Sample records for halo giant hd122563

  1. Accurate effective temperatures of the metal-poor benchmark stars HD 140283, HD 122563 and HD 103095 from CHARA interferometry (United States)

    Karovicova, I.; White, T. R.; Nordlander, T.; Lind, K.; Casagrande, L.; Ireland, M. J.; Huber, D.; Creevey, O.; Mourard, D.; Schaefer, G. H.; Gilmore, G.; Chiavassa, A.; Wittkowski, M.; Jofré, P.; Heiter, U.; Thévenin, F.; Asplund, M.


    Large stellar surveys of the Milky Way require validation with reference to a set of "benchmark" stars whose fundamental properties are well-determined. For metal-poor benchmark stars, disagreement between spectroscopic and interferometric effective temperatures has called the reliability of the temperature scale into question. We present new interferometric measurements of three metal-poor benchmark stars, HD 140283, HD 122563, and HD 103095, from which we determine their effective temperatures. The angular sizes of all the stars were determined from observations with the PAVO beam combiner at visible wavelengths at the CHARA array, with additional observations of HD 103095 made with the VEGA instrument, also at the CHARA array. Together with photometrically derived bolometric fluxes, the angular diameters give a direct measurement of the effective temperature. For HD 140283 we find θLD=0.324±0.005 mas, Teff=5787±48 K; for HD 122563, θLD=0.926±0.011 mas, Teff=4636±37 K; and for HD 103095 θLD=0.595±0.007 mas, Teff=5140±49 K. Our temperatures for HD 140283 and HD 103095 are hotter than the previous interferometric measurements by 253 K and 322 K, respectively. We find good agreement between our temperatures and recent spectroscopic and photometric estimates. We conclude some previous interferometric measurements have been affected by systematic uncertainties larger than their quoted errors.

  2. Giant Radio Halos in Galaxy Clusters as Probes of Particle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Giant radio halos in galaxy clusters probe mechanisms of particle acceleration connected with cluster merger events. Shocks and turbulence are driven in the inter-galactic medium (IGM) during clusters mergers and may have a deep impact on the non-thermal properties of galaxy clusters. Models of turbulent ...

  3. Giant Radio Halos in Galaxy Clusters as Probes of Particle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Giant radio halos in galaxy clusters probe mechanisms of particle acceleration connected with cluster merger events. Shocks and turbulence are driven in the inter-galactic medium (IGM) during clusters mergers and may have a deep impact on the non-thermal properties of galaxy clusters. Models of turbulent ...

  4. Revisiting Scaling Relations for Giant Radio Halos in Galaxy Clusters (United States)

    Cassano, R.; Ettori, S.; Brunetti, G.; Giacintucci, S.; Pratt, G. W.; Venturi, T.; Kale, R.; Dolag, K.; Markevitch, Maxim L.


    Many galaxy clusters host megaparsec-scale radio halos, generated by ultrarelativistic electrons in the magnetized intracluster medium. Correlations between the synchrotron power of radio halos and the thermal properties of the hosting clusters were established in the last decade, including the connection between the presence of a halo and cluster mergers. The X-ray luminosity and redshift-limited Extended GMRT Radio Halo Survey provides a rich and unique dataset for statistical studies of the halos. We uniformly analyze the radio and X-ray data for the GMRT cluster sample, and use the new Planck Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) catalog to revisit the correlations between the power of radio halos and the thermal properties of galaxy clusters. We find that the radio power at 1.4 GHz scales with the cluster X-ray (0.1-2.4 keV) luminosity computed within R(sub 500) as P(sub 1.4) approx. L(2.1+/-0.2) - 500). Our bigger and more homogenous sample confirms that the X-ray luminous (L(sub 500) > 5 × 10(exp 44) erg/s)) clusters branch into two populations-radio halos lie on the correlation, while clusters without radio halos have their radio upper limits well below that correlation. This bimodality remains if we excise cool cores from the X-ray luminosities. We also find that P(sub 1.4) scales with the cluster integrated SZ signal within R(sub 500), measured by Planck, as P(sub 1.4) approx. Y(2.05+/-0.28) - 500), in line with previous findings. However, contrary to previous studies that were limited by incompleteness and small sample size, we find that "SZ-luminous" Y(sub 500) > 6×10(exp -5) Mpc(exp 2) clusters show a bimodal behavior for the presence of radio halos, similar to that in the radio-X-ray diagram. Bimodality of both correlations can be traced to clusters dynamics, with radio halos found exclusively in merging clusters. These results confirm the key role of mergers for the origin of giant radio halos, suggesting that they trigger the relativistic particle acceleration.

  5. Discovery of a Giant Radio Halo in a Massive Merging Cluster at ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have discovered a giant radio halo in the massive merging cluster MACSJ0417.5-1154. This cluster, at a redshift of 0.443, is one of the most X-ray luminous galaxy cluster in the MAssive Cluster Survey (MACS) with an X-ray luminosity in the 0.1–2.4 keV band of 2.9 × 1045 erg s-1. Recent observations from GMRT at ...

  6. What is the Milky Way outer halo made of?. High resolution spectroscopy of distant red giants (United States)

    Battaglia, G.; North, P.; Jablonka, P.; Shetrone, M.; Minniti, D.; Díaz, M.; Starkenburg, E.; Savoy, M.


    In a framework where galaxies form hierarchically, extended stellar haloes are predicted to be an ubiquitous feature around Milky Way-like galaxies and to consist mainly of the shredded stellar component of smaller galactic systems. The type of accreted stellar systems are expected to vary according to the specific accretion and merging history of a given galaxy, and so is the fraction of stars formed in situ versus accreted. Analysis of the chemical properties of Milky Way halo stars out to large Galactocentric radii can provide important insights into the properties of the environment in which the stars that contributed to the build-up of different regions of the Milky Way stellar halo formed. In this work we focus on the outer regions of the Milky Way stellar halo, by determining chemical abundances of halo stars with large present-day Galactocentric distances, >15 kpc. The data-set we acquired consists of high resolution HET/HRS, Magellan/MIKE and VLT/UVES spectra for 28 red giant branch stars covering a wide metallicity range, -3.1 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲-0.6. We show that the ratio of α-elements over Fe as a function of [Fe/H] for our sample of outer halo stars is not dissimilar from the pattern shown by MW halo stars from solar neighborhood samples. On the other hand, significant differences appear at [Fe/H] ≳-1.5 when considering chemical abundance ratios such as [Ba/Fe], [Na/Fe], [Ni/Fe], [Eu/Fe], [Ba/Y]. Qualitatively, this type of chemical abundance trends are observed in massive dwarf galaxies, such as Sagittarius and the Large Magellanic Cloud. This appears to suggest a larger contribution in the outer halo of stars formed in an environment with high initial star formation rate and already polluted by asymptotic giant branch stars with respect to inner halo samples. Based on ESO program 093.B-0615(A).Based on observations obtained with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, which is a joint project of the University of Texas at Austin, the Pennsylvania State University

  7. On the shoulders of giants: properties of the stellar halo and the Milky Way mass distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafle, Prajwal Raj; Sharma, Sanjib; Lewis, Geraint F.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss, E-mail: [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics A28, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)


    Halo stars orbit within the potential of the Milky Way, and hence their kinematics can be used to understand the underlying mass distribution. However, the inferred mass distribution depends sensitively on assumptions made on the density and the velocity anisotropy profiles of the tracer population. Also, there is a degeneracy between the parameters of the halo and those of the disk or bulge. Most previous attempts that use halo stars have made arbitrary assumptions about these. In this paper, we decompose the Galaxy into three major components—a bulge, a Miyamoto-Nagai disk, and a Navarro-Frenk-White dark matter halo - and then model the kinematic data of the halo blue horizontal branch and K-giant stars from the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration. Additionally, we use the gas terminal velocity curve and the Sgr A* proper motion. With the distance of the Sun from the center of the Galaxy R {sub ☉} = 8.5 kpc, our kinematic analysis reveals that the density of the stellar halo has a break at 17.2{sub −1.0}{sup +1.1} kpc and an exponential cutoff in the outer parts starting at 97.7{sub −15.8}{sup +15.6} kpc. Also, we find that the tracer velocity anisotropy is radially biased with β {sub s} = 0.4 ± 0.2 in the outer halo. We measure halo virial mass M {sub vir} to be 0.80{sub −0.16}{sup +0.31}×10{sup 12} M{sub ⊙}, concentration c to be 21.1{sub −8.3}{sup +14.8}, disk mass to be 0.95{sub −0.30}{sup +0.24}×10{sup 11} M{sub ⊙}, disk scale length to be 4.9{sub −0.4}{sup +0.4} kpc, and bulge mass to be 0.91{sub −0.38}{sup +0.31}×10{sup 10} M{sub ⊙}. The halo mass is found to be small, and this has important consequences. The giant stars reveal that the outermost halo stars have low velocity dispersion, but interestingly this suggests a truncation of the stellar halo density rather than a small overall mass of the Galaxy. Our estimates of local escape velocity v{sub esc}=550.9{sub −22.1}{sup +32.4} km s{sup −1} and

  8. Discovery of a Giant Radio Halo in a New Planck Galaxy Cluster PLCKG171.9-40.7 (United States)

    Giacintucci, Simona; Kale, Ruta; Wik, Daniel R.; Venturi, Tiziana; Markevitch, Maxim


    We report the discovery of a giant radio halo in a new, hot, X-ray luminous galaxy cluster recently found by Planck, PLCKG171.9-40.7. The radio halo was found using Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope observations at 235 MHz and 610 MHz, and in the 1.4 GHz data from a NRAO Very Large Array Sky Survey pointing that we have reanalyzed. The diffuse radio emission is coincident with the cluster X-ray emission, has an extent of approx.1 Mpc and a radio power of approx. 5×10(exp 24)W/Hz at 1.4 GHz. Its integrated radio spectrum has a slope of alpha approx. = 1.8 between 235 MHz and 1.4 GHz, steeper than that of a typical giant halo. The analysis of the archival XMMNewton X-ray data shows that the cluster is hot (approx. 10 keV) and disturbed, consistent with X-ray selected clusters hosting radio halos. This is the first giant radio halo discovered in one of the new clusters found by Planck.

  9. LOFAR discovery of an ultra-steep radio halo and giant head-tail radio galaxy in Abell 1132 (United States)

    Wilber, A.; Brüggen, M.; Bonafede, A.; Savini, F.; Shimwell, T.; van Weeren, R. J.; Rafferty, D.; Mechev, A. P.; Intema, H.; Andrade-Santos, F.; Clarke, A. O.; Mahony, E. K.; Morganti, R.; Prandoni, I.; Brunetti, G.; Röttgering, H.; Mandal, S.; de Gasperin, F.; Hoeft, M.


    Low-Frequency Array (LOFAR) observations at 144 MHz have revealed large-scale radio sources in the unrelaxed galaxy cluster Abell 1132. The cluster hosts diffuse radio emission on scales of ∼650 kpc near the cluster centre and a head-tail (HT) radio galaxy, extending up to 1 Mpc, south of the cluster centre. The central diffuse radio emission is not seen in NRAO VLA FIRST Survey, Westerbork Northern Sky Survey, nor in C & D array VLA observations at 1.4 GHz, but is detected in our follow-up Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT) observations at 325 MHz. Using LOFAR and GMRT data, we determine the spectral index of the central diffuse emission to be α = -1.75 ± 0.19 (S ∝ να). We classify this emission as an ultra-steep spectrum radio halo and discuss the possible implications for the physical origin of radio haloes. The HT radio galaxy shows narrow, collimated emission extending up to 1 Mpc and another 300 kpc of more diffuse, disturbed emission, giving a full projected linear size of 1.3 Mpc - classifying it as a giant radio galaxy (GRG) and making it the longest HT found to date. The head of the GRG coincides with an elliptical galaxy (SDSS J105851.01+564308.5) belonging to Abell 1132. In our LOFAR image, there appears to be a connection between the radio halo and the GRG. The turbulence that may have produced the halo may have also affected the tail of the GRG. In turn, the GRG may have provided seed electrons for the radio halo.

  10. The Eating Habits of Giants and Dwarfs: Chemo-dynamics of Halo Assembly in Nearby Galaxies (United States)

    Romanowsky, Aaron J.; SAGES Team


    I will present novel results on the halo assembly of nearby galaxies, from dwarfs to the most massive ellipticals, using Subaru imaging and Keck spectroscopy. Field stars, globular clusters, and planetary nebulae are used as wide-field chemo-dynamical tracers, mapping out halo substructures that were previously known and unknown. Comparisons are made with simulations of galaxy formation. Supported by the National Science Foundation Grants AST-0808099, AST-0909237, and AST-1109878.

  11. Are small-scale substructures a universal property of galaxy haloes? The case of the giant elliptical NGC 5128 (United States)

    Mouhcine, M.; Ibata, R.; Rejkuba, M.


    We present an analysis of the spatial and chemical substructures in a remote halo field in the nearby giant elliptical galaxy Centaurus A (NGC 5128), situated ˜38 kpc from the centre of the galaxy. The observations were taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys instrument on-board the Hubble Space Telescope, and reach down to the horizontal branch. In this relatively small 3.8 × 3.8 kpc2 field, after correcting for Poisson noise, we do not find any statistically strong evidence for the presence of small-scale substructures in the stellar spatial distribution on scales ≳100 pc. However, we do detect the presence of significant small spatial-scale inhomogeneities in the stellar median metallicity over the surveyed field. We argue that these localized chemical substructures could be associated with not fully mixed debris from the disruption of low-mass systems. NGC 5128 joins the ranks of the late-type spiral galaxies the Milky Way, for which the stellar halo appears to be dominated by small-scale spatial substructures, and NGC 891, where localized metallicity variations have been detected in the inner extraplanar regions. This suggests that the presence of small-scale substructures may be a generic property of stellar haloes of large galaxies. This work was based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  12. Unveiling the Nature of Giant Ellipticals and their Stellar Halos with the VST (United States)

    Spavone, M.; Capaccioli, M.; Napolitano, N. R.; Iodice, E.; Grado, A.; Limatola, L.; Cooper, A. P.; Cantiello, M.; Forbes, D. A.; Paolillo, M.; Schipani, P.


    Observations of diffuse starlight in the outskirts of galaxies provide fundamental constraints on the cosmological context of galaxy assembly in the Lambda Cold Dark Matter model, which predicts that galaxies grow through a combination of in-situ star formation and accretion of stars from other galaxies. Accreted stars are expected to dominate in the outer parts of galaxies. Since dynamical timescales are longer in these regions, substructures related to accretion, such as streams and shells, can persist over many Gyr. In this work we use extremely deep g- and i-band images of six massive early- type galaxies (ETGs) from the VEGAS survey to constrain the properties of their accreted stellar components. The wide field of view of OmegaCAM on the VLT Survey Telescope (VST) also allows us to investigate the properties of small stellar systems (such as globular clusters, ultra-compact dwarfs and satellite galaxies) in the halos of our galaxies. By fitting light profiles, and comparing the results to simulations of elliptical galaxy assembly, we have identified signatures of a transition between relaxed and unrelaxed accreted components and can constrain the balance between in-situ and accreted stars.

  13. A Giant Radio Halo in a Low-Mass Sz-selected Galaxy Cluster: ACT-CLJ0256.5+0006 (United States)

    Knowles, Kendra; Intema, H. T.; Baker, A. J.; Bharadwaj, V.; Bond, J. R.; Cress, C.; Gupta, N.; Hajian, A.; Hilton, M.; Hincks, A. D.; hide


    We present the detection of a giant radio halo (GRH) in the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ)- selected merging galaxy cluster ACT-CL J0256.5+ 0006 (z = 0.363), observed with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope at 325 and 610 MHz. We find this cluster to host a faint (S610 = 5.6 +/- 1.4mJy) radio halo with an angular extent of 2.6 arcmin, corresponding to 0.8 Mpc at the cluster redshift, qualifying it as a GRH. J0256 is one of the lowest mass systems, M500, SZ = (5.0 +/- 1.2) × 10(exp14) M, found to host a GRH. We measure the GRH at lower significance at 325 MHz (S325 = 10.3 +/- 5.3mJy), obtaining a spectral index measurement of a610 325 = 1.0+ 0.7 - 0.9. This result is consistent with the mean spectral index of the population of typical radio haloes, alpha = 1.2 +/- 0.2. Adopting the latter value, we determine a 1.4 GHz radio power of P1.4 GHz = (1.0 +/- 0.3) × 10(exp 24)W/Hz, placing this cluster within the scatter of known scaling relations. Various lines of evidence, including the intracluster medium morphology, suggest that ACT-CL J0256.5+ 0006 is composed of two subclusters. We determine a merger mass ratio of 7:4, and a line-of-sight velocity difference of v? = 1880 +/- 210 km/s. We construct a simple merger model to infer relevant time-scales in the merger. From its location on the P1.4GHz-LX scaling relation, we infer that we observe ACT-CL J0256.5+ 0006 just before first core crossing.

  14. Association of giant congenital melanocytic nevus, halo nevus and vitiligo in a 75-year-old patient Associação de nevo melanocítico congênito gigante, nevo halo e vitiligo. Relato de caso em paciente de 75 anos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Leite da Silveira


    Full Text Available A giant congenital melanocytic nevus represents a rare condition. The halo phenomenon may be seen in congenital or acquired melanocytic nevi. In the literature, association of halo nevus and giant congenital melanocytic nevus is rare and the association of both with vitiligo even more rare. A 75-yearold woman at first consultation complained of a hyperchromic bluish-brown hairy macula on the lower back, buttocks and thighs present since birth and an achromic halo of onset three years ago. The histological features were consistent with congenital melanocytic nevus and halo nevus, respectively. After two years the patient developed achromic areas in normal skin, histologically consistent with vitiligo. The authors emphasize the rarity of this triple combination, the patient's age and the absence of malignant degeneration to date.Nevo melanocitico congênito gigante constitui uma condição rara. O fenômeno halo pode ser observado em nevos melanocíticos congênitos ou adquiridos. Na literatura a associação nevo halo e nevo melanocítico congênito gigante é rara e a associação de ambos com vitiligo ainda mais rara. Mulher de 75 anos que à primeira consulta apresentava mácula hipercrômica castanho-azulada pilosa na região lombar, nádegas e coxas desde o nascimento e halo acrômico de aparecimento há 3 anos. Os histológicos foram compatíveis com nevo melanocítico congênito e nevo halo respectivamente. Após dois anos evoluiu com áreas de acromia à distância, com histológico de vitiligo. Os autores ressaltam a raridade desta tripla associação; a idade da paciente e a ausência de degeneração maligna até o presente momento.

  15. Enormous Li Enhancement Preceding Red Giant Phases in Low-mass Stars in the Milky Way Halo (United States)

    Li, Haining; Aoki, Wako; Matsuno, Tadafumi; Bharat Kumar, Yerra; Shi, Jianrong; Suda, Takuma; Zhao, Gang


    Li abundances in the bulk of low-mass metal-poor stars are well reproduced by stellar evolution models adopting a constant initial abundance. However, a small number of stars have exceptionally high Li abundances, for which no convincing models have been established. We report on the discovery of 12 very metal-poor stars that have large excesses of Li, including an object having more than 100 times higher Li abundance than the values found in usual objects, which is the largest excess in metal-poor stars known to date. The sample is distributed over a wide range of evolutionary stages, including five unevolved stars, showing no clear abundance anomaly in other elements. The results indicate the existence of an efficient process to enrich Li in a small fraction of low-mass stars at the main-sequence or subgiant phase. The wide distribution of Li-rich stars along the red giant branch could be explained by the dilution of surface Li by mixing that occurs when the stars evolve into red giants. Our study narrows down the problem to be solved in order to understand the origins of Li excess found in low-mass stars, suggesting the presence of an unknown process that affects the surface abundances preceding red giant phases. This work is based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  16. Non-LTE line formation of Fe in late-type stars - III. 3D non-LTE analysis of metal-poor stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amarsi, A. M.; Lind, K.; Asplund, M.


    hydrodynamic STAGGER model atmospheres, and employ a new model atom that includes new quantum-mechanical neutral hydrogen collisional rate coefficients. With the exception of the red giant HD122563, we find that the 3D non-LTE models achieve Fe I/Fe II excitation and ionization balance as well as not having...

  17. Artificial halos (United States)

    Selmke, Markus


    Judged by their frequency and beauty, ice halos easily rival rainbows as a prominent atmospheric optics phenomenon. This article presents experimental halo demonstrations of varying complexity. Using a single commercially available hexagonal glass prism, a variety of artificial halos can be simulated. The experiments include laser beam path analysis, a modified classic spinning prism experiment, and a novel Monte-Carlo machine for three-dimensional rotations. Each of these experiments emulates different conditions of certain halo displays, and in combination, they allow a thorough understanding of these striking phenomena.

  18. New views of the distant stellar halo (United States)

    Sanderson, Robyn E.; Secunda, Amy; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Bochanski, John J.


    Currently, only a small number of Milky Way (MW) stars are known to exist beyond 100 kpc from the Galactic Centre. Though the distribution of these stars in the outer halo is believed to be sparse, they can provide evidence of more recent accretion events than in the inner halo and help map out the MW's dark matter halo to its virial radius. We have re-examined the outermost regions of 11 existing stellar halo models with two synthetic surveys: one mimicking present-day searches for distant M giants and another mimicking RR Lyra (RRL) projections for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). Our models suggest that colour and proper motion cuts currently used to select M giant candidates for follow-up successfully remove nearly all self-contamination from foreground halo dwarf stars and are useful for focusing observations on distant M giants, of which there are thousands to tens of thousands beyond 100 kpc in our models. We likewise expect that LSST will identify comparable numbers of RRLe at these distances. We demonstrate that several observable properties of both tracers, such as proximity of neighbouring stars, proper motions and distances (for RRLe), could help us separate different accreted dwarf galaxies from one another in the distant MW halo. We also discuss prospects for using ratios of M giants to RRLe as a proxy for accretion time, which in the future could provide new constraints on the recent accretion history of our Galaxy.

  19. The Connection between Radio Halos and Cluster Mergers and the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We discuss the statistical properties of the radio halo population in galaxy clusters. Radio bi-modality is observed in galaxy clusters: a fraction of clusters host giant radio halos while a majority of clusters do not show evidence of diffuse cluster-scale radio emission. The radio bi-modality has a correspondence in terms of ...

  20. Borromean halo, Tango halo, and halo isomers in atomic nuclei (United States)

    Izosimov, Igor


    Structure of the ground and excited states in halo-like nuclei is discussed. Both the Borromean and tango halo types can be observed for n-p configurations of atomic nuclei.Structure of the halo may be different for the different levels and resonances in atomic nuclei. Isobar analog, double isobar analog, configuration, and double configuration states can simultaneously have n-n, n-p, and p-p halo components in their wave functions. When the halo structure of the excited state differs from that of the ground state, or the ground state has non-halo structure, the γ-transition from the excited state to the ground state can be essentially hindered, i.e. the formation of a specific type of isomers (halo isomers) becomes possible. B(Mγ) and B(Eγ) values for γ-transitions in 6,7,8Li, 8,9,10Be, 8,10,11B, 10,11,12,13,14C, 13,14,15,16,17N, 15,16,17,19O, and 17F are analyzed. Special attention is given to nuclei which ground state does not exhibit halo structure but the excited state (halo isomer) may have one.

  1. Neutron halos in hypernuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Lue, H F; Meng, J; Zhou, S G


    Properties of single-LAMBDA and double-LAMBDA hypernuclei for even-N Ca isotopes ranging from the proton dripline to the neutron dripline are studied using the relativistic continuum Hartree-Bogolyubov theory with a zero-range pairing interaction. Compared with ordinary nuclei, the addition of one or two LAMBDA-hyperons lowers the Fermi level. The predicted neutron dripline nuclei are, respectively, sup 7 sup 5 subLAMBDA Ca and sup 7 sup 6 sub 2 subLAMBDA Ca, as the additional attractive force provided by the LAMBDA-N interaction shifts nuclei from outside to inside the dripline. Therefore, the last bound hypernuclei have two more neutrons than the corresponding ordinary nuclei. Based on the analysis of two-neutron separation energies, neutron single-particle energy levels, the contribution of continuum and nucleon density distribution, giant halo phenomena due to the pairing correlation, and the contribution from the continuum are suggested to exist in Ca hypernuclei similar to those that appear in ordinary ...

  2. Isospin in halo nuclei: Borromean halo, tango halo, and halo isomers (United States)

    Izosimov, I. N.


    It is shown that the wave functions for isobaric analog, double isobaric analog, configuration, and double configuration states may simultaneously have components corresponding to nn, np, and pp halos. The difference in the halo structure between the ground and excited states of a nucleus may lead to the formation of halo isomers. A halo structure of both Borromean and tango types can be observed for np configurations. The structure of ground and excited states with various isospins in halo-like nuclei is discussed. The reduced probabilities B( Mλ) and B( Eλ) for gamma transitions in 6-8Li, 8-10Be, 8,10,11B, 10-14C, 13-17N, 15-17,19O, and 17F nuclei are analyzed. Particular attention is given to the cases where the ground state of a nucleus does not have a halo structure, but where its excited state may have it.

  3. Diverse stellar haloes in nearby Milky Way mass disc galaxies (United States)

    Harmsen, Benjamin; Monachesi, Antonela; Bell, Eric F.; de Jong, Roelof S.; Bailin, Jeremy; Radburn-Smith, David J.; Holwerda, Benne W.


    We have examined the resolved stellar populations at large galactocentric distances along the minor axis (from 10 kpc up to between 40 and 75 kpc), with limited major axis coverage, of six nearby highly inclined Milky Way (MW) mass disc galaxies using Hubble Space Telescope data from the Galaxy haloes, Outer discs, Substructure, Thick discs, and Star clusters (GHOSTS) survey. We select red giant branch stars to derive stellar halo density profiles. The projected minor axis density profiles can be approximated by power laws with projected slopes of -2 to -3.7 and a diversity of stellar halo masses of 1-6 × 109 M⊙, or 2-14 per cent of the total galaxy stellar masses. The typical intrinsic scatter around a smooth power-law fit is 0.05-0.1 dex owing to substructure. By comparing the minor and major axis profiles, we infer projected axis ratios c/a at ˜25 kpc between 0.4and0.75. The GHOSTS stellar haloes are diverse, lying between the extremes charted out by the (rather atypical) haloes of the MW and M31. We find a strong correlation between the stellar halo metallicities and the stellar halo masses. We compare our results with cosmological models, finding good agreement between our observations and accretion-only models where the stellar haloes are formed by the disruption of dwarf satellites. In particular, the strong observed correlation between stellar halo metallicity and mass is naturally reproduced. Low-resolution hydrodynamical models have unrealistically high stellar halo masses. Current high-resolution hydrodynamical models appear to predict stellar halo masses somewhat higher than observed but with reasonable metallicities, metallicity gradients, and density profiles.

  4. ALFA beam halo

    CERN Document Server

    Komarek, Tomas


    This note serves as a final report about CERN Summer Student Programme 2014 project. The beam halo is an undesired phenomenon for physics analyses on particle accelerators. It surrounds the beam core and constitutes an important part of background for signal measurements on some detectors, eg. in the forward region. In this study, the data from the ALFA detector were used, specifically from the run 191373 ($\\beta^*=90\\unit{m}$) and the run 213268 ($\\beta^*=1\\unit{km}$). Using the ROOT framework, a software for beam halo events selection was created and beam halo properties were examined. In the run 213268, excessive beam halo is suspected to be the reason for multiple beam scrapings that occurred. A kinematic reconstruction of beam halo particles is attempted in order to understand beam halo properties in the interaction point. Some further simulations are employed to find constraints for beam halo particles in order to survive in the accelerator for a longer time/many revolutions. This work represents a st...

  5. What's a Halo? (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... of quick or jerky movements, like jumping or dancing pulling or tugging on the halo or attached ...

  6. Spectrum of Sprite Halos

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gordillo-Vázquez, F.J.; Luque, A.; Šimek, Milan


    Roč. 116, č. 9 (2011), A09319-A09319 ISSN 0148-0227 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : sprites * halos * spectroscopy Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.021, year: 2011

  7. Halo formation and evolution: unifying physical properties with structure (United States)

    Ernest, Alllan David; Collins, Matthew P.


    The assembly of matter in the universe proliferates a variety of structures with diverse properties. For example, massive halos of clusters of galaxies have temperatures often an order of magnitude or more higher than the individual galaxy halos within the cluster, or the temperatures of isolated galaxy halos. Giant spiral galaxies contain large quantities of both dark matter and hot gas while other structures like globular clusters appear to have little or no dark matter or gas. Still others, like the dwarf spheroidal galaxies have low gravity and little hot gas, but ironically contain some of the largest fractions of dark matter in the universe. Star forming rates (SFRs) also vary: compare for example the SFRs of giant elliptical galaxies, globular clusters, spiral and starburst galaxies. Furthermore there is evidence that the various structure types have existed over a large fraction of cosmic history. How can this array of variation in properties be reconciled with galaxy halo formation and evolution?We propose a model of halo formation [1] and evolution [2] that is consistent with both primordial nucleosynthesis (BBN) and the isotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The model uses two simple parameters, the total mass and size of a structure, to (1) explain why galaxies have the fractions of dark matter that they do (including why dwarf spheroidals are so dark matter dominated despite their weak gravity), (2) enable an understanding of the black hole-bulge/black hole-dark halo relations, (3) explain how fully formed massive galaxies can occur so early in cosmic history, (4) understand the connection between spiral and elliptical galaxies (5) unify the nature of globular clusters, dwarf spheroidal galaxies and bulges and (6) predict the temperatures of hot gas halos and understand how cool galaxy halos can remain stable in the hot environments of cluster-galaxy halos.[1] Ernest, A. D., 2012, in Prof. Ion Cotaescu (Ed) Advances in Quantum Theory, pp

  8. The radial velocity dispersion profile of the Galactic halo : constraining the density profile of the dark halo of the Milky Way

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battaglia, G; Helmi, A; Morrison, H; Harding, P; Olszewski, EW; Mateo, M; Freeman, KC; Norris, J; Shectman, SA


    We have compiled a new sample of 240 halo objects with accurate distance and radial velocity measurements, including globular clusters, satellite galaxies, field blue horizontal branch (FHB) stars and red giant stars from the Spaghetti survey. The new data lead to a significant increase in the

  9. Tracking the LHC halo

    CERN Document Server

    Antonella Del Rosso


    In the LHC, beams of 25-ns-spaced proton bunches travel at almost the speed of light and pass through many different devices installed along the ring that monitor their properties. During their whirling motion, beam particles might interact with the collimation instrumentation or with residual gas in the vacuum chambers and this creates the beam halo – an annoying source of background for the physics data. Newly installed CMS sub-detectors are now able to monitor it.   The Beam Halo Monitors (BHM) are installed around the CMS rotating shielding. The BHM are designed and built by University of Minnesota, CERN, Princeton University, INFN Bologna and the National Technical University of Athens. (Image: Andrea Manna). The Beam Halo Monitor (BHM) is a set of 20 Cherenkov radiators – 10-cm-long quartz crystals – installed at each end of the huge CMS detector. Their design goal is to measure the particles that can cause the so-called “machine-induced...

  10. Mapping Milky Way Halo Structure with Blue Horizontal Branch Stars (United States)

    Martin, Charles; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Carlin, Jeffrey L.


    The use of blue horizontal brach (BHB) and red giant branch stars as tracers of stellar debris streams is a common practice and has been useful in the confirmation of kinematic properties of previously identified streams. This work explores less common ways of untangling the velocity signatures of streams traveling radially to our line of sight, and to peer toward the higher density region of the Galactic Center using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Using spectra of BHB stars, we are able to kinematically distinguish moving groups in the Milky Way halo. The results of this thesis advance our knowledge of the following stellar halo substructures: the Pisces Stellar Stream, the Hercules-Aquila Cloud, the Hercules Halo Stream, and the Hermus Stream. A study of red giant stars led to the kinematic discovery of the Pisces Stellar Stream. Red giant stars were also examined to determine that the previously identified velocity signature that was suggested for the Hercules-Aquila Cloud was due to disk star contamination and errors in preliminary SDSS velocities. The Hercules Halo Stream is a previously unidentified structure that could be related to the Hercules-Aquila Cloud, and was discovered as a velocity excess of SDSS BHB stars. We identify a group of 10 stars with similar velocities that are spatially coincident with the Hermus Stream. An orbit is fit to the Hermus Stream that rules out a connection with the Phoenix Stream.This work was supported by NSF grants AST 09-37523, 14-09421, 16-15688, the NASA/NY Space Grant fellowship, and contributions made by The Marvin Clan, Babette Josephs, Manit Limlamai, and the 2015 Crowd Funding Campaign to Support Milky Way Research.

  11. Thermal conduction and heating by nonthermal electrons in the X-ray halo of M87 (United States)

    Tucker, W. H.; Rosner, R.


    A hydrostatic model for the X-ray halo around the giant elliptical galaxy M87 is presented. It is shown that by taking into account the processes of thermal conduction, and nonthermal heating by relativistic electrons in the radio lobes, a self-consistent hydrostatic model can be constructed. There is no need to invoke radiative accretion or the suppression of thermal conductivity.

  12. Cosmic web type dependence of halo clustering (United States)

    Fisher, J. D.; Faltenbacher, A.


    We use the Millennium Simulation to show that halo clustering varies significantly with cosmic web type. Haloes are classified as node, filament, sheet and void haloes based on the eigenvalue decomposition of the velocity shear tensor. The velocity field is sampled by the peculiar velocities of a fixed number of neighbouring haloes, and spatial derivatives are computed using a kernel borrowed from smoothed particle hydrodynamics. The classification scheme is used to examine the clustering of haloes as a function of web type for haloes with masses larger than 1011 h- 1 M⊙. We find that node haloes show positive bias, filament haloes show negligible bias and void and sheet haloes are antibiased independent of halo mass. Our findings suggest that the mass dependence of halo clustering is rooted in the composition of web types as a function of halo mass. The substantial fraction of node-type haloes for halo masses ≳ 2 × 1013 h- 1 M⊙ leads to positive bias. Filament-type haloes prevail at intermediate masses, 1012-1013 h- 1 M⊙, resulting in unbiased clustering. The large contribution of sheet-type haloes at low halo masses ≲ 1012 h- 1 M⊙ generates antibiasing.

  13. Black holes with halos (United States)

    Monten, Ruben; Toldo, Chiara


    We present new AdS4 black hole solutions in N =2 gauged supergravity coupled to vector and hypermultiplets. We focus on a particular consistent truncation of M-theory on the homogeneous Sasaki–Einstein seven-manifold M 111, characterized by the presence of one Betti vector multiplet. We numerically construct static and spherically symmetric black holes with electric and magnetic charges, corresponding to M2 and M5 branes wrapping non-contractible cycles of the internal manifold. The novel feature characterizing these nonzero temperature configurations is the presence of a massive vector field halo. Moreover, we verify the first law of black hole mechanics and we study the thermodynamics in the canonical ensemble. We analyze the behavior of the massive vector field condensate across the small-large black hole phase transition and we interpret the process in the dual field theory.

  14. The Excursion Set Theory of Halo Mass Functions, Halo Clustering, and Halo Growth (United States)

    Zentner, Andrew R.

    I review the excursion set theory with particular attention toward applications to cold dark matter halo formation and growth, halo abundance, and halo clustering. After a brief introduction to notation and conventions, I begin by recounting the heuristic argument leading to the mass function of bound objects given by Press and Schechter. I then review the more formal derivation of the Press-Schechter halo mass function that makes use of excursion sets of the density field. The excursion set formalism is powerful and can be applied to numerous other problems. I review the excursion set formalism for describing both halo clustering and bias and the properties of void regions. As one of the most enduring legacies of the excursion set approach and one of its most common applications, I spend considerable time reviewing the excursion set theory of halo growth. This section of the review culminates with the description of two Monte Carlo methods for generating ensembles of halo mass accretion histories. In the last section, I emphasize that the standard excursion set approach is the result of several simplifying assumptions. Dropping these assumptions can lead to more faithful predictions and open excursion set theory to new applications. One such assumption is that the height of the barriers that define collapsed objects is a constant function of scale. I illustrate the implementation of the excursion set approach for barriers of arbitrary shape. One such application is the now well-known improvement of the excursion set mass function derived from the "moving" barrier for ellipsoidal collapse. I also emphasize that the statement that halo accretion histories are independent of halo environment in the excursion set approach is not a general prediction of the theory. It is a simplifying assumption. I review the method for constructing correlated random walks of the density field in the more general case. I construct a simple toy model to illustrate that excursion set

  15. Giant Magnetoresistance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 4. Giant Magnetoresistance - Nobel Prize in Physics 2007. Debakanta Samal P S Anil Kumar. General Article Volume 13 Issue 4 April 2008 pp 343-354. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  16. Global properties of M31's stellar halo from the splash survey. II. Metallicity profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, Karoline M.; Kalirai, Jason S. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Guhathakurta, Puragra [UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Beaton, Rachael L.; Majewski, Steven R.; Patterson, Richard J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Geha, Marla C.; Tollerud, Erik J. [Astronomy Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Kirby, Evan N.; Bullock, James S. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Tanaka, Mikito; Chiba, Masashi, E-mail: [Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)


    We present the metallicity distribution of red giant branch (RGB) stars in M31's stellar halo, derived from photometric metallicity estimates for over 1500 spectroscopically confirmed RGB halo stars. The stellar sample comes from 38 halo fields observed with the Keck/DEIMOS spectrograph, ranging from 9 to 175 kpc in projected distance from M31's center, and includes 52 confirmed M31 halo stars beyond 100 kpc. While a wide range of metallicities is seen throughout the halo, the metal-rich peak of the metallicity distribution function becomes significantly less prominent with increasing radius. The metallicity profile of M31's stellar halo shows a continuous gradient from 9 to ∼100 kpc, with a magnitude of ∼ – 0.01 dex kpc{sup –1}. The stellar velocity distributions in each field are used to identify stars that are likely associated with tidal debris features. The removal of tidal debris features does not significantly alter the metallicity gradient in M31's halo: a gradient is maintained in fields spanning 10-90 kpc. We analyze the halo metallicity profile, as well as the relative metallicities of stars associated with tidal debris features and the underlying halo population, in the context of current simulations of stellar halo formation. We argue that the large-scale gradient in M31's halo implies M31 accreted at least one relatively massive progenitor in the past, while the field to field variation seen in the metallicity profile indicates that multiple smaller progenitors are likely to have contributed substantially to M31's outer halo.

  17. Galactic googly: the rotation-metallicity bias in the inner stellar halo of the Milky Way (United States)

    Kafle, Prajwal R.; Sharma, Sanjib; Robotham, Aaron S. G.; Pradhan, Raj K.; Guglielmo, Magda; Davies, Luke J. M.; Driver, Simon P.


    The first and second moments of stellar velocities encode important information about the formation history of the Galactic halo. However, due to the lack of tangential motion and inaccurate distances of the halo stars, the velocity moments in the Galactic halo have largely remained 'known unknowns'. Fortunately, our off-centric position within the Galaxy allows us to estimate these moments in the galactocentric frame using the observed radial velocities of the stars alone. We use these velocities coupled with the hierarchical Bayesian scheme, which allows easy marginalization over the missing data (the proper motion, and uncertainty-free distance and line-of-sight velocity), to measure the velocity dispersions, orbital anisotropy (β) and streaming motion (vrot) of the halo main-sequence turn-off (MSTO) and K-giant (KG) stars in the inner stellar halo (r ≲ 15 kpc). We study the metallicity bias in kinematics of the halo stars and observe that the comparatively metal-rich ([Fe/H] > -1.4) and the metal-poor ([Fe/H] ≤ -1.4) MSTO samples show a clear systematic difference in vrot ∼ 20-40 km s - 1, depending on how restrictive the spatial cuts to cull the disc contamination are. The bias is also detected in KG samples but with less certainty. Both MSTO and KG populations suggest that the inner stellar halo of the Galaxy is radially biased i.e. σr > σθ or σϕ and β ≃ 0.5. The apparent metallicity contrariety in the rotation velocity among the halo sub-populations supports the co-existence of multiple populations in the galactic halo that may have formed through distinct formation scenarios, i.e. in situ versus accretion.

  18. Halo modelling in chameleon theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombriser, Lucas; Koyama, Kazuya [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Li, Baojiu, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Ogden Centre for Fundamental Physics, Department of Physics, University of Durham, Science Laboratories, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)


    We analyse modelling techniques for the large-scale structure formed in scalar-tensor theories of constant Brans-Dicke parameter which match the concordance model background expansion history and produce a chameleon suppression of the gravitational modification in high-density regions. Thereby, we use a mass and environment dependent chameleon spherical collapse model, the Sheth-Tormen halo mass function and linear halo bias, the Navarro-Frenk-White halo density profile, and the halo model. Furthermore, using the spherical collapse model, we extrapolate a chameleon mass-concentration scaling relation from a ΛCDM prescription calibrated to N-body simulations. We also provide constraints on the model parameters to ensure viability on local scales. We test our description of the halo mass function and nonlinear matter power spectrum against the respective observables extracted from large-volume and high-resolution N-body simulations in the limiting case of f(R) gravity, corresponding to a vanishing Brans-Dicke parameter. We find good agreement between the two; the halo model provides a good qualitative description of the shape of the relative enhancement of the f(R) matter power spectrum with respect to ΛCDM caused by the extra attractive gravitational force but fails to recover the correct amplitude. Introducing an effective linear power spectrum in the computation of the two-halo term to account for an underestimation of the chameleon suppression at intermediate scales in our approach, we accurately reproduce the measurements from the N-body simulations.

  19. Galaxy models with live halos

    CERN Document Server

    Sellwood, J A


    Computer models of galaxies are described, in which the disc stars and the halo stars are both treated fully self consistently. These were used to test the validity of the 'rigid halo' approximation usually employed when studying the instabilities of a disc of stars. The models show that very little interaction between the populations occurs while the disc remains nearly axisymmetric, but a strong bar is able to transfer angular momentum from the disc to the halo. The global bar stability of the disc is not greatly affected by the interaction between the two stellar populations, and it is found that a large fraction of the total galactic mass is still required in the spheroidal component if bar formation is to be prevented. (36 refs).

  20. Halo-free Phase Contrast Microscopy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tan H Nguyen; Mikhail Kandel; Haadi M Shakir; Catherine Best-popescu; Jyothi Arikkath; Minh N Do; Gabriel Popescu


    We present a new approach for retrieving halo-free phase contrast microscopy (hfPC) images by upgrading the conventional PC microscope with an external interferometric module, which generates sufficient data for reversing the halo artifact...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffield, Allyson A.; Johnston, Kathryn V. [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, Mail Code 5246, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Majewski, Steven R., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); and others


    We present a medium-resolution spectroscopic survey of late-type giant stars at mid-Galactic latitudes of (30 Degree-Sign < |b| < 60 Degree-Sign ), designed to probe the properties of this population to distances of {approx}9 kpc. Because M giants are generally metal-rich and we have limited contamination from thin disk stars by the latitude selection, most of the stars in the survey are expected to be members of the thick disk (([Fe/H]) {approx} -0.6) with some contribution from the metal-rich component of the nearby halo. Here we report first results for 1799 stars. The distribution of radial velocity (RV) as a function of l for these stars shows (1) the expected thick disk population and (2) local metal-rich halo stars moving at high speeds relative to the disk, which in some cases form distinct sequences in RV-l space. High-resolution echelle spectra taken for 34 of these ''RV outliers'' reveal the following patterns across the [Ti/Fe]-[Fe/H] plane: 17 of the stars have abundances reminiscent of the populations present in dwarf satellites of the Milky Way, 8 have abundances coincident with those of the Galactic disk and a more metal-rich halo, and 9 of the stars fall on the locus defined by the majority of stars in the halo. The chemical abundance trends of the RV outliers suggest that this sample consists predominantly of stars accreted from infalling dwarf galaxies. A smaller fraction of stars in the RV outlier sample may have been formed in the inner Galaxy and subsequently kicked to higher eccentricity orbits, but the sample is not large enough to distinguish conclusively between this interpretation and the alternative that these stars represent the tail of the velocity distribution of the thick disk. Our data do not rule out the possibility that a minority of the sample could have formed from gas in situ on their current orbits. These results are consistent with scenarios where the stellar halo, at least as probed by M giants, arises

  2. Visibility of halos and rainbows. (United States)

    Gedzelman, S D


    A theory for the visibility of halos and rainbows is presented. The light reaching the observer's eye from the direction of the halo or rainbow is assumed to consist of two parts: (1) a beam of singly scattered sunlight (or moonlight) from a cloud of ice crystals or a rainswath, which, in turn, has suffered depletion by scattering or absorption in its passage to the observer, and (2) the general background brightness. The model is able to account for several long-known qualitative observations concerning halos, namely, that the brightest halos are produced by optically thin cirrostratus clouds (i.e., for which the cloud optical depth tau(c), rainbow the brightness of the beam increases monotonically with the optical depth tau(R) of the sunlit part of the rainswath, but the increase is quite small for tau(R) >/=1. On the other hand, the brightness of the background increases more rapidly with tau(R) for tau(R)> 1 so that the rainbow appears most easily visible for tau(R) less, similar1. This implies that the most easily visible rainbows are produced by light or moderate showers rather than heavy downpours. Finally, suggestions are made for applying the theory to other atmospheric optical phenomena, such as coronas and glories.

  3. Halo Mitigation Using Nonlinear Lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Sonnad, Kiran G


    This work shows that halos in beams with space charge effects can be controlled by combining nonlinear focusing and collimation. The study relies on Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations for a one dimensional, continuous focusing model. The PIC simulation results show that nonlinear focusing leads to damping of the beam oscillations thereby reducing the mismatch. It is well established that reduced mismatch leads to reduced halo formation. However, the nonlinear damping is accompanied by emittance growth causing the beam to spread in phase space. As a result, inducing nonlinear damping alone cannot help mitigate the halo. To compensate for this expansion in phase space, the beam is collimated in the simulation and further evolution of the beam shows that the halo is not regenerated. The focusing model used in the PIC is analysed using the Lie Transform perturbation theory showing that by averaging over a lattice period, one can reuduce the focusing force to a form that is identical to that used in the PIC simula...

  4. Structure and Population of the Andromeda Stellar Halo from a Subaru/Suprime-Cam Survey (United States)

    Tanaka, Mikito; Chiba, Masashi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Kalirai, Jason S.; Iye, Masanori


    We present a photometric survey of the stellar halo of the nearest giant spiral galaxy, Andromeda (M31), using Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. A detailed analysis of VI color-magnitude diagrams of the resolved stellar population is used to measure properties such as line-of-sight distance, surface brightness, metallicity, and age. These are used to isolate and characterize different components of the M31 halo: (1) the giant southern stream (GSS); (2) several other substructures; and (3) the smooth halo. First, the GSS is characterized by a broad red giant branch (RGB) and a metal-rich/intermediate-age red clump (RC). The I magnitude of the well-defined tip of the RGB suggests that the distance to the observed GSS field is (m - M)0 = 24.73 ± 0.11 (883 ± 45 kpc) at a projected radius of R ~ 30 kpc from M31's center. The GSS shows a high metallicity peaked at [Fe/H]gsim-0.5 with a mean (median) of -0.7 (-0.6), estimated via comparison with theoretical isochrones. Combined with the luminosity of the RC, we estimate the mean age of its stellar population to be ~8 Gyr. The mass of its progenitor galaxy is likely in the range of 107-109 M sun. Second, we study M31's halo substructure along the northwest/southeast minor axis out to R ~ 100 kpc and the southwest major-axis region at R ~ 60 kpc. We confirm two substructures in the southeast halo reported by Ibata et al. and discover two overdense substructures in the northwest halo. We investigate the properties of these four substructures as well as other structures including the western shelf and find that differences in stellar populations among these systems, thereby suggesting each has a different origin. Our statistical analysis implies that the M31 halo as a whole may contain at least 16 substructures, each with a different origin, so its outer halo has experienced at least this many accretion events involving dwarf satellites with mass 107-109 M sun since a redshift of z ~ 1. Third, we investigate the

  5. Detection of Hot Halo Gets Theory Out of Hot Water (United States)


    Scientists using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have detected an extensive halo of hot gas around a quiescent spiral galaxy. This discovery is evidence that galaxies like our Milky Way are still accumulating matter from the gradual inflow of intergalactic gas. "What we are likely witnessing here is the ongoing galaxy formation process," said Kristian Pedersen of the University of Copenhagen, Denmark, and lead author of a report on the discovery. Chandra observations show that the hot halo extends more than 60,000 light years on either side of the disk of the galaxy known as NGC 5746. The detection of such a large halo alleviates a long-standing problem for the theory of galaxy formation. Spiral galaxies are thought to form from enormous clouds of intergalactic gas that collapse to form giant, spinning disks of stars and gas. Chandra X-ray Image of NGC 5746 Chandra X-ray Image of NGC 5746 One prediction of this theory is that large spiral galaxies should be immersed in halos of hot gas left over from the galaxy formation process. Hot gas has been detected around spiral galaxies in which vigorous star formation is ejecting matter from the galaxy, but until now hot halos due to infall of intergalactic matter have not been detected. "Our observations solve the mystery of the missing hot halos around spiral galaxies," said Pedersen. "The halos exist, but are so faint that an extremely sensitive telescope such as Chandra is needed to detect them." DSS Optical Image of NGC 5746 DSS Optical Image of NGC 5746 NGC 5746 is a massive spiral galaxy about a 100 million light years from Earth. Its disk of stars and gas is viewed almost edge-on. The galaxy shows no signs of unusual star formation, or energetic activity from its nuclear region, making it unlikely that the hot halo is produced by gas flowing out of the galaxy. "We targeted NGC 5746 because we thought its distance and orientation would give us the best chance to detect a hot halo caused by the infall of

  6. Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA): halo formation times and halo assembly bias on the cosmic web (United States)

    Tojeiro, Rita; Eardley, Elizabeth; Peacock, John A.; Norberg, Peder; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Driver, Simon P.; Henriques, Bruno; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Kafle, Prajwal R.; Robotham, Aaron S. G.; Thomas, Peter; Tonini, Chiara; Wild, Vivienne


    We present evidence for halo assembly bias as a function of geometric environment (GE). By classifying Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) galaxy groups as residing in voids, sheets, filaments or knots using a tidal tensor method, we find that low-mass haloes that reside in knots are older than haloes of the same mass that reside in voids. This result provides direct support to theories that link strong halo tidal interactions with halo assembly times. The trend with GE is reversed at large halo mass, with haloes in knots being younger than haloes of the same mass in voids. We find a clear signal of halo downsizing - more massive haloes host galaxies that assembled their stars earlier. This overall trend holds independently of GE. We support our analysis with an in-depth exploration of the L-Galaxies semi-analytic model, used here to correlate several galaxy properties with three different definitions of halo formation time. We find a complex relationship between halo formation time and galaxy properties, with significant scatter. We confirm that stellar mass to halo mass ratio, specific star formation rate (SFR) and mass-weighed age are reasonable proxies of halo formation time, especially at low halo masses. Instantaneous SFR is a poor indicator at all halo masses. Using the same semi-analytic model, we create mock spectral observations using complex star formation and chemical enrichment histories, which approximately mimic GAMA's typical signal-to-noise ratio and wavelength range. We use these mocks to assert how well potential proxies of halo formation time may be recovered from GAMA-like spectroscopic data.

  7. Unbound particles in dark matter halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behroozi, Peter S.; Loeb, Abraham; Wechsler, Risa H.


    We investigate unbound dark matter particles in halos by tracing particle trajectories in a simulation run to the far future (a = 100). We find that the traditional sum of kinetic and potential energies is a very poor predictor of which dark matter particles will eventually become unbound from halos. We also study the mass fraction of unbound particles, which increases strongly towards the edges of halos, and decreases significantly at higher redshifts. We discuss implications for dark matter detection experiments, precision calibrations of the halo mass function, the use of baryon fractions to constrain dark energy, and searches for intergalactic supernovae.

  8. Halo scale predictions of symmetron modified gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clampitt, Joseph; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Khoury, Justin, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Center for Particle Cosmology and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd St., Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)


    We offer predictions of symmetron modified gravity in the neighborhood of realistic dark matter halos. The predictions for the fifth force are obtained by solving the nonlinear symmetron equation of motion in the spherical NFW approximation. In addition, we compare the three major known screening mechanisms: Vainshtein, Chameleon, and Symmetron around such dark matter halos, emphasizing the significant differences between them and highlighting observational tests which exploit these differences. Finally, we demonstrate the host halo environmental screening effect (''blanket screening'') on smaller satellite halos by solving for the modified forces around a density profile which is the sum of satellite and approximate host components.

  9. Transforming giants. (United States)

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss


    Large corporations have long been seen as lumbering, inflexible, bureaucratic--and clueless about global developments. But recently some multinationals seem to be transforming themselves: They're engaging employees, moving quickly, and introducing innovations that show true connection with the world. Harvard Business School's Kanter ventured with a research team inside a dozen global giants--including IBM, Procter & Gamble, Omron, CEMEX, Cisco, and Banco Real--to discover what has been driving the change. After conducting more than 350 interviews on five continents, she and her colleagues came away with a strong sense that we are witnessing the dawn of a new model of corporate power: The coordination of actions and decisions on the front lines now appears to stem from widely shared values and a sturdy platform of common processes and technology, not from top-down decrees. In particular, the values that engage the passions of far-flung workforces stress openness, inclusion, and making the world a better place. Through this shift in what might be called their guidance systems, the companies have become as creative and nimble as much smaller ones, even while taking on social and environmental challenges of a scale that only large enterprises could attempt. IBM, for instance, has created a nonprofit partnership, World Community Grid, through which any organization or individual can donate unused computing power to research projects and see what is being done with the donation in real time. IBM has gained an inspiring showcase for its new technology, helped business partners connect with the company in a positive way, and offered individuals all over the globe the chance to contribute to something big.

  10. Labelling HaloTag Fusion Proteins with HaloTag Ligand in Living Cells. (United States)

    Duc, Huy Nguyen; Ren, Xiaojun


    HaloTag has been widely used to label proteins in vitro and in vivo (Los et al., 2008). In this protocol, we describe labelling HaloTag-Cbx fusion proteins by HaloTag ligands for live-cell single-molecule imaging (Zhen et al., 2016).

  11. Labelling HaloTag Fusion Proteins with HaloTag Ligand in Living Cells


    Duc, Huy Nguyen; Ren, Xiaojun


    HaloTag has been widely used to label proteins in vitro and in vivo (Los et al., 2008). In this protocol, we describe labelling HaloTag-Cbx fusion proteins by HaloTag ligands for live-cell single-molecule imaging (Zhen et al., 2016).

  12. Giant Cell Arteritis (United States)

    Giant cell arteritis is a disorder that causes inflammation of your arteries, usually in the scalp, neck, and arms. ... arteries, which keeps blood from flowing well. Giant cell arteritis often occurs with another disorder called polymyalgia ...

  13. UARS Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) Level 2 V001 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The HALOE home page on the WWW is The Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) on NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite...

  14. Studying dark matter haloes with weak lensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velander, Malin Barbro Margareta


    Our Universe is comprised not only of normal matter but also of unknown components: dark matter and dark energy. This Thesis recounts studies of dark matter haloes, using a technique known as weak gravitational lensing, in order to learn more about the nature of these dark components. The haloes

  15. Halo abundances and shear in void models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alonso, David; García-Bellido, Juan; Haugbølle, Troels


    We study the non-linear gravitational collapse of dark matter into halos through numerical N-body simulations of Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi void models. We extend the halo mass function formalism to these models in a consistent way. This extension not only compares well with the simulated data at all...

  16. Analytical halo model of galactic conformity (United States)

    Pahwa, Isha; Paranjape, Aseem


    We present a fully analytical halo model of colour-dependent clustering that incorporates the effects of galactic conformity in a halo occupation distribution framework. The model, based on our previous numerical work, describes conformity through a correlation between the colour of a galaxy and the concentration of its parent halo, leading to a correlation between central and satellite galaxy colours at fixed halo mass. The strength of the correlation is set by a tunable 'group quenching efficiency', and the model can separately describe group-level correlations between galaxy colour (1-halo conformity) and large-scale correlations induced by assembly bias (2-halo conformity). We validate our analytical results using clustering measurements in mock galaxy catalogues, finding that the model is accurate at the 10-20 per cent level for a wide range of luminosities and length-scales. We apply the formalism to interpret the colour-dependent clustering of galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We find good overall agreement between the data and a model that has 1-halo conformity at a level consistent with previous results based on an SDSS group catalogue, although the clustering data require satellites to be redder than suggested by the group catalogue. Within our modelling uncertainties, however, we do not find strong evidence of 2-halo conformity driven by assembly bias in SDSS clustering.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    We propose a form for dark haloes that embodies the fundamental aspect of Milgrom's modified dynamics (MOND): the discrepancy between the visible mass and the Newtonian dynamical mass appears below a critical acceleration. This is a halo having a density distribution, at least to several tens of

  18. Galactic stellar haloes in the CDM model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooper, A. P.; Cole, S.; Frenk, C. S.; White, S. D. M.; Helly, J.; Benson, A. J.; De Lucia, G.; Helmi, A.; Jenkins, A.; Navarro, J. F.; Springel, V.; Wang, J.


    We present six simulations of galactic stellar haloes formed by the tidal disruption of accreted dwarf galaxies in a fully cosmological setting. Our model is based on the Aquarius project, a suite of high-resolution N-body simulations of individual dark matter haloes. We tag subsets of particles in


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Weeren, R. J.; Andrade-Santos, F.; Forman, W. R.; Jones, C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Intema, H. T. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801-0387 (United States); Lal, D. V. [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, TIFR, Pune University Campus, Post Bag 3, Pune 411 007 (India); Brüggen, M.; De Gasperin, F. [Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany); Hoeft, M. [Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Sternwarte 5, D-07778, Tautenburg (Germany); Nuza, S. E. [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Röttgering, H. J. A.; Stroe, A., E-mail: [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)


    We report the discovery of extended radio emission in the Phoenix cluster (SPT-CL J2344-4243, z = 0.596) with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) at 610 MHz. The diffuse emission extends over a region of at least 400-500 kpc and surrounds the central radio source of the Brightest Cluster Galaxy, but does not appear to be directly associated with it. We classify the diffuse emission as a radio mini-halo, making it the currently most distant mini-halo known. Radio mini-halos have been explained by synchrotron emitting particles re-accelerated via turbulence, possibly induced by gas sloshing generated from a minor merger event. Chandra observations show a non-concentric X-ray surface brightness distribution, which is consistent with this sloshing interpretation. The mini-halo has a flux density of 17 ± 5 mJy, resulting in a 1.4 GHz radio power of (10.4 ± 3.5) × 10{sup 24} W Hz{sup –1}. The combined cluster emission, which includes the central compact radio source, is also detected in a shallow GMRT 156 MHz observation and together with the 610 MHz data we compute a spectral index of –0.84 ± 0.12 for the overall cluster radio emission. Given that mini-halos typically have steeper radio spectra than cluster radio galaxies, this spectral index should be taken as an upper limit for the mini-halo.

  20. WFIRST: Surveying galactic halos within 10Mpc (United States)

    Courtney, Sol; Johnston, Kathryn; Sanderson, Robyn; WINGS Team


    Three aims of a WFIRST Infrared Nearby Galaxy Survey (WINGS) of stellar halos are: (i) to look at the global properties of the halos (e.g. radial profile and total content); (ii) to find and interpret structures that are signatures of accretion histories (including luminosity functions, merger rates and orbits); (iii) to find features at widest possible separations in order to constrain the distribution of dark matter. For all of the above purposes, the halos should be observed to the greatest radial extent possible. The extent to which this is possible or interesting will depend on expected densities of the stellar halos as well as contamination by background galaxies at faint magnitudes. This study “observes" the Bullock/Johnston stellar halo models as a guide for these expectations.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, Karoline M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Guhathakurta, Puragra [UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Beaton, Rachael L.; Majewski, Steven R.; Ostheimer, James C.; Patterson, Richard J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Bullock, James; Tollerud, Erik J. [Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Geha, Marla C. [Astronomy Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Kalirai, Jason S. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Kirby, Evan N. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Tanaka, Mikito; Chiba, Masashi, E-mail: [Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)


    We present the surface brightness profile of M31's stellar halo out to a projected radius of 175 kpc. The surface brightness estimates are based on confirmed samples of M31 red giant branch stars derived from Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopic observations. A set of empirical spectroscopic and photometric M31 membership diagnostics is used to identify and reject foreground and background contaminants. This enables us to trace the stellar halo of M31 to larger projected distances and fainter surface brightnesses than previous photometric studies. The surface brightness profile of M31's halo follows a power law with index -2.2 {+-} 0.2 and extends to a projected distance of at least {approx}175 kpc ({approx}2/3 of M31's virial radius), with no evidence of a downward break at large radii. The best-fit elliptical isophotes have b/a = 0.94 with the major axis of the halo aligned along the minor axis of M31's disk, consistent with a prolate halo, although the data are also consistent with M31's halo having spherical symmetry. The fact that tidal debris features are kinematically cold is used to identify substructure in the spectroscopic fields out to projected radii of 90 kpc and investigate the effect of this substructure on the surface brightness profile. The scatter in the surface brightness profile is reduced when kinematically identified tidal debris features in M31 are statistically subtracted; the remaining profile indicates that a comparatively diffuse stellar component to M31's stellar halo exists to large distances. Beyond 90 kpc, kinematically cold tidal debris features cannot be identified due to small number statistics; nevertheless, the significant field-to-field variation in surface brightness beyond 90 kpc suggests that the outermost region of M31's halo is also comprised to a significant degree of stars stripped from accreted objects.

  2. Red giant stars from Sloan Digital Sky Survey. I. The general field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y. Q.; Zhao, G.; Carrell, K.; Zhao, J. K.; Tan, K. F.; Nissen, P. E.; Wei, P., E-mail:, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)


    We have obtained a sample of ∼22,000 red giant branch (RGB) stars based on stellar parameters, provided by the ninth data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and the CH(G)/MgH indices, measured from the included spectra. The Galactic rest-frame velocity of V {sub gsr} versus longitude for the sample shows the existence of several groups of stars from globular clusters and known streams. Excluding these substructures, a sample of ∼16,000 RGB stars from the general field is used to investigate the properties of the thick disk, the inner halo, and the outer halo of our Galaxy. The metallicity and rotational velocity distributions are investigated for stars at 0 kpc < |Z| < 10 kpc. It is found that the canonical thick disk dominates at 0 kpc < |Z| < 2 kpc and its contribution becomes negligible at |Z| > 3 kpc. The MWTD is present and overlaps with the inner halo at 1 kpc < |Z| < 3 kpc. The inner halo starts at 2 kpc < |Z| < 3 kpc and becomes the dominated population for 4 kpc < |Z| < 10 kpc. For halo stars with |Z| > 5 kpc, bimodal metallicity distributions are found for 20 kpc < |Z| < 25 kpc and 35 kpc < RR < 45 kpc, which suggests a dual halo, the inner and the outer halo, as reported in Carollo et al. at low |Z| values. The peak of metallicity for the inner halo is at [Fe/H] ∼ –1.6 and appears to be at [Fe/H] ∼ –2.3 for the outer halo. The transition point from the inner to the outer halo is located at |Z| ∼ 20 kpc and RR ∼ 35 kpc.

  3. Halo assembly bias and the tidal anisotropy of the local halo environment (United States)

    Paranjape, Aseem; Hahn, Oliver; Sheth, Ravi K.


    We study the role of the local tidal environment in determining the assembly bias of dark matter haloes. Previous results suggest that the anisotropy of a halo's environment (i.e, whether it lies in a filament or in a more isotropic region) can play a significant role in determining the eventual mass and age of the halo. We statistically isolate this effect using correlations between the large-scale and small-scale environments of simulated haloes at z = 0 with masses between 1011.6 ≲ (m/h-1M⊙) ≲ 1014.9. We probe the large-scale environment using a novel halo-by-halo estimator of linear bias. For the small-scale environment, we identify a variable αR that captures the tidal anisotropy in a region of radius R = 4R200b around the halo and correlates strongly with halo bias at fixed mass. Segregating haloes by αR reveals two distinct populations. Haloes in highly isotropic local environments (αR ≲ 0.2) behave as expected from the simplest, spherically averaged analytical models of structure formation, showing a negative correlation between their concentration and large-scale bias at all masses. In contrast, haloes in anisotropic, filament-like environments (αR ≳ 0.5) tend to show a positive correlation between bias and concentration at any mass. Our multi-scale analysis cleanly demonstrates how the overall assembly bias trend across halo mass emerges as an average over these different halo populations, and provides valuable insights towards building analytical models that correctly incorporate assembly bias. We also discuss potential implications for the nature and detectability of galaxy assembly bias.

  4. Dark matter haloes: a multistream view (United States)

    Ramachandra, Nesar S.; Shandarin, Sergei F.


    Mysterious dark matter constitutes about 85 per cent of all masses in the Universe. Clustering of dark matter plays a dominant role in the formation of all observed structures on scales from a fraction to a few hundreds of Mega-parsecs. Galaxies play a role of lights illuminating these structures so they can be observed. The observations in the last several decades have unveiled opulent geometry of these structures currently known as the cosmic web. Haloes are the highest concentrations of dark matter and host luminous galaxies. Currently the most accurate modelling of dark matter haloes is achieved in cosmological N-body simulations. Identifying the haloes from the distribution of particles in N-body simulations is one of the problems attracting both considerable interest and efforts. We propose a novel framework for detecting potential dark matter haloes using the field unique for dark matter-multistream field. The multistream field emerges at the non-linear stage of the growth of perturbations because the dark matter is collisionless. Counting the number of velocity streams in gravitational collapses supplements our knowledge of spatial clustering. We assume that the virialized haloes have convex boundaries. Closed and convex regions of the multistream field are hence isolated by imposing a positivity condition on all three eigenvalues of the Hessian estimated on the smoothed multistream field. In a single-scale analysis of high multistream field resolution and low softening length, the halo substructures with local multistream maxima are isolated as individual halo sites.

  5. Effective field theory description of halo nuclei (United States)

    Hammer, H.-W.; Ji, C.; Phillips, D. R.


    Nuclear halos emerge as new degrees of freedom near the neutron and proton driplines. They consist of a core and one or a few nucleons which spend most of their time in the classically-forbidden region outside the range of the interaction. Individual nucleons inside the core are thus unresolved in the halo configuration, and the low-energy effective interactions are short-range forces between the core and the valence nucleons. Similar phenomena occur in clusters of 4He atoms, cold atomic gases near a Feshbach resonance, and some exotic hadrons. In these weakly-bound quantum systems universal scaling laws for s-wave binding emerge that are independent of the details of the interaction. Effective field theory (EFT) exposes these correlations and permits the calculation of non-universal corrections to them due to short-distance effects, as well as the extension of these ideas to systems involving the Coulomb interaction and/or binding in higher angular-momentum channels. Halo nuclei exhibit all these features. Halo EFT, the EFT for halo nuclei, has been used to compute the properties of single-neutron, two-neutron, and single-proton halos of s-wave and p-wave type. This review summarizes these results for halo binding energies, radii, Coulomb dissociation, and radiative capture, as well as the connection of these properties to scattering parameters, thereby elucidating the universal correlations between all these observables. We also discuss how Halo EFT's encoding of the long-distance physics of halo nuclei can be used to check and extend ab initio calculations that include detailed modeling of their short-distance dynamics.

  6. Degradation of HaloTag-fused nuclear proteins using bestatin-HaloTag ligand hybrid molecules. (United States)

    Tomoshige, Shusuke; Naito, Mikihiko; Hashimoto, Yuichi; Ishikawa, Minoru


    We have developed a protein knockdown technology using hybrid small molecules designed as conjugates of a ligand for the target protein and a ligand for ubiquitin ligase cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (cIAP1). However, this technology has several limitations. Here, we report the development of a novel protein knockdown system to address these limitations. In this system, target proteins are fused with HaloTag to provide a common binding site for a degradation inducer. We designed and synthesized small molecules consisting of alkyl chloride as the HaloTag-binding degradation inducer, which binds to HaloTag, linked to BE04 (2), which binds to cIAP1. Using this system, we successfully knocked down HaloTag-fused cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 (HaloTag-CREB1) and HaloTag-fused c-jun (HaloTag-c-jun), which are ligand-unknown nuclear proteins, in living cells. HaloTag-binding degradation inducers can be synthesized easily, and are expected to be useful as biological tools for pan-degradation of HaloTag-fused proteins.

  7. The Dark Halo of the Milky Way

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Charles Alcock


    .... This dark matter is distributed in space differently than the stars, forming a vast, diffuse halo, more spherical than disklike, which occupies more than 1000 times the volume of the disk of stars...

  8. Exact Relativistic Magnetized Haloes around Rotating Disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio C. Gutiérrez-Piñeres


    Full Text Available The study of the dynamics of magnetic fields in galaxies is one of important problems in formation and evolution of galaxies. In this paper, we present the exact relativistic treatment of a rotating disk surrounded by a magnetized material halo. The features of the halo and disk are described by the distributional energy-momentum tensor of a general fluid in canonical form. All the relevant quantities and the metric and electromagnetic potentials are exactly determined by an arbitrary harmonic function only. For instance, the generalized Kuzmin-disk potential is used. The particular class of solutions obtained is asymptotically flat and satisfies all the energy conditions. Moreover, the motion of a charged particle on the halo is described. As far as we know, this is the first relativistic model describing analytically the magnetized halo of a rotating disk.

  9. Simulating rainbows and halos in color. (United States)

    Gedzelman, S D


    Geometric optics rainbows and ice-crystal halos that include some effects of a Rayleigh-scattering atmosphere and a cloud of finite optical thickness are simulated in color by the use of a Monte Carlo approach.

  10. Spatial Clustering of Dark Matter Haloes: Secondary Bias, Neighbour Bias, and the Influence of Massive Neighbours on Halo Properties (United States)

    Salcedo, Andrés N.; Maller, Ariyeh H.; Berlind, Andreas A.; Sinha, Manodeep; McBride, Cameron K.; Behroozi, Peter S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Weinberg, David H.


    We explore the phenomenon commonly known as halo assembly bias, whereby dark matter haloes of the same mass are found to be more or less clustered when a second halo property is considered, for haloes in the mass range 3.7 × 1011 h-1 M⊙ - 5.0 × 1013 h-1 M⊙. Using the Large Suite of Dark Matter Simulations (LasDamas) we consider nine commonly used halo properties and find that a clustering bias exists if haloes are binned by mass or by any other halo property. This secondary bias implies that no single halo property encompasses all the spatial clustering information of the halo population. The mean values of some halo properties depend on their halo's distance to a more massive neighbour. Halo samples selected by having high values of one of these properties therefore inherit a neighbour bias such that they are much more likely to be close to a much more massive neighbour. This neighbour bias largely accounts for the secondary bias seen in haloes binned by mass and split by concentration or age. However, haloes binned by other mass-like properties still show a secondary bias even when the neighbour bias is removed. The secondary bias of haloes selected by their spin behaves differently than that for other halo properties, suggesting that the origin of the spin bias is different than of other secondary biases.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jounghun [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, FPRD, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Zhao, Gong-Bo [National Astronomy Observatories, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100012 (China); Li, Baojiu [Institute of Computational Cosmology, Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Koyama, Kazuya, E-mail: [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom)


    We investigate the effect of modified gravity on the specific angular momentum of galactic halos by analyzing the halo catalogs at z = 0 from high-resolution N-body simulations for a f(R) gravity model that meets the solar-system constraint. It is shown that the galactic halos in the f(R) gravity model tend to acquire significantly higher specific angular momentum than those in the standard {Lambda}CDM model. The largest difference in the specific angular momentum distribution between these two models occurs for the case of isolated galactic halos with mass less than 10{sup 11} h {sup -1} M {sub Sun }, which are likely least shielded by the chameleon screening mechanism. As the specific angular momentum of galactic halos is rather insensitive to other cosmological parameters, it can in principle be an independent discriminator of modified gravity. We speculate a possibility of using the relative abundance of low surface brightness galaxies (LSBGs) as a test of general relativity given that the formation of the LSBGs occurs in fast spinning dark halos.

  12. Nanomechanics of HaloTag tethers. (United States)

    Popa, Ionel; Berkovich, Ronen; Alegre-Cebollada, Jorge; Badilla, Carmen L; Rivas-Pardo, Jaime Andrés; Taniguchi, Yukinori; Kawakami, Masaru; Fernandez, Julio M


    The active site of the Haloalkane Dehydrogenase (HaloTag) enzyme can be covalently attached to a chloroalkane ligand providing a mechanically strong tether, resistant to large pulling forces. Here we demonstrate the covalent tethering of protein L and I27 polyproteins between an atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilever and a glass surface using HaloTag anchoring at one end and thiol chemistry at the other end. Covalent tethering is unambiguously confirmed by the observation of full length polyprotein unfolding, combined with high detachment forces that range up to ∼2000 pN. We use these covalently anchored polyproteins to study the remarkable mechanical properties of HaloTag proteins. We show that the force that triggers unfolding of the HaloTag protein exhibits a 4-fold increase, from 131 to 491 pN, when the direction of the applied force is changed from the C-terminus to the N-terminus. Force-clamp experiments reveal that unfolding of the HaloTag protein is twice as sensitive to pulling force compared to protein L and refolds at a slower rate. We show how these properties allow for the long-term observation of protein folding-unfolding cycles at high forces, without interference from the HaloTag tether.

  13. RR Lyrae to understand the Galactic halo (United States)

    Fiorentino, Giuliana


    We present recent results obtained using old variable RR Lyrae stars on the Galactic halo structure and its connection with nearby dwarf galaxies. We compare the period and period-amplitude distributions for a sizeable sample of fundamental mode RR Lyrae stars (RRab) in dwarf spheroidals (~1300 stars) with those in the Galactic halo (~16'000 stars) and globular clusters (~1000 stars). RRab in dwarfs -as observed today- do not appear to follow the pulsation properties shown by those in the Galactic halo, nor they have the same properties as RRab in globulars. Thanks to the OGLE experiment we extended our comparison to massive metal-rich satellites like the dwarf irregular Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and the Sagittarius (Sgr) dwarf spheroidal. These massive and more metal-rich stellar systems likely have contributed to the Galactic halo formation more than classical dwarf spheroidals. Finally, exploiting the intrinsic nature of RR Lyrae as distance indicators we were able to study the period and period amplitude distributions of RRab within the Halo. It turned out that the inner and the outer Halo do show a difference that may suggest a different formation scenario (in situ vs accreted).


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Weeren, R. J.; Jones, C.; Forman, W. R. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Intema, H. T. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801-0387 (United States); Lal, D. V. [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, TIFR, Pune University Campus, Post Bag 3, Pune 411 007 (India); Bonafede, A.; Brüggen, M.; De Gasperin, F. [Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany); Röttgering, H. J. A.; Stroe, A. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Hoeft, M. [Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Sternwarte 5, D-07778, Tautenburg (Germany); Nuza, S. E., E-mail: [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany)


    Recent X-ray and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) observations have dramatically increased the number of known distant galaxy clusters. In some merging, low-redshift (z < 0.4) clusters, centrally located, diffuse, extended radio emission (radio halos) has been found. Using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT), we report the detection of diffuse radio emission in the binary-merging cluster PLCK G147.3–16.6 located at z = 0.65. We classify the emission as a giant radio halo due to its large physical extent of about 0.9 Mpc and its low-surface brightness. We measure an integrated flux density of 7.3 ± 1.1 mJy at 610 MHz for the radio halo, resulting in a 1.4 GHz radio power of 5.1 × 10{sup 24} W Hz{sup –1}. The radio halo power is consistent with that expected from the known correlation between X-ray luminosity or the cluster integrated SZ signal and radio power. Our observations also suggest that more of these distant radio halos could be discovered with the GMRT.

  15. Statistics of dark matter substructure - III. Halo-to-halo variance (United States)

    Jiang, Fangzhou; van den Bosch, Frank C.


    We present a study of unprecedented statistical power regarding the halo-to-halo variance of dark matter substructure. Combining N-body simulations and a semi-analytical model, we investigate the variance in subhalo mass fractions and occupation numbers, with an emphasis on their halo-formation-time dependence. We show that the average subhalo mass fraction, fsub, is mainly a function of halo formation time: at fixed formation redshift, the average subhalo mass fraction is virtually independent of halo mass and the mass dependence of fsub therefore mainly manifests the later assembly of more massive haloes. We note that the observational constraints on fsub from gravitational lensing are substantially higher than the median Λcold dark matter predictions, yet marginally lie within the 95th percentile when the halo-to-halo variance is considered. The halo occupation number distribution of subhaloes, P(Nsub|Mhalo), in addition to the well-known super-Poissonity for large 〈Nsub〉, is sub-Poissonian for 〈Nsub〉 ≲ 2. Ignoring this results in systematic errors of the predicted clustering of galaxies of a few percent, with a complicated scale- and luminosity dependence. The non-Poissonity is likely imprinted at accretion, and the dynamical evolution of subhaloes drives the statistics towards Poissonian. Contrary to a recent claim, the non-Poissonity of subhalo occupation statistics does not vanish by selecting haloes with fixed mass and fixed formation redshift. Finally, we use subhalo occupation statistics to put loose constraints on the mass and formation redshift of the Milky Way halo.

  16. Nanodielectrics with giant permittivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Following the prediction, during the last couple of years we have investigated the effect of giant permittivity in one-dimensional systems of conventional metals and conjugated polymer chains. In this article, we have tried to summarize the works on giant permittivity and finally the fabrication of nanocapacitor using metal ...

  17. Theory of Giant Planets (United States)

    Hubbard, W. B.; Burrows, A.; Lunine, J. I.

    Giant planet research has moved from the study of a handful of solar system objects to that of a class of bodies with dozens of known members. Since the original 1995 discovery of the first extrasolar giant planets (EGPs), the total number of known examples has increased to ~80 (circa November 2001). Current theoretical studies of giant planets emphasize predicted observable properties, such as luminosity, effective temperature, radius, external gravity field, atmospheric composition, and emergent spectra as a function of mass and age. This review focuses on the general theory of hydrogen-rich giant planets; smaller giant planets with the mass and composition of Uranus and Neptune are not covered. We discuss the status of the theory of the nonideal thermodynamics of hydrogen and hydrogen-helium mixtures under the conditions found in giant-planet interiors, and the experimental constraints on it. We provide an overview of observations of extrasolar giant planets and our own giant planets by which the theory can be validated.

  18. The SPLASH Survey: Spectroscopy of Newly Discovered Tidal Streams in the Outer Halo of the Andromeda Galaxy (United States)

    Guhathakurta, Puragra; Beaton, R.; Bullock, J.; Chiba, M.; Fardal, M.; Geha, M.; Gilbert, K.; Howley, K.; Iye, M.; Johnston, K.; Kalirai, J.; Kirby, E.; Komiyama, Y.; Majewski, S.; Patterson, R.; Tanaka, M.; Tollerud, E.; SPLASH Collaboration


    We present Keck DEIMOS spectra of stars associated with three newly discovered tidal streams in the remote outer halo of the Andromeda spiral galaxy (M31). Two of these streams, Streams E and F (at Rproj 60 and 100 kpc, respectively, on the NW minor axis), were discovered by members of our collaboration in a deep, wide-field Subaru SuprimeCam imaging survey. The third stream (at Rproj 90 kpc near the SW major axis) was identified by others in their ongoing wide-field CFHT MegaCam survey. Spectroscopic and broadband photometric diagnostics (plus KPNO/Mosaic DDO51 photometry for the SW major axis stream) are used to distinguish between various categories of objects along the line of sight: red giant stars associated with the stream (kinematically cold), red giants in the general M31 field halo population (kinematically hot), and foreground/background contaminants (Milky Way dwarf stars and distant galaxies, respectively). We measure the surface brightness, mean velocity, velocity dispersion, and metallicity distribution of these three new tidal streams, based on spectroscopically confirmed secure red giant members. These measurements should be useful for constraining models of the tidal interactions that produced these streams (e.g. orbit and nature of progenitor). The properties of these new streams are viewed in the context of previously known tidal streams in the M31 halo. A comparison between the statistical properties of M31's tidal streams and state-of-the-art Lambda-CDM simulations provides insight into the details of the hierarchical formation process that leads to the growth of galaxy halos. This research was funded by the National Science Foundation and NASA/STScI.

  19. Simulating Halos with the Caterpillar Project (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    The Caterpillar Project is a beautiful series of high-resolution cosmological simulations. The goal of this project is to examine the evolution of dark-matter halos like the Milky Ways, to learn about how galaxies like ours formed. This immense computational project is still in progress, but the Caterpillar team is already providing a look at some of its first results.Lessons from Dark-Matter HalosWhy simulate the dark-matter halos of galaxies? Observationally, the formation history of our galaxy is encoded in galactic fossil record clues, like the tidal debris from disrupted satellite galaxies in the outer reaches of our galaxy, or chemical abundance patterns throughout our galactic disk and stellar halo.But to interpret this information in a way that lets us learn about our galaxys history, we need to first test galaxy formation and evolution scenarios via cosmological simulations. Then we can compare the end result of these simulations to what we observe today.This figure illustrates the difference that mass resolution makes. In the left panel, the mass resolution is 1.5*10^7 solar masses per particle. In the right panel, the mass resolution is 3*10^4 solar masses per particle [Griffen et al. 2016]A Computational ChallengeDue to how computationally expensive such simulations are, previous N-body simulations of the growth of Milky-Way-like halos have consisted of only one or a few halos each. But in order to establish a statistical understanding of how galaxy halos form and find out whether the Milky Ways halo is typical or unusual! it is necessary to simulate a larger number of halos.In addition, in order to accurately follow the formation and evolution of substructure within the dark-matter halos, these simulations must be able to resolve the smallest dwarf galaxies, which are around a million solar masses. This requires an extremely high mass resolution, which adds to the computational expense of the simulation.First OutcomesThese are the challenges faced by

  20. Gravitationally Consistent Halo Catalogs and Merger Trees for Precision Cosmology (United States)

    Behroozi, Peter S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Wu, Hao-Yi; Busha, Michael T.; Klypin, Anatoly A.; Primack, Joel R.


    We present a new algorithm for generating merger trees and halo catalogs which explicitly ensures consistency of halo properties (mass, position, and velocity) across time steps. Our algorithm has demonstrated the ability to improve both the completeness (through detecting and inserting otherwise missing halos) and purity (through detecting and removing spurious objects) of both merger trees and halo catalogs. In addition, our method is able to robustly measure the self-consistency of halo finders; it is the first to directly measure the uncertainties in halo positions, halo velocities, and the halo mass function for a given halo finder based on consistency between snapshots in cosmological simulations. We use this algorithm to generate merger trees for two large simulations (Bolshoi and Consuelo) and evaluate two halo finders (ROCKSTAR and BDM). We find that both the ROCKSTAR and BDM halo finders track halos extremely well; in both, the number of halos which do not have physically consistent progenitors is at the 1%-2% level across all halo masses. Our code is publicly available at Our trees and catalogs are publicly available at

  1. Revealing the Cosmic Web-dependent Halo Bias (United States)

    Yang, Xiaohu; Zhang, Youcai; Lu, Tianhuan; Wang, Huiyuan; Shi, Feng; Tweed, Dylan; Li, Shijie; Luo, Wentao; Lu, Yi; Yang, Lei


    Halo bias is the one of the key ingredients of the halo models. It was shown at a given redshift to be only dependent, to the first order, on the halo mass. In this study, four types of cosmic web environments—clusters, filaments, sheets, and voids—are defined within a state-of-the-art high-resolution N-body simulation. Within these environments, we use both halo-dark matter cross correlation and halo-halo autocorrelation functions to probe the clustering properties of halos. The nature of the halo bias differs strongly between the four different cosmic web environments described here. With respect to the overall population, halos in clusters have significantly lower biases in the {10}11.0˜ {10}13.5 {h}-1 {M}⊙ mass range. In other environments, however, halos show extremely enhanced biases up to a factor 10 in voids for halos of mass ˜ {10}12.0 {h}-1 {M}⊙ . Such a strong cosmic web environment dependence in the halo bias may play an important role in future cosmological and galaxy formation studies. Within this cosmic web framework, the age dependency of halo bias is found to be only significant in clusters and filaments for relatively small halos ≲ {10}12.5 {h}-1 {M}⊙ .

  2. Electric Properties of One-Neutron Halo Nuclei in Halo EFT (United States)

    Braun, Jonas; Hammer, Hans-Werner


    We exploit the separation of scales in weakly-bound nuclei to compute E2 transitions and electric form factors in a halo effective field theory (EFT) framework. The relevant degrees of freedom are the core and the halo neutron. The EFT expansion is carried out in powers of R_{core}/R_{halo}, where R_{core} and R_{halo} denote the length scales of the core and halo, respectively. We include the strong s-wave and d-wave interactions by introducing dimer fields. The dimer propagators are regulated by employing the power divergence subtraction scheme and matched to the effective range expansion in the respective channel. Electromagnetic interactions are included via minimal substitution in the Lagrangian. We demonstrate that, depending on the observable and respective partial wave, additional local gauge-invariant operators contribute in LO, NLO and higher orders.

  3. Dependence of halo bias on mass and environment (United States)

    Shi, Jingjing; Sheth, Ravi K.


    The simplest analyses of halo bias assume that halo mass alone determines halo clustering. However, if the large-scale environment is fixed, then halo clustering is almost entirely determined by environment, and is almost completely independent of halo mass. We show why. Our analysis is useful for studies that use the environmental dependence of clustering to constrain cosmological and galaxy formation models. It also shows why many correlations between galaxy properties and environment are merely consequences of the underlying correlations between haloes and their environments, and provides a framework for quantifying such inherited correlations.

  4. Stability of BEC galactic dark matter halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzmán, F.S.; Lora-Clavijo, F.D.; González-Avilés, J.J.; Rivera-Paleo, F.J., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Edificio C-3, Cd. Universitaria, 58040 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico)


    In this paper we show that spherically symmetric BEC dark matter halos, with the sin r/r density profile, that accurately fit galactic rotation curves and represent a potential solution to the cusp-core problem are unstable. We do this by introducing back the density profiles into the fully time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii-Poisson system of equations. Using numerical methods to track the evolution of the system, we found that these galactic halos lose mass at an approximate rate of half of its mass in a time scale of dozens of Myr. We consider this time scale is enough as to consider these halos are unstable and unlikely to be formed. We provide some arguments to show that this behavior is general and discuss some other drawbacks of the model that restrict its viability.

  5. The dark halo of the Milky Way. (United States)

    Alcock, C.


    Most of the matter in the Milky Way is invisible to astronomers. Precise numbers are elusive, but it appears that the dark component is 20 times as massive as the visible disk of stars and gas. This dark matter is distributed in space differently than the stars, forming a vast, diffuse halo, more spherical than disklike, which occupies more than 1000 times the volume of the disk of stars. The composition of this dark halo is unknown, but it may comprise a mixture of ancient, degenerate dwarf stars and exotic, hypothetical elementary particles.

  6. Complex artificial halos for the classroom (United States)

    Selmke, Markus; Selmke, Sarah


    Halos represent a common and imposing atmospheric optics phenomenon whose displays are caused by tiny air-borne ice crystals. Their variety stems from a certain set of orientation classes to which these crystals belong. We present a robust and inexpensive device, made of modular components, that allows for the replication of most of these orientation classes in the laboratory. Under the illumination of light, the corresponding artificial halo counterparts emerge. The mechanical realization of this device allows a thorough understanding and demonstration of these beautiful atmospheric optics phenomena.

  7. Dark energy and extended dark matter halos (United States)

    Chernin, A. D.; Teerikorpi, P.; Valtonen, M. J.; Dolgachev, V. P.; Domozhilova, L. M.; Byrd, G. G.


    The cosmological mean matter (dark and baryonic) density measured in the units of the critical density is Ωm = 0.27. Independently, the local mean density is estimated to be Ωloc = 0.08-0.23 from recent data on galaxy groups at redshifts up to z = 0.01-0.03 (as published by Crook et al. 2007, ApJ, 655, 790 and Makarov & Karachentsev 2011, MNRAS, 412, 2498). If the lower values of Ωloc are reliable, as Makarov & Karachentsev and some other observers prefer, does this mean that the Local Universe of 100-300 Mpc across is an underdensity in the cosmic matter distribution? Or could it nevertheless be representative of the mean cosmic density or even be an overdensity due to the Local Supercluster therein. We focus on dark matter halos of groups of galaxies and check how much dark mass the invisible outer layers of the halos are able to host. The outer layers are usually devoid of bright galaxies and cannot be seen at large distances. The key factor which bounds the size of an isolated halo is the local antigravity produced by the omnipresent background of dark energy. A gravitationally bound halo does not extend beyond the zero-gravity surface where the gravity of matter and the antigravity of dark energy balance, thus defining a natural upper size of a system. We use our theory of local dynamical effects of dark energy to estimate the maximal sizes and masses of the extended dark halos. Using data from three recent catalogs of galaxy groups, we show that the calculated mass bounds conform with the assumption that a significant amount of dark matter is located in the invisible outer parts of the extended halos, sufficient to fill the gap between the observed and expected local matter density. Nearby groups of galaxies and the Virgo cluster have dark halos which seem to extend up to their zero-gravity surfaces. If the extended halo is a common feature of gravitationally bound systems on scales of galaxy groups and clusters, the Local Universe could be typical or even

  8. Metaphyseal giant cell tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, L.F.; Hemais, P.M.P.G.; Aymore, I.L.; Carmo, M.C.R. do; Cunha, M.E.P.R. da; Resende, C.M.C.

    Three cases of metaphyseal giant cell tumor are presented. A review of the literature is done, demostrating the lesion is rare and that there are few articles about it. Age incidence and characteristics of the tumor are discussed.

  9. Giant omphalocele: current perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mack AJ; Rogdo B


    Alexander Josef Mack,1 Bjarte Rogdo2 1Department of Pediatric Surgery, 2Pediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Children's Hospital of Eastern Switzerland, St Gallen, Switzerland Abstract: Giant omphalocele (GO...

  10. One-proton halo in 26P and two-proton halo in 27S (United States)

    Ren, Zhongzhou; Chen, Baoqiu; Ma, Zhongyu; Xu, Gongou


    Proton-drip-line nuclei 26P and 27S are studied in the nonlinear relativistic mean-field theory. Calculations show that the mean-square radius of protons in the 2s1/2 state is approximately 18-20 fm2 which is abnormally large as compared with the mean-square radii of proton, neutron, and matter distributions, giving a strong evidence for proton halos in 26P and 27S. This indicates that the size of proton halos is as large as that of neutron halos although there exists the Coulomb barrier in proton-drip-line nuclei.

  11. Giant peritoneal loose bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris van Zyl


    Full Text Available Giant peritoneal loose bodies are rare lesions, originating from auto-amputated appendices epiploicae. They may cause urinary or gastrointestinal obstruction and, should the radiologist not be familiar with the entity, can potentially be confused with malignant or parasitic lesions.Familiarity with their characteristic computed tomographic features is essential to prevent unnecessary surgery in the asymptomatic patient. We present a case of a 70-year-old man diagnosed with two giant peritoneal loose bodies.

  12. Multinucleated giant cells. (United States)

    Anderson, J M


    Recent studies directed toward developing a better understanding of the molecular and cellular biology basis of monocyte-derived multinucleated giant cell formation, function, and biologic activity are presented. In addition, HIV-1-infected T-lymphocyte syncytia and the significance of adhesion molecule/ligand interactions in the formation of these syncytia are described. Interleukin-4 or interleukin-13 induction of monocyte-macrophage fusion provides a model for foreign body giant cell formation. On the other hand, interferon-gamma induction of monocyte-macrophage fusion provides a model for Langhans' giant cell formation. Variations in monocyte-macrophage adhesion and fusion to form foreign body giant cells are provided by substrates with different surface chemistries. Recent advances in osteoclast biology have identified the role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in regulating osteoclast bone resorption and receptor-ligand interactions and signal pathways for osteoclast activation. Although foreign body giant cells, Langhans' giant cells, and osteoclasts are derived from monocytes or monocyte progenitor cells, the ways in which they are formed, whether induced by cytokines, receptors, or biologic activity, are markedly different.

  13. Substructure in the Stellar Halos of the Aquarius Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmi, Amina; Cooper, A. P.; White, S. D. M.; Cole, S.; Frenk, C. S.; Navarro, J. F.


    We characterize the substructure in the simulated stellar halos of Cooper et al. which were formed by the disruption of satellite galaxies within the cosmological N-body simulations of galactic halos of the Aquarius project. These stellar halos exhibit a wealth of tidal features: broad overdensities

  14. Halo white dwarfs in the Gaia era

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oirschot, P.; Nelemans, G.; Pols, O.; Helmi, A.; Tolstoy, E.; Brown, A. G. A.; Pugliese, G.; de Koter, A.; Wijburg, M.

    The Galactic Halo is the oldest and most metal-poor component of the Galaxy. It is studied in detail both to understand the formation and evolution of galaxies, as well as the formation and evolution of the earliest stars. With this aim in mind, we plan to couple a population synthesis model to a

  15. New (theoretical) Perspectives on the Galactic Halo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmi, A.; Turon, C; Meynadier, F; Arenou, F

    1 discuss recent progress in our understanding of the formation of the stellar halo of the Milky Way in the context of the concordance cosmological model. The Gaia mission will provide unique insights especially into the early assembly of the Galaxy and likely be key in unraveling its merger

  16. Reflection halo twins : subsun and supersun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konnen, Gunther P.; van der Werf, Siebren Y.


    From an aircraft, a short distinct vertical structure is sometimes seen above the setting sun. Such a feature can be understood as a halo, which is the counterpart of the well-known subsun. Whereas the latter arises from reflections off basal faces of plate-oriented ice crystals illuminated from

  17. Streams in the Aquarius stellar haloes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez, Facundo A.; Helmi, Amina; Cooper, Andrew P.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Navarro, Julio F.; White, Simon D. M.


    We use the very high resolution, fully cosmological simulations from the Aquarius Project, coupled to a semi-analytical model of galaxy formation, to study the phase-space distribution of halo stars in 'solar neighbourhood' like volumes. We find that this distribution is very rich in substructure in

  18. The Impact of Theoretical Uncertainties in the Halo Mass Function and Halo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hao-Yi; Zentner, Andrew R.; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Pittsburgh U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC


    We study the impact of theoretical uncertainty in the dark matter halo mass function and halo bias on dark energy constraints from imminent galaxy cluster surveys. We find that for an optical cluster survey like the Dark Energy Survey, the accuracy required on the predicted halo mass function to make it an insignificant source of error on dark energy parameters is {approx}1%. The analogous requirement on the predicted halo bias is less stringent ({approx}5%), particularly if the observable-mass distribution can be well constrained by other means. These requirements depend upon survey area but are relatively insensitive to survey depth. The most stringent requirements are likely to come from a survey over a significant fraction of the sky that aims to observe clusters down to relatively low mass, M{sub th}{approx} 10{sup 13.7} h{sup -1} M{sub sun}; for such a survey, the mass function and halo bias must be predicted to accuracies of {approx}0.5% and {approx}1%, respectively. These accuracies represent a limit on the practical need to calibrate ever more accurate halo mass and bias functions. We find that improving predictions for the mass function in the low-redshift and low-mass regimes is the most effective way to improve dark energy constraints.

  19. Parametrizing the stellar haloes of galaxies (United States)

    D'Souza, Richard; Kauffman, Guinevere; Wang, Jing; Vegetti, Simona


    We study the stellar haloes of galaxies out to 70-100 kpc as a function of stellar mass and galaxy type by stacking aligned r- and g-band images from a sample of 45 508 galaxies from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 9 in the redshift range 0.06 ≤ z ≤ 0.1 and in the mass range 1010.0 M⊙ < M* < 1011.4 M⊙. We derive surface brightness profiles to a depth of almost μr ˜ 32 mag arcsec-2. We find that the ellipticity of the stellar halo is a function of galaxy stellar mass and that the haloes of high-concentration galaxies are more elliptical than those of low-concentration galaxies. Where the g - r colour of the stellar halo can be measured, we find that the stellar light is always bluer than in the main galaxy. The colour of the stellar halo is redder for more massive galaxies. We further demonstrate that the full two-dimensional surface intensity distribution of our galaxy stacks can only be fit through multicomponent Sérsic models. Using the fraction of light in the outer component of the models as a proxy for the fraction of accreted stellar light, we show that this fraction is a function of stellar mass and galaxy type. The fraction of accreted stellar light rises from 30 to 70 per cent and from 2 to 25 per cent for high- and low-concentration galaxies, respectively, over the mass range 1010.0-1011.4 M⊙.

  20. A giant protogalactic disk linked to the cosmic web. (United States)

    Martin, D Christopher; Matuszewski, Mateusz; Morrissey, Patrick; Neill, James D; Moore, Anna; Cantalupo, Sebastiano; Prochaska, J Xavier; Chang, Daphne


    The specifics of how galaxies form from, and are fuelled by, gas from the intergalactic medium remain uncertain. Hydrodynamic simulations suggest that 'cold accretion flows'--relatively cool (temperatures of the order of 10(4) kelvin), unshocked gas streaming along filaments of the cosmic web into dark-matter halos--are important. These flows are thought to deposit gas and angular momentum into the circumgalactic medium, creating disk- or ring-like structures that eventually coalesce into galaxies that form at filamentary intersections. Recently, a large and luminous filament, consistent with such a cold accretion flow, was discovered near the quasi-stellar object QSO UM287 at redshift 2.279 using narrow-band imaging. Unfortunately, imaging is not sufficient to constrain the physical characteristics of the filament, to determine its kinematics, to explain how it is linked to nearby sources, or to account for its unusual brightness, more than a factor of ten above what is expected for a filament. Here we report a two-dimensional spectroscopic investigation of the emitting structure. We find that the brightest emission region is an extended rotating hydrogen disk with a velocity profile that is characteristic of gas in a dark-matter halo with a mass of 10(13) solar masses. This giant protogalactic disk appears to be connected to a quiescent filament that may extend beyond the virial radius of the halo. The geometry is strongly suggestive of a cold accretion flow.

  1. Rapidly rotating red giants (United States)

    Gehan, Charlotte; Mosser, Benoît; Michel, Eric


    Stellar oscillations give seismic information on the internal properties of stars. Red giants are targets of interest since they present mixed modes, wich behave as pressure modes in the convective envelope and as gravity modes in the radiative core. Mixed modes thus directly probe red giant cores, and allow in particular the study of their mean core rotation. The high-quality data obtained by CoRoT and Kepler satellites represent an unprecedented perspective to obtain thousands of measurements of red giant core rotation, in order to improve our understanding of stellar physics in deep stellar interiors. We developed an automated method to obtain such core rotation measurements and validated it for stars on the red giant branch. In this work, we particularly focus on the specific application of this method to red giants having a rapid core rotation. They show complex spectra where it is tricky to disentangle rotational splittings from mixed-mode period spacings. We demonstrate that the method based on the identification of mode crossings is precise and efficient. The determination of the mean core rotation directly derives from the precise measurement of the asymptotic period spacing ΔΠ1 and of the frequency at which the crossing of the rotational components is observed.

  2. Exploring Milkyway Halo Substructures with Large-Area Sky Surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ting [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)


    Over the last two decades, our understanding of the Milky Way has been improved thanks to large data sets arising from large-area digital sky surveys. The stellar halo is now known to be inhabited by a variety of spatial and kinematic stellar substructures, including stellar streams and stellar clouds, all of which are predicted by hierarchical Lambda Cold Dark Matter models of galaxy formation. In this dissertation, we first present the analysis of spectroscopic observations of individual stars from the two candidate structures discovered using an M-giant catalog from the Two Micron All-Sky Survey. The follow-up observations show that one of the candidates is a genuine structure which might be associated with the Galactic Anticenter Stellar Structure, while the other one is a false detection due to the systematic photometric errors in the survey or dust extinction in low Galactic latitudes. We then presented the discovery of an excess of main sequence turn-off stars in the direction of the constellations of Eridanus and Phoenix from the first-year data of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) – a five-year, 5,000 deg2 optical imaging survey in the Southern Hemisphere. The Eridanus-Phoenix (EriPhe) overdensity is centered around l ~ 285° and b ~ -60° and the Poisson significance of the detection is at least 9σ. The EriPhe overdensity has a cloud-like morphology and the extent is at least ~ 4 kpc by ~ 3 kpc in projection, with a heliocentric distance of about d ~ 16 kpc. The EriPhe overdensity is morphologically similar to the previously-discovered Virgo overdensity and Hercules-Aquila cloud. These three overdensities lie along a polar plane separated by ~ 120° and may share a common origin. In addition to the scientific discoveries, we also present the work to improve the photometric calibration in DES using auxiliary calibration systems, since the photometric errors can cause false detection in first the halo substructure. We present a detailed description of the two

  3. Characteristic time for halo current growth and rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boozer, Allen H., E-mail: [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)


    A halo current flows for part of its path through the plasma edge and for part through the chamber walls and during tokamak disruptions can be as large as tenths of the plasma current. The primary interest in halo currents is the large force that they can exert on machine components particularly if the toriodal rotation of the halo current resonates with a natural oscillation frequency of the tokamak device. Halo currents arise when required to slow down the growth of a kink that is too unstable to be stabilized by the chamber walls. The width of the current channel in the halo plasma is comparable to the amplitude of the kink, and the halo current grows linearly, not exponentially, in time. The current density in the halo is comparable to that of the main plasma body. The rocket force due to plasma flowing out of the halo and recombining on the chamber walls can cause the non-axisymmetric magnetic structure produced by the kink to rotate toroidally at a speed comparable to the halo speed of sound. Gerhardt's observations of the halo current in NSTX shot 141 687 [Nucl. Fusion 53, 023005 (2013)] illustrate many features of the theory of halo currents and are discussed as a summary of the theory.

  4. Dynamics of the Disruption Halo Current Toroidal Asymmetry in NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.P. Gerhardt


    This paper describes the dynamics of disruption halo current non-axisymmetries in the lower divertor of the National Spherical Torus Experiment [M. Ono, et al. Nuclear Fusion 40, 557 (2000)]. While. The halo currents typically have a strongly asymmetric structure where they enter the divertor floor, and this asymmetry has been observed to complete up to 7 toroidal revolutions over the duration of the halo current pulse. However, the rotation speed and toroidal extend of the asymmetry can vary significantly during the pulse. The rotation speed, halo current pulse duration, and total number of revolutions tend to be smaller in cases with large halo currents. The halo current pattern is observed to become toroidally symmetric at the end of the halo current pulse. It is proposed that this symmeterization is due to the loss of most or all of the closed field line geometry in the final phase of the vertical displacement event.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falck, Bridget L.; Neyrinck, Mark C.; Szalay, Alexander S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)


    We present the ORIGAMI method of identifying structures, particularly halos, in cosmological N-body simulations. Structure formation can be thought of as the folding of an initially flat three-dimensional manifold in six-dimensional phase space. ORIGAMI finds the outer folds that delineate these structures. Halo particles are identified as those that have undergone shell-crossing along three orthogonal axes, providing a dynamical definition of halo regions that is independent of density. ORIGAMI also identifies other morphological structures: particles that have undergone shell-crossing along 2, 1, or 0 orthogonal axes correspond to filaments, walls, and voids, respectively. We compare this method to a standard friends-of-friends halo-finding algorithm and find that ORIGAMI halos are somewhat larger, more diffuse, and less spherical, though the global properties of ORIGAMI halos are in good agreement with other modern halo-finding algorithms.

  6. Using Tidal Tails to Probe Dark Matter Halos (United States)

    Mihos, Chris; Dubinski, John; Hernquist, Lars


    We present a series of numerical simulations of merging galaxies to explore the effect of differing halo mass distributions on the morphology of tidal tails. We employ composite disk/bulge/halo galaxy models which span a range of halo properties from low mass, compact halos to very massive, extended halos, and possess identically flat rotation curves inside a few disk scale lengths. These merger experiments are performed with a range of impact parameters, inclinations and mass ratios for the galaxies as well. Our simulations indicate that even under the most favorable conditions, galaxies with extended dark matter halos produce very anemic tidal tails when merging. In light of several observed mergers which sport prominent tidal tails --- e.g., NGC 7252, NGC 4038/39 (``The Antennae"), NGC 4676, and most spectacularly IRAS 19254-7245 (``The Superantennae") --- our results suggest that galaxy halos may be significantly more compact and less massive than expected in Omega =1 cosmological scenarios.

  7. Giant star seismology (United States)

    Hekker, S.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.


    The internal properties of stars in the red-giant phase undergo significant changes on relatively short timescales. Long near-uninterrupted high-precision photometric timeseries observations from dedicated space missions such as CoRoT and Kepler have provided seismic inferences of the global and internal properties of a large number of evolved stars, including red giants. These inferences are confronted with predictions from theoretical models to improve our understanding of stellar structure and evolution. Our knowledge and understanding of red giants have indeed increased tremendously using these seismic inferences, and we anticipate that more information is still hidden in the data. Unraveling this will further improve our understanding of stellar evolution. This will also have significant impact on our knowledge of the Milky Way Galaxy as well as on exo-planet host stars. The latter is important for our understanding of the formation and structure of planetary systems.

  8. Giant inguinoscrotal hernia repair. (United States)

    Prochotsky, A; Dolak, S; Minarovjech, V; Medzo, I; Hutan, M; Mifkovic, A


    Giant inguinoscrotal hernia is defined as an inguinal hernia extending below the midpoint of inner thigh in standing position. The authors describe giant inguinoscrotal hernia and small umbilical hernia with 12 years history of this uncommon disease. After preoperative evaluation, US and CT examination he was operated on. It was very difficult to return the hernia sac contents back to the abdomen and additional infraumbilical incision was needed. Hernioplasty suo modo without mesh was done. Patient recovered uneventfully. In the discussion the authors present the newer classification of giant inguinal hernia, the current treatment options and known serious complications of surgery. Finally, it indicates that good treatment results can only be achieved by close cooperation of concerned professionals in the treatment and intensive intraoperative and postoperative patient monitoring (Fig. 9, Ref. 31).

  9. The differentiation of monocytes into macrophages, epithelioid cells, and multinucleated giant cells in subcutaneous granulomas. I. Fine structure. (United States)

    van der Rhee, H J; van der Burgh-de Winter, C P; Daems, W T


    The morphological changes occurring in monocytes during their differentiation into macrophages, epithelioid cells, Langhans-type giant cells, and foreign-body-type giant cells were investigated in foreign-body granulomas induced by subcutaneous implantation of pieces of Melinex plastic. Analysis based on Adams's (1974) criteria for discrimination between the several types of cell of the monocyte line, showed that each type has a characteristic type of granule. Primary and secondary granules, numerous in the Golgi area of monocytes were generally found close to the cell membrane and decreased in number in maturing macrophages. This was accompanied by an increase in the number of microtubules. Mature macrophages show numerous characteristic macrophage granules, which are round (average diameter: 280 nm) and have a halo between the limiting membrane and granular matrix. Mature epithelioid cells have characteristic epithelioid cell granules, and multinucleated giant cells a heterogenous population of granules. Fusing macrophages generally have their Golgi areas facing each other, and also show a reduced thickness of the cell coat. The morphology of the multinucleated giant cell is closely related to the number of nuclei present. In Langhans-type giant cells, which generally have two to ten nuclei, a giant centrosphere with numerous aggregated centrioles is found. In transition forms between Langhans-type and foreign-body-type giant cells, which generally contain 10--30 nuclei, the centrioles show less aggregation. In the foreign-body-type giant cells, which generally have more than 30 nuclei, centrioles are virtually absent and never aggregated. These differences between the Langhans-type giant cells, the foreign-body-type giant cells, and the transition forms, support our previous finding that Langhans-type giant cells are the precursors of foreign-body-type giant cells.

  10. Precise halo orbit design and optimal transfer to halo orbits from earth using differential evolution (United States)

    Nath, Pranav; Ramanan, R. V.


    The mission design to a halo orbit around the libration points from Earth involves two important steps. In the first step, we design a halo orbit for a specified size and in the second step, we obtain an optimal transfer trajectory design to the halo orbit from an Earth parking orbit. Conventionally, the preliminary design for these steps is obtained using higher order analytical solution and the dynamical systems theory respectively. Refinements of the design are carried out using gradient based methods such as differential correction and pseudo arc length continuation method under the of circular restricted three body model. In this paper, alternative single level schemes are developed for both of these steps based on differential evolution, an evolutionary optimization technique. The differential evolution based scheme for halo orbit design produces precise halo orbit design avoiding the refinement steps. Further, in this approach, prior knowledge of higher order analytical solutions for the halo orbit design is not needed. The differential evolution based scheme for the transfer trajectory, identifies the precise location on the halo orbit that needs minimum energy for insertion and avoids exploration of multiple points. The need of a close guess is removed because the present scheme operates on a set of bounds for the unknowns. The constraint on the closest approach altitude from Earth is handled through objective function. The use of these schemes as the design and analysis tools within the of circular restricted three body model is demonstrated through case studies for missions to the first libration point of Sun-Earth system.

  11. Congenital giant melanocytic nevi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Khan


    Full Text Available Nevi are common skin tumors caused by abnormal overgrowth of cells from the epidermal and dermal layers of the skin. Most nevi are benign, but some pre-cancerous nevi must be monitored or removed. The giant congenital nevus is greater than 10 cm in size, pigmented and often hairy. Between 4% and 6% of these lesions will develop into a malignant melanoma. Since approximately 50% of the melanoma develop by the age of two, and 80% by the age of seven, early removal is recommended. The objective of this paper is to present a unique case of giant nevi and their surgical management.

  12. Giant Galaxy Messier 87 finally sized up (United States)


    Using ESO's Very Large Telescope, astronomers have succeeded in measuring the size of giant galaxy Messier 87 and were surprised to find that its outer parts have been stripped away by still unknown effects. The galaxy also appears to be on a collision course with another giant galaxy in this very dynamic cluster. ESO PR Photo 19a/09 The Intercluster Light ESO PR Photo 19b/09 Intergalactic Planetary Nebulae ESO PR Photo 19c/09 The Virgo Cluster The new observations reveal that Messier 87's halo of stars has been cut short, with a diameter of about a million light-years, significantly smaller than expected, despite being about three times the extent of the halo surrounding our Milky Way [1]. Beyond this zone only few intergalactic stars are seen. "This is an unexpected result," says co-author Ortwin Gerhard. "Numerical models predict that the halo around Messier 87 should be several times larger than our observations have revealed. Clearly, something must have cut the halo off early on." The team used FLAMES, the super-efficient spectrograph at ESO's Very Large Telescope at the Paranal Observatory in Chile, to make ultra-precise measurements of a host of planetary nebulae in the outskirts of Messier 87 and in the intergalactic space within the Virgo Cluster of galaxies, to which Messier 87 belongs. FLAMES can simultaneously take spectra many sources, spread over an area of the sky about the size of the Moon. The new result is quite an achievement. The observed light from a planetary nebula in the Virgo Cluster is as faint as that from a 30-Watt light bulb at a distance of about 6 million kilometres (about 15 times the Earth-Moon distance). Furthermore, planetary nebulae are thinly spread through the cluster, so even FLAMES's wide field of view could only capture a few tens of nebulae at a time. "It is a little bit like looking for a needle in a haystack, but in the dark", says team member Magda Arnaboldi. "The FLAMES spectrograph on the VLT was the best instrument

  13. The Halo B2B Studio (United States)

    Gorzynski, Mark; Derocher, Mike; Mitchell, April Slayden

    Research underway at Hewlett-Packard on remote communication resulted in the identification of three important components typically missing in existing systems. These missing components are: group nonverbal communication capabilities, high-resolution interactive data capabilities, and global services. Here we discuss some of the design elements in these three areas as part of the Halo program at HP, a remote communication system shown to be effective to end-users.

  14. Beam Shape and Halo Monitor Study

    CERN Document Server

    Lallement, J B; Hori, M; CERN. Geneva. AB Department


    The Beam Shape and Halo Monitor, designed by Masaki Hori, is the main diagnostic tool for the 3 MeV test stand scheduled in 2008. This detector will be able to measure the transverse halo generated in the RFQ and the Chopper-line and to detect and measure the longitudinal halo composed of the incompletely chopped bunches. Its principle of functioning is the following: H- ions hit a carbon foil and generate secondary electrons with the same spatial distribution than the incoming beam and a current depending on an emission coefficient given by the carbon foil. These electrons are accelerated towards a phosphor screen by an electric field applied between accelerating grids. Once the electrons reach the phosphor screen, they generate light which is transmitted to a CCD camera via optic fibers [1]. It is expected to give a time resolution of 1-2ns and a spatial resolution of 1mm. The first test of the BSHM done with a Laser has shown a spatial resolution bigger than 1cm and the time resolution bigger than 2ns[2]. ...

  15. Dissecting Halo Components in IFU Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Merrifield


    Full Text Available While most astronomers are now familiar with tools to decompose images into multiple components such as disks, bulges, and halos, the equivalent techniques for spectral data cubes are still in their infancy. This is unfortunate, as integral field unit (IFU spectral surveys are now producing a mass of data in this format, which we are ill-prepared to analyze effectively. We have therefore been developing new tools to separate out components using this full spectral data. The results of such analyses will prove invaluable in determining not only whether such decompositions have an astrophysical significance, but, where they do, also in determining the relationship between the various elements of a galaxy. Application to a pilot study of IFU data from the cD galaxy NGC 3311 confirms that the technique can separate the stellar halo from the underlying galaxy in such systems, and indicates that, in this case, the halo is older and more metal poor than the galaxy, consistent with it forming from the cannibalism of smaller satellite galaxies. The success of the method bodes well for its application to studying the larger samples of cD galaxies that IFU surveys are currently producing.

  16. The Extended Baryonic Halo of NGC 3923

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan W. Miller


    Full Text Available Galaxy halos and their globular cluster systems build up over time by the accretion of small satellites. We can learn about this process in detail by observing systems with ongoing accretion events and comparing the data with simulations. Elliptical shell galaxies are systems that are thought to be due to ongoing or recent minor mergers. We present preliminary results of an investigation of the baryonic halo—light profile, globular clusters, and shells/streams—of the shell galaxy NGC 3923 from deep Dark Energy Camera (DECam g and i-band imaging. We present the 2D and radial distributions of the globular cluster candidates out to a projected radius of about 185 kpc, or ∼ 37 R e , making this one of the most extended cluster systems studied. The total number of clusters implies a halo mass of M h ∼ 3 × 10 13 M ⊙ . Previous studies had identified between 22 and 42 shells, making NGC 3923 the system with the largest number of shells. We identify 23 strong shells and 11 that are uncertain. Future work will measure the halo mass and mass profile from the radial distributions of the shell, N-body models, and line-of-sight velocity distribution (LOSVD measurements of the shells using the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE.

  17. Clinical and Histologic Features of 26 Canine Peripheral Giant Cell Granulomas (Formerly Giant Cell Epulis)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Desoutter, A. V; Goldschmidt, M. H; Sánchez, M. D


    ... (formerly giant cell epulis) are reported. Two main histologic categories were evident: (1) “classic” peripheral giant cell granuloma, characterized by variable numbers of multinucleated giant cells...

  18. Juvenile giant fibroadenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul Yagnik


    Full Text Available Fibroadenomas are benign solid tumor associated with aberration of normal lobular development. Juvenile giant fibroadenoma is usually single and >5 cm in size /or >500 gms in weight. Important differential diagnoses are: phyllodes tumor and juvenile gigantomastia. Simple excision is the treatment of choice.

  19. from the Giant Panda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 3, 2009 ... RPS28 is a component of the 40S small ribosomal subunit encoded by RPS28 gene, which is specific to eukaryotes. The cDNA and the genomic sequence of RPS28 were cloned successfully from the Giant. Panda using RT-PCR technology and Touchdown-PCR, respectively. Both sequences were ...

  20. Giant peritoneal loose bodies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Mar 27, 2015 ... Giant peritoneal loose bodies are rare lesions, originating from auto-amputated appendices epiploicae. They may cause urinary or gastrointestinal obstruction and, should the radiologist not be familiar with the entity, can potentially be confused with malignant or parasitic lesions. Familiarity with their ...

  1. Graphenes – Aromatic Giants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Graphenes – Aromatic Giants. (benzene) rings. Until recently it was believed [5] that their chemical investigations are limited to compounds with not more than 15 rings. The reason for this is based on the fact that large. PAHs are practically insoluble in water or organic solvents, which makes their purification and chemical ...

  2. Graphenes–Aromatic Giants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 8. Graphenes – Aromatic Giants. Ivan Gutman Boris Furtula. General Article Volume 13 Issue 8 August 2008 pp 730-737. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  3. Graphenes–Aromatic Giants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Graphenes - Aromatic Giants. Ivan Gutman Boris Furtula. Volume 16 Issue 12 December 2011 pp 1238-1245. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: Keywords. Graphenes; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; polyphenyls; condensed benzenes.

  4. Recoiling supermassive black hole escape velocities from dark matter haloes (United States)

    Choksi, Nick; Behroozi, Peter; Volonteri, Marta; Schneider, Raffaella; Ma, Chung-Pei; Silk, Joseph; Moster, Benjamin


    We simulate recoiling black hole trajectories from z = 20 to z = 0 in dark matter haloes, quantifying how parameter choices affect escape velocities. These choices include the strength of dynamical friction, the presence of stars and gas, the accelerating expansion of the Universe (Hubble acceleration), host halo accretion and motion, and seed black hole mass. Lambda cold dark matter halo accretion increases escape velocities by up to 0.6 dex and significantly shortens return time-scales compared to non-accreting cases. Other parameters change orbit damping rates but have subdominant effects on escape velocities; dynamical friction is weak at halo escape velocities, even for extreme parameter values. We present formulae for black hole escape velocities as a function of host halo mass and redshift. Finally, we discuss how these findings affect black hole mass assembly as well as minimum stellar and halo masses necessary to retain supermassive black holes.

  5. The “Building Blocks” of Stellar Halos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle A. Oman


    Full Text Available The stellar halos of galaxies encode their accretion histories. In particular, the median metallicity of a halo is determined primarily by the mass of the most massive accreted object. We use hydrodynamical cosmological simulations from the apostle project to study the connection between the stellar mass, the metallicity distribution, and the stellar age distribution of a halo and the identity of its most massive progenitor. We find that the stellar populations in an accreted halo typically resemble the old stellar populations in a present-day dwarf galaxy with a stellar mass ∼0.2–0.5 dex greater than that of the stellar halo. This suggests that had they not been accreted, the primary progenitors of stellar halos would have evolved to resemble typical nearby dwarf irregulars.

  6. Separating galaxies from the cluster dark matter halo in Abell 611 (United States)

    Monna, A.; Seitz, S.; Geller, M. J.; Zitrin, A.; Mercurio, A.; Suyu, S. H.; Postman, M.; Fabricant, D. G.; Hwang, H. S.; Koekemoer, A.


    We investigate the mass content of galaxies in the core of the galaxy cluster Abell 611. We perform a strong lensing analysis of the cluster core and use velocity dispersion measurements for individual cluster members as additional constraints. Despite the small number of multiply-imaged systems and cluster members with central velocity dispersions available in the core of A611, the addition of velocity dispersion measurements leads to tighter constraints on the mass associated with the galaxy component, and as a result, on the mass associated with the dark matter halo. Without the spectroscopic velocity dispersions, we would overestimate the mass of the galaxy component by a factor of ∼1.5, or, equivalently, we would underestimate the mass of the cluster dark halo by ∼5 per cent. We perform an additional lensing analysis using surface brightness (SB) reconstruction of the tangential giant arc. This approach improves the constraints on the mass parameters of the five galaxies close to the arc by a factor up to ∼10. The resulting parameters are in good agreement with the σ-rtr scaling relation derived in the pointlike analysis. The galaxy velocity dispersions resulting from the SB analysis are consistent at the 1σ confidence level with the spectroscopic measurements. In contrast, the truncation radii for 2-3 galaxies depart significantly from the galaxy scaling relation and suggest differences in the stripping history from galaxy to galaxy.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunder, Andrea; Storm, J. [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Rich, R. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1562 (United States); Hawkins, K. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Poleski, R. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Johnson, C. I. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Shen, J.; Li, Z.-Y. [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Cordero, M. J. [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut: Zentrum für Astronomie, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Nataf, D. M. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Bono, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Walker, A. R. [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Koch, A. [Landessternwarte, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Königstuhl 12, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); De Propris, R. [Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO (FINCA), University of Turku, Turku (Finland); Udalski, A.; Szymanski, M. K.; Soszynski, I.; Pietrzynski, G.; Ulaczyk, K.; Wyrzykowski, Ł. [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland); and others


    We report on the RR Lyrae variable star, MACHO 176.18833.411, located toward the Galactic bulge and observed within the data from the ongoing Bulge RR Lyrae Radial Velocity Assay, which has the unusual radial velocity of −372 ± 8 km s{sup −1} and true space velocity of −482 ± 22 km s{sup −1} relative to the Galactic rest frame. Located less than 1 kpc from the Galactic center and toward a field at (l, b) = (3, −2.5), this pulsating star has properties suggesting it belongs to the bulge RR Lyrae star population, yet a velocity indicating it is abnormal, at least with respect to bulge giants and red clump stars. We show that this star is most likely a halo interloper and therefore suggest that halo contamination is not insignificant when studying metal-poor stars found within the bulge area, even for stars within 1 kpc of the Galactic center. We discuss the possibility that MACHO 176.18833.411 is on the extreme edge of the bulge RR Lyrae radial velocity distribution, and also consider a more exotic scenario in which it is a runaway star moving through the Galaxy.

  8. N-body dark matter haloes with simple hierarchical histories (United States)

    Jiang, Lilian; Helly, John C.; Cole, Shaun; Frenk, Carlos S.


    We present a new algorithm which groups the subhaloes found in cosmological N-body simulations by structure finders such as SUBFIND into dark matter haloes whose formation histories are strictly hierarchical. One advantage of these `Dhaloes' over the commonly used friends-of-friends (FoF) haloes is that they retain their individual identity in the cases when FoF haloes are artificially merged by tenuous bridges of particles or by an overlap of their outer diffuse haloes. Dhaloes are thus well suited for modelling galaxy formation and their merger trees form the basis of the Durham semi-analytic galaxy formation model, GALFORM. Applying the Dhalo construction to the Λ cold dark matter Millennium II Simulation, we find that approximately 90 per cent of Dhaloes have a one-to-one, bijective match with a corresponding FoF halo. The remaining 10 per cent are typically secondary components of large FoF haloes. Although the mass functions of both types of haloes are similar, the mass of Dhaloes correlates much more tightly with the virial mass, M200, than FoF haloes. Approximately 80 per cent of FoF and bijective and non-bijective Dhaloes are relaxed according to standard criteria. For these relaxed haloes, all three types have similar concentration-M200 relations and, at fixed mass, the concentration distributions are described accurately by log-normal distributions.

  9. Reversed Halo Sign: Presents in Different Pulmonary Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Zhan

    Full Text Available To observe the incidence of reversed halo sign in different pulmonary diseases and the pathological correspondence of reversed halo sign.Retrospectively studied the high resolution computer tomography scans of all the patients who were admitted in our department with abnormal pulmonary imaging, from 1st of January 2011 to 31st of December 2013, and all the cases with reversed halo sign on the high resolution computer tomography were collected. Clinical data such as pathological findings and confirmed diagnosis of the patients with reversed halo sign on the high resolution computer tomography scan were collected and summarized.Of 1546 abnormal High resolution computer tomography scans 108 had a reverse halo sign present, including 108 cases were observed with reversed halo sign in the high resolution computer tomography, including 40 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis, 43 cases of cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, 16 cases of lung cancer, 7 cases of sarcoidosis, and 1 case of pulmonary cryptococcosis, 1 case of granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Reversed halo sign had a higher incidence in granulomatous diseases (16.28% compared with non-granulomatous diseases (9.97%.Reversed halo sign is relatively non specific; it can be observed in different lung diseases, and different phases of diseases; reversed halo sign is more commonly found in granulomatous diseases compared with non-granulomatous diseases, and is most commonly observed in pulmonary tuberculosis among the granulomatous diseases, and in cryptogenic organizing pneumonia among the non-granulomatous diseases.

  10. Brightest galaxies as halo centre tracers in SDSS DR7 (United States)

    Lange, Johannes U.; van den Bosch, Frank C.; Hearin, Andrew; Campbell, Duncan; Zentner, Andrew R.; Villarreal, Antonio; Mao, Yao-Yuan


    Determining the positions of halo centres in large-scale structure surveys is crucial for many cosmological studies. A common assumption is that halo centres correspond to the location of their brightest member galaxies. In this paper, we study the dynamics of brightest galaxies with respect to other halo members in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7. Specifically, we look at the line-of-sight velocity and spatial offsets between brightest galaxies and their neighbours. We compare those to detailed mock catalogues, constructed from high-resolution, dark-matter-only N-body simulations, in which it is assumed that satellite galaxies trace dark matter subhaloes. This allows us to place constraints on the fraction fBNC of haloes in which the brightest galaxy is not the central. Compared to previous studies, we explicitly take into account the unrelaxed state of the host haloes, velocity offsets of halo cores and correlations between fBNC and the satellite occupation. We find that fBNC strongly decreases with the luminosity of the brightest galaxy and increases with the mass of the host halo. Overall, in the halo mass range 1013-1014.5 h- 1M⊙ we find fBNC ∼ 30 per cent, in good agreement with a previous study by Skibba et al. We discuss the implications of these findings for studies inferring the galaxy-halo connection from satellite kinematics, models of the conditional luminosity function and galaxy formation in general.

  11. Mapping stellar content to dark matter haloes - II. Halo mass is the main driver of galaxy quenching (United States)

    Zu, Ying; Mandelbaum, Rachel


    We develop a simple yet comprehensive method to distinguish the underlying drivers of galaxy quenching, using the clustering and galaxy-galaxy lensing of red and blue galaxies in Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Building on the iHOD framework developed by Zu & Mandelbaum, we consider two quenching scenarios: (1) a `halo' quenching model in which halo mass is the sole driver for turning off star formation in both centrals and satellites; and (2) a `hybrid' quenching model in which the quenched fraction of galaxies depends on their stellar mass, while the satellite quenching has an extra dependence on halo mass. The two best-fitting models describe the red galaxy clustering and lensing equally well, but halo quenching provides significantly better fits to the blue galaxies above 1011 h-2 M⊙. The halo quenching model also correctly predicts the average halo mass of the red and blue centrals, showing excellent agreement with the direct weak lensing measurements of locally brightest galaxies. Models in which quenching is not tied to halo mass, including an age-matching model in which galaxy colour depends on halo age at fixed M*, fail to reproduce the observed halo mass for massive blue centrals. We find similar critical halo masses responsible for the quenching of centrals and satellites (˜1.5 × 1012 h-1 M⊙), hinting at a uniform quenching mechanism for both, e.g. the virial shock heating of infalling gas. The success of the iHOD halo quenching model provides strong evidence that the physical mechanism that quenches star formation in galaxies is tied principally to the masses of their dark matter haloes rather than the properties of their stellar components.

  12. Clustering dark energy and halo abundances (United States)

    Batista, Ronaldo C.; Marra, Valerio


    Within the standard paradigm, dark energy is taken as a homogeneous fluid that drives the accelerated expansion of the universe and does not contribute to the mass of collapsed objects such as galaxies and galaxy clusters. The abundance of galaxy clusters—measured through a variety of channels—has been extensively used to constrain the normalization of the power spectrum: it is an important probe as it allows us to test if the standard ΛCDM model can indeed accurately describe the evolution of structures across billions of years. It is then quite significant that the Planck satellite has detected, via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect, less clusters than expected according to the primary CMB anisotropies. One of the simplest generalizations that could reconcile these observations is to consider models in which dark energy is allowed to cluster, i.e., allowing its sound speed to vary. In this case, however, the standard methods to compute the abundance of galaxy clusters need to be adapted to account for the contributions of dark energy. In particular, we examine the case of clustering dark energy—a dark energy fluid with negligible sound speed—with a redshift-dependent equation of state. We carefully study how the halo mass function is modified in this scenario, highlighting corrections that have not been considered before in the literature. We address modifications in the growth function, collapse threshold, virialization densities and also changes in the comoving scale of collapse and mass function normalization. Our results show that clustering dark energy can impact halo abundances at the level of 10%-30%, depending on the halo mass, and that cluster counts are modified by about 30% at a redshift of unity.

  13. Giant Otters in Peru


    Schenk C.; Staib E.


    We are in the second year of fieldwork surveying for Giant Otters in the southeastern rainforest of Peru, in three areas with differing levels of legal protection. While there is some illegal hunting still happening outside the protected areas, the main threat to the otters is badly-conducted tourism. Well-organised tourism can be a promising argument for establishing protected areas like national parks.

  14. Intraoral giant condyloma acuminatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta R


    Full Text Available A case of intraoral giant condyloma acuminatum is reported in a 50- year- old Indian. He did not respond to topical application of podophyllin 20% but responded partially to electric cauterisation. Surgical excision was done to get rid of the warty growh completely. Since there were no skin or genital lesions and no history of marital or extramarital sexual contact the lesion was probably acquired from environmental sources. Nonsexual transmission should be considered especially when the lesions are extragenital.

  15. Fast low-energy halo-to-halo transfers between Sun–planet systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang Haibin


    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of fast low-energy halo-to-halo transfers between Sun–planet systems is discussed under ephemeris constraints. According to the structure of an invariant manifold, employing an invariant manifold and planetary gravity assist to save fuel consumption is analyzed from the view of orbital energy. Then, a pseudo-manifold is introduced to replace the invariant manifold in such a way that more transfer opportunities are allowed. Fast escape and capture can be achieved along the pseudo-manifold. Furthermore, a global searching method that is based on patched-models is proposed to find an appropriate transfer trajectory. In this searching method, the trajectory is divided into several segments that can be designed under simple dynamical models, and an analytical algorithm is developed for connecting the segments. Earth–Mars and Earth–Venus halo-to-halo transfers are designed to demonstrate the proposed approach. Numerical results show that the transfers that combine the pseudo-manifolds and planetary gravity assist can offer significant fuel consumption and flight time savings over traditional transfer schemes.

  16. Haloes, molecules and multi-neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques Moreno, F.M


    Away from the equilibrium between protons and neutrons within stable nuclei, many exotic nuclei exist. Most of the known nuclear properties evolve smoothly with exoticism, but some extreme proton-neutron combinations have revealed during the last decade completely new concepts. They will be illustrated through three examples: the extended and dilute halo formed by very weakly bound neutrons, the molecular-like neutron orbitals found in nuclei exhibiting a clustering, and the recently revived debate on the possible existence of neutral nuclei. The different experimental results will be reviewed, and we will see how several properties of these new phenomena can be well understood within relatively simple theoretical approaches. (author)

  17. Clustering and correlations in neutrons haloes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orr, N.A


    In the present paper clustering and correlations within halo systems is explored. In particular, the application of neutron-neutron interferometry and Dalitz-plot type analyses is presented through the example provided by the dissociation of {sup 14}Be. A novel approach for producing and detection bound neutron clusters is also described. The observation of some 6 events with characteristics consistent with the liberation of a multi-neutron cluster in the breakup of {sup 14}Be - possibly in the channel {sup 10}Be+{sup 4}n - is discussed. (author)

  18. Project ECHO: Electronic Communications from Halo Orbit (United States)

    Borrelli, Jason; Cooley, Bryan; Debole, Marcy; Hrivnak, Lance; Nielsen, Kenneth; Sangmeister, Gary; Wolfe, Matthew


    The design of a communications relay to provide constant access between the Earth and the far side of the Moon is presented. Placement of the relay in a halo orbit about the L2 Earth-Moon Lagrange point allows the satellite to maintain constant simultaneous communication between Earth and scientific payloads on the far side of the Moon. The requirements of NASA's Discovery-class missions adopted and modified for this design are: total project cost should not exceed $150 million excluding launch costs, launch must be provided by Delta-class vehicle, and the satellite should maintain an operational lifetime of 10 to 15 years. The spacecraft will follow a transfer trajectory to the L2 point, after launch by a Delta II 7925 vehicle in 1999. Low-level thrust is used for injection into a stationkeeping-free halo orbit once the spacecraft reaches the L2 point. The shape of this halo orbit is highly elliptical with the maximum excursion from the L2 point being 35000 km. A spun section and despun section connected through a bearing and power transfer assembly (BAPTA) compose the structure of the spacecraft. Communications equipment is placed on the despun section to provide for a stationary dual parabolic offset-feed array antenna system. The dual system is necessary to provide communications coverage during portions of maximum excursion on the halo orbit. Transmissions to the NASA Deep Space Network 34 m antenna include six channels (color video, two voice, scientific data from lunar payloads, satellite housekeeping and telemetry and uplinked commands) using the S- and X-bands. Four radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's) provide a total of 1360 W to power onboard systems and any two of the four Hughes 13 cm ion thrusters at once. Output of the ion thrusters is approximately 17.8 mN each with xenon as the propellant. Presence of torques generated by solar pressure on the antenna dish require the addition of a 'skirt' extending from the spun section of the satellite

  19. Universal properties of dark matter halos. (United States)

    Boyarsky, A; Neronov, A; Ruchayskiy, O; Tkachev, I


    We discuss the universal relation between density and size of observed dark matter halos that was recently shown to hold on a wide range of scales, from dwarf galaxies to galaxy clusters. Predictions of cold dark matter (ΛCDM) N-body simulations are consistent with this relation. We demonstrate that this property of ΛCDM can be understood analytically in the secondary infall model. Qualitative understanding given by this model provides a new way to predict which deviations from ΛCDM or large-scale modifications of gravity can affect universal behavior and, therefore, to constrain them observationally.

  20. Giant prolactinomas in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delgrange, Etienne; Raverot, Gerald; Bex, Marie


    OBJECTIVE: To characterise distinctive clinical features of giant prolactinomas in women. DESIGN: A multicentre, retrospective case series and literature review. METHODS: We collected data from 15 female patients with a pituitary tumour larger than 4 cm and prolactin levels above 1000 μg/l and id......OBJECTIVE: To characterise distinctive clinical features of giant prolactinomas in women. DESIGN: A multicentre, retrospective case series and literature review. METHODS: We collected data from 15 female patients with a pituitary tumour larger than 4 cm and prolactin levels above 1000 μg....../l and identified 19 similar cases from the literature; a gender-based comparison of the frequency and age distribution was obtained from a literature review. RESULTS: The initial PubMed search using the term 'giant prolactinomas' identified 125 patients (13 women) responding to the inclusion criteria. The female......:male ratio was 1:9. Another six female patients were found by extending the literature search, while our own series added 15 patients. The median age at diagnosis was 44 years in women compared with 35 years in men (P

  1. Stellar Mass—Halo Mass Relation and Star Formation Efficiency in High-Mass Halos (United States)

    Kravtsov, A. V.; Vikhlinin, A. A.; Meshcheryakov, A. V.


    We study relation between stellar mass and halo mass for high-mass halos using a sample of galaxy clusters with accurate measurements of stellar masses from optical and ifrared data and total masses from X-ray observations. We find that stellar mass of the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) scales as M *,BCG ∝ M 500 αBCG with the best fit slope of α BCG ≈ 0.4 ± 0.1. We measure scatter of M *,BCG at a fixed M 500 of ≈0.2 dex. We show that stellar mass-halo mass relations from abundance matching or halo modelling reported in recent studies underestimate masses of BCGs by a factor of ˜2-4. We argue that this is because these studies used stellar mass functions (SMF) based on photometry that severely underestimates the outer surface brightness profiles of massive galaxies. We show that M * -M relation derived using abundance matching with the recent SMF calibration by Bernardi et al. (2013) based on improved photometry is in a much better agreement with the relation we derive via direct calibration for observed clusters. The total stellar mass of galaxies correlates with total mass M 500 with the slope of ≈0.6 ± 0.1 and scatter of 0.1 dex. This indicates that efficiency with which baryons are converted into stars decreases with increasing cluster mass. The low scatter is due to large contribution of satellite galaxies: the stellar mass in satellite galaxies correlates with M 500 with scatter of ≈0.1 dex and best fit slope of αsat ≈ 0.8 ± 0.1. We show that for a fixed choice of the initial mass function (IMF) total stellar fraction in clusters is only a factor of 3-5 lower than the peak stellar fraction reached in M ≈ 1012 M ⊙ halos. The difference is only a factor of ˜1.5-3 if the IMF becomes progressively more bottom heavy with increasing mass in early type galaxies, as indicated by recent observational analyses. This means that the overall efficiency of star formation in massive halos is only moderately suppressed compared to L * galaxies and

  2. Discovery of a Giant Radio Halo in a Massive Merging Cluster at z ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tively. The resulting wide-field image at 610 MHz of the area surrounding the cluster. MACSJ0417.5-1154 is shown in Fig. 1. The radio emission from the central region of the cluster is overlayed on the X-ray emission from the cluster in Fig. 2. An overlay of the 610 MHz radio emission on the 235 MHz image is shown in Fig.

  3. The Prevalence of the 22 deg Halo in Cirrus Clouds (United States)

    Diedenhoven, vanBastiaan


    Halos at 22 deg from the sun attributed to randomly-orientated, pristine hexagonal crystals are frequently observed through ice clouds. These frequent sightings of halos formed by pristine crystals pose an apparent inconsistency with the dominance of distorted, nonpristine ice crystals indicated by in situ and remote sensing data. Furthermore, the 46 deg halo, which is associated with pristine hexagonal crystals as well, is observed far less frequently than the 22 deg halo. Considering that plausible mechanisms that could cause crystal distortion such as aggregation, sublimation, riming and collisions are stochastic processes that likely lead to distributions of crystals with varying distortion levels, here the presence of the 22 deg and 46 deg halo features in phase functions of mixtures of pristine and distorted hexagonal ice crystals is examined. We conclude that the 22 deg halo feature is generally present if the contribution by pristine crystals to the total scattering cross section is greater than only about 10% in the case of compact particles or columns, and greater than about 40% for plates. The 46 deg halo feature is present only if the mean distortion level is low and the contribution of pristine crystals to the total scattering cross section is above about 20%, 50% and 70%, in the case of compact crystals, plates and columns, respectively. These results indicate that frequent sightings of 22 deg halos are not inconsistent with the observed dominance of distorted, non-pristine ice crystals. Furthermore, the low mean distortion levels and large contributions by pristine crystals needed to produce the 461 halo features provide a potential explanation of the common sighting of the 22 deg halo without any detectable 46 deg halo.

  4. 77 FR 75672 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration, Halo Pharmaceutical, Inc. (United States)


    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration, Halo Pharmaceutical... 47114, Halo Pharmaceutical, Inc., 30 North Jefferson Road, Whippany, New Jersey 07981, made application... determined that the registration of Halo Pharmaceutical, Inc., to manufacture the listed basic classes of...

  5. 77 FR 16264 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration; Halo Pharmaceutical Inc. (United States)


    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration; Halo Pharmaceutical... FR 77850, Halo Pharmaceutical Inc., 30 North Jefferson Road, Whippany, New Jersey 07981, made... determined that the registration of Halo Pharmaceutical Inc. to manufacture the listed basic classes of...

  6. Convergence properties of halo merger trees; halo and substructure merger rates across cosmic history (United States)

    Poole, Gregory B.; Mutch, Simon J.; Croton, Darren J.; Wyithe, Stuart


    We introduce GBPTREES: an algorithm for constructing merger trees from cosmological simulations, designed to identify and correct for pathological cases introduced by errors or ambiguities in the halo finding process. GBPTREES is built upon a halo matching method utilizing pseudo-radial moments constructed from radially sorted particle ID lists (no other information is required) and a scheme for classifying merger tree pathologies from networks of matches made to-and-from haloes across snapshots ranging forward-and-backward in time. Focusing on SUBFIND catalogues for this work, a sweep of parameters influencing our merger tree construction yields the optimal snapshot cadence and scanning range required for converged results. Pathologies proliferate when snapshots are spaced by ≲0.128 dynamical times; conveniently similar to that needed for convergence of semi-analytical modelling, as established by Benson et al. Total merger counts are converged at the level of ∼5 per cent for friends-of-friends (FoF) haloes of size np ≳ 75 across a factor of 512 in mass resolution, but substructure rates converge more slowly with mass resolution, reaching convergence of ∼10 per cent for np ≳ 100 and particle mass mp ≲ 109 M⊙. We present analytic fits to FoF and substructure merger rates across nearly all observed galactic history (z ≤ 8.5). While we find good agreement with the results presented by Fakhouri et al. for FoF haloes, a slightly flatter dependence on merger ratio and increased major merger rates are found, reducing previously reported discrepancies with extended Press-Schechter estimates. When appropriately defined, substructure merger rates show a similar mass ratio dependence as FoF rates, but with stronger mass and redshift dependencies for their normalization.

  7. Alternative techniques for beam halo measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Welsch, CP; Burel, B; Lefèvre, T; Chapman, T; Pilon, MJ


    In future high intensity, high energy accelerators it must be ensured that particle losses are minimized, as activation of the vacuum chambers or other components makes maintenance and upgrade work time consuming and costly. It is imperative to have a clear understanding of the mechanisms that can lead to halo formation and to have the possibility to test available theoretical models with an adequate experimental setup. Measurements based on optical transition radiation (OTR) are a well-established technique for measurements of the transverse beam profile. However, in order to be suitable for halo measurements as well, the dynamic range of the final image acquisition system needs to be high, being able to cover at least five orders of magnitude in intensity changes. Here, the performance of a standard acquisition system as it is used in the CLIC test facility (CTF3) is compared to a step-by-step measurement with a small movable photo multiplier tube and an innovative camera system based on charge injection de...

  8. The CMS Beam Halo Monitor Detector System

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration


    A new Beam Halo Monitor (BHM) detector system has been installed in the CMS cavern to measure the machine-induced background (MIB) from the LHC. This background originates from interactions of the LHC beam halo with the final set of collimators before the CMS experiment and from beam gas interactions. The BHM detector uses the directional nature of Cherenkov radiation and event timing to select particles coming from the direction of the beam and to suppress those originating from the interaction point. It consists of 40 quartz rods, placed on each side of the CMS detector, coupled to UV sensitive PMTs. For each bunch crossing the PMT signal is digitized by a charge integrating ASIC and the arrival time of the signal is recorded. The data are processed in real time to yield a precise measurement of per-bunch-crossing background rate. This measurement is made available to CMS and the LHC, to provide real-time feedback on the beam quality and to improve the efficiency of data taking. In this talk we will describ...

  9. The CMS Beam Halo Monitor Detector System

    CERN Document Server

    Stifter, Kelly


    A new Beam Halo Monitor (BHM) detector system has been installed in the CMS cavern to measure the machine-induced background (MIB) from the LHC. This background originates from interactions of the LHC beam halo with the final set of collimators before the CMS experiment and from beam gas interactions. The BHM detector uses the directional nature of Cherenkov radiation and event timing to select particles coming from the direction of the beam and to supress those originating from the interaction point. It consists of 40 quartz rods, placed on each side of the CMS detector, coupled to UV sensitive PMTs. For each bunch crossing the PMT signal is digitized by a charge integrating ASIC and the arrival time of the signal is recorded. The data are processed in real time to yield a precise measurement of per-bunch-crossing background rate. This measurement is made available to CMS and the LHC, to provide real-time feedback on the beam quality and to improve the efficiency of data taking. In this talk we will descri...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olszewski, Edward W.; Saha, Abhijit; Knezek, Patricia; Subramaniam, Annapurni; de Boer, Thomas; Seitzer, Patrick


    Using imaging that shows 4 mag of main-sequence stars, we have discovered that the Galactic globular cluster NGC 1851 is surrounded by a halo that is visible from the tidal radius of 700 arcsec (41 pc) to more than 4500 arcsec (> 250 pc). This halo is symmetric and falls in density as a power law of

  11. Is the dark halo of our Galaxy spherical?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmi, A


    It has been recently claimed that the confined structure of the debris from the Sagittarius dwarf implies that the dark matter halo of our Galaxy should be nearly spherical, in strong contrast with predictions from cold dark matter simulations, where dark haloes are found to have typical density

  12. Investigating Halo and Ceiling Effects in Student Evaluations of Instruction (United States)

    Keeley, Jared W.; English, Taylor; Irons, Jessica; Henslee, Amber M.


    Many measurement biases affect student evaluations of instruction (SEIs). However, two have been relatively understudied: halo effects and ceiling/floor effects. This study examined these effects in two ways. To examine the halo effect, using a videotaped lecture, we manipulated specific teacher behaviors to be "good" or "bad"…

  13. Binary white dwarfs in the halo of the Milky Way

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oirschot, Pim; Nelemans, Gijs; Toonen, Silvia; Pols, Onno; Brown, Anthony G. A.; Helmi, Amina; Portegies Zwart, Simon

    Aims: We study single and binary white dwarfs in the inner halo of the Milky Way in order to learn more about the conditions under which the population of halo stars was born, such as the initial mass function (IMF), the star formation history, or the binary fraction. Methods: We simulate the

  14. Disk response to a lopsided halo potential (Jog 1997, 2002):

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Disk response to a lopsided halo potential (Jog 1997, 2002):. consider small (few %) perturbation in potential. --- solve equations of motion using epicyclic theory. The symmetric disk potential = ψ_0 (R ) = Vc 2 ln R. and the perturbation halo potential = Vc 2 εlop cos φ ...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiyama, Tomoaki [Center for Computational Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Rieder, Steven; Portegies Zwart, Simon [Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300-RA Leiden (Netherlands); Makino, Junichiro [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan); Groen, Derek [Centre for Computational Science, Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London, WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); Nitadori, Keigo [RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science (Japan); De Laat, Cees [Section System and Network Engineering, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); McMillan, Stephen [Department of Physics, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Hiraki, Kei [Department of Creative Informatics, Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, the University of Tokyo (Japan); Harfst, Stefan, E-mail: [Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Technical University Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, D-10623 Berlin (Germany)


    We present the results of the ''Cosmogrid'' cosmological N-body simulation suites based on the concordance LCDM model. The Cosmogrid simulation was performed in a 30 Mpc box with 2048{sup 3} particles. The mass of each particle is 1.28 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} M{sub Sun }, which is sufficient to resolve ultra-faint dwarfs. We found that the halo mass function shows good agreement with the Sheth and Tormen fitting function down to {approx}10{sup 7} M{sub Sun }. We have analyzed the spherically averaged density profiles of the three most massive halos which are of galaxy group size and contain at least 170 million particles. The slopes of these density profiles become shallower than -1 at the innermost radius. We also find a clear correlation of halo concentration with mass. The mass dependence of the concentration parameter cannot be expressed by a single power law, however a simple model based on the Press-Schechter theory proposed by Navarro et al. gives reasonable agreement with this dependence. The spin parameter does not show a correlation with the halo mass. The probability distribution functions for both concentration and spin are well fitted by the log-normal distribution for halos with the masses larger than {approx}10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }. The subhalo abundance depends on the halo mass. Galaxy-sized halos have 50% more subhalos than {approx}10{sup 11} M{sub Sun} halos have.

  16. The Cosmogrid Simulation: Statistical Properties of Small Dark Matter Halos (United States)

    Ishiyama, Tomoaki; Rieder, Steven; Makino, Junichiro; Portegies Zwart, Simon; Groen, Derek; Nitadori, Keigo; de Laat, Cees; McMillan, Stephen; Hiraki, Kei; Harfst, Stefan


    We present the results of the "Cosmogrid" cosmological N-body simulation suites based on the concordance LCDM model. The Cosmogrid simulation was performed in a 30 Mpc box with 20483 particles. The mass of each particle is 1.28 × 105 M ⊙, which is sufficient to resolve ultra-faint dwarfs. We found that the halo mass function shows good agreement with the Sheth & Tormen fitting function down to ~107 M ⊙. We have analyzed the spherically averaged density profiles of the three most massive halos which are of galaxy group size and contain at least 170 million particles. The slopes of these density profiles become shallower than -1 at the innermost radius. We also find a clear correlation of halo concentration with mass. The mass dependence of the concentration parameter cannot be expressed by a single power law, however a simple model based on the Press-Schechter theory proposed by Navarro et al. gives reasonable agreement with this dependence. The spin parameter does not show a correlation with the halo mass. The probability distribution functions for both concentration and spin are well fitted by the log-normal distribution for halos with the masses larger than ~108 M ⊙. The subhalo abundance depends on the halo mass. Galaxy-sized halos have 50% more subhalos than ~1011 M ⊙ halos have.

  17. A two-point correlation function for Galactic halo stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooper, A. P.; Cole, S.; Frenk, C. S.; Helmi, A.


    We describe a correlation function statistic that quantifies the amount of spatial and kinematic substructure in the stellar halo. We test this statistic using model stellar halo realizations constructed from the Aquarius suite of six high-resolution cosmological N-body simulations, in combination

  18. Influence of halo doping profiles on MOS transistor mismatch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andricciola, P.; Tuinhout, H.


    Halo implants are used in modern CMOS technology to reduce the short channel effect. However, the lateral non-uniformity of the channel doping has been proven to degenerate the mismatch performance. With this paper we want to discuss the influence of the halo profile on MOS transistor mismatch. The

  19. A Hidden Radio Halo in the Galaxy Cluster A1682?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    High sensitivity observations of radio halos in galaxy clusters at frequencies ≤ 330 MHz are still relatively rare, and very little is known compared to the classical 1.4 GHz images. The few radio halos imaged down to 150–240 MHz show a considerable spread in size, morphology and spectral properties. All clusters ...

  20. Double folding model analysis of elastic scattering of halo nucleus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    features of halo nuclei largely affect the interaction with light and heavy targets at low bombarding energies and have created tremendous interest in the study of nuclear reac- tions. Elastic scattering is sensitive to the nature of the surface of nuclei and hence it is effective in studying halo nuclei. Pramana – J. Phys., Vol.

  1. RR Lyrae to build up the Galactic Halo (United States)

    Fiorentino, Giuliana


    We compare the period and period-amplitude distributions for a sizeable sample of rrab in dwarfs (~1300stars) with those in the galactic halo (~14,000stars) and globular clusters (~1000stars). Field rrab show a significant change in their period distribution when moving from the inner (dg~14kpc) halo regions, suggesting that the halo formed from (at least) two dissimilar progenitors or events. Rrab in dwarfs-as observed today-do not appear to follow the pulsation properties shown by those in the galactic halo, nor do they have the same properties as rrls in globulars. Only massive and metal rich satellites likely have mainly contributed to the galactic halo formation, e.g. Sgr dSph.

  2. Group Finding in the Stellar Halo Using Photometric Surveys: Current Sensitivity and Future Prospects (United States)

    Sharma, Sanjib; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Majewski, Steven R.; Bullock, James; Muñoz, Ricardo R.


    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) provided the first deep and global photometric catalogs of stars in our halo and not only clearly mapped its structure but also demonstrated the ubiquity of substructure within it. Future surveys promise to push such catalogs to ever increasing depths and larger numbers of stars. This paper examines what can be learned from current and future photometric databases using group-finding techniques. We compare groups recovered from a sample of M-giants from 2MASS with those found in synthetic surveys of simulated ΛCDM stellar halos that were built entirely from satellite accretion events and demonstrate broad consistency between the properties of the two sets. We also find that these recovered groups are likely to represent the majority of high-luminosity (L > 5 × 106 L sun) satellites accreted within the last 10 Gyr and on orbits with apocenters within 100 kpc. However, the sensitivity of the M-giant survey to accretion events that were either ancient from low-luminosity objects or those on radial orbits is limited because of the low number of stars, bias toward high-metallicity stars, and the shallow depth (distance explored only out to 100 kpc from the Sun). We examine the extent to which these limitations are addressed by current and future surveys, in particular catalogs of main-sequence turnoff (MSTO) stars from SDSS and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), and of RR Lyrae stars from LSST or PanSTARRS. The MSTO and RR Lyrae surveys are more sensitive to low-luminosity events (L ~ 105 L sun or less) than the 2MASS M-giant sample. Additionally, RR Lyrae surveys, with superior depth, are also good at detecting events on highly eccentric orbits whose debris tends to lie beyond 100 kpc. When combined we expect these photometric surveys to provide a comprehensive picture of the last 10 Gyr of Galactic accretion. Events older than this are too phase mixed to be discovered. Pushing

  3. Binary white dwarfs in the halo of the Milky Way (United States)

    van Oirschot, Pim; Nelemans, Gijs; Toonen, Silvia; Pols, Onno; Brown, Anthony G. A.; Helmi, Amina; Portegies Zwart, Simon


    Aims: We study single and binary white dwarfs in the inner halo of the Milky Way in order to learn more about the conditions under which the population of halo stars was born, such as the initial mass function (IMF), the star formation history, or the binary fraction. Methods: We simulate the evolution of low-metallicity halo stars at distances up to ~3 kpc using the binary population synthesis code SeBa. We use two different white dwarf cooling models to predict the present-day luminosities of halo white dwarfs. We determine the white dwarf luminosity functions (WDLFs) for eight different halo models and compare these with the observed halo WDLF of white dwarfs in the SuperCOSMOS Sky Survey. Furthermore, we predict the properties of binary white dwarfs in the halo and determine the number of halo white dwarfs that is expected to be observed with the Gaia satellite. Results: By comparing the WDLFs, we find that a standard IMF matches the observations more accurately than a top-heavy one, but the difference with a bottom-heavy IMF is small. A burst of star formation 13 Gyr ago fits slightly better than a star formation burst 10 Gyr ago and also slightly better than continuous star formation 10-13 Gyr ago. Gaia will be the first instument to constrain the bright end of the field halo WDLF, where contributions from binary WDs are considerable. Many of these will have He cores, of which a handful have atypical surface gravities (log g 0 in our standard model for WD cooling. These so called pre-WDs, if observed, can help us to constrain white dwarf cooling models and might teach us something about the fraction of halo stars that reside in binaries. Appendices are available in electronic form at

  4. What sets the central structure of dark matter haloes? (United States)

    Ogiya, Go; Hahn, Oliver


    Dark matter (DM) haloes forming near the thermal cut-off scale of the density perturbations are unique, since they are the smallest objects and form through monolithic gravitational collapse, while larger haloes contrastingly have experienced mergers. While standard cold dark matter (CDM) simulations readily produce haloes that follow the universal Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) density profile with an inner slope, ρ ∝ r-α, with α = 1, recent simulations have found that when the free-streaming cut-off expected for the CDM model is resolved, the resulting haloes follow nearly power-law density profiles of α ∼ 1.5. In this paper, we study the formation of density cusps in haloes using idealized N-body simulations of the collapse of proto-haloes. When the proto-halo profile is initially cored due to particle free-streaming at high redshift, we universally find ∼r-1.5 profiles irrespective of the proto-halo profile slope outside the core and large-scale non-spherical perturbations. Quite in contrast, when the proto-halo has a power-law profile, then we obtain profiles compatible with the NFW shape when the density slope of the proto-halo patch is shallower than a critical value, αini ∼ 0.3, while the final slope can be steeper for αini ≳ 0.3. We further demonstrate that the r-1.5 profiles are sensitive to small-scale noise, which gradually drives them towards an inner slope of -1, where they become resilient to such perturbations. We demonstrate that the r-1.5 solutions are in hydrostatic equilibrium, largely consistent with a simple analytic model, and provide arguments that angular momentum appears to determine the inner slope.

  5. Giant scalp arteriovenous malformation. (United States)

    Worm, Paulo Valdeci; Ruschel, Leonardo Gilmone; Roxo, Marcelo Rosa; Camelo, Rafael


    Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the scalp are rare lesions. The clinical picture presents with complaints of increased scalp, scalp disfigurement, pain and neurological symptoms. Its origin can be congenital or traumatic. We present a case of giant scalp AVMs and its management, followed by a brief literature review on the subject. The diagnosis of scalp AVMs is based on physical examination and confirmed by internal and external carotid angiography or computed tomographic angiography (CTA). Surgical excision is especially effective in scalp AVMs, and is the most frequently used treatment modality.

  6. Giant Ulcerative Dermatofibroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgut Karlidag


    Full Text Available Dermatofibroma is a slowly growing common benign cutaneous tumor characterized by hard papules and nodules. The rarely seen erosions and ulcerations may cause difficulties in the diagnosis. Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, which is clinically and histopathologically of malignant character, displays difficulties in the diagnosis since it has similarities with basal cell carcinoma, epidermoid carcinoma, and sarcomas. Head and neck involvement is very rare. In this study, a giant dermatofibroma case, which is histopathologically, ulcerative dermatofibroma, the biggest lesion of the head and neck region and seen rarely in the literature that has characteristics similar to dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, has been presented.

  7. A Giant Urethral Calculus. (United States)

    Sigdel, G; Agarwal, A; Keshaw, B W


    Urethral calculi are rare forms of urolithiasis. Majority of the calculi are migratory from urinary bladder or upper urinary tract. Primary urethral calculi usually occur in presence of urethral stricture or diverticulum. In this article we report a case of a giant posterior urethral calculus measuring 7x3x2 cm in a 47 years old male. Patient presented with acute retention of urine which was preceded by burning micturition and dribbling of urine for one week. The calculus was pushed in to the bladder through the cystoscope and was removed by suprapubic cystolithotomy.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanth Kumar


    Full Text Available Mechanical prosthetic valves are predisposed to bleeding, thrombosis & thromboembolic complications. Overall incidence of thromboembolic complications is 1% per year who are on oral anticoagulants, whereas bleeding complications incidence is 0.5% to 6.6% per year. 1, 2 Minimization of Scylla of thromboembolic & Charybdis of bleeding complication needs a balancing act of optimal antithrombotic therapy. We are reporting a case of middle aged male patient with prosthetic mitral valve presenting in heart failure. Patient had discontinued anticoagulants, as he had subdural hematoma in the past. He presented to our institute with a giant prosthetic valve thrombus.

  9. Giant paraganglioma in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka Gupta


    Full Text Available Paraganglioma is a rare neuroendocrine catecholamine producing tumour in childhood which arises outside the adrenal medulla. We present a 12 year old girl with giant paraganglioma with severe hypertension and end organ damage. Diagnosis was confirmed with 24 h urinary Vanillymandelic Acid (VMA and CT scan. Preoperative blood pressure was controlled with intravenous nitroprusside, and oral prazosin, amlodepine, labetalol and metoprolol. General anaesthesia with epidural analgesia was given. Intra operative blood pressure rise was managed with infusion of nitriglycerine (NTG, esmolol, nitroprusside and propofol.

  10. [Halos and multifocal intraocular lenses: origin and interpretation]. (United States)

    Alba-Bueno, F; Vega, F; Millán, M S


    To present the theoretical and experimental characterization of the halo in multifocal intraocular lenses (MIOL). The origin of the halo in a MIOL is the overlaying of 2 or more images. Using geometrical optics, it can be demonstrated that the diameter of each halo depends on the addition of the lens (ΔP), the base power (P(d)), and the diameter of the IOL that contributes to the «non-focused» focus. In the image plane that corresponds to the distance focus, the halo diameter (δH(d)) is given by: δH(d)=d(pn) ΔP/P(d), where d(pn) is the diameter of the IOL that contributes to the near focus. Analogously, in the near image plane the halo diameter (δH(n)) is: δH(n)=d(pd) ΔP/P(d), where d(pd) is the diameter of the IOL that contributes to the distance focus. Patients perceive halos when they see bright objects over a relatively dark background. In vitro, the halo can be characterized by analyzing the intensity profile of the image of a pinhole that is focused by each of the foci of a MIOL. A comparison has been made between the halos induced by different MIOL of the same base power (20D) in an optical bench. As predicted by theory, the larger the addition of the MIOL, the larger the halo diameter. For large pupils and with MIOL with similar aspheric designs and addition (SN6AD3 vs ZMA00), the apodized MIOL has a smaller halo diameter than a non-apodized one in distance vision, while in near vision the size is very similar, but the relative intensity is higher in the apodized MIOL. When comparing lenses with the same diffractive design, but with different spherical-aspheric base design (SN60D3 vs SN6AD3), the halo in distance vision of the spherical MIOL is larger, while in near vision the spherical IOL induces a smaller halo, but with higher intensity due to the spherical aberration of the distance focus in the near image. In the case of a trifocal-diffractive IOL (AT LISA 839MP) the most noticeable characteristic is the double-halo formation due to the 2 non

  11. Giant renal oncocytoma. (United States)

    Stojanović, Nebojsa; Ignjatovic, Ivan; Kostov, Milos; Mijović, Zaklina; Zivković, Sladjana; Kosević, Branko


    Renal onkocytoma is a distinctive benign tumor derived from epithelial cells of the distal renal tubules. These tumors are often clinically asymptomatic, diagnosed accidentally and difficult to distinguish from renal cell carcinoma. We presented a giant renal onkocytoma in a man aged 64, without any signs or symptoms of the urogenital system disorder. The preoperative diagnosis described the tumor mass of the right kidney, size 16 x 14 cm, and indicated a malignant tumor of kidney. The patient underwent radical nephrectomy. The tumor was encapsulated at the intersection with the characteristic central hyaline scar. Microscopically, it was built of uniform polygonal cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. Immunohystochemiclly, tumor cells were immunoreactive to CK AE1/AE3 and CD 117, but showed negative immunoreactivity to CK 7, RCC marker and Vimentin. Giant renal oncocytomas are rare tumors with benign clinical course. As a rule, they are discovered by accident. Clinical differentiation from malignant tumors of the kidney is not possible. They are treated surgically, mainly by radical nephrectomy. A definitive diagnosis is made only by histopathological examination of tumors using immunohistochemical marker panels.

  12. Giant renal oncocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Nebojša


    Full Text Available Background. Renal onkocytoma is a distinctive benign tumor derived from epithelial cells of the distal renal tubules. These tumors are often clinically asymptomatic, diagnosed accidentally and difficult to distinguish from renal cell carcinoma. Case report. We presented a giant renal onkocytoma in a man aged 64, without any signs or symptoms of the urogenital system disorder. The preoperative diagnosis described the tumor mass of the right kidney, size 16 x 14 cm, and indicated a malignant tumor of kidney. The patient underwent radical nephrectomy. The tumor was encapsulated at the intersection with the characteristic central hyaline scar. Microscopically, it was built of uniform polygonal cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. Immunohystochemiclly, tumor cells were immunoreactive to CK AE1/AE3 and CD 117, but showed negative immunoreactivity to CK 7, RCC marker and Vimentin. Conclusion. Giant renal oncocytomas are rare tumors with benign clinical course. As a rule, they are discovered by accident. Clinical differentiation from malignant tumors of the kidney is not possible. They are treated surgically, mainly by radical nephrectomy. A definitive diagnosis is made only by histopathological examination of tumors using immunohistochemical marker panels.

  13. Giant omphalocele: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mack AJ


    Full Text Available Alexander Josef Mack,1 Bjarte Rogdo2 1Department of Pediatric Surgery, 2Pediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Children’s Hospital of Eastern Switzerland, St Gallen, Switzerland Abstract: Giant omphalocele (GO is a congenital ventral abdominal wall defect characterized by a large opening with herniated abdominal organs, including liver, loss of abdominal cavity volume, and other associated congenital anomalies. Treatment of patients with GO represents a major challenge for involved caregivers. Despite significant improvements in neonatal intensive and surgical care over the last decades, the condition is still associated with high mortality rates and a high risk of severe morbidity in survivors. The principles of the earliest attempts to treat GO surgically and conservatively are still easily recognized in the main approaches used today. In this review, we discuss the more recent developments in the treatment of GO, including perioperative management and associated morbidities of the condition. Keywords: giant omphalocele, abdominal wall closure, staged repair, delayed repair 

  14. Allometry indicates giant eyes of giant squid are not exceptional. (United States)

    Schmitz, Lars; Motani, Ryosuke; Oufiero, Christopher E; Martin, Christopher H; McGee, Matthew D; Gamarra, Ashlee R; Lee, Johanna J; Wainwright, Peter C


    The eyes of giant and colossal squid are among the largest eyes in the history of life. It was recently proposed that sperm whale predation is the main driver of eye size evolution in giant squid, on the basis of an optical model that suggested optimal performance in detecting large luminous visual targets such as whales in the deep sea. However, it is poorly understood how the eye size of giant and colossal squid compares to that of other aquatic organisms when scaling effects are considered. We performed a large-scale comparative study that included 87 squid species and 237 species of acanthomorph fish. While squid have larger eyes than most acanthomorphs, a comparison of relative eye size among squid suggests that giant and colossal squid do not have unusually large eyes. After revising constants used in a previous model we found that large eyes perform equally well in detecting point targets and large luminous targets in the deep sea. The eyes of giant and colossal squid do not appear exceptionally large when allometric effects are considered. It is probable that the giant eyes of giant squid result from a phylogenetically conserved developmental pattern manifested in very large animals. Whatever the cause of large eyes, they appear to have several advantages for vision in the reduced light of the deep mesopelagic zone.

  15. Historic halo displays as weather indicator: Criteria and examples (United States)

    Neuhäuser, Dagmar L.; Neuhäuser, Ralph


    There are numerous celestial signs reported in historic records, many of them refer to atmospheric ("sub-lunar") phenomena, such as ice halos and aurorae. In an interdisciplinary collaboration between astrophysics and cultural astronomy, we noticed that celestial observations including meteorological phenomena are often misinterpreted, mostly due to missing genuine criteria: especially ice crystal halos were recorded frequently in past centuries for religious reasons, but are mistaken nowadays often for other phenomena like aurorae. Ice halo displays yield clear information on humidity and temperature in certain atmospheric layers, and thereby indicate certain weather patterns. Ancient so-called rain makers used halo observations for weather forecast; e.g., a connection between certain halo displays and rain a few day later is statistically significant. Ice halos exist around sun and moon and are reported for both (they can stay for several days): many near, middle, and far eastern records from day- and night-time include such observations with high frequency. (Partly based on publications on halos by D.L. Neuhäuser & R. Neuhäuser, available at

  16. Accurate mass and velocity functions of dark matter haloes (United States)

    Comparat, Johan; Prada, Francisco; Yepes, Gustavo; Klypin, Anatoly


    N-body cosmological simulations are an essential tool to understand the observed distribution of galaxies. We use the MultiDark simulation suite, run with the Planck cosmological parameters, to revisit the mass and velocity functions. At redshift z = 0, the simulations cover four orders of magnitude in halo mass from ˜1011M⊙ with 8783 874 distinct haloes and 532 533 subhaloes. The total volume used is ˜515 Gpc3, more than eight times larger than in previous studies. We measure and model the halo mass function, its covariance matrix w.r.t halo mass and the large-scale halo bias. With the formalism of the excursion-set mass function, we explicit the tight interconnection between the covariance matrix, bias and halo mass function. We obtain a very accurate (Planck cosmology. Finally, we provide precise analytical fits of the Vmax maximum velocity function up to redshift z < 2.3 to push for the development of halo occupation distribution using Vmax. The data and the analysis code are made publicly available in the Skies and Universes data base.

  17. The radio relics and halo of El Gordo, a massive z = 0.870 cluster merger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindner, Robert R.; Baker, Andrew J.; Hughes, John P. [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8019 (United States); Battaglia, Nick [McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Wean Hall, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Gupta, Neeraj [ASTRON, the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Knowles, Kenda; Moodley, Kavilan [Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4041 (South Africa); Marriage, Tobias A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-2686 (United States); Menanteau, Felipe [National Center for Supercomputing Applications, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1205 W. Clark St., Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Reese, Erik D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd St., Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Srianand, Raghunathan, E-mail: [IUCAA, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India)


    We present 610 MHz and 2.1 GHz imaging of the massive Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect selected z = 0.870 cluster merger ACT-CL J0102–4915 ({sup E}l Gordo{sup )}, obtained with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope and the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA), respectively. We detect two complexes of radio relics separated by 3.'4 (1.6 Mpc) along the system's northwest-to-southeast collision axis that have high integrated polarization fractions (33%) and steep spectral indices (α between 1 and 2; S {sub ν}∝ν{sup –α}), consistent with creation via Fermi acceleration by shocks in the intracluster medium triggered by the cluster collision. From the spectral index of the relics, we compute a Mach number M=2.5{sub −0.3}{sup +0.7} and shock speed of 2500{sub −300}{sup +400} km s{sup −1}. With our wide-bandwidth, full-polarization ATCA data, we compute the Faraday depth φ across the northwest relic and find a range of values spanning Δφ = 30 rad m{sup –2}, with a mean value of (φ) = 11 rad m{sup –2} and standard deviation σ{sub φ} = 6 rad m{sup –2}. With the integrated line-of-sight gas density derived from new Chandra X-ray observations, our Faraday depth measurement implies B {sub ∥} ∼ 0.01 μG in the cluster outskirts. The extremely narrow shock widths in the relics (d {sub shock} ≤ 23 kpc), caused by the short synchrotron cooling timescale of relativistic electrons at z = 0.870, prevent us from placing a meaningful constraint on the magnetic field strength B using cooling time arguments. In addition to the relics, we detect a large (r {sub H} ≅ 1.1 Mpc radius), powerful (log (L {sub 1.4}/W Hz{sup –1}) = 25.66 ± 0.12) radio halo with a shape similar to El Gordo's 'bullet'-like X-ray morphology. The spatially resolved spectral-index map of the halo shows the synchrotron spectrum is flattest near the relics, along the system's collision axis, and in regions of high T {sub gas}, all locations associated

  18. Chemical Cartography. I. A Carbonicity Map of the Galactic Halo (United States)

    Lee, Young Sun; Beers, Timothy C.; Kim, Young Kwang; Placco, Vinicius; Yoon, Jinmi; Carollo, Daniela; Masseron, Thomas; Jung, Jaehun


    We present the first map of carbonicity, [C/Fe], for the halo system of the Milky Way, based on a sample of over 100,000 main-sequence turnoff stars with available spectroscopy from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. This map, which explores distances up to 15 kpc from the Sun, reveals clear evidence for the dual nature of the Galactic halo, based on the spatial distribution of stellar carbonicity. The metallicity distribution functions of stars in the inner- and outer-halo regions of the carbonicity map reproduce those previously argued to arise from contributions of the inner- and outer-halo populations, with peaks at [Fe/H] = -1.5 and -2.2, respectively. From consideration of the absolute carbon abundances for our sample, A(C), we also confirm that the carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars in the outer-halo region exhibit a higher frequency of CEMP-no stars (those with no overabundances of heavy neutron-capture elements) than of CEMP-s stars (those with strong overabundances of elements associated with the s-process), whereas the stars in the inner-halo region exhibit a higher frequency of CEMP-s stars. We argue that the contrast in the behavior of the CEMP-no and CEMP-s fractions in these regions arises from differences in the mass distributions of the mini-halos from which the stars of the inner- and outer-halo populations formed, which gives rise in turn to the observed dichotomy of the Galactic halo.

  19. Chemical Cartography. I. A Carbonicity Map of the Galactic Halo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Sun; Kim, Young Kwang [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134 (Korea, Republic of); Beers, Timothy C.; Placco, Vinicius; Yoon, Jinmi [Department of Physics and JINA Center for the Evolution of the Elements, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Carollo, Daniela [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Masseron, Thomas [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Jung, Jaehun, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, Space Science, and Geology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134 (Korea, Republic of)


    We present the first map of carbonicity, [C/Fe], for the halo system of the Milky Way, based on a sample of over 100,000 main-sequence turnoff stars with available spectroscopy from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. This map, which explores distances up to 15 kpc from the Sun, reveals clear evidence for the dual nature of the Galactic halo, based on the spatial distribution of stellar carbonicity. The metallicity distribution functions of stars in the inner- and outer-halo regions of the carbonicity map reproduce those previously argued to arise from contributions of the inner- and outer-halo populations, with peaks at [Fe/H] = −1.5 and −2.2, respectively. From consideration of the absolute carbon abundances for our sample, A (C), we also confirm that the carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars in the outer-halo region exhibit a higher frequency of CEMP-no stars (those with no overabundances of heavy neutron-capture elements) than of CEMP- s stars (those with strong overabundances of elements associated with the s -process), whereas the stars in the inner-halo region exhibit a higher frequency of CEMP- s stars. We argue that the contrast in the behavior of the CEMP-no and CEMP- s fractions in these regions arises from differences in the mass distributions of the mini-halos from which the stars of the inner- and outer-halo populations formed, which gives rise in turn to the observed dichotomy of the Galactic halo.

  20. Stellar halos: a rosetta stone for galaxy formation and cosmology (United States)

    Inglis Read, Justin


    Stellar halos make up about a percent of the total stellar mass in galaxies. Yet their old age and long phase mixing times make them living fossil records of galactic history. In this talk, I review the latest simulations of structure formation in our standard Lambda Cold Dark Matter cosmology. I discuss the latest predictions for stellar halos and the relationship between the stellar halo light and the underlying dark matter. Finally, I discuss how these simulations compare to observations of the Milky Way and Andromeda and, ultimately, what this means for our cosmological model and the formation history of the Galaxy.

  1. Peripheral cholangiocarcinoma : Radiologic significance of hypoechoic halo sign on sonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Young Eok; Moon, Haeng Jin; Lee, Eun Ja; Ahn, In Oak [Gyeong Sang National Univ., College of Medicine, Chinju (Korea, Republic of)


    To determine the prevalence and characteristics of the hypoechoic halo sign in peripheral cholangiocarcinoma. Seventeen sonograms of 17 patients with peripheral cholangiocarcinoma histologically proven by either percutaneous needle biopsy (n=16) or surgical biopsy (n=1) were retrospectively reviewed. The size, margin, homogeneity and internal echogenicity of the masses as well as their peritumoral ductal dilatation and intratumoral calcification were ascertained, and the presence of a hypoechoic halo, and if present, its thickness and type, were also determined. We arbitrarily defined a 'thin' and 'thick' halo respectively, as one with a thickness less than of less than 3 mm, and 3 mm or more, and classified halos as 'intratumoral', 'extratumoral', or 'mixed'. Tumor diameter ranged from 4 to 13.5 (mean,7.3)cm, and the margin was well-defined in 15 cases (smooth: n=2; lobulated: n=13) and irregular in two. Echogenicity was slightly heterogeneous in 11 cases, severely heterogeneous in three, and hemogeneous in three, while the central portion was hyperechoic in eight cases, isoechoic in seven, and hypoechoic in only two. A hypoechoic halo was detected in 10 of 15 tumors (67%) with isoechoic centers. In evaluating the halo, two cases in which the mass was hypoechoic were excluded. All ten hypoechoic halos were at least 3 (range, 4-13; mean, 8.3) mm thick; in two cases the presence of a halo was equivocal, and in three there was no halo. Eight of ten halos were the mixed type, two were intratumoral, and none were extratumoral. Peritumoral ductal dilatation was seen in four cases (24%), but no internal calcification was observed. US showed that the margins of peripheral cholangiocarcinomas were mostly well-defined and smooth (12%) or lobulated (76%), and that masses were mainly heterogeneous (64%) A hypoechoic halo, which in all cases was thick and in 80% of cases was mixed, was noted in 67% of tumors with a hyper (47

  2. Evolution of Southern Hemisphere spring air masses observed by HALOE (United States)

    Pierce, R. Bradley; Grose, William L.; Russell, James M., III; Tuck, Adrian F.


    The evolution of Southern Hemisphere air masses observed by the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) during September 21 through October 15, 1992, is investigated using isentropic trajectories computed from United Kingdom Meteorological Office (UKMO) assimilated winds and temperatures. Maps of constituent concentrations are obtained by accumulation of air masses from previous HALOE occultations. Lagged correlations between initial and subsequent HALOE observations of the same air mass are used to validate the air mass trajectories. High correlations are found for lag times as large as 10 days. Frequency distributions of the air mass constituent concentrations are used to examine constituent distributions in and around the Southern Hemisphere polar vortex.

  3. Connecting Galaxies, Halos, and Star Formation Rates Across Cosmic Time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conroy, Charlie; Wechsler, Risa H.


    A simple, observationally-motivated model is presented for understanding how halo masses, galaxy stellar masses, and star formation rates are related, and how these relations evolve with time. The relation between halo mass and galaxy stellar mass is determined by matching the observed spatial abundance of galaxies to the expected spatial abundance of halos at multiple epochs--i.e. more massive galaxies are assigned to more massive halos at each epoch. This 'abundance matching' technique has been shown previously to reproduce the observed luminosity- and scale-dependence of galaxy clustering over a range of epochs. Halos at different epochs are connected by halo mass accretion histories estimated from N-body simulations. The halo-galaxy connection at fixed epochs in conjunction with the connection between halos across time provides a connection between observed galaxies across time. With approximations for the impact of merging and accretion on the growth of galaxies, one can then directly infer the star formation histories of galaxies as a function of stellar and halo mass. This model is tuned to match both the observed evolution of the stellar mass function and the normalization of the observed star formation rate--stellar mass relation to z {approx} 1. The data demands, for example, that the star formation rate density is dominated by galaxies with M{sub star} {approx} 10{sup 10.0-10.5} M{sub {circle_dot}} from 0 < z < 1, and that such galaxies over these epochs reside in halos with M{sub vir} {approx} 10{sup 11.5-12.5} M{sub {circle_dot}}. The star formation rate--halo mass relation is approximately Gaussian over the range 0 < z < 1 with a mildly evolving mean and normalization. This model is then used to shed light on a number of issues, including (1) a clarification of 'downsizing', (2) the lack of a sharp characteristic halo mass at which star formation is truncated, and (3) the dominance of star formation over merging to the stellar

  4. The immitigable nature of assembly bias: the impact of halo definition on assembly bias (United States)

    Villarreal, Antonio S.; Zentner, Andrew R.; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Purcell, Chris W.; van den Bosch, Frank C.; Diemer, Benedikt; Lange, Johannes U.; Wang, Kuan; Campbell, Duncan


    Dark matter halo clustering depends not only on halo mass, but also on other properties such as concentration and shape. This phenomenon is known broadly as assembly bias. We explore the dependence of assembly bias on halo definition, parametrized by spherical overdensity parameter, Δ. We summarize the strength of concentration-, shape-, and spin-dependent halo clustering as a function of halo mass and halo definition. Concentration-dependent clustering depends strongly on mass at all Δ. For conventional halo definitions (Δ ˜ 200 - 600 m), concentration-dependent clustering at low mass is driven by a population of haloes that is altered through interactions with neighbouring haloes. Concentration-dependent clustering can be greatly reduced through a mass-dependent halo definition with Δ ˜ 20 - 40 m for haloes with M200 m ≲ 1012 h-1M⊙. Smaller Δ implies larger radii and mitigates assembly bias at low mass by subsuming altered, so-called backsplash haloes into now larger host haloes. At higher masses (M200 m ≳ 1013 h-1M⊙) larger overdensities, Δ ≳ 600 m, are necessary. Shape- and spin-dependent clustering are significant for all halo definitions that we explore and exhibit a relatively weaker mass dependence. Generally, both the strength and the sense of assembly bias depend on halo definition, varying significantly even among common definitions. We identify no halo definition that mitigates all manifestations of assembly bias. A halo definition that mitigates assembly bias based on one halo property (e.g. concentration) must be mass dependent. The halo definitions that best mitigate concentration-dependent halo clustering do not coincide with the expected average splashback radii at fixed halo mass.

  5. On to the Ice Giants (United States)

    Reh, Kim; Hofstdater, Mark; Simon, Amy; Elliott, John


    Voyager 2 mission flew by Uranus in 1986 and Neptune in 1989 resulting in stunning remote observations not previously accessible from the ground. There have been no follow-up space flight missions to examine ice giants and, as a result there are significant gaps in our understanding of planetary formation and evolution. This gap not only affects our understanding of our own solar system but also our understanding of exoplanets; the majority of planets discovered around other stars are thought to be ice giants. Ice Giants are likely to be far more abundant in our galaxy than previously thought. The U.S. 2011 Planetary Science Decadal Survey committee recognized the importance of Uranus and Neptune, and prioritized the exploration of the Ice Giants. Following from this, NASA and ESA have recently completed a study of candidate missions to Uranus and Neptune, the so-called ice giant planets. The intent was to examine what could be accomplished within the budget realities of the predictable future. This "Pre-Decadal Study," focused on opportunities for missions launching in the 2020's and early 2030's. This paper presents results from the Ice Giants study (science, architectures and technologies) and concludes that compelling and affordable missions to the Ice Giants are within our reach.

  6. Preoperative progressive pneumoperitoneum for giant inguinal hernias


    Piskin, Turgut; Aydin, Cemalettin; Barut, Bora; Dirican, Abuzer; Kayaalp, Cuneyt


    Reduction of giant hernia contents into the abdominal cavity may cause intraoperative and postoperative problems such as abdominal compartment syndrome. Preoperative progressive pneumoperitoneum expands the abdominal cavity, increases the patient?s tolerability to operation, and can diminish intraoperative and postoperative complications. Preoperative progressive pneumoperitoneum is recommended for giant ventral hernias, but rarely for giant inguinal hernias. We present two giant inguinal her...

  7. Reconstruction of halo power spectrum from redshift-space galaxy distribution: cylinder-grouping method and halo exclusion effect (United States)

    Okumura, Teppei; Takada, Masahiro; More, Surhud; Masaki, Shogo


    The peculiar velocity field measured by redshift-space distortions (RSD) in galaxy surveys provides a unique probe of the growth of large-scale structure. However, systematic effects arise when including satellite galaxies in the clustering analysis. Since satellite galaxies tend to reside in massive haloes with a greater halo bias, the inclusion boosts the clustering power. In addition, virial motions of the satellite galaxies cause a significant suppression of the clustering power due to non-linear RSD effects. We develop a novel method to recover the redshift-space power spectrum of haloes from the observed galaxy distribution by minimizing the contamination of satellite galaxies. The cylinder-grouping method (CGM) we study effectively excludes satellite galaxies from a galaxy sample. However, we find that this technique produces apparent anisotropies in the reconstructed halo distribution over all the scales which mimic RSD. On small scales, the apparent anisotropic clustering is caused by exclusion of haloes within the anisotropic cylinder used by the CGM. On large scales, the misidentification of different haloes in the large-scale structures, aligned along the line of sight, into the same CGM group causes the apparent anisotropic clustering via their cross-correlation with the CGM haloes. We construct an empirical model for the CGM halo power spectrum, which includes correction terms derived using the CGM window function at small scales as well as the linear matter power spectrum multiplied by a simple anisotropic function at large scales. We apply this model to a mock galaxy catalogue at z = 0.5, designed to resemble Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) CMASS galaxies, and find that our model can predict both the monopole and quadrupole power spectra of the host haloes up to k < 0.5 {{h Mpc^{-1}}} to within 5 per cent.

  8. Recurrent giant juvenile fibroadenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn S. King


    Full Text Available Breast masses in children, though rare, present a difficult clinical challenge as they can represent a wide variety of entities from benign fibroadenomas to phyllodes tumors. Rapidly growing or recurrent masses can be particularly concerning to patients, families and physicians alike. Clinical examination and conventional imaging modalities are not efficacious in distinguishing between different tumor types and surgical excision is often recommended for both final diagnosis and for treatment of large or rapidly growing masses. While surgical excision can result in significant long-term deformity of the breast there are some surgical techniques that can be used to limit deformity and/or aid in future reconstruction. Here we present a case of recurrent giant juvenile fibroadenoma with a review of the clinical presentation, diagnostic tools and treatment options.

  9. Giant Congenital Melanocytic Nevus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Bo Sonnich; Henriksen, Trine Foged; Kølle, Stig-Frederik Trojahn


    % versus 44% required unplanned additional surgery, respectively. Complications were noted in 25% and 67% of the patients, respectively. Cosmetic result was satisfying in 76% of patients without difference between the groups. No malignant transformation was found during a mean follow-up of 11 years......Giant congenital melanocytic nevi (GCMN) occur in 1:20,000 livebirths and are associated with increased risk of malignant transformation. The treatment of GCMN from 1981 to 2010 in a tertiary referral center was reviewed evaluating the modalities used, cosmetic results, associated complications......, and malignant transformation. Of 35 patients, 25 underwent surgery. Curettage was most frequently used (64%) followed by excision and tissue expansion (20%). Six percent of the patients treated with curettage, and 78% of the patients who received excision surgery required more than 1 planned procedure, and 25...

  10. Giant Planet Formation and Migration (United States)

    Paardekooper, Sijme-Jan; Johansen, Anders


    Planets form in circumstellar discs around young stars. Starting with sub-micron sized dust particles, giant planet formation is all about growing 14 orders of magnitude in size. It has become increasingly clear over the past decades that during all stages of giant planet formation, the building blocks are extremely mobile and can change their semimajor axis by substantial amounts. In this chapter, we aim to give a basic overview of the physical processes thought to govern giant planet formation and migration, and to highlight possible links to water delivery.

  11. Giant Hedge-Hogs: Spikes on Giant Gravitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadri, D


    We consider giant gravitons on the maximally supersymmetric plane-wave background of type IIB string theory. Fixing the light-cone gauge, we work out the low energy effective light-cone Hamiltonian of the three-sphere giant graviton. At first order, this is a U(1) gauge theory on R x S{sup 3}. We place sources in this effective gauge theory. Although non-vanishing net electric charge configurations are disallowed by Gauss' law, electric dipoles can be formed. From the string theory point of view these dipoles can be understood as open strings piercing the three-sphere, generalizing the usual BIons to the giant gravitons, BIGGons. Our results can be used to give a two dimensional (worldsheet) description of giant gravitons, similar to Polchinski's description for the usual D-branes, in agreement with the discussions of hep-th/0204196.

  12. On the galaxy-halo connection in the EAGLE simulation (United States)

    Desmond, Harry; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Wechsler, Risa H.; Crain, Robert A.; Schaye, Joop


    Empirical models of galaxy formation require assumptions about the correlations between galaxy and halo properties. These may be calibrated against observations or inferred from physical models such as hydrodynamical simulations. In this Letter, we use the EAGLE simulation to investigate the correlation of galaxy size with halo properties. We motivate this analysis by noting that the common assumption of angular momentum partition between baryons and dark matter in rotationally supported galaxies overpredicts both the spread in the stellar mass-size relation and the anticorrelation of size and velocity residuals, indicating a problem with the galaxy-halo connection it implies. We find the EAGLE galaxy population to perform significantly better on both statistics, and trace this success to the weakness of the correlations of galaxy size with halo mass, concentration and spin at fixed stellar mass. Using these correlations in empirical models will enable fine-grained aspects of galaxy scalings to be matched.

  13. Impact of Neutrinos on Dark Matter Halo Environment (United States)

    Court, Travis; Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco


    The spatial clustering of galaxies is commonly used to infer the shape of the matter power spectrum and therefore to place constraints on the value of the cosmological parameters. In order to extract the maximum information from galaxy surveys it is required to provide accurate theoretical predictions. The first step to model galaxy clustering is to understand the spatial distribution of the structures where they reside: dark matter halos. I will show that the clustering of halos does not depend only on mass, but on other quantities like local matter overdensity. I will point out that halo clustering is also sensitive to the local overdensity of the cosmic neutrino background. I will show that splitting halos according to neutrino overdensity induces a very large scale-dependence bias, an effect that may lead to a new technique to constraint the sum of the neutrino masses.

  14. Visibility of stars, halos, and rainbows during solar eclipses. (United States)

    Können, Gunther P; Hinz, Claudia


    The visibility of stars, planets, diffraction coronas, halos, and rainbows during the partial and total phases of a solar eclipse is studied. The limiting magnitude during various stages of the partial phase is presented. The sky radiance during totality with respect to noneclipse conditions is revisited and found to be typically 1/4000. The corresponding limiting magnitude is +3.5. At totality, the signal-to-background ratio of diffraction coronas, halos, and rainbows has dropped by a factor of 250. It is found that diffraction coronas around the totally eclipsed Sun may nevertheless occur. Analyses of lunar halo observations during twilight indicate that bright halo displays may also persist during totality. Rainbows during totality seem impossible.

  15. Planetary nebulae as kinematic tracers of galaxy stellar halos (United States)

    Coccato, Lodovico


    The kinematic and dynamical properties of galaxy stellar halos are difficult to measure because of the faint surface brightness that characterizes these regions. Spiral galaxies can be probed using the radio Hi emission; on the contrary, early-type galaxies contain less gas, therefore alternative kinematic tracers need to be used. Planetary nebulae (PNe) can be easily detected far out in the halo thanks to their bright emission lines. It is therefore possible to map the halo kinematics also in early-type galaxies, typically out to 5 effective radii or beyond. Thanks to the recent spectroscopic surveys targeting extra-galactic PNe, we can now rely on a few tens of galaxies where the kinematics of the stellar halos are measured. Here, I will review the main results obtained in this field in the last decades.

  16. Halo performance on low light level image intensifiers (United States)

    Cui, Dongxu; Ren, Ling; Chang, Benkang; Shi, Feng; Shi, Jifang; Qian, Yunsheng; Wang, Honggang; Zhang, Junju

    To analyze the formation mechanism of the halo on low light level image intensifiers and the influencing factors on the halo size, a halo tester has been designed. Under the illumination between 10-2 lx and 10-4 lx, we use the tester to collect a 0.1922 mm hole image directly with CoolSNAPK4 charge-coupled device (CCD) in a darkroom. The practical measurement result shows that the amplification ratio is 343.4. Then we put the super second and third generation image intensifiers after the hole, and the halo sizes of the hole images on the screens are determined as 0.2388 and 0.5533 mm respectively. The results are helpful to improve the quality of the low light level image intensifiers.

  17. Summary of the 2014 Beam-Halo Monitoring Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Alan


    Understanding and controlling beam halo is important for high-intensity hadron accelerators, for high-brightness electron linacs, and for low-emittance light sources. This can only be achieved by developing suitable diagnostics. The main challenge faced by such instrumentation is the high dynamic range needed to observe the halo in the presence of an intense core. In addition, measurements must often be made non-invasively. This talk summarizes the one-day workshop on Beam-Halo Monitoring that was held at SLAC on September 19 last year, immediately following IBIC 2014 in Monterey. Workshop presentations described invasive techniques using wires, screens, or crystal collimators, and non-invasive measurements with gas or scattered electrons. Talks on optical methods showed the close links between observing halo and astronomical problems like observing the solar corona or directly observing a planet orbiting another star.

  18. UARS Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) Level 3AT V001 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) Level 3AT data product consists of daily vertical profiles of temperature, aerosol extinction and concentrations of HCl,...

  19. Testing approximate predictions of displacements of cosmological dark matter halos (United States)

    Munari, Emiliano; Monaco, Pierluigi; Koda, Jun; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Sefusatti, Emiliano; Borgani, Stefano


    We present a test to quantify how well some approximate methods, designed to reproduce the mildly non-linear evolution of perturbations, are able to reproduce the clustering of DM halos once the grouping of particles into halos is defined and kept fixed. The following methods have been considered: Lagrangian Perturbation Theory (LPT) up to third order, Truncated LPT, Augmented LPT, MUSCLE and COLA. The test runs as follows: halos are defined by applying a friends-of-friends (FoF) halo finder to the output of an N-body simulation. The approximate methods are then applied to the same initial conditions of the simulation, producing for all particles displacements from their starting position and velocities. The position and velocity of each halo are computed by averaging over the particles that belong to that halo, according to the FoF halo finder. This procedure allows us to perform a well-posed test of how clustering of the matter density and halo density fields are recovered, without asking to the approximate method an accurate reconstruction of halos. We have considered the results at z=0,0.5,1, and we have analysed power spectrum in real and redshift space, object-by-object difference in position and velocity, density Probability Distribution Function (PDF) and its moments, phase difference of Fourier modes. We find that higher LPT orders are generally able to better reproduce the clustering of halos, while little or no improvement is found for the matter density field when going to 2LPT and 3LPT. Augmentation provides some improvement when coupled with 2LPT, while its effect is limited when coupled with 3LPT. Little improvement is brought by MUSCLE with respect to Augmentation. The more expensive particle-mesh code COLA outperforms all LPT methods, and this is true even for mesh sizes as large as the inter-particle distance. This test sets an upper limit on the ability of these methods to reproduce the clustering of halos, for the cases when these objects are

  20. Vaporization in comets - The icy grain halo of Comet West (United States)

    Ahearn, M. F.; Cowan, J. J.


    The variation with heliocentric distance of the production rates of various species in Comet West (1975n = 1976 VI) is explained with a cometary model consisting of a CO2 dominated nucleus plus a halo of icy grains of H2O or clathrate hydrate. It is concluded that the parents of CN and C3 are released primarily from the nucleus but that the parent of C2 is released primarily from the halo of icy grains.

  1. Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) Di PT Halo Rumah Bernyanyi


    Rismayanti, Rebekka


    : This research aims to describe the effectiveness of Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC) in PT Halo Rumah Bernyanyi which, from the perspective of marketing strategy, could be studied by analyzing the segmentation, targeting, and positioning. Using case-study method with in-depth interview, the result shows that the implementation of IMC at PT Halo Rumah Bernyayi is arranged in one single strategy and tend to neglect the complexities of running multi-brand family karaoke-house. This con...

  2. Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) di PT Halo Rumah Bernyanyi


    Rebekka Rismayanti


    Abstract: This research aims to describe the effectiveness of Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC) in PT Halo Rumah Bernyanyi which, from the perspective of marketing strategy, could be studied by analyzing the segmentation, targeting, and positioning. Using case-study method with in-depth interview, the result shows that the implementation of IMC at PT Halo Rumah Bernyayi is arranged in one single strategy and tend to neglect the complexities of running multi-brand family karaoke-house. ...

  3. Non-Gaussianity and Excursion Set Theory: Halo Bias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adshead, Peter [Enrico Fermi Institute, Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Baxter, Eric J. [Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Dodelson, Scott [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Lidz, Adam [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)


    We study the impact of primordial non-Gaussianity generated during inflation on the bias of halos using excursion set theory. We recapture the familiar result that the bias scales as $k^{-2}$ on large scales for local type non-Gaussianity but explicitly identify the approximations that go into this conclusion and the corrections to it. We solve the more complicated problem of non-spherical halos, for which the collapse threshold is scale dependent.

  4. MD 1691: Active halo control using tune ripple at injection

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia Morales, Hector; Bruce, Roderik; Redaelli, Stefano; Fitterer, Miriam; Fiascaris, Maria; Nisbet, David; Thiesen, Hugues; Valentino, Gianluca; Xu, Chen; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department


    In this MD we performed halo excitation through tune ripple. This consists in an excitation that introduces new resonance sidebands around the existing resonance lines. In presence of sufficient detuning with amplitude, these sidebands can in principle affect only the dynamics of the halo particles at large amplitudes. Tune ripple was induced through a current modulation of the warm trim quadrupoles in IR7. This is the first time this method is experimentally tested at the LHC.

  5. Nano-mechanics of HaloTag Tethers


    Popa, Ionel; Berkovich, Ronen; Alegre-Cebollada, Jorge; Badilla, Carmen L.; Rivas-Pardo, Jaime Andres; Taniguchi, Yukinori; Kawakami, Masaru; Fernandez, Julio M.


    The active site of the Haloalkane Dehydrogenase (HaloTag) enzyme can be covalently attached to a chloroalkane ligand providing a mechanically strong tether, resistant to large pulling forces. Here we demonstrate the covalent tethering of protein L and I27 polyproteins between an AFM cantilever and a glass surface using HaloTag anchoring at one end, and thiol chemistry at the other end. Covalent tethering is unambiguously confirmed by the observation of full length polyprotein unfolding, combi...

  6. Two Stellar Components in the Halo of the Milky Way (United States)


    distributed throughout the primordial interstellar medium by stellar winds and supernovae . Previous work has provided evidence that the halo of the Milky...the number of stars), for samples in which a counter-rotating halo has been claimed, ordered by sample size. The samples listed in the first column...sample by the authors are listed in the third column (see original papers for details). The method of analysis used for each determination is listed : F&W

  7. The globular cluster-dark matter halo connection (United States)

    Boylan-Kolchin, Michael


    I present a simple phenomenological model for the observed linear scaling of the stellar mass in old globular clusters (GCs) with $z=0$ halo mass in which the stellar mass in GCs scales linearly with progenitor halo mass at $z=6$ above a minimum halo mass for GC formation. This model reproduces the observed $M_{\\rm GCs}-M_{\\rm halo}$ relation at $z=0$ and results in a prediction for the minimum halo mass at $z=6$ required for hosting one GC: $M_{\\rm min}(z=6)=1.07 \\times 10^9\\,M_{\\odot}$. Translated to $z=0$, the mean threshold mass is $M_{\\rm halo}(z=0) \\approx 2\\times 10^{10}\\,M_{\\odot}$. I explore the observability of GCs in the reionization era and their contribution to cosmic reionization, both of which depend sensitively on the (unknown) ratio of GC birth mass to present-day stellar mass, $\\xi$. Based on current detections of $z \\gtrsim 6$ objects with $M_{1500} 10$ are strongly disfavored; this, in turn, has potentially important implications for GC formation scenarios. Even for low values of $\\xi$, some observed high-$z$ galaxies may actually be GCs, complicating estimates of reionization-era galaxy ultraviolet luminosity functions and constraints on dark matter models. GCs are likely important reionization sources if $5 \\lesssim \\xi \\lesssim 10$. I also explore predictions for the fraction of accreted versus in situ GCs in the local Universe and for descendants of systems at the halo mass threshold of GC formation (dwarf galaxies). An appealing feature of the model presented here is the ability to make predictions for GC properties based solely on dark matter halo merger trees.

  8. The abundance and environment of dark matter haloes (United States)

    Metuki, Ofer; Libeskind, Noam I.; Hoffman, Yehuda


    An open question in cosmology and the theory of structure formation is to what extent does environment affect the properties of galaxies and haloes. The present paper aims at shedding light on this problem. The paper focuses on the analysis of a dark matter only simulation and it addresses the issue of how the environment affects the abundance of haloes, which are assigned four attributes: their virial mass, an ambient density calculated with an aperture that scales with Rvir (ΔM), a fixed-aperture (ΔR) ambient density, and a cosmic web classification (i.e. voids, sheets, filaments, and knots, as defined by the V-web algorithm). ΔM is the mean density around a halo evaluated within a sphere of a radius of 5Rvir, where Rvir is the virial radius. ΔR is the density field Gaussian smoothed with R = 4 h-1 Mpc, evaluated at the centre of the halo. The main result of the paper is that the difference between haloes in different web elements stems from the difference in their mass functions, and does not depend on their adaptive-aperture ambient density. A dependence on the fixed-aperture ambient density is induced by the cross-correlation between the mass of a halo and its fixed-aperture ambient density.

  9. Stellar-to-halo mass relation of cluster galaxies (United States)

    Niemiec, Anna; Jullo, Eric; Limousin, Marceau; Giocoli, Carlo; Erben, Thomas; Hildebrant, Hendrik; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Leauthaud, Alexie; Makler, Martin; Moraes, Bruno; Pereira, Maria E. S.; Shan, Huanyuan; Rozo, Eduardo; Rykoff, Eli; Van Waerbeke, Ludovic


    In the formation of galaxy groups and clusters, the dark matter haloes containing satellite galaxies are expected to be tidally stripped in gravitational interactions with the host. We use galaxy-galaxy weak lensing to measure the average mass of dark matter haloes of satellite galaxies as a function of projected distance to the centre of the host, since stripping is expected to be greater for satellites closer to the centre of the cluster. We further classify the satellites according to their stellar mass: Assuming that the stellar component of the galaxy is less disrupted by tidal stripping, stellar mass can be used as a proxy of the infall mass. We study the stellar-to-halo mass relation of satellites as a function of the cluster-centric distance to measure tidal stripping. We use the shear catalogues of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) science verification archive, the Canada-France-Hawaii Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS) and the CFHT Stripe 82 surveys, and we select satellites from the redMaPPer catalogue of clusters. For galaxies located in the outskirts of clusters, we find a stellar-to- halo mass relation in good agreement with the theoretical expectations from Moster et al. for central galaxies. In the centre of the cluster, we find that this relation is shifted to smaller halo mass for a given stellar mass. We interpret this finding as further evidence for tidal stripping of dark matter haloes in high-density environments.

  10. Nano-mechanics of HaloTag Tethers (United States)

    Popa, Ionel; Berkovich, Ronen; Alegre-Cebollada, Jorge; Badilla, Carmen L.; Rivas-Pardo, Jaime Andres; Taniguchi, Yukinori; Kawakami, Masaru; Fernandez, Julio M.


    The active site of the Haloalkane Dehydrogenase (HaloTag) enzyme can be covalently attached to a chloroalkane ligand providing a mechanically strong tether, resistant to large pulling forces. Here we demonstrate the covalent tethering of protein L and I27 polyproteins between an AFM cantilever and a glass surface using HaloTag anchoring at one end, and thiol chemistry at the other end. Covalent tethering is unambiguously confirmed by the observation of full length polyprotein unfolding, combined with high detachment forces that range up to ~2000 pN. We use these covalently anchored polyproteins to study the remarkable mechanical properties of HaloTag proteins. We show that the force that triggers unfolding of the HaloTag protein exhibits a four-fold increase, from 131 pN to 491 pN, when the direction of the applied force is changed from the C-terminus to the N-terminus. Force-clamp experiments reveal that unfolding of the HaloTag protein is twice more sensitive to pulling force compared to protein L, and refolds at a slower rate. We show how these properties allow for the long-term observation of protein folding-unfolding cycles at high forces, without interference from the HaloTag tether. PMID:23909704

  11. What to expect from dynamical modelling of galactic haloes (United States)

    Wang, Wenting; Han, Jiaxin; Cole, Shaun; Frenk, Carlos; Sawala, Till


    Many dynamical models of the Milky Way halo require assumptions that the distribution function of a tracer population should be independent of time (I.e. a steady-state distribution function) and that the underlying potential is spherical. We study the limitations of such modelling by applying a general dynamical model with minimal assumptions to a large sample of galactic haloes from cosmological N-body and hydrodynamical simulations. Using dark matter particles as dynamical tracers, we find that the systematic uncertainties in the measured mass and concentration parameters typically have an amplitude of 25-40 per cent. When stars are used as tracers, however, the systematic uncertainties can be as large as a factor of 2-3. The systematic uncertainties are not reduced by increasing the tracer sample size and vary stochastically from halo to halo. These systematic uncertainties are mostly driven by underestimated statistical noise caused by correlated phase-space structures that violate the steady-state assumption. The number of independent phase-space structures inferred from the uncertainty level sets a limiting sample size beyond which a further increase no longer significantly improves the accuracy of dynamical inferences. The systematic uncertainty level is determined by the halo merger history, the shape and environment of the halo. Our conclusions apply generally to any spherical steady-state model.

  12. Cold dark matter. 1: The formation of dark halos (United States)

    Gelb, James M.; Bertschinger, Edmund


    We use numerical simulations of critically closed cold dark matter (CDM) models to study the effects of numerical resolution on observable quantities. We study simulations with up to 256(exp 3) particles using the particle-mesh (PM) method and with up to 144(exp 3) particles using the adaptive particle-particle-mesh (P3M) method. Comparisons of galaxy halo distributions are made among the various simulations. We also compare distributions with observations, and we explore methods for identifying halos, including a new algorithm that finds all particles within closed contours of the smoothed density field surrounding a peak. The simulated halos show more substructure than predicted by the Press-Schechter theory. We are able to rule out all omega = 1 CDM models for linear amplitude sigma(sub 8) greater than or approximately = 0.5 because the simulations produce too many massive halos compared with the observations. The simulations also produce too many low-mass halos. The distribution of halos characterized by their circular velocities for the P3M simulations is in reasonable agreement with the observations for 150 km/s less than or = V(sub circ) less than or = 350 km/s.

  13. Early evolution of the Galactic halo revealed from Hipparcos observations of metal-poor stars (United States)

    Chiba, Masashi; Yoshii, Yuzuru


    The kinematics of 122 red giant and 124 RR Lyrae stars in the solar neighborhood are studied using accurate measurements of their proper motions obtained by the Hipparcos astrometry satellite, combined with their published photometric distances, metal abundances, and radial velocities. A majority of these sample stars have metal abundances of (Fe/H) = -1 or less and thus represent the old stellar populations in the Galaxy. The halo component, with (Fe/H) = -1.6 or less, is characterized by a lack of systemic rotation and a radially elongated velocity ellipsoid. About 16 percent of such metal-poor stars have low orbital eccentricities, and we see no evidence of a correlation between (Fe/H) and e. Based on the model for the e-distribution of orbits, we show that this fraction of low-e stars for (Fe/H) = -1.6 or less is explained by the halo component alone, without introducing the extra disk component claimed by recent workers. This is also supported by the absence of a significant change in the e-distribution with height from the Galactic plane. In the intermediate-metallicity range, we find that stars with disklike kinematics have only modest effects on the distributions of rotational velocities and e for the sample at absolute value of z less than 1 kpc. This disk component appears to constitute only 10 percent for (Fe/H) between -1.6 and -1 and 20 percent for (Fe/H) between -1.4 and -1.

  14. [Giant cell glioblastoma. Case report]. (United States)

    Alvarez-Betancourt, Leonardo; López-Ortega, Salvador; Caldera-Duarte, Agustín


    Glioblastomas (World Health Organization, (WHO), grade IV) are the most frequent and malignant neoplasms of the human nervous system. Giant cells glioblastomas, a subtype of these, account for less than 1% of all brain toumors and up to 5% of glioblastomas. We present the case of a female who was diagnosed and treated for a right intra and paraventricular giant cell glioblastoma. We enfatize the importance of histological features of this toumor related to its prognosis.

  15. Design of CMS Beam Halo Monitor system

    CERN Document Server



    A fast and directional monitoring system for the CMS experiment is designed to provide an online, bunch-by-bunch measurement of beam background induced by beam halo interactions, separately for each beam. The background detection is based on Cherenkov radiation produced in synthetic fused silica read out by a fast, UV sensitive photomultiplier tube. Twenty detector units per end will be azimuthally distributed around the rotating shielding of CMS, covering ~408 cm2 at 20.6m from the interaction point, at a radius of ~180 cm. The directional and fast response of the system allows the discrimination of the background particles from the dominant flux in the cavern induced by pp collision debris, produced within the 25 ns bunch spacing. A robust multi-layered shielding will enclose each detector unit to protect the photomultiplier tube from the magnetic field and to eliminate the occupancy from low energy particles. The design of the front-end units is validated by experimental results. An overview of the new sy...

  16. The CMS Beam Halo Monitor electronics (United States)

    Tosi, N.; Dabrowski, A. E.; Fabbri, F.; Grassi, T.; Hughes, E.; Mans, J.; Montanari, A.; Orfanelli, S.; Rusack, R.; Torromeo, G.; Stickland, D. P.; Stifter, K.


    The CMS Beam Halo Monitor has been successfully installed in the CMS cavern in LHC Long Shutdown 1 for measuring the machine induced background for LHC Run II. The system is based on 40 detector units composed of synthetic quartz Cherenkov radiators coupled to fast photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The readout electronics chain uses many components developed for the Phase 1 upgrade to the CMS Hadronic Calorimeter electronics, with dedicated firmware and readout adapted to the beam monitoring requirements. The PMT signal is digitized by a charge integrating ASIC (QIE10), providing both the signal rise time, with few nanosecond resolution, and the charge integrated over one bunch crossing. The backend electronics uses microTCA technology and receives data via a high-speed 5 Gbps asynchronous link. It records histograms with sub-bunch crossing timing resolution and is read out via IPbus using the newly designed CMS data acquisition for non-event based data. The data is processed in real time and published to CMS and the LHC, providing online feedback on the beam quality. A dedicated calibration monitoring system has been designed to generate short triggered pulses of light to monitor the efficiency of the system. The electronics has been in operation since the first LHC beams of Run II and has served as the first demonstration of the new QIE10, Microsemi Igloo2 FPGA and high-speed 5 Gbps link with LHC data.

  17. Beam halo collimation in heavy ion synchrotrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Strašík


    Full Text Available This paper presents a systematic study of the halo collimation of ion beams from proton up to uranium in synchrotrons. The projected Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research synchrotron SIS100 is used as a reference case. The concepts are separated into fully stripped (e.g., ^{238}U^{92+} and partially stripped (e.g., ^{238}U^{28+} ion collimation. An application of the two-stage betatron collimation system, well established for proton accelerators, is intended also for fully stripped ions. The two-stage system consists of a primary collimator (a scattering foil and secondary collimators (bulky absorbers. Interaction of the particles with the primary collimator (scattering, momentum losses, and nuclear interactions was simulated by using fluka. Particle-tracking simulations were performed by using mad-x. Finally, the dependence of the collimation efficiency on the primary ion species was determined. The influence of the collimation system adjustment, lattice imperfections, and beam parameters was estimated. The concept for the collimation of partially stripped ions employs a thin stripping foil in order to change their charge state. These ions are subsequently deflected towards a dump location using a beam optical element. The charge state distribution after the stripping foil was obtained from global. The ions were tracked by using mad–x.

  18. Performance of the CMS Beam Halo Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration


    The CMS Beam Halo Monitor has been successfully installed in the CMS cavern in LHC Long Shutdown 1 for measuring the machine induced background for LHC Run II. The system is based on 40 detector units composed of radiation hard synthetic quartz Cherenkov radiators coupled to fast photomultiplier tubes for a direction sensitive measurement. The readout electronics chain uses many components developed for the Phase 1 upgrade to the CMS Hadronic Calorimeter electronics, with dedicated firmware and readout adapted to the beam monitoring requirements. The PMT signal is digitized by a charge integrating ASIC (QIE10), providing both the signal rise time, with few ns resolution, and the charge integrated over one bunch crossing. The backend electronics uses microTCA technology and received data via a high-speed 5 Gbps asynchronous link. It records histograms with sub-bunch crossing timing resolution and is readout by IPbus using the newly designed CMS data acquisition for non-event based data. The data is processed i...

  19. The CMS Beam Halo Monitor Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2080684; Fabbri, F.; Grassi, T.; Hughes, E.; Mans, J.; Montanari, A.; Orfanelli, S.; Rusack, R.; Torromeo, G.; Stickland, D.P.; Stifter, K.


    The CMS Beam Halo Monitor has been successfully installed in the CMS cavern in LHC Long Shutdown 1 for measuring the machine induced background for LHC Run II. The system is based on 40 detector units composed of synthetic quartz Cherenkov radiators coupled to fast photomultiplier tubes. The readout electronics chain uses many components developed for the Phase 1 upgrade to the CMS Hadronic Calorimeter electronics, with dedicated firmware and readout adapted to the beam monitoring requirements. The PMT signal is digitized by a charge integrating ASIC (QIE10), providing both the signal rise time, with few ns resolution, and the charge integrated over one bunch crossing. The backend electronics uses microTCA technology and receives data via a high-speed 5 Gbps asynchronous link. It records histograms with sub-bunch crossing timing resolution and is readout by IPbus using the newly designed CMS data acquisition for non-event based data. The data is processed in real time and published to CMS and the LHC, providi...

  20. HaloPROTACS: Use of Small Molecule PROTACs to Induce Degradation of HaloTag Fusion Proteins. (United States)

    Buckley, Dennis L; Raina, Kanak; Darricarrere, Nicole; Hines, John; Gustafson, Jeffrey L; Smith, Ian E; Miah, Afjal H; Harling, John D; Crews, Craig M


    Small molecule-induced protein degradation is an attractive strategy for the development of chemical probes. One method for inducing targeted protein degradation involves the use of PROTACs, heterobifunctional molecules that can recruit specific E3 ligases to a desired protein of interest. PROTACs have been successfully used to degrade numerous proteins in cells, but the peptidic E3 ligase ligands used in previous PROTACs have hindered their development into more mature chemical probes or therapeutics. We report the design of a novel class of PROTACs that incorporate small molecule VHL ligands to successfully degrade HaloTag7 fusion proteins. These HaloPROTACs will inspire the development of future PROTACs with more drug-like properties. Additionally, these HaloPROTACs are useful chemical genetic tools, due to their ability to chemically knock down widely used HaloTag7 fusion proteins in a general fashion.

  1. Giant Primeval Magnetic Dipoles (United States)

    Thompson, Christopher


    Macroscopic magnetic dipoles are considered cosmic dark matter. Permanent magnetism in relativistic field structures can involve some form of superconductivity, one example being current-carrying string loops (“springs”) with vanishing net tension. We derive the cross-section for free classical dipoles to collide, finding it depends weakly on orientation when mutual precession is rapid. The collision rate of “spring” loops with tension { T }˜ {10}-8{c}4/G in galactic halos approaches the measured rate of fast radio bursts (FRBs) if the loops compose most of the dark matter. A large superconducting dipole (LSD) with mass ˜1020 g and size ˜1 mm will form a ˜100 km magnetosphere moving through interstellar plasma. Although hydromagnetic drag is generally weak, it is strong enough to capture some LSDs into long-lived rings orbiting supermassive black holes (SMBHs) that form by the direct collapse of massive gas clouds. Repeated collisions near young SMBHs could dominate the global collision rate, thereby broadening the dipole mass spectrum. Colliding LSDs produce tiny, hot electromagnetic explosions. The accompanying paper shows that these explosions couple effectively to propagating low-frequency electromagnetic modes, with output peaking at 0.01-1 THz. We describe several constraints on, and predictions of, LSDs as cosmic dark matter. The shock formed by an infalling LSD triggers self-sustained thermonuclear burning in a C/O (ONeMg) white dwarf (WD) of mass ≳1 M ⊙ (1.3 M ⊙). The spark is generally located off the center of the WD. The rate of LSD-induced explosions matches the observed rate of Type Ia supernovae.

  2. Bringing Low the Giants

    CERN Multimedia


    Their work goes on unseen, because they a hundred metres beneath your feet. But while the race against the clock to build the LHC has begun on the surface, teams underground are feverishly engaged to dismantle LEP and its experiments. Four months after the start of dismantling, the technical coordinators of the different experiments discuss the progress of work. Little men attack the giant ALEPH. The barrel and its two endcaps have been removed to the end of the cavern and stripped of their cables. The breaking up of the detector can now begin. At ALEPH, counting rooms removed all in one go Jean-Paul Fabre, technical coordinator at ALEPH:'After making safe the structure, the first step was to remove the wiring and cables. Some 210 cubic metres were brought out. Then the counting rooms all round the detector were taken out. They were brought up from the cavern all in one go, up through the shaft, which is 10 metres wide and 150 metres deep. They made it with 15 centimetres to spare. They have been emptied of...

  3. Giant high occipital encephalocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal Amit


    Full Text Available Encephaloceles are rare embryological mesenchymal developmental anomalies resulting from inappropriate ossification in skull through with herniation of intracranial contents of the sac. Encephaloceles are classified based on location of the osseous defect and contents of sac. Convexity encephalocele with osseous defect in occipital bone is called occipital encephalocele. Giant occipital encephaloceles can be sometimes larger than the size of baby skull itself and they pose a great surgical challenge. Occipital encephaloceles (OE are further classified as high OE when defect is only in occipital bone above the foramen magnum, low OE when involving occipital bone and foramen magnum and occipito-cervical when there involvement of occipital bone, foramen magnum and posterior upper neural arches. Chiari III malformation can be associated with high or low occipital encephaloceles. Pre-operatively, it is essential to know the size of the sac, contents of the sac, relation to the adjacent structures, presence or absence of venous sinuses/vascular structures and osseous defect size. Sometimes it becomes imperative to perform both CT and MRI for the necessary information. Volume rendered CT images can depict the relation of osseous defect to foramen magnum and provide information about upper neural arches which is necessary in classifying these lesions.

  4. Recurrent renal giant leiomyosarcoma. (United States)

    Öziş, Salih Erpulat; Gülpınar, Kamil; Şahlı, Zafer; Konak, Baha Burak; Keskin, Mete; Özdemir, Süleyman; Ataoğlu, Ömür


    Primary renal leiomyosarcomas are rare, aggressive tumors. They constitute 1-2% of adult malignant renal tumors. Although leiomyosarcomas are the most common histological type (50-60%) of renal sarcomas, information on renal leiomyosarcoma is limited. Local or systemic recurrences are common. The radiological appearance of renal leiomyosarcomas is not specific, therefore renal leiomyosarcoma cannot be distinguished from renal cell carcinoma by imaging methods in all patients. A 74-year-old female patient presented to our clinic complaining of a palpable mass on the right side of her abdomen in November 2012. The abdominal magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass, 25 × 24 × 23 cm in size. Her past medical history revealed that she has undergone right radical nephrectomy in 2007, due to a 11 × 12 × 13 cm renal mass that was then reported as renal cell carcinoma on abdominal magnetic resonance imaging, but the pathological diagnosis was low-grade renal leiomyosarcoma. The most recent follow-up of the patient was in 2011, with no signs of local recurrence or distant metastases within this four-year period. The patient underwent laparotomy on November 2012, and a 35 cm retroperitoneal mass was excised. The pathological examination of the mass was reported as high-grade leiomyosarcoma. The formation of this giant retroperitoneal mass in 1 year can be explained by the transformation of the lesion's pathology from low-grade to a high-grade tumor.

  5. Giant ovarian cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Santos


    Full Text Available We read the exceedingly rare case study recently described by Hota et al. about giant ovarian cyst in term pregnancy1. The patient was a 25-year-old woman undergoing therapy for hypothyroidism, with history of three previous deliveries (P1L1A1. USG of abdomen and pelvis was normal with respect to gestational age in the second trimester, and ovarian cyst was not seen. However, the USG of control done on the third trimester revealed a left ovarian cyst (21x18 cm, with normal obstetric features. The weight of removed cyst of 29x20 cm was 4.9 kg, and the histopathology diagnosis was ovarian mucinous cystadenoma1. The authors emphasized the rarity of concomitat pregnancy and ovarian cyst, and 15% of these mucinous cysts are malignant1. Huge ovarian cysts are more often benign, and less frequently they are diagnosed in association with normal pregnancies1. Major concerns in this setting should be the early diagnosis, close follow-up of the cyst growing, and appropriate intervention1. Interestingly, in the case herein commented the ovarian cyst was not detected by USG in the first two trimesters of pregnancy. 

  6. The shape of the invisible halo: N-body simulations on parallel supercomputers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, M.S.; Zurek, W.H. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Quinn, P.J. (Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia). Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories); Salmon, J.K. (California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (USA))


    We study the shapes of halos and the relationship to their angular momentum content by means of N-body (N {approximately} 10{sup 6}) simulations. Results indicate that in relaxed halos with no apparent substructure: (i) the shape and orientation of the isodensity contours tends to persist throughout the virialised portion of the halo; (ii) most ({approx}70%) of the halos are prolate; (iii) the approximate direction of the angular momentum vector tends to persist throughout the halo; (iv) for spherical shells centered on the core of the halo the magnitude of the specific angular momentum is approximately proportional to their radius; (v) the shortest axis of the ellipsoid which approximates the shape of the halo tends to align with the rotation axis of the halo. This tendency is strongest in the fastest rotating halos. 13 refs., 4 figs.

  7. HaloTag as a reporter gene: positron emission tomography imaging with 64Cu-labeled second generation HaloTag ligands


    Hong, Hao; Benink, Hélène A.; Uyeda, H. Tetsuo; Valdovinos, Hector F.; Zhang, Yin; Meisenheimer, Poncho; Barnhart, Todd E.; Fan, Frank; Cai, Weibo


    The goal of this study is to employ the HaloTag technology for positron emission tomography (PET), which involves two components: the HaloTag protein (a modified hydrolase which covalently binds to synthetic ligands) and HaloTag ligands (HTLs). 4T1 murine breast cancer cells were stably transfected to express HaloTag protein on the surface (termed as 4T1-HaloTag-ECS, ECS denotes extracellular surface). Two new HTLs were synthesized and termed NOTA-HTL2G-S and NOTA-HTL2G-L (2G indicates second...

  8. Formation of the Andromeda giant stream: asymmetric structure and disc progenitor (United States)

    Kirihara, T.; Miki, Y.; Mori, M.; Kawaguchi, T.; Rich, R. M.


    We focus on the evidence of a past minor merger discovered in the halo of the Andromeda galaxy (M31). Previous N-body studies have enjoyed moderate success in producing the observed giant stellar stream (GSS) and stellar shells in M31's halo. The observed distribution of stars in the halo of M31 shows an asymmetric surface brightness profile across the GSS; however, the effect of the morphology of the progenitor galaxy on the internal structure of the GSS requires further investigation in theoretical studies. To investigate the physical connection between the characteristic surface brightness in the GSS and the morphology of the progenitor dwarf galaxy, we systematically vary the thickness, rotation velocity and initial inclination of the disc dwarf galaxy in N-body simulations. The formation of the observed structures appears to be dominated by the progenitor's rotation. Besides reproducing the observed GSS and two shells in detail, we predict additional structures for further observations. We predict the detectability of the progenitor's stellar core in the phase-space density distribution, azimuthal metallicity gradient of the western shell-like structure and an additional extended shell in the north-western direction that may constrain the properties of the progenitor galaxy.

  9. The Angular Momentum of Baryons and Dark Matter Halos Revisited (United States)

    Kimm, Taysun; Devriendt, Julien; Slyz, Adrianne; Pichon, Christophe; Kassin, Susan A.; Dubois, Yohan


    Recent theoretical studies have shown that galaxies at high redshift are fed by cold, dense gas filaments, suggesting angular momentum transport by gas differs from that by dark matter. Revisiting this issue using high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamics simulations with adaptive-mesh refinement (AMR), we find that at the time of accretion, gas and dark matter do carry a similar amount of specific angular momentum, but that it is systematically higher than that of the dark matter halo as a whole. At high redshift, freshly accreted gas rapidly streams into the central region of the halo, directly depositing this large amount of angular momentum within a sphere of radius r = 0.1R(sub vir). In contrast, dark matter particles pass through the central region unscathed, and a fraction of them ends up populating the outer regions of the halo (r/R(sub vir) > 0.1), redistributing angular momentum in the process. As a result, large-scale motions of the cosmic web have to be considered as the origin of gas angular momentum rather than its virialised dark matter halo host. This generic result holds for halos of all masses at all redshifts, as radiative cooling ensures that a significant fraction of baryons remain trapped at the centre of the halos. Despite this injection of angular momentum enriched gas, we predict an amount for stellar discs which is in fair agreement with observations at z=0. This arises because the total specific angular momentum of the baryons (gas and stars) remains close to that of dark matter halos. Indeed, our simulations indicate that any differential loss of angular momentum amplitude between the two components is minor even though dark matter halos continuously lose between half and two-thirds of their specific angular momentum modulus as they evolve. In light of our results, a substantial revision of the standard theory of disc formation seems to be required. We propose a new scenario where gas efficiently carries the angular momentum generated

  10. Rotation of Giant Stars (United States)

    Kissin, Yevgeni; Thompson, Christopher


    The internal rotation of post-main sequence stars is investigated, in response to the convective pumping of angular momentum toward the stellar core, combined with a tight magnetic coupling between core and envelope. The spin evolution is calculated using model stars of initial mass 1, 1.5, and 5 {M}⊙ , taking into account mass loss on the giant branches. We also include the deposition of orbital angular momentum from a sub-stellar companion, as influenced by tidal drag along with the excitation of orbital eccentricity by a fluctuating gravitational quadrupole moment. A range of angular velocity profiles {{Ω }}(r) is considered in the envelope, extending from solid rotation to constant specific angular momentum. We focus on the backreaction of the Coriolis force, and the threshold for dynamo action in the inner envelope. Quantitative agreement with measurements of core rotation in subgiants and post-He core flash stars by Kepler is obtained with a two-layer angular velocity profile: uniform specific angular momentum where the Coriolis parameter {Co}\\equiv {{Ω }}{τ }{con}≲ 1 (here {τ }{con} is the convective time), and {{Ω }}(r)\\propto {r}-1 where {Co}≳ 1. The inner profile is interpreted in terms of a balance between the Coriolis force and angular pressure gradients driven by radially extended convective plumes. Inward angular momentum pumping reduces the surface rotation of subgiants, and the need for a rejuvenated magnetic wind torque. The co-evolution of internal magnetic fields and rotation is considered in Kissin & Thompson, along with the breaking of the rotational coupling between core and envelope due to heavy mass loss.

  11. Giant Magellan Telescope: overview (United States)

    Johns, Matt; McCarthy, Patrick; Raybould, Keith; Bouchez, Antonin; Farahani, Arash; Filgueira, Jose; Jacoby, George; Shectman, Steve; Sheehan, Michael


    The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) is a 25-meter optical/infrared extremely large telescope that is being built by an international consortium of universities and research institutions. It will be located at the Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. The GMT primary mirror consists of seven 8.4-m borosilicate honeycomb mirror segments made at the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab (SOML). Six identical off-axis segments and one on-axis segment are arranged on a single nearly-paraboloidal parent surface having an overall focal ratio of f/0.7. The fabrication, testing and verification procedures required to produce the closely-matched off-axis mirror segments were developed during the production of the first mirror. Production of the second and third off-axis segments is underway. GMT incorporates a seven-segment Gregorian adaptive secondary to implement three modes of adaptive-optics operation: natural-guide star AO, laser-tomography AO, and ground-layer AO. A wide-field corrector/ADC is available for use in seeing-limited mode over a 20-arcmin diameter field of view. Up to seven instruments can be mounted simultaneously on the telescope in a large Gregorian Instrument Rotator. Conceptual design studies were completed for six AO and seeing-limited instruments, plus a multi-object fiber feed, and a roadmap for phased deployment of the GMT instrument suite is being developed. The partner institutions have made firm commitments for approximately 45% of the funds required to build the telescope. Project Office efforts are currently focused on advancing the telescope and enclosure design in preparation for subsystem- and system-level preliminary design reviews which are scheduled to be completed in the first half of 2013.

  12. HaloTag technology: a versatile platform for biomedical applications. (United States)

    England, Christopher G; Luo, Haiming; Cai, Weibo


    Exploration of protein function and interaction is critical for discovering links among genomics, proteomics, and disease state; yet, the immense complexity of proteomics found in biological systems currently limits our investigational capacity. Although affinity and autofluorescent tags are widely employed for protein analysis, these methods have been met with limited success because they lack specificity and require multiple fusion tags and genetic constructs. As an alternative approach, the innovative HaloTag protein fusion platform allows protein function and interaction to be comprehensively analyzed using a single genetic construct with multiple capabilities. This is accomplished using a simplified process, in which a variable HaloTag ligand binds rapidly to the HaloTag protein (usually linked to the protein of interest) with high affinity and specificity. In this review, we examine all current applications of the HaloTag technology platform for biomedical applications, such as the study of protein isolation and purification, protein function, protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions, biological assays, in vitro cellular imaging, and in vivo molecular imaging. In addition, novel uses of the HaloTag platform are briefly discussed along with potential future applications.

  13. Deep brain transcranial magnetic stimulation using variable "Halo coil" system (United States)

    Meng, Y.; Hadimani, R. L.; Crowther, L. J.; Xu, Z.; Qu, J.; Jiles, D. C.


    Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation has the potential to treat various neurological disorders non-invasively and safely. The "Halo coil" configuration can stimulate deeper regions of the brain with lower surface to deep-brain field ratio compared to other coil configurations. The existing "Halo coil" configuration is fixed and is limited in varying the site of stimulation in the brain. We have developed a new system based on the current "Halo coil" design along with a graphical user interface system that enables the larger coil to rotate along the transverse plane. The new system can also enable vertical movement of larger coil. Thus, this adjustable "Halo coil" configuration can stimulate different regions of the brain by adjusting the position and orientation of the larger coil on the head. We have calculated magnetic and electric fields inside a MRI-derived heterogeneous head model for various positions and orientations of the coil. We have also investigated the mechanical and thermal stability of the adjustable "Halo coil" configuration for various positions and orientations of the coil to ensure safe operation of the system.

  14. Halo-Independent Direct Detection Analyses Without Mass Assumptions

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Adam J.; Kahn, Yonatan; McCullough, Matthew


    Results from direct detection experiments are typically interpreted by employing an assumption about the dark matter velocity distribution, with results presented in the $m_\\chi-\\sigma_n$ plane. Recently methods which are independent of the DM halo velocity distribution have been developed which present results in the $v_{min}-\\tilde{g}$ plane, but these in turn require an assumption on the dark matter mass. Here we present an extension of these halo-independent methods for dark matter direct detection which does not require a fiducial choice of the dark matter mass. With a change of variables from $v_{min}$ to nuclear recoil momentum ($p_R$), the full halo-independent content of an experimental result for any dark matter mass can be condensed into a single plot as a function of a new halo integral variable, which we call $\\tilde{h}(p_R)$. The entire family of conventional halo-independent $\\tilde{g}(v_{min})$ plots for all DM masses are directly found from the single $\\tilde{h}(p_R)$ plot through a simple re...

  15. Leonardo Da Vinci’s giant crossbow

    CERN Document Server

    Landrus, Matt


    Leonardo's Giant Crossbow is one of his least understood drawings. This fascinating book offers the first in-depth account of its likely purpose and its highly resolved design. It presents original research and new discoveries about the giant crossbow.

  16. Giant lobelias exemplify convergent evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Givnish Thomas J


    Full Text Available Abstract Giant lobeliads on tropical mountains in East Africa and Hawaii have highly unusual, giant-rosette growth forms that appear to be convergent on each other and on those of several independently evolved groups of Asteraceae and other families. A recent phylogenetic analysis by Antonelli, based on sequencing the widest selection of lobeliads to date, raises doubts about this paradigmatic example of convergent evolution. Here I address the kinds of evidence needed to test for convergent evolution and argue that the analysis by Antonelli fails on four points. Antonelli's analysis makes several important contributions to our understanding of lobeliad evolution and geographic spread, but his claim regarding convergence appears to be invalid. Giant lobeliads in Hawaii and Africa represent paradigmatic examples of convergent evolution.

  17. Properties of dark matter haloes as a function of local environment density (United States)

    Lee, Christoph T.; Primack, Joel R.; Behroozi, Peter; Rodríguez-Puebla, Aldo; Hellinger, Doug; Dekel, Avishai


    We study how properties of discrete dark matter haloes depend on halo environment, characterized by the mass density around the haloes on scales from 0.5 to 16 h-1 Mpc. We find that low-mass haloes (those less massive than the characteristic mass MC of haloes collapsing at a given epoch) in high-density environments have lower accretion rates, lower spins, higher concentrations and rounder shapes than haloes in median density environments. Haloes in median- and low-density environments have similar accretion rates and concentrations, but haloes in low-density environments have lower spins and are more elongated. Haloes of a given mass in high-density regions accrete material earlier than haloes of the same mass in lower density regions. All but the most massive haloes in high-density regions are losing mass (i.e. being stripped) at low redshifts, which causes artificially lowered NFW scale radii and increased concentrations. Tidal effects are also responsible for the decreasing spins of low-mass haloes in high-density regions at low redshifts z spins because they lack nearby haloes whose tidal fields can spin them up. We also show that the simulation density distribution is well fit by an extreme value distribution, and that the density distribution becomes broader with cosmic time.

  18. Cold streams in early massive hot haloes as the main mode of galaxy formation. (United States)

    Dekel, A; Birnboim, Y; Engel, G; Freundlich, J; Goerdt, T; Mumcuoglu, M; Neistein, E; Pichon, C; Teyssier, R; Zinger, E


    Massive galaxies in the young Universe, ten billion years ago, formed stars at surprising intensities. Although this is commonly attributed to violent mergers, the properties of many of these galaxies are incompatible with such events, showing gas-rich, clumpy, extended rotating disks not dominated by spheroids. Cosmological simulations and clustering theory are used to explore how these galaxies acquired their gas. Here we report that they are 'stream-fed galaxies', formed from steady, narrow, cold gas streams that penetrate the shock-heated media of massive dark matter haloes. A comparison with the observed abundance of star-forming galaxies implies that most of the input gas must rapidly convert to stars. One-third of the stream mass is in gas clumps leading to mergers of mass ratio greater than 1:10, and the rest is in smoother flows. With a merger duty cycle of 0.1, three-quarters of the galaxies forming stars at a given rate are fed by smooth streams. The rarer, submillimetre galaxies that form stars even more intensely are largely merger-induced starbursts. Unlike destructive mergers, the streams are likely to keep the rotating disk configuration intact, although turbulent and broken into giant star-forming clumps that merge into a central spheroid. This stream-driven scenario for the formation of discs and spheroids is an alternative to the merger picture.

  19. Subdural abscess associated with halo-pin traction. (United States)

    Garfin, S R; Botte, M J; Triggs, K J; Nickel, V L


    Osteomyelitis and intracranial abscess are among the most serious complications that have been reported in association with the use of the halo device. The cases of five patients who had formation of an intracranial abscess related to the use of a halo cervical immobilizer are described. All of the infections resolved after drainage of the abscess, débridement, and parenteral administration of antibiotics. Meticulous care of the pin sites is essential to avoid this serious complication. Additionally, since all of the infections were associated with prolonged halo-skeletal traction, this technique should be used with caution and with an awareness of the possible increased risks of pin-site infection and of formation of a subdural abscess.

  20. Direct photoassociation of halo molecules in ultracold 86 Sr (United States)

    Aman, J. A.; Hill, Joshua; Killian, T. C.


    We investigate the creation of 1S0 +1S0 halo molecules in strontium 86 through direct photoassociation in an optical dipole trap. We drive two photon Raman transitions near-resonance with a molecular level of the 1S0 +3P1 interatomic potential as the intermediate state. This provides large Frank-Condon factors and allows us to observe resonances for the creation of halo molecules through higher order Raman processes. The halo molecule is bound by EB 85 kHz at low excitation-laser intensity, but experiments show large AC Stark shifts of the molecular binding energy. These conditions suggest that STIRAP should be very effective for improving molecular conversion efficiency. Further experiments in a 3D lattice will explore molecular lifetimes and collision rates. Travel support provided by Shell Corporation.

  1. Axionic dark matter signatures in various halo models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vergados, J.D., E-mail: [Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); ARC Centre of Excellence in Particle Physics at the Terascale and Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter (CSSM), University of Adelaide, Adelaide SA 5005 (Australia); Semertzidis, Y.K. [Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of)


    In the present work we study possible signatures in the Axion Dark Matter searches. We focus on the dependence of the expected width in resonant cavities for various popular halo models, leading to standard velocity distributions, e.g. Maxwell–Boltzmann, as well as phase-mixed and non-virialized axionic dark matter (flows, caustic rings). We study, in particular, the time dependence of the resonance width (modulation) arising from such models. We find that the difference between the maximum (in June) and the minimum (in December) can vary by about 10% in the case of standard halos. In the case of mixed phase halos the variation is a bit bigger and for caustic rings the maximum is expected to occur a bit later. Experimentally such a modulation is observable with present technology.

  2. Particle ejection during mergers of dark matter halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carucci, Isabella P.; Sparre, Martin; Hansen, Steen H. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, Copenhagen, 2100 Denmark (Denmark); Joyce, Michael, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et Hautes Énergies, Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris 6, CNRS IN2P3 UMR 7585, 4 Place Jussieu, Paris Cedex 05, 75752 France (France)


    Dark matter halos are built from accretion and merging. During merging some of the dark matter particles may be ejected with velocities higher than the escape velocity. We use both N-body simulations and single-particle smooth-field simulations to demonstrate that rapid changes to the mean field potential are responsible for such ejection, and in particular that dynamical friction plays no significant role in it. Studying a range of minor mergers, we find that typically between 5–15% of the particles from the smaller of the two merging structures are ejected. We also find that the ejected particles originate essentially from the small halo, and more specifically are particles in the small halo which pass later through the region in which the merging occurs.

  3. Simulation Studies of the Helium and Lead Observatory (HALO) (United States)

    Sanford, Nikki; Scholberg, Kate


    Simulation studies for were conducted for the Helium and Lead Observatory (HALO), the supernova neutrino detector at SNOLAB, Sudbury, Ontario. HALO consists of 79 tons of lead, with 128 ^3He counters which detect the scattered lead neutrons resulting from incoming neutrinos. Improvements were made to the Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation's geometry by the addition of water boxes and plastic baseboards, which serve to reflect scattered neutrons back towards counters, and shield against outside neutrons and gammas. Several box designs were created, and the resulting event detection efficiencies and labeling of 1n and 2n events were studied. It was found that these additions cause a 2% efficiency increase, a slight improvement of correctly labeled events, and are a significant improvement to the HALO simulation.

  4. Reactions of Proton Halo Nuclei in a Relativistic Optical Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Rashdan, M


    The reaction cross section, sigma sub R; of the proton halo nuclei sup 1 sup 7 Ne and sup 1 sup 2 N on Si is calculated using an optical potential derived from the solution of the Dirac-Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone equation, starting from the one-boson-exchange potential of Bonn. The nuclear densities are generated from self-consistent Hartree-Fock calculations using the recent Skyrme interaction SKRA. It is found that the enhancement in the reaction cross section found experimentally for the sup 1 sup 7 Ne + Si system in comparison to sup 1 sup 5 O + Si, where sup 1 sup 5 O has been considered as a core of sup 1 sup 7 Ne, is mainly due to the proton halo structure of sup 1 sup 7 Ne which increases the interaction, in the surface and tail regions. Glauber model calculations did not produce this enhancement in sigma sub R for proton halo nuclei

  5. Imaging of giant pituitary adenomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majos, C.; Coll, S.; Aguilera, C.; Pons, L.C. [Bellvitge Univ., Barcelona (Spain). Inst. de Diagnostice per la Imatge; Acebes, J.J. [Department of Neurosurgery, Ciutat Sanitaria i Universitaria de Bellvitge, L`Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain)


    We present five proven giant pituitary adenomas studied by CT and MRI, and review the clinical and imaging findings. Our aim was to examine the radiologic appearances and to search for criteria useful in distinguishing these tumors from other sellar and suprasellar tumours, mainly craniopharyngioma. The main differences from small adenomas were high prevalence of macrocysts, a more invasive behaviour and a clinical picture dominated by mass effect rather than endocrine disturbance. Factors supporting the diagnosis of pituitary adenoma in a giant intra- and suprasellar mass include: infrasellar extension, absence of calcification and presence of low-signal cysts on T1-weighted images. (orig.) (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs.

  6. Awakening a sleeping coal giant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, B.


    Botswana, a southern African country that in the 1980s could not economically land a tonne of coal at the closest export terminal and even today mines no more than 1 million tpa, is to increase production to beyond 30 million tpa. A first ever coal conference in Gaborone called it the awakening of a coal giant. The alarm call for the coal giant is the realisation that without more generating capacity than its power utility Eskom can itself build in time, South Africa will in four to five years face a severe shortage of power. 1 ref., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. The Chemical Composition Contrast between M3 and M13 Revisited: New Abundances for 28 Giant Stars in M3 (United States)

    Sneden, Christopher; Kraft, Robert P.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Peterson, Ruth C.; Fulbright, Jon P.


    We report new chemical abundances of 23 bright red giant members of the globular cluster M3, based on high-resolution (R~45,000) spectra obtained with the Keck I telescope. The observations, which involve the use of multislits in the HIRES Keck I spectrograph, are described in detail. Combining these data with a previously reported small sample of M3 giants obtained with the Lick 3 m telescope, we compare metallicities and [X/Fe] ratios for 28 M3 giants with a 35-star sample in the similar-metallicity cluster M13, and with Galactic halo field stars having [Fe/H]=A(Si), we derive little difference in [X/Fe] ratios in the M3, M13, or halo field samples. All three groups exhibit C depletion with advancing evolutionary state beginning at the level of the red giant branch ``bump,'' but the overall depletion of about 0.7-0.9 dex seen in the clusters is larger than that associated with the field stars. The behaviors of O, Na, Mg, and Al are distinctively different among the three stellar samples. Field halo giants and subdwarfs have a positive correlation of Na with Mg, as predicted from explosive or hydrostatic carbon burning in Type II supernova sites. Both M3 and M13 show evidence of high-temperature proton-capture synthesis from the ON, NeNa, and MgAl cycles, while there is no evidence for such synthesis among halo field stars. But the degree of such extreme proton-capture synthesis in M3 is smaller than it is in M13: the M3 giants exhibit only modest deficiencies of O and corresponding enhancements of Na, less extreme overabundances of Al, fewer stars with low Mg and correspondingly high Na, and no indication that O depletions are a function of advancing evolutionary state, as has been claimed for M13. We have also considered NGC 6752, for which Mg isotopic abundances have been reported by Yong et al. Giants in NGC 6752 and M13 satisfy the same anticorrelation of O abundances with the ratio (25Mg+26Mg)/24Mg, which measures the relative contribution of rare to

  8. Cabergoline Treatment in Invasive Giant Prolactinoma


    Sadeem Alsubaie; Almalki, Mussa H


    Patients with invasive giant prolactinoma suffer from a constellation of symptoms including headache, blurred vision, lethargy, and sexual dysfunction. Cabergoline, a potent dopamine agonist, is a known medication prescribed for the treatment of invasive giant prolactinoma. Here, we report a case of invasive giant prolactinoma in a 52-year-old Saudi male with dramatic response to cabergoline treatment clinically, biochemically, and radiologically.

  9. Three-body halo nuclei in an effective theory framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canham, David L.


    The universal properties and structure of halo nuclei composed of two neutrons (2n) and a core are investigated within an effective quantum mechanics framework. We construct an effective interaction potential that exploits the separation of scales in halo nuclei and treat the nucleus as an effective three-body system, which to leading order is described by the large S-wave scattering lengths in the underlying two-body subsystems. The uncertainty from higher orders in the expansion is quantified through theoretical error bands. First, we investigate the possibility to observe excited Efimov states in 2n halo nuclei. Based on the experimental data, {sup 20}C is the only halo nucleus candidate to possibly have an Efimov excited state, with an energy less than 7 keV below the scattering threshold. Second, we study the structure of {sup 20}C and other 2n halo nuclei. In particular, we calculate their matter density form factors, radii, and two-neutron opening angles. We then make a systematic improvement upon these calculations by extending the effective potential to the next-to-leading order. To this order, we require an additional two-body parameter, which we tune to the effective range of the interaction. In addition to range corrections to the 2n halo nuclei results, we show corrections to the Efimov effect in the three-boson system. Furthermore, we explore universality in the linear range corrections to the Efimov spectrum. Finally, we study the scattering of D{sup 0} and D{sup *0} mesons and their antiparticles off the X(3872) in an effective field theory for short-range interactions. We present results for the S-wave scattering amplitude, total interaction cross section and S-wave scattering length. (orig.)

  10. Capacity of straylight and disk halo size to diagnose cataract. (United States)

    Palomo-Álvarez, Catalina; Puell, María C


    To examine the capacity of straylight and disk halo size to diagnose cataract. Faculty of Optics and Optometry, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain. Prospective study. Straylight, disk halo radius, and high-contrast corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) measurements were compared between patients with age-related cataract and age-matched normal-sighted control subjects by calculating the area under the curve (AUC) receiver operating characteristic. Measurements were made in 53 eyes of 53 patients with a mean age of 67.94 years ± 7.11 (SD) and 31 eyes of 31 controls with a mean age 66.06 ± 5.43 years. Significantly worse (P cataract group than in the control group (1.17 ± 0.11 log[s], 2.10 ± 0.16 log arcmin, and 0.08 ± 0.08 logMAR). Significant differences in AUCs were observed for disk halo radius (0.89 ± 0.04) versus straylight (0.77 ± 0.05) (P = .03) and disk halo radius versus CDVA (0.72 ± 0.05) (P = .001). The comparison of disk halo radius versus the discriminant function with input from CDVA and straylight (0.80 ± 0.05) was at the limit of significance only (0.091 ± 0.05, P = .051). Although all 3 variables discriminated well between normal eyes and eyes with cataract, the disk halo radius showed the best diagnostic capacity. Neither author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The orbital eccentricity distribution of solar-neighbourhood halo stars (United States)

    Hattori, K.; Yoshii, Y.


    We present theoretical calculations for the differential distribution of stellar orbital eccentricity for a sample of solar-neighbourhood halo stars. Two types of static, spherical gravitational potentials are adopted to define the eccentricity e for given energy E and angular momentum L, such as an isochrone potential and a Navarro-Frenk-White potential that can serve as two extreme ends covering in between any realistic potential of the Milky Way halo. The solar-neighbourhood eccentricity distribution ΔN(e) is then formulated, based on a static distribution function of the form f(E, L) in which the velocity anisotropy parameter β monotonically increases in the radial direction away from the galaxy centre, such that β is below unity (near-isotropic velocity dispersion) in the central region and asymptotically approaches ˜1 (radially anisotropic velocity dispersion) in the far distant region of the halo. We find that ΔN(e) sensitively depends upon the radial profile of β, and this sensitivity is used to constrain such a profile in comparison with some observational properties of ΔNobs(e) recently reported by Carollo et al. In particular, the linear e-distribution and the fraction of higher e stars for their sample of solar-neighbourhood inner-halo stars rule out a constant profile of β, contrary to the opposite claim by Bond et al. Our constraint of β≲ 0.5 at the galaxy centre indicates that the violent relaxation that has acted on the inner halo is effective within a scale radius of ˜10 kpc from the galaxy centre. We argue that our result would help to understand the formation and evolution of the Milky Way halo.

  12. The Halo Boundary of Galaxy Clusters in the SDSS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Eric; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Sheth, Ravi K. [Center for Particle Cosmology, Department of Physics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Chang, Chihway; Kravtsov, Andrey [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Adhikari, Susmita; Dalal, Neal [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL 61801 (United States); More, Surhud [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba, 277-8583 (Japan); Rozo, Eduardo [Department of Physics, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Rykoff, Eli, E-mail: [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, P.O. Box 2450, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)


    Analytical models and simulations predict a rapid decline in the halo density profile associated with the transition from the “infalling” regime outside the halo to the “collapsed” regime within the halo. Using data from SDSS, we explore evidence for such a feature in the density profiles of galaxy clusters using several different approaches. We first estimate the steepening of the outer galaxy density profile around clusters, finding evidence for truncation of the halo profile. Next, we measure the galaxy density profile around clusters using two sets of galaxies selected on color. We find evidence of an abrupt change in galaxy colors that coincides with the location of the steepening of the density profile. Since galaxies that have completed orbits within the cluster are more likely to be quenched of star formation and thus appear redder, this abrupt change in galaxy color can be associated with the transition from single-stream to multi-stream regimes. We also use a standard model comparison approach to measure evidence for a “splashback”-like feature, but find that this approach is very sensitive to modeling assumptions. Finally, we perform measurements using an independent cluster catalog to test for potential systematic errors associated with cluster selection. We identify several avenues for future work: improved understanding of the small-scale galaxy profile, lensing measurements, identification of proxies for the halo accretion rate, and other tests. With upcoming data from the DES, KiDS, and HSC surveys, we can expect significant improvements in the study of halo boundaries.

  13. Nursery of Giants (United States)


    Hidden behind a shroud of dust in the constellation Cygnus is a stellar nursery called DR21, which is giving birth to some of the most massive stars in our galaxy. Visible light images reveal no trace of this interstellar cauldron because of heavy dust obscuration. In fact, visible light is attenuated in DR21 by a factor of more than 10,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 (ten thousand trillion heptillion). New images from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope allow us to peek behind the cosmic veil and pinpoint one of the most massive natal stars yet seen in our Milky Way galaxy. The never-before-seen star is 100,000 times as bright as the Sun. Also revealed for the first time is a powerful outflow of hot gas emanating from this star and bursting through a giant molecular cloud. This image is a large-scale mosaic assembled from individual photographs obtained with the InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) aboard Spitzer. The image covers an area about two times that of a full moon. The mosaic is a composite of images obtained at mid-infrared wavelengths of 3.6 microns (blue), 4.5 microns (green), 5.8 microns (orange) and 8 microns (red). The brightest infrared cloud near the top center corresponds to DR21, which presumably contains a cluster of newly forming stars at a distance of 10,000 light-years. Protruding out from DR21 toward the bottom left of the image is a gaseous outflow (green), containing both carbon monoxide and molecular hydrogen. Data from the Spitzer spectrograph, which breaks light into its constituent individual wavelengths, indicate the presence of hot steam formed as the outflow heats the surrounding molecular gas. Outflows are physical signatures of processes that create supersonic beams, or jets, of gas. They are usually accompanied by discs of material around the new star, which likely contain the materials from which future planetary systems are formed. Additional newborn stars, depicted in green, can be seen surrounding the DR21 region

  14. Charting the Giants (United States)


    zero expansion asymptotically after an infinite time and has a flat geometry). All three observational tests by means of supernovae (green), the cosmic microwave background (blue) and galaxy clusters converge at a Universe around Ωm ~ 0.3 and ΩΛ ~ 0.7. The dark red region for the galaxy cluster determination corresponds to 95% certainty (2-sigma statistical deviation) when assuming good knowledge of all other cosmological parameters, and the light red region assumes a minimum knowledge. For the supernovae and WMAP results, the inner and outer regions corespond to 68% (1-sigma) and 95% certainty, respectively. References: Schuecker et al. 2003, A&A, 398, 867 (REFLEX); Tonry et al. 2003, ApJ, 594, 1 (supernovae); Riess et al. 2004, ApJ, 607, 665 (supernovae) Galaxy clusters are far from being evenly distributed in the Universe. Instead, they tend to conglomerate into even larger structures, "super-clusters". Thus, from stars which gather in galaxies, galaxies which congregate in clusters and clusters tying together in super-clusters, the Universe shows structuring on all scales, from the smallest to the largest ones. This is a relict of the very early (formation) epoch of the Universe, the so-called "inflationary" period. At that time, only a minuscule fraction of one second after the Big Bang, the tiny density fluctuations were amplified and over the eons, they gave birth to the much larger structures. Because of the link between the first fluctuations and the giant structures now observed, the unique REFLEX catalogue - the largest of its kind - allows astronomers to put considerable constraints on the content of the Universe, and in particular on the amount of dark matter that is believed to pervade it. Rather interestingly, these constraints are totally independent from all other methods so far used to assert the existence of dark matter, such as the study of very distant supernovae (see e.g. ESO PR 21/98) or the analysis of the Cosmic Microwave background (e

  15. Signatures of compact halos of sterile-neutrino dark matter (United States)

    Kühnel, Florian; Ohlsson, Tommy


    We investigate compact halos of sterile-neutrino dark matter and examine observable signatures with respect to neutrino and photon emission. Primarily, we consider two cases: primordial black-hole halos and ultracompact minihalos. In both cases, we find that there exists a broad range of possible parameter choices such that detection in the near future with x-ray and gamma-ray telescopes might be well possible. In fact, for energies above 10 TeV, the neutrino telescope IceCube would be a splendid detection machine for such macroscopic dark-matter candidates.

  16. The FUSE Survey of 0 VI in the Galactic Halo (United States)

    Sonneborn, George; Savage, B. D.; Wakker, B. P.; Sembach, K. R.; Jenkins, E. B.; Moos, H. W.; Shull, J. M.


    This paper summarizes the results of the Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) program to study 0 VI in the Milky Way halo. Spectra of 100 extragalactic objects and two distant halo stars are analyzed to obtain measures of O VI absorption along paths through the Milky Way thick disk/halo. Strong O VI absorption over the velocity range from -100 to 100 km/s reveals a widespread but highly irregular distribution of O VI, implying the existence of substantial amounts of hot gas with T approx. 3 x 10(exp 5) K in the Milky Way thick disk/halo. The overall distribution of O VI is not well described by a symmetrical plane-parallel layer of patchy O VI absorption. The simplest departure from such a model that provides a reasonable fit to the observations is a plane-parallel patchy absorbing layer with an average O VI mid-plane density of n(sub 0)(O VI) = 1.7 x 10(exp -2)/cu cm, a scale height of approx. 2.3 kpc, and a approx. 0.25 dex excess of O VI in the northern Galactic polar region. The distribution of O VI over the sky is poorly correlated with other tracers of gas in the halo, including low and intermediate velocity H I, Ha emission from the warm ionized gas at approx. l0(exp 4) K, and hot X-ray emitting gas at approx. l0(exp 6) K . The O VI has an average velocity dispersion, b approx. 60 km/s and standard deviation of 15 km/s. Thermal broadening alone cannot explain the large observed profile widths. A combination of models involving the radiative cooling of hot fountain gas, the cooling of supernova bubbles in the halo, and the turbulent mixing of warm and hot halo gases is required to explain the presence of O VI and other highly ionized atoms found in the halo. The preferential venting of hot gas from local bubbles and superbubbles into the northern Galactic polar region may explain the enhancement of O VI in the North.

  17. Two distinct halo populations in the solar neighborhood. IV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, P. E.; Schuster, W. J.


    We investigate if there is a difference in the lithium abundances of stars belonging to two halo populations of F and G main-sequence stars previously found to differ in [alpha/Fe] for the metallicity range -1.4 ...-resolution spectra using MARCS model atmospheres. Furthermore, masses of the stars are determined from the logTeff - logg diagram by interpolating between Yonsei-Yale evolutionary tracks. There is no significant systematic difference in the lithium abundances of high- and low-alpha halo stars. For the large majority...

  18. Dynamical Constraints On The Galaxy-Halo Connection (United States)

    Desmond, Harry


    Dark matter halos comprise the bulk of the universe's mass, yet must be probed by the luminous galaxies that form within them. A key goal of modern astrophysics, therefore, is to robustly relate the visible and dark mass, which to first order means relating the properties of galaxies and halos. This may be expected not only to improve our knowledge of galaxy formation, but also to enable high-precision cosmological tests using galaxies and hence maximise the utility of future galaxy surveys. As halos are inaccessible to observations - as galaxies are to N-body simulations - this relation requires an additional modelling step.The aim of this thesis is to develop and evaluate models of the galaxy-halo connection using observations of galaxy dynamics. In particular, I build empirical models based on the technique of halo abundance matching for five key dynamical scaling relations of galaxies - the Tully-Fisher, Faber-Jackson, mass-size and mass discrepancy-acceleration relations, and Fundamental Plane - which relate their baryon distributions and rotation or velocity dispersion profiles. I then develop a statistical scheme based on approximate Bayesian computation to compare the predicted and measured values of a number of summary statistics describing the relations' important features. This not only provides quantitative constraints on the free parameters of the models, but also allows absolute goodness-of-fit measures to be formulated. I find some features to be naturally accounted for by an abundance matching approach and others to impose new constraints on the galaxy-halo connection; the remainder are challenging to account for and may imply galaxy-halo correlations beyond the scope of basic abundance matching.Besides providing concrete statistical tests of specific galaxy formation theories, these results will be of use for guiding the inputs of empirical and semi-analytic galaxy formation models, which require galaxy-halo correlations to be imposed by hand. As

  19. Toward a Combined SAGE II-HALOE Aerosol Climatology: An Evaluation of HALOE Version 19 Stratospheric Aerosol Extinction Coefficient Observations (United States)

    Thomason, L. W.


    Herein, the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) aerosol extinction coefficient data is evaluated in the low aerosol loading period after 1996 as the first necessary step in a process that will eventually allow the production of a combined HALOE/SAGE II (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment) aerosol climatology of derived aerosol products including surface area density. Based on these analyses, it is demonstrated that HALOE's 3.46 microns is of good quality above 19 km and suitable for scientific applications above that altitude. However, it is increasingly suspect at lower altitudes and should not be used below 17 km under any circumstances after 1996. The 3.40 microns is biased by about 10% throughout the lower stratosphere due to the failure to clear NO2 but otherwise appears to be a high quality product down to 15 km. The 2.45 and 5.26 micron aerosol extinction coefficient measurements are clearly biased and should not be used for scientific applications after the most intense parts of the Pinatubo period. Many of the issues in the aerosol data appear to be related to either the failure to clear some interfering gas species or doing so poorly. For instance, it is clear that the 3.40micronaerosol extinction coefficient measurements can be improved through the inclusion of an NO2 correction and could, in fact, end up as the highest quality overall HALOE aerosol extinction coefficient measurement. It also appears that the 2.45 and 5.26 micron channels may be improved by updating the Upper Atmosphere Pilot Database which is used as a resource for the removal of gas species otherwise not available from direct HALOE measurements. Finally, a simple model to demonstrate the promise of mixed visible/infrared aerosol extinction coefficient ensembles for the retrieval of bulk aerosol properties demonstrates that a combined HALOE/SAGE II aerosol climatology is feasible and may represent a substantial improvement over independently derived data sets.

  20. HaloTag: a novel reporter gene for positron emission tomography


    Hong, Hao; Benink, Hélène A.; Zhang, Yin; Yang, Yunan; Uyeda, H. Tetsuo; Engle, Jonathan W.; Severin, Gregory W.; McDougall, Mark G; Barnhart, Todd E.; Klaubert, Dieter H.; Nickles, Robert J; Fan, Frank; Cai, Weibo


    Among the many molecular imaging techniques, reporter gene imaging has been a dynamic area of research. The HaloTag protein is a modified haloalkane dehalogenase which was designed to covalently bind to synthetic ligands (i.e. the HaloTag ligands [HTL]). Covalent bond formation between the HaloTag protein and the chloroal-kane within the HTL occurs rapidly under physiological conditions, which is highly specific and essentially irreversible. Over the years, HaloTag technology has been investi...

  1. Resolution of vitiligo following excision of halo congenital melanocytic nevus: a rare case report. (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Wang, Zhi; Huang, Weiqing


    Halo congenital melanocytic nevus (CMN) associated with vitiligo is rare, especially with regard to CMN excision. Only two reports of excision of halo CMN following repigmentation of vitiligo are found in the literature. We present a case of a girl with halo CMN and periorbital vitiligo. The halo CMN was excised and followed by spontaneous improvement of vitiligo. The result suggests excision of the inciting lesion may be a promising way to control vitiligo. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Giant lipomas of the hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokce Yildiran


    Conclusion: Giant lipomas of the hand are very rare and may cause compressions and other complications. Thus, they require a careful preoperative evaluation in order to make a proper differential diagnosis. [Hand Microsurg 2015; 4(1.000: 8-11

  3. Unusual Giant Prostatic Urethral Calculus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jun 29, 2010 ... associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia, and prostatic cancer.[1] Primary prostatic urethral calculi are ... Giant vesico-prostatic urethral calculus is uncommon. Urethral stones rarely form primarily in the urethra, ... Prostatic calculi associated with hypertrophy of the gland. Group III. Prostatic calculi that ...

  4. Michigan has a sleeping giant

    CERN Multimedia

    Brock, Raymond; Nichols, Sue


    "That giant is 750 miles of fiber optic cable that lassoes its three biggest research universities and Van Andel Institute to the future. Its mission: to uncover the nature of the Big Bang by connecton U.S. physicists to their huge experiment ATLAS in Geneva.." (4 pages)

  5. A Giant or a Dwarf?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Herman


    EU may appear to be a giant when it can act on behalf of a united Europe, but usually it is hampered by conflicting member state interests. The EU economic and administrative resources for foreign and trade policy are quite small (on level with one of its major member states) and the hopes in man...

  6. Global Properties of M31’s Stellar Halo from the SPLASH Survey. III. Measuring the Stellar Velocity Dispersion Profile (United States)

    Gilbert, Karoline M.; Tollerud, Erik; Beaton, Rachael L.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Bullock, James S.; Chiba, Masashi; Kalirai, Jason S.; Kirby, Evan N.; Majewski, Steven R.; Tanaka, Mikito


    We present the velocity dispersion of red giant branch stars in M31’s halo, derived by modeling the line-of-sight velocity distribution of over 5000 stars in 50 fields spread throughout M31’s stellar halo. The data set was obtained as part of the Spectroscopic and Photometric Landscape of Andromeda’s Stellar Halo (SPLASH) Survey, and covers projected radii of 9 to 175 kpc from M31’s center. All major structural components along the line of sight in both the Milky Way (MW) and M31 are incorporated in a Gaussian Mixture Model, including all previously identified M31 tidal debris features in the observed fields. The probability that an individual star is a constituent of M31 or the MW, based on a set of empirical photometric and spectroscopic diagnostics, is included as a prior probability in the mixture model. The velocity dispersion of stars in M31’s halo is found to decrease only mildly with projected radius, from 108 km s‑1 in the innermost radial bin (8.2 to 14.1 kpc) to ∼80 to 90 km s‑1 at projected radii of ∼40–130 kpc, and can be parameterized with a power law of slope ‑0.12 ± 0.05. The quoted uncertainty on the power-law slope reflects only the precision of the method, although other sources of uncertainty we consider contribute negligibly to the overall error budget. The data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  7. De bepaling van halo-azijnzuren, chloriet en chloraat in drinkwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters RJB; van de Meer-Arp KKM; Versteegh JFM


    A method was developed to determine halo-acetic acids with a detection limit of 0.1 mug/L. Halo-acetic acids were determined in samples drinking water derived from surface- and bankfiltrated water however, not in drinking water derived from groundwater. Halo-acetic acids were found in chlorinated

  8. Describing one-and two-neutron halos in effective field theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Nov 1, 2014 ... Click here to view fulltext PDF ... In this paper, the recent work our group has undertaken on effective field theory (EFT) analyses of experimental data pertaining to one- and two-neutron halo nuclei is discussed. The cases of 19C and 8Li (one-neutron halos) and 22C (two-neutron halo) are considered.

  9. Giant hydronephrosis mimicking progressive malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidenreich Axel


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cases of giant hydronephroses are rare and usually contain no more than 1–2 litres of fluid in the collecting system. We report a remarkable case of giant hydronephrosis mimicking a progressive malignant abdominal tumour. Case presentation A 78-year-old cachectic woman presented with an enormous abdominal tumour, which, according to the patient, had slowly increased in diameter. Medical history was unremarkable except for a hysterectomy >30 years before. A CT scan revealed a giant cystic tumour filling almost the entire abdominal cavity. It was analysed by two independent radiologists who suspected a tumour originating from the right kidney and additionally a cystic ovarian neoplasm. Subsequently, a diagnostic and therapeutic laparotomy was performed: the tumour presented as a cystic, 35 × 30 × 25 cm expansive structure adhesive to adjacent organs without definite signs of invasive growth. The right renal hilar vessels could finally be identified at its basis. After extirpation another tumourous structure emerged in the pelvis originating from the genital organs and was also resected. The histopathological examination revealed a >15 kg hydronephrotic right kidney, lacking hardly any residual renal cortex parenchyma. The second specimen was identified as an ovary with regressive changes and a large partially calcified cyst. There was no evidence of malignant growth. Conclusion Although both clinical symptoms and the enormous size of the tumour indicated malignant growth, it turned out to be a giant hydronephrosis. Presumably, a chronic obstruction of the distal ureter had caused this extraordinary hydronephrosis. As demonstrated in our case, an accurate diagnosis of giant hydronephrosis remains challenging due to the atrophy of the renal parenchyma associated with chronic obstruction. Therefore, any abdominal cystic mass even in the absence of other evident pathologies should include the differential diagnosis of a

  10. Prospects for detecting supersymmetric dark matter in the Galactic halo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Springel, V.; White, S. D. M.; Frenk, C. S.; Navarro, J. F.; Jenkins, A.; Vogelsberger, M.; Wang, J.; Ludlow, A.; Helmi, A.


    Dark matter is the dominant form of matter in the Universe, but its nature is unknown. It is plausibly an elementary particle, perhaps the lightest supersymmetric partner of known particle species(1). In this case, annihilation of dark matter in the halo of the Milky Way should produce gamma-rays at

  11. The Galactic Halo in Mixed Dark Matter Cosmologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderhalden, D.; Diemand, J.; Bertone, G.; Macciò, A.V.; Schneider, A.


    A possible solution to the small scale problems of the cold dark matter (CDM) scenario is that the dark matter consists of two components, a cold and a warm one. We perform a set of high resolution simulations of the Milky Way halo varying the mass of the WDM particle (mWDM) and the cosmic dark

  12. The prolate shape of the galactic dark-matter halo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmi, A; Spooner, NJC; Kudryavtsev,


    Knowledge of the distribution of dark-matter in our Galaxy plays a crucial role in the interpretation of dark-matter detection experiments. I will argue here that probably the best way of constraining the properties of the dark-matter halo is through astrophysical observations. These provide

  13. Redshift space bias and beta from the halo model


    Seljak, Uros


    We analyze scale dependence of redshift space bias $b$ and $\\beta \\equiv \\Omega_m^{0.6}/b$ in the context of the halo model. We show that linear bias is a good approximation only on large scales, for $k

  14. Lithium abundances in high- and low-alpha halo stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, P. E.; Schuster, W. J.


    A previous study of F and G main-sequence stars in the solar neighborhood has revealed the existence of two distinct halo populations with a clear separation in [alpha /Fe] for the metallicity range -1.4 < [Fe/H] < -0.7. The kinematics of the stars and models of galaxy formation suggest that the ...

  15. On the shape of the Galactic dark matter halo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmi, A


    The confined nature of the debris from the Sagittarius dwarf to a narrow trail on the sky has recently prompted the suggestion that the dark matter halo of our Galaxy should be nearly spherical (Ibata et al. 2001; Majewski et al. 2003). This would seem to be in strong contrast with predictions from

  16. Jet interactions with the hot halos of clusters and galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McNamara, B.R.; Bîrzan, L.; Rafferty, D.A.; Nulsen, P.E.J.; Carilli, C.; Wise, M.W.


    X-ray observations of cavities and shock fronts produced by jets streaming through hot halos have significantly advanced our understanding of the energetics and dynamics of extragalactic radio sources. Radio sources at the centers of clusters have dynamical ages between ten and several hundred

  17. A halo model for cosmological neutral hydrogen : abundances and clustering (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Hamsa; Refregier, Alexandre; Amara, Adam


    We extend the results of previous analyses towards constraining the abundance and clustering of post-reionization (z ∼ 0-5) neutral hydrogen (H i) systems using a halo model framework. We work with a comprehensive H I data set including the small-scale clustering, column density and mass function of H I galaxies at low redshifts, intensity mapping measurements at intermediate redshifts and the ultraviolet/optical observations of Damped Lyman Alpha (DLA) systems at higher redshifts. We use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach to constrain the parameters of the best-fitting models, both for the H i-halo mass (HIHM) relation and the H I radial density profile. We find that a radial exponential profile results in a good fit to the low-redshift H I observations, including the clustering and the column density distribution. The form of the profile is also found to match the high-redshift DLA observations, when used in combination with a three-parameter HIHM relation and a redshift evolution in the H I concentration. The halo model predictions are in good agreement with the observed H I surface density profiles of low-redshift galaxies, and the general trends in the impact parameter and covering fraction observations of high-redshift DLAs. We provide convenient tables summarizing the best-fitting halo model predictions.

  18. The Disk Mass Project: breaking the disk-halo degeneracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijen, Marc A. W.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Swaters, Rob A.; Andersen, David R.; Westfall, Kyle B.; DE JONG, R. S.


    Little is known about the content and distribution of dark matter in spiral galaxies. To break the degeneracy in galaxy rotation curve decompositions, which allows a wide range of dark matter halo density profiles, an independent measure of the mass surface density of stellar disks is needed. Here,

  19. Halo-like structures studied by atomic force microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Alexis Hammer; Kyhle, Anders; Hansen, L. Theil


    Nanometer-sized clusters of copper have been produced in a hollow cathode sputtering source and deposited on SiOx. Halo-like structures consisting of micrometer sized protrusions in the solicon oxide surface surrounded by thin rings of smaller particles are observed. The area in between seems...

  20. The influence of halo evolution on galaxy structure (United States)

    White, Simon


    If Einstein-Newton gravity holds on galactic and larger scales, then current observations demonstrate that the stars and interstellar gas of a typical bright galaxy account for only a few percent of its total nonlinear mass. Dark matter makes up the rest and cannot be faint stars or any other baryonic form because it was already present and decoupled from the radiation plasma at z = 1000, long before any nonlinear object formed. The weak gravito-sonic waves so precisely measured by CMB observations are detected again at z = 4 as order unity fluctuations in intergalactic matter. These subsequently collapse to form today's galaxy/halo systems, whose mean mass profiles can be accurately determined through gravitational lensing. High-resolution simulations link the observed dark matter structures seen at all these epochs, demonstrating that they are consistent and providing detailed predictions for all aspects of halo structure and growth. Requiring consistency with the abundance and clustering of real galaxies strongly constrains the galaxy-halo relation, both today and at high redshift. This results in detailed predictions for galaxy assembly histories and for the gravitational arena in which galaxies live. Dark halos are not expected to be passive or symmetric but to have a rich and continually evolving structure which will drive evolution in the central galaxy over its full life, exciting warps, spiral patterns and tidal arms, thickening disks, producing rings, bars and bulges. Their growth is closely related to the provision of new gas for galaxy building.

  1. Large-scale assembly bias of dark matter halos (United States)

    Lazeyras, Titouan; Musso, Marcello; Schmidt, Fabian


    We present precise measurements of the assembly bias of dark matter halos, i.e. the dependence of halo bias on other properties than the mass, using curved "separate universe" N-body simulations which effectively incorporate an infinite-wavelength matter overdensity into the background density. This method measures the LIMD (local-in-matter-density) bias parameters bn in the large-scale limit. We focus on the dependence of the first two Eulerian biases bE1 and bE2 on four halo properties: the concentration, spin, mass accretion rate, and ellipticity. We quantitatively compare our results with previous works in which assembly bias was measured on fairly small scales. Despite this difference, our findings are in good agreement with previous results. We also look at the joint dependence of bias on two halo properties in addition to the mass. Finally, using the excursion set peaks model, we attempt to shed new insights on how assembly bias arises in this analytical model.

  2. Halo formation from mismatched beam-beam interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Ji


    In this paper, we report on the halo formation and emittance growth driven by a parametric resonance during mismatched beam-beam collisions. In the regime of the weak-strong beam-beam interaction, if two beams have the same machine tunes, on-axis head-on collisions between a mismatched strong beam and a weak beam will not cause the formation of halo. However, if the two beams collide with an initial offset, the beam-beam force from the mismatched strong beam can cause halo formation and emittance growth in the weak beam. Meanwhile, if two beams have different machine tunes, for opposite charged colliding beams, when the machine tune of the weak beam is smaller than that of strong beam, there is emittance growth in the weak beam. When the machine tune of the weak beam is larger than that of the strong beam, there is little emittance growth. In the regime of strong-strong beam-beam interaction, halo is formed in both beams even when the two beams collide head-on on the axis with equal machine tunes. This puts a strong requirement for a good beam match during the injection to colliders in order to avoid the emittance growth.

  3. Haloes and clustering in light, neutron-rich nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orr, N.A


    Clustering is a relatively widespread phenomenon which takes on many guises across the nuclear landscape. Selected topics concerning the study of halo systems and clustering in light, neutron-rich nuclei are discussed here through illustrative examples taken from the Be isotopic chain. (author)

  4. Planetary Nebulae as kinematic and dynamical tracers of galaxy halos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coccato, Lodovico; Napolitano, Nicola; Arnaboldi, Magda; Cortesi, Arianna; Romanowsky, Aaron; Gerhard, Ortwin; Merrifield, Michael; Kuijken, Konrad; Freeman, Ken; Douglas, Nigel


    The kinematics and dynamical properties of galaxy halos are difficult to measure, given the faint stellar surface brightness that characterizes those regions. Gas-rich systems such as spiral galaxies can be probed using the radio emission of their gas component. Early type galaxies contain less gas,

  5. Uncovering the hidden iceberg structure of the Galactic halo (United States)

    Moss, Vanessa A.; Di Teodoro, Enrico M.; McClure-Griffiths, Naomi M.; Lockman, Felix; Pisano, D. J.; Price, Daniel; Rees, Glen


    How the Milky Way gets its gas and keeps its measured star formation rate going are both long-standing mysteries in Galactic studies, with important implications for galaxy evolution across the Universe. I will present our recent discovery of two populations of neutral hydrogen (HI) in the halo of the Milky Way: 1) a narrow line-width dense population typical of the majority of bright high velocity cloud (HVC) components, and 2) a fainter, broad line-width diffuse population that aligns well with the population found in very sensitive pointings such as in Lockman et al. (2002). From our existing data, we concluded that the diffuse population likely outweighs the dense HI by a factor of 3. This discovery of diffuse HI, which appears to be prevalent throughout the halo, takes us closer to solving the Galactic mystery of accretion and reveals a gaseous neutral halo hidden from the view of most large-scale surveys. We are currently carrying out deep Parkes observations to investigate these results further, in order to truly uncover the nature of the diffuse HI and determine whether our 3:1 ratio (based on the limited existing data) is consistent with what is seen when Parkes and the 140 ft Green Bank telescope are employed at comparable sensitivity. With these data, through a combination of both known and new sightline measurements, we aim to reveal the structure of the Galactic halo in more detail than ever before.

  6. The reversed halo sign: update and differential diagnosis (United States)

    Godoy, M C B; Viswanathan, C; Marchiori, E; Truong, M T; Benveniste, M F; Rossi, S; Marom, E M


    The reversed halo sign is characterised by a central ground-glass opacity surrounded by denser air–space consolidation in the shape of a crescent or a ring. It was first described on high-resolution CT as being specific for cryptogenic organising pneumonia. Since then, the reversed halo sign has been reported in association with a wide range of pulmonary diseases, including invasive pulmonary fungal infections, paracoccidioidomycosis, pneumocystis pneumonia, tuberculosis, community-acquired pneumonia, lymphomatoid granulomatosis, Wegener granulomatosis, lipoid pneumonia and sarcoidosis. It is also seen in pulmonary neoplasms and infarction, and following radiation therapy and radiofrequency ablation of pulmonary malignancies. In this article, we present the spectrum of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases that may show the reversed halo sign and offer helpful clues for assisting in the differential diagnosis. By integrating the patient's clinical history with the presence of the reversed halo sign and other accompanying radiological findings, the radiologist should be able to narrow the differential diagnosis substantially, and may be able to provide a presumptive final diagnosis, which may obviate the need for biopsy in selected cases, especially in the immunosuppressed population. PMID:22553298

  7. Alpha alpha scattering in halo effective field theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Higa, R.; Hammer, H. -W.; van Kolck, U.


    We study the two-alpha-particle (alpha alpha) system in an Effective Field Theory (EFT) for halo-like systems. We propose a power Counting that incorporates the subtle interplay of strong and electromagnetic forces leading to a narrow resonance at an energy of about 0.1 MeV. We investigate the EFT

  8. Matting of Hair Due to Halo-egg Shampoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z M Mani


    Full Text Available A case of hair matting in an 18 year old female is reported. The hair got densely entangled immediately after washing the hair with ′Halo Egg′ shampoo. The hair was disentangled completely after prolonged dipping of the hair in arachis oil frr 5 days.

  9. A galaxy-halo model for multiple cosmological tracers (United States)

    Bull, Philip


    The information extracted from large galaxy surveys with the likes of DES, DESI, Euclid, LSST, SKA, and WFIRST will be greatly enhanced if the resultant galaxy catalogues can be cross-correlated with one another. Predicting the nature of the information gain, and developing the tools to realize it, depends on establishing a consistent model of how the galaxies detected by each survey trace the same underlying matter distribution. Existing analytic methods, such as halo occupation distribution modelling, are not well suited for this task, and can suffer from ambiguities and tuning issues when applied to multiple tracers. In this paper, we take the first step towards constructing an alternative that provides a common model for the connection between galaxies and dark matter haloes across a wide range of wavelengths (and thus tracer populations). This is based on a chain of parametrized statistical distributions that model the connection between (I) halo mass and bulk physical properties of galaxies, such as star formation rate; and (II) those same physical properties and a variety of emission processes. The result is a flexible parametric model that allows analytic halo model calculations of one-point functions to be carried out for multiple tracers, as well as providing semi realistic galaxy properties for fast mock catalogue generation.

  10. Inheritance of halo blight resistance in common bean | Chataika ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Halo blight caused by (Pseudomonas syringe pv. phaseolicola (Burkh) (Psp)) is an important disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) world-wide. Several races of the Psp exist and likewise some sources of resistance in common bean have been identified. CAL 143, is a CIAT-bred common bean line, which was ...

  11. DM haloes in the fifth-force cosmology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellwing, Wojciech A.; Cautun, Marius; Knebe, Alexander; Juszkiewicz, Roman; Knollmann, Steffen


    We investigate how long-range scalar interactions affect the properties of dark matter haloes. For doing so we employ the ReBEL model which implements an additional interaction between dark matter particles. On the phenomenological level this is equivalent to a modification of gravity. We analyse

  12. Prospects for detecting supersymmetric dark matter in the Galactic halo. (United States)

    Springel, V; White, S D M; Frenk, C S; Navarro, J F; Jenkins, A; Vogelsberger, M; Wang, J; Ludlow, A; Helmi, A


    Dark matter is the dominant form of matter in the Universe, but its nature is unknown. It is plausibly an elementary particle, perhaps the lightest supersymmetric partner of known particle species. In this case, annihilation of dark matter in the halo of the Milky Way should produce gamma-rays at a level that may soon be observable. Previous work has argued that the annihilation signal will be dominated by emission from very small clumps (perhaps smaller even than the Earth), which would be most easily detected where they cluster together in the dark matter haloes of dwarf satellite galaxies. Here we report that such small-scale structure will, in fact, have a negligible impact on dark matter detectability. Rather, the dominant and probably most easily detectable signal will be produced by diffuse dark matter in the main halo of the Milky Way. If the main halo is strongly detected, then small dark matter clumps should also be visible, but may well contain no stars, thereby confirming a key prediction of the cold dark matter model.

  13. Is the halo responsible for the microlensing events?

    CERN Document Server

    Roulet, E.; Giudice, G.F.


    Abstract: We discuss whether the astrophysical objects responsible for the recently reported microlensing events of sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud can be identified as the brown dwarf components of the spheroid of our galaxy, rather than the constituents of a dark baryonic halo.

  14. Lensing effects of misaligned disks in dark matter halos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quadri, R.; Möller, O.; Natarajan, P.


    Published in: Astrophys. J. 597 (2003) 659-671 citations recorded in [Science Citation Index] Abstract: We study the observational signatures of the lensing signal produced by dark matter halos with embedded misaligned disks. This issue is of particular interest at the present time since most of the

  15. Spin alignment of dark matter haloes in filaments and walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aragón-Calvo, M. A.; Weygaert, R. van de; Jones, B. J. T.; Hulst, T. van der


    Abstract: The MMF technique is used to segment the cosmic web as seen in a cosmological N-body simulation into wall-like and filament-like structures. We find that the spins and shapes of dark matter haloes are significantly correlated with each other and with the orientation of their host

  16. Spin alignment of dark matter halos in filaments and walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aragon-Calvo, Miguel A.; van de Weygaert, Rien; Jones, Bernard J. T.; van der Hulst, J. M.


    The MMF technique is used to segment the cosmic web as seen in a cosmological N-body simulation into wall-like and filament-like structures. We find that the spins and shapes of dark matter halos are significantly correlated with each other and with the orientation of their host structures. The

  17. Fast weak-lensing simulations with halo model (United States)

    Giocoli, Carlo; Di Meo, Sandra; Meneghetti, Massimo; Jullo, Eric; de la Torre, Sylvain; Moscardini, Lauro; Baldi, Marco; Mazzotta, Pasquale; Metcalf, R. Benton


    Full ray-tracing maps of gravitational lensing, constructed from N-body simulations, represent a fundamental tool to interpret present and future weak-lensing data. However, the limitation of computational resources and storage capabilities severely restricts the number of realizations that can be performed in order to accurately sample both the cosmic shear models and covariance matrices. In this paper, we present a halo model formalism for weak gravitational lensing that alleviates these issues by producing weak-lensing mocks at a reduced computational cost. Our model takes as input the halo population within a desired light cone and the linear power spectrum of the underlined cosmological model. We examine the contribution given by the presence of substructures within haloes to the cosmic shear power spectrum and quantify it to the percent level. Our method allows us to reconstruct high-resolution convergence maps, for any desired source redshifts, of light cones that realistically trace the matter density distribution in the universe, account for masked area and sample selections. We compare our analysis on the same large-scale structures constructed using ray-tracing techniques and find very good agreements in both the linear and non-linear regimes up to few percent levels. The accuracy and speed of our method demonstrate the potential of our halo model for weak-lensing statistics and the possibility to generate a large sample of convergence maps for different cosmological models as needed for the analysis of large galaxy redshift surveys.

  18. Cosmic Rays in the Disk and Halo of Galaxies (United States)

    Dogiel, V. A.; Breitschwerdt, D.


    We give a review of cosmic ray propagation models. It is shown that the development of the theory of cosmic ray origin leads inevitably to the conclusion that cosmic ray propagation in the Galaxy is determined by effective particle scattering, which is described by spatial diffusion. The Galactic Disk is surrounded by an extended halo, in which cosmic rays are confined before escaping into intergalactic space. For a long time cosmic ray convective outflow from the Galaxy (galactic wind) was believed to be insignificant. However, investigations of hydrodynamic stability and an analysis of ISM dynamics (including cosmic rays) showed that a galactic wind was emanating near the disk, and accelerating towards the halo, reaching its maximum velocity far away from the disk. Therefore convective cosmic ray transport should be important in galactic halos. Recent analysis of the gamma-ray emissivity in the Galactic disk of EGRET data, which showed that cosmic rays are more or less uniformly distributed in the radial direction of the disk, as well as the interpretation of soft X-ray emission in galactic halos, give convincing evidence of the existence of a galactic wind in star forming galaxies.

  19. The halo sign: HRCT findings in 85 patients. (United States)

    Alves, Giordano Rafael Tronco; Marchiori, Edson; Irion, Klaus; Nin, Carlos Schuler; Watte, Guilherme; Pasqualotto, Alessandro Comarú; Severo, Luiz Carlos; Hochhegger, Bruno


    The halo sign consists of an area of ground-glass opacity surrounding pulmonary lesions on chest CT scans. We compared immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients in terms of halo sign features and sought to identify those of greatest diagnostic value. This was a retrospective study of CT scans performed at any of seven centers between January of 2011 and May of 2015. Patients were classified according to their immune status. Two thoracic radiologists reviewed the scans in order to determine the number of lesions, as well as their distribution, size, and contour, together with halo thickness and any other associated findings. Of the 85 patients evaluated, 53 were immunocompetent and 32 were immunosuppressed. Of the 53 immunocompetent patients, 34 (64%) were diagnosed with primary neoplasm. Of the 32 immunosuppressed patients, 25 (78%) were diagnosed with aspergillosis. Multiple and randomly distributed lesions were more common in the immunosuppressed patients than in the immunocompetent patients (p Pacientes imunocompetentes e imunodeprimidos foram comparados quanto a características do sinal do halo a fim de identificar as de maior valor diagnóstico. Estudo retrospectivo de tomografias realizadas em sete centros entre janeiro de 2011 e maio de 2015. Os pacientes foram classificados de acordo com seu estado imunológico. Dois radiologistas torácicos analisaram os exames a fim de determinar o número de lesões e sua distribuição, tamanho e contorno, bem como a espessura do halo e quaisquer outros achados associados. Dos 85 pacientes avaliados, 53 eram imunocompetentes e 32 eram imunodeprimidos. Dos 53 pacientes imunocompetentes, 34 (64%) receberam diagnóstico de neoplasia primária. Dos 32 pacientes imunodeprimidos, 25 (78%) receberam diagnóstico de aspergilose. Lesões múltiplas e distribuídas aleatoriamente foram mais comuns nos imunodeprimidos do que nos imunocompetentes (p pacientes imunocompetentes são bastante diferentes das observadas em

  20. Efficient protein knockdown of HaloTag-fused proteins using hybrid molecules consisting of IAP antagonist and HaloTag ligand. (United States)

    Tomoshige, Shusuke; Hashimoto, Yuichi; Ishikawa, Minoru


    We previously reported a protein knockdown system for HaloTag-fused proteins using hybrid small molecules consisting of alkyl chloride, which binds covalently to HaloTag, linked to BE04 (2), a bestatin (3) derivative with an affinity for cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (cIAP1, a kind of ubiquitin ligase). This system addressed several limitations of prior protein knockdown technology, and was applied to degrade two HaloTag-fused proteins. However, the degradation activity of these hybrid small molecules was not potent. Therefore, we set out to improve this system. We report here the design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel hybrid compounds 4a and 4b consisting of alkyl chloride linked to IAP antagonist MV1 (5). Compounds 4a and 4b were confirmed to reduce the levels of HaloTag-fused tumor necrosis factor α (HaloTag-TNFα), HaloTag-fused cell division control protein 42 (HaloTag-Cdc42), and unfused HaloTag protein in living cells more potently than did BE04-linked compound 1b. Analysis of the mode of action revealed that the reduction of HaloTag-TNFα is proteasome-dependent, and is also dependent on the linker structure between MV1 (5) and alkyl chloride. These compounds appear to induce ubiquitination at the HaloTag moiety of HaloTag-fused proteins. Our results indicate that these newly synthesized MV1-type hybrid compounds, 4a and 4b, are efficient tools for protein knockdown for HaloTag-fused proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Constraints on the Formation of M31’s Stellar Halo from the SPLASH Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline Gilbert


    Full Text Available The SPLASH (Spectroscopic and Photometric Landscape of Andromeda’s Stellar Halo Survey has observed fields throughout M31’s stellar halo, dwarf satellites, and stellar disk. The observations and derived measurements have either been compared to predictions from simulations of stellar halo formation or modeled directly in order to derive inferences about the formation and evolution of M31’s stellar halo. We summarize some of the major results from the SPLASH survey and the resulting implications for our understanding of the build-up of M31’s stellar halo.

  2. A Phenomenological Model of Star Formation Efficiency in Dark Matter Halos (United States)

    Finnegan, Daniel; Alsheshakly, Ghadeer; Moustakas, John


    The efficiency of star formation in massive dark matter halos is extraordinarily low, less than 10% in >10^13 Msun sized halos. Although many physical processes have been proposed to explain this low efficiency, such as feedback from supermassive black halos and massive stars, this question remains one of the most important outstanding problems in galaxy evolution. To explore this problem, we build a simple phenomenological model to predict the variations in gas fraction and star formation efficiency as a function of halo mass. We compare our model predictions to central galaxy stellar masses and halo masses drawn from the literature, and discuss plans for our future work.

  3. ZOMG - III. The effect of halo assembly on the satellite population (United States)

    Garaldi, Enrico; Romano-Díaz, Emilio; Borzyszkowski, Mikolaj; Porciani, Cristiano


    We use zoom hydrodynamical simulations to investigate the properties of satellites within galaxy-sized dark-matter haloes with different assembly histories. We consider two classes of haloes at redshift z = 0: 'stalled' haloes that assembled at z > 1 and 'accreting' ones that are still forming nowadays. Previously, we showed that the stalled haloes are embedded within thick filaments of the cosmic web, while the accreting ones lie where multiple thin filaments converge. We find that satellites in the two classes have both similar and different properties. Their mass spectra, radial count profiles, baryonic and stellar content, and the amount of material they shed are indistinguishable. However, the mass fraction locked in satellites is substantially larger for the accreting haloes as they experience more mergers at late times. The largest difference is found in the satellite kinematics. Substructures fall towards the accreting haloes along quasi-radial trajectories whereas an important tangential velocity component is developed, before accretion, while orbiting the filament that surrounds the stalled haloes. Thus, the velocity anisotropy parameter of the satellites (β) is positive for the accreting haloes and negative for the stalled ones. This signature enables us to tentatively categorize the Milky Way halo as stalled based on a recent measurement of β. Half of our haloes contain clusters of satellites with aligned orbital angular momenta corresponding to flattened structures in space. These features are not driven by baryonic physics and are only found in haloes hosting grand-design spiral galaxies, independently of their assembly history.

  4. Giant magnetized outflows from the centre of the Milky Way. (United States)

    Carretti, Ettore; Crocker, Roland M; Staveley-Smith, Lister; Haverkorn, Marijke; Purcell, Cormac; Gaensler, B M; Bernardi, Gianni; Kesteven, Michael J; Poppi, Sergio


    The nucleus of the Milky Way is known to harbour regions of intense star formation activity as well as a supermassive black hole. Recent observations have revealed regions of γ-ray emission reaching far above and below the Galactic Centre (relative to the Galactic plane), the so-called 'Fermi bubbles'. It is uncertain whether these were generated by nuclear star formation or by quasar-like outbursts of the central black hole and no information on the structures' magnetic field has been reported. Here we report observations of two giant, linearly polarized radio lobes, containing three ridge-like substructures, emanating from the Galactic Centre. The lobes each extend about 60 degrees in the Galactic bulge, closely corresponding to the Fermi bubbles, and are permeated by strong magnetic fields of up to 15 microgauss. We conclude that the radio lobes originate in a biconical, star-formation-driven (rather than black-hole-driven) outflow from the Galaxy's central 200 parsecs that transports a huge amount of magnetic energy, about 10(55) ergs, into the Galactic halo. The ridges wind around this outflow and, we suggest, constitute a 'phonographic' record of nuclear star formation activity over at least ten million years.

  5. Giant condyloma acuminatum of vulva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Ramiz Ahmed


    Full Text Available In this paper, A 23 year old married woman who was diagnosed as a case of giant condyloma acuminatum of vulva measuring about 15 x 8 x 3 cm, irregular surface with multiple projections, oval in shape, firm to hard in consistency, mildly tender, exophytic, cauliflower like growth involving the whole vulva (lower part of mons pubis, labia, vestibule, clitoris, around vaginal opening. Another multiple small lesions were present at perineal region but there was no inguinal lymphadenopathy. She underwent a combined electro cauterization and cryotherapy for small to moderate size multiple primary and recurrent warty lesions and wide surgical excision with fasciocutaneous advancement flaps procedure for a giant lesions in the vulva. Excisional biopsies were performed to detect potential malignancy but malignancy was not found histologically. The patient was advised to first follow-up 1 month after operation when multiple small warty lesions were developed and treated and the subsequent follow-ups for 3 months.

  6. Idiopathic giant right atrial aneurysm (United States)

    Uppu, Santosh C; Sachdeva, Ritu; Imamura, Michiaki


    A 2-year-old boy with an incidental finding of massive cardiomegaly on a chest X-ray was diagnosed with a giant right atrial aneurysm upon further investigation with echocardiography. The patient underwent successful surgical reduction of the right atrium and closure of the patent foramen ovale to prevent thromboembolic complications and to lower the risk of atrial arrhythmias. The resected atrium had paper-thin walls and pathological features of interstitial fibrosis with endocardial thickening. PMID:23626440


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, A. D.; Martins, B. L. Canto; Bravo, J. P.; Paz-Chinchón, F.; Chagas, M. L. das; Leão, I. C.; Oliveira, G. Pereira de; Silva, R. Rodrigues da; Roque, S.; Oliveira, L. L. A. de; Silva, D. Freire da; De Medeiros, J. R., E-mail: [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitário, Natal RN (Brazil)


    Rapidly rotating giant stars are relatively rare and may represent important stages of stellar evolution, resulting from stellar coalescence of close binary systems or accretion of substellar companions by their hosting stars. In the present Letter, we report 17 giant stars observed in the scope of the Kepler space mission exhibiting rapid rotation behavior. For the first time, the abnormal rotational behavior for this puzzling family of stars is revealed by direct measurements of rotation, namely from photometric rotation period, exhibiting a very short rotation period with values ranging from 13 to 55 days. This finding points to remarkable surface rotation rates, up to 18 times the rotation of the Sun. These giants are combined with six others recently listed in the literature for mid-infrared (IR) diagnostics based on Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer information, from which a trend for an IR excess is revealed for at least one-half of the stars, but at a level far lower than the dust excess emission shown by planet-bearing main-sequence stars.

  8. Halo histories versus Galaxy properties at z = 0 - I. The quenching of star formation (United States)

    Tinker, Jeremy L.; Wetzel, Andrew R.; Conroy, Charlie; Mao, Yao-Yuan


    We test whether halo age and galaxy age are correlated at fixed halo and galaxy mass. The formation histories, and thus ages, of dark matter haloes correlate with their large-scale density ρ, an effect known as assembly bias. We test whether this correlation extends to galaxies by measuring the dependence of galaxy stellar age on ρ. To clarify the comparison between theory and observation, and to remove the strong environmental effects on satellites, we use galaxy group catalogues to identify central galaxies and measure their quenched fraction, fQ, as a function of large-scale environment. Models that match halo age to central galaxy age predict a strong positive correlation between fQ and ρ. However, we show that the amplitude of this effect depends on the definition of halo age: assembly bias is significantly reduced when removing the effects of splashback haloes - those haloes that are central but have passed through a larger halo or experienced strong tidal encounters. Defining age using halo mass at its peak value rather than current mass removes these effects. In Sloan Digital Sky Survey data, at M* ≳ 1010 M⊙ h-2, there is a ∼5 per cent increase in fQ from low-to-high densities, which is in agreement with predictions of dark matter haloes using peak halo mass. At lower stellar mass there is little to no correlation of fQ with ρ. For these galaxies, age matching is inconsistent with the data across the range of halo formation metrics that we tested. This implies that halo formation history has a small but statistically significant impact on quenching of star formation at high masses, while the quenching process in low-mass central galaxies is uncorrelated with halo formation history.

  9. Moving-mesh cosmology: characteristics of galaxies and haloes (United States)

    Kereš, Dušan; Vogelsberger, Mark; Sijacki, Debora; Springel, Volker; Hernquist, Lars


    We discuss cosmological hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy formation performed with the new moving-mesh code AREPO, which promises higher accuracy compared with the traditional smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) technique that has been widely employed for this problem. In this exploratory study, we deliberately limit the complexity of the physical processes followed by the code for ease of comparison with previous calculations, and include only cooling of gas with a primordial composition, heating by a spatially uniform ultraviolet background, and a simple subresolution model for regulating star formation in the dense interstellar medium. We use an identical set of physics in corresponding simulations carried out with the well-tested SPH code GADGET, adopting also the same high-resolution gravity solver. We are thus able to compare both simulation sets on an object-by-object basis, allowing us to cleanly isolate the impact of different hydrodynamical methods on galaxy and halo properties. In accompanying papers, Vogelsberger et al. and Sijacki et al., we focus on an analysis of the global baryonic statistics predicted by the simulation codes, and complementary idealized simulations that highlight the differences between the hydrodynamical schemes. Here we investigate their influence on the baryonic properties of simulated galaxies and their surrounding haloes. We find that AREPO leads to significantly higher star formation rates for galaxies in massive haloes and to more extended gaseous discs in galaxies, which also feature a thinner and smoother morphology than their GADGET counterparts. Consequently, galaxies formed in AREPO have larger sizes and higher specific angular momentum than their SPH correspondents. Interestingly, the more efficient cooling flows in AREPO yield higher densities and lower entropies in halo centres compared to GADGET, whereas the opposite trend is found in halo outskirts. The cooling differences leading to higher star formation rates

  10. Dynamics and Stellar Content of the Giant Southern Stream in M31. I. Keck Spectroscopy of Red Giant Stars (United States)

    Guhathakurta, Puragra; Rich, R. Michael; Reitzel, David B.; Cooper, Michael C.; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Majewski, Steven R.; Ostheimer, James C.; Geha, Marla C.; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Patterson, Richard J.


    This paper presents the first results from a large spectroscopic survey of red giant branch (RGB) stars in M31 using DEIMOS on the Keck 10 m telescope. A photometric prescreening method, based on the intermediate-width DDO51 band centered on the Mg b/MgH absorption feature, was used to select spectroscopic targets. RGB candidates were targeted in a small section of M31's giant southern tidal stream at a projected distance of 31 kpc from the galaxy's center. We isolate a clean sample of 68 RGB stars by removing contaminants (foreground Milky Way dwarf stars and background galaxies) using a combination of spectroscopic, imaging, and photometric methods: radial velocity and the surface gravity-sensitive Na I doublet are particularly useful in this regard. About 65% of the M31 stars are found to be members of the giant southern stream, while the rest appear to be members of the general spheroid population. The mean (heliocentric) radial velocity of the stream in our field is -458 km s-1, blueshifted by -158 km s-1 relative to M31's systemic velocity, in good agreement with recent velocity measurements at other points along the stream. The intrinsic velocity dispersion of the stream is found to be 15+8-15 km s-1 (90% confidence limit). A companion paper by Font and coworkers discusses possible orbits, implications of the coldness of the stream, and properties of the progenitor satellite galaxy. The kinematics, and possibly the metallicity distribution, of the general spheroid (i.e., nonstream) population in this region of M31 indicate that it is significantly different from samples drawn from other parts of the M31 spheroid; this is probably an indication of substructure in the bulge and halo. The stream appears to have a higher mean metallicity than the general spheroid, ~-0.54 versus -0.74, and a smaller metallicity spread. The relatively high metallicity of the stream implies that its progenitor must have been a luminous dwarf galaxy. The Ca II triplet line strengths

  11. Giant Cell Arteritis - Who to Refer to? (United States)

    Lim, L T; Ah-Kee, E Y; Strang, A; Ferguson, A


    Giant cell arteritis is a systemic immune-mediated vasculitis affecting the medium and large arteries. Typical symptoms include new headache, jaw claudication, tender temporal artery, polymyalgia rheumatica, fever and anorexia. Visual loss resulting from giant cell arteritis is an ophthalmic emergency and requires immediate assessment and referral to the ophthalmologist for prompt treatment with steroids. This article provides a systematic approach to the diagnosis and management of giant cell arteritis.

  12. Solitary ulcerated congenital giant juvenile xanthogranuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Yuen Ng


    Full Text Available A 3-month-old female patient with a giant ulcerated nodule over the back since birth was diagnosed as congenital giant juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG based on clinical and histopathological examination. Congenital giant JXG with ulceration at birth is a rare presentation of JXG and commonly misdiagnosed. This case emphasizes the importance of being aware of the myriad presentations of JXG in order to make a correct diagnosis and avoid unnecessary investigations or treatment.

  13. Proton halos in the 1 s0 d shell (United States)

    Brown, B. A.; Hansen, P. G.


    The shell-model properties of proton halo states in proton-rich 1 s0 d shell nuclei are investigated. The most interesting cases appear to be those in 26,27P and 27S. The parallel-momentum distributions of core fragments from proton stripping reactions may provide experimental insight into the structure of the halo states and the role played by the reaction mechanism. The “generalized Coulomb shift”, defined as the difference between the neutron and proton separation energies for an analogue pair, is shown to vary smoothly as a function of proton-separation energy and provides a good tool for mass extrapolations. The relation between the total interaction cross section and the matter radius is discussed.

  14. Galactic Halo Wormhole Solutions in f(T Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sharif


    Full Text Available The proposal of galactic halo region is based on the idea that dark halos contain some characteristics needed to support traversable wormhole solutions. We explore wormhole solutions in this region in the framework of generalized teleparallel gravity. We consider static spherically symmetric wormhole spacetime with flat galactic rotational curves and obtain expressions of matter components for nondiagonal tetrad. The effective energy-momentum tensor leads to the violation of energy conditions which may impose condition on the normal matter to satisfy these conditions. We take two well-known f(T models in exponential and logarithmic forms to discuss wormhole solutions as well as the equilibrium condition. It is concluded that wormhole solutions violating weak energy condition are obtained for both models with stable configuration.

  15. Two distinct halo populations in the solar neighborhood. III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuster, W. J.; Moreno, E.; Nissen, Poul Erik


    Context. In Papers I and II of this series, we have found clear indications of the existence of two distinct populations of stars in the solar neighborhood belonging to the metal-rich end of the halo metallicity distribution function. Based on high-resolution, high S/N spectra, it is possible...... to distinguish between “high-alpha” and “low-alpha” components using the [α/Fe] versus [Fe/H] diagram. Aims. Precise relative ages and orbital parameters are determined for 67 halo and 16 thick-disk stars having metallicities in the range −1.4 ... populations in the formation and evolution of the Galaxy. Methods. Ages are derived by comparing the positions of stars in the log Teff–log g diagram with isochrones from the Y2 models interpolated to the exact [Fe/H] and [α/Fe] values of each star. The stellar parameters have been adopted from the preceding...

  16. Relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov description of the halo nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, J.; Ring, P. [Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany)


    Here the authors report the development of the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov theory in coordinate space. Pairing correlations are taken into account by both density dependent force of zero range and finite range Gogny force. As a primary application the relativistic HB theory is used to describe the chain of Lithium isotopes reaching from {sup 6}Li to {sup 11}Li. In contrast to earlier investigations within a relativistic mean field theory and a density dependent Hartree Fock theory, where the halo in {sup 11}Li could only be reproduced by an artificial shift of the 1p{sub 1/2} level close to the continuum limit, the halo is now reproduced in a self-consistent way without further modifications using the scattering of Cooper pairs to the 2s{sub 1/2} level in the continuum. Excellent agreement with recent experimental data is observed.

  17. The abundance of boron in three halo stars (United States)

    Duncan, Douglas K.; Lambert, David L.; Lemke, Michael


    B abundances for three halo stars: HD 140283, HD 19445, and HD 201891 are presented. Using recent determinations of the Be abundance in HD 140283, B/Be of 10 +5/-4 is found for this star, and similar ratios are inferred for HD 19445 and HD 201891. This ratio is equal to the minimum value of 10 expected from a synthesis of B and Be by high-energy cosmic-ray spallation reactions in the interstellar medium. It is shown that the accompanying synthesis of Li by alpha on alpha fusion reactions is probably a minor contributor to the observed 'primordial' Li of halo stars. The observed constant ratios of B/O and Be/O are expected if the principal channel of synthesis involves cosmic-ray CNO nuclei from the supernovae colliding with interstellar protons.

  18. Toward a combined SAGE II-HALOE aerosol climatology: an evaluation of HALOE version 19 stratospheric aerosol extinction coefficient observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. W. Thomason


    Full Text Available Herein, the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE aerosol extinction coefficient data is evaluated in the low aerosol loading period after 1996 as the first necessary step in a process that will eventually allow the production of a combined HALOE/SAGE II (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment aerosol climatology of derived aerosol products including surface area density. Based on these analyses, it is demonstrated that HALOE's 3.46 μm is of good quality above 19 km and suitable for scientific applications above that altitude. However, it is increasingly suspect at lower altitudes and should not be used below 17 km under any circumstances after 1996. The 3.40 μm is biased by about 10% throughout the lower stratosphere due to the failure to clear NO2 but otherwise appears to be a high quality product down to 15 km. The 2.45 and 5.26 μm aerosol extinction coefficient measurements are clearly biased and should not be used for scientific applications after the most intense parts of the Pinatubo period. Many of the issues in the aerosol data appear to be related to either the failure to clear some interfering gas species or doing so poorly. For instance, it is clear that the 3.40 μm aerosol extinction coefficient measurements can be improved through the inclusion of an NO2 correction and could, in fact, end up as the highest quality overall HALOE aerosol extinction coefficient measurement. It also appears that the 2.45 and 5.26 μm channels may be improved by updating the Upper Atmosphere Pilot Database which is used as a resource for the removal of gas species otherwise not available from direct HALOE measurements. Finally, a simple model to demonstrate the promise of mixed visible/infrared aerosol extinction coefficient ensembles for the retrieval of bulk aerosol properties demonstrates that a combined HALOE/SAGE II aerosol climatology is feasible and may represent a substantial improvement over independently derived

  19. Are the supergiant halos experimental evidence for the pionic radioactivity? (United States)

    Ion, D. B.; Ion-Mihai, R.


    Pionic radiohalos (PIRH), as an integral time record of the pionic nuclear radioactivity of the heavy nuclides with Z > 80 from the inclusions from ancient minerals, are introduced. It is then shown that the essential characteristic features of the observed supergiant halos (SGH) are reproduced with a surprisingly high accuracy by those of the pionic radiohalos. For the clarification of this problem new experimental investigations including pionic detection methods are suggested.

  20. The Connection between Radio Halos and Cluster Mergers and the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and the Statistical Properties of the Radio Halo Population. R. Cassano1,2,∗. , G. Brunetti2 & T. ... sources located in the cluster central regions, with spatial extent similar to that of the hot ICM and steep radio spectra, α > 1.1 ... distribution of clusters in the P1.4 − LX diagram (Brunetti et al. 2007): RH trace the well-known ...

  1. Can $\\beta$-decay probe excited state halos?

    CERN Multimedia


    In the first experiment at the newly constructed ISOLDE Facility the first-forbidden $\\beta$-decay of $^{17}$Ne into the first excited state of $^{17}$F has been measured. It is a factor two faster than the corresponding mirror decay and thus gives one of the largest recorded asymmetries for $\\beta$-decays feeding bound final states. Shell-model calculations can only reproduce the asymmetry if the halo structure of the $^{17}$F state is taken into account.

  2. The Effects of Varying Cosmological Parameters on Halo Substructure (United States)

    Dooley, Gregory A.; Griffen, Brendan F.; Zukin, Phillip; Ji, Alexander P.; Vogelsberger, Mark; Hernquist, Lars E.; Frebel, Anna


    We investigate how different cosmological parameters, such as those delivered by the WMAP and Planck missions, affect the nature and evolution of the dark matter halo substructure. We use a series of flat Λ cold dark matter cosmological N-body simulations of structure formation, each with a different power spectrum but with the same initial white noise field. Our fiducial simulation is based on parameters from the WMAP seventh year cosmology. We then systematically vary the spectral index, ns ; matter density, Ω M ; and normalization of the power spectrum, σ8, for seven unique simulations. Across these, we study variations in the subhalo mass function, mass fraction, maximum circular velocity function, spatial distribution, concentration, formation times, accretion times, and peak mass. We eliminate dependence of subhalo properties on host halo mass and average the values over many hosts to reduce variance. While the "same" subhalos from identical initial overdensity peaks in higher σ8, ns , and Ω m simulations accrete earlier and end up less massive and closer to the halo center at z = 0, the process of continuous subhalo accretion and destruction leads to a steady state distribution of these properties across all subhalos in a given host. This steady state mechanism eliminates cosmological dependence on all of the properties listed above except for subhalo concentration and V max, which remain greater for higher σ8, ns , and Ω m simulations, and subhalo formation time, which remains earlier. We also find that the numerical technique for computing the scale radius and the halo finder that were used can significantly affect the concentration-mass relationship as computed for a simulation.

  3. A multi-machine scaling of halo current rotation (United States)

    Myers, C. E.; Eidietis, N. W.; Gerasimov, S. N.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Granetz, R. S.; Hender, T. C.; Pautasso, G.; Contributors, JET


    Halo currents generated during unmitigated tokamak disruptions are known to develop rotating asymmetric features that are of great concern to ITER because they can dynamically amplify the mechanical stresses on the machine. This paper presents a multi-machine analysis of these phenomena. More specifically, data from C-Mod, NSTX, ASDEX Upgrade, DIII-D, and JET are used to develop empirical scalings of three key quantities: (1) the machine-specific minimum current quench time, \

  4. A look into the inside of haloes: a characterization of the halo shape as a function of overdensity in the Planck cosmology (United States)

    Despali, Giulia; Giocoli, Carlo; Bonamigo, Mario; Limousin, Marceau; Tormen, Giuseppe


    In this paper, we study the triaxial properties of dark matter haloes of a wide range of masses extracted from a set of cosmological N-body simulations. We measure the shape at different distances from the halo centre (characterized by different overdensity thresholds), both in three and in two dimensions. We discuss how halo triaxiality increases with mass, redshift and distance from the halo centre. We also examine how the orientations of the different ellipsoids are aligned with each other and what is the gradient in internal shapes for haloes with different virial configurations. Our findings highlight that the internal part of the halo retains memory of the violent formation process keeping the major axis oriented towards the preferential direction of the infalling material while the outer part becomes rounder due to continuous isotropic merging events. This effect is clearly evident in high-mass haloes - which formed more recently - while it is more blurred in low-mass haloes. We present simple distributions that may be used as priors for various mass reconstruction algorithms, operating in different wavelengths, in order to recover a more complex and realistic dark matter distribution of isolated and relaxed systems.

  5. Decay Properties of the Halo Nucleus $^{11}$Li

    CERN Multimedia


    During the past years a considerable experimental effort has been devoted to the production and study of nuclei close to the neutron and proton drip-lines. The most spectacular phenomenon encountered is the occurrence of neutron halos in the loosely bound neutron rich nuclei. \\\\ \\\\ Another interesting feature, observed at ISOLDE, which most likely is connected to the halo structure, is the very strong (super-allowed) Gamow-Teller $\\beta$- transitions to highly excited states which are systematically observed for the lightest neutron rich drip-line nuclei. These transitions might be viewed as arising from the quasi-free $\\beta$ -decay of the halo neutrons. It is proposed to make a detailed study of the $\\beta$- strength function for $^{11}$Li, a nuclide having a half-life of 8.2 ms and a Q $\\beta$-value of 20.73~MeV. \\\\ \\\\ So far only a lower limit of the Gamow-Teller transition rate to highly excited states ($\\approx$~18.5~MeV) in the daughter nucleus has been obtained from measurements of $\\beta$-delayed tri...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veljanoski, J.; Ferguson, A. M. N.; Bernard, E. J.; Penarrubia, J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Mackey, A. D. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Mt Stromlo Observatory, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Huxor, A. P. [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum fur Astronomie der Universitat Heidelberg, Monchhofstr. 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Irwin, M. J.; Chapman, S. C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Cote, P. [NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, British Columbia V9E 2E7 (Canada); Tanvir, N. R.; McConnachie, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Ibata, R. A.; Martin, N. F. [Observatoire de Strasbourg, 11 rue de l' Universite, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Fardal, M. [University of Massachusetts, Department of Astronomy, LGRT 619-E, 710 N. Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003-9305 (United States); Lewis, G. F. [Institute of Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)


    We present the first kinematic analysis of the far outer halo globular cluster (GC) population in the Local Group galaxy M31. Our sample contains 53 objects with projected radii of {approx}20-130 kpc, 44 of which have no previous spectroscopic information. GCs with projected radii {approx}> 30 kpc are found to exhibit net rotation around the minor axis of M31, in the same sense as the inner GCs, albeit with a smaller amplitude of 79 {+-} 19 km s{sup -1}. The rotation-corrected velocity dispersion of the full halo GC sample is 106 {+-} 12 km s{sup -1}, which we observe to decrease with increasing projected radius. We find compelling evidence for kinematic coherence among GCs that project on top of halo substructure, including a clear signature of infall for GCs lying along the northwest stream. Using the tracer mass estimator, we estimate the dynamical mass of M31 within 200 kpc to be M{sub M31} = (1.2-1.5) {+-} 0.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} M{sub Sun }. This value is highly dependent on the chosen model and assumptions within.

  7. Hypervelocity Stars: From the Galactic Center to the Halo (United States)

    Kenyon, Scott J.; Bromley, Benjamin C.; Geller, Margaret J.; Brown, Warren R.


    Hypervelocity stars (HVSs) traverse the Galaxy from the central black hole to the outer halo. We show that the Galactic potential within 200 pc acts as a high-pass filter preventing low-velocity HVSs from reaching the halo. To trace the orbits of HVSs throughout the Galaxy, we construct two forms of the potential which reasonably represent the observations in the range 5-105 pc: a simple spherically symmetric model and a bulge-disk-halo model. We use the Hills mechanism (disruption of binaries by the tidal field of the central black hole) to inject HVSs into the Galaxy and to compute the observable spatial and velocity distributions of HVSs with masses in the range 0.6-4 M⊙. These distributions reflect the mass function in the Galactic center, properties of binaries in the Galactic center, and aspects of stellar evolution and the injection mechanism. For 0.6-4 M⊙ main-sequence stars, the fraction of unbound HVSs and the asymmetry of the velocity distribution for their bound counterparts increase with stellar mass. The density profiles for unbound HVSs decline with distance from the Galactic center approximately as r-2 (but are steeper for the most massive stars, which evolve off the main sequence during their travel time from the Galactic center); the density profiles for the bound ejecta decline with distance approximately as r-3. In a survey with a limiting magnitude of Vlesssim 23, the detectability of HVSs (unbound or bound) increases with stellar mass.

  8. Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC di PT Halo Rumah Bernyanyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekka Rismayanti


    Full Text Available Abstract: This research aims to describe the effectiveness of Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC in PT Halo Rumah Bernyanyi which, from the perspective of marketing strategy, could be studied by analyzing the segmentation, targeting, and positioning. Using case-study method with in-depth interview, the result shows that the implementation of IMC at PT Halo Rumah Bernyayi is arranged in one single strategy and tend to neglect the complexities of running multi-brand family karaoke-house. This considers as ineffective because it leads to “cannibalization” among brands, especially when costumer’s targetting is overlooked before drafting the IMC plan. Keywords: Business, Integrated Marketing Communication, Marketing   Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan efektivitas penerapan Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC yang dilihat dari aspek segmentation, targeting dan positioning. Metode penelitian adalah studi kasus dengan menggunakan wawancara mendalam. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penerapan IMC di PT Halo Rumah Bernyanyi dibuat dalam satu strategi dan tidak memerhatikan kompleksitas dari aspek segmentation, targeting dan positioning sebagai pedoman dasar. Langkah tersebut dinilai tidak efektif karena dapat mengakibatkan “kanibalisasi” antar brand, terlebih jika perhatian terhadap target konsumen diabaikan sebelum menyusun perencanaan IMC. Kata Kunci: Bisnis, Integrated Marketing Communications, Pemasaran

  9. Design alternatives for beam halo monitors in high intensity accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, H; Corsini, R; Lefèvre, T; Schulte, Daniel; Tecker, F A; Welsch, C P


    In future high intensity, high energy accelerators it must be ensured that particle losses are minimized as activation of the vacuum chambers or other components makes maintenance and upgrade work time consuming and costly. It is imperative to have a clear understanding of the mechanisms that can lead to halo formation and to have the possibility to test available theoretical models with an adequate experimental setup. Optical transition radiation (OTR) provides an interesting opportunity for linear real-time measurements of the transverse beam profile with a resolution which has been so far at best in the some μm range. However, the dynamic range of standard OTR systems is typically limited and needs to be improved for its application for halo measurements. In this contribution, the existing OTR system as it is installed in the CLIC test facility (CTF3) is analyzed and the contribution of each component to the final image quality discussed. Finally, possible halo measurement techniques based on OTR are pres...

  10. Detecting Hot Gaseous Halos of Galaxies with Arcus (United States)

    Bregman, Joel N.; Hodges-Kluck, Edmund; Li, Jiangtao; Li, Yunyang; Miller, Matthew; Qu, Zhijie


    A long-lived component of galaxies is the hot extended atmosphere with a temperature near the virial temperature. It can contain a significant fraction of the missing baryons and can act as a reservoir of matter for future generations of stars. This extended hot halo is detected around the Milky Way in absorption and emission lines of highly ionized species (e.g., O VII, O VIII), but weighted to be within about 50 kpc. From current data there are not many high fidelity absorption line detections and the lines are badly under-resolved. These shortcomings will be rectified with Arcus, which will provide high-quality line measurements in several ions for about 50 sight lines. Lines will often be resolved, revealing the dynamics of the hot halo, such as rotation and the turbulence resulting from feedback. We show how metallicities will be determined from a comparison of these absorption lines with existing emission line data. Arcus will detect O VII absorption from similar halos around external galaxies, for the first time, and out to ~R200, if not beyond. Using random lines of sight, Arcus will complete the metal census of the Universe.

  11. Dwarf Galaxies in Voids: Dark Matter Halos and Gas Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Hoeft


    Full Text Available Galaxy surveys have shown that luminous galaxies are mainly distributed in large filaments and galaxy clusters. The remaining large volumes are virtually devoid of luminous galaxies. This is in concordance with the formation of the large-scale structure in the universe as derived from cosmological simulations. However, the numerical results indicate that cosmological voids are abundantly populated with dark matter haloes which may in principle host dwarf galaxies. Observational efforts have in contrast revealed that voids are apparently devoid of dwarf galaxies. We investigate the formation of dwarf galaxies in voids by hydrodynamical cosmological simulations. Due to the cosmic ultraviolet background radiation low-mass haloes show generally a reduced baryon fraction. We determine the characteristic mass below which dwarf galaxies are baryon deficient. We show that the circular velocity below which the accretion of baryons is suppressed is approximately 40 kms−1. The suppressed baryon accretion is caused by the photo-heating due to the UV background. We set up a spherical halo model and show that the effective equation of the state of the gas in the periphery of dwarf galaxies determines the characteristic mass. This implies that any process which heats the gas around dwarf galaxies increases the characteristic mass and thus reduces the number of observable dwarf galaxies.

  12. Ultra-Deep Imaging: Structure of Disks and Haloes (United States)

    Knapen, Johan H.; Trujillo, Ignacio

    Deep imaging is a fundamental tool in the study of the outermost structures of galaxies. We review recent developments in ultra-deep imaging of galaxy disks and haloes, highlighting the technical advances as well as the challenges and summarizing observational results in the context of modern theory and simulations. The deepest modern galaxy imaging comes from three main sources: (1) surveys such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey's Stripe 82 project; (2) very long exposures on small telescopes, including by amateurs; and (3) long exposures on the largest professional telescopes. The technical challenges faced are common in all these approaches and include the treatment of light scattered by atmosphere and telescope/instrument, correct flat fielding and the subtraction of non-galaxy light in the images. We review scientific results on galaxy disks and haloes obtained with deep imaging, including the detection and characterization of stellar haloes, tidal features and stellar streams, disk truncations and thick disks. The area of ultra-deep imaging is still very much unexplored territory, and future work in this area promises significant advances in our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution.

  13. Shot noise and biased tracers: A new look at the halo model (United States)

    Ginzburg, Dimitry; Desjacques, Vincent; Chan, Kwan Chuen


    Shot noise is an important ingredient to any measurement or theoretical modeling of discrete tracers of the large scale structure. Recent work has shown that the shot noise in the halo power spectrum becomes increasingly sub-Poissonian at high mass. Interestingly, while the halo model predicts a shot noise power spectrum in qualitative agreement with the data, it leads to an unphysical white noise in the cross halo-matter and matter power spectrum. In this work, we show that absorbing all the halo model sources of shot noise into the halo fluctuation field leads to meaningful predictions for the shot noise contributions to halo clustering statistics and remove the unphysical white noise from the cross halo-matter statistics. Our prescription straightforwardly maps onto the general bias expansion, so that the renormalized shot noise terms can be expressed as combinations of the halo model shot noises. Furthermore, we demonstrate that non-Poissonian contributions are related to volume integrals over correlation functions and their response to long-wavelength density perturbations. This leads to a new class of consistency relations for discrete tracers, which appear to be satisfied by our reformulation of the halo model. We test our theoretical predictions against measurements of halo shot noise bispectra extracted from a large suite of numerical simulations. Our model reproduces qualitatively the observed sub-Poissonian noise, although it underestimates the magnitude of this effect.

  14. Stellar Stream and Halo Structure in the Andromeda Galaxy from a Subaru/Hyper Suprime-Cam Survey (United States)

    Komiyama, Yutaka; Chiba, Masashi; Tanaka, Mikito; Tanaka, Masayuki; Kirihara, Takanobu; Miki, Yohei; Mori, Masao; Lupton, Robert H.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Kalirai, Jason S.; Gilbert, Karoline; Kirby, Evan; Lee, Myun Gyoon; Jang, In Sung; Sharma, Sanjib; Hayashi, Kohei


    We present wide and deep photometry of the northwestern part of the halo of the Andromeda galaxy (M31) using Hyper Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. The survey covers a 9.2 deg2 field in the g, i, and NB515 bands and shows a clear red giant branch (RGB) of M31's halo stars and a pronounced red clump (RC) feature. The spatial distribution of RC stars shows a prominent stream feature, the Northwestern (NW) Stream, and a diffuse substructure in the southern part of our survey field. We estimate the distances based on the RC method and obtain (m{--}M) = 24.63 ± 0.191 (random) ± 0.057 (systematic) and 24.29 ± 0.211 (random) ± 0.057 (systematic) mag for the NW Stream and diffuse substructure, respectively, implying that the NW Stream is located behind M31, whereas the diffuse substructure is located in front of it. We also estimate line-of-sight distances along the NW Stream and find that the southern part of the stream is ∼20 kpc closer to us relative to the northern part. The distance to the NW Stream inferred from the isochrone fitting to the color–magnitude diagram favors the RC-based distance, but the tip of the RGB (TRGB)-based distance estimated for NB515-selected RGB stars does not agree with it. The surface number density distribution of RC stars across the NW Stream is found to be approximately Gaussian with an FWHM of ∼25 arcmin (5.7 kpc), with a slight skew to the southwest side. That along the NW Stream shows a complicated structure, including variations in number density and a significant gap in the stream. Based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackey, A. D.; Dotter, A. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Mount Stromlo Observatory, via Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Huxor, A. P. [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg, Moenchhofstrasse 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Martin, N. F.; Ibata, R. A. [Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, Universite de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l' Universite, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Ferguson, A. M. N. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); McConnachie, A. W. [NRC Herzberg Institute for Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Irwin, M. J. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Lewis, G. F. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, A28, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Sakari, C. M.; Venn, K. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, BC V8P 1A1 (Canada); Tanvir, N. R., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)


    We present Hubble Space Telescope imaging of a newly discovered faint stellar system, PAndAS-48, in the outskirts of the M31 halo. Our photometry reveals this object to be comprised of an ancient and very metal-poor stellar population with age {approx}> 10 Gyr and [Fe/H] {approx}< -2.3. Our inferred distance modulus (m - M){sub 0} = 24.57 {+-} 0.11 confirms that PAndAS-48 is most likely a remote M31 satellite with a three-dimensional galactocentric radius of 149{sup +19}{sub -8} kpc. We observe an apparent spread in color on the upper red giant branch that is larger than the photometric uncertainties should allow, and briefly explore the implications of this. Structurally, PAndAS-48 is diffuse, faint, and moderately flattened, with a half-light radius r{sub h}=26{sup +4}{sub -3} pc, integrated luminosity M{sub V} = -4.8 {+-} 0.5, and ellipticity {epsilon}=0.30{sup +0.08}{sub -0.15}. On the size-luminosity plane it falls between the extended globular clusters seen in several nearby galaxies and the recently discovered faint dwarf satellites of the Milky Way; however, its characteristics do not allow us to unambiguously classify it as either type of system. If PAndAS-48 is a globular cluster then it is among the most elliptical, isolated, and metal-poor of any seen in the Local Group, extended or otherwise. Conversely, while its properties are generally consistent with those observed for the faint Milky Way dwarfs, it would be a factor of {approx}2-3 smaller in spatial extent than any known counterpart of comparable luminosity.

  16. A Conference on the Origin (and Evolution of Baryonic Galaxy Halos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Forbes


    Full Text Available A conference was held in March 2017 in the Galapagos Islands on the topic of The Origin (and Evolution of Baryonic Galaxy Halos. It attracted some 120 researchers from around the world. They presented 68 talks (nine of which were invited and 30 posters over five days. A novel element of the talk schedule was that participants were asked which talks they wanted to hear and the schedule was made up based on their votes and those of the Scientific Organizing Committee SOC . The final talk schedule had 34% of the talks given by women. An emphasis was given to discussion time directly after each talk. Combined with limited/no access to the internet, this resulted in high level of engagement and lively discussions. A prize was given to the poster voted the best by participants. A free afternoon included organized excursions to see the local scenery and wildlife of the Galapagos (e.g., the giant tortoises. Four public talks were given, in Spanish, for the local residents of the town. A post-conference survey was conducted, with most participants agreeing that the conference met their scientific needs and helped to initiate new research directions. Although it was challenging to organize such a large international meeting in such an isolated location as the Galapagos Islands (and much credit goes to the Local Organizing Committee LOC and staff of Quito Astronomical Observatory for their logistical efforts, organizing the meeting for over a year, it was very much a successful conference. We hope it will play a small part in further developing astronomy in Ecuador.

  17. Merger Histories of Galaxy Halos and Implications for Disk Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Kyle R.; Bullock, James S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Maller, Ariyeh H.; Zentner, Andrew R.


    The authors study the merger histories of galaxy dark matter halos using a high resolution {Lambda}CDM N-body simulation. The merger trees follow {approx} 17,000 halos with masses M{sub 0} = (10{sup 11} - 10{sup 13})h{sup -1}M{sub {circle_dot}} at z = 0 and track accretion events involving objects as small as m {approx_equal} 10{sup 10} h{sup -1}M{sub {circle_dot}}. They find that mass assembly is remarkably self-similar in m/M{sub 0}, and dominated by mergers that are {approx}10% of the final halo mass. While very large mergers, m {approx}> 0.4 M{sub 0}, are quite rare, sizeable accretion events, m {approx} 0.1 M{sub 0}, are common. Over the last {approx} 10 Gyr, an overwhelming majority ({approx} 95%) of Milky Way-sized halos with M{sub 0} = 10{sup 12} h{sup -1}M{sub {circle_dot}} have accreted at least one object with greater total mass than the Milky Way disk (m > 5 x 10{sup 10} h{sup -1}M{sub {circle_dot}}), and approximately 70% have accreted an object with more than twice that mass (m > 10{sup 11} h{sup -1}M{sub {circle_dot}}). The results raise serious concerns about the survival of thin-disk dominated galaxies within the current paradigm for galaxy formation in a {Lambda}CDM universe. in order to achieve a {approx} 70% disk-dominated fraction in Milky Way-sized {Lambda}CDM halos, mergers involving m {approx_equal} 2 x 10{sup 11} h{sup -1}M{sub {circle_dot}} objects must not destroy disks. Considering that most thick disks and bulges contain old stellar populations, the situation is even more restrictive: these mergers must not heat disks or drive gas into their centers to create young bulges.

  18. Galaxy power spectrum in redshift space: Combining perturbation theory with the halo model (United States)

    Okumura, Teppei; Hand, Nick; Seljak, Uroš; Vlah, Zvonimir; Desjacques, Vincent


    Theoretical modeling of the redshift-space power spectrum of galaxies is crucially important to correctly extract cosmological information from galaxy redshift surveys. The task is complicated by the nonlinear biasing and redshift space distortion (RSD) effects, which change with halo mass, and by the wide distribution of halo masses and their occupations by galaxies. One of the main modeling challenges is the existence of satellite galaxies that have both radial distribution inside the halos and large virial velocities inside halos, a phenomenon known as the Finger-of-God (FoG) effect. We present a model for the redshift-space power spectrum of galaxies in which we decompose a given galaxy sample into central and satellite galaxies and relate different contributions to the power spectrum to 1-halo and 2-halo terms in a halo model. Our primary goal is to ensure that any parameters that we introduce have physically meaningful values, and are not just fitting parameters. For the lowest order 2-halo terms we use the previously developed RSD modeling of halos in the context of distribution function and perturbation theory approach. This term needs to be multiplied by the effect of radial distances and velocities of satellites inside the halo. To this one needs to add the 1-halo terms, which are nonperturbative. We show that the real space 1-halo terms can be modeled as almost constant, with the finite extent of the satellites inside the halo inducing a small k2R2 term over the range of scales of interest, where R is related to the size of the halo given by its halo mass. We adopt a similar model for FoG in redshift space, ensuring that FoG velocity dispersion is related to the halo mass. For FoG k2 type expansions do not work over the range of scales of interest and FoG resummation must be used instead. We test several simple damping functions to model the velocity dispersion FoG effect. Applying the formalism to mock galaxies modeled after the "CMASS" sample of the

  19. Multiple Giant Coronary Artery Aneurysms (United States)

    Usuku, Hiroki; Kojima, Sunao; Kuyama, Naoto; Hanatani, Shinsuke; Araki, Satoshi; Tsujita, Kenichi; Tsunoda, Ryusuke; Fukui, Toshihiro; Hokimoto, Seiji


    A 74-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with chest pain and dyspnea associated with ST elevation in leads II, III and aVF. An echocardiogram showed an enlarged mass lesion measuring nearly 80 mm. Coronary angiography showed two giant coronary artery aneurysms (CAAs) in the right coronary artery (RCA). CAAs were also seen in the left main trunk and left anterior descending artery. Computed tomography showed the CAA in the RCA was ruptured into the right atrium. We therefore diagnosed this patient with multiple CAAs, myocardial infarction and coronary artery rupture. He underwent successful surgical excision and coronary bypass surgery. PMID:28768966

  20. Rare Giant Prevertebral Thoracic Myelomeningocele. (United States)

    Choi, Bryan D; Fehnel, Katie P; Butler, William E


    Here we report a 72-year-old man who presented with complaint of sudden-onset weakness and impaired sensation in the left lower extremity. Radiographic evaluation revealed a congenital malformation with multiple formation defects including a giant thoracic prevertebral myelomeningocele. Following microsurgical detethering of the spinal cord, the patient recovered ambulation with assist. While thoracic myelomeningoceles are themselves rare, in this case the patient presented at a late age and responded well to conservative management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Giant Rhinolith: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Chang Hsiao


    Full Text Available A rhinolith is a stone that forms in the nose. It occurs as a result of the solidification of mucus and nasal debris by mineral salts, calcium, magnesium phosphate and carbonate. It can be seen on radiographs as a radiopaque object in the nasal fossa and may be confused with several pathologic entities that will call for more invasive surgical procedures. We present the first case of a giant rhinolith, possibly arising from aspergillosis, and discuss its clinical and radiologic features.

  2. Giant magneto-resistance devices

    CERN Document Server

    Hirota, Eiichi; Inomata, Koichiro


    This book deals with the application of giant magneto-resistance (GMR) effects to electronic devices. It will appeal to engineers and graduate students in the fields of electronic devices and materials. The main subjects are magnetic sensors with high resolution and magnetic read heads with high sensitivity, required for hard-disk drives with recording densities of several gigabytes. Another important subject is novel magnetic random-access memories (MRAM) with non-volatile non-destructive and radiation-resistant characteristics. Other topics include future GMR devices based on bipolar spin transistors, spin field-effect transistors (FETs) and double-tunnel junctions.

  3. Totally thrombosed giant anterior communicating artery aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V R Roopesh Kumar


    Full Text Available Giant anterior communicating artery aneurysmsarerare. Apatient presented with visual dysfunction, gait ataxia and urinary incontinence. MRI showed a giant suprasellar mass.At surgery, the lesion was identified as being an aneurysm arising from the anterior communicating artery.The difficulty in preoperative diagnosis and relevant literature are reviewed.

  4. Surgical treatment for giant incisional hernia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, A; Rosenberg, J; Bisgaard, T


    INTRODUCTION: Repair for giant incisional hernias is a challenge due to unacceptable high morbidity and recurrence rates. Several surgical techniques are available, but all are poorly documented. This systematic review was undertaken to evaluate the existing literature on repair for giant...... procedure and severely lack evidence-based research from high-quality, large-scaled randomised studies....

  5. Giant pubertal prolactinoma: Complete resolution following short ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in micro‑ and macro‑adenomas unless an urgent treatment is necessary. First line treatment is always medical with dopamine agonists. In this report, we presented a patient with pubertal arrest and giant prolactinoma that disappeared in a short time with cabergoline treatment. Keywords: Cabergoline, giant prolactinoma, ...

  6. growing African giant rats Cricetomys gambianus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thermoregulation and evaporative water loss in growing African giant rats Cricetomys gambianus. M.H. Knight. Mammal Research Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria. With an increase in mass, weaned giant rat pups. Cricetomys gambianus, showed a corresponding decline in mass specific metabolism, conductance ...

  7. Injection halos of hydrocarbons above oil-gas fields with super-high pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhtin, V.V.


    We studied the origin of injection halos of hydrocarbons above oil-gas fields with anomalously high formation pressures (AHFP). Using fields in Azerbaydzhan and Chechen-Ingushetiya as an example, we demonstrate the effect of certain factors (in particular, faults and zones of increased macro- and micro-jointing) on the morpholoy of the halos. The intensity of micro-jointing (jointing permeability, three-dimensional density of micro-jointing) is directly connected with vertical dimensions of the halos. We measured halos based on transverse profiles across the Khayan-Kort field and studied the distribution of bitumen saturation within the injection halo. Discovery of injection halos during drilling has enabled us to improve the technology of wiring deep-seated exploratory wells for oil and gas in regions with development of AHFP.

  8. Hydrocarbon halo distribution above oil and gas deposits with abnormally high stratal pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhtin, V.V.


    An examination is made of the emergence of hydrocarbon halos over oil and gas deposits with abnormally high stratal pressure. Fields in Azerbaidzhan and Checheno-Ingushetiya are used to illustrate the effect of certain factors (particularly fractures, zones with heightened macro and microfissure formation) on halo morphology. A direct relationship was found between the intensity of microfissure formation (fissure permeability, volumetric density of microfissures) and the size of vertically directed halos. Dimensions are given for halos by cross-sectional profiles of the Khayan-Kort field, and information is given on the nature of bitumen saturation distribution within the halo. The identification of halos in the process of drilling will make it possible to improve the technology of cutting deep gas and oil exploratory wells in the regions of abnormally high stratal pressures are developing. 22 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  9. Group support system and explanatory feedback: An experimental study of mitigating halo effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intiyas Utami


    Full Text Available Comprehensive assessment potentially leads to halo effect that will affect accuracy of auditors decision-making process. Biased initial audit decision will potentially influence final audit decision. It is there-fore necessary to mitigate halo effect that is the consequence of auditors good impression on clients initial condition. This re-search aims to empirically show that halo effect can be mitigated by explanatory feedback and Group Support System (GSS. The researchers experimentally mani-pulate explanatory feedback and GSS using online web-site. The subjects are stu-dents who have already taken auditing courses. The results show that: 1 explanato-ry feedback can mitigate halo effect so that audit decision will be more accurate 2 GSS can also mitigate halo effect 3 explanatory feedback and GSS are the best me-thods to mitigate halo effect.

  10. Chemical analysis of eight giant stars of the globular cluster NGC 6366 (United States)

    Puls, Arthur A.; Brito, Alan Alves; Campos, Fabíola; Dias, Bruno; Barbuy, Beatriz


    The metal-rich Galactic globular cluster NGC 6366 is the fifth closest to the Sun. Despite its interest, it has received scarce attention, and little is known about its internal structure. Its kinematics suggests a link to the halo, but its metallicity indicates otherwise. We present a detailed chemical analysis of eight giant stars of NGC 6366, using high resolution and high quality spectra (R > 40 000, S/N > 60) obtained at the VLT (8.2 m) and CFHT (3.6 m) telescopes. We attempted to characterize its chemistry and to search for evidence of multiple stellar populations. The atmospheric parameters were derived using the method of excitation and ionization equilibrium of Fe I and Fe II lines and from those atmospheric parameters we calculated the abundances for other elements and found that none of the elements measured presents star-to-star variation greater than the uncertainties. We compared the derived abundances with those of other globular clusters and field stars available in the literature. We determined a mean [Fe/H] = -0.60 ± 0.03 for NGC 6366 and found some similarity of this object with M 71, another inner halo globular cluster. The Na-O anticorrelation extension is short and no star-to-star variation in Al is found. The presence of second generation stars is not evident in NGC 6366.

  11. HaloTag as a reporter gene: positron emission tomography imaging with 64Cu-labeled second generation HaloTag ligands (United States)

    Hong, Hao; Benink, Hélène A; Uyeda, H Tetsuo; Valdovinos, Hector F; Zhang, Yin; Meisenheimer, Poncho; Barnhart, Todd E; Fan, Frank; Cai, Weibo


    The goal of this study is to employ the HaloTag technology for positron emission tomography (PET), which involves two components: the HaloTag protein (a modified hydrolase which covalently binds to synthetic ligands) and HaloTag ligands (HTLs). 4T1 murine breast cancer cells were stably transfected to express HaloTag protein on the surface (termed as 4T1-HaloTag-ECS, ECS denotes extracellular surface). Two new HTLs were synthesized and termed NOTA-HTL2G-S and NOTA-HTL2G-L (2G indicates second generation, S stands for short, L stands for long, NOTA denotes 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-N,N’N’’-triacetic acid). Microscopy studies confirmed surface expression of HaloTag in 4T1-HaloTag-ECS cells, which specifically bind NOTA-HTL2G-S/L. Uptake of 64Cu-NOTA-HTL2G-L in 4T1-HaloTag-ECS tumors (4.3 ± 0.5, 4.1± 0.2, 4.0 ± 0.2, 2.3 ± 0.1, and 2.2 ± 0.1 %ID/g at 0.5, 3, 6, 18, and 24 h post-injection respectively; n = 4) was significantly higher than that in the 4T1 tumors (3.0 ± 0.3, 3.0± 0.1, 3.0 ± 0.2, 2.0 ± 0.4, and 2.4 ± 0.3 %ID/g at 0.5, 3, 6, 18, and 24 h post-injection respectively; n = 4) at early time points. In comparison, 64Cu-NOTA-HTL2G-S did not demonstrate significant uptake in either 4T1-HaloTag-ECS or 4T1 tumors. Blocking studies and autoradiography of tumor lysates confirmed that 64Cu-NOTA-HTL2G-L binds specifically to HaloTag protein in the 4T1-HaloTag-ECS tumors, corroborated by histology. HaloTag protein-specific targeting and PET imaging in vivo with 64Cu-NOTA-HTL2G-L serves as a proof-of-principle for future non-invasive and sensitive tracking of HaloTag-transfected cells with PET, as well as many other studies of gene/protein/cell function in vivo. PMID:23634240

  12. The Impact of Assembly Bias on the Galaxy Content of Dark Matter Halos (United States)

    Zehavi, Idit; Contreras, Sergio; Padilla, Nelson; Smith, Nicholas J.; Baugh, Carlton M.; Norberg, Peder


    We study the dependence of the galaxy content of dark matter halos on large-scale environment and halo formation time using semi-analytic galaxy models applied to the Millennium simulation. We analyze subsamples of halos at the extremes of these distributions and measure the occupation functions for the galaxies they host. We find distinct differences among these occupation functions. The main effect with environment is that central galaxies (and in one model, also the satellites) in denser regions start populating lower-mass halos. A similar, but significantly stronger, trend exists with halo age, where early-forming halos are more likely to host central galaxies at lower halo mass. We discuss the origin of these trends and the connection to the stellar mass–halo mass relation. We find that, at fixed halo mass, older halos and to some extent also halos in dense environments tend to host more massive galaxies. Additionally, we see a reverse trend for the occupation of satellite galaxies where early-forming halos have fewer satellites, likely due to having more time for them to merge with the central galaxy. We describe these occupancy variations in terms of the changes in the occupation function parameters, which can aid in constructing realistic mock galaxy samples. Finally, we study the corresponding galaxy auto- and cross-correlation functions of the different samples and elucidate the impact of assembly bias on galaxy clustering. Our results can inform theoretical modeling of galaxy assembly bias and attempts to detect it in the real universe.

  13. Pressure at the ISM-halo interface: A reheating frequency dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirković M.M.


    Full Text Available The dependence of the thermal pressure of hot galactic halos on a model parameter describing the frequency of major reheating episodes during galactic history is investigated. Pressure on the interface between interstellar medium and the halo gas is especially interesting, since empirical evidence here offers one of the simplest constraints on halo models. It is shown that two-phase model of Mo & Miralda-Escudé is sufficiently robust with respect to uncertainties in the average interval between reheating.

  14. HaloTag-based purification of functional human kinases from mammalian cells. (United States)

    Ohana, Rachel Friedman; Hurst, Robin; Vidugiriene, Jolanta; Slater, Michael R; Wood, Keith V; Urh, Marjeta


    Although cultured mammalian cells are preferred for producing functional mammalian proteins with appropriate post-translational modifications, purification of recombinant proteins is frequently hampered by low expression. We have addressed this by creating a new method configured specifically for mammalian cell culture that provides rapid detection and efficient purification. This approach is based on HaloTag, a protein fusion tag designed to bind rapidly, selectively and covalently to a series of synthetic ligands that can carry a variety of functional groups, including fluorescent dyes for detection or solid supports for purification. Since the binding of HaloTag to the HaloLink resin is essentially irreversible, it overcomes the equilibrium-based binding limitations associated with affinity tags and enables efficient capture and purification of target protein, even at low expression levels. The target protein is released from the HaloLink resin by specific cleavage using a TEV protease fused to HaloTag (HaloTEV), leaving both HaloTag and HaloTEV permanently attached to the resin and highly pure, tag-free protein in solution. HaloTag fluorescent ligands enable fluorescent labeling of HaloTag fusion proteins, providing a convenient way to monitor expression, and thus facilitate the identification of optimal transient transfection conditions as well as the selection of high expression stable cell lines. The capabilities of this method have been demonstrated by the efficient purification of five functional human kinases from HEK293T cells. In addition, when purifications using FLAG, 3xFLAG, His(6)Tag and HaloTag were performed in parallel, HaloTag was shown to provide significantly higher yields, purity and overall recovery of the expressed proteins. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. HaloTag: a novel reporter gene for positron emission tomography. (United States)

    Hong, Hao; Benink, Hélène A; Zhang, Yin; Yang, Yunan; Uyeda, H Tetsuo; Engle, Jonathan W; Severin, Gregory W; McDougall, Mark G; Barnhart, Todd E; Klaubert, Dieter H; Nickles, Robert J; Fan, Frank; Cai, Weibo


    Among the many molecular imaging techniques, reporter gene imaging has been a dynamic area of research. The HaloTag protein is a modified haloalkane dehalogenase which was designed to covalently bind to synthetic ligands (i.e. the HaloTag ligands [HTL]). Covalent bond formation between the HaloTag protein and the chloroal-kane within the HTL occurs rapidly under physiological conditions, which is highly specific and essentially irreversible. Over the years, HaloTag technology has been investigated for various applications such as in vitro/in vivo imaging, protein purification/trafficking, high-throughput assays, among others. The goal of this study is to explore the use of the HaloTag protein as a novel reporter gene for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. By attaching a HaloTag -reactive chloroalkane to 1, 4, 7-triazacyclononane-N, N', N"-triacetic acid (NOTA) through hydrophilic linkers, the resulting NOTA-conjugated HTLs were labeled with (64)Cu and tested for PET imaging in living mice bearing 4T1-HaloTag-ECS tumors, which stably express the HaloTag protein on the cell surface. Significantly higher uptake of (64)Cu-NOTA-HTL-S (which contains a short hydrophilic linker) in the 4T1-HaloTag-ECS than the non-HaloTag-expressing 4T1 tumors was observed, which demonstrated the HaloTag specificity of (64)Cu-NOTA-HTL-S and warranted future investigation of the HaloTag protein as a PET reporter gene.

  16. HaloTag Protein-Mediated Specific Labeling of Living Cells with Quantum Dots


    So, Min-kyung; Yao, Hequan; Rao, Jianghong


    Quantum dots emerge as an attractive alternative to small molecule fluorophores as fluorescent tags for in vivo cell labeling and imaging. This communication presents a method for specific labeling of live cells using quantum dots. The labeling is mediated by HaloTag protein expressed at the cell surface which forms a stable covalent adduct with its ligand (HaloTag ligand). The labeling can be performed in one single step with quantum dot conjugates that are functionalized with HaloTag ligand...

  17. ZOMG - I. How the cosmic web inhibits halo growth and generates assembly bias (United States)

    Borzyszkowski, Mikolaj; Porciani, Cristiano; Romano-Díaz, Emilio; Garaldi, Enrico


    The clustering of dark matter haloes with fixed mass depends on their formation history, an effect known as assembly bias. We use zoom N-body simulations to investigate the origin of this phenomenon. For each halo at redshift z = 0, we determine the time in which the physical volume containing its final mass becomes stable. We consider five examples for which this happens at z ˜ 1.5 and two that do not stabilize by z = 0. The zoom simulations show that early-collapsing haloes do not grow in mass at z = 0 while late-forming ones show a net inflow. The reason is that 'accreting' haloes are located at the nodes of a network of thin filaments feeding them. Conversely, each 'stalled' halo lies within a prominent filament that is thicker than the halo size. Infalling material from the surroundings becomes part of the filament while matter within it recedes from the halo. We conclude that assembly bias originates from quenching halo growth due to tidal forces following the formation of non-linear structures in the cosmic web, as previously conjectured in the literature. Also the internal dynamics of the haloes change: the velocity anisotropy profile is biased towards radial (tangential) orbits in accreting (stalled) haloes. Our findings reveal the cause of the yet unexplained dependence of halo clustering on the anisotropy. Finally, we extend the excursion-set theory to account for these effects. A simple criterion based on the ellipticity of the linear tidal field combined with the spherical-collapse model provides excellent predictions for both classes of haloes.

  18. [Giant ameloblastoma of the mandible]. (United States)

    Catherine, Z; Isaac, S; Cotton, F; Roch, J; Rousset, M; Bouletreau, P; Breton, P


    Giant ameloblastomas are more common in developing countries. They raise a serious problem of management. We present the case of one of the largest ameloblastoma ever reported. A 48-year-old Congolese female patient was referred for mandibular swelling having begun 23 years before and now inducing severe functional disorders. A cephalic CT scan revealed a multicystic mass, 30×18×10cm in size, with a typical "soap bubble" presentation, and with thinned and inflated cortical bone. The treatment was sub-total segmental mandibulectomy with immediate reconstruction using a fibular free flap, modeled on the sampling site by four ostectomies. The pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of a benign follicular and plexiform ameloblastoma. The excess of soft tissue was treated with a right commissuroplasty on the 15th postoperative day. There was no complication. Radical treatment followed by immediate reconstruction using a free flap is the treatment of choice for giant mandibular ameloblastomas, when considering immediate functional and esthetic benefits. This is a prime concern for patients with a difficult access to health care and for whom long-term follow-up is not feasible. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. [Giant aneurysm of fast development]. (United States)

    Castilla, J M; Martín-Velasco, V; Rodríguez-Salazar, A


    The percentage of aneurysms measuring more than 2'5 cm in diameter ranges from 3 to 13%, and occur more commonly in females. They come to clinical attention later than nongiant aneurysms, but 20% of them appear in patients 20 years of age or younger. Its natural history is incompletely understood. We present the case of a 24-year-old female admitted following a generalized seizure with postictal dysphasia and right hemiparesis caused by a subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a ruptured giant aneurysm located in the left temporal fossa, who died few hours later because of rebleeding. This patient had been followed during the last seven years at our unit because of untreated frontal osteomas, without evidence of any intracranial lesion in the computerized axial tomography (CT). Some months before her death, she had suffered a left micotic otitis, and she was studied because of the reappearance of her left cephalalgia without neurological deficit. This case is another evidence of quick appearance of a giant aneurysm, "silent" until the fatal outcome.

  20. High-resolution disruption halo current measurements using Langmuir probes in Alcator C-Mod (United States)

    Tinguely, R. A.; Granetz, R. S.; Berg, A.; Kuang, A. Q.; Brunner, D.; LaBombard, B.


    Halo currents generated during disruptions on Alcator C-Mod have been measured with Langmuir ‘rail’ probes. These rail probes are embedded in a lower outboard divertor module in a closely-spaced vertical (poloidal) array. The dense array provides detailed resolution of the spatial dependence (~1 cm spacing) of the halo current distribution in the plasma scrape-off region with high time resolution (400 kHz digitization rate). As the plasma limits on the outboard divertor plate, the contact point is clearly discernible in the halo current data (as an inversion of current) and moves vertically down the divertor plate on many disruptions. These data are consistent with filament reconstructions of the plasma boundary, from which the edge safety factor of the disrupting plasma can be calculated. Additionally, the halo current ‘footprint’ on the divertor plate is obtained and related to the halo flux width. The voltage driving halo current and the effective resistance of the plasma region through which the halo current flows to reach the probes are also investigated. Estimations of the sheath resistance and halo region resistivity and temperature are given. This information could prove useful for modeling halo current dynamics.

  1. Estimating the geoeffectiveness of halo CMEs from associated solar and IP parameters using neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Uwamahoro


    Full Text Available Estimating the geoeffectiveness of solar events is of significant importance for space weather modelling and prediction. This paper describes the development of a neural network-based model for estimating the probability occurrence of geomagnetic storms following halo coronal mass ejection (CME and related interplanetary (IP events. This model incorporates both solar and IP variable inputs that characterize geoeffective halo CMEs. Solar inputs include numeric values of the halo CME angular width (AW, the CME speed (Vcme, and the comprehensive flare index (cfi, which represents the flaring activity associated with halo CMEs. IP parameters used as inputs are the numeric peak values of the solar wind speed (Vsw and the southward Z-component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF or Bs. IP inputs were considered within a 5-day time window after a halo CME eruption. The neural network (NN model training and testing data sets were constructed based on 1202 halo CMEs (both full and partial halo and their properties observed between 1997 and 2006. The performance of the developed NN model was tested using a validation data set (not part of the training data set covering the years 2000 and 2005. Under the condition of halo CME occurrence, this model could capture 100% of the subsequent intense geomagnetic storms (Dst ≤ −100 nT. For moderate storms (−100 < Dst ≤ −50, the model is successful up to 75%. This model's estimate of the storm occurrence rate from halo CMEs is estimated at a probability of 86%.

  2. HaloTag: a new versatile reporter gene system in plant cells. (United States)

    Lang, Christina; Schulze, Jutta; Mendel, Ralf-R; Hänsch, Robert


    HaloTag Interchangeable Labeling Technology (HaloTag) was originally developed for mammalian cell analysis. In this report, the use of HaloTag is demonstrated in plant cells for the first time. This system allows different fluorescent colours to be used to visualize the localization of the non-fluorescent HaloTag protein within living cells. A vector was constructed which expresses the HaloTag protein under the control of the 35S promoter of cauliflower mosaic virus. The functionality of the HaloTag construct was tested in transient assays by (i) transforming tobacco protoplasts and (ii) using biolistic transformation of intact leaf cells of tobacco and poplar plants. Two to fourteen days after transformation, the plant material was incubated with ligands specific for labelling the HaloTag protein, and fluorescence was visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The results demonstrate that HaloTag technology is a flexible system which generates efficient fluorescence in different types of plant cells. The ligand-specific labelling of HaloTag protein was not hampered by the plant cell wall.

  3. Discovering Protein Interactions and Characterizing Protein Function Using HaloTag Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniels, Danette L; Méndez, Jacqui; Benink, Hélène; Niles, Andrew; Murphy, Nancy; Ford, Michael; Jones, Richard; Amunugama, Ravi; Allen, David; Urh, Marjeta


    .... To specifically address the challenges of understanding the human proteome, we have developed HaloTag technology for protein isolation, particularly strong for isolation of multiprotein complexes...

  4. The upper bound on the lowest mass halo (United States)

    Jethwa, P.; Erkal, D.; Belokurov, V.


    We explore the connection between galaxies and dark matter haloes in the Milky Way (MW) and quantify the implications on properties of the dark matter particle and the phenomenology of low-mass galaxy formation. This is done through a probabilistic comparison of the luminosity function of MW dwarf satellite galaxies to models based on two suites of zoom-in simulations. One suite is dark-matter-only, while the other includes a disc component, therefore we can quantify the effect of the MW's baryonic disc on our results. We apply numerous stellar-mass-halo-mass (SMHM) relations allowing for multiple complexities: scatter, a characteristic break scale, and subhaloes which host no galaxy. In contrast to previous works, we push the model/data comparison to the faintest dwarfs by modelling observational incompleteness, allowing us to draw three new conclusions. First, we constrain the SMHM relation for 102 2.4 × 108 M⊙ (1σ). Secondly, by translating to a warm dark matter (WDM) cosmology, we bound the thermal relic mass mWDM > 2.9 keV at 95 per cent confidence, on a par with recent constraints from the Lyman-α forest. Lastly, we find that the observed number of ultra-faint MW dwarfs is in tension with the theoretical prediction that reionization prevents galaxy formation in almost all 108 M⊙ haloes. This can be tested with the next generation of deep imaging surveys. To this end, we predict the likely number of detectable satellite galaxies in the Subaru/Hyper Suprime-Cam survey and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. Confronting these predictions with future observations will be amongst our strongest tests of WDM and the effect reionization on low-mass systems.

  5. HaloTag as a reporter gene: positron emission tomography imaging with (64)Cu-labeled second generation HaloTag ligands. (United States)

    Hong, Hao; Benink, Hélène A; Uyeda, H Tetsuo; Valdovinos, Hector F; Zhang, Yin; Meisenheimer, Poncho; Barnhart, Todd E; Fan, Frank; Cai, Weibo


    THE GOAL OF THIS STUDY IS TO EMPLOY THE HALOTAG TECHNOLOGY FOR POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY (PET), WHICH INVOLVES TWO COMPONENTS: the HaloTag protein (a modified hydrolase which covalently binds to synthetic ligands) and HaloTag ligands (HTLs). 4T1 murine breast cancer cells were stably transfected to express HaloTag protein on the surface (termed as 4T1-HaloTag-ECS, ECS denotes extracellular surface). Two new HTLs were synthesized and termed NOTA-HTL2G-S and NOTA-HTL2G-L (2G indicates second generation, S stands for short, L stands for long, NOTA denotes 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-N,N'N''-triacetic acid). Microscopy studies confirmed surface expression of HaloTag in 4T1-HaloTag-ECS cells, which specifically bind NOTA-HTL2G-S/L. Uptake of (64)Cu-NOTA-HTL2G-L in 4T1-HaloTag-ECS tumors (4.3 ± 0.5, 4.1± 0.2, 4.0 ± 0.2, 2.3 ± 0.1, and 2.2 ± 0.1 %ID/g at 0.5, 3, 6, 18, and 24 h post-injection respectively; n = 4) was significantly higher than that in the 4T1 tumors (3.0 ± 0.3, 3.0± 0.1, 3.0 ± 0.2, 2.0 ± 0.4, and 2.4 ± 0.3 %ID/g at 0.5, 3, 6, 18, and 24 h post-injection respectively; n = 4) at early time points. In comparison, (64)Cu-NOTA-HTL2G-S did not demonstrate significant uptake in either 4T1-HaloTag-ECS or 4T1 tumors. Blocking studies and autoradiography of tumor lysates confirmed that (64)Cu-NOTA-HTL2G-L binds specifically to HaloTag protein in the 4T1-HaloTag-ECS tumors, corroborated by histology. HaloTag protein-specific targeting and PET imaging in vivo with (64)Cu-NOTA-HTL2G-L serves as a proof-of-principle for future non-invasive and sensitive tracking of HaloTag-transfected cells with PET, as well as many other studies of gene/protein/cell function in vivo.

  6. Gravitational lensing of wormholes in the galactic halo region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhfittig, Peter K.F. [Milwaukee School of Engineering, Department of Mathematics, Milwaukee, WI (United States)


    A recent study by Rahaman et al. has shown that the galactic halo possesses the necessary properties for supporting traversable wormholes, based on two observational results, the Navarro-Frenk-White density profile and the observed flat rotation curves of galaxies. Using a method for calculating the deflection angle pioneered by V. Bozza, it is shown that the deflection angle diverges at the throat of the wormhole. The resulting photon sphere has a radius of about 0.40 ly. Given the dark-matter background, detection may be possible from past data using ordinary light. (orig.)

  7. Charge Radii and Neutron Correlations in Helium Halo Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadimitriou, Georgios [ORNL; Kruppa, A. T. [Institute of Nuclear Research, Debrecen, Hungary; Michel, N. [University of Jyvaskyla; Nazarewicz, W. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Ploszajczak, M. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL); Rotureau, J. [University of Arizona


    Within the complex-energy configuration interaction framework, we study correlations of valence neutrons to explain the behavior of charge radii in the neutron halo nuclei ^{6,8}He. We find that the experimentally observed decrease of the charge radius between ^{6}He and ^{8}He is caused by a subtle interplay between three effects: dineutron correlations, a spin-orbit contribution to the charge radius, and a core swelling effect. We demonstrate that two-neutron angular correlations in the 2^+}_{1} resonance of ^{6}He differ markedly from the ground-state correlations in ^{6,8}He.

  8. MD 2179: Scraping of off-momentum halo after injection

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia Morales, Hector; Patecki, Marcin; Wretborn, Sven Joel; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department


    In this MD, a beam scraping was performed using the momentum primary collimator in IR3 where dispersion is high. A second scraping was performed using a TCSG in IR7 where dispersion is almost negligible. In such a way, we aim to disentangle the contribution of off-momentum particles to halo population. These scrapings will provide useful information to better understand the usual off-momentum losses we see at the start of the ramp. The MD results would also be used to benchmark simulations of off-momentum beam losses in order to gain confidence in simulation models.

  9. Flows of Baryons through the Milky Way Halo (United States)

    Fox, Andrew J.


    The Milky Way provides an ideal opportunity to study baryon flows in the circumgalactic medium of a star-forming spiral galaxy. High velocity clouds (HVCs) seen in UV absorption toward background AGN probe the multi-phase ionized gas in the Galactic CGM. In this talk new observations from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on Hubble will be presented, focusing on two Galactic regions: the biconical outflow from the Galactic Center, which drives gas into the Fermi Bubbles, and the Smith Cloud, an accreting HVC close to the Galactic disk showing clear signs of fragmentation. These observations allow us to constrain the rates of gas circulation in the Galactic halo.

  10. Study of galactic halo F(T,TG) wormhole solutions (United States)

    Sharif, M.; Nazir, Kanwal

    In this paper, we investigate static spherically symmetric wormhole solutions with galactic halo region in the background of F(T,TG) gravity. Here, T represents torsion scalar and TG is teleparallel equivalent Gauss-Bonnet term. For this purpose, we consider a diagonal tetrad and two specific F(T,TG) models. We analyze the wormhole structure through shape function graphically for both models. We also investigate the behavior of null/weak energy conditions. Finally, we evaluate the equilibrium condition to check stability of the wormhole solutions. It is concluded that there exists physically viable wormhole solution only for the first model that turns out to be stable.

  11. Mass measurement of short-lived halo nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachelet, C.; Audi, G.; Gaulard, C.; Guenaut, C.; Lunney, D.; De Saint Simon, M.; Thibault, C. [CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS, Orsay (France); Herfurth, F. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany)


    A direct mass measurement of the very-short-lived halo nuclide {sup 11}Li (T{sub 1/2}=8.7ms) has been performed with the transmission mass spectrometer MISTRAL. The preliminary result for the two-neutron separation energy is S{sub 2n}=376{+-}5 keV, improving the precision seven times with an increase of 20% compared to the previous value. In order to confirm this value, the mass excess of {sup 11}Be has also been measured, ME=20171{+-}4 keV, in good agreement with the previous value. (orig.)

  12. Charge Radius Measurement of the Halo Nucleus $^{11}$Li

    CERN Multimedia

    Kluge, H-J; Kuehl, T; Simon, H; Wang, Haiming; Zimmermann, C; Onishi, T; Tanihata, I; Wakasugi, M


    %IS385 %title\\\\ \\\\The root-mean-square charge radius of $^{11}$Li will be determined by measuring the isotope shift of a suitable atomic transition in a laser spectroscopic experiment. Comparing the charge radii of the lithium isotopes obtained by this nuclear-model-independent method with the relevant mass radii obtained before will help to answer the question whether the proton distribution in halo nuclei at the neutron drip-line is decoupled to the first order from their neutron distribution. The necessary experimental sensitivity requires the maximum possible rate of $^{11}$Li nuclei in a beam of low emittance which can only be provided by ISOLDE.

  13. Discovery of a Giant Lya Emitter Near the Reionization Epoch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouchi, Masami; Ono, Yoshiaki; Egami, Eiichi; Saito, Tomoki; Oguri, Masamune; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Farrah, Duncan; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Momcheva, Ivelina; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Furusawa, Hisanori; Akiyama, Masayuki; Dunlop, James S.; Mortier, Angela M.J.; Okamura, Sadanori; Hayashi, Masao; Cirasuolo, Michele; Dressler, Alan; Iye, Masanori; Jarvis, Matt.J.


    We report the discovery of a giant Ly{alpha} emitter (LAE) with a Spitzer/IRAC counterpart near the reionization epoch at z = 6.595. The giant LAE is found from the extensive 1 deg{sup 2} Subaru narrow-band survey for z = 6.6 LAEs in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey (SXDS) field, and subsequently identified by deep spectroscopy of Keck/DEIMOS and Magellan/IMACS. Among our 207 LAE candidates, this LAE is not only the brightest narrow-band object with L(Ly{alpha}) = 3.9 {+-} 0.2 x 10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1} in our survey volume of 10{sup 6} Mpc{sup 3}, but also a spatially extended Ly{alpha} nebula with the largest isophotal area whose major axis is at least {approx_equal} 3-inches. This object is more likely to be a large Ly{alpha} nebula with a size of {approx}> 17-kpc than to be a strongly-lensed galaxy by a foreground object. Our Keck spectrum with medium-high spectral and spatial resolutions suggests that the velocity width is v{sub FWHM} = 251 {+-} 21 km s{sup -1}, and that the line-center velocity changes by {approx_equal} 60 km s{sup -1} in a 10-kpc range. The stellar mass and star-formation rate are estimated to be 0.9-5.0 x 10{sup 10}M{sub {circle_dot}} and > 34 M{sub {circle_dot}}yr{sup -1}, respectively, from the combination of deep optical to infrared images of Subaru, UKIDSS-Ultra Deep Survey, and Spitzer/IRAC. Although the nature of this object is not yet clearly understood, this could be an important object for studying cooling clouds accreting onto a massive halo, or forming-massive galaxies with significant outflows contributing to cosmic reionization and metal enrichment of inter-galactic medium.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Geraint F. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics A28, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Braun, Robert [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); McConnachie, Alan W. [Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Irwin, Michael J.; Chapman, Scott C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Martin, Nicolas F. [Observatoire de Strasbourg, 11, rue de l' Universite, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Ferguson, Annette M. N. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Fardal, Mark [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003-9305 (United States); Dubinski, John [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 50 St. George Street, University of Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Widrow, Larry [Department of Physics, Queen' s University, 99 University Avenue, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6 (Canada); Mackey, A. Dougal [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Mount Stromlo Observatory, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Babul, Arif [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Tanvir, Nial R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Rich, Michael, E-mail: [Division of Astronomy, University of California, 8979 Math Sciences, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1562 (United States)


    Large-scale surveys of the prominent members of the Local Group have provided compelling evidence for the hierarchical formation of massive galaxies, revealing a wealth of substructure that is thought to be the debris from ancient and ongoing accretion events. In this paper, we compare two extant surveys of the M31-M33 subgroup of galaxies: the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey of the stellar structure, and a combination of observations of the H I gaseous content, detected at 21 cm. Our key finding is a marked lack of spatial correlation between these two components on all scales, with only a few potential overlaps between stars and gas. The paucity of spatial correlation significantly restricts the analysis of kinematic correlations, although there does appear to be H I kinematically associated with the Giant Stellar Stream where it passes the disk of M31. These results demonstrate that different processes must significantly influence the dynamical evolution of the stellar and H I components of substructures, such as ram pressure driving gas away from a purely gravitational path. Detailed modeling of the offset between the stellar and gaseous substructures will provide a determination of the properties of the gaseous halos of M31 and M33.


    Abdalla, Rene Jorge; Cohen, Moisés; Nóbrega, Jezimar; Forgas, Andrea


    Synovial giant cell tumor is a benign neoplasm, rarely reported in the form of malignant metastasis. Synovial giant cell tumor most frequently occurs on the hand, and, most uncommon, on the ankle and knee. In the present study, the authors describe a rare case of synovial giant cell tumor on the knee as well as the treatment approach. Arthroscopy has been shown, in this case, to be the optimal method for treating this kind of lesion, once it allowed a less aggressive approach, while providing good visualization of all compartments of knee joint and full tumor resection.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Popovic


    Full Text Available Congenital nevomelanocitic nevi (CN are benign melanocitic proliferations present at birth. The incidence of giant CN is 0,002% in the newborns. The paper presents the case of a 20-year old female with giant CN on the skin of the right hand. Dermoscopy is very useful in differential diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions. Dermoscopic characteristics of CN are the presence of uniform globules - the "pebble stone" pattern. Giant CN overtaking more than 5% of the skin has an increased risk of malignant melanoma. Possible therapy modalities for CN are: excision with grafts, dermabrasion, curettage and laser. Periodical check-ups are necessary.

  17. Giant Congenital Melanocytic Naevi: review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marchesi


    Full Text Available giant congenital pigmented naevi is a great reconstructive challenge for the pediatric and plastic surgeons. due to the increased risk of malignant transformation in such lesions, many procedures have been used to remove giant congenital naevi like dermoabrasion, laser treatment or surgical excision combined with reconstruction through skin expansion or skin grafting; among these, only a complete excision can offer an efficacious treatment. in our centre we use the “tissue expansion” technique in order to achieve a sufficient quantity of normal skin to perform a both staged and radical excision of these giant lesions.

  18. Direct Imaging of Giant Exoplanets (United States)

    Tamura, Motohide

    Since the first detection of exoplanets around a Sun-like star 51 Peg in 1995, their detection and characterization are mainly led by indirect methods such as radial velocity and transit methods. However, recent progresses of observational techniques have finally enabled the direct imaging observations of giant planets of solar-system-scale orbit (with their semi-major axes less than about 50 AU) around A-type stars (e.g., Marois et al. 2008, 2010) and G-type stars (e.g., Kuzuhara et al. 2013). Direct imaging is useful to obtain the physical and atmospheric parameters of exoplanets. In fact not only colors but also a medium-resolution spectroscopy of such planets has been successfully obtained for their atmospheric characterization (Barman et al. 2013). Their masses are typically a few to ~10 Jupiter masses and they orbit at a Saturn- to-Pluto distance. Therefore, like hot-Jupiters and super-Earths they are unlike any solar-system planets, and called wide-orbit giant planets. A recent large search for planets and disk on the Subaru 8.2-m telescope (SEEDS project) has detected a 3-5 Jupiter-masses planet around a Sun-like star GJ 504 (Kuzuhara et al. 2013). It is the coolest planetary companion so far directly imaged and its near-infrared color is “bluer” than that of other directly imaged planets. In this contribution, I will review the recent progresses on direct imaging of exoplanets, highlight the results of the SEEDS project, and discuss the future developments.

  19. Morphological aspects of giant cells in giant cell arteritis: an electron-microscopic and immunocytochemical study. (United States)

    Nordborg, E; Bengtsson, B A; Petursdottir, V; Nordborg, C


    To compare the morphology of foreign body and Langhans giant cells in the two different inflammatory phases of giant cell arteritis (GCA). Electron microscopy was performed on 6 positive temporal arterial biopsies. Light microscopy and immunocytochemistry for macrophage-associated antigen (KP1) and alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) were performed on 16 positive biopsies. A focal granulomatous reaction with foreign body giant cells was found only in association with the internal elastic membrane (IEM) in atrophic arterial segments, which often displayed calcification of the IEM. Diffuse invasion of lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages affected non-atrophic as well as atrophic arterial segments. Within such segments Langhans giant cells were found in all layers of the wall. Electron microscopy of biopsies displaying the focal foreign body reaction revealed that large cells devoid of lysosomes but with cytoplasmic densities, tightly packed cytoplasmic filaments and numerous micropinocytotic vesicles formed clusters close to calcified parts of the internal elastic membrane. Furthermore, foreign body giant cells were surrounded by large cells devoid of lysosomes. Lysosomes tended to concentrate in central parts of the foreign body giant cells. In the diffusely inflamed arteries, the Langhans giant cells were surrounded by mononuclear cells rich in lysosomes. The lysosomes in the Langhans giant cells were more evenly distributed than in foreign body giant cells. Immunocytochemistry of biopsies displaying the focal granulomatous reaction revealed an uneven, often central immunoreactivity for the macrophage marker (KP1) in the foreign body giant cells, and immunostaining for alpha-smooth muscle antigen (alpha-SMA) showed their poor delineation from the surrounding vascular smooth muscle cells. The Langhans giant cells in the diffusely inflamed arteries displayed a strong even cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for KP1 and a distinct delineation from the smooth muscle cells

  20. A search for massive compact halo objects in our galaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alock, C.; Axelrod, T.; Cook, K.; Park, H. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Griest, K.; Stubbs, C. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Center for Particle Astrophysics); Freeman, K.; Peterson, B.; Quinn, P.; Rodgers, A. (Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia). Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories); Bennett, D.P.


    MAssive Compact Halo Objects such as brown dwarfs, Jupiters, and black holes are prime candidates to comprise the dark halo of our galaxy. Paczynski noted that these objects (dubbed MACHOs) can be detected via gravitational microlensing of stars in the Magellanic Clouds with the caveat that only about one in 10{sup 6} stars will be lensed at any given time. Our group is currently involved in constructing a dedicated observing system at the Mount Stromlo Observatory in Australia. We will use a refurbished 1.27 meter telescope and an innovative two-color CCD camera with 3.4 {times} 10{sup 7} pixels to monitor 10{sup 6} {minus} 10{sup 7} stars in the Magellanic Clouds. During the first year of operation (1991--1992), we hope to detect (or rule out) objects in the mass range 0.001M{sub {circle dot}} {le} M {le} 0.1M{sub {circle dot}}, and after five years, we hope to have covered the range 10{sup {minus}6}M{sub {circle dot}} < M {approx lt} 100M{sub {circle dot}}. 4 refs.

  1. Halo Skeletal Fixation: Techniques of Application and Prevention of Complications. (United States)

    Botte; Byrne; Abrams; Garfin


    The halo skeletal fixator provides the most rigid cervical immobilization of all orthoses. However, complications such as pin loosening and infection are common. Appreciation of local anatomy and adherence to established application guidelines should minimize pin-related problems. A relatively safe zone for anterior pin placement is located 1 cm above the orbital rim and superior to the lateral two thirds of the orbit. Posterior pin-site locations are less critical; positioning on the posterolateral aspect of the skull, diagonal to the contralateral anterior pins, is generally desirable. Pins should enter the skull perpendicular to the cortex, with the ring or crown sitting below the widest portion of the skull and passing about 1 cm above the helix of the ear. Pins are inserted at a torque of 8 in-lb and retightened once to 8 in-lb at 48 hours. A loose pin can be retightened to 8 in-lb if resistance is met; otherwise, a loose pin should be replaced at a nearby site. Superficially infected pins are managed with local pin care and oral antibiotics. Persistent or severe infections require pin replacement to a nearby site, parenteral antibiotic therapy, and incision and drainage as needed. In-ability to maintain acceptable cervical reduction with a halo fixator is an indication for alternative treatment, such as internal fixation or traction.

  2. Stellar haloes in massive early-type galaxies (United States)

    Buitrago, F.


    The Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) opens up an unique window to witness galaxy assembly at all cosmic distances. Thanks to its extraordinary depth, it is a privileged tool to beat the cosmological dimming, which affects any extragalactic observations and has a very strong dependence with redshift (1 +z)^4. In particular, massive (M_{stellar}>5 × 10^{10} M_⊙) Early Type Galaxies (ETGs) are the most interesting candidates for these studies, as they must grow in an inside-out fashion developing an extended stellar envelope/halo that accounts for their remarkable size evolution (˜5 times larger in the nearby Universe than at z=2-3). To this end we have analysed the 6 most massive ETGs at z data reduction and the exhaustive treatment of the Point Spread Function (PSF), we are able to trace the galaxy surface brightness profiles up to the same levels as in the local Universe but this time at = 0.65 (31 mag arcsec^{-2} in all 8 HST bands, ˜ 29 mag arcsec^{-2} restframe or beyond 25 effective radii). This fact enables us to investigate the galactic outskirts or stellar haloes at a previously unexplored era, characterising their light and mass profiles, colors and for the first time the amount of mass in ongoing mergers.

  3. Evidence against cuspy dark matter haloes in large galaxies (United States)

    Rodrigues, Davi C.; del Popolo, Antonino; Marra, Valerio; de Oliveira, Paulo L. C.


    We develop and apply new techniques to uncover systematic effects in galaxy rotation curves (RCs). Considering that an ideal dark matter (DM) profile should yield RCs that have no bias towards any particular radius, we find that the Burkert DM profile satisfies the test, while the Navarro-Frenk-While (NFW) profile is better at fitting the region between one and two disc scale lengths than the inner disc scale length region. Our sample indicates that this behaviour happens to more than 75 per cent of the galaxies fitted with an NFW halo. Also, this tendency is not weakened by considering large galaxies, for instance those with M* ≳ 1010 M⊙. Besides the tests on the homogeneity of the fits, we also use a sample of 62 galaxies of diverse types to test the quality of the overall fit of each galaxy, and to search for correlations with stellar mass, gas mass and the disc scale length. In particular, we find that only 13 galaxies are better fitted by the NFW halo, and that even for the galaxies with M* ≳ 1010 M⊙, the Burkert profile either fits as well as, or better than, the NFW profile. This result is relevant since different baryonic effects important for the smaller galaxies, like supernova feedback and dynamical friction from baryonic clumps, indicate that at such large stellar masses the NFW profile should be preferred over the Burkert profile. Hence, our results suggest either there is a new baryonic effect or a change to the DM physics is required.

  4. The phase-space structure of tidally stripped haloes (United States)

    Drakos, Nicole E.; Taylor, James E.; Benson, Andrew J.


    We propose a new method for generating equilibrium models of spherical systems of collisionless particles that are finite in extent, but whose central regions resemble dark matter haloes from cosmological simulations. This method involves iteratively removing unbound particles from a Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profile truncated sharply at some radius. The resulting models are extremely stable, and thus provide a good starting point for N-body simulations of isolated haloes. We provide a code to generate such models for NFW and a variety of other common density profiles. We then develop an analytic approximation to this truncated distribution function. Our method proceeds by analogy with the King model, truncating and shifting the original distribution function of an infinitely extended NFW profile in energy space. We show that the density profiles of our models closely resemble the tidally truncated density profiles seen previously in studies of satellite evolution. Pursuing this analogy further with a series of simulations of tidal mass-loss, we find that our models provide a good approximation to the full distribution function of tidally stripped systems, thus allowing theoretically motivated phase-space calculations for such systems.

  5. Triple Halo Coil: Development and Comparison with Other TMS Coils (United States)

    Rastogi, Priyam; Hadimani, Ravi; Jiles, David

    Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive stimulation technique that can be used for the treatment of various neurological disorders such as Parkinson's Disease, PTSD, TBI and anxiety by regulating synaptic activity. TMS is FDA approved for the treatment of major depressive disorder. There is a critical need to develop deep TMS coils that can stimulate deeper regions of the brain without excessively stimulating the cortex in order to provide an alternative to surgical methods. We have developed a novel multi-coil configuration called ``Triple Halo Coil'' (THC) that can stimulate deep brain regions. Investigation of induced electric and magnetic field in these regions have been achieved by computer modelling. Comparison of the results due to THC configuration have been conducted with other TMS coils such as ``Halo Coil'', circular coil and ``Figure of Eight'' coil. There was an improvement of more than 15 times in the strength of magnetic field, induced by THC configuration at 10 cm below the vertex of the head when compared with the ``Figure of Eight'' coil alone. Carver Charitable Trust.

  6. Interaction of cosmic rays with cold clouds in galactic haloes (United States)

    Wiener, Joshua; Oh, S. Peng; Zweibel, Ellen G.


    We investigate the effects of cosmic ray (CR) dynamics on cold, dense clouds embedded in a hot, tenuous galactic halo. If the magnetic field does not increase too much inside the cloud, the local reduction in Alfvén speed imposes a bottleneck on CRs streaming out from the star-forming galactic disc. The bottleneck flattens the upstream CR gradient in the hot gas, implying that multiphase structure could have global effects on CR-driven winds. A large CR pressure gradient can also develop on the outward-facing edge of the cloud. This pressure gradient has two independent effects. The CRs push the cloud upwards, imparting it with momentum. On smaller scales, the CRs pressurize cold gas in the fronts, reducing its density, consistent with the low densities of cold gas inferred in recent Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) observations of local L* galaxies. They also heat the material at the cloud edge, broadening the cloud-halo interface and causing an observable change in interface ionic abundances. Due to the much weaker temperature dependence of CR heating relative to thermal-conductive heating, CR mediated fronts have a higher ratio of low-to-high ions compared to conduction fronts, in better agreement with observations. We investigate these effects separately using 1D simulations and analytic techniques.

  7. HaloTag, a Platform Technology for Protein Analysis. (United States)

    Urh, Marjeta; Rosenberg, Martin


    Understanding protein function and interaction is central to the elucidation of biological processes. Systematic analysis of protein interactions have shown that the eukaryotic proteome is highly interconnected and that biological function frequently depends on the orchestrated action of many proteins. Perturbation of these functions or interactions can lead to various disease states and pharmacologic intervention can result in corrective therapies. The fact that proteins rarely act in isolation, but rather comprise complex machines that stably and/or transiently interact with many different partners at different times, demands the need for robust tools that allow comprehensive global analyses of these events. Here we describe a powerful protein fusion technology, the HaloTag platform, and how it enables the study of many facets of protein biology by offering a broad choice of applications. We review the development of the key aspects of the technology and it's performance in both in vitro and in vivo applications. In particular, we focus on HaloTag's multifunctional utility in protein imaging, protein isolation and display, and in the study of protein complexes and interactions. We demonstrate it's potential to help elucidate important facets of proteomic biology across complex biological systems at the biochemical, cell-based and whole animal level.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bernabei


    Full Text Available Experimental efforts and theoretical developmens support that most of the Universe is Dark and a large fraction of it should be made of relic particles; many possibilities are open on their nature and interaction types. In particular, the DAMA/LIBRA experiment at Gran Sasso Laboratory (sensitive mass: ~250 kg is mainly devoted to the investigation of Dark Matter (DM particles in the Galactic halo by exploiting the model independent DM annual modulation signature with higly radiopure Na I(Tl targets. DAMA/LIBRA is the succesor of the first generation DAMA/NaI (sensitive mass: ~100 kg; cumulatively the two experiments have released so far the results obtained by analyzing an exposure of 1.17 t yr, collected over 13 annual cycles. The data show a model independent evidence of the presence of DM particles in the galactic halo at 8.9σ confidence level (C.L.. Some of the already achieved results are shortly reminded, the last upgrade occurred at fall 2010 is mentioned and future perspectives are sumarized.

  9. The bias of weighted dark matter halos from peak theory

    CERN Document Server

    Verde, Licia; Simpson, Fergus; Alvarez-Gaume, Luis; Heavens, Alan; Matarrese, Sabino


    We give an analytical form for the weighted correlation function of peaks in a Gaussian random field. In a cosmological context, this approach strictly describes the formation bias and is the main result here. Nevertheless, we show its validity and applicability to the evolved cosmological density field and halo field, using Gaussian random field realisations and dark matter N-body numerical simulations. Using this result from peak theory we compute the bias of peaks (and dark matter halos) and show that it reproduces results from the simulations at the ${\\mathcal O}(10\\%)$ level. Our analytical formula for the bias predicts a scale-dependent bias with two characteristics: a broad band shape which, however, is most affected by the choice of weighting scheme and evolution bias, and a more robust, narrow feature localised at the BAO scale, an effect that is confirmed in simulations. This scale-dependent bias smooths the BAO feature but, conveniently, does not move it. We provide a simple analytic formula to des...

  10. Keck Spectroscopy of NGVS Sources: Milky Way Halo Star Kinematics (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Peng, Eric W.; Toloba, Elisa; Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS) Collaboration


    We present a study of the kinematics of main sequence turnoff stars in the halo of the Milky Way based on Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey photometry and Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopic follow-up. Specifically, we investigate the properties of the Virgo overdensity and Sagittarius stream Milky Way halo substructures in the foreground of the Virgo Cluster of galaxies. We use an inverse concentration (iC) parameter that characterizes the angular size of a source, which is defined by the magnitude difference measured by two different apertures for the same object. After combining this information as well as redshift measured from spectra into a Z vs iC plot, all of the objects are separated clearly into three categories: foreground Milky Way stars, Virgo globular clusters, and background galaxies. Most objects located in unexpected regions in the V_iC plot are subsequently rejected through a rigorous examination due to low spectral quality or bad imaging quality, indicating that our sample selection approach gives a very clean classification. We then select Sagittarius stream stars and Virgo overdensity stars out of the foreground star sample to characterize their distributions of spatial position, radial velocity and metallicity, from which we can probe deeper into the history of structure formation in the Milky Way Galaxy. This research was supported by NASA and the National Science Foundation. HZ has been sponsored by China Scholarship Council to carry out this research project at University of California, Santa Cruz.

  11. Are Langhans giant cells precursors of foreign-body giant cells? (United States)

    van der Rhee, H J; Hillebrands, W; Daems, W T


    Granulomas were induced in rats by subcutaneous implantation of pieces of Melinex plastic into the dorsum. The pieces of Melinex were removed at intervals varying from 16 h to 14 days, and the adherent cells were studied morphologically and quantitatively. Giant cell formation started about 32 h after implantation. The first giant cells to appear were of the Langhans type. Two days after implantation, most of the giant cells are still Langhans-type cells. A few giant cells of the foreign-body type and transition forms between the Langhans and foreign-body types are also present. From the third day on, the foreign-body type gradually becomes predominant. Independent of the duration of implantation, giant cells with 3, 4, or 5 nuclei are virtually without exception of the Langhans type. The higher the number of nuclei between 6 and 30, the more cells are of the foreign-body type. Giant cells with 30 or more nuclei are all foreign-body type. The findings are discussed in the light of current knowledge concerning giant cell formation. It is concluded that under the present experimental conditions, Langhans-type giant cells are the precursors of foreign-body-type giant cells.

  12. La abundancia de galaxias y halos de materia oscura en el universo CDM (United States)

    Abadi, M. G.; Benítez-Llambay, A.; Ferrero, I.

    A long-standing puzzle of CDM cosmological model concerns to the different shape of the galaxy stellar mass function and the halo mass function on dwarf galaxy scales. Dwarf galaxies are much less numerous than halos massive enough to host them; suggesting a complex non-linear relation between the mass of a galaxy and the mass of its surrounding halo. Usually; this is reconciled by appealing to baryonic processes that can reduce the efficiency of galaxy formation in low-mass halos. Recent work applying the abundance matching technique require that virtually no dwarf galaxies form in halos with virial mass below . We use rotation curves of dwarf galaxies compiled from the literature to explore whether their total enclosed mass is consistent with these constraints. Almost one-half of the dwarfs in our sample are at odds with this restriction; they are in halos with masses substantially below . Using a cosmological simulation of the formation of the Local Group of galaxies we found that ram-pressure stripping against the cosmic web removes baryons from low-mass halos without appealing to feedback or reionization. This mechanism may help to explain the scarcity of dwarf galaxies compared with the numerous low-mass halos expected in CDM and the large diversity of star formation histories and morphologies characteristic of faint galaxies. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  13. 77 FR 47114 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Halo Pharmaceutical Inc. (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Halo Pharmaceutical... that on July 6, 2012, Halo Pharmaceutical Inc., 30 North Jefferson Road, Whippany, New Jersey 07981...

  14. 78 FR 51210 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Halo Pharmaceutical, Inc. (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Halo Pharmaceutical... that on July 8, 2013, Halo Pharmaceutical, Inc., 30 North Jefferson Road, Whippany, New Jersey 07981...

  15. Alignments of Dark Matter Halos with Large-scale Tidal Fields: Mass and Redshift Dependence (United States)

    Chen, Sijie; Wang, Huiyuan; Mo, H. J.; Shi, Jingjing


    Large-scale tidal fields estimated directly from the distribution of dark matter halos are used to investigate how halo shapes and spin vectors are aligned with the cosmic web. The major, intermediate, and minor axes of halos are aligned with the corresponding tidal axes, and halo spin axes tend to be parallel with the intermediate axes and perpendicular to the major axes of the tidal field. The strengths of these alignments generally increase with halo mass and redshift, but the dependence is only on the peak height, ν \\equiv {δ }{{c}}/σ ({M}{{h}},z). The scaling relations of the alignment strengths with the value of ν indicate that the alignment strengths remain roughly constant when the structures within which the halos reside are still in a quasi-linear regime, but decreases as nonlinear evolution becomes more important. We also calculate the alignments in projection so that our results can be compared directly with observations. Finally, we investigate the alignments of tidal tensors on large scales, and use the results to understand alignments of halo pairs separated at various distances. Our results suggest that the coherent structure of the tidal field is the underlying reason for the alignments of halos and galaxies seen in numerical simulations and in observations.

  16. The f(Script R) halo mass function in the cosmic web (United States)

    von Braun-Bates, F.; Winther, H. A.; Alonso, D.; Devriendt, J.


    An important indicator of modified gravity is the effect of the local environment on halo properties. This paper examines the influence of the local tidal structure on the halo mass function, the halo orientation, spin and the concentration-mass relation. We use the excursion set formalism to produce a halo mass function conditional on large-scale structure. Our simple model agrees well with simulations on large scales at which the density field is linear or weakly non-linear. Beyond this, our principal result is that f(Script R) does affect halo abundances, the halo spin parameter and the concentration-mass relationship in an environment-independent way, whereas we find no appreciable deviation from \\text{ΛCDM} for the mass function with fixed environment density, nor the alignment of the orientation and spin vectors of the halo to the eigenvectors of the local cosmic web. There is a general trend for greater deviation from \\text{ΛCDM} in underdense environments and for high-mass haloes, as expected from chameleon screening.

  17. Abort Options for Human Missions to Earth-Moon Halo Orbits (United States)

    Jesick, Mark C.


    Abort trajectories are optimized for human halo orbit missions about the translunar libration point (L2), with an emphasis on the use of free return trajectories. Optimal transfers from outbound free returns to L2 halo orbits are numerically optimized in the four-body ephemeris model. Circumlunar free returns are used for direct transfers, and cislunar free returns are used in combination with lunar gravity assists to reduce propulsive requirements. Trends in orbit insertion cost and flight time are documented across the southern L2 halo family as a function of halo orbit position and free return flight time. It is determined that the maximum amplitude southern halo incurs the lowest orbit insertion cost for direct transfers but the maximum cost for lunar gravity assist transfers. The minimum amplitude halo is the most expensive destination for direct transfers but the least expensive for lunar gravity assist transfers. The on-orbit abort costs for three halos are computed as a function of abort time and return time. Finally, an architecture analysis is performed to determine launch and on-orbit vehicle requirements for halo orbit missions.

  18. On the shape of dark matter haloes from MultiDark Planck simulations (United States)

    Vega-Ferrero, Jesús; Yepes, Gustavo; Gottlöber, Stefan


    The halo shape plays a central role in determining important observational properties of the haloes such as mass, concentration and lensing cross-sections. The triaxiality of lensing galaxy clusters has a substantial impact on the distribution of the largest Einstein radii, while weak lensing techniques are sensitive to the intrinsic halo ellipticity. In this work, we provide scaling relations for the shapes of dark matter haloes as a function of mass (peak height) and redshift over more than four orders of magnitude in halo masses, namely from 1011.5 to 1015.8 h-1 M⊙. We have analysed four dark matter only simulations from the MultiDark cosmological simulation suite with more than 56 billion particles within boxes of 4.0, 2.5, 1.0 and 0.4 h-1 Gpc size assuming Planck cosmology. The dark matter haloes have been identified in the simulations using the rockstar halo finder, which also determines the axis ratios in terms of the diagonalization of the inertia tensor. In order to infer the shape for a hypothetical halo of a given mass at a given redshift, we provide fitting functions to the minor-to-major and intermediate-to-major axis ratios as a function of the peak height.

  19. Halo statistics analysis within medium volume cosmological N-body simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinović N.


    Full Text Available In this paper we present halo statistics analysis of a ΛCDM N body cosmological simulation (from first halo formation until z = 0. We study mean major merger rate as a function of time, where for time we consider both per redshift and per Gyr dependence. For latter we find that it scales as the well known power law (1 + zn for which we obtain n = 2.4. The halo mass function and halo growth function are derived and compared both with analytical and empirical fits. We analyse halo growth through out entire simulation, making it possible to continuously monitor evolution of halo number density within given mass ranges. The halo formation redshift is studied exploring possibility for a new simple preliminary analysis during the simulation run. Visualization of the simulation is portrayed as well. At redshifts z = 0−7 halos from simulation have good statistics for further analysis especially in mass range of 1011 − 1014 M./h. [176021 ’Visible and invisible matter in nearby galaxies: theory and observations

  20. The build up of the correlation between halo spin and the large-scale structure (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Kang, Xi


    Both simulations and observations have confirmed that the spin of haloes/galaxies is correlated with the large-scale structure (LSS) with a mass dependence such that the spin of low-mass haloes/galaxies tend to be parallel with the LSS, while that of massive haloes/galaxies tend to be perpendicular with the LSS. It is still unclear how this mass dependence is built up over time. We use N-body simulations to trace the evolution of the halo spin-LSS correlation and find that at early times the spin of all halo progenitors is parallel with the LSS. As time goes on, mass collapsing around massive halo is more isotropic, especially the recent mass accretion along the slowest collapsing direction is significant and it brings the halo spin to be perpendicular with the LSS. Adopting the fractional anisotropy (FA) parameter to describe the degree of anisotropy of the large-scale environment, we find that the spin-LSS correlation is a strong function of the environment such that a higher FA (more anisotropic environment) leads to an aligned signal, and a lower anisotropy leads to a misaligned signal. In general, our results show that the spin-LSS correlation is a combined consequence of mass flow and halo growth within the cosmic web. Our predicted environmental dependence between spin and large-scale structure can be further tested using galaxy surveys.

  1. Synthesis of organothioacrylonitriles and organoselenoacrylonitriles by reaction of 1-Halo-1-chalcogenoalkenes with CuCN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Claudio C.; Caliari, Vinicius; Vieira, Adriano S.; Mendes, Samuel R. [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail:


    Reaction of 1-halo-1-organothio or 1-halo-1-organoseleno alkenes with CuCN in NMP as solvent provides {alpha}-phenylthio or {alpha}-phenylseleno acrylonitriles in good yields. The reaction showed a low stereoselectivity and the products were obtained as E/Z mixtures of isomers. (author)

  2. Structure and substructure in the stellar halo of the Milky Way

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pila Díez, Berenice


    In this thesis we present research on the stellar halo of our Galaxy. In particular we focus on measuring the shape and profile of the stellar halo through photometric techniques and main sequence turnoff point star counts. We also present a cross-correlation algorithm that can detect stellar

  3. 40 CFR 721.10063 - Halo substituted hydroxy nitrophenyl amide (generic). (United States)


    ... amide (generic). 721.10063 Section 721.10063 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10063 Halo substituted hydroxy nitrophenyl amide (generic). (a) Chemical... as halo substituted hydroxy nitrophenyl amide (PMN P-04-792) is subject to reporting under this...

  4. The mass function of unprocessed dark matter haloes and merger tree branching rates (United States)

    Benson, Andrew J.


    A common approach in semi-analytic modelling of galaxy formation is to construct Monte Carlo realizations of merger histories of dark matter haloes whose masses are sampled from a halo mass function. Both the mass function itself and the merger rates used to construct merging histories are calibrated to N-body simulations. Typically, 'backsplash' haloes (those which were once subhaloes within a larger halo, but which have since moved outside of the halo) are counted in both the halo mass functions and in the merger rates (or, equivalently, progenitor mass functions). This leads to a double counting of mass in Monte Carlo merger histories, which will bias results relative to N-body results. We measure halo mass functions and merger rates with this double counting removed in a large, cosmological N-body simulation with cosmological parameters consistent with current constraints. Furthermore, we account for the inherently noisy nature of N-body halo mass estimates when fitting functions to N-body data, and show that ignoring these errors leads to a significant systematic bias given the precision statistics available from state-of-the-art N-body cosmological simulations.

  5. The shape of dark matter haloes in the Aquarius simulations : evolution and memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vera-Ciro, Carlos A.; Sales, Laura V.; Helmi, Amina; Frenk, Carlos S.; Navarro, Julio F.; Springel, Volker; Vogelsberger, Mark; White, Simon D. M.

    We use the high-resolution cosmological N-body simulations from the Aquarius project to investigate in detail the mechanisms that determine the shape of Milky Way type dark matter haloes. We find that, when measured at the instantaneous virial radius, the shape of individual haloes changes with

  6. The kinematics of globular clusters systems in the outer halos of the Aquarius simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veljanoski, J.; Helmi, A.


    Stellar halos and globular cluster (GC) systems contain valuable information regarding the assembly history of their host galaxies. Motivated by the detection of a significant rotation signal in the outer halo GC system of M 31, we investigate the likelihood of detecting such a rotation signal in

  7. The shape of dark matter haloes in the Aquarius simulations : Evolution and memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vera-Ciro, C.A.; Sales, L. V.; Helmi, A.; Reyle, C; Robin, A; Schultheis, M

    We use the high resolution cosmological N-body simulations from the Aquarius project to investigate in detail the mechanisms that determine the shape of Milky Way-type dark matter haloes. We find that, when measured at the instantaneous virial radius, the shape of individual haloes changes with

  8. The shape of dark matter haloes in the Aquarius simulations: Evolution and memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vera-Ciro, C. A.; Sales, L. V.; Helmi, A.

    We use the high resolution cosmological N-body simulations from the Aquarius project to investigate in detail the mechanisms that determine the shape of Milky Way-type dark matter haloes. We find that, when measured at the instantaneous virial radius, the shape of individual haloes changes with

  9. The shape of dark matter haloes in the Aquarius simulations: Evolution and memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sales L.V.


    Full Text Available We use the high resolution cosmological N-body simulations from the Aquarius project to investigate in detail the mechanisms that determine the shape of Milky Way-type dark matter haloes. We find that, when measured at the instantaneous virial radius, the shape of individual haloes changes with time, evolving from a typically prolate configuration at early stages to a more triaxial/oblate geometry at the present day. This evolution in halo shape correlates well with the distribution of the infalling material: prolate configurations arise when haloes are fed through narrow filaments, which characterizes the early epochs of halo assembly, whereas triaxial/oblate configurations result as the accretion turns more isotropic at later times. Interestingly, at redshift z = 0, clear imprints of the past history of each halo are recorded in their shapes at different radii, which also exhibit a variation from prolate in the inner regions to triaxial/oblate in the outskirts. Provided that the Aquarius haloes are fair representatives of Milky Way-like 1012M☉ objects, we conclude that the shape of such dark matter haloes is a complex, time-dependent property, with each radial shell retaining memory of the conditions at the time of collapse.

  10. The Galaxy-Halo Connection in High-redshift Universe: Details and Evolution of Stellar-to-halo Mass Ratios of Lyman Break Galaxies on CFHTLS Deep Fields (United States)

    Ishikawa, Shogo; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Toshikawa, Jun; Tanaka, Masayuki; Hamana, Takashi; Niino, Yuu; Ichikawa, Kohei; Uchiyama, Hisakazu


    We present the results of clustering analyses of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at z˜ 3, 4, and 5 using the final data release of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS). Deep- and wide-field images of the CFHTLS Deep Survey enable us to obtain sufficiently accurate two-point angular correlation functions to apply a halo occupation distribution analysis. The mean halo masses, calculated as ={10}11.7{--}{10}12.8 {h}-1 {M}⊙ , increase with the stellar-mass limit of LBGs. The threshold halo mass to have a central galaxy, {M}\\min , follows the same increasing trend as the low-z results, whereas the threshold halo mass to have a satellite galaxy, M 1, shows higher values at z=3{--}5 than z=0.5{--}1.5, over the entire stellar mass range. Satellite fractions of dropout galaxies, even at less massive halos, are found to drop sharply, from z = 2 down to less than 0.04, at z=3{--}5. These results suggest that satellite galaxies form inefficiently within dark halos at z=3{--}5, even for less massive satellites with {M}\\star pivot}, which is the halo mass at a peak in the star-formation efficiency, at 3 3. In addition, {M}{{h}}{pivot} and its normalization are found to be almost unchanged during 0< z< 5. Our study provides observational evidence that galaxy formation is ubiquitously most efficient near a halo mass of {M}{{h}}˜ {10}12 {M}⊙ over cosmic time.

  11. A giant planet around the massive giant star HD 13189 (United States)

    Hatzes, A. P.; Guenther, E. W.; Endl, M.; Cochran, W. D.; Döllinger, M. P.; Bedalov, A.


    Most extrasolar planet discoveries using radial velocity measurements have been for solar-like G-stars. In order to understand better the role stellar mass for the formation of planets we must learn more about the frequency of planetary companions around both high- and low-mass stars. Radial velocity searches for planets around high mass main-sequence stars are difficult due to the paucity of lines and often rapid rotation of these early-type stars. On the other hand, evolved stars that have moved off the main sequence offer us the possibility of searching for planets around higher mass stars by means of precise radial velocity measurements. Here we present radial velocity measurements for the star HD 13189 using measurements taken at the Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, the Harlan J. Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory, and the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. We classify the spectral type of this star as K2 with luminosity class II. The radial velocity measurements show long-period variations with a period of 472 days and an amplitude of 173 m s-1. The Ca II S-index is consistent with an inactive star and this shows no variations with the radial velocity period. We also investigated possible changes in the line shapes by measuring spectral line bisectors. These show no variations with the radial velocity period. We interpret the 472-day period as being caused by a sub-stellar companion. Based on the estimated absolute magnitude and a comparison to evolutionary tracks we estimate the mass of the progenitor star between 2 and 7 M_⊙ which results in a projected mass of the companion of m sin i = 8 20 M_J. HD 13189 may be the most massive star known to possess an extrasolar planet. This suggests that the formation of giant planets can also occur around early-type stars. HD 13189 also shows significant short term radial velocity variability on time scales of days that is most likely due to stellar oscillations. This behavior is typical for K giant stars.

  12. Giant Plagioclase Basalts, eruption rate versus time

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 111; Issue 4. Giant Plagioclase Basalts, eruption rate versus time: Response to Sheth's comments and some additional thoughts. Gautam Sen. Volume 111 Issue 4 December 2002 pp 487-488 ...

  13. Genetics Home Reference: giant congenital melanocytic nevus (United States)

    ... Encyclopedia: Giant Congenital Nevus Nevus Outreach: Treatment Options Primary Care Dermatology Society General Information from MedlinePlus (5 links) Diagnostic Tests Drug Therapy Genetic Counseling Palliative Care Surgery and Rehabilitation Related Information How are ...

  14. Tests of the Giant Impact Hypothesis (United States)

    Jones, J. H.


    The giant impact hypothesis has gained popularity as a means of explaining a volatile-depleted Moon that still has a chemical affinity to the Earth. As Taylor's Axiom decrees, the best models of lunar origin are testable, but this is difficult with the giant impact model. The energy associated with the impact would be sufficient to totally melt and partially vaporize the Earth. And this means that there should he no geological vestige of Barber times. Accordingly, it is important to devise tests that may be used to evaluate the giant impact hypothesis. Three such tests are discussed here. None of these is supportive of the giant impact model, but neither do they disprove it.

  15. Prenatally-detected giant lymphatic malformation. (United States)

    Sværdborg, Mille; Keller, Johnny; Schrøder, Henrik; Petersen, Olav B; Stausbøl-Grøn, Brian; Engberg Damsgaard, Tine


    We present a case of a giant lymphatic malformation of the chest and abdominal wall that was diagnosed in the third trimester of pregnancy. It was treated by one stage excision with good functional and cosmetic outcomes.

  16. AFSC/ABL: Female Giant Grenadier maturity (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Giant grenadiers Albatrossia pectoralis are caught as bycatch in deep-sea commercial fisheries in relatively large numbers. The population appears to be stable,...

  17. Sensitivity of the halo nuclei-12C elastic scattering at incident nucleon energy 800 MeV to the halo density distribution (United States)

    Hassan, M. A. M.; Nour El-Din, M. S. M.; Ellithi, A.; Hosny, H.; Salama, T. N. E.


    In the framework of Glauber optical limit approximation where Coulomb effect is taken into account, the elastic scattering differential cross section for halo nuclei with {}^{12}{C} at 800 MeV/N has been calculated. Its sensitivity to the halo densities and the root mean square of the core and halo is the main goal of the current study. The projectile nuclei are taken to be one-neutron and two-neutron halo. The calculations are carried out for Gaussian-Gaussian, Gaussian-Oscillator and Gaussian-2 s phenomenological densities for each considered projectile in the mass number range 6-29. Also included a comparison between the obtained results of phenomenological densities and the results within the microscopic densities LSSM of {}6{He} and {}^{11}{Li} and microscopic densities GCM of {}^{11}{Be} where the density of the target nucleus {}^{12}{C} obtained from electron-{}^{12}{C} scattering is used. The zero range approximation is considered in the calculations. We found that the sensitivity of elastic scattering differential cross section to the halo density is clear if the nucleus appears as two clear different clusters, core and halo.

  18. Isobar analog states (IAS), double isobar analog states (DIAS), configuration states (CS), and double configuration states (DCS) in halo nuclei. Halo isomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izosimov, I. N., E-mail: [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)


    It has been shown that IAS, DIAS, CS, and DCS can simultaneously have n-n, n-p, and p-p halo components in their wave functions. Differences in halo structure of the excited and ground states can result in the formation of isomers (halo-isomers). Both the Borromean and tango halo types can be observed for n-p configurations of atomic nuclei. The structure of the ground and excited states with different isospin quantum number in halo like nuclei is discussed. B(Mλ) and B(Eλ) for γ-transitions in {sup 6,7,8}Li, {sup 8,9,10}Be, {sup 8,10,11}B, {sup 10,11,12,13,14}C, {sup 13,14,15,16,17}N, {sup 15,16,17,19}O, and {sup 17}F are analyzed. Special attention is given to nuclei whose ground state does not exhibit halo structure but the excited state may have one.

  19. The Splashback Radius of Halos from Particle Dynamics. I. The SPARTA Algorithm (United States)

    Diemer, Benedikt


    Motivated by the recent proposal of the splashback radius as a physical boundary of dark-matter halos, we present a parallel computer code for Subhalo and PARticle Trajectory Analysis (Sparta). The code analyzes the orbits of all simulation particles in all host halos, billions of orbits in the case of typical cosmological N-body simulations. Within this general framework, we develop an algorithm that accurately extracts the location of the first apocenter of particles after infall into a halo, or splashback. We define the splashback radius of a halo as the smoothed average of the apocenter radii of individual particles. This definition allows us to reliably measure the splashback radii of 95% of host halos above a resolution limit of 1000 particles. We show that, on average, the splashback radius and mass are converged to better than 5% accuracy with respect to mass resolution, snapshot spacing, and all free parameters of the method.

  20. Transverse Beam Halo Measurements at High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) using Vibrating Wire Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, M.; Hanna, B.; Scarpine, V.; Shiltsev, V.; Steimel, J.; Artinian, S.; Arutunian, S.


    The measurement and control of beam halos will be critical for the applications of future high-intensity hadron linacs. In particular, beam profile monitors require a very high dynamic range when used for the transverse beam halo measurements. In this study, the Vibrating Wire Monitor (VWM) with aperture 60 mm was installed at the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) front-end to measure the transverse beam halo. A vibrating wire is excited at its resonance frequency with the help of a magnetic feedback loop, and the vibrating and sensitive wires are connected through a balanced arm. The sensitive wire is moved into the beam halo region by a stepper motor controlled translational stage. We study the feasibility of the vibrating wire for the transverse beam halo measurements in the low-energy front-end of the proton linac.

  1. HaloTag protein-mediated specific labeling of living cells with quantum dots. (United States)

    So, Min-kyung; Yao, Hequan; Rao, Jianghong


    Quantum dots emerge as an attractive alternative to small molecule fluorophores as fluorescent tags for in vivo cell labeling and imaging. This communication presents a method for specific labeling of live cells using quantum dots. The labeling is mediated by HaloTag protein expressed at the cell surface which forms a stable covalent adduct with its ligand (HaloTag ligand). The labeling can be performed in one single step with quantum dot conjugates that are functionalized with HaloTag ligand, or in two steps with biotinylated HaloTag ligand first and followed by streptavidin coated quantum dots. Live cell fluorescence imaging indicates that the labeling is specific and takes place at the cell surface. This HaloTag protein-mediated cell labeling method should facilitate the application of quantum dots for live cell imaging.

  2. Direct observations of the formation of the solar wind halo from the strahl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurgiolo, C. [Bitterroot Basic Research, Hamilton, MT (United States); Goldstein, M.L.; Vinas, A.F. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Geospace Science Lab.; Fazakerley, A.N. [Univ. College London, Holmbury St. Mary Dorking, Surrey (United Kingdom). Mullard Space Science Lab.


    Observations of a continual erosion of the strahl and build up of the halo with distance from the sun suggests that, at least in part, the halo may be formed as a result of scattering of the strahl. This hypothesis is supported in this paper by observation of intense scattering of strahl electrons, which gives rise to a proto-halo electron population. This population eventually merges into, or becomes the halo. The fact that observations of intense scattering of the strahl are not common implies that the formation of the halo may not be a continuous process, but one that occurs, in part, in bursts in regions where the conditions responsible for the scattering are optimum. (orig.)

  3. Halo Emission of the Cat's Eye Nebula, NGC 6543 Shock Excitation by Fast Stellar Winds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siek Hyung


    Full Text Available Images taken with the Chandra X-ray telescope have for the the first time revealed the central, wind-driven, hot bubble (Chu et al. 2001, while Hubble Space Telescope (HST WFPC2 images of the Cat's Eye nebula, NGC 6543, show that the temperature of the halo region of angular radius ~ 20'', is much higher than that of the inner bright H II region. With the coupling of a photoionization calculation to a hydrodynamic simulation, we predict the observed [O III] line intensities of the halo region with the same O abundance as in the core H II region: oxygen abundance gradient does not appear to exist in the NGC 6543 inner halo. An interaction between a (leaky fast stellar wind and halo gas may cause the higher excitation temperatures in the halo region and the inner hot bubble region observed with the Chandra X-ray telescope.

  4. Halo Models of Large Scale Structure and Reliability of Cosmological N-Body Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gaite


    Full Text Available Halo models of the large scale structure of the Universe are critically examined, focusing on the definition of halos as smooth distributions of cold dark matter. This definition is essentially based on the results of cosmological N-body simulations. By a careful analysis of the standard assumptions of halo models and N-body simulations and by taking into account previous studies of self-similarity of the cosmic web structure, we conclude that N-body cosmological simulations are not fully reliable in the range of scales where halos appear. Therefore, to have a consistent definition of halos is necessary either to define them as entities of arbitrary size with a grainy rather than smooth structure or to define their size in terms of small-scale baryonic physics.

  5. Hepatic Giant Cell Arteritis and Polymyalgia Rheumatica


    Duerksen, Donald R; Jewell, Laurence D.; Bain, Vincent G


    Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is a clinical syndrome of the elderly characterized by malaise, proximal muscle aching and stiffness, low grade fever, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rare and the frequent association with temporal giant cell arteritis. The authors describe a case of PMR associated with hepatic giant cell arteritis. This lesion has been described in two other clinical reports. The distribution of the arteritis may be patchy; in this report, diagnosis was made with a wedge biop...

  6. Large-Spin Expansions of Giant Magnons


    Linardopoulos, Georgios


    This is a talk delivered at the Workshop on Quantum Fields and Strings of the 2014 Corfu Summer Institute. We discuss how giant magnons emerge in the context of the AdS5/CFT4 correspondence as the gravity duals of N = 4 super Yang-Mills magnon excitations. Then we present a new analytic expression for the dispersion relation of classical finite-size giant magnons with Lambert's W-function.

  7. Granuloma with langhans giant cells: An overview


    Kumar, S Nalin; Prasad, T Srinivasa; Narayan, P Anantha; Muruganandhan, J


    Granuloma formation with multinucleated giant cells is seen in numerous diseases. A granuloma is a focus of chronic inflammation consisting of a microscopic aggregation of macrophages surrounded by a collar of lymphocytes and plasma cells. In this article, we present a case of granuloma formation with multiple Langhans giant cells along with an overview of the differential diagnoses, which include mycobacterium diseases, other bacterial infections, fungal infections, protozoal infections, and...

  8. Granuloma with langhans giant cells: An overview. (United States)

    Kumar, S Nalin; Prasad, T Srinivasa; Narayan, P Anantha; Muruganandhan, J


    Granuloma formation with multinucleated giant cells is seen in numerous diseases. A granuloma is a focus of chronic inflammation consisting of a microscopic aggregation of macrophages surrounded by a collar of lymphocytes and plasma cells. In this article, we present a case of granuloma formation with multiple Langhans giant cells along with an overview of the differential diagnoses, which include mycobacterium diseases, other bacterial infections, fungal infections, protozoal infections, and other granulomatous diseases.

  9. What Makes the Family of Barred Disc Galaxies So Rich: Damping Stellar Bars in Spinning Haloes (United States)

    Collier, Angela; Shlosman, Isaac; Heller, Clayton


    We model and analyze the secular evolution of stellar bars in spinning dark matter (DM) haloes with the cosmological spin λ ˜ 0 - 0.09. Using high-resolution stellar and DM numerical simulations, we focus on angular momentum exchange between stellar discs and DM haloes of various axisymmetric shapes — spherical, oblate and prolate. We find that stellar bars experience a diverse evolution which is guided by the ability of parent haloes to absorb angular momentum, J, lost by the disc through the action of gravitational torques, resonant and non-resonant. We confirm that dynamical bar instability is accelerated via resonant J-transfer to the halo. Our main findings relate to the long-term, secular evolution of disc-halo systems: with an increasing λ, bars experience less growth and basically dissolve after they pass through vertical buckling instability. Specifically, with increasing λ, (1) The vertical buckling instability in stellar bars colludes with inability of the inner halo to absorb J — this emerges as the main factor weakening or destroying bars in spinning haloes; (2) Bars lose progressively less J, and their pattern speeds level off; (3) Bars are smaller, and for λ ≳ 0.06 cease their growth completely following buckling; (4) Bars in λ > 0.03 halos have ratio of corotation-to-bar radii, RCR/Rb > 2, and represent so-called slow bars without offset dust lanes. We provide a quantitative analysis of J-transfer in disc-halo systems, and explain the reasons for absence of growth in fast spinning haloes and its observational corollaries. We conclude that stellar bar evolution is substantially more complex than anticipated, and bars are not as resilient as has been considered so far.

  10. Pushing down the low-mass halo concentration frontier with the Lomonosov cosmological simulations (United States)

    Pilipenko, Sergey V.; Sánchez-Conde, Miguel A.; Prada, Francisco; Yepes, Gustavo


    We introduce the Lomonosov suite of high-resolution N-body cosmological simulations covering a full box of size 32 h-1 Mpc with low-mass resolution particles (2 × 107 h-1 M⊙) and three zoom-in simulations of overdense, underdense and mean density regions at much higher particle resolution (4 × 104 h-1 M⊙). The main purpose of this simulation suite is to extend the concentration-mass relation of dark matter haloes down to masses below those typically available in large cosmological simulations. The three different density regions available at higher resolution provide a better understanding of the effect of the local environment on halo concentration, known to be potentially important for small simulation boxes and small halo masses. Yet, we find the correction to be small in comparison with the scatter of halo concentrations. We conclude that zoom simulations, despite their limited representativity of the volume of the Universe, can be effectively used for the measurement of halo concentrations at least at the halo masses probed by our simulations. In any case, after a precise characterization of this effect, we develop a robust technique to extrapolate the concentration values found in zoom simulations to larger volumes with greater accuracy. Altogether, Lomonosov provides a measure of the concentration-mass relation in the halo mass range 107-1010 h-1 M⊙ with superb halo statistics. This work represents a first important step to measure halo concentrations at intermediate, yet vastly unexplored halo mass scales, down to the smallest ones. All Lomonosov data and files are public for community's use.

  11. Mergers and mass accretion for infalling halos both end well outside cluster virial radii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behroozi, Peter S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Lu, Yu; Hahn, Oliver; Busha, Michael T.; Klypin, Anatoly; Primack, Joel R.


    We find that infalling dark matter halos (i.e., the progenitors of satellite halos) begin losing mass well outside the virial radius of their eventual host halos. The peak mass occurs at a range of clustercentric distances, with median and 68th percentile range of $1.8^{+2.3}_{-1.0} \\,R_\\mathrm{vir,host}$ for progenitors of z = 0 satellites. The peak circular velocity for infalling halos occurs at significantly larger distances ($3.7^{+3.3}_{-2.2} \\,R_\\mathrm{vir,host}$ at z = 0). This difference arises because different physical processes set peak circular velocity (typically, ~1:5 and larger mergers which cause transient circular velocity spikes) and peak mass (typically, smooth accretion) for infalling halos. We find that infalling halos also stop having significant mergers well before they enter the virial radius of their eventual hosts. Mergers larger than a 1:40 ratio in halo mass end for infalling halos at similar clustercentric distances (~1.9 R vir, host) as the end of overall mass accretion. However, mergers larger than 1:3 typically end for infalling halos at more than four virial radial away from their eventual hosts. This limits the ability of mergers to affect quenching and morphology changes in clusters. We also note that the transient spikes which set peak circular velocity may lead to issues with abundance matching on that parameter, including unphysical galaxy stellar mass growth profiles near clusters; we propose a simple observational test to check if a better halo proxy for galaxy stellar mass exists.

  12. ZOMG - II. Does the halo assembly history influence central galaxies and gas accretion? (United States)

    Romano-Díaz, Emilio; Garaldi, Enrico; Borzyszkowski, Mikolaj; Porciani, Cristiano


    The growth rate and the internal dynamics of galaxy-sized dark-matter haloes depend on their location within the cosmic web. Haloes that sit at the nodes grow in mass till the present time and are dominated by radial orbits. Conversely, haloes embedded in prominent filaments do not change much in size and are dominated by tangential orbits. Using zoom hydrodynamical simulations including star formation and feedback, we study how gas accretes on to these different classes of objects, which, for simplicity, we dub 'accreting' and 'stalled' haloes. We find that all haloes get a fresh supply of newly accreted gas in their inner regions, although this slowly decreases with time, in particular for the stalled haloes. The inflow of new gas is always higher than (but comparable with) that of recycled material. Overall, the cold-gas fraction increases (decreases) with time for the accreting (stalled) haloes. In all cases, a stellar disc and a bulge form at the centre of the simulated haloes. The total stellar mass is in excellent agreement with expectations based on the abundance-matching technique. Many properties of the central galaxies do not seem to correlate with the large-scale environment in which the haloes reside. However, there are two notable exceptions that characterize stalled haloes with respect to their accreting counterparts: (I) The galaxy disc contains much older stellar populations. (II) Its vertical scaleheight is larger by a factor of 2 or more. This thickening is likely due to the heating of the long-lived discs by mergers and close flybys.

  13. Giant cell ependymoma: a case report. (United States)

    Adamek, Dariusz; Dec, Malgorzata; Sobol, Grazyna; Urbanowicz, Barbara; Jaworski, Marian


    Ependymomas account for 3-9% of all neuroepithelial tumors. A peculiar variant of ependymoma known as "giant cell ependymoma" ("GCE") is especially rarely reported, it may pose some difficulties for the diagnosing neuropathologist. Here we present a case of a giant cell ependymoma occuring in a 17-year-old patient with the history of 2-year recurrent headaches and a 1-month history of vision impairment. CT scanning demonstrated a mass in the left occipital lobe, arising from the occipital horn of the lateral ventricle. Histological, immunohistochemical and electron microscopic findings were consistent with high-grade ependymoma. Especially striking was the presence of bizzare pleomorphic giant cells which predominated in the tumor tissue. As a result the diagnosis of GCE was established. This type of neoplasm necessitates, at least in theory, differentiation with anaplastic oligodendroglioma, clear cell ependymoma, pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, giant cell glioblastoma, and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma. To date giant cell ependymomas (GCEs) were reported in seven cases in the literature. To the best of our knowledge this is the 8th case in the literature. In spite of apparently "worrisome" histology GCE seems to be a neoplasm with a relatively good prognosis.

  14. The Giant Planet Satellite Exospheres (United States)

    McGrath, M. A.


    Exospheres are relatively common in the outer solar system among the moons of the gas giant planets. They span the range from very tenuous, surface-bounded exospheres (e.g., Rhea, Dione) to quite robust exospheres with exobase above the surface (e.g., Io, Triton), and include many intermediate cases (e.g., Europa, Ganymede, Enceladus). The exospheres of these moons exhibit an interesting variety of sources, from surface sputtering, to frost sublimation, to active plumes, and also well illustrate another common characteristic of the outer planet satellite exospheres, namely, that the primary species often exists both as a gas in atmosphere, and a condensate (frost or ice) on the surface. As described by Yelle et al. (1995) for Triton, "The interchange of matter between gas and solid phases on these bodies has profound effects on the physical state of the surface and the structure of the atmosphere." A brief overview of the exospheres of the outer planet satellites will be presented, including an inter-comparison of these satellites exospheres with each other, and with the exospheres of the Moon and Mercury.

  15. A giant thunderstorm on Saturn. (United States)

    Fischer, G; Kurth, W S; Gurnett, D A; Zarka, P; Dyudina, U A; Ingersoll, A P; Ewald, S P; Porco, C C; Wesley, A; Go, C; Delcroix, M


    Lightning discharges in Saturn's atmosphere emit radio waves with intensities about 10,000 times stronger than those of their terrestrial counterparts. These radio waves are the characteristic features of lightning from thunderstorms on Saturn, which last for days to months. Convective storms about 2,000 kilometres in size have been observed in recent years at planetocentric latitude 35° south (corresponding to a planetographic latitude of 41° south). Here we report observations of a giant thunderstorm at planetocentric latitude 35° north that reached a latitudinal extension of 10,000 kilometres-comparable in size to a 'Great White Spot'-about three weeks after it started in early December 2010. The visible plume consists of high-altitude clouds that overshoot the outermost ammonia cloud layer owing to strong vertical convection, as is typical for thunderstorms. The flash rates of this storm are about an order of magnitude higher than previous ones, and peak rates larger than ten per second were recorded. This main storm developed an elongated eastward tail with additional but weaker storm cells that wrapped around the whole planet by February 2011. Unlike storms on Earth, the total power of this storm is comparable to Saturn's total emitted power. The appearance of such storms in the northern hemisphere could be related to the change of seasons, given that Saturn experienced vernal equinox in August 2009. ©2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved

  16. Giant hepatocellular adenoma; case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitella, F.A.; Coutinho, A.M.N.; Coura Filho, G.B.; Costa, P.L.A.; Ono, C.R.; Watanabe, T.; Sapienza, M.T.; Hironaka, F.; Cerri, G.G.; Buchpiguel, C.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Radiologia. Servico de Medicina Nuclear


    Full text: Introduction: Hepatocellular adenoma is a benign hepatic tumor identified mainly in women during fertility age, with estimated incidence of 4/1000 inhabitants. It is usually unique, well circumscribed, with or without a capsule, size varying from 1 to 30 cm, with possible central areas of necrosis and hemorrhage. Case Report: A 37-year-old female patient presenting with no comorbities, use of hormonal birth control pills for 18 years, a condition of reduction in the consistency of feces, increase in number of daily defecations, abdominal cramps, and a stuffed sensation after meals for two years. A palpable abdominal mass extending from the right hypochondriac to the right iliac fossa was noticed four months ago. A computerized tomography (CT) showed an extensive hepatic mass on the right which was considered, within the diagnostic hypotheses, hepatic adenomatosis, without ruling out secondary lesions. A hepatic scintillography with {sup 99m}Tc-DISIDA showed an extensive exophytic area from segment V to the right iliac fossa with arterialized blood flow and hepatocytic activity, as well as a hepatic nodule in segment VII with hepatocytic activity consistent with the hepatic adenomas hypothesis. The biopsy confirmed the hepatic adenoma diagnosis and the patient was submitted to a partial hepatectomy and cholecystectomy with good clinical evolution. Conclusion: Nuclear Medicine may supplement the assessment of hepatic nodules, including giant masses, thus suggesting new hypotheses and direction to therapeutic conduct. (author)

  17. Endoscopically removed giant submucosal lipoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Ivan


    Full Text Available Background. Although uncommon, giant submucosal colon lipomas merit attention as they are often presented with dramatic clinical features such as bleeding, acute bowel obstruction, perforation and sometimes may be mistaken for malignancy. There is a great debate in the literature as to how to treat them. Case report. A patient, 67-year old, was admitted to the Clinic due to a constipation over the last several months, increasing abdominal pain mainly localized in the left lower quadrant accompanied by nausea, vomiting and abdominal distension. Physical examination was unremarkable and the results of the detailed laboratory tests and carcinoembryonic antigen remained within normal limits. Colonoscopy revealed a large 10 cm long, and 4 to 5 cm in diameter, mobile lesion in his sigmoid colon. Conventional endoscopic ultrasound revealed 5 cm hyperechoic lesion of the colonic wall. Twenty MHz mini-probe examination showed that lesion was limited to the submucosa. Since polyp appeared too large for a single transaction, it was removed piecemeal. Once the largest portion of the polyp has been resected, it was relatively easy to place the opened snare loop around portions of the residual polyp. Endoscopic resection was carried out safely without complications. Histological examination revealed the common typical histological features of lipoma elsewhere. The patient remained stable and eventually discharged home. Four weeks later he suffered no recurrent symptoms. Conclusion. Colonic lipomas can be endoscopically removed safely eliminating unnecessary surgery.

  18. Electromagnetic properties of the Beryllium-11 nucleus in Halo EFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammer H.-W.


    Full Text Available We compute electromagnetic properties of the Beryllium-11 nucleus using an effective field theory that exploits the separation of scales in this halo system. We fix the parameters of the EFT from measured data on levels and scattering lengths in the 10Be plus neutron system. We then obtain predictions for the B(E1 strength of the 1/2+ to 1/2− transition in the 11Be nucleus. We also compute the charge radius of the ground state of 11Be. Agreement with experiment within the expected accuracy of a leading-order computation in this EFT is obtained. We also indicate how higher-order corrections that affect both s-wave and p-wave 10 Be-neutron interactions will affect our results.

  19. Ice crystal characterization in cirrus clouds: a sun-tracking camera system and automated detection algorithm for halo displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Forster


    Full Text Available Halo displays in the sky contain valuable information about ice crystal shape and orientation: e.g., the 22° halo is produced by randomly oriented hexagonal prisms while parhelia (sundogs indicate oriented plates. HaloCam, a novel sun-tracking camera system for the automated observation of halo displays is presented. An initial visual evaluation of the frequency of halo displays for the ACCEPT (Analysis of the Composition of Clouds with Extended Polarization Techniques field campaign from October to mid-November 2014 showed that sundogs were observed more often than 22° halos. Thus, the majority of halo displays was produced by oriented ice crystals. During the campaign about 27 % of the cirrus clouds produced 22° halos, sundogs or upper tangent arcs. To evaluate the HaloCam observations collected from regular measurements in Munich between January 2014 and June 2016, an automated detection algorithm for 22° halos was developed, which can be extended to other halo types as well. This algorithm detected 22° halos about 2 % of the time for this dataset. The frequency of cirrus clouds during this time period was estimated by co-located ceilometer measurements using temperature thresholds of the cloud base. About 25 % of the detected cirrus clouds occurred together with a 22° halo, which implies that these clouds contained a certain fraction of smooth, hexagonal ice crystals. HaloCam observations complemented by radiative transfer simulations and measurements of aerosol and cirrus cloud optical thickness (AOT and COT provide a possibility to retrieve more detailed information about ice crystal roughness. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of a completely automated method to collect and evaluate a long-term database of halo observations and shows the potential to characterize ice crystal properties.

  20. Predicting weak lensing statistics from halo mass reconstructions - Final Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everett, Spencer [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)


    As dark matter does not absorb or emit light, its distribution in the universe must be inferred through indirect effects such as the gravitational lensing of distant galaxies. While most sources are only weakly lensed, the systematic alignment of background galaxies around a foreground lens can constrain the mass of the lens which is largely in the form of dark matter. In this paper, I have implemented a framework to reconstruct all of the mass along lines of sight using a best-case dark matter halo model in which the halo mass is known. This framework is then used to make predictions of the weak lensing of 3,240 generated source galaxies through a 324 arcmin² field of the Millennium Simulation. The lensed source ellipticities are characterized by the ellipticity-ellipticity and galaxy-mass correlation functions and compared to the same statistic for the intrinsic and ray-traced ellipticities. In the ellipticity-ellipticity correlation function, I and that the framework systematically under predicts the shear power by an average factor of 2.2 and fails to capture correlation from dark matter structure at scales larger than 1 arcminute. The model predicted galaxy-mass correlation function is in agreement with the ray-traced statistic from scales 0.2 to 0.7 arcminutes, but systematically underpredicts shear power at scales larger than 0.7 arcminutes by an average factor of 1.2. Optimization of the framework code has reduced the mean CPU time per lensing prediction by 70% to 24 ± 5 ms. Physical and computational shortcomings of the framework are discussed, as well as potential improvements for upcoming work.

  1. Beam halo in high-intensity hadron linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerigk, F.


    This document aims to cover the most relevant mechanisms for the development of beam halo in high-intensity hadron linacs. The introduction outlines the various applications of high-intensity linacs and it will explain why, in the case of the CERN Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) study a linac was chosen to provide a high-power beam, rather than a different kind of accelerator. The basic equations, needed for the understanding of halo development are derived and employed to study the effects of initial and distributed mismatch on high-current beams. The basic concepts of the particle-core model, envelope modes, parametric resonances, the free-energy approach, and the idea of core-core resonances are introduced and extended to study beams in realistic linac lattices. The approach taken is to study the behavior of beams not only in simplified theoretical focusing structures but to highlight the beam dynamics in realistic accelerators. All effects which are described and derived with simplified analytic models, are tested in realistic lattices and are thus related to observable effects in linear accelerators. This approach involves the use of high-performance particle tracking codes, which are needed to simulate the behavior of the outermost particles in distributions of up to 100 million macro particles. In the end a set of design rules are established and their impact on the design of a typical high-intensity machine, the CERN SPL, is shown. The examples given in this document refer to two different design evolutions of the SPL study: the first conceptual design report (SPL I) and the second conceptual design report (SPL II). (orig.)

  2. On the Evolution of Dark Matter Halo Properties Following Major and Minor Mergers (United States)

    Wu, Peter; Zhang, Shawn; Lee, Christoph; Primack, Joel


    We conducted an analysis on dark matter halo properties following major and minor mergers to advance our understanding of halo evolution. In this work, we analyzed ~80,000 dark matter halos from the Bolshoi-Planck cosmological simulation and studied halo evolution during relaxation after major mergers. We then applied a Gaussian filter to the property evolutions and characterized peak distributions, frequencies, and variabilities for several halo properties, including centering, spin, shape (prolateness), scale radius, and virial ratio. However, there were also halos that experienced relaxation without the presence of major mergers. We hypothesized that this was due to minor mergers unrecorded by the simulation analysis. By using property peaks to create a novel merger detection algorithm, we attempted to find minor mergers and match them to the unaccounted relaxed halos. Not only did we find evidence that minor mergers were the causes, but we also found similarities between major and minor merger effects, showing the significance of minor mergers for future studies. Through our dark matter merger statistics, we expect our work to ultimately serve as vital parameters towards better understanding galaxy formation and evolution. Most of this work was carried out by high school students working under the auspices of the Science Internship Program (SIP) at UC Santa Cruz.

  3. Relation between halo spin and cosmic-web filaments at z ≃ 3 (United States)

    González, Roberto E.; Prieto, Joaquin; Padilla, Nelson; Jimenez, Raul


    We investigate the spin evolution of dark matter haloes and their dependence on the number of connected filaments from the cosmic web at high redshift (spin-filament relation hereafter). To this purpose, we have simulated 5000 haloes in the mass range 5 × 109 h-1 M⊙ to 5 × 1011 h-1 M⊙ at z = 3 in cosmological N-body simulations. We confirm the relation found by Prieto et al. (2015) where haloes with fewer filaments have larger spin. We also found that this relation is more significant for higher halo masses, and for haloes with a passive (no major mergers) assembly history. Another finding is that haloes with larger spin or with fewer filaments have their filaments more perpendicularly aligned with the spin vector. Our results point to a picture in which the initial spin of haloes is well described by tidal torque theory and then gets subsequently modified in a predictable way because of the topology of the cosmic web, which in turn is given by the currently favoured Lambda cold dark matter (LCDM) model. Our spin-filament relation is a prediction from LCDM that could be tested with observations.

  4. The HaloTag: Improving Soluble Expression and Applications in Protein Functional Analysis. (United States)

    N Peterson, Scott; Kwon, Keehwan


    Technological and methodological advances have been critical for the rapidly evolving field of proteomics. The development of fusion tag systems is essential for purification and analysis of recombinant proteins. The HaloTag is a 34 KDa monomeric protein derived from a bacterial haloalkane dehalogenase. The majority of fusion tags in use today utilize a reversible binding interaction with a specific ligand. The HaloTag system is unique in that it forms a covalent linkage to its chloroalkane ligand. This linkage permits attachment of the HaloTag to a variety of functional reporters, which can be used to label and immobilize recombinant proteins. The success rate for HaloTag expression of soluble proteins is very high and comparable to maltose binding protein (MBP) tag. Furthermore, cleavage of the HaloTag does not result in protein insolubility that often is observed with the MBP tag. In the present report, we describe applications of the HaloTag system in our ongoing investigation of protein-protein interactions of the Y. pestis Type 3 secretion system on a custom protein microarray. We also describe the utilization of affinity purification/mass spectroscopy (AP/MS) to evaluate the utility of the Halo Tag system to characterize DNA binding activity and protein specificity.

  5. High Angular Momentum Halo Gas: A Feedback and Code-independent Prediction of LCDM (United States)

    Stewart, Kyle R.; Maller, Ariyeh H.; Oñorbe, Jose; Bullock, James S.; Joung, M. Ryan; Devriendt, Julien; Ceverino, Daniel; Kereš, Dušan; Hopkins, Philip F.; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André


    We investigate angular momentum acquisition in Milky Way-sized galaxies by comparing five high resolution zoom-in simulations, each implementing identical cosmological initial conditions but utilizing different hydrodynamic codes: Enzo, Art, Ramses, Arepo, and Gizmo-PSPH. Each code implements a distinct set of feedback and star formation prescriptions. We find that while many galaxy and halo properties vary between the different codes (and feedback prescriptions), there is qualitative agreement on the process of angular momentum acquisition in the galaxy’s halo. In all simulations, cold filamentary gas accretion to the halo results in ˜4 times more specific angular momentum in cold halo gas (λ cold ≳ 0.1) than in the dark matter halo. At z > 1, this inflow takes the form of inspiraling cold streams that are co-directional in the halo of the galaxy and are fueled, aligned, and kinematically connected to filamentary gas infall along the cosmic web. Due to the qualitative agreement among disparate simulations, we conclude that the buildup of high angular momentum halo gas and the presence of these inspiraling cold streams are robust predictions of Lambda Cold Dark Matter galaxy formation, though the detailed morphology of these streams is significantly less certain. A growing body of observational evidence suggests that this process is borne out in the real universe.

  6. High Angular Momentum Halo Gas: A Feedback and Code-independent Prediction of LCDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Kyle R. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, California Baptist University, 8432 Magnolia Ave., Riverside, CA 92504 (United States); Maller, Ariyeh H. [Department of Physics, New York City College of Technology, 300 Jay St., Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States); Oñorbe, Jose [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Bullock, James S. [Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Joung, M. Ryan [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Devriendt, Julien [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, The Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Rd., Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Ceverino, Daniel [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kereš, Dušan [Department of Physics, Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Hopkins, Philip F. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André [Department of Physics and Astronomy and CIERA, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Rd., Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)


    We investigate angular momentum acquisition in Milky Way-sized galaxies by comparing five high resolution zoom-in simulations, each implementing identical cosmological initial conditions but utilizing different hydrodynamic codes: Enzo, Art, Ramses, Arepo, and Gizmo-PSPH. Each code implements a distinct set of feedback and star formation prescriptions. We find that while many galaxy and halo properties vary between the different codes (and feedback prescriptions), there is qualitative agreement on the process of angular momentum acquisition in the galaxy’s halo. In all simulations, cold filamentary gas accretion to the halo results in ∼4 times more specific angular momentum in cold halo gas ( λ {sub cold} ≳ 0.1) than in the dark matter halo. At z > 1, this inflow takes the form of inspiraling cold streams that are co-directional in the halo of the galaxy and are fueled, aligned, and kinematically connected to filamentary gas infall along the cosmic web. Due to the qualitative agreement among disparate simulations, we conclude that the buildup of high angular momentum halo gas and the presence of these inspiraling cold streams are robust predictions of Lambda Cold Dark Matter galaxy formation, though the detailed morphology of these streams is significantly less certain. A growing body of observational evidence suggests that this process is borne out in the real universe.

  7. Are ancient dwarf satellites the building blocks of the Galactic halo? (United States)

    Spitoni, E.; Vincenzo, F.; Matteucci, F.; Romano, D.


    According to the current cosmological cold dark matter paradigm, the Galactic halo could have been the result of the assemblage of smaller structures. Here we explore the hypothesis that the classical and ultra-faint dwarf spheroidal satellites of the Milky Way have been the building blocks of the Galactic halo by comparing their [α/Fe] and [Ba/Fe] versus [Fe/H] patterns with the ones observed in Galactic halo stars. The α elements deviate substantially from the observed abundances in the Galactic halo stars for [Fe/H] values larger than -2 dex, while they overlap for lower metallicities. On the other hand, for the [Ba/Fe] ratio, the discrepancy is extended at all [Fe/H] values, suggesting that the majority of stars in the halo are likely to have been formed in situ. Therefore, we suggest that [Ba/Fe] ratios are a better diagnostic than [α/Fe] ratios. Moreover, for the first time we consider the effects of an enriched infall of gas with the same chemical abundances as the matter ejected and/or stripped from dwarf satellites of the Milky Way on the chemical evolution of the Galactic halo. We find that the resulting chemical abundances of the halo stars depend on the assumed infall time-scale, and the presence of a threshold in the gas for star formation. In particular, in models with an infall time-scale for the halo around 0.8 Gyr coupled with a threshold in the surface gas density for the star formation (4 M⊙ pc-2), and the enriched infall from dwarf spheroidal satellites, the first halo stars formed show [Fe/H]>-2.4 dex. In this case, to explain [α/Fe] data for stars with [Fe/H]<-2.4 dex, we need stars formed in dSph systems.

  8. ELUCID. IV. Galaxy Quenching and its Relation to Halo Mass, Environment, and Assembly Bias (United States)

    Wang, Huiyuan; Mo, H. J.; Chen, Sihan; Yang, Yang; Yang, Xiaohu; Wang, Enci; van den Bosch, Frank C.; Jing, Yipeng; Kang, Xi; Lin, Weipeng; Lim, S. H.; Huang, Shuiyao; Lu, Yi; Li, Shijie; Cui, Weiguang; Zhang, Youcai; Tweed, Dylan; Wei, Chengliang; Li, Guoliang; Shi, Feng


    We examine the quenched fraction of central and satellite galaxies as a function of galaxy stellar mass, halo mass, and the matter density of their large-scale environment. Matter densities are inferred from our ELUCID simulation, a constrained simulation of the local universe sampled by SDSS, while halo masses and central/satellite classification are taken from the galaxy group catalog of Yang et al. The quenched fraction for the total population increases systematically with the three quantities. We find that the “environmental quenching efficiency,” which quantifies the quenched fraction as a function of halo mass, is independent of stellar mass. And this independence is the origin of the stellar mass independence of density-based quenching efficiency found in previous studies. Considering centrals and satellites separately, we find that the two populations follow similar correlations of quenching efficiency with halo mass and stellar mass, suggesting that they have experienced similar quenching processes in their host halo. We demonstrate that satellite quenching alone cannot account for the environmental quenching efficiency of the total galaxy population, and that the difference between the two populations found previously arises mainly from the fact that centrals and satellites of the same stellar mass reside, on average, in halos of different mass. After removing these effects of halo mass and stellar mass, there remains a weak, but significant, residual dependence on environmental density, which is eliminated when halo assembly bias is taken into account. Our results therefore indicate that halo mass is the prime environmental parameter that regulates the quenching of both centrals and satellites.

  9. Cosmic web alignments with the shape, angular momentum and peculiar velocities of dark matter haloes (United States)

    Forero-Romero, Jaime E.; Contreras, Sergio; Padilla, Nelson


    We study the alignment of dark matter haloes with the cosmic web characterized by the tidal and velocity shear fields. We focus on the alignment of their shape, angular momentum and peculiar velocities. We use a cosmological N-body simulation that allows us to study dark matter haloes spanning almost five orders of magnitude in mass (109-1014) h-1 M⊙ and spatial scales of (0.5-1.0) h-1 Mpc to define the cosmic web. The strongest alignment is measured for halo shape along the smallest tidal eigenvector, e.g. along filaments and walls, with a signal that gets stronger as the halo mass increases. In the case of the velocity shear field only massive haloes >1012 h-1 M⊙ tend to have their shapes aligned along the largest tidal eigenvector, i.e. perpendicular to filaments and walls. For the angular momentum we find alignment signals only for haloes more massive than 1012 h-1 M⊙ both in the tidal and velocity shear fields where the preferences is to be parallel to the middle eigenvector; perpendicular to filaments and parallel to walls. Finally, the peculiar velocities show a strong alignment along the smallest tidal eigenvector for all halo masses; haloes move along filaments and walls. The same alignment is present with the velocity shear, albeit weaker and only for haloes less massive than 1012 h-1 M⊙. Our results show that the two different algorithms used to define the cosmic web describe different physical aspects of non-linear collapse and should be used in a complementary way to understand the cosmic web influence on galaxy evolution.

  10. Insights into the chemical composition of the metal-poor Milky Way halo globular cluster NGC 6426 (United States)

    Hanke, M.; Koch, A.; Hansen, C. J.; McWilliam, A.


    We present our detailed spectroscopic analysis of the chemical composition of four red giant stars in the halo globular cluster NGC 6426. We obtained high-resolution spectra using the Magellan2/MIKE spectrograph, from which we derived equivalent widths and subsequently computed abundances of 24 species of 22 chemical elements. For the purpose of measuring equivalent widths, we developed a new semi-automated tool, called EWCODE. We report a mean Fe content of [Fe/H] =-2.34 ± 0.05 dex (stat.) in accordance with previous studies. At a mean α-abundance of [(Mg, Si, Ca)/3 Fe] = 0.39 ± 0.03 dex, NGC 6426 falls on the trend drawn by the Milky Way halo and other globular clusters at comparably low metallicities. The distribution of the lighter α-elements as well as the enhanced ratio [Zn/Fe] = 0.39 dex could originate from hypernova enrichment of the pre-cluster medium. We find tentative evidence for a spread in the elements Mg, Si, and Zn, indicating an enrichment scenario, where ejecta of evolved massive stars of a slightly older population have polluted a newly born younger one. The heavy element abundances in this cluster fit well into the picture of metal-poor globular clusters, which in that respect appear to be remarkably homogeneous. The pattern of the neutron-capture elements heavier than Zn points toward an enrichment history governed by the r-process with little, if any, sign of s-process contributions. This finding is supported by the striking similarity of our program stars to the metal-poor field star HD 108317. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5-m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.Equivalent widths and full Table 2 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

  11. First Observation of the LHC Beam Halo Using a Synchrotron Radiation Coronagraph


    Mitsuhashi, Toshiyuki; Bravin, Enrico; Roncarolo, Federico; Trad, Georges


    A test coronagraph for the observation of beam halo has been installed in the Synchrotron radiation monitor line LHCB2 in 2015. This coronagraph is commissioned with LHC operation at 450GeV (injection energy). After some optical testing of the coronagraph with visible Synchrotron radiation in B2, we try to observe artificially-made beam halo. The beam halo of 10⁻³ order of magnitude against the beam core is excited by the kicker of the transverse damper. We have succeeded to observe a diffrac...

  12. SeNtInel 5P validaTion by Comet HALO


    Fix, Andreas; Ehret, Gerhard; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Gerbig, Christoph; Pfeilsticker, K.; Zöger, Martin


    The goal of the proposed activity is the validation of the methane column of S5P using aircraft measurements. The airborne platform foreseen is the German research aircraft HALO. A dedicated HALO science mission that is focused on the measurement of methane (and carbon dioxide), dubbed CoMet, has been evaluated by the scientific steering committee of HALO and is now scheduled for the 1st half of 2017. In order to maximize gain, the team proposes to make use of the gathered data from this...

  13. Outflow vs. Infall in Spiral Galaxies: Metal Absorption in the Halo of NGC 891


    Bregman, Joel N.; Miller, Eric D.; Seitzer, Patrick; Cowley, C. R.; Miller, Matthew J.


    Gas accreting onto a galaxy will be of low metallicity while halo gas due to a galactic fountain will be of near-solar metallicity. We test these predictions by measuring the metal absorption line properties of halo gas 5 kpc above the plane of the edge-on galaxy NGC 891, using observations taken with HST/STIS toward a bright background quasar. Metal absorption lines of Fe II, Mg II, and Mg I in the halo of NGC 891 are clearly seen, and when combined with recent deep H I observations, we are ...

  14. The dearth of halo dwarf galaxies: is there power on short scales? (United States)

    Kamionkowski; Liddle


    N-body simulations of structure formation with scale-invariant primordial perturbations show significantly more virialized objects of dwarf-galaxy mass in a typical galactic halo than are observed around the Milky Way. We show that the dearth of observed dwarf galaxies could be explained by a dramatic downturn in the power spectrum at small distance scales. This suppression of small-scale power might also help mitigate the disagreement between cuspy simulated halos and smooth observed halos, while remaining consistent with Lyman-alpha-forest constraints on small-scale power. Such a spectrum could arise in inflationary models with broken-scale invariance.

  15. Evidence of lensing of the cosmic microwave background by dark matter halos. (United States)

    Madhavacheril, Mathew; Sehgal, Neelima; Allison, Rupert; Battaglia, Nick; Bond, J Richard; Calabrese, Erminia; Caligiuri, Jerod; Coughlin, Kevin; Crichton, Devin; Datta, Rahul; Devlin, Mark J; Dunkley, Joanna; Dünner, Rolando; Fogarty, Kevin; Grace, Emily; Hajian, Amir; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hill, J Colin; Hilton, Matt; Hincks, Adam D; Hlozek, Renée; Hughes, John P; Kosowsky, Arthur; Louis, Thibaut; Lungu, Marius; McMahon, Jeff; Moodley, Kavilan; Munson, Charles; Naess, Sigurd; Nati, Federico; Newburgh, Laura; Niemack, Michael D; Page, Lyman A; Partridge, Bruce; Schmitt, Benjamin; Sherwin, Blake D; Sievers, Jon; Spergel, David N; Staggs, Suzanne T; Thornton, Robert; Van Engelen, Alexander; Ward, Jonathan T; Wollack, Edward J


    We present evidence of the gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background by 10(13) solar mass dark matter halos. Lensing convergence maps from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope Polarimeter (ACTPol) are stacked at the positions of around 12 000 optically selected CMASS galaxies from the SDSS-III/BOSS survey. The mean lensing signal is consistent with simulated dark matter halo profiles and is favored over a null signal at 3.2σ significance. This result demonstrates the potential of microwave background lensing to probe the dark matter distribution in galaxy group and galaxy cluster halos.

  16. Detecting the Disruption of Dark-Matter Halos with Stellar Streams. (United States)

    Bovy, Jo


    Narrow stellar streams in the Milky Way halo are uniquely sensitive to dark-matter subhalos, but many of these subhalos may be tidally disrupted. I calculate the interaction between stellar and dark-matter streams using analytical and N-body calculations, showing that disrupting objects can be detected as low-concentration subhalos. Through this effect, we can constrain the lumpiness of the halo as well as the orbit and present position of individual dark-matter streams. This will have profound implications for the formation of halos and for direct- and indirect-detection dark-matter searches.

  17. Genetic profile of the giant cell glioblastoma. (United States)

    Peraud, A; Watanabe, K; Schwechheimer, K; Yonekawa, Y; Kleihues, P; Ohgaki, H


    Giant cell glioblastoma is a rare glioblastoma variant characterized by the presence of large, bizarre, multinucleated giant cells. This glioblastoma subtype develops clinically de novo after a short clinical history and contains a high frequency of p53 mutations. In this study, we screened a series of 18 giant cell glioblastomas for additional genetic alterations. PCR-SSCP followed by DNA sequencing revealed PTEN mutations in 5 of 15 tumors (33%). Of these, two mutations were located in exon 5, two mutations in exon 6, and one mutation each in exons 1 and 9. Four mutations were point mutations and two mutations were deletions. One neoplasm contained two PTEN mutations (exons 5 and 6). None of the giant cell glioblastomas showed a homozygous deletion of PTEN orp16, or amplification of MDM2. Immunohistochemically, MDM2 overexpression was either not observed or detected in only a minor fraction of tumor cells. Differential PCR revealed EGFR amplification in only one of 17 tumors (6%). These results indicate that giant cell glioblastomas occupy a hybrid position, sharing with primary (de novo) glioblastomas a short clinical history, the absence of a less malignant precursor lesion and a 30% frequency of PTEN mutations. With secondary glioblastomas that develop through progression from low-grade astrocytomas, they have in common a younger patient age at manifestation and a high frequency (>70%) of p53 mutations.

  18. Asteroseismology of Red Giants and Galactic Archaeology (United States)

    Hekker, Saskia

    From the oscillations in red-giant stars measured in time-series data it is possible to derive more accurate stellar parameters (e.g., mass, radius and age) as can be done using only single-epoch spectroscopy or photometry. These stellar parameters combined with chemical composition and the position, distance and velocity of the stars play an important role in studying the formation and evolution of the Milky Way. In this chapter we discuss some key physical phenomena that are at play in (red-giant) stars as well as some important phases in red-giant evolution. Subsequently, oscillation characteristics that are of importance for the determination of stellar parameters (as indicated above) of red-giant stars are introduced followed by a description of the main components of the Milky Way. Finally, the role red giants can play in creating a detailed observational picture of the Milky Way and deciphering the formation and evolution of the Milky Way is discussed.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmerer, Jennifer; Ivans, Inese I.; Filler, Dan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Francois, Patrick [Paris-Meudon Observatory, France and Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, F-80080 Amiens (France); Charbonnel, Corinne [Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, Chemin des Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Monier, Richard [Laboratoire Hippolyte Fizeau, Universite Nice Sophia Antipolis, Parc Valrose, F-06000 Nice (France); James, Gaeel, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei Munchen (Germany)


    We present the metallicity as traced by the abundance of iron in the retrograde globular cluster NGC 3201, measured from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra of 24 red giant branch stars. A spectroscopic analysis reveals a spread in [Fe/H] in the cluster stars at least as large as 0.4 dex. Star-to-star metallicity variations are supported both through photometry and through a detailed examination of spectra. We find no correlation between iron abundance and distance from the cluster core, as might be inferred from recent photometric studies. NGC 3201 is the lowest mass halo cluster to date to contain stars with significantly different [Fe/H] values.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickaliger, M. B.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Lorimer, D. R.; Palliyaguru, N. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Langston, G. I. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Green Bank, WV 24944 (United States); Bilous, A. V. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Kondratiev, V. I. [Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Lyutikov, M. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2036 (United States); Ransom, S. M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)


    We observed the Crab pulsar with the 43 m telescope in Green Bank, WV over a timespan of 15 months. In total we obtained 100 hr of data at 1.2 GHz and seven hours at 330 MHz, resulting in a sample of about 95,000 giant pulses (GPs). This is the largest sample, to date, of GPs from the Crab pulsar taken with the same telescope and backend and analyzed as one data set. We calculated power-law fits to amplitude distributions for main pulse (MP) and interpulse (IP) GPs, resulting in indices in the range of 2.1-3.1 for MP GPs at 1.2 GHz and in the range of 2.5-3.0 and 2.4-3.1 for MP and IP GPs at 330 MHz. We also correlated the GPs at 1.2 GHz with GPs from the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT), which were obtained simultaneously at a higher frequency (8.9 GHz) over a span of 26 hr. In total, 7933 GPs from the 43 m telescope at 1.2 GHz and 39,900 GPs from the GBT were recorded during these contemporaneous observations. At 1.2 GHz, 236 (3%) MP GPs and 23 (5%) IP GPs were detected at 8.9 GHz, both with zero chance probability. Another 15 (4%) low-frequency IP GPs were detected within one spin period of high-frequency IP GPs, with a chance probability of 9%. This indicates that the emission processes at high and low radio frequencies are related, despite significant pulse profile shape differences. The 43 m GPs were also correlated with Fermi {gamma}-ray photons to see if increased pair production in the magnetosphere is the mechanism responsible for GP emission. A total of 92,022 GPs and 393 {gamma}-ray photons were used in this correlation analysis. No significant correlations were found between GPs and {gamma}-ray photons. This indicates that increased pair production in the magnetosphere is likely not the dominant cause of GPs. Possible methods of GP production may be increased coherence of synchrotron emission or changes in beaming direction.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deason, A. J.; Conroy, C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Wetzel, A. R. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Tinker, J. L., E-mail: [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10013 (United States)


    We investigate the use of the halo mass-gap statistic—defined as the logarithmic difference in mass between the host halo and its most massive satellite subhalo—as a probe of halo age and concentration. A cosmological N-body simulation is used to study N ∼ 25, 000 group/cluster-sized halos in the mass range 10{sup 12.5} < M{sub halo}/M{sub ☉} < 10{sup 14.5}. In agreement with previous work, we find that halo mass-gap is related to halo formation time and concentration. On average, older and more highly concentrated halos have larger halo mass-gaps, and this trend is stronger than the mass-concentration relation over a similar dynamic range. However, there is a large amount of scatter owing to the transitory nature of the satellite subhalo population, which limits the use of the halo mass-gap statistic on an object-by-object basis. For example, we find that 20% of very large halo mass-gap systems (akin to {sup f}ossil groups{sup )} are young and have likely experienced a recent merger between a massive satellite subhalo and the central subhalo. We relate halo mass-gap to the observable stellar mass-gap via abundance matching. Using a galaxy group catalog constructed from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, we find that the star formation and structural properties of galaxies at fixed mass show no trend with stellar mass-gap. This is despite a variation in halo age of ≈2.5 Gyr over ≈1.2 dex in stellar mass-gap. Thus, we find no evidence to suggest that the halo formation history significantly affects galaxy properties.

  2. Giant bladder lithiasis: case report and bibliographic review. (United States)

    Gallego Vilar, Daniel; Beltran Persiva, José; Pérez Mestre, Mateo; Povo Martin, Iván José; Miralles Aguado, Jaume; Garau Perelló, Carmen; De Francia, Jose Antonio


    Urinary lithiasis is a very frequent urological disease but bladder lithiasis is very uncommon.Patients usually refer voiding symptoms and hematuria. The diagnosis is made after imaging tests. We report a clinical case describing a giant bladder stone and perform a bibliographic review. A 43 year old man with the diagnosis of giant bladder stone (more than 10 cm diameter). We searched Medline using the terms: giant bladder stone, giant bladder lithiasis, bladder lithiasis, giant bladder lithiasis. We made the diagnosis of giant bladder stone after a simple kidney, ureter and bladder (KUB) X Ray. The treatment for this patient was a cystolithotomy. We found more than 230 reports at Medline and chose the most referred ones and the last 10 years reports. Giant bladder lithiasis is a very rare pathology. The gold standard for diagnosis is cystoscopy but sometimes with a KUB Xray or an ultrasound is enough. Because of its size, cistolitotomy is the correct treatment for giant bladder stone.

  3. Compositional constraints on giant planet formation (United States)

    Owen, Tobias; Encrenaz, Therese


    Using Ockham's razor as a guide, we have tried to find the simplest model for the formation of giant planets that can explain current observations of atmospheric composition. While this "top-down" approach is far from sufficient to define such models, it establishes a set of boundary conditions whose satisfaction is necessary. Using Jupiter as the prototype, we find that a simple model for giant planet formation that begins with a solar nebula of uniform composition and relies on accretion of low temperature icy planetesimals plus collapse of surrounding solar nebula gas supplies that satisfaction. We compare the resulting predictions of elemental abundances and isotope ratios in the atmospheres of the other giants with those from contrasting models and suggest some key measurements to make further progress.

  4. On the shape of giant soap bubbles. (United States)

    Cohen, Caroline; Darbois Texier, Baptiste; Reyssat, Etienne; Snoeijer, Jacco H; Quéré, David; Clanet, Christophe


    We study the effect of gravity on giant soap bubbles and show that it becomes dominant above the critical size [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text] is the mean thickness of the soap film and [Formula: see text] is the capillary length ([Formula: see text] stands for vapor-liquid surface tension, and [Formula: see text] stands for the liquid density). We first show experimentally that large soap bubbles do not retain a spherical shape but flatten when increasing their size. A theoretical model is then developed to account for this effect, predicting the shape based on mechanical equilibrium. In stark contrast to liquid drops, we show that there is no mechanical limit of the height of giant bubble shapes. In practice, the physicochemical constraints imposed by surfactant molecules limit the access to this large asymptotic domain. However, by an exact analogy, it is shown how the giant bubble shapes can be realized by large inflatable structures.

  5. Hepatic Giant Cell Arteritis and Polymyalgia Rheumatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald R Duerksen


    Full Text Available Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR is a clinical syndrome of the elderly characterized by malaise, proximal muscle aching and stiffness, low grade fever, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rare and the frequent association with temporal giant cell arteritis. The authors describe a case of PMR associated with hepatic giant cell arteritis. This lesion has been described in two other clinical reports. The distribution of the arteritis may be patchy; in this report, diagnosis was made with a wedge biopsy performed after an initial nonspecific percutaneous liver biopsy. The authors review the spectrum of liver involvement in PMR and giant cell arteritis. Hepatic abnormalities respond to systemic corticosteroids, and patients with hepatic arteritis have a good prognosis.

  6. Enhanced recovery after giant ventral hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K K; Brøndum, T L; Harling, H.


    PURPOSE: Giant ventral hernia repair is associated with a high risk of postoperative morbidity and prolonged length of stay (LOS). Enhanced recovery (ERAS) measures have proved to lead to decreased morbidity and LOS after various surgical procedures, but never after giant hernia repair. The current...... study prospectively examined the results of implementation of an ERAS pathway including high-dose preoperative glucocorticoid, and compared the outcome with patients previously treated according to standard care (SC). METHODS: Consecutive patients who underwent giant ventral hernia repair were included...... was 0.92. There were no differences when comparing readmission (5 vs. 2, P = 0.394), postoperative complications (7 vs. 4, P = 0. 458), or reoperation (5 vs. 1, P = 0.172) in ERAS versus controls. CONCLUSIONS: The current study suggests that an ERAS pathway including preoperative high...

  7. Giant fibroepithelial polyp of the ureter. (United States)

    Gupta, Mayank; Roy, Sanjeet; Wann, Cornerstone; Eapen, Anu


    Giant fibroepithelial polyp is a rare cause of ureteric/ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction. We report a rare case of giant fibroepithelial polyp in a 32-year-old woman involving the whole length of the ureter, reaching up to the UPJ which was clinically and radiologically considered to be urothelial carcinoma. Frozen section showed a polypoid lesion lined by urothelium with no evidence of dysplasia or malignancy. Subsequently, nephroureterectomy was done as there was marked renal hydronephrosis and it was impossible to separate the polyp from the wall of the ureter. Histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of giant fibroepithelial polyp, ruling out malignancy. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Histological Structure of Gills of Giant Mudskipper (Periophthalmodon schlosseri)


    Yudistira, Danang Bagus; Nurliani, Anni; Santoso, Heri Budi


    Giant mudskipper (Periophthalmodon schlosseri) is one of gobiidae members that does air-breathing and lives on intertidal zone with mangrove habitat. The ability of giant mudskipper to adapt with water to land environment is due to its gill histological structure. The objective of the present study was to observe the structure of giant mudskipper’s gill and to identify sort of cells and its distributions descriptively. The gills of three adult giant mudskippers were taken and processed to his...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, Evan N.; Cohen, Judith G. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Boulevard, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Guhathakurta, Puragra [UCO/Lick Observatory and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Zhang, Andrew J. [The Harker School, 500 Saratoga Avenue, San Jose, CA 95129 (United States); Hong, Jerry [Palo Alto High School, 50 Embarcadero Road, Palo Alto, CA, 94301 (United States); Guo, Michelle [Stanford University, 450 Serra Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Guo, Rachel [Irvington High School, 41800 Blacow Road, Fremont, CA 94538 (United States); Cunha, Katia [Observatório Nacional, São Cristóvão Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)


    Although red giants deplete lithium on their surfaces, some giants are Li-rich. Intermediate-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars can generate Li through the Cameron–Fowler conveyor, but the existence of Li-rich, low-mass red giant branch (RGB) stars is puzzling. Globular clusters are the best sites to examine this phenomenon because it is straightforward to determine membership in the cluster and to identify the evolutionary state of each star. In 72 hours of Keck/DEIMOS exposures in 25 clusters, we found four Li-rich RGB and two Li-rich AGB stars. There were 1696 RGB and 125 AGB stars with measurements or upper limits consistent with normal abundances of Li. Hence, the frequency of Li-richness in globular clusters is (0.2 ± 0.1)% for the RGB, (1.6 ± 1.1)% for the AGB, and (0.3 ± 0.1)% for all giants. Because the Li-rich RGB stars are on the lower RGB, Li self-generation mechanisms proposed to occur at the luminosity function bump or He core flash cannot explain these four lower RGB stars. We propose the following origin for Li enrichment: (1) All luminous giants experience a brief phase of Li enrichment at the He core flash. (2) All post-RGB stars with binary companions on the lower RGB will engage in mass transfer. This scenario predicts that 0.1% of lower RGB stars will appear Li-rich due to mass transfer from a recently Li-enhanced companion. This frequency is at the lower end of our confidence interval.

  10. Exploring the Ice Giants with JWST (United States)

    Orton, Glenn S.; Fletcher, Leigh; Hammel, Heidi B.; Melin, Henrik; Guerlet, Sandrine; Greathouse, Thomas K.; Irwin, Patrick GJ


    The Ice Giants Uranus and Neptune are among the least-explored environments in our Solar System, having been visited only once, by Voyager 2 in 1986 and 1989, respectively. Their bulk properties and composition, intermediate between the hydrogen-rich gas giants and the smaller terrestrial worlds, make them representative of a planetary class that may be commonplace in other planetary systems. Furthermore, their small angular diameter, low atmospheric temperatures, and dynamic and ever-changing atmospheres make them tantalising infrared targets for JWST. This presentation will reveal the scientific rationale and requirements for a long-term program of JWST spectroscopic mapping of these two worlds. Specifically, the MIRI instrument can be used to determine the 3-dimensional temperature structure to understand (i) seasonal atmospheric circulation from the equator to the poles, (ii) the relation between temperatures, visible atmospheric banding and storm phenomena; and (iii) to discover the unknown circulations and wave phenomena shaping their middle atmospheres. JWST spectra will also allow us to search for and map chemical species produced from photochemistry (e.g., hydrocarbons derived from methane photolysis), from vertical mixing (e.g., disequilibrium species), and from external sources (e.g., HCN and oxygen compounds delivered by comets, ring rain and interplanetary dust). Furthermore, near-infrared imaging and spectroscopy with NIRCAM and NIRSpec will provide detailed characterisations of ice-giant cloud and haze formation and their evolution with time, as well as revealing how auroral processes (observed via H3+ emission) influence the middle atmosphere. JWST will not only enable intercomparison of these atmospheric processes on two very different worlds (Uranus with its extreme tilt and sluggish mixing; Neptune with its powerful internal heat source), but also mature our understanding of how ice giant phenomena compare to both gas giant and terrestrial

  11. Recoiling black holes in static and evolving dark matter halo potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smole M.


    Full Text Available We follow trajectories of kicked black holes in static and evolving dark matter halo potential. We explore both NFW and Einasto dark matter density distributions. Considered dark matter halos represent hosts of massive spiral and elliptical field galaxies. We study critical amplitude of kick velocity necessary for complete black hole ejection at various redshifts and find that ~40% lower kick velocities can remove black holes from their host haloes at z = 7 compared to z = 1. The greatest difference between static and evolving potential occurs near the critical velocity for black hole ejection and at high redshifts. When NFW and Einasto density distributions are compared ~30% higher kick velocities are needed for complete removal of BHs from dark matter halo described by NFW profile. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176021: Visible and invisible matter in nearby galaxies: Theory and observations

  12. Basal cell carcinoma with halo phenomenon in a young female: Significance of dermatoscopy in early diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Yuksel Basak


    Full Text Available Halo phenomenon of nevus may be observed as a circular reaction, although it is unusual around tumors. A 29-year-old woman presented with a pigmented lesion on the cheek since three years. She noted whitening of the skin around the lesion almost after a year following its appearance. Dermatologic examination revealed a pigmented nodular lesion with a hypopigmented halo on the left infraorbital region. The clinical impression was halo nevus, whereas basal cell carcinoma (BCC was considered in dermatoscopic differential diagnosis. The diagnosis was infiltrative-type BCC histopathologically. The persistence of a perilesional halo around an enlarging pigmented lesion should be carefully examined with accompanying dermatoscopic findings even in young patients for early diagnosis of tumoral lesions.

  13. Active halo control through narrow-band excitation with the ADT at injection

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, Joschka; Garcia Morales, Hector; Redaelli, Stefano; Valentino, Gianluca; Valuch, Daniel; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department


    During this MD (MD1388), the capabilities of an active halo control for beam tail depletion in the LHC were tested. The studied method relies on using the Transverse Damper (ADT) to perform a narrow-band excitation.

  14. Methods for detection of protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions using HaloTag. (United States)

    Urh, Marjeta; Hartzell, Danette; Mendez, Jacqui; Klaubert, Dieter H; Wood, Keith


    HaloTag is a protein fusion tag which was genetically engineered to covalently bind a series of specific synthetic ligands. All ligands carry two groups, the reactive group and the functional/reporter group. The reactive group, the choloroalkane, is the same in all the ligands and is involved in binding to the HaloTag. The functional reporter group is variable and can carry many different moieties including fluorescent dyes, affinity handles like biotin or solid surfaces such as agarose beads. Thus, HaloTag can serve either as a labeling tag or as a protein immobilization tag depending on which ligand is bound to it. Here, we describe a procedure for immobilization of HaloTag fusion proteins and how immobilized proteins can be used to study protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions in vivo and in vitro.

  15. The puzzling assembly of the Milky Way halo – contributions from dwarf Spheroidals and globular clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lépine S.


    Full Text Available While recent sky surveys have uncovered large numbers of ever fainter Milky Way satellites, their classification as star clusters, low-luminosity galaxies, or tidal overdensities remains often unclear. Likewise, their contributions to the build-up of the halo is yet debated. In this contribution we will discuss the current knowledge of the stellar populations and chemo-dynamics in these puzzling satellites, with a particular focus on dwarf spheroidal galaxies and the globular clusters in the outer Galactic halo. Also the question of whether some of the outermost halo objects are dynamically associated with the (Milky Way halo at all is addressed in terms of proper measurements in the remote Leo I and II dwarf galaxies.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian-Laurenţiu FLOREA


    Full Text Available Despite being largely tackled by a manifold of sciences, perceived risk is still a rather unclear concept concerning its formation and update. In today’s economy, where poor purchase decisions are so easy to make, consumers have developed mental shields residing in actions based on perceived risk. This paper develops and tests a theory of perceived risk formation under the halo effect, based on correlation analysis in two forms: rankings individuals on their contribution to the correlations increase and partial correlations. Both internal and external halo effects were found, emerging from the perceived risk component – functional risk, financial risk, social risk, physical risk, psychological risk and time risk –, brand attitude, product category attitude, consumer’s regret, others’ regret expressed through word-of-mouth, recency, and awareness of awareness. The intricate halo that was revealed needs further attention from the scientific community in order to better delimit halo sources and, eventually, to explain its variability.

  17. UARS Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) Level 2 V019 (UARHA2FN) at GES DISC (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) Level 2 data product consists of daily vertical profiles of temperature, aerosol extinciton and pressure, as well as...

  18. UARS Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) Level 3AT V019 (UARHA3AT) at GES DISC (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) Level 3AT data product consists of daily vertical profiles of temperature, aerosol extinction and concentrations of HCl,...

  19. Recoiling Black Holes in Static and Evolving Dark Matter Halo Potential (United States)

    Smole, M.


    We follow trajectories of kicked black holes in static and evolving dark matter halo potential. We explore both NFW and Einasto dark matter density distributions. The considered dark matter halos represent hosts of massive spiral and elliptical field galaxies. We study the critical amplitude of kick velocity necessary for complete black hole ejection at various redshifts and find that ˜40 percent lower kick velocities can remove black holes from their host haloes at z=7 compared to z=1. The greatest difference between the static and evolving potential occurs near the critical velocity for black hole ejection and at high redshifts. When NFW and Einasto density distributions are compared ˜30 percent higher kick velocities are needed for complete removal of BHs from dark matter halo described by the NFW profile.

  20. Probing giant magnetoresistance with THz spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Zuanming; Tkach, Alexander; Casper, Frederick


    We observe a giant magnetoresistance effect in CoFe/Cu-based multistack using THz time-domain spectroscopy. The magnetic field-dependent dc conductivity, electron scattering time, as well as spin-asymmetry parameter of the structure are successfully determined. © 2014 OSA.......We observe a giant magnetoresistance effect in CoFe/Cu-based multistack using THz time-domain spectroscopy. The magnetic field-dependent dc conductivity, electron scattering time, as well as spin-asymmetry parameter of the structure are successfully determined. © 2014 OSA....

  1. Sum rules and giant resonances in nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipparini, E.; Stringari, S.


    The formalism of sum rules is developed and employed to investigate various giant resonances in nuclei. Particular emphasis is given to the role of surface effects which are shown to play a crucial role in the propagation of isoscalar as well as isovector collective modes. Sum rules for non-Hermitian operators, in particular for charge exchange reactions, are derived using the formalism of the dynamic polarizability. Several sum rules for investigating magnetic excitations, the structure of the transition density and the role of the nuclear deformation and of temperature on giant resonances are also presented and discussed.

  2. Neglected Giant Scalp Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kristine Larsen, MD


    Full Text Available Summary: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence 1 year postoperatively.

  3. Neglected giant scalp Basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne Kristine; El-Charnoubi, Waseem-Asim Ghulam; Gehl, Julie


    SUMMARY: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local...... control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence...

  4. Kepler Asteroseismology of Red-giant Stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.


    The Kepler mission, launched in March 2009, has revolutionized asteroseismology, providing detailed observations of thousands of stars. This has allowed in-depth analyses of stars ranging from compact hot subdwarfs to red giants, and including the detection of solar-like oscillations in hundreds...... of stars on or near the main sequence. Here I mainly consider solar-like oscillations in red giants, where Kepler observations are yielding results of a perhaps unexpected richness. In addition to giving a brief overview of the observational and numerical results for these stars, I present a simple...

  5. The interior structure of the giant planets (United States)

    Zharkov, V. N.


    An overview of the principal ideas and data pertaining to the construction of models of the interior structure of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune is presented. Topics discussed include: the concept of Jupiter and Saturn as planets with hydrogenic crusts; the theory of the figure of rotating planets in hydrostatic equilibrium; a gas-liquid dynamic model of the giant planets; analysis of observational data; abundances of elements and groups of cosmochemical substances; equations of state; and the role of Jupiter in the formation of the earth and the giant planets.

  6. Photon decay of giant multipole resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrand, F.E.; Beene, J.R.


    A brief review of the excitation of giant multipole resonances via Coulomb excitation is given which emphasizes the very large cross sections that can be realized through this reaction for both isoscalar and isovector resonances. Discussion and results where available, are provided for the measurement of the photon decay of one and two phonon giant resonances. It is pointed out throughout the presentation that the use of E1 photons as a tag'' provides a means to observe weakly excited resonances that cannot be observed in the shingles spectra. 26 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Giant Condyloma Acuminatum: A Surgical Riddle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Giant condyloma acuminatum (GCA commonly known as Buschke-Lowenstein tumor (BLT is a rare sexually transmitted disease, which is always preceded by condyloma accuminata and linked to human papillomavirus (HPV. Most commonly affected sites are male and female genitalia, anal and perianal regions. Giant condyloma acuminatum is well-known as slow growing but locally destructive with a high rate of recurrence and increased frequency of malignant transformation. Surgical management is considered to be the best among all the options.

  8. Giant Panda habitat selection in the Foping Nature Reserve, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, X.; Toxopeus, A.G.; Skidmore, A.K.; Shao, X.; Dang, D.; Wang, T.; Prins, H.H.T.


    Little is known about habitat selection of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), especially about the relationship between giant panda presence and bamboo and tree structures. We presented data on giant panda habitat use and selection in Foping Nature Reserve (NR), China. We used 1,066

  9. Observing giant panda habitat and forage abundance from space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, T.


    Giant pandas are obligate bamboo grazers. The bamboos favoured by giant pandas are typical forest understorey plants. Therefore, the availability and abundance of understorey bamboo is a key factor in determining the quantity and quality of giant panda food resources. However, there is little or

  10. Giant-cell lesions of the facial bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Som, P.M.; Lawson, W.; Cohen, B.A.


    Giant-cell lesions of the paranasal sinuses, including the giant-cell reparative granuloma, the brown tumor of hyperparathyroidism, the true giant-cell tumor, cherubism, and the aneurysmal bone cyst, are uncommon entities. Plain radiographic and computed-tomographic studies of these lesions are described and the differential diagnosis is discussed.

  11. Giant urinary bladder calculus: Case report | Otieno | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A vertical calculus weighing more than 100 g is categorised as a giant urinary bladder stone. Giant urinary bladder stones are very rare and very few cases have been reported in English literature and only one case from Africa. This is a case report of a patient with a giant urinary bladder calculus presenting as a rectal ...

  12. Patient with Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy and Two Giant Stones in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Giant urinary bladder stones are very rare; very few cases have been reported in English literature and only one case from Africa. Multiple giant bladder stones are extremely rare; no single case report has been found documenting this occasion. This report presents a patient of benign prostatic hypertrophy with two giant ...

  13. Staged Closure of Giant Omphalocele using Synthetic Mesh


    Lalit Parida; Kamalesh Pal; Hussah Al Buainain; Hossam Elshafei


    Giant omphalocele is difficult to manage and is associated with a poor outcome. A male newborn presented to our hospital with a giant omphalocele. We performed a staged closure of giant omphalocele using synthetic mesh to construct a silo and then mesh abdominoplasty in the neonatal period that led to a successful outcome within a reasonable period of hospital stay.

  14. The effect of J{sub 2} on equatorial and halo orbits around a magnetic planet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inarrea, Manuel [Universidad de la Rioja, Area de Fisica, 26006 Logrono (Spain); Lanchares, Victor [Dpto. de Matematicas y Computacion, CIEMUR: Centro de Investigacion en Informatica, Estadistica y Matematicas, Universidad de la Rioja, 26004 Logrono (Spain)], E-mail:; Palacian, Jesus F. [Universidad Publica de Navarra, Departamento de Ingenieria Matematica e Informatica, 31006 Pamplona (Spain); Pascual, Ana I. [Dpto. de Matematicas y Computacion, CIEMUR: Centro de Investigacion en Informatica, Estadistica y Matematicas, Universidad de la Rioja, 26004 Logrono (Spain); Pablo Salas, J. [Universidad de la Rioja, Area de Fisica, 26006 Logrono (Spain); Yanguas, Patricia [Universidad Publica de Navarra, Departamento de Ingenieria Matematica e Informatica, 31006 Pamplona (Spain)


    We calculate equatorial and halo orbits around a non-spherical (both oblate and prolate) magnetic planet. It is known that circular equatorial and halo orbits exist for a dust grain orbiting a spherical magnetic planet. However, the frequency of the orbit is constrained by the charge-mass ratio of the particle. If the non-sphericity of the planet is taken into account this constraint is modified or, in some cases, it disappears.

  15. Search for baryonic dark matter in the halo of the Galaxy (United States)

    Crézé, Michel; Robin, Annie C.; Mohan, Vijay; Reylé, Céline; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles


    A proper motion survey at the north galactic pole have been performed at the CFHT on a 4 year time baseline. We investigate for the presence of ancient white dwarfs in the sample and determine their possible contribution to the local density of the dark Halo. In the volume explored no candidate was detected, giving an upper limit to the ancient white dwarf fraction in the dark halo of 20% at most.

  16. Probing the structure of the cold dark matter halo using ancient mica (United States)

    Baltz, Edward A.; Westphal, Andrew J.; Snowden-Ifft, Daniel P.


    Mica can store (for >1 Gyr) etchable tracks caused by atoms recoiling from WIMPs. Ancient mica is a directional detector despite the complex motions it makes with respect to the WIMP ``wind.'' We can exploit the properties of directionality and long integration time to probe for structure in the dark matter halo of our galaxy. We compute a sample of possible signals in mica for a plausible model of halo structure.

  17. Baryon effects on the dark matter haloes constrained from strong gravitational lensing (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Chen, Da-Ming; Li, Ran


    Simulations are expected to be a powerful tool to investigate the baryon effects on dark matter (DM) haloes. Recent high resolution, cosmological hydrodynamic simulations predict that the inner density profiles of DM haloes depend systematically on the ratio of stellar to DM mass (M*/Mhalo), which is thought to be able to provide good fits to the observed rotation curves of galaxies. The Di Cintio et al. (hereafter DC14) profile is fitted from the simulations that are confined to Mhalo ≤ 1012 M⊙; in order to investigate the physical processes that may affect all haloes, we extrapolate it to much larger halo mass, including that of galaxy clusters. The inner slope of the DC14 profile is flat for low halo mass, it approaches 1 when the halo mass increases towards 1012 M⊙ and decreases rapidly after that mass. We use the DC14 profile for lenses and find that it predicts too few lenses compared with the most recent strong lensing observations Sloan Digital Sky Survey Quasar Lens Search (SQLS). We also calculate the strong lensing probabilities for a simulated density profile that continues the halo mass from the mass end of DC14 (∼1012 M⊙) to the mass that covers the galaxy clusters, and find that this Schaller et al. (hereafter Schaller15) model predict too many lenses compared with other models and SQLS observations. Interestingly, Schaller15 profile has no core, however, like DC14, the rotation curves of the simulated haloes are in excellent agreement with observational data. Furthermore, we show that the standard two-population model SIS+NFW cannot match the most recent SQLS observations for large image separations.

  18. The spin and orientation of dark matter halos within cosmic filaments


    Zhang, Youcai; Yang, Xiaohu; Faltenbacher, Andreas; Springel, Volker; Lin, Weipeng; Wang, Huiyuan


    Clusters, filaments, sheets and voids are the building blocks of the cosmic web. In this study, we present and compare two distinct algorithms for finding cosmic filaments and sheets, a task which is far less well established than the identification of dark matter halos or voids. One method is based on the smoothed dark matter density field, the other uses the halo distributions directly. We apply both techniques to one high resolution N-body simulation and reconstruct the filamentary/sheet l...

  19. Galaxy formation with BECDM - I. Turbulence and relaxation of idealized haloes (United States)

    Mocz, Philip; Vogelsberger, Mark; Robles, Victor H.; Zavala, Jesús; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Fialkov, Anastasia; Hernquist, Lars


    We present a theoretical analysis of some unexplored aspects of relaxed Bose-Einstein condensate dark matter (BECDM) haloes. This type of ultralight bosonic scalar field dark matter is a viable alternative to the standard cold dark matter (CDM) paradigm, as it makes the same large-scale predictions as CDM and potentially overcomes CDM's small-scale problems via a galaxy-scale de Broglie wavelength. We simulate BECDM halo formation through mergers, evolved under the Schrödinger-Poisson equations. The formed haloes consist of a soliton core supported against gravitational collapse by the quantum pressure tensor and an asymptotic r-3 NFW-like profile. We find a fundamental relation of the core-to-halo mass with the dimensionless invariant Ξ ≡ |E|/M3/(Gm/ℏ)2 or Mc/M ≃ 2.6Ξ1/3, linking the soliton to global halo properties. For r ≥ 3.5 rc core radii, we find equipartition between potential, classical kinetic and quantum gradient energies. The haloes also exhibit a conspicuous turbulent behaviour driven by the continuous reconnection of vortex lines due to wave interference. We analyse the turbulence 1D velocity power spectrum and find a k-1.1 power law. This suggests that the vorticity in BECDM haloes is homogeneous, similar to thermally-driven counterflow BEC systems from condensed matter physics, in contrast to a k-5/3 Kolmogorov power law seen in mechanically-driven quantum systems. The mode where the power spectrum peaks is approximately the soliton width, implying that the soliton-sized granules carry most of the turbulent energy in BECDM haloes.

  20. Live Imaging of Mitosomes and Hydrogenosomes by HaloTag Technology


    Eva Martincová; Luboš Voleman; Vladimíra Najdrová; Maximiliano De Napoli; Shiri Eshar; Melisa Gualdron; Hopp, Christine S.; Sanin, David E; Dumizulu L Tembo; Daria Van Tyne; Dawn Walker; Michaela Marcinčiková; Jan Tachezy; Pavel Doležal


    Hydrogenosomes and mitosomes represent remarkable mitochondrial adaptations in the anaerobic parasitic protists such as Trichomonas vaginalis and Giardia intestinalis, respectively. In order to provide a tool to study these organelles in the live cells, the HaloTag was fused to G. intestinalis IscU and T. vaginalis frataxin and expressed in the mitosomes and hydrogenosomes, respectively. The incubation of the parasites with the fluorescent Halo-ligand resulted in highly specific organellar la...