of the Montreal Protocol plus later amendments. In the US, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, Presidential directives, and DoD Directive 6050.9 implemented this phaseout. These regulations and penalties have provided strong incentives for US businesses to decrease CFC use. The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1989 mandates high Federal taxes on CFCs and halons, designed to price them out of the market. The taxes also capture for the government the windfall profits that would otherwise go to producers as scarcity drives up prices. Several replacements have been developed for Halon 1301. One is carbon dioxide, which has been used as a firefighting agent for many years. However, a high concentration of carbon dioxide is necessary to inert fuels. The effective concentration for inerting with carbon dioxide is approximately 29%, which is above the concentration lethal to humans. HFC-227ea is being used extensively to replace Halon 1301 systems in nominally occupied areas and some normally unoccupied areas. However, since the effective concentration of HFC-227ea is about three to four times that of Halon 1301 the extinguishing systems have to be larger and new extinguishing systems have to be installed. HFC-125 is also being

  16. Grand rounds: outbreak of hematologic abnormalities in a community of people exposed to leakage of fire extinguisher gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shih-Hsiang; Chan, Chang-Chuan; Chen, Wei-Chin; Wang, Jung-Der

    2006-11-01

    Although there are ample data on the respiratory effects of exposure to fire extinguisher gas, the potential hematologic effects have not been fully documented. We conducted this study to determine the possible etiologic agent(s) for a decrease in red blood cells among community residents in Taipei, Taiwan, after they were exposed to leakage of mixed fire extinguishants containing bromotrifluoromethane (CF3Br, Halon 1301), bromochlorodifluoromethane (CF2BrCl, Halon 1211), and dichlorodifluoromethane (CCl2F2, CFC-12). We studied 117 exposed residents who came into one hospital for physical examinations. We also selected age- and sex-matched referents for comparison from residents who came to the same hospital for health examinations. Nine months after the exposure to mixed fire extinguishants, 91 of the exposed residents came back for a second physical examination. In the first examination of the exposed residents, we found a significant reduction in red blood cell count and hemoglobin and a relationship between dose and response. After excluding iron-deficiency anemia, thalassemia, and other possible agents, we suspected that the hematologic effects might have resulted from pyrolytic products of CFC-12 and Halon 1211, which may contain phosgene, among other products. The acute transient hematologic effects observed in the exposed residents were associated with the incident of leakage of mixed fire-extinguisher gases and were most likely caused by a small amount of pyrolytic products, probably phosgene. Nine months after the exposure, we found a significant improvement in the abnormalities without any specific treatment.

  17. Fluid Dynamics of Bottle Filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGough, Patrick; Gao, Haijing; Appathurai, Santosh; Basaran, Osman

    2011-11-01

    Filling of bottles is a widely practiced operation in a large number of industries. Well known examples include filling of ``large'' bottles with shampoos and cleaners in the household products and beauty care industries and filling of ``small'' bottles in the pharmaceutical industry. Some bottle filling operations have recently drawn much attention from the fluid mechanics community because of the occurrence of a multitude of complex flow regimes, transitions, and instabilities such as mounding and coiling that occur as a bottle is filled with a fluid. In this talk, we present a primarily computational study of the fluid dynamical challenges that can arise during the rapid filling of bottles. Given the diversity of fluids used in filling applications, we consider four representative classes of fluids that exhibit Newtonian, shear-thinning, viscoelastic, and yield-stress rheologies. The equations governing the dynamics of bottle filling are solved either in their full 3D but axisymmetric form or using the slender-jet approximation.

  18. Impacts: NIST Building and Fire Research Laboratory (technical and societal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raufaste, N. J.

    1993-08-01

    The Building and Fire Research Laboratory (BFRL) of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is dedicated to the life cycle quality of constructed facilities. The report describes major effects of BFRL's program on building and fire research. Contents of the document include: structural reliability; nondestructive testing of concrete; structural failure investigations; seismic design and construction standards; rehabilitation codes and standards; alternative refrigerants research; HVAC simulation models; thermal insulation; residential equipment energy efficiency; residential plumbing standards; computer image evaluation of building materials; corrosion-protection for reinforcing steel; prediction of the service lives of building materials; quality of construction materials laboratory testing; roofing standards; simulating fires with computers; fire safety evaluation system; fire investigations; soot formation and evolution; cone calorimeter development; smoke detector standards; standard for the flammability of children's sleepwear; smoldering insulation fires; wood heating safety research; in-place testing of concrete; communication protocols for building automation and control systems; computer simulation of the properties of concrete and other porous materials; cigarette-induced furniture fires; carbon monoxide formation in enclosure fires; halon alternative fire extinguishing agents; turbulent mixing research; materials fire research; furniture flammability testing; standard for the cigarette ignition resistance of mattresses; support of navy firefighter trainer program; and using fire to clean up oil spills.

  19. Bottles of life: where plastic bottles battle bacteria | Wamanji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bottles of life: where plastic bottles battle bacteria. Eric Wamanji. Abstract. No Abstract. Discovery and Innovation Vol. 18(2) 2006: 80-82. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/dai.v18i2.15708 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  20. Construction of an Exploratory List of Chemicals to Initiate the Search for Halon Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    of chemical flame inhibition. Such insights will provide the knowledge base required for the intelligent design of alternative chemical fire...base required for the intelligent design of alterna- tive chemical fire suppressants. The literature review performed as part of this investigation...CA, 1985. [35] Glassman , I, Combustion, 2nd Ed., Academic Press, New York, 1987. [36] Haessler, W.M., Fire: Fundamentals and Control, Marcel Dekker

  1. 27 CFR 4.26 - Estate bottled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... process (the wine at no time having left the premises of the bottling winery). (b) Special rule for... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Standards of Identity for Wine § 4.26 Estate bottled. (a) Conditions for use. The term Estate bottled may be used by a bottling winery on a wine label...

  2. Ocular injuries from flying bottle caps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseka, C

    1993-12-01

    Three cases of serious eye injury are described from flying metal caps of carbonated drink bottles. The injuries occurred while attempting to open the bottle in an unconventional and dangerous way. Though injuries from flying bottle caps have been described before, they have occurred when the bottle exploded. This is the first report of eye injuries caused by bottle caps while opening and are similar to the injuries caused by champagne corks.

  3. A Plastic Bottle in Rectosigmoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Derakhshanfar

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Evaluation and treatment of foreign bodies in rectum involves careful history and physical examination. The cases of forced introduction of the objects most commonly are , sexual assault , self – introduced for anal eroticism and accidental insertion.Case Report: We describe a case of a patient with rectal impaction following self administration of a plastic bottle for anal sexual gratification. A 49 years old man was admitted in the emergency department with the history of self introduced a bottle into his rectum physical examination and abdominal X-Ray diagnosed the case as impacted foreign body in rectosigmoid. An attempt was made to deliver the bottle through the rectum but because of high lying big bottle in the sigmoid laporotomy was performed and the bottle was removed though a longitudinal incision on sigmoid colon.Conclusion: Retained rectosigmoid foreign bodies have been encountered more frequently and present a dilemma for management and rarely laporotomy for extraction of foreign bodies was performed.

  4. Radioactivity in French bottled waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loyen, J.; Brassac, A.; Augeray, C.; Fayolle, C.; Gleizes, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN (France)

    2014-07-01

    As IRSN is considered as a reference laboratory for radioactivity measurements, French health ministry and French nuclear safety authority asked IRSN to carry out a study in order to get a fresh and complete status of radiological water quality of French bottled waters. The study was carried out during 12 months in 2012. A total of 142 bottled waters samples were analyzed (75 spring waters and 67 natural mineral waters). The laboratories of IRSN were in charge of: - systematic measurement of radioactivity following requirements of the French health ministry (Circulaire du 13/06/2007) regarding the monitoring and management of sanitary risk linked to the presence of radionuclides in drinking waters (natural mineral waters excepted). - systematic uranium mass concentration determination; - a few radon-222 gas measurements for waters in glass bottles. This study is a flash assessment of radiological characteristics of French bottled waters, at the analysis date for the sample received. It was done in informative way and was not done for regulatory control purposes.. This study has shown that: - all bottled waters analyzed have a tritium activity concentration lower than the quality reference value of 100 Bq/l of the French regulation; - More than 105 bottled waters analyzed (80% of the springs waters and 70% of natural mineral waters received) have a gross alpha activity concentration lower than the guideline value of 0,1 Bq/l of the French regulation; - All bottled waters analyzed have a residual gross beta activity concentration lower than the guideline value of 1 Bq/l of the French regulation; - All bottled waters analyzed have a uranium mass concentration lower than the provisory guideline value of 30 μg/l of the WHO for drinking waters; - radon-222 was only significantly measured once upon 6 glass bottled waters with a value far below the reference value of 100 Bq/l of the future European Directive on drinking waters. For 32 bottled waters with gross alpha

  5. PET bottle use patterns and antimony migration into bottled water and soft drinks: the case of British and Nigerian bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukur, Aminu; Sharp, Liz; Stern, Ben; Tizaoui, Chedly; Benkreira, Hadj

    2012-04-01

    While antimony has been reported to migrate from PET bottles into contents, reports on bottled water and soft drinks usage and PET bottle reuse patterns are currently unavailable in the literature. Bottle use conditions and patterns are important determinants of antimony migration. In this work a survey assessing the pattern of bottle use and reuse in Britain and Nigeria was undertaken. The survey findings influenced the design of laboratory experiments that assessed the migration of antimony from PET bottles into water and soft drinks. Typical storage durations for bottled contents between purchase and opening for use were 7 days or less. However storage of up to one year was reported. Bottle reuse was high and similar for the two countries with reuse durations being higher in Nigeria. The antimony concentration in 32 PET bottle materials from Britain and Nigeria were similar and ranged between 177 and 310 mg kg(-1). For 47 freshly purchased British bottled contents antimony concentration ranged between 0.03 and 6.61 μg L(-1) with only one sample exceeding the EU acceptable limit. Concentrations of Cd, Ge, Zn, Al, Be, Ti, Co and Pb were also measured. At realistic temperatures of 40 and 60 °C antimony concentration in deionised water in bottles remained below the EU acceptable limit even after 48 h exposure. The limit was exceeded for most exposures at 80 °C. Concentration of antimony in some bottled contents exceeded the EU limit after 11 months of storage at room temperature. Bottle aging and increase in bottle volume were associated with decreased migration of antimony from bottles.

  6. 27 CFR 25.142 - Bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Marks, Brands, and Labels § 25.142 Bottles. (a) Label requirements. Each bottle of beer shall show by label or otherwise the name or trade name of the brewer, the net contents of the bottle, the nature of the product such as beer, ale, porter, stout, etc., and the place of production...

  7. 21 CFR 868.5220 - Blow bottle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blow bottle. 868.5220 Section 868.5220 Food and... ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5220 Blow bottle. (a) Identification. A blow bottle is a device that is intended for medical purposes to induce a forced expiration from a patient. The patient blows...

  8. 21 CFR 165.110 - Bottled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottled water. 165.110 Section 165.110 Food and... CONSUMPTION BEVERAGES Requirements for Specific Standardized Beverages § 165.110 Bottled water. (a) Identity—(1) Description. Bottled water is water that is intended for human consumption and that is sealed in...

  9. From Blogs to Bottle Caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinger, Ted

    2012-01-01

    There is a wonderful community of art educators connecting a once-isolated profession through blogging. Art educators around the world are sharing ideas and communicating with their peers through this amazing resource. In this article, the author describes the bottle cap mural at Tulip Grove Elementary School which was inspired by this exchange of…

  10. Fire History

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2002. Some fires...

  11. Fire Perimeters

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2003. Some fires...

  12. Associations between bottle-feeding intensity and maternal encouragement of bottle-emptying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Alison K; Garcia, Patsy; Schaffner, Andrew A

    2017-12-01

    To explore longitudinal associations between bottle-feeding and maternal encouragement of infant bottle-emptying during the first 6 months of infancy. Mothers completed questionnaires during the third trimester of pregnancy, then monthly during the first 6 months postpartum. Questionnaires assessed family demographics, maternal and infant weight status, infant feeding patterns and maternal encouragement of infant bottle-emptying. The Infant Feeding Practices Study 2, conducted by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Food and Drug Administration. Mothers (n 1776). Repeated-measures regression was used to explore associations between bottle-feeding intensity (BFI; defined as the percentage of daily feedings that were from a bottle) and encouragement of bottle-emptying. Mothers who reported consistently high or consistently low BFI also exhibited consistently higher or lower frequency of encouraging their infants to empty the bottle (respectively) across the first 6 months of infancy, whereas mothers who reported increases in their BFI also exhibited concomitant increases in the frequency to which they encouraged their infants to finish the bottle. More frequent encouragement of bottle-emptying was also associated with feeding expressed breast milk (Pbottles for infant feeding was significantly associated with more frequent encouragement of bottle-emptying. Further research using causal designs is needed to better understand whether the use of bottles promotes this controlling feeding practice or whether mothers with more controlling feeding practices opt to bottle-feed.

  13. Oscillations in a half-empty bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourges, Andréane; Chardac, Amélie; Caussarieu, Aude; Plihon, Nicolas; Taberlet, Nicolas

    2018-02-01

    When a half-empty bottle of water is pushed to roll on a flat surface, the oscillations of the fluid inside the bottle induce an overall jerky motion. These velocity fluctuations of the bottle are studied through simple laboratory experiments accessible to undergraduate students and can help them to grasp fundamental concepts in mechanics and hydrodynamics. We first demonstrate through an astute experiment that the rotation of the fluid and the bottle is decoupled. The equations of motion are then derived using a mechanical approach, while the hydrodynamics of the fluid motion is explained. Finally, the theory is tested against two benchmark experiments.

  14. Gas Property Demonstrations Using Plastic Water Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Dean J.; Bannon, Stephen J.; Gunter, Molly M.

    2011-01-01

    Plastic water bottles are convenient containers for demonstrations of gas properties illustrating Boyle's law, Charles's law, and Avogadro's law. The contents of iron-based disposable hand warmer packets can be used to remove oxygen gas from the air within an unfilled plastic water bottle.

  15. Green fiber bottle: Towards a sustainable package

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didone, Mattia; Tosello, Guido; Howard, Thomas J.

    The Green Fiber Bottle is a fully biodegradable bottle made from molded paper pulp.Its development depends on the establishment of the manufacturing technology. Impulse drying, an innovative way of drying, has the potential to improve significantly the manufacturing process of the Green Fiber...

  16. A pilot study comparing opaque, weighted bottles with conventional, clear bottles for infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Alison K; Pollack Golen, Rebecca

    2015-02-01

    It is hypothesized that the visual and weight cues afforded by bottle-feeding may lead mothers to overfeed in response to the amount of liquid in the bottle. The aim of the present pilot study was to test this hypothesis by comparing mothers' sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues and infants' intakes when mothers use opaque, weighted bottles (that remove visual and weight cues) compared to conventional, clear bottles to feed their infants. We also tested the hypothesis that mothers' pressuring feeding style would moderate the effect of bottle type. Formula-feeding dyads (N = 25) visited our laboratory on two separate days. Mothers fed their infants from a clear bottle one day and an opaque, weighted bottle on the other; bottle-order was counterbalanced across the two days. Infant intake was assessed by weighing each bottle before and after the feeding. Maternal sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues was objectively assessed using the Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale. Mothers were significantly more responsive to infant cues when they used opaque compared to clear bottles (p = .04). There was also a trend for infants to consume significantly less formula when fed from opaque compared to clear bottles (p = .08). Mothers' pressuring feeding style moderated the effect of bottle type on maternal responsiveness to infant cues (p = .02) and infant intake (p = .03). Specifically, mothers who reported higher levels of pressuring feeding were significantly more responsive to their infants' cues (p = .02) and fed their infants significantly less formula when using opaque versus clear bottles (p = .01); no differences were seen for mothers who reported lower levels of pressuring feeding. This study highlights a simple, yet effective intervention for improving the bottle-feeding practices of mothers who have pressuring feeding styles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fire safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. White; Mark A. Dietenberger

    1999-01-01

    Fire safety is an important concern in all types of construction. The high level of national concern for fire safety is reflected in limitations and design requirements in building codes. These code requirements are discussed in the context of fire safety design and evaluation in the initial section of this chapter. Since basic data on fire behavior of wood products...

  18. Suitability of Broken Bottles as Fine Aggregate for Production of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of broken bottles as partial replacement of river sand for production of concrete was investigated. The grading of the broken bottles and sand fell in zone II. The specific gravity of the bottles was 2.55 and that of sand was 2.65. Sand was replaced with the broken bottles in the proportions of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, ...

  19. 27 CFR 24.308 - Bottled or packed wine record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottled or packed wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.308 Bottled or packed wine record. A proprietor who bottles, packs, or receives bottled or packed beverage wine in bond shall...

  20. 27 CFR 24.256 - Bottle aging wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottle aging wine. 24.256... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine Bottling, Packing, and Labeling of Wine § 24.256 Bottle aging wine. Wine bottled or packed and stored for the purpose of aging need...

  1. Helmholtz Resonance in a Water Bottle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annirudh Balachandran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The resonance that occurs when blowing across the top of a water bottle filled with different volumes of water was studied. It was shown that, contrary to popular belief, a water bottle is not an ideal Helmholtz resonator. Resonance in a water bottle with an extendable neck was then studied to determine how the length of the neck affects the resonance. The results showed that ideal Helmholtz resonance occurs when the neck length was in a middle range, while for no neck a standing wave resonance occurs. For a very long neck the results were inconclusive.

  2. Bottle appeal drifts across the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbesmeyer, Curtis; Ingraham, W. James, Jr.; McKinnon, Richard; Okubo, Akira; Wang, Dong-Ping; Strickland, Richard; Willing, Peter

    Pacific drift currents were used by a group of oceanographers to estimate the path of a drift bottle that was found on a beach of Barkley Sound in Vancouver Island by Richard Strickland on June 10, 1990. The Chinese rice wine bottle, which remained unopened until December 18, 1991, contained six leaflets, one appealing for the release of China's well-known dissident, Wei Jingsheng. The bottle was one of thousands set adrift as part of a propaganda effort from the islands of Quemoy and Matsu off mainland China shortly after Wei was sentenced in 1979 to 15 years in prison (see Figure 1 for locations). Wei was in poor health and still in prison when the bottle made its way across the Pacific Ocean.

  3. GLOBEC NEP Rosette Bottle Data (2002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GLOBEC (GLOBal Ocean ECosystems Dynamics) NEP (Northeast Pacific) Rosette Bottle Data from New Horizon Cruise (NH0207: 1-19 August 2002). Notes: Physical data...

  4. Fire water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorpe, K. [Lawrence Webster Forrest Ltd. (United Kingdom)

    2001-01-01

    The article focuses on the value of water in fighting fires and discusses why refineries should identify water supply and distribution in contingency planning against fire. In the event of a fire, water will be required for (i) extinguishing the fire; (ii) protection of equipment and (iii) confinement of the fire. The thought process for identifying the water demand in the event of a fire is outlined. Tables give data on (a) water rates for cooling storage tanks; (b) water rates for cooling process units (c) guide to water requirements for various sizes of process units and (d) pumping requirements.

  5. Fire Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Fire Stations in the United States Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  6. Effect of bottling and storage on the migration of plastic constituents in Spanish bottled waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guart, Albert; Bono-Blay, Francisco; Borrell, Antonio; Lacorte, Silvia

    2014-08-01

    Bottled water is packaged in either glass or, to a large extent, in plastic bottles with metallic or plastic caps of different material, shape and colour. Plastic materials are made of one or more monomers and several additives that can eventually migrate into water, either during bottle manufacturing, water filling or storage. The main objective of the present study was to carry out a comprehensive assessment of the quality of the Spanish bottled water market in terms of (i) migration of plastic components or additives during bottling and during storage and (ii) evaluation of the effect of the packaging material and bottle format on the migration potential. The compounds investigated were 5 phthalates, diethylhexyl adipate, alkylphenols and bisphenol A. A set of 362 bottled water samples corresponding to 131 natural mineral waters and spring waters sources and 3 treated waters of several commercial brands were analysed immediately after bottling and after one-year storage (a total of 724 samples). Target compounds were detected in 5.6% of the data values, with diethyl hexyl phthalate and bisphenol A being the most ubiquitous compounds detected. The total daily intake was estimated and a comparison with reference values was indicated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. US Fire Administration Fire Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The U.S. Fire Administration collects data from a variety of sources to provide information and analyses on the status and scope of the fire problem in the United...

  8. Chemical quality of bottled waters: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diduch, Malwina; Polkowska, Zaneta; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    Bottled water has become very popular for quenching thirst and as a dietary (mineral) supplement. The plethora of natural mineral waters precludes any unequivocal system of classification, which makes it difficult for the consumer to choose a water with properties that suits him/her exactly. The ever-increasing popularity of bottled waters means that it is of the utmost importance to determine not only their mineral content, but above all, the content of possible contaminants, especially organic ones. In this respect bottled waters are a special case, because apart from organic contamination from the environment, the water may become secondarily contaminated as a result of its being improperly transported and stored. Pesticides, volatile organic compounds, and carbonyl compounds have been detected in samples of bottled water. This overview shows the available published information on levels of inorganic constituents and organic contaminants in samples of bottled water in the context of sample preparation procedures and analytical techniques. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Pire Safety: Awareness Of Fire Risk Among Students

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It can be destructive and uncontrollable causing loss of life and ... lives with immense destruction of property. Among secondary school .... Water spray systems Foam systems Gaseous extinguishing systems Carbon dioxide systems Inert gas systems Halon systems (these damage the ozone layer. Halons 130 1, 121 1 and ...

  10. Ultracold neutron storage in a fluid-walled bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, J. C.

    1982-04-01

    Theoretically possible wall-loss probabilities for ultracold neutrons stored in solid-walled bottles have not been achieved in practice, but preliminary measurements with a fluid-walled bottle seem promising.

  11. Wildland fire limits subsequent fire occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean A. Parks; Carol Miller; Lisa M. Holsinger; Scott Baggett; Benjamin J. Bird

    2016-01-01

    Several aspects of wildland fire are moderated by site- and landscape-level vegetation changes caused by previous fire, thereby creating a dynamic where one fire exerts a regulatory control on subsequent fire. For example, wildland fire has been shown to regulate the size and severity of subsequent fire. However, wildland fire has the potential to influence...

  12. Determinants of using pacifier and bottle feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela dos Santos Buccini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the factors associated with the use of pacifiers and/or bottle feeding in infants aged under one year. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study with 34,366 children and using data from the database of the 2nd Nationwide Survey of Breastfeeding Prevalence performed in the Brazilian capitals and Federal District in 2008. Cluster sampling was used. The questionnaire included questions about the use of artificial nipples in the last 24 hours. The analysis considered three outcomes: exclusive use of pacifier, exclusive use of bottle feeding, and use of artificial nipples (pacifier and bottle feeding. Prevalence ratios were obtained using Poisson regression with robust variance following a hierarchical model. RESULTS The following factors were associated with exclusive use of the pacifier: mother working outside the home, primiparity, child was not breastfed within the first hour, and child had consumed tea on the first day at home. The following factors were associated with exclusive use of bottle feeding: mother working outside the home, primiparity, low birth weight, child not breastfed within the first hour, and child had consumed milk formula and tea on the first day at home. The following factors were associated with use of artificial nipples (pacifier and bottle feeding: mother working outside the home, primiparity, cesarean delivery, the male gender, low birth weight, born in a hospital not accredited as “baby friendly”, required health baby monitoring in the Primary Health Care Unit (PR = 0.91, and child had consumed milk formula, water, or tea on the first day at home. CONCLUSIONS This study identified profiles of exclusive users of pacifiers, bottle feeding, and both. The provided information can guide preventive practices for child health.

  13. Determinants of using pacifier and bottle feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccini, Gabriela dos Santos; Benício, Maria Helena D'Aquino; Venancio, Sonia Isoyama

    2014-08-01

    To analyze the factors associated with the use of pacifiers and/or bottle feeding in infants aged under one year. This is a cross-sectional study with 34,366 children and using data from the database of the 2nd Nationwide Survey of Breastfeeding Prevalence performed in the Brazilian capitals and Federal District in 2008. Cluster sampling was used. The questionnaire included questions about the use of artificial nipples in the last 24 hours. The analysis considered three outcomes: exclusive use of pacifier, exclusive use of bottle feeding, and use of artificial nipples (pacifier and bottle feeding). Prevalence ratios were obtained using Poisson regression with robust variance following a hierarchical model. The following factors were associated with exclusive use of the pacifier: mother working outside the home, primiparity, child was not breastfed within the first hour, and child had consumed tea on the first day at home. The following factors were associated with exclusive use of bottle feeding: mother working outside the home, primiparity, low birth weight, child not breastfed within the first hour, and child had consumed milk formula and tea on the first day at home. The following factors were associated with use of artificial nipples (pacifier and bottle feeding): mother working outside the home, primiparity, cesarean delivery, the male gender, low birth weight, born in a hospital not accredited as "baby friendly", required health baby monitoring in the Primary Health Care Unit (PR = 0.91), and child had consumed milk formula, water, or tea on the first day at home. This study identified profiles of exclusive users of pacifiers, bottle feeding, and both. The provided information can guide preventive practices for child health.

  14. Water bottle rocket in undergraduate laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, William

    2012-11-01

    In the winter semester of 2012, we implemented the modeling and testing of a water bottle rocket in ME 495, the Senior Laboratory in Mechanical Engineering at the University of Michigan. The four week lab was the most well received by the students in recent memory. There were significant challenges, but the result was a thorough review of their undergraduate fluids class with some advanced concepts such as directional stability of a projectile. The student teams designed their own rockets based on one of many standard 20 ounce soft drink bottles. The culminating contest brought impressive results and a surprise ending.

  15. Interfacial properties of bottle-brush polyelectrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claesson, P. M.; Naderi, A.; Iruthayaraj, J.

    2007-01-01

    This article is focused on interfacial properties of bottle brush polyelectrolytes, where side-chains are attached along a polymer backbone. This class of polymer has been much less studied than block copolymers, which is particularly true for bottle brush polyelectrolytes with a high graft density...... whereas on silica both electrostatic forces and interactions between silica and ethylene oxide chains drive the adsorption. On silica the adsorbed amount is very sensitive to solution ionic strength and pH. We also report on surface interactions and frictional forces obtained between surfaces coated...

  16. Bottle wars: England versus Scotland versus France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, Robert B; Athanasopoulos, Athanassios A; Allan, Michael S; Atchia, Sarah M

    2002-05-01

    Four batches of four brands of bottled water from England, Scotland and France were tested for their microbiological and physicochemical characteristics during a 2-month study. The lowest priced brand of water had the highest nitrate content (46.9 mg/L), while the most expensive brand did not necessarily have the best values for pH, total dissolved solids, turbidity or plate count. While no sample was positive for E. coli, the range of other measured values varied widely between brands and batches during the study. The bottled water samples from France on average demonstrated better results than the other countries studied.

  17. Disordered crystal structure of 20H-AlON, Al{sub 10}O{sub 3}N{sub 8}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banno, Hiroki [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Research Fellow of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (Japan); Funahashi, Shiro [Sialon Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Asaka, Toru [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Hirosaki, Naoto [Sialon Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Fukuda, Koichiro, E-mail: fukuda.koichiro@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    The disordered crystal structure of 20H-AlON (Al{sub 10}O{sub 3}N{sub 8}) was determined by combined use of X-ray powder diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The title compound is hexagonal with space group P6{sub 3}/mmc (Z=2) and the unit-cell dimensions are a=0.307082(5) nm, c=5.29447(8) nm and V=0.432376(12) nm{sup 3}. The structural model showed the positional disordering of three of the six Al sites in the unit cell. The reliability indices calculated from the Rietveld method were R{sub wp}=6.97%, S (=R{sub wp}/R{sub e})=1.68, R{sub p}=5.45%, R{sub B}=5.13% and R{sub F}=4.56%. We interpreted the disordered structure of 20H-AlON as a statistical average of six different types of ordered structural configurations, which are composed of an octahedral [Al(O, N){sub 6}] layer and tetrahedral [Al(O, N){sub 4}] layers. We demonstrated the high correlations between the hexagonal unit-cell dimensions and the octahedral layer concentrations for AlON and SiAlON polytypoids. - Graphical abstract: Variations of a and c/(n{sub O}+n{sub T}) with n{sub O}/(n{sub O}+n{sub T}). The a and c are the hexagonal unit-cell dimensions of AlON, SiAlON and AlN. The n{sub O} and n{sub T} are, respectively, the numbers of octahedral and tetrahedral layers in the unit cells. The unit-cell dimensions in literature are plotted in black plus for AlON and black cross for SiAlON. The unit-cell dimensions of AlN are a=0.3110 nm and c=0.4980 nm. - Highlights: • Crystal structure of Al10O3N8 is determined by laboratory X-ray powder diffraction. • The atom arrangements are represented by the split-atom model. • Six types of ordered atom arrangements are derived from the disordered structure. • Hexagonal unit-cell dimensions changed systematically for AlON and SiAlON compounds.

  18. Bottle-feeding and the Risk of Pyloric Stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Camilla; Biggar, Robert J; Fischer, Thea Kølsen

    2012-01-01

    Bottle-feeding has been suggested to increase the risk of pyloric stenosis (PS). However, large population-based studies are needed. We examined the effect of bottle-feeding during the first 4 months after birth, by using detailed data about the timing of first exposure to bottle-feeding...

  19. factors influencing the consumption and standards of bottled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BARTH EKWUEME

    the need to stay hydrated and the greater accessibility of bottled water in emerging economies. Bottled water remains a soft drink force to be reckoned with (Zenith. International, 2006). Bottled water companies such as. Dasani, Nestle, Coca-Cola and Pepsi are engaged in constant search for new water supplies to feed the.

  20. A fluid sample bottle for use in deep wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duvallet, B.

    1991-11-15

    A new sample bottle for collecting mixtures of water and gas in deep wells is presented. The bottle, where vacuum is realized beforehand, is filled with a filtration system for solid particles. Pure water and gas may be delivered separately. The bottle is applicable to geothermics, nuclear plants, oceanography and geochemistry.

  1. Prospects for Recycling of Waste PET Bottles in Mauritius

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nafiisah

    This paper analyses the status and prospects of waste PET (PolyEthylene. Terephthalate) bottles recycling in Mauritius. Over the past decade the packaging industry has witnessed a momentous swing away from glass bottles and cans into fully recyclable PET plastic bottles, being viewed as a more consumer friendly.

  2. Buying and Caring for Baby Bottles and Nipples

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will not break if dropped. If you choose plastic, it is best to buy new bottles. Reused or hand-me-down bottles may contain bisphenol-A (BPA). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has banned the use of BPA in baby bottles due ...

  3. 27 CFR 24.255 - Bottling or packing wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottling or packing wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine Bottling, Packing, and Labeling of Wine § 24.255 Bottling or packing wine. (a) General. Proprietors of a bonded wine premises and...

  4. Green Fiber Bottle:the fully biodegradable packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Didone, Mattia; Tosello, Guido

    2016-01-01

    The ambition of the Green Fiber Bottle (GFB) project is to manufacture a fully biodegradable bottle. Carlsberg is the intended end user, and they aim to package their beer in the new bottle. The new product is intended to replace the existing plastic and glass bottles, and thus reducing their impact on the environment, especially the oceans. For example, the life span of a plastic bottle in the ocean is 500 years, and during its degradation, the plastic is reduced to micro pieces, which cause...

  5. Bottle microresonator with actively stabilized evanescent coupling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junge, C.; Nickel, S.; O'Shea, D.; Rauschenbeutel, A.

    2011-01-01

    The evanescent coupling of light between a whispering-gallery-mode bottle microresonator and a subwavelength-diameter coupling fiber is actively stabilized by means of the Pound-Drever-Hall technique. We demonstrate the stabilization of a critically coupled resonator with a control bandwidth of 0.1

  6. Bottled Water Everywhere: Keeping it Safe

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... water also comes from municipal sources—in other words, the tap. Municipal water is usually treated before it is bottled. Examples ... regulations put in place and enforced by FDA. Water must be sampled, analyzed, and found to be safe and sanitary. These regulations also ...

  7. Ralstonia pickettii Traced in Blood Culture Bottles

    OpenAIRE

    Boutros, Névine; Gonullu, Nevriye; Casetta, Anne; Guibert, Michèle; Ingrand, Didier; Lebrun, Léa

    2002-01-01

    Over a 9-month period, 14 strains of Ralstonia pickettii were isolated from various biological samples inoculated in a blood culture medium. Molecular epidemiological investigation confirmed the relatedness of the strains. The source of the contamination proved to be the blood culture bottle caps.

  8. Legionella pneumophila in commercial bottled mineral water.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klont, R.R.; Rijs, A.J.M.M.; Warris, A.; Sturm, P.D.J.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Verweij, P.E.

    2006-01-01

    Sixty-eight commercial bottled mineral waters (64 brands, 68 different 'best-before dates') were tested for the presence of bacteria and fungi. Six samples were Legionella antigen positive and six were Legionella pneumophila PCR positive. Two samples were both Legionella antigen and L. pneumophila

  9. Dating of young groundwater using four anthropogenic trace gases (SF6, SF5CF3, CFC-12 and Halon-1301): methodology and first results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartyzel, Jakub; Rozanski, Kazimierz

    2016-01-01

    A dedicated, GC-based analytical system is presented which allows detection of four anthropogenic trace gases (SF6, SF5CF3, CFC-12 and Halon-1301) in a single water sample, with detection limits and measurement uncertainties sufficiently low to employ them as quantitative indicators of groundwater age. The gases dissolved in water are extracted in the field using the method based on a dynamic head-space concept. In the laboratory, the investigated gases are cryogenically enriched, separated and measured using an electron capture detector. Reproducibility of the analyses is in the order of 2-5 %. The investigated tracers were measured in several production wells located in the recharge area of an intensively exploited aquifer in southern Poland. While the piston-flow ages of groundwater in the investigated wells revealed internal consistency, they appeared to be generally smaller than the ages derived from time series of tritium content in those wells, interpreted by lumped-parameter models. This difference stems mainly from significantly longer travel times of tritium through the unsaturated zone, when compared to the gaseous tracers being used. The results of this study highlight the benefits of using multiple tracing in quantifying timescales of groundwater flow in shallow aquifer systems.

  10. Fire danmarkskort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Birger Faurholt

    2017-01-01

    Fire danmarkskort udarbejdet på baggrund af dataudtræk fra indsendte gødningsregnskaber for planperioden 2015/2016......Fire danmarkskort udarbejdet på baggrund af dataudtræk fra indsendte gødningsregnskaber for planperioden 2015/2016...

  11. On fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Rabøl

    The title of this paper: “On fire”, refers to two (maybe three) aspects: firstly as a metaphor of having engagement in a community of practice according to Lave & Wenger (1991), and secondly it refers to the concrete element “fire” in the work of the fire fighters – and thirdly fire as a signifier...

  12. Fire Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denker, Deb; West, Lee

    2009-01-01

    For education administrators, campus fires are not only a distressing loss, but also a stark reminder that a campus faces risks that require special vigilance. In many ways, campuses resemble small communities, with areas for living, working and relaxing. A residence hall fire may raise the specter of careless youth, often with the complication of…

  13. Forest-fire models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiganoush Preisler; Alan Ager

    2013-01-01

    For applied mathematicians forest fire models refer mainly to a non-linear dynamic system often used to simulate spread of fire. For forest managers forest fire models may pertain to any of the three phases of fire management: prefire planning (fire risk models), fire suppression (fire behavior models), and postfire evaluation (fire effects and economic models). In...

  14. 46 CFR 28.315 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... After September 15, 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.315 Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel 36 feet (11.8 meters) or more in length must...

  15. Bottle-feeding and the Risk of Pyloric Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, Camilla; Biggar, Robert J; Fischer, Thea K; Lindholm, Morten; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Melbye, Mads

    2012-10-01

    Bottle-feeding has been suggested to increase the risk of pyloric stenosis (PS). However, large population-based studies are needed. We examined the effect of bottle-feeding during the first 4 months after birth, by using detailed data about the timing of first exposure to bottle-feeding and extensive confounder information. We performed a large population-based cohort study based on the Danish National Birth Cohort, which provided information on infants and feeding practice. Information about surgery for PS was obtained from the Danish National Patient Register. The association between bottle-feeding and the risk of PS was evaluated by hazard ratios (HRs) estimated in a Cox regression model, adjusting for possible confounders. Among 70148 singleton infants, 65 infants had surgery for PS, of which 29 were bottle-fed before PS diagnosis. The overall HR of PS for bottle-fed infants compared with not bottle-fed infants was 4.62 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.78-7.65). Among bottle-fed infants, risk increases were similar for infants both breast and bottle-fed (HR: 3.36 [95% CI: 1.60-7.03]), formerly breastfed (HR: 5.38 [95% CI: 2.88-10.06]), and never breastfed (HR: 6.32 [95% CI: 2.45-16.26]) (P = .76). The increased risk of PS among bottle-fed infants was observed even after 30 days since first exposure to bottle-feeding and did not vary with age at first exposure to bottle-feeding. Bottle-fed infants experienced a 4.6-fold higher risk of PS compared with infants who were not bottle-fed. The result adds to the evidence supporting the advantage of exclusive breastfeeding in the first months after birth.

  16. Clinical Comparison of Nonvented Aerobic BacT/Alert Blood Culture Bottle and Standard Aerobic Bottle for Detection of Microorganisms in Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, James W.; Benzing, Karen S.; Munier, Gina K.; Bostic, Grace D.; Bozigar, Pamela S.; Hanna, Rami; Zervos, Marcus J.

    2000-01-01

    The current BacT/Alert standard aerobic (VA) blood culture bottle was redesigned and designated a nonvented aerobic (NVA) culture bottle; this bottle does not require venting. A total of 3,873 sets of blood samples for culture were obtained from adult patients with suspected bacteremia or fungemia. The NVA bottle showed performance equivalent to that of the VA bottle for recovery and speed of detection of microorganisms from blood without the need for venting the bottle. PMID:11015422

  17. An upright eyedrop bottle: accuracy, usage of excess drops, and contamination compared to a conventional bottle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies IJ

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Isaiah J Davies,1 Ninita H Brown,2 Joanne C Wen,3 Sandra S Stinnett,1 Kelsey Kubelick,4,5 Roma P Patel,6 Kristin L Benokraitis,7 Latoya Greene,1 Curry Cheek,1 Kelly W Muir1,8 1Department of Ophthalmology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA; 2Metrolina Eye Associates, Charlotte, NC, USA; 3Department of Ophthalmology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 4Wallace H Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 5Wallace H Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; 6University of California Davis Health System Eye Center, Sacramento, CA, USA; 7EG-GILERO, Durham, NC, USA; 8Health Services Research & Development, Durham VA Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Purpose: This study tested the feasibility of using an upright eyedrop bottle (UEB, a device designed to assist patients with eyedrop placement without reclining their head. Patients and methods: Experienced eyedrop users were enrolled who answered “yes” to the question, “Do you ever have trouble getting your eyedrops in?” After being shown a multimedia presentation and answering a questionnaire regarding eyedrop usage, participants were observed instilling eyedrops. Participants were instructed to instill a single eyedrop in each eye with both a standard bottle and the UEB. They repeated this process three times. With each trial, the amount of time taken to instill drops was recorded, as well as whether a drop landed in the eye (accuracy, if excess drops were used, and if the bottle tip was contaminated. Results: Forty participants were enrolled, with an average age of 72.4±8.9 years; the majority were females (24 females. Thirty-four participants had been using eyedrops for at least 1 year. The time required to instill eyedrops was significantly less with the UEB in the second and third trials. There was no difference in accuracy between the conventional bottle and the UEB

  18. Evaluation of Using Waste of Bottles in Concrete as Sustainable Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab Hasan Abdulabbas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the current study attention was focused on effects of using wastes of plastic and glass of juices and soft drink bottles in concrete, and the optimum percent's of the wastes were detected giving the best properties of concrete. Total number of concrete mixes was (12, which have different wastes additions details. These mixes included: three mixes have plastic fibers (1, 2, 3% by cement weight, three mixes have glass with ratios of (10, 15, 20% as a replacement of sand volume, three mixes have pieces of plastic bottle caps with ratios of (15, 20, 25% as a replacement of gravel volume. The mix that has the optimum properties in these three groups, was selected to merge these types of wastes in one mix. Therefore, two additional mixes were prepared; one mix contains addition of 2% plastic fibers and 15% glass; and the other mix contains 20% plastic bottle caps and 15% glass, in addition to the reference mix without any waste additions. The achieved tests comprise; compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, flexural strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity, density, absorption and fire resistance. Tests results give good indications about using these waste in concrete; when two types of wastes are added to the mixes (plastic fiber with glass C11 or pieces of bottle caps and glass C12 the compressive strength is improved noticeably, the residual compressive strength is about (75% and 83% with total ratio of wastes about 35% at age of 7 and 28 days, respectively, in mix C12, and (76 .7% and 70.5% with total ratio of wastes about 17% at age of 7 and28 days, respectively, in mix C11.

