Sample records for halo chemical abundances

  1. Reconstructing the Accretion History of the Galactic Stellar Halo from Chemical Abundance Ratio Distributions (United States)

    Lee, Duane M.; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Sen, Bodhisattva; Jessop, Will


    Observational studies of halo stars during the past two decades have placed some limits on the quantity and nature of accreted dwarf galaxy contributions to the Milky Way (MW) stellar halo by typically utilizing stellar phase-space information to identify the most recent halo accretion events. In this study we tested the prospects of using 2D chemical abundance ratio distributions (CARDs) found in stars of the stellar halo to determine its formation history. First, we used simulated data from 11 “MW-like” halos to generate satellite template sets (STSs) of 2D CARDs of accreted dwarf satellites, which are composed of accreted dwarfs from various mass regimes and epochs of accretion. Next, we randomly drew samples of ˜103-4 mock observations of stellar chemical abundance ratios ([α/Fe], [Fe/H]) from those 11 halos to generate samples of the underlying densities for our CARDs to be compared to our templates in our analysis. Finally, we used the expectation-maximization algorithm to derive accretion histories in relation to the STS used and the sample size. For certain STSs used we typically can identify the relative mass contributions of all accreted satellites to within a factor of two. We also find that this method is particularly sensitive to older accretion events involving low-luminosity dwarfs, e.g., ultra-faint dwarfs—precisely those events that are too ancient to be seen by phase-space studies of stars and too faint to be seen by high-z studies of the early universe. Since our results only exploit two chemical dimensions and near-future surveys promise to provide ˜6-9 dimensions, we conclude that these new high-resolution spectroscopic surveys of the stellar halo will allow us to recover its accretion history—and the luminosity function of infalling dwarf galaxies—across cosmic time.


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    Lee, Duane M. [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Johnston, Kathryn V. [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York City, NY 10027 (United States); Sen, Bodhisattva; Jessop, Will, E-mail: [Department of Statistics, Columbia University, New York City, NY 10027 (United States)


    Observational studies of halo stars during the past two decades have placed some limits on the quantity and nature of accreted dwarf galaxy contributions to the Milky Way (MW) stellar halo by typically utilizing stellar phase-space information to identify the most recent halo accretion events. In this study we tested the prospects of using 2D chemical abundance ratio distributions (CARDs) found in stars of the stellar halo to determine its formation history. First, we used simulated data from 11 “MW-like” halos to generate satellite template sets (STSs) of 2D CARDs of accreted dwarf satellites, which are composed of accreted dwarfs from various mass regimes and epochs of accretion. Next, we randomly drew samples of ∼10{sup 3–4} mock observations of stellar chemical abundance ratios ([α/Fe], [Fe/H]) from those 11 halos to generate samples of the underlying densities for our CARDs to be compared to our templates in our analysis. Finally, we used the expectation-maximization algorithm to derive accretion histories in relation to the STS used and the sample size. For certain STSs used we typically can identify the relative mass contributions of all accreted satellites to within a factor of two. We also find that this method is particularly sensitive to older accretion events involving low-luminosity dwarfs, e.g., ultra-faint dwarfs—precisely those events that are too ancient to be seen by phase-space studies of stars and too faint to be seen by high-z studies of the early universe. Since our results only exploit two chemical dimensions and near-future surveys promise to provide ∼6–9 dimensions, we conclude that these new high-resolution spectroscopic surveys of the stellar halo will allow us to recover its accretion history—and the luminosity function of infalling dwarf galaxies—across cosmic time.

  3. Reconstructing the Accretion History of the Galactic Halo Using Stellar Chemical Abundance Ratio Distributions (United States)

    Lee, Duane M.; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Sen, Bodhisattva; Jessop, Will


    In this study we tested the prospects of using 2D chemical abundance ratio distributions (CARDs) found in stars of the stellar halo to determine its formation history. First, we used simulated data from eleven ``MW-like'' halos to generate satellite template sets of 2D CARDs of accreted dwarf satellites which are comprised of accreted dwarfs from various mass regimes and epochs of accretion. Next, we randomly drew samples of ~ 103-4 mock observations of stellar chemical abundance ratios ([α/Fe], [Fe/H]) from those eleven halos to generate samples of the underlying densities for our CARDs to be compared to our templates in our analysis. Finally, we used the expectation-maximization algorithm to derive accretion histories in relation to the satellite template set (STS) used and the sample size. For certain STS used we typically can identify the relative mass contributions of all accreted satellites to within a factor of 2. We also find that this method is particularly sensitive to older accretion events involving low-luminous dwarfs e.g. ultra-faint dwarfs - precisely those events that are too ancient to be seen by phase-space studies of stars and too faint to be seen by high-z studies of the early Universe. Since our results only exploit two chemical dimensions and near-future surveys promise to provide ~ 6-9 dimensions, we conclude that these new high-resolution spectroscopic surveys of the stellar halo will allow us (given the development of new CARD-generating dwarf models) to recover the luminosity function of infalling dwarf galaxies - and the detailed accretion history of the halo - across cosmic time.

  4. Large-scale environmental dependence of chemical abundances in dwarf galaxies and implications for connecting star formation and halo mass


    Douglass, Kelly A.; Vogeley, Michael S.; Cen, Renyue


    We study how the void environment affects the chemical evolution of galaxies in the universe by comparing the oxygen and nitrogen abundances of dwarf galaxies in voids with dwarf galaxies in denser regions. Using spectroscopic observations from SDSS DR7, we estimate the oxygen and nitrogen abundances of 993 void dwarf galaxies and 759 dwarf galaxies in denser regions. We use the Direct Te method for calculating the gas-phase chemical abundances in the dwarf galaxies because it is best suited ...

  5. The formation of the Milky Way halo and its dwarf satellites; a NLTE-1D abundance analysis. II. Early chemical enrichment (United States)

    Mashonkina, L.; Jablonka, P.; Sitnova, T.; Pakhomov, Yu.; North, P.


    We present the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) abundances of up to 10 chemical species in a sample of 59 very metal-poor (VMP, -4 ≤ [Fe/H] ≾-2) stars in seven dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) and in the Milky Way (MW) halo. Our results are based on high-resolution spectroscopic datasets and homogeneous and accurate atmospheric parameters determined in Paper I. We show that once the NLTE effects are properly taken into account, all massive galaxies in our sample, that is, the MW halo and the classical dSphs Sculptor, Ursa Minor, Sextans, and Fornax, reveal a similar plateau at [α/Fe] ≃ 0.3 for each of the α-process elements: Mg, Ca, and Ti. We put on a firm ground the evidence for a decline in α/Fe with increasing metallicity in the Boötes I ultra-faint dwarf galaxy (UFD), that is most probably due to the ejecta of type Ia supernovae. For Na/Fe, Na/Mg, and Al/Mg, the MW halo and all dSphs reveal indistinguishable trends with metallicity, suggesting that the processes of Na and Al synthesis are identical in all systems, independent of their mass. The dichotomy in the [Sr/Ba] versus [Ba/H] diagram is observed in the classical dSphs, similarly to the MW halo, calling for two different nucleosynthesis channels for Sr. We show that Sr in the massive galaxies is well correlated with Mg suggesting a strong link to massive stars and that its origin is essentially independent of Ba, for most of the [Ba/H] range. Our three UFDs, that is Boötes I, UMa II, and Leo IV, are depleted in Sr and Ba relative to Fe and Mg, with very similar ratios of [Sr/Mg] ≃-1.3 and [Ba/Mg] ≃-1 on the entire range of their Mg abundances. The subsolar Sr/Ba ratios of Boötes I and UMa II indicate a common r-process origin of their neutron-capture elements. Sculptor remains the classical dSph, in which the evidence for inhomogeneous mixing in the early evolution stage, at [Fe/H] <-2, is the strongest. Full Tables 3 and 4 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to

  6. Clustering dark energy and halo abundances (United States)

    Batista, Ronaldo C.; Marra, Valerio


    Within the standard paradigm, dark energy is taken as a homogeneous fluid that drives the accelerated expansion of the universe and does not contribute to the mass of collapsed objects such as galaxies and galaxy clusters. The abundance of galaxy clusters—measured through a variety of channels—has been extensively used to constrain the normalization of the power spectrum: it is an important probe as it allows us to test if the standard ΛCDM model can indeed accurately describe the evolution of structures across billions of years. It is then quite significant that the Planck satellite has detected, via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect, less clusters than expected according to the primary CMB anisotropies. One of the simplest generalizations that could reconcile these observations is to consider models in which dark energy is allowed to cluster, i.e., allowing its sound speed to vary. In this case, however, the standard methods to compute the abundance of galaxy clusters need to be adapted to account for the contributions of dark energy. In particular, we examine the case of clustering dark energy—a dark energy fluid with negligible sound speed—with a redshift-dependent equation of state. We carefully study how the halo mass function is modified in this scenario, highlighting corrections that have not been considered before in the literature. We address modifications in the growth function, collapse threshold, virialization densities and also changes in the comoving scale of collapse and mass function normalization. Our results show that clustering dark energy can impact halo abundances at the level of 10%-30%, depending on the halo mass, and that cluster counts are modified by about 30% at a redshift of unity.

  7. Halo abundances and shear in void models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alonso, David; García-Bellido, Juan; Haugbølle, Troels


    We study the non-linear gravitational collapse of dark matter into halos through numerical N-body simulations of Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi void models. We extend the halo mass function formalism to these models in a consistent way. This extension not only compares well with the simulated data at all...

  8. The abundance and environment of dark matter haloes (United States)

    Metuki, Ofer; Libeskind, Noam I.; Hoffman, Yehuda


    An open question in cosmology and the theory of structure formation is to what extent does environment affect the properties of galaxies and haloes. The present paper aims at shedding light on this problem. The paper focuses on the analysis of a dark matter only simulation and it addresses the issue of how the environment affects the abundance of haloes, which are assigned four attributes: their virial mass, an ambient density calculated with an aperture that scales with Rvir (ΔM), a fixed-aperture (ΔR) ambient density, and a cosmic web classification (i.e. voids, sheets, filaments, and knots, as defined by the V-web algorithm). ΔM is the mean density around a halo evaluated within a sphere of a radius of 5Rvir, where Rvir is the virial radius. ΔR is the density field Gaussian smoothed with R = 4 h-1 Mpc, evaluated at the centre of the halo. The main result of the paper is that the difference between haloes in different web elements stems from the difference in their mass functions, and does not depend on their adaptive-aperture ambient density. A dependence on the fixed-aperture ambient density is induced by the cross-correlation between the mass of a halo and its fixed-aperture ambient density.

  9. The abundance of boron in three halo stars (United States)

    Duncan, Douglas K.; Lambert, David L.; Lemke, Michael


    B abundances for three halo stars: HD 140283, HD 19445, and HD 201891 are presented. Using recent determinations of the Be abundance in HD 140283, B/Be of 10 +5/-4 is found for this star, and similar ratios are inferred for HD 19445 and HD 201891. This ratio is equal to the minimum value of 10 expected from a synthesis of B and Be by high-energy cosmic-ray spallation reactions in the interstellar medium. It is shown that the accompanying synthesis of Li by alpha on alpha fusion reactions is probably a minor contributor to the observed 'primordial' Li of halo stars. The observed constant ratios of B/O and Be/O are expected if the principal channel of synthesis involves cosmic-ray CNO nuclei from the supernovae colliding with interstellar protons.

  10. A halo model for cosmological neutral hydrogen : abundances and clustering (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Hamsa; Refregier, Alexandre; Amara, Adam


    We extend the results of previous analyses towards constraining the abundance and clustering of post-reionization (z ∼ 0-5) neutral hydrogen (H i) systems using a halo model framework. We work with a comprehensive H I data set including the small-scale clustering, column density and mass function of H I galaxies at low redshifts, intensity mapping measurements at intermediate redshifts and the ultraviolet/optical observations of Damped Lyman Alpha (DLA) systems at higher redshifts. We use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach to constrain the parameters of the best-fitting models, both for the H i-halo mass (HIHM) relation and the H I radial density profile. We find that a radial exponential profile results in a good fit to the low-redshift H I observations, including the clustering and the column density distribution. The form of the profile is also found to match the high-redshift DLA observations, when used in combination with a three-parameter HIHM relation and a redshift evolution in the H I concentration. The halo model predictions are in good agreement with the observed H I surface density profiles of low-redshift galaxies, and the general trends in the impact parameter and covering fraction observations of high-redshift DLAs. We provide convenient tables summarizing the best-fitting halo model predictions.


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    Vargas, Luis C.; Geha, Marla; Tollerud, Erik J. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, 260 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Gilbert, Karoline M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Kirby, Evan N. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Guhathakurta, Puragra, E-mail: [UCO/Lick Observatory and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)


    We present alpha element to iron abundance ratios, [α/Fe], for four stars in the outer stellar halo of the Andromeda Galaxy (M31). The stars were identified as high-likelihood field halo stars by Gilbert et al. and lie at projected distances between 70 and 140 kpc from M31's center. These are the first alpha abundances measured for a halo star in a galaxy beyond the Milky Way. The stars range in metallicity between [Fe/H] = –2.2 and [Fe/H] = –1.4. The sample's average [α/Fe] ratio is +0.20 ± 0.20. The best-fit average value is elevated above solar, which is consistent with rapid chemical enrichment from Type II supernovae. The mean [α/Fe] ratio of our M31 outer halo sample agrees (within the uncertainties) with that of Milky Way inner/outer halo stars that have a comparable range of [Fe/H].

  12. Li-7 abundances in halo stars: Testing stellar evolution models and the primordial Li-7 abundance (United States)

    Chaboyer, Brian; Demarque, P.


    A large number of stellar evolution models with (Fe/H) = -2.3 and -3.3 have been calculated in order to determine the primordial Li-7 abundance and to test current stellar evolution models by a comparison to the extensive database of accurate Li abundances in extremely metal-poor halo stars observed by Thorburn (1994). Standard models with gray atmospheres do a very good job of fitting the observed Li abundances in stars hotter than approximately 5600 K. They predict a primordial. Li-7 abundance of log N(Li) = 2.24 +/- 0.03. Models which include microscopic diffusion predict a downward curvature in the Li-7 destruction isochrones at hot temperatures which is not present in the observations. Thus, the observations clearly rule out models which include uninhibited microscopic diffusion of Li-7 from the surface of the star. Rotational mixing inhibits the microscopic diffusion and the (Fe/H) = -2.28 stellar models which include both diffusion and rotational mixing provide an excellent match to the mean trend in T(sub eff) which is present in the observations. Both the plateau stars and the heavily depleted cool stars are well fit by these models. The rotational mixing leads to considerable Li-7 depletion in these models and the primordial Li-7 abundance inferred from these models is log N(Li) = 3.08 +/- 0.1. However, the (Fe/H) = -3.28 isochrones reveal problems with the combined models. These isochrones predict a trend of decreasing log N(Li) with increasing T(sub eff) which is not present in the observations. Possible causes for this discrepancy are discussed.

  13. Lithium abundances in high- and low-alpha halo stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, P. E.; Schuster, W. J.


    A previous study of F and G main-sequence stars in the solar neighborhood has revealed the existence of two distinct halo populations with a clear separation in [alpha /Fe] for the metallicity range -1.4 < [Fe/H] < -0.7. The kinematics of the stars and models of galaxy formation suggest that the ...

  14. Chemical Cartography. I. A Carbonicity Map of the Galactic Halo (United States)

    Lee, Young Sun; Beers, Timothy C.; Kim, Young Kwang; Placco, Vinicius; Yoon, Jinmi; Carollo, Daniela; Masseron, Thomas; Jung, Jaehun


    We present the first map of carbonicity, [C/Fe], for the halo system of the Milky Way, based on a sample of over 100,000 main-sequence turnoff stars with available spectroscopy from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. This map, which explores distances up to 15 kpc from the Sun, reveals clear evidence for the dual nature of the Galactic halo, based on the spatial distribution of stellar carbonicity. The metallicity distribution functions of stars in the inner- and outer-halo regions of the carbonicity map reproduce those previously argued to arise from contributions of the inner- and outer-halo populations, with peaks at [Fe/H] = -1.5 and -2.2, respectively. From consideration of the absolute carbon abundances for our sample, A(C), we also confirm that the carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars in the outer-halo region exhibit a higher frequency of CEMP-no stars (those with no overabundances of heavy neutron-capture elements) than of CEMP-s stars (those with strong overabundances of elements associated with the s-process), whereas the stars in the inner-halo region exhibit a higher frequency of CEMP-s stars. We argue that the contrast in the behavior of the CEMP-no and CEMP-s fractions in these regions arises from differences in the mass distributions of the mini-halos from which the stars of the inner- and outer-halo populations formed, which gives rise in turn to the observed dichotomy of the Galactic halo.

  15. Chemical Cartography. I. A Carbonicity Map of the Galactic Halo

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    Lee, Young Sun; Kim, Young Kwang [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134 (Korea, Republic of); Beers, Timothy C.; Placco, Vinicius; Yoon, Jinmi [Department of Physics and JINA Center for the Evolution of the Elements, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Carollo, Daniela [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Masseron, Thomas [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Jung, Jaehun, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, Space Science, and Geology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134 (Korea, Republic of)


    We present the first map of carbonicity, [C/Fe], for the halo system of the Milky Way, based on a sample of over 100,000 main-sequence turnoff stars with available spectroscopy from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. This map, which explores distances up to 15 kpc from the Sun, reveals clear evidence for the dual nature of the Galactic halo, based on the spatial distribution of stellar carbonicity. The metallicity distribution functions of stars in the inner- and outer-halo regions of the carbonicity map reproduce those previously argued to arise from contributions of the inner- and outer-halo populations, with peaks at [Fe/H] = −1.5 and −2.2, respectively. From consideration of the absolute carbon abundances for our sample, A (C), we also confirm that the carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars in the outer-halo region exhibit a higher frequency of CEMP-no stars (those with no overabundances of heavy neutron-capture elements) than of CEMP- s stars (those with strong overabundances of elements associated with the s -process), whereas the stars in the inner-halo region exhibit a higher frequency of CEMP- s stars. We argue that the contrast in the behavior of the CEMP-no and CEMP- s fractions in these regions arises from differences in the mass distributions of the mini-halos from which the stars of the inner- and outer-halo populations formed, which gives rise in turn to the observed dichotomy of the Galactic halo.

  16. Warm neutral halos around molecular clouds. VI - Physical and chemical modeling (United States)

    Andersson, B.-G.; Wannier, P. G.


    A combined physical and chemical modeling of the halos around molecular clouds is presented, with special emphasis on the H-to-H2 transition. On the basis of H I 21 cm observations, it is shown that the halos are extended. A physical model is employed in conjunction with a chemistry code to provide a self-consistent description of the gas. The radiative transfer code provides a check with H I, CO, and OH observations. It is concluded that the warm neutral halos are not gravitationally bound to the underlying molecular clouds and are isobaric. It is inferred from the observed extent of the H I envelopes and the large observed abundance of OH in them that the generally accepted rate for H2 information on grains is too large by a factor of two to three.

  17. An Excursion Set Model of the Cosmic Web: the Abundance of Sheets, Filaments And Halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Jiajian; /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys.; Abel, Tom; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Mo, Houjun; /Massachusetts U., Amherst; Sheth, Ravi; /Pennsylvania U.


    We discuss an analytic approach for modeling structure formation in sheets, filaments and knots. This is accomplished by combining models of triaxial collapse with the excursion set approach: sheets are defined as objects which have collapsed along only one axis, filaments have collapsed along two axes, and halos are objects in which triaxial collapse is complete. In the simplest version of this approach, which we develop here, large scale structure shows a clear hierarchy of morphologies: the mass in large-scale sheets is partitioned up among lower mass filaments, which themselves are made-up of still lower mass halos. Our approach provides analytic estimates of the mass fraction in sheets, filaments and halos, and its evolution, for any background cosmological model and any initial fluctuation spectrum. In the currently popular {Lambda}CDM model, our analysis suggests that more than 99% of the mass in sheets, and 72% of the mass in filaments, is stored in objects more massive than 10{sup 10}M{sub {circle_dot}} at the present time. For halos, this number is only 46%. Our approach also provides analytic estimates of how halo abundances at any given time correlate with the morphology of the surrounding large-scale structure, and how halo evolution correlates with the morphology of large scale structure.

  18. Evidence for a dispersion in the lithium abundances of extreme halo stars (United States)

    Deliyannis, Constantine P.; Pinsonneault, M. H.; Duncan, Douglas K.


    Evidence is presented to the effect that there exists a small dispersion in the lithium abundances of extreme halo dwarfs. This dispersion cannot be accounted for by standard stellar models alone, particularly toward the turnoff, and would thus require early differential Galactic Li enrichment, perhaps independent of metallicity. The magnitude of the dispersion is also consistent with the predictions of evolutionary models of halo stars with rotation, which do not require, but do not rule out either, early Galactic enrichment. These rotational models also predict a significant depletion in the lithium abundance during the stars' lifetime. The rotational models predict that stars which formed with very low initial angular momentum will have lithium abundances measurably above the plateau.

  19. Halo abundance and assembly history with extreme-axion wave dark matter at z ≥ 4 (United States)

    Schive, Hsi-Yu; Chiueh, Tzihong


    Wave dark matter (ψDM) composed of extremely light bosons (mψ ∼ 10 - 22 eV), with quantum pressure suppressing structures below a kpc-scale de Broglie wavelength, has become a viable dark matter candidate. Compared to the conventional free-particle ψDM (FPψDM), the extreme-axion ψDM model (EAψDM) proposed by Zhang & Chiueh features a larger cut-off wavenumber and a broad spectral bump in the matter transfer function. Here, we conduct cosmological simulations to compare the halo abundances and assembly histories at z = 4-11 between three different scenarios: FPψDM, EAψDM and cold dark matter (CDM). We show that EAψDM produces significantly more abundant low-mass haloes than FPψDM with the same mψ, and therefore could alleviate the tension in mψ required by the Lyα forest data and by the kpc-scale dwarf galaxy cores. We also find that, compared to the CDM counterparts, massive EAψDM haloes are, on average, 3-4 times more massive at z = 10-11 due to their earlier formation, undergo a slower mass accretion at 7 ≲ z ≲ 11, and then show a rapidly rising major merger rate exceeding CDM by ∼ 50 per cent at 4 ≲ z ≲ 7. This fact suggests that EAψDM haloes may exhibit more prominent starbursts at z ≲ 7.

  20. Two distinct halo populations in the solar neighborhood II. Evidence from stellar abundances of Mn, Cu, Zn, Y, and Ba

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Poul Erik; Schuster, William J.


    Context. Current models of galaxy formation predict that the Galactic halo was assembled hierarchically. By measuring abundance ratios in stars it may be possible to identify substructures in the halo resulting from this process. Aims. A previous study of 94 dwarf stars with −1.6

  1. Cluster abundance in chameleon f(R) gravity I: toward an accurate halo mass function prediction (United States)

    Cataneo, Matteo; Rapetti, David; Lombriser, Lucas; Li, Baojiu


    We refine the mass and environment dependent spherical collapse model of chameleon f(R) gravity by calibrating a phenomenological correction inspired by the parameterized post-Friedmann framework against high-resolution N-body simulations. We employ our method to predict the corresponding modified halo mass function, and provide fitting formulas to calculate the enhancement of the f(R) halo abundance with respect to that of General Relativity (GR) within a precision of lesssim 5% from the results obtained in the simulations. Similar accuracy can be achieved for the full f(R) mass function on the condition that the modeling of the reference GR abundance of halos is accurate at the percent level. We use our fits to forecast constraints on the additional scalar degree of freedom of the theory, finding that upper bounds competitive with current Solar System tests are within reach of cluster number count analyses from ongoing and upcoming surveys at much larger scales. Importantly, the flexibility of our method allows also for this to be applied to other scalar-tensor theories characterized by a mass and environment dependent spherical collapse.

  2. Chemical abundances in the old LMC globular cluster Hodge 11 (United States)

    Mateluna, R.; Geisler, D.; Villanova, S.; Carraro, G.; Grocholski, A.; Sarajedini, A.; Cole, A.; Smith, V.


    Context. The study of globular clusters is one of the most powerful ways to learn about a galaxy's chemical evolution and star formation history. They preserve a record of chemical abundances at the time of their formation and are relatively easy to age date. The most detailed knowledge of the chemistry of a star is given by high resolution spectroscopy, which provides accurate abundances for a wide variety of elements, yielding a wealth of information on the various processes involved in the cluster's chemical evolution. Aims: We studied red giant branch (RGB) stars in an old, metal-poor globular cluster of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), Hodge 11 (H11), in order to measure as many elements as possible. The goal is to compare its chemical trends to those in the Milky Way halo and dwarf spheroidal galaxies in order to help understand the formation history of the LMC and our own Galaxy. Methods: We have obtained high resolution VLT/FLAMES spectra of eight RGB stars in H11. The spectral range allowed us to measure a variety of elements, including Fe, Mg, Ca, Ti, Si, Na, O, Ni, Cr, Sc, Mn, Co, Zn, Ba, La, Eu and Y. Results: We derived a mean [Fe/H] = -2.00 ± 0.04, in the middle of previous determinations. We found low [α/Fe] abundances for our targets, more comparable to values found in dwarf spheroidal galaxies than in the Galactic halo, suggesting that if H11 is representative of its ancient populations then the LMC does not represent a good halo building block. Our [Ca/Fe] value is about 0.3 dex less than that of halo stars used to calibrate the Ca IR triplet technique for deriving metallicity. A hint of a Na abundance spread is observed. Its stars lie at the extreme high O, low Na end of the Na:O anti-correlation displayed by Galactic and LMC globular clusters. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (proposal ID 082.B-0458).Table 4 is only available in electronic form at

  3. SHAM beyond clustering: new tests of galaxy–halo abundance matching with galaxy groups

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    Hearin, Andrew P.; Zentner, Andrew R.; Berlind, Andreas A.; Newman, Jeffrey A.


    We construct mock catalogs of galaxy groups using subhalo abundance matching (SHAM) and undertake several new tests of the SHAM prescription for the galaxy-dark matter connection. All SHAM models we studied exhibit significant tension with galaxy groups observed in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The SHAM prediction for the field galaxy luminosity function (LF) is systematically too dim, and the group galaxy LF systematically too bright, regardless of the details of the SHAM prescription. SHAM models connecting r-band luminosity, Mr, to Vacc, the maximum circular velocity of a subhalo at the time of accretion onto the host, faithfully reproduce galaxy group abundance as a function of richness, g(N). However, SHAM models connecting Mr with Vpeak, the peak value of Vmax over the entire merger history of the halo, over-predict galaxy group abundance. Our results suggest that no SHAM model can simultaneously reproduce the observed g(N) and two-point projected galaxy clustering. Nevertheless, we also report a new success of SHAM: an accurate prediction for Phi(m12), the abundance of galaxy groups as a function of magnitude gap m12, defined as the difference between the r-band absolute magnitude of the two brightest group members. We show that it may be possible to use joint measurements of g(N) and Phi(m12) to tightly constrain the details of the SHAM implementation. Additionally, we show that the hypothesis that the luminosity gap is constructed via random draws from a universal LF provides a poor description of the data, contradicting recent claims in the literature. Finally, we test a common assumption of the Conditional Luminosity Function (CLF) formalism, that the satellite LF need only be conditioned by the brightness of the central galaxy. We find this assumption to be well-supported by the observed Phi(m12).

  4. Non-LTE analysis of copper abundances for the two distinct halo populations in the solar neighborhood


    Yan, H. L.; Shi, J. R.; Nissen, P. E.; Zhao, G.


    Two distinct halo populations were found in the solar neighborhood by a series of works. They can be clearly separated by [alpha\\Fe] and several other elemental abundance ratios including [Cu/Fe]. Very recently, a non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) study revealed that relatively large departures exist between LTE and non-LTE results in copper abundance analysis. We aim to derive the copper abundances for the stars from the sample of Nissen et al (2010) with both LTE and non-LTE cal...

  5. Chemical Abundances of Compact Planetary Nebulae (United States)

    Lee, Ting-Hui; Shaw, Richard A.; Stanghellini, letizia; Riley, Ben


    We present preliminary results from an optical spectroscopic survey of compact planetary nebulae (PNe) in the Galactic disk. This is an ongoing optical+infrared spectral survey of 150 compact PNe to build a deep sample of PN chemical abundances. We obtained optical spectra of PNe with the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) Telescope and Goodman High-Throughput Spectrograph between 2012 and 2015. These data were used to calculate the nebulae diagnostics such as electron temperature and density for each PN, and to derive the elemental abundances of He, N, O Ne, S and Ar. These abundances are vital to understanding the nature of the PNe, and their low- to intermediate-mass progenitor stars.

  6. Disentangling the Galactic Halo with APOGEE. II. Chemical and Star Formation Histories for the Two Distinct Populations (United States)

    Fernández-Alvar, Emma; Carigi, Leticia; Schuster, William J.; Hayes, Christian R.; Ávila-Vergara, Nancy; Majewski, Steve R.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Beers, Timothy C.; Sánchez, Sebastián F.; Zamora, Olga; García-Hernández, Domingo Aníbal; Tang, Baitian; Fernández-Trincado, José G.; Tissera, Patricia; Geisler, Douglas; Villanova, Sandro


    The formation processes that led to the current Galactic stellar halo are still under debate. Previous studies have provided evidence for different stellar populations in terms of elemental abundances and kinematics, pointing to different chemical and star formation histories (SFHs). In the present work, we explore, over a broader range in metallicity (-2.2Experiment (APOGEE). We aim to infer signatures of the initial mass function (IMF) and the SFH from the two α-to-iron versus iron abundance chemical trends for the most APOGEE-reliable α-elements (O, Mg, Si, and Ca). Using simple chemical-evolution models, we infer the upper mass limit (M up) for the IMF and the star formation rate, and its duration for each population. Compared with the low-α population, we obtain a more intense and longer-lived SFH, and a top-heavier IMF for the high-α population.

  7. Chemical Abundances of Metal-poor stars in Dwarf Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venn, Kim A.; Jablonka, Pascale; Hill, Vanessa; Starkenburg, Else; Lemasle, Bertrand; Shetrone, Matthew; Irwin, Mike; Norris, John; Yong, David; Gilmore, Gerry; Salvadori, Stephania; Skuladottir, Asa; Tolstoy, Eline; Bragaglia, A.; Arnaboldi, M.; Rejkuba, M.; Romano, D.


    Stars in low-mass dwarf galaxies show a larger range in their chemical properties than those in the Milky Way halo. The slower star formation efficiency make dwarf galaxies ideal systems for testing nucleosynthetic yields. Not only are alpha-poor stars found at lower metallicities, and a higher

  8. Non-LTE analysis of copper abundances for the two distinct halo populations in the solar neighborhood (United States)

    Yan, H. L.; Shi, J. R.; Nissen, P. E.; Zhao, G.


    Context. Two distinct halo populations were found in the solar neighborhood by a series of works. They can be clearly separated by [α/Fe] and several other elemental abundance ratios including [Cu/Fe]. Very recently, a non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) study revealed that relatively large departures exist between LTE and non-LTE results in copper abundance analysis. The study also showed that non-LTE effects of neutral copper vary with stellar parameters and thus affect the [Cu/Fe] trend. Aims: We aim to derive the copper abundances for the stars from the sample of Nissen & Schuster (2010) with both LTE and non-LTE calculations. Based on our results, we study the non-LTE effects of copper and investigate whether the high-α population can still be distinguished from the low-α population in the non-LTE [Cu/Fe] results. Methods: Our differential abundance ratios are derived from the high-resolution spectra collected from VLT/UVES and NOT/FIES spectrographs. Applying the MAFAGS opacity sampling atmospheric models and spectrum synthesis method, we derive the non-LTE copper abundances based on the new atomic model with current atomic data obtained from both laboratory and theoretical calculations. Results: The copper abundances determined from non-LTE calculations are increased by 0.01 to 0.2 dex depending on the stellar parameters compared with the LTE results. The non-LTE [Cu/Fe] trend is much flatter than the LTE one in the metallicity range -1.6 copper abundances, which appear even more clear in a diagram of non-LTE [Cu/Fe] versus [Fe/H]. Conclusions: The non-LTE effects are strong for copper, especially in metal-poor stars. Our results confirmed that there are two distinct halo populations in the solar neighborhood. The dichotomy in copper abundance is a peculiar feature of each population, suggesting that they formed in different environments and evolved obeying diverse scenarios. Based on observations made with the FIbre fed Echelle Spectrograph

  9. Chemical composition of metal-poor carbon stars in the halo. (United States)

    Kipper, T.; Jorgensen, U. G.; Klochkova, V. G.; Panchuk, V. E.


    In an attempt to increase the sample of metal-deficient late-type (i.e. cool) halo carbon stars analysed (only 3 such stars have previously been analysed spectroscopically), we obtained high-resolution visual spectra of 5 more candidates (and analysed in addition existing archive IR spectra for one of the stars) from the recent catalogue of Sleivyt e & Bartkevicius (1990), HD 25408 (C5,3J), HD 42272 (C5,4 CH), HD 59643 (C6,2CH), HD 189711 (C4,3 CH) and HD 197604 (C4,2 CH). From the spectra we have derived C/O ratios, N/C ratios, and metal abundances. If the oxygen abundance was fixed at logA(O)=7.4/8.3 (assuming that it follows the trend of oxygen overabundance relative to iron found in halo stars in general) we can furthermore derive [C/Fe] and [N/Fe]. New model atmospheres of metal-poor carbon stars were calculated with continuum opacity sources and molecular lines of CO, CN, C_2_, HCN, C_2_H_2_ and C_3_. Two of the stars, HD 25408 and HD 42272, turned out not to be CH stars. The other three stars, although late-type, showed the C/O and [Fe/H] ratios common in early-type CH stars. From the total sample of the six confirmed cool halo-CH stars now analysed, we find evidence that not all metal-poor low mass halo carbon stars can have formed due to mass transfer in binary systems, as is usually assumed. At least 3 of the stars, and possible more, are likely to have formed as intrinsic carbon stars, with some similarities to the carbon star population in the dwarf galaxies.

  10. Sc and neutron-capture abundances in Galactic low- and high-alpha field halo stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fishlock, Cherie K.; Yong, D.; Karakas, Amanda I.


    chemical patterns have been attributed to differences in the star formation rate between the two populations and the contribution of low-metallicity, low-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars to the low-alpha population. By comparing the low-alpha population with AGB stellar models, we place constraints...

  11. Insights into the chemical composition of the metal-poor Milky Way halo globular cluster NGC 6426 (United States)

    Hanke, M.; Koch, A.; Hansen, C. J.; McWilliam, A.


    We present our detailed spectroscopic analysis of the chemical composition of four red giant stars in the halo globular cluster NGC 6426. We obtained high-resolution spectra using the Magellan2/MIKE spectrograph, from which we derived equivalent widths and subsequently computed abundances of 24 species of 22 chemical elements. For the purpose of measuring equivalent widths, we developed a new semi-automated tool, called EWCODE. We report a mean Fe content of [Fe/H] =-2.34 ± 0.05 dex (stat.) in accordance with previous studies. At a mean α-abundance of [(Mg, Si, Ca)/3 Fe] = 0.39 ± 0.03 dex, NGC 6426 falls on the trend drawn by the Milky Way halo and other globular clusters at comparably low metallicities. The distribution of the lighter α-elements as well as the enhanced ratio [Zn/Fe] = 0.39 dex could originate from hypernova enrichment of the pre-cluster medium. We find tentative evidence for a spread in the elements Mg, Si, and Zn, indicating an enrichment scenario, where ejecta of evolved massive stars of a slightly older population have polluted a newly born younger one. The heavy element abundances in this cluster fit well into the picture of metal-poor globular clusters, which in that respect appear to be remarkably homogeneous. The pattern of the neutron-capture elements heavier than Zn points toward an enrichment history governed by the r-process with little, if any, sign of s-process contributions. This finding is supported by the striking similarity of our program stars to the metal-poor field star HD 108317. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5-m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.Equivalent widths and full Table 2 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

  12. Chemical Cartography in the Milky Way with SDSS/APOGEE: Multi-element abundances and abundance ratio variations (United States)

    Holtzman, Jon A.; Hasselquist, Sten; Johnson, Jennifer; Bird, Jonathan C.; Majewski, Steven R.; SDSS/APOGEE Team


    The SDSS/APOGEE project is measuring abundances of multiple elements for several hundred thousand stars across the Milky Way. These allow the mapping of abundances and abundance ratio variations. Results will be presented for multiple abundance ratios across of the Galactic disk. The interpretation of mean abundance maps is complicated by variations in star formation history across the disk and by changing abundance ratios that result from an overall metallicity gradient. Variations in chemical abundance sequences, however, show the potential for using abundance ratios to track the movement of stars through the disk, and provide key information for constraining Galaxy formation and chemical evolution models.

  13. Chemical Abundances in the Leading Arm of the Magellanic Stream (United States)

    Fox, Andrew; Barger, Kat; Wakker, Bart; Antwi-Danso, Jacqueline; Richter, Philipp; Casetti, Dana; Howk, Chris; Lehner, Nicolas; D'Onghia, Elena; Crowther, Paul


    A vast debris field connects the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds. Known as the Leading Arm of the Magellanic Stream, this network of gas clouds represents an active site of gas accretion onto the Milky Way. Previously only one chemical abundance measurement had been made in the Leading Arm, toward the AGN NGC 3783. Here we present new chemical abundance measurements along seven Leading Arm sightlines using Hubble/COS spectra of background AGN. We focus on the O/H and S/H abundances, which have small dust depletion and ionization corrections. These measurements provide important constraints on the origin of the Leading Arm and its relationship to the trailing Stream, and can be used to constrain numerical simulations of Leading Arm formation.

  14. Abundances of chemical elements in the atmospheres of K gaints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komarov, N.S.; Shcherbak, A.N.


    The physical parameters of seven stars are investigated in the report by a modified method of differential curves of growth. The abundances of chemical elements in their atmospheres are found. All the investigated stars, of spectral class KO III, belong to various open clusters.

  15. Chemical Abundance Analysis of Moving Group W11450 (Latham 1) (United States)

    O'Connell, Julia E.; Martens, Kylee; Frinchaboy, Peter M.


    We present elemental abundances for all seven stars in Moving Group W11450 (Latham 1) to determine if they may be chemically related. These stars appear to be both spatially and kinematically related, but no spectroscopic abundance analysis exists in literature. Abundances for eight elements were derived via equivalent width analyses of high-resolution (R ˜ 60,000), high-signal-to-noise ratio ( ˜ 100) spectra obtained with the Otto Struve 2.1 m telescope and the Sandiford Echelle Spectrograph at McDonald Observatory. The large star-to-star scatter in metallicity, -0.55 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤slant 0.06 dex (σ = 0.25), implies these stars were not produced from the same chemically homogeneous molecular cloud, and are therefore not part of a remnant or open cluster as previously proposed. Prior to this analysis, it was suggested that two stars in the group, W11449 and W11450, are possible wide binaries. The candidate wide binary pair show similar chemical abundance patterns with not only iron but with other elements analyzed in this study, suggesting the proposed connection between these two stars may be real.

  16. APOGEE Chemical Abundances of the Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasselquist, Sten; Holtzman, Jon [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Shetrone, Matthew [University of Texas at Austin, McDonald Observatory, Fort Davis, TX 79734 (United States); Smith, Verne; Nidever, David L. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); McWilliam, Andrew [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institute of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; Tang, Baitian [Departamento de Astronomía, Casilla 160-C, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción (Chile); Beers, Timothy C. [Department of Physics and JINA Center for the Evolution of the Elements, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Majewski, Steven R.; Anguiano, Borja [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Tissera, Patricia B. [Department of Physics, Universidad Andres Bello, 700 Fernandez Concha (Chile); Alvar, Emma Fernández; Carigi, Leticia; Delgado Inglada, Gloria [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autnoma de México, Apdo. Postal 70264, Ciudad de México, 04510 (Mexico); Allende Prieto, Carlos; Battaglia, Giuseppina; García-Hernández, D. A. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Almeida, Andres [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de La Serena, Cisternas 1200, La Serena (Chile); Frinchaboy, Peter, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX 76129 (United States); and others


    The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment provides the opportunity of measuring elemental abundances for C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni in vast numbers of stars. We analyze thechemical-abundance patterns of these elements for 158 red giant stars belonging to the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy (Sgr). This is the largest sample of Sgr stars with detailed chemical abundances, and it is the first time that C, N, P, K, V, Cr, Co, and Ni have been studied at high resolution in this galaxy. We find that the Sgr stars with [Fe/H] ≳ −0.8 are deficient in all elemental abundance ratios (expressed as [X/Fe]) relative to the Milky Way, suggesting that the Sgr stars observed today were formed from gas that was less enriched by Type II SNe than stars formed in the Milky Way. By examining the relative deficiencies of the hydrostatic (O, Na, Mg, and Al) and explosive (Si, P, K, and Mn) elements, our analysis supports the argument that previous generations of Sgr stars were formed with a top-light initial mass function, one lacking the most massive stars that would normally pollute the interstellar medium with the hydrostatic elements. We use a simple chemical-evolution model, flexCE, to further support our claim and conclude that recent stellar generations of Fornax and the Large Magellanic Cloud could also have formed according to a top-light initial mass function.

  17. APOGEE Chemical Abundances of the Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy (United States)

    Hasselquist, Sten; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Smith, Verne V.; Cunha, Katia M. L.; McWilliam, Andrew; Holtzman, Jon A.; Majewski, Steven R.; Sobeck, Jennifer; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre; Ivans, Inese I.; Allende-Prieto, Carlos; Placco, Vinicius M.; Lane, Richard; Zasowski, Gail; APOGEE


    The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) provides elemental abundances for C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni. We analyze the chemical abundance patterns of these elements for ~ 350 stars belonging to the Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy (Sgr). This is the largest sample of Sgr stars with detailed chemical abundances and the first time C, N, P, K, V, Cr, Co, and Ni have been studied in the dwarf galaxy. For Sgr stars with [Fe/H] > -0.9, we find that Sgr is deficient in all elemental abundance ratios (expressed as [X/Fe]) relative to the Milky Way, which suggests that Sgr stars observed today were formed from gas that was less enriched by both Type II and Type Ia SNe. By examining the relative deficiencies of the hydrostatic (O, Mg, and Al) and explosive (Si, K, and Mn) elements , we find support that previous generations of Sgr stars were formed with a top-light IMF, lacking the most massive stars that would normally pollute the ISM with the hydrostatic elements.

  18. APOGEE Chemical Abundances of the Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy (United States)

    Hasselquist, Sten; Shetrone, Matthew; Smith, Verne; Holtzman, Jon; McWilliam, Andrew; Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; Beers, Timothy C.; Majewski, Steven R.; Nidever, David L.; Tang, Baitian; Tissera, Patricia B.; Fernández Alvar, Emma; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Almeida, Andres; Anguiano, Borja; Battaglia, Giuseppina; Carigi, Leticia; Delgado Inglada, Gloria; Frinchaboy, Peter; García-Hernández, D. A.; Geisler, Doug; Minniti, Dante; Placco, Vinicius M.; Schultheis, Mathias; Sobeck, Jennifer; Villanova, Sandro


    The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment provides the opportunity of measuring elemental abundances for C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni in vast numbers of stars. We analyze thechemical-abundance patterns of these elements for 158 red giant stars belonging to the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy (Sgr). This is the largest sample of Sgr stars with detailed chemical abundances, and it is the first time that C, N, P, K, V, Cr, Co, and Ni have been studied at high resolution in this galaxy. We find that the Sgr stars with [Fe/H] ≳ -0.8 are deficient in all elemental abundance ratios (expressed as [X/Fe]) relative to the Milky Way, suggesting that the Sgr stars observed today were formed from gas that was less enriched by Type II SNe than stars formed in the Milky Way. By examining the relative deficiencies of the hydrostatic (O, Na, Mg, and Al) and explosive (Si, P, K, and Mn) elements, our analysis supports the argument that previous generations of Sgr stars were formed with a top-light initial mass function, one lacking the most massive stars that would normally pollute the interstellar medium with the hydrostatic elements. We use a simple chemical-evolution model, flexCE, to further support our claim and conclude that recent stellar generations of Fornax and the Large Magellanic Cloud could also have formed according to a top-light initial mass function.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García Pérez, Ana E.; Majewski, Steven R.; Shane, Neville; Sobeck, Jennifer; Troup, Nicholas [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Prieto, Carlos Allende; Carrera, Ricardo; García-Hernández, D. A.; Zamora, Olga [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Holtzman, Jon A. [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Shetrone, Matthew [University of Texas at Austin, McDonald Observatory, Fort Davis, TX 79734 (United States); Mészáros, Szabolcs [ELTE Gothard Astrophysical Observatory, H-9704 Szombathely, Szent Imre Herceg St. 112 (Hungary); Bizyaev, Dmitry [Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349-0059 (United States); Cunha, Katia [Observatório Nacional, São Cristóvão, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Johnson, Jennifer A.; Weinberg, David H. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Nidever, David L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Schiavon, Ricardo P. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Egerton Wharf, Birkenhead, Wirral CH41 1LD (United Kingdom); Smith, Verne V. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Bovy, Jo, E-mail: [Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); and others


    The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) has built the largest moderately high-resolution ( R  ≈ 22,500) spectroscopic map of the stars across the Milky Way, and including dust-obscured areas. The APOGEE Stellar Parameter and Chemical Abundances Pipeline (ASPCAP) is the software developed for the automated analysis of these spectra. ASPCAP determines atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances from observed spectra by comparing observed spectra to libraries of theoretical spectra, using χ {sup 2} minimization in a multidimensional parameter space. The package consists of a fortran90 code that does the actual minimization and a wrapper IDL code for book-keeping and data handling. This paper explains in detail the ASPCAP components and functionality, and presents results from a number of tests designed to check its performance. ASPCAP provides stellar effective temperatures, surface gravities, and metallicities precise to 2%, 0.1 dex, and 0.05 dex, respectively, for most APOGEE stars, which are predominantly giants. It also provides abundances for up to 15 chemical elements with various levels of precision, typically under 0.1 dex. The final data release (DR12) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III contains an APOGEE database of more than 150,000 stars. ASPCAP development continues in the SDSS-IV APOGEE-2 survey.

  20. Chempy: A flexible chemical evolution model for abundance fitting (United States)

    Rybizki, J.; Just, A.; Rix, H.-W.; Fouesneau, M.


    Chempy models Galactic chemical evolution (GCE); it is a parametrized open one-zone model within a Bayesian framework. A Chempy model is specified by a set of 5-10 parameters that describe the effective galaxy evolution along with the stellar and star-formation physics: e.g. the star-formation history (SFH), the feedback efficiency, the stellar initial mass function (IMF) and the incidence of supernova of type Ia (SN Ia). Chempy can sample the posterior probability distribution in the full model parameter space and test data-model matches for different nucleosynthetic yield sets, performing essentially as a chemical evolution fitting tool. Chempy can be used to confront predictions from stellar nucleosynthesis with complex abundance data sets and to refine the physical processes governing the chemical evolution of stellar systems.

  1. Extragalactic archaeology with the C, N, and O chemical abundances (United States)

    Vincenzo, Fiorenzo; Kobayashi, Chiaki


    We predict how the C, N, and O abundances within the interstellar medium of galaxies evolve as functions of the galaxy star formation history (SFH). We adopt a hydrodynamical cosmological simulation, focusing on three star-forming disc galaxies with different SFHs. By assuming failed supernovae, we can predict an increasing trend of the gas-phase N/O-O/H abundance diagram, which was not produced in our previous simulations without failed supernovae. At high redshifts, contrary to the predictions of classical chemical evolution models with instantaneous mixing approximation, we find almost flat trends in the N/O-O/H diagram, which are due to the contribution of intermediate-mass stars together with an inhomogeneous chemical enrichment. Finally, we also predict that the average N/O and C/O steadily increase as functions of time, while the average C/N decreases, due to the mass and metallicity dependence of the yields of asymptotic giant branch stars; such variations are more marked during more intense star formation episodes. Our predictions on the CNO abundance evolution can be used to study the SFH of disc galaxies with the James Webb Space Telescope.

  2. Chemical Abundance Analysis of Three α-poor, Metal-poor Stars in the Ultrafaint Dwarf Galaxy Horologium I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasawa, D.Q.; et al.


    We present chemical abundance measurements of three stars in the ultra-faintdwarf galaxy Horologium I, a Milky Way satellite discovered by the Dark EnergySurvey. Using high resolution spectroscopic observations we measure themetallicity of the three stars as well as abundance ratios of several$\\alpha$-elements, iron-peak elements, and neutron-capture elements. Theabundance pattern is relatively consistent among all three stars, which have alow average metallicity of [Fe/H] $\\sim -2.6$ and are not $\\alpha$-enhanced([$\\alpha$/Fe] $\\sim 0.0$). This result is unexpected when compared to otherlow-metallicity stars in the Galactic halo and other ultra-faint dwarfs andhints at an entirely different mechanism for the enrichment of Hor I comparedto other satellites. We discuss possible scenarios that could lead to thisobserved nucleosynthetic signature including extended star formation, aPopulation III supernova, and a possible association with the Large MagellanicCloud.

  3. Chemical abundances and kinematics of TYC 5619-109-1 (United States)

    Pereira, C. B.; Smith, V. V.; Drake, N. A.; Roig, F.; Hasselquist, S.; Cunha, K.; Jilinski, E.


    Previous determinations of chemical abundances of the metal-poor red giant TYC 5619-109-1, derived via high-resolution near-infrared spectra from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment survey, indicate that this star is strongly enriched in the elements N and Al. Here, we obtain and analyse high-resolution optical spectra of TYC 5619-109-1 to verify these large N and Al overabundances and to measure abundances of a wider range of chemical elements. Our analysis confirms the N- and Al-rich nature of this star, and shows that the abundances of the s-process elements are also strongly enhanced, particularly in the heavy second s-process peak elements (Ba, La, Ce, Nd). Lighter s-process elements (Y, Zr) show smaller overabundances, and the ratio of the light-to-heavy s-process elements is consistent with the 13C(α, n)16O neutron source operating in a low-metallicity environment. The lack of Tc i lines and the abundance of Nb compared to Zr indicate that this red giant is probably not a thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) star. Mass transfer from a former s-process-rich TP-AGB companion may produce the observed overabundances, but our radial velocity analysis provides no evidence that TYC 5619-109-1 is a binary with a white dwarf companion. We suggest that TYC 5619-109-1 formed from gas already strongly enriched in s-process elements, as found in many dwarf galaxies and globular clusters. A dynamical analysis reveals that there is only a small probability that TYC 5619-109-1 is an escaped member of a globular cluster, and in this case the most likely candidate would be ω Cen.

  4. The Open Cluster Chemical Abundances and Mapping (OCCAM) Survey: Galactic Neutron CaptureAbundance Gradients (United States)

    O'Connell, Julia; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Melendez, Matthew; Cunha, Katia; Majewski, Steven R.; Zasowski, Gail; APOGEE Team


    The evolution of elements, as a function or age, throughout the Milky Way disk provides a key constraint for galaxy evolution models. In an effort to provide these constraints, we have conducted an investigation into the r- and s- process elemental abundances for a large sample of open clusters as part of an optical follow-up to the SDSS-III/APOGEE-1 survey. Stars were identified as cluster members by the Open Cluster Chemical Abundance & Mapping (OCCAM) survey, which culls member candidates by radial velocity, metallicity and proper motion from the observed APOGEE sample. To obtain data for neutron capture elements in these clusters, we conducted a long-term observing campaign covering three years (2013-2016) using the McDonald Observatory Otto Struve 2.1-m telescope and Sandiford Cass Echelle Spectrograph (R ~ 60,000). We present Galactic neutron capture abundance gradients using 30+ clusters, within 6 kpc of the Sun, covering a range of ages from ~80 Myr to ~10 Gyr .

  5. Chemical abundances of two extragalactic young massive clusters (United States)

    Hernandez, Svea; Larsen, Søren; Trager, Scott; Groot, Paul; Kaper, Lex


    Aims: We use integrated-light spectroscopic observations to measure metallicities and chemical abundances for two extragalactic young massive star clusters (NGC 1313-379 and NGC 1705-1). The spectra were obtained with the X-shooter spectrograph on the ESO Very Large Telescope. Methods: We compute synthetic integrated-light spectra, based on colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) for the brightest stars in the clusters from Hubble Space Telescope photometry and theoretical isochrones. Furthermore, we test the uncertainties arising from the use of CMD+Isochrone method compared to an Isochrone-Only method. The abundances of the model spectra are iteratively adjusted until the best fit to the observations is obtained. In this work we mainly focus on the optical part of the spectra. Results: We find metallicities of [Fe/H] = -0.84 ± 0.07 and [Fe/H] = -0.78 ± 0.10 for NGC 1313-379 and NGC 1705-1, respectively. We measure [α/Fe] = +0.06 ± 0.11 for NGC 1313-379 and a super-solar [α/Fe] = +0.32 ± 0.12 for NGC 1705-1. The roughly solar [α/Fe] ratio in NGC 1313-379 resembles those for young stellar populations in the Milky Way (MW) and the Magellanic Clouds, whereas the enhanced [α/Fe] ratio in NGC 1705-1 is similar to that found for the cluster NGC 1569-B by previous studies. Such super-solar [α/Fe] ratios are also predicted by chemical evolution models that incorporate the bursty star formation histories of these dwarf galaxies. Furthermore, our α-element abundances agree with abundance measurements from H II regions in both galaxies. In general we derive Fe-peak abundances similar to those observed in the MW and Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) for both young massive clusters. For these elements, however, we recommend higher-resolution observations to improve the Fe-peak abundance measurements. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 084.B-0468(A).

  6. Chempy: A flexible chemical evolution model for abundance fitting. Do the Sun's abundances alone constrain chemical evolution models? (United States)

    Rybizki, Jan; Just, Andreas; Rix, Hans-Walter


    Elemental abundances of stars are the result of the complex enrichment history of their galaxy. Interpretation of observed abundances requires flexible modeling tools to explore and quantify the information about Galactic chemical evolution (GCE) stored in such data. Here we present Chempy, a newly developed code for GCE modeling, representing a parametrized open one-zone model within a Bayesian framework. A Chempy model is specified by a set of five to ten parameters that describe the effective galaxy evolution along with the stellar and star-formation physics: for example, the star-formation history (SFH), the feedback efficiency, the stellar initial mass function (IMF), and the incidence of supernova of type Ia (SN Ia). Unlike established approaches, Chempy can sample the posterior probability distribution in the full model parameter space and test data-model matches for different nucleosynthetic yield sets. It is essentially a chemical evolution fitting tool. We straightforwardly extend Chempy to a multi-zone scheme. As an illustrative application, we show that interesting parameter constraints result from only the ages and elemental abundances of the Sun, Arcturus, and the present-day interstellar medium (ISM). For the first time, we use such information to infer the IMF parameter via GCE modeling, where we properly marginalize over nuisance parameters and account for different yield sets. We find that 11.6+ 2.1-1.6% of the IMF explodes as core-collapse supernova (CC-SN), compatible with Salpeter (1955, ApJ, 121, 161). We also constrain the incidence of SN Ia per 103M⊙ to 0.5-1.4. At the same time, this Chempy application shows persistent discrepancies between predicted and observed abundances for some elements, irrespective of the chosen yield set. These cannot be remedied by any variations of Chempy's parameters and could be an indication of missing nucleosynthetic channels. Chempy could be a powerful tool to confront predictions from stellar

  7. Detailed chemical abundance analysis of the thick disk star cluster Gaia 1 (United States)

    Koch, Andreas; Hansen, Terese T.; Kunder, Andrea


    Star clusters, particularly those objects in the disk-bulge-halo interface are as yet poorly charted, despite the fact that they carry important information about the formation and the structure of the Milky Way. Here, we present a detailed chemical abundance study of the recently discovered object Gaia 1. Photometry has previously suggested it as an intermediate-age, moderately metal-rich system, although the exact values for its age and metallicity remained ambiguous in the literature. We measured detailed chemical abundances of 14 elements in four red giant members, from high-resolution (R = 25 000) spectra that firmly establish Gaia 1 as an object associated with the thick disk. The resulting mean Fe abundance is -0.62 ± 0.03(stat.)± 0.10(sys.) dex, which is more metal-poor than indicated by previous spectroscopy from the literature, but it is fully in line with values from isochrone fitting. We find that Gaia 1 is moderately enhanced in the α-elements, which allowed us to consolidate its membership with the thick disk via chemical tagging. The cluster's Fe-peak and neutron-capture elements are similar to those found across the metal-rich disks, where the latter indicate some level of s-process activity. No significant spread in iron nor in other heavy elements was detected, whereas we find evidence of light-element variations in Na, Mg, and Al. Nonetheless, the traditional Na-O and Mg-Al (anti-)correlations, typically seen in old globular clusters, are not seen in our data. This confirms that Gaia 1 is rather a massive and luminous open cluster than a low-mass globular cluster. Finally, orbital computations of the target stars bolster our chemical findings of Gaia 1's present-day membership with the thick disk, even though it remains unclear which mechanisms put it in that place. This paper includes data gathered with the 2.5 meter du Pont Telescope located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.Full Table 2 is available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http

  8. Chemical abundances of the most metal-poor stars in the Milky Way (United States)

    Frebel, Anna


    Studying old, metal-poor stars allows for connecting the present state of the Galactic halo with its long-lasting assembly history. By retaining the chemical information from their formation time in their atmospheres, these low-mass (M ancient stars.

  9. The Chemical Composition Contrast between M3 and M13 Revisited: New Abundances for 28 Giant Stars in M3 (United States)

    Sneden, Christopher; Kraft, Robert P.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Peterson, Ruth C.; Fulbright, Jon P.


    We report new chemical abundances of 23 bright red giant members of the globular cluster M3, based on high-resolution (R~45,000) spectra obtained with the Keck I telescope. The observations, which involve the use of multislits in the HIRES Keck I spectrograph, are described in detail. Combining these data with a previously reported small sample of M3 giants obtained with the Lick 3 m telescope, we compare metallicities and [X/Fe] ratios for 28 M3 giants with a 35-star sample in the similar-metallicity cluster M13, and with Galactic halo field stars having [Fe/H]=A(Si), we derive little difference in [X/Fe] ratios in the M3, M13, or halo field samples. All three groups exhibit C depletion with advancing evolutionary state beginning at the level of the red giant branch ``bump,'' but the overall depletion of about 0.7-0.9 dex seen in the clusters is larger than that associated with the field stars. The behaviors of O, Na, Mg, and Al are distinctively different among the three stellar samples. Field halo giants and subdwarfs have a positive correlation of Na with Mg, as predicted from explosive or hydrostatic carbon burning in Type II supernova sites. Both M3 and M13 show evidence of high-temperature proton-capture synthesis from the ON, NeNa, and MgAl cycles, while there is no evidence for such synthesis among halo field stars. But the degree of such extreme proton-capture synthesis in M3 is smaller than it is in M13: the M3 giants exhibit only modest deficiencies of O and corresponding enhancements of Na, less extreme overabundances of Al, fewer stars with low Mg and correspondingly high Na, and no indication that O depletions are a function of advancing evolutionary state, as has been claimed for M13. We have also considered NGC 6752, for which Mg isotopic abundances have been reported by Yong et al. Giants in NGC 6752 and M13 satisfy the same anticorrelation of O abundances with the ratio (25Mg+26Mg)/24Mg, which measures the relative contribution of rare to

  10. Chemical Abundance Measurements of Ultra-Faint Dwarf Galaxies Discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (United States)

    Nagasawa, Daniel; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Simon, Joshua D.; Hansen, Terese; Li, Ting; Bernstein, Rebecca; Balbinot, Eduardo; Drlica-Wagner, Alex; Pace, Andrew; Strigari, Louis; Pellegrino, Craig; DePoy, Darren L.; Suntzeff, Nicholas; Bechtol, Keith; Dark Energy Suvey


    We present chemical abundance analysis results derived from high-resolution spectroscopy of ultra-faint dwarfs discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. Ultra-faint dwarf galaxies preserve a fossil record of the chemical abundance patterns imprinted by the first stars in the Universe. High-resolution spectroscopic observations of member stars in several recently discovered Milky Way satellites reveal a range of abundance patterns among ultra-faint dwarfs suggesting that star formation processes in the early Universe were quite diverse. The chemical content provides a glimpse not only of the varied nucleosynthetic processes and chemical history of the dwarfs themselves, but also the environment in which they were formed. We present the chemical abundance analysis of these objects and discuss possible explanations for the observed abundance patterns.

  11. Physico-chemical characteristics and abundance of aquatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macroinvertebrates abundance shows that, out of the total number of species identified, 14 were arthropods, distributed among 3 classes; 10 species were of class Insecta, 2 species from class Arachnida and 2 species from the class Crustacean. Phylum Mollusca and phylum Annelida had 2 and 1 species, respectively.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmore, Gerard [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Norris, John E.; Yong, David [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Monaco, Lorenzo [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); Wyse, Rosemary F. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3900 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Geisler, D., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Concepcion (Chile)


    We present a double-blind analysis of high-dispersion spectra of seven red giant members of the Booetes I ultrafaint dwarf spheroidal galaxy, complemented with re-analysis of a similar spectrum of an eighth-member star. The stars cover [Fe/H] from -3.7 to -1.9 and include a CEMP-no star with [Fe/H] = -3.33. We conclude from our chemical abundance data that Booetes I has evolved as a self-enriching star-forming system, from essentially primordial initial abundances. This allows us uniquely to investigate the place of CEMP-no stars in a chemically evolving system, in addition to limiting the timescale of star formation. The elemental abundances are formally consistent with a halo-like distribution, with enhanced mean [{alpha}/Fe] and small scatter about the mean. This is in accord with the high-mass stellar initial mass function in this low-stellar-density, low-metallicity system being indistinguishable from the present-day solar neighborhood value. There is a non-significant hint of a decline in [{alpha}/Fe] with [Fe/H]; together with the low scatter, this requires low star formation rates, allowing time for supernova ejecta to be mixed over the large spatial scales of interest. One star has very high [Ti/Fe], but we do not confirm a previously published high value of [Mg/Fe] for another star. We discuss the existence of CEMP-no stars, and the absence of any stars with lower CEMP-no enhancements at higher [Fe/H], a situation that is consistent with knowledge of CEMP-no stars in the Galactic field. We show that this observation requires there be two enrichment paths at very low metallicities: CEMP-no and 'carbon-normal'.

  13. Artificial halos (United States)

    Selmke, Markus


    Judged by their frequency and beauty, ice halos easily rival rainbows as a prominent atmospheric optics phenomenon. This article presents experimental halo demonstrations of varying complexity. Using a single commercially available hexagonal glass prism, a variety of artificial halos can be simulated. The experiments include laser beam path analysis, a modified classic spinning prism experiment, and a novel Monte-Carlo machine for three-dimensional rotations. Each of these experiments emulates different conditions of certain halo displays, and in combination, they allow a thorough understanding of these striking phenomena.

  14. Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium stellar spectroscopy with 1D and 3D models - II. Chemical properties of the Galactic metal-poor disk and the halo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergemann, Maria; Collet, Remo; Schönrich, Ralph


    /Fe] ratios close to solar even at [Fe/H] ~ -2. This is at variance with results of classical abundance analyses based on local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and 1D model stellar atmospheres, which argue for a constant elevated [Mg/Fe] in metal-poor stars of the Galactic thick disk and halo.......We have analysed high-resolution spectra of 328 stars and derived Mg abundances using non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) spectral line formation calculations and plane-parallel model stellar atmospheres derived from the mean stratification of 3D hydrodynamical surface convection simulations...

  15. Are ancient dwarf satellites the building blocks of the Galactic halo? (United States)

    Spitoni, E.; Vincenzo, F.; Matteucci, F.; Romano, D.


    According to the current cosmological cold dark matter paradigm, the Galactic halo could have been the result of the assemblage of smaller structures. Here we explore the hypothesis that the classical and ultra-faint dwarf spheroidal satellites of the Milky Way have been the building blocks of the Galactic halo by comparing their [α/Fe] and [Ba/Fe] versus [Fe/H] patterns with the ones observed in Galactic halo stars. The α elements deviate substantially from the observed abundances in the Galactic halo stars for [Fe/H] values larger than -2 dex, while they overlap for lower metallicities. On the other hand, for the [Ba/Fe] ratio, the discrepancy is extended at all [Fe/H] values, suggesting that the majority of stars in the halo are likely to have been formed in situ. Therefore, we suggest that [Ba/Fe] ratios are a better diagnostic than [α/Fe] ratios. Moreover, for the first time we consider the effects of an enriched infall of gas with the same chemical abundances as the matter ejected and/or stripped from dwarf satellites of the Milky Way on the chemical evolution of the Galactic halo. We find that the resulting chemical abundances of the halo stars depend on the assumed infall time-scale, and the presence of a threshold in the gas for star formation. In particular, in models with an infall time-scale for the halo around 0.8 Gyr coupled with a threshold in the surface gas density for the star formation (4 M⊙ pc-2), and the enriched infall from dwarf spheroidal satellites, the first halo stars formed show [Fe/H]>-2.4 dex. In this case, to explain [α/Fe] data for stars with [Fe/H]<-2.4 dex, we need stars formed in dSph systems.

  16. Simulating Halos with the Caterpillar Project (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    The Caterpillar Project is a beautiful series of high-resolution cosmological simulations. The goal of this project is to examine the evolution of dark-matter halos like the Milky Ways, to learn about how galaxies like ours formed. This immense computational project is still in progress, but the Caterpillar team is already providing a look at some of its first results.Lessons from Dark-Matter HalosWhy simulate the dark-matter halos of galaxies? Observationally, the formation history of our galaxy is encoded in galactic fossil record clues, like the tidal debris from disrupted satellite galaxies in the outer reaches of our galaxy, or chemical abundance patterns throughout our galactic disk and stellar halo.But to interpret this information in a way that lets us learn about our galaxys history, we need to first test galaxy formation and evolution scenarios via cosmological simulations. Then we can compare the end result of these simulations to what we observe today.This figure illustrates the difference that mass resolution makes. In the left panel, the mass resolution is 1.5*10^7 solar masses per particle. In the right panel, the mass resolution is 3*10^4 solar masses per particle [Griffen et al. 2016]A Computational ChallengeDue to how computationally expensive such simulations are, previous N-body simulations of the growth of Milky-Way-like halos have consisted of only one or a few halos each. But in order to establish a statistical understanding of how galaxy halos form and find out whether the Milky Ways halo is typical or unusual! it is necessary to simulate a larger number of halos.In addition, in order to accurately follow the formation and evolution of substructure within the dark-matter halos, these simulations must be able to resolve the smallest dwarf galaxies, which are around a million solar masses. This requires an extremely high mass resolution, which adds to the computational expense of the simulation.First OutcomesThese are the challenges faced by

  17. Influence of soil chemical properties on relative abundance of arbuscular mycorrhiza in forested soils in Malaysia


    ONG, Kian Huat; CHUBO, John Keen; KING, Jie Hung; LEE, Chia Shing; SU, Dennis Shan An; SIPEN, Philip


    The effect of soil chemical properties on the diversity and colonization of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) varies among ecosystems. This study was conducted to assess and compare the abundance of AM in a rehabilitated forest and a logged-over forest soil using the most probable number and spore number methods. Glomus (71.7%-82.1%) and Acaulospora (17.4%-19.5%) were found to be abundant in both sites, while Gigaspora was found only in the logged-over forest. The abundance of AM in the rehabilitate...

  18. Chemical homogeneity in the Orion Association: Oxygen abundances of B stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanz T.


    Full Text Available We present non-LTE oxygen abundances for a sample of B stars in the Orion association. The abundance calculations included non-LTE line formation and used fully blanketed non-LTE model atmospheres. The stellar parameters were the same as adopted in the previous study by Cunha & Lambert (1994. We find that the young Orion stars in this sample of 10 stars are described by a single oxygen abundance with an average value of A(O = 8.78 and a small dispersion of ±0.05, dex which is of the order of the uncertainties in the analysis. This average oxygen abundance compares well with the average oxygen abundance obtained previously in Cunha & Lambert (1994: A(O = 8.72 ± 0.13 although this earlier study, based upon non-blanketed model atmospheres in LTE, displayed larger scatter. Small scatter of chemical abundances in Orion B stars had also been found in our previous studies for neon and argon; all based on the same effective temperature scale. The derived oxygen abundance distribution for the Orion association compares well with other results for the oxygen abundance in the solar neighborhood.

  19. The population of planetary nebulae near the Galactic Centre: chemical abundances (United States)

    Cavichia, O.; Costa, R. D. D.; Maciel, W. J.; Mollá, M.


    Planetary nebulae (PNe) constitute an important tool to study the chemical evolution of the Milky Way and other galaxies, probing the nucleosynthesis processes, abundance gradients and the chemical enrichment of the interstellar medium. In particular, Galactic bulge PNe (GBPNe) have been extensively used in the literature to study the chemical properties of this Galactic structure. However, the presently available GBPN chemical composition studies are strongly biased, since they were focused on brighter objects, predominantly located in Galactic regions of low interstellar reddening. In this work, we report physical parameters and abundances derived for a sample of 17 high-extinction PNe located in the inner 2° of the Galactic bulge, based on low-dispersion spectroscopy secured at the Southern Astrophysical Research telescope using the Goodman spectrograph. The new data allow us to extend our data base including faint objects, providing chemical compositions for PNe located in this region of the bulge and an estimation for the masses of their progenitors to explore the chemical enrichment history of the central region of the Galactic bulge. The results show that there is an enhancement in the N/O abundance ratio in the Galactic Centre PNe compared with PNe located in the outer regions of the Galactic bulge. This may indicate recent episodes of star formation occurring near the Galactic Centre.

  20. The Open Cluster Chemical Abundances and Mapping (OCCAM) Survey: Optical Extension for Neutron Capture Elements (United States)

    Melendez, Matthew; O'Connell, Julia; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Donor, John; Cunha, Katia M. L.; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Majewski, Steven R.; Zasowski, Gail; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre; Stassun, Keivan G.; APOGEE Team


    The Open Cluster Chemical Abundance & Mapping (OCCAM) survey is a systematic survey of Galactic open clusters using data primarily from the SDSS-III/APOGEE-1 survey. However, neutron capture elements are very limited in the IR region covered by APOGEE. In an effort to fully study detailed Galactic chemical evolution, we are conducting a high resolution (R~60,000) spectroscopic abundance analysis of neutron capture elements for OCCAM clusters in the optical regime to complement the APOGEE results. As part of this effort, we present Ba II, La II, Ce II and Eu II results for a few open clusters without previous abundance measurements using data obtained at McDonald Observatory with the 2.1m Otto Struve telescope and Sandiford Echelle Spectrograph.This work is supported by an NSF AAG grant AST-1311835.

  1. Detailed chemical abundances in NGC 5824: another metal-poor globular cluster with internal heavy element abundance variations (United States)

    Roederer, Ian U.; Mateo, Mario; Bailey, John I.; Spencer, Meghin; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Shectman, Stephen A.


    We present radial velocities, stellar parameters, and detailed abundances of 39 elements derived from high-resolution spectroscopic observations of red giant stars in the luminous, metal-poor globular cluster NGC 5824. We observe 26 stars in NGC 5824 using the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System (M2FS) and two stars using the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle spectrograph. We derive a mean metallicity of [Fe/H] = -1.94 ± 0.02 (statistical) ±0.10 (systematic). The metallicity dispersion of this sample of stars, 0.08 dex, is in agreement with previous work and does not exceed the expected observational errors. Previous work suggested an internal metallicity spread only when fainter samples of stars were considered, so we cannot exclude the possibility of an intrinsic metallicity dispersion in NGC 5824. The M2FS spectra reveal a large internal dispersion in [Mg/Fe], 0.28 dex, which is found in a few other luminous, metal-poor clusters. [Mg/Fe] is correlated with [O/Fe] and anticorrelated with [Na/Fe] and [Al/Fe]. There is no evidence for internal dispersion among the other α- or Fe-group abundance ratios. 25 of the 26 stars exhibit a n-capture enrichment pattern dominated by r-process nucleosynthesis ( = +0.11 ± 0.12; = -0.66 ± 0.05). Only one star shows evidence of substantial s-process enhancement ([Ba/Fe] = +0.56 ± 0.12; [Ba/Eu] = +0.38 ± 0.14), but this star does not exhibit other characteristics associated with s-process enhancement via mass transfer from a binary companion. The Pb and other heavy elements produced by the s-process suggest a time-scale of no more than a few hundred Myr for star formation and chemical enrichment, like the complex globular clusters M2, M22, and NGC 5286.

  2. Linking dwarf galaxies to halo building blocks with the most metal-poor star in Sculptor. (United States)

    Frebel, Anna; Kirby, Evan N; Simon, Joshua D


    Current cosmological models indicate that the Milky Way's stellar halo was assembled from many smaller systems. On the basis of the apparent absence of the most metal-poor stars in present-day dwarf galaxies, recent studies claimed that the true Galactic building blocks must have been vastly different from the surviving dwarfs. The discovery of an extremely iron-poor star (S1020549) in the Sculptor dwarf galaxy based on a medium-resolution spectrum cast some doubt on this conclusion. Verification of the iron-deficiency, however, and measurements of additional elements, such as the alpha-element Mg, are necessary to demonstrate that the same type of stars produced the metals found in dwarf galaxies and the Galactic halo. Only then can dwarf galaxy stars be conclusively linked to early stellar halo assembly. Here we report high-resolution spectroscopic abundances for 11 elements in S1020549, confirming its iron abundance of less than 1/4,000th that of the Sun, and showing that the overall abundance pattern follows that seen in low-metallicity halo stars, including the alpha-elements. Such chemical similarity indicates that the systems destroyed to form the halo billions of years ago were not fundamentally different from the progenitors of present-day dwarfs, and suggests that the early chemical enrichment of all galaxies may be nearly identical.

  3. The population of planetary nebulae near the Galactic Centre: chemical abundances (United States)

    Mollá, M.; Cavichia, O.; Costa, R. D. D.; Maciel, W. J.


    In this work, we report physical parameters and abundances derived for a sample of 15 high extinction planetary nebulae located in the inner 2° of the Galactic bulge, based on low dispersion spectroscopy secured at the SOAR telescope using the Goodman spectrograph. The new data allow us to extend our database including older, weaker objects that are at the faint end of the planetary nebulae luminosity function. The data provide chemical compositions for PNe located in this region of the bulge to explore the chemical enrichment history of the central region of the Galactic bulge. The results show that the abundances of our sample are skewed to higher metallicities than previous data in the outer regions of the bulge. This can indicate a faster chemical enrichment taking place at the Galactic centre.

  4. The Excursion Set Theory of Halo Mass Functions, Halo Clustering, and Halo Growth (United States)

    Zentner, Andrew R.

    I review the excursion set theory with particular attention toward applications to cold dark matter halo formation and growth, halo abundance, and halo clustering. After a brief introduction to notation and conventions, I begin by recounting the heuristic argument leading to the mass function of bound objects given by Press and Schechter. I then review the more formal derivation of the Press-Schechter halo mass function that makes use of excursion sets of the density field. The excursion set formalism is powerful and can be applied to numerous other problems. I review the excursion set formalism for describing both halo clustering and bias and the properties of void regions. As one of the most enduring legacies of the excursion set approach and one of its most common applications, I spend considerable time reviewing the excursion set theory of halo growth. This section of the review culminates with the description of two Monte Carlo methods for generating ensembles of halo mass accretion histories. In the last section, I emphasize that the standard excursion set approach is the result of several simplifying assumptions. Dropping these assumptions can lead to more faithful predictions and open excursion set theory to new applications. One such assumption is that the height of the barriers that define collapsed objects is a constant function of scale. I illustrate the implementation of the excursion set approach for barriers of arbitrary shape. One such application is the now well-known improvement of the excursion set mass function derived from the "moving" barrier for ellipsoidal collapse. I also emphasize that the statement that halo accretion histories are independent of halo environment in the excursion set approach is not a general prediction of the theory. It is a simplifying assumption. I review the method for constructing correlated random walks of the density field in the more general case. I construct a simple toy model to illustrate that excursion set

  5. Chemical Abundances of Two Stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud Globular Cluster NGC 1718 (United States)

    Sakari, Charli M.; McWilliam, Andrew; Wallerstein, George


    Detailed chemical abundances of two stars in the intermediate-age Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) globular cluster NGC 1718 are presented, based on high-resolution spectroscopic observations with the MIKE spectrograph. The detailed abundances confirm NGC 1718 to be a fairly metal-rich cluster, with an average [Fe/H] ˜ -0.55 ± 0.01. The two red giants appear to have primordial O, Na, Mg and Al abundances, with no convincing signs of a composition difference between the two stars - hence, based on these two stars, NGC 1718 shows no evidence for hosting multiple populations. The Mg abundance is lower than Milky Way field stars, but is similar to LMC field stars at the same metallicity. The previous claims of very low [Mg/Fe] in NGC 1718 are therefore not supported in this study. Other abundances (Si, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Ni, Cu, Rb, Y, Zr, La and Eu) all follow the LMC field star trend, demonstrating yet again that (for most elements) globular clusters trace the abundances of their host galaxy's field stars. Similar to the field stars, NGC 1718 is found to be mildly deficient in explosive α-elements, but moderately to strongly deficient in O, Na, Mg, Al and Cu, elements that form during hydrostatic burning in massive stars. NGC 1718 is also enhanced in La, suggesting that it was enriched in ejecta from metal-poor asymptotic giant branch stars.

  6. Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA): halo formation times and halo assembly bias on the cosmic web (United States)

    Tojeiro, Rita; Eardley, Elizabeth; Peacock, John A.; Norberg, Peder; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Driver, Simon