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Sample records for haloalkaliphilic obligately anaerobic

  1. Ecology and application of haloalkaliphilic anaerobic microbial communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sousa, de J.A.; Sorokin, D.Y.; Bijmans, M.F.M.; Plugge, C.M.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Haloalkaliphilic microorganisms that grow optimally at high-pH and high-salinity conditions can be found in natural environments such as soda lakes. These globally spread lakes harbour interesting anaerobic microorganisms that have the potential of being applied in existing technologies or create

  2. Complete denitrification in coculture of obligately chemolithoautotrophic haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria from a hypersaline soda lake.

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    Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Antipov, Alexey N; Kuenen, J Gijs

    2003-08-01

    Eight anaerobic enrichment cultures with thiosulfate as electron donor and nitrate as electron acceptor were inoculated with sediment samples from hypersaline alkaline lakes of Wadi Natrun (Egypt) at pH 10; however, only one of the cultures showed stable growth with complete nitrate reduction to dinitrogen gas. The thiosulfate-oxidizing culture subsequently selected after serial dilution developed in two phases. Initially, nitrate was mostly reduced to nitrite, with a coccoid morphotype prevailing in the culture. During the second stage, nitrite was reduced to dinitrogen gas, accompanied by mass development of thin motile rods. Both morphotypes were isolated in pure culture and identified as representatives of the genus Thioalkalivibrio, which includes obligately autotrophic sulfur-oxidizing haloalkaliphilic species. Nitrate-reducing strain ALEN 2 consisted of large nonmotile coccoid cells that accumulated intracellular sulfur. Its anaerobic growth with thiosulfate, sulfide, or polysulfide as electron donor and nitrate as electron acceptor resulted in the formation of nitrite as the major product. The second isolate, strain ALED, was able to grow anaerobically with thiosulfate as electron donor and nitrite or nitrous oxide (but not nitrate) as electron acceptor. Overall, the action of two different sulfur-oxidizing autotrophs resulted in the complete, thiosulfate-dependent denitrification of nitrate under haloalkaliphilic conditions. This process has not yet been demonstrated for any single species of chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing haloalkaliphiles.

  3. Phenotypic and genomic properties of Chitinispirillum alkaliphilum gen. nov., sp. nov., a haloalkaliphilic anaerobic chitinolytic bacterium representing a novel class in the phylum fibrobacteres

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    Sorokin, Dimitry Y.; Rakitin, Andrey L.; Gumerov, Vadim M.; Beletsky, Alexey V.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Mardanov, Andrey V.; Ravin, Nikolai V.

    Anaerobic enrichment from sediments of hypersaline alkaline lakes in Wadi el Natrun (Egypt) with chitin resulted in the isolation of a fermentative haloalkaliphilic bacterium, strain ACht6-1, growing exclusively with insoluble chitin as the substrate in a sodium carbonate-based medium at pH 8.5-10.5

  4. Phenotypic and genomic properties of Chitinispirillum alkaliphilum gen. nov., sp. nov., a haloalkaliphilic anaerobic chitinolytic bacterium representing a novel class in the phylum fibrobacteres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, Dimitry Y.; Rakitin, Andrey L.; Gumerov, Vadim M.; Beletsky, Alexey V.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Mardanov, Andrey V.; Ravin, Nikolai V.

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic enrichment from sediments of hypersaline alkaline lakes in Wadi el Natrun (Egypt) with chitin resulted in the isolation of a fermentative haloalkaliphilic bacterium, strain ACht6-1, growing exclusively with insoluble chitin as the substrate in a sodium carbonate-based medium at pH

  5. Phenotypic and genomic properties of Chitinispirillum alkaliphilum gen. nov., sp. nov., a haloalkaliphilic anaerobic chitinolytic bacterium representing a novel class in the phylum Fibrobacteres

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    Dimitry eSorokin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic enrichment from sediments of hypersaline alkaline lakes in Wadi el Natrun (Egypt with chitin resulted in the isolation of a fermentative haloalkaliphilic bacterium, strain ACht6-1, growing exclusively with insoluble chitin as the substrate in a sodium carbonate-based medium at pH 8.5-10.5 and total Na+ concentrations from 0.4 to 1.75 M. The isolate had a Gram-negative cell wall and formed lipid cysts in old cultures. The chitinolytic activity was associated with cells. Analysis of the 4.4 Mb draft genome identified pathways for chitin utilization, particularly, secreted chitinases linked to the cell surface, as well as genes for the hydrolysis of other polysaccharides and fermentation of sugars, while the genes needed for aerobic and anaerobic respiration were absent. Adaptation to a haloalkaliphilic lifestyle was reflected by the gene repertoire encoding sodium rather than proton-dependent membrane-bound ion pumps, including the Rnf-type complex, oxaloacetate decarboxylase, V-type ATPase and pyrophosphatase. The phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA gene and ribosomal proteins indicated that ACht6-1 forms a novel deep lineage at the class level within the bacterial candidate division TG3. Based on phylogenetic, phenotypic and genomic analyses, the novel chitinolytic bacterium is described as Chitinispirillum alkaliphilum gen. nov., sp. nov., within a novel class Chitinispirillia that could be included into the phylum Fibrobacteres.

  6. Phenotypic and Genomic Properties of Chitinispirillum alkaliphilum gen. nov., sp. nov., A Haloalkaliphilic Anaerobic Chitinolytic Bacterium Representing a Novel Class in the Phylum Fibrobacteres.

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    Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Rakitin, Andrey L; Gumerov, Vadim M; Beletsky, Alexey V; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Mardanov, Andrey V; Ravin, Nikolai V

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic enrichment from sediments of hypersaline alkaline lakes in Wadi el Natrun (Egypt) with chitin resulted in the isolation of a fermentative haloalkaliphilic bacterium, strain ACht6-1, growing exclusively with insoluble chitin as the substrate in a sodium carbonate-based medium at pH 8.5-10.5 and total Na(+) concentrations from 0.4 to 1.75 M. The isolate had a Gram-negative cell wall and formed lipid cysts in old cultures. The chitinolytic activity was associated with cells. Analysis of the 4.4 Mb draft genome identified pathways for chitin utilization, particularly, secreted chitinases linked to the cell surface, as well as genes for the hydrolysis of other polysaccharides and fermentation of sugars, while the genes needed for aerobic and anaerobic respiration were absent. Adaptation to a haloalkaliphilic lifestyle was reflected by the gene repertoire encoding sodium rather than proton-dependent membrane-bound ion pumps, including the Rnf-type complex, oxaloacetate decarboxylase, V-type ATPase, and pyrophosphatase. The phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA gene and ribosomal proteins indicated that ACht6-1 forms a novel deep lineage at the class level within the bacterial candidate division TG3. Based on phylogenetic, phenotypic and genomic analyses, the novel chitinolytic bacterium is described as Chitinispirillum alkaliphilum gen. nov., sp. nov., within a novel class Chitinispirillia that could be included into the phylum Fibrobacteres.

  7. Understanding How Commensal Obligate Anaerobic Bacteria Regulate Immune Functions in the Large Intestine

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    Eva Maier

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The human gastrointestinal tract is colonised by trillions of commensal bacteria, most of which are obligate anaerobes residing in the large intestine. Appropriate bacterial colonisation is generally known to be critical for human health. In particular, the development and function of the immune system depends on microbial colonisation, and a regulated cross-talk between commensal bacteria, intestinal epithelial cells and immune cells is required to maintain mucosal immune homeostasis. This homeostasis is disturbed in various inflammatory disorders, such as inflammatory bowel diseases. Several in vitro and in vivo studies indicate a role for Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides fragilis, Akkermansia muciniphila and segmented filamentous bacteria in maintaining intestinal immune homeostasis. These obligate anaerobes are abundant in the healthy intestine but reduced in several inflammatory diseases, suggesting an association with protective effects on human health. However, knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the effects of obligate anaerobic intestinal bacteria remains limited, in part due to the difficulty of co-culturing obligate anaerobes together with oxygen-requiring human epithelial cells. By using novel dual-environment co-culture models, it will be possible to investigate the effects of the unstudied majority of intestinal microorganisms on the human epithelia. This knowledge will provide opportunities for improving human health and reducing the risk of inflammatory diseases.

  8. Understanding How Commensal Obligate Anaerobic Bacteria Regulate Immune Functions in the Large Intestine

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    Maier, Eva; Anderson, Rachel C.; Roy, Nicole C.

    2014-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract is colonised by trillions of commensal bacteria, most of which are obligate anaerobes residing in the large intestine. Appropriate bacterial colonisation is generally known to be critical for human health. In particular, the development and function of the immune system depends on microbial colonisation, and a regulated cross-talk between commensal bacteria, intestinal epithelial cells and immune cells is required to maintain mucosal immune homeostasis. This homeostasis is disturbed in various inflammatory disorders, such as inflammatory bowel diseases. Several in vitro and in vivo studies indicate a role for Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides fragilis, Akkermansia muciniphila and segmented filamentous bacteria in maintaining intestinal immune homeostasis. These obligate anaerobes are abundant in the healthy intestine but reduced in several inflammatory diseases, suggesting an association with protective effects on human health. However, knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the effects of obligate anaerobic intestinal bacteria remains limited, in part due to the difficulty of co-culturing obligate anaerobes together with oxygen-requiring human epithelial cells. By using novel dual-environment co-culture models, it will be possible to investigate the effects of the unstudied majority of intestinal microorganisms on the human epithelia. This knowledge will provide opportunities for improving human health and reducing the risk of inflammatory diseases. PMID:25545102

  9. A six-well plate method: less laborious and effective method for cultivation of obligate anaerobic microorganisms.

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    Nakamura, Kohei; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Kang, Myung Suk; Mochimaru, Hanako; Lee, Sung-Taik; Nakamura, Kazunori; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2011-01-01

    We developed a simple, less laborious method to cultivate and isolate obligate anaerobic microorganisms using a six-well plate together with the AnaeroPack System, designated as the six-well plate method. The cultivation efficiency of this method, based on colony-forming units, colony formation time, and colony size, was evaluated with four authentic obligate anaerobes (two methanogenic archaea and two sulfate-reducing bacteria). The method was found to be comparable to or even better than the roll tube method, a technique that is commonly used at present for the cultivation of obligate anaerobes. Further experiments using 21 representative obligate anaerobes demonstrated that all examined anaerobes (11 methanogens, 5 sulfate- or thiosulfate-reducing bacteria, and 5 syntrophs) could form visible colonies on the six-well plate and that these colonies could be successfully subcultured in fresh liquid media. Using this method, an unidentified sulfate-reducing bacterium was successfully isolated from an environmental sample.

  10. Real-Time Molecular Monitoring of Chemical Environment in ObligateAnaerobes during Oxygen Adaptive Response

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    Holman, Hoi-Ying N.; Wozei, Eleanor; Lin, Zhang; Comolli, Luis R.; Ball, David. A.; Borglin, Sharon; Fields, Matthew W.; Hazen, Terry C.; Downing, Kenneth H.

    2009-02-25

    Determining the transient chemical properties of the intracellular environment canelucidate the paths through which a biological system adapts to changes in its environment, for example, the mechanisms which enable some obligate anaerobic bacteria to survive a sudden exposure to oxygen. Here we used high-resolution Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectromicroscopy to continuously follow cellular chemistry within living obligate anaerobes by monitoring hydrogen bonding in their cellular water. We observed a sequence of wellorchestrated molecular events that correspond to changes in cellular processes in those cells that survive, but only accumulation of radicals in those that do not. We thereby can interpret the adaptive response in terms of transient intracellular chemistry and link it to oxygen stress and survival. This ability to monitor chemical changes at the molecular level can yield important insights into a wide range of adaptive responses.

  11. Treatment of Neuroblastoma with an Engineered "Obligate" Anaerobic Salmonella typhimurium Strain YB1.

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    Ning, Bo-Tao; Yu, Bin; Chan, Shing; Chan, Jian-Liang; Huang, Jian-Dong; Chan, Godfrey Chi-Fung

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Neuroblastoma is an embryonic solid tumor derived from the progenitors of the sympathetic nervous system. More than half of the patients developed metastatic disease at the time of initial diagnosis and had poor outcome with current therapeutic approaches. In recent years, some obligate and facultative anaerobic bacteria were reported to target the hypoxic and necrotic region of solid tumor models and caused tumor regression. We recently successfully constructed an "obligate" anaerobic Salmonella strain YB1 that was applied in breast cancer nude mice model by us. Here, we report the application of YB1 in neuroblastoma treatment. Methods The anti-cancer effect and side-effects of YB1 was examined in both in vitro and in vivo experiment. Previous established orthotopic neuroblastoma SCID/beige murine model using SK-NLP/luciferase cell line was adopted. ResultsIn vitro, YB1 induced apoptosis for up to 31.4% of the neuroblastoma cells under anaerobic condition, three times more than that under aerobic condition (10.9%). The expression of both Toll like Receptor 4 and 5 (TLR4 and TLR5) in cancer cells were significantly up-regulated (pnature of tumor core. Tumor growth was significantly retarded in YB1 treatment group (n=6, Pneuroblastoma. Future study can be extended to other common cancer types to verify the relative efficacy on different neoplastic cells.

  12. Single-molecule imaging can be achieved in live obligate anaerobic bacteria

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    Karunatilaka, Krishanthi S.; Coupland, Ben R.; Cameron, Elizabeth A.; Martens, Eric C.; Koropatkin, Nicole K.; Biteen, Julie S.

    2013-02-01

    Single-molecule fluorescence (SMF) permits imaging with nanometer-scale resolution. This technique is particularly useful for cellular imaging as it provides a non-invasive, minimally perturbative means to examine macromolecular localization and dynamics, even in live cells. Here, we demonstrate that nanometer-scale SMF imaging can be extended to a new category of experiments: intracellular imaging of live, obligate anaerobic cells on the benchtop. We investigate the starch-utilization system (Sus) proteins in the gut symbiont Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and discuss three different labels that we implemented to detect these proteins: fluorescent proteins, the tetracysteine-based FlAsH tag, and the enzymatic HaloTag.

  13. Identification of a conserved protein involved in anaerobic unsaturated fatty acid synthesis in Neiserria gonorrhoeae: implications for facultative and obligate anaerobes that lack FabA.

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    Isabella, Vincent M; Clark, Virginia L

    2011-10-01

    Transcriptome analysis of the facultative anaerobe, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, revealed that many genes of unknown function were induced under anaerobic conditions. Mutation of one such gene, NGO1024, encoding a protein belonging to the 2-nitropropane dioxygenase-like superfamily of proteins, was found to result in an inability of gonococci to grow anaerobically. Anaerobic growth of an NG1024 mutant was restored upon supplementation with unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), but not with the saturated fatty acid palmitate. Gonococcal fatty acid profiles confirmed that NGO1024 was involved in UFA synthesis anaerobically, but not aerobically, demonstrating that gonococci contain two distinct pathways for the production of UFAs, with a yet unidentified aerobic mechanism, and an anaerobic mechanism involving NGO1024. Expression of genes involved in classical anaerobic UFA synthesis, fabA, fabM and fabB, was toxic in gonococci and unable to complement a NGO1024 mutation, suggesting that the chemistry involved in gonococcal anaerobic UFA synthesis is distinct from that of the classical pathway. NGO1024 homologues, which we suggest naming UfaA, form a distinct lineage within the 2-nitropropane dioxygenase-like superfamily, and are found in many facultative and obligate anaerobes that produce UFAs but lack fabA, suggesting that UfaA is part of a widespread pathway involved in UFA synthesis. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Megasphaera indica sp. nov., an obligate anaerobic bacteria isolated from human faeces.

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    Lanjekar, V B; Marathe, N P; Ramana, V Venkata; Shouche, Y S; Ranade, D R

    2014-07-01

    Two coccoid, non-motile, obligately anaerobic, Gram-stain-negative bacteria, occurring singly or in pairs, or as short chains, with a mean size of 1.4-2.5 µm were isolated from the faeces of two healthy human volunteers, aged 26 and 56 years, and were designated NMBHI-10(T) and BLPYG-7, respectively. Both the strains were affiliated to the sub-branch Sporomusa of the class Clostridia as revealed by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The isolates NMBHI-10(T) and BLPYG-7 showed 99.1 and 99.2% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively, with Megasphaera elsdenii JCM 1772(T). DNA-DNA hybridization and phenotypic analysis showed that both the strains were distinct from their closest relative, M. elsdenii JCM 1772(T) (42 and 53% DNA-DNA relatedness with NMBHI-10(T) and BLPYG-7, respectively), but belong to the same species (DNA-DNA relatedness of 80.9 % between the isolates). According to DNA-DNA hybridization results, the coccoid strains belong to the same genospecies, and neither is related to any of the recognized species of the genus Megasphaera. Strains NMBHI-10(T) and BLPYG-7 grew in PYG broth at temperatures of between 15 and 40 °C (optimum 37 °C), but not at 45 °C. The strains utilized a range of carbohydrates as sources of carbon and energy including glucose, lactose, cellobiose, rhamnose, galactose and sucrose. Glucose fermentation resulted in the formation of volatile fatty acids, mainly caproic acid and organic acids such as succinic acid. Phylogenetic analysis, specific phenotypic characteristics and/or DNA G+C content also differentiated the strains from each other and from their closest relatives. The DNA G+C contents of strains NMBHI-10(T) and BLPYG-7 are 57.7 and 54.9 mol%, respectively. The major fatty acids were 12 : 0 FAME and 17 : 0 CYC FAME. On the basis of these data, we conclude that strains NMBHI-10(T) and BLPYG-7 should be classified as representing a novel species of the genus Megasphaera, for which the name Megsphaera indica sp. nov

  15. Complete genome sequence of Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus strain AHT2(T), a haloalkaliphilic sulfidogen from Egyptian hypersaline alkaline lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melton, E.D.; Sorokin, D.Y.; Overmars, L.; Chertkov, O.; Clum, A.; Pillay, M.; Ivanova, N.; Shapiro, N.; Kyrpides, N.C.; Woyke, T.; Lapidus, A.L.; Muyzer, G.

    2016-01-01

    Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus strain AHT2T is a strictly anaerobic sulfidogenic haloalkaliphile isolated from a composite sediment sample of eight hypersaline alkaline lakes in the Wadi al Natrun valley in the Egyptian Libyan Desert. D. alkaliphilus AHT2T is Gram-negative and belongs to the family

  16. Enhancement of carbon dioxide reduction and methane production by an obligate anaerobe and gas dissolution device.

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    Kim, Seungjin; Choi, Kwangkeun; Kim, Jong-Oh; Chung, Jinwook

    2016-01-25

    The use of gas dissolution devices to improve the efficiency of H2 dissolution has enhanced CO2 reduction and CH4 production. In addition, the nutrients that initially existed in anaerobic sludge were exhausted over time, and the activities of anaerobic microorganisms declined. When nutrients were artificially injected, CO2 reduction and CH4 production rates climbed. Thus, assuming that the activity of the obligatory anaerobic microorganisms is maintained, a gas dissolution device will further enhance the efficiency of CO2 reduction and CH4 production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Genomic diversity within the haloalkaliphilic genus Thioalkalivibrio.

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    Anne-Catherine Ahn

    Full Text Available Thioalkalivibrio is a genus of obligate chemolithoautotrophic haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Their habitat are soda lakes which are dual extreme environments with a pH range from 9.5 to 11 and salt concentrations up to saturation. More than 100 strains of this genus have been isolated from various soda lakes all over the world, but only ten species have been effectively described yet. Therefore, the assignment of the remaining strains to either existing or novel species is important and will further elucidate their genomic diversity as well as give a better general understanding of this genus. Recently, the genomes of 76 Thioalkalivibrio strains were sequenced. On these, we applied different methods including (i 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, (ii Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA based on eight housekeeping genes, (iii Average Nucleotide Identity based on BLAST (ANIb and MUMmer (ANIm, (iv Tetranucleotide frequency correlation coefficients (TETRA, (v digital DNA:DNA hybridization (dDDH as well as (vi nucleotide- and amino acid-based Genome BLAST Distance Phylogeny (GBDP analyses. We detected a high genomic diversity by revealing 15 new "genomic" species and 16 new "genomic" subspecies in addition to the ten already described species. Phylogenetic and phylogenomic analyses showed that the genus is not monophyletic, because four strains were clearly separated from the other Thioalkalivibrio by type strains from other genera. Therefore, it is recommended to classify the latter group as a novel genus. The biogeographic distribution of Thioalkalivibrio suggested that the different "genomic" species can be classified as candidate disjunct or candidate endemic species. This study is a detailed genome-based classification and identification of members within the genus Thioalkalivibrio. However, future phenotypical and chemotaxonomical studies will be needed for a full species description of this genus.

  18. Adaptation of the Biolog Phenotype MicroArrayTM Technology to Profile the Obligate Anaerobe Geobacter metallireducens

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    Joyner, Dominique; Fortney, Julian; Chakraborty, Romy; Hazen, Terry

    2010-05-17

    The Biolog OmniLog? Phenotype MicroArray (PM) plate technology was successfully adapted to generate a select phenotypic profile of the strict anaerobe Geobacter metallireducens (G.m.). The profile generated for G.m. provides insight into the chemical sensitivity of the organism as well as some of its metabolic capabilities when grown with a basal medium containing acetate and Fe(III). The PM technology was developed for aerobic organisms. The reduction of a tetrazolium dye by the test organism represents metabolic activity on the array which is detected and measured by the OmniLog(R) system. We have previously adapted the technology for the anaerobic sulfate reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris. In this work, we have taken the technology a step further by adapting it for the iron reducing obligate anaerobe Geobacter metallireducens. In an osmotic stress microarray it was determined that the organism has higher sensitivity to impermeable solutes 3-6percent KCl and 2-5percent NaNO3 that result in osmotic stress by osmosis to the cell than to permeable non-ionic solutes represented by 5-20percent ethylene glycol and 2-3percent urea. The osmotic stress microarray also includes an array of osmoprotectants and precursor molecules that were screened to identify substrates that would provide osmotic protection to NaCl stress. None of the substrates tested conferred resistance to elevated concentrations of salt. Verification studies in which G.m. was grown in defined medium amended with 100mM NaCl (MIC) and the common osmoprotectants betaine, glycine and proline supported the PM findings. Further verification was done by analysis of transcriptomic profiles of G.m. grown under 100mM NaCl stress that revealed up-regulation of genes related to degradation rather than accumulation of the above-mentioned osmoprotectants. The phenotypic profile, supported by additional analysis indicates that the accumulation of these osmoprotectants as a response to salt stress does not

  19. Phenotypic characteristics of nitrate and 3-nitro-1-propionate-respiring enzymes of the obligate respiratory anaerobe Denitrobacterium detoxificans

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    Anaerobic respiration consumes reducing equivalents generated during fermentation thereby contributing to the maintenance of hydrogen homoeostasis in gut ecosystems. Nitrate and 3-nitro-1-propionate (NPA) are acceptors used by the nonfermentative, rumen anaerobe, Denitrobacterium detoxificans, whic...

  20. Photoactive retinal pigments in haloalkaliphilic bacteria.

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    Bivin, D B; Stoeckenius, W

    1986-08-01

    Light-induced fast transient absorbance changes were detected by time-resolved spectroscopy in 38 of 51 haloalkaliphilic isolates from alkaline salt lakes in Kenya and the Wadi Natrun in Egypt. They indicate the presence of two retinal pigments, Pf and Ps, which undergo cyclic photoreactions with half-times of 2 ms and 500 ms respectively. Pf absorbs maximally near 580 nm and Ps near 500 nm. The pigments differ in their sensitivity to hydroxylamine and detergent bleaching and the photoreactions of Pf are strongly dependent on chloride concentration. Of the 38 pigment-containing strains, 29 possess both Pf and Ps, 9 possess only Ps. Inhibition of retinal synthesis with nicotine blocks pigment formation and addition of retinal restores it. Hydroxylamine-bleached pigments can be reconstituted with retinal or retinal analogues. Their similarity to the retinal pigments of Halobacterium halobium strongly suggests that they are also rhodopsin-like retinyledene proteins. Pf in all properties tested is almost identical to halorhodopsin, the light-driven chloride pump of H. halobium, and may serve the same function in the haloalkaliphiles. Ps has photocycle kinetics similar to sensory rhodopsin and a far-blue-shifted long-lived photocycle intermediate, but its ground state absorption maximum is near 500 nm instead of 587 nm. We have not found a bacteriorhodopsin-like pigment in the haloalkaliphiles.

  1. Anaerobic

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    ... them during shorter, more intense activities like sprinting. Anaerobic exercise leads to a buildup of lactic acid in ... Asplund CA, Best TM. Exercise physiology. In: Miller MD, Thompson ... Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious ...

  2. Desulfurispira natronophila gen. nov. sp. nov. : An obligately anaerobic dissimilatory sulfur-reducing bacterium from soda lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, D.Y.; Muyzer, G.

    2010-01-01

    Anaerobic enrichment cultures with elemental sulfur as electron acceptor and either acetate or propionate as electron donor and carbon source at pH 10 and moderate salinity inoculated with sediments from soda lakes in Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia) resulted in the isolation of two novel members of

  3. Complete genome sequence of Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus strain AHT2(T), a haloalkaliphilic sulfidogen from Egyptian hypersaline alkaline lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Emily Denise; Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Overmars, Lex; Chertkov, Olga; Clum, Alicia; Pillay, Manoj; Ivanova, Natalia; Shapiro, Nicole; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Woyke, Tanja; Lapidus, Alla L; Muyzer, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus strain AHT2(T) is a strictly anaerobic sulfidogenic haloalkaliphile isolated from a composite sediment sample of eight hypersaline alkaline lakes in the Wadi al Natrun valley in the Egyptian Libyan Desert. D. alkaliphilus AHT2(T) is Gram-negative and belongs to the family Desulfobulbaceae within the Deltaproteobacteria. Here we report its genome sequence, which contains a 3.10 Mbp chromosome. D. alkaliphilus AHT2(T) is adapted to survive under highly alkaline and moderately saline conditions and therefore, is relevant to the biotechnology industry and life under extreme conditions. For these reasons, D. alkaliphilus AHT2(T) was sequenced by the DOE Joint Genome Institute as part of the Community Science Program.

  4. [CO2-Concentrating Mechanism and Its Traits in Haloalkaliphilic Cyanobacteria].

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    Kupriyanova, E V; Samylina, O S

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are a group of oxygenic phototrophs existing for at least 3.5 Ga. Photosynthetic CO2 assimilation by cyanobacteria occurs via the Calvin cycle, with RuBisCO, its key enzyme, having very low affinity to CO2. This is due to the fact that atmospheric CO2 concentration in Archaean, when the photosynthetic apparatus evolved, was several orders higher than now. Later, in the epoch of Precambrian microbial communities, CO2 content in the atmosphere decreased drastically. Thus, present-day phototrophs, including cyanobacteria, require adaptive mechanisms for efficient photosynthesis. In cyanobacterial cells, this function is performed by the CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM), which creates elevated CO2 concentrations in the vicinity of RuBisCO active centers, thus significantly increasing the rate of CO2 fixation in the Calvin cycle. CCM has been previously studied only for freshwater and marine cyanobacteria. We were the first to investigate CCM in haloalkaliphilic cyanobacteria from soda lakes. Extremophilic haloalkaliphilic cyanobacteria were shown to possess a well-developed CCM with the structure and functional principles similar to those of freshwater and marine strains. Analysis of available data suggests that regulation of the amount of inorganic carbon transported into the cell is probably the general CCM function under these conditions.

  5. Response of Haloalkaliphilic Archaeon Natronococcus Jeotgali RR17 to Hypergravity

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    Thombre, Rebecca S.; Bhalerao, Aniruddha R.; Shinde, Vinaya D.; Dhar, Sunil Kumar; Shouche, Yogesh S.

    2017-06-01

    The survival of archaeabacteria in extreme inhabitable environments on earth that challenge organismic survival is ubiquitously known. However, the studies related to the effect of hypergravity on the growth and proliferation of archaea are unprecedented. The survival of organisms in hypergravity and rocks in addition to resistance to cosmic radiations, pressure and other extremities is imperative to study the possibilities of microbial travel between planets and endurance in hyperaccelerative forces faced during ejection of rocks from planets. The current investigation highlights the growth of an extremophilic archaeon isolated from a rocky substrate in hypergravity environment. The haloalkaliphilic archaeon, Natronococcus jeotgali RR17 was isolated from an Indian laterite rock, submerged in the Arabian sea lining Coastal Maharashtra, India. The endolithic haloarchaeon was subjected to hypergravity from 56 - 893 X gusing acceleration generated by centrifugal rotation. The cells of N. jeotgali RR17 proliferated and demonstrated good growth in hypergravity (223 X g). This is the first report on isolation of endolithic haloarchaeon N. jeotgali RR17 from an Indian laterite rock and its ability to proliferate in hypergravity. The present study demonstrates the ability of microbial life to survive and proliferate in hypergravity. Thus the inability of organismic growth in hypergravity may no longer be a limitation for astrobiology studies related to habitability of substellar objects, brown dwarfs and other planetary bodies in the universe besides planet earth.

  6. Natronobacillus azotifigens gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic diazotrophic haloalkaliphile from soda-rich habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, I.D.; Zadorina, E.V.; Kravchenko, I.K.; Boulygina, E.S.; Tourova, T.P.; Sorokin, D.Y.

    2009-01-01

    Gram-positive bacteria capable of nitrogen fixation were obtained in microoxic enrichments from soda soils in south-western Siberia, north-eastern Mongolia, and the Lybian desert (Egypt). The same organisms were obtained in anoxic enrichments with glucose from soda lake sediments in the Kulunda

  7. Hydrological or economical obligation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorucci E

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A short comment is made about the obligation of the forest management plan in Italy, that was established as an economical (not hydrological obligation according to the Luzzatti law of 1910.

  8. Genome sequence of the haloalkaliphilic methanotrophic bacterium Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuilleumier, Stéphane; Khmelenina, Valentina N; Bringel, Françoise; Reshetnikov, Alexandr S; Lajus, Aurélie; Mangenot, Sophie; Rouy, Zoé; Op den Camp, Huub J M; Jetten, Mike S M; Dispirito, Alan A; Dunfield, Peter; Klotz, Martin G; Semrau, Jeremy D; Stein, Lisa Y; Barbe, Valérie; Médigue, Claudine; Trotsenko, Yuri A; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G

    2012-01-01

    Methylomicrobium strains are widespread in saline environments. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z, a haloalkaliphilic methanotrophic bacterium, which will provide the basis for detailed characterization of the core pathways of both single-carbon metabolism and responses to osmotic and high-pH stresses. Final assembly of the genome sequence revealed that this bacterium contains a 128-kb plasmid, making M. alcaliphilum 20Z the first methanotrophic bacterium of known genome sequence for which a plasmid has been reported.

  9. Structural adaptations of octaheme nitrite reductases from haloalkaliphilic Thioalkalivibrio bacteria to alkaline pH and high salinity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Popinako

    Full Text Available Bacteria Tv. nitratireducens and Tv. paradoxus from soda lakes grow optimally in sodium carbonate/NaCl brines at pH range from 9.5 to 10 and salinity from 0.5 to 1.5 M Na+. Octaheme nitrite reductases (ONRs from haloalkaliphilic bacteria of genus Thioalkalivibrio are stable and active in a wide range of pH (up to 11 and salinity (up to 1 M NaCl. To establish adaptation mechanisms of ONRs from haloalkaliphilic bacteria a comparative analysis of amino acid sequences and structures of ONRs from haloalkaliphilic bacteria and their homologues from non-halophilic neutrophilic bacteria was performed. The following adaptation strategies were observed: (1 strategies specific for halophilic and alkaliphilic proteins (an increase in the number of aspartate and glutamate residues and a decrease in the number of lysine residues on the protein surface, (2 strategies specific for halophilic proteins (an increase in the arginine content and a decrease in the number of hydrophobic residues on the solvent-accessible protein surface, (3 strategies specific for alkaliphilic proteins (an increase in the area of intersubunit hydrophobic contacts. Unique adaptation mechanism inherent in the ONRs from bacteria of genus Thioalkalivibrio was revealed (an increase in the core in the number of tryptophan and phenylalanine residues, and an increase in the number of small side chain residues, such as alanine and valine, in the core.

  10. Cultivation-dependent assessment, diversity, and ecology of haloalkaliphilic bacteria in arid saline systems of southern Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hidri, Darine; Guesmi, Amel; Najjari, Afef; Cherif, Hanen; Ettoumi, Besma; Hamdi, Chadlia; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Cherif, Ameur

    2013-01-01

    Haloalkaliphiles are polyextremophiles adapted to grow at high salt concentrations and alkaline pH values. In this work, we isolated 122 haloalkaliphilic bacteria upon enrichments of 23 samples from 5 distinct saline systems of southern Tunisia, growing optimally in media with 10% salt and at pH 10. The collection was classified into 44 groups based on the amplification of the 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacers (ITS-PCR). Phylogenetic analysis and sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes allowed the identification of 13 genera and 20 distinct species. Three gram-positive isolates showing between 95 and 96% of 16S rRNA sequence homology with Bacillus saliphilus could represent new species or genus. Beside the difference in bacterial diversity between the studied sites, several species ecological niches correlations were demonstrated such as Oceanobacillus in salt crust, Nesterenkonia in sand, and Salinicoccus in the rhizosphere of the desert plant Salicornia. The collection was further evaluated for the production of extracellular enzymes. Activity tests showed that gram-positive bacteria were mostly active, particularly for protease, lipase, DNase, and amylase production. Our overall results demonstrate the huge phenotypic and phylogenetic diversity of haloalkaliphiles in saline systems of southern Tunisia which represent a valuable source of new lineages and metabolites.

  11. A simple coculture system shows mutualism between anaerobic faecalibacteria and epithelial Caco-2 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadaghian, Mehdi; von Martels, Julius Z. H.; Khan, Muhammad; Blokzijl, Tjasso; Paglia, Giuseppe; Dijkstra, Gerard; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.; Faber, Klaas Nico

    2015-01-01

    Most gut bacteria are obligate anaerobes and are important for human health. However, little mechanistic insight is available on the health benefits of specific anaerobic gut bacteria. A main obstacle in generating such knowledge is the lack of simple and robust coculturing methods for anaerobic

  12. Extraterritorial Human Rights Obligations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amsinck Boie, Hans Nikolaj; Torp, Kristian

    The book addresses the issue of corporate respect for human rights by examining if and how states are obligated to ensure that corporations originating from their jurisdiction respect human rights when they operate abroad. The existence of such a duty is much debated by academics at national...... and international level, and in an attempt to bring something new to the table, the book examines both if states have extraterritorial obligations in regard to their corporations and what can be required of states under such an obligation. The complex issue of states and corporate respect for human rights cannot...... adequately be addressed without including the approach to the problem taken in practice; Corporate Social Responsibility, CSR. The book therefore draws upon the concept of CSR and the approaches developed here and discusses whether states may utilize the CSR-based concept of human rights due diligence...

  13. Evaluation of haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms with potential application in the effluent treatment of the petroleum industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olguín-Lora, P; Le Borgne, S; Castorena-Cortés, G; Roldán-Carrillo, T; Zapata-Peñasco, I; Reyes-Avila, J; Alcántara-Pérez, S

    2011-02-01

    Haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing mixed cultures for the treatment of alkaline-saline effluents containing sulfide were characterized and evaluated. The mixed cultures (IMP-PB, IMP-XO and IMP-TL) were obtained from Mexican alkaline soils collected in Puebla (PB), Xochimilco (XO) and Tlahuac (TL), respectively. The Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (RISA) revealed bacteria related to Thioalkalibacterium and Thioalkalivibrio in IMP-XO and IMP-PB mixed cultures. Halomonas strains were detected in IMP-XO and IMP-TL. In addition, an uncultured Bacteroides bacterium was present in IMP-TL. Mixed cultures were evaluated at different pH and NaCl concentrations at 30°C. IMP-PB and IMP-TL expressed thiosulfate-oxidizing activity in the 7.5-10.5 pH range, whereas IMP-XO presented its maximal activity with 19.0 mg O₂ g (protein)⁻¹ min⁻¹, at pH 10.6; it was not affected by NaCl concentrations up to 1.7 M. In continuous culture, IMP-XO showed a growth rate of 15 day⁻¹, productivity of 433.4 mg(protein) l⁻¹ day⁻¹ and haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing activity was also detected up to 170 mM by means of N-methyl-diethanolamine (MDEA). Saline-alkaline soil samples are potential sources of haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and the mixed cultures could be applied in the treatment of inorganic sulfur compounds in petroleum industry effluents under alkaline-saline conditions.

  14. The Lipid A from the Haloalkaliphilic Bacterium Salinivibrio sharmensis Strain BAGT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Michela Corsaro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipid A is a major constituent of the lipopolysaccharides (or endotoxins, which are complex amphiphilic macromolecules anchored in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. The glycolipid lipid A is known to possess the minimal chemical structure for LPSs endotoxic activity, able to cause septic shock. Lipid A isolated from extremophiles is interesting, since very few cases of pathogenic bacteria have been found among these microorganisms. In some cases their lipid A has shown to have an antagonist activity, i.e., it is able to interact with the immune system of the host without triggering a proinflammatory response by blocking binding of substances that could elicit such a response. However, the relationship between the structure and the activity of these molecules is far from being completely clear. A deeper knowledge of the lipid A chemical structure can help the understanding of these mechanisms. In this manuscript, we present our work on the complete structural characterization of the lipid A obtained from the lipopolysaccharides (LPS of the haloalkaliphilic bacterium Salinivibrio sharmensis. Lipid A was obtained from the purified LPS by mild acid hydrolysis. The lipid A, which contains different number of fatty acids residues, and its partially deacylated derivatives were completely characterized by means of electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron (ESI FT-ICR mass spectrometry and chemical analysis.

  15. Family Obligations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch-Nielsen, Inger

    How is the balance in obligations between the Family and the Danish Welfare State? Can we observe a trend to shift the responsibility back to the family? This booklet intends to sketch the legal framework around the division of responsibilities between the Family and the state and to analyse...... to what extent and where the unit of rights and obliagations is the individual and where it is the family or household....

  16. Identification of a haloalkaliphilic and thermostable cellulase with improved ionic liquid tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Tao; Datta, Supratim; Eichler, Jerry; Ivanova, Natalia; Axen, Seth D.; Kerfeld, Cheryl A.; Chen, Feng; Kyrpides, Nikos; Hugenholtz, Philip; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Sale, Kenneth L.; Simmons, Blake; Rubin, Eddy

    2011-02-17

    Some ionic liquids (ILs) have been shown to be very effective solvents for biomass pretreatment. It is known that some ILs can have a strong inhibitory effect on fungal cellulases, making the digestion of cellulose inefficient in the presence of ILs. The identification of IL-tolerant enzymes that could be produced as a cellulase cocktail would reduce the costs and water use requirements of the IL pretreatment process. Due to their adaptation to high salinity environments, halophilic enzymes are hypothesized to be good candidates for screening and identifying IL-resistant cellulases. Using a genome-based approach, we have identified and characterized a halophilic cellulase (Hu-CBH1) from the halophilic archaeon, Halorhabdus utahensis. Hu-CBH1 is present in a gene cluster containing multiple putative cellulolytic enzymes. Sequence and theoretical structure analysis indicate that Hu-CBH1 is highly enriched with negatively charged acidic amino acids on the surface, which may form a solvation shell that may stabilize the enzyme, through interaction with salt ions and/or water molecules. Hu-CBH1 is a heat tolerant haloalkaliphilic cellulase and is active in salt concentrations up to 5 M NaCl. In high salt buffer, Hu-CBH1 can tolerate alkali (pH 11.5) conditions and, more importantly, is tolerant to high levels (20percent w/w) of ILs, including 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Amim]Cl). Interestingly, the tolerances to heat, alkali and ILs are found to be salt-dependent, suggesting that the enzyme is stabilized by the presence of salt. Our results indicate that halophilic enzymes are good candidates for the screening of IL-tolerant cellulolytic enzymes.

  17. Collateralized debt obligations (CDOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragosavac Miloš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Collateralized debt obligations (CDOs were issued in 1987 by bankers at Drexel Burnham Lambert Inc. A decade later, CDOs became the leading power on the credit derivative markets, on which the value of derivative assets was derived from the value of other assets. However, unlike options and credit swamps, CDOs are not real, which means that they are constructed, and sometimes even the construction of their construction. CDOs were made to satisfy different types of investors, at one end, there is low-risk with low-income, and at the other, high-risk with high-income. By 2007, following the bubble burst on the US real estate market, losses on the CDO market started to expand. By 2008, the crisis on the CDO market turned into what we call today 'the global financial crisis.' CDOs are 'in the heart' of the crisis, and even wider. Our attempt is to reveal the mechanism of collateralized debt obligations (CDOs and the way in which CDOs expanded the negative effects of the present global financial crisis.

  18. Performance of a haloalkaliphilic bioreactor and bacterial community shifts under different COD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ratios and hydraulic retention times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jie-Min [National Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 353, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Song, Zi-Yu [National Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 353, Beijing 100190 (China); Yan, Dao-Jiang; Liu, Yi-Lan [National Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 353, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yang, Mao-Hua [National Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 353, Beijing 100190 (China); Cao, Hong-Bin [National Engineering Laboratory for Hydrometallurgical Cleaner Production Technology, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 353, Beijing 100190 (China); Xing, Jian-Min, E-mail: jmxing@home.ipe.ac.cn [National Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 353, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Haloalkaliphilic microorganisms were used to reduce sulfate. • Sulfide concentration reached up to 1603 mg/L. • There was no sulfide inhibition to haloalkaliphilic microorganisms. • Bacterial community of haloalkaliphilic bioreactor was studied. - Abstract: Sulfur dioxide from flue gas was converted into sulfate after the absorption of alkaline solutions. Haloalkaliphilic microorganisms have been used in reducing sulfate to decrease expenses and avoid sulfide inhibition. The effects of different COD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ratios and hydraulic retention times (HRTs) on the sulfate removal efficiency and bacterial community were investigated in model experiments. Ethanol showed better performance as an electron donor than lactate. The optimum COD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ratio and HRT were 4.0 and 18 h, respectively, with respective sulfate removal efficiency and rate of 97.8 ± 1.11% and 6.26 ± 0.0710 g/L d. Sulfide concentrations reached 1603 ± 3.38 mg/L. Based on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of 16S rDNA, the major sulfate-reducing bacterium (SRB) was Desulfonatronovibrio sp., which was only detected at a COD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ratio of 4.0 using ethanol as an electron donor. Different HRTs had no significant effect on the band corresponding to this species. PCR results show that methane-producing archaea (MPA) were from the acetoclastic methanogenic family Methanosarcinaceae. Quantitative real-time PCR did not demonstrate any significant competition between SRB and MPA. The findings of this study indicate that sulfate reduction, nitrate reduction, and sulfide oxidization may occur in the same bioreactor.

  19. THE OBLIGATIONS OF COMMERCIAL PROFESSIONALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Fildan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercial professionals have some obligations under the law, aimed both at defending public interests and the interests of third parties who enter into contracts with traders and commercial credit, and at defending the interests of professionals themselves, by creating an appropriate legal framework for the activities they perform. The main obligations of traders are the following: fulfilling Trade Register advertising formalities; exercising trade within the limits of legitimate competition; and the organization and bookkeeping of commercial companies. This paper aims at elaborating on the three listed obligations, mainly referring to commercial professionals, as they carry out professional activities that are centered on obtaining profit.

  20. Behavioral obligation and information avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Jennifer L; Shepperd, James A

    2013-04-01

    Although knowledge can be powerful and bring a variety of important benefits, people often opt to remain ignorant. We propose that people are particularly inclined to remain ignorant when learning information could obligate undesirable behavior. In three studies, participants completed an online risk calculator and then learned that receiving high-risk feedback from the calculator would obligate them to engage in a behavior that was either highly undesirable (e.g., undergoing a cervical exam and taking medication for the rest of their life) or only slightly undesirable (e.g., having their cheek swabbed and taking medication for 2 weeks). We then offered participants the opportunity to receive risk feedback from the calculator. Across all studies, participants more often avoided feedback when it could obligate highly undesirable behavior compared with mildly undesirable behavior. People decline learning their risk information more often when doing so obligates undesirable behavior in response.

  1. Anaerobic Thermophiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Canganella

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The term “extremophile” was introduced to describe any organism capable of living and growing under extreme conditions. With the further development of studies on microbial ecology and taxonomy, a variety of “extreme” environments have been found and an increasing number of extremophiles are being described. Extremophiles have also been investigated as far as regarding the search for life on other planets and even evaluating the hypothesis that life on Earth originally came from space. The first extreme environments to be largely investigated were those characterized by elevated temperatures. The naturally “hot environments” on Earth range from solar heated surface soils and water with temperatures up to 65 °C, subterranean sites such as oil reserves and terrestrial geothermal with temperatures ranging from slightly above ambient to above 100 °C, to submarine hydrothermal systems with temperatures exceeding 300 °C. There are also human-made environments with elevated temperatures such as compost piles, slag heaps, industrial processes and water heaters. Thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms have been known for a long time, but scientists have often resisted the belief that some organisms do not only survive at high temperatures, but actually thrive under those hot conditions. They are perhaps one of the most interesting varieties of extremophilic organisms. These microorganisms can thrive at temperatures over 50 °C and, based on their optimal temperature, anaerobic thermophiles can be subdivided into three main groups: thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 50 °C and 64 °C and a maximum at 70 °C, extreme thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 65 °C and 80 °C, and finally hyperthermophiles with an optimal temperature above 80 °C and a maximum above 90 °C. The finding of novel extremely thermophilic and hyperthermophilic anaerobic bacteria in recent years, and the fact that a large fraction of them belong

  2. When Obligate Partners Melt Down

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy A. Moran

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Insect hosts derive benefits from their obligate symbionts, including nutrient supplementation and the ability to colonize otherwise inhospitable niches. But long-term symbionts sometimes also limit the ecological range of their hosts; in particular, they are often more temperature sensitive than the hosts themselves. Even small increases in average temperature, comparable to those occurring under current conditions of climate change, can kill symbionts and, with them, their hosts. In some cases, limitations imposed by obligate symbionts may help to counter the spread of invasive pests, but they also contribute to contractions in populations and geographic ranges of invertebrate species.

  3. Constant Proportion Debt Obligations (CPDOs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cont, Rama; Jessen, Cathrine

    2012-01-01

    Constant Proportion Debt Obligations (CPDOs) are structured credit derivatives that generate high coupon payments by dynamically leveraging a position in an underlying portfolio of investment-grade index default swaps. CPDO coupons and principal notes received high initial credit ratings from...

  4. Anaerobic Digestion: Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Batstone, Damien J.

    2011-01-01

    Organic waste may degrade anaerobically in nature as well as in engineered systems. The latter is called anaerobic digestion or biogasification. Anaerobic digestion produces two main outputs: An energy-rich gas called biogas and an effluent. The effluent, which may be a solid as well as liquid...... with very little dry matter may also be called a digest. The digest should not be termed compost unless it specifically has been composted in an aerated step. This chapter describes the basic processes of anaerobic digestion. Chapter 9.5 describes the anaerobic treatment technologies, and Chapter 9.......6 addresses the mass balances and environmental aspects of anaerobic digestion....

  5. Bacterial communities in haloalkaliphilic sulfate-reducing bioreactors under different electron donors revealed by 16S rRNA MiSeq sequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jiemin [National Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 353, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhou, Xuemei; Li, Yuguang [101 Institute, Ministry of Civil Affairs, Beijing 100070 (China); Xing, Jianmin, E-mail: jmxing@ipe.ac.cn [National Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 353, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Bacterial communities of haloalkaliphilic bioreactors were investigated. • MiSeq was first used in analysis of communities of haloalkaliphilic bioreactors. • Electron donors had significant effect on bacterial communities. - Abstract: Biological technology used to treat flue gas is useful to replace conventional treatment, but there is sulfide inhibition. However, no sulfide toxicity effect was observed in haloalkaliphilic bioreactors. The performance of the ethanol-fed bioreactor was better than that of lactate-, glucose-, and formate-fed bioreactor, respectively. To support this result strongly, Illumina MiSeq paired-end sequencing of 16S rRNA gene was applied to investigate the bacterial communities. A total of 389,971 effective sequences were obtained and all of them were assigned to 10,220 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at a 97% similarity. Bacterial communities in the glucose-fed bioreactor showed the greatest richness and evenness. The highest relative abundance of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) was found in the ethanol-fed bioreactor, which can explain why the performance of the ethanol-fed bioreactor was the best. Different types of SRB, sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, and sulfur-reducing bacteria were detected, indicating that sulfur may be cycled among these microorganisms. Because high-throughput 16S rRNA gene paired-end sequencing has improved resolution of bacterial community analysis, many rare microorganisms were detected, such as Halanaerobium, Halothiobacillus, Desulfonatronum, Syntrophobacter, and Fusibacter. 16S rRNA gene sequencing of these bacteria would provide more functional and phylogenetic information about the bacterial communities.

  6. Going from Microbial Ecology to Genome Data and Back: Studies on a Haloalkaliphilic Bacterium Isolated from Soap Lake, Washington State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie R. Mormile

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Soap Lake is a meromictic, alkaline (~pH 9.8 and saline (~14 to 140 g liter-1 lake located in the semiarid area of eastern Washington State. Of note is the length of time it has been meromictic (at least 2000 years and the extremely high sulfide level (~140 mM in its monimolimnion. As expected, the microbial ecology of this lake is greatly influenced by these conditions. A bacterium, Halanaerobium hydrogeniformans, was isolated from the mixolimnion region of this lake. H. hydrogeniformans is a haloalkaliphilic bacterium capable of forming hydrogen from 5- and 6-carbon sugars derived from hemicellulose and cellulose. Due to its ability to produce hydrogen under saline and alkaline conditions, in amounts that rival genetically modified organisms, its genome was sequenced. This sequence data provides an opportunity to explore the unique metabolic capabilities of this organism, including the mechanisms for tolerating the extreme conditions of both high salinity and alkalinity of its environment.

  7. Improvement of desulfurizing activity of haloalkaliphilic Thialkalivibrio versutus SOB306 with the expression of Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Tingzhen; Yang, Maohua; Zhao, Jixiang; Sharshar, Moustafa Mohammed; Tian, Jiangnan; Xing, Jianmin

    2017-03-01

    To construct efficient transformation and expression system and further improve desulfurizing activity of cells through expression of Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (VHb) in haloalkaliphilic Thialkalivibrio versutus SOB306. We transferred plasmids pKT230 and pBBR-smr into T. versutus SOB306 via a conjugation method. We identified four promoters from among several predicted promoters by scoring for streptomycin resistance, and finally selected tac and p3 based on the efficiency of expression of red fluorescent protein (RFP). Expression of RFP when regulated by tac was more than three times that of p3 in SOB306. Further, we expressed VHb under the control of tac promoter in SOB306. Expression of VHb was verified using CO-difference spectra. The results showed that VHb expression can boost sulfur metabolism, as evidenced by an increase of about 11.7 ± 1.8% in the average rate of thiosulfate removal in the presence of VHb. A conjugation transfer and an expression system for Thialkalivibrio, has been developed for the first time and used for expression of VHb to improve desulfurizing activity.

  8. The Viral Gene ORF79 Encodes a Repressor Regulating Induction of the Lytic Life Cycle in the Haloalkaliphilic Virus ϕCh1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selb, Regina; Derntl, Christian; Klein, Reinhard; Alte, Beatrix; Hofbauer, Christoph; Kaufmann, Martin; Beraha, Judith; Schöner, Léa; Witte, Angela

    2017-05-01

    In this study, we describe the construction of the first genetically modified mutant of a halovirus infecting haloalkaliphilic Archaea By random choice, we targeted ORF79, a currently uncharacterized viral gene of the haloalkaliphilic virus ϕCh1. We used a polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated transformation method to deliver a disruption cassette into a lysogenic strain of the haloalkaliphilic archaeon Natrialba magadii bearing ϕCh1 as a provirus. This approach yielded mutant virus particles carrying a disrupted version of ORF79. Disruption of ORF79 did not influence morphology of the mature virions. The mutant virus was able to infect cured strains of N. magadii , resulting in a lysogenic, ORF79-disrupted strain. Analysis of this strain carrying the mutant virus revealed a repressor function of ORF79. In the absence of gp79, onset of lysis and expression of viral proteins occurred prematurely compared to their timing in the wild-type strain. Constitutive expression of ORF79 in a cured strain of N. magadii reduced the plating efficiency of ϕCh1 by seven orders of magnitude. Overexpression of ORF79 in a lysogenic strain of N. magadii resulted in an inhibition of lysis and total absence of viral proteins as well as viral progeny. In further experiments, gp79 directly regulated the expression of the tail fiber protein ORF34 but did not influence the methyltransferase gene ORF94. Further, we describe the establishment of an inducible promoter for in vivo studies in N. magadii IMPORTANCE Genetic analyses of haloalkaliphilic Archaea or haloviruses are only rarely reported. Therefore, only little insight into the in vivo roles of proteins and their functions has been gained so far. We used a reverse genetics approach to identify the function of a yet undescribed gene of ϕCh1. We provide evidence that gp79, a currently unknown protein of ϕCh1, acts as a repressor protein of the viral life cycle, affecting the transition from the lysogenic to the lytic state of the virus

  9. Catalysis and stability of an alkaline protease from a haloalkaliphilic bacterium under non-aqueous conditions as a function of pH, salt and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Sandeep; Rakholiya, Kalpna D; Raval, Vikram H; Singh, Satya P

    2012-09-01

    A haloalkaliphilic bacterium, isolated from Coastal Gujarat (India) was identified as Oceanobacillus sp. (GQ162111) based on 16S rRNA gene sequence. The organism grew and secreted extra cellular protease in presence of various organic solvents. At 30% (v/v) concentration of hexane, heptane, isooctane, dodecane and decane, significant growth and protease production was evident. The alkaline protease was purified in a single step on phenyl sepharose 6 FF with 28% yield. The molecular mass as judged by SDS-PAGE was 30 kDa. The temperature optimum of protease was 50°C and the enzyme retained 70% activity in 10% (v/v) isooctane. Effect of salt and pH was investigated in combination to assess the effect of isooctane. In organic solvents, the enzyme was considerably active at pH 8-11, with optimum activity at pH 10. Salt at 2 M was optimum for activity and enzyme maintained significant stability up to 18 h even at 3 M salt concentration. Patters of growth, protease production, catalysis and stability of the enzyme are presented. The study resumes significance as limited information is available on the interaction of haloalkaliphilic bacteria and their enzymes with organic solvents. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Energy Transduction by Anaerobic Ferric Iron Respiration in Thiobacillus-Ferrooxidans

    OpenAIRE

    Pronk, J T; Liem, K.; de Bos, P; Kuenen, J G

    1991-01-01

    Formate-grown cells of the obligately chemolithoautotrophic acidophile Thiobacillus ferrooxidans were capable of formate- and elemental sulfur-dependent reduction of ferric iron under anaerobic conditions. Under aerobic conditions, both oxygen and ferric iron could be simultaneously used as electron acceptors. To investigate whether anaerobic ferric iron respiration by T. ferrooxidans is an energy-transducing process, uptake of amino acids was studied. Glycine uptake by starved cells did not ...

  11. Epidemiology of anaerobic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnatko, S I

    1983-01-01

    The clinical importance of the anaerobic organisms, especially the toxicogenic Clostridia and some of the nonsporulating anaerobes, has been recognized for some time. Only within the last 20 years, however, owing to improved methodology, have gram-negative anaerobic bacilli, anaerobic cocci, and streptococci been commonly recognized and encountered in clinical infections. Today, anaerobic organisms are common isolates from infections involving intra-abdominal sites, the female genital tract, soft tissue, and oral areas and from major infections involving the lung, brain, and head and neck. Most of these infections are polymicrobial--involving both anaerobic and facultative or aerobic organisms. In some instances, it is difficult to ascertain what role is played by what organisms. No doubt, synergism is present in many cases. Because anaerobes are prevalent normal flora of the body, almost all anaerobic infections are of endogenous origin. Many of these anaerobes are opportunists; given the appropriate set of conditions, they will penetrate tissue and cause infection. Many have been associated with wound infection subsequent to bowel surgery or trauma, tubo-ovarian abscess, perirectal abscess, subphrenic abscess, postabortal sepsis, appendicitis, and many other infectious conditions. This article reviews the distribution of anaerobes in infected hospitalized patients and their relation to infection over a 5-year period.

  12. Biofilm formation by the anaerobic pathogen Clostridium difficile

    OpenAIRE

    Dapa, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is an obligate anaerobic, Gram-positive, endospore-forming bacterium. Although an opportunistic pathogen, it is one of the important causes of healthcare-associated infections. While toxins TcdA and TcdB are the main virulence factors of C. difficile, the factors or processes involved in gut colonization during infection remain unclear. The biofilm-forming ability of bacterial pathogens has been associated with increased antibiotic resistance and chronic recurrent in...

  13. The Public Sector and Obligation to Contract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Karsten Naundrup; Indén, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    The paper concerns the situation where public sector bodies are forced to enter into contracts. These obligations to contract are analysed from two angles. First, the paper offers an analysis of the reasons for imposing such obligations to contract under Swedish and Danish law. Secondly the paper...... discusses some consequences of the public entities’ obligations to contract, more specific consequences for the use of rules that usually regulate contracts and the fact that obligations to contract imposed on public entities establish a new market and at the same time the obligations deprive the entities...... of the freedom to contract which is a fundamental to market behaviour. Finally attention is drawn to the fact that obligations to contract are also imposed on private entities. The paper takes Swedish and Danish regulations as a point of departure and provides an insight into regulations from these two countries...

  14. On the obligation to obey the law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zekavica Radomir G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the question of a general obligation to obey the law. The author presents and analyzes the most significant views and arguments in support of the thesis that there is a general obligation to obey the law, as well as those understandings which are refuse this thesis. In concluding remarks the author presents a critical review of some key issues about general obligation to obey the law. In addition, the author outlines a hypothetical model of society and the legal system under which such an obligation is possible and has also asserted the basic assumptions and principles upon which it can be justified and reasonable. .

  15. Salinispirillum marinum gen. nov., sp. nov., a haloalkaliphilic bacterium in the family 'Saccharospirillaceae'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahinpei, Azadeh; Amoozegar, Mohammad Ali; Fazeli, Seyed Abolhassan Shahzadeh; Schumann, Peter; Ventosa, Antonio

    2014-11-01

    A novel Gram-staining-negative, motile, non-pigmented, facultatively anaerobic, spirillum-shaped, halophilic and alkaliphilic bacterium, designated strain GCWy1(T), was isolated from water of the coastal-marine wetland Gomishan in Iran. The strain was able to grow at NaCl concentrations of 1-10% (w/v) and optimal growth was achieved at 3% (w/v). The optimum pH and temperature for growth were pH 8.5 and 30 °C, while the strain was able to grow at pH 7.5-10 and 4-40 °C. Phylogenetic analysis based on the comparison of the 16S rRNA gene sequence placed the isolate within the class Gammaproteobacteria as a separate deep branch, with 92.1% or lower sequence similarity to representatives of the genera Saccharospirillum and Reinekea and less than 91.0% sequence similarity with other remotely related genera. The major cellular fatty acids of the isolate were C(18 : 1)ω7c, C(16:0) and C(17 : 0), and the major components of its polar lipid profile were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The cells of strain GCWy1(T) contained the isoprenoid quinones Q-9 and Q-8 (81% and 2%, respectively). The G+C content of the genomic DNA of this strain was 52.3 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis in combination with chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data, strain GCWy1(T) represents a novel species in a new genus in the family 'Saccharospirillaceae', order Oceanospirillales, for which the name Salinispirillum marinum gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species is GCWy1(T) ( = IBRC-M 10765(T) =CECT 8342(T)). © 2014 IUMS.

  16. Enrichment and isolation of Bacillus beveridgei sp. nov., a facultative anaerobic haloalkaliphile from Mono Lake, California, that respires oxyanions of tellurium, selenium, and arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baesman, S.M.; Stolz, J.F.; Kulp, T.R.; Oremland, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    Mono Lake sediment slurries incubated with lactate and tellurite [Te(IV)] turned progressively black with time because of the precipitation of elemental tellurium [Te(0)]. An enrichment culture was established from these slurries that demonstrated Te(IV)-dependent growth. The enrichment was purified by picking isolated black colonies from lactate/Te(IV) agar plates, followed by repeated streaking and picking. The isolate, strain MLTeJB, grew in aqueous Te(IV)-medium if provided with a small amount of sterile solid phase material (e.g., agar plug; glass beads). Strain MLTeJB grew at high concentrations of Te(IV) (~8 mM) by oxidizing lactate to acetate plus formate, while reducing Te(IV) to Te(0). Other electron acceptors that were found to sustain growth were tellurate, selenate, selenite, arsenate, nitrate, nitrite, fumarate and oxygen. Notably, growth on arsenate, nitrate, nitrite and fumarate did not result in the accumulation of formate, implying that in these cases lactate was oxidized to acetate plus CO2. Strain MLTeJB is a low G + C Gram positive motile rod with pH, sodium, and temperature growth optima at 8.5-9.0, 0.5-1.5 M, and 40??C, respectively. The epithet Bacillus beveridgei strain MLTeJBT is proposed. ?? 2009 Springer.

  17. [Laboratory-based evaluation of significance to routinely use anaerobic blood culture bottles: analysis of positivity and rapidity to detect positive cultures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayose, Miyako H; Yamane, Nobuhisa; Kisanuki, Kyoko; Kawai, Mimu; Nakasone, Isamu

    2009-12-01

    The publications in 1990s have indicated decreased recovery rates of obligate anaerobes from blood cultures and have questioned the need for routine anaerobic blood culture bottles. In this study, we compared positivities of the paired aerobic and anaerobic bottles and rapidity to detect positive cultures by two automated blood culture systems, BACTEC 9120 and BacT/ALERT 3D. Of 401 positive readings by BACTEC 9120, 338(84.3%) aerobic bottles became to be positive, and anaerobic bottles were 318(79.3%). Also, of 437 positive readings by BacT/ALERT 3D, positivities were 90.8% and 67.3% by aerobic and anaerobic bottles, respectively. These results indicated 5.0% and 23.7% more organisms were recovered in aerobic bottles than in anaerobic bottles, including more staphylococci, gram-positive rods, glucose-nonfermentative gram-negative rods and yeasts. Only 4 (0.14%) of 2,799 BACTEC 9120 anaerobic bottles and 2 (0.06%) of 3,428 BacT/ALERT 3D anaerobic bottles recovered obligate anaerobes. We compared time to detect positive cultures during incubation cycle by both aerobic and anaerobic bottles. Aerobic bottles in BACTEC 9120 read more positive cultures >2 hours earlier than anaerobic bottles, whereas BacT/ALERT 3D could not demonstrate a statistical significance in rapid reading of positive cultures. These results support that recovery rates of obligate anaerobes markedly decreased and that the routine use of anaerobic blood culture bottles is not legitimate at this time. In place of anaerobes, it is an urgent and important issue how to recover fungi correctly and rapidly from blood cultures.

  18. Induction of anaerobic, photoautotrophic growth in the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria limnetica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, A; Padan, E

    1978-02-01

    Anaerobic photoautotrophic growth of the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria limnetica was demonstrated under nitrogen in the presence of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (5micron), a constant concentration of Na2S (2.5 mM), and constant pH (7.3). The photoanaerobic growth rate (2 days doubling time) was similar to that obtained under oxygenic photoautotrophic growth conditions. The potential of oxygenic photosynthesis is constitutive in the cells; that of anoxygenic photosynthesis is rapidly (2 h) induced in the presence of Na2S in the light in a process requiring protein synthesis. The facultative anaerobic phototrophic growth physiology exhibited by O. limnetica would seem to represent an intermediate physiological pattern between the obligate anaerobic one of photosynthetic bacteria and the oxygenic one of eucaryotic algae.

  19. Screening for Genes Coding for Putative Antitumor Compounds, Antimicrobial and Enzymatic Activities from Haloalkalitolerant and Haloalkaliphilic Bacteria Strains of Algerian Sahara Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okba Selama

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme environments may often contain unusual bacterial groups whose physiology is distinct from those of normal environments. To satisfy the need for new bioactive pharmaceuticals compounds and enzymes, we report here the isolation of novel bacteria from an extreme environment. Thirteen selected haloalkalitolerant and haloalkaliphilic bacteria were isolated from Algerian Sahara Desert soils. These isolates were screened for the presence of genes coding for putative antitumor compounds using PCR based methods. Enzymatic, antibacterial, and antifungal activities were determined by using cultural dependant methods. Several of these isolates are typical of desert and alkaline saline soils, but, in addition, we report for the first time the presence of a potential new member of the genus Nocardia with particular activity against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In addition to their haloalkali character, the presence of genes coding for putative antitumor compounds, combined with the antimicrobial activity against a broad range of indicator strains and their enzymatic potential, makes them suitable for biotechnology applications.

  20. Clostridium lactatifermentans sp nov., a lactate-fermenting anaerobe isolated from the caeca of a chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wielen, PWJJ; Rovers, GMLL; Scheepens, JMA; Biesterveld, S

    An obligately anaerobic, lactate-fermenting bacterium (strain G17(T)) was isolated from the caeca of a 31-day-old chicken. Grown at neutral pH, cells were rod-shaped with tapered ends and showed no motility and no spore formation. Electron microscopy showed that the cell walls had a Gram-positive

  1. Exploitation et obligation de travailler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Étienne Vandamme

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cet article défend une définition de l’exploitation, restreinte aux relations de travail, en tentant d’une part d’expliciter une certaine compréhension de sens commun du concept (rémunération inéquitable en fonction du travail presté, et d’autre part d’échapper aux difficultés qui ont affecté la définition marxiste traditionnelle de l’exploitation comme extorsion de la plus-value (dans ses diverses variantes. Il explore ainsi le lien entre l’exploitation et l’obligation matérielle de travailler pour subvenir à ses besoins fondamentaux. Après avoir mis en garde contre les politiques d’activation des chômeurs, il conclut que l’exploitation est un phénomène contre lequel on peut lutter à l’aide de mécanismes relativement simples, même dans les sociétés capitalistes. Il rappelle toutefois que cela ne suffit pas à réaliser la justice sociale, resituant l’exploitation parmi d’autres enjeux fondamentaux pour une philosophie politique égalitariste

  2. Anaerobic Digestion and its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic digestion is a natural biological process. The initials "AD" may refer to the process of anaerobic digestion, or the built systems of anaerobic digesters. While there are many kinds of digesters, the biology is basically the same for all. Anaerobic digesters are built...

  3. Parental responses to child support obligations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossin-Slater, Maya; Wüst, Miriam

    contact with existing children. Finally, we find evidence that some fathers reduce their labor supply to avoid facing higher support obligations. Our findings suggest that government efforts to increase child investments through mandates on parents can be complicated by their behavioral responses to them.......We leverage non-linearities in Danish child support guidelines together with rich administrative data to provide causal estimates of parental behavioral responses to child support obligations. We estimate that among families with formal child support agreements, a 1, 000 DKK ($183) increase...... in a father’s annual obligation is associated with a 573 DKK ($104) increase in his annual payment. However, we also show that an increase in the obligation reduces the likelihood that the father lives with his child, pointing to some substitution between financial and non-pecuniary investments. Further, we...

  4. USAID Dollars Obligated and Dollars Spent

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Displays obligations and disbursements by operating unit (OU) and sector, beginning with Fiscal Years 2009. The data was pulled from USAID's financial accounting...

  5. Heterotrophic denitrification at extremely high salt and pH by haloalkaliphilic Gammaproteobacteria from hypersaline soda lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shapovalova, A.A.; Khijniak, T.V.; Tourova, T.P.; Muyzer, G.; Sorokin, Y.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we describe denitrification at extremely high salt and pH in sediments from hypersaline alkaline soda lakes and soda soils. Experiments with sediment slurries demonstrated the presence of acetate-utilizing denitrifying populations active at in situ conditions. Anaerobic enrichment

  6. Moral Obligation and the Military: Collected Essays

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Hippocratic oath ? Is there time to perform a thorough physical examina- tion of the terrorist to ensure that he can withstand the amount and form of torture... oath to not only defend the Constitution but also to pro- tect the lives and well-being of the citizenry. Hence, a leader of the civilian or military...obligation to perform those actions that fulfill the oath of office, and according to utilitarian argument, this obligation includes the use of

  7. Tax liability and fulfillment of tax obligations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Goran B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tax liability is the duty of the taxpayer to pay the tax. The tax­payer is responsible for the fulfillment of tax obligations from the moment of the occurrence of taxable event on which the authority imposed the tax liability. The moment of the occurrence of taxable event shall be determined separately for each tax, in accordance with the relevant tax law. The fulfillment of tax obligations is the payment of the amount owed. for the tax.

  8. 46 CFR 298.30 - Nature and content of Obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nature and content of Obligations. 298.30 Section 298.30 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VESSEL FINANCING ASSISTANCE OBLIGATION GUARANTEES Documentation § 298.30 Nature and content of Obligations. (a) Single page. An Obligation, in the...

  9. Whistleblowing and the bioethicist's public obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, D Robert

    2014-10-01

    Bioethicists are sometimes thought to have heightened obligations by virtue of the fact that their professional role addresses ethics or morals. For this reason it has been argued that bioethicists ought to "whistleblow"--that is, publicly expose the wrongful or potentially harmful activities of their employer--more often than do other kinds of employees. This article argues that bioethicists do indeed have a heightened obligation to whistleblow, but not because bioethicists have heightened moral obligations in general. Rather, the special duties of bioethicists to act as whistleblowers are best understood by examining the nature of the ethical dilemma typically encountered by private employees and showing why bioethicists do not encounter this dilemma in the same way. Whistleblowing is usually understood as a moral dilemma involving conflicting duties to two parties: the public and a private employer. However, this article argues that this way of understanding whistleblowing has the implication that professions whose members identify their employer as the public-such as government employees or public servants--cannot consider whistleblowing a moral dilemma, because obligations are ultimately owed to only one party: the public. The article contends that bioethicists--even when privately employed--are similar to government employees in the sense that they do not have obligations to defer to the judgments of those with private interests. Consequently, bioethicists may be considered to have a special duty to whistleblow, although for different reasons than those usually cited.

  10. Isolation and partial characterization of bacteria in an anaerobic consortium that mineralizes 3-chlorobenzoic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelton, D.R.; Tiedje, J.M.

    1984-10-01

    A methanogenic consortium able to use 3-chlorobenzoic acid as its sole energy and carbon source was enriched from anaerobic sewage sludge. Seven bacteria were isolated from the consortium in mono- or coculture. They included: one dechlorinating bacterium, one benzoate-oxidizing bacterium, two butyrate-oxidizing bacteria, two H/sub 2/-consuming methanogens (methanospirillum hungatei PM-1 and Methanobacterium sp. strain PM-2), and a sulfate-reducing bacterium (Desulfovibrio sp.). The dechlorinating bacterium was a gram-negative, obligate anaerobe with a unique collar surrounding the cell. A medium containing rumen fluid supported minimal growth; pyruvate was the only substrate found to increase growth. The bacterium had a generation time of 4 to 5 days. 3-Chlorobenzoate was dechlorinated stoichiometrically to benzoate, which accumulated in the medium; the rate of dechlorination was ca. 0.1 pmol bacterium/sup -1/ day/sup -1/. The benzoate-oxidizing bacterium was a gram-negative, obligate anaerobe and could only be grown as a syntroph. Benzoate was the only substrate observed to support growth, and, when grown in coculture with M. hungatei, it was fermented to acetate and CH/sub 4/. One butyrate-oxidizing bacterium was a gram-negative, non-sporeforming, obligate anaerobe; the other was a gram-positive, sporeforming, obligate anaerobe. Both could only be grown as syntrophs. The substrates observed to support growth of both bacteria were butyrate, 2-DL-methylbutyrate, valerate, and caproate; isobutyrate supported growth of only the sporeforming bacterium. Fermentation products were acetate and CH/sub 4/ or acetate, propionate, and CH/sub 4/ when grown in coculture with M. hungatei. A mutualism among at least the dechlorinating, benzoate-oxidizing, and methane-forming members was apparently required for utilization of the 3-chlorobenzoate substrate. 21 references, 8 figures, 2 tables.

  11. Anaerobes in bacterial vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal A

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Four hundred high vaginal swabs were taken from patients attending gynaecology and obstetrics department of Govt. medical college, Amritsar. The patients were divided into four groups i.e. women in pregnancy (Group I, in labour/post partum (Group II, with abnormal vaginal discharge or bacterial vaginosis (Group III and asymptomatic women as control (Group IV. Anaerobic culture of vaginal swabs revealed that out of 400 cases, 212(53% were culture positive. Maximum isolation of anaerobes was in group III (84% followed by group II (56%, group I (36% and control group (15%. Gram positive anaerobes (69.2% out numbered gram negatives (30.8%. Among various isolates Peptostreptococcus spp. and Bacteroides spp. were predominant.

  12. A comparison of the in vitro activity of metronidazole, tinidazole, and nimorazole against Gram-negative anaerobic bacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, A V; Hamilton-Miller, J M; Brumfitt, W

    1975-01-01

    The in vitro activities of metronidazole, nimorazole, and tinidazole were compared against 69 strains of obligately anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli. Geometric mean MICs were 0-34, 1-05, and 0-28 mug/ml respectively. Thirty-six strains were also tested by the disk method. Correlation between MIC and diameter of the zones of inhibition was poor. PMID:1214009

  13. The anaerobic digestion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, C.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Boone, D.R. [Oregon Graduate Inst., Portland, OR (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The microbial process of converting organic matter into methane and carbon dioxide is so complex that anaerobic digesters have long been treated as {open_quotes}black boxes.{close_quotes} Research into this process during the past few decades has gradually unraveled this complexity, but many questions remain. The major biochemical reactions for forming methane by methanogens are largely understood, and evolutionary studies indicate that these microbes are as different from bacteria as they are from plants and animals. In anaerobic digesters, methanogens are at the terminus of a metabolic web, in which the reactions of myriads of other microbes produce a very limited range of compounds - mainly acetate, hydrogen, and formate - on which the methanogens grow and from which they form methane. {open_quotes}Interspecies hydrogen-transfer{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}interspecies formate-transfer{close_quotes} are major mechanisms by which methanogens obtain their substrates and by which volatile fatty acids are degraded. Present understanding of these reactions and other complex interactions among the bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion is only now to the point where anaerobic digesters need no longer be treated as black boxes.

  14. Anaerobic digestion without biogas?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleerebezem, R.; Joosse, B.; Rozendaal, R.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion for the production of methane containing biogas is the classic example of a resource recovery process that combines stabilization of particulate organic matter or wastewater treatment with the production of a valuable end-product. Attractive features of the process include the

  15. Overcoming Poverty as a Collective Obligation: Christian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Religion Dept

    Overcoming Poverty as a Collective Obligation: Christian Perspective. C. I. Osunwokeh. Introduction. Resentment to poverty and the desire to be on the side of wealth no matter how problematic that may be to the interpretation of. Christ's teachings is lived an issue today as it has been since the beginning of Christianity.

  16. 17 CFR 200.54 - Constitutional obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... against any infringement of the constitutional rights, privileges, or immunities of those who are subject... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Constitutional obligations... ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Canons of Ethics § 200.54 Constitutional...

  17. Competition law and the obligation to supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergqvist, Christian

    2015-01-01

    While accepted in theory and practice that an obligation to supply, ser-vice or license can emerge under competition law, the scope of this is subject to many, if not lacunas, at least ambiguities, and no general ob-li¬gations of such nature can, no should, be identified. Further, and equally...

  18. 17 CFR 200.55 - Statutory obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Canons of Ethics § 200.55 Statutory obligations. In administering the law, members of this Commission should vigorously enforce compliance with the law by all... the law and be consistent with the statutory purposes expressed by the Congress. In the exercise of...

  19. Norms of filial obligation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Dykstra (Pearl); T. Fokkema (Tineke)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn this article we examine to what extent norms of filial obligation in the Netherlands are shaped by group value patterns, family constellation, possibilities for helping others, and actual experiences of support exchange. The data are drawn from the first wave of the combined main and

  20. 45 CFR 2400.65 - Teaching obligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Special Conditions § 2400.65 Teaching obligation. Upon receiving a... political science on a full-time basis to students in secondary school for a period of not less than one... to provide the Foundation with an annual certification from an official of the secondary school where...

  1. The author’s opportunity and obligation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer review is a critical component of the scientific method and therefore should be an obligation for everyone who desires to publish their research results in refereed journals. This editorial is written to address a specific problem being encountered by editors of Soil & Tillage Research, but the...

  2. Propionate Oxidation by and Methanol Inhibition of Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Güven, Didem; Dapena, Ana; Kartal, Boran; Schmid, Markus C; Maas, Bart; van de Pas-Schoonen, Katinka; Sozen, Seval; Mendez, Ramon; Op den Camp, Huub J. M.; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Strous, Marc; Schmidt, Ingo

    2005-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is a recently discovered microbial pathway and a cost-effective way to remove ammonium from wastewater. Anammox bacteria have been described as obligate chemolithoautotrophs. However, many chemolithoautotrophs (i.e., nitrifiers) can use organic compounds as a supplementary carbon source. In this study, the effect of organic compounds on anammox bacteria was investigated. It was shown that alcohols inhibited anammox bacteria, while organic acids were conv...

  3. The Obligations of States towards Refugees under International Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skordas, Achilles

    The main purpose of the current study is to discuss the obligations of States towards refugees under international law, and to argue that States have obligations towards refugees regardless of the ratification of the Geneva Convention.......The main purpose of the current study is to discuss the obligations of States towards refugees under international law, and to argue that States have obligations towards refugees regardless of the ratification of the Geneva Convention....

  4. Activation of Acetone and Other Simple Ketones in Anaerobic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heider, Johann; Schühle, Karola; Frey, Jasmin; Schink, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Acetone and other ketones are activated for subsequent degradation through carboxylation by many nitrate-reducing, phototrophic, and obligately aerobic bacteria. Acetone carboxylation leads to acetoacetate, which is subsequently activated to a thioester and degraded via thiolysis. Two different types of acetone carboxylases have been described, which require either 2 or 4 ATP equivalents as an energy supply for the carboxylation reaction. Both enzymes appear to combine acetone enolphosphate with carbonic phosphate to form acetoacetate. A similar but more complex enzyme is known to carboxylate the aromatic ketone acetophenone, a metabolic intermediate in anaerobic ethylbenzene metabolism in denitrifying bacteria, with simultaneous hydrolysis of 2 ATP to 2 ADP. Obligately anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria activate acetone to a four-carbon compound as well, but via a different process than bicarbonate- or CO2-dependent carboxylation. The present evidence indicates that either carbon monoxide or a formyl residue is used as a cosubstrate, and that the overall ATP expenditure of this pathway is substantially lower than in the known acetone carboxylase reactions. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. 24 CFR 891.615 - Obligations of the family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obligations of the family. 891.615 Section 891.615 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... 8 Assistance § 891.615 Obligations of the family. The obligations of the family are provided in...

  6. 24 CFR 891.755 - Obligations of the family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obligations of the family. 891.755... the Elderly and Persons with Disabilities Section 202 Projects for the Nonelderly Handicapped Families and Individuals-Section 162 Assistance § 891.755 Obligations of the family. The obligations of the...

  7. 26 CFR 1.454-1 - Obligations issued at discount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obligations issued at discount. 1.454-1 Section... at discount. (a) Certain non-interest-bearing obligations issued at discount—(1) Election to include... discount and redeemable for fixed amounts increasing at stated intervals (other than an obligation issued...

  8. 7 CFR 984.54 - Establishment of obligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment of obligation. 984.54 Section 984.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulating Handling Reserve Walnuts § 984.54 Establishment of obligation. (a) Reserve obligation. Whenever...

  9. Constitutional obligations of a person and a citizen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Yu. Ogurtsov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The constitution of the Russian Federation does not contain the list of obligations, but theoretically each legal right is supposed to correspond to a legal obligation. Such conformity is achieved by means of attaching obligations not only by Constitution, but by the branch legislation either.

  10. Insights into the obligate methanotroph Methylococcus capsulatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Donovan P; Anthony, Christopher; Murrell, J Colin

    2005-05-01

    Completion of the genome sequence of Methylococcus capsulatus Bath is an important event in molecular microbiology, and an achievement for which the authors deserve congratulation. M. capsulatus, along with other methanotrophs, has been the subject of intense biochemical and molecular study because of its role in the global carbon cycle: the conversion of biogenic methane to carbon dioxide. The methane monooxygenase enzymes that are central to this process also have high biotechnological potential. Analysis of the genome sequence will potentially accelerate elucidation of the regulation of methane-dependent metabolism in obligate methanotrophs, and help explain the cause of obligate methanotrophy, the phenomenon making most methanotrophs unable to grow on any substrates other than methane and a very small number of other one-carbon compounds.

  11. The economics of a landing obligation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peder; Ståhl, Lisa

    of a landing obligation. The paper includes an empirical analysis of the landing obligation’s impact on the Danish fishery in the short run. In the first part of the paper, we survey the fisheries economics literature for theoretical findings regarding behavioural aspects of a discard ban and we exploring gaps...... in our knowledge. A comprehensive analysis of the short term economic impacts of the discard ban for the Danish fleet under various assumptions regarding costs of handling previously discarded fish, prices obtained for them, selectivity, minimum sizes, and quota utilization is presented. Among other...... things, the analysis shows that the fisheries will suffer economic losses under the landing obligation if quotas are not increased with the historical discard rate. With quota top-ups however fisheries can experience economic gains which increase with reduced minimum sizes or by increasing selectivity....

  12. Obligate oil-degrading marine bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Yakimov, Michail M; Timmis, Kenneth N; Golyshin, Peter N.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past few years, a new and ecophysiologically unusual group of marine hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria - the obligate hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria (OHCB) - has been recognized and shown to play a significant role in the biological removal of petroleum hydrocarbons from polluted marine waters. The introduction of oil or oil constituents into seawater leads to successive blooms of a relatively limited number of indigenous marine bacterial genera--Alcanivorax, Marinobacter, Thallassolituus...

  13. Inability and Obligation in Moral Judgment

    OpenAIRE

    Wesley Buckwalter; John Turri

    2015-01-01

    It is often thought that judgments about what we ought to do are limited by judgments about what we can do, or that "ought implies can." We conducted eight experiments to test the link between a range of moral requirements and abilities in ordinary moral evaluations. Moral obligations were repeatedly attributed in tandem with inability, regardless of the type (Experiments 1-3), temporal duration (Experiment 5), or scope (Experiment 6) of inability. This pattern was consistently observed using...

  14. New perspectives in anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Lier, J.B.; Tilche, A.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2001-01-01

    The IWA specialised group on anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of the oldest working groups of the former IAWQ organisation. Despite the fact that anaerobic technology dates back more than 100 years, the technology is still under development, adapting novel treatment systems to the modern...... requirements. In fact, most advances were achieved during the last three decades, when high-rate reactor systems were developed and a profound insight was obtained in the microbiology of the anaerobic communities. This insight led to a better understanding of anaerobic treatment and, subsequently, to a broader...

  15. Heavy metal influence from anaerobic digestion. Tungmetalpaavirkning af anaerob udraadning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westermann, P. (Afd. for Generel Mikrobiologi, Koebenhavns Universitet (DK)); Ahring, B. (Institut for Bioteknologi, DTH (DK))

    1990-01-01

    The increased use of anaerobic digestion in farming and industry, and in connection with sewage sludge, has created the need for an understanding of the biological processes in the process tanks/biomass conversion plants. It is important to understand the weaknesses of the physical and chemical processes. The article deals with the influence of heavy metals from anaerobic digestion. (CLS).

  16. Azoarcus sp. CIB, an anaerobic biodegrader of aromatic compounds shows an endophytic lifestyle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Fernández

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endophytic bacteria that have plant growth promoting traits are of great interest in green biotechnology. The previous thought that the Azoarcus genus comprises bacteria that fit into one of two major eco-physiological groups, either free-living anaerobic biodegraders of aromatic compounds or obligate endophytes unable to degrade aromatics under anaerobic conditions, is revisited here. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Light, confocal and electron microscopy reveal that Azoarcus sp. CIB, a facultative anaerobe β-proteobacterium able to degrade aromatic hydrocarbons under anoxic conditions, is also able to colonize the intercellular spaces of the rice roots. In addition, the strain CIB displays plant growth promoting traits such nitrogen fixation, uptake of insoluble phosphorus and production of indoleacetic acid. Therefore, this work demonstrates by the first time that a free-living bacterium able to degrade aromatic compounds under aerobic and anoxic conditions can share also an endophytic lifestyle. The phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rDNA and nifH genes confirmed that obligate endophytes of the Azoarcus genus and facultative endophytes, such as Azoarcus sp. CIB, locate into different evolutionary branches. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report of a bacterium, Azoarcus sp. CIB, able to degrade anaerobically a significant number of aromatic compounds, some of them of great environmental concern, and to colonize the rice as a facultative endophyte. Thus, Azoarcus sp. CIB becomes a suitable candidate for a more sustainable agricultural practice and phytoremediation technology.

  17. A simple coculture system shows mutualism between anaerobic faecalibacteria and epithelial Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadaghian Sadabad, Mehdi; von Martels, Julius Z H; Khan, Muhammed Tanweer; Blokzijl, Tjasso; Paglia, Giuseppe; Dijkstra, Gerard; Harmsen, Hermie J M; Faber, Klaas Nico

    2015-12-15

    Most gut bacteria are obligate anaerobes and are important for human health. However, little mechanistic insight is available on the health benefits of specific anaerobic gut bacteria. A main obstacle in generating such knowledge is the lack of simple and robust coculturing methods for anaerobic bacteria and oxygen-requiring human cells. Here, we describe the development of a coculture system for intestinal Caco-2 cells and an anaerobic symbiont, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, making use of 50 mL culture tubes. F. prausnitzii was grown in 40 mL YCFAG-agar with glass-adhered Caco-2 cells placed on top in 10 mL DMEM medium. Grown for 18-36 h in a humidified incubator at 37 °C and 5% CO2, coverslip-attached Caco-2 cells promoted growth and metabolism of F. prausnitzii, while F. prausnitzii suppressed inflammation and oxidative stress in Caco-2 cells. F. prausnitzii did not compromise Caco-2 cell viability. Exogenously added porcine mucin also promoted growth of F. prausnitzii, suggesting that it may be part of the mechanism of Caco-2-stimulated growth of F. prausnitzii. This 'Human oxygen-Bacteria anaerobic' (HoxBan) coculturing system uniquely establishes host-microbe mutualism of a beneficial anaerobic gut microbe in vitro and principally allows the analysis of host-microbe interactions of pure and mixed cultures of bacteria and human cells.

  18. Anaerobic wastewater treatment using anaerobic baffled bioreactor: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Siti; Dahlan, Irvan

    2013-09-01

    Anaerobic wastewater treatment is receiving renewed interest because it offers a means to treat wastewater with lower energy investment. Because the microorganisms involved grow more slowly, such systems require clever design so that the microbes have sufficient time with the substrate to complete treatment without requiring enormous reactor volumes. The anaerobic baffled reactor has inherent advantages over single compartment reactors due to its circulation pattern that approaches a plug flow reactor. The physical configuration of the anaerobic baffled reactor enables significant modifications to be made; resulting in a reactor which is proficient of treating complex wastewaters which presently require only one unit, ultimately significant reducing capital costs. This paper also concerns about mechanism, kinetic and hydrodynamic studies of anaerobic digestion for future application of the anaerobic baffled reactor for wastewater treatment.

  19. Thiohalospira halophila gen. nov., sp. nov. and Thiohalospira alkaliphila sp. nov., novel obligately chemolithoautotrophic, halophilic, sulfur-oxidizing gammaproteobacteria from hypersaline habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Dimitry Yu; Tourova, Tatjana P; Muyzer, Gerard; Kuenen, Gijs J

    2008-07-01

    A previously unknown ecotype of obligately chemolithoautotrophic, sulfur-oxidizing bacteria was discovered in sediments of various inland hypersaline lakes and a solar saltern. The salt requirements for these bacteria were similar to those of haloarchaea, representing the first example of extreme halophiles occurring among the chemolithoautotrophs. They were enriched and isolated at 4 M NaCl under aerobic conditions with thiosulfate or tetrathionate as the electron donor or under micro-oxic conditions with sulfide. In total, 20 strains were obtained from hypersaline inland lakes in central Asia, central Russia and Crimea and a sea saltern of the Adriatic Sea. The isolates were thin, motile spirilla, some of which possessed a yellow, membrane-bound pigment. They were obligately aerobic, chemolithoautotrophic, sulfur-oxidizing bacteria that used thiosulfate, sulfide, sulfur and tetrathionate as electron donors. The characteristic feature of the group was the production of large amounts of tetrathionate as an intermediate during the oxidation of thiosulfate to sulfate. All but one of the strains grew within the pH range 6.5-8.2 (optimally at pH 7.3-7.8) and at NaCl concentrations from 2.0 to 5 M (optimally at 3.0 M). A single strain, designated ALgr 6sp(T), obtained (by enrichment) from the hypersaline alkaline lakes of the Wadi Natrun valley, was found to be moderately halophilic and facultatively alkaliphilic (capable of growth at pH 10). The predominant cellular fatty acids were quite unusual, with 10-methyl C(16 : 0) and C(16 : 0) predominating. Cells grown at 4 M NaCl accumulated extremely high concentrations of glycine betaine as a compatible solute. The 20 neutrophilic isolates contained three genospecies (on the basis of DNA-DNA relatedness data) but could not be discriminated phenotypically. On the basis of the phenotypic and genotypic analyses, the isolates constitute a novel genus and species, for which the name Thiohalospira halophila gen. nov., sp. nov

  20. Anaerobic digestion of piggery waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velsen, van A.F.M.

    1981-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a biological process by which organic matter is converted to methane and carbon dioxide by microbes in the absence of air (oxygen). In nature, anaerobic conversions occur at all places where organic material accumulates and the supply of oxygen is deficient, e.g. in marshes

  1. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellinger, A. [INFOENERGIE, Ettenhausen (Switzerland)

    1996-01-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  2. New perspectives in anaerobic digestion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lier, van J.B.; Tilche, A.; Ahring, B.K.; Macarie, H.; Moletta, R.; Dohanyos, M.; Hulshoff Pol, L.W.; Lens, P.N.L.; Verstraete, W.

    2001-01-01

    The IWA specialised group on anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of the oldest working groups of the former IAWQ organisation. Despite the fact that anaerobic technology dates back more than 100 years, the technology is still under development, adapting novel treatment systems to the modern

  3. Anaerobic thermophilic biogas process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelidaki, I.

    1992-06-01

    Investigations into several important aspects concerning thermophilic, anaerobic treatment of livestock wastes and other types of wastes in Denmark was carried out. Lipids, typically found in industrial organic waste, could be effectively degraded during anaerobic treatment with a high biogas yield. Long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) could also inhibit the biogas process at relatively low concentrations. Lipid-containing waste should be introduced gradually and fed continuously to the biogas process in order to permit adaptation. Fed-bacth cultivation was shown to be a successful method for enriching bacteria which are exposed to substrate inhibition. The end product of the degradation were methane and carbon dioxide. Ammonia concentrations at or above 4 g-N/l were shown to inhibit thermophilic digestion of cattle manure, but if the ammonia concentration was gradually increased, adaptation of the process occurred. It was found that addition of bentonite or the waste product bentonite-bound oil counteracted to some extent the inhibitory effect of ammonia. The effect was observed only when the ammonia concentration was increased gradually. When the ammonia load was high, reduction of the temperature below 55 Deg. C was shown to have a positive effect on process performance, while at ammonia non-inhibitory concentrations a temperature of 55 deg. C was found to be the optimal temperature. A mathematical model of the biogas process was formulated with main emphasis on free ammonia inhibition, pH simulation and temperature effects. (au) (140 refs.).

  4. The landing obligation in view of different management regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Hans Staby; Hoff, Ayoe

    2017-01-01

    The European Union adopted a landing obligation in 2015 implying that all catches of fish subject to quota management must be landed. We compare and contrast the economic consequences for fisheries of the landing obligation in view of the management system on which it is super-imposed. Four types...... of management are assessed: open access, shared quota, individual transferable quotas and economically optimal fishery. A standard non-linear programming bio-economic model is applied, providing illustrative numerical examples based on hypothetical parameter values. It is shown that the landing obligation has....... It is concluded that the effects of introducing the landing obligation in ITQ management systems are complex, but small....

  5. Implementing Livestock Anaerobic Digestion Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page provides information to help make an informed decision about installing an anaerobic digester. Is it a good match for a farm’s organic waste, project financing, development guidelines and permit requirements?

  6. On A Recent Theory of 'Legal Obligation'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Leoni

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper, by the late Bruno Leoni, was originally published in the Italian journal Il Politico in 1966. In the article, Leoni reviews H.L.A. Hart’s The Concept of Law (1961. Hart first analyzes the concept of law by resorting to the classical concept of “obligation.” But he later tries a “fresh start” by resorting to the concept of “secondary rules.” In his review, Leoni argues that the former attempt is confronted with serious difficulties, and that the latter attempt (to which professor Hart possibly resorts in view of overcoming some of said difficulties is ultimately inconsistent with the former

  7. Decomposition of Alternative Chirality Amino Acids by Alkaliphilic Anaerobe from Owens Lake, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Alisa; Pikuta, Elena V.; Guisler, Melissa; Hoover, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    The study of alkaliphilic microbial communities from anaerobic sediments of Owens and Mono Lakes in California led to the isolation of a bacterial strain capable of metabolizing amino acids with alternative chirality. According to the phylogenetic analysis, the anaerobic strain BK1 belongs to the genus Tindallia; however, despite the characteristics of other described species of this genus, the strain BK1 was able to grow on D-arginine and Dlysine. Cell morphology of this strain showed straight, motile, non-spore-forming rods with sizes 0.45 x 1.2-3 microns. Physiological characteristics of the strain showed that it is catalase negative, obligately anaerobic, mesophilic, and obligately alkaliphilic. This isolate is unable to grow at pH 7 and requires CO3 (2-) ions for growth. The strain has chemo-heterotrophic metabolism and is able to ferment various proteolysis products and some sugars. It plays the role of a primary anaerobe within the trophic chain of an anaerobic microbial community by the degradation of complex protein molecules to smaller and less energetic molecules. The new isolate requires NaCl for growth, and can grow within the range of 0.5-13 %, with the optimum at 1 % NaCl (w/v). The temperature range for the growth of the new isolate is 12-40 C with optimum at 35 C. The pH range for the growth of strain BK1 occurs between 7.8 and 11.0 with optimum at 9.5. This paper presents detailed physiological characteristics of the novel isolate from Owens Lake, a unique relic ecosystem of Astrobiological significance, and makes an accent on the ability of this strain to utilize L-amino acids.

  8. Displacement and gratitude: accounting for the political obligation of refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason D'Cruz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available On what basis, and to what extent, are refugees obligated to obey the laws of their host countries? Consideration of the specific case of asylum-seekers generates, I think, two competing intuitions: (1 the refugee has a prima facie obligation to obey the laws of her host country and (2 none of the popularly canvassed substrates of political obligation—consent, tacit consent, fairness, or social role—is at all apt to explain the presence of this obligation. I contend that the unfashionable gratitude account of political obligation does the best job of accounting for the intuitions. As has been noticed by other commentators, obligations of gratitude are difficult to specify and subject to numerous cancelling conditions. I analyze these conditions in detail and conclude that if one accepts that gratitude is the basis of the political obligation of the refugee, then one must face up to just how frangible the obligation is. In particular, the obligation is conditional on the fair and generous treatment of refugees that is consistent with their dignity as human beings.

  9. 24 CFR 266.415 - Mortgage lien and other obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mortgage lien and other obligations... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER... Mortgage and Closing Requirements; HUD Endorsement § 266.415 Mortgage lien and other obligations. (a) Liens...

  10. 5 CFR 2635.101 - Basic obligation of public service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basic obligation of public service. 2635... obligation of public service. (a) Public service is a public trust. Each employee has a responsibility to the... section in determining whether their conduct is proper. (1) Public service is a public trust, requiring...

  11. 77 FR 37554 - Calculation of Maximum Obligation Limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... Rule governs the calculation of the maximum obligation limitation (``MOL''), as specified in the Dodd-Frank Act. The MOL limits the aggregate amount of outstanding obligations that the FDIC may issue or... company satisfies the definition of a financial company under section 201 of the Dodd- Frank Act. \\4...

  12. 7 CFR 400.168 - Obligations of participating insurance company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Obligations of participating insurance company. 400... participating insurance company. The Agreement will include the following among the obligations of the Company. (a) The Company shall follow all applicable Corporation procedures in its administration of the crop...

  13. The evolutionary pathway to obligate scavenging in Gyps vultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dermody, B.; Tanner, C.J.; Jackson, A.L.

    2011-01-01

    The evolutionary pathway to obligate scavenging in Gyps vultures remains unclear. We propose that communal roosting plays a central role in setting up the information transfer network critical for obligate scavengers in ephemeral environments and that the formation of a flotilla-like foraging group

  14. 5 CFR 2635.809 - Just financial obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... obligations, especially those such as Federal, State, or local taxes that are imposed by law. For purposes of... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Just financial obligations. 2635.809 Section 2635.809 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS STANDARDS OF...

  15. 12 CFR 13.100 - Obligations concerning institutional customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... experience of the institutional customer in financial markets and specific experience with the type of... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Obligations concerning institutional customers... GOVERNMENT SECURITIES SALES PRACTICES Interpretations § 13.100 Obligations concerning institutional customers...

  16. 12 CFR 208.101 - Obligations concerning institutional customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... experience of the institutional customer in financial markets and specific experience with the type of... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Obligations concerning institutional customers...) Interpretations § 208.101 Obligations concerning institutional customers. (a) As a result of broadened authority...

  17. Obligations to enforce prohibitions: on the adequacy of security policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter; Padget, Julian; Dechesne, Francien; Dignum, Virginia; Aldewereld, Huib

    2013-01-01

    Security policies in organisations typically take the form of obligations for the employees. However, it is often unclear what the purpose of such obligations is, and how these can be integrated in the operational processes of the organisation. This can result in policies that may be either too

  18. 22 CFR 19.8 - Obligations of members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obligations of members. 19.8 Section 19.8 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL BENEFITS FOR SPOUSES AND FORMER SPOUSES OF PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.8 Obligations of members. Participants and...

  19. 7 CFR 1488.12 - Coverage of bank obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... without regard to risks. (d) If a branch bank confirms an obligation issued by its home office, or by another branch of its home office, it must confirm the full amount thereof. CCC will hold the branch bank... bank confirmation of an obligation issued by its home office, or by a branch of its home office. (f...

  20. 49 CFR 371.10 - Duties and obligations of brokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duties and obligations of brokers. 371.10 Section... SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS BROKERS OF PROPERTY § 371.10 Duties and obligations of brokers. Where the broker acts on behalf of a person bound by...

  1. An anaerobic bacterium, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, uses a consortium of enzymes to scavenge hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Surabhi; Imlay, James A

    2013-12-01

    Obligate anaerobes are periodically exposed to oxygen, and it has been conjectured that on such occasions their low-potential biochemistry will predispose them to rapid ROS formation. We sought to identify scavenging enzymes that might protect the anaerobe Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron from the H2 O2 that would be formed. Genetic analysis of eight candidate enzymes revealed that four of these scavenge H2 O2  in vivo: rubrerythrins 1 and 2, AhpCF, and catalase E. The rubrerythrins served as key peroxidases under anoxic conditions. However, they quickly lost activity upon aeration, and AhpCF and catalase were induced to compensate. The AhpCF is an NADH peroxidase that effectively degraded low micromolar levels of H2 O2 , while the catalytic cycle of catalase enabled it to quickly degrade higher concentrations that might arise from exogenous sources. Using a non-scavenging mutant we verified that endogenous H2 O2 formation was much higher in aerated B. thetaiotaomicron than in Escherichia coli. Indeed, the OxyR stress response to H2 O2 was induced when B. thetaiotaomicron was aerated, and in that circumstance this response was necessary to forestall cell death. Thus aeration is a serious threat for this obligate anaerobe, and to cope it employs a set of defences that includes a repertoire of complementary scavenging enzymes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Polyploidy versus endosymbionts in obligately thelytokous thrips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duong T; Spooner-Hart, Robert N; Riegler, Markus

    2015-02-22

    Thelytoky, the parthenogenetic development of females, has independently evolved in several insect orders yet the study of its mechanisms has so far mostly focussed on haplodiploid Hymenoptera, while alternative mechanisms of thelytoky such as polyploidy are far less understood. In haplodiploid insects, thelytoky can be encoded in their genomes, or induced by maternally inherited bacteria such as Wolbachia or Cardinium. Microbially facilitated thelytoky usually results in complete homozygosity due to gamete duplication and can be reverted into arrhenotoky, the parthenogenetic development of males, through treatment with antibiotics. In contrast, genetically encoded thelytoky cannot be removed and may result in conservation of heterozygosity due to gamete fusion. We have probed the obligate thelytoky of the greenhouse thrips, Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouché), a significant cosmopolitan pest and a model species of thelytoky in the haplodiploid insect order Thysanoptera. Earlier studies suggested terminal fusion as a mechanism for thelytoky in this species, while another study reported presence of Wolbachia; later it was speculated that Wolbachia plays a role in this thrips' thelytokous reproduction. By using PCR and sequence analysis, we demonstrated that global population samples of H. haemorrhoidalis were not infected with Wolbachia, Cardinium or any other known bacterial reproductive manipulators. Antibiotic treatment of this thrips did also not result in male production. Some individuals carried two different alleles in two nuclear loci, histone 3 and elongation factor 1 alpha, suggesting heterozygosity. However, the majority of individuals had three different alleles suggesting that they were polyploid. Genetic diversity across both nuclear loci was low in all populations, and absent from mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I, indicating that this species had experienced genetic bottlenecks, perhaps due to its invasion biology or a switch to thelytoky

  3. Review of International Experience with Renewable Energy Obligation Support Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.

    2005-06-01

    The main policy instruments currently used in the EU Member States to achieve the targets set for electricity produced from renewable energy sources are: (1) the quota obligation system; (2) the feed-in tariff system; and (3) the tendering system. The current study aims to review the experience gained with the quota obligation system. The report provides an overview of the regions where obligation systems have been implemented and contains a detailed evaluation of the performance of the obligation systems in the USA, the UK and in Sweden. The obligation systems in these countries have been evaluated based on the following criteria: Effectiveness; Market efficiency; Certainty for the renewable energy industry; Cost effectiveness; Stakeholder support for the obligation system; and Equity. The evaluation of international experiences with the obligation system gives rise to a mixed picture. Although an obligation in theory is effective and cost effective, it seems too early to conclude that the system delivers these promises in practice. On the one hand this is due to the limited period of implementation that makes it hard to distinguish between the direct effect of the system and some teething problems that will be solved in due time. On the other hand, the conclusion can be drawn that the obligation is a complex system, which will only function well if designed carefully. It does seem worthwhile, however, to continue monitoring the experiences with the obligation system abroad, because this will further reveal whether the system is indeed effective and cost effective in practice. In the longer term, e.g. beyond 2010, the introduction of an obligation system in the Netherlands could be considered. Finally, as the design of support schemes is being improved, it appears that the basic concepts of both the obligation system and the feed in system have been refined in such a way that the two systems are gradually converging. An important difference between the two systems

  4. Anaerobic benzene degradation by bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Carsten; Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Richnow, Hans‐Hermann

    2011-01-01

    Summary Benzene is a widespread and toxic contaminant. The fate of benzene in contaminated aquifers seems to be primarily controlled by the abundance of oxygen: benzene is aerobically degraded at high rates by ubiquitous microorganisms, and the oxygen‐dependent pathways for its breakdown were elucidated more than 50 years ago. In contrast, benzene was thought to be persistent under anoxic conditions until 25 years ago. Nevertheless, within the last 15 years, several benzene‐degrading cultures have been enriched under varying electron acceptor conditions in laboratories around the world, and organisms involved in anaerobic benzene degradation have been identified, indicating that anaerobic benzene degradation is a relevant environmental process. However, only a few benzene degraders have been isolated in pure culture so far, and they all use nitrate as an electron acceptor. In some highly enriched strictly anaerobic cultures, benzene has been described to be mineralized cooperatively by two or more different organisms. Despite great efforts, the biochemical mechanism by which the aromatic ring of benzene is activated in the absence of oxygen is still not fully elucidated; methylation, hydroxylation and carboxylation are discussed as likely reactions. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the ‘key players’ of anaerobic benzene degradation under different electron acceptor conditions and the possible pathway(s) of anaerobic benzene degradation. PMID:21450012

  5. Live Faecalibacterium prausnitzii induces greater TLR2 and TLR2/6 activation than the dead bacterium in an apical anaerobic co-culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Eva; Anderson, Rachel C; Altermann, Eric; Roy, Nicole C

    2017-11-07

    Inappropriate activation of intestinal innate immune receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), by pathogenic bacteria is linked to chronic inflammation. In contrast, a 'tonic' level of TLR activation by commensal bacteria is required for intestinal homeostasis. A technical challenge when studying this activation in vitro is the co-culturing of oxygen-requiring mammalian cells with obligate anaerobic commensal bacteria. To overcome this, we used a novel apical anaerobic co-culture system to successfully adapt a TLR activation assay to be conducted in conditions optimised for both cell types. Live Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, an abundant obligate anaerobe of the colonic microbiota, induced higher TLR2 and TLR2/6 activation than the dead bacterium. This enhanced TLR induction by live F. prausnitzii, which until now has not previously been described, may contribute to maintenance of gastrointestinal homeostasis. This highlights the importance of using physiologically relevant co-culture systems to decipher the mechanisms of action of live obligate anaerobes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Obligate oil-degrading marine bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakimov, Michail M; Timmis, Kenneth N; Golyshin, Peter N

    2007-06-01

    Over the past few years, a new and ecophysiologically unusual group of marine hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria - the obligate hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria (OHCB) - has been recognized and shown to play a significant role in the biological removal of petroleum hydrocarbons from polluted marine waters. The introduction of oil or oil constituents into seawater leads to successive blooms of a relatively limited number of indigenous marine bacterial genera--Alcanivorax, Marinobacter, Thallassolituus, Cycloclasticus, Oleispira and a few others (the OHCB)--which are present at low or undetectable levels before the polluting event. The types of OHCB that bloom depend on the latitude/temperature, salinity, redox and other prevailing physical-chemical factors. These blooms result in the rapid degradation of many oil constituents, a process that can be accelerated further by supplementation with limiting nutrients. Genome sequencing and functional genomic analysis of Alcanivorax borkumensis, the paradigm of OHCB, has provided significant insights into the genomic basis of the efficiency and versatility of its hydrocarbon utilization, the metabolic routes underlying its special hydrocarbon diet, and its ecological success. These and other studies have revealed the potential of OHCB for multiple biotechnological applications that include not only oil pollution mitigation, but also biopolymer production and biocatalysis.

  7. Safety Training: a right or an obligation?

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2014-01-01

    CERN’s Safety Training programme currently offers around 50 classroom courses and 17 e-learning courses. Although anyone can attend any of these courses, some are compulsory for everyone working at CERN. In particular, “CERN Safety Introduction” and “Safety during LS1” are compulsory for all new arrivals.   The "Self-Rescue Mask" training course. Photo: Christoph Balle. However, depending on the type of activities, the type of workstation, the role you have been assigned (TSO, project leader, etc.) and/or the area where you will be working (e.g. confined spaces), you might be required to follow additional safety training provided by CERN. In accordance with the provisions of the CERN Safety Policy, members of the personnel must keep themselves informed of their obligations in terms of safety training and of the actions they must take to keep up to date. Most training courses are valid for three years, and as they reach the ...

  8. Anaerobic digestion of solid material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vavilin, V.A.; Lokshina, L.Y.; Flotats, X.

    2007-01-01

    A new multidimensional (3 and 2D) anaerobic digestion model for cylindrical reactor with non-uniform influent concentration distributions was developed to study the way in which mixing intensity affects the efficiency of continuous-flow anaerobic digestion. Batch experiments reported and simulated....... In the system, the threshold methanogenic biomass concentration existed because of inhibition by high VFA concentration. High methanogenic biomass concentration is required for efficient anaerobic digestion of MSW in order to avoid possible inhibition due to high VFA build-up. Thus, CSTR configuration might...... have unstable dynamics at high organic loading as shown in earlier experiments carried out by Stroot et al. (2001). A gradual increase of organic loading during the start up of a completely mixed digester causing an accumulation of methanogenic biomass is a solution to prevent a probable digester...

  9. Global Redistributive Obligations in the Face of Severe Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, David Vestergaard

    This dissertation concerns global poverty. More specifically, it concerns the question of, which redistributive obligations we have towards foreigners and how these obligations are affected by the existence of severe and widespread poverty. Most people (both theorists and ordinary citizens) agree......-cosmopolitan arguments are incoherent since their methodology is at odds with their normative commitments to meeting basic rights obligations to foreigners. This, I claim, is not possible within their methodological framework and, thus, they must either abandon their methodology (which would make them open...

  10. RISK FACTORS IN NEONATAL ANAEROBIC INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Tabib

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic bacteria are well known causes of sepsis in adults but there are few studies regarding their role in neonatal sepsis. In an attempt to define the incidence of neonatal anaerobic infections a prospective study was performed during one year period. A total number of 400 neonates under sepsis study were entered this investigation. Anaerobic as well as aerobic cultures were sent. The patients were subjected to comparison in two groups: anaerobic culture positive and anaerobic culture negative and this comparison were analyzed statistically. There were 7 neonates with positive anaerobic culture and 35 neonates with positive aerobic culture. A significant statistical relationship was found between anaerobic infections and abdominal distention and pneumonia. It is recommended for those neonates with abdominal distention and pneumonia refractory to antibiotic treatment to be started on antibiotics with anaerobic coverage.

  11. Instrumentation in anaerobic treatment - research and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjers, H.; Lier, van J.B.

    2006-01-01

    High rate anaerobic treatment reactors are able to uncouple solids and liquid retention time, resulting in high biomass concentrations. Principal advantages of anaerobic treatment include: energy efficiency, low biomass yield, low nutrient requirement and high volumetric organic loadings. In order

  12. Tumor-Targeting Therapy Using Gene-Engineered Anaerobic-Nonpathogenic Bifidobacterium longum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Shun'ichiro; Shimatani, Yuko; Fujimori, Minoru

    2016-01-01

    Despite great progress in molecular-targeting drugs for cancer treatment, there are problems of disease recurrence due to cancer-cell resistance to those drugs, derived from the heterogeneity of tumors. On one hand, the low-oxygen microenvironment present in malignant tumor tissues has been regarded as a source of resistance of cancer cells against conventional therapie, such as radiation and chemotherapy. To overcome these problems, we have been developing a system to selectively deliver a large amount of anticancer drugs to malignant tumors by making use of the limiting factor, hypoxia, in tumors. Our strategy is to use hypoxia as a selective target. Here, we show methods and protocols using the nonpathogenic obligate anaerobic Bifidobacterium longum as a drug-delivery system (DDS) to target anaerobic tumor tissue.

  13. Biological conversion of biogas to methanol using methanotrophs isolated from solid-state anaerobic digestate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Johnathon P; Ge, Xumeng; Li, Yueh-Fen; Yu, Zhongtang; Li, Yebo

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this work was to isolate methanotrophs (methane oxidizing bacteria) that can directly convert biogas produced at a commercial anaerobic digestion (AD) facility to methanol. A methanotrophic bacterium was isolated from solid-state anaerobic digestate. The isolate had characteristics comparable to obligate methanotrophs from the genus Methylocaldum. This newly isolated methanotroph grew on biogas or purified CH4 and successfully converted biogas from AD to methanol. Methanol production was achieved using several methanol dehydrogenase (MDH) inhibitors and formate as an electron donor. The isolate also produced methanol using phosphate with no electron donor or using formate with no MDH inhibitor. The maximum methanol concentration (0.43±0.00gL(-1)) and 48-h CH4 to methanol conversion (25.5±1.1%) were achieved using biogas as substrate and a growth medium containing 50mM phosphate and 80mM formate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Environmental evidence for net methane production and oxidation in putative ANaerobic MEthanotrophic (ANME) archaea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lloyd, Karen; Teske, Andreas; Alperin, Marc J.

    2011-01-01

    Uncultured ANaerobic MEthanotrophic (ANME) archaea are often assumed to be obligate methanotrophs that are incapable of net methanogenesis, and are therefore used as proxies for anaerobic methane oxidation in many environments in spite of uncertainty regarding their metabolic capabilities...... versus methane production in sediments from the White Oak River estuary, North Carolina. ANME-1 consistently transcribe 16S rRNA and mRNA of methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA), the key gene for methanogenesis, up to 45 cm into methanogenic sediments. CARD-FISH shows that ANME-1 exist as single rod....... These results, along with a re-assessment of the published Iiterature, change the perspective to ANME-1 as methanogens that are also capable of methane oxidation....

  15. Methanogenesis from acetate: a nonmethanogenic bacterium from an anaerobic acetate enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, D M; Mah, R A; Kaplan, I R

    1978-06-01

    A methanogenic acetate enrichment was initiated by inoculation of an acetate-mineral salts medium with domestic anaerobic digestor sludge and maintained by weekly transfer for 2 years. The enrichment culture contained a Methanosarcina and several obligately anaerobic nonmethanogenic bacteria. These latter organisms formed varying degrees of association with the Methanosarcina, ranging from the nutritionally fastidious gram-negative rod called the satellite bacterium to the nutritionally nonfastidious Eubacterium limosum. The satellite bacterium had growth requirements for amino acids, a peptide, a purine base, vitamin B12, and other B vitamins. Glucose, mannitol, starch, pyruvate, cysteine, lysine, leucine, isoleucine, arginine, and asparagine stimulated growth and hydrogen production. Acetate was neither incorporated nor metabolized by the satellite organism. Since acetate was the sole organic carbon source in the enrichment culture, organism(s) which metabolize acetate (such as the Methanosarcina) must produce substrates and growth factors for associated organisms which do not metabolize acetate.

  16. 21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber. (a) Identification. An anaerobic chamber is a device intended for medical purposes to maintain an anaerobic (oxygen...

  17. Viscosity evolution of anaerobic granular sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pevere, A.; Guibaud, G.; Hullebusch, van E.D.; Lens, P.N.L.; Baudu, M.

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of the apparent viscosity at steady shear rate of sieved anaerobic granular sludge (20¿315 ¿m diameter) sampled from different full-scale anaerobic reactors was recorded using rotation tests. The ¿limit viscosity¿ of sieved anaerobic granular sludge was determined from the apparent

  18. The phenomenon of granulation of anaerobic sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshoff Pol, L.

    1989-01-01

    Successful high-rate anaerobic wastewater treatment can only be accomplished when the slowgrowing anaerobic biomass is efficiently held back in the anaerobic treatment system. This biomass retention can be achieved in various ways including immobilization of the organisms on fixed materials

  19. 47 CFR 54.405 - Carrier obligation to offer Lifeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Low-Income Consumers § 54.405 Carrier obligation... service, as defined in § 54.401, to qualifying low-income consumers, and (b) Publicize the availability of...

  20. NSF Obligations for Top 200 Institutions by Fiscal Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Science Foundation — An text/xml file containing FY 2001 through FY 2015 National Science Foundation (NSF) obligations by institution for the top 200 recipients defined in terms of total...

  1. Obama states obligation to act on climate change

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-01-01

    Obama states obligation to act on climate change Noting increased global temperatures, Arctic ice melt, and severe weather events, President Barack Obama said that climate change is real and called...

  2. THE SELLER'S OBLIGATION TO DELIVER THE GOODS ACCORDING TO CISG

    OpenAIRE

    Dan VELICU

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to analyze the seller's obligations under the Convention on International Sale of Goods (CISG) and in particular the obligation to deliver the goods showing the main issues that arise in an international sale. We also wish to point the major innovations or improvements brought by the CISG in comparison to the European civil codes regulation and to conclude if the CSIG managed to revolutionize the tradition view on this issue.

  3. THE SELLER'S OBLIGATION TO DELIVER THE GOODS ACCORDING TO CISG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan VELICU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the seller's obligations under the Convention on International Sale of Goods (CISG and in particular the obligation to deliver the goods showing the main issues that arise in an international sale. We also wish to point the major innovations or improvements brought by the CISG in comparison to the European civil codes regulation and to conclude if the CSIG managed to revolutionize the tradition view on this issue.

  4. Filial obligations to elderly parents: a duty to care?

    OpenAIRE

    Stuifbergen, Maria C.; van Delden, Johannes J M

    2010-01-01

    A continuing need for care for elderly, combined with looser family structures prompt the question what filial obligations are. Do adult children of elderly have a duty to care? Several theories of filial obligation are reviewed. The reciprocity argument is not sensitive to the parent–child relationship after childhood. A theory of friendship does not offer a correct parallel for the relationship between adult child and elderly parent. Arguments based on need or vulnerability run the risk of ...

  5. Selenihalanaerobacter shriftii gen. nov., sp. nov., a halophilic anaerobe from Dead Sea sediments that respires selenate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, Blum J.; Stolz, J.F.; Oren, A.; Oremland, R.S.

    2001-01-01

    We isolated an obligately anaerobic halophilic bacterium from the Dead Sea that grew by respiration of selenate. The isolate, designated strain DSSe-1, was a gram-negative, non-motile rod. It oxidized glycerol or glucose to acetate+CO2 with concomitant reduction of selenate to selenite plus elemental selenium. Other electron acceptors that supported anaerobic growth on glycerol were nitrate and trimethylamine-N-oxide; nitrite, arsenate, fumarate, dimethylsulfoxide, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, sulfite or sulfate could not serve as electron acceptors. Growth on glycerol in the presence of nitrate occurred over a salinity range from 100 to 240 g/l, with an optimum at 210 g/l. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence suggests that strain DSSe-1 belongs to the order Halanaerobiales, an order of halophilic anaerobes with a fermentative or homoacetogenic metabolism, in which anaerobic respiratory metabolism has never been documented. The highest 16S rRNA sequence similarity (90%) was found with Acetohalobium arabaticum (X89077). On the basis of physiological properties as well as the relatively low homology of 16S rRNA from strain DSSe-1 with known genera, classification in a new genus within the order Halanaerobiales, family Halobacteroidaceae is warranted. We propose the name Selenihalanaerobacter shriftii. Type strain is strain DSSe-1 (ATCC accession number BAA-73).

  6. Anaerobic and aerobic acetylene hydratase

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    The first step of the fermentation pathway, the hydration of acetylene to acetaldehyde, is catalyzed by the enzyme, acetylene hydratase. A detailed biochemical assay on these systems showed that the anaerobic strain, WoAcy 1, from Palobacter acetylinicus possesses a tungsten-containing acetylene hydratase but the ...

  7. Oxygen Effects in Anaerobic Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshai Botheju

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Interaction of free oxygen in bio-gasification is a sparsely studied area, apart from the common argument of oxygen being toxic and inhibitory for anaerobic micro-cultures. Some studies have, however, revealed increased solubilisation of organic matter in the presence of some free oxygen in anaerobic digestion. This article analyses these counterbalancing phenomena with a mathematical modelling approach using the widely accepted biochemical model ADM 1. Aerobic oxidation of soluble carbon and inhibition of obligatory anaerobic organisms are modelled using standard saturation type kinetics. Biomass dependent first order hydrolysis kinetics is used to relate the increased hydrolysis rate with oxygen induced increase in biomass growth. The amended model, ADM 1-Ox (oxygen, has 25 state variables and 22 biochemical processes, presented in matrix form. The computer aided simulation tool AQUASIM 2.1 is used to simulate the developed model. Simulation predictions are evaluated against experimental data obtained using a laboratory batch test array comprising miniature anaerobic bio-reactors of 100 ml total volume each, operated under different initial air headspaces giving rise to the different oxygen loading conditions. The reactors were initially fed with a glucose solution and incubated at 35 Celsius, for 563 hours. Under the oxygen load conditions of 22, 44 and 88 mg/L, the ADM1-Ox model simulations predicted the experimental methane potentials quite adequately. Both the experimental data and the simulations suggest a linear reduction of methane potential with respect to the increase in oxygen load within this range.

  8. Anaerobic granular sludge and biofilm reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2003-01-01

    by the immobilization of the biomass, which forms static biofilms, particle-supported biofilms, or granules depending on the reactor's operational conditions. The advantages of the high-rate anaerobic digestion over the conventional aerobic wastewater treatment methods has created a clear trend for the change......-rate anaerobic treatment systems based on anaerobic granular sludge and biofilm are described in this chapter. Emphasis is given to a) the Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) systems, b) the main characteristics of the anaerobic granular sludge, and c) the factors that control the granulation process...

  9. STUDY ON THE OBJECTIVE NOVATION OF AN OBLIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Lucian MARINESCU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In view of the fact that there is no consensus among the authors not only with regard to the precise nature, but also with regard to the unitary or dual character of the effects stemming from novation, we have decided to prepare a study on the novation of the legal obligation report which concerns the changing of the object or its cause. In the legal literature relating to the regulation of novation in the former civil code, novation covered two forms, objective and subjective. In the new civil code, the regulation of novation is based on the same primary categories of novation. Certain changes of this legal figure being expressly regulated in the Civil Code. Subjective novation (Article 1609(2 and (3 of the Civil Code is that which is carried out by changing the creditor or debtor of the initial obligation. The change of the debtor takes place when a third person undertakes to a creditor to pay the debt and it can be operated without the initial debtor’s consent which is released (Article 1609(2 Civil Code. The change of the creditor intervenes by substituting the initial creditor with a new creditor, operation as a result of which the debtor will be released from the creditor of the former obligation, being bound, as effect of novation, to the new creditor (Article 1609(2 Civil Code. Thus, a new legal obligation report is created between the parties. In addition to the theories already consecrated, the study proposes to explore the objective novation of the obligation in the light of the following analysis directions: Novation as a way of settling the obligation versus the unsatisfactory fulfillment of the obligation; The structure and characters of objective novation; The legal nature of objective novation.

  10. Preparation of prereduced anaerobically sterilized media and their use in cultivation of anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, E C; deVries, J; Harvey, R F

    1978-08-01

    Several modifications of the roll-tube method have made it simpler for routine use in the isolation and growth of anaerobic bacteria. These include use of a check valve for the production of prereduced anaerobically sterilized media; a Salvarsan tube under oxygen-free gas pressure for the dispensing of molten prereduced anaerobically sterilized agar medium; a Kelly infusion bottle with a graduated pipette side arm (also under gas pressure) for quantitative delivery of fluid prereduced anaerobically sterilized media; and screw-capped prescription bottles for the cultivation of anaerobes. Colonies of Bacteroides melaninogenicus were easily identified and counted by this method. Other anaerobic bacteria have also been cultivated successfully.

  11. Corporate Human Rights Obligations and International Investment Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Letnar Cernic

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation has blurred the artificial borders that exist between economies and societies around the world. The activities of corporations in this globalised environment have often served as the catalyst for human rights violations; due to the lack of institutional protection, some corporations are able to exploit regulatory lacunae and the lack of human rights protection. It appears that the paradigmatic change demands an equal emphasis of rights and obligations of corporations. This article discusses and critically analyses corporate human rights obligations and the lack thereof under stabilization clauses in foreign investment contracts. First, stabilization clauses in foreign investment agreements are examined in relation to corporate obligations and responsibility for fundamental human rights. In doing so the substantive and procedural dimension of stabilization clauses is analysed. Second, using the concrete examples of the Mineral Development Agreement between Mittal Steel and the Government of Liberia Mittal Steel Agreement and of the Baku‐Tblisi‐Ceyhan Pipeline Project as case studies, this article considers an application of stabilization clauses in foreign investment contracts in relation to the fundamental human rights obligation of states and of corporations. Third, a proposal for reform in the form of a fundamental human rights clause is introduced. To be clear, the argument here is that the fundamental human rights obligations of investors, particularly of corporations, must be included in foreign investment agreements.

  12. The Rights and Obligations of Spouses in Islamic Classic Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Juelda Lamçe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Islamic Law, the third largest global legal system, next to Civil Law and Common Law, has been far -back subject of an increased interest to the academics.  Its main peculiarity is the absorption of theology in the law. There is no clear borderline between juridical and religious regulation. For this reason it is important to understand how certain legal institutes where regulated in the past. In fact, Islamic classic law despite its later evolution is considered the most authoritative legal source, because closest to the Divine Revelation. With regard to the rights and obligations of spouses, they’re conceived in terms of complementary, while their equality is interpreted in terms of moral and spiritual rights and obligations. In order to better comprehend their rights and obligations, it is necessary to analyze the different roles of gender inside the Islamic family. Given the premises, this paper will focus on specific rights and obligations between spouses and with regard to the child-parent relationship. In particular, it will treat the meaning of the supremacy or authority of the man to the woman; the rights and obligations that they have towards the children born in and out of wedlock; the questions on the practice of the polygyny.

  13. Advances in genetic manipulation of obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eBeare

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Infections by obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens result in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. These bacteria include Chlamydia spp., which causes millions of cases of sexually transmitted disease and blinding trachoma annually, and members of the α-proteobacterial genera Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Orientia and Rickettsia, agents of serious human illnesses including epidemic typhus. Coxiella burnetii, the agent of human Q fever, has also been considered a prototypical obligate intracellular bacterium, but recent host cell-free (axenic growth has rescued it from obligatism. The historic genetic intractability of obligate intracellular bacteria has severely limited molecular dissection of their unique lifestyles and virulence factors involved in pathogenesis. Host cell restricted growth is a significant barrier to genetic transformation that can make simple procedures for free-living bacteria, such as cloning, exceedingly difficult. Low transformation efficiency requiring long term culture in host cells to expand small transformant populations is another obstacle. Despite numerous technical limitations, the last decade has witnessed significant gains in genetic manipulation of obligate intracellular bacteria including allelic exchange. Continued development of genetic tools should soon enable routine mutation and complementation strategies for virulence factor discovery and stimulate renewed interest in these refractory pathogens. In this review, we discuss the technical challenges associated with genetic transformation of obligate intracellular bacteria and highlight advances made with individual genera.

  14. Anaerobic glycolysis and lymphocytes blastization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzuca, A

    1980-01-30

    The role of enhanced anaerobic glycolysis in the transformation of human peripheral lymphocytes induced by mitogens has been investigated. The DNA syntesis, lactate production and increment of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme 5 (LDH5) have been studied. In this paper we present detailed kinetic studies, which indicate that LDH5 increment correlates closely with rapid synthetic activity and is not morely part of an overall increase in enzymatic activities.

  15. Anaerobic Degradation of Phenolic Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Schink, Bernhard; Philipp, Bodo; Jochen A Müller

    2000-01-01

    Mononuclear aromatic compounds are degraded anaerobically through three main pathways, the benzoyl-CoA pathway, the resorcinol pathway, and the phloroglucinol pathway. Various modification reactions channel a broad variety of mononuclear aromatics including aromatic hydrocarbons into either one of these three pathways. Recently, a further pathway was discovered with hydroxyhydroquinone as central intermediate through which especially nitrate-reducing bacteria degrade phenolic compounds and so...

  16. Anaerobic Cysteine Degradation and Potential Metabolic Coordination in Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loddeke, Melissa; Schneider, Barbara; Oguri, Tamiko; Mehta, Iti; Xuan, Zhenyu; Reitzer, Larry

    2017-08-15

    Salmonella enterica has two CyuR-activated enzymes that degrade cysteine, i.e., the aerobic CdsH and an unidentified anaerobic enzyme; Escherichia coli has only the latter. To identify the anaerobic enzyme, transcript profiling was performed for E. coli without cyuR and with overexpressed cyuR Thirty-seven genes showed at least 5-fold changes in expression, and the cyuPA (formerly yhaOM) operon showed the greatest difference. Homology suggested that CyuP and CyuA represent a cysteine transporter and an iron-sulfur-containing cysteine desulfidase, respectively. E. coli and S. enterica ΔcyuA mutants grown with cysteine generated substantially less sulfide and had lower growth yields. Oxygen affected the CyuR-dependent genes reciprocally; cyuP-lacZ expression was greater anaerobically, whereas cdsH-lacZ expression was greater aerobically. In E. coli and S. enterica, anaerobic cyuP expression required cyuR and cysteine and was induced by l-cysteine, d-cysteine, and a few sulfur-containing compounds. Loss of either CyuA or RidA, both of which contribute to cysteine degradation to pyruvate, increased cyuP-lacZ expression, which suggests that CyuA modulates intracellular cysteine concentrations. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CyuA homologs are present in obligate and facultative anaerobes, confirming an anaerobic function, and in archaeal methanogens and bacterial acetogens, suggesting an ancient origin. Our results show that CyuA is the major anaerobic cysteine-catabolizing enzyme in both E. coli and S. enterica, and it is proposed that anaerobic cysteine catabolism can contribute to coordination of sulfur assimilation and amino acid synthesis.IMPORTANCE Sulfur-containing compounds such as cysteine and sulfide are essential and reactive metabolites. Exogenous sulfur-containing compounds can alter the thiol landscape and intracellular redox reactions and are known to affect several cellular processes, including swarming motility, antibiotic sensitivity, and biofilm

  17. The impact of regulatory obligations on fishers’ income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadjimichael, Maria; J. Kaiser, Michel; Edwards-Jones, Gareth

    2013-01-01

    of regulatory measures; inshore fishers preferred restrictions related to the category ‘Days at Sea’ rather than ‘Total Allowable Catches’, and vice versa for offshore fishers. Fishers’ preferences varied most for ‘Enforcement and Compliance’ related obligations with the general trend being that fishers tend......Profit is an important driver of fishers’ behaviour. Thus, identifying fishers’ regulatory preferences in economic terms can assist the creation of more acceptable, workable and sustainable policies. The Adaptive Conjoint Analysis (ACA) method was adapted from its original application...... as a marketing tool to identify fishers’ most and least preferred regulatory obligations in terms of the impact these obligations have on their income. Significant differences were identified in fishers’ preferences that depended on the regulatory measures fishers operated under at the time of the study (which...

  18. Endosymbiosis In Statu Nascendi: Close Phylogenetic RelationshipBetween Obligately Endosymbiotic and Obligately Free-LivingPolynucleobacter Strains (Betaproteobacteria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vannini, Claudia; Pockl, Matthias; Petroni, Giulio; Wu, Qinglong; Lang, Elke; Stackebrandt, Erko; Schrallhammer, Martina; Richardson, PaulM.; Hahn, Martin W.

    2006-07-21

    Bacterial strains affiliated to the phylogenetically shallowsubcluster C (PnecC) of the 28 Polynucleobacter cluster, which ischaracterized by a minimal 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of approx.98.5 percent, have been reported to occur as obligate endosymbionts of 30ciliates (Euplotes spp.), as well as to occur as free-living cells in thepelagic zone of freshwater habitats. We investigated if these two groupsof closely related bacteria represent 32 strains fundamentally differingin lifestyle, or if they simply represent different stages of afacultative endosymbiotic lifestyle. The phylogenetic analysis of 16SrRNA gene and 16S34 23S ITS sequences of five endosymbiont strains fromtwo different Euplotes species and 40 pure culture strains demonstratedhost-species-specific clustering of the endosymbiont 36 sequences withinthe PnecC subcluster. The sequences of the endosymbionts showedcharacteristics indicating an obligate endosymbiotic lifestyle.Cultivation experiments 38 revealed fundamental differences inphysiological adaptations, and determination of the genome sizesindicated a slight size reduction in endosymbiotic strains. We concludethat the 40 two groups of PnecC bacteria represent obligately free-livingand obligately endosymbiotic strains, respectively, and do not representdifferent stages of the same complex lifecycle. 42 These closely relatedstrains occupy completely separated ecological niches. To our bestknowledge, this is the closest phylogenetic relationship between obligateendosymbionts and 44 obligately free-living bacteria everrevealed.

  19. Anaerobic bacteraemia: a review of 17 cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha D

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Of 93 blood cultures received with a suspicion of anaerobic bacteraemia over a period of two years, only 17 (18.3% showed anaerobic growth. Twelve grew anaerobes alone while five had a polymicrobial flora. Seven of these patients (4.3% had pre-existing heart disease while others had history of prior surgery, diabetes mellitus or urinary tract infection. Oropharynx was the commonest portal of entry, followed by gastrointestinal tract. The anaerobes isolated were anaerobic streptococci, Bacteroides fragilis group and Bilophila and Eubacterium species. Fifteen patients developed major complications such as congestive cardiac failure, systemic embolisation, and perforative peritonitis. The mortality rate among the cases with anaerobic bacteraemia was 23.5% in this study.

  20. Application of dynamic membranes in anaerobic membranes in anaerobic membrane bioreactor systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erşahin, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) physically ensure biomass retention by the application of a membrane filtration process. With growing application experiences from aerobic membrane bioreactors (MBRs), the combination of membrane and anaerobic processes has received much attention and become

  1. Anaerobic Microbial Degradation of Hydrocarbons: From Enzymatic Reactions to the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabus, Ralf; Boll, Matthias; Heider, Johann; Meckenstock, Rainer U; Buckel, Wolfgang; Einsle, Oliver; Ermler, Ulrich; Golding, Bernard T; Gunsalus, Robert P; Kroneck, Peter M H; Krüger, Martin; Lueders, Tillmann; Martins, Berta M; Musat, Florin; Richnow, Hans H; Schink, Bernhard; Seifert, Jana; Szaleniec, Maciej; Treude, Tina; Ullmann, G Matthias; Vogt, Carsten; von Bergen, Martin; Wilkes, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    naphthalene), W-cofactor-containing enzymes for reductive dearomatization of benzoyl-CoA (class II benzoyl-CoA reductase) in obligate anaerobes and addition of water to acetylene, fermentative formation of cyclohexanecarboxylate from benzoate, and methanogenic degradation of hydrocarbons. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF A BIODEGRADABLE MATERIAL UNDER ANAEROBIC - THERMOPHILIC DIGESTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICARDO CAMACHO-MUÑOZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper dertermined the anaerobic biodegradation of a polymer obtained by extrusion process of native cassava starch, polylactic acid and polycaprolactone. Initially a thermophilic - methanogenic inoculum was prepared from urban solid waste. The gas final methane concentration and medium’s pH reached values of 59,6% and 7,89 respectively. The assay assembly was carried out according ASTM D5511 standard. The biodegradation percent of used materials after 15 day of digestion were: 77,49%, 61,27%, 0,31% for cellulose, sample and polyethylene respectively. Due cellulose showed biodegradation levels higher than 70% it’s deduced that the inoculum conditions were appropriate. A biodegradation level of 61,27%, 59,35% of methane concentration in sample’s evolved gas and a medium’s finale pH of 7,71 in sample’s vessels, reveal the extruded polymer´s capacity to be anaerobically degraded under thermophilic- high solid concentration conditions.

  3. Transforming Early Childhood Systems for Future Generations: Obligations and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Sharon Lynn; Roth, Jessica L.

    2017-01-01

    In a rapidly shifting twenty-first century context, early childhood education and care (ECEC) must consider contextual, scientific, and policy realities in order to realize its social obligations to young children. The current status of ECEC globally bears both good and bad news; many countries are paying attention to the importance of the early…

  4. Rethinking political obligation: moral principles, communal ties, citizenship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokrosińska, D.

    2012-01-01

    Why obey the state? Dorota Mokrosińska presents a fresh analysis of the most influential theories of political obligation and develops a novel approach to this foundational problem of political philosophy, an intriguing combination of the elements of natural duty and associative theories. The theory

  5. Life-Long Learning and Social Responsibility Obligations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Robin

    2013-01-01

    The literature affirms that widespread lapses in corporate social responsibility obligations (unethical behaviors) have periodically brought about extensive forfeitures of economic wealth and countless job losses leaving the world economy in recession or depression. Put forth as a resolution to unemployment issues the academic literature champions…

  6. 47 CFR 76.56 - Signal carriage obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements of this section require that, after the broadcast television transition from analog to digital... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of Television Broadcast Signals § 76.56 Signal carriage obligations. (a) Carriage of qualified noncommercial educational stations. A cable television...

  7. 34 CFR 686.40 - Documenting the service obligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., bilingual education, English language acquisition, special education, or as a reading specialist; or (ii... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Documenting the service obligation. 686.40 Section 686.40 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF...

  8. 15 CFR 711.4 - Assistance in determining your obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assistance in determining your obligations. 711.4 Section 711.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS...

  9. 48 CFR 1019.202-70-14 - Obligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 1019.202-70-14 Obligation. (a) Mentor or protégé firms, may... mission and contract requirements under the prime contract. (b) At the conclusion of each year in the... objectives in the agreement; and, (4) To what extent the mentor firm's participation in the Mentor-Protégé...

  10. 47 CFR 27.1184 - Triggering a reimbursement obligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1710-1755 MHz, 2110-2155 MHz, 2160-2180 MHz Bands Cost-Sharing... has triggered a cost-sharing obligation and therefore must pay an AWS relocator of a BRS system in... a fixed base station at commercial power and the incumbent BRS system would have been within the...

  11. 47 CFR 27.1168 - Triggering a Reimbursement Obligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1710-1755 MHz, 2110-2155 MHz, 2160-2180 MHz Bands Cost-Sharing... AWS entity or MSS/ATC entity has triggered a cost-sharing obligation and therefore must pay an AWS... on a fixed base station (including MSS/ATC) at commercial power and the fixed base station is located...

  12. Applicability of energy saving obligations to Indian electricity efficiency efforts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, Robert; Moth, Luke; Kumar, Atul

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates end-use electricity efficiency policies and DSM related aspects within the Indian electricity sector. This work also identifies lessons for India from White Certificate schemes and Energy Saving Obligations in the UK, France and Italy. These two analyses aim to identify

  13. Filial obligations today : moral practice, perception and ethical theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuifbergen, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is about the meaning of filial obligations in Dutch society today. The thesis consists of a general introduction, two quantitative sociological studies, two qualitative studies, an ethical analysis and a general discussion. In the introduction, the background for the research questions

  14. 24 CFR 1710.103 - Developer obligated improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Developer obligated improvements. 1710.103 Section 1710.103 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  15. The Role Obligations of Students and Lecturers in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Julie-Anne

    2012-01-01

    The current discussion of consumerism in higher education focuses largely on what the providers are obliged to do for the consumers, against the background of rising tuition fees. This framework does not always sit comfortably with lecturers in the context of a learning and teaching relationship, as it appears to ignore the reciprocal obligations…

  16. 32 CFR 220.9 - Rights and obligations of beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... from facilities of the Uniformed Services. (d) Mandatory disclosure of Social Security account numbers... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rights and obligations of beneficiaries. 220.9 Section 220.9 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE...

  17. 18 CFR 37.8 - Obligations of OASIS users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... users. 37.8 Section 37.8 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... Obligations of OASIS users. Each OASIS user must notify the Responsible Party one month in advance of initiating a significant amount of automated queries. The OASIS user must also notify the Responsible Party...

  18. Changing Families, Changing Responsibilities: Family Obligations Following Divorce and Remarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; Coleman, Marilyn

    The high incidence of divorce and remarriage means that the structure of American families is changing. Drawing on 13 studies that explore intergenerational obligations, this book discusses the responsibilities of family members to one another after divorce and remarriage. Chapter 1, "Who Is Responsible for Dependent Family Members?," presents an…

  19. 37 CFR 251.30 - Basic obligations of arbitrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Basic obligations of arbitrators. 251.30 Section 251.30 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS... arbitrators may accept gifts of nominal value or gifts from friends and family as specified in § 251.34(b). (5...

  20. 22 CFR 204.15 - Paying agent obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Paying agent obligations. 204.15 Section 204.15 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS The... pursuant to the Paying and Transfer Agency Agreement shall not impair the Investor's or any Assignee's...

  1. Isolation and Characterization of Gram Negative Obligate and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gamal Ebrahium Haridy Osman

    2012-05-22

    May 22, 2012 ... Full Length Research Paper. Isolation and characterization of Gram negative obligate and facultative alkalophilic Bacillus sp. from desert soil of Saudi Arabia. Abdulrahman S. A. Assaeedi1* and Gamal E. H. Osman1,2. 1Department of Biology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, ...

  2. Parental Beliefs about Nonresident Fathers' Obligations and Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I-Fen; McLanahan, Sara S.

    2007-01-01

    We examine whether parents rely on principles of equity or equality in making judgments about nonresident fathers' obligations and rights. The data are taken from the first wave of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. The analysis sample includes 4,304 new mothers and 3,414 new fathers. Results indicate that fathers perceive obligations…

  3. Political Obligation, Dirty Hands and Torture; A Moral Evaluation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Political Obligation, Dirty Hands and Torture; A Moral Evaluation. H van Erp. Abstract. The example of a political leader who has to decide whether he would allow the torture of a suspect in order to get information about a ticking bomb has become notorious in ethical discussions concerning the tension between moral ...

  4. In the Nick of Time: Proactive Prevention of Obligation Violations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basin, David; Debois, Søren; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We present a system model, an enforcement mechanism, and a policy language for the proactive enforcement of timed provisions and obligations. Our approach improves upon existing formalisms in two ways: (1) we exploit the target system's existing functionality to avert policy violations proactively...

  5. Students with Disabilities Participation in Extracurricular Athletics: School District Obligations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yell, Mitchell L.; Losinski, Mickey L.; Katsiyannis, Antonis

    2014-01-01

    On January 25, 2013 the Office of Civil Rights (OCR) in the U.S. Department of Education issued a Dear Colleague letter (DCL) that addressed the obligations of school districts under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act regarding the participation of students with disabilities in extracurricular athletic activities (U.S. Department of Education,…

  6. In the Nick of Time: Proactive Prevention of Obligation Violations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basin, David; Debois, Søren; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We present a system model, an enforcement mechanism, and a policy language for the proactive enforcement of timed provisions and obligations. Our approach improves upon existing formalisms in two ways: (1) we exploit the target system's existing functionality to avert policy violations proactivel...

  7. Short communications : Are wild African lungfish obligate air ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory studies have resulted in classification of the marbled African lungfish, Protopterus aethiopicus, as an obligate air-breather. However, there have been no investigations of the extent of dependence on aerial respiration by this species in the wild. We used radio telemetry to obtain quantitative information on the ...

  8. Forum Issues in the Enforcement of Regulatory Obligations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... at the centre of the jurisdictional conflict between the Federal High Court and the Investment and Securities Tribunal, in relation to the enforcement of reporting obligations of Nigerian public companies. As a contribution to regulatory clarity and law reform, it proposes and discusses normative principles for the resolution of ...

  9. Filial obligations to elderly parents: a duty to care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuifbergen, Maria C; Van Delden, Johannes J M

    2011-02-01

    A continuing need for care for elderly, combined with looser family structures prompt the question what filial obligations are. Do adult children of elderly have a duty to care? Several theories of filial obligation are reviewed. The reciprocity argument is not sensitive to the parent-child relationship after childhood. A theory of friendship does not offer a correct parallel for the relationship between adult child and elderly parent. Arguments based on need or vulnerability run the risk of being unjust to those on whom a needs-based claim is laid. To compare filial obligations with promises makes too much of parents' expectations, however reasonable they may be. The good of being in an unchosen relationship seems the best basis for filial obligations, with an according duty to maintain the relationship when possible. We suggest this relationship should be maintained even if one of the parties is no longer capable of consciously contributing to it. We argue that this entails a duty to care about one's parents, not for one's parents. This implies that care for the elderly is not in the first place a task for adult children.

  10. Glycosaminoglycan-depolymerizing enzymes produced by anaerobic bacteria isolated from the human mouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipler, L S; Embery, G

    1985-01-01

    A number of obligately anaerobic bacteria, some implicated in periodontal disease, were screened for their ability to produce enzymes capable of degrading hyaluronic acid and chondroitin-4-sulphate. Two screening methods were used following anaerobic incubation at 37 degrees C for 7 days. One involved incorporating the respective substrates and bovine-serum albumin into agar plates and, after incubation, flooding the plates with 2 M acetic acid. Clear zones were produced around colonies which produced enzymes capable of depolymerizing the substrates. The second was a sensitive spectrophotometric procedure based on the ability of certain bacteria to produce eliminase enzymes, which degrade the substrates to unsaturated products having a characteristic u.v. absorption at 232 nm. Strains of Bacteroides gingivalis and Bacteroides melaninogenicus degraded both substrates whereas Bacteroides asaccharolyticus degraded neither substrate by either method. Some bacteria gave negative results with the plate method whereas the more sensitive spectrophotometric assay proved positive. The number of anaerobic bacteria capable of degrading hyaluronic acid and chondroitin-4-sulphate in vitro may therefore have been underestimated in previous studies.

  11. Characterization of a Methanogenic Community within an Algal Fed Anaerobic Digester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Joshua T.; Tramp, Cody; Sims, Ronald C.; Miller, Charles D.

    2012-01-01

    The microbial diversity and metabolic potential of a methanogenic consortium residing in a 3785-liter anaerobic digester, fed with wastewater algae, was analyzed using 454 pyrosequencing technology. DNA was extracted from anaerobic sludge material and used in metagenomic analysis through PCR amplification of the methyl-coenzyme M reductase α subunit (mcrA) gene using primer sets ML, MCR, and ME. The majority of annotated mcrA sequences were assigned taxonomically to the genera Methanosaeta in the order Methanosarcinales. Methanogens from the genus Methanosaeta are obligate acetotrophs, suggesting this genus plays a dominant role in methane production from the analyzed fermentation sample. Numerous analyzed sequences within the algae fed anaerobic digester were unclassified and could not be assigned taxonomically. Relative amplicon frequencies were determined for each primer set to determine the utility of each in pyrosequencing. Primer sets ML and MCR performed better quantitatively (representing the large majority of analyzed sequences) than primer set ME. However, each of these primer sets was shown to provide a quantitatively unique community structure, and thus they are of equal importance in mcrA metagenomic analysis. PMID:23724331

  12. [Necrotizing mucosal ulcers cause by anaerobic bacteria. Fusiform bacterial and spirochete infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollandt, J H; Hollandt, H

    1996-12-01

    Vincent's angina (Plaut-Vincent) is the most prominent disease caused by coinciding infections from fusibacteria and spirochaeta both belonging to obligate anaerobic bacteria. A possible symbiotic infection of both anaerobics may become manifest on the mucous membranes of the oral cavity and the oropharynx beside the tonsillas. The clinical outcome may be different and pose difficulties in the differential diagnosis. We report the case of a 29 year old female patient with necrotizing ulcera of the soft palate suspicious for stomatitis ulceromembranacea. In case necrotizing inflammations of the oral cavity area were to be found infections due to anaerobic bacteria should be considered mostly occurring as mixed infections. The correct identification by cultivation turns out to be difficult in that it requires special conditions. Furthermore, reliable detection of these bacteria necessitates careful collection and transport of patients specimens. In case of Fusospirochaetosis (Fusotreponematose) a specimen should be prepared for microscopic examination beside setting up a special culture. This is because the staining is the most suitable procedure for bacteril identification to support the clinical diagnosis of stomatitis ulceromembranacea.

  13. Anaerobic exercise - Induced changes in serum mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaerobic exercise, a non 02 – dependent energy metabolism leads to transient metabolic changes, which are corrected gradually by homestatic mechanism. We investigated in eight male subjects, the effects of anaerobic exercise after a day sedentary activity on serum mineral concentration. There was significant ...

  14. Method for anaerobic fermentation and biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for biomass processing, anaerobic fermentation of the processed biomass, and the production biogas. In particular, the invention relates to a system and method for generating biogas from anaerobic fermentation of processed organic material that comprises...

  15. Anaerobic Infections in Children with Neurological Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Itzhak

    1995-01-01

    Children with neurological impairments are prone to develop serious infection with anaerobic bacteria. The most common anaerobic infections are decubitus ulcers; gastrostomy site wound infections; pulmonary infections (aspiration pneumonia, lung abscesses, and tracheitis); and chronic suppurative otitis media. The unique microbiology of each of…

  16. Prospects of Anaerobic Digestion Technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    As the world's largest developing country, China must face the problem of managing municipal solid waste, and the challenge of organic waste disposal is even more serious. Considering the characteristics of traditional waste disposal technologies and the subsequent secondary pollution, anaerobic digestion has various advantages such as reduction in the land needed for disposal and preservation of environmental quality. In light of the energy crisis, this paper focuses on the potential production of biogas from biowaste through anaerobic digestion processes, the problems incurred by the waste collection system, and the efficiency of the anaerobic digestion process. Use of biogas in a combined heat and power cogeneration system is also discussed. Finally, the advantages of anaerobic digestion technology for the Chinese market are summarized. The anaerobic digestion is suggested to be a promising treating technology for the organic wastes in China.

  17. 26 CFR 1.103-1 - Interest upon obligations of a State, territory, etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interest upon obligations of a State, territory....103-1 Interest upon obligations of a State, territory, etc. (a) Interest upon obligations of a State, territory, a possession of the United States, the District of Columbia, or any political subdivision thereof...

  18. What is political about political obligation? A neglected lesson from consent theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokrosińska, D.

    2013-01-01

    Much of the debate concerning political obligation deals with the question of which, if any, moral principles could make obedience to the directives of the government a matter of obligation. What makes political obligation political has not received attention in the literature on the topic. In this

  19. EFFECT OF MUSIC ON ANAEROBIC EXERCISE PERFORMANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    For years, mostly the effects of music on cardiorespiratory exercise performance have been studied, but a few studies have examined the effect of music on anaerobic exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of listening to music and its rhythm on anaerobic exercise: on power output, heart rate and the concentration of blood lactate. 28 male subjects were required to visit the laboratory on 6 occasions, each separated by 48 hours. Firstly, each subject performed the Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST) under 3 conditions on separate days: while listening to “slow rhythm music”, “fast rhythm music” or “no music”. 48 hours after the subjects completed RAST under 3 conditions, Wingate Anaerobic Power (WAN) tests were performed under 3 music conditions. The order of the 3 conditions (slow music, fast music and no music) was selected randomly to prevent an order effect. Results showed no significant differences between 3 conditions in anaerobic power assessments, heart rate or blood lactate (p > 0.05). On the basis of these results it can be said that music cannot improve anaerobic performance. The type of music had no impact on power outputs during RAST and WAN exercise. As a conclusion, listening to music and its rhythm cannot enhance anaerobic performance and cannot change the physiological response to supramaximal exercise. PMID:24744463

  20. Anaerobic exercise and oxidative stress: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomer, Richard J; Goldfarb, Allen H

    2004-06-01

    Oxidative stress and subsequent damage to cellular proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, as well as changes to the glutathione system, are well documented in response to aerobic exercise. However, far less information is available on anaerobic exercise-induced oxidative modifications. Recent evidence indicates that high intensity anaerobic work does result in oxidative modification to the above-mentioned macromolecules in both skeletal muscle and blood. Also, it appears that chronic anaerobic exercise training can induce adaptations that act to attenuate the exercise-induced oxidative stress. These may be specific to increased antioxidant defenses and/or may act to reduce the generation of pro-oxidants during and after exercise. However, a wide variety of exercise protocols and assay procedures have been used to study oxidative stress pertaining to anaerobic work. Therefore, precise conclusions about the exact extent and location of oxidative macromolecule damage, in addition to the adaptations resulting from chronic anaerobic exercise training, are difficult to indicate. This manuscript provides a review of anaerobic exercise and oxidative stress, presenting both the acute effects of a single exercise bout and the potential for adaptations resulting from chronic anaerobic training.

  1. Effect of music on anaerobic exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atan, T

    2013-03-01

    For years, mostly the effects of music on cardiorespiratory exercise performance have been studied, but a few studies have examined the effect of music on anaerobic exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of listening to music and its rhythm on anaerobic exercise: on power output, heart rate and the concentration of blood lactate. 28 male subjects were required to visit the laboratory on 6 occasions, each separated by 48 hours. Firstly, each subject performed the Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST) under 3 conditions on separate days: while listening to "slow rhythm music", "fast rhythm music" or "no music". 48 hours after the subjects completed RAST under 3 conditions, Wingate Anaerobic Power (WAN) tests were performed under 3 music conditions. The order of the 3 conditions (slow music, fast music and no music) was selected randomly to prevent an order effect. Results showed no significant differences between 3 conditions in anaerobic power assessments, heart rate or blood lactate (p > 0.05). On the basis of these results it can be said that music cannot improve anaerobic performance. The type of music had no impact on power outputs during RAST and WAN exercise. As a conclusion, listening to music and its rhythm cannot enhance anaerobic performance and cannot change the physiological response to supramaximal exercise.

  2. EFFECT OF MUSIC ON ANAEROBIC EXERCISE PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülin Atan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For years, mostly the effects of music on cardiorespiratory exercise performance have been studied, but a few studies have examined the effect of music on anaerobic exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of listening to music and its rhythm on anaerobic exercise: on power output, heart rate and the concentration of blood lactate. 28 male subjects were required to visit the laboratory on 6 occasions, each separated by 48 hours. Firstly, each subject performed the Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST under 3 conditions on separate days: while listening to “slow rhythm music”, “fast rhythm music” or “no music”. 48 hours after the subjects completed RAST under 3 conditions, Wingate Anaerobic Power (WAN tests were performed under 3 music conditions. The order of the 3 conditions (slow music, fast music and no music was selected randomly to prevent an order effect. Results showed no significant differences between 3 conditions in anaerobic power assessments, heart rate or blood lactate (p>0.05. On the basis of these results it can be said that music cannot improve anaerobic performance. The type of music had no impact on power outputs during RAST and WAN exercise. As a conclusion, listening to music and its rhythm cannot enhance anaerobic performance and cannot change the physiological response to supramaximal exercise.

  3. Cosmetic surgery on children - professional and legal obligations in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitipornchai, Leon; Then, Shih-Ning

    2011-07-01

    Public awareness and concern about cosmetic surgery on children is increasing. Nationally and internationally questions have been raised by the media and government bodies about the appropriateness of children undergoing cosmetic surgery. Considering the rates of cosmetic surgery in comparable Western societies, it seems likely that the number of physicians in Australia who will deal with a request for cosmetic surgery for a child will continue to increase. This is a sensitive issue and it is essential that physicians understand the professional and legal obligations that arise when cosmetic surgery is proposed for a child. This article reviews the current professional and legal obligations that physicians have to competent and incompetent children for whom cosmetic surgery has been requested. A case study is used to highlight the factors that Australian primary care physicians must consider before referring and conducting cosmetic surgery on children.

  4. To what do we have moral obligations and why? II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, R

    1985-06-08

    Following up on his 1 June 1985 article on moral obligations to living human beings versus other sentient beings, Gillon focuses on arguments for and against prohuman "speciesism," the claim that "viability" is a justifiable criterion for differentiating between humans that may be killed and those that may not, and claims that "personhood" is a morally relevant differentiating concept. He discusses the positions taken by Peter Singer and Dame Mary Warnock on "speciesism," and the theories of such philosphers as John Locke, Immanuel Kant, and Michael Tooley regarding the essence of personhood. He sees no solid basis for grounding the scope of moral obligations on simple sentience, membership in the human species, or technical differentia such as viability, and concludes that medical ethics still suffers from the lack of an adequate theory on which to base a right to life.

  5. Irans Nuclear Program: Tehrans Compliance with International Obligations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-07

    issue of concern directly affecting fulfilment of JCPOA commitments. 14 Iran has a plant for producing heavy water. Iran’s Nuclear Program: Tehran’s...U.S. official statements have consistently reiterated that Tehran has not yet decided to build nuclear weapons. 58 British Foreign Secretary...Iran’s Nuclear Program: Tehran’s Compliance with International Obligations Paul K. Kerr Analyst in Nonproliferation April 7, 2016

  6. Obligation de rendre compte | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les mécanismes qui appuient l'obligation de rendre compte, comme les comités spéciaux, les unités organisationnelles spécialisées et les pratiques administratives quotidiennes, englobent la gestion du risque, les audits, les évaluations, l'accès à l'information, la production de rapports à l'intention du Parlement et la ...

  7. Kant's assessment of motivation in the fulfillment of social obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knupp, Jackie

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the motivations of physicians who promote the health of their communities through the fulfillment of social obligations beyond the boundaries of their own patients. Based on the assumption that physicians do not have social obligations, this paper looks at the normative, motivational question, namely "How should physicians be motivated to fulfill social obligations?" The paper traces the Kantian view of morality and motivation. The distinctions between required, merely permissible, and forbidden actions is drawn. Furthermore, Kant's view that required actions done in accordance with duty are of no moral worth is critiqued from three stand points. First, it is argued that just because motivations outside of Kantian-based duty are not as good, it does not follow that these motivations are of no moral worth. Second, it is argued that there are some motivations behind required actions that are clearly better than other motivations. Third, it is argued that required actions done in accordance with duty are clearly better than those actions done without relevance to duty. The paper concludes that many required actions done in accordance with duty are performed from motivations that do have moral worth.

  8. Clinical findings in obligate carriers of type I Usher syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagenaar, M.; Rahe, B. ter; Aarem, A. van; Huygen, P.; Admiraal, R. [University Hospital Nijmegen (Netherlands)] [and others

    1995-11-20

    Seventeen obligate carriers from nine families with autosomal recessive Usher syndrome type I underwent otological, audiological, vestibular, and ophthalmological examination in order to identify possible manifestations of heterozygosity. Linkage studies were performed and six families showed linkage to chromosome region 11q13.5 while 3 families have so far failed to show linkage to the candidate regions. Eight obligate carriers had an abnormal puretone audiogram. Two different audiometric patterns could be distinguished when hearing loss was corrected for age and sex. Four carriers (24%) had significant sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) which increased at higher frequencies. The other 13 carriers had SNHL of about 10 dB at 0.25 and 0.5 kHz, but less at higher frequencies. Vestibular findings were generally normal. Electrooculography demonstrated a significant lower mean light peak/dark trough ratio in Usher type I carriers compared to normal control individuals. The methods used in this study were found not to be specific enough to clinically identify carriers of Usher type I syndrome. Nevertheless it is remarkable that a number of obligate carriers showed significant audiological and ophthalmological abnormalities. 29 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  9. Manipulation of Host Cholesterol by Obligate Intracellular Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhritiman Samanta

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is a multifunctional lipid that plays important metabolic and structural roles in the eukaryotic cell. Despite having diverse lifestyles, the obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens Chlamydia, Coxiella, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia all target cholesterol during host cell colonization as a potential source of membrane, as well as a means to manipulate host cell signaling and trafficking. To promote host cell entry, these pathogens utilize cholesterol-rich microdomains known as lipid rafts, which serve as organizational and functional platforms for host signaling pathways involved in phagocytosis. Once a pathogen gains entrance to the intracellular space, it can manipulate host cholesterol trafficking pathways to access nutrient-rich vesicles or acquire membrane components for the bacteria or bacteria-containing vacuole. To acquire cholesterol, these pathogens specifically target host cholesterol metabolism, uptake, efflux, and storage. In this review, we examine the strategies obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens employ to manipulate cholesterol during host cell colonization. Understanding how obligate intracellular pathogens target and use host cholesterol provides critical insight into the host-pathogen relationship.

  10. Anaerobic degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Anders Skibsted; Haagensen, Frank; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) found in wastewater is removed in the wastewater treatment facilities by sorption and aerobic biodegradation. The anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge has not been shown to contribute to the removal. The concentration of LAS based on dry matter typically...... increases during anaerobic stabilization due to transformation of easily degradable organic matter. Hence, LAS is regarded as resistant to biodegradation under anaerobic conditions. We present data from a lab-scale semi-continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) spiked with linear dodecylbenzene sulfonate (C...

  11. Molecular ecology of anaerobic reactor systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofman-Bang, H. Jacob Peider; Zheng, D.; Westermann, Peter

    2003-01-01

    to the abundance of each microbe in anaerobic reactor systems by rRNA probing. This chapter focuses on various molecular techniques employed and problems encountered when elucidating the microbial ecology of anaerobic reactor systems. Methods such as quantitative dot blot/fluorescence in-situ probing using various...... and malfunctions of anaerobic digesters occasionally experienced, leading to sub-optimal methane production and wastewater treatment. Using a variety of molecular techniques, we are able to determine which microorganisms are active, where they are active, and when they are active, but we still need to determine...

  12. Intraspecific variation in aerobic and anaerobic locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jon Christian; Tirsgård, Bjørn; Cordero, Gerardo A.

    2015-01-01

    Intraspecific variation and trade-off in aerobic and anaerobic traits remain poorly understood in aquatic locomotion. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), both axial swimmers, this study tested four hypotheses: (1) gait transition from steady...... to unsteady (i.e., burst-assisted) swimming is associated with anaerobic metabolism evidenced as excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC); (2) variation in swimming performance (critical swimming speed; U crit) correlates with metabolic scope (MS) or anaerobic capacity (i.e., maximum EPOC); (3...

  13. Evolution of molybdenum nitrogenase during the transition from anaerobic to aerobic metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Eric S; Costas, Amaya M Garcia; Hamilton, Trinity L; Mus, Florence; Peters, John W

    2015-05-01

    Molybdenum nitrogenase (Nif), which catalyzes the reduction of dinitrogen to ammonium, has modulated the availability of fixed nitrogen in the biosphere since early in Earth's history. Phylogenetic evidence indicates that oxygen (O2)-sensitive Nif emerged in an anaerobic archaeon and later diversified into an aerobic bacterium. Aerobic bacteria that fix N2 have adapted a number of strategies to protect Nif from inactivation by O2, including spatial and temporal segregation of Nif from O2 and respiratory consumption of O2. Here we report the complement of Nif-encoding genes in 189 diazotrophic genomes. We show that the evolution of Nif during the transition from anaerobic to aerobic metabolism was accompanied by both gene recruitment and loss, resulting in a substantial increase in the number of nif genes. While the observed increase in the number of nif genes and their phylogenetic distribution are strongly correlated with adaptation to utilize O2 in metabolism, the increase is not correlated with any of the known O2 protection mechanisms. Rather, gene recruitment appears to have been in response to selective pressure to optimize Nif synthesis to meet fixed N demands associated with aerobic productivity and to more efficiently regulate Nif under oxic conditions that favor protein turnover. Consistent with this hypothesis, the transition of Nif from anoxic to oxic environments is associated with a shift from posttranslational regulation in anaerobes to transcriptional regulation in obligate aerobes and facultative anaerobes. Given that fixed nitrogen typically limits ecosystem productivity, our observations further underscore the dynamic interplay between the evolution of Earth's oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon biogeochemical cycles. Molybdenum nitrogenase (Nif), which catalyzes the reduction of dinitrogen to ammonium, has modulated the availability of fixed nitrogen in the biosphere since early in Earth's history. Nif emerged in an anaerobe and later diversified into

  14. Attachment style and filial obligation in the burden of caregivers of dementia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juwon; Sohn, Bo Kyung; Lee, Hyunjoo; Seong, Su Jeong; Park, Soowon; Lee, Jun-Young

    2017-12-06

    Insecure attachment styles have been known to predict greater burden in caregivers of dementia patients. However, it has not been tested how filial obligation, which refers to one's sense of duty on helping elderly parents and is especially pronounced in Asian cultures, is involved in that relationship. We sought to identify whether the association between attachment style and caregiver burden differs according to the degree of filial obligation in caregivers of dementia patients. To assess filial obligation in Korean participants, a Korean filial obligation measure was developed. Ninety-eight Korean female caregivers of dementia patients reported their attachment style, filial obligation, burden, and patient behavioral symptoms. Patients' cognitive abilities, daily activity levels, and global dementia severities were obtained from hospital records. When adjusting for caregiver and patient characteristics, greater attachment anxiety predicted higher burden, corroborating literature findings. However, the association of attachment avoidance with burden was contingent on filial obligation: When obligation was high, greater avoidance associated with lower burden, which contrasts with previous negative implications of attachment insecurity. This implies a buffering role of attachment avoidance among those highly obligated. In addition, obligation positively predicted burden among those low in avoidance. This study is the first one to investigate and find conditional associations between attachment style, filial obligation, and caregiver burden. Given that filial obligation tends to be higher in caregivers of Eastern countries, this study provides quantitative evidence that the caregiving process may be different for them. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Anaerobe Tolerance to Oxygen and the Potentials of Anaerobic and Aerobic Cocultures for Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T. Kato

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The anaerobic treatment processes are considered to be well-established methods for the elimination of easily biodegradable organic matter from wastewaters. Some difficulties concerning certain wastewaters are related to the possible presence of dissolved oxygen. The common belief is that anaerobes are oxygen intolerant. Therefore, the common practice is to use sequencing anaerobic and aerobic steps in separate tanks. Enhanced treatment by polishing off the residual biodegradable oxygen demand from effluents of anaerobic reactors, or the biodegradation of recalcitrant wastewater pollutants, usually requires sequenced anaerobic and aerobic bacteria activities. However, the combined activity of both bacteria can also be obtained in a single reactor. Previous experiments with either pure or mixed cultures showed that anaerobes can tolerate oxygen to a certain extent. The oxygen toxicity to methanogens in anaerobic sludges was quantified in batch experiments, as well as in anaerobic reactors. The results showed that methanogens have a high tolerance to oxygen. In practice, it was confirmed that dissolved oxygen does not constitute any detrimental effect on reactor treatment performance. This means that the coexistence of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria in one single reactor is feasible and increases the potentials of new applications in wastewater treatment

  16. Accelerated anaerobic hydrolysis rates under a combination of intermittent aeration and anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, T R; Lastra Milone, T; Petersen, G; Andersen, H R

    2017-04-01

    Anaerobic hydrolysis in activated return sludge was investigated in laboratory scale experiments to find if intermittent aeration would accelerate anaerobic hydrolysis rates compared to anaerobic hydrolysis rates under strict anaerobic conditions. The intermittent reactors were set up in a 240 h experiment with intermittent aeration (3 h:3 h) in a period of 24 h followed by a subsequent anaerobic period of 24 h in a cycle of 48 h which was repeated five times during the experiment. The anaerobic reactors were kept under strict anaerobic conditions in the same period (240 h). Two methods for calculating hydrolysis rates based on soluble chemical oxygen demand were compared. Two-way analysis of variance with the Bonferroni post-test was performed in order to register any significant difference between reactors with intermittent aeration and strictly anaerobic conditions respectively. The experiment demonstrated a statistically significant difference in favor of the reactors with intermittent aeration showing a tendency towards accelerated anaerobic hydrolysis rates due to application of intermittent aeration. The conclusion of the work is thus that intermittent aeration applied in the activated return sludge process can improve the treatment capacity further in full scale applications.

  17. The Energetics of Aerobic versus Anaerobic Respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, Timothy D.; Schwenz, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    Background information, laboratory procedures, and a discussion of the results of an experiment designed to investigate the difference in energy gained from the aerobic and anaerobic oxidation of glucose are presented. Sample experimental and calculated data are included. (CW)

  18. An anaerobic mitochondrion that produces hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, Brigitte; Graaf, Rob M. de; Staay, Georg W.M. van der; Alen, Theo A. van; Ricard, Guenola; Gabaldón, Toni; Hoek, Angela H.A.M. van; Moon-van der Staay, Seung Yeo; Koopman, Werner J.H.; Hellemond, Jaap J. van; Tielens, Aloysius G.M.; Friedrich, Thorsten; Veenhuis, Marten; Huynen, Martijn A.; Hackstein, Johannes H.P.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogenosomes are organelles that produce ATP and hydrogen, and are found in various unrelated eukaryotes, such as anaerobic flagellates, chytridiomycete fungi and ciliates. Although all of these organelles generate hydrogen, the hydrogenosomes from these organisms are structurally and

  19. Exocellular electron transfer in anaerobic microbial communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stams, A.J.M.; Bok, de F.A.M.; Plugge, C.M.; Eekert, van M.H.A.; Dolfing, J.; Schraa, G.

    2006-01-01

    Exocellular electron transfer plays an important role in anaerobic microbial communities that degrade organic matter. Interspecies hydrogen transfer between microorganisms is the driving force for complete biodegradation in methanogenic environments. Many organic compounds are degraded by obligatory

  20. Anaerobic Toxicity of Cationic Silver Nanoparticles

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Toxicity data for the impact of nano-silver on anaerobic degradation. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Gitipour, A., S. Thiel, K. Scheckel,...

  1. An anaerobic mitochondrion that produces hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, B.; Graaf, de R.M.; Staay, van der G.W.M.; Alen, T.A.; Richard, G.; Gabalon, T.; Hoek, van A.H.A.M.; Moon - van der Staay, S.Y.; Koopman, W.J.H.; Hellemond, van J.J.; Tielens, A.G.M.; Friedrich, T.; Veenhuis, M.; Huynen, M.A.; Hackstein, J.H.P.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogenosomes are organelles that produce ATP and hydrogen(1), and are found in various unrelated eukaryotes, such as anaerobic flagellates, chytridiomycete fungi and ciliates(2). Although all of these organelles generate hydrogen, the hydrogenosomes from these organisms are structurally and

  2. EFFECT OF MUSIC ON ANAEROBIC EXERCISE PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Tülin Atan

    2013-01-01

    For years, mostly the effects of music on cardiorespiratory exercise performance have been studied, but a few studies have examined the effect of music on anaerobic exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of listening to music and its rhythm on anaerobic exercise: on power output, heart rate and the concentration of blood lactate. 28 male subjects were required to visit the laboratory on 6 occasions, each separated by 48 hours. Firstly, each subject performed the Running-...

  3. Maximizing biogas production from the anaerobic digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Ghouali, A.; Sari, T.; Harmand, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an optimal control law policy for maximizing biogas production of anaerobic digesters. In particular, using a simple model of the anaerobic digestion process, we derive a control law to maximize the biogas production over a period T using the dilution rate as the control variable. Depending on initial conditions and constraints on the actuator (the dilution rate D(·)), the search for a solution to the optimal control problem reveals very different levels of difficulty. In ...

  4. Anaerobic digester for treatment of organic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, V. K. [Indian Insitute of Technology, Delhi (India)]|[ENEA, Centro Ricerche Trisaia, Matera (Italy); Fortuna, F.; Canditelli, M.; Cornacchia, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Trisaia, Matera (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Farina, R. [ENEA, centro Ricerche ``Ezio Clementel``, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1997-09-01

    The essential features of both new and more efficient reactor systems and their appropriate applications for various organic waste management situations, description of several working plants are discussed in the present communication. It is hoped that significant development reported here would be useful in opening a new vista to the application of anaerobic biotechnology for the waste treatment of both low/high organic strength and specialized treatment for toxic substances, using appropriate anaerobic methods.

  5. SLEEP DEPRIVATION INDUCED ANXIETY AND ANAEROBIC PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Arzu Vardar

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation induced anxiety on anaerobic performance. Thirteen volunteer male physical education students completed the Turkish version of State Anxiety Inventory and performed Wingate anaerobic test for three times: (1 following a full-night of habitual sleep (baseline measurements, (2 following 30 hours of sleep deprivation, and (3 following partial-night sleep deprivation. Baseline measurements were performed the day before total sleep deprivation. Measurements following partial sleep deprivation were made 2 weeks later than total sleep deprivation measurements. State anxiety was measured prior to each Wingate test. The mean state anxiety following total sleep deprivation was higher than the baseline measurement (44.9 ± 12.9 vs. 27.6 ± 4.2, respectively, p = 0.02 whereas anaerobic performance parameters remained unchanged. Neither anaerobic parameters nor state anxiety levels were affected by one night partial sleep deprivation. Our results suggest that 30 hours continuous wakefulness may increase anxiety level without impairing anaerobic performance, whereas one night of partial sleep deprivation was ineffective on both state anxiety and anaerobic performance

  6. 34 CFR 611.43 - What are the consequences of a scholarship recipient's failure to meet the service obligation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... failure to meet the service obligation? 611.43 Section 611.43 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... recipient's failure to meet the service obligation? (a) Obligation to repay: General. (1) A scholarship recipient who does not fulfill his or her service obligation must— (i) Repay the Department the full amount...

  7. Felt obligation and the family life cycle: a study on intergenerational relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Corso, Annalisa Rossi; Lanz, Margherita

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1990s researchers have considered as the dominant view on family obligation a set of responsibilities, duties, and obligation of care and assistance,that adult children should assume when parents are old or infirm. This concept is limited, because it assumes that family obligation is salient only in one period of life: when parents reach old age and are infirm. In contrast, a relational approach to family obligation considers family relationships as central to understanding children's duties and responsibilities. Following Stein, family obligation can be defined as felt obligation: expectations for appropriate and negotiated behaviour, perceived within the context of specific personal relationships with kin across life course. Felt obligation is conceptualized in five dimensions: a duty to maintain contact, assistance, avoidance of conflict, personal sharing, and self-sufficiency. The purpose of the present study was to analyze perceptions of felt obligation in intergenerational relationships (parent-child and family of origin) in different phases of the family life cycle in a specific cultural context (Italy). The sample was composed of 92 parents with children of different ages (infants, school-aged children, and young adults).The measure addressed the five dimensions of felt obligation, all assessed in various phases of family life. Results indicated differences in dimensions of felt obligation between intergenerational relationships (both parent-child and with family of origin). Some of these differences, such as self-sufficiency and personal sharing, assumed more importance and salience in some periods of the life cycle than in others.

  8. Perancangan Ulang Instalasi Pengolahan Air Limbah Domestik dengan Proses Anaerobic Baffled Reactor dan Anaerobic Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Habib Prasetia Adi; Mohammad Razif; Atiek Moesriati

    2017-01-01

    Instalasi Pengolahan Air Limbah (IPAL) Tarbiyatul Fallah merupakan IPAL domestik yang melayani Pesantren Tarbiyatul Fallah, namun berhenti beroperasi sejak tahun 2014. Agar manfaat IPAL dapat terus dirasakan, dilakukan perancangan ulang IPAL dengan alternatif Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) dan Anaerobic Filter (AF). Alternatif IPAL anaerobik yang keunggulan dalam kemudahan penerapan dan biaya operasional yang rendah. Perancangan ulang dimulai dengan mengevaluasi kinerja IPAL yang sudah ada. ...

  9. Anaerobic energy metabolism in unicellular photosynthetic eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atteia, Ariane; van Lis, Robert; Tielens, Aloysius G M; Martin, William F

    2013-02-01

    Anaerobic metabolic pathways allow unicellular organisms to tolerate or colonize anoxic environments. Over the past ten years, genome sequencing projects have brought a new light on the extent of anaerobic metabolism in eukaryotes. A surprising development has been that free-living unicellular algae capable of photoautotrophic lifestyle are, in terms of their enzymatic repertoire, among the best equipped eukaryotes known when it comes to anaerobic energy metabolism. Some of these algae are marine organisms, common in the oceans, others are more typically soil inhabitants. All these species are important from the ecological (O(2)/CO(2) budget), biotechnological, and evolutionary perspectives. In the unicellular algae surveyed here, mixed-acid type fermentations are widespread while anaerobic respiration, which is more typical of eukaryotic heterotrophs, appears to be rare. The presence of a core anaerobic metabolism among the algae provides insights into its evolutionary origin, which traces to the eukaryote common ancestor. The predicted fermentative enzymes often exhibit an amino acid extension at the N-terminus, suggesting that these proteins might be compartmentalized in the cell, likely in the chloroplast or the mitochondrion. The green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlorella NC64 have the most extended set of fermentative enzymes reported so far. Among the eukaryotes with secondary plastids, the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana has the most pronounced anaerobic capabilities as yet. From the standpoints of genomic, transcriptomic, and biochemical studies, anaerobic energy metabolism in C. reinhardtii remains the best characterized among photosynthetic protists. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The evolutionary aspects of bioenergetic systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Metabolic interactions between methanogenic consortia and anaerobic respiring bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stams, A.J.; Oude Elferink, S.J.; Westermann, Peter

    2003-01-01

    consortia. Despite the potentially adverse effects, only few inorganic electron acceptors potentially utilizable for anaerobic respiration have been investigated with respect to negative interactions in anaerobic digesters. In this chapter we review competitive and inhibitory interactions between anaerobic...... respiring populations and methanogenic consortia in bioreactors. Due to the few studies in anaerobic digesters, many of our discussions are based upon studies of defined cultures or natural ecosystems......Most types of anaerobic respiration are able to outcompete methanogenic consortia for common substrates if the respective electron acceptors are present in sufficient amounts. Furthermore, several products or intermediate compounds formed by anaerobic respiring bacteria are toxic to methanogenic...

  11. Obligations and responsibilities in radiation protection in the medical field; Obligations et responsabilites en radioprotection dans le domaine medical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This document briefly presents the various obligations and responsibilities of the various actors involved in or concerned by radiation protection in the medical field: the hospital administration (with respect to workers and patients), the physician (authorization and declaration, justification, optimization), the medical electro-radiology operator, the person with expertise in medical radio-physics (PSRPM), the radio-pharmacist (he is required in nuclear medicine with internal use of pharmaceutical product), the personnel with expertise in radiation protection (PCR), and other health professionals

  12. [Phenomenon of obligate parthenogenesis in rotifer (Rotifera, Bdelloida)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutikova, L A

    2001-01-01

    A comparative analysis of biological and morphological organization of obligate parthenogenous bdelloids and heterogonic monogononts clarifies the specificity of bdelloids' environmental adaptation and variability. It is shown that phenotypic polymorphism of bdelloids differs from that of monogononts. The heterogonic Monogononta are characterized by tremendous phenotypic diversity in body structure adapted to different biotopes in continental waters. This diversity is reflected also in structure of corona and mastax used as major criteria for definition of high range taxa (classes, orders). The polymorphism of bdelloids manifests itself in variability of tiny morphological structures connected with living in restricted volumes of water, mainly in terrestrial biotopes. Being isolated from other Rotifera at the first stages of evolution, bdelloids have been specialized for living under extremely unstable terrestrial conditions that led to the development of anhydrobiosis and loss of amphimixis. Variability of bdelloids is not connected with characters of high taxonomic ranks and has principally different nature in comparison with monogononts. Tempo of specialization seems to be slower in obligate parthenogenous rotifers than in heterogonic ones.

  13. Common Mesophilic Anaerobes, Including Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium tetani, in 21 Soil Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Louis Ds.

    1975-01-01

    A relatively rich medium was markedly superior to a dilute medium for the isolation of anaerobic bacteria from soil. The obligate anaerobes isolated from 21 soil samples were all clostridia and the counts ranged from 2.7 × 102 to 3.3 × 106 per g. The organisms most frequently isolated were Clostridium subterminale, C. sordellii, C. sporogenes, C. indolis, C. bifermentans, C. mangenoti, and C. perfringens. Seventeen other species were also recognized but almost one-third of the isolates could not be identified with any known species of Clostridum. C. botulinum type A was demonstrated in six soil samples, and type B in one. These soils were neutral to alkaline in reaction (average pH 7.9) and low in organic matter content (1.4%). The association of C. botulinum types A and B with neutral to alkaline soils was statistically significant (P = 0.001) as was their association with soils low in organic matter (P = 0.005). C. botulinum types E and F were found in one soil sample, pH 4.5, with organic matter 13.7%. C. tetani was isolated from two soil samples, both of intermediate pH value and higher than average organic matter content. PMID:238468

  14. Propionate oxidation by and methanol inhibition of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güven, Didem; Dapena, Ana; Kartal, Boran; Schmid, Markus C; Maas, Bart; van de Pas-Schoonen, Katinka; Sozen, Seval; Mendez, Ramon; Op den Camp, Huub J M; Jetten, Mike S M; Strous, Marc; Schmidt, Ingo

    2005-02-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is a recently discovered microbial pathway and a cost-effective way to remove ammonium from wastewater. Anammox bacteria have been described as obligate chemolithoautotrophs. However, many chemolithoautotrophs (i.e., nitrifiers) can use organic compounds as a supplementary carbon source. In this study, the effect of organic compounds on anammox bacteria was investigated. It was shown that alcohols inhibited anammox bacteria, while organic acids were converted by them. Methanol was the most potent inhibitor, leading to complete and irreversible loss of activity at concentrations as low as 0.5 mM. Of the organic acids acetate and propionate, propionate was consumed at a higher rate (0.8 nmol min(-1) mg of protein(-1)) by Percoll-purified anammox cells. Glucose, formate, and alanine had no effect on the anammox process. It was shown that propionate was oxidized mainly to CO(2), with nitrate and/or nitrite as the electron acceptor. The anammox bacteria carried out propionate oxidation simultaneously with anaerobic ammonium oxidation. In an anammox enrichment culture fed with propionate for 150 days, the relative amounts of anammox cells and denitrifiers did not change significantly over time, indicating that anammox bacteria could compete successfully with heterotrophic denitrifiers for propionate. In conclusion, this study shows that anammox bacteria have a more versatile metabolism than previously assumed.

  15. Family Obligation Values as a Protective and Vulnerability Factor among Low-Income Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Stephanie; Wortel, Sanne

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents’ beliefs about family obligation often reflect cultural variations in their family context, and thus are important for understanding development among diverse youth. In this study, we test hypotheses about the role of family obligation values in risk behavior and mental health in a sample of 194 low-income adolescent girls (Mean age = 15.2; 58% Latina, 28% African-American/Black). We hypothesized that family obligation values can be both a protective and vulnerability factor, depending on the type of outcome and the presence of other risk factors. Across the sample, higher family obligation values tended to occur with indicators of positive family functioning (e.g., more frequent communication, less maternal hostility) based on mother and adolescent reports. As hypothesized, family obligation values moderated the relationship between established risk factors and adjustment in distinct ways, such that high family obligation values decreased risk in some domains (i.e., a protective factor) but increased risk in other domains (i.e., a vulnerability factor). Specifically, high family obligation values diminished the relationship between peer norms for risky behavior (sex and substance use) and individual engagement in those behaviors. At the same time, high family obligation values magnified the relationship between exposure to negative life events and poor mental health (PTSD and depressive symptoms). The results suggest that family obligation is an important but complex aspect of development among diverse adolescent girls. PMID:25351163

  16. Effect of community structure on the kinetics of anaerobic degradation of aromatic compounds. Progress report, March 1989--June 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInerney, M.J.

    1991-06-01

    The physiology of fatty acid metabolism and the kinetics of benzoate degradation by anaerobic syntrophic bacteria were studied. We have shown that: a threshold for benzoate degradation by a syntrophic coculture of Syntrophus buswellii and Desulfovibrio strain G11 exists and the value of the threshold depends on the amount of benzoate and acetate suggesting a thermodynamic limitation. Syntrophomonas wolfei has the enzymatic ability to produce formate and that low levels of formate are made during growth in pure culture with crotonate or in coculture with butyrate. However, the high specific activities of hydrogenase compared to formate dehydrogenase indicate that hydrogen rather than formate is the intermediate involved in the interspecies transfer of reducing equivalents. We have isolated Syntrophus buswellii and a novel anaerobic bacteria that catalyzes an aryl-ether cleavage reaction using crotonate as the energy source. Several novel obligately halophilic anaerobes from hypersaline oil reservoir brines were isolated and characterized. Two of these degraded pyrogallate with the production of acetate. We have shown that S. wolfei synthesizes poly-{beta}hydroxyalkanoate (PHA) by two routes, directly from a {beta}-oxidation intermediate without cleaving a C-C bond and by the condensation of two acetyl-CoA molecules. The formation of D-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA needed for PHA synthesis occurs by the activity of a acetoacetyl-CoA reductase rather than a enoyl-CoA hydratase. The genes for PHA synthesis in S. wolfei have been cloned into Escherichia coli.

  17. Multivariate monitoring of anaerobic co-digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Michael; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    warming and environmental concerns. Anaerobic digestion applied in agriculture can simultaneously convert heterogeneous biomasses and wastes from the primary agricultural sector and from the bio processing industries, for instance food processing, pharma, and biofuel production, into valuable organic...... fertiliser and renewable energy. Meanwhile, in order for the biogas sector to become a significant player in the energy supply chain, the anaerobic digestion process has to be controlled to a greater extent than what is implemented as state-of-the-art today. Through application of the philosophy behind...... Process Analytical Technology, well-known from the pharmaceutical sector, these objectives can be realised. NIRS and chemometrics are key technologies in this concern. The feasibility studies summarised in this paper concerns at-line and on-line PAT monitoring of anaerobic digestion processes at several...

  18. Biochemistry and physiology of anaerobic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-18

    We welcome you to The Power of Anaerobes. This conference serves two purposes. One is to celebrate the life of Harry D. Peck, Jr.,who was born May 18, 1927 and would have celebrated his 73rd birthday at this conference. He died November 20, 1998. The second is to gather investigators to exchange views within the realm of anaerobic microbiology, an area in which tremendous progress has been seen during recent years. It is sufficient to mention discoveries of a new form of life (the archaea), hyper or extreme thermophiles, thermophilic alkaliphiles and anaerobic fungi. With these discoveries has come a new realization about physiological and metabolic properties of microorganisms, and this in turn has demonstrated their importance for the development, maintenance and sustenance of life on Earth.

  19. Kinetics and modeling of anaerobic digestion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion modeling started in the early 1970s when the need for design and efficient operation of anaerobic systems became evident. At that time not only was the knowledge about the complex process of anaerobic digestion inadequate but also there were computational limitations. Thus......, the first models were very simple and consisted of a limited number of equations. During the past thirty years much research has been conducted on the peculiarities of the process and on the factors that influence it on the one hand while an enormous progress took place in computer science on the other....... The combination of both parameters resulted in the development of more and more concise and complex models. In this chapter the most important models found in the literature are described starting from the simplest and oldest to the more recent and complex ones....

  20. Kinetics and modeling of anaerobic digestion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavala, Hariklia N; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte K

    2003-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion modeling started in the early 1970s when the need for design and efficient operation of anaerobic systems became evident. At that time not only was the knowledge about the complex process of anaerobic digestion inadequate but also there were computational limitations. Thus, the first models were very simple and consisted of a limited number of equations. During the past thirty years much research has been conducted on the peculiarities of the process and on the factors that influence it on the one hand while an enormous progress took place in computer science on the other. The combination of both parameters resulted in the development of more and more concise and complex models. In this chapter the most important models found in the literature are described starting from the simplest and oldest to the more recent and complex ones.

  1. Improving Project Outcomes and Growing the Anaerobic Digestion Industy Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic digestion ombudsmen assist with project development, ensure the long-term sustainability of projects, and help advance the industry. This report explores the benefits of anaerobic digestion ombudsmen and provides guidance for implementing them.

  2. The effect of tannic compounds on anaerobic wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Anaerobic wastewater treatment is an alternative to the conventional aerobic treatment processes for the removal of easily biodegradable organic matter in medium to high strength industrial wastestreams. Anaerobic treatment has several advantages, however one important disadvantage is the

  3. Obligate versus rich patch opportunism: evolution and endocrine mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, J M; Watts, H E; Dingle, H; Hahn, T P

    2013-09-01

    Opportunistic breeding has been hypothesized to evolve in response to rare or unpredictable resource pulses. In this traditional view of opportunism, individuals invest heavily in reproduction whenever conditions are permissive for breeding, perhaps at the expense of investment in survival. We term this strategy 'obligate opportunism' (OBO). We also present an additional strategy that could account for the evolution of opportunism. High mobility may allow individuals to move between rich patches of resources that are spatially or temporally unpredictable, reducing exposure to food scarcity and taking advantage of breeding opportunities. This strategy, which we term 'rich patch exploiter' (RPE), predicts that investment in survival-enhancing processes may occur at the expense of reproduction despite high resource availability. We review examples to determine which opportunists better match predictions from the OBO strategy or the RPE strategy and then review endocrine profiles in the context of the two strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Scientists' Ethical Obligations and Social Responsibility for Nanotechnology Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Elizabeth A; Kim, Youngjae; Scheufele, Dietram A

    2016-02-01

    Scientists' sense of social responsibility is particularly relevant for emerging technologies. Since a regulatory vacuum can sometimes occur in the early stages of these technologies, individual scientists' social responsibility might be one of the most significant checks on the risks and negative consequences of this scientific research. In this article, we analyze data from a 2011 mail survey of leading U.S. nanoscientists to explore their perceptions the regarding social and ethical responsibilities for their nanotechnology research. Our analyses show that leading U.S. nanoscientists express a moderate level of social responsibility about their research. Yet, they have a strong sense of ethical obligation to protect laboratory workers (in both universities and industry) from unhealthy exposure to nanomaterials. We also find that there are significant differences in scientists' sense of social and ethical responsibility depending on their demographic characteristics, job affiliation, attention to media content, risk perceptions and benefit perceptions. We conclude with some implications for future research.

  5. [Continuing Medical Education in Germany - mandatory and voluntary obligations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böthin, Elke

    2013-01-01

    After 1945 the common medical training infrastructure was broken up into two different political systems. While in the Federal Republic of Germany the structure was based on physicians' self-governance, in the German Democratic Republic medical professional structures were organised by the government. After the unification of the two German states, which took place on October 3, 1990, the centralistic structure was replaced by the system of physician self-governance. Before January 1, 2004, continuing medical education (CME) in West Germany relied on a system of voluntary obligations. In East Germany, though, professional CMEs were compulsory; they were called "obligatorische periphere Fortbildung." Based on 15 expert interviews on the topic of "CME in Germany", the different circumstances and conditions were analysed taking account of the historical background. Only selected professionals with experience in both German states (one with a federal, the other with a centralistic system), were chosen for the survey. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  6. THE CONDITIONS FOR MAJORITARIAN OBLIGATION: MAJORITY RULE AND DELIBERATIVE BODY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Urfalino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering one of Georg Simmel’s questions, the article examines what gives an authority to an outnumbering superiority in a situation of a collective decision. Actually there are three conditions in that matter. First, the majority obligation for a collection of individuals’ decisions is possible only if this body is a deliberative body that is to say a collective entity but not a mere collection of individuals. Second, the stake of the decision must not challenge the members’ liking for this collective entity. Finally, to have a legitimate majority, the aggregation of preferences must be reached after a deliberation, thus stressing there might have been other preferences. If the preferences are the same or do not result from the deliberative body’s deliberation, the collective decision looks like a shared decision, a fair one is wished. The rule of the majority is not relevant any longer.

  7. The obligation of debriefing in global health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Amy; Walker, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    An outcome of globalization and internationalization in higher education in the health professions has been increasing global health placements. There is, however, a lack of literature on debriefing and support following these placements. The authors undertook a participatory project to develop peer support and debriefing in a global health nursing elective, during which this gap in literature was addressed. The purpose of the project was to develop a peer support component of the course and revise the debriefing component based on results of a previous course evaluation. The methods were guided by a participatory approach involving course alumni and included a scoping review and focus groups. The project resulted in development of: (1) a peer support statement and (2) a debriefing framework. Key lessons about the obligation of appropriate debriefing for students returning from global health placements include importance of affective learning, a pedagogy of discomfort, and global health ethics.

  8. Molecular pathogenesis of the obligate intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, Erin J.; Chen, Chen; Mertens, Katja; Weber, Mary M.; Samuel, James E.

    2014-01-01

    The agent of Q fever, Coxiella burnetii, is an obligate intracellular bacterium that causes acute and chronic infections. The study of C. burnetii pathogenesis has benefited from two recent fundamental advances: improved genetic tools and the ability to grow the bacterium in extracellular media. In this Review, we describe how these recent advances have improved our understanding of C. burnetii invasion and host cell modulation, including the formation of replication-permissive Coxiella-containing vacuoles. Furthermore, we describe the Dot/Icm (defect in organelle trafficking/intracellular multiplication) system, which is used by C. burnetii to secrete a range of effector proteins into the host cell, and we discuss the role of these effectors in remodelling the host cell. PMID:23797173

  9. [Phytovigilance: A medical requirement and a legal obligation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, H; Pabst, J-Y

    2016-01-01

    Phytovigilance consists in supervision of side effects and drug interactions consequential to use of herbal medicinal products, herbal food supplements, herbal cosmetics and/or medicinal plants. It includes thus pharmacovigilance applied to phytotherapy, nutrivigilance and cosmetovigilance but also addictovigilance in case of plants, which lead to drug addiction, and toxicovigilance in case of toxic plants. Becoming necessary owing to (acute or chronic) toxicity risks or to drug interactions risks (of pharmacocinetical or pharmacodynamical kind)--as far as it concerns interactions between several associated plants or between a plant and a chemical or biotechnological allopathic medicine--phytovigilance represents moreover a legal obligation. Pharmacovigilance--in case of herbal medicinal products--is indeed becoming mandatory according to title IX of the European directive 2001/83/EC, whereas nutrivigilance is imposed by the European Food Safety Agency (EFSA). Copyright © 2015 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. An integrated moral obligation model for landowner conservation norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhananga, Amit K.; Davenport, Mae A.; Fulton, David C.; Maruyama, Geoffrey M.; Current, Dean

    2017-01-01

    This study applies an integrated moral obligation model to examine the role of environmental and cultural values, and beliefs in the activation of landowner conservation norms. Data for this study were collected through a self-administered survey of riparian landowners in two Minnesota watersheds: Sand Creek and Vermillion River watersheds. Study findings suggest that collectivistic and biospheric–altruistic values form the bases for the activation of personal norms. Further, beliefs about local responsibility and ability to act influence personal norms to protect water resources. Findings suggest that landowners’ personal norms of water conservation are more likely to be activated by conservation strategies that appeal to biospheric–altruistic and collectivistic values, emphasize adverse consequences of water pollution, highlight water resource protection as a local responsibility, and provide the resources needed to protect water resources.

  11. A simple anaerobic system for onsite treatment of domestic wastewater

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The use of anaerobic process for domestic wastewater treatment would achieve lower carbon footprint as it eliminates aeration and generate methane. Among several anaerobic treatment processes, high rate anaerobic digesters receive great attention due to its high loading capacity and chemical oxygen demand removal ...

  12. Toxicity and biodegradability of caffeic acid in anaerobic digesting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to treat waste caffeic acid by anaerobic digestion and adsorption of its derivates, in order to reduce the contribution to global warming and to protect the environment. Keywords: anaerobes, anaerobic digestion, biogas, biomass, caffeic acid, graphene, inhibition, polyphenols, renewable energy, toxicity, wastewater ...

  13. Optimization of up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2013-06-05

    Jun 5, 2013 ... Key words: Composite wastewater, up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), anaerobic biological treatment, biogas, granulated anaerobic ... collected from the top of the reactor to a flexible water-filled gasholder fitted with .... changes in microbial diversity in biogranules in response to changes in nature ...

  14. The Influence of Hydration on Anaerobic Performance: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Justin A.; Green, James M.; Bishop, Phillip A.; Richardson, Mark T.; Neggers, Yasmin H.; Leeper, James D.

    2012-01-01

    This review examines the influence of dehydration on muscular strength and endurance and on single and repeated anaerobic sprint bouts. Describing hydration effects on anaerobic performance is difficult because various exercise modes are dominated by anaerobic energy pathways, but still contain inherent physiological differences. The critical…

  15. The IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No 1 (ADM1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batstone, D.J.; Keller, J.; Angelidaki, I.; Kalyuzhnyi, S.V.; Pavalostathis, S.G.; Rozzi, A.; Sanders, W.T.M.; Siegrist, H.; Vavilin, V.A.

    2002-01-01

    The IWA Anaerobic Digestion Modelling Task Group was established in 1997 at the 8th World Congress on Anaerobic Digestion (Sendai, Japan) with the goal of developing a generalised anaerobic digestion model. The structured model includes multiple steps describing biochemical as well as

  16. The IWA Anaerobic digestion model no 1. (ADM1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batstone, Damien J.; Keller, J.; Angelidaki, Irini

    2002-01-01

    The IWA Anaerobic Digestion Modelling Task Group was established in 1997 at the 8th World Congress on Anaerobic Digestion (Sendai, Japan) with the goal of developing a generalised anaerobic digestion model. The structured model includes multiple steps describing biochemical as well...

  17. Anaerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie, John W., Ed.

    This student manual contains the textual material for a four-lesson unit on anaerobic digestion control. Areas addressed include: (1) anaerobic sludge digestion (considering the nature of raw sludge, purposes of anaerobic digestion, the results of digestion, types of equipment, and other topics); (2) digester process control (considering feeding…

  18. Anaerobic treatment of domestic sewage at low temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elmitwalli, T.A.

    2000-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis was to asses the anaerobic treatment of domestic sewage at low temperature and the possibilities to optimize the performance of high-rate anaerobic systems treating domestic sewage at low temperature.

    The anaerobic biodegradability of

  19. A simple and sensitive quality control method of the anaerobic atmosphere for identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Tage; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz

    2013-01-01

    The maintenance of a strict anaerobic atmosphere is essential for the culture of strict anaerobic bacteria. We describe a simple and sensitive quality control method of the anaerobic atmosphere, based on the measurement of the zone diameter around a 5-μg metronidazole disk when testing an aerotol...... an aerotolerant Clostridium perfringens strain. A zone diameter above 27 mm was indicative of acceptable anaerobic conditions....

  20. A simple and sensitive quality control method of the anaerobic atmosphere for identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justesen, Tage; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz

    2013-06-01

    The maintenance of a strict anaerobic atmosphere is essential for the culture of strict anaerobic bacteria. We describe a simple and sensitive quality control method of the anaerobic atmosphere, based on the measurement of the zone diameter around a 5-μg metronidazole disk when testing an aerotolerant Clostridium perfringens strain. A zone diameter above 27 mm was indicative of acceptable anaerobic conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Environmental impacts of anaerobic digestion and the use of anaerobic residues as soil amendment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosey, F.E. [VFA Services Ltd., Herts (United Kingdom)

    1996-01-01

    This paper defines the environmental role of anaerobic digestion within the overall objective of recovering energy from renewable biomass resources. Examples and opportunities for incorporating anaerobic digestion into biomass-to-energy schemes are discussed, together with environmental aspects of anaerobic digestion plants. These include visual, public amenity, pathogens and public health, odor control, and gaseous emissions. Digestate disposal and the benefits of restrictions on recycling organic wastes and biomass residues back to the land are discussed, particularly as they relate to American and European codes of practice and environmental legislation. The paper concludes that anaerobic digestion, if performed in purpose-designed reactors that efficiently recover and use biogas, is an environmentally benign process that can enhance energy recovery and aid the beneficial land use of plant residues in many biomass-to-energy schemes.

  2. Anaerobic digestion model no. 1-based distributed parameter model of an anaerobic reactor: I. Model development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, S J; Zeng, Y; Wu, P; Lou, S J; Tartakovsky, B

    2008-06-01

    This work presents a distributed parameter model of the anaerobic digestion process. The model is based on the Anaerobic digestion model no. 1 (ADM1) and was developed to simulate anaerobic digestion process in high-rate reactors with significant axial dispersion, such as in upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors. The model, which was named ADM1d, combines ADM1's kinetics of biomass growth and substrate transformation with axial dispersion material balances. ADM1d uses a hyperbolic tangent function to describe biomass distribution within a one compartment model. A comparison of this approach with a two-compartment, sludge bed - liquid above the bed, model showed similar simulation results while the one-compartment model had less equations. A comparison of orthogonal collocation and finite difference algorithms for numerical solution of ADM1d showed better stability of the finite difference algorithm.

  3. Hemicellulases from anaerobic thermophiles. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegel, J.

    1994-05-01

    The longterm goal of this research effort is to obtain an anaerobic thermophilic bacterium that efficiently converts various hemicellulose-containing biomass to ethanol over a broad pH range. The strategy is to modify the outfit and regulation of the rate-limiting xylanases, glycosidases and xylan esterases in the ethanologenic, anaerobic thermophile Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus, which grows between pH 4.5 and 9.5. Although it utilizes xylans, the xylanase, acetyl(xylan) esterase and O-methylglucuronidase activities in T. ethanolicus are barely measurable and regarded as the rate limiting steps in its xylan utilization. Thus, and also due to the presently limited knowledge of hemicellulases in anaerobic thermophiles, we characterize the hemicellulolytic enzymes from this and other anaerobic thermophiles as enzyme donors. Beside the active xylosidase/arabinosidase from T. ethanolicus, exhibiting the two different activities, we characterized 2 xylosidases, two acetyl(xylan) esterases, and an O-methylglucuronidase from Thermoanaerobacterium spec. We will continue with the characterization of xylanases from novel isolated slightly acidophilic, neutrophilic and slightly alkalophilic thermophiles. We have cloned, subcloned and partially sequenced the 165,000 Da (2 x 85,000) xylosidase/arabinosidase from T. ethanolicus and started with the cloning of the esterases from Thermoanaerobacterium spec. Consequently, we will develop a shuttle vector and continue to apply electroporation of autoplasts as a method for cloning into T. ethanolicus.

  4. Anaerobic hydrolysis during digestion of complex substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, W.T.M.

    2001-01-01

    Complex waste(water) such as, raw sewage, dairy wastewater, slaughterhouse wastewater, fish processing wastewater, primary sludge and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste have been proven to be degradable under anaerobic conditions. However, during the digestion process the

  5. Anaerobic digestion in sustainable biomass chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pabon Pereira, C.P.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis evaluates the potential contribution of anaerobic digestion (AD) to the sustainability of biomass chains. Results provide insights in the technological potential to recover energy and valuable by-products from energy crops and residues, and evaluate biomass cascades involving AD

  6. Anaerobic effluent disinfection using ozone: Byproducts formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, G.H.R.; Daniel, L.A.; Bruning, H.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2010-01-01

    This research was aimed at studying oxidation processes, coliform inactivation effectiveness and disinfection byproducts (DBPs) associated with the disinfection of anaerobic sanitary wastewater effluent with ozone applied at doses of 5.0, 8.0 and 10.0mg O(3)L(-1) for contact times of 5, 10 and 15

  7. Anaerobic membrane bioreactors: Are membranes really necessary?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davila, M.; Kassab, G.; Klapwijk, A.; Lier, van J.B.

    2008-01-01

    Membranes themselves represent a significant cost for the full scale application of anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBR). The possibility of operating an AnMBR with a self-forming dynamic membrane generated by the substances present in the reactor liquor would translate into an important saving. A

  8. Biofilm-growing intestinal anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donelli, Gianfranco; Vuotto, Claudia; Cardines, Rita; Mastrantonio, Paola

    2012-07-01

    Sessile growth of anaerobic bacteria from the human intestinal tract has been poorly investigated, so far. We recently reported data on the close association existing between biliary stent clogging and polymicrobial biofilm development in its lumen. By exploiting the explanted stents as a rich source of anaerobic bacterial strains belonging to the genera Bacteroides, Clostridium, Fusobacterium, Finegoldia, Prevotella, and Veillonella, the present study focused on their ability to adhere, to grow in sessile mode and to form in vitro mono- or dual-species biofilms. Experiments on dual-species biofilm formation were planned on the basis of the anaerobic strains isolated from each clogged biliary stent, by selecting those in which a couple of anaerobic strains belonging to different species contributed to the polymicrobial biofilm development. Then, strains were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy to reveal if they are able to grow as mono- and/or dual-species biofilms. As far as we know, this is the first report on the ability to adhere and form mono/dual-species biofilms exhibited by strains belonging to the species Bacteroides oralis, Clostridium difficile, Clostridium baratii, Clostridium fallax, Clostridium bifermentans, Finegoldia magna, and Fusobacterium necrophorum. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The fate of methanol in anaerobic bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florencio, L.

    1994-01-01

    Methanol is an important component of certain industrial wastewaters. In anaerobic environments, methanol can be utilized by methanogens and acetogens. In wastewater treatment plants, the conversion of methanol into methane is preferred because this conversion is responsible for chemical

  10. The anaerobic treatment of sulfate containing wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    1995-01-01


    In the anaerobic treatment of sulfate containing wastewater sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) will compete with methanogenic- (MB) and acetogenic bacteria (AB) for the available substrates such as hydrogen, acetate, propionate and butyrate. The outcome of this competition will

  11. Anaerobic oxidation of methane and ammonium.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strous, M.; Jetten, M.S.M.

    2004-01-01

    Anaerobic oxidation of methane and ammonium are two different processes catalyzed by completely unrelated microorganisms. Still, the two processes do have many interesting aspects in common. First, both of them were once deemed biochemically impossible and nonexistent in nature, but have now been

  12. Anaerobic digestion of space mission wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chynoweth, D P; Owens, J M; Teixeira, A A; Pullammanappallil, P; Luniya, S S

    2006-01-01

    The technical feasibility of applying leachbed high-solids anaerobic digestion for reduction and stabilization of the organic fraction of solid wastes generated during space missions was investigated. This process has the advantages of not requiring oxygen or high temperature and pressure while producing methane, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and compost as valuable products. Anaerobic biochemical methane potential assays run on several waste feedstocks expected during space missions resulted in ultimate methane yields ranging from 0.23 to 0.30 L g-1 VS added. Modifications for operation of a leachbed anaerobic digestion process in space environments were incorporated into a new design, which included; (1) flooded operation to force leachate through densified feedstock beds; and (2) separation of biogas from leachate in a gas collection reservoir. This mode of operation resulted in stable performance with 85% conversion of a typical space solid waste blend, and a methane yield of 0.3 Lg per g VS added after a retention time of 15 days. These results were reproduced in a full-scale prototype system. A detailed analysis of this process was conducted to design the system sized for a space mission with a six-person crew. Anaerobic digestion compared favorably with other technologies for solid waste stabilization.

  13. Potential for anaerobic conversion of xenobiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Anders Skibsted; Dolfing, J.; Haagensen, Frank

    2003-01-01

    regarding the treatment of xenobiotics is shown with the focus on the UASB reactor, but the applicability of other reactor designs for treatment of hazardous waste is also included. Bioaugmentation has proved to be a viable technique to enhance a specific activity in anaerobic reactors and recent research...... on reactor and in situ bioaugmentation is reported....

  14. Anaerobic work capacity in elite wheelchair athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, L H; Bakker, W H; Elkhuizen, J W; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.); Gwinn, T

    1997-01-01

    To study the anaerobic work capacity in wheelchair athletes, 67 elite wheelchair athletes (50 male) were studied in a 30-second sprint test on a computer-controlled wheelchair ergometer during the World Championships and Games for the Disabled in Assen (1990). The experimental set-up (ergometer,

  15. Anaerobic Digestion in a Flooded Densified Leachbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chynoweth, David P.; Teixeira, Arthur A.; Owens, John M.; Haley, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    A document discusses the adaptation of a patented biomass-digesting process, denoted sequential batch anaerobic composting (SEBAC), to recycling of wastes aboard a spacecraft. In SEBAC, high-solids-content biomass wastes are converted into methane, carbon dioxide, and compost.

  16. Anaerobic Toxicity of Cationic Silver Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The microbial toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) stabilized with different capping agents was compared to that of Ag+ under anaerobic conditions. Three AgNPs were investigated: (1) negatively charged citrate-coated AgNPs (citrate-AgNPs), (2) minimally charged p...

  17. Anaerobic prefermentation and primary sedimentation of wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was carried out with the aim of evaluating the solubilisation and acidification capacity of fermenting organisms in suspension in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), which had a volume of 1 800 ℓ. Using 8 h cycles with 340 min of anaerobic reaction time, the wastewater fed to the SBR presented an average of ...

  18. Sulfate-reducing bacteria in anaerobic bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Elferink, S.J.W.H.

    1998-01-01

    The treatment of industrial wastewaters containing high amounts of easily degradable organic compounds in anaerobic bioreactors is a well-established process. Similarly, wastewaters which in addition to organic compounds also contain sulfate can be treated in this way. For a long time, the

  19. Essential metal depletion in an anaerobic reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osuna, M.B.; Iza, J.M.; Zandvoort, M.H.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of the absence of trace elements on the conversion of a mixture of volatile fatty acids by a distillery anaerobic granular sludge was investigated. Two UASB reactors were operated under identical operational conditions except for the influent trace metal concentrations, during 140 days.

  20. Mexican American Adolescents' Family Obligation Values and Behaviors: Links to Internalizing Symptoms across Time and Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telzer, Eva H.; Tsai, Kim M.; Gonzales, Nancy; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Family obligation is an important aspect of family relationships among families from Mexican backgrounds and can have significant implications for adolescents' well-being. Prior research and theory regarding youths' obligations offer conflicting hypotheses about whether it is detrimental or beneficial for adolescents' well-being. In the current…

  1. 29 CFR 4.177 - Discharging fringe benefit obligations by equivalent means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... into a pension fund, this fringe benefit obligation will be deemed to be met if, instead...) rate of pay, whichever is greater. For example, if the determination calls for a 5 percent pension fund... hour is to be paid into a pension fund, this fringe benefit obligation will be deemed to be met if...

  2. Signatures of adaptation to obligate biotrophy in the Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis genome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baxter, L.; Tripathy, S.; Ishaque, N.; Boot, N.; Cabral, A.; Kemen, E.; Thines, M.; Ah-Fong, A.; Anderson, R.; Badejoko, W.; Bittner-Eddy, P.; Boore, J.L.; Chibucos, M.C.; Coates, M.; Dehal, P.; Delehaunty, K.; Dong, S.; Downton, P.; Dumas, B.; Fabro, G.; Fronick, C.; Fuerstenberg, S.I.; Fulton, L.; Gaulin, E.; Govers, F.; Hughes, L.; Humphray, S.; Jiang, R.H.Y.; Judelson, H.; Kamoun, S.; Kyung, K.; Meijer, H.J.G.; Minx, P.; Morris, P.; Nelson, J.; Phuntumart, V.; Qutob, D.; Rehmany, A.; Rougon-Cardoso, A.; Ryden, P.; Torto-Alalibo, T.; Studholme, D.; Wang, Y.; Win, J.; Wood, J.; Clifton, S.W.; Rogers, J.; Ackerveken, van den G.; Jones, J.D.G.; McDowell, J.M.; Beynon, J.; Tyler, B.M.

    2010-01-01

    Many oomycete and fungal plant pathogens are obligate biotrophs, which extract nutrients only from living plant tissue and cannot grow apart from their hosts. Although these pathogens cause substantial crop losses, little is known about the molecular basis or evolution of obligate biotrophy. Here,

  3. The evolution of obligate mutualism: if you can't beat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aanen, D.K.; Hoekstra, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Wolbachia is best known as a facultative endosymbiotic parasite, manipulating host reproduction. However, it has also evolved as an obligate mutualist at least twice. In a recent paper, Pannebakker et al. identify a possible mechanism for such a transition from facultative parasitism to obligate

  4. The logic of actual obligation. An alternative approach to deontic logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorbraak, F.

    In this paper we develop a system of deontic logic (LAO, the logic of actual obligation) with a rather limited scope: we are, only interested in obligations as far as they: are relevant for deciding what actions actually ought to be done in a particular situation, given some normative system N.

  5. Doubly distributing special obligations: what professional practice can learn from parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilburt, Jon; Brody, Baruch

    2016-04-28

    A traditional ethic of medicine asserts that physicians have special obligations to individual patients with whom they have a clinical relationship. Contemporary trends in US healthcare financing like bundled payments seem to threaten traditional conceptions of special obligations of individual physicians to individual patients because their population-based focus sets a tone that seems to emphasise responsibilities for groups of patients by groups of physicians in an organisation. Prior to undertaking a cogent debate about the fate and normative weight of special obligations and a traditional ethic for contemporary healthcare, we need a deeper examination of what the traditional ethic of special obligations really means. Here we offer a conception of 'doubly distributed' special obligations. Physicians and similarly minded healing professionals abiding by a traditional ethic have always spread their devotion and attention across multiple patients and have shared responsibilities with physician and non-physician colleagues in much the same way devoted parents have frequently distributed their special obligations across multiple children and across multiple parents. By taking up the extended analogy of parent we argue that doubly distributing special obligations need not contradict the possibility of special obligations in restructured collective forms of healthcare delivery and financing. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. 18 CFR 35.1 - Application; obligation to file rate schedules, tariffs and certain service agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... THE FEDERAL POWER ACT FILING OF RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Application § 35.1 Application; obligation... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application; obligation to file rate schedules, tariffs and certain service agreements. 35.1 Section 35.1 Conservation of...

  7. Effect of ascent in dental profession on ethical obligation in dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the effect of transformation from the dental student to the dentist on the knowledge of ethical obligation in dental practice. ... Conclusion: Data revealed that the transformation resulted in significant improvement in the knowledge of 6 out of the 13 assessed areas of ethical obligation in dental practice.

  8. Newcomer Psychological Contracts and Employee Socialization Activities: Does Perceived Balance in Obligations Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Stephanie C.; Culbertson, Satoris S.; Boswell, Wendy R.; Barger, Eric J.

    2008-01-01

    We sought to determine the extent to which one's beliefs about the relationship between an employee and an organization at the start of employment influence subsequent socialization activities. The balance of employee exchange relationships, employee perceptions of both their own obligations and the employers' obligations, were collected from 120…

  9. Anaerobic Benzene Oxidation by Geobacter Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Timothy S.; Nevin, Kelly P.; Barlett, Melissa A.; Lovley, Derek R.

    2012-01-01

    The abundance of Geobacter species in contaminated aquifers in which benzene is anaerobically degraded has led to the suggestion that some Geobacter species might be capable of anaerobic benzene degradation, but this has never been documented. A strain of Geobacter, designated strain Ben, was isolated from sediments from the Fe(III)-reducing zone of a petroleum-contaminated aquifer in which there was significant capacity for anaerobic benzene oxidation. Strain Ben grew in a medium with benzene as the sole electron donor and Fe(III) oxide as the sole electron acceptor. Furthermore, additional evaluation of Geobacter metallireducens demonstrated that it could also grow in benzene-Fe(III) medium. In both strain Ben and G. metallireducens the stoichiometry of benzene metabolism and Fe(III) reduction was consistent with the oxidation of benzene to carbon dioxide with Fe(III) serving as the sole electron acceptor. With benzene as the electron donor, and Fe(III) oxide (strain Ben) or Fe(III) citrate (G. metallireducens) as the electron acceptor, the cell yields of strain Ben and G. metallireducens were 3.2 × 109 and 8.4 × 109 cells/mmol of Fe(III) reduced, respectively. Strain Ben also oxidized benzene with anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) as the sole electron acceptor with cell yields of 5.9 × 109 cells/mmol of AQDS reduced. Strain Ben serves as model organism for the study of anaerobic benzene metabolism in petroleum-contaminated aquifers, and G. metallireducens is the first anaerobic benzene-degrading organism that can be genetically manipulated. PMID:23001648

  10. An Extended Role-Based Access Control Model for Delegating Obligations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ghorbel-Talbi, Meriam; Cuppens, Frédéric; Cuppens-Boulahia, Nora; Bouhoula, Adel

    The main aim of access control models is to provide means to simplify the management of the security policy, which is a fastidious and error-prone task. Supporting delegation is considered as an important mean to decentralize the administration and therefore to allow security policy to be more flexible and easier to manipulate. Our main contribution is the proposition of a unified model to the administration and delegation of obligations. Managing such delegations implies more requirements than managing traditional privileges delegation. In fact, delegating obligations may include two interpretations: the delegation of the obligation and the delegation of the responsibility related to this obligation. Therefore, it is important to deal with these two notions separately. Moreover, since delegating an obligation involves the delegation of sanctions, then the consent of the user who receives this delegation may be required in some cases. We address in this paper these requirements and we propose a formalism to deal with them.

  11. Mothers', fathers' and children's perceptions of parents' expectations about children's family obligations in nine countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Godwin, Jennifer; Alampay, Liane Peña; Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A; Malone, Patrick S; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat

    2016-10-01

    Children's family obligations involve assistance and respect that children are expected to provide to immediate and extended family members and reflect beliefs related to family life that may differ across cultural groups. Mothers, fathers and children (N = 1432 families) in 13 cultural groups in 9 countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Philippines, Sweden, Thailand and United States) reported on their expectations regarding children's family obligations and parenting attitudes and behaviours. Within families, mothers and fathers had more concordant expectations regarding children's family obligations than did parents and children. Parenting behaviours that were warmer, less neglectful and more controlling as well as parenting attitudes that were more authoritarian were related to higher expectations regarding children's family obligations between families within cultures as well as between cultures. These international findings advance understanding of children's family obligations by contextualising them both within families and across a number of diverse cultural groups in 9 countries. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  12. Metabolic determinants in Listeria monocytogenes anaerobic listeriolysin O production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Nathan; Newton, Eric; Abrams, Elizabeth; Zani, Ashley; Sun, Yvonne

    2017-08-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a human pathogen and a facultative anaerobe. To better understand how anaerobic growth affects L. monocytogenes pathogenesis, we first showed that anaerobic growth led to decreased growth and changes in surface morphology. Moreover, compared to aerobically grown bacteria, anaerobically grown L. monocytogenes established higher level of invasion but decreased intracellular growth and actin polymerization in cultured cells. The production of listeriolysin O (LLO) was significantly lower in anaerobic cultures-a phenotype observed in wild type and isogenic mutants lacking transcriptional regulators SigB or CodY or harboring a constitutively active PrfA. To explore potential regulatory mechanisms, we established that the addition of central carbon metabolism intermediates, such as acetate, citrate, fumarate, pyruvate, lactate, and succinate, led to an increase in LLO activity in the anaerobic culture supernatant. These results highlight the regulatory role of central carbon metabolism in L. monocytogenes pathogenesis under anaerobic conditions.

  13. Annual Compliance Data for Obligated Parties and Renewable Fuel Exporters under the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasoline and diesel refiners and importers (Obligated Parties) demonstrate compliance with each of the four annual standards under the Renewable Fuel Standard by meeting the Renewable Volume Obligations (RVO).

  14. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Enteric Gram Negative Facultative Anaerobe Bacilli in Aerobic versus Anaerobic Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary DeMars

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial treatments result in the host's enteric bacteria being exposed to the antimicrobials. Pharmacodynamic models can describe how this exposure affects the enteric bacteria and their antimicrobial resistance. The models utilize measurements of bacterial antimicrobial susceptibility traditionally obtained in vitro in aerobic conditions. However, in vivo enteric bacteria are exposed to antimicrobials in anaerobic conditions of the lower intestine. Some of enteric bacteria of food animals are potential foodborne pathogens, e.g., Gram-negative bacilli Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. These are facultative anaerobes; their physiology and growth rates change in anaerobic conditions. We hypothesized that their antimicrobial susceptibility also changes, and evaluated differences in the susceptibility in aerobic vs. anaerobic conditions of generic E. coli and Salmonella enterica of diverse serovars isolated from cattle feces. Susceptibility of an isolate was evaluated as its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC measured by E-Test® following 24 hours of adaptation to the conditions on Mueller-Hinton agar, and on a more complex tryptic soy agar with 5% sheep blood (BAP media. We considered all major antimicrobial drug classes used in the U.S. to treat cattle: β-lactams (specifically, ampicillin and ceftriaxone E-Test®, aminoglycosides (gentamicin and kanamycin, fluoroquinolones (enrofloxacin, classical macrolides (erythromycin, azalides (azithromycin, sulfanomides (sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, and tetracyclines (tetracycline. Statistical analyses were conducted for the isolates (n≥30 interpreted as susceptible to the antimicrobials based on the clinical breakpoint interpretation for human infection. Bacterial susceptibility to every antimicrobial tested was statistically significantly different in anaerobic vs. aerobic conditions on both media, except for no difference in susceptibility to ceftriaxone on BAP agar. A satellite

  15. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Enteric Gram Negative Facultative Anaerobe Bacilli in Aerobic versus Anaerobic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMars, Zachary; Biswas, Silpak; Amachawadi, Raghavendra G; Renter, David G; Volkova, Victoriya V

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial treatments result in the host's enteric bacteria being exposed to the antimicrobials. Pharmacodynamic models can describe how this exposure affects the enteric bacteria and their antimicrobial resistance. The models utilize measurements of bacterial antimicrobial susceptibility traditionally obtained in vitro in aerobic conditions. However, in vivo enteric bacteria are exposed to antimicrobials in anaerobic conditions of the lower intestine. Some of enteric bacteria of food animals are potential foodborne pathogens, e.g., Gram-negative bacilli Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. These are facultative anaerobes; their physiology and growth rates change in anaerobic conditions. We hypothesized that their antimicrobial susceptibility also changes, and evaluated differences in the susceptibility in aerobic vs. anaerobic conditions of generic E. coli and Salmonella enterica of diverse serovars isolated from cattle feces. Susceptibility of an isolate was evaluated as its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) measured by E-Test® following 24 hours of adaptation to the conditions on Mueller-Hinton agar, and on a more complex tryptic soy agar with 5% sheep blood (BAP) media. We considered all major antimicrobial drug classes used in the U.S. to treat cattle: β-lactams (specifically, ampicillin and ceftriaxone E-Test®), aminoglycosides (gentamicin and kanamycin), fluoroquinolones (enrofloxacin), classical macrolides (erythromycin), azalides (azithromycin), sulfanomides (sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim), and tetracyclines (tetracycline). Statistical analyses were conducted for the isolates (n≥30) interpreted as susceptible to the antimicrobials based on the clinical breakpoint interpretation for human infection. Bacterial susceptibility to every antimicrobial tested was statistically significantly different in anaerobic vs. aerobic conditions on both media, except for no difference in susceptibility to ceftriaxone on BAP agar. A satellite experiment

  16. Managing incidental genomic findings: legal obligations of clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Ellen Wright; Haga, Susanne; Kuszler, Patricia; Bane, Emily; Shutske, Krysta; Burke, Wylie

    2013-08-01

    Clinical whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing will result in a broad range of incidental findings, but clinicians' obligations to identify and disclose such findings are a matter of debate. We sought legal cases that could offer insights into clinicians' legal liability. We searched for cases in which incidental findings were related to the cause of action, using the search engines WestLaw, WestLaw Next, Lexis, and Lexis Advance. We found no case law related to incidental findings from genetic testing but identified eight cases involving incidental findings in medical imaging. These cases suggest that clinicians may face liability for failing to disclose incidental findings that would have offered an opportunity for interventions to improve health outcome, if under the applicable standard of care, they fail to identify or appreciate the significance of the incidental finding or they negligently fail to notify other clinicians and/or the patient of the identified incidental finding. Other cases support liability for failure to refer appropriately to a clinician with greater expertise. Clinicians may face liability if they fail to disclose incidental information that could inform interventions to improve health outcome; information lacking clinical actionability is likely to have less import.

  17. Understanding the responsibilities and obligations of the modern paediatric surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Spencer W

    2015-02-01

    The modern paediatric surgeon needs to be competent in multiple domains that extend well beyond their clinical and technical expertise. This article, based on the Journal of Pediatric Surgery Lecture at the BAPS Congress (2014), explores some of these less well understood responsibilities and obligations, including professionalism, leadership, effective clinical teaching, and research. The consequence of falling short in these areas includes risks to our profession as a whole as well as compromising our ability to provide our patients with the best clinical care. Paediatric surgeons have a responsibility to influence the configuration of services to improve the quality of care and equity of access to specialist services for all children in their region. Evidence presented shows how a well-organised and funded regional paediatric surgical service allows children to receive quality treatment closer to home and is reflected in better clinical outcomes, less unnecessary surgery, and fewer complications. A paradigm for support to emerging countries as they increase the capacity and infrastructure of their paediatric surgical services is proposed. The way we judge ourselves and others should relate to our performance across the full scope of roles that a responsible and committed paediatric surgeon is expected to display. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Qualité et obligations de résultats

    CERN Document Server

    Guthapfel, C

    1998-01-01

    Un contrat de maintenance peut appartenir à deux grands types ; ceux où la prestation est définie par son contenu ou par son résultat. Dans l'exemple retenu, le résultat est exprimé principalement en terme d'état de référence à maintenir ; ce qui nécessite de définir préalablement l'état requis par rapport aux besoins exprimés ou implicites et l'écart toléré d'où une meilleure définition du besoin. Cette approche qualité responsabilise de manière plus complète le contractant par une facilité accrue de mesurer la conformité au besoin et la preuve de manquements aux obligations contractuelles est plus aisée à établir. Il faut toutefois noter un décalage entre les besoins exprimés et ressentis et la difficulté d'apprécier objectivement les résultats, d'où la nécessité d'améliorer et de formaliser les relations client/fournisseur. C'est uniquement sur ces bases que le partenariat, condition indispensable de l'efficience, peut se développer et les besoins être satisfaits au m...

  19. The 'special obligations' of the modern Hippocratic Oath for 21st century medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmboe, Eric; Bernabeo, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Profound advances and discoveries in medicine have markedly improved the lives of many over the 50 years since the modern Hippocratic Oath was written. Regrettably, these advances were and continue to be implemented suboptimally and inequitably across the globe. 'Special obligations to all my fellow humans' is an important theme of the modern Oath. From this perspective, we reflect on the special obligations of the medical profession, and examine how these obligations have changed over the past 50 years. We draw from perspectives of the social contract, professionalism, quality improvement, patient safety and a group of 31 international colleagues involved in medical education as we examine these obligations for individual doctors, health care institutions and medical education systems. The perspectives of the 31 clinician-educators helped us to situate the meaning of the theme of 'special obligations' in the context of challenges facing medical education and health care in the 21st century. Improving the quality of care and patient safety, and reducing health care disparities are now paramount as 'special obligations' for doctors, health care systems and medical education organisations, and require us to work collectively and collaboratively in an increasingly interconnected world. In our view, traditions such as the Hippocratic Oath will be worthy of public support only when the medical profession demonstrates in meaningful and transparent ways that it is meeting its social and civic obligations to make the world, not just health care, a better place. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Energy supplier obligations and white certificate schemes: Comparative analysis of experiences in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertoldi, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.bertoldi@ec.europa.e [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy, Via E. Fermi 1, TP 450, 21027 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See) (Italy); Rezessy, Silvia, E-mail: silvia.rezessy@ec.europa.e [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy, Via E. Fermi 1, TP 450, 21027 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See) (Italy); Lees, Eoin, E-mail: eoin@eoinleesenergy.co [Eoin Lees Energy, 4 Silver Lane, West Challow, Wantage, Oxon OX12 9TX (United Kingdom); Baudry, Paul, E-mail: paul.baudry@edf.f [EDF R and D, Centre des Renardieres, 77818 Moret sur Loing (France); Jeandel, Alexandre, E-mail: alexandre.jeandel@gdfsuez.co [GDF SUEZ, 16, rue Ville L' Eveque, 75008 Paris (France); Labanca, Nicola, E-mail: nicola.labanca@polimi.i [eERG, Politecnico di Milano, Via Lambruschini n. 4, 20156 Milano (Italy)

    2010-03-15

    A number of Member States of the European Union (EU) have introduced market-based policy portfolios based on quantified energy savings obligations on energy distributors or suppliers, possibly coupled with certification of project-based energy savings (via white certificates), and the option to trade the certificates or obligations. The paper provides an up-to-date review and analysis of results to date of white certificate schemes in the EU. In the EU supplier obligations and white certificate schemes have delivered larger savings than originally expected with obliged companies exceeding targets and, in some cases, at cost below what policy makers have anticipated. Supplier obligations foster the uptake of standardised energy efficiency actions often targeting smaller energy users (residential sector), lowering the transaction costs and contributing to market transformation. The role of certificate trading is more ambiguous. Trading can bring benefits where the target is set sufficiently high with respect to the energy-saving potential in the sectors covered. Theoretically trading may be better suited for broader systems with comprehensive coverage, but even in smaller schemes trading may reduce the transaction costs of compliance for obliged actors without sufficient expertise on end-use energy efficiency. Yet, trading increases the administrative cost ratio of energy-saving obligations.

  1. The levels of disclosure relating to mine closure obligations by platinum mining companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joline Sturdy

    2017-06-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to establish the extent to which platinum mines listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE comply with a recommended disclosure framework. Setting: South Africa is the largest producer of platinum in the world. The study covers all platinum mines listed on the JSE. Methods: Using a framework, a census of the annual financial statements, integrated annual reports and sustainability reports or websites was conducted to determine the level of compliance of disclosure relating to mine closure obligations to the recommended disclosure framework. Results: The results show disclosure relating to mine closure obligations of platinum mines listed on the JSE is inconsistent and not sufficient for stakeholders to understand the scope, key assumptions, parameters or reliability of the assessment and calculation of mine closure obligations. Conclusion: The assumptions used to determine mine closure obligations are specialised and multi-disciplinary. The accuracy and reliability of mine closure obligations will improve dramatically through greater transparency and access to information. It is recommended that the JSE listings for mining companies should require a competent person’s report to provide disclosure on assumptions, key values and processes applied to determine the mine closure obligations. Furthermore, it is recommended that the Department of Mineral Resources implements a mechanism of independent assessment of mine closure obligations by experts on an ongoing basis.

  2. 34 CFR 611.45 - Under what circumstances does the Secretary discharge a scholarship recipient's obligation to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... scholarship recipient's obligation to repay for failure to meet the service obligation? 611.45 Section 611.45... EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TEACHER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT GRANTS PROGRAM Scholarships § 611.45 Under what circumstances does the Secretary discharge a scholarship recipient's obligation to repay for...

  3. Anaerobic Digestion: Mass Balances and Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jacob; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Jansen, Jes la Cour

    2011-01-01

    While the basic processes involved in anaerobic digestion of waste are described in Chapter 9.4 and the main digestion technologies are presented in Chapter 9.5, this chapter focuses on mass balances, gas production and energy aspects, environmental emissions and unit process inventories....... Understanding these issues and being able to account for them is a prerequisite in digestion engineering and for establishing and running a successful anaerobic digestion facility. Of specific importance is the final use of the digestate. Use in agriculture as a fertilizer is described in Chapter 9.10 and use...... after composting of the digestate as a soil amendment product is analogous to issues presented in Chapter 9.9 for compost....

  4. Instrumentation and Control in Anaerobic Digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anaerobic digestion is a multistep process, and is most applied to solids destruction and wastewater treatment for energy production. Despite wide application, and long-term industrial proof of application, some industries are still reluctant to apply this technology. One of the classical reasons...... benchmark. There has therefore been, overall, a quantum advance in application and sophistication of instrumentation and control in anaerobic digestion, and it is an effective option for improved process loading rate and conversion efficiency....... are still a limitation, but this is being partly addressed by the increased complexity of digestion processes. Methods for control benchmarking have also been improved, as there is now an industry standard model (the IWA ADM1), and this is being applied in an improved whole wastewater treatment plant...

  5. Atrazine removal in Danish anaerobic aquifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Philip Grinder; Arildskov, N.P.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    The pesticide atrazine (6-chloro-N-2-ethyl-N-4-isopropyl-1,3,5-triazine -2,4-diamine) was removed from the water phase in anaerobic laboratory batch incubations with sediment and groundwater from a number of Danish anaerobic aquifers, but not in incubations from aerobic aquifers. The removal...... process was abiotic since atrazine was also removed from microbially inhibited autoclaved and chloroform amended controls, although in controls amended with mercury, atrazine removal was slowed down. (ring-U-C-14)- atrazine amended samples showed no mineralization to (CO2)-C-14 or transformation...... to soluble degradation products, indicating that a slow sorption process was responsible for the atrazine removal. Approximately 20% of the applied C-14-atrazine was present in a non-extractable residual sediment bound fraction, indicating the slow sorption process to be in part irreversible...

  6. Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test as a Procedure to Evaluate Anaerobic Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, V L; Zagatto, A M; Kalva-Filho, C A; Mendes, O C; Gobatto, C A; Campos, E Z; Papoti, M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of the running anaerobic sprint test (RAST) as a predictor of anaerobic capacity, compare it to the maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD) and to compare the RAST's parameters with the parameters of 30-s all-out tethered running on a treadmill. 39 (17.0±1.4 years) soccer players participated in this study. The participants underwent an incremental test, 10 submaximal efforts [50-95% of velocity correspondent to VO(2MAX) (vVO(2MAX))] and one supramaximal effort at 110% of vVO(2MAX) for the determination of MAOD. Furthermore, the athletes performed the RAST. In the second stage the 30-s all-out tethered running was performed on a treadmill (30-s all-out), and compared with RAST. No significant correlation was observed between MAOD and RAST parameters. However, significant correlations were found between the power of the fifth effort (P5) of RAST with peak and mean power of 30-s all-out (r=0.73 and 0.50; pRAST do not have an association with MAOD, suggesting that this method should not be used to evaluate anaerobic capacity. Although the correlations between RAST parameters with 30-s all-out do reinforce the RAST as an evaluation method of anaerobic metabolism, such as anaerobic power. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Anaerobic contribution during maximal anaerobic running test: correlation with maximal accumulated oxygen deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagatto, A; Redkva, P; Loures, J; Kalva Filho, C; Franco, V; Kaminagakura, E; Papoti, M

    2011-12-01

    The aims of this study were: (i) to measure energy system contributions in maximal anaerobic running test (MART); and (ii) to verify any correlation between MART and maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD). Eleven members of the armed forces were recruited for this study. Participants performed MART and MAOD, both accomplished on a treadmill. MART consisted of intermittent exercise, 20 s effort with 100 s recovery, after each spell of effort exercise. Energy system contributions by MART were also determined by excess post-exercise oxygen consumption, lactate response, and oxygen uptake measurements. MAOD was determined by five submaximal intensities and one supramaximal intensity exercises corresponding to 120% at maximal oxygen uptake intensity. Energy system contributions were 65.4±1.1% to aerobic; 29.5±1.1% to anaerobic a-lactic; and 5.1±0.5% to anaerobic lactic system throughout the whole test, while only during effort periods the anaerobic contribution corresponded to 73.5±1.0%. Maximal power found in MART corresponded to 111.25±1.33 mL/kg/min but did not significantly correlate with MAOD (4.69±0.30 L and 70.85±4.73 mL/kg). We concluded that the anaerobic a-lactic system is the main energy system in MART efforts and this test did not significantly correlate to MAOD. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Anaerobic digestion trials with HTC process water

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a process where elevated temperature and pressure is used in order to convert biomass to hydrochar, a coal-like substance with good dewatering properties and many potential uses. HTC can be used to treat digestate from anaerobic digestion, but the process water that remains after the hydrochar has been recovered needs to be treated further in the wastewater treatment plant. In order to make HTC more competitive compared to other sludge treatments it is impo...

  9. Monitoring and control of anaerobic reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pind, Peter Frode; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    The current status in monitoring and control of anaerobic reactors is reviewed. The influence of reactor design and waste composition on the possible monitoring and control schemes is examined. After defining the overall control structure, and possible control objectives, the possible process mea...... control approaches that have been used are comprehensively described. These include simple and adaptive controllers, as well as more recent developments such as fuzzy controllers, knowledge-based controllers and controllers based on neural networks....

  10. Polyamines and Anaerobic Elongation of Rice Coleoptile

    OpenAIRE

    Remo, Reggiani; Alejandro, Hochkoeppler; Alcide, Bertani; Istituto Biosintesi Vegetali, C. N. R.; Istituto Biosintesi Vegetali, C. N. R.; Istituto Biosintesi Vegetali, C. N. R.

    1989-01-01

    The role of polyamines in the anaerobic elongation of rice (Oryza sativa L.) coleoptiles was studied. The reduced growth of rice coleoptiles under anoxic conditions was accompanied by a massive accumulation of free putrescine. Putrescine was synthesized from arginine in a reaction catalyzed by arginine decarboxylase (ADC). The anoxic titer of putrescine was closely correlated with elongation of coleoptiles. In experiments in which putrescine and inhibitors [a-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA) and...

  11. On the kinetics of anaerobic power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background This study investigated two different mathematical models for the kinetics of anaerobic power. Model 1 assumes that the work power is linear with the work rate, while Model 2 assumes a linear relationship between the alactic anaerobic power and the rate of change of the aerobic power. In order to test these models, a cross country skier ran with poles on a treadmill at different exercise intensities. The aerobic power, based on the measured oxygen uptake, was used as input to the models, whereas the simulated blood lactate concentration was compared with experimental results. Thereafter, the metabolic rate from phosphocreatine break down was calculated theoretically. Finally, the models were used to compare phosphocreatine break down during continuous and interval exercises. Results Good similarity was found between experimental and simulated blood lactate concentration during steady state exercise intensities. The measured blood lactate concentrations were lower than simulated for intensities above the lactate threshold, but higher than simulated during recovery after high intensity exercise when the simulated lactate concentration was averaged over the whole lactate space. This fit was improved when the simulated lactate concentration was separated into two compartments; muscles + internal organs and blood. Model 2 gave a better behavior of alactic energy than Model 1 when compared against invasive measurements presented in the literature. During continuous exercise, Model 2 showed that the alactic energy storage decreased with time, whereas Model 1 showed a minimum value when steady state aerobic conditions were achieved. During interval exercise the two models showed similar patterns of alactic energy. Conclusions The current study provides useful insight on the kinetics of anaerobic power. Overall, our data indicate that blood lactate levels can be accurately modeled during steady state, and suggests a linear relationship between the alactic

  12. Maximizing biogas production from the anaerobic digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Ghouali, Amel; Sari, Tewfik; Harmand, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Sous presse; International audience; This paper presents an optimal control law policy for maximizing biogas pro-duction of anaerobic digesters. In particular, using a simple model of the anaerobicdigestion process, we derive a control law to maximize the biogas production overa period T using the dilution rate as the control variable. Depending on initialconditions and constraints on the actuator (the dilution rate D(:)), the search fora solution to the optimal control problem reveals very d...

  13. The behavior of a Daphnia pulex transposable element in cyclically and obligately parthenogenetic populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullender, B W; Crease, T J

    2001-07-01

    Using Southern blot analysis, we have characterized restriction fragment patterns of a transposable element. Pokey, in obligately and cyclically parthenogenetic populations of the cladoceran crustacean Daphnia pulex. We show that the element is most likely active in cyclically parthenogenetic populations but is, for the most part, inactive in obligate parthenogens. This result is consistent with theory suggesting that transposable element dynamics are likely to change with a change in reproductive mode. Such changes could have important consequences for the long-term evolutionary potential of obligate parthenogens and may also be informative with regard to the underlying mechanisms that regulate transposable element frequencies in sexual organisms.

  14. Transnational Obligations in the field of Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Gómez Isa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Given that States, particularly developing States, are more exposed than ever before to actions taken by other States, International Organizations, and Transnational Corporations, there is a pressing need to carefully reflect on the obligations States may have with regard to the effects that their international activities have on the economic, social and cultural rights (ESC rights of people living in another country. Unlike extraterritorial obligations in the field of civil and political rights and International Humanitarian Law, the discussion on the transnational obligations in the area of ESC rights has not received much attention so far.

  15. Design and Fabrication of an Anaerobic Digester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Abubakar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digester is a physical structure that provides a conducive environment for the multiplication of micro-organisms that degrades organic matter to generate biogas energy. Energy is required in agriculture for crop production, processing and storage, poultry production and electricity for farmstead and farm settlements. It is energy that propels agricultural mechanization, which minimizes the use of human and animal muscles and its inherent drudgery in agriculture. The energy demand required to meet up with the agricultural growth in Nigeria is high and growing every year. In this study the design and fabrication of an anaerobic digester was reported which is an attempt to boost energy requirement for small and medium dryland farmers in Nigeria. The design of the digester includes the following concept; the basic principles of anaerobic digestion processes, socio-economic status of the dryland farmers, amount of biogas to be produced. Finally, the digester was fabricated using locally available raw materials within the dryland area of Nigeria. At the end, preliminary flammability test was conducted and the biogas produced was found to be flammable.

  16. Mastoiditis and Gradenigo's Syndrome with anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Chris Ladefoged; Bruhn, Mikkel Attermann; Yavarian, Yousef; Gaihede, Michael L

    2012-09-14

    Gradenigo's syndrome is a rare disease, which is characterized by the triad of the following conditions: suppurative otitis media, pain in the distribution of the first and the second division of trigeminal nerve, and abducens nerve palsy. The full triad may often not be present, but can develop if the condition is not treated correctly. We report a case of a 3-year-old girl, who presented with fever and left-sided acute otitis media. She developed acute mastoiditis, which was initially treated by intravenous antibiotics, ventilation tube insertion and cortical mastoidectomy. After 6 days the clinical picture was complicated by development of left-sided abducens palsy. MRI-scanning showed osteomyelitis within the petro-mastoid complex, and a hyper intense signal of the adjacent meninges. Microbiological investigations showed Staphylococcus aureus and Fusobacterium necrophorum. She was treated successfully with intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy with anaerobic coverage. After 8 weeks of follow-up there was no sign of recurrent infection or abducens palsy. Gradenigo's syndrome is a rare, but life-threatening complication to middle ear infection. It is most commonly caused by aerobic microorganisms, but anaerobic microorganisms may also be found why anaerobic coverage should be considered when determining the antibiotic treatment.

  17. Anaerobic Capacity of Sailors with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokopowicz Grzegorz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. A review of Polish and international literature does not give a clear indication of the level of anaerobic capacity that sailors with disabilities demonstrate with regard to their functional capacities. This study sought to determine differences in functional capacity levels between sailors from three medical and functional groups. Material and methods. The research was carried out during a sports camp at the National Sailing Centre in Górki Zachodnie in 2014. Eighteen males with locomotor disabilities were included in the study. The athletes were members of the National Team of Sailors with Disabilities of the Polish Yachting Association. The sportsmen competed in the Skud 18 and 2.4mR Paralympic classes. A 30-second Wingate test for upper limbs was employed in the study. Results. Significant differences in mean power (MP values were noted between the groups under investigation. The group of wheelchair sailors with improper core stability (A and the group of wheelchair sailors with proper core stability (B had significantly lower scores than the group of study participants who were able to move freely, that is to walk (C. Conclusions. The study revealed that a 30-second anaerobic capacity test performed on an arm ergometer differentiated disabled sailors from selected groups in terms of mean power. Research on anaerobic capacity may be used to verify the current classification in Paralympic sailing and will make it possible to differentiate present competition categories.

  18. Unravelling carbon metabolism in anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desvaux, Mickaël

    2006-01-01

    Carbon metabolism in anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria has been investigated essentially in Clostridium thermocellum, Clostridium cellulolyticum, Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, and Ruminococcus albus. While cellulose depolymerization into soluble sugars by various cellulases is undoubtedly the first step in bacterial metabolisation of cellulose, it is not the only one to consider. Among anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria, C. cellulolyticum has been investigated metabolically the most in the past few years. Summarizing metabolic flux analyses in continuous culture using either cellobiose (a soluble cellodextrin resulting from cellulose hydrolysis) or cellulose (an insoluble biopolymer), this review aims to stress the importance of the insoluble nature of a carbon source on bacterial metabolism. Furthermore, some general and specific traits of anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria trends, namely, the importance and benefits of (i) cellodextrins with degree of polymerization higher than 2, (ii) intracellular phosphorolytic cleavage, (iii) glycogen cycling on cell bioenergetics, and (iv) carbon overflows in regulation of carbon metabolism, as well as detrimental effects of (i) soluble sugars and (ii) acidic environment on bacterial growth. Future directions for improving bacterial cellulose degradation are discussed.

  19. Guidebook for the implementation of obligations applicable to polluted sites and soils; Guide pour la mise en oeuvre des servitudes applicables aux sites et sols pollues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Any polluted soil represents a threat and can become an unacceptable risk for men and environment. This document presents some guidelines for the implementation of the obligations related to polluted soils: inventory of needs (prevention of any hazardous exposure, maintenance of the site surveillance, anticipation of safety measures in the case of works, perennializing of the information about the site); existing obligations (public utility obligations, project of general interest, private right conventional obligations, conventional obligations for the benefit of the government, conventional obligations in use between two parties); modalities of enforcement (obligations in the domain of water and soils); synthesis of the existing obligations. (J.S.)

  20. Aerobic and anaerobic cellulase production by Cellulomonas uda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard; Willink, Fillip Wolfgang; Ingvorsen, Kjeld

    2016-10-01

    Cellulomonas uda (DSM 20108/ATCC 21399) is one of the few described cellulolytic facultative anaerobes. Based on these characteristics, we initiated a physiological study of C. uda with the aim to exploit it for cellulase production in simple bioreactors with no or sporadic aeration. Growth, cellulase activity and fermentation product formation were evaluated in different media under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions and in experiments where C. uda was exposed to alternating aerobic/anaerobic growth conditions. Here we show that C. uda behaves as a true facultative anaerobe when cultivated on soluble substrates such as glucose and cellobiose, but for reasons unknown cellulase activity is only induced under aerobic conditions on insoluble cellulosic substrates and not under anaerobic conditions. These findings enhance knowledge on the limited number of described facultative cellulolytic anaerobes, and in addition it greatly limits the utility of C. uda as an 'easy to handle' cellulase producer with low aeration demands.

  1. Population dynamics and the ecological stability of obligate pollination mutualisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, J. Nathaniel; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2001-01-01

    Mutualistic interactions almost always produce both costs and benefits for each of the interacting species. It is the difference between gross benefits and costs that determines the net benefit and the per-capita effect on each of the interacting populations. For example, the net benefit of obligate pollinators, such as yucca and senita moths, to plants is determined by the difference between the number of ovules fertilized from moth pollination and the number of ovules eaten by the pollinator's larvae. It is clear that if pollinator populations are large, then, because many eggs are laid, costs to plants are large, whereas, if pollinator populations are small, gross benefits are low due to lack of pollination. Even though the size and dynamics of the pollinator population are likely to be crucial, their importance has been neglected in the investigation of mechanisms, such as selective fruit abortion, that can limit costs and increase net benefits. Here, we suggest that both the population size and dynamics of pollinators are important in determining the net benefits to plants, and that fruit abortion can significantly affect these. We develop a model of mutualism between populations of plants and their pollinating seed-predators to explore the ecological consequences of fruit abortion on pollinator population dynamics and the net effect on plants. We demonstrate that the benefit to a plant population is unimodal as a function of pollinator abundance, relative to the abundance of flowers. Both selective abortion of fruit with eggs and random abortion of fruit, without reference to whether they have eggs or not, can limit pollinator population size. This can increase the net benefits to the plant population by limiting the number of eggs laid, if the pollination rate remains high. However, fruit abortion can possibly destabilize the pollinator population, with negative consequences for the plant population.

  2. Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test As A Procedure To Evaluate Anaerobic Power

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade; V. L.; Zagatto; A. M.; Kalva-Filho; C. A.; Mendes; O. C.; Gobatto; C. A.; Campos; E. Z.; Papoti; M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of the running anaerobic sprint test (RAST) as a predictor of anaerobic capacity, compare it to the maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD) and to compare the RAST's parameters with the parameters of 30-s all-out tethered running on a treadmill. 39 (17.0+/-1.4 years) soccer players participated in this study. The participants underwent an incremental test, 10 submaximal efforts [50-95% of velocity correspondent to VO2MAX (vVO(2MAX))] and one sup...

  3. A bio-electrochemical system for removing inhibitors of anaerobic digestion processes from anaerobic reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of anaerobic digestion process by high level of ammonia (NH4 +/I\\IH3) is the most serious problem existing in biogas plants. No viable/applicable method to overcome this problem has been found up to now. This invention proposes an innovative submersible bio-electrochemical membrane...... reactor to recover ammonia from anaerobic digestion reactor, and thereby alleviate or counteract ammonia inhibition and enhance the conversion of ammonia-rich wastes to biogas. The invention may further reduce overall cost, giving synergistic advantages for both ammonia recycling and biogas plants...

  4. Energy production by anaerobic treatment of cheese whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peano, L.; Ciciarelli, R.; Comino, E.; Gard, P. A.

    2009-07-01

    Anaerobic treatment and methane generation potential of cheese whey, diluted with mud, were determined in the digester of an existing wastewater treatment plant in Switzerland. Lactose, main sugar in cheese whey, can be a useful indicator to evaluate serum anaerobic treatment. Conventional parameters of anaerobic digestion (Volatile Matter, Dry Matter, Fatty Volatile Acids, total Alkali metric Title) were measured after the introduction of different whey/sludge ratio demonstrating that, despite an overcharge of whey digester, its stability is never compromised. (Author)

  5. Role of anaerobic bacteria in simian enteric diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasilevich, Z K; Dzhikidze, E K; Kalashnikova, V A; Sultanova, O A

    2013-12-01

    Screening of monkeys for anaerobic bacteria showed that the incidence of non-spore-forming anaerobes was 2.0-2.5 times higher than that of clostridia. The overwhelming majority of isolated anaerobes were saprophytes and opportunistic bacteria. The incidence of C. perfringens was higher in monkeys with enteric infections of obscure etiology and dead from these diseases than in healthy animals (48.2 vs. 36.8%).

  6. Dissimilatory reduction of inorganic sulfur by facultatively anaerobic marine bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, J H; Jannasch, H W

    1973-09-01

    THREE STRAINS, SELECTED FROM A LARGE NUMBER OF NEWLY ISOLATED, FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC MARINE BACTERIA, REDUCED INORGANIC SULFUR COMPOUNDS OTHER THAN SULFATE ANAEROBICALLY IN DEFINED CULTURE MEDIA IN THE FOLLOWING DIFFERENT PATTERNS: (i) sulfite and thiosulfate were reduced to sulfide, and tetrathionate was reduced to thiosulfate; (ii) tetrathionate was reduced to thiosulfate only; or (iii) thiosulfate was reduced to sulfide only when pyruvate was the substrate. Comparison of anaerobic growth in the presence or absence of inorganic sulfur compounds indicated true dissimilatory reductions.

  7. ANAEROBIC DIGESTION AND THE DENITRIFICATION IN UASB REACTOR

    OpenAIRE

    José Tavares de Sousa; Keliana Dantas Santos; Israel Nunes Henrique; Danielle Patrício Brasil; Eclésio Cavalcante Santos

    2008-01-01

    The environmental conditions in Brazil have been contributing to the development of anaerobic systems in the treatment of wastewaters, especially UASB - Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket reactors. The classic biological process for removal of nutrients uses three reactors - Bardenpho System, therefore, this work intends an alternative system, where the anaerobic digestion and the denitrification happen in the same reactor reducing the number of reactors for two. The experimental system was con...

  8. 31 CFR 223.13 - Full penalty of the obligation regarded as the liability; exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the contract will be regarded as the liability. (e) Bonds for banks or trust companies as principals... SERVICE SURETY COMPANIES DOING BUSINESS WITH THE UNITED STATES § 223.13 Full penalty of the obligation...

  9. A new approach to professional liability reform: placing obligations of stakeholders ahead of their interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, Judith L; Chervenak, Frank A; McCullough, Laurence B

    2010-09-01

    The authors utilize stakeholder theory to provide a new analysis of the professional liability crisis, by identifying the major stakeholders in our current system of professional liability, their respective obligations and self-interests, and how these interests are advanced and constrained by the current system. This stakeholder analysis reveals a core ethical obligation of all stakeholders: the preservation of the integrity of our current judicial system. The adverse impact of the pursuit of stakeholder self-interests, rather than fulfillment of their core, shared ethical obligation, on achievement of the goals of the current system, the deterrence of unsafe practice and compensation of injured patients, is then identified. The authors argue that approaches to reform of professional liability in obstetrics be based upon the common obligation of the stakeholders to fulfill the goals of the system, because attempts to align the myriad self-interests of the stakeholders will be futile. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 26 CFR 25.2516-2 - Transfers in settlement of support obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Transfers in settlement of support obligations. Transfers to provide a reasonable allowance for the support of children (including legally adopted children) of a marriage during minority are not subject to the...

  11. 31 CFR 800.701 - Obligation of parties to provide information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO MERGERS, ACQUISITIONS, AND TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Provision and Handling of Information § 800.701 Obligation of...

  12. A de-novo-assembly-based Data Analysis Pipeline for Plant Obligate Parasite Metatranscriptomic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Guo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Current and emerging plant diseases caused by obligate parasitic microbes such as rusts, downy mildews, and powdery mildews threaten worldwide crop production and food safety. These obligate parasites are typically unculturable in the laboratory, posing technical challenges to characterize them at the genetic and genomic level. Here we have developed a data analysis pipeline integrating several bioinformatic software programs. This pipeline facilitates rapid gene discovery and expression analysis of a plant host and its obligate parasite simultaneously by next generation sequencing of mixed host and pathogen RNA (i.e. metatranscriptomics. We applied this pipeline to metatranscriptomic sequencing data of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum and its obligate downy mildew parasite Peronospora belbahrii, both lacking a sequenced genome. Even with a single data point, we were able to identify both candidate host defense genes and pathogen virulence genes that are highly expressed during infection. This demonstrates the power of this pipeline for identifying genes important in host-pathogen interactions without prior genomic information for either the plant host or the obligate biotrophic pathogen. The simplicity of this pipeline makes it accessible to researchers with limited computational skills and applicable to metatranscriptomic data analysis in a wide range of plant-obligate-parasite systems.

  13. ANAEROBIC EXERCISE TESTING IN REHABILITATION : A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF AVAILABLE TESTS AND PROTOCOLS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krops, Leonie A.; Albada, Trijntje; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Hijmans, Juha M.; Dekker, Rienk

    Objective: Anaerobic capacity assessment in rehabilitation has received increasing scientific attention in recent years. However, anaerobic capacity is not tested consistently in clinical rehabilitation practice. This study reviews tests and protocols for anaerobic capacity in adults with various

  14. Anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenase diversity in the homoacetogenic hindgut microbial communities of lower termites and the wood roach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric G Matson

    Full Text Available Anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH is a key enzyme in the Wood-Ljungdahl (acetyl-CoA pathway for acetogenesis performed by homoacetogenic bacteria. Acetate generated by gut bacteria via the acetyl-CoA pathway provides considerable nutrition to wood-feeding dictyopteran insects making CODH important to the obligate mutualism occurring between termites and their hindgut microbiota. To investigate CODH diversity in insect gut communities, we developed the first degenerate primers designed to amplify cooS genes, which encode the catalytic (β subunit of anaerobic CODH enzyme complexes. These primers target over 68 million combinations of potential forward and reverse cooS primer-binding sequences. We used the primers to identify cooS genes in bacterial isolates from the hindgut of a phylogenetically lower termite and to sample cooS diversity present in a variety of insect hindgut microbial communities including those of three phylogenetically-lower termites, Zootermopsis nevadensis, Reticulitermes hesperus, and Incisitermes minor, a wood-feeding cockroach, Cryptocercus punctulatus, and an omnivorous cockroach, Periplaneta americana. In total, we sequenced and analyzed 151 different cooS genes. These genes encode proteins that group within one of three highly divergent CODH phylogenetic clades. Each insect gut community contained CODH variants from all three of these clades. The patterns of CODH diversity in these communities likely reflect differences in enzyme or physiological function, and suggest that a diversity of microbial species participate in homoacetogenesis in these communities.

  15. [Distribution and removal of anaerobic antibiotic resistant bacteria during mesophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Juan; Wang, Yuan-Yue; Wei Yuan, Song

    2014-10-01

    Sewage sludge is one of the major sources that releasing antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistant genes (ARG) into the environment since it contains large amount of ARB, but there is little information about the fate of the anaerobic ARB in the anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge. Therefore, the distribution, removal and seasonal changes of tetracycline and β-lactam antibiotics resistant bacteria in the mesophilic egg-shaped digesters of a municipal wastewater treatment plant were investigated for one year in this study. Results showed that there were higher amounts of ARB and higher resistance rate of β-lactam antibiotics than that of tetracycline antibiotics in the sewage sludge. All ARB could be significantly reduced during the mesophilic anaerobic digestion process by 1.48-1.64 log unit (P resistance rates were significantly increased after anaerobic digestion by 12.0% and 14.3%, respectively (P sludge had seasonal change characteristics. Except for chlorotetracycline resistant bacteria, there were more ARB in the sewage sludge in cold season than in warm season (P < 0.05).

  16. The challenges of anaerobic digestion and the role of biochar in optimizing anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagbohungbe, Michael O; Herbert, Ben M J; Hurst, Lois; Ibeto, Cynthia N; Li, Hong; Usmani, Shams Q; Semple, Kirk T

    2017-03-01

    Biochar, like most other adsorbents, is a carbonaceous material, which is formed from the combustion of plant materials, in low-zero oxygen conditions and results in a material, which has the capacity to sorb chemicals onto its surfaces. Currently, research is being carried out to investigate the relevance of biochar in improving the soil ecosystem, digestate quality and most recently the anaerobic digestion process. Anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic substrates provides both a sustainable source of energy and a digestate with the potential to enhance plant growth and soil health. In order to ensure that these benefits are realised, the anaerobic digestion system must be optimized for process stability and high nutrient retention capacity in the digestate produced. Substrate-induced inhibition is a major issue, which can disrupt the stable functioning of the AD system reducing microbial breakdown of the organic waste and formation of methane, which in turn reduces energy output. Likewise, the spreading of digestate on land can often result in nutrient loss, surface runoff and leaching. This review will examine substrate inhibition and their impact on anaerobic digestion, nutrient leaching and their environmental implications, the properties and functionality of biochar material in counteracting these challenges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Growth media in anaerobic fermentative processes : The underestimated potential of thermophilic fermentation and anaerobic digestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, A.T.W.M.; van Lier, J.B.; de Kreuk, M.K.

    2017-01-01

    Fermentation and anaerobic digestion of organic waste and wastewater is broadly studied and applied. Despite widely available results and data for these processes, comparison of the generated results in literature is difficult. Not only due to the used variety of process conditions, but also

  18. Accelerated anaerobic hydrolysis rates under a combination of intermittent aeration and anaerobic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T. R.; Lastra Milone, T.; Petersen, G.

    2017-01-01

    for calculating hydrolysis rates based on soluble COD were compared. Two-way ANOVA with the Bonferroni post-test was performed in order to register any significant difference between reactors with intermittent aeration and strictly anaerobic conditions respectively. The experiment demonstrated a statistically...

  19. Obligation of information and nuclear medicine after the law of march 4. 2002; Obligation d'information en medecine nucleaire apres la loi du 4 mars 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloch, L. [Universite Montesquieu, ATER, 33 - Bordeaux (France)

    2002-06-01

    The default of the obligation of information, which should only be a deontological fault, had begun to intrude on the area of responsibility, whether it be criminal or indeed civil. 'Ethical' responsibility took over a 'technical' responsibility limited by the primacy of fault. The law of March 4, 2002 prepared the ground for a return of this sword of Damocles towards its natural area, that is to say deontological fault which comes within ordinal jurisdictions. Thus the main contribution of this law is to be found in the definition of medical responsibility which, by limiting responsibility to a technical fault, seems to rule out the default of the obligation of information. The law of March 4, 2002 has not stirred up the content of the obligation of information for all that. The question of the information on exceptional risks is the only one to have noticeably evolved, since information now concerns only predictable risks. Therefore, the law of March 4, 2002, in no way leads to the death of the obligation of information, quite the reverse: the quality requirements in the information of the patient are even reinforced in some of their aspects, but in compensation for these requirements, there is no exacerbated responsibility anymore. (author)

  20. Intra-Genomic Heterogeneity in 16S rRNA Genes in Strictly Anaerobic Clinical Isolates from Periodontal Abscesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiazhen; Miao, Xinyu; Xu, Meng; He, Junlin; Xie, Yi; Wu, Xingwen; Chen, Gang; Yu, Liying; Zhang, Wenhong

    2015-01-01

    Background Members of the genera Prevotella, Veillonella and Fusobacterium are the predominant culturable obligate anaerobic bacteria isolated from periodontal abscesses. When determining the cumulative number of clinical anaerobic isolates from periodontal abscesses, ambiguous or overlapping signals were frequently encountered in 16S rRNA gene sequencing chromatograms, resulting in ambiguous identifications. With the exception of the genus Veillonella, the high intra-chromosomal heterogeneity of rrs genes has not been reported. Methods The 16S rRNA genes of 138 clinical, strictly anaerobic isolates and one reference strain were directly sequenced, and the chromatograms were carefully examined. Gene cloning was performed for 22 typical isolates with doublet sequencing signals for the 16S rRNA genes, and four copies of the rrs-ITS genes of 9 Prevotella intermedia isolates were separately amplified by PCR, sequenced and compared. Five conserved housekeeping genes, hsp60, recA, dnaJ, gyrB1 and rpoB from 89 clinical isolates of Prevotella were also amplified by PCR and sequenced for identification and phylogenetic analysis along with 18 Prevotella reference strains. Results Heterogeneity of 16S rRNA genes was apparent in clinical, strictly anaerobic oral bacteria, particularly in the genera Prevotella and Veillonella. One hundred out of 138 anaerobic strains (72%) had intragenomic nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in multiple locations, and 13 strains (9.4%) had intragenomic insertions or deletions in the 16S rRNA gene. In the genera Prevotella and Veillonella, 75% (67/89) and 100% (19/19) of the strains had SNPs in the 16S rRNA gene, respectively. Gene cloning and separate amplifications of four copies of the rrs-ITS genes confirmed that 2 to 4 heterogeneous 16S rRNA copies existed. Conclusion Sequence alignment of five housekeeping genes revealed that intra-species nucleotide similarities were very high in the genera Prevotella, ranging from 94.3–100%. However, the

  1. Anaerobic wastewater treatment of concentrated sewage using a two-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket- anaerobic filter system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halalsheh, Maha M; Abu Rumman, Zainab M; Field, Jim A

    2010-01-01

    A two-stage pilot-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket - anaerobic filter (UASB-AF) reactors system treating concentrated domestic sewage was operated at 23 degrees C and at hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 15 and 4 h, respectively. Excess sludge from the downstream AF stage was returned to the upstream UASB reactor. The aim was to obtain higher sludge retention time (SRT) in the UASB reactor for better methanization of suspended COD. The UASB-AF system removed 55% and 65% of the total COD (COD(tot)) and suspended COD (COD(ss)), respectively. The calculated SRT in the UASB reactor ranged from 20-35 days. The AF reactor removed the washed out sludge from the first stage reactor with average COD(ss) removal efficiency of 55%. The volatile fatty acids concentration in the effluent of the AF was 39 mg COD/L compared with 78 mg COD/L measured for the influent. The slightly higher COD(tot) removal efficiency obtained in this study compared with a single stage UASB reactor was achieved at 17% reduction in the total volume.

  2. Applications of the anaerobic digestion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Ellegaard, L.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    and resource/energy recovery have been developed. Treatment of biowastes by anaerobic digestion processes is in many cases the optimal way to convert organic waste into useful products such as energy (in the form of biogas) and a fertilizer product. Other waste management options, such as land filling...... and incineration of organic waste has become less desirable, and legislation, both in Europe and elsewhere, tends to favor biological treatment as a way of recycling minerals and nutrients of organic wastes from society back to the food production and supply chain. Removing the relatively wet organic waste from...

  3. Improvement of anaerobic digestion of sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohanyos, Michael; Zabranska, Jana; Kutil, Josef; Jenicek, Pavel

    2003-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion improvement can be accomplished by different methods. Besides optimization of process conditions is frequently used pretreatment of input sludge and increase of process temperature. Thermophilic process brings a higher solids reduction and biogas production, the high resistance to foaming, no problems with odour, the higher effect of destroying pathogens and the improvement of the energy balance of the whole treatment plant. Disintegration of excess activated sludge in lysate centrifuge was proved in full-scale conditions causing increase of biogas production. The rapid thermal conditioning of digested sludge is acceptable method of particulate matter disintegration and solubilization. (author)

  4. [Anaerobic cervical cellulitis: a therapeutic approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mevio, E

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of life-threatening complications arising from cervico-facial infections is well known. Deep cervical infections, however, rarely spread to the mediastinus. Organisms responsible for these infections usually include either aerobic or anaerobic microorganisms, whose synergistic activity provokes virulence and contributes to the violent nature of infection. Prompt recognition is vital if appropriate treatment is to be given. Initial management of deep-neck infections consists in intensive parenteral antibiotic therapy. Nevertheless, in spite of antibiotic therapy, mortality due to suppurative mediastinitis remains high. The Author emphasizes the importance and gives priority to surgical drainage and debridement, another fundamental part of treatment.

  5. Psychrophilic anaerobic digestion of human waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meher, K.K.; Gollakota, K.G. [Tata Research Development and Design Center, Pune (India); Murthy, M.V.S. [Research and Development Engineers, Dighi, Pune (India)

    1994-12-31

    Human waste was degraded into biogas at a psychrophilic temperature of 15 {+-} 1{sup o}C. Below 20{sup o}C methane production was observed only with the addition of temperature-adapted seed culture. Biogas produced was 0.148 m{sup 3} per kg total solids degraded/per day, at 30 day retention time, and methane content was 57%. Pathogenic bacterial content per 100 ml in the human waste was reduced from an initial 10{sup 24} to 10{sup 3} after the anaerobic and chemical treatments. COD and BOD were reduced by up to 97 and 40% respectively. Total solids reduction was 77%. (author)

  6. Hybrid modelling of anaerobic wastewater treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karama, A; Bernard, O; Genovesi, A; Dochain, D; Benhammou, A; Steyer, J P

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid approach for the modelling of an anaerobic digestion process. The hybrid model combines a feed-forward network, describing the bacterial kinetics, and the a priori knowledge based on the mass balances of the process components. We have considered an architecture which incorporates the neural network as a static model of unmeasured process parameters (kinetic growth rate) and an integrator for the dynamic representation of the process using a set of dynamic differential equations. The paper contains a description of the neural network component training procedure. The performance of this approach is illustrated with experimental data.

  7. Anaerobic xylose fermentation by Spathaspora passalidarum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaoru

    2012-01-01

    A cost-effective conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into bioethanol requires that the xylose released from the hemicellulose fraction (20–40% of biomass) can be fermented. Baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, efficiently ferments glucose but it lacks the ability to ferment xylose. Xylose-fermenting...... yeast such as Pichia stipitis requires accurately controlled microaerophilic conditions during the xylose fermentation, rendering the process technically difficult and expensive. In this study, it is demonstrated that under anaerobic conditions Spathaspora passalidarum showed high ethanol production...

  8. Electrochemical monitoring of ammonia during anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Nannan; Angelidaki, Irini; Zhang, Yifeng

    Ammonia is known as key inhibitor to methanogens in anaerobic digestion (AD) process. It’s of importance to develop efficient tool for ammonia monitoring. In this study, an electrolysis cell (EC) coupled with a complete nitrification reactor was developed as sensor for real time and online......-rich digesters. It was observed that the initial transient currents (0 min) were linearly corresponding to the ammonia levels (from 0 to 95.75 mg/L NH4+-N, R2 = 0.9673). Finally, this new sensor was tested with real AD effluent and the results showed no significant difference with that measured by conventional...

  9. The Role of Oxygen in Anaerobic Microbiologically Influenced Marine Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    02. A palladium catalyst inside the anaerobic chamber served as an 02 and H2 reaction site resulting in the formation of water and increased...CN and Suflita JM (in preparation), Anaerobic Metabolism of Biodiesel and Its Impact on Metal Corrosion. Page 7 of 7

  10. Xylan degradation by the anaerobic bacterium Bacteroides xylanolyticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schyns, P.J.Y.M.L.

    1997-01-01

    Plant cell walls are the major reservoir of fixed carbon in nature. The mineralization of the fiber material, the so called lignocellulosic complex, proceeds almost exclusively by microbial processes in both aerobic and anaerobic environments. In anaerobic microbial processes the energy of

  11. Gender differences in anaerobic power in Nigerian students | Musa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken in order to determine gender differences in anaerobic power of undergraduate physical education students. An attempt was also made to assess the relationship between selected anthropometric variables and indices of anaerobic power: peak power (PP), Mean power (MP), and fatigue index (FI) ...

  12. Solids removal in upflow anaerobic reactors, a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoud, N.; Zeeman, G.; Gijzen, H.J.; Lettinga, G.

    2003-01-01

    This desk study deals with the mechanisms and parameters affecting particles separation from wastewater in mainly upflow anaerobic reactors. Despite the fact that the functioning of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) systems depends on both physical parameters and biological processes, the

  13. Molecular AND logic gate based on bacterial anaerobic respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arugula, Mary Anitha; Shroff, Namita; Katz, Evgeny; He, Zhen

    2012-10-21

    Enzyme coding genes that integrate information for anaerobic respiration in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 were used as input for constructing an AND logic gate. The absence of one or both genes inhibited electrochemically-controlled anaerobic respiration, while wild type bacteria were capable of accepting electrons from an electrode for DMSO reduction.

  14. Anaerobic Threshold and Salivary α-amylase during Incremental Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akizuki, Kazunori; Yazaki, Syouichirou; Echizenya, Yuki; Ohashi, Yukari

    2014-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the validity of salivary α-amylase as a method of quickly estimating anaerobic threshold and to establish the relationship between salivary α-amylase and double-product breakpoint in order to create a way to adjust exercise intensity to a safe and effective range. [Subjects and Methods] Eleven healthy young adults performed an incremental exercise test using a cycle ergometer. During the incremental exercise test, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and ventilatory equivalent were measured using a breath-by-breath gas analyzer. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured to calculate the double product, from which double-product breakpoint was determined. Salivary α-amylase was measured to calculate the salivary threshold. [Results] One-way ANOVA revealed no significant differences among workloads at the anaerobic threshold, double-product breakpoint, and salivary threshold. Significant correlations were found between anaerobic threshold and salivary threshold and between anaerobic threshold and double-product breakpoint. [Conclusion] As a method for estimating anaerobic threshold, salivary threshold was as good as or better than determination of double-product breakpoint because the correlation between anaerobic threshold and salivary threshold was higher than the correlation between anaerobic threshold and double-product breakpoint. Therefore, salivary threshold is a useful index of anaerobic threshold during an incremental workload.

  15. Performance of an innovative multi-stage anaerobic reactor during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Start-up of an anaerobic reactor is a relatively delicate process and depends on various factors such as wastewater composition, available inoculum, operating conditions and reactor configuration. Accordingly, systematized operational procedures are important, mainly during the start-up of an anaerobic reactor.

  16. Optimisation Study on the Production of Anaerobic Digestate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is a rich substrate for biogas and compost production. Anaerobic Digestate compost (ADC) is an organic fertilizer produced from stabilized residuals of anaerobic digestion of OFMSW. This paper reports the result of studies carried out to optimise the production of ADC from ...

  17. TEST RESULTS FOR FUEL CELL OPERATION ON ANAEROBIC DIGESTER GAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA, in conjunction with ONSI Corp., embarked on a project to define, design, test, and assess a fuel cell energy recovery system for application at anaerobic digester waste water (sewage) treatment plants. Anaerobic digester gas (ADG) is produced at these plants during the proce...

  18. Rumen derived anaerobic digestion of water hyacinth (Eicchornia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serial dilution was carried out and used to inoculate nutrient agar and chocolate agar. The agar plates were then incubated anaerobically at 37°C for 24 h. The digesters were seeded with rumen bacteria and immersed into water bath operated at 37°C. During the anaerobic digestion, volume of biogas produced was ...

  19. A fuzzy logic approach to control anaerobic digestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Domnanovich, A.M.; Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Pfeiffer, B.; Karlovits, M.; Zani, L.; Braun, R.; Holubar, P.

    2003-01-01

    One of the goals of the EU-Project AMONCO (Advanced Prediction, Monitoring and Controlling of Anaerobic Digestion Process Behaviour towards Biogas Usage in Fuel Cells) is to create a control tool for the anaerobic digestion process, which predicts the volumetric organic loading rate (Bv) for the

  20. Anaerobic microbial processes for energy conservation and biotransformation of pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luz Ferreira Martins Paulo, da Lara

    2017-01-01

    Anaerobic microbial processes are commonly applied in the treatment of domestic and industrial wastewaters. Anaerobic digestion (AD) of wastewater has received a great deal of attention, but many aspects related to the complex interactions between microorganism, and how that is affected by the

  1. Methanol conversion in high-rate anaerobic reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijma, J.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    An overview on methanol conversion in high-rate anaerobic reactors is presented, with the focus on technological as well as microbiological aspects. The simple C1-compound methanol can be degraded anaerobically in a complex way, in which methanogens, sulfate reducing bacteria and homoacetogens

  2. Control of calcium carbonate precipitation in anaerobic reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langerak, van E.P.A.

    1998-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment of waste waters with a high calcium content may lead to excessive precipitation of calcium carbonate. So far, no proper methods were available to predict or reduce the extent of precipitation in an anaerobic treatment system. Moreover, it also was not clear to what

  3. Moroccan rock phosphate solubilization during a thermo-anaerobic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to investigate the presence of thermo-tolerant rock phosphate (RP) solubilizing anaerobic microbes during the fermentation process, we used grassland as sole organic substrate to evaluate the RP solubilization process under anaerobic thermophilic conditions. The result shows a significant decrease of pH from ...

  4. The anaerobic digestion of solid organic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Azeem; Arshad, Muhammad; Anjum, Muzammil; Mahmood, Tariq; Dawson, Lorna

    2011-08-01

    The accumulation of solid organic waste is thought to be reaching critical levels in almost all regions of the world. These organic wastes require to be managed in a sustainable way to avoid depletion of natural resources, minimize risk to human health, reduce environmental burdens and maintain an overall balance in the ecosystem. A number of methods are currently applied to the treatment and management of solid organic waste. This review focuses on the process of anaerobic digestion which is considered to be one of the most viable options for recycling the organic fraction of solid waste. This manuscript provides a broad overview of the digestibility and energy production (biogas) yield of a range of substrates and the digester configurations that achieve these yields. The involvement of a diverse array of microorganisms and effects of co-substrates and environmental factors on the efficiency of the process has been comprehensively addressed. The recent literature indicates that anaerobic digestion could be an appealing option for converting raw solid organic wastes into useful products such as biogas and other energy-rich compounds, which may play a critical role in meeting the world's ever-increasing energy requirements in the future. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Treatment of slaughterhouse wastewaters using anaerobic filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Sandra Luz; Torretta, Vincenzo; Minguelac, Jésus Vázquez; Siñeriz, Faustino; Raboni, Massimo; Copelli, Sabrina; Rada, Elena Cristina; Ragazzi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a laboratory-scale experimentation allowed comparing the performances of two upflow anaerobic packed-bed filters filled with different packing materials and operating at mesophilic conditions (30 degreeC) for treating slaughterhouse wastewaters. Methane production was experimentally evaluated considering different volumetric organic loading rates as well as feeding overloading conditions. Although filter performances declined with loading rates higher than 6 kg CODin m-3 d-1 , the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency remained always above 60%. The experimental results allowed for determining kinetic parameters for bacterial growth rate and methane production, following Monod and Chen-Hashimoto models, respectively. Results demonstrated that the reactors reached a cellular retention time significantly greater than the hydraulic retention time. The kinetic parameter values (Ks, l/max) revealed the low microorganisms' affinity for the substrate and confirmed the moderate biodegradability of slaughterhouse wastewater. The kinetic analysis also allowed the comparison of the filters performances with another anaerobic system and the assessment of the parameters useful for real-scale plant design. The system design, applied to a medium-sized Argentinean slaughterhouse, demonstrated to (i) be energetically self-sufficient and (ii) contribute to the plant's water heating requirements.

  6. Anaerobic and aerobic transformation of TNT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulpa, C.F. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Boopathy, R.; Manning, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.

    1996-12-31

    Most studies on the microbial metabolism of nitroaromatic compounds have used pure cultures of aerobic microorganisms. In many cases, attempts to degrade nitroaromatics under aerobic conditions by pure cultures result in no mineralization and only superficial modifications of the structure. However, mixed culture systems properly operated result in the transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and in some cases mineralization of TNT occurs. In this paper, the mixed culture system is described with emphasis on intermediates and the characteristics of the aerobic microbial process including the necessity for a co-substrate. The possibility of removing TNT under aerobic/anoxic conditions is described in detail. Another option for the biodegradation of TNT and nitroaromatics is under anaerobic, sulfate reducing conditions. In this instance, the nitroaromatic compounds undergo a series of reductions with the formation of amino compounds. TNT under sulfate reducing conditions is reduced to triaminotoluene presumably by the enzyme nitrite reductase, which is commonly found in many Desulfovibrio spp. The removal of nitro groups from TNT is achieved by a series of reductive reactions with the formation of ammonia and toluene by Desulfovibrio sp. (B strain). These metabolic processes could be applied to other nitroaromatic compounds like nitrobenzene, nitrobenzoic acids, nitrophenols, and aniline. The data supporting the anaerobic transformation of TNT under different growth condition are reviewed in this report.

  7. Anaerobic Toxicity of Cationic Silver Nanoparticles | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The microbial toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) stabilized with different capping agents was compared to that of Ag+ under anaerobic conditions. Three AgNPs were investigated: (1) negatively charged citrate-coated AgNPs (citrate-AgNPs), (2) minimally charged polyvinylpyrrolidone coated AgNPs (PVP-AgNps) and (3) positively charged branched polyethyleneimine coated AgNPs (BPEI-AgNPs). The AgNPs investigated in this experiment were similar in size (10-15 nm), spherical in shape, but varied in surface charge which ranged from highly negative to highly positive. While, at AgNPs concentrations lower than 5 mg L-1, the anaerobic decomposition process was not influenced by the presence of the nanoparticles, there was an observed impact on the diversity of the microbial community. At elevated concentrations (100 mg L-1 as silver), only the cationic BPEI-AgNPs demonstrated toxicity similar in magnitude to that of Ag+. Both citrate and PVP-AgNPs did not exhibit toxicity at the 100 mg L-1 as measured by biogas evolution. These findings further indicate the varying modes of action for nanoparticle toxicity and represent one of the few studies that evaluate end-of-life management concerns with regards to the increasing use of nanomaterials in our everyday life. These findings also highlight some of the concerns with a one size fits all approach to the evaluation of environmental health and safety concerns associated with the use of nanoparticles. The current

  8. Mathematical modelling of anaerobic digestion processes: applications and future needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batstone, Damien J.; Puyol, Daniel; Flores Alsina, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    of the role of the central carbon catabolic metabolism in anaerobic digestion, with an increased importance of phosphorous, sulfur, and metals as electron source and sink, and consideration of hydrogen and methane as potential electron sources. The paradigm of anaerobic digestion is challenged by anoxygenic...... phototrophism, where energy is relatively cheap, but electron transfer is expensive. These new processes are commonly not compatible with the existing structure of anaerobic digestion models. These core issues extend to application of anaerobic digestion in domestic plant-wide modelling, with the need......Anaerobic process modelling is a mature and well-established field, largely guided by a mechanistic model structure that is defined by our understanding of underlying processes. This led to publication of the IWA ADM1, and strong supporting, analytical, and extension research in the 15 years since...

  9. Combined Anaerobic-Aerobic Bacterial Degradation of Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wilfred Sugumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewaters from the dye baths of a non-formal textile-dyeing unit containing C.I. Acid Orange 7 and C.I. Reactive Red 2 were subjected to degradation in a sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment process based on mixed culture of bacteria. The technical samples of the dyestuffs and the dye bath wastes were treated in an anaerobic reactor, using an adapted mixed culture of anaerobic microorganisms. The dyestuffs were biotransformed into colourless substituted amine metabolites in the reactor. The biotransformation was assisted by co-metabolic process. The amine metabolites did not undergo further degradation in the anaerobic reactor. The effluent from the anaerobic reactor was treated in an aerobic rotating biological contactor and the amine metabolites were found to undergo complete mineralization. This two stage treatment resulted in 94% elimination of dissolved organic carbon. In addition, 85% of organic nitrogen was converted into nitrate in the aerobic reactor during nitrification process.

  10. Validity of the Pediatric Running-Based Anaerobic Sprint Test to Determine Anaerobic Performance in Healthy Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, Bart C.; Werkman, Maarten S.; Blokland, Donna; Eijsermans, Maria J. C.; van der Torre, Patrick; Bartels, Bart; Verschuren, Olaf; Takken, Tim

    Purpose: To determine criterion validity of the pediatric running-based anaerobic sprint test (RAST) as a nonsophisticated field test for evaluating anaerobic performance in healthy children and adolescents. Methods: Data from 65. healthy children (28 boys and 37 girls between 6 and 18 years of age,

  11. UNDER THE NEW CIVIL CODE: THE SALE CONTRACT IS TRANSLATED PROPERTY OR CREATOR ONLY OF OBLIGATIONS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIVIU STANCIULESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available According to art. 1650, paragraph. 1, of the Civil Code, "The sale is the contract that the seller transmits or, where appropriate, seek to transmit the property of an asset to the buyer, for a price which the buyer is obliged to pay" The dispositions of the 2011 civil code suggests that compared to the time of transfer of ownership, the contract may have different legal nature: creative translative property or obligations. Thus, transfer of ownership may be immediately and in this case, as occurs or may be postponed (conclusion of the contract and in this case, is an obligation of the seller. For example, art. 1674 of Civil Code states that "the property is" shifting "by right to the buyer" and "General Provisions" of art. 1672. paragraph 1 and art. 1673. paragraph 1 of Civil Code provides that "The seller is obliged to transmit the buyer the ownership of the sold property ". Please note that until the appearance of the Civil Code 2011, the sale was widely known as "translational property" and a possible shift in the category of contracts creating obligations would produce important consequences for the concept (and related institutions. On the background issues above, we consider that the presentation of opinions and arguments in their support could be beneficial.

  12. The role of gut microbiota in health and disease: In vitro modeling of host-microbe interactions at the aerobe-anaerobe interphase of the human gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Martels, Julius Z H; Sadaghian Sadabad, Mehdi; Bourgonje, Arno R; Blokzijl, Tjasso; Dijkstra, Gerard; Faber, Klaas Nico; Harmsen, Hermie J M

    2017-04-01

    The microbiota of the gut has many crucial functions in human health. Dysbiosis of the microbiota has been correlated to a large and still increasing number of diseases. Recent studies have mostly focused on analyzing the associations between disease and an aberrant microbiota composition. Functional studies using (in vitro) gut models are required to investigate the precise interactions that occur between specific bacteria (or bacterial mixtures) and gut epithelial cells. As most gut bacteria are obligate or facultative anaerobes, studying their effect on oxygen-requiring human gut epithelial cells is technically challenging. Still, several (anaerobic) bacterial-epithelial co-culture systems have recently been developed that mimic host-microbe interactions occurring in the human gut, including 1) the Transwell "apical anaerobic model of the intestinal epithelial barrier", 2) the Host-Microbiota Interaction (HMI) module, 3) the "Human oxygen-Bacteria anaerobic" (HoxBan) system, 4) the human gut-on-a-chip and 5) the HuMiX model. This review discusses the role of gut microbiota in health and disease and gives an overview of the characteristics and applications of these novel host-microbe co-culture systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Anaerobic work capacity in elite wheelchair athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Woude, L H; Bakker, W H; Elkhuizen, J W; Veeger, H E; Gwinn, T

    1997-01-01

    To study the anaerobic work capacity in wheelchair athletes, 67 elite wheelchair athletes (50 male) were studied in a 30-second sprint test on a computer-controlled wheelchair ergometer during the World Championships and Games for the Disabled in Assen (1990). The experimental set-up (ergometer, protocol) proved to be adequate in terms of power output (P30, P5) velocity and heart rate. Male and female athletes were comparable with respect to personal characteristics (age, body weight, training hours). Track athletes (classified in 4 different functional classes) showed a class-related mean power output (P30: mean power produced during the 30-second sprint period) of 23, 68, 100, and 138 W for the male athletes (n = 38) and 38, 77, and 76 W for females in the upper three classes (n = 10). Sprint power was low for the group of subjects with cerebral palsy (35 W; mixed, n = 6) and relatively high for the amputee group (121 W; mixed, n = 6), female basketball players (81 W; n = 5), and two male field athletes (110 W). Significant differences between male and female athletes were found for P30 and P5 (highest mean power output over any of the six 5-second periods). As was to be expected, mean maximum heart rate in the sprint test varied significantly between the track groups from 112 (high lesion group) to 171 beats/minute(-1) (low lesion group) but not for both genders. The lower P30 in the T1 and T2 groups must be explained not only by the reduced functional muscle mass and impaired coordination but also by phenomena of cardiovascular dysfunction. Based on the performance parameters, the functional classification of the track athletes into four groups seems adequate. P30 was significantly associated with the personal characteristics of gender and hours of training. A significant correlation was found between P30 and sprint performance times for 200 meters (r = -0.79). No correlation was found between either of the forms of power output and the marathon times

  14. Anaerobic toxicity of cationic silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitipour, Alireza; Thiel, Stephen W. [Biomedical, Chemical, and Environmental Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Scheckel, Kirk G. [USEPA, Office of Research and Development, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Tolaymat, Thabet, E-mail: tolaymat.thabet@epa.gov [USEPA, Office of Research and Development, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The microbial toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) stabilized with different capping agents was compared to that of Ag{sup +} under anaerobic conditions. Three AgNPs were investigated: (1) negatively charged citrate-coated AgNPs (citrate-AgNPs), (2) minimally charged polyvinylpyrrolidone coated AgNPs (PVP-AgNPs) and (3) positively charged branched polyethyleneimine coated AgNPs (BPEI-AgNPs). The AgNPs investigated in this experiment were similar in size (10–15 nm), spherical in shape, but varied in surface charge which ranged from highly negative to highly positive. While, at AgNPs concentrations lower than 5 mg L{sup −1}, the anaerobic decomposition process was not influenced by the presence of the nanoparticles, there was an observed impact on the diversity of the microbial community. At elevated concentrations (100 mg L{sup −1} as silver), only the cationic BPEI-AgNPs demonstrated toxicity similar in magnitude to that of Ag{sup +}. Both citrate and PVP-AgNPs did not exhibit toxicity at the 100 mg L{sup −1} as measured by biogas evolution. These findings further indicate the varying modes of action for nanoparticle toxicity and represent one of the few studies that evaluate end-of-life management concerns with regards to the increasing use of nanomaterials in our everyday life. These findings also highlight some of the concerns with a one size fits all approach to the evaluation of environmental health and safety concerns associated with the use of nanoparticles. - Highlights: • At concentrations -1 the anaerobic decomposition process was not impacted. • An impact on the microbial community at concentrations -1 were observed. • At high concentrations (100 mg L{sup −1}), the cationic BPEI-AgNPs demonstrated toxicity. • Toxicity was demonstrated without the presence of oxidative dissolution of silver. • A one size fits all approach for the evaluation of NPs may not be accurate.

  15. Report on the installations of cogeneration under obligation to buy; Rapport sur les installations de cogeneration sous obligation d'achat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    Facing the problem of the climatic change and the increase of the fossil energies prices, the government policy of the cogeneration development follows many objectives. Among these objectives it is necessary of implement a new tariff of obligation to buy of the electricity from cogeneration and allow the existing installations to reaffirm their obligation to buy contract. The first part of this report defines the necessary conditions to better use the ecological and economical interest of the natural gas cogeneration and shows that these conditions are not favorable in France. The second part preconizes to modify the actual tariff device in order to maintain the existing park to 2015 in acceptable economical and ecological conditions. (A.L.B.)

  16. Remote electronic monitoring and the landing obligation – some insights into fishers’ and fishery inspectors’ opinions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreiber Plet-Hansen, Kristian; Qvist Eliasen, Søren; Mortensen, Lars O.

    2017-01-01

    The European fisheries management is currently undergoing a fundamental change in the handling of catches of commercial fisheries with the implementation of the 2013 Common Fisheries Policy. One of the main objectives of the policy is to end the practice of discarding in the EU by 2019. However...... purposes and is currently considered as one possible tool to ensure compliance with a European ban on discards. This study focuses on Danish fishery inspectors and on fishers with REM experience, whose opinions are less well known. Their views on the landing obligation and on the use of REM were...... not led to antipathy towards REM. Fishery inspectors saw on-board observers, at-sea control and REM as the three best solutions to control the landing obligation but shared the general belief that the landing obligation cannot be enforced properly and will be difficult for fishers to comply with...

  17. Remote electronic monitoring and the landing obligation – some insights into fishers’ and fishery inspectors’ opinions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreiber Plet-Hansen, Kristian; Qvist Eliasen, Søren; Mortensen, Lars O.

    2017-01-01

    , for such changes to be successful, it is vital to ensure stakeholders acceptance, and it is prudent to consider possible means to verify compliance with the new regulation. Remote Electronic Monitoring (REM) with Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV) has been tested in a variety of fisheries worldwide for different...... purposes and is currently considered as one possible tool to ensure compliance with a European ban on discards. This study focuses on Danish fishery inspectors and on fishers with REM experience, whose opinions are less well known. Their views on the landing obligation and on the use of REM were...... not led to antipathy towards REM. Fishery inspectors saw on-board observers, at-sea control and REM as the three best solutions to control the landing obligation but shared the general belief that the landing obligation cannot be enforced properly and will be difficult for fishers to comply with...

  18. Asperger syndrome and the supposed obligation not to bring disabled lives into the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Pat

    2010-09-01

    Asperger syndrome (AS) is an autistic spectrum condition that shares the range of social impairments associated with classic autism widely regarded as disabling, while also often giving rise to high levels of ability in areas such as maths, science, engineering and music. The nature of this striking duality of disability and ability is examined, along with its implications for our thinking about disability and the relevance of levels and kinds of disability to reproductive choices. In particular, it may be seen as posing a challenge to John Harris's influential position in reproductive ethics relating to disability. The paper argues that if, as Harris maintains, there is a quite general moral obligation to avoid bringing disabled lives into the world regardless of the level of disability, then AS must be seen as having a strong claim to be exempt from such an obligation. However, a broader critique of Harris's position leads to the conclusion that, in fact, this putative obligation does not exist.

  19. Economic Game Theory to Model the Attenuation of Virulence of an Obligate Intracellular Bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tago, Damian; Meyer, Damien F

    2016-01-01

    Diseases induced by obligate intracellular pathogens have a large burden on global human and animal health. Understanding the factors involved in the virulence and fitness of these pathogens contributes to the development of control strategies against these diseases. Based on biological observations, a theoretical model using game theory is proposed to explain how obligate intracellular bacteria interact with their host. The equilibrium in such a game shows that the virulence and fitness of the bacterium is host-triggered and by changing the host's defense system to which the bacterium is confronted, an evolutionary process leads to an attenuated strain. Although, the attenuation procedure has already been conducted in practice in order to develop an attenuated vaccine (e.g., with Ehrlichia ruminantium), there was a lack of understanding of the theoretical basis behind this process. Our work provides a model to better comprehend the existence of different phenotypes and some underlying evolutionary mechanisms for the virulence of obligate intracellular bacteria.

  20. Models of occupational medicine practice: an approach to understanding moral conflict in "dual obligation" doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamin, Jacques

    2013-08-01

    In the United Kingdom (UK), ethical guidance for doctors assumes a therapeutic setting and a normal doctor-patient relationship. However, doctors with dual obligations may not always operate on the basis of these assumptions in all aspects of their role. In this paper, the situation of UK occupational physicians is described, and a set of models to characterise their different practices is proposed. The interaction between doctor and worker in each of these models is compared with the normal doctor-patient relationship, focusing on the different levels of trust required, the possible power imbalance and the fiduciary obligations that apply. This approach highlights discrepancies between what the UK General Medical Council guidance requires and what is required of a doctor in certain roles or functions. It is suggested that using this modelling approach could also help in clarifying the sources of moral conflict for other doctors with "dual obligations" in their various roles.

  1. Parental Cultural Socialization of Mexican American Adolescents’ Family Obligation Values and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Kim M.; Telzer, Eva H.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined how parents’ cultural socialization efforts contribute to adolescents’ family obligation values and behaviors and how these processes may depend upon the relational climate at home. Utilizing survey and daily diary methodologies, 428 Mexican American adolescents (50% males; MAge=15 years) and their parents (83% mothers; MAge=42 years) participated in the study. Adolescents reported on their family obligation values and engagement in family assistance tasks across 14 days. Parents reported on their cultural socialization practices. Results indicated that parental cultural socialization was associated with adolescents’ family obligation values and behaviors when parent-child relationships were low in conflict and high in support. Findings suggest that the transmission of cultural values and practices is best facilitated through positive parent-child relationships. PMID:25726966

  2. Growth media in anaerobic fermentative processes: The underestimated potential of thermophilic fermentation and anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, A T W M; van Lier, J B; de Kreuk, M K

    Fermentation and anaerobic digestion of organic waste and wastewater is broadly studied and applied. Despite widely available results and data for these processes, comparison of the generated results in literature is difficult. Not only due to the used variety of process conditions, but also because of the many different growth media that are used. Composition of growth media can influence biogas production (rates) and lead to process instability during anaerobic digestion. To be able to compare results of the different studies reported, and to ensure nutrient limitation is not influencing observations ascribed to process dynamics and/or reaction kinetics, a standard protocol for creating a defined growth medium for anaerobic digestion and mixed culture fermentation is proposed. This paper explains the role(s) of the different macro- and micronutrients, as well as the choices for a growth medium formulation strategy. In addition, the differences in nutrient requirements between mesophilic and thermophilic systems are discussed as well as the importance of specific trace metals regarding specific conversion routes and the possible supplementary requirement of vitamins. The paper will also give some insight into the bio-availability and toxicity of trace metals. A remarkable finding is that mesophilic and thermophilic enzymes are quite comparable at their optimum temperatures. This has consequences for the trace metal requirements of thermophiles under certain conditions. Under non-limiting conditions, the trace metal requirement of thermophilic systems is about 3 times higher than for mesophilic systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Anaerobic Digestion Modeling: from One to Several Bacterial Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván D. Ramírez-Rivas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion systems are complex processes that unfortunately often suffer from instability causing digester failure. In order to be able to design, optimizing and operate efficiently anaerobic digestion systems, appropriate control strategies need to be designed. Such strategies require, in general, the development of mathematical models. The anaerobic digestion process comprises a complex network of sequential and parallel reactions of biochemical and physicochemical nature. Usually, such reactions contain a particular step, the so called rate-limiting step which, being the slowest, limits the reaction rate of the overall process. The first attempts for modeling anaerobic digestion led to models describing only the limiting step. However, over a wide range of operating conditions, the limiting step is not always the same. It may depend on wastewater characteristics, hydraulic loading, temperature, etc. It is apparent that the "limiting step hypothesis" leads to simple and readily usable models. Such models, however, do not describe very well the digester behavior, especially under transient operating conditions. This work reviews the current state-of-the-art in anaerobic digestion modeling. We give a brief description of the key anaerobic digestion models that have been developed so far for describing biomass growth systems, including the International Water Association’s Anaerobic Digestion Model 1 (ADM1 and we identify the areas that require further research endeavors.

  4. Effects of kinesio taping on anaerobic power and capacity results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmanci, Halit; Kalkavan, Arslan; Karavelioglu, Mihri B; Yuksel, Oğuzhan; Şentürk, Aydin; Gülaç, Meryem; Altinok, Betül

    2016-06-01

    Kinesio taping is a therapeutic method used by physiotherapists during musculoskeletal and neuromuscular disorders. Efficacy of the kinesio taping implementation on sport performance is inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of kinesio taping on 30 second-repeated jump power, wingate anaerobic power and wingate anaerobic capacity results. Thirty one healthy male athletes volunteered to participate in this study. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of two groups: a kinesio taping group (16 subjects; X age: 21.87±2.02 years) and a without kinesio taping group (15 subjects; X age: 21.66±1.67 years). The Kinesio taping group was taped with a Y-shaped kinesio tape at the quadriceps muscles according to the Kenzo Kase's Kinesio taping manual. A dependent t-test was used to compare the anaerobic power and capacity measurements before and after the kinesio taping application. No significant differences were found for absolute wingate anaerobic power, relative wingate anaerobic power, absolute wingate anaerobic capacity, relative wingate anaerobic capacity and 30 second-repeated jump power outputs after the kinesio taping application (P>0.05).

  5. Effect of nitrate on anaerobic azo dye reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirik, Kevser; Kitiş, Mehmet; Çinar, Özer

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of nitrate on anaerobic color removal efficiencies. For this aim, anaerobic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) fed with a simulated textile effluent including Remazol Brilliant Violet 5R azo dye was operated with a total cycle time of 12 h, including anaerobic (6 h) and aerobic cycles (6 h). Microorganism grown under anaerobic phase of the reactor was exposed to different amounts of competitive electron acceptor (nitrate) and performance of the system was determined by monitoring color removal efficiency, nitrate removal, nitrite formation and removal, oxidation reduction potential, color removal rate, chemical oxygen demand (COD), specific anaerobic enzyme (azo reductase) and aerobic enzyme (catechol 1,2 dioxygenase), and formation and removal of aromatic amines. Variations of population dynamics of microorganisms exposed to various amount of nitrate were identified by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). It was found that nitrate has adverse effect on anaerobic color removal efficiency and color removal was achieved after denitrification process was completed. It was found that nitrate stimulates the COD removal efficiency and accelerates the COD removal in the first hour of anaerobic phase. About 90 % total COD removal efficiencies were achieved in which microorganism exposed to increasing amount of nitrate. Population dynamics of microorganisms exposed to various amount of nitrate were changed and diversity was increased.

  6. Anaerobic polymers as high vacuum leak sealants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, B. R. F.

    1982-01-01

    Anaerobic polymers are useful as solventless leak sealants with good vacuum properties at moderate temperatures. Loctite 290 can seal leaks in a range generally encountered in carefully constructed ultrahigh vacuum and high vacuum systems. It was found that small leaks are sealed best under vacuum, whereas large leaks should be sealed at atmospheric pressure. The high-temperature behavior of Loctite 290 is limited by its fast cure, which prevents deep penetration into small leaks; cracking eventually occurs at the entrance to the leak. Repeated thermal cycling to about 300 C is possible, however, provided viscosity, curing time, and leak size are properly matched to ensure penetration into the body of the leak. This may require special formulations for high temperature vacuum applications.

  7. [Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, José E; García-Sánchez, Enrique; García-García, María Inmaculada

    2014-02-01

    The anaerobic bacteria resistance to antibiotics is increasing, and even has appeared against the most active of those, like metronidazol and carbapenems. This fact forces to make and periodical sensibility tests -at least in the most aggressive and virulent species, in cases that they are isolated from life locations and in the absence of therapeutic response- to check the local sensibility and to establish suitable empiric therapies, all based on multicentric studies carried out in order to this or well to check the activity of new antibiotics. For the laboratory routine, the easiest sensibility method is the E-test/MIC evaluator. Another alternative is microdilution, that's only normalized for Bacteroides. There are preliminary facts that allow the use of disc diffusion method in some species of Bacteroides and Clostridium. For the temporal and multicentric studies, the procedure is dilution in agar plate, the reference method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  8. Monitoring and control of anaerobic reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pind, Peter Frode; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    The current status in monitoring and control of anaerobic reactors is reviewed. The influence of reactor design and waste composition on the possible monitoring and control schemes is examined. After defining the overall control structure, and possible control objectives, the possible process...... measurements are reviewed in detail. In the sequel, possible manipulated variables, such as the hydraulic retention time, the organic loading rate, the sludge retention time, temperature, pH and alkalinity are evaluated with respect to the two main reactor types: high-rate and low-rate. Finally, the different...... control approaches that have been used are comprehensively described. These include simple and adaptive controllers, as well as more recent developments such as fuzzy controllers, knowledge-based controllers and controllers based on neural networks....

  9. Peritoneal dialysis peritonitis by anaerobic pathogens: a retrospective case series

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Bacterial infections account for most peritoneal dialysis (PD)-associated peritonitis episodes. However, anaerobic PD peritonitis is extremely rare and intuitively associated with intra-abdominal lesions. In this study, we examined the clinical characteristics of PD patients who developed anaerobic peritonitis. Methods We retrospectively identified all anaerobic PD peritonitis episodes from a prospectively collected PD registry at a single center between 1990 and 2010. Only patients receiving more than 3 months of PD were enrolled. We analyzed clinical features as well as outcomes of anaerobic PD peritonitis patients. Results Among 6 patients, 10 episodes of PD-associated peritonitis were caused by anaerobic pathogens (1.59% of all peritonitis episodes during study the period), in which the cultures from 5 episodes had mixed growth. Bacteroides fragilis was the most common species identified (4 isolates). Only 3 episodes were associated with gastrointestinal lesions, and 4 episodes were related to a break in sterility during exchange procedures. All anaerobic pathogens were susceptible to clindamycin and metronidazole, but penicillin resistance was noted in 4 isolates. Ampicillin/sulbactam resistance was found in 2 isolates. In 5 episodes, a primary response was achieved using the first-generation cephalosporin and ceftazidime or aminoglycoside. In 3 episodes, the first-generation cephalosporin was replaced with aminoglycosides. Tenckhoff catheter removal was necessary in 2 episodes. Only one episode ended with mortality (due to a perforated bowel). Conclusion Anaerobic PD-associated peritonitis might be predominantly caused by contamination, rather than intra-abdominal events. Half of anaerobic PD-associated peritonitis episodes had polymicrobial growth. The overall outcome of anaerobic peritonitis is fair, with a high catheter survival rate. PMID:23705895

  10. Considerations regarding the constitutional obligation determining the financing source for budgetary expenditures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Camelia Stoica

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relation between constitutionality and opportunity in order to adopt regulations in matters of economy and finance. The analysis concerns in particular the regulation process on budgetary expenditures, respectively the constitutional obligation to indicate the source of financing for these expenses. The legal and jurisprudential landmarks identified are likely to reveal the delicate issues of balancing the concurring interests, as well as the constitutionalisation tendency of certain obligations imposed by the law of public finances and, respectively, the Fiscal Responsibility Law in the sense of transforming them into “constitutional criteria” through the application of Article 138 (5 of the Constitution.

  11. Directed graph based carbon flow tracing for demand side carbon obligation allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Tao; Feng, Donghan; Ding, Teng

    2016-01-01

    method for tracing carbon flow is proposed. In a lossy network, matrices such as carbon losses, net carbon intensity (NCI) and footprint carbon intensity (FCI) are obtained with the proposed method and used to allocate carbon obligation at demand side. Case studies based on realistic distribution......In order to achieve carbon emission abatement, some researchers and policy makers have cast their focus on demand side carbon abatement potentials. This paper addresses the problem of carbon flow calculation in power systems and carbon obligation allocation at demand side. A directed graph based...

  12. DEFINITION OF PUBLIC SERVICE OBLIGATION POTENTIAL IN THE NEW EU MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin HROMÁDKA

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with public service obligation, a form of state aid that applies to air services. The paper first provides general information on the European legislation applying to this form of state aid, and elaborates the legal framework and general principles. The second part is dedicated to a comparison of a similar subsidizing programme in the USA and Australia. An examination of current imposed public service obligation routes in Europe is provided in the following section. The coefficients defining the number of imposed PSO routes per various geo-economic variables have been defined.

  13. Are Physicians Obliged to Lead Environmental Sustainability Efforts in Health Care Organizations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Cheryl C; Hill, Jonathan

    2017-12-01

    Climate change threatens health, health care, and the industries and resources upon which these depend. The growing prevalence and severity of its health consequences and economic costs are alarming health professionals and organizations as their professional obligations, grounded in the core value of health, include protecting against these harms. One means of fulfilling these obligations is to lead or support sustainability initiatives that are built upon current, reliable, accurate, and unbiased evidence and collaboratively tailored to meet specific needs and respond to specific contexts. We consider why and how health professionals and organizations should lead or support such initiatives. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  14. ANAEROBIC MEMBRANE BIOREACTORS FOR DOMESTIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT. PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Vera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The operation of submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors (SAnMBRs for domestic wastewaters treatment was studied in laboratory scale, with the objective to define sustainable filtration conditions of the suspensions along the process. During continuous experiments, the organic matter degradation by anaerobic way showed an average DQOT removal of 85% and 93%. Indeed, the degradation generated biogas after 12 days of operation and its relative methane composition was of 60% after 25 days of operation. Additionally, the comparison between membrane bioreactors (MBRs performance in aerobic and anaerobic conditions in filterability terms, reported that both systems behave similarly once reached the stationary state.

  15. Microbial and Physicochemical Characteristics of Compact Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing Granules in an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Bing-Jie; Hu, Bao-Lan; Fang, Fang; Xie, Wen-Ming; Kartal, Boran; Liu, Xian-Wei; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Jetten, Mike; Zheng, Ping; Yu, Han-Qing

    2010-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is a promising new process to treat high-strength nitrogenous wastewater. Due to the low growth rate of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria, efficient biomass retention is essential for reactor operation. Therefore, we studied the settling ability and community composition of the anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing granules, which were cultivated in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor seeded with aerobic granules. With this seed, the start-up period was less than 160 days at a NH4+-N removal efficiency of 94% and a loading rate of 0.064 kg N per kg volatile suspended solids per day. The formed granules were bright red and had a high settling velocity (41 to 79 m h−1). Cells and extracellular polymeric substances were evenly distributed over the anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing granules. The high percentage of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in the granules could be visualized by fluorescent in situ hybridization and electron microscopy. The copy numbers of 16S rRNA genes of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in the granules were determined to be 4.6 × 108 copies ml−1. The results of this study could be used for a better design, shorter start-up time, and more stable operation of anammox systems for the treatment of nitrogen-rich wastewaters. PMID:20190088

  16. Thermophilic anaerobic fermentation of olive pulp for hydrogen and methane production: modelling of the anaerobic digestion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2006-01-01

    the olive pulp; c) subsequent anaerobic treatment of the hydrogen-effluent with the simultaneous production of methane; and d) development of a mathematical model able to describe the anaerobic digestion of the olive pulp and the effluent of hydrogen producing process. Both continuous and batch experiments......The present study investigates the thermophilic biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp, which is the semi-solid. residue coming from the two-phase processing of olives. It focussed on: a) production of methane from the raw olive pulp; b) anaerobic bio-production of hydrogen from...

  17. Paralkalibacillus indicireducens gen., nov., sp. nov., an indigo-reducing obligate alkaliphile isolated from indigo fermentation liquor used for dyeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Kikue; Nishita, Masatoshi; Matsuyama, Hidetoshi; Yumoto, Isao

    2017-10-01

    Obligately alkaliphilic, indigo-reducing strains, designated Bps-1T, Bps-2 and Bps-3, were isolated from an indigo fermentation liquor used for dyeing, which was produced from sukumo (composted Polygonum indigo leaves) obtained from a craft centre in Data City, Hokkaido, Japan, by using medium containing cellulase-treated sukumo. The 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogeny suggested that Bps-1T has a distinctive position among the alkaliphilic species of the genus Bacillus, with its closest neighbours being Bacillus pseudofirmus DSM 8715T, Bacillus lindianensis DSM 26864T and Bacillus alcalophilus DSM 485T (96.1, 95.8 and 95.5 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, respectively). The 16S rRNA sequence of strain Bps-1T was identical to those of strains Bps-2 and Bps-3. Cells of the novel isolate were Gram-stain-positive and were facultatively anaerobic straight rods that were motile by means of a pair of flagella (subpolar and centre sides). Spherical endospores were formed in the terminal position. Strain Bps-1T grew between 18 and 40 °C with optimum growth at 33 °C. The isolate grew in the pH range 8‒11, with optimum growth at pH 9‒10. The isoprenoid quinone detected was menaquinone-7 (MK-7), and the DNA G+C content was 40.3 %. The whole-cell fatty acid profile (>10 %) mainly consisted of anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0. On the basis of the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, the isolates represent a novel species of a novel genus, for which the name Paralkalibacillus indicireducens gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of this species is Bps-1T (JCM 31808T=NCIMB 15080T), with strains Bps-2 and Bps-3 representing additional strains of the species.

  18. Biochemical Mechanisms and Microorganisms Involved in Anaerobic Testosterone Metabolism in Estuarine Sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Shih, Chao-Jen; Chen, Yi-Lung; Wang, Chia-Hsiang; Wei, Sean T.-S.; Lin, I-Ting; Ismail, Wael A.; Chiang, Yin-Ru

    2017-01-01

    Current knowledge on the biochemical mechanisms underlying microbial steroid metabolism in anaerobic ecosystems is extremely limited. Sulfate, nitrate, and iron [Fe (III)] are common electron acceptors for anaerobes in estuarine sediments. Here, we investigated anaerobic testosterone metabolism in anaerobic sediments collected from the estuary of Tamsui River, Taiwan. The anaerobic sediment samples were spiked with testosterone (1 mM) and individual electron acceptors (10 mM), including nitra...

  19. Identification of Anaerobic Bacteria in Iranian patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shahb Shafeian; Mojgan Bandehpour; Sina Mirzaahmadi; Azadeh Tofighi

    2013-01-01

    Please cite this article as: Shafeian SH, Bandehpour M, Mirzaahmadi S, Tofighi A. Identification of Anaerobic Bacteria in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis. . Novel Biomed 2013;1(2):39-42.Background...

  20. Anaerobic digestion and co-digestion of slaughterhouse wastes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Castellucci, Sonia; Cocchi, Silvia; Allegrini, Elena; Vecchione, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    .... In the present work, the case of slaughterhouse wastes (SHWs) has been investigated. Anaerobic digestion is nowadays considered as one of the most important and sustainable conversion technology exploiting organic matter and biodegradable wastes...

  1. Cobalt toxicity in anaerobic granular sludge: influence of chemical speciation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartacek, J.; Fermoso, F.G.; Baldo-Urrutia, A.M.; Hullebusch, van E.D.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2008-01-01

    The influence of cobalt speciation on the toxicity of cobalt to methylotrophic methanogenesis in anaerobic granular sludge was investigated. The cobalt speciation was studied with three different media that contained varying concentrations of complexing ligands [carbonates, phosphates and

  2. Inhibition of the anaerobic digestion process by linear alkylbenzene sulfonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2002-01-01

    Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS) are the most widely used synthetic anionic surfactants. They are anthropogenic, toxic compounds and are found in the primary sludge generated in municipal wastewater treatment plants. Primary sludge is usually stabilized anaerobically and therefore it is impor......Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS) are the most widely used synthetic anionic surfactants. They are anthropogenic, toxic compounds and are found in the primary sludge generated in municipal wastewater treatment plants. Primary sludge is usually stabilized anaerobically and therefore...... it is important to investigate the effect of these xenobiotic compounds on an anaerobic environment. The inhibitory effect of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS) on the acetogenic and methanogenic step of the anaerobic digestion process was studied. LAS inhibit both acetogenesis from propionate...

  3. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles of anaerobic pathogens in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veloo, A. C. M.; van Winkelhoff, A. J.

    The antibiotic susceptibility profile of the Bacteroides fragilis group, Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC), Fusobacterium spp., Prevotella spp., Veillonella spp. and Bilophila wadsworthia for amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, clindamycin and metronidazole was determined. Human clinical

  4. Bacterial ecology of abattoir wastewater treated by an anaerobic digestor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Jabari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Wastewater from an anaerobic treatment plant at a slaughterhouse was analysed to determine the bacterial biodiversity present. Molecular analysis of the anaerobic sludge obtained from the treatment plant showed significant diversity, as 27 different phyla were identified. Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Thermotogae, Euryarchaeota (methanogens, and msbl6 (candidate division were the dominant phyla of the anaerobic treatment plant and represented 21.7%, 18.5%, 11.5%, 9.4%, 8.9%, and 8.8% of the total bacteria identified, respectively. The dominant bacteria isolated were Clostridium, Bacteroides, Desulfobulbus, Desulfomicrobium, Desulfovibrio and Desulfotomaculum. Our results revealed the presence of new species, genera and families of microorganisms. The most interesting strains were characterised. Three new bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion of abattoir wastewater were published.

  5. Bacterial ecology of abattoir wastewater treated by an anaerobic digestor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabari, Linda; Gannoun, Hana; Khelifi, Eltaief; Cayol, Jean-Luc; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Hamdi, Moktar; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater from an anaerobic treatment plant at a slaughterhouse was analysed to determine the bacterial biodiversity present. Molecular analysis of the anaerobic sludge obtained from the treatment plant showed significant diversity, as 27 different phyla were identified. Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Thermotogae, Euryarchaeota (methanogens), and msbl6 (candidate division) were the dominant phyla of the anaerobic treatment plant and represented 21.7%, 18.5%, 11.5%, 9.4%, 8.9%, and 8.8% of the total bacteria identified, respectively. The dominant bacteria isolated were Clostridium, Bacteroides, Desulfobulbus, Desulfomicrobium, Desulfovibrio and Desulfotomaculum. Our results revealed the presence of new species, genera and families of microorganisms. The most interesting strains were characterised. Three new bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion of abattoir wastewater were published. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Anaerobic desulphurisation of thiophenes by mixed microbial communities from oilfields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis, C.L.M.; Ivanova, A.E.; Janssen, A.J.H.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Anaerobic enrichment cultures obtained from oil fields degraded various thiophenic compounds i.e. thiophene, benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene, with the concomitant formation of sulphide using hydrogen, lactate and ethanol as possible electron donors. It was demonstrated that dibenzothiophene was

  7. Characteristics, Process Parameters, and Inner Components of Anaerobic Bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awad Abdelgadir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The anaerobic bioreactor applies the principles of biotechnology and microbiology, and nowadays it has been used widely in the wastewater treatment plants due to their high efficiency, low energy use, and green energy generation. Advantages and disadvantages of anaerobic process were shown, and three main characteristics of anaerobic bioreactor (AB, namely, inhomogeneous system, time instability, and space instability were also discussed in this work. For high efficiency of wastewater treatment, the process parameters of anaerobic digestion, such as temperature, pH, Hydraulic retention time (HRT, Organic Loading Rate (OLR, and sludge retention time (SRT were introduced to take into account the optimum conditions for living, growth, and multiplication of bacteria. The inner components, which can improve SRT, and even enhance mass transfer, were also explained and have been divided into transverse inner components, longitudinal inner components, and biofilm-packing material. At last, the newly developed special inner components were discussed and found more efficient and productive.

  8. Dechlorination of Aromatic Xenobiotic Compounds by Anaerobic Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    ANAEROBIC MICROORGANISMS................................... 82 A. RATIONALE AND APPROACH................................. 82 B. MATERIALIS AND METHODS...days, and was complete within the next 5 to 6 days. These observations indicate that the enrichment was composed of both active dechlorinator(s) and

  9. Hydrogen as clean fuel via continuous fermentation by anaerobic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    free and oxidized to water as a combustion product. Bioconversion of synthesis gas to hydrogen was demonstrated in a continuous fermentation utilizing malate as a carbon source. Rhodospirillum rubrum, an anaerobic photosynthetic bacterium ...

  10. The influence of aerobic sludge retention time on anaerobic co ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-04-02

    ABR) and aerobic plug flow reactor (PFR) were operated aiming to minimize excess sludge output of the activated sludge process through coupled alkaline hydrolysis and anaerobic digestion. Variations in the effluent total.

  11. Anaerobic digestion as final step of a cellulosic ethanol biorefinery:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2010-01-01

    In order to lower the costs for second generation bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass anaerobic digestion of the effluent from ethanol fermentation was implemented using an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor system in a pilot-scale biorefinery plant. Both thermophilic (538C...... were, however, higher under mesophilic conditions compared to thermophilic conditions. The conversion of dissolved organic matter (VSdiss) was between 68% and 91%. The effluent from the ethanol fermentation showed no signs of toxicity to the anaerobic microorganisms. However, a high content...... of suspended matter reduced the degradation efficiency. The retention time of the anaerobic system could be reduced from 70 to 7 h by additional removal of suspended matter by clarification. Implementation of the biogas production from the fermentation effluent accounted for about 30% higher carbon utilization...

  12. The influence of aerobic sludge retention time on anaerobic co ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABR) and aerobic plug flow reactor (PFR) were operated aiming to minimize excess sludge output of the activated sludge process through coupled alkaline hydrolysis and anaerobic digestion. Variations in the effluent total chemical oxygen ...

  13. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion for waste and wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegant, W.M.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis deals with thermophilic anaerobic waste and wastewater treatment. A literature survey is presented, in which the thermophilic treatment processes are evaluated with respect to the loading rates and treatment efficiencies, and some relevant theoretical considerations concerning

  14. Anaerobic biodegradation of lipids of the marine microalga Nannochloropsis salina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Grossi, V.; Blokker, P.

    2001-01-01

    In order to determine the susceptibility to anaerobic biodegradation of the different lipid biomarkers present in a marine microalga containing algaenan, portions of one large batch of cultured Nannochloropsis salina (Eustigmatophyceae) were incubated in anoxic sediment slurries for various times.

  15. Estimation of methane generation based on anaerobic digestion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ). In this study, the generation of methane from waste at Kiteezi landfill was measured using laboratory-scale anaerobic digestion experiment and estimated using the Mass balance model. The samples were collected in the wet and dry ...

  16. Co-existence of Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation Bacteria and Denitrifying Anaerobic Methane Oxidation Bacteria in Sewage Sludge: Community Diversity and Seasonal Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Sai; Lu, Wenjing; Mustafa, Muhammad Farooq

    2017-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) and denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) have been recently discovered as relevant processes in the carbon and nitrogen cycles of wastewater treatment plants. In this study, the seasonal dynamics of ANAMMOX and DAMO bacterial community structures ...

  17. 26 CFR 46.4701-1 - Tax on issuer of registration-required obligation not in registered form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Tax on issuer of registration-required obligation not in registered form. 46.4701-1 Section 46.4701-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX ON POLICIES ISSUED BY FOREIGN INSURERS AND OBLIGATIONS NOT IN REGISTERED...

  18. Positive obligations and the international criminal tribunals' law of detention: funding family visits and the ICC Presidency's Ngudjolo decision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abels, D.

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of whether the international criminal tribunals are under an obligation to fund family visits for indigent detainees. It examines the concept of positive obligations and its relation to the detention situation and describes the practice of funding family visits as it

  19. 12 CFR 714.9 - Are indirect leasing arrangements subject to the purchase of eligible obligation limit set forth...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Are indirect leasing arrangements subject to the purchase of eligible obligation limit set forth in § 701.23 of this chapter? 714.9 Section 714.9....9 Are indirect leasing arrangements subject to the purchase of eligible obligation limit set forth...

  20. 20 CFR 1002.261 - Who is responsible for funding any plan obligation to provide the employee with pension benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... obligation to provide the employee with pension benefits? 1002.261 Section 1002.261 Employees' Benefits... and Benefits Pension Plan Benefits § 1002.261 Who is responsible for funding any plan obligation to provide the employee with pension benefits? With the exception of multiemployer plans, which have separate...

  1. 12 CFR 987.5 - Obligations of the Banks and the Office of Finance; no Adverse Claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Finance; no Adverse Claims. 987.5 Section 987.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD OFFICE OF FINANCE BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURE FOR CONSOLIDATED OBLIGATIONS § 987.5 Obligations of the Banks and the Office of Finance; no Adverse Claims. (a) Except in the case of a security interest in favor of the United...

  2. 34 CFR 611.42 - How does the Secretary calculate the period of the scholarship recipient's service obligation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... scholarship recipient's service obligation? 611.42 Section 611.42 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... QUALITY ENHANCEMENT GRANTS PROGRAM Scholarships § 611.42 How does the Secretary calculate the period of the scholarship recipient's service obligation? (a) Calculation of period of scholarship assistance...

  3. 34 CFR 611.44 - Under what circumstances may the Secretary defer a scholarship recipient's service obligation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... scholarship recipient's service obligation? 611.44 Section 611.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... QUALITY ENHANCEMENT GRANTS PROGRAM Scholarships § 611.44 Under what circumstances may the Secretary defer a scholarship recipient's service obligation? (a) Upon written request, the Secretary may defer a...

  4. 25 CFR 166.909 - What are my obligations to the BIA after I participate in an agriculture education program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... an agriculture education program? 166.909 Section 166.909 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS... education program? (a) Individuals completing agriculture education programs with an obligated service... obligated service within 90 days of the date all program education requirements have been completed. If...

  5. Parallel adaptations and common host cell responses enabling feeding of obligate and facultative plant parasitic nematodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smant, Geert; Helder, Johannes; Goverse, Aska

    2018-01-01

    Parallel adaptations enabling the use of plant cells as the primary food source have occurred multiple times in distinct nematode clades. The hallmark of all extant obligate and facultative plant-feeding nematodes is the presence of an oral stylet, which is required for penetration of plant cell

  6. The {open_quotes}obligation to serve{close_quotes} and a competitive electric industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colton, R.D. [Fisher, Sheehan and Colton (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This report presents an assessment of what the ``obligation to serve`` might look like in a competitive electric industry. Broadly, this research has three objectives: to define the ``duty to serve`` of a competitive electric industry; to identify those companies to whom that duty applies; and to explain how that duty protects residual classes.

  7. 20 CFR 655.1306 - Assurances and obligations of H-2A Labor Contractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process for Temporary Agricultural Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) § 655.1306 Assurances and obligations..., or local laws and regulations and will provide, at a minimum, the same vehicle safety standards...

  8. 9 CFR 205.213 - Obligations subject-“person indebted”-“debtor.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Obligations subject-âperson indebtedâ-âdebtor.â 205.213 Section 205.213 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS... to a security interest for another's debt. However the terms “person indebted” and “debtor” in the...

  9. The Obligation to Provide Free Basic Education in South Africa: An International Law Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Arendse

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa many learners are denied the right to basic education because of the levying of school fees and other educational charges, in spite of the international obligation imposed on government to provide free primary education. This article examines the exact nature and extent of this obligation by exploring the concept of "free" basic education. The applicable international instruments and their interpretation as well as the significance of the right to education as a central, facilitative right are examined in order to establish the content of the right to basic education and the legal obligations that ensue. Against this background, the implications of the South African Constitutional Court's approach to the realisation of socio-economic rights and the possibility of the establishment of a core minimum obligation are analysed. It is argued that learners in South Africa may come from different socio-economic backgrounds but as learners in the same public school domain and as equal bearers of their constitutional right to basic education all of them are entitled to the same type and quality of free basic education.

  10. Accountability and school obligation: a case study of society\\'s ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accountability and school obligation: a case study of society\\'s expectations of the schools curriculum in Zimbabwe. O Ndawi, M Peasuh. Abstract. No Abstract Available South African Journal of Education Vol.25(2) 2005: 77-81. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  11. Trust in Supervisor and Job Engagement: Mediating Effects of Psychological Safety and Felt Obligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basit, Ameer A

    2017-11-17

    In the social context of job engagement, the role of trust in supervisor in predicting engagement of employees has received attention in research. Very limited research, however, has investigated the mechanisms mediating this dynamic relationship. To address this important gap in knowledge, the aim of this study was to examine psychological safety and felt obligation as two psychological mechanisms mediating the effect of trust in supervisor on job engagement. Drawing from job engagement and social exchange theories, the mediating roles of psychological safety and felt obligation in the trust-engagement relationship were empirically investigated in the Malaysian context. Using self-report questionnaires, data were collected from 337 nurses employed in a public hospital located near Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Results fully supported the proposed serial multiple mediator model. Trust in supervisor was indirectly related to job engagement via psychological safety followed by felt obligation. This study provides empirical evidence that trust in supervisor makes employees feel psychologically safe to employ and express their selves in their job roles. This satisfaction of the psychological safety need is interpreted by employees as an important socioemotional benefit that, in turn, makes them feel obligated to pay back to their organization through their enhanced level of job engagement. Implications for theory and practice were discussed.

  12. 7 CFR 1781.7 - Loan and advance limitations and obligations incurred before loan closing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan and advance limitations and obligations incurred before loan closing. 1781.7 Section 1781.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... DEVELOPMENT (RCD) LOANS AND WATERSHED (WS) LOANS AND ADVANCES § 1781.7 Loan and advance limitations and...

  13. 12 CFR 615.5102 - Issuance of debt obligations through the Funding Corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Issuance of debt obligations through the Funding Corporation. 615.5102 Section 615.5102 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT..., priorities, and objectives shall be designed to ensure that the debt marketing responsibilities of the...

  14. ABUNDANCE AND SALT TOLERANCE OF OBLIGATELY AEROBIC, PHOTOTROPHIC BACTERIA IN A MARINE MICROBIAL MAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    YURKOV, VV; VANGEMERDEN, H

    Data have been collected on the abundance of obligately aerobic, bacteriochlorophyll-a-containing bacteria in a marine microbial mat on the West Frisian Island of Texel, The Netherlands. Plate counts on media rich in organic matter revealed average numbers of 3*10(5).cm-3 sediment in the top 10 mm

  15. DoD Officials Need to Improve Reporting of Obligations and Expenditures for the Guam Realignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    Initiative Military Working Dogs Relocation, Apra Harbor 18,574 0 18,574 Total $1,890,039 $7,314,564 *DON identified 32 obligations...190,222 30 Defense Posture Review Initiative Military Working Dogs Relocation, Apra Harbor 18,574 0 18,574 Total $13,335,316 $228,043

  16. 24 CFR 811.110 - Refunding of obligations issued to finance Section 8 projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... finance Section 8 projects. 811.110 Section 811.110 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... RELATED AMENDMENTS § 811.110 Refunding of obligations issued to finance Section 8 projects. (a) This... refunding which generate the McKinney Act savings and, if necessary, HUD will finance in refunding bond debt...

  17. 25 CFR 163.42 - Obligated service and breach of contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... receives a degree may, within 30 days of the degree completion date, request a deferment of obligated... salary, tuition, books, and fees that the forester intern received while occupying the intern position. The amount of salary paid to the individual during breaks in attendance from school, when the...

  18. 41 CFR 102-85.65 - How does an OA obligate the customer agency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does an OA obligate the customer agency? 102-85.65 Section 102-85.65 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 85-PRICING POLICY FOR OCCUPANCY IN GSA SPACE Occupancy...

  19. Socioeconomic Stress and Academic Adjustment among Asian American Adolescents: The Protective Role of Family Obligation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Lisa; Andrews, Kandace; Stein, Gabriela L.; Supple, Andrew J.; Gonzalez, Laura M.

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic stress has long been found to place youth at risk, with low family income conferring disadvantages in adolescents' school achievement and success. This study investigates the role of socioeconomic stress on academic adjustment, and pinpoints family obligation as a possible buffer of negative associations. We examined direct and…

  20. 75 FR 22338 - Reexamination of Roaming Obligations of Commercial Mobile Radio Service Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... have on the terms of retail service provided to consumers, how such impacts differ from those resulting... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 20 Reexamination of Roaming Obligations of Commercial Mobile Radio Service Providers... to data services that are provided without interconnection to the public switched network--including...

  1. Social Physique Anxiety, Obligation to Exercise, and Exercise Choices among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hui-Wen; Bushman, Barbara A.; Woodard, Rebecca J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined relationships among social physique anxiety, obligation to exercise, and exercise choices. Participants and Methods: College students (N = 337; 200 women, 137 men) volunteered to complete 3 questionnaires: the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS), Obligatory Exercise Questionnaire (OEQ), and Physical Activity…

  2. Normative Beliefs about Parents' and Stepparents' Financial Obligations to Children Following Divorce and Remarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigates normative beliefs regarding financial obligations of parents towards children after divorce and remarriage. Subjects were 234 women and 114 men. Subject responses showed that factor determinants for which parent should pay include financial ability, sharing a household residence, and custody arrangement. Discusses implications for…

  3. 18 CFR 292.309 - Termination of obligation to purchase from qualifying facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Termination of obligation to purchase from qualifying facilities. 292.309 Section 292.309 Conservation of Power and Water... Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) qualifies as a market described in § 292.309(a)(3), and there is a...

  4. 76 FR 54287 - Notice of Intent To Release Federally-Obligated Airport Properties, Tampa International Airport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Intent To Release Federally-Obligated Airport Properties, Tampa International Airport, Tampa, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Request for public comment. SUMMARY: The FAA hereby provides notice of intent to release certain airport properties, 0.026...

  5. 20 CFR 655.1305 - Assurances and obligations of H-2A employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process for Temporary Agricultural Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) § 655.1305 Assurances and obligations of H-2A employers. An employer seeking to employ H-2A workers must attest as part of the Application...

  6. 42 CFR 1001.1501 - Default of health education loan or scholarship obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Default of health education loan or scholarship... Permissive Exclusions § 1001.1501 Default of health education loan or scholarship obligations. (a... individual that the Public Health Service (PHS) determines is in default on repayments of scholarship...

  7. 42 CFR 62.11 - When can a scholarship program payment obligation be discharged in bankruptcy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false When can a scholarship program payment obligation... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL HEALTH SERVICE CORPS SCHOLARSHIP AND LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAMS National Health Service Corps Scholarship Program § 62.11 When can a...

  8. 40 CFR 80.1107 - How is the Renewable Volume Obligation calculated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... non-renewable gasoline volume, determined in accordance with paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this... = Renewable fuel deficit carryover from the previous year, per § 80.1127(b), in gallons. (b) The non-renewable... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How is the Renewable Volume Obligation...

  9. Family Obligations and Support Behaviour: a United States – Netherlands comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.M. Cooney (Teresa); P.A. Dykstra (Pearl)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractABSTRACT This study draws on national survey data from the United States (US) and the Netherlands to compare family obligations and support behaviour for middle-generation adults who have a living aged parent and adult child. Consistent with a familialism by default hypothesis based on

  10. 31 CFR 203.6 - Obligations of TT&L depositaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obligations of TT&L depositaries. 203.6 Section 203.6 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE PAYMENT OF FEDERAL TAXES AND THE...

  11. 12 CFR 995.4 - Book-entry procedure for Financing Corporation obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Book-entry procedure for Financing Corporation... FINANCING CORPORATION OPERATIONS § 995.4 Book-entry procedure for Financing Corporation obligations. (a) Authority. Any Federal Reserve Bank shall have authority to apply book-entry procedure to Financing...

  12. 77 FR 12906 - Notice of Release From Federal Grant Assurance Obligations at Fresno Yosemite International...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    .... Ford Aviation Investment and Reform Act for the 21st Century (AIR 21), Public Law 106-181 (Apr. 5, 2000... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Release From Federal Grant Assurance Obligations at Fresno Yosemite International Airport, Fresno, CA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of...

  13. 78 FR 8220 - Notice of Release From Quitclaim Deed and Federal Grant Assurance Obligations for Delano...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... Wendell H. Ford Aviation Investment and Reform Act for the 21st Century (AIR 21), Public Law 10-181 (Apr... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Release From Quitclaim Deed and Federal Grant Assurance Obligations for Delano Municipal Airport, Delano, CA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION...

  14. Biolistic transformation of the obligate plant pathogenic fungus, Erysiphe graminis f.sp. hordei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, S.K.; Knudsen, S.; Giese, H.

    1995-01-01

    Particle gun acceleration appears to be a possible way to transform mycelium cells of obligate plant parasites growing on host surfaces, GUS expression was obtained in E. graminis f.sp. hordei cells after bombardment with the GUS gene under the control of the E. graminis f.sp. hordei beta...

  15. 26 CFR 1.691(a)-5 - Installment obligations acquired from decedent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... inheritance from the decedent or by reason of the decedent's death) shall include in its gross income when... right to income in respect of a decedent but the amount includible in the gross income of the transferor... entire obligation is considered a right to receive income in respect of a decedent but the amount...

  16. Doctoral Students' Understanding of Legal and Ethical Obligations in Conducting Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achinewhu-Nworgu, Elizabeth; Nworgu, Queen Chioma; Azaiki, Steve; Dikeh, Charles Nna

    2015-01-01

    Conducting education research requires researchers to observe key legal and ethical obligations and to respect the rights of research participants. Legislation pertaining to data protection, in particular, has important implications for the way in which research data is collected, used, stored and shared. Researchers are also required to conduct…

  17. 78 FR 24601 - Order Imposing Recordkeeping and Reporting Obligations on Certain U.S. Financial Institutions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    ... Financial Crimes Enforcement Network Order Imposing Recordkeeping and Reporting Obligations on Certain U.S...) Reporting. A financial institution subject to this Order is required to take reasonable steps to collect and..., Vienna, Virginia 22183-0039 (Attn: 311 Reporting) However, if a financial institution subject to this...

  18. 78 FR 24599 - Order Imposing Recordkeeping and Reporting Obligations on Certain U.S. Financial Institutions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    ... Financial Crimes Enforcement Network Order Imposing Recordkeeping and Reporting Obligations on Certain U.S... programs and filters used to identify sanctioned entities. (2) Reporting. A financial institution subject... for Reporting (1) Financial institutions subject to this Order shall place the required information in...

  19. Anaerobic digestion of organic solid waste for energy production

    OpenAIRE

    Nayono, Satoto Endar

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to evaluate the performance of anaerobic reactors treating OFMSW (organic fraction of municipal solid waste), especially in terms of its energy recovery, either by investigating the maximum organic loading rate or by co-digestion with other types of wastes for energy recovery. In order to reach the research purpose, several experiments such as characteristics examination of different organic solid wastes, which are potential substrates for anaerobic digestion.

  20. Anaerobic SBR treatment of coal conversion wastewaters: Eighth quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketchum, L.H. Jr.

    1987-12-11

    Results are presented for anaerobic biodegradation of constituents of coal conversion wastewater. Biochemical Methane Potential tests were employed. The relative toxicity of each constituent on anaerobic phenol degradation was also tested. Methylated phenols tended to be more inhibitory to phenol degradation than other hydroxylated and nitrogen containing aromatics. Studies of reaction intermediates of degradation are underway. Several intermediates have been identified in the degradation of p-cresol. 1 fig., 2 tabs. (CBS)

  1. Validity and reliability of the Hawaii anaerobic run test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Iris F; Stickley, Christopher D; Lentz, Melissa A; Wages, Jennifer J; Yanagi, Kazuhiko; Hetzler, Ronald K

    2014-05-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of the Hawaii anaerobic run test (HART) by comparing anaerobic capacity measures obtained to those during the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT). Ninety-six healthy physically active volunteers (age, 22.0 ± 2.8 years; height, 163.9 ± 9.5 cm; body mass, 70.6 ± 14.7 kg; body fat %, 19.29 ± 5.39%) participated in this study. Each participant performed 2 anaerobic capacity tests: the WAnT and the HART by random assignment on separate days. The reliability of the HART was calculated from 2 separate trials of the test and then determined through intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Blood samples were collected, and lactate was analyzed both pretest and posttest for each of the 2 exercise modes. Heart rate and rate of perceived exertion were also measured pre- and post-exercise. Hawaii anaerobic run test peak and mean momentum were calculated as body mass times highest or average split velocity, respectively. Intraclass correlation coefficients between trials of the HART for peak and mean momentum were 0.98 and 0.99, respectively (SEM = 18.8 and 25.7, respectively). Validity of the HART was established through comparison of momentum on the HART with power on the WAnT. High correlations were found between peak power and peak momentum (r = 0.88), as well as mean power and mean momentum (r = 0.94). The HART was considered to be a reliable test of anaerobic power. The HART was also determined to be a valid test of anaerobic power when compared with the WAnT. When testing healthy college-aged individuals, the HART offers an easy and inexpensive alternative maximal effort anaerobic power test to other established tests.

  2. Assessment of anaerobic blood cultures in pediatric oncology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsonís Cabedo, Manuel; Rives Solá, Susana; Noguera-Julian, Antoni; Urrea Ayala, Mireia; Cruz Martinez, Ofelia; Gené Giralt, Amadeu

    2017-01-01

    The routine use of a single aerobic bottle for blood culture in pediatric patients has become commonplace, as anaerobic bacteria are not frequently involved in clinically significant infections. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of routinely performing anaerobic blood cultures in pediatric oncology patients. Prospective study was conducted on pediatric (<18 years) patients affected with febrile syndrome after receiving chemotherapy for hematological or solid malignancies. Samples were inoculated into pediatric aerobic and standard anaerobic bottles (BacT/Alert automatic system). Strains were considered clinically significant, or deemed as contaminants, depending on isolation circumstances and clinical criteria. A total of 876 blood cultures from 228 patients were processed during the 21-month study period (January 2014 to September 2015). Baseline diagnosis included 143 solid tumors and 67/18 cases of leukemia/lymphoma. Bacterial growth was detected in 90 (10.2%) blood cultures for 95 different isolates, of which 62 (7.1%)/63 isolates were considered clinically significant. Among the latter, 38 (60.3%) microorganisms grew in both aerobic and anaerobic bottles, 18 (28.6%) only in aerobic bottles, and 7 (11.1%) only in anaerobic bottles. Gram-negative bacilli (33; 52.4%), mainly from the Enterobacteriaceae family, were the most frequently isolated microorganisms. Overall, only 3 out of 90 isolates (3.3%) were strict anaerobes (Propionibacterium acnes), and all of them were deemed contaminants. Strict anaerobes did not cause significant infections in febrile pediatric oncology patients, and anaerobic blood culture bottles offered no additional advantages over aerobic media. Our results suggest that routine blood cultures should be solely processed in aerobic media in this group of patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  3. Building a Small Scale Anaerobic Digester in Quelimane

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtinen, Silja

    2017-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a process where biogas is generated from organic substance in the absence of oxygen. The most common application of the anaerobic digestion technology in developing countries is small-scale household digesters producing biogas for cooking purposes. These systems are usually fed with cattle dung or organic household waste. The typical small-scale digester models are fixed-dome digester, floating-drum digester and rubber-balloon digester. Biogas systems contribute to self...

  4. Small-scale anaerobic digestion: case studies in Western Europe

    OpenAIRE

    De Dobbelaere, Anke; De Keulenaere, Bram; De Mey, Jonathan; Lebuf, Viooltje; Meers, Erik; Ryckaert, Bart; Schollier, Céline; Van Driessche, Jason

    2015-01-01

    This brochure is intended to meet farmers’ demand for more information concerning the current market situation of the small-scale anaerobic digestion technology. The authors aim to quickly guide those who are interested in the technology so that they can adopt a targeted approach in their search for information. This brochure elaborates on how the implementation of small-scale anaerobic digestion can take place at the company level, based on five practical examples. A broad market study in...

  5. Contribution of anaerobic energy expenditure to whole body thermogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Christopher B

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heat production serves as the standard measurement for the determination of energy expenditure and efficiency in animals. Estimations of metabolic heat production have traditionally focused on gas exchange (oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production although direct heat measurements may include an anaerobic component particularly when carbohydrate is oxidized. Stoichiometric interpretations of the ratio of carbon dioxide production to oxygen uptake suggest that both anaerobic and aerobic heat production and, by inference, all energy expenditure – can be accounted for with a measurement of oxygen uptake as 21.1 kJ per liter of oxygen. This manuscript incorporates contemporary bioenergetic interpretations of anaerobic and aerobic ATP turnover to promote the independence of these disparate types of metabolic energy transfer: each has different reactants and products, uses dissimilar enzymes, involves different types of biochemical reactions, takes place in separate cellular compartments, exploits different types of gradients and ultimately each operates with distinct efficiency. The 21.1 kJ per liter of oxygen for carbohydrate oxidation includes a small anaerobic heat component as part of anaerobic energy transfer. Faster rates of ATP turnover that exceed mitochondrial respiration and that are supported by rapid glycolytic phosphorylation with lactate production result in heat production that is independent of oxygen uptake. Simultaneous direct and indirect calorimetry has revealed that this anaerobic heat does not disappear when lactate is later oxidized and so oxygen uptake does not adequately measure anaerobic efficiency or energy expenditure (as was suggested by the "oxygen debt" hypothesis. An estimate of anaerobic energy transfer supplements the measurement of oxygen uptake and may improve the interpretation of whole-body energy expenditure.

  6. Kinetics of propionate conversion in anaerobic continuously stirred tank reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik; Mladenovska, Zuzana; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2008-01-01

    The kinetic parameters of anaerobic propionate degradation by biomass from 7 continuously stirred tank reactors differing in temperature, hydraulic retention time and substrate composition were investigated. In substrate-depletion experiments (batch) the maximum propionate degradation rate, A......-m, was estimated. The results demonstrate that the rate of endogenous substrate (propionate) production should be taken into account when estimating kinetic parameters in biomass from manure-based anaerobic reactors....

  7. The fiscal stress arising from state and local retiree health obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Byron; Sheiner, Louise

    2014-12-01

    A major factor weighing down the long-term finances of state and local governments is the obligation to fund retiree benefits. While state and local government pension obligations have been analyzed in great detail, much less attention has been paid to the costs of the other major retiree benefit provided by these governments: retiree health insurance. The first portion of the paper uses the information contained in the annual actuarial reports for public retiree health plans to reverse engineer the cash flows underlying the liabilities given in the report. Obtaining the cash flows allows us to construct liability estimates which are consistent across governments in terms of the discount rate, actuarial method and assumptions concerning medical cost inflation and mortality. We find that the total unfunded accrued liability of state and local governments for the provision of retiree health care exceeds $1 trillion, or about ⅓ of total state and local government revenue. Relative to pension obligations discounted at the same rate, we find that unfunded retiree health care liabilities are ½ the size of unfunded pension obligations. We also find that using assumptions concerning the growth in health care costs that are arguably more realistic than those employed by most states actually reduces the size of the liability in most cases. Pushing in the opposite direction, we find that using plausibly more realistic mortality assumptions increases the size of liability. The second portion of the paper places retiree health care obligations into context by examining the budget pressures associated with retiree health on a continuing, largely pay-as-you go basis. We find that much of the projected increase in retiree health obligations as a share of revenue is the result of health care cost growth. On average, states could put their retiree health obligations into long-run fiscal balance by contributing an additional ¾ percent of total revenue toward the benefit each year

  8. Les contextes de l’obligation de reclassement Contexts of the reclassification obligation Los contextos de la obligación a la reclasificación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Frossard

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available En droit français, le reclassement des salariés a émergé dans des hypothèses précises et, dans la plupart des cas, sous l’impulsion des hautes juridictions, Cour de cassation ou Conseil d’État. Le législateur est intervenu a posteriori pour consacrer une obligation de reclassement déjà dégagée en jurisprudence ou en germe. Le contexte dans lequel cette obligation s’est construite permet d’expliquer ce qui caractérise son champ d’application. L’emploi, plus exactement la préservation du lien d’emploi, y joue un rôle central et fédérateur. Mais à la différence du droit québécois, la discrimination reste distincte et même si son champ recoupe celui de l’obligation de reclassement, on ne peut intégrer celle-ci dans celle-là. Ces constats permettent d’orienter la recherche des fondements juridiques de l’obligation de reclassement. Plus que sur une analyse de droit des contrats, quand bien même celle-ci serait renouvelée, l’obligation de reclassement peut s’appuyer sur un droit de valeur constitutionnel : le droit d’obtenir un emploi. À l’échelle des règles internationales, ce dernier peut également s’adosser à plusieurs textes, dont un s’est vu reconnaître une portée considérable en droit français.In French law, worker reclassification emerged under precise assumptions and, in most cases, under the impetus of the high jurisdictions, the Cour de Cassation or the Conseil d’Etat. The legislator intervened a posteriori to legitimize a reclassification obligation already emerging in jurisprudence or in the process of being created. The context in which this obligation was built makes it possible to explain what characterizes its field of application. Employment, or more exactly the safeguarding of employment, plays a central and federator role in it. But unlike Quebec law, discrimination remains distinct and even if its field transects that of the reclassification obligation, it cannot

  9. Decomposition of organic waste products under aerobic and anaerobic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gale, P.M.

    1988-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to determine the kinetics of C and N mineralization under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. These parameters were then used to verify the simulation model, DECOMPOSITION, for the anaerobic system. Incubation experiments were conducted to compare the aerobic and anaerobic decomposition of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), a substrate with a low C:N ratio. Under anaerobic conditions the net mineralization of N occurred more rapidly than that under aerobic conditions. However, the rate of C mineralization as measured by CO{sub 2} evolution was much lower. For the anaerobic decomposition of alfalfa, C mineralization was best described as the sum of the CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} evolved plus the water soluble organic C formed. The kinetics of C mineralization, as determined by this approach, were used to successfully predict the rate and amount of N mineralization from alfalfa undergoing anaerobic decomposition. The decomposition of paper mill sludge, a high C:N ratio substrate, was also evaluated.

  10. Metabolic models to investigate energy limited anaerobic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, J; Premier, G C; Guwy, A J; Dinsdale, R; Kleerebezem, R

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic wastewater treatment is shifting from a philosophy of solely pollutants removal to a philosophy of combined resource recovery and waste treatment. Simultaneous wastewater treatment with energy recovery in the form of energy rich products, brings renewed interest to non-methanogenic anaerobic bioprocesses such as the anaerobic production of hydrogen, ethanol, solvents, VFAs, bioplastics and even electricity from microbial fuel cells. The existing kinetic-based modelling approaches, widely used in aerobic and methanogenic wastewater treatment processes, do not seem adequate in investigating such energy limited microbial ecosystems. The great diversity of similar microbial species, which share many of the fermentative reaction pathways, makes quantify microbial groups very difficult and causes identifiability problems. A modelling approach based on the consideration of metabolic reaction networks instead of on separated microbial groups is suggested as an alternative to describe anaerobic microbial ecosystems and in particular for the prediction of product formation as a function of environmental conditions imposed. The limited number of existing relevant fermentative pathways in conjunction with the fact that anaerobic reactions proceed very close to thermodynamic equilibrium reduces the complexity of such approach and the degrees of freedom in terms of product formation fluxes. In addition, energy limitation in these anaerobic microbial ecosystems makes plausible that selective forces associated with energy further define the system activity by favouring those conversions/microorganisms which provide the most energy for growth under the conditions imposed.

  11. Using contaminated plants involved in phytoremediation for anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zewei; Wang, Shengxiao; Wang, Ting; Chang, Zhizhou; Shen, Zhenguo; Chen, Yahua

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the anaerobic digestion capability of five plants and the effects of copper (Cu) and S,S'-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS, a chelator widely used in chelant-assisted phytoremediation) on biogas production to determine a feasible disposal method for plants used in remediation. The results showed that in addition to Phytolacca americana L., plants such as Zea mays L., Brassica napus L., Elsholtzia splendens Nakai ex F. Maekawa, and Oenothera biennis L. performed well in biogas production. Among these, O. biennis required the shortest period to finish anaerobic digestion. Compared to normal plants with low Cu content, the plants used in remediation with increased Cu levels (100 mg kg(-1)) not only promoted anaerobic digestion and required a shorter anaerobic digestion time, but also increased the methane content in biogas. When the Cu content in plants increased to 500, 1000, and 5000 mg kg(-1), the cumulative biogas production decreased by 12.3%, 14.6%, and 41.2%, respectively. Studies also found that EDDS conspicuously restrained biogas production from anaerobic digestion. The results suggest that anaerobic digestion has great potential for the disposal of contaminated plants and may provide a solution for the resource utilization of plants used in remediation.

  12. [Anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass with animal digestion mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Zhang, Pan-Yue; Guo, Jian-Bin; Wu, Yong-Jie

    2013-02-01

    Lignocellulosic material is the most abundant renewable resource in the earth. Herbivores and wood-eating insects are highly effective in the digestion of plant cellulose, while anaerobic digestion process simulating animal alimentary tract still remains inefficient. The digestion mechanisms of herbivores and wood-eating insects and the development of anaerobic digestion processes of lignocellulose were reviewed for better understanding of animal digestion mechanisms and their application in design and operation of the anaerobic digestion reactor. Highly effective digestion of lignocellulosic materials in animal digestive system results from the synergistic effect of various digestive enzymes and a series of physical and biochemical reactions. Microbial fermentation system is strongly supported by powerful pretreatment, such as rumination of ruminants, cellulase catalysis and alkali treatment in digestive tract of wood-eating insects. Oxygen concentration gradient along the digestive tract may stimulate the hydrolytic activity of some microorganisms. In addition, the excellent arrangement of solid retention time, digesta flow and end product discharge enhance the animal digestion of wood cellulose. Although anaerobic digestion processes inoculated with rumen microorganisms based rumen digestion mechanisms were developed to treat lignocellulose, the fermentation was more greatly limited by the environmental conditions in the anaerobic digestion reactors than that in rumen or hindgut. Therefore, the anaerobic digestion processes simulating animal digestion mechanisms can effectively enhance the degradation of wood cellulose and other organic solid wastes.

  13. Aerobic vs anaerobic metabolism during ischemia in heart muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, D K; Engelman, R M; Rousou, J A; Breyer, R H

    1987-01-01

    Anaerobic metabolism in heart muscle plays a role in maintenance of myocardial preservation only during ischemia or hypoxia. In an ischemic state, such as during a heart attack or even during the induced ischemia of open heart surgery, there is impairment of blood flow to the myocardium. The major energy-yielding process in the heart is through the metabolism of glucose and lipids by oxidative reactions. Under anaerobic conditions, oxygen is not available to accept the electrons in the metabolic degradation of substrates and anaerobic glycolysis becomes important in the preservation of myocardial viability during the ischemic process. Unfortunately, the accumulated products of glycolysis, namely protons and lactate, work to inhibit glycolysis, ultimately resulting in a depression of anaerobic metabolism. Cardioplegia, as utilized during open heart surgery, has the effect of inducing instantaneous induction of myocardial mechanical and electrical arrest with a maximal inhibition of the energy utilizing metabolic processes. This effectively reduces substrate utilization and prevents the deleterious consequences of the ischemic process. Cardioplegia is most effective when combined with the additive properties of hypothermia, which plays a significant role in decreasing myocardial metabolism. However, during prolonged hypothermic cardioplegic arrest, sufficient ATP cannot be maintained for cellular integrity and anaerobic glycolysis becomes of increasing importance for maintenance of myocardial preservation. This presentation deals with the mechanics of aerobic versus anaerobic metabolism during the ischemic process of open heart surgery.

  14. Anaerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation in deep subsurface oil reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Carolyn M; Jones, D M; Larter, S R

    2004-09-16

    Biodegradation of crude oil in subsurface petroleum reservoirs is an important alteration process with major economic consequences. Aerobic degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons at the surface is well documented and it has long been thought that the flow of oxygen- and nutrient-bearing meteoric waters into reservoirs was necessary for in-reservoir petroleum biodegradation. The occurrence of biodegraded oils in reservoirs where aerobic conditions are unlikely, together with the identification of several anaerobic microorganisms in oil fields and the discovery of anaerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation mechanisms, suggests that anaerobic degradation processes could also be responsible. The extent of anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation processes in the world's deep petroleum reservoirs, however, remains strongly contested. Moreover, no organism has yet been isolated that has been shown to degrade hydrocarbons under the conditions found in deep petroleum reservoirs. Here we report the isolation of metabolites indicative of anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation from a large fraction of 77 degraded oil samples from both marine and lacustrine sources from around the world, including the volumetrically important Canadian tar sands. Our results therefore suggest that anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation is a common process in biodegraded subsurface oil reservoirs.

  15. Comparison of selected aerobic and anaerobic procedures for MSW treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Klaus; Santen, Heike; Wallmann, Rainer

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers selected efficiency rates and process data of aerobic and anaerobic procedures for the treatment of municipal solid waste and residual waste. Data are exclusively related to mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) procedures for generating waste appropriate for landfilling. The following aspects are regarded: general framework conditions for the application of MBT, efficiency of decomposition and of stabilisation, air and water emissions and energy balances. The presented data can be used for more efficient planning. In comparison to aerobic processes, anaerobic digestion can be ecologically advantageous, particularly with regard to exhaust emissions and energy balances. On the other hand, the wastewater emissions and the wastewater treatment required must be regarded as disadvantageous. Due to the relatively short period of operational history of most anaerobic processes for mechanical-biological waste treatment and thus limited experiences, operational reliability of anaerobic processes is slightly lower. Extensive biological stability of the treated waste for low-emission disposal cannot be reached by anaerobic digestion alone, but only in combination with additional aerobic post-treatment. In connection with the utilisation of renewable energies and the rising relevancy of climate protection, it can be affirmed that anaerobic digestion for the treatment of municipal solid waste has a high potential for further development.

  16. International obligations through collective rights: Moving from foreign health assistance to global health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Fox, Ashley M

    2010-06-15

    This article analyzes the growing chasm between international power and state responsibility in health rights, proposing an international legal framework for collective rights - rights that can reform international institutions and empower developing states to realize the determinants of health structured by global forces. With longstanding recognition that many developing state governments cannot realize the health of their peoples without international cooperation, scholars have increasingly sought to codify international obligations under the purview of an evolving human right to health, applying this rights-based approach as a foundational framework for reducing global health inequalities through foreign assistance. Yet the inherent limitations of the individual human rights framework stymie the right to health in impacting the global institutions that are most crucial for realizing underlying determinants of health through the strengthening of primary health care systems. Whereas the right to health has been advanced as an individual right to be realized by a state duty-bearer, the authors find that this limited, atomized right has proven insufficient to create accountability for international obligations in global health policy, enabling the deterioration of primary health care systems that lack the ability to address an expanding set of public health claims. For rights scholars to advance disease protection and health promotion through national primary health care systems - creating the international legal obligations necessary to spur development supportive of the public's health - the authors conclude that scholars must look beyond the individual right to health to create collective international legal obligations commensurate with a public health-centered approach to primary health care. Through the development and implementation of these collective health rights, states can address interconnected determinants of health within and across countries

  17. Anaerobes as Sources of Bioactive Compounds and Health Promoting Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamo, Gashaw

    Aerobic microorganisms have been sources of medicinal agents for several decades and an impressive variety of drugs have been isolated from their cultures, studied and formulated to treat or prevent diseases. On the other hand, anaerobes, which are believed to be the oldest life forms on earth and evolved remarkably diverse physiological functions, have largely been neglected as sources of bioactive compounds. However, results obtained from the limited research done so far show that anaerobes are capable of producing a range of interesting bioactive compounds that can promote human health. In fact, some of these bioactive compounds are found to be novel in their structure and/or mode of action.Anaerobes play health-promoting roles through their bioactive products as well as application of whole cells. The bioactive compounds produced by these microorganisms include antimicrobial agents and substances such as immunomodulators and vitamins. Bacteriocins produced by anaerobes have been in use as preservatives for about 40 years. Because these substances are effective at low concentrations, encounter relatively less resistance from bacteria and are safe to use, there is a growing interest in these antimicrobial agents. Moreover, several antibiotics have been reported from the cultures of anaerobes. Closthioamide and andrimid produced by Clostridium cellulolyticum and Pantoea agglomerans, respectively, are examples of novel antibiotics of anaerobe origin. The discovery of such novel bioactive compounds is expected to encourage further studies which can potentially lead to tapping of the antibiotic production potential of this fascinating group of microorganisms.Anaerobes are widely used in preparation of fermented foods and beverages. During the fermentation processes, these organisms produce a number of bioactive compounds including anticancer, antihypertensive and antioxidant substances. The well-known health promoting effect of fermented food is mostly due to these

  18. Anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hejnfelt, Anette; Angelidaki, Irini [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DTU, Building 113, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2009-08-15

    Anaerobic digestion of animal by-products was investigated in batch and semi-continuously fed, reactor experiments at 55 C and for some experiments also at 37 C. Separate or mixed by-products from pigs were tested. The methane potential measured by batch assays for meat- and bone flour, fat, blood, hair, meat, ribs, raw waste were: 225, 497, 487, 561, 582, 575, 359, 619 dm{sup 3} kg{sup -1} respectively, corresponding to 50-100% of the calculated theoretical methane potential. Dilution of the by-products had a positive effect on the specific methane yield with the highest dilutions giving the best results. High concentrations of long-chain fatty acids and ammonia in the by-products were found to inhibit the biogas process at concentrations higher than 5 g lipids dm{sup -3} and 7 g N dm{sup -3} respectively. Pretreatment (pasteurization: 70 C, sterilization: 133 C), and alkali hydrolysis (NaOH) had no effect on achieved methane yields. Mesophilic digestion was more stable than thermophilic digestion, and higher methane yield was noticed at high waste concentrations. The lower yield at thermophilic temperature and high waste concentration was due to ammonia inhibition. Co-digestion of 5% pork by-products mixed with pig manure at 37 C showed 40% higher methane production compared to digestion of manure alone. (author)

  19. Mechanisms of foam formation in anaerobic digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Bhargavi; Pagilla, Krishna R

    2015-02-01

    An anaerobic digester (AD) is the most essential step to generate energy in the form of biogas from waste. AD foaming is widespread and leads to deterioration of the AD process and operation. In extreme conditions, AD foaming poses a significant safety risk and considerable economic impacts. It is, therefore, necessary to understand the fundamentals of AD foaming to develop effective strategies that can help minimize the foaming impacts. Several aspects of AD foaming have attracted considerable research attention, however, the focused has been mainly on site specific causes and prevention. Here, the available three-phase foam literature is reviewed with an emphasis on the fundamental aspects of bubble formation in AD: similarities between AD foams and other "desirable" foams, surface rheology, physico-chemical aspects of carbon dioxide (CO2) in digesters, dynamics of the gas-phase, pH, alkalinity and certain relationships between these factors are discussed. All of the abovementioned fundamental aspects seem to be involved in AD foam formation. However, the detailed relationship between these uncontrolled and controlled factors, foam formation and its implications for process and operation of AD is still inconclusive. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Anaerobic sludge digestion with a biocatalytic additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, S.; Henry, M.P.; Fedde, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of a lactobacillus additive an anaerobic sludge digestion under normal, variable, and overload operating conditions. The additive was a whey fermentation product of an acid-tolerant strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus fortified with CaCO/sub 3/, (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/HPO/sub 4/, ferrous lactate, and lactic acid. The lactobacillus additive is multifunctional in nature and provides growth factors, metabolic intermediates, and enzymes needed for substrate degradation and cellular synthesis. The experimental work consisted of several pairs of parallel mesophilic (35/sup 0/C) digestion runs (control and test) conducted in five experimental phases. Baseline runs without the additive showed that the two experimental digesters had the same methane content, gas production rate (GPR), and ethane yield. The effect of the additive was to increase methane yield and GPR by about 5% (which was statistically significant) during digester operation at a loading rate (LR) of 3.2 kg VS/m/sup 3/-day and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 14 days. Data collected from the various experimental phases showed that the biochemical additive increased methane yield, gas production rate, and VS reduction, and decreased volatile acids accumulation. In addition, it enhanced digester buffer capacity and improved the fertilizer value and dewatering characteristics of the digested residue.

  1. Modified anaerobic digestion elutriated phased treatment for the anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and food wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Kyung; Lee, Wonbae; Kim, Moonil

    2017-02-01

    A modified anaerobic digestion elutriated phased treatment (MADEPT) process was developed for investigating anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and food wastewater. The anaerobic digestion elutriated phased treatment (ADEPT) process is similar to a two-phase system, however, in which the effluent from a methanogenic reactor recycles into an acidogenic reactor to elutriate mainly dissolved organics. Although ADEPT could reduce reactor volume significantly, the unsolubilized solids should be wasted from the system. The MADEPT process combines thermo-alkali solubilization with ADEPT to improve anaerobic performance and to minimize the sludge disposal. It was determined that the optimal volume mixing ratio of sewage sludge and food wastewater was 4 : 1 for the anaerobic co-digestion. The removal efficiencies of total chemical oxygen demand, volatile solids, and volatile suspended solids in the MADEPT process were 73%, 70%, and 64%, respectively. However, those in the ADEPT process were only 48%, 37%, and 40%, respectively, at the same hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 7 days. The gas production of MADEPT was two times higher than that of ADEPT. The thermo-alkali solubilization increased the concentration of dissolved organics so that they could be effectively degraded in a short HRT, implying that MADEPT could improve the performance of ADEPT in anaerobic co-digestion.

  2. Bacterial drug tolerance under clinical conditions is governed by anaerobic adaptation but not anaerobic respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsley, Claudia M; Luo, Jamie X; Andreae, Clio A; Butler, Clive S; Soyer, Orkun S; Titball, Richard W

    2014-10-01

    Noninherited antibiotic resistance is a phenomenon whereby a subpopulation of genetically identical bacteria displays phenotypic tolerance to antibiotics. We show here that compared to Escherichia coli, the clinically relevant genus Burkholderia displays much higher levels of cells that tolerate ceftazidime. By measuring the dynamics of the formation of drug-tolerant cells under conditions that mimic in vivo infections, we show that in Burkholderia bacteria, oxygen levels affect the formation of these cells. The drug-tolerant cells are characterized by an anaerobic metabolic signature and can be eliminated by oxygenating the system or adding nitrate. The transcriptome profile suggests that these cells are not dormant persister cells and are likely to be drug tolerant as a consequence of the upregulation of anaerobic nitrate respiration, efflux pumps, β-lactamases, and stress response proteins. These findings have important implications for the treatment of chronic bacterial infections and the methodologies and conditions that are used to study drug-tolerant and persister cells in vitro. Copyright © 2014 Hemsley et al.

  3. Perancangan Ulang Instalasi Pengolahan Air Limbah Domestik dengan Proses Anaerobic Baffled Reactor dan Anaerobic Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Prasetia Adi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Instalasi Pengolahan Air Limbah (IPAL Tarbiyatul Fallah merupakan IPAL domestik yang melayani Pesantren Tarbiyatul Fallah, namun berhenti beroperasi sejak tahun 2014. Agar manfaat IPAL dapat terus dirasakan, dilakukan perancangan ulang IPAL dengan alternatif Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR dan Anaerobic Filter (AF. Alternatif IPAL anaerobik yang keunggulan dalam kemudahan penerapan dan biaya operasional yang rendah. Perancangan ulang dimulai dengan mengevaluasi kinerja IPAL yang sudah ada. Hasil evaluasi digunakan untuk mengetahui permasalahan IPAL. Kemudian dilakukan perencanaan aternatif IPAL dengan proses ABR dan AF. Hasil perencanaan adalah berupa DED, BOQ, dan RAB pembangunan dan operasional. Berdasarkan hasil tersebut kemudian dibandingkan kelebihan dan kekurangan dari masing-masing alternatif IPAL. IPAL Tarbiyatul Fallah berhenti beroperasi disebabkan oleh permasalahan bau dan suara bising dari proses aerasi yang meresahkan masyarakat dan biaya operasional yang tinggi. Alternatif IPAL pengganti dapat berupa ABR dengan dimensi (15,1 m x 1,9 m x 2,3 m dan AF dengan dimensi (13,75 m x 2,4 m x 2,3 m. Biaya pembangunan untuk ABR sebesar Rp152.969.500 dan AF sebesar Rp175.140.500. Sedangkan biaya operasional ABR sebesar Rp17.012.400 per tahun dan AF sebesar Rp21.345.950 per tahun. ABR memiliki keunggulan dalam hal tingkat penyisihan polutan, waktu tinggal, luas lahan dan biaya pembangunan dan operasional dibanding AF. Sedangkan AF memiliki keunggulan dalam jumlah kompartemen dan kebutuhan beton yang dibanding ABR.

  4. Anaerobic respiration of Escherichia coli in the mouse intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Shari A; Gibson, Terri; Maltby, Rosalie C; Chowdhury, Fatema Z; Stewart, Valley; Cohen, Paul S; Conway, Tyrrell

    2011-10-01

    The intestine is inhabited by a large microbial community consisting primarily of anaerobes and, to a lesser extent, facultative anaerobes, such as Escherichia coli, which we have shown requires aerobic respiration to compete successfully in the mouse intestine (S. A. Jones et al., Infect. Immun. 75:4891-4899, 2007). If facultative anaerobes efficiently lower oxygen availability in the intestine, then their sustained growth must also depend on anaerobic metabolism. In support of this idea, mutants lacking nitrate reductase or fumarate reductase have extreme colonization defects. Here, we further explore the role of anaerobic respiration in colonization using the streptomycin-treated mouse model. We found that respiratory electron flow is primarily via the naphthoquinones, which pass electrons to cytochrome bd oxidase and the anaerobic terminal reductases. We found that E. coli uses nitrate and fumarate in the intestine, but not nitrite, dimethyl sulfoxide, or trimethylamine N-oxide. Competitive colonizations revealed that cytochrome bd oxidase is more advantageous than nitrate reductase or fumarate reductase. Strains lacking nitrate reductase outcompeted fumarate reductase mutants once the nitrate concentration in cecal mucus reached submillimolar levels, indicating that fumarate is the more important anaerobic electron acceptor in the intestine because nitrate is limiting. Since nitrate is highest in the absence of E. coli, we conclude that E. coli is the only bacterium in the streptomycin-treated mouse large intestine that respires nitrate. Lastly, we demonstrated that a mutant lacking the NarXL regulator (activator of the NarG system), but not a mutant lacking the NarP-NarQ regulator, has a colonization defect, consistent with the advantage provided by NarG. The emerging picture is one in which gene regulation is tuned to balance expression of the terminal reductases that E. coli uses to maximize its competitiveness and achieve the highest possible population in

  5. Bioaugmentation of overloaded anaerobic digesters restores function and archaeal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tale, V P; Maki, J S; Zitomer, D H

    2015-03-01

    Adding beneficial microorganisms to anaerobic digesters for improved performance (i.e. bioaugmentation) has been shown to decrease recovery time after organic overload or toxicity upset. Compared to strictly anaerobic cultures, adding aerotolerant methanogenic cultures may be more practical since they exhibit higher methanogenic activity and can be easily dried and stored in ambient air for future shipping and use. In this study, anaerobic digesters were bioaugmented with both anaerobic and aerated, methanogenic propionate enrichment cultures after a transient organic overload. Digesters bioaugmented with anaerobic and moderately aerated cultures recovered 25 and 100 days before non-bioaugmented digesters, respectively. Increased methane production due to bioaugmentation continued a long time, with 50-120% increases 6 to 12 SRTs (60-120 days) after overload. In contrast to the anaerobic enrichment, the aerated enrichments were more effective as bioaugmentation cultures, resulting in faster recovery of upset digester methane and COD removal rates. Sixty days after overload, the bioaugmented digester archaeal community was not shifted, but was restored to one similar to the pre-overload community. In contrast, non-bioaugmented digester archaeal communities before and after overload were significantly different. Organisms most similar to Methanospirillum hungatei had higher relative abundance in well-operating, undisturbed and bioaugmented digesters, whereas organisms similar to Methanolinea tarda were more abundant in upset, non-bioaugmented digesters. Bioaugmentation is a beneficial approach to increase digester recovery rate after transient organic overload events. Moderately aerated, methanogenic propionate enrichment cultures were more beneficial augments than a strictly anaerobic enrichment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Anaerobic fitness assessment in taekwondo athletes. A new perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Rocha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We intended to determine the concurrent validity of a taekwondo specific anaerobic test (TSAT to assess anaerobic fitness in taekwondo athletes. Seventeen elite male subjects (17.59 ± 4.34 years of age; 1.72 m ± .07 m in height; 61.3 kg ± 8.7 kg in weight and 15.6% ± 8.5% in body fat performed a TSAT, which consisted of kicking a punching bag for 30 seconds. The standard test was the Wingate Anaerobic Test. Two trials were made for both tests and the agreement between both was tested. The variables analysed and compared were: peak power; relative peak power; mean anaerobic power; relative mean anaerobic power; fatigue index and anaerobic capacity. The number of kicks performed in the TSAT protocol and the maximum height of the counter movement jump (CMJ were also registered. Trial I and II had significant ICC results in all variables (P = .000 ranged between 0.56 and 0.97. Both protocols were significantly correlated (r = 0.55 to 0.88; P = .000 to .05. CMJ strongly correlated with the number of techniques (r=0.59; P = .013 and the mean power (r = 0.56; P = .019 of the TSAT. The variables between the two methods correlate and are consistent, except for the anaerobic capacity that although correlated, is not consistent with constant bias, P = 0.001; CI]-705.1;-370.2[. TSAT has a level of agreement with the Wingate, and assigns specificity in the evaluation of these variables.

  7. Anaerobic bacteria colonizing the lower airways in lung cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Malm

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobes comprise most of the endogenous oropharyngeal microflora, and can cause infections of airways in lung cancer patients who are at high risk for respiratory tract infections. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and species diversity of anaerobes in specimens from the lower airways of lung cancer patients. Sensitivity of the isolates to conventional antimicrobial agents used in anaerobe therapy was assessed. Respiratory secretions obtained by bronchoscopy from 30 lung cancer patients were cultured onto Wilkins- -Chalgren agar in anaerobic conditions at 37°C for 72–96 hours. The isolates were identified using microtest Api 20A. The minimal inhibitory concentrations for penicillin G, amoxicillin/clavulanate, piperacillin/tazobactam, cefoxitin, imipenem, clindamycin, and metronidazole were determined by E-test. A total of 47 isolates of anaerobic bacteria were detected in 22 (73.3% specimens. More than one species of anaerobe was found in 16 (53.3% samples. The most frequently isolated were Actinomyces spp. and Peptostreptococcus spp., followed by Eubacterium lentum, Veillonella parvula, Prevotella spp., Bacteroides spp., Lactobacillus jensenii. Among antibiotics used in the study amoxicillin/clavulanate and imipenem were the most active in vitro (0% and 2% resistant strains, respectively. The highest resistance rate was found for penicillin G and metronidazole (36% and 38% resistant strains, respectively. The results obtained confirm the need to conduct analyses of anaerobic microflora colonizing the lower respiratory tract in patients with lung cancer to monitor potential etiologic factors of airways infections, as well as to propose efficient, empirical therapy. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 2, pp. 263–266

  8. Catenisphaera adipataccumulans gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Erysipelotrichaceae isolated from an anaerobic digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Manabu; Katayama, Taiki; Morita, Naoki; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Hanada, Satoshi; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2015-03-01

    An obligately anaerobic bacterium, designated strain GK12(T), was isolated from an anaerobic digester in Fukagawa, Hokkaido Prefecture, Japan. The cells of strain GK12(T) were non-motile, non-spore-forming cocci that commonly occurred in chains. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain GK12(T) was affiliated with the family Erysipelotrichaceae in the phylum Firmicutes and showed 91.8 % sequence similarity to the most closely related species, Faecalicoccus acidiformans. The strain grew at 30-50 °C (optimally at 40 °C) and at pH 5.5-8.5 (optimally at pH 7.5). The main end product of glucose fermentation was lactate. Yeast extract was required for growth. The strain contained C14 : 0, C14 : 0 1,1-dimethoxyalkane (DMA), C16 : 0 DMA and C18 : 0 DMA as the major cellular fatty acids (>10 % of the total). The polar lipid profile was composed of phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and an unidentified phospholipid. The whole-cell sugars were galactose, rhamnose and ribose. The cell-wall murein contained alanine, glutamic acid, lysine, serine and threonine, but not diaminopimelic acid. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 47.7 mol%. Based on phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic properties, a novel genus and species, Catenisphaera adipataccumulans gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed to accommodate strain GK12(T) ( = NBRC 108915(T) = DSM 25799(T)). © 2015 IUMS.

  9. Performance of an anaerobic membrane bioreactor for pharmaceutical wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svojitka, Jan; Dvořák, Lukáš; Studer, Martin; Straub, Jürg Oliver; Frömelt, Heinz; Wintgens, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Anaerobic treatment of wastewater and waste organic solvents originating from the pharmaceutical and chemical industries was tested in a pilot anaerobic membrane bioreactor, which was operated for 580days under different operational conditions. The goal was to test the long-term treatment efficiency and identify inhibitory factors. The highest COD removal of up to 97% was observed when the influent concentration was increased by the addition of methanol (up to 25gL(-1) as COD). Varying and generally lower COD removal efficiency (around 78%) was observed when the anaerobic membrane bioreactor was operated with incoming pharmaceutical wastewater as sole carbon source. The addition of waste organic solvents (>2.5gL(-1) as COD) to the influent led to low COD removal efficiency or even to the breakdown of anaerobic digestion. Changes in the anaerobic population (e.g., proliferation of the genus Methanosarcina) resulting from the composition of influent were observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. BIOESTABILIZATION ANAEROBIC SOLID WASTE ORGANIC:QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valderi Duarte Leite

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that in Brazil, the municipal solid waste produced are constituted on average 55% of fermentable organic solid waste and that this quantity can be applied in aerobic or anaerobic stabilization process. Anaerobic digestion is an important alternative for the treatment of different types of potentially fermentable waste, considering providing an alternative source of energy that can be used to replace fossil fuels. To perform the experimental part of this work was constructed and monitored an experimental system consisting of an anaerobic batch reactor, shredding unit of fermentable organic wastes and additional devices. Fermentable organic wastes consisted of leftover fruits and vegetables and were listed in EMPASA (Paraibana Company of Food and Agricultural Services, located in the city of Campina Grande- PB. The residues were collected and transported to the Experimental Station Biological Sewage Treatment (EXTRABES where they were processed and used for substrate preparation. The substrate consisted of a mixture of fermentable organic waste, more anaerobic sewage sludge in the proportion of 80 and 20 % respectively. In the specific case of this study, it was found that 1m3 of substrate concentration of total COD equal to 169 g L-1, considering the reactor efficiency equal to 80 %, the production of CH4 would be approximately 47.25 Nm3 CH4. Therefore, fermentable organic waste, when subjected to anaerobic treatment process produces a quantity of methane gas in addition to the partially biostabilized compound may be applied as a soil conditioning agent.

  11. Anaerobic bioleaching of metals from waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulepas, Roel J W; Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela; Teshager, Fitfety Melese; Witharana, Ayoma; Saikaly, Pascal E; Lens, Piet N L

    2015-05-01

    Heavy metal contamination of anaerobically digested waste activated sludge hampers its reuse as fertilizer or soil conditioner. Conventional methods to leach metals require aeration or the addition of leaching agents. This paper investigates whether metals can be leached from waste activated sludge during the first, acidifying stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion without the supply of leaching agents. These leaching experiments were done with waste activated sludge from the Hoek van Holland municipal wastewater treatment plant (The Netherlands), which contained 342 μg g(-1) of copper, 487 μg g(-1) of lead, 793 μg g(-1) of zinc, 27 μg g(-1) of nickel and 2.3 μg g(-1) of cadmium. During the anaerobic acidification of 3 gdry weight L(-1) waste activated sludge, 80-85% of the copper, 66-69% of the lead, 87% of the zinc, 94-99% of the nickel and 73-83% of the cadmium were leached. The first stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion can thus be optimized as an anaerobic bioleaching process and produce a treated sludge (i.e., digestate) that meets the land-use standards in The Netherlands for copper, zinc, nickel and cadmium, but not for lead. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Anaerobic Benzene Oxidation via Phenol in Geobacter metallireducens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Chaurasia, Akhilesh Kumar; Smith, Jessica A.; Bain, Timothy S.; Lovley, Derek R.

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic activation of benzene is expected to represent a novel biochemistry of environmental significance. Therefore, benzene metabolism was investigated in Geobacter metallireducens, the only genetically tractable organism known to anaerobically degrade benzene. Trace amounts (benzene to carbon dioxide with the reduction of Fe(III). Phenol was not detected in cell-free controls or in Fe(II)- and benzene-containing cultures of Geobacter sulfurreducens, a Geobacter species that cannot metabolize benzene. The phenol produced in G. metallireducens cultures was labeled with 18O during growth in H218O, as expected for anaerobic conversion of benzene to phenol. Analysis of whole-genome gene expression patterns indicated that genes for phenol metabolism were upregulated during growth on benzene but that genes for benzoate or toluene metabolism were not, further suggesting that phenol was an intermediate in benzene metabolism. Deletion of the genes for PpsA or PpcB, subunits of two enzymes specifically required for the metabolism of phenol, removed the capacity for benzene metabolism. These results demonstrate that benzene hydroxylation to phenol is an alternative to carboxylation for anaerobic benzene activation and suggest that this may be an important metabolic route for benzene removal in petroleum-contaminated groundwaters, in which Geobacter species are considered to play an important role in anaerobic benzene degradation. PMID:24096430

  13. Peak oxygen uptake and ventilatory anaerobic threshold in fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valim, Valéria; Oliveira, Leda M; Suda, Alina L; Silva, Luciana E; Faro, Mário; Neto, Turíbio L Barros; Feldman, Daniel; Natour, Jamil

    2002-02-01

    To compare maximum oxygen uptake and anaerobic threshold in patients with fibromyalgia (FM) and healthy sedentary controls matched by sex, age, weight, and body mass index. Fifty women with FM aged 18-60 years and 50 healthy sedentary controls were studied. All were submitted to a maximum treadmill incremental test. Expired gas, ventilatory anaerobic threshold, and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) were evaluated. The influence of FM on quality of life was evaluated by questionnaires: the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form (SF-36). In patients with FM, the anaerobic threshold and peak oxygen uptake were significantly reduced. Maximum heartbeat rate was significantly lower in FM, indicating submaximum effort. Linear regression data showed a correlation between peak VO2 and the "Role-physical" domain of the SF-36. No such correlations were noted with anaerobic threshold. These results confirm the hypothesis of lower physical fitness in patients with FM. Considering that patients with FM do not achieve a maximum effort, ventilatory anaerobic threshold should be considered as a better fitness index than VO2max.

  14. Anaerobic bioleaching of metals from waste activated sludge

    KAUST Repository

    Meulepas, Roel J W

    2015-05-01

    Heavy metal contamination of anaerobically digested waste activated sludge hampers its reuse as fertilizer or soil conditioner. Conventional methods to leach metals require aeration or the addition of leaching agents. This paper investigates whether metals can be leached from waste activated sludge during the first, acidifying stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion without the supply of leaching agents. These leaching experiments were done with waste activated sludge from the Hoek van Holland municipal wastewater treatment plant (The Netherlands), which contained 342μgg-1 of copper, 487μgg-1 of lead, 793μgg-1 of zinc, 27μgg-1 of nickel and 2.3μgg-1 of cadmium. During the anaerobic acidification of 3gdry weightL-1 waste activated sludge, 80-85% of the copper, 66-69% of the lead, 87% of the zinc, 94-99% of the nickel and 73-83% of the cadmium were leached. The first stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion can thus be optimized as an anaerobic bioleaching process and produce a treated sludge (i.e., digestate) that meets the land-use standards in The Netherlands for copper, zinc, nickel and cadmium, but not for lead.

  15. [Adaptive changes of Zebrafish (Danio rerio) to anaerobic exercise training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming-jing; Wang, Zhi-jian

    2013-06-01

    To explore adaptive changes of the Zebrafish (Danio rerio) to anaerobic exercise training as well as to collect basic data of molecular mechanisms of adaption to anaerobic exercise training among this fish, we investigated the influences of 4 weeks of anaerobic exercise training on the behavior, morphology, growth, muscle biochemical components and metabolic enzyme activities of the Zebrafish. Our results indicated that individual's daily activity level declined after 4 weeks training and they preferred to swim together more frequently. Both body length and weight gain decreased, allowing the fish to adapt to the increased locomotion. Similarly, glycogen in muscles increased and exercise endurance also strengthened due to the enhancement of energy storage. Moreover, although the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in muscle has increased, the activity of citrate synthase (CS) decreased. Taken together, these results suggest that both the ability of anaerobic exercise and anaerobic metabolism of Zebrafish can in fact be enhanced by training, and the tangible changes that we could measure were retained, but only for a limited time.

  16. Anaerobic Co-Digestion of the Microalgae Scenedesmus Sp.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos-Suarez, J. L.; Carreras, N.

    2011-06-07

    Microalgae biomass has been widely studied for biogas production over the last years and results show that anaerobic digestion is often limited by the low C/N ratio of this type of biomass. Therefore, codigestion with substrates of high C/N ratio is necessary. The objectives of this study are to set up an experimental method that ease reproducibility and control of anaerobic digestion processes in laboratory conditions and to determine the biodegradability and biogas production potential of the co-digestion process of microalgae Scenedesmus sp. and energy crop Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Miller. Results obtained showed that higher C/N ratios are preferred in order to maximize methane production. Highest methane yield obtained was 0.252m3CH4/Kg VS and degradability expressed as percentage COD reduced is around 30% for the ideal mixture found, made up of 75% O. ficus-indica and 25% Scenedesmus sp. in VS basis. A laboratory setup using MicroOxymax respirometer, after its adaptation to work under anaerobic conditions, can be used for the monitoring of anaerobic digestion processes. Scenedesmus sp. as sole substrate for anaerobic digestion does not give good results due to low C/N ratio. However, when codigesting it with O. ficus-indica methane production is satisfactory. Best mixture was made up of 75% O. ficus-indica and 25% Scenedesmus sp. in VS basis. (Author)

  17. Anaerobic waste digestion in Germany--status and recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, P

    2000-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment processes are especially suited for the utilization of wet organic wastes from agriculture and industry as well as for the organic part of source-separated household wastes. Anaerobic degradation is a very cost-effective method for treating biogenic wastes because the formed biogas can be used for heat and electricity production and the digester residues can be recycled to agriculture as a secondary fertilizer. Anaerobic technology will also be used for the common treatment of wastes together with renewable energy crops in order to reduce the CO2-emissions according the Kyoto protocol. Various process types are applied in Germany which differ in material, reaction conditions and in the form of the used reactor systems. The widespread introduction of anaerobic digestion in Germany has shown that biogenic organic wastes are a valuable source for energy and nutrients. Anaerobic waste treatment is done today in approx. 850 biogas plants on small farm scale as well as on large industrial scale with the best beneficial and economic outcome. Due to some new environmental protection acts which promote the recycling of wastes and their utilization for renewable energy formation it can be expected that several hundreds new biogas plants will be built per year in Germany. In order to use the synergetic effects of a combined fermentation of wastes and energy crops new process types must be developed in order to optimize the substrate combinations and the process conditions for maximum biodegradation.

  18. Prevailing Torque Locking Feature in Threaded Fasteners Using Anaerobic Adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Alan; Hess, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results from tests to assess the use of anaerobic adhesive for providing a prevailing torque locking feature in threaded fasteners. Test procedures are developed and tests are performed on three fastener materials, four anaerobic adhesives, and both unseated assembly conditions. Five to ten samples are tested for each combination. Tests for initial use, reuse without additional adhesive, and reuse with additional adhesive are performed for all samples. A 48-hour cure time was used for all initial use and reuse tests. Test data are presented as removal torque versus removal angle with the specification required prevailing torque range added for performance assessment. Percent specification pass rates for the all combinations of fastener material, adhesive, and assembly condition are tabulated and reveal use of anaerobic adhesive as a prevailing torque locking feature is viable. Although not every possible fastener material and anaerobic adhesive combination provides prevailing torque values within specification, any combination can be assessed using the test procedures presented. Reuse without additional anaerobic adhesive generally provides some prevailing torque, and in some cases within specification. Reuse with additional adhesive often provides comparable removal torque data as in initial use.

  19. The Institution of Justice. Solidarity as the Obligation of the Moderns according to Durkheim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Marcucci

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay is dedicated to Durkheimian conception of justice. The Hobbesian polarization between law and justice is considered paradigmatic for modern political thought. The Durkheim contribution is a significant reformulation of Hobbes’ alternative, able to highlight differently the constitutive tension between law and justice. Durkheim’s criticism against contract theories reframes the juridical order trough the concept of solidarity, considered by Durkheim as the unthought premise to modern obligation. The contract theory, has to been considered as the modern way to think the relation between society, individual, property and work. Thus, contract theory becomes the claim allowing the emergence of a new conception of justice able to call into question - by the way of the notion of fair contract – the formal premises on which contract itself is grounded. So characterized, social justice join the notion of solidarity reframing the concept of obligation itself.

  20. High hydrostatic pressure adaptive strategies in an obligate piezophile Pyrococcus yayanosii

    KAUST Repository

    Michoud, Gregoire

    2016-06-02

    Pyrococcus yayanosii CH1, as the first and only obligate piezophilic hyperthermophilic microorganism discovered to date, extends the physical and chemical limits of life on Earth. It was isolated from the Ashadze hydrothermal vent at 4,100 m depth. Multi-omics analyses were performed to study the mechanisms used by the cell to cope with high hydrostatic pressure variations. In silico analyses showed that the P. yayanosii genome is highly adapted to its harsh environment, with a loss of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis pathways and the high constitutive expression of the energy metabolism compared with other non-obligate piezophilic Pyrococcus species. Differential proteomics and transcriptomics analyses identified key hydrostatic pressure-responsive genes involved in translation, chemotaxis, energy metabolism (hydrogenases and formate metabolism) and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats sequences associated with Cellular apoptosis susceptibility proteins.