  19. Health beliefs about bottled water: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wernham Aaron GH

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a consistent rise in bottled water consumption over the last decade. Little is known about the health beliefs held by the general public about bottled water as this issue is not addressed by the existing quantitative literature. The purpose of this study was to improve understanding of the public's health beliefs concerning bottled mineral water, and the extent to which these beliefs and other views they hold, influence drinking habits. Methods A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews, with 23 users of the Munrow Sports Centre on the University of Birmingham campus. Results Health beliefs about bottled water could be classified as general or specific beliefs. Most participants believed that bottled water conferred general health benefits but were unsure as to the nature of these. In terms of specific health beliefs, the idea that the minerals in bottled water conferred a health benefit was the most commonly cited. There were concerns over links between the plastic bottle itself and cancer. Participants believed that bottled water has a detrimental effect on the environment. Convenience, cost and taste were influential factors when making decisions as to whether to buy bottled water; health beliefs were unimportant motivating factors. Conclusion The majority of participants believed that bottled water has some health benefits. However, these beliefs played a minor role in determining bottled water consumption and are unlikely to be helpful in explaining recent trends in bottled water consumption if generalised to the UK population. The health beliefs elicited were supported by scientific evidence to varying extents. Most participants did not feel that bottled water conferred significant, if any, health benefits over tap water.

  20. Fire Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Whether the number is 911 or a regular phone number, everyone in the family should know it by ... near the phone. Include the local fire department phone number, your full home address and phone number, and ...

  1. Kaleidoscope – Printed Textiles by Neil Bottle

    OpenAIRE

    Bottle, Neil

    2013-01-01

    One man show at Rochester Art Gallery. In the Kaleidoscope series, Neil Bottle explores the relationship between digital textile printing and craft printing techniques and how these seemingly opposing practices can coexist. A combination of the latest cutting-edge digital print techniques such as dye sublimation combined with craft traditions such as screen printing, discharge printing, pleating and shibori have been developed in the work. The Kaleidoscope series of wallhangings is pr...

  2. Dark Matter in a twisted bottle

    OpenAIRE

    Arbey, Alexandre; Cacciapaglia, Giacomo; Deandrea, Aldo; Kubik, Bogna

    2012-01-01

    The real projective plane is a compact, non-orientable orbifold of Euler characteristic 1 without boundaries, which can be described as a twisted Klein bottle. We shortly review the motivations for choosing such a geometry among all possible two-dimensional orbifolds, while the main part of the study will be devoted to dark matter study and limits in Universal Extra Dimensional (UED) models based on this peculiar geometry. In the following we consider such a UED construction based on the dire...

  3. Bottle microresonator with actively stabilized evanescent coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Junge, C; O'Shea, D; Rauschenbeutel, A

    2011-01-01

    The evanescent coupling of light between a whispering-gallery-mode bottle microresonator and a sub-wavelength-diameter coupling fiber is actively stabilized by means of a Pound-Drever-Hall technique. We demonstrate the stabilization of a critically coupled resonator with a control bandwidth of 0.1 Hz, yielding a residual transmission of (9 \\pm 3) \\times 10^-3 for more than an hour. Simultaneously, the frequency of the resonator mode is actively stabilized.

  4. Recall campaign for gas bottles and banks

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The previous contract with gas supplier Carbagas ended on 31 March 2015. Gas bottles and banks are not a property of CERN. According to the contract terms, they can remain on CERN sites without any extra costs until 30 September 2015.    If you are using Carbagas containers (bottles and/or banks) for gas purchased between 1 April 2010 and 31 March 2015, multiple options exist: Return them to the closest gas point. Purchase them on the following basis:     Rent them on the following basis: 12 CHF/month for bottles, 144 CHF/month for banks. The recall campaign has been going on for several months already: we would like to thank everyone who has already replied to it. If you haven’t answered yet, there is still time. If you know of unused or abandoned Carbagas containers, please don’t hesitate to contact us. Thank you i...

  5. Flexural Toughness of Ring-Shaped Waste Bottle Fiber Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Faisal S. K.; Irwan J.M; Othman N.; Wan Ibrahim M. H.

    2016-01-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles are plastic containers that are typically discarded, and thus, cause environmental pollution. To solve this problem, PET bottles are recycled incorporating with concrete. A ring-shaped PET (RPET) fiber are introduced in this study and designed with a special shape to mobilize fiber yielding rather than fiber pullout. Therefore, aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of RPET bottles fibre in terms of toughness strength. The width of RPET fibe...

  6. Dispatches from the DMZ: Bottle Cell Formation During Xenopus Gastrulation

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jen-Yi

    2011-01-01

    Bottle cell-driven blastopore lip formation externally marks the initiation of gastrulation in amphibian embryos. The blastopore groove is formed when bottle cells undergo apical constriction and transform from cuboidal to flask-shaped. Apical constriction is sufficient to cause invagination and is a highly conserved mechanism for sheet bending and folding during morphogenesis; therefore, studying apical constriction in Xenopus bottle cells could provide valuable insight into this fundamental...

  7. 21 CFR 880.6085 - Hot/cold water bottle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hot/cold water bottle. 880.6085 Section 880.6085... Devices § 880.6085 Hot/cold water bottle. (a) Identification. A hot/cold water bottle is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with hot or cold water...

  8. Fire Safety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Braces Eating Disorders Mitral Valve Prolapse Arrhythmias Fire Safety KidsHealth > For Parents > Fire Safety Print A ... event of a fire emergency in your home. Fire Prevention Of course, the best way to practice ...

  9. Fire Research Enclosure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Simulates submarine fires, enclosed aircraft fires, and fires in enclosures at shore facilities .DESCRIPTION: FIRE I is a pressurizable, 324 cu m(11,400 cu...

  10. Active Fire Mapping Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Active Fire Mapping Program Current Large Incidents (Home) New Large Incidents Fire Detection Maps MODIS Satellite Imagery VIIRS Satellite Imagery Fire Detection GIS Data Fire Data in Google Earth ...

  11. Towards a sensory congruent beer bottle: Consumer associations between beer brands, flavours, and bottle designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenko, Anna; Heiltjes, Sanne; van den Berg-Weitzel, Lianne; Lloyd, Peter; Bohemia, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Sensory packaging design congruent with product and brand characteristics may be used as an innovative tool to communicate product and brand values to consumers and to enhance taste experience. This study investigated whether consumers associate sensory properties of beer bottles with certain brand

  12. Little bottles and the promise of probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burges Watson, Duika; Moreira, Tiago; Murtagh, Madeleine

    2009-03-01

    In this article we explore; regimes of hope' in contemporary bioscience as articulated in spaces of health consumption. We use the case study of probiotic little bottles, highlighting their promissory branding as consumer products, to consider how hope and truth play out across different spaces of health care - the supermarket, media and laboratory. Drawing on work within both sociological and geographic literatures to think about hope, truth and probiotics, this article explores their ambiguous promise through an analysis of their biomedical and popular representation. The seemingly incommensurate promise of probiotics between popular and medical spheres provides the point of departure for an examination of the geographies of hope, truth and selfhood.

  13. Treatment of nursing bottle caries with ribbond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Jindal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ribbond is a biocompatible, esthetic material made from high-strength polyethylene fiber. Lenowoven polyethylene ribbon (Ribbond has been used successfully for tooth splinting, replacement of missing teeth, reinforcement of provisional acrylic resin fixed partial dentures, and orthodontic retention. This article presents the application of this polyethylene ribbon - RIBBOND - for the treatment of nursing bottle caries. To conclude we suggest that this combined technique of polyethylene fibers and composite material could be a very efficient alternative procedure to conventional treatment plans in pedodontic practice, with excellent esthetics and functional results.

  14. Heat Transfer in Glass, Aluminum, and Plastic Beverage Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, William M.; Shevlin, Ryan C.; Soffen, Tanya S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses a controversy regarding the effect of bottle material on the thermal performance of beverage bottles. Experiments and calculations that verify or refute advertising claims and represent an interesting way to teach heat transfer fundamentals are described. Heat transfer coefficients and the resistance to heat transfer offered…

  15. levels of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in selected bottled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accer

    ABSTRACT. The levels of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in bottled drinking water and the effect of storage time and storage conditions on their levels were determined. A total of 144 samples of six brands of bottled drinking water were purchased from Dar es Salaam, Iringa, Mwanza and Arusha regions in Tanzania.

  16. Improvements to the Whoosh Bottle Rocket Car Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Dean J.; Staiger, Felicia A.; Jujjavarapu, Chaitanya N.

    2015-01-01

    The whoosh bottle rocket car has been redesigned to be more reusable and more robust, making it even easier to use as a demonstration. Enhancements of this demonstration, including the use of heat sensitive ink and electronic temperature probes, enable users to find warmer and cooler regions on the surface of the whoosh bottle.

  17. Levels of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in selected bottled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The levels of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in bottled drinking water and the effect of storage time and storage conditions on their levels were determined. A total of 144 samples of six brands of bottled drinking water were purchased from Dar es Salaam, Iringa, Mwanza and Arusha regions in Tanzania. Analysis was ...

  18. Bisphenol A Detection in Various Brands of Drinking Bottled Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess whether bisphenol A contamination occurred in seven brands of bottled drinking water in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: Liquid-liquid extraction (using dichloromethane) was used to analytically extract bisphenol A from drinking water bottles and a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer was employed ...

  19. Quality characteristics of commercial bottled water sold in Owerri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality characteristics of commercial bottled water sold in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria were investigated to determine their physical, chemical and bacteriological content. The four brands of bottled water investigated were Mevok ®, Ozonized April ®, Lacrystal ® and Eva ®. The mean turbidity value of all the samples were ...

  20. Bacteriological Evaluation of Water Bottles Used by Nursery School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacteriological evaluation of water bottles used by nursery school pupils in Owerri metropolis was carried out. Eleven bacterial genera were isolated from the water bottle samples. These included Bacillus, E. coli, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Micrococcus, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, Salmonella, Shigella and ...

  1. techno-economic packaging of palm wine preservation and bottling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    KEYWORDS: Entrepreneur, Palm Wine Preservation, Palmwine Bottling Technology, Techno-Economic ... Nigeria Limited palm wine bottling plant installed by .... 680.02. FACTORY COST. 16,852.51. 17,880.39. 19,227.90. 20,309.98 21,405.66. Admin Overhead. Marketing Overhead. 1,135.12. 850.00. 1,191.88. 892.50.

  2. 27 CFR 25.158 - Tax computation for bottled beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.158 Section 25.158 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.158 Tax computation for bottled beer. Barrel equivalents for various case sizes are as follows: (a) For U.S. measure...

  3. Bacteriological quality of bottled water sold on the Ghanaian market ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consumption of bottled water is increasing rapidly in developing countries especially among the middle and high income earners as it is generally perceived to be pure, clean and of good quality. This has led to the sale of different brands of bottled water on the Ghanaian market. Although disease outbreaks due to ...

  4. Wooden beverage cases cause little damage to bottle caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Bruce Anderson; William C. Miller

    1973-01-01

    Wooden beverage cases cause little damage to aluminum resealable caps during distribution. A study at bottling plants and distribution warehouses showed that an average of 1 bottle out of 4,000 has cap damage. Most of the damage was attributed to handling at the warehouse and in transit. Some recommendations are given for improvement of wooden beverage cases to prevent...

  5. UTILIZATION OF WASTE PLASTIC BOTTLES IN ASPHALT MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAHER BAGHAEE MOGHADDAM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, large amounts of waste materials are being produced in the world. One of the waste materials is plastic bottle. Generating disposable plastic bottles is becoming a major problem in many countries. Using waste plastic as a secondary material in construction projects would be a solution to overcome the crisis of producing large amount of waste plastics in one hand and improving the structure’s characteristics such as resistance against cracking on the other hand. This study aimed to investigate the effects of adding plastic bottles in road pavement. Marshall properties as well as specific gravity of asphalt mixture containing different percentages of plastic bottles were evaluated. Besides, Optimum Asphalt Content (OAC was calculated for each percentages of plastic bottles used in the mix. The stiffness and fatigue characteristics of mixture were assessed at OAC value. Results showed that the stability and flow values of asphalt mixture increased by adding waste crushed plastic bottle into the asphalt mixture. Further, it was shown that the bulk specific gravity and stiffness of mixtures increased by adding lower amount of plastic bottles; however, adding higher amounts of plastic resulted in lower specific gravity and mix stiffness. In addition, it was concluded that the mixtures containing waste plastic bottles have lower OAC values compared to the conventional mixture, and this may reduce the amount of asphalt binder can be used in road construction projects. Besides, the mixtures containing waste plastic showed significantly greater fatigue resistance than the conventional mixture.

  6. Infant Bottle-Feeding Practice, Agaro Town, Southwest Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence and duration of breast-feeding is declining and being replaced by formula milk. The morbidity and mortality of bottle fed infants is much greater than breast fed infants. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of bottle-feeding and to assess factors that contribute to the practice ...

  7. 27 CFR 27.206 - Bottles not constituting approved containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... approved containers. 27.206 Section 27.206 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Requirements for Liquor Bottles § 27.206 Bottles not constituting approved containers. The appropriate TTB...

  8. Bottled or tap? Testing perceptions about water in Lebanon and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-09

    Jun 9, 2016 ... Researchers compared water quality available in two informal settlements in Lebanon and Jordan. Tests were conducted to compare water supplied by the municipality and bottled water. The results: tests showed that their quality is similar, although the brand of the bottled water and how it is stored affected ...

  9. Computed Tomography characterization of the Green Fiber Bottle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxena, Prateek; Bissacco, Giuliano

    The work carried out in this research aims at identifying suitable ways for thorough characterization of the quality of paper bottles. Industrial X-ray Computed Tomography (XCT) is particularly advantageous in determining the quality of paper bottles and thus correlating it with the production...

  10. Fire Synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fire Synthesis - Preparation of Alumina Products. Tanu Mimani. Volume 16 Issue 12 December 2011 pp 1324-1332. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/016/12/1324-1332. Keywords. Alumina; combustion; refractory materials; urea. Author Affiliations. Tanu Mimani1.

  11. Fire Synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 2. Fire Synthesis - Preparation of Alumina Products. Tanu Mimani. General Article Volume 5 Issue 2 February 2000 pp 50-57. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/005/02/0050-0057 ...

  12. Forest Fires

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 11. Forest Fires - Origins and Ecological Paradoxes. K Narendran. General Article Volume 6 Issue 11 November 2001 pp 34-41. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/11/0034-0041 ...

  13. Fire Behavior (FB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane

    2006-01-01

    The Fire Behavior (FB) method is used to describe the behavior of the fire and the ambient weather and fuel conditions that influence the fire behavior. Fire behavior methods are not plot based and are collected by fire event and time-date. In general, the fire behavior data are used to interpret the fire effects documented in the plot-level sampling. Unlike the other...

  14. Fire Symfonier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Svend Hvidtfelt

    2009-01-01

    sidste fire symfonier. Den er måske snarere at opfatte som et præludium til disse. At påstå, at symfonierne fra Holmboes side er planlagt til at være beslægtede, ville være at gå for vidt. Alene de 26 år, der skiller den 10. fra den 13., gør påstanden - i bedste fald - dubiøs. Når deres udformning...... udkrystallisering som i de sidste små 30 år af hans virke har afkastet disse fire variationer over en grundlæggende central holmboesk fornemmelse for form, melodi, klang og rytme. Denne oplevelse har fået mig til at udforske symfonierne, for at finde til bunds i dette holmboeske fællestræk, som jeg mener her står...

  15. Literature study regarding fire protection in nuclear power plants. Part 2: Fire detection and -extinguishing systems; Litteraturstudie angaaende brandskydd i kaernkraftverk. Del 2: Branddetektionssystem och slaecksystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaksson, S. [Swedish Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    1996-01-01

    This literature study has been made on behalf of the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate. The aim is to describe different aspects of fire protection in nuclear power plants. Detection and extinguishing systems in Swedish nuclear power plants have only to a limited extent been designed after functional demands, such as a maximum acceptable damage or a maximum time to detect a fire. The availability of detection systems is difficult to assess, partly because of lack of statistics. The user interface is very important in complex systems as nuclear plants. An extinguishing system designed according to the insurance companies` regulations will only fulfill the basic demands. It should be noted that normal sprinkler design does not aim for extinguishing fires, the objective is to control fire until manual extinguishment is possible. There is a great amount of statistics on wet and dry pipe sprinkler systems, while statistics are more scarce for deluge systems. The statistics on the reliability of gaseous extinguishing systems have been found very scarce. A drawback of these systems is that they are normally designed for one shot only. There are both traditional and more recent extinguishing systems that can replace halons. From now on there will be a greater need for a thorough examination of the properties needed for the individual application and a quantification of the acceptable damage. There are several indications on the importance of a high quality maintenance program as well as carefully developed routines for testing and surveillance to ensure the reliability of detection and extinguishing systems. 78 refs, 8 figs, 10 tabs.

  16. 21 CFR 1250.85 - Drinking fountains and coolers; ice; constant temperature bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... temperature bottles. 1250.85 Section 1250.85 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Drinking fountains and coolers; ice; constant temperature bottles. (a) Drinking fountains and coolers shall... temperature bottles. (c) Constant temperature bottles and other containers used for storing or dispensing...

  17. Determining fluid level in a translucent eye-drop bottle: transillumination by penlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayikcioğlu, O; Akkin, C; Ates, H

    We describe an easy way to determine eye-drop contents in translucent bottles. Transillumination of eye-drop bottles from behind or the bottom by using a penlight clearly defines the fluid levels. The described procedure may prevent disposal of eye-drop bottles containing useful amounts of medication and prevent Ophthalmologists and Patients unexpectedly coming across an empty bottle.

  18. 27 CFR 27.207 - Bottles to be used for display purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... display purposes. 27.207 Section 27.207 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Requirements for Liquor Bottles § 27.207 Bottles to be used for display purposes. Empty liquor bottles may be imported and furnished to liquor dealers for display purposes, provided each bottle is marked to show that...

  19. 27 CFR 19.635 - Bottles to be used for display purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... display purposes. 19.635 Section 19.635 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Requirements Liquor Bottle Requirements § 19.635 Bottles to be used for display purposes. Liquor bottles may be furnished to liquor dealers for display purposes, provided that each bottle is marked to show that it is to...

  20. Physiologic stability of newborns during cup- and bottle-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, C R; de Blieck, E A; ten Hoopen, C B; Howard, F M; Lanphear, B P; Lawrence, R A

    1999-11-01

    To prevent breastfeeding problems, cup-feeding has been recommended as a method of providing medically necessary supplemental feedings to breastfed infants. To compare amounts ingested, administration time, and infant physiologic stability during cup-, bottle-, and breastfeeding. A total of 98 term, healthy newborns were randomized to either cup-feeding (n = 51) or bottle-feeding (n = 47). The heart (HR), respiratory (RR), and oxygen (O(2)) saturation rates were monitored on these infants and 25 breastfed newborns during 1 feeding. Differences in amounts ingested and administration times were evaluated with t tests and physiologic data with repeat measures analysis of variance. There were no significant differences in administration time, amounts ingested or overall HR, RR, and (O(2)) saturation rates, between cup and bottle groups. Breastfed infants had longer administration times and lower overall HR, RR, and higher O(2) saturation as compared with cup- and bottle-fed infants. Administration times, amounts ingested, and infant physiologic stability do not differ with cup- and bottle-feeding. Breastfeeding takes longer than cup- or bottle-feeding, but infants experience less physiologic variability. These data support cup-feeding as an alternative to bottle-feeding for supplying supplements to breastfed infants.

  1. Prolonged bedtime bottle feeding and respiratory symptoms in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Young; Han, Youngshin; Pyun, Younkyoung; Kim, Jihyun; Ahn, Kangmo; Lee, Sang-Il

    2011-04-01

    Infants with chronic respiratory symptoms should be evaluated thoroughly because there are various causes which are different from those of children and adolescents. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between chronic respiratory symptoms and bedtime bottle feeding in infants after the age of 6 months. We conducted a prospective study that included 44 infants who presented with respiratory symptoms for more than 8 weeks and also had been bottle-fed during bedtime even after 6 months of age. The infants were divided into 2 groups; infants who discontinued bedtime bottle feeding and those who did not. Respiratory symptom scores were graded with a four-point scale at 0, 1, 2 and 3 months, and were compared between the 2 groups. Twenty eight infants (63.6%) stopped being bottle-fed during bedtime and 16 infants (36.4%) were still bottle-fed. The respiratory symptom scores were significantly decreased in infants who stopped bedtime bottle feeding (p = 0.0003). It is suggested that prolonged bedtime bottle feeding might be one of the causes of chronic respiratory symptoms in infants.

  2. Fluoride content of bottled waters available in Northern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahiropoulos, V

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fluoride content of bottled drinking waters commercially available in northern Greece and to report on the accuracy of the labelling of fluoride concentration. Twenty-two randomly selected commercial brands of bottled water were obtained from three supermarkets in Thessaloniki, Greece. Three bottles of each brand were purchased. Following calibration, six tests were conducted on each bottle using a combination fluoride-ion selective electrode (Orion, 96-09-00, MA, USA). The average reading for each brand was estimated and also compared with the fluoride content printed on the label. The mean (+/- SD) fluoride content of the bottled water samples was 0.35 (+/- 1.00) mg F/L with a range from 0.05 to 4.8 mg F/L. Only 18% (N = 4) of brands tested mention the fluoride concentration on the label, and 90% (N = 22) had a tested fluoride between 0.05 and 0.21 mg F/L. Of the remaining two brands, one was found to contain 0.3 mg F/L without having the fluoride concentration indicated on the label, and the other was labelled at 6 mg F/L, whereas the concentration was estimated as 4.8 mg F/L. The use of bottled water may be a significant source of systemic fluoride and therefore be considered as a risk factor for dental fluorosis in young children. This article shows that bottled drinking waters contain differing concentrations of fluoride. The manufacturers' labelling of fluoride concentrations may be inaccurate. When prescribing fluoride supplements, dentists should be aware of the fluoride content of bottled waters used by paediatric patients, especially brands with a concentration higher than 0.3 mg F/L. In view of the wide variation of fluoride concentration in the tested bottled waters, regulatory guidelines for controlling concentration in order to prevent dental fluorosis are recommended.

  3. Fire Safety Training Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County Dept. of Fire and Rescue Services, Rockville, MD. Div. of Fire Prevention.

    Designed for a community fire education effort, particularly in which local volunteers present general information on fire safety to their fellow citizens, this workbook contains nine lessons. Included are an overview of the household fire problem; instruction in basic chemistry and physics of fire, flammable liquids, portable fire extinguishers,…

  4. Innovative Design of Plastic Bottle Recycling Box Based on ARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuedong Xiong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the problems of on-site plastic bottles recycling and the reuse of waste, the automatic recycling system was developed on the basis of ARM. As the main controller, ARM not only controls the mechanical system of the collector to recover and break plastic bottles, but also communicates with and rewards the user by the automatic reward system through the wireless network. The experimental prototype test results show: post treated fragments of plastic bottles are small, which are convenient to transport and take advantage of; the operation of recovery is easy, and the interface of man-machine interaction is friendly which is easy to expand functions.

  5. Evolutionary medicine: bottle feeding, birth spacing, and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallup, Gordon G; Hobbs, Dawn R

    2011-09-01

    To compensate for the high metabolic costs of lactation, the likelihood of re-impregnation shortly after childbirth is normally reduced due to hormonal changes triggered by breast feeding during the postpartum period. Nowadays, however, bottle feeding as a substitute for breast feeding precludes such changes and leads to early postpartum reinstatement of fertility. We suggest that recent data showing the risk of autism goes up dramatically as the time between pregnancies goes down [1] may be a byproduct of bottle feeding. The decision to bottle feed your last child may unwittingly put your next child at risk of being autistic. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dynamically tunable optical bottles from an optical fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yuhao; Yan, Lu; Rishøj, Lars Søgaard

    2012-01-01

    Optical fibers have long been used to impose spatial coherence to shape free-space optical beams. Recent work has shown that one can use higher order fiber modes to create more exotic beam profiles. We experimentally generate optical bottles from Talbot imaging in the coherent superposition of two...... fiber modes excited with long period gratings, and obtain a 28 μm × 6 μm bottle with controlled contrast up to 10.13 dB. Our geometry allows for phase tuning of one mode with respect to the other, which enables us to dynamically move the bottle in free space....

  7. Occurrence of clostridia in glass bottled foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, T; Aikawa, K; Furukawa, I; Takahashi, T

    2000-03-25

    Forty-one marketed samples of imported and domestic glass bottled foods were tested for clostridia contamination. It was detected in nine (22%) samples. Clostridia were isolated from fish sauce (Nam pla, Nuoc-mam), dressing, mustard, hot and sour soup mix (Tom Yum), mysids boiled down in soy, and salmon flakes. The origin of all clostridia positive samples was Asia. Clostridium botulinum and C. perfringens were not detected. The frequency of occurrence was higher by enrichment broth culture detection methods than by agar plate or pouch methods. These findings suggest that the number of bacteria in most of these clostridia positive food samples is very low, and the use of enrichment methods for detection of clostridia is essential.

  8. Radioactivity in bottled waters sold in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davila Rangel, J.I. E-mail: idavila@cantera.reduaz.mx; Lopez del Rio, H.; Mireles Garcia, F.; Quirino Torres, L.L.; Villalba, M.L.; Colmenero Sujo, L.; Montero Cabrera, M.E

    2002-06-01

    Measurements of gross alpha and beta activities were made on 21 domestic and international brands of bottled (purified and mineral) water sold in the Mexican market to assess its radiological quality. Alpha and beta activities were determined using a liquid-scintillation detector with pulse-shape analysis feature. All the purified water had values of beta activity lower than the limit for potable drinking water (1.0 Bq/l), while three brands surpassed the limit of alpha activity (0.1 Bq/l). The limit for alpha radioactivity content was exceed by three mineral waters; the results show a correlation between radioactivity content and mineral salts, which are related with the origin and treatment of the waters.

  9. Ampoule Bottle Detection Equipment Research and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xinyu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the continuous development of computer vision technology, its application is more and more extensive. In recent years, the application of computer vision technology in the area of medical packing detection also made great achievements. This paper detailed a scientific and reasonable scheme of an ampoule bottle automatic detection equipment. In this scheme we use the computer vision technology and CNC technology, and select the appropriate transport mechanism and cameras to get images of ampoules. After getting the images, we use a software named MATLAB, which can deal with the images, to obtain some useful information about the ampoules. Then we can evaluate the quality of the ampoule according to these information.

  10. Recovery of fingerprints from fire scenes and associated evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, J

    2006-01-01

    A lack of information concerning the potential recovery of fingerprints from fire scenes and related evidence prompted several research projects. Latent prints from good secretors and visible prints (in blood) were placed on a variety of different surfaces and subsequently subjected to "real life" fires in fully furnished compartments used for fire investigation training purposes. The items were placed in various locations and at different heights within the compartments. After some initial success, further tests were undertaken using both latent and dirt/grease marks on different objects within the same types of fire compartments. Subsequent sets of tests involved the recovery of latent and visual fingerprints (in blood, dirt and grease) from different types of weapons, lighters, plastic bags, match boxes, tapers, plastic bottles and petrol bombs that had been subjected to the same fire conditions as previously. Throughout the entire series of projects one of the prime considerations was how the resultant findings could be put into practice by fire scene examiners in an attempt to assist the police in their investigations. This research demonstrates that almost one in five items recovered from fire scenes yielded fingerprint ridge detail following normal development treatments.

  11. Bottled Water: United States Consumers and Their Perceptions of Water Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Zhihua; Morton, Lois Wright; Mahler, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of bottled water is increasing worldwide. Prior research shows many consumers believe bottled water is convenient and has better taste than tap water, despite reports of a number of water quality incidents with bottled water. The authors explore the demographic and social factors associated with bottled water users in the U.S. and the relationship between bottled water use and perceptions of the quality of local water supply. They find that U.S. consumers are more likely to report...

  12. Inappropriate bottle use: an early risk for overweight? Literature review and pilot data for a bottle-weaning trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonuck, Karen A; Huang, Vincent; Fletcher, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Identifying early risk factors for childhood obesity is critical, as weight in infancy and early childhood tracks to later periods. Continued bottle use - primarily from excess milk intake - is emerging as a potential risk factor for early childhood overweight. Over three fourths of US infants drink from bottles beyond the recommended weaning age of 12 months, and two thirds of UK infants use a bottle at 18 months. This paper is divided into three parts. Part 1 reviews the literature on beverage intake, weight and bottle use in young children. Part II describes pilot data on milk bottle use and weight in 12-60-month-olds, collected prior to a randomized controlled (RCT) trial of a bottle-weaning intervention. Median daily milk bottle consumption at 12 months was 5.0 (interquartile range = 3-6). Among 12-36-month-olds, current users were significantly more likely to be >95th% weight-for-height (19% vs. 0%, P 85% weight-for-height (27% vs. 11%, P bottle use was not associated with either overweight or obesity in 37-60-month-olds. Part III describes the RCT, begun in fall 2008. It is enrolling 464 parent/12-month-old dyads from a nutrition assistance programme for low-income families. Children's bottle use, anthropometrics, dietary intake and nutrient density (via 24 h recall) are assessed quarterly through 24 months of age. For the intervention, site nutritionists employ a project-developed, visually attractive flip chart. An observational study nested within the RCT will describe dietary changes during this period of feeding transitions.

  13. The frequency of bottle feeding as the main factor of baby bottle tooth decay syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Fahlevi Rizal

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries remains as main problem in Indonesia and its prevalence is high (90.05%. However, there is no appropriate data that can be used to analyze dental caries in toddlers, especially baby bottle tooth decay syndrome (BBTD, though the number of BBTD cases is high in some pediatric dental clinics (90% of patients visiting the clinics. Even though some factors have already been considered to be the risk factor of BBTD, the main risk factor of BBTD is still unknown, especially BBTD in Indonesia. Purpose: This research was aimed to obtain data relating with bottle-feeding habit in 3-5 year old children in Indonesia and its caries risk. Method: The study was an observational research conducted with clinical examination through caries status (deft of each child deserved by pediatric dentists and through questionnaire distributed to parents to examine the risk factor of BBTD. Observation was conducted on 62 children in the range of age 3 to 5 years old with bottle-feeding habit. Result: The results revealed that status of caries was various. The data showed that the frequency of bottle feeding more than twice could trigger BBTD 2.27 times higher than other factors such as the use of bottle feeding as a pacifier prior sleeping, the period of bottle-feeding, and the breast-feeding experience. Conclusion: though milk as subtract can possibly become a factor triggering caries, the frequency of bottle-feeding is highly considered as main factor. Since it could modulated the bacterial colonization on dental surface, which affects its virulence.Latar belakang: Karies masih menjadi masalah utama di Indonesia. Dalam praktek sehari-hari prevalensi karies masih sangat tinggi (90.05%. Belum ada data yang memadai dalam penelaahan karies yang spesifik pada anak balita selama ini khususnya kasus sindroma karies botol (SKB sementara itu kasus SKB ditemukan sangat tinggi di beberapa klinik gigi anak (90% dari jumlah pasien yang datang ke klinik

  14. Crown Fire Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Crown fire potential was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The...

  15. Fire safety at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... over the smoke alarm as needed. Using a fire extinguisher can put out a small fire to keep it from getting out of control. Tips for use include: Keep fire extinguishers in handy locations, at least one on ...

  16. Fire Ant Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Fire Ant Bites Share | Fire ants are aggressive, venomous insects that have pinching ... across the United States, even into Puerto Rico. Fire ant stings usually occur on the feet or ...

  17. Fire Ant Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatments ▸ Library ▸ Allergy Library ▸ Fire ant allergy Share | Fire Ant Allergy This article has been reviewed by Thanai Pongdee, MD, FAAAAI Fire ants are a stinging insect typically found in ...

  18. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel must be equipped with a self-priming, power driven fire...) If multiple pumps are installed, they may be used for other purposes provided at least one pump is...

  19. Randomized controlled trial of bottle weaning intervention: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Richard; Bonuck, Karen; Trombley, Michelle

    2007-03-01

    Inappropriate baby bottle use is associated with tooth decay, anemia, and overweight, and it may adversely affect dietary patterns. Parents often do not follow guidance to wean by 18 months of life. We piloted a brief, counseling-based weaning intervention in an urban WIC agency among primarily Hispanic parent/toddler dyads. At baseline (n = 48), toddlers consumed a mean 4.7 bottles/day. At follow-up (n = 39), the intervention group consumed fewer mean bottles/day than controls (0.09 vs 2.0 bottles/day, P < .045). Half the toddlers in the experimental group and one third of the control groups weaned completely. Parents of weaned children were satisfied with the outcome.

  20. Relativistic Cyclotron Resonance Shape in Magnetic Bottle Geonium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hans Dehmelt; Richard Mittleman; Yuan Liu

    1988-01-01

    The thermally excited axial oscillation of the electron through the weak magnetic bottle needed for the continuous Stern-Gerlach effect modulates the cyclotron frequency and produces a characteristic...

  1. Bottler of the Year: Coca-Cola Bottling Co. Consolidated

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elizabeth Fuhrman

    2010-01-01

    .... Coca-Cola Bottling Co Consolidated, Charlotte, NC, has built its core business this year through innovative pricing strategies, enabling its sales force with new technology, grass roots marketing...

  2. 27 CFR 31.203 - Possession of used liquor bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Reuse and Possession of Used Liquor... recycling or reclaiming the glass or other approved liquor bottle material. (26 U.S.C. 5301) ...

  3. Physical, chemical and microbial analysis of bottled drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikaran, S; Sritharan, K; Balakumar, S; Arasaratnam, V

    2012-09-01

    People rely on the quality of the bottled drinking water, expecting it to be free of microbial contamination and health hazards. To evaluate the quality of bottled drinking water sold in Jaffna peninsula by analysing the physical, chemical and microbial contents and comparing with the recommended Sri Lankan Standard (SLS) values. All bottled water samples sold in Jaffna peninsula were collected. Electrical conductivity, total dissolved solid, pH, calcium, nitrate, total aerobic and anaerobic count, coliform bacterial count and faecal contamination were checked. These are 22 brands of bottled drinking water sold in Jaffna peninsula. The sample had very low electrical conductivity when compared with SLS (750 μS/ cm) and varied from 19 to 253 μS/cm with the mean of 80.53 (±60.92) μS/cm. The pH values of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 4.11 to 7.58 with a mean of 6.2 (±0.75). The total dissolved solid content of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 9 to 123.67 mg/l with a mean of 39.5 (±30.23) mg/l. The calcium content of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 6.48 to 83.77 mg/l with a mean of 49.9 (±25.09) mg/l. The nitrate content of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 0.21 to 4.19 mg/l with the mean of 1.26 (±1.08) mg/l. Aerobic bacterial count varied from 0 to 800 colony forming unit per ml (cfu/ml) with a mean of 262.6 (±327.50) cfu/ml. Among the 22 drinking bottled water brands 14 and 9% of bottled drinking water brands showed fungal and coliform bacterial contaminants respectively. The water brands which contained faecal contamination had either Escherichia coli or Klebsiella spp. The bottled drinking water available for sale do not meet the standards stipulated by SLS.

  4. The Closed-Loop Endeavour : A Case Study on Barriers and Enhancements of the PET Bottle-to-Bottle Recycling Systems in Germany and Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, Fabian; Bergmann, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Problem: The demand of beverages in PET bottles is constantly increasing. In this context, environmental, technological and regulatory aspects set a stronger focus on recycling. Generally, the reuse of recycled material from post-consumer PET bottles in bottle-to-bottle applications is seen as least environmentally harmful. However, closed-loop systems are not widely implemented in Europe. Previous research mainly focuses on open-loop recycling systems and generally lacks discussion about the...

  5. Techno-economic packaging of palm wine preservation and bottling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production cost estimate varies between N37.85/bottle (60cl) in the first year and N35.37/bottle (60cl) in the fifth year. The annual net profits are N8, 460,430.00 and N12, 025,710.00 in years one and five respectively. Projected cash flow is positive in year one i.e. N5,329,960.00 while the projected balance sheet shows that ...

  6. Polyelectrolyte complexes of bottle brush copolymers : Solution and adsorption properties

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, Shovsky

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis work was to systematically investigate the physico-chemical properties of polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) formed by bottle brush and linear polyelectrolytes in solution and at solid / liquid interfaces. Electrostatic self-assembly of oppositely charged macromolecules in aqueous solution is a versatile strategy to construction of functional nanostructures with easily controlled properties. Bottle brush architecture, introduced into the PEC, generates a number of distinc...

  7. UTILIZATION OF WASTE PLASTIC BOTTLES IN ASPHALT MIXTURE

    OpenAIRE

    TAHER BAGHAEE MOGHADDAM; MOHAMED REHAN KARIM; MEHRTASH SOLTANI

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, large amounts of waste materials are being produced in the world. One of the waste materials is plastic bottle. Generating disposable plastic bottles is becoming a major problem in many countries. Using waste plastic as a secondary material in construction projects would be a solution to overcome the crisis of producing large amount of waste plastics in one hand and improving the structure’s characteristics such as resistance against cracking on the other hand. This study aimed to i...

  8. Analysis of fluoride concentration in commercial bottled waters

    OpenAIRE

    BIZERRIL,Davi Oliveira; ALMEIDA, Janaína Rocha de Sousa; SALDANHA, Kátia de Góis Holanda; CABRAL FILHO,Ronaldo Emilio; Almeida, Maria Eneide Leitão de

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate fluoride concentration in 500ml commercial brands of bottled water and compare it to the amount printed on the label. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted. Samples of nine different commercial brands of 500ml bottled water were collected at authorized distribution points in the city of Fortaleza, CE, Brazil, in 2013. Fluoride concentration was determined in duplicate using a fluoride ion-selective electrode. The results were obtain...

  9. Effects of air bottle design on postural control of firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Pilwon; Park, Kiwon; Rosengren, Karl S; Horn, Gavin P; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of firefighter's self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) air bottle design and vision on postural control of firefighters. Twenty-four firefighters were tested using four 30-minute SCBA bottle designs that varied by mass and size. Postural sway measures were collected using a forceplate under two visual conditions (eyes open and closed) and two stance conditions (quiet and perturbed stances). For perturbed stance, a mild backward impulsive pull at the waist was applied. In addition to examining center of pressure postural sway measures for both stance conditions, a robustness measure was assessed for the perturbation condition. The results suggest that wearing heavy bottles significantly increased excursion and randomness of postural sway only in medial-lateral direction but not in anterior-posterior direction. This result may be due to stiffening of plantar-flexor muscles. A significant interaction was obtained between SCBA bottle design and vision in anterior-posterior postural sway, suggesting that wearing heavy and large SCBA air bottles can significantly threaten postural stability in AP direction in the absence of vision. SCBA bottle should be redesigned with reduced weight, smaller height, and COM closer to the body of the firefighters. Firefighters should also widen their stance width when wearing heavy PPE with SCBA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Polymer based planar coupling of self-assembled bottle microresonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, I. A.; Berneschi, S.; Testa, G.; Baldini, F.; Nunzi Conti, G.; Bernini, R.

    2014-12-01

    The investigation of a simple and self-assembling method for realizing polymeric micro-bottle resonators is reported. By dispensing precise amounts of SU-8 onto a cleaved optical fiber, employed as mechanical support, bottle microcavities with different shapes and diameters are fabricated. The balancing of surface energy between glass fiber and polymeric microresonator with surface tension of SU-8 confers different shape to these microstructures. Planar single-mode SU-8 based waveguide, realized on polymethylmethacrylate, is chosen for exciting the micro-bottle resonators by evanescent wave. The reliability of the fabrication process and the shape of the bottle microcavities are investigated through optical analysis. We observe whispering gallery modes in these resonant microstructures by a robust coupling with single mode planar waveguides around 1.5 μm wavelength. The resonance spectra of micro-bottle resonators and the spectral characteristics, such as Quality-factor (Q factor) and free spectral range, are evaluated for all the realized microstructures. SU-8 micro-bottle resonators show high Q-factors up to 3.8 × 104 and present a good mechanical stability. These features make these microcavities attractive for sensing and/or lasing applications in a planar platform.

  11. Energy expenditure for breastfeeding and bottle-feeding preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Irit; Weintraub, Valentin; Dollberg, Shaul; Kopolovitz, Rozalia; Mandel, Dror

    2009-12-01

    We hypothesized that resting energy expenditure (REE) would be higher after breastfeeding than after bottle-feeding. Nineteen preterm infants (gestational age: 32 weeks) in stable condition who were nourished entirely with their mothers' breast milk were assigned randomly to feeding either by bottle or at the breast. Each infant served as his or her own control subject. REE was measured for 20 minutes after feeding. Breast milk quantity was evaluated with prefeeding and postfeeding weighing. REE values for bottle-feeding and breastfeeding were compared with paired t tests. Contrary to our null hypothesis, the group's mean REE values after bottle-feeding and breastfeeding were very similar (284.7 +/- 26.8 kJ/kg per day [68.3 +/- 6.4 kcal/kg per day] vs 282.6 +/- 28.5 kJ/kg per day [67.5 +/- 6.8 kcal/kg per day]; not significant). The duration of feeding was significantly longer for breastfeeding than for bottle-feeding (20.1 +/- 7.9 vs 7.8 +/- 2.9 minutes; P bottle-fed. Longer feeding times at the breast did not increase REE. We speculate that it is safe to recommend feeding at the breast for infants born at >32 weeks when they can tolerate oral feeding.

  12. Fire and fire ecology: Concepts and principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Cochrane; Kevin C. Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Fire has been central to terrestrial life ever since early anaerobic microorganisms poisoned the atmosphere with oxygen and multicellular plant life moved onto land. The combination of fuels, oxygen, and heat gave birth to fire on Earth. Fire is not just another evolutionary challenge that life needed to overcome, it is, in fact, a core ecological process across much...

  13. Vehicle fires and fire safety in tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-20

    Tunnels present what is arguably the most hazardous environment, from the point of view of fire safety, that members of the public ever experience. The fire safety design of tunnels is carried out by tunnel engineers on the basis of a potential fire ...

  14. Fire Service Training. Portable Fire Extinguishers. (Revised).

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Community Colleges, Raleigh.

    One of a set of fourteen instructional outlines for use in a course to train novice firemen, this guide covers the topic of portable fire extinguishers. Designed to be used with the Robert J. Brady Transparencies and/or the film "Portable Fire Extinguishers" and with the International Fire Service Training Association Manual No. 101,…

  15. The frequency of bottle feeding as the main factor of baby bottle tooth decay syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Mochamad Fahlevi Rizal; Heriandi Sutadi; Bachtiar, Boy M.; Bachtiar, Endang W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Dental caries remains as main problem in Indonesia and its prevalence is high (90.05%). However, there is no appropriate data that can be used to analyze dental caries in toddlers, especially baby bottle tooth decay syndrome (BBTD), though the number of BBTD cases is high in some pediatric dental clinics (90% of patients visiting the clinics). Even though some factors have already been considered to be the risk factor of BBTD, the main risk factor of BBTD is still unknown, especia...

  16. Mechanics of sucking: comparison between bottle feeding and breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ustrell Josep M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is very little evidence of the similarity of the mechanics of maternal and bottle feeding. We assessed the mechanics of sucking in exclusive breastfeeding, exclusive bottle feeding, and mixed feeding. The hypothesis established was that physiological pattern for suckling movements differ depending on the type of feeding. According to this hypothesis, babies with breastfeeding have suckling movements at the breast that are different from the movements of suckling a teat of babies fed with bottle. Children with mixed feeding mix both types of suckling movements. Methods Cross-sectional study of infants aged 21-28 days with only maternal feeding or bottle feeding (234 mother-infant pairs, and a randomized open cross-over field trial in newborns aged 21-28 days and babies aged 3-5 months with mixed feeding (125 mother-infant pairs. Primary outcome measures were sucks and pauses. Results Infants aged 21-28 days exclusively bottle-fed showed fewer sucks and the same number of pauses but of longer duration compared to breastfeeding. In mixed feeding, bottle feeding compared to breastfeeding showed the same number of sucks but fewer and shorter pauses, both at 21-28 days and at 3-5 months. The mean number of breastfeedings in a day (in the mixed feed group was 5.83 ± 1.93 at 21-28 days and 4.42 ± 1.67 at 3-5 months. In the equivalence analysis of the mixed feed group, the 95% confidence interval for bottle feeding/breastfeeding ratio laid outside the range of equivalence, indicating 5.9-8.7% fewer suction movements, and fewer pauses, and shorter duration of them in bottle feeding compared with breastfeeding. Conclusions The mechanics of sucking in mixed feeding lay outside the range of equivalence comparing bottle feeding with breastfeeding, although differences were small. Children with mixed feeding would mix both types of sucking movements (breastfeeding and bottle feeding during the learning stage and adopt their own

  17. Mechanics of sucking: comparison between bottle feeding and breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral, Angel; Bolibar, Ignasi; Seguranyes, Gloria; Ustrell, Josep M; Sebastiá, Gloria; Martínez-Barba, Cristina; Ríos, Jose

    2010-02-11

    There is very little evidence of the similarity of the mechanics of maternal and bottle feeding. We assessed the mechanics of sucking in exclusive breastfeeding, exclusive bottle feeding, and mixed feeding. The hypothesis established was that physiological pattern for suckling movements differ depending on the type of feeding. According to this hypothesis, babies with breastfeeding have suckling movements at the breast that are different from the movements of suckling a teat of babies fed with bottle. Children with mixed feeding mix both types of suckling movements. Cross-sectional study of infants aged 21-28 days with only maternal feeding or bottle feeding (234 mother-infant pairs), and a randomized open cross-over field trial in newborns aged 21-28 days and babies aged 3-5 months with mixed feeding (125 mother-infant pairs). Primary outcome measures were sucks and pauses. Infants aged 21-28 days exclusively bottle-fed showed fewer sucks and the same number of pauses but of longer duration compared to breastfeeding. In mixed feeding, bottle feeding compared to breastfeeding showed the same number of sucks but fewer and shorter pauses, both at 21-28 days and at 3-5 months. The mean number of breastfeedings in a day (in the mixed feed group) was 5.83 +/- 1.93 at 21-28 days and 4.42 +/- 1.67 at 3-5 months. In the equivalence analysis of the mixed feed group, the 95% confidence interval for bottle feeding/breastfeeding ratio laid outside the range of equivalence, indicating 5.9-8.7% fewer suction movements, and fewer pauses, and shorter duration of them in bottle feeding compared with breastfeeding. The mechanics of sucking in mixed feeding lay outside the range of equivalence comparing bottle feeding with breastfeeding, although differences were small. Children with mixed feeding would mix both types of sucking movements (breastfeeding and bottle feeding) during the learning stage and adopt their own pattern.

  18. Dark Matter in a twisted bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbey, Alexandre; Cacciapaglia, Giacomo; Deandrea, Aldo; Kubik, Bogna

    2013-01-01

    The real projective plane is a compact, non-orientable orbifold of Euler characteristic 1 without boundaries, which can be described as a twisted Klein bottle. We shortly review the motivations for choosing such a geometry among all possible two-dimensional orbifolds, while the main part of the study will be devoted to dark matter study and limits in Universal Extra Dimensional (UED) models based on this peculiar geometry. In the following we consider such a UED construction based on the direct product of the real projective plane with the standard four-dimensional Minkowski space-time and discuss its relevance as a model of a weakly interacting Dark Matter candidate. One important difference with other typical UED models is the origin of the symmetry leading to the stability of the dark matter particle. This symmetry in our case is a remnant of the six-dimensional Minkowski space-time symmetry partially broken by the compactification. Another important difference is the very small mass splitting between the particles of a given Kaluza-Klein tier, which gives a very important role to co-annihilation effects. Finally the role of higher Kaluza-Klein tiers is also important and is discussed together with a detailed numerical description of the influence of the resonances.

  19. Dark Matter in a twisted bottle

    CERN Document Server

    Arbey, Alexandre; Deandrea, Aldo; Kubik, Bogna

    2013-01-01

    The real projective plane is a compact, non-orientable orbifold of Euler characteristic 1 without boundaries, which can be described as a twisted Klein bottle. We shortly review the motivations for choosing such a geometry among all possible two-dimensional orbifolds, while the main part of the study will be devoted to dark matter study and limits in Universal Extra Dimensional (UED) models based on this peculiar geometry. In the following we consider such a UED construction based on the direct product of the real projective plane with the standard four-dimensional Minkowski space-time and discuss its relevance as a model of a weakly interacting Dark Matter candidate. One important difference with other typical UED models is the origin of the symmetry leading to the stability of the dark matter particle. This symmetry in our case is a remnant of the six-dimensional Minkowski space-time symmetry partially broken by the compactification. Another important difference is the very small mass splitting between the ...

  20. Methane storage in bottle-like nanocapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakhrushev, A. V.; Suyetin, M. V.

    2009-03-01

    Because the traditional storage of methane in the condensed state in high-pressure vessels is rather dangerous, and to store a large amount of gas using adsorbents is impossible at normal ambient conditions, we have developed a nanocapsule, which combines the advantages of a high-pressure vessel and adsorbents—a large methane mass content and safe-keeping. A nanocapsule is a system of combined nanotubes forming bottle-like pores, the entrance to which is closed by a positively charged endohedral complex (K@C60) with the help of an electric field. In normal ambient conditions, the nanocapsule can retain the amount of methane adsorbed under charging conditions. The processes taking place during the storage of methane and the methane desorption from the nanocapsule are analysed and the value of the electric field intensity necessary for the transfer of the K@C60 in the nanocapsule is determined. The nanocapsule discussed can retain ~17.5 mass% of methane at an internal pressure of 10 MPa and a temperature of 300 K.

  1. Fires, ecological effects of

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. J. Bond; Robert Keane

    2017-01-01

    Fire is both a natural and anthropogenic disturbance influencing the distribution, structure, and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems around the world. Many plants and animals depend on fire for their continued existence. Others species, such as rainforest plants species, are extremely intolerant of burning and need protection from fire. The properties of a fire...

  2. Pet Bottle Design, Correlation Analysis Of Pet Bottle Characteristics Subjective Judgment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Avramović

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ability to predict consumer’s reaction to particular design solution of the product is very important. Gathering andanalysis of subjective judgments of particular characteristics, based on which the aesthetic of the product is judged,is one of predicting the consumer’s reaction in the future. Knowledge gathered this manner can serve as a referencefor further studies of determining factors for aesthetic results and design quality. There are two opposed opinionsregarding prediction of aesthetic impression. One opinion is that taste of individual cannot be discussed because itis extremely variable and the possibility of meaningful analysis of aesthetic impression is rejected. Other opinionstates that there is a consistent preference of certain aesthetic characteristics despite individual and group differences.Main goal of this paper is to examine the correlation between subjective judgments of certain PET bottlecharacteristics. Analysis showed meaningful correlation between some of the PET bottle characteristics while othercharacteristics showed less correlation. It can be concluded that not all of the characteristics have the same influenceon the aesthetics and design quality of the PET bottle form. Emphasizing the characteristics relative to aesthetics ofthe product can produce better market results, taking in to account that consumer’s buy the product they consider tobe more attractive if other parameters of the product are similar.

  3. Fire-Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, David

    2010-01-01

    This article gives a brief history of fire-walking and then deals with the physics behind fire-walking. The author has performed approximately 50 fire-walks, took the data for the world's hottest fire-walk and was, at one time, a world record holder for the longest fire-walk (www.dwilley.com/HDATLTW/Record_Making_Firewalks.html). He currently…

  4. Clinical evaluation of the FilmArray blood culture identification panel in identification of bacteria and yeasts from positive blood culture bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altun, Osman; Almuhayawi, Mohammed; Ullberg, Måns; Ozenci, Volkan

    2013-12-01

    The FilmArray platform (FA; BioFire, Salt Lake City, UT) is a closed diagnostic system allowing high-order multiplex PCR analysis with automated readout of results directly from positive blood cultures in 1 h. In the present study, we evaluated the clinical performance of the FilmArray blood culture identification (BCID) panel, which includes 19 bacteria, five yeasts, and three antibiotic resistance genes. In total, 206 blood culture bottles were included in the study. The FilmArray could identify microorganisms in 153/167 (91.6%) samples with monomicrobial growth. Thirteen of the 167 (7.8%) microorganisms were not covered by the FilmArray BCID panel. In 6/167 (3.6%) samples, the FilmArray detected an additional microorganism compared to blood culture. When polymicrobial growth was analyzed, the FilmArray could detect all target microorganisms in 17/24 (71%) samples. Twelve blood culture bottles that yielded a positive signal but showed no growth were also negative by FilmArray. In 3/206 (1.5%) bottles, the FilmArray results were invalid. The results of the FilmArray were reproducible, as demonstrated by the testing and retesting of five bottles in the same day and a longitudinal follow-up of five other blood cultures up to 4 weeks. The present study shows that the FilmArray is a rapid identification method with high performance in direct identification of bacteria and yeasts from positive blood culture bottles.

  5. Fluid dynamics following flow shut-off in bottle filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thete, Sumeet; Appathurai, Santosh; Gao, Haijing; Basaran, Osman

    2012-11-01

    Bottle filling is ubiquitous in industry. Examples include filling of bottles with shampoos and cleaners, engine oil and pharmaceuticals. In these examples, fluid flows out of a nozzle to fill bottles in an assembly line. Once the required volume of fluid has flowed out of the nozzle, the flow is shut off. However, an evolving fluid thread or string may remain suspended from the nozzle following flow shut-off and persist. This stringing phenomenon can be detrimental to a bottle filling operation because it can adversely affect line speed and filling accuracy by causing uncertainty in fill volume, product loss and undesirable marring of the bottles' exterior surfaces. The dynamics of stringing are studied numerically primarily by using the 1D, slender-jet approximation of the flow equations. A novel feature entails development and use of a new boundary condition downstream of the nozzle exit to expedite the computations. While the emphasis is on stringing of Newtonian fluids and use of 1D approximations, results will also be presented for situations where (a) the fluids are non-Newtonian and (b) the full set of equations are solved without invoking the 1D approximation. Phase diagrams will be presented that identify conditions for which stringing can be problematic.

  6. Southwestern Oregon's Biscuit Fire: An Analysis of Forest Resources, Fire Severity, and Fire Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Azuma; Glenn A. Christensen

    2005-01-01

    This study compares pre-fire field inventory data (collected from 1993 to 1997) in relation to post-fire mapped fire severity classes and the Fire and Fuels Extension of the Forest Vegetation Simulator growth and yield model measures of fire hazard for the portion of the Siskiyou National Forest in the 2002 Biscuit fire perimeter of southwestern Oregon. Post-fire...

  7. FIRES: Fire Information Retrieval and Evaluation System - A program for fire danger rating analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Andrews; Larry S. Bradshaw

    1997-01-01

    A computer program, FIRES: Fire Information Retrieval and Evaluation System, provides methods for evaluating the performance of fire danger rating indexes. The relationship between fire danger indexes and historical fire occurrence and size is examined through logistic regression and percentiles. Historical seasonal trends of fire danger and fire occurrence can be...

  8. Flexural Toughness of Ring-Shaped Waste Bottle Fiber Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal S. K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene terephthalate (PET bottles are plastic containers that are typically discarded, and thus, cause environmental pollution. To solve this problem, PET bottles are recycled incorporating with concrete. A ring-shaped PET (RPET fiber are introduced in this study and designed with a special shape to mobilize fiber yielding rather than fiber pullout. Therefore, aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of RPET bottles fibre in terms of toughness strength. The width of RPET fibers is fixed at 5 and 10 mm and the loads were applied to the third points of the specimen. The experiment indicates that RPET-5 and RPET-10 FC presented an increase in the toughness index of I20 on averages of 23.1% and 39.9% respectively, compared to normal specimens. It can conclude that incorporating RPET fiber in concrete presents significant improved of concrete properties.

  9. Plastic bottle oscillator: Rhythmicity and mode bifurcation of fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohira, Masahiro I.; Magome, Nobuyuki; Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2007-10-01

    The oscillatory flow of water draining from an upside-down plastic bottle with a thin pipe attached to its head is studied as an example of a dissipative structure generated under far-from-equilibrium conditions. Mode bifurcation was observed in the water/air flow: no flow, oscillatory flow, and counter flow were found when the inner diameter of the thin pipe was changed. The modes are stable against perturbations. A coupled two-bottle system exhibits either in-phase or anti-phase self-synchronization. These characteristic behaviors imply that the essential features of the oscillatory flow in a single bottle system can be described as a limit-cycle oscillation.

  10. Bottle feeding simulates child loss: postpartum depression and evolutionary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallup, Gordon G; Nathan Pipitone, R; Carrone, Kelly J; Leadholm, Kevin L

    2010-01-01

    At the level of a mother's basic biology, the decision to bottle feed unwittingly mimics conditions associated with the death of an infant. Child loss is a well documented trigger for depression particularly in mothers, and growing evidence shows that bottle feeding is a risk factor for postpartum depression. The implications of this hypothesis for infant feeding practices, hospital procedures that lead to intermittent separation between mothers and infants during the immediate postpartum period, parallels between an increased desire to hold infants by mothers who bottle feed and responses to infant death among nonhuman primates, and the relationship between weaning and depression are discussed in the context of an emerging discipline known as evolutionary medicine.

  11. Relationship between breastfeeding, bottle-feeding and development of malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narbutytė, Indrė; Narbutytė, Agnė; Linkevičienė, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The importance of breastfeeding to the child's psychological and physical development is evidence-based. However, scientific literature contains controversial opinions on its influence to the development of maxillofacial system. This article aims at reviewing the effects of breastfeeding and bottle-feeding to the development of malocclusion and non-nutritive sucking habits. Thirty-four articles analyzing the above mentioned associations were selected from Pubmed database. Breastfeeding and bottle-feeding may have different impact on the development of maxillofacial system due to unequal functional load of certain facial muscles involved in the feeding processes. Shortage of scientific research prevents from relating bottle-feeding with the development of skeletal malocclusions. Prolonged breastfeeding may have protective effect on developing posterior crossbite and anterior openbite. However, conflicting opinions have been observed. It has been stated that longer duration of breastfeeding diminishes the risk of acquiring non - nutritive sucking habits.

  12. Plastic bottle oscillator: Rhythmicity and mode bifurcation of fluid flow

    OpenAIRE

    Kohira, Masahiro I.; Magome, Nobuyuki; Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2007-01-01

    The oscillatory flow of water draining from an upside-down plastic bottle with a thin pipe attached to its head is studied as an example of a dissipative structure generated under far-from-equilibrium conditions. Mode bifurcation was observed in the water/air flow: no flow, oscillatory flow, and counter flow were found when the inner diameter of the thin pipe was changed. The modes are stable against perturbations. A coupled two-bottle system exhibits either in-phase or anti-phase self-synchr...

  13. Raman lasing in a hollow, bottle-like microresonator

    CERN Document Server

    Ooka, Yuta; Ward, Jonathan; Chromaic, Síle Nic

    2015-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of an ultrahigh quality factor, bottle-like microresonator from a hollow microcapillary, and the realisation of Raman lasing therein at pump wavelengths of $1.55~\\mathrm{\\mu m}$ and $780~\\mathrm{nm}$. Third-order cascaded Raman lasing was observed when pumped at $780~\\mathrm{nm}$. The aerostatic pressure tunability of the Raman laser was also investigated. Thence, we demonstrate that a high dynamic range, high resolution pressure sensor can be realised using the Raman spectrum of the hollow, bottle-like microresonator.

  14. Acetaldehyde in mineral water stored in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles: Odour threshold and quantification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, B.; Kamperman, T.; Jetten, J.

    1996-01-01

    The use of PET bottles for packaging soft drinks and mineral waters is still growing world wide. The production process for these bottles is improving constantly. These improvements are focussed on bottles with better barrier properties, higher inertness and higher heat stability. One of the factors

  15. Investigating the Stability of a Bottle Filled with Different Amounts of Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahwa, Gantavya; Pingali, Rushil G.; Khubchandani, Aashish K.; Roy, Ekansh; Mudaliyar, Roshni R.; Mudaliyar, Rajesh P.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the stability of a bottle filled with different volumes of water, and to determine the angle at which it topples over for each volume of water. Data for the angle at which the bottle toppled were gathered experimentally using a cylindrical 1 litre bottle, and two theoretical models were then developed,…

  16. 27 CFR 25.157 - Determination of tax on bottled beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.157 Section 25.157 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.157 Determination of tax on bottled beer. The quantities of bottled beer removed subject to tax shall be computed to...

  17. 10 CFR 431.292 - Definitions concerning refrigerated bottled or canned beverage vending machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions concerning refrigerated bottled or canned... EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Refrigerated Bottled or Canned Beverage Vending Machines § 431.292 Definitions concerning refrigerated bottled or canned beverage vending machines...

  18. Random survey of the microbial quality of bottled water in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to the increased demand and consumption of bottled water in South Africa, there has been a growing concern about the microbiological quality of this product. Retail outlets sell local as well as imported bottled water to consumers. The microbiological quality of 10 different (8 local and 2 imported) bottled water products ...

  19. 21 CFR 189.301 - Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles. 189... lead foil capsules for wine bottles. (a) Tin-coated lead foil is composed of a lead foil coated on one... covering applied over the cork and neck areas) on wine bottles to prevent insect infestation, as a barrier...

  20. 27 CFR 26.317 - Bottles to be used for display purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... display purposes. 26.317 Section 26.317 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Requirements for Liquor Bottles § 26.317 Bottles to be used for display purposes. Empty liquor bottles may be brought into the United States and may be furnished to liquor dealers for display purposes...

  1. A review of fire interactions and mass fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Finney; Sara S. McAllister

    2011-01-01

    The character of a wildland fire can change dramatically in the presence of another nearby fire. Understanding and predicting the changes in behavior due to fire-fire interactions cannot only be life-saving to those on the ground, but also be used to better control a prescribed fire to meet objectives. In discontinuous fuel types, such interactions may elicit fire...

  2. Clinical Evaluation of the FilmArray Blood Culture Identification Panel in Identification of Bacteria and Yeasts from Positive Blood Culture Bottles

    OpenAIRE

    Altun, Osman; Almuhayawi, Mohammed; Ullberg, Måns; Özenci, Volkan

    2013-01-01

    The FilmArray platform (FA; BioFire, Salt Lake City, UT) is a closed diagnostic system allowing high-order multiplex PCR analysis with automated readout of results directly from positive blood cultures in 1 h. In the present study, we evaluated the clinical performance of the FilmArray blood culture identification (BCID) panel, which includes 19 bacteria, five yeasts, and three antibiotic resistance genes. In total, 206 blood culture bottles were included in the study. The FilmArray could ide...

  3. United States Fire Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about our courses and how to apply Publication Electronic cigarette fires and explosions in the United States ... unique hazard to users. 62 percent of the electronic cigarette explosion and fire incidents reviewed in this ...

  4. Fire Stations - 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Stations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  5. Tunnel fire dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ingason, Haukur; Lönnermark, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This book covers a wide range of issues in fire safety engineering in tunnels, describes the phenomena related to tunnel fire dynamics, presents state-of-the-art research, and gives detailed solutions to these major issues. Examples for calculations are provided. The aim is to significantly improve the understanding of fire safety engineering in tunnels. Chapters on fuel and ventilation control, combustion products, gas temperatures, heat fluxes, smoke stratification, visibility, tenability, design fire curves, heat release, fire suppression and detection, CFD modeling, and scaling techniques all equip readers to create their own fire safety plans for tunnels. This book should be purchased by any engineer or public official with responsibility for tunnels. It would also be of interest to many fire protection engineers as an application of evolving technical principles of fire safety.

  6. Fires and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Fires and Food Safety Fire! Few words can strike such terror. Residential ...

  7. Fire Stations - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Station Locations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed at or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  8. Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rorty, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Oversættelse af Richard Rortys artikel "Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer" Udgivelsesdato: 26 Oktober......Oversættelse af Richard Rortys artikel "Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer" Udgivelsesdato: 26 Oktober...

  9. National Fire Protection Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or closed List of NFPA codes & standards National Fire Codes® Subscription Service NEC® Online Subscription Free online ... Toggle this sub-menu open or closed The fire risk of exterior walls containing combustible components Resources ...

  10. Seerley Road Fire Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    A barn caught fire at on Seerley Road, Indianapolis. Five storage drums believed to contain metallic potassium were involved in the fire. EPA will perform additional sampling as part of removal operations and safe offsite transportation.

  11. FIRE CHARACTERISTICS FOR ADVANCED MODELLING OF FIRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Dvořák

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the material and fire properties of solid flammable/combustible materials /substances /products, which are used as inputs for the computer numerical fire models. At the same time it gives the test standards for their determination.

  12. A world on fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Olson; David N. Bengston

    2015-01-01

    We live in a world on fire. In just the past few years, major wildland fires have struck at least 13 U.S. states, as well as Indonesia, Australia, China, southern Europe, Russia, Canada, Bolivia, and other parts of the world. Wildland fires are increasing in number, size, and intensity. In particular, there has been an increase in large fire events—megafires—that...

  13. Fire and forest meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    SA Ferguson; T.J. Brown; M. Flannigan

    2005-01-01

    The American Meteorological Society symposia series on Fire and Forest Meteorology provides biennial forums for atmospheric and fire scientists to introduce and discuss the latest and most relevant research on weather, climate and fire. This special issue highlights significant work that was presented at the Fifth Symposium in Orlando, Florida during 16-20 November...

  14. Fire Safety Fundamentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2004-01-01

    Planning and prevention is the best defense against fires in school. This is particularly true in the science laboratory due to the presence of flammable gases, liquids, combustibles, and other potential sources of fire. Teachers can prevent fires from starting by maintaining prudent lab practices when dealing with combustible and flammable…

  15. Fire as Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project that deals with fire production as an aspect of technology. The project challenges students to be survivors in a five-day classroom activity. Students research various materials and methods to produce fire without the use of matches or other modern combustion devices, then must create "fire" to keep…

  16. Fire performance issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. M. Cramer; R. H. White

    1997-01-01

    The worldwide movement toward performance-based building codes is prompting the need for new computational methods to predict fire endurance of wood assemblies. Progress in the past twenty years in understanding fire endurance of individual solid wood components has been achieved in many different countries. The greatest opportunity for major advance in fire research...

  17. Forest fires in Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. Haines; William A. Main; John S. Crosby

    1973-01-01

    Describes factors that contribute to forest fires on two of the State of Missouri's Protection Districts and the Clark National Forest. Includes an analysis of fire cause, annual distribution, weather, and activity by day of week; also discusses multiple-fire day.

  18. Autonomous Forest Fire Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breejen, E. den; Breuers, M.; Cremer, F.; Kemp, R.A.W.; Roos, M.; Schutte, K.; Vries, J.S. de

    1998-01-01

    Forest fire detection is a very important issue in the pre-suppression process. Timely detection allows the suppression units to reach the fire in its initial stages and this will reduce the suppression costs considerably. The autonomous forest fire detection principle is based on temporal contrast

  19. Fire Department Emergency Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Bell, K.; Kelly, J.; Hudson, J.

    1997-09-01

    In 1995 the SRS Fire Department published the initial Operations Basis Document (OBD). This document was one of the first of its kind in the DOE complex and was widely distributed and reviewed. This plan described a multi-mission Fire Department which provided fire, emergency medical, hazardous material spill, and technical rescue services.

  20. Severe ocular trauma—The hidden danger of plastic bottles when throwing out the rubbish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Philippin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This is the first reported case of ocular trauma caused by a plastic bottle cap occurring accidentally without misuse. The mechanism involved an un-emptied plastic bottle containing orange juice being thrown away with other rubbish. The combination of this minor impact and the pressure built up within the bottle through fermentation caused expulsion of the cap at high velocity. This cap caused severe ocular trauma requiring urgent ophthalmic assessment and intervention. Our simple recommendation is that plastic bottles have their caps removed and are emptied before being thrown away. Keywords: Plastic, Bottle, Eye, Trauma

  1. Reducing Baby Bottle Tooth Decay. A SERVE Research Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southeastern Regional Vision for Education (SERVE), Tallahassee, FL.

    This pamphlet discusses strategies for reducing baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) among Native American children. BBTD in infants and toddlers is a painful disease characterized by extensive decay of the upper front and side teeth. It is caused by prolonged exposure of teeth to carbohydrates, such as those contained in infant formula, milk, and fruit…

  2. Safety in Bottle feeding and Safe Preparation | Rees | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the warm temperature, humidity and good nutrition of milk allow the bacteria to thrive. The number of bacteria on bottles and teats is far greater than on toys and general household goods. Through thorough cleaning and sterilisation of the utensils used for infant feeding the presence of these bacteria can be eliminated.

  3. Inoculation of peritoneal dialysate fluid into blood culture bottles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty conventional cultures (54%) were positive compared with 33 (89%) done according to the Bactec system (P < 0,002). In only 1 case did the former technique prove superior. Direct inoculation of peritoneal fluid into Bactec blood culture bottles is therefore superior to conventional methods and has obvious therapeutic ...

  4. Factors influencing the consumption and standards of bottled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, a number of companies and industries in Kenya and other developed countries have come up with bottled/packaged drinking water for sale to a wide range of consumers ... For majority (65%) of the consumers, taste, convenience, fashion/status, safety and potential health benefits are important considerations. Dasani ...

  5. [Composition of fatty acid in commercially available bottled vegetable oil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ying; Chen, Yuexiao; He, Mei; Yang, Yuexin

    2012-05-01

    To analyze the fatty acid composition of commercially available bottled vegetable oil, and to explore its characteristic composition and content and the proportion of specific fatty acids. A total of eight varieties of bottled vegetable oil which are popular in use or famous with local brand from eight districts of Beijing, Yunnan, Zhejiang, Hunan, Henan, Harbin, Jiangsu and Gansu were collected, and selected two different batches for each variety. After being saponified and methyl esterified, the fatty acids of vegetable oil samples were analyzed by Shimadzu GC2014 gas chromatography. The commercially available bottled vegetable oils were mainly consisted of palmitic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid. The average content of trans fatty acids was 1.05g/100g. The ratio of saturated fatty acids: monounsaturated fatty acids: polyunsaturated fatty acid (S: M: P) of vegetable oil samples was in the range of 1:1. 6-9. 4: 0.9-7.4; the ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acid n-6 : n-3 was in the range of 0.37-289.5 : 1. The content of trans fatty acid in commercially available bottled vegetable oil was low, however, most of the proportion of fatty acid did not meet the standards suggested by the Chinese Nutrition Society, and most of vegetable oils are lack of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  6. Microbiological quality of water processed and bottled in Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    contents of each bottle which was inverted three times to ensure suspension of any sedimented organisms. ... metabolism on triple sugar iron (TSI) afar. Bacillus species were identified from the. NA plates by subjecting the ... The BGLB containing inverted. Durham tubes to indicate gas production were incubated at 370 C ...

  7. Forecasting product demand of a bottling company in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forecasting product demand is crucial to any supplier, manufacturer, or retailer; as the process determines the quantities that might be purchased, produced, supplied or shipped in future. For forecasting product demand of a Bottling Company in Kumasi (Ghana), seasonality indices were calculated to predict the demand ...

  8. Breast feeding, bottle feeding and caries experience in children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the relationship between breast feeding, bottle feeding pattern and caries experience in young children. Methods: Children aged 6 months – 5 years from 3 randomly selected local governments in Lagos State were examined intraorally. Structured questionnaire were administered to the mothers to ...

  9. Gourds: Bitter, Bottle, Wax, Snake, Sponge and Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor cucurbits include bitter gourd, bottle gourd, wax gourd, snake gourd, and sponge and ridge gourd, which are significant dietary sources of nutrients such as vitamin A and C, iron and calcium. These cucurbits are cultivated and marketed by smallholder farmers and remain important components of ...

  10. 27 CFR 31.202 - Possession of refilled liquor bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Possession of refilled liquor bottles. 31.202 Section 31.202 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Reuse and Possession of Used...

  11. 27 CFR 31.201 - Refilling of liquor bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refilling of liquor bottles. 31.201 Section 31.201 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Reuse and Possession of Used Liquor...

  12. The Rod and Bottle System: A Problem in Statics

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacInnes, Iain

    2005-11-01

    The rod and bottle system (sometimes called the "wine butler"), shown in Fig. 1, is a common statics demonstration in the introductory level physics course. One is immediately attracted to it by the craftsmanship in wood. Thomas Carlyle wrote, "Two men I honour, and no third. The scholar and the craftsman."2 This paper presents an analytic treatment of the system.

  13. Bottle Babies: A Guide to the Baby Foods Issue. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottingham, Jane, Comp.

    This guide has been compiled as an aide-memoire and resource book about the increasing incidence of malnutrition in infants caused by bottle feeding in the Third World. It deals with four major interrelated issues: (1) the prevalence of protein energy malnutrition, (2) the importance of breast milk, not only in preventing malnutrition and disease…

  14. Microbiological shelf life of pasteurized milk in bottle and pouch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrus, R R; Loiola, C G; Oliveira, C A F

    2010-01-01

    Shelf life of pasteurized milk in Brazil ranges from 3 to 8 d, mainly due to poor cold chain conditions that prevail throughout the country and subject the product to repeated and/or severe temperature abuse. This study evaluated the influence of storage temperature on the microbiological stability of homogenized whole pasteurized milk (75 degrees C/15 s) packaged in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) bottle and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) pouch, both monolayer materials pigmented with titanium dioxide (TiO(2)). The storage temperatures investigated were 2, 4, 9, 14, and 16 degrees C. Microbiological evaluation was based on mesophilic and psychrotrophic counts with 7 log CFU/mL and 6 log CFU/mL, respectively, set as upper limits of acceptability for maintaining the quality of milk. The microbiological stability for pasteurized milk packaged in HDPE bottle and stored at 2, 4, 9, 14, and 16 degrees C was estimated at 43, 36, 8, 5, and 3 d, respectively. For milk samples packaged in LDPE pouch, shelf life was estimated at 37, 35, 7, 3, and 2 d, respectively. The determination of Q(10) and z values demonstrated that storage temperature has a greater influence on microbiological shelf life of pasteurized milk packaged in LDPE pouch compared to HDPE bottle. Based on the results of this study, HDPE bottle was better for storing pasteurized milk as compared to LDPE pouch.

  15. 40 CFR 141.101 - Use of bottled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of bottled water. 141.101 Section 141.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Use of Non-Centralized Treatment Devices § 141.101...

  16. The Use of Plastic Lemonade Bottles as Fermenter Reaction Vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, David; Howard, Barry

    1988-01-01

    Describes the construction and uses of a low cost fermenter reaction vessel which is suitable for laboratory growth of microorganisms by continuous and batch cultures from plastic soft drink bottles. Lists materials, discusses modifications that can be made and gives examples of use. (CW)

  17. A survey of the radiological quality of Mexican bottled waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez del R, H.; Davila R, J. I.; Rosales H, M. A.; Mireles G, F.; Pinedo V, J. L., E-mail: hlopezdelrio@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98060 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    More bottled drinking water is consumed per capita in Mexico than in any other country in the world. With the purpose of verifying the compliance with Mexican standards for radioactive content of drinking water, the gross alpha and beta activities were measured in 34 brands of bottled water consisting of purified water (19), natural mineral water (12), and mineralized water (3). Electrical conductivity of water samples ranged from 10 to 1465 μS/cm, and mostly high values were for the mineralized water samples. Gross alpha activities ranged from <12.2 to 709.8 mBq/L, while gross beta activities values varied from <26 to 616 mBq/L. All the bottled water samples had radioactivity content below the maximum permissible levels established in the Official Mexican Norm, except for the gross alpha level of one natural mineral water. Based upon these results it can be concluded that, in general, the analyzed bottled waters have acceptable quality with regard to radioactive content of gross alpha and beta activities. (Author)

  18. Quality of some commonly consumed "pure" and bottled waters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Ogun State were investigated to establish the quality of the products and their suitability for human consumption. Generally, results of some physical parameters such as Electrical Conductivity (EC), Total dissolved Solids (TDS) and pH for the "pure" and bottled water samples were within WHO safe limits for drinking water.

  19. One Man's Rubbish … Active Learning Using Old Bottle Tops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Clare; Orlando, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This is an activity for younger learners in which the concepts of relative frequency and probability are explored, illustrating how a creative, non-transmission teaching approach using bottle tops can enable students to develop their understanding in an engaging fashion and at almost no cost.

  20. infant bottle-feeding practice, agaro town, southwest ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    alternative source of nutrition for infants. The first attempt to provide preparatory milk formula as an artificial substitute for human breast milk is ascribed to Gerlslen. Boger and Ruth in 1919. Since then food technology has made it possible to provide proprietary milk formula (1). Today bottle-feeding has become a practice in ...

  1. The Bacteriological Quality assessment of some bottled water sold ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ninety-nine (99) isolates were obtained and the completed test revealed the presence of Escherichia coli (3%) and Enterobacter species (97%). All the bottled water brands did not meet up with the standard stipulated by the Nigerian Industrial Standard for drinking water quality and the World Health Organization standard.

  2. Do breastfeeding and bottle feeding influence occlusal parameters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán-Gónzalez, Antonio F; Aznar-Martín, Teresa; Cabrera-Domínguez, Maria E; Domínguez-Reyes, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    A study was made of the influence of breastfeeding and bottle feeding on development of the dental arches and occlusion in an infant population. In total, 298 infants (163 girls and 135 boys) were selected from a series of 1,643 preschool children in Seville, Spain, evaluating the type of feeding received after birth (breastfeeding only or bottle feeding only), the duration of such feeding, and its influence upon the parameters that define occlusion of the dental arches. The study comprised a full exploration of the stomatognathic system of the infants and a questionnaire for the parents. SPSS Statistical Package software (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL) was used to analyze the results. In total, 109 children were exclusively breastfed (36.6%) for an average of 6.8±5.8 months, whereas 189 children were exclusively bottle fed (63.4%) for an average of 17.99±11.5 months. On comparing the occlusal parameters of the two groups, the most beneficial effects (straight terminal plane, canine class I relationship, diastemas, and primate spaces) corresponded to the infants who were breastfed. Breastfed infants show better development of the dental arches and a lesser incidence of dental occlusion disorders than bottle-fed infants.

  3. 21 CFR 1250.42 - Water systems; constant temperature bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and protected as to minimize the hazard of contamination of the water supply. (c) On all new or... containers used for storing or dispensing potable water shall be kept clean at all times and shall be... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water systems; constant temperature bottles. 1250...

  4. Nutritional value OF Bottle Gourd ( Lagenaria siceraria ) Seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whole seeds, dehulled seeds and seed coats of bottle gourd seed (Lagenaria siceraria) were analysed for their proximate, amino acids and mineral compositions. The results of the analysis showed that, whole seed has highest content of moisture (17.5 0.21%) and ash (5.80 0.83%) while dehulled had highest amount ...

  5. NASA-Enhanced Water Bottles Filter Water on the Go

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Complex systems on the ISS collect and recycle moisture from every possible source-including sweat and urine-to be filtered for recycled use. Greenbrae, California-based ÖKO now sells a water bottle that employs NASA filtration media to purify water as the user squeezes it through the device.

  6. Inoculation ofperitoneal dialysate fluid into blood culture bottles im ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract The aiIn of the study was to detennine if direct inoculation of peritoneal fluid into Bactec blood culture bottles would improve the positive bacteriological yield compared with conventional techniques in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients with peritonitis. All patients presenting with suspected ...

  7. Fluoride Content of Bottled Drinking Waters in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almulla, Hessa Ibrahim; King, Nigel M; Alnsour, Hamza Mohammad; Sajnani, Anand K

    2016-12-01

    Fluoridation of drinking water has been recognized as one of the most effective ways of achieving community-wide exposure to the caries prevention effects of fluoride (F). A vast majority of people in Qatar use bottled water for drinking. Use of bottled water without knowing the F level may expose children to dental caries risk if the F level is lower than optimal or to dental fluorosis if the F level is too high. The aim of this study was to determine the F concentration of bottled water available in Qatar. A total of 32 brands of bottled water were evaluated. The F concentrations displayed on the labels were recorded. The F ion-selective electrode method was used to measure the F concentration in water samples, and three measurements were taken for every sample to ensure reproducibility. The p value was set at 0.05. The F concentration ranged from 0.06 to 3.0 ppm with a mean value of 0.8 ppm (±0.88). The F levels were provided by the manufacturers on the labels of 60 % of the samples, but this was significantly lower than the measured F levels (p water that was produced in Saudi Arabia had significantly higher levels of F when compared to those produced in other countries (p water. Furthermore, there was a significant disparity between the F levels which were measured and those that were provided on the labels.

  8. Characterizing Green Fiber Bottle Prototypes Using Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxena, Prateek; Bissacco, Giuliano; Stolfi, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    Due to ever increasing demand of sustainability and biodegradability, there arises a need to develop environmental friendly packaging products. Green fiber bottle is a packaging product for carbonated beverages, made out of cellulose fibers. The production process accounts for moulding paper pulp...

  9. A Review of Fire Interactions and Mass Fires

    OpenAIRE

    Finney, Mark A.; McAllister, Sara S.

    2011-01-01

    The character of a wildland fire can change dramatically in the presence of another nearby fire. Understanding and predicting the changes in behavior due to fire-fire interactions cannot only be life-saving to those on the ground, but also be used to better control a prescribed fire to meet objectives. In discontinuous fuel types, such interactions may elicit fire spread where none otherwise existed. Fire-fire interactions occur naturally when spot fires start ahead of the main fire and when...

  10. A New Bottle Design Decreases Hypoxemic Episodes during Feeding in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Jenik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen saturation is lower during bottle feeding than during breastfeeding in preterm infants. Our objective was to compare two different bottle systems in healthy preterm infants before discharge in terms of SpO2 and oral feeding efficiency (rate of milk intake. Infants without supplement oxygen needs were evaluated twice on the same day during two consecutive feeds, by the same nurse. Infants served as their own controls for comparison of two systems of bottles, the order of which was randomized. The new bottle's nipple design mimics mom's breast in shape and feel, and the bottle vents to air when the child sucks on the nipple. The other system was the hospital's standard plastic bottle with silicone nipple. The rate of milk intake was calculated as the total volume transferred minus volume lost divided by time of feeding, mL/min. Thirty-four infants (BW: 1,163±479.1 g were studied at 35.4±1.3 weeks after-conception. SpO2 was significantly higher in infants fed with the new bottle design. Milk intake rate was significantly higher with the new bottle than with the standard bottle design. The new bottle design improves oral feeding performance in preterm infants near to discharge when compared to that of a standard bottle.

  11. Soft drink logos on baby bottles: do they influence what is fed to children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siener, K; Rothman, D; Farrar, J

    1997-01-01

    Baby bottle with popular soda pop and soft drink logos are on marked shelves. A descriptive study was conducted to determine their prevalence among families and to determine whether the logos could be influencing what families put in baby bottles. A convenience sample of 314 mothers (and grandmothers if they were primary caregivers) with children using baby bottles was interviewed in three California counties. The results were analyzed for significance, using the chi-square test for independence. The ethnicities and educational levels of the sample population matched the distribution of the State. Overall, 31 percent of the children drank either soda pop or Kool-Aid from baby bottles. Forty-six percent of the respondents owned a baby bottle with a soda pop logo and 17 percent owned a bottle with a Kool-Aid logo. Families who owned bottles with popular beverage logos were four times more likely to give children the respective beverage in bottles than families with "logo bottles." Populations most likely to drink these beverages were those in the black and Hispanic ethnic groups, in the youngest age-group (15-20 years of age), and those without a high school diploma. Health professionals are concerned that the logos could cause an increase in children's consumption of sweetened beverages in baby bottles and consequently an increase in Baby Bottle Tooth Decay and nutritional problems.

  12. A New Bottle Design Decreases Hypoxemic Episodes during Feeding in Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenik, Alejandro; Fustiñana, Carlos; Marquez, Maritza; Mage, David; Fernandez, Gloria; Mariani, Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    Oxygen saturation is lower during bottle feeding than during breastfeeding in preterm infants. Our objective was to compare two different bottle systems in healthy preterm infants before discharge in terms of SpO(2) and oral feeding efficiency (rate of milk intake). Infants without supplement oxygen needs were evaluated twice on the same day during two consecutive feeds, by the same nurse. Infants served as their own controls for comparison of two systems of bottles, the order of which was randomized. The new bottle's nipple design mimics mom's breast in shape and feel, and the bottle vents to air when the child sucks on the nipple. The other system was the hospital's standard plastic bottle with silicone nipple. The rate of milk intake was calculated as the total volume transferred minus volume lost divided by time of feeding, mL/min. Thirty-four infants (BW: 1, 163 ± 479.1 g) were studied at 35.4 ± 1.3 weeks after-conception. SpO(2) was significantly higher in infants fed with the new bottle design. Milk intake rate was significantly higher with the new bottle than with the standard bottle design. The new bottle design improves oral feeding performance in preterm infants near to discharge when compared to that of a standard bottle.

  13. Blood culture bottle culture of pleural fluid in pleural infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, Sarah M; Rahman, Najib M; Wrightson, John M; Davies, Helen E; Shorten, Robert; Gillespie, Stephen H; Davies, Christopher W H; Maskell, Nick A; Jeffrey, Andrew A; Lee, Y C Gary; Davies, Robert J O

    2011-08-01

    Pleural infection is common, and has a >30% major morbidity and mortality-particularly when infection is caused by Gram-negative, Staphylococcus aureus or mixed aerobic pathogens. Standard pleural fluid culture is negative in ∼40% of cases. Culturing pleural fluid in blood culture bottles may increase microbial yield, and is cheap and easy to perform. To determine whether inoculating pleural fluid into blood culture bottles increases the culture positivity of pleural infection over standard laboratory culture, and to assess the optimum volume of inoculum to introduce. 62 patients with pleural infection were enrolled. Pairs of aerobic and anaerobic blood culture bottles were inoculated at the bedside with 2, 5 or 10 ml of pleural fluid, and two pleural fluid specimens were sent for standard culture. Pleural fluid from nine control patients was cultured to test for 'false-positive' results. The addition of blood culture bottle culture to standard culture increased the proportion of patients with identifiable pathogens by 20.8% (20/53 (37.7%) to 31/53 (58.5%) (difference 20.8%, 95% CI difference 8.9% to 20.8%, p<0.001)). The second standard culture did not similarly improve the culture positivity (19/49 (38.8%) to 22/49 (44.9%) (difference 6.1%, 95% CI difference -2.5% to 6.1%, p=0.08)). The culture inoculum volume did not influence bacterial isolation frequency. The control fluids were culture negative. Blood culture bottle culture of infected pleural fluid increases microbial yield when used in addition to standard culture. This technique should be part of routine care.

  14. Fire Protection Program Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharry, J A

    2012-05-18

    This manual documents the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Fire Protection Program. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 420.1B, Facility Safety, requires LLNL to have a comprehensive and effective fire protection program that protects LLNL personnel and property, the public and the environment. The manual provides LLNL and its facilities with general information and guidance for meeting DOE 420.1B requirements. The recommended readers for this manual are: fire protection officers, fire protection engineers, fire fighters, facility managers, directorage assurance managers, facility coordinators, and ES and H team members.

  15. Fire retardant formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to compositions where a substrate is liable to catch fire such as bituminous products, paints, carpets or the like. The invention relates to a composition comprising 40-95 weight % of a substrate to be rendered fire resistant such as bituminous material or paint......, carpets which substrate is mixed with 5-60 weight % of a fire retardant component. The invention relates to a fire retardant component comprising or being constituted of attapulgite, and a salt being a source of a blowing or expanding agent, where the attapulgite and the salt are electrostatically...... connected by mixing and subjecting the mixture of the two components to agitation. Also, the invention relates to compositions comprising 40-95 weight % of a substrate to be rendered fire resistant mixed with 5-60 weight % of a fire retardant according to claim 1 or 2, which fire retardant component...

  16. Bottles to trees: Plastic beverage bottles as an alternative nursery growing container for reforestation in developing countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safiullah Khurram

    Full Text Available Reforestation is needed globally to help restore degraded sites, combat desertification, protect watersheds, and provide forest products. This involves planting forest tree seedlings grown in local nurseries, but technologies to produce quality seedlings are lacking in developing countries. Modern nursery containers used to propagate seedlings have internal-surface barriers (ribs or ridges or side-slits to prevent root spiraling. These are cost prohibitive or unavailable in developing countries and so polybags (plastic bags are more commonly used, despite their tendency to produce seedlings with deformed root systems that have less potential to establish on field sites. Discarded plastic bottles, which are readily available worldwide, may be a feasible alternative for seedling propagation. We conducted two experiments to assess the potential of repurposed plastic beverage bottles to grow quality trees: 1 Container Comparison-to evaluate Arizona walnut (Juglans major [Toor.] Heller and Afghan pine (Pinus eldarica Medw. seedling root and shoot development in two plastic bottle types compared to modern nursery containers and polybags, and 2 Bottle Modification-to examine the effects of root spiraling prevention techniques (side-slits, internal-ridges, and control and container opacity (green, black, and clear on Afghan pine seedling morphological attributes. Nursery growth and first-year seedling field performance were evaluated for both experiments. In experiment one, seedlings of both species had fewer spiraled roots in bottle containers compared to polybags. Arizona walnut had more fibrous root systems in polybags, while Afghan pine root system fibrosity was greatest in bottle containers. First-year field performance of both species was not affected by container type. In experiment two, less spiraled roots occurred in containers with air-slits and interior-ridges compared to the control. The effects of container opacity on seedling morphology

  17. Evaluation function of drinking ease from aluminum beverage bottles relative to optimum bottle opening diameter and beverage type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihara, Takanori; Yamazaki, Koetsu

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, aluminum beverage bottles having screw tops with opening diameters of 28 and 38 mm have been launched in the Japanese market in keeping with the modern-day drinking habits of consumers. Although Japanese consumers are familiar with such bottles, a majority of them feel that the 28 mm opening is too small and the 38 mm opening is too large. Therefore, we felt the need to develop a method for evaluating consumer feelings when they drink a beverage directly from the bottle opening. For this purpose, we propose an evaluation function of drinking ease that calculates the optimum opening diameter of the bottle. From results of our previous study, we know that there exists an ideal volume of beverage flowing into the mouth, at which consumers feel most comfortable while drinking directly from bottles. Therefore, we define the evaluation function of drinking ease in terms of the difference between the actual volume of fluid in the mouth and the expected ideal volume. If this difference is small, consumers probably feel comfortable while drinking the beverage. We consider a design variable, i.e., the opening diameter, and two state variables, i.e., the volume of beverage remaining in the bottle and the height of consumers, and construct the response surface of the evaluation function by using radial basis function networks. In addition, for investigating the influence of beverage type on the evaluation function, we select green tea and a carbonated beverage (Coke) as test beverages. Results of optimization of the proposed function show that when the opening diameters are 35.4 mm and 34.4 mm in the case of green tea and Coke, respectively, the actual volume of fluid in the mouth is closest to the ideal volume and the participants feel most comfortable. These results are in agreement with results of our previous study that an opening diameter of 33 mm is optimum for young Japanese adults. Thus, we confirm that the proposed function is accurate; it can be used

  18. Bottles to trees: Plastic beverage bottles as an alternative nursery growing container for reforestation in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurram, Safiullah; Burney, Owen T; Morrissey, Robert C; Jacobs, Douglass F

    2017-01-01

    Reforestation is needed globally to help restore degraded sites, combat desertification, protect watersheds, and provide forest products. This involves planting forest tree seedlings grown in local nurseries, but technologies to produce quality seedlings are lacking in developing countries. Modern nursery containers used to propagate seedlings have internal-surface barriers (ribs or ridges) or side-slits to prevent root spiraling. These are cost prohibitive or unavailable in developing countries and so polybags (plastic bags) are more commonly used, despite their tendency to produce seedlings with deformed root systems that have less potential to establish on field sites. Discarded plastic bottles, which are readily available worldwide, may be a feasible alternative for seedling propagation. We conducted two experiments to assess the potential of repurposed plastic beverage bottles to grow quality trees: 1) Container Comparison-to evaluate Arizona walnut (Juglans major [Toor.] Heller) and Afghan pine (Pinus eldarica Medw.) seedling root and shoot development in two plastic bottle types compared to modern nursery containers and polybags, and 2) Bottle Modification-to examine the effects of root spiraling prevention techniques (side-slits, internal-ridges, and control) and container opacity (green, black, and clear) on Afghan pine seedling morphological attributes. Nursery growth and first-year seedling field performance were evaluated for both experiments. In experiment one, seedlings of both species had fewer spiraled roots in bottle containers compared to polybags. Arizona walnut had more fibrous root systems in polybags, while Afghan pine root system fibrosity was greatest in bottle containers. First-year field performance of both species was not affected by container type. In experiment two, less spiraled roots occurred in containers with air-slits and interior-ridges compared to the control. The effects of container opacity on seedling morphology were

  19. Fire Danger and Fire Weather Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Weather Service (formerly Weather Bureau) and Forest Service developed a program to track meteorological conditions conducive to forest fires, resulting...

  20. All fired up

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    Members of the Directorate and their support staff took part in a fire-fighting course organised by the CERN Fire Brigade just before the end-of-year break.  The Bulletin takes a look at the fire-fighting training on offer at CERN.   At CERN the risk of fire can never be under-estimated. In order to train personnel in the use of fire extinguishers, CERN's fire training centre in Prévessin acquired a fire-simulation platform in 2012. On the morning of 17 December 2012, ten members of the CERN directorate and their support staff tried out the platform, following in the footsteps of 400 other members of the CERN community who had already attended the course. The participants were welcomed to the training centre by Gilles Colin, a fire-fighter and instructor, who gave them a 30-minute introduction to general safety and the different types of fire and fire extinguishers, followed by an hour of practical instruction in the simulation facility. There they were able to pract...

  1. Fires in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Anderson, Liana O.; Lima, André; Arai, Egidio

    2016-11-01

    Fire has been used since the first humans arrived in Amazonia; however, it has recently become a widely used instrument for large-scale forest clearance. Patterns of fire incidence in the region have been exacerbated by recent drought events. Understanding temporal and spatial fire patterns as well as their consequences for forest structure, species composition, and the carbon cycle is critical for minimising global change impacts on Amazonian ecosystems and people. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the state of our knowledge on the spatial and temporal patterns of fire incidence in Amazonia, depicting the historical fire usage in the region, their relationship with land use and land cover, and their responses to climate seasonality and droughts. We subsequently focus on the impacts of fire, by quantifying the extent of burnt forests during major droughts and describing the main impacts on forest structure, composition, and carbon stocks. Finally, we present an overview of modelling initiatives for forecasting fire incidence in the region. We conclude by providing a comprehensive view of the processes that influence fire occurrence, potential feedbacks, and impacts in Amazonia. We also highlight how key areas within fire ecology must be improved for a better understanding of the long-term effect of fire on the Amazon forest 'biome'.

  2. Managing wildland fires: integrating weather models into fire projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne M. Rosenthal; Francis Fujioka

    2004-01-01

    Flames from the Old Fire sweep through lands north of San Bernardino during late fall of 2003. Like many Southern California fires, the Old Fire consumed susceptible forests at the urban-wildland interface and spread to nearby city neighborhoods. By incorporating weather models into fire perimeter projections, scientist Francis Fujioka is improving fire modeling as a...

  3. Infant feeding bottle design, growth and behaviour: results from a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewtrell, M S; Kennedy, K; Nicholl, R; Khakoo, A; Lucas, A

    2012-03-16

    Whether the design of an anti-vacuum infant feeding bottle influences infant milk intake, growth or behavior is unknown, and was the subject of this randomized trial. 63 (36 male) healthy, exclusively formula-fed term infants. Randomisation to use Bottle A (n = 31), one-way air valve: Philips Avent) versus Bottle B (n = 32), internal venting system: Dr Browns). 74 breast-fed reference infants were recruited, with randomisation (n = 24) to bottle A (n = 11) or B (n = 13) if bottle-feeding was subsequently introduced. Randomisation: stratified by gender and parity; computer-based telephone randomisation by independent clinical trials unit. Infant home. infant weight gain to 4 weeks. (i) milk intake (ii) infant behaviour measured at 2 weeks (validated 3-day diary); (iii) risk of infection; (iv) continuation of breastfeeding following introduction of mixed feeding. Number analysed for primary outcome: Bottle A n = 29, Bottle B n = 25. There was no significant difference in weight gain between randomised groups (0-4 weeks Bottle A 0.74 (SD 1.2) SDS versus bottle B 0.51 (0.39), mean difference 0.23 (95% CI -0.31 to 0.77). Infants using bottle A had significantly less reported fussing (mean 46 versus 74 minutes/day, p bottle B. There was no significant difference in any other outcome measure. Breast-fed reference group: There were no significant differences in primary or secondary outcomes between breast-fed and formula fed infants. The likelyhood of breastfeeding at 3 months was not significantly different in infants subsequently randomised to bottle A or B. Bottle design may have short-term effects on infant behaviour which merit further investigation. No significant effects were seen on milk intake or growth; confidence in these findings is limited by the small sample size and this needs confirmation in a larger study. Clinical Trials.gov NCT00325208.

  4. Developmental Trajectories of Bottle-Feeding During Infancy and Their Association with Weight Gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Alison K

    To describe patterns of bottle-feeding across the first year postpartum and explore whether bottle-feeding trajectories are differentially associated with infant weight gain. Data came from 1291 mothers who participated in the Infant Feeding Practices Study 2. Mothers completed a prenatal questionnaire and monthly surveys of infant feeding and growth between birth and 12 months. Group-based trajectory mixture modeling was used to describe developmental trajectories of bottle-feeding intensities across the first year. Growth curve modeling was used to explore associations between bottle-feeding intensity trajectory group membership and weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) trajectories from birth to 12 months. Four qualitatively distinct trajectories of bottle-feeding were identified: (1) High-Stable: ∼100% of feeds from bottles across infancy; (2) Rapid-Increase: feeds from bottles during the neonatal assessment, increasing to ∼100% by 6 months; (3) Gradual-Increase: feeds from bottles during the neonatal assessment, gradually increasing to ∼100% by 12 months; and (4) Low-Stable: feeds from bottles across the majority of infancy. Bottle-feeding groups had significantly different WAZ trajectories across infancy; by 12 months, the High-Stable and Rapid-Increase groups had significantly higher WAZs compared with the Gradual-Increase and Low-Stable groups (p bottle-feeding group membership and WAZ trajectories was not confounded by sociodemographic characteristics or the extent to which infants received breast milk. High-intensity bottle use during early infancy may place infants at higher risk for excess weight gain. Supports and policies that help mothers delay high-intensity bottle use until later infancy are warranted.

  5. Biomass co-firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2013-01-01

    Co-firing biomass with fossil fuels in existing power plants is an attractive option for significantly increasing renewable energy resource utilization and reducing CO2 emissions. This chapter mainly discusses three direct co-firing technologies: pulverized-fuel (PF) boilers, fluidized-bed combus......Co-firing biomass with fossil fuels in existing power plants is an attractive option for significantly increasing renewable energy resource utilization and reducing CO2 emissions. This chapter mainly discusses three direct co-firing technologies: pulverized-fuel (PF) boilers, fluidized......-bed combustion (FBC) systems, and grate-firing systems, which are employed in about 50%, 40% and 10% of all the co-firing plants, respectively. Their basic principles, process technologies, advantages, and limitations are presented, followed by a brief comparison of these technologies when applied to biomass co...

  6. Chapter 5. Borderlands fire regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margot Wilkinson-Kaye; Thomas Swetnam; Christopher R. Baisan

    2006-01-01

    Fire is a keystone process in most natural, terrestrial ecosystems. The vital role that fire plays in controlling the structure of an ecosystem underscores the need for us to increase our knowledge of past and current fire regimes (Morgan and others 1994). Dendrochronological reconstructions of fire histories provide descriptions of past fire regimes across a range of...

  7. Little Bear Fire Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah McCaffrey; Melanie Stidham; Hannah. Brenkert-Smith

    2013-01-01

    In June 2012, immediately after the Little Bear Fire burned outside Ruidoso, New Mexico, a team of researchers interviewed fire managers, local personnel, and residents to understand perceptions of the event itself, communication, evacuation, and pre-fire preparedness. The intensity of fire behavior and resulting loss of 242 homes made this a complex fire with a...

  8. Fire management in central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrea L. Koonce; Armando González-Cabán

    1992-01-01

    Information on fire management operations in Central America is scant. To evaluate the known level of fire occurrence in seven countries in that area, fire management officers were asked to provide information on their fire control organizations and on any available fire statistics. The seven countries surveyed were Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua,...

  9. The human and fire connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theresa B. Jain

    2014-01-01

    We refer to fire as a natural disturbance, but unlike other disturbances such as forest insects and diseases, fire has had an intimate relationship with humans. Fire facilitated human evolution over two million years ago when our ancestors began to use fire to cook. Fire empowered our furbearers to adapt to cold climates, allowing humans to disperse and settle into...

  10. Wildland Fire Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwager, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-09-30

    The Wildland Fire Management Plan (FMP) for Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) is written to comply with Department of Energy (DOE) Integrated Safety Management Policy; Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy and Program Review; and Wildland and Prescribed Fire Management Policy and Implementation Procedures Reference Guide. This current plan incorporates changes resulting from new policies on the national level as well as significant changes to available resources and other emerging issues, and replaces BNL's Wildland FMP dated 2014.

  11. Preventing baby bottle tooth decay: eight-year results.

    OpenAIRE

    Bruerd, B; Jones, C.

    1996-01-01

    Baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) is a preventable dental disease that affects more than 50% of American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) children. A community-oriented program to prevent BBTD was implemented in 12 AI/AN communities in 1986. In 1989, the overall prevalence of BBTD for the 12 sites combined decreased from 57% to 43% which represented a 25% reduction (P

  12. Odorant polyfunctional thiols issued from bottle beer fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Nizet, Sabrina; Gros, Jacques; Collin, Sonia; XII Weurman flavour research symposium

    2011-01-01

    Bottle refermentation which imparts beer effervescence and resistance against infection and oxidation is also known to improve flavor profile and stability. By this process, some stale off-flavors exhaled by aldehydes (trans-2-nonenal, 3-methylthiopropionaldehyde, 3- methylbutanal ..) are reduced into alcohols (1, 2). Unfortunately, yeast esterases can also strongly affect the beer fruity character by hydrolyzing isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate and ethyl octanoate (1, 2). Thio...

  13. Patulin detection from Penicillia in bottled water commodity system

    OpenAIRE

    Paterson, R. R. M.; Ribeiro, Ana; Venâncio, Armando; Lima, Nelson

    2004-01-01

    Control of Mycological Contaminants of BOttled Water (COMBOW) is an EU-CRAFT project which is investigating the significance of fungi to this commodity. Some fungi produce toxins (mycotoxins). These compounds contaminate food and drink with detrimental effects on human health and economies. Mycotoxins have been reported recently in stored water and production confirmed in vitro. Patulin is a mycotoxin and has been regulated by the EU since 1 November 2003 in apple juice and ingredients. Penic...

  14. WebFIRE

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Factor Information Retrieval (FIRE) Data System is a database management system containing EPA's recommended emission estimation factors for criteria and...

  15. Fire protection design criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, national Fire Protection Association Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard, along with other delineated criteria, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities.

  16. DETERMINATION OF PHTHALATES FROM BOTTLED WATER BY GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRINA DUMITRAȘCU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of phthalates from bottled water by GC-MS. Phthalates are ubiquitous pollutants in the environment, due to their widespread use in the last years. These compounds are used principally as plasticizers, to impact flexibility, workability and durability to polymers but they can also be found in products such as paints, adhesives, inks and cosmetics. Phthalates are not chemically bounded to polymers; hence they are easily released and migrate into foods, beverages and drinking water from the packaging or bottling materials or manufacturing processes. This process accelerates as plastic products age and break down. With respect to their endocrine disrupting potential, phthalates such as benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP, di-butyl phthalate (DBP and di-isobutyl phthalate (DIBP have been found to elicit estrogenic responses in in vitro assays. It is possible that phthalates are a contributory factor to endocrine-mediated adverse effects observed in wildlife and humans over the past few decades. In this experiment we have analyzed the phthalates from different bottled waters purchased from the market. Determination by gas chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry detector (GC–MS in electronic ionization mode (EI with selected-ion monitoring (SIM acquisition method (GC–MS (EI–SIM has been carried out. Methods have been developed for both qualitative and quantitative analysis of phthalates. The base peak (m/z = 149 of all the phthalates was selected for the screening studies. The characteristic ions of each compound were chosen for quantitative studies.

  17. Study on the Plastic Bottle Recycling Based on Evolution Tree for Technical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuedong Xiong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Technical system theory of evolution tree was used in the study of the plastic bottle recycling, and established the evolutionary line of plastic bottle recycling on the basis of the analysis of plastic bottle recycling recovery evolution tree, and summed up a new smart plastic bottle recycling program. The new recovery recovers and smashes the plastic bottles through technical system, and communicates with users through automatically reward system and rewards the latter. The experimental prototype test results show: post treated fragments of plastic bottles are small, which are convenient to transport and take advantage of; the operation of recovery is easy, and the interface of man-machine interaction is friendly which is easy to expand functions.

  18. National Fire News- Current Wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1 to 5) Current hours for the National Fire Information Center are (MST) 8:00 am - 4: ... more information. February 9, 2018 Eleven new large fires were reported. States reporting fires include Oklahoma, Arkansas, ...

  19. The Effect of Consumer Learning Behavior on the Rising Bottled Water Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Lu; Liu, Yizao

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of consumer learning behavior on the rising bottled water consumption. Consumers are assumed with initial prior beliefs about the distribution of health effect of beverages and update their beliefs using health information in a Baysian manner. We find that the health effect perception for bottled water is much higher than for sugar sweetened soft drinks, which can explain the increase in bottled water consumption over time. According to our findings, health info...

  20. Reducing Display Bottle Cooler Energy Consumption Using PCM As Active Thermal Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Beek, Marcel van; de Jong, Hans

    2014-01-01

    The final results of an analytical and experimental study in reducing the energy consumption of a display bottle cooler using Phase Change Material (PCM) as an active thermal storage are presented. The objective of the study was to design and built a 350 dm3 glass door bottle cooler having an appliance energy consumption reduction of over 75% compared to state of the art bottle coolers (2010 figures). Calculation results show that active thermal storage using PCM can be effectively applied to...

  1. Severe ocular trauma—The hidden danger of plastic bottles when throwing out the rubbish

    OpenAIRE

    H. Philippin; J. Abbott; J.A. Gilmour-White; P. Shah

    2016-01-01

    This is the first reported case of ocular trauma caused by a plastic bottle cap occurring accidentally without misuse. The mechanism involved an un-emptied plastic bottle containing orange juice being thrown away with other rubbish. The combination of this minor impact and the pressure built up within the bottle through fermentation caused expulsion of the cap at high velocity. This cap caused severe ocular trauma requiring urgent ophthalmic assessment and intervention. Our simple recommendat...

  2. Infant feeding bottle design, growth and behaviour: results from a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fewtrell MS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whether the design of an anti-vacuum infant feeding bottle influences infant milk intake, growth or behavior is unknown, and was the subject of this randomized trial. Methods Subjects 63 (36 male healthy, exclusively formula-fed term infants. Intervention Randomisation to use Bottle A (n = 31, one-way air valve: Philips Avent versus Bottle B (n = 32, internal venting system: Dr Browns. 74 breast-fed reference infants were recruited, with randomisation (n = 24 to bottle A (n = 11 or B (n = 13 if bottle-feeding was subsequently introduced. Randomisation stratified by gender and parity; computer-based telephone randomisation by independent clinical trials unit. Setting Infant home. Primary outcome measure infant weight gain to 4 weeks. Secondary outcomes (i milk intake (ii infant behaviour measured at 2 weeks (validated 3-day diary; (iii risk of infection; (iv continuation of breastfeeding following introduction of mixed feeding. Results Number analysed for primary outcome Bottle A n = 29, Bottle B n = 25. Primary outcome There was no significant difference in weight gain between randomised groups (0-4 weeks Bottle A 0.74 (SD 1.2 SDS versus bottle B 0.51 (0.39, mean difference 0.23 (95% CI -0.31 to 0.77. Secondary outcomes Infants using bottle A had significantly less reported fussing (mean 46 versus 74 minutes/day, p Breast-fed reference group There were no significant differences in primary or secondary outcomes between breast-fed and formula fed infants. The likelyhood of breastfeeding at 3 months was not significantly different in infants subsequently randomised to bottle A or B. Conclusion Bottle design may have short-term effects on infant behaviour which merit further investigation. No significant effects were seen on milk intake or growth; confidence in these findings is limited by the small sample size and this needs confirmation in a larger study. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov NCT00325208.

  3. [Bottle feeding during the first month of life: determinants and effect on breastfeeding technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Maristela Cavalheiro Tamborindeguy; Giugliani, Elsa Regina Justo; Oliveira, Luciana Dias de; Weigert, Enilda Maria Lara; Santo, Lilian Cordova do Espirito; Köhler, Celina Valderez; Bonilha, Ana Lucia de Lourenzi

    2008-08-01

    To assess incidence rate and determinants of bottle feeding during the first month of life, and its potential effects on breastfeeding technique. A nested cross-sectional study was conducted in a contemporary cohort in the city of Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil, between June and November 2003. A total of 211 pairs of healthy mothers and infants were followed up for a month. The effect of bottle feeding on breastfeeding technique was assessed by comparing five items unfavorable to mother-infant positioning and three items unfavorable to infant latch-on; and the average number of unfavorable items between the pairs who started bottle feeding in the first month of life and those who did not. A logistic regression analysis was carried out according to a hierarchical model. By Day 7, 21.3% of infants were bottle-fed and 46.9% were bottle-fed by Day 30. Living with maternal grandmother was associated with bottle feeding at Days 7 and 30. Maternal age bottle feeding at Day 7. Other factors associated with bottle feeding at Day 3 were pacifier use at Day 7 and nipple trauma at Day 7. There was no association between the breastfeeding technique taught at the maternity hospital and subsequent bottle feeding. However, at Day 30, the breastfeeding technique was found to be more adequate among exclusively breast-fed infants than those who were also bottle fed. The study results showed that bottle feeding was quite widespread in the first month of life, mainly in infants born to teenage mothers, with nipple trauma, whose maternal grandmothers were living in the same household, and who were using pacifiers. Besides the already recognized negative effects, bottle feeding may negatively affect breastfeeding technique.

  4. The consumption and recycling collection system of PET bottles: a case study of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Wen, Zong-Guo

    2014-06-01

    After studying the recycling collection system of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles worldwide, the authors conducted an intercept survey in Beijing. Two separate questionnaires were issued, one questionnaire to PET bottle consumers and one to PET bottle recyclers. In this study, consumers are defined as people that consume PET-bottled beverages in their daily life. Recyclers were defined as those involved in the collection and recycling of PET bottles. These include scavengers, itinerant waste buyers, small community waste-buying depots, medium/large redemption depots, and recycling companies. In total, 580 surveys were completed, including 461 by consumers and 119 by recyclers. The authors found that consumption of PET bottles in Beijing was nearly 100,000 tonnes in 2012. Age, occupation, gender, and education were identified as significant factors linked to PET-bottled beverage consumption, while income was not a significant factor. 90% Of post-consumed PET bottles were collected by informal collectors (i.e., scavengers and itinerant waste buyers). The survey also found that nearly all PET bottles were reprocessed by small factories that were not designed with pollution control equipment, which allows them to offer higher prices for waste recyclable bottles. As Beijing is trying to build a formal recycling collection system for recyclables, subsidies should be given to the formal recycling sector rather than being charged land use fees, and attention should also be given to informal recyclers that make their living from the collection of recyclables. Informal and formal sectors may work together by employing the scavengers and itinerant waste buyers for the formal sectors. In addition to the recycling of PET bottles, concern should also be allocated to reduce consumption, especially among young people, as they, compared to other groups, have a stronger demand for PET-bottled beverages and will be the main body of society. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd

  5. Macro and microelements in bottled and tap waters of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Tanja M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analysis between bottled and tap waters as well as its comparison with current Serbian regulations, European Union Directives and World Health Organization standard are shown in this paper. Thirteen bottled waters and fourteen tap waters from the territory of Serbia were analyzed in the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR laboratory in Berlin, for the purpose of the “Geochemistry of European Bottled Water“ project conducted by EuroGeo Survey Geochemistry (EGS. Macrocomponents (main cations and anions of ground waters usually reflect on lithogeochemistry of the aquifer, while microcomponents indicate the circulation of ground water through the different lithological environment. Analyzed bottled waters could be classified as those with low mineral content (M<500 mg/L if HCO3 anion and Ca and Mg cations were the prevailing ones, or mineral (M>500 mg/L with prevailing HCO3 anion and Na cation. Waters with low mineral content were mainly from limestone and dolomite, while mineral waters mainly originated from magmatic and metamorphic rocks. Higher content of Cs, Li, Ge, Rb and F in bottled waters indicates the importance of the magmatic intrusions influence on their chemical composition. In some waters higher content of B, I, NH4, as well as of Tl and W has been observed which can be attributed to water’s circulation through different lithological complexes. Tap water was mostly obtained from groundwater (from Neogen and alluvial aquifers and karst springs with rest being those of rivers and surface accumulations. Tap waters from Central Serbia were with low mineral content, with prevailing HCO3 anion and Ca and Mg cations, while waters from Vojvodina, the northern province of Serbia, were with higher mineralization, HCO3-Na. Chemical analyses of the sampled tap waters showed good quality, with exception of waters from the cities of Senta and Zrenjanin in Vojvodina. High values of B (1170 and 895 g/L, As

  6. Breastfeeding, bottle feeding practices and malocclusion in the primary dentition: a systematic review of cohort studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hermont, Ana Paula; Martins, Carolina C; Zina, Lívia G; Auad, Sheyla M; Paiva, Saul M; Pordeus, Isabela A

    2015-01-01

    .... This study aimed to search for scientific evidence regarding the following question: is bottle feeding associated with malocclusion in the primary dentition compared to children that are breastfed...

  7. Preschool children's caregivers' attitudes and behavior regarding bottle feeding in Bangpakong, Chachoengsao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwansingha, Orawan; Rirattanapong, Praphasri

    2014-12-01

    To study a group of preschool children's caregivers' attitudes and behavior regarding bottle feeding in Bangpakong, Chachoengsao. The study sample comprised 320 caregivers of preschool children aged 3-6 years, who were attending the public preschools in Bangpakong, Chachoengsao, and they completed self-administered questionnaires. The questionnaires had information about demographic data, weaning status, the feeding practices for children who were still on a bottle, and the caregivers' attitudes on bottle feeding according to weaning status. Of these children, 38.4% were still on a bottle while 61.6% had been weaned. Mean age at the weaning time was 3.1 ± 0.6 years. The most common reason that led caregivers of bottle feeding group to allow continuation of the habit was the child refused to wean. Of these caregivers, 56% lacked knowledge concerning the appropriate weaning time and that the use of bottles should be actively discouraged for children after 1 year of age. Attitudes between bottle feeding and weaned groups were significantly different (P bottle works best to stop a child from crying, early weaning results in poor mental health, and early weaning results in malnutrition. Prolonged bottle feeding beyond the recommended age was found in the majority of preschool children in this study. Dental professions should provide oral health promotion education program including feeding practice information to caregivers.

  8. Preschool children's caregivers’ attitudes and behavior regarding bottle feeding in Bangpakong, Chachoengsao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwansingha, Orawan; Rirattanapong, Praphasri

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To study a group of preschool children's caregivers’ attitudes and behavior regarding bottle feeding in Bangpakong, Chachoengsao. Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised 320 caregivers of preschool children aged 3–6 years, who were attending the public preschools in Bangpakong, Chachoengsao, and they completed self-administered questionnaires. The questionnaires had information about demographic data, weaning status, the feeding practices for children who were still on a bottle, and the caregivers’ attitudes on bottle feeding according to weaning status. Results: Of these children, 38.4% were still on a bottle while 61.6% had been weaned. Mean age at the weaning time was 3.1 ± 0.6 years. The most common reason that led caregivers of bottle feeding group to allow continuation of the habit was the child refused to wean. Of these caregivers, 56% lacked knowledge concerning the appropriate weaning time and that the use of bottles should be actively discouraged for children after 1 year of age. Attitudes between bottle feeding and weaned groups were significantly different (P bottle works best to stop a child from crying, early weaning results in poor mental health, and early weaning results in malnutrition. Conclusion: Prolonged bottle feeding beyond the recommended age was found in the majority of preschool children in this study. Dental professions should provide oral health promotion education program including feeding practice information to caregivers. PMID:25558456

  9. The fire brigade renovates

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The new fire engine at CERN's Fire Station. A shiny brand-new fire engine is now attracting all the attention of the members of CERN's fire brigade. Since the beginning of last week this engine has taken over from an 18-year-old one, which has now been 'retired' from service. This modern vehicle, built in Brescia, Italy, is much lighter and more powerful than the old one and is equipped to allow the fire service to tackle most call-outs without the support of at least one other vehicle, as is currently necessary. The new fire engine is designed to transport six fire-fighters, 2000 litres of water, and is equipped not only for fire fighting actions but also to respond initially to any other kind of call-out, such as traffic accidents, chemical incidents, pollution, lightning, etc. It goes almost without saying that it is provided with the most modern safety measures, a low centre of gravity, as well as a special chassis and a combination pump (low and high pressure), which improve the safety and performance ...

  10. Sanford Prescribed Fire Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott Conroy; Jim Saveland; Mark Beighley; John Shive; Joni Ward; Marcus Trujillo; Paul Keller

    2003-01-01

    The Dixie National Forest has a long-standing history of successfully implementing prescribed fire and suppression programs. The Forest's safety record has been exemplary. The Forest is known Region-wide for its aggressive and innovative prescribed fire program. In particular, the Dixie National Forest is recognized for its leadership in introducing landscape-...

  11. Fire exposed aluminium structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Fellinger, J.H.H.; Soetens, F.

    2005-01-01

    Material properties and mechanical response models for fire design of steel structures are based on extensive research and experience. Contrarily, the behaviour of aluminium load bearing structures exposed to fire is relatively unexplored. This article gives an overview of physical and mechanical

  12. Fire exposed aluminium structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Fellinger, J.H.H.; Soetens, F.

    2006-01-01

    Material properties and mechanical response models for fire design of steel structures are based on extensive research and experience. Contrarily, the behaviour of aluminium load bearing structures exposed to fire is relatively unexplored. This article gives an overview of physical and mechanical

  13. Advanced fire information system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Frost, PE

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The South African Advanced Fire Information System (AFIS) is the first near real-time satellite-based fire monitoring system in Africa. It was originally developed for, and funded by, the electrical power utility Eskom, to reduce the impact of wild...

  14. Hot fire, cool soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoof, C.R.; Moore, D.; Fernandes, P.; Stoorvogel, J.J.; Fernandes, R.; Ferreira, A.J.D.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Wildfires greatly increase a landscape's vulnerability to flooding and erosion events by removing vegetation and changing soils. Fire damage to soil increases with increasing soil temperature, and, for fires where smoldering combustion is absent, the current understanding is that soil temperatures

  15. A Review of Fire Interactions and Mass Fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Finney

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The character of a wildland fire can change dramatically in the presence of another nearby fire. Understanding and predicting the changes in behavior due to fire-fire interactions cannot only be life-saving to those on the ground, but also be used to better control a prescribed fire to meet objectives. In discontinuous fuel types, such interactions may elicit fire spread where none otherwise existed. Fire-fire interactions occur naturally when spot fires start ahead of the main fire and when separate fire events converge in one location. Interactions can be created intentionally during prescribed fires by using spatial ignition patterns. Mass fires are among the most extreme examples of interactive behavior. This paper presents a review of the detailed effects of fire-fire interaction in terms of merging or coalescence criteria, burning rates, flame dimensions, flame temperature, indraft velocity, pulsation, and convection column dynamics. Though relevant in many situations, these changes in fire behavior have yet to be included in any operational-fire models or decision support systems.

  16. Impact of oxygen dissolved at bottling and transmitted through closures on the composition and sensory properties of a Sauvignon Blanc wine during bottle storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Paulo; Silva, Maria A; Pons, Alexandre; Tominaga, Takatoshi; Lavigne, Valérie; Saucier, Cédric; Darriet, Philippe; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Dubourdieu, Denis

    2009-11-11

    This work outlines the results from an investigation to determine the effect of the oxygen dissolved at bottling and the specific oxygen barrier properties of commercially available closures on the composition, color and sensory properties of a Bordeaux Sauvignon Blanc wine during two years of storage. The importance of oxygen for wine development after bottling was also assessed using an airtight bottle ampule. Wines were assessed for the antioxidants (SO(2) and ascorbic acid), varietal thiols (4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one, 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol), hydrogen sulfide and sotolon content, and color throughout 24 months of storage. In addition, the aroma and palate properties of wines were also assessed. The combination of oxygen dissolved at bottling and the oxygen transferred through closures has a significant effect on Sauvignon Blanc development after bottling. Wines highly exposed to oxygen at bottling and those sealed with a synthetic, Nomacorc classic closure, highly permeable to oxygen, were relatively oxidized in aroma, brown in color, and low in antioxidants and volatile compounds compared to wines sealed with other closures. Conversely, wines sealed under more airtight conditions, bottle ampule and screw cap Saran-tin, have the slowest rate of browning, and displayed the greatest contents of antioxidants and varietal thiols, but also high levels of H(2)S, which were responsible for the reduced dominating character found in these wines, while wines sealed with cork stoppers and screw cap Saranex presented negligible reduced and oxidized characters.

  17. Fires in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    On February 5, 2002, the dense smoke from numerous forest fires stretched out over the Pacific Ocean about 400 miles south of Santiago, Chile. This true-color Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image shows the fires, which are located near the city of Temuco. The fires are indicated with red dots (boxes in the high-resolution imagery). The fires were burning near several national parks and nature reserves in an area of the Chilean Andes where tourism is very popular. Southeast of the fires, the vegetation along the banks of the Rio Negro in Argentina stands out in dark green. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  18. Fire science at LLNL: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, H.K. (ed.)

    1990-03-01

    This fire sciences report from LLNL includes topics on: fire spread in trailer complexes, properties of welding blankets, validation of sprinkler systems, fire and smoke detectors, fire modeling, and other fire engineering and safety issues. (JEF)

  19. USFA NFIRS 2006 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2006 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  20. USFA NFIRS 2000 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2000 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  1. USFA NFIRS 2005 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2005 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  2. USFA NFIRS 2007 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2007 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  3. USFA NFIRS 2002 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2002 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  4. USFA NFIRS 2009 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2009 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  5. USFA NFIRS 2008 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2008 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  6. USFA NFIRS 2003 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2003 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  7. USFA NFIRS 2001 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2001 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  8. USFA NFIRS 2004 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2004 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  9. 77 FR 58081 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Listing of Substitutes for Ozone-Depleting Substances-Fire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... aviation, military mobile weapon systems, oil and gas and other process industries, and merchant shipping with smaller segments of use including libraries, museums, and laboratories. The majority of halon...

  10. Humans, Fires, and Forests - Social science applied to fire management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna J. Cortner; Donald R. Field; Pam Jakes; James D. Buthman

    2003-01-01

    The 2000 and 2002 fire seasons resulted in increased political scrutiny of the nation's wildland fire threats, and given the fact that millions of acres of lands are still at high risk for future catastrophic fire events, the issues highlighted by the recent fire seasons are not likely to go away any time soon. Recognizing the magnitude of the problem, the...

  11. The contribution of natural fire management to wilderness fire science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol Miller

    2014-01-01

    When the federal agencies established policies in the late 1960s and early 1970s to allow the use of natural fires in wilderness, they launched a natural fire management experiment in a handful of wilderness areas. As a result, wildland fire has played more of its natural role in wilderness than anywhere else. Much of what we understand about fire ecology comes from...

  12. Coal fires in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehouse, Alfred E.; Mulyana, Asep A.S. [Office of Surface Mining/Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Coal Fire Project, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Agency for Training and Education, Jl. Gatot Subroto, Kav. 49, Jakarta 12950 (Indonesia)

    2004-07-12

    Indonesia's fire and haze problem is increasingly being ascribed to large-scale forest conversion and land clearing activities making way for pulpwood, rubber and oil palm plantations. Fire is the cheapest tool available to small holders and plantation owners to reduce vegetation cover and prepare and fertilize extremely poor soils. Fires that escaped from agricultural burns have ravaged East Kalimantan forests on the island of Borneo during extreme drought periods in 1982-1983, 1987, 1991, 1994 and 1997-1998. Estimates based on satellite data and ground observations are that more than five million hectares were burned in East Kalimantan during the 1997/1998 dry season. Not only were the economic losses and ecological damage from these surface fires enormous, they ignited coal seams exposed at the ground surface along their outcrops.Coal fires now threaten Indonesia's shrinking ecological resources in Kutai National Park and Sungai Wain Nature Reserve. Sungai Wain has one of the last areas of unburned primary rainforest in the Balikpapan-Samarinda area with an extremely rich biodiversity. Although fires in 1997/1998 damaged nearly 50% of this Reserve and ignited 76 coal fires, it remains the most valuable water catchment area in the region and it has been used as a reintroduction site for the endangered orangutan. The Office of Surface Mining provided Indonesia with the capability to take quick action on coal fires that presented threats to public health and safety, infrastructure or the environment. The US Department of State's Southeast Asia Environmental Protection Initiative through the US Agency for International Development funded the project. Technical assistance and training transferred skills in coal fire management through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resource's Training Agency to the regional offices; giving the regions the long-term capability to manage coal fires. Funding was also included to extinguish coal fires as

  13. Baby bottle tooth decay and complications during pregnancy and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, B; Kafka, I

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate an association between maternal and/or fetal complications during pregnancy and/or delivery and the occurrence of baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) in the infant. The study population comprised 50 mothers of infants with BBTD (BBTD+ mothers): 50 mothers of aged-matched children with similar eating and bottle-use habits but without BBTD (BBTD-) served as comparisons. Interviews with the mothers focused on pregnancy complications (vaginal bleeding, premature uterine contractions, viral or bacterial infections, hospitalization, diabetes, or other causes of high-risk pregnancy), mode of delivery (normal or instrumental), fetal distress, gestational age, birth weight, and mother's age at delivery. Chi-square analysis and the Student's t-test were used to analyze the data. Pregnancy complications and instrument delivery/cesarean section were significantly higher in the BBTD+ group than in the controls (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.0004, respectively). In the BBTD+ group, vaginal bleeding/premature uterine contractions were most frequent (50%), while in the BBTD- group high-risk pregnancy dominated (20%). Normal deliveries were more frequent in the BBTD+ mothers (68%) than in the comparisons (40%). Gestational age and baby's birth weight did not differ between the two groups. The mean age of the BBTD+ mothers was significantly lower than that of the controls (P = 0.013). The results suggest that babies born after maternal complications during pregnancy or babies who experience a traumatic birth must be considered to be at risk of developing BBTD when exposed to excessive bottle nursing.

  14. The influence of early counselling on weaning from a bottle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, S; Theriot, J; Greenwell, A

    2008-06-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of intensive counselling on bottle weaning. A randomised prospective controlled study was conducted. Parents of 4-month-old babies who attended an inner-city clinic affiliated with the Department of Paediatrics, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky with predominately African-American, indigent population were invited to participate. The parent/infant pairs were randomized to either intervention or control groups. Demographic information was recorded and both groups were surveyed on the parent's beliefs and knowledge of weaning from the bottle. The intervention group parents received scripted counselling, including use of feeding cups, and were shown pictures of severe early childhood caries and a dental model of early childhood caries at four, six, nine, and 12 month visits. Two paediatricians who are on the clinic staff used the same script when talking to parents while showing the same photos and dental model to assure symmetry. The control group parents received brief counselling on the use of a feeding cup at 6 month and bottle weaning at nine and 12 months with no photographs or dental models shown. Two dentists, blinded to the group assignment, examined all of the children between the ages of 12 months and 24 months. One hundred eighty-five parent/infant pairs were enrolled and 132 pairs (65 control and 67 intervention) remained at the end of the study. Demographic variables, socioeconomic status and race were similar for both groups. When surveyed, more of the control mothers believed that children should be weaned by 12 months (p = 0.049). Yet, only 17% of their infants were weaned by 12 months, compared to 27% of the intervention infants (p = 0.168). This small study demonstrated no change in parental behaviour after intense counselling.

  15. Coal-fired generation

    CERN Document Server

    Breeze, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Coal-Fired Generation is a concise, up-to-date and readable guide providing an introduction to this traditional power generation technology. It includes detailed descriptions of coal fired generation systems, demystifies the coal fired technology functions in practice as well as exploring the economic and environmental risk factors. Engineers, managers, policymakers and those involved in planning and delivering energy resources will find this reference a valuable guide, to help establish a reliable power supply address social and economic objectives. Focuses on the evolution of the traditio

  16. Ames T-3 fire test facility - Aircraft crash fire simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    There is a need to characterize the thermal response of materials exposed to aircraft fuel fires. Large scale open fire tests are costly and pollute the local environment. This paper describes the construction and operation of a subscale fire test that simulates the heat flux levels and thermochemistry of typical open pool fires. It has been termed the Ames T-3 Test and has been used extensively by NASA since 1969 to observe the behavior of materials exposed to JP-4 fuel fires.

  17. Laboratory fire behavior measurements of chaparral crown fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Sanpakit; S. Omodan; D. Weise; M Princevac

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, there was an estimated 9,900 wildland fires that claimed more than 577,000 acres of land. That same year, about 542 prescribed fires were used to treat 48,554 acres by several agencies in California. Being able to understand fires using laboratory models can better prepare individuals to combat or use fires. Our research focused on chaparral crown fires....

  18. Bottled vs. Canned Beer: Do They Really Taste Different?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Barnett

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available People often say that beer tastes better from a bottle than from a can. However, one can ask how reliable this perceived difference is across consumers. And, if reliable, one can further ask whether it is a purely psychological phenomenon (associated with the influence of packaging on taste perception, or whether instead it reflects some more mundane physico-chemical interaction between the packaging material (or packing procedure/process and the contents. Two experiments were conducted in order to address these questions. In the main experiment, 151 participants at the 2016 Edinburgh Science Festival were served a special ‘craft beer’ in a plastic cup. The beer was either poured from a bottle or can (a between-participants experimental design was used. The participants were encouraged to pick up the packaging in order to inspect the label before tasting the beer. The participants rated the perceived taste, quality, and freshness of the beer, as well as their likelihood of purchase, and estimated the price. All of the beer came from the same batch (specifically a Session IPA from Barney’s Brewery in Edinburgh. None of the participants were familiar with this particular craft brew. Nevertheless, those who evaluated the beer from the bottle rated it as tasting better than those who rated the beer served from the can. Having demonstrated such a perceptual difference (in terms of taste, we then went on to investigate whether people would prefer one packaging format over the other when the beer from bottle and can was served blind to a new group of participants (i.e., when the participants did not know the packaging material. The participants in this control study (n = 29 were asked which beer they preferred. Alternatively, they could state that the two samples tasted the same. No sign of a consistent preference was obtained under such blind tasting conditions. Explanations for the psychological impact of the packaging format, in terms of

  19. Baby bottle tooth decay: a concern for all mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Burg, M M; Sanders, B J; Weddell, J A

    1995-01-01

    Health care professionals often inappropriately separate dental health from other health functions. Baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) should be a concern for all professionals who work with expectant or new mothers and very young children. Research indicates that even though many mothers are aware of the etiology of the condition, they continue to allow prolonged nursing with milk or liquids other than water. Nurses can help promote good oral health for children by educating and training expectant and new mothers, children, and others who work with mothers and children in preventing BBTD.

  20. Analysis of residual vulcanization accelerators in baby bottle rubber teats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, T; Inoue, T; Yamada, T; Tanimura, A

    1986-01-01

    An analytical method was established for the determination of dialkyldithiocarbamates (DTCs) in chloroform-acetone extracts from rubber teats for baby bottles. DTCs in the extracts were derivatized into ethyl esters and analysed by gas chromatography employing nitrogen-phosphorus detection. Dimethyldithiocarbamate and diethyldithiocarbamate were detected at levels up to 3.2 micrograms/g rubber and up to 4.6 micrograms/g rubber (as dithiocarbamic acid), respectively, in the extracts from commercially available isoprene rubber tests. DTCs can form secondary amines by acid hydrolysis, although the levels of DTCs in the extracts only made a minor contribution to the total level of measured secondary amine precursors.

  1. An 800-year fire history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley G. Kitchen

    2010-01-01

    "Fire in the woods!" The words are a real heart stopper. Yet in spite of its capacity to destroy, fire plays an essential role in shaping plant communities. Knowledge of the patterns of fire over long time periods is critical for understanding this role. Trees often retain evidence of nonlethal fires in the form of injuries or scars in the annual growth rings...

  2. Pine Ridge Fire summary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah Brenkert-Smith; Sarah McCaffrey; Melanie. Stidham

    2013-01-01

    In July 2012, immediately after the Pine Ridge Fire burned outside De Beque, Colorado, a team of researchers interviewed fire managers, local government officials, and residents to understand perceptions of the event itself, communication, evacuation, and pre-fire preparedness in order to identify contributors to success and areas for improvement. Although the fire had...

  3. Fire safety of wood construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. White; Mark A. Dietenberger

    2010-01-01

    Fire safety is an important concern in all types of construction. The high level of national concern for fire safety is reflected in limitations and design requirements in building codes. These code requirements and related fire performance data are discussed in the context of fire safety design and evaluation in the initial section of this chapter. Because basic data...

  4. Head Start Combats Baby Bottle Tooth Decay Among Native American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Margaret G.; Stubbs, Phyllis E.

    1987-01-01

    Presents current developments concerning nursing bottle caries--"baby bottle tooth decay"--and spotlights a program funded by Head Start to reduce the prevalence of these painful and disfiguring, but preventable, children's dental diseases among American Indians and Alaska Native families. (Author/BB)

  5. Migration of bisphenol A into water from polycarbonate baby bottles during microwave heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehlert, K.A.; Beumer, C.W.E.; Groot, M.C.E.

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive migration database was established for bisphenol A from polycarbonate baby bottles into water during exposure to microwave heating. Eighteen different brands of polycarbonate baby bottles sold in Europe were collected. Initial residual content of bisphenol A and migration after

  6. 75 FR 14607 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Total Coliform and E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... and E. coli; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food... ``Bottled Water: Total Coliform and E. coli--Small Entity Compliance Guide'' for a final rule published in... are Escherichia coli (E. coli), an indicator of fecal contamination. FDA also amended its bottled...

  7. 78 FR 47674 - Genome in a Bottle Consortium-Progress and Planning Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... Workshop AGENCY: National Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public workshop. SUMMARY: NIST announces the Genome in a Bottle Consortium meeting to be held on Thursday and... clinic. On April 13, 2012, NIST convened the workshop ``Genome in a Bottle'' to initiate a consortium to...

  8. Green Fiber Bottle: Towards a Sustainable Package and a Manufacturing Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didone, Mattia; Tosello, Guido; Kirilov, Kiril

    The Green Fiber Bottle is a fully biodegradable bottle made from molded paper pulp, which is a renewable resource. Its development depends on the development of the manufacturing technology. Impulse drying, an innovative way of drying, and FORMCELL, a method to speed the mold reconfiguration, have...

  9. The switch to refillable bottled water in Indonesia: a serious health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarulzaman, Ahmad; de Jong, Eelke; Smits, Jeroen

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, the consumption of refillable bottled water has increased considerably in emerging countries. However, the quality of this water is often questionable, as authorities lack the capacity to properly check refilling depots. Given that refillable bottled water not only replaces unimproved water sources, but also better-quality sources, like piped and branded bottled water, its increasing use poses a major health risk. We investigate the motives behind the decision to switch to refillable bottled water in Indonesia. Findings indicate that this switch is driven by lifestyle motives, as well as by cost and availability considerations. It is mostly the young affluent households who switch from piped and 'other' sources to refillable bottled water. In rural areas, the tendency to make this switch is negatively affected by availability problems and the higher price of refillable bottled water. Availability and cost also influence the switch from branded bottled to refillable bottled water, but here it is the poorer households who have a higher propensity to switch. Further exploration of the lifestyle motive and affordability issues, as well as better monitoring of the refilling depots, are needed to improve the quality of drinking water in Indonesia and other emerging countries.

  10. The Dynamic Density Bottle: A Make-and-Take, Guided Inquiry Activity on Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntzleman, Thomas S.

    2015-01-01

    An activity is described wherein students observe dynamic floating and sinking behavior of plastic pieces in various liquids. The liquids and solids are all contained within a plastic bottle; the entire assembly is called a "density bottle". After completing a series of experiments that guides students to think about the relative…

  11. Regulation and Education: Strategies for Solving the Bottle Feeding Problem. Monograph Series No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Ted

    This book is the fourth monograph in the Cornell International Monograph Series, the second in the series to deal with the question of breast versus bottle feeding. The introduction to the monograph discusses the shift from breast to bottle feeding in both industrialized and developing nations. Some of the reasons for, and consequences of, the…

  12. Relationship of Breast-fed and Bottle-fed First Grade Students and I.Q.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Danette

    Previous studies have indicated some support for the hypothesis that breast feeding has a positive effect on intelligence and attainment among young children. This study examined the effects of breast-feeding versus bottle-feeding on the intelligence quotients (IQs) of first graders. A total of 26 breast-fed and 26 bottle-fed first graders from an…

  13. Supplementation with cup-feeding as a substitute for bottle-feeding to promote breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ya-Yi; Gau, Meei-Ling; Huang, Chiu-Mieh; Lee, Jian-Tao

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have provided evidence to verify that bottle-feeding has negative effects on breastfeeding. There is insufficient evidence to support the practice of cup-feeding to supplement breastfeeding. However, it has been applied as a substitute for bottle-feeding to promote breastfeeding. The aims of this study were to explore the differences in infant sucking competence, infant sucking behavior and maternal milk supply among babies who were exclusively breastfeeding (breast group), breast feeding with cup supplementation (cup group) and breast-feeding with bottle supplementation (bottle group) at different periods postpartum. A longitudinal study was carried out at a medical center located in northern Taiwan. The cup and bottle groups were recruited at two different times to avoid interaction. The breast group consisted of infants who were fully breastfed and were never exposed to a bottle or a cup during the hospital stay. Two hundred and five healthy mothers and their full-term, singletoninfants were eligible for enrollment. We used structured questionnaires and made observations to obtain information on breastfeeding at the first breastfeeding and the third day after birth, and then followed up these cases at two and four weeks. The bottle group was significantly more fretful during breastfeeding (pbottle group perceived that their milk supply was less sufficient than those in breast and cup groups (p feeding was better than bottle-feeding when supplementary formula was needed for medical treatment.

  14. 27 CFR 4.38a - Bottle cartons, booklets and leaflets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.38a Bottle cartons, booklets and leaflets. (a) General. An individual covering, carton, or other container of the bottle used for sale at retail (other than a shipping container), or any...

  15. Random survey of the microbial quality of bottled water in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    2004-04-02

    Apr 2, 2004 ... quality of 10 different (8 local and 2 imported) bottled water products were tested over a period of three ..... counts of E. coli (105 to 107 cfu·ml-1) in bottled water could not be .... et mise dans le commerce des eaux minerales naturelles. .... WARBURTON DW (1993) A review of the microbiological quality of.

  16. Some mineral profiles of fresh and bottled palm wine – a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some mineral profiles of fresh palm wine and those of seven brands of bottled palm wine were analysed using atomic absorption spectroscopy and the values were compared. Three of the bottled samples contained toxic levels of either Pb or Cd or both. Neither metal was detected in fresh palm wine. Zn, Cr and Ni were 2 to ...

  17. Do good things come in small packages? Willingness to pay for pomegranate wine and bottle size effects

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas C. Drichoutis; Klonaris, Stathis; Papoutsi, Georgia

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate the claim that bottle size formats signal quality changes, using a controlled laboratory experiment where we simultaneously auctioned two different sweet wines: a pomegranate wine and a grape wine. We varied on a between subjects basis the size of the bottle, from 500ml to 750ml, but kept the wine content of the bottle constant across bottle size formats. We also explored in a within subjects design the effect of expectations for the wines, blind tasting and information on willing...

  18. FIRE HAZARDS ANALYSIS - BUSTED BUTTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Longwell; J. Keifer; S. Goodin

    2001-01-22

    The purpose of this fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas at the Busted Butte Test Facility and to ascertain whether the DOE fire safety objectives are met. The objective, identified in DOE Order 420.1, Section 4.2, is to establish requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for facilities sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees. (3) Vital DOE programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

  19. The economics of fire protection

    CERN Document Server

    Ramachandran, Ganapathy

    2003-01-01

    This important new book, the first of its kind in the fire safety field, discusses the economic problems faced by decision-makers in the areas of fire safety and fire precautions. The author considers the theoretical aspects of cost-benefit analysis and other relevant economic problems with practical applications to fire protection systems. Clear examples are included to illustrate these techniques in action. The work covers: * the performance and effectiveness of passive fire protection measures such as structural fire resistance and means of escape facilities, and active systems such as sprinklers and detectors * the importance of educating for better understanding and implementation of fire prevention through publicity campaigns and fire brigade operations * cost-benefit analysis of fire protection measures and their combinations, taking into account trade-offs between these measures. The book is essential reading for consultants and academics in construction management, economics and fire safety, as well ...

  20. Fire Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan considers fire on Erie as a tool for management and as a potential problem to be dealt with. This document discusses environmental impacts and alternatives...

  1. Forest Fire Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucca, Carol; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents a model that integrates high school science with the needs of the local scientific community. Describes how a high school ecology class conducted scientific research in fire ecology that benefited the students and a state park forest ecologist. (MKR)

  2. Fire History Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past fire occurrence from tree rings, charcoal found in lake sediments, and other proxies. Parameter keywords describe what was measured in this data set....

  3. Prescribed Fire Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan considers fire on Bombay Hook as a tool for management and as a potential problem to be dealt with. This document discusses environmental impacts and...

  4. Findings From Fire Inspections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — The purpose of this study data is to provide a metric with which to assess the effectiveness of improvements to the U.S. NRC's fire protection regulations in support...

  5. Basic Research Firing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Basic Research Firing Facility is an indoor ballistic test facility that has recently transitioned from a customer-based facility to a dedicated basic research...

  6. Fire and smoke retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, M. J.

    Despite a reduction in Federal regulatory activity, research concerned with flame retardancy and smoke suppression in the private sector appears to be increasing. This trend seem related to the increased utilization of plastics for end uses which traditionally have employed metal or wood products. As a result, new markets have appeared for thermally stable and fire resistance thermoplastic materials, and this in turn has spurred research and development activity. In addition, public awareness of the dangers associated with fire has increased as a result of several highly publicized hotel and restaurant fires within the past two years. The consumers recognition of flammability characteristics as important materials property considerations has increased. The current status of fire and smoke retardant chemistry and research are summarized.

  7. RETRO Fires Aggr

    Data.gov (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — Within the RETRO project, global gridded data sets for anthropogenic and vegetation fire emissions of several trace gases were generated, covering the period from...

  8. RETRO_FIRES_WCS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — Within the RETRO project, global gridded data sets for anthropogenic and vegetation fire emissions of several trace gases were generated, covering the period from...

  9. Fire Management Species Profiles

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of the Fire Management Species Profile project is to identify habitat management objectives that are specific, measurable, achievable, clearly...

  10. Fire Perimeters (2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination Group, or GeoMAC, is an internet-based mapping tool originally designed for fire managers to access online maps of current...

  11. Future Integrated Fire Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Bonnie W

    2005-01-01

    Future advances in fire control for air and missile defense depend largely on a network-enabled foundation that enables the collaborative use of distributed warfare assets for time-critical operations...

  12. Fire Mapper Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The design of a UAV mounted Fire Mapper system is proposed. The system consists of a multi-band imaging sensor, a data processing system and a data communication...

  13. Fire Management Plan 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan considers fire on Erie as a tool for management and as a potential problem to be dealt with. This document discusses environmental impacts and alternatives...

  14. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems.The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  15. Fire retardant polyisocyanurate foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccitiello, S. R.; Parker, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Fire retardant properties of low density polymer foam are increased. Foam has pendant nitrile groups which form thermally-stable heterocyclic structures at temperature below degradation temperature of urethane linkages.

  16. 10 CFR 431.294 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of refrigerated bottled or canned...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... consumption of refrigerated bottled or canned beverage vending machines. 431.294 Section 431.294 Energy... EQUIPMENT Refrigerated Bottled or Canned Beverage Vending Machines Test Procedures § 431.294 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of refrigerated bottled or canned beverage vending...

  17. Fire characteristics charts for fire behavior and U.S. fire danger rating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith Ann Heinsch; Pat Andrews

    2010-01-01

    The fire characteristics chart is a graphical method of presenting U.S. National Fire Danger Rating indices or primary surface or crown fire behavior characteristics. A desktop computer application has been developed to produce fire characteristics charts in a format suitable for inclusion in reports and presentations. Many options include change of scales, colors,...

  18. Chaparral and fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2007-01-01

    Large wildfires are an inevitable feature of chaparral. The moderate temperatures during winter promote growth of extensive stands of shrublands with contiguous fuels covering massive portions of the landscape. The summer-fall drought makes these fuels highly flammable over a relatively lengthy portion of the year. Because of widespread human influence, most fires today are anthropogenic; however, in wilderness areas lightning still accounts for some chaparral fires.

  19. Forest fires in Dalmatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šiljković Željka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Every year the Republic of Croatia, especially in its south part in Dalmatia, faces forest fire risks. The weather is exceptionally conducive to fires, so the main period of fire occurrences is between June and October, characterized by long lasting dry and warm weather with temperatures over 30°C. Research carried out by the authors in 1997 and 2012 have pointed to the fact that human impact is the main cause of ignition. This paper presents an overview of the total number of fires in the period from 1998 to 2012, with the emphasis on forest and woodland fires in the Croatian region of Dalmatia. Data on the situation in Dalmatia refer to the situation in the areas of responsibility of four Dalmatian Police Administrations. Analysis is based on official data of the Croatian Ministry of the Interior and the report of the National councillor for managing and controlling forest fires. The authors have analysed the frequency of forest fires in Dalmatia in a period of fourteen years (1998-2012 comparing it with the previous period, 1989-1996. The results that the authors have obtained reveal how forest fires most commonly (2/3 break out during the warm part of a day, from 09.00 until 18.00 hours in the warm period of the year. Particularly vulnerable are the forests of Aleppo pines and maquis being mostly thermal forests, whilst in the south of the country the forests of Holm oak (Quercus ilex and English oak (Quercus robur are at the highest risk. Reforesting of burned areas is very slow and Croatia has been far behind in reforesting in the continental part of the country.

  20. Fundamentals of Fire Phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintiere, James

    discipline. It covers thermo chemistry including mixtures and chemical reactions; Introduces combustion to the fire protection student; Discusses premixed flames and spontaneous ignition; Presents conservation laws for control volumes, including the effects of fire; Describes the theoretical bases...... as a visiting professor at BYG.DTU financed by the Larsen and Nielsen Foundation, and is entered to the research database by Kristian Hertz responsible for the visiting professorship....

  1. Noise risk assessment in a bottling line of a modern Sicilian winery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Vallone

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In wine industry, bottling is a phase of the production cycle characterized by high levels of noise mostly due to repeated collisions between the bottles. In Italy the Law Decree 81/2008 defined the requirements for assessing and managing noise risk, identifying a number of procedures to be adopted at different noise levels to limit workers exposure. This study aims at evaluating the equivalent and peak noise level inside the bottling plant area of a modern Sicilian winery. In particular, the influence of the working capacity (number of bottles produced per hour on noise levels was evaluated. We considered three test conditions: T1 with working capacity of 4,000 bottles per hour, T2 with working capacity of 5,000 bottles per hour and T3 with working capacity of 6,000 bottles per hour. Fifteen measurement points were identified inside the bottling area. The instrument used for the measurements is a precision integrating portable sound level meter, class 1, model HD2110L by Delta OHM, Italy. The tests were performed in compliance with ISO 9612 and ISO 9432 regulations. The results show that as bottling plant working capacity increases, noise level increases. The measured sound levels exceed the limits allowed by the regulations in all the test conditions; values exceeding the threshold limit of 80 dB(A were recorded coming up to a maximum value of 95 dB(A in test T3. In this case, the operator working along the bottling line is obliged to wear the appropriate Personal Protective Equipment.

  2. [A norovirus-borne outbreak caused by contaminated bottled spring water in a school, Zhejiang province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ji-chuan; Lin, Jun-fen; Gao, Jie; Yao, Wen-ting; Wen, Dong; Liu, Guang-tao; Han, Jian-kang; Ma, Hui-lai; Zhang, Li-jie; Zhu, Bao-ping

    2011-08-01

    To study a local hospital reported acute gastroenteritis in a boarding school on its source of infection, mode of transmission and risk factors of the infection. A suspected case was defined as who had developed diarrhea (≥ 3 times/day) or vomiting among teachers or students of the school, during April 19 - 30, 2010. A confirmed case was from a probable case plus tested positive for norovirus in stool specimens by using RT-PCR. Stool specimens of cases and environmental specimens were collected for laboratory diagnosis. In a case-control study, we compared exposures to sources of bottled water, consumption of bottled water, and hygienic habits of 220 probable or confirmed cases from April 21 - 23 in the peak of the outbreak, together with another 220 controls, with frequency-matched by school grade. 20.3% of the 1536 students but none of the teachers developed the disease. 98.6% of the cases (n = 217) and 85.5% (n = 188) of the controls had drunk bottled water in the classroom (OR(M-H) = 12.3, 95%CI: 3.7 - 40.9). 47.9% (n = 104) of the cases and 41.5% (n = 78) of the controls had drunk unboiled bottled water in classroom (OR(M-H) = 3.8, 95%CI: 1.5 - 9.6). 47.9% (n = 104) of the cases and 48.4% (n = 91) of the controls had drunk bottled mixed water (boiled and unboiled) in the classroom (OR(M-H) = 2.8, 95%CI: 1.1 - 7.0). Stool specimens from 3 cases and one bottle of uncovered bottled water in classroom showed positive of having norovirus genotype II. Coliforms was cultured much higher rates than standard deviations in the bottled water. The factory making the bottled water was not licensed or having strict disinfection facilities. Bottled spring water contaminated by norovirus was responsible for this outbreak.

  3. Ocular injuries from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola® drinks in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro-Egbe CN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinyere Nnenne Pedro-Egbe, Chibuike Sydney Ejimadu, Henrietta NwachukwuDepartment of Ophthalmology, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, NigeriaBackground: Eye injuries and subsequent loss of vision from the glass and caps of exploding pressurized bottled drinks have been well reported, and as a result most developed countries now use mainly plastic bottles. In Nigeria, however, most drinks are still sold in glass bottles and ocular injuries from this source are therefore not uncommon.Aim: To retrospectively analyze ocular injuries resulting from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola® and propose ways of eliminating such injuries in future.Setting: Eye Clinic, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.Materials and methods: The medical records of all cases of ocular injury that presented at the Eye Clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital over a 5-year period (January 2006 to December 2010 were retrieved and relevant data including age, sex, occupation, events surrounding bottle explosion, and type of ocular injury sustained were extracted.Results: A total of 426 cases of ocular injuries was seen during the period under review. There were 335 (78.6% males and 91 (21.4% females. Six patients had ocular injury from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola®, giving an incidence of 1.4%. The presenting visual acuities (VA were light perception (2 cases, counting fingers (2 cases, and 1 VA of 6/24 and 1 VA of 6/12. There were 4 (66.7% cases of corneoscleral laceration with uveal prolapse and 1 case of total hyphema.Conclusion: Because pressurized glass-bottles can explode with normal handling, legislation to ban the use of glass containers for bottling carbonated drinks will go a long way to reducing ocular morbidity from this source. Plastic bottles should be introduced as an alternative.Keywords: ocular injuries, exploding glass-bottled drink

  4. [Breast- and bottle-feeding in preterm infants: a comparison of behavioral cues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Chun; Lin, Chen-Hsiu; Zhang, Jia-Wen; Chen, Siao-Min; Chen, Chih-Ling; Huang, Mei-Chih

    2013-12-01

    Developmental care has been broadly applied to identify the behavioral cues and care needs of preterm infants. Past studies indicate a significantly higher level of physical distress in bottle-fed preterm infants than in preterm infants who are breastfed. However, no evidence has yet been reported that supports the influence of feeding methods on behavioral cues. This study compares differences in the type and frequency of behavioral cues between breast- and bottle-fed preterm infants. A comparison study design and secondary data analysis method were used to assess data from two previous research projects. Infant feeding behavioral cues were observed and compared between two groups: 7 preterm infants who were breastfed and 7 preterm infants who were bottle-fed. After cases were matched by infant gestational age, behavioral responses were coded according to the preterm feeding cues coding system (PFCCS) from 7 paired maternal-infant feeding videos that featured preterm infants of 25 to 32 weeks gestational age at birth. The PFCCS classifies 24 feeding behavioral cues into hunger cues, self-regulatory cues, stress cues, and satiety cues. Infants in the breastfeeding group had a higher hunger cue frequency than their bottle-fed peers (p = .013), while bottle-fed infants had a higher stress cue frequency than their breastfed peers (p = .041). Other significant differences in behavioral cues between the two feeding methods included "fluid spillage" (bottle- >breast-, p = .008), "central cyanosis" (bottle- >breast-, p = .024) and "hand pushing" (breast- >bottle-, p = .034). Preterm infants in this study who breastfed showed significantly fewer stress cues than those who bottle fed. These findings support the importance of enhancing care provider sensitivity with regard to behavioral-cue observation. Findings further support breastfeeding rather than bottle-feeding for preterm infants.

  5. Changes in sucking performance from nonnutritive sucking to nutritive sucking during breast- and bottle-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Katsumi; Ueda, Aki

    2006-05-01

    Our aim was to obtain a better understanding of the differences between breast-feeding and bottle-feeding, particularly with regard to how sucking performance changes from nonnutritive sucking (NNS) to nutritive sucking (NS). Twenty-two normal term infants were studied while breast-feeding at 4 and 5 d postpartum. Five of the 22 infants were exclusively breast-fed, but we tested the other 17 infants while breast-feeding and while bottle-feeding. Before the milk ejection reflex (MER) occurs, little milk is available. As such, infants perform NNS before MER. For bottle-feeding, a one-way valve was affixed between the teat and the bottle so that the infants needed to perform NNS until milk flowed into the teat chamber. At the breast, the sucking pressure (-93.1 +/- 28.3 mm Hg) was higher during NNS compared with NS (-77.3 +/- 27.0 mm Hg). With a bottle, the sucking pressure was lower during NNS (-27.5 +/- 11.2 mm Hg) compared with NS (-87.5 +/- 28.5 mm Hg). Sucking frequency was higher and sucking duration was shorter during NNS compared with that during NS both at the breast and with a bottle. There were significant differences in the changes of sucking pressure and duration from NNS to NS between breast- and bottle-feeding. The change in sucking pressure and duration from NNS to NS differed between breast-feeding and bottle-feeding. Even with a modified bottle and teats, bottle-feeding differs from breast-feeding.

  6. Trihalomethane concentrations in tap water as determinant of bottled water use in the city of Barcelona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font-Ribera, Laia; Cotta, Jordi Colomer; Gómez-Gutiérrez, Anna; Villanueva, Cristina M

    2017-08-01

    Bottled water consumption is increasing worldwide, despite its huge economic and environmental cost. We aim to describe personal and tap water quality determinants of bottled water use in the city of Barcelona. This cross-sectional study used data from the Health Survey of Barcelona in 2006 (N=5417 adults). The use of bottled water to drink and to cook was evaluated in relation to age, gender, educational level, district and levels of trihalomethanes (THMs), free chlorine, conductivity, chloride, sodium, pH, nitrate and aluminium in municipal tap water using Robust Poisson Regression. The prevalence of bottled water use to drink and cook was 53.9% and 6.7%, respectively. Chemical parameters in water had a large variability (interquartile range of THMs concentrations: 83.2-200.8μg/L) and were correlated between them, except aluminium. Drinking bottled water increased with educational level, while cooking with bottled water was higher among men than among women and decreased with age. After adjusting by these personal determinants, a dose-response relationship was found between concentrations of all chemicals except aluminium in tap water and bottled water use. The highest association was found for THMs, with a Prevalence Ratio of 2.00 (95%CI=1.86, 2.15) for drinking bottled water and 2.80 (95%CI=1.72, 4.58) for cooking with bottled water, among those with >150μg/L vs. water. More than half of Barcelona residents regularly drank bottled water, and the main determinant was the chemical composition of tap water, particularly THM level. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Endocrine disruptor activity in bottled mineral and flavoured water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotan, Monika; Frizzell, Caroline; Robinson, Victoria; Elliott, Christopher T; Connolly, Lisa

    2013-02-15

    A panel of reporter gene assays (RGAs) coupled with a single solid phase extraction (SPE) step was developed and used to screen bottled mineral water for the presence of four classes of endocrine disruptors (EDs), oestrogens, androgens, progestagens and glucocorticoids. Fourteen brands of bottled mineral water in triplicate (42 samples) were analysed. Overall, hormonal activity was found in 78% of the samples. Oestrogenic, androgenic, progestagenic and glucocorticoid activity was found in 38%, 38%, 36% and 55% of the samples, respectively at an average concentration of 10 ng/l 17β-estradiol equivalent (EEQ), 26 ng/l testosterone equivalent (TEQ), 123 ng/l progesterone equivalent (PEQ) and 13.5 ng/l hydrocortisone equivalent (HEQ). The level of oestrogenic, androgenic and progestagenic activity observed is not considered a matter of concern for the consumers' health. It is unknown whether the glucocorticoid levels observed are safe. The ED source, long term exposure and mixture effects remain to be investigated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Silica Bottle Resonator Sensor for Refractive Index and Temperature Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Nemova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose and theoretically demonstrate a bottle resonator sensor with a nanoscale altitude and with alength several of hundreds of microns made on the top of the fiber with a radius of tens microns for refractive index and temperature sensor applications. The whispering gallery modes (WGMs in the resonators can be excited with a taper fiber placed on the top of the resonator. These sensors can be considered as an alternative to fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensors.The sensitivity of TM-polarized modes is higher than the sensitivity of the TE-polarized modes, but these values are comparable and both polarizations are suitable for sensor applications. The sensitivity ~150 (nm/RIU can be reached with abottle resonator on the fiber with the radius 10 μm. It can be improved with theuse of a fiber with a smaller radius. The temperature sensitivity is found to be ~10 pm/K. The temperature sensitivity can decrease ~10% for a fiber with a radius rco = 10 μm instead of a fiber with a radius rco = 100 μm. These sensors have sensitivities comparable to FBG sensors. A bottle resonator sensor with a nanoscale altitude made on the top of the fiber can be easily integrated in any fiber scheme.

  9. Relativistic Cyclotron Resonance Shape in Magnetic Bottle Geonium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehmelt, Hans; Mittleman, Richard; Liu, Yuan

    1988-10-01

    The thermally excited axial oscillation of the electron through the weak magnetic bottle needed for the continuous Stern-Gerlach effect modulates the cyclotron frequency and produces a characteristic ≈ 12-kHz-wide vertical rise-exponential decline line shape of the cyclotron resonance. At the same time the relativistic mass shift decreases the frequency by ≈ 200 Hz per cyclotron motion quantum level n. Nevertheless, our analysis of the complex line shape shows that it should be possible to produce an abrupt rise in the cyclotron quantum number n from 0 to ≈ 20 over a small fraction of 200 Hz, when the 160-GHz microwave drive approaches the n = 0 → 1 transition, and a jump of 14 levels over a frequency increment of 200 Hz has already been observed in preliminary work. This realizes an earlier proposal to generate a very sharp cyclotron resonance feature by quasithermal excitation with a square noise band and should provide a way to detect spin flips when a weak bottle is used to reduce the broadening of the g - 2 resonance by a factor of 20.

  10. The use of bottle caps as submerged aerated filter medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno de Oliveira, Laurence; Motlagh, Amir Mohaghegh; Goel, Ramesh; de Souza Missagia, Beatriz; Alves de Abreu Filho, Benício; Lautenschlager, Sandro Rogério

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a submerged aerated filter (SAF) using bottle caps as a support medium was evaluated. The system was fed with effluent from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket system at ETE 2-South wastewater treatment plant, under different volumetric organic load rates (VOLRs). The population of a particular nitrifying microbial community was assessed by fluorescent in situ hybridization with specific oligonucleotide probes. The system showed an average removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) equal to 76% for VOLRs between 2.6 and 13.6 kg COD m(-3)_media.day(-1). The process of nitrification in conjunction with the removal of organic matter was observed from applying VOLRs lower than 5.5 kg COD m(-3)_media.day(-1) resulting in 78% conversion of NH4(+)-N. As the applied organic load was reduced, an increase in the nitrifying bacteria population was observed compared with total 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) stained cells. Generally, SAF using bottle caps as a biological aerated filter medium treating wastewater from an anaerobic system showed promising removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and conversion of NH4(+)-N.

  11. Silicon oxide permeation barrier coating of PET bottles and foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steves, Simon; Deilmann, Michael; Awakowicz, Peter

    2009-10-01

    Modern packaging materials such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) have displaced established materials in many areas of food and beverage packaging. Plastic packing materials offer are various advantages concerning production and handling. PET bottles for instance are non-breakable and lightweight compared to glass and metal containers. However, PET offers poor barrier properties against gas permeation. Therefore, the shelf live of packaged food is reduced. Permeation of gases can be reduced by depositing transparent plasma polymerized silicon oxide (SiOx) barrier coatings. A microwave (2.45 GHz) driven low pressure plasma reactor is developed based on a modified Plasmaline antenna to treat PET foils or bottles. To increase the barrier properties of the coatings furthermore a RF substrate bias (13.56 MHz) is applied. The composition of the coatings is analyzed by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy regarding carbon and hydrogen content. Influence of gas phase composition and substrate bias on chemical composition of the coatings is discussed. A strong relation between barrier properties and film composition is found: good oxygen barriers are observed as carbon content is reduced and films become quartz-like. Regarding oxygen permeation a barrier improvement factor (BIF) of 70 is achieved.

  12. PMMA Solid bottle optical microresonator for measure relative humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, D. A.; Horta, S. D.; Torres, C. O.

    2017-01-01

    In this work we studied experimentally the performance of an solid bottle optical resonator made of PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate) for measure the relative humidity of the medium. In the developed device, the WGMs modes within the microcavity are excited by the proximity of an optical fiber taper with an outer diameter of the order of 3-5 microns made from stretching a standard optical fiber of Silica by the flame brushing technique. In the resonant device, the field produced by a laser system tunable TLS is guided through the fiber taper and is coupled into the microcavity by the approach of the fiber taper to the equatorial zone of the microbottle, causing the excitation of the WGMs resonant modes inside the same. When the device is subjected to changes in relative humidity of the medium, the wavelengths of resonance of WGMs modes that have been coupled in the microresonator are shifted spectrally depending on the external humidity, showing an experimental sensitivity in the resonator due to changes in the relative humidity of the medium. In the experiment, it was possible to produce different samples of optical resonators with a profile shaped bottle with different maximum diameters achieving a maximum sensitivity of 0.032 nm/% RH for a resonator with equatorial diameter of 1250 μm.

  13. Sodium fire testing: structural evaluation of sodium fire suppression system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-08-01

    This report describes the development and the lessons learned from the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Sodium Fire Testing Program (DRS 26.03). The purpose of this program was to evaluate the behavior of the Sodium Fire Suppression System and validate the analytical techniques used in the calculation of the effects of sodium fires in air-filled cells. This report focuses on the fire suppression capability and the structural integrity of the Fire Suppression System. System features are discussed; the test facility is described and the key results are provided. Modifications to the fire suppression system and the plant made as a result of test experience are also discussed.

  14. Too hot to handle? Hot water bottle injuries in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltsman, David; Li, Zhe; Bruce, Eleanor; Darton, Anne; Thornbury, Kelly; Maitz, Peter K M; Kennedy, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Hot water bottles are frequently used in the community as a source of warmth, and to alleviate a number of medical symptoms. In Australia it is believed that over 500,000 water bottles are sold annually (Whittam et al., 2010). This simple treatment is known to result in significant burns and has led to mandatory labeling requirements on hot water bottles in Australia. Despite this, few published studies have documented the incidence and nature of burns sustained through their use. This study aimed to assess the incidence, causation and outcome of hot water bottle burns presenting to a major burn trauma unit in Sydney (Australia). The New South Wales Agency for Clinical Innovation Statewide Burn Injury database and admission data to the Concord Hospital Burns Injury Unit (major treatment unit) provided information on hot water bottle burns occurring between 2005 and 2013. Demographic details, cause of burn, burn depth, total burn surface area (%TBSA), and outcome of burn were ascertained. In order to assess the burn potential of hot water bottles, a separate study examined the thermic properties of hot water bottles in 'real life' scenarios. There were 155 hot water bottle burn presentations resulting in 41 admissions and 24 grafts. The majority of patients were female, and most burns resulted from appliance rupture when used for local pain relief. Patients had an average TBSA of 2.4%. Burns patients were slightly more likely to reside in areas with greater socio-economic disadvantage. In real life scenarios, hot water bottles were shown to retain heat over 50°C for at least 3 hours (h). Hot water bottles are a source of common and preventable burns in the community, with women being more at risk than men. Hot water bottles may retain harmful levels of heat over an extended period of time. Additional labeling requirements pertaining to the longevity of hot water bottles and their use among people especially at risk of burns (i.e. children, the elderly, patients who

  15. Contribution of peat fires to the 2015 Indonesian fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Johannes W.; Heil, Angelika; Wooster, Martin J.; van der Werf, Guido R.

    2016-04-01

    Indonesia experienced widespread fires and severe air quality degradation due to smoke during September and October 2015. The fires are thought to have originated from the combination of El-Niño-induced drought and human activities. Fires ignited for land clearing escaped into drained peatlands and burned until the onset of the monsoonal rain. In addition to the health impact, these fires are thought to have emitted large amounts of greenhouse gases, e.g. more than Japan over the entire year. The Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) has detected and quantified the fires with the Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) and the smoke dispersion with the Chemistry-Integrated Forecasting System (C-IFS) in near real time. GFAS and C-IFS are constrained by satellite-based observations of fire and smoke constituents, respectively. The distinction between peat and above-ground fires is a crucial and difficult step in fire emission estimation as it introduces errors of up to one order of magnitude. Here, we quantify the contribution of peat fires to the total emission flux of the 2015 Indonesian fires by (1) using an improved peat map in GFAS and (2) analysing the observed diurnal cycle of the fire activity as represented in a new development for GFAS. Furthermore, we link the fires occurrence to economic activity by analysing the coincidence with concessions for palm oil plantations and other industrial forest uses.

  16. Global relationship of fire occurrence and fire intensity: A test of intermediate fire occurrence-intensity hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ruisen; Hui, Dafeng; Miao, Ning; Liang, Chuan; Wells, Nicholas

    2017-05-01

    Fire plays a significant role in global atmosphere and biosphere carbon and nutrient cycles. Globally, there are substantially different distributions and impacts between fire occurrence and fire intensity. It is prominent to have a thorough investigation of global relationship between fire occurrence and fire intensity for future fire prediction and management. In this study, we proposed an intermediate fire occurrence-intensity (IFOI) hypothesis for the global relationship between fire occurrence and fire intensity, suggesting that fire occurrence changes with fire intensity following a humped relationship. We examined this hypothesis via satellite data from January 2001 to December 2013 at a global scale, and in small and large fire intensity zones, respectively. Furthermore, the fire occurrence and fire intensity relationship was developed among different vegetation types to reveal the changes of parameters and strengths. Finally, the environmental factors (including climatic, hydraulic, biological, and anthropogenic variables) underpinning the fire occurrence and intensity pattern were evaluated for the underlying mechanisms. The results supported our IFOI hypothesis and demonstrated that the humped relationship is driven by different causes among vegetation types. Fire occurrence increases with fire intensity in small fire intensity zones due to alleviation of the factors limiting both fire occurrence and intensity. Beyond a certain fire intensity threshold, fire occurrence is constrained, probably due to the limitation of available fuels. The information generated in this study could be helpful for understanding global variation of fire occurrence and fire intensity due to fire-vegetation-climate-human interactions and facilitating future fire management.

  17. Design, Development and Testing of Inconel Alloy IN718 Spherical Gas Bottle for Oxygen Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenna Krishna, S.; Agilan, M.; Sudarshan Rao, G.; Singh, Satish Kumar; Narayana Murty, S. V. S.; Venkata Narayana, Ganji; Beena, A. P.; Rajesh, L.; Jha, Abhay K.; Pant, Bhanu

    2017-11-01

    This paper describes the details of design, manufacture and testing of 200 mm diameter spherical gas bottle of Inconel 718 (IN718) with nominal wall thickness of 2.3 mm. Gas bottle was designed for the specified internal pressure loading with a thickness of 2.9 mm at the circumferential weld which was brought down to 2.3 mm at the membrane locations. Hemispherical forgings produced through closed-die hammer forging were machined and electron beam welded to produce a spherical gas bottle. Duly welded gas bottle was subjected to standard aging treatment to achieve the required tensile strength. Aged gas bottle was inspected for dimensions and other stringent quality requirements using various nondestructive testing techniques. After inspection, gas bottle was subjected to pressure test for maximum expected operating pressure and proof pressure of 25 and 37.5 MPa, respectively. Strain gauges were bonded at different locations on the gas bottle to monitor the strains during the pressure test and correlated with the predicted values. The predicted strain matched well with the experimental strain confirming the design and structural integrity.

  18. Actomyosin contractility and microtubules drive apical constriction in Xenopus bottle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jen-Yi; Harland, Richard M

    2007-11-01

    Cell shape changes are critical for morphogenetic events such as gastrulation, neurulation, and organogenesis. However, the cell biology driving cell shape changes is poorly understood, especially in vertebrates. The beginning of Xenopus laevis gastrulation is marked by the apical constriction of bottle cells in the dorsal marginal zone, which bends the tissue and creates a crevice at the blastopore lip. We found that bottle cells contribute significantly to gastrulation, as their shape change can generate the force required for initial blastopore formation. As actin and myosin are often implicated in contraction, we examined their localization and function in bottle cells. F-actin and activated myosin accumulate apically in bottle cells, and actin and myosin inhibitors either prevent or severely perturb bottle cell formation, showing that actomyosin contractility is required for apical constriction. Microtubules were localized in apicobasally directed arrays in bottle cells, emanating from the apical surface. Surprisingly, apical constriction was inhibited in the presence of nocodazole but not taxol, suggesting that intact, but not dynamic, microtubules are required for apical constriction. Our results indicate that actomyosin contractility is required for bottle cell morphogenesis and further suggest a novel and unpredicted role for microtubules during apical constriction.

  19. Controlling the Filling and Capping Operation of a Bottling Plant using PLC and SCADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal Chakraborty

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents basic stages of operation of a bottling plant, i.e. the filling and capping process. The main aim of our paper is to control the filling and capping section of a bottling plant simultaneously. At first a set of empty bottle is run by using a conveyer towards filling section, after the operation, the filled bottles are sent towards the capping section. After successful capping operation, the sealed bottles terminate towards exit and a new set of empty bottle arrive, in this way the process continues. This paper includes the method using which, a bunch of bottles can be filled and capped at one instant of time. This method has made the operation more flexible and time saving. The filling and capping operations are controlled using Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC, as the PLC’s are very much user-efficient, cost-effective and easy to control. By using PLC automation the whole process is kept under control. SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition is used to monitor the process by means of a display system.

  20. Is nasal steroid spray bottle contamination a potential issue in chronic rhinosinusitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, N C-W; Drilling, A J; Jardeleza, C; Wormald, P-J

    2014-01-01

    Intranasal steroids are the first line of treatment for chronic rhinosinusitis. Although contamination of adjunctive devices (e.g. irrigation bottles) has been much investigated, little is known about nasal contamination of the metered-dose spray bottles used to deliver intranasal steroids, and the potential influence on disease chronicity. Twenty-five prospectively recruited patients with stable chronic rhinosinusitis underwent microbiological analysis of their nasal vestibule and middle meatus and also of their steroid bottle tip and contents. Additionally, bottle tips were inoculated in vitro with Staphylococcus aureus and various sterilisation techniques tested. For 18 of the 25 (72 per cent) patients, both nasal and bottle tip swabs grew either Staphylococcus aureus or coagulase-negative staphylococci. Staphylococcus aureus was cultured from 7 of the 25 (28 per cent) patients, and 5 of these 7 had concomitant bacterial growth from both nose and steroid bottle. Thus, the cross-contamination rate was 71 per cent for Staphylococcus aureus infected patients and 20 per cent overall. Sterilisation was effective with boiling water, ethanol wipes and microwaving, but not with cold water or dishwashing liquid. Nasal steroid spray bottle tips can become contaminated with sinonasal cavity bacteria. Simple sterilisation methods can eliminate this contamination. Patient education on this matter should be emphasised.

  1. Design, Development and Testing of Inconel Alloy IN718 Spherical Gas Bottle for Oxygen Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenna Krishna, S.; Agilan, M.; Sudarshan Rao, G.; Singh, Satish Kumar; Narayana Murty, S. V. S.; Venkata Narayana, Ganji; Beena, A. P.; Rajesh, L.; Jha, Abhay K.; Pant, Bhanu

    2017-10-01

    This paper describes the details of design, manufacture and testing of 200 mm diameter spherical gas bottle of Inconel 718 (IN718) with nominal wall thickness of 2.3 mm. Gas bottle was designed for the specified internal pressure loading with a thickness of 2.9 mm at the circumferential weld which was brought down to 2.3 mm at the membrane locations. Hemispherical forgings produced through closed-die hammer forging were machined and electron beam welded to produce a spherical gas bottle. Duly welded gas bottle was subjected to standard aging treatment to achieve the required tensile strength. Aged gas bottle was inspected for dimensions and other stringent quality requirements using various nondestructive testing techniques. After inspection, gas bottle was subjected to pressure test for maximum expected operating pressure and proof pressure of 25 and 37.5 MPa, respectively. Strain gauges were bonded at different locations on the gas bottle to monitor the strains during the pressure test and correlated with the predicted values. The predicted strain matched well with the experimental strain confirming the design and structural integrity.

  2. Blood culture bottles are superior to conventional media for vitreous culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thariya, Patsuda; Yospaiboon, Yosanan; Sinawat, Suthasinee; Sanguansak, Thuss; Bhoomibunchoo, Chavakij; Laovirojjanakul, Wipada

    2016-08-01

    To compare blood culture bottles and conventional media for the vitreous culture in patients with clinically suspected infectious endophthalmitis. Retrospective comparative study at KKU Eye Center, Khon Kaen University. There were 342 patients with clinically suspected infectious endophthalmitis participated in the study. The vitreous specimens were inoculated in both blood culture bottles and on conventional culture media (blood agar, MacConkey agar, chocolate agar, Sabouraud dextrose agar and thioglycolate broth). The number of positive culture yields in both blood culture bottles and conventional media. Positive culture yields in both methods were found in 151 eyes (49.5%). There were 136 of 151 eyes (90.1%) with positive culture in blood culture bottles, whereas 99 of 151 eyes (65.6%) yielded positive cultures in conventional media. These findings were different with a statistical significance (P culture bottles and conventional media improved the yield. Blood culture bottles are superior to conventional media for vitreous culture in clinically suspected infectious endophthalmitis. Vitreous culture using blood culture bottles should be recommended as the primary method for microbiological diagnosis. A combination of both methods further improves the positive culture yield. © 2016 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  3. Assessing the risk of irrigation bottle and fluid contamination after endoscopic sinus surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, John M; Nayak, Jayakar V; Doghramji, Laurie L; Welch, Kevin C; Chiu, Alexander G

    2010-01-01

    Saline nasal irrigation has become an important aspect of post-operative care following endoscopic sinus surgery. The objective of this study was to identify the risks of contamination of both the nasal irrigation bottle and fluid following endoscopic sinus surgery. This was a prospective study of consecutive patients undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery for chronic sinusitis. All patients were given nasal irrigation bottles with detailed cleaning instructions preoperatively. Nasal irrigation bottles were collected and cultured at 1 and 2 weeks postoperatively. During the same visit, 5-ml of sterile normal saline was mixed into the irrigation bottle and then cultured separately. A total of 20 patients agreed to participate in the study. At 1 week postoperatively, 50% of the bottles had positive cultures with 40% of the irrigation samples testing positive for bacteria. At two weeks, the contamination in the irrigation bottle and fluid decreased to 26.7% and 20%, respectively. The most common bacteria cultured was Pseudomonas aeruginosa. There were no cases of postoperative infection. Despite detailed cleaning instructions, there is a relatively high risk of bacterial contamination in nasal irrigation bottles and fluid following endoscopic sinus surgery. Although these risks did not translate into higher infection rates postsurgery, it may be important for physicians to emphasize regular cleaning techniques to minimize a potential source of bacterial contaminant exposure.

  4. The photocatalytic enhancement of acrylic and PET solar water disinfection (SODIS) bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, J M; Perez, T M; Arsiaga, E G; Loetscher, L H; Boyd, J E

    2011-01-01

    The solar water disinfection method (SODIS) was modified by the addition of a photocatalytic layer of titania on the interior surface of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and acrylic bottles. Titania was solvent deposited on the interior of commercially available PET bottles, as well as bottles that were constructed from acrylic. Uncoated and titania-coated acrylic bottles removed 3,000,000-5,000,000 colony forming units per milliliter of K12 E. coli from 670 mL of contaminated water in 40 min of solar irradiance. After five hours of sunlight exposure, the concentration of 10 ppm methyl orange (a representative organic water contaminant), was reduced by 61% using the titania-coated acrylic bottles. The concentration of 87 ppb microcystin-LR (a representative algal toxin) was reduced by 70% after 7 hours of sunlight exposure in the titania-coated acrylic bottles. Acrylic is an effective alternative to PET for use in the SODIS method due to its greater UV transparency. The addition of titania to PET and acrylic bottles confers the ability to remove chemical contaminants in addition to inactivating microbiological contaminants.

  5. What's Wrong with the Tap? Examining Perceptions of Tap Water and Bottled Water at Purdue University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, Amber; Prokopy, Linda Stalker; Amberg, Shannon

    2011-09-01

    The environmental impacts of bottled water prompted us to explore drinking water choices at Purdue University, located in West Lafayette, IN. A random sample of 2,045 Purdue University students, staff, and faculty was invited to participate in an online survey. The survey assessed current behaviors as well as perceived barriers and benefits to drinking tap water versus bottled water. 677 surveys were completed for a response rate of 33.1%. We then conducted qualitative interviews with a purposive sample of university undergraduates ( n = 21) to obtain contextual insights into the survey results and the beliefs of individuals with a variety of drinking water preferences. This study revealed that women drink disproportionately more bottled water then men while undergraduate students drink more than graduate students, staff and faculty. The study also uncovered a widespread belief that recycling eliminates the environmental impacts of bottled water. Important barriers to drinking tap water at Purdue include: perceived risks from tap water and the perceived safety of bottled water, preferring the taste of bottled water, and the convenience of drinking bottled water. The qualitative interviews revealed that drinking water choices can be influenced by several factors—especially whether individuals trust tap water to be clean—but involve varying levels of complexity. The implications of these results for social marketing strategies to promote tap water are discussed.

  6. Prevalence of baby bottle versus breastfeeding graphics on products in national chain stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellerson, Daphne; Hornsby, Paige P; Lowenhaupt, Stephanie A; Bressler, Colleen J; Burns, Whitney R; Friedman, Caroline F; Vaughn, Natalie H; Marshall, Stephanie P; Marshall, Trisha L; Park, Jennie; Kellams, Ann

    2012-12-01

    This study surveyed the prevalence of bottle versus breastfeeding graphic images on products marketed for pregnant mothers and young children available for purchase in national chain stores. This was a product survey/content analysis. Eighteen national chain stores located in a 10-mile radius of Charlottesville, VA were visited. In total, 2,670 individual items in 11 categories of baby shower and baby gift merchandise (shower invitations, greeting cards, gift wrap, shower decorations, baby dolls, baby books, infant clothing, bibs, nursery decorations, baby blankets, and disposable diapers) were assessed. The main outcome measures were prevalences of baby bottle and breastfeeding graphic images. Baby bottle images were found on products in eight of the 11 categories of items surveyed. Thirty-five percent of baby dolls were marketed with a baby bottle. The prevalence of bottle images on items in all other categories, however, was low. Of the 2,670 items surveyed, none contained a breastfeeding image. The low prevalence of baby bottle images on commonly purchased baby gift and baby shower items is encouraging. However, the absence of breastfeeding images and the relatively high prevalence of baby dolls marketed with a baby bottle demonstrate that breastfeeding is not portrayed as the physiologic norm on these products. Product designers should explore ways to promote breastfeeding, consumers should make informed choices in product selection, and advocacy groups should promote guidelines for these products.

  7. Effect of textured eye drop bottles on the photostability of pranoprofen 0.1% ophthalmic solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwatsuka, Kinya; Inada, Katsuhiro; Ueoka, Hiroki; Otsuka, Tadashi; Maeda, Masaki; Yamaguchi, Masazumi; Yasueda, Shin-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Ophthalmic solutions are usually filled in a plastic bottle due to its durability and disposability. In Japan, photostability is one of the concerns for the quality control because an eye drop bottle must be a transparent container. The present work studied the effect of textured eye drop bottles on its light blocking to improve the photostability of ophthalmic solutions. We investigated the photostability of Pranoprofen ophthalmic solution filled in a variety of textured eye drop bottles. Pranoprofen content was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and surface structure of textured eye drop bottles was evaluated by transmittance, calculated average roughness (Ra) and haze intensity. We observed that eye drop bottle which had greater than Ra value of 1.0 µm and haze intensity 62% clearly showed photostability improvement. This report is the first one which shows that photostability of ophthalmic solution is improved by using textured eye drop bottle. Moreover, this approach is a simple and effective method to improve the photostability. This method is available for not only various ophthalmic applications but also other liquid pharmaceuticals or food products.

  8. Mothers' experiences of bottle-feeding: a systematic review of qualitative and quantitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshman, R; Ogilvie, D; Ong, K K

    2009-08-01

    Most babies receive at least some formula milk. Variations in formula-feeding practices can have both short- and long-term health consequences. The literature on parents' experiences of bottle-feeding was systematically reviewed to understand how formula-feeding decisions are made. Relevant English-language papers, identified by searching 12 electronic databases, reference lists and related articles and by contacting first authors of included papers, were systematically searched for and appraised. The included studies were analysed and synthesised using a combination of narrative and thematic approaches. Consensus on the final inclusion, interpretation and synthesis of studies was reached across the research team. Six qualitative studies and 17 quantitative studies (involving 13 263 participants) were included. Despite wide differences in study design, context, focus and quality, several consistent themes emerged. Mothers who bottle-fed their babies experienced negative emotions such as guilt, anger, worry, uncertainty and a sense of failure. Mothers reported receiving little information on bottle-feeding and did not feel empowered to make decisions. Mistakes in preparation of bottle-feeds were common. No studies examined how mothers made decisions about the frequency or quantity of bottle-feeds. Inadequate information and support for mothers who decide to bottle-feed may put the health of their babies at risk. While it is important to promote breastfeeding, it is also necessary to ensure that the needs of bottle-feeding mothers are met.

  9. Mothers’ experiences of bottle-feeding: a systematic review of qualitative and quantitative studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshman, Rajalakshmi; Ogilvie, David; Ong, Ken K

    2013-01-01

    Objective Most babies receive at least some formula milk. Variations in formula-feeding practices can have both short- and long-term health consequences. We systematically reviewed the literature on parents’ experiences of bottle-feeding to understand how formula-feeding decisions are made. Methods We systematically searched for and appraised relevant English-language papers identified by searching 12 electronic databases, reference lists and related articles and by contacting first authors of included papers. We analysed and synthesised the included studies using a combination of narrative and thematic approaches. Consensus on the final inclusion, interpretation and synthesis of studies was reached across the research team. Results Six qualitative studies and 17 quantitative studies (involving 13,263 participants) were included. Despite wide differences in study design, context, focus and quality, several consistent themes emerged. Mothers who bottle-fed their babies experienced negative emotions such as guilt, anger, worry, uncertainty and a sense of failure. Mothers reported receiving little information on bottle-feeding and did not feel empowered to make decisions. Mistakes in preparation of bottle-feeds were common. No studies examined how mothers made decisions about the frequency or quantity of bottle-feeds. Conclusions Inadequate information and support for mothers who decide to bottle-feed may put the health of their babies at risk. While it is important to promote breastfeeding, it is also necessary to ensure that the needs of bottle-feeding mothers are met. PMID:19602520

  10. Risk of bottle-feeding for rapid weight gain during the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruowei; Magadia, Joselito; Fein, Sara B; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence M

    2012-05-01

    To better understand the mechanisms behind breastfeeding and childhood obesity, we assessed the association of weight gain with the mode of milk delivery aside from the type of milk given to infants. A longitudinal study of infants followed up from birth to age 1 year. Multilevel analyses were conducted to estimate infant weight gain by type of milk and feeding mode. Pregnant women were recruited from a consumer mail panel throughout the United States between May 2005 and June 2007. One thousand eight hundred ninety nine infants with at least 3 weight measurements reported during the first year. Six mutually exclusive feeding categories and proportions of milk feedings given as breastmilk or by bottle. Weight measurements reported on 3-, 5-, 7-, and 12-month surveys. Compared with infants fed at the breast, infants fed only by bottle gained 71 or 89 g more per month when fed nonhuman milk only (P feedings, but it was positively associated with proportion of bottle-feedings among those who received mostly breastmilk. Among infants fed only breastmilk, monthly weight gain increased from 729 g when few feedings were by bottle to 780 g when most feedings were by bottle. Infant weight gain might be associated not only with type of milk consumed but also with mode of milk delivery. Regardless of milk type in the bottle, bottle-feeding might be distinct from feeding at the breast in its effect on infants' weight gain.

  11. Fluoride and bacterial content of bottled drinking water versus municipal tap water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mythri H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Water is a divine gift. People quench their thirst without questioning the source of water. But, apprehension about contaminants in municipal water supplies along with increased fear of fluorosis made bottled drinking water as one of the important tradable commodities. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine and compare the fluoride and bacterial contents of commercially available bottled drinking water and municipal tap water in Davangere city, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: Fifty samples of 10 categories of bottled drinking water with different batch numbers were purchased and municipal water from different sources were collected. Fluoride levels were determined by an ion-selective electrode. Water was cultured quantitatively and levels of bacteria were calculated as colony-forming units (CFUs per milliliter. Results: Descriptive analysis of water samples for fluoride concentration was in the range of 0.07-0.33 for bottled drinking water, Bisleri showing the highest of 0.33. A comparison of the mean values of microbial count for bottled drinking water with that of municipal tap water showed no statistically significant difference, but was more than the standard levels along with the presence of fungus and maggots. Conclusion: The fluoride concentration was below the optimal level for both municipal tap water and bottled drinking water. CFUs were more than the recommended level in both municipal tap water and bottled drinking water.

  12. Ocular injuries from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola® drinks in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro-Egbe, Chinyere Nnenne; Ejimadu, Chibuike Sydney; Nwachukwu, Henrietta

    2011-01-01

    Eye injuries and subsequent loss of vision from the glass and caps of exploding pressurized bottled drinks have been well reported, and as a result most developed countries now use mainly plastic bottles. In Nigeria, however, most drinks are still sold in glass bottles and ocular injuries from this source are therefore not uncommon. To retrospectively analyze ocular injuries resulting from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola® and propose ways of eliminating such injuries in future. Eye Clinic, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The medical records of all cases of ocular injury that presented at the Eye Clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital over a 5-year period (January 2006 to December 2010) were retrieved and relevant data including age, sex, occupation, events surrounding bottle explosion, and type of ocular injury sustained were extracted. A total of 426 cases of ocular injuries was seen during the period under review. There were 335 (78.6%) males and 91 (21.4%) females. Six patients had ocular injury from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola®, giving an incidence of 1.4%. The presenting visual acuities (VA) were light perception (2 cases), counting fingers (2 cases), and 1 VA of 6/24 and 1 VA of 6/12. There were 4 (66.7%) cases of corneoscleral laceration with uveal prolapse and 1 case of total hyphema. Because pressurized glass-bottles can explode with normal handling, legislation to ban the use of glass containers for bottling carbonated drinks will go a long way to reducing ocular morbidity from this source. Plastic bottles should be introduced as an alternative.

  13. Microwave disinfection: assessing the risks of irrigation bottle and fluid contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morong, Sharon; Lee, John M

    2012-01-01

    It was previously shown that 50% of irrigation bottles and 40% of irrigation fluids had evidence of bacterial contamination despite cleaning with hot water and soap. Although a novel method of microwave disinfection has recently been proposed to minimize contamination risk, this has not been studied in a real life setting. This study investigates the effectiveness of microwave disinfection for reducing both nasal irrigation bottle and irrigation fluid contamination risk after endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). Twenty consecutive patients underwent ESS for chronic rhinosinusitis. Patients were given NeilMed Sinus Rinse bottles (NeilMed Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Santa Rosa CA) to use twice daily, with microwave cleaning instructions preoperatively. Bottles were collected and cultured 1 week postoperatively. Sterile saline (5 mL) was mixed into the irrigation bottle and cultured separately. An additional 10 patients were recruited whereby the bottle was cultured at collection and immediately after microwave disinfection was performed in the clinic. For the first cohort of the study, 40% of the bottles and 20% of the irrigation samples had positive cultures 1 week postoperatively. Common bacteria included Acinetobacter, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, and Gram-negative bacilli. For the second cohort of patients, 20% of the irrigation bottles had positive cultures. However, after supervised microwave disinfection, there was a 0% contamination rate. Despite detailed instructions on microwave disinfection, positive bacterial cultures may still occur after ESS. This risk, however, appears to be significantly reduced when bottles are microwaved under supervision. These findings suggest either a reduced patient compliance to cleaning or a time-dependent recontamination risk after disinfection.

  14. Bottle feeding, increased overjet and Class 2 primary canine relationship: is there any association?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Salem Abdel Jabbar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the association between bottle feeding and prevalence rates of increased overjet and Class 2 primary canine relationship. The sample consisted of 911 children (461 boys, 450 girls aged 3 (13.9%, 4 (40.8%, 5 (34% and 6 (11.3% years, with complete primary dentition. Information about nutritive and nonnutritive (pacifier and/or digit sucking habits was collected through questionnaires. Three calibrated dentists (κ: 0.9-1.0 and Rs > 0.90 performed the clinical assessments. The children were divided into four groups: G1 - not bottle-fed; G2 - exclusively bottle-fed; G3 - breast- and bottle-fed, bottle feeding ceased before 3 years of age; and G4 - breast- and bottle-fed, bottle feeding ceased between 3 and 4 years of age. Associations between nutritive and nonnutritive sucking behaviors and the malocclusions studied were analyzed by multiple binary logistic regression (α= 0.05. The frequencies of increased overjet were: 25.3% (G1, 38.8% (G2, 39.2% (G3 and 47.8% (G4. The percentages of Class 2 canine relationship were: 27.9% (G1, 48.8% (G2, 43.4% (G3 and 43% (G4. No significant effect of bottle feeding was found. The chances of diagnosing increased overjet (O.R. = 4.42, p < 0.001 and Class 2 canine relationship (O.R. = 4.02, p < 0.001 were greater for children with pacifier and/or digit-sucking habits, compared to those without a history of nonnutritive sucking behavior. It may be suggested that bottle feeding alone is not directly associated with higher prevalence rates of increased overjet and Class 2 canine relationship in the primary dentition.

  15. Bottle-feeding practices during early infancy and eating behaviors at 6 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruowei; Scanlon, Kelley S; May, Ashleigh; Rose, Chelsea; Birch, Leann

    2014-09-01

    Evidence suggests an association of breastfeeding with a maternal feeding style (MFS) that is less controlling than formula feeding, which, in turn, may improve a child's self-regulation of eating. This study examines associations of bottle-feeding practices during infancy with MFS and children's eating behavior (CEB) at 6 years old. We linked data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II to the Year 6 Follow-Up, which include 8 MFS and CEB measures adapted from previous validated instruments. Bottle-feeding practices during the first 6 months estimated by using the Infant Feeding Practices Study II were bottle-feeding intensity (BFI), mother's encouragement of infant to finish milk in the bottle, and infant finishing all milk in the bottle. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for associations of bottle-feeding practices with MFS and CEB at 6 years old were calculated by using multivariable logistic regressions controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and other feeding practices (N = 1117). Frequent bottle emptying encouraged by mothers during infancy increased odds of mothers encouraging their child to eat all the food on their plate (aOR: 2.37; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.65-3.41] and making sure their child eats enough (aOR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.14-2.31) and of children eating all the food on their plate at 6 years old (aOR: 2.01; 95% CI: 1.05-3.83). High BFI during early infancy also increased the odds of mothers being especially careful to ensure their 6-year-old eats enough. Bottle-feeding practices during infancy may have long-term effects on MFS and CEB. Frequent bottle emptying encouraged by mothers and/or high BFI during early infancy increased the likelihood of mothers pressuring their 6-year-old child to eat and children's low satiety responsiveness. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Iron deficiency, prolonged bottle-feeding, and racial/ethnic disparities in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotanek, Jane M; Halterman, Jill S; Auinger, Peggy; Flores, Glenn; Weitzman, Michael

    2005-11-01

    Childhood iron deficiency is associated with behavioral and cognitive delays. Few studies have explored the relationship between prolonged bottle-feeding and iron-deficiency anemia among toddlers. To examine the association between prolonged bottle-feeding and iron deficiency in a nationally representative sample of children ages 1 to 3 years. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III provides data on the feeding practices of children 1 to 3 years old and contains measures of iron status including transferrin saturation, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, and serum ferritin. The prevalence of iron deficiency and duration of bottle-feeding were determined for black, white, and Mexican American toddlers. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to examine the association between bottle-feeding duration and iron deficiency. Among 2121 children ages 1 to 3 years, the prevalence of iron deficiency was 6% among whites, 8% among blacks, and 17% among Mexican Americans (Pbottle-feeding, the prevalence of iron deficiency among all children increased (3.8%, bottle-fed bottle-fed 13-23 months; and 12.4%, bottle-fed 24-48 months [Pbottle-fed, compared with 16.9% of white and 13.8% of black children. In multivariate analyses, bottle-feeding for 24 to 48 months and Mexican ethnicity were associated with iron deficiency (odds ratio, 2.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-6.0; and odds ratio, 2.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-5.6, respectively). Children with prolonged bottle-feeding and Mexican American children are at higher risk for iron deficiency. Screening practices and nutritional counseling should be targeted at these high-risk groups.

  17. Bottle feeding, increased overjet and Class 2 primary canine relationship: is there any association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, Nadia Salem Abdel; Bueno, Ana Beatriz Miguel; Silva, Patrícia Elaine da; Scavone-Junior, Helio; Inês Ferreira, Rívea

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between bottle feeding and prevalence rates of increased overjet and Class 2 primary canine relationship. The sample consisted of 911 children (461 boys, 450 girls) aged 3 (13.9%), 4 (40.8%), 5 (34%) and 6 (11.3%) years, with complete primary dentition. Information about nutritive and nonnutritive (pacifier and/or digit) sucking habits was collected through questionnaires. Three calibrated dentists (κ: 0.9-1.0 and Rs > 0.90) performed the clinical assessments. The children were divided into four groups: G1 - not bottle-fed; G2 - exclusively bottle-fed; G3 - breast- and bottle-fed, bottle feeding ceased before 3 years of age; and G4 - breast- and bottle-fed, bottle feeding ceased between 3 and 4 years of age. Associations between nutritive and nonnutritive sucking behaviors and the malocclusions studied were analyzed by multiple binary logistic regression (α= 0.05). The frequencies of increased overjet were: 25.3% (G1), 38.8% (G2), 39.2% (G3) and 47.8% (G4). The percentages of Class 2 canine relationship were: 27.9% (G1), 48.8% (G2), 43.4% (G3) and 43% (G4). No significant effect of bottle feeding was found. The chances of diagnosing increased overjet (O.R. = 4.42, p bottle feeding alone is not directly associated with higher prevalence rates of increased overjet and Class 2 canine relationship in the primary dentition.

  18. Leachate analysis of green and fired-clay bricks incorporated with biosolids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukwatta, Aruna; Mohajerani, Abbas

    2017-08-01

    The substantial increase in biosolids production throughout the world requires sustainable routes for reuse. This study describes the leaching behaviour of potentially hazardous metals from the green and fired bricks incorporating four different biosolids samples from the Eastern treatment plant (ETP) and Western treatment plant (WTP) in Melbourne. The biosolids samples were characterized by XRD, XRF, TGA, particle size distribution, and organic content. The leaching of As, Ag, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and Zn was evaluated for both the green and the fired bricks according to the Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and the Australian bottle leaching procedure (ABLP). The leaching of heavy metals from both the green and the fired bricks was compared to investigate the effect of firing on the leaching capability of bricks. The results showed that the leaching of heavy metals from fired bricks was significantly lower than that for the green bricks. The ABLP concentrations of heavy metals were higher than those found using the TCLP method, mainly due to the higher specific surface area of the particles used in the ABLP method. Moreover, bricks were evaluated by the technological properties, such as compressive strength, density and water absorption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. FARSITE: a fire area simulator for fire managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Finney

    1995-01-01

    A fire growth model (FARSITE) has been developed for use on personal computers (PC’s). Because PC’s are commonly used by land and fire managers, this portable platform would be an accustomed means to bring fire growth modeling technology to management applications. The FARSITE model is intended for use in projecting the growth of prescribed natural fires for wilderness...

  20. Assessment of metal contaminations leaching out from recycling plastic bottles upon treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaoliang; Shi, Honglan; Adams, Craig D; Ma, Yinfa

    2010-08-01

    Heavy metal contaminants in environment, especially in drinking water, are always of great concern due to their health impact. Due to the use of heavy metals as catalysts during plastic syntheses, particularly antimony, human exposure to metal release from plastic bottles has been a serious concern in recent years. The aim and scope of this study were to assess metal contaminations leaching out from a series of recycling plastic bottles upon treatments. In this study, leaching concentrations of 16 metal elements were determined in 21 different types of plastic bottles from five commercial brands, which were made of recycling materials ranging from no. 1 to no. 7. Several sets of experiments were conducted to study the factors that could potentially affect the metal elements leaching from plastic bottles, which include cooling with frozen water, heating with boiling water, microwave, incubating with low-pH water, outdoor sunlight irradiation, and in-car storage. Heating and microwave can lead to a noticeable increase of antimony leaching relative to the controls in bottle samples A to G, and some even reached to a higher level than the maximum contamination level (MCL) of the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulations. Incubation with low-pH water, outdoor sunlight irradiation, and in-car storage had no significant effect on antimony leaching relative to controls in bottle samples A to G, and the levels of antimony leaching detected were below 6 ppb which is the MCL of USEPA regulations. Cooling had almost no effect on antimony leaching based on our results. For the other interested 15 metal elements (Al, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, As, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Ba, Tl, Pb), no significant leaching was detected or the level was far below the MCL of USEPA regulations in all bottle samples in this study. In addition, washing procedure did contribute to the antimony leaching concentration for polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. The difference of antimony leaching

  1. Algal growth inhibition test in filled, closed bottles for volatile and sorptive materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Philipp; Nyholm, Niels; Verbruggen, Eric M. J.

    2000-01-01

    , and the resulting dissolved CO2 concentration supported maximum algal growth rates without pH drift for algal densities up to 4 mg dry weight/L. Two-day toxicity tests with kerosene were performed with this new test design and compared with an open bottle test and with a closed bottle test with headspace. Exposure...... concentrations of the volatile fraction of kerosene decreased by 99% in the open test, by 77% in the closed flask test with headspace, and by 16% in the filled closed bottle test. Algal growth inhibition was observed at much lower additions of kerosene in the new test design because of the improved maintenance...

  2. Preventing baby bottle tooth decay: eight-year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruerd, B; Jones, C

    1996-01-01

    Baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) is a preventable dental disease that affects more than 50% of American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) children. A community-oriented program to prevent BBTD was implemented in 12 AI/AN communities in 1986. In 1989, the overall prevalence of BBTD for the 12 sites combined decreased from 57% to 43% which represented a 25% reduction (P<.001). Funding for the formal program was discontinued in 1990. In 1994, the Indian Health Service Dental and Head Start funded an assessment of the current prevalence of BBTD and the level of program implementation at the 12 original sites. This paper describes the findings. At the five sites where both one-to- one counseling and community-based educational activities had continued, BBTD prevalence was reduced by 38%(P<.001) over the eight-year period.

  3. Miniature magnetic bottle confined by circularly polarized laser light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolka, E.; Eliezer, S.; Paiss, Y. [Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Yavne (Israel). Soreq Nuclear Research Center

    1995-09-01

    A new concept of hot plasma confinement in a miniature magnetic bottle induced by circularly polarized laser light is suggested. Magnetic fields generated by circularly polarized laser light may be of the order of megagauss. In this configuration the circularly polarized laser light is used to obtain confinement of a plasma contained in a good conductor vessel. The poloidal magnetic field induced by the circularly polarized laser and the efficiency of laser absorption by the plasma are calculated. The confinement in this scheme is supported by the magnetic forces. The Lawson criterion for a DT plasma might be achieved for number density n = 5``centre dot`` 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3} and confinement time {tau} = 20 ns. The laser and plasma parameters required to obtain an energetic gain are calculated. (Author).

  4. Migration of 2-butoxyethyl acetate from polycarbonate infant feeding bottles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Lund, K.H.

    2003-01-01

    and 3% acetic acid testing at 40degrees C for 10 days. The Danish Veterinary and Food Administration (DVFA) has assessed that a migration above 0.33 mg for 2-BEA and a group of eight related substances kg(-1) foodstuff from plastics articles used exclusively for infants is unacceptable. Migration of 2...... to 3% acetic acid in the third test, whereas no migration to distilled water was observed in the third test. The average recovery of 2-BEA after the 10-day exposure at the target value of 0.33 mg kg(-1) was 77% into distilled water and 36% into 3% acetic acid. The limited recovery was understandable......An enforcement campaign was carried out to assess the migration of 2-butoxyethyl acetate (2-BEA) from polycarbonate infant feeding bottles intended for repeated use. Migration was measured by three successive migration tests into two of the European Union official food simulants: distilled water...

  5. Growth of Scytalidium sp. in a counterfeit bevacizumab bottle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Garcia-Aguirre

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available After drawing a dose from an closed bevacizumab (Avastin bottle, a fungus-like foreign body was observed inside. Samples from the vial were cultured in Sabouraud Emmons media. Growth of multiple light brown colonies with dark pigment was observed after 10 days. The species was identified as Scytalidium sp.Vial, analysis reported that the seal was lacking proper identification measures and that the label, batch number and expiry date did not correspond to a genuine product. Chemical analysis showed no protein, but 3% of polyethylene glycol, citrate and ethanol. Counterfeit bevacizumab is a real situation that poses a significant risk for ophthalmology and oncology patients. The medical community should be aware of this situation in order to enforce adequate preventive measures.

  6. Returning fire to the land: celebrating traditional knowledge and fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank K. Lake; Vita Wright; Penelope Morgan; Mary McFadzen; Dave McWethy; Camille Stevens-Rumann

    2017-01-01

    North American tribes have traditional knowledge about fire effects on ecosystems, habitats, and resources. For millennia, tribes have used fire to promote valued resources. Sharing our collective understanding of fire, derived from traditional and western knowledge systems, can benefit landscapes and people. We organized two workshops to investigate how traditional...

  7. Rx fire laws: tools to protect fire: the `ecological imperative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale Wade; Steven Miller; Johnny Stowe; James Brenner

    2006-01-01

    The South is the birthplace of statutes and ordinances that both advocate and protect the cultural heritage of woods burning, which has been practiced in this region uninterrupted for more than 10,000 years. We present a brief overview of fire use in the South and discuss why most southern states recognized early on that periodic fire was necessary to sustain fire...

  8. Quantitative comparison of fire danger index performance using fire activity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steenkamp, KC

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available and in logistic planning of fire fighting resources. In this study historical fire activity from remotely sensed data are compared with various FDIs to identify which index has the strongest statistical relationship with fire occurrences and therefore the highest...

  9. Changes in maternal attitudes toward baby bottle tooth decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanellis, M J; Logan, H L; Jakobsen, J

    1997-01-01

    Several studies have shown that a significant number of parents whose children have baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) admit prior knowledge regarding the harmful effects of putting their children to bed with a bottle. The Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion (ELM) offers a theoretical framework for better understanding why knowledge and attitude are often not predictive of behavior. The goal of this study was to use the ELM to analyze the manner in which information about BBTD is evaluated. One hundred twenty low-income women (either pregnant or with a child younger than 7 months of age) at a WIC clinic were randomly assigned to three groups: 1) 5-min audiotaped persuasive message about BBTD; 2) same audiotaped message with overheard audience response affirming the message; and 3) no intervention control group. Knowledge and attitudes about BBTD were measured before and after the experimental intervention. Participants hearing the audiotaped message also were asked to rate the expertise of the messenger and the quality of the message. Both groups hearing a taped message about BBTD showed a significant positive change in attitude and knowledge when compared with the control group (P < 0.05). No significant difference was found between the attitude and knowledge of those who heard an audiotaped message accompanied by an audience response compared with those who heard the audiotaped message alone. No significant difference between the ratings of message quality or messenger expertise by group was found. It was concluded that the participants in this study processed the BBTD message primarily through the central route, that is, by careful evaluation of the issue-relevant information contained in the persuasive message.

  10. Solar Disinfection of Viruses in Polyethylene Terephthalate Bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carratalà, Anna; Dionisio Calado, Alex; Mattle, Michael J; Meierhofer, Regula; Luzi, Samuel; Kohn, Tamar

    2015-10-23

    Solar disinfection (SODIS) of drinking water in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles is a simple, efficient point-of-use technique for the inactivation of many bacterial pathogens. In contrast, the efficiency of SODIS against viruses is not well known. In this work, we studied the inactivation of bacteriophages (MS2 and ϕX174) and human viruses (echovirus 11 and adenovirus type 2) by SODIS. We conducted experiments in PET bottles exposed to (simulated) sunlight at different temperatures (15, 22, 26, and 40°C) and in water sources of diverse compositions and origins (India and Switzerland). Good inactivation of MS2 (>6-log inactivation after exposure to a total fluence of 1.34 kJ/cm(2)) was achieved in Swiss tap water at 22°C, while less-efficient inactivation was observed in Indian waters and for echovirus (1.5-log inactivation at the same fluence). The DNA viruses studied, ϕX174 and adenovirus, were resistant to SODIS, and the inactivation observed was equivalent to that occurring in the dark. High temperatures enhanced MS2 inactivation substantially; at 40°C, 3-log inactivation was achieved in Swiss tap water after exposure to a fluence of only 0.18 kJ/cm(2). Overall, our findings demonstrate that SODIS may reduce the load of single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses, such as echoviruses, particularly at high temperatures and in photoreactive matrices. In contrast, complementary measures may be needed to ensure efficient inactivation during SODIS of DNA viruses resistant to oxidation. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Improved sealant retention with bonding agents: a clinical study of two-bottle and single-bottle systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigal, R J; Musherure, P; Gillespie, B; Levy-Polack, M; Quelhas, I; Hebling, J

    2000-11-01

    Recent in vitro work and a short clinical study suggest that adding a bonding agent layer between sealant and saliva-contaminated enamel allows for adequate bond strength and retention of resin sealants and may improve success of all sealant applications. This five-year clinical study scored 617 occlusal and 441 buccal/lingual molar sealants, with use of a split-mouth design, with half receiving sealant alone and half bonding agent plus sealant. Treatment effects and potential risk factors for sealant failure were tested by means of a Cox regression model. Three bonding agent groups were analyzed for treatment effect: Tenure primer, Scotchbond Multi-Purpose, and 3 single-bottle dentin bonding agents as a third group. The single-bottle group was successful in reducing risk of sealant failure, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.53 (p = 0.014) for occlusal and 0.35 (p = 0.006) for buccal/lingual sealants. Scotchbond was detrimental to occlusal sealant success, with a HR of 2.96 (p = 0.0003). Tenure primer was neutral, showing HRs close to 1.0. Variables that affected success differed between occlusal and buccal/lingual sealants, suggesting that failures on these two surfaces may be dependent upon differing factors. Early eruption stage was a significant risk factor for both surfaces (HR = 2.91, p = 0.00001, occlusal; and HR = 1.52, p = 0.015, buccal/lingual). Behavior (HR = 1.96, p = 0.0007), salivary problems (HR = 1.73, p = 0.002), and visually apparent variations in enamel (HR = 1.51, p = 0.018) were significant risk factors for occlusal sealants only. In addition to completing detailed analyses of risk factors for sealant survival, this study shows that single-bottle bonding agents protect sealant survival, yielding half the usual risk of failure for occlusal sealants and one-third the risk of failure for buccal/lingual sealants.

  12. Penetrating Fire Extinguisher

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    When Feecon Corporation, a manufacturer of fire protection systems, needed a piercing nozzle for larger aircraft, they were assisted by Kennedy Space Center who provided the company with a fire extinguisher with a hard pointed tip that had been developed in case of an orbiter crash landing. The nozzle can penetrate metal skins of aircraft, trains, etc. Feecon obtained a license and now markets its cobra ram piercing nozzle to airport firefighters. Its primary advantage is that the nozzle can be held in one spot during repeated blows of the ram. *This product has been discontinued and is no longer commercially available.

  13. Fire resistant aircraft seat program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewell, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Foams, textiles, and thermoformable plastics were tested to determine which materials were fire retardant, and safe for aircraft passenger seats. Seat components investigated were the decorative fabric cover, slip covers, fire blocking layer, cushion reinforcement, and the cushioning layer.

  14. Research status of warship fire safety engineering

    OpenAIRE

    LU Shouxiang; CHEN Xiao; WU Xiaowei

    2017-01-01

    The theory of warship fire safety engineering is the basis of damage control engineering. According to the public safety triangle and the characteristics of ship damage protection engineering, this paper proposes a theoretical framework system for ship fire safety engineering, including ship fire development, ship fire damage and ship fire protection. The progress of these three parts are summarized in such aspects as enclosed fire dynamics, open space fire dynamics, fire damage mechanisms fo...

  15. Determination Of Caustic Drain Out Period Of Glass Bottle Washerand Impact Of Total And Effective Caustic Strengths For Glass Bottle Washing In Soft Drink Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M.MJ. Harshani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important processes in soft drink production is bottle washing high quality of the product depends on that. A main objective of the present study is to determine the impact of total caustic and effective caustic strength on the washing performance of glass bottles. Total and effective caustic strength in samples were measured based on titration results. Four parameters were considered on the washing performance of glass bottles such as Microbiological Tests APC and Yeast amp Molds Methylene blue test Phenolphthalein test and Physical inspection. Ten samples were tested for every test per each time and three times were considered for a day and conduct for 43 days within two caustic drains out periods. Negative correlations in between total effective caustic strengths with time Days indicate from 29 days onward in tanks. There is a Positive correlation P 0.05 in between Carbonates gml and time Days onward. Positive correlations P 0.05 indicate from 35 days onward for the number of algae present bottles number of dirty bottles and APC too. Twenty nine days from the initial charge of caustic soda can be taken as the most suitable day for the caustic discharge. Under the practical scenario mean differences of total and effective caustic strengths are negligible compared to the standard value and not significantly difference P 0.05.

  16. Evidence of fuels management and fire weather influencing fire severity in an extreme fire event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydersen, Jamie M; Collins, Brandon M.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Matchett, John R.; Shive, Kristen L.; Povak, Nicholas A.; Kane, Van R.; Smith, Douglas F.

    2017-01-01

    Following changes in vegetation structure and pattern, along with a changing climate, large wildfire incidence has increased in forests throughout the western U.S. Given this increase there is great interest in whether fuels treatments and previous wildfire can alter fire severity patterns in large wildfires. We assessed the relative influence of previous fuels treatments (including wildfire), fire weather, vegetation and water balance on fire severity in the Rim Fire of 2013. We did this at three different spatial scales to investigate whether the influences on fire severity changed across scales. Both fuels treatments and previous low to moderate severity wildfire reduced the prevalence of high severity fire. In general, areas without recent fuels treatments and areas that previously burned at high severity tended to have a greater proportion of high severity fire in the Rim Fire. Areas treated with prescribed fire, especially when combined with thinning, had the lowest proportions of high severity. Proportion of the landscape burned at high severity was most strongly influenced by fire weather and proportional area previously treated for fuels or burned by low to moderate severity wildfire. The proportion treated needed to effectively reduce the amount of high fire severity fire varied by spatial scale of analysis, with smaller spatial scales requiring a greater proportion treated to see an effect on fire severity. When moderate and high severity fire encountered a previously treated area, fire severity was significantly reduced in the treated area relative to the adjacent untreated area. Our results show that fuels treatments and low to moderate severity wildfire can reduce fire severity in a subsequent wildfire, even when burning under fire growth conditions. These results serve as further evidence that both fuels treatments and lower severity wildfire can increase forest resilience.

  17. Pressure management in compartment fires

    OpenAIRE

    Hostikka, Simo; Kallada Janardhan, Rahul

    2017-01-01

    Fire-induced pressure has not been considered a threat for structural or occupant safety in apartment fires. The situation may be changing as the building envelopes are becoming much more air-tight due to the energy efficiency requirements and the construction of high-rise buildings. In this project, we investigated the effects of the building's air-tightness, ventilation configuration and the fire growth rate on the peak overpressures inside the fire compartment and smoke spread within the m...

  18. Early fire history near Papineau lake, Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey; Richard P. Guyette

    1996-01-01

    Research that defines the role of fire in upland red oak-pine ecosystems in central Ontario is being conducted by the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Silviculture program. Site-specific fire histories are being developed that document fire frequency, fire behavior, fire effects on forest regeneration and grwoth, and the influnce of human activites on fire disturbances. This...

  19. The use of fire in forest restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin C. Hardy; Stephen F. Arno

    1996-01-01

    The 26 papers in this document address the current knowledge of fire as a disturbance agent, fire history and fire regimes, applications of prescribed fire for ecological restoration, and the effects of fire on the various forested ecosystems of the north-western United States. The main body of this document is organized in three sections: Assessing Needs for Fire in...

  20. 14 CFR 29.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire extinguishers. 29.851 Section 29.851... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 29.851 Fire extinguishers. (a) Hand fire extinguishers. For hand fire extinguishers the following apply: (1) Each hand fire...

  1. Fire danger rating network density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudy M. King; R. William Furman

    1976-01-01

    Conventional statistical techniques are used to answer the question, "What is the necessary station density for a fire danger network?" The Burning Index of the National Fire-Danger Rating System is used as an indicator of fire danger. Results are presented as station spacing in tabular form for each of six regions in the western United States.

  2. Fire effects on noxious weeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin Innes

    2012-01-01

    The Fire Effects Information System (FEIS, www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/) has been providing reviews of scientific knowledge about fire effects since 1986. FEIS is an online collection of literature reviews on more than 1,100 species and their relationships with fire. Reviews cover plants and animals throughout the United States, providing a wealth of information for...

  3. Fire Sales and House Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    result in fire sale discounts. Discounts increase when the sale is urgent, market conditions are poor, and the seller is financially constrained. Overall, our study identifies when forced sales lead to fire sale discounts, and highlights that fire sales occur even in the absence of temporary demand...

  4. Learning to Control Forest Fires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiering, M.A.; Dorigo, M.

    1998-01-01

    Forest fires are an important environmental problem. This paper describes a methodology for constructing an intelligent system which aims to support the human expert's decision making in fire control. The idea is based on first implementing a fire spread simulator and on searching for good

  5. Fire and bark beetle interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ken Gibson; Jose F. Negron

    2009-01-01

    Bark beetle populations are at outbreak conditions in many parts of the western United States and causing extensive tree mortality. Bark beetles interact with other disturbance agents in forest ecosystems, one of the primary being fires. In order to implement appropriate post-fire management of fire-damaged ecosystems, we need a better understanding of...

  6. G-fire station : fire simulation from desktop to grid

    OpenAIRE

    Pina, António Manuel Silva; Marques, Ricardo; Oliveira, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    CROSS-Fire is a research project, funded by the Portuguese NGI and led by UMinho, and focused on topics related to decision making to control forest fires and on the porting to the grid of FireStation - a fire growth simulation application. G-FireStation exploits Grid capabilities in order to have a faster execution, to manage large data input/output files, to create a large data base of simulation results and to allow the interactive control of the simulations through a g...

  7. Application of silicone based elastomers for manufacturing of Green Fiber Bottle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxena, Prateek; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2017-01-01

    -stageprocess, where the wood fibers are first thermoformed in the desired shape followed by drying of theformed geometry [2]. To ensure the robustness of the bottle and to avoid shrinkage of cellulose fibers,the wet-formed bottle is pressurized using a silicone core. The core is inserted inside the drying tooland...... inflated. This keeps the wet bottle under pressure thereby enhancing formation of good hydrogenbonds, and hence providing good strength. The feasibility of the tool design concept is supported withFinite Element Model. The hyperelastic behaviour of silicone is defined by the deformation energyfunction (W......). To simulate the inflation action of the core, Yeoh’s model is used for modelling of W. Thestrength of the GFB is correlated with the pressure the bottle can hold and the cut off burst pressurefrom experiments is also reported in this work....

  8. A cell-based model of Nematostella vectensis gastrulation including bottle cell formation, invagination and zippering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamulonis, C.; Postma, M.; Marlow, H.Q.; Magie, C.R.; de Jong, J.; Kaandorp, J.

    2011-01-01

    The gastrulation of Nematostella vectensis, the starlet sea anemone, is morphologically simple yet involves many conserved cell behaviors such as apical constriction, invagination, bottle cell formation, cell migration and zippering found during gastrulation in a wide range of more morphologically

  9. Representing infant feeding: content analysis of British media portrayals of bottle feeding and breast feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, L; Kitzinger, J; Green, J

    2000-11-11

    To examine how breast feeding and bottle feeding are represented by the British media. Content analysis. Television programmes and newspaper articles that made reference to infant feeding during March 1999. UK mass media. Visual and verbal references to breast or bottle feeding in newspapers and television programmes. Overall, 235 references to infant feeding were identified in the television sample and 38 in the newspaper sample. Bottle feeding was shown more often than breast feeding and was presented as less problematic. Bottle feeding was associated with "ordinary" families whereas breast feeding was associated with middle class or celebrity women. The health risks of formula milk and the health benefits of breast feeding were rarely mentioned. The media rarely present positive information on breast feeding, even though this feeding practice is associated with the most health benefits. Health professionals and policy makers should be aware of patterns in media coverage and the cultural background within which women make decisions about infant feeding.

  10. Chemical stability of two dentin single-bottle adhesives as a function of solvent loss

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ismael Henry Yevenes; Maria Olga Baltra; Iván Urzua; Juan Reyes; Ljubica Petrasic

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Two single-bottle dentin adhesive systems, Single-Bond and Prime and Bond NT, containing ethanol-water or acetone as solvents, respectively, were investigated for their chemical stability regarding solvent loss. Methods...

  11. Ultra-high Q whispering-gallery-mode bottle microresonators: properties and applications

    CERN Document Server

    O'Shea, D; Nickel, S; Poellinger, M; Rauschenbeutel, A; 10.1117/12.876790

    2011-01-01

    Highly prolate-shaped whispering-gallery-mode "bottle microresonators" have recently attracted considerable attention due to their advantageous properties. We experimentally show that such resonators offer ultra-high quality factors, microscopic mode volumes, and near lossless in- and out-coupling of light using ultra-thin optical fibers. Additionally, bottle microresonators have a simple and customizable mode structure. This enables full tunability using mechanical strain and simultaneous coupling of two ultra-thin coupling fibers in an add-drop configuration. We present two applications based on these characteristics: In a cavity quantum electrodynamics experiment, we actively stabilize the frequency of the bottle microresonator to an atomic transition and operate it in an ultra-high vacuum environment in order to couple single laser-cooled atoms to the resonator mode. In a second experiment, we show that the bottle microresonator can be used as a low-loss, narrow-band add-drop filter. Using the Kerr effect...

  12. Bacterial contamination of the lacteal contents of feeding bottles in metropolitan São Paulo, Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morais, T B; Morais, M B; Sigulem, D M

    1998-01-01

    Reported are the results of a study in São Paulo, Brazil, to evaluate the bacterial contamination of the lacteal contents of feeding bottles prepared in urban households of low (LSE) and high (HSE...

  13. Fluoride content of still bottled waters available in the North-East of England, UK

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zohouri, F V; Moynihan, P J; Maguire, A

    2003-01-01

    .... All samples were still spring, mineral or distilled waters, sold in plastic bottles. The fluoride content of all samples was determined, in duplicate, using a Fluoride Ion Selective Electrode. The mean (+/- SD...

  14. Breast feeding, bottle feeding, and non-nutritive sucking; effects on occlusion in deciduous dentition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Viggiano, D; Fasano, D; Monaco, G; Strohmenger, L

    2004-01-01

    .... They all had an oral examination by a dentist, blinded to different variables evaluated. Non-nutritive sucking activity has a substantial effect on altered occlusion, while the effect of bottle feeding is less marked...

  15. Indonesia's Fires and Haze

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The fires were exacerbated by the droughts induced in many parts of the world by the most severe El Niño event ever recorded. (The increasing severity and frequency of the El Niño is thought by some climate experts to be a consequence of global warming, itself the cumulative result of human activities that release carbon ...

  16. Boerhaave on Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemente, Damon

    2000-01-01

    In 1741 an English translation of Herman Boerhaave's celebrated textbook Elementa Chemic was published under the title A New Method of Chemistry. True to its time, this book included elaborate discussions of the elements earth, water, air, and fire. This article offers to teachers for classroom use a selection of passages from Boerhaave's chapter on fire. Now, today's teacher of chemistry is apt to feel that little of significance to the modern classroom can be gleaned from a two-and-a-half-centuries-old text, and especially from a topic as old-fashioned as fire. But this view is decidedly shortsighted. Boerhaave offers demonstrations and experiments that can be instructively performed today, quantitative data that can be checked against modern equations, and much theory and hypothesis that can be assessed in light of modern chemical ideas. In the readings presented here I have found material for discussion in class, for investigation in the laboratory, and for a few homework assignments. Modern students are well able to comprehend and paraphrase Boerhaave, to check his results, appreciate his insights, and identify his shortfalls. From him they learn firsthand how painstaking and difficult it was to imagine and develop the concepts of thermochemistry. To read from his chapter on fire is to stand witness to the birth and infancy of thermodynamics as conceived in the mind of a great chemist from the age when coherent chemical theory was just beginning to emerge.

  17. Fire on Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Daly

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The nineteenth century theatre was fire-prone, to say the least. Across the century there were more than 1,100 major conflagrations in the world’s theatres, and countless smaller fires. In Great Britain almost every theatre seems to have burned down at some point. And yet, despite, or perhaps in part because of, this appalling record, fires were a staple feature of stage spectacle. Some plays placed them at the very centre of the entertainment, and as the century went on stage fires became more and more elaborate. Actual or simulated conflagrations were conjured up using a diverse array of technologies, some of them very simple, some depending on the most recent scientific discoveries. Here, I give a short tour of these technologies and their use in the plays of the period, and suggest some of the pleasures that they offered. While onstage flames could draw people in, offering an experience of immersive suspense, for instance, they also interrupted the dramatic flow, reminding audiences that they were seeing a performance, getting something for their money. To this extent, we are reminded that nineteenth-century drama provided something of a mixed and spectacular ‘theatre of attractions’, closer at times to the circus than to the novel.

  18. Tending the Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    City, Elizabeth A.; Dolly, Danique A.

    2017-01-01

    Part of being an effective school leader is helping staff and students deal with situations related to inequity and race--helping the fire of emotion that accompanies such issues energize your school rather than becoming a wildfire. Danique Dolly faced this challenge as principal of Baltimore's City Neighbors High School during the time riots…

  19. Fire, ice, and metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of tree injury often begins with a loss assessment. For winter storm injury, percent crow loss or branch breakage is often estimated. For injury from fire or some mechanical source to the lower trunk, the height and width of the killed vascular cambium and resulting scar are often measured. Both crown breakage and stem wounds provide the opportunity for...

  20. De fire dimensioner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mihail

    De fire dimensioner er en humanistisk håndbog beregnet især på studerende og vejledere inden for humaniora, men kan også læses af andre med interesse for, hvad humanistisk forskning er og kan. Den er blevet til over et langt livs engageret forskning, uddannelse og formidling på Roskilde Universitet...... og udgør på den måde også et bidrag til universitetets historie, som jeg var med til at grundlægge. De fire dimensioner sætter mennesket i centrum. Men det er et centrum, der peger ud over sig selv; et centrum, hvorfra verden anskues, erfares og forstås. Alle mennesker har en forhistorie og en...... fremtid, og udstrakt mellem disse punkter i tiden tænker og handler de i rummet. Den menneskelige tilværelse omfatter alle fire dimensioner. De fire dimensioner udgør derfor også et forsvar for en almen dannelse, der gennemtrænger og kommer kulturelt til udtryk i vores historie, viden, praksis og kunst....

  1. Motorcoach Fire Safety Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This purpose of this study was to collect and analyze information from Government, industry, and media sources on the causes, frequency, and severity of motorcoach fires in the U.S., and to identify potential risk reduction measures. The Volpe Center...

  2. Fire in the forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Saveland

    1995-01-01

    From ancient philosophies to present day science, the ubiquity of change and the process of transformation are core concepts. The primary focus of a recent white paper on disturbance ecology is summed up by the Greek philosopher Heraclitus who stated, "Nothing is permanent but change." Disturbance processes, such as fire, provide a window into the emerging...

  3. Hiring without Firing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Araoz, Claudio

    1999-01-01

    Describes the problems related to the hiring of senior-level positions. Suggests that regardless of the hiring process used, between 30% and 50% of executive-level appointments end in firing or resignation. Discusses the most common mistakes used in hiring. (JOW)

  4. Enhanced Fire Events Database to Support Fire PRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Baranowsky; Ken Canavan; Shawn St. Germain

    2010-06-01

    Abstract: This paper provides a description of the updated and enhanced Fire Events Data Base (FEDB) developed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in cooperation with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The FEDB is the principal source of fire incident operational data for use in fire PRAs. It provides a comprehensive and consolidated source of fire incident information for nuclear power plants operating in the U.S. The database classification scheme identifies important attributes of fire incidents to characterize their nature, causal factors, and severity consistent with available data. The database provides sufficient detail to delineate important plant specific attributes of the incidents to the extent practical. A significant enhancement to the updated FEDB is the reorganization and refinement of the database structure and data fields and fire characterization details added to more rigorously capture the nature and magnitude of the fire and damage to the ignition source and nearby equipment and structures

  5. Quality comparison of tap water vs. bottled water in the industrial city of Yanbu (Saudi Arabia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Maqbool; Bajahlan, Ahmad S

    2009-12-01

    This study was conducted to compare the quality of bottled water with potabilized desalinated tap water. Fourteen brands of local and imported bottled water samples were collected from the local market and analyzed for physicochemical parameters in the Royal Commission Environmental Laboratory. Results were compared with 5-year continuous monitoring data of tap water from different locations in Madinat Yanbu Al-Sinaiyah (MYAS) including storage tanks of desalination plant. Results show that there was no significant difference in the quality of tap water and bottled water. Bacteriological test was never found positive in the 5-year data in tap water. Similarly, physicochemical analysis shows the persistent quality of tap water. Based on hardness analysis, bottled and tap water are categorized as soft water. Trihalomethanes (THMs) study also indicates that traces of disinfection by products (DBPs) are present in both tap and bottled water and are much less than the World Health Organization and Environmental Protection Agency maximum permissible limits. It is also important to note that the tap water distribution network in MAYS is a high-pressure recirculation network and there is no chance to grow bacteria in stagnant water in pipe lines or houses. Recently, the Royal Commission has replaced the whole drinking water network, which was made of asbestos-cemented pipes with glass-reinforced plastic (GRP) pipes, to avoid any asbestos contaminations. Based on these results, it is concluded that drinking water distributed in the city is of very good and persistent quality, comparable with bottled water. Continuous monitoring also guarantees the safe drinking water to the community. Hence, it is the responsibility of the Royal Commission to encourage the peoples in the city to drink tap water as it is as good as bottled water even better than some of the brands and is monitored regularly. It is also much cheaper compared to bottled water and is available round the clock

  6. Evidence of fuels management and fire weather influencing fire severity in an extreme fire event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydersen, Jamie M; Collins, Brandon M; Brooks, Matthew L; Matchett, John R; Shive, Kristen L; Povak, Nicholas A; Kane, Van R; Smith, Douglas F

    2017-10-01

    Following changes in vegetation structure and pattern, along with a changing climate, large wildfire incidence has increased in forests throughout the western United States. Given this increase, there is great interest in whether fuels treatments and previous wildfire can alter fire severity patterns in large wildfires. We assessed the relative influence of previous fuels treatments (including wildfire), fire weather, vegetation, and water balance on fire-severity in the Rim Fire of 2013. We did this at three different spatial scales to investigate whether the influences on fire severity changed across scales. Both fuels treatments and previous low to moderate-severity wildfire reduced the prevalence of high-severity fire. In general, areas without recent fuels treatments and areas that previously burned at high severity tended to have a greater proportion of high-severity fire in the Rim Fire. Areas treated with prescribed fire, especially when combined with thinning, had the lowest proportions of high severity. The proportion of the landscape burned at high severity was most strongly influenced by fire weather and proportional area previously treated for fuels or burned by low to moderate severity wildfire. The proportion treated needed to effectively reduce the amount of high severity fire varied by spatial scale of analysis, with smaller spatial scales requiring a greater proportion treated to see an effect on fire severity. When moderate and high-severity fire encountered a previously treated area, fire severity was significantly reduced in the treated area relative to the adjacent untreated area. Our results show that fuels treatments and low to moderate-severity wildfire can reduce fire severity in a subsequent wildfire, even when burning under fire growth conditions. These results serve as further evidence that both fuels treatments and lower severity wildfire can increase forest resilience. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  7. Perceived impact of smaller compared with larger-sized bottles of sugar-sweetened beverages on consumption: A qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantzari, Eleni; Hollands, Gareth J; Pechey, Rachel; Jebb, Susan; Marteau, Theresa M

    2017-08-31

    Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption increases obesity risk and is linked to adverse health consequences. Large packages increase food consumption, but most evidence comes from studies comparing larger with standard packages, resulting in uncertainty regarding the impact of smaller packages. There is also little research on beverages. This qualitative study explores the experiences of consuming cola from smaller compared with larger bottles, to inform intervention strategies. Sixteen households in Cambridge, England, participating in a feasibility study assessing the impact of bottle size on in-home SSB consumption, received a set amount of cola each week for four weeks in one of four bottle sizes: 1500 ml, 1000 ml, 500 ml, or 250 ml, in random order. At the study end, household representatives were interviewed about their experiences of using each bottle, including perceptions of i) consumption level; ii) consumption-related behaviours; and iii) factors affecting consumption. Interviews were semi-structured and data analysed using the Framework approach. The present analysis focuses specifically on experiences relating to use of the smaller bottles. The smallest bottles were described as increasing drinking occasion frequency and encouraging consumption of numerous bottles in succession. Factors described as facilitating their consumption were: i) convenience and portability; ii) greater numbers of bottles available, which hindered consumption monitoring and control; iii) perceived insufficient quantity per bottle; and iv) positive attitudes. In a minority of cases the smallest bottles were perceived to have reduced consumption, but this was related to practical issues with the bottles that resulted in dislike. The perception of greater consumption and qualitative reports of drinking habits associated with the smallest bottles raise the possibility that the 'portion size effect' has a lower threshold, beyond which smaller portions and packages may

  8. Stochastic representation of fire behavior in a wildland fire protection planning model for California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Keith Gilless; Jeremy S. Fried

    1998-01-01

    A fire behavior module was developed for the California Fire Economics Simulator version 2 (CFES2), a stochastic simulation model of initial attack on wildland fire used by the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection. Fire rate of spread (ROS) and fire dispatch level (FDL) for simulated fires "occurring" on the same day are determined by making...

  9. Using the Large Fire Simulator System to map wildland fire potential for the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaWen Hollingsworth; James Menakis

    2010-01-01

    This project mapped wildland fire potential (WFP) for the conterminous United States by using the large fire simulation system developed for Fire Program Analysis (FPA) System. The large fire simulation system, referred to here as LFSim, consists of modules for weather generation, fire occurrence, fire suppression, and fire growth modeling. Weather was generated with...

  10. Baby bottle tooth decay in Native American children in Head Start centers.

    OpenAIRE

    Broderick, E; Mabry, J; Robertson, D., Andrew,;Purisima, O., Enrico,;Eastman, A., Margaret,;Scheraga, A., H.,; Thompson, J.

    1989-01-01

    Baby bottle tooth decay is a unique pattern of dental caries (tooth decay) affecting the dentition of young children. It is associated with the practice of putting the child to sleep with a nursing bottle filled with liquid that contains sugar. Practitioners who treat Native American children have noted that this population suffers from a high prevalence of the condition. In order to establish specific program priorities and treatment needs for this segment of the Native American population, ...

  11. Coupled-mode induced transparency in a bottle whispering-gallery-mode resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Zhang, Kun; Zhou, Song; Wu, Yi-Hui; Chi, Ming-Bo; Hao, Peng

    2016-04-15

    Whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) optical resonators are ideal systems for achieving electromagnetically induced transparency-like phenomenon. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that one or more transparent windows can be achieved with coupled-mode induced transparency (CMIT) in a single bottle WGM resonator due to the bottle's dense mode spectra and tunable resonant frequencies. This device offers an approach for multi-channel all-optical switching devices and sensitivity-enhanced WGM-based sensors.

  12. Actomyosin Contractility and Microtubules Drive Apical Constriction in Xenopus Bottle Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jen-Yi; Harland, Richard M.

    2007-01-01

    Cell shape changes are critical for morphogenetic events such as gastrulation, neurulation, and organogenesis. However, the cell biology driving cell shape changes is poorly understood, especially in vertebrates. The beginning of Xenopus laevis gastrulation is marked by the apical constriction of bottle cells in the dorsal marginal zone, which bends the tissue and creates a crevice at the blastopore lip. We found that bottle cells contribute significantly to gastrulation, as their shape chang...

  13. Pengaruh Implementasi CSR Yang Dilakukan Oleh PT. Coca-cola Bottling Indonesia Terhadap Pengembangan Masyarakat Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Lubis, Zulfizar Syahputra

    2013-01-01

    Formulation of the problem in this research is: Is CSR Implementation conducted by PT. Coca-Cola Bottling Indonesia Significant Impact on Community Development. The purpose of this research is to study and analyze how CSR Implementation conducted by PT. Coca-Cola Bottling Indonesia Significant Impact on Community Development. This study is associative, ie research that connects two or more variables to see the effect of these variables. The data used in this study is primary data and secon...

  14. The influence of pet containers on antimony concentration in bottled drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perić-Grujić Aleksandra A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimony trioxide (Sb2O3 is the most frequently used catalyst in the polyethylene terephthalate (PET manufacture. As a result, antimony is incorporated into PET bottles at concentration level of 100-300 mg/kg. PET containers are used for drinking water and beverages, as well as food packaging and in the pharmaceutical industry. Thus, it is important to understand the factors that may influence the release of antimony from the catalysts into water and other products, since antimony is potentially toxic trace element. In this paper, the antimony content in nine brands of bottled mineral and spring water from Serbia, and seven brands of bottled mineral and spring water from EU countries was analyzed. The measurements were conducted using the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS technique. In the all examined samples the antimony concentration was bellow the maximum contaminant level of 5 μg/L prescribed by the Serbian and EU regulations. Comparison of the content of antimony in PET bottled waters with the content of antimony in water bottled commercially in glass and the natural content of antimony in pristine groundwaters, provides explicit evidence of antimony leaching from PET containers. Since waters bottled in PET have much greater concentration ratio of Sb to Pb than corresponding pristine groundwaters, it can be assumed that bottled waters cannot be used as the relavant source for the study of the natural antimony content in groundwaters. There is a clear relation between the quality of water in bottles (composition, ion strength and antimony leaching rate. Moreover, while the rate of antimony leaching is slow at temperatures below 60 oC, at the temperature range of 60-80 oC antimony release occurs and reaches maximum contaminant level rapidly. As antimony can cause both acute and chronic health problems, factors that promote the increase of antimony concentration should be avoided.

  15. Representing infant feeding: content analysis of British media portrayals of bottle feeding and breast feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, L; Kitzinger, Jenny; Green, J

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To examine how breast feeding and bottle feeding are represented by the British media.\\ud Design: Content analysis.\\ud Subjects: Television programmes and newspaper articles that made reference to infant feeding during March 1999.\\ud Setting: UK mass media.\\ud Main outcome measures: Visual and verbal references to breast or bottle feeding in newspapers and television programmes.\\ud Results: Overall, 235 references to infant feeding were identified in the television sample and 38 in...

  16. Assessment of bisphenol A released from reusable plastic, aluminium and stainless steel water bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, James E; Kendig, Eric L; Belcher, Scott M

    2011-10-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous high volume industrial chemical that is an estrogen and an environmental endocrine disrupting chemical. Bisphenol A is used extensively in the production of consumer goods, polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins and coatings used to line metallic food and beverage cans. There is great concern regarding the possible harmful effects from exposures that result from BPA leaching into foods and beverages from packaging or storage containers. The objective of this study was to independently assess whether BPA contamination of water was occurring from different types of reusable drinking bottles marketed as alternatives to BPA-containing polycarbonate plastics. Using a sensitive and quantitative BPA-specific competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay we evaluated whether BPA migrated into water stored in polycarbonate or copolyester plastic bottles, and different lined or unlined metallic reusable water bottles. At room temperature the concentration of BPA migrating from polycarbonate bottles ranged from 0.2 to 0.3 mg L⁻¹. Under identical conditions BPA migration from aluminium bottles lined with epoxy-based resins was variable depending on manufacturer ranging from 0.08 to 1.9 mg L⁻¹. Boiling water significantly increased migration of BPA from the epoxy lined bottles. No detectable BPA contamination was observed in water stored in bottles made from Tritan™ copolyester plastic, uncoated stainless steel, or aluminium lined with EcoCare™. The results from this study demonstrate that when used according to manufacturers' recommendations reusable water bottles constructed from "BPA-free" alternative materials are suitable for consumption of beverages free of BPA contamination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Teach yourself visually Fire tablets

    CERN Document Server

    Marmel, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    Expert visual guidance to getting the most out of your Fire tablet Teach Yourself VISUALLY Fire Tablets is the comprehensive guide to getting the most out of your new Fire tablet. Learn to find and read new bestsellers through the Kindle app, browse the app store to find top games, surf the web, send e-mail, shop online, and much more! With expert guidance laid out in a highly visual style, this book is perfect for those new to the Fire tablet, providing all the information you need to get the most out of your device. Abundant screenshots of the Fire tablet graphically rich, touch-based Androi

  18. Elastomer Spacers in Fire Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roszkowski Paweł

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, fire resistance of linear joints seal made of elastomer spacers under standard fire conditions, and thermal degradation range of EPDM elastomeric spacers are investigated. The geometry of elastomer spacer joints is important not only for their load capacity under normal conditions - thickness, width, and cavity depth can also influence fire resistance performance. Linear joints of different thicknesses and widths have been tested. The fire insulation and fire integrity were verified for various arrangements. Relatively low thermal degradation rates have been measured, given that EPDM is a combustible material.

  19. Elastomer Spacers in Fire Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszkowski, Paweł; Sędłak, Bartłomiej; Sulik, Paweł

    2017-09-01

    In the paper, fire resistance of linear joints seal made of elastomer spacers under standard fire conditions, and thermal degradation range of EPDM elastomeric spacers are investigated. The geometry of elastomer spacer joints is important not only for their load capacity under normal conditions - thickness, width, and cavity depth can also influence fire resistance performance. Linear joints of different thicknesses and widths have been tested. The fire insulation and fire integrity were verified for various arrangements. Relatively low thermal degradation rates have been measured, given that EPDM is a combustible material.

  20. FIRE PERMIT NOW ON EDH!

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS General Safety Group or

    2001-01-01

    The electronic version of the Fire Permit form is now active. The aim of the Fire Permit procedure is to reduce the risk of fire or explosion. It is mandatory when performing 'hot work' (mainly activities which involve the use of naked flames or other heat sources - e.g. welding, brazing, cutting, grinding, etc.). Its use is explained in the CERN Fire Protection Code E. (Fire Protection) The new electronic form, which is substantially unchanged from the previous authorizing procedure, will be available on the Electronic Document Handling system (https://edh.cern.ch/) as of 1st September 2001. From this date use of the paper version should be discontinued.

  1. Fire detection in warehouse facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Dinaburg, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Automatic sprinklers systems are the primary fire protection system in warehouse and storage facilities. The effectiveness of this strategy has come into question due to the challenges presented by modern warehouse facilities, including increased storage heights and areas, automated storage retrieval systems (ASRS), limitations on water supplies, and changes in firefighting strategies. The application of fire detection devices used to provide early warning and notification of incipient warehouse fire events is being considered as a component of modern warehouse fire protection.Fire Detection i

  2. Comparison of temperaments of children with and without baby bottle tooth decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, F; Wilson, S; Coury, D L; Preisch, J W

    1998-01-01

    Several demographic studies have been done to identify children at risk for Baby Bottle Tooth Decay (BBTD). Discussions have described these children with Baby Bottle Tooth Decay as strong tempered, cranky, restless, and fussy. The parents of these children have acknowledged these behaviors. To determine whether there were differences in temperament, children with Baby Bottle Tooth Decay were compared with children without Baby Bottle Tooth Decay by assessing the nine temperament components described by the Toddler Temperament Scale (TTS) questionnaire. Parents completed the temperament questionnaire and ninety-two children between twelve and thirty-six months old were studied. Scores for the nine temperament components were tabulated and temperament difficulty was determined as defined by the authors of the toddler Temperament Scale. At-test comparison between the two groups revealed no significant difference for the nine temperament components. There was also no difference when comparing clusters of the nine components. The conclusion is that there is no difference in the temperaments between the group of children with Baby Bottle Tooth Decay and the comparison group of children without Baby Bottle Tooth Decay.

  3. Risk Factors Associated with the Choice to Drink Bottled Water and Tap Water in Rural Saskatchewan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianne McLeod

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study investigated risk factors associated with choices to drink bottled water and tap water in rural Saskatchewan. Of 7,500 anonymous postal questionnaires mailed out, 2,065 responses were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models. Those who reported a water advisory (p < 0.001 or living in the area for £10 years (p = 0.01 were more likely to choose bottled water. Those who reported tap water was not safe to drink were more likely to choose bottled water, an effect greater for those who had no aesthetic complaints (p ≤ 0.001, while those with aesthetic complaints were more likely to choose bottled water if they believed the water was safe (p < 0.001. Respondents who treated their water and did not use a community supply were more likely to choose bottled water (p < 0.001, while those who did not treat their water were more likely to choose bottled water regardless of whether a community supply was used (p < 0.001. A similar pattern of risk factors was associated with a decreased likelihood of consuming tap water daily; however, the use of a community water supply was not significant. Understanding the factors involved in drinking water choices could inform public health education efforts regarding water management in rural areas.

  4. Ocular injuries caused by metal caps of carbonated mineral water bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdurman, Fazıl Cüneyt; Ceylan, Osman Melih; Hürmeriç, Volkan; Pellumbi, Alfrida; Durukan, Ali Hakan; Sobacı, Güngör

    2013-05-01

    Bottles containing carbonated drinks are potentially hazardous to the eye. In this study, we aimed to document the clinical characteristics and visual outcomes in a series of patients with ocular injury from flying metal caps of carbonated mineral water bottles. Retrospective review of ocular injuries due to metal caps of carbonated mineral water bottles. Sixteen eyes of sixteen patients were included in the study. All of the patients were male, with a mean age of 24 years. Ten of the patients had a history of using improper tools for bottle cap removal. The left eye was involved in twelve cases and the right eye in four cases. All patients had contusion-type closed-globe injury. Varying degrees of hyphema were observed in all patients, and vitreous hemorrhage was present in four. The visual acuity at the last follow-up was 20/20 in 15 of the patients. The use of a bottle cap opener is essential for preventing ocular damage from pressed metal caps of carbonated drinks. In addition to popularising the use of screw cap bottles, warning labels that alert consumers about the possibility of eye injury should be placed on carbonated drinks with pressed metal caps.

  5. Bottle-brush polymers: adsorption at surfaces and interactions with surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claesson, P M; Makuska, R; Varga, I; Meszaros, R; Titmuss, S; Linse, P; Pedersen, J Skov; Stubenrauch, Cosima

    2010-03-25

    Solution and adsorption properties of both charged and uncharged bottle-brush polymers have been investigated. The solution conformation and interactions in solution have been investigated by small-angle scattering techniques. The association of the bottle-brush polymers with anionic surfactants has also been studied. Surfactant binding isotherm measurements, NMR, surface tension measurements, as well as SAXS, SANS and light scattering techniques were utilized for understanding the association behaviour in bulk solutions. The adsorption of the bottle-brush polymers onto oppositely charged surfaces has been explored using a battery of techniques, including reflectometry, ellipsometry, quartz crystal microbalance, and neutron reflectivity. The combination of these techniques allowed determination of adsorbed mass, layer thickness, water content, and structural changes occurring during layer formation. The adsorption onto mica was found to be very different to that on silica, and an explanation for this was sought by employing a lattice mean-field theory. The model was able to reproduce a number of salient experimental features characterizing the adsorption of the bottle-brush polymers over a wide range of compositions, spanning from uncharged bottle-brushes to linear polyelectrolytes. This allowed us to shed light on the importance of electrostatic surface properties and non-electrostatic surface-polymer affinity for the adsorption. The interactions between bottle-brush polymers and anionic surfactants in adsorbed layers have also been elucidated using ellipsometry, neutron reflectivity and surface force measurements. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Neonatal sucking behavior: comparison of perioral movement during breast-feeding and bottle feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Madoka; Mizuno, Katsumi; Tamura, Masanori

    2010-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare orofacial motion and mouth angle during breast-feeding and bottle feeding in normal infants. Thirteen normal infants were enrolled in the study, and feeding sessions were recorded using a digital video camera at 4 or 5 days following birth. The analysis was successfully performed for 12 infants during both breast-feeding and bottle feeding. Markers were placed at the lateral angle of the eye, the tip of the jaw, and the throat region. Jaw and throat region movements were calculated using the direct linear transformation method. The angle of the mouth was also measured. Throat region movement was significantly larger than jaw movement in both breast-feeding (eye-throat region changes: 1.51 +/- 0.37 mm, eye-jaw changes: 0.91 +/- 0.31 mm, P bottle feeding (eye-throat region changes: 2.91 +/- 0.46 mm, eye-jaw changes: 1.77 +/- 0.33 mm, P feeding than those during bottle feeding (P feeding is larger than that during bottle feeding (P bottle feeding differ from those during breast-feeding. This partly results from the difference in the angle of the mouth during feeding.

  7. Wall suction-assisted image-guided thoracentesis: a safe alternative to evacuated bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H; Shyn, P B; Wu, L; Levesque, V M; Khorasani, R; Silverman, S G

    2017-10-01

    To compare the safety of evacuated bottle-assisted thoracentesis with wall suction-assisted thoracentesis. An institutional review board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant retrospective study of 161 consecutive patients who underwent 191 evacuated bottle-assisted thoracenteses from 1 January 2012 to 30 September 2012, and 188 consecutive patients who underwent 230 wall suction-assisted thoracenteses from 1 January 2013 to 30 September 2013 was conducted. All procedures used imaging guidance. Primary diagnosis, age, gender, total fluid volume removed, and adverse events (AE) up to 30 days post-procedure were recorded and graded using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events 4.0 (CTCAE)2. Overall AE rates were 42.9% (82/191) for the evacuated bottle group and 19.6% (45/230) for the wall suction group (psuction group, [41.9% (80/191) and 18.3% (42/230)], respectively (psuction groups, respectively. No grade 4 or 5 AE occurred. Excluding transient chest pain and cough, there was no statistical difference in overall AE rate between the evacuated bottle and wall suction groups [11% (21/191) and 8.3% (19/230), p=0.4]. Image-guided thoracentesis performed with wall suction is safe when compared to evacuated bottles. The use of wall suction, in comparison to evacuated bottles, may decrease the incidence of transient chest pain or cough. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Predicting water filter and bottled water use in Appalachia: a community-scale case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levêque, Jonas G; Burns, Robert C

    2017-06-01

    A questionnaire survey was conducted in order to assess residents' perceptions of water quality for drinking and recreational purposes in a mid-sized city in northcentral West Virginia. Two logistic regression analyses were conducted in order to investigate the factors that influence bottle use and filter use. Results show that 37% of respondents primarily use bottled water and that 58% use a household filter when drinking from the tap. Respondents with lower levels of environmental concern, education levels, and lower organoleptic perceptions were most likely to perceive health risks from tap water consumption, and were most likely to use bottled water. Income, age, and organoleptic perceptions were predictors of water filter use among respondents. Clean water for recreational purposes was not found to be significant with either of these models. Our results demonstrate that bottle use and filter use are explained differently. We argue that more education and better communication about local tap water quality would decrease the use of bottled water. We demonstrate that household filters could be used as an alternative to bottled water.

  9. Large-scale pool fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinhaus Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of research into the burning behavior of large pool fires and fuel spill fires is presented. The features which distinguish such fires from smaller pool fires are mainly associated with the fire dynamics at low source Froude numbers and the radiative interaction with the fire source. In hydrocarbon fires, higher soot levels at increased diameters result in radiation blockage effects around the perimeter of large fire plumes; this yields lower emissive powers and a drastic reduction in the radiative loss fraction; whilst there are simplifying factors with these phenomena, arising from the fact that soot yield can saturate, there are other complications deriving from the intermittency of the behavior, with luminous regions of efficient combustion appearing randomly in the outer surface of the fire according the turbulent fluctuations in the fire plume. Knowledge of the fluid flow instabilities, which lead to the formation of large eddies, is also key to understanding the behavior of large-scale fires. Here modeling tools can be effectively exploited in order to investigate the fluid flow phenomena, including RANS- and LES-based computational fluid dynamics codes. The latter are well-suited to representation of the turbulent motions, but a number of challenges remain with their practical application. Massively-parallel computational resources are likely to be necessary in order to be able to adequately address the complex coupled phenomena to the level of detail that is necessary.

  10. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Fire Safety and Fire Control in the Chemistry Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbraham, A. C.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses fire safety and fire control in the chemistry laboratory. The combustion process, extinguishing equipment, extinguisher maintenance and location, and fire safety and practices are included. (HM)

  11. Fire regime in Mediterranean ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Guido; Casula, Paolo; D'Andrea, Mirko; Fiorucci, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    The analysis of burnt areas time series in Mediterranean regions suggests that ecosystems characterising this area consist primarily of species highly vulnerable to the fire but highly resilient, as characterized by a significant regenerative capacity after the fire spreading. In a few years the area burnt may once again be covered by the same vegetation present before the fire. Similarly, Mediterranean conifer forests, which often refers to plantations made in order to reforest the areas most severely degraded with high erosion risk, regenerate from seed after the fire resulting in high resilience to the fire as well. Only rarely, and usually with negligible damages, fire affects the areas covered by climax species in relation with altitude and soil types (i.e, quercus, fagus, abies). On the basis of these results, this paper shows how the simple Drossel-Schwabl forest fire model is able to reproduce the forest fire regime in terms of number of fires and burned area, describing whit good accuracy the actual fire perimeters. The original Drossel-Schwabl model has been slightly modified in this work by introducing two parameters (probability of propagation and regrowth) specific for each different class of vegetation cover. Using model selection methods based on AIC, the model with the optimal number of classes with different fire behaviour was selected. Two different case studies are presented in this work: Regione Liguria and Regione Sardegna (Italy). Both regions are situated in the center of the Mediterranean and are characterized by a high number of fires and burned area. However, the two regions have very different fire regimes. Sardinia is affected by the fire phenomenon only in summer whilst Liguria is affected by fires also in winter, with higher number of fires and larger burned area. In addition, the two region are very different in vegetation cover. The presence of Mediterranean conifers, (Pinus Pinaster, Pinus Nigra, Pinus halepensis) is quite spread in

  12. Consumer exposure to Bisphenol A from plastic bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidabadi, Fatemeh

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a plastic monomer and plasticizer and is a chemical that has one of the highest volume production worldwide, with more than six billion pounds each year. Its' primary use is the production of polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins used to line metal cans in a host of plastic consumer products such as toys, water pipes, drinking containers, eyeglass lenses, sports safety equipment as well as consumer electronics. Studies have shown that BPA is leached from lacquer coated cans and baby feeding bottles due to hydrolysis of the Polymer during thermal treatment. Studies have also shown that even under normal use BPA may leach from food and beverage containers. For many years Bisphenol A was treated as neutral to human health. The detection of BPA in drinking water and food products has raised the interest of many researches since 1990. Thousands of studies have examined the impact of BPA to determine its effects in laboratory animals. Numerous toxicological and biochemical studies have supported that BPA has estrogenic properties. The effects of exposure to BPA can be harmful to fetus, infants and young children. BPA is used in products where traces of it can be found in every human at higher levels of concentration than that which causes problems in animals. The National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) has defined "low dose" of endocrine disrupting chemicals as doses below no observable adverse effect (NOAE) for specific chemicals. In BPA, this dose is 50 mg/kg of body weight per day. Today there are more than 150 published results describing how low doses of BPA effects animals. A recent study reported that adult female mice, monkeys, and humans metabolized BPA at almost identical rates. Since the level of BPA and other endocrine chemicals appears to be increasing throughout the World, especially where plastics are prevalent, it is extremely important to study the effects of this chemical on man and wildlife. This research effort

  13. Validation studies of a quick test for predicting the sorption and washing properties of refillable plastic bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, T; Damant, A P; Castle, L

    1997-01-01

    Quick tests are proposed in the literature as alternatives to the large scale contamination and washing studies performed to date to assess the acceptability of plastic beverage bottles for refilling. These tests use small plastic specimens ('strips') in place of bottles and use mixtures of surrogate contaminants to model the myriad of chemicals that could in principle contaminate returned bottles because of consumer mis-use. The work reported here has measured the sorption and wash performance using the quick test protocol with PET (polyethyleneterephthalate) strips and laboratory washing and compared the results with tests using actual bottles and a commercial washing process. The comparison indicates that the quick test satisfactorily simulated contamination and commercial washing of intact bottles. The results also show that repeated washing of PET bottles does not cause higher sorption of contaminants.

  14. Sensitivity Analysis on Fire Modeling of Main Control Board Fire Using Fire Dynamics Simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dae Il; Lim, Ho Gon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this study, sensitivity analyses for an MCB fire were performed to identify the effects on the MCR forced abandonment time according to the changes of height and number for fire initiation places. Hanul Unit 3 NPP was selected as a reference plant for this study. In this study, sensitivity analyses for an MCB fire were performed to identify the effects on the MCR forced abandonment time according to the changes of height and number of fire initiation places. A main control board (MCB) fire can cause a forced main control room (MCR) abandonment of the operators as well as the function failures or spurious operations of the control and instrumentation-related components. If the MCR cannot be habitable, a safe shutdown from outside the MCR can be achieved and maintained at an alternate shutdown panel independent from the MCR. When the fire modeling for an electrical cabinet such as an MCB was performed, its many input parameters can affect the fire simulation results. This study results showed that the decrease in the height of fire ignition place and the use of single fire ignition place in fire modeling for the propagating fire shortened MCR abandonment time.

  15. Fighting fires... with science

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2016-01-01

    CERN firefighters are working with a research centre in the United States to develop more effective firefighting techniques.   One of the UL FSRI’s model houses is set alight... in the interest of science. (Photo: ©UL FSRI) For around ten years, the Underwriters Laboratories Firefighter Safety Research Institute (UL FSRI) has been carrying out scientific research on the various techniques used by firefighters in the United States and around the world. This research has focused on evaluating the effectiveness and safety of current practices worldwide with the aim of developing even better techniques. In many cases the research has shown that a combination of techniques gives the best results. The interiors of the model houses are fully furnished. (Photo: ©UL FSRI) Art Arnalich, who has worked with fire brigades in the United States and Europe and is now a member of CERN’s Fire Brigade, has actively participated in this research since 2013. His knowledge of ...

  16. The bacteriological quality of different brands of bottled water available to consumers in Ile-Ife, south-western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbeneghu, Oluwatoyin A; Lamikanra, Adebayo

    2014-11-28

    The upsurge in the demand for bottled water has prompted the interest of many manufacturers in the production of bottled water and very many water bottling companies are therefore involved in its production. These range from large scale multinational companies to medium scale business enterprises, institutional and government business investment companies as well as small scale entrepreneurs. There is however little information on the comparative quality of bottled water brands produced by different classes of water bottling companies in Nigeria. This study was undertaken to determine the bacteriological quality of brands of bottled water available to consumers in Ile-Ife. Forty-three samples of bottled water comprising of three batches each of thirteen bottled water brands and two batches of two brands were purchased and analyzed for total bacterial count, presence of coliform and the presence of other bacterial indicators of drinking water quality. Only 67.4% of the water samples representing the products of 10 companies or 66.7% of the brands had heterotrophic counts within the acceptable limits. Coliforms present in 100 ml of water were detected in 26.7% of the bottled water brands. Other indicator organisms detected included Staphylococci isolated from 27.9% of the samples (33.3% of the brands) and specifically Staphylococcus aureus found in four brands constituting 14% of the samples. Pseudomonas strains were consistently detected in consecutive batches of three brands of the water samples. Bottled water samples produced by the large scale multinational producers were of acceptable bacteriological quality unlike those produced by most small companies. There is need for a greater control of water bottling processes carried out by commercial bottled water producers in Nigeria.

  17. Bottle milk feeding and its association with food group consumption, growth and socio-demographic characteristics in Chinese young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Suey; Chan, Ruth; Li, Liz; Leung, Shirley; Woo, Jean

    2017-07-01

    It is recommended that infants from the age of 12 months should be weaned from bottles. However, an overwhelming proportion of young children were still using bottle after the recommended age of bottle-weaning. This cross-sectional study examined the association between utensils for milk drinking and food group consumption, growth and socio-demographic characteristics among young children. Data from the Survey of Infant and Young Child Feeding in Hong Kong were analyzed for 649 children aged 18-48 months old. Dietary outcomes were obtained via 3-day dietary records, while utensils for milk drinking and socio-demographic characteristics were collected from a self-developed questionnaire. Length/height and weight of the children were measured by the nurses. Results showed that daily consumption of formula milk was significantly greater among bottle users or bottle plus cup users than non-bottle users (p bottle users had significantly lower intakes of meat and meat alternatives than bottle plus cup users for the 18 to 24-month group (p = 0.001) and lower intakes of fruits than non-bottle users in the 48-month group (p = 0.015). BMI z-score was significantly higher for exclusive bottle users than non-bottle users, even after adjusting for socio-economic factors and child's age (p = 0.006). The results showed that the milk drinking utensil was associated with the amount of formula milk and food group consumption as well as BMI z-score. There is a need to actively discourage prolonged bottle use in order to help young children develop good dietary habits. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Joint Fire Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    trajectory. The rule of thumb minimum ceiling for Hellfire employment is 500 ft AGL. (3) Cannon Launched Guided Projectile - Copperhead (a... Copperhead is a 155-millimeter, cannon-launched, guided projectile with a shaped-charge warhead and a laser seeker. When fired at a moving or...stationary hard point target, Copperhead homes in on laser energy reflected from the target during the final part of its trajectory. A remote laser

  19. Fire Protection Informational Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Carbon dioxide (C02); 2. Methane {CH4 ); 3. Nitrous oxide (N20); 4...Hydrofluorocarbons 4% Hydrofluorocarbons 8% Methane 17% Methane 7°1. Black Carbon 19% Black Carbon 78% Carbon Dioxide (a) 1 00-year and (b) 20-Year Global... Methanol Pool Fi 60 50 ~ 40 ::J 8 30 20 • First experiments conducted in methanol fire • Nonsooting fuel is simpler starting point for

  20. Grizzly Gulch Fire, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Burning next door to the South Dakota towns of Deadwood and Lead, the Grizzly Gulch fire forced the evacuation of many residents in the first week of July, 2002. In addition, smoke closed many of the roads in the area. At the time the fire's behavior was extreme, with 'torching, spotting, and running.' In other words, the fire was primarily burning along the ground, with entire trees occasionally erupting into flame (torching). At the same time, burning embers were being thrown ahead of the fire (spotting). In some areas the fire was spreading from the crown of one tree to another (running). (This glossary of fire terms has a good list of definitions) The above image shows the fire on the morning of July 1, 2002. Actively burning areas, concentrated on the east (right) side of the fire, are colored red and orange. Dark red areas indicate burn scars, while forest and other vegetation appears green. The exposed rock of the Homestake gold mine, now the National Underground Science Laboratory, is pinkish-brown. The total extent of the fire is oulined in yellow. The image was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. More news about current wildfires in the United States is available from the National Fire Information Center. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch.

  1. Plastic Bottles Waste Utilization as Modifier for Asphalt Mixture Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hakeem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic Bottles was used as the polymeric waste to investigate performance of asphalt mixture Aggregates obtained from Margalla, Burhan and Karak quarries. 12 samples were prepared for conventional asphalt mixtures and 48 samples were prepared for PB modified asphalt mixture of each quarries at various proportions of PB waste. The PB used for modification according to wet process are 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% by weight of Optimum Bitumen Content (OBC. OBC of 4.2 % was concluded for conventional asphalt mixtures. The stability and flow values of the conventional and modified Asphalt Mixture were compared. The average Stability of the modified Margalla asphalt mixtures when 15% PB was used was much higher as compared to conventional asphalt mixtures. But when PB was used beyond 15%, the Marshall stability showed a decreasing trend for Margalla aggregates, increasing trend for Karak aggregates and decreasing trend for Burhan aggregates. This decline in stability is attributed to a decline in interlocking of aggregates due to lubricating effect. The corresponding flow for the Modified asphalt mixtures first showed a decreasing trend for Margalla aggregates at 15% PB modification but beyond 15%, an increasing trend in flow as compared to conventional asphalt mixtures The decrease in flow or increase in Marshall Stability is attributed to improvement in interlocking and decline in flow or stability is attributed to a decline in interlocking offered by binder and PB coated aggregate particles in modified asphalt.

  2. Does shaking increase the pressure inside a bottle of champagne?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreme, A; Pouligny, B; Nadal, F; Liger-Belair, G

    2015-02-01

    Colas, beers and sparkling wines are all concentrated solutions of carbon dioxide in aqueous solvents. Any such carbonated liquid is ordinarily conditioned inside a closed bottle or a metal can as a liquid-gas 2-phase system. At thermodynamic equilibrium, the partial pressure of carbon-dioxide in the gas phase and its concentration in the liquid are proportional (Henry's law). In practical conditions and use (transport, opening of the container, exterior temperature change, etc.), Henry's equilibrium can be perturbed. The goal of this paper is to describe and understand how the system responds to such perturbations and evolves towards a new equilibrium state. Formally, we investigate the dynamics around Henry's equilibrium of a closed system, through dedicated experiments and modeling. We focus on the response to a sudden pressure change and to mechanical shaking (the latter point inspired the article's title). Observations are rationalized through basic considerations including molecular diffusion, bubble dynamics (based on Epstein-Plesset theory) and chemi-convective hydrodynamic instabilities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Enantioselective Henry reaction catalyzed by "ship in a bottle" complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bania, Kusum K; Karunakar, Galla V; Goutham, Kommuru; Deka, Ramesh C

    2013-07-15

    Two chiral Schiff-base complexes of copper(II) have been successfully encapsulated inside the cavity of zeolite-NaY via a "ship in a bottle" synthesis method. The presence of the two complexes inside the cages of zeolite-Y has been confirmed based on various spectrochemical and physicochemical techniques, viz. FTIR, UV-vis/DRS, ESR, XPS, CV, EDX, SEM, and TGA. Zeolite-encapsulated chiral copper(II) Schiff-base complexes are found to give a high-enantioselective (84% ee, R conformation) nitro-aldol product at -20 °C. The encapsulated copper complexes are found to show higher catalytic efficiency than their homogeneous counterparts under identical conditions. Density functional theory (DFT) calculation has been implemented to understand the effect of the zeolite matrix on structural, electronic, and reactivity properties of the synthesized complexes. Theoretical calculation predicts that upon encapsulation into the zeolite matrix the Cu center becomes more susceptible to nucleophilic attack, favoring a nitro-aldol reaction. A plausible mechanism is suggested based on the experimental and theoretical results. The structures of reaction intermediates and transition state(s) involved in the catalytic cycle are derived using DFT.

  4. Hole diameters in pet bottles used for fruit fly capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurico Paulo Batistella Pasini

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted during the period from 31 January to 6 March 2012 in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil to determine the efficiency of different hole diameters in PET trap bottles on pests in guava and persimmon orchards. In a randomised block design in a factorial scheme, we assessed the average number adults of Anastrepha fraterculus, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephitidae and Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae infruits thatemerged in two situations (in the plant and on the soil; we also assessed the number of captured adults in trap bottlesunder two conditions, different hole diameters and different days after placement of the attractive solution. Smaller diameter sizescaptured more A. fraterculus, C. capitata and Z. indianusadults. The 1.0 cm diameter was the most efficient hole size in reducing the adult emergence of Tephritidae to Z. indianus, whereas the smallest diameter hole sizes, 0.6 and 0.8 cm, showed the highest efficiencies in controlling adult emergence in persimmon fruit and guava fruit.

  5. Milk Flow Rates from bottle nipples used after hospital discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pados, Britt Frisk; Park, Jinhee; Thoyre, Suzanne M; Estrem, Hayley; Nix, W Brant

    To test the milk flow rates and variability in flow rates of bottle nipples used after hospital discharge. Twenty-six nipple types that represented 15 common brands as well as variety in price per nipple and store location sold (e.g., Babies R' Us, Walmart, Dollar Store) were chosen for testing. Ten of each nipple type (n = 260 total) were tested by measuring the amount of infant formula expressed in 1 minute using a breast pump. Mean milk flow rate (mL/min) and coefficient of variation (CV) were calculated. Flow rates of nipples within brand were compared statistically. Milk flow rates varied from 1.68 mL/min for the Avent Natural Newborn Flow to 85.34 mL/min for the Dr. Brown's Standard Y-cut. Variability between nipple types also varied widely, from .03 for the Dr. Brown's Standard Level 3 to .37 for MAM Nipple 1 Slow Flow. The extreme range of milk flow rates found may be significant for medically fragile infants being discharged home who are continuing to develop oral feeding skills. The name of the nipple does not provide clear information about the flow rate to guide parents in decision making. Variability in flow rates within nipples of the same type may complicate oral feeding for the medically fragile infant who may not be able to adapt easily to change in flow rates. Both flow rate and variability should be considered when guiding parents to a nipple choice.

  6. Traumatic avulsion of the tricuspid valve after gas bottle explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Tedoldi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a very rare example of chronic right heart failure caused by torrent tricuspid regurgitation. Massive right heart dilatation and severe tricuspid regurgitation due to avulsion of the tricuspid valve apparatus occurred as a result of a blunt chest trauma following the explosion of a gas bottle 20 years before admission, when the patient was a young man in Vietnam. After this incident, the patient went through a phase of severe illness, which can retrospectively be identified as an acute right heart decompensation with malaise, ankle edema, and dyspnea. Blunt chest trauma caused by explosives leading to valvular dysfunction has not been reported in the literature so far. It is remarkable that the patient not only survived this trauma, but had been managing his chronic heart failure well without medication for over 20 years. Learning points: • Thorough clinical and physical examination remains the key to identifying patients with relevant valvulopathies. • With good acoustic windows, TTE is superior to TEE in visualizing the right heart. • Traumatic avulsion of valve apparatus is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication of blunt chest trauma and must be actively sought for. Transthoracic echocardiography remains the method of choice in these patients.

  7. Determination of Perchlorate in Bottled Water from Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Iannece

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Perchlorate is regarded as an emerging persistent inorganic contaminant. It is widely known that perchlorate is an endocrine disruptor as it competitively inhibits iodide transport in the thyroid gland. As drinking water is the major source of human exposure to perchlorate, its occurrence in commercially available bottled waters purchased in different regions of Italy was investigated. Perchlorate was measured using the rapid, sensitive, and selective LC-ESI-MS/MS (liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry method by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM of the transition 98.8→82.8, which corresponds to the loss of one oxygen atom in the perchlorate ion (ClO4−→ClO3−. The chlorine isotope ratio (35Cl/37Cl was used as a confirmation tool. The limit of quantification (LOQ for this method was 5 ng/L, and the recovery ranged from 94% to 108%. Perchlorate was detected in 44 of the 62 drinking waters tested, with concentrations ranging from <5 to 75 ng/L. These values are similar in magnitude to those reported in drinking water from the USA and do not pose an immediate health concern.

  8. Performance of Hot Asphalt Mixtures Containing Plastic Bottles as Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hakeem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on evaluating the resistance of polymer modified asphalt mixes and the role played by asphalt in the realm of construction is undeniably important. Addition of polymers(PB as additives to asphalt helps to improve the strength and water repellent property of the mix and as well as helps environment in various ways and at the same time, analyzing its lower maintenance activities and service life is most important. The use of inexpensive polymers, in this case, waste polymers has without any doubt proven to be the most convenient way of reducing the cost of construction and at the same time maintaining quality. The main resolve for this research was to establish the effects of the use of plastic bottles on hot asphalt and its mixtures. In order to put this into perspective, varying percentages of asphalt mixtures were calculated and subjected to laboratory tests. The two-factor variance analysis (ANOVA was conducted to determine the significance at various confidence limits. The results indicate that the inclusion of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET had a particularly substantial effect on the properties of asphalt. Consequently, it can encourage the re-utilization of waste in the manufacturing industry in an ecologically friendly and cost-effective way.

  9. Fire weather conditions and fire-atmosphere interactions observed during low-intensity prescribed fires - RxCADRE 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig B. Clements; Neil P. Lareau; Daisuke Seto; Jonathan Contezac; Braniff Davis; Casey Teske; Thomas J. Zajkowski; Andrew T. Hudak; Benjamin C. Bright; Matthew B. Dickinson; Bret W. Butler; Daniel Jimenez; J. Kevin. Hiers

    2016-01-01

    The role of fire-atmosphere coupling on fire behaviour is not well established, and to date few field observations have been made to investigate the interactions between fire spread and fire-induced winds. Therefore, comprehensive field observations are needed to better understand micrometeorological aspects of fire spread. To address this need, meteorological...

  10. [The relationship between the infant nursing bottle caries and the feeding patterns, oral health behavior and parents' oral health information].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhao-qi

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the relationship between the infant nursing bottle caries in city community and the feeding patterns, oral health behavior, parents' oral health information, and to provide scientific basis for future infant nursing bottle caries prevention. Three hundred infants aged 6, 7, 12, 18 months in April 2009 in Bai Guan Street Community Hospital Shangyu City were enrolled in this study, nursing bottle caries were examined and recorded. Questionnaires on infant basic data, feeding patterns, oral health behavior, parents' oral health information were asked and recorded in these 300 parents. The relationship was analyzed between the infant nursing bottle caries and the questionnaires by Chi-square test with the SPSS14.0 software package. The infant nursing bottle caries correlated obviously with the habit of sleeping with the nursing bottle or mammary papilla in mouth, and did not correlate with the breast or artificial feeding patterns. The occurrence rate of infant nursing bottle caries was significantly lower in the infants with oral health behavior than those without oral health behavior. After feeding food, more parents feed the infants with little plain boiled water than clean the infant oral cavity with finger cap wet carbasus. 56.7% of parents had no acknowledge of danger of infant nursing bottle caries. There is some correlation between the infant nursing bottle caries and the feeding patterns, oral health behavior, parents' oral health information.

  11. Survey on Heterotrophic Bacterial Contamination in Bottled Mineral Water by Culture Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essmaeel Ghorbanalinezhad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: This project focuses on the level of heterotrophic baceria in bottled mineral water which could be a health concern for the elderly, infants, pregnant women and immuno-compromised patients. Materials and Methods: Different brands of bottled water samples were selected randomly and evaluated for their bacteriological quality, using different specific culture media and biochemical tests. Water samples were analyzed within 24 hours of their purchase/collection. Samples were filtered with 0.45 micron and filters were plated in different media. Then media were incubated at 37˚C for 24-48 hours. Results: Morphological study and biochemical tests revealed a number of bacteria in different   brands of  bottled water. Heterotrophic bacteria(Gram positive cocci, Spore forming gram positive bacilli, non spore forming gram positive bacilli, gram negative bacilli, and gram negative coccobacilli; Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas counted in 70% of bottled water samples. There were no cases of fecal contamination or the presence of E.coli. Conclusions: Bottled water is not sterile and contains trace amounts of bacteria naturally present or introduced during processing. Testing drinking water for all possible pathogens is complex, time-consuming, and expensive. If only total coliform bacteria are detected in drinking water, the source is probably environmental. Since the significance of non-pathogenic heterotrophic bacteria in relation to health and diseases is not understood, there is an urgent need to establish a maximum limit for the heterotrophic count in the bottled mineral water. Growth conditions play a critical role in the recovery of heterotrophic bacteria in bottled drinking water.

  12. Laboratory Workflow Analysis of Culture of Periprosthetic Tissues in Blood Culture Bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Trisha N; Sedarski, John A; Dylla, Brenda L; Shannon, Samantha K; Amirahmadi, Fazlollaah; Hughes, John G; Cheng, Allen C; Patel, Robin

    2017-09-01

    Culture of periprosthetic tissue specimens in blood culture bottles is more sensitive than conventional techniques, but the impact on laboratory workflow has yet to be addressed. Herein, we examined the impact of culture of periprosthetic tissues in blood culture bottles on laboratory workflow and cost. The workflow was process mapped, decision tree models were constructed using probabilities of positive and negative cultures drawn from our published study (T. N. Peel, B. L. Dylla, J. G. Hughes, D. T. Lynch, K. E. Greenwood-Quaintance, A. C. Cheng, J. N. Mandrekar, and R. Patel, mBio 7:e01776-15, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01776-15), and the processing times and resource costs from the laboratory staff time viewpoint were used to compare periprosthetic tissues culture processes using conventional techniques with culture in blood culture bottles. Sensitivity analysis was performed using various rates of positive cultures. Annualized labor savings were estimated based on salary costs from the U.S. Labor Bureau for Laboratory staff. The model demonstrated a 60.1% reduction in mean total staff time with the adoption of tissue inoculation into blood culture bottles compared to conventional techniques (mean ± standard deviation, 30.7 ± 27.6 versus 77.0 ± 35.3 h per month, respectively; P culture using blood culture bottles was $10,876.83 (±$337.16). Sensitivity analysis was performed using various rates of culture positivity (5 to 50%). Culture in blood culture bottles was cost-effective, based on the estimated labor cost savings of $2,132.71 for each percent increase in test accuracy. In conclusion, culture of periprosthetic tissue in blood culture bottles is not only more accurate than but is also cost-saving compared to conventional culture methods. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. Assessment of Bisphenol A Released from Reusable Plastic, Aluminium and Stainless Steel Water Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, James E.; Kendig, Eric L.; Belcher, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    Bisphenol A(BPA) is a ubiquitous high volume industrial chemical that is an estrogen and an environmental endocrine disrupting chemical. Bisphenol A is used extensively in the production of consumer goods, polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins, coating used to line metallic food and beverage cans, and other products.There is great concern regarding the possible harmful effects from exposures that result from BPAleaching into foods and beverages from packaging or storage containers. The objective of this study was to independently assesswhether BPA contamination of water was occurring from different types of reusable drinking bottlesmarketed as alternatives to BPA-containing polycarbonate plastics. Using a sensitive and quantitative BPA-specific competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assaywe evaluated whether BPA migrated into water stored inpolycarbonateor copolyester plastic bottles, and different lined or unlined metallic reusable water bottles. At room temperature the concentration of BPA migrating from polycarbonate bottles ranged from 0.2–0.3 mg/L. Under identical conditions BPA migration from aluminium bottles lined with epoxy-based resins was variable depending on manufacturer ranging from 0.08 to 1.9 mg/L.Boiling water significantly increased migration of BPA from the epoxy lined bottles. No detectable BPA contamination was observed in water stored in bottles made from Tritan™ copolyester plastic, uncoated stainless steel, or aluminium lined with EcoCare™. The results from this study demonstrate that when used according to manufactures’ recommendations reusable water bottles constructed from “BPA-free” alternative materials are suitable for consumption of beverages free of BPA contamination. PMID:21741673

  14. Characteristics of bacterial and fungal growth in plastic bottled beverages under a consuming condition model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Maiko; Ohnishi, Takahiro; Araki, Emiko; Kanda, Takashi; Tomita, Atsuko; Ozawa, Kazuhiro; Goto, Keiichi; Sugiyama, Kanji; Konuma, Hirotaka; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko

    2014-01-01

    Microbial contamination in unfinished beverages can occur when drinking directly from the bottle. Various microorganisms, including foodborne pathogens, are able to grow in these beverages at room temperature or in a refrigerator. In this study, we elucidated the characteristics of microorganism growth in bottled beverages under consuming condition models. Furthermore, we provide insight into the safety of partially consumed bottled beverages with respect to food hygiene. We inoculated microorganisms, including foodborne pathogens, into various plastic bottled beverages and analysed the dynamic growth of microorganisms as well as bacterial toxin production in the beverages. Eight bottled beverage types were tested in this study, namely green tea, apple juice drink, tomato juice, carbonated drink, sport drink, coffee with milk, isotonic water and mineral water, and in these beverages several microorganism types were used: nine bacteria including three toxin producers, three yeasts, and five moulds. Following inoculation, the bottles were incubated at 35°C for 48 h for bacteria, 25°C for 48 h for yeasts, and 25°C for 28 days for moulds. During the incubation period, the number of bacteria and yeasts and visible changes in mould-growth were determined over time. Our results indicated that combinations of the beverage types and microorganism species correlated with the degree of growth. Regarding factors that affect the growth and toxin-productivity of microorganisms in beverages, it is speculated that the pH, static/shaking culture, temperature, additives, or ingredients, such as carbon dioxide or organic matter (especially of plant origin), may be important for microorganism growth in beverages. Our results suggest that various types of unfinished beverages have microorganism growth and can include food borne pathogens and bacterial toxins. Therefore, our results indicate that in terms of food hygiene it is necessary to consume beverages immediately after opening

  15. Multi-generational drinking of bottled low mineral water impairs bone quality in female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqun Qiu

    Full Text Available Because of reproductions and hormone changes, females are more sensitive to bone mineral loss during their lifetime. Bottled water has become more popular in recent years, and a large number of products are low mineral water. However, research on the effects of drinking bottled low mineral water on bone health is sparse.To elucidate the skeletal effects of multi-generational bottled water drinking in female rats.Rats continuously drank tap water (TW, bottled natural water (bNW, bottled mineralized water (bMW, or bottled purified water (bPW for three generations.The maximum deflection, elastic deflection, and ultimate strain of the femoral diaphysis in the bNW, bMW, and bPW groups and the fracture strain in the bNW and bMW groups were significantly decreased. The tibiae calcium levels in both the bNW and bPW groups were significantly lower than that in the TW group. The tibiae and teeth magnesium levels in both the bNW and bPW groups were significantly lower than those in the TW group. The collagen turnover markers PICP (in both bNW and bPW groups were significantly lower than that in the TW group. In all three low mineral water groups, the 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D levels were significantly lower than those in the TW group.Long-term drinking of low mineral water may disturb bone metabolism and biochemical properties and therefore weaken biomechanical bone properties in females. Drinking tap water, which contains adequate minerals, was found to be better for bone health. To our knowledge, this is the first report on drinking bottled low mineral water and female bone quality on three generation model.

  16. Effects of Water Bottle Materials and Filtration on Bisphenol A Content in Laboratory Animal Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeycutt, Jennifer A; Nguyen, Jenny Q T; Kentner, Amanda C; Brenhouse, Heather C

    2017-05-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in the polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins that are found in laboratory animal husbandry materials including cages and water bottles. Concerns about BPA exposure in humans has led to investigations that suggest physiologic health risks including disruptions to the endocrine system and CNS. However, the extent of exposure of laboratory animals to BPA in drinking water is unclear. In the first study, we compared the amount of BPA contamination in water stored in plastic bottles used in research settings with that in glass bottles. The amount of BPA that leached into water was measured across several time points ranging from 24 to 96 h by using a BPA ELISA assay. The results showed that considerable amounts of BPA (approximately 0.15 μg/L) leached from polycarbonate bottles within the first 24 h of storage. In the second study, BPA levels were measured directly from water taken from filtered compared with unfiltered taps. We observed significantly higher BPA levels in water from unfiltered taps (approximately 0.40 μg/L) compared with taps with filtration systems (approximately 0.04 μg/L). Taken together, our findings indicate that the use of different types of water bottles and water sources, combined with the use of different laboratory products (food, caging systems) between laboratories, likely contribute to decreased rigor and reproducibility in research. We suggest that researchers consider reporting the types of water bottles used and that animal care facilities educate staff regarding the importance of flushing nonfiltered water taps when filling animal water bottles.

  17. Effect of breast- and bottle-feeding duration on the age of pacifier use persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telles, Fernanda Barros de Arruda; Ferreira, Rívea Inês; Magalhães, Luiza do Nascimento Cezar; Scavone-Junior, Helio

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of breast- and bottle-feeding duration on the age of pacifier use persistence. Questionnaires (n = 723) with information on nutritive and nonnutritive sucking habits of children aged 3-6 years were assessed. The sample was divided according to breastfeeding duration: G1 - non-breastfed, G2 - up to 3 months, G3 - discontinued between 4 and 6 months, G4 - discontinued between 7 and 12 months, and G5 - longer than 12 months. The children were also assigned to 4 groups by age of pacifier use persistence, as well as by age of bottle-feeding persistence: no habits, up to 2 years, 3-4 years and 5-6 years. Associations between nutritive sucking habits and pacifier use were analyzed using logistic regression. The larger breastfeeding groups were G2 (37.9%) and G4 (19.4%). Many children discontinued pacifier use and bottle-feeding at 3-4 years of age (24.9% and 40.1%, respectively). Chances of non-breastfed children (G1) with prolonged pacifier-sucking habits, in the three age ranges, were progressively higher in comparison with group G4 (OR: 4.0-7.5, p bottle-fed with non bottle-fed children, the age range at which bottle-feeding had been discontinued was significantly associated with that of pacifier use cessation: up to 2 years (OR = 6.2), 3-4 years (OR = 7.6) and 5-6 years (OR = 27.0), p Bottle-fed children who use pacifiers tend to discontinue these habits at the same period.

  18. Nursing caries and buying time: an emerging theory of prolonged bottle feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Ruth; Stevens, Anne

    2008-10-01

    Nursing caries is considered to be problematic by dental health professionals. In their zealousness to solve the nursing caries problem dental health professionals forgot to ask the question: 'Why do mothers persist in prolonged bottle feeding?' To use grounded theory procedures and techniques to analyse the qualitative data obtained from mothers and to generate an emerging theory of prolonged bottle feeding. A series of individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 34 mothers of children with nursing caries. The children were aged between 3 and 4 years. Data were analysed using the grounded theory procedures and techniques of open and selective coding. The core category or the mothers' main concern that emerged from the data was conceptualized as 'buying time'. The feeding bottle bought time away from crying children by silencing them but also bought extra time with the child. Therefore, two different behavioural styles or categories of buying time emerged. These were: (i) to buy time away from the demands of their crying toddlers (instant solutions) and (ii) to buy extra time with their 'toddler-babies' (double-binding). The feeding bottle acted as an 'instant solution' as on seeing the bottle the child would instantly 'stop crying' and peace would reign. Double-binding described how the feeding bottle was used to buy extra time for 'babyhood closeness' between mother and child while exposing the mothers' harsh rejecting behaviours. An understanding of the time concerns that the mothers experienced when caring for their young children and how they resolve them provides an important insight into the reasons for prolonged bottle feeding.

  19. Structural fire risk of Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Joana; Pereira, Mário

    2017-04-01

    Portugal is on the top of the European countries most affected by vegetation fires which underlines the importance of the existence of an updated and coherent fire risk map. This map represent a valuable supporting tool for forest and fire management decisions, focus prevention activities, improve the efficiency of fire detection systems, manage resources and actions of fire fighting with greater effectiveness. Therefore this study proposed a structural fire risk map of the vegetated area of Portugal using a deterministic approach based on the concept of fire risk currently accepted by the scientific community which consists in the combination of the fire hazard and the potential economic damage. The existing fire susceptibility map for Portugal based on the slope, land cover and fire probability, was adopted and updated by the use of a higher resolution digital terrain model, longer burnt area perimeter dataset (1975 - 2013) and the entire set of Corine land cover inventories. Five susceptibility classes were mapped to be in accordance with the Portuguese law and the results confirms the good performance of this model not only in terms of the favourability scores but also in the predictive values. Considering three different scenarios of (maximum, mean, and minimum annual) burnt area, fire hazard were estimate. The vulnerability scores and monetary values of species defined in the literature and by law were used to calculate the potential economic damage. The result was a fire risk map that identifies the areas more prone to be affected by fires in the future and provides an estimate of the economic damage of the fire which will be a valuable tool for forest and fire managers and to minimize the economic and environmental consequences of vegetation fires in Portugal. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by: (i) the project Interact - Integrative Research in Environment,Agro-Chain and Technology, NORTE-01-0145-FEDER-000017, research line BEST, cofinanced by

  20. Research status of warship fire safety engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LU Shouxiang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The theory of warship fire safety engineering is the basis of damage control engineering. According to the public safety triangle and the characteristics of ship damage protection engineering, this paper proposes a theoretical framework system for ship fire safety engineering, including ship fire development, ship fire damage and ship fire protection. The progress of these three parts are summarized in such aspects as enclosed fire dynamics, open space fire dynamics, fire damage mechanisms for personnel, equipment and structures, fire smoke control, fire elimination technology and new fire extinguishing technology. By optimizing the theoretical system of warship fire safety engineering and improving fire prevention and control technology, the survivability of warships will be enhanced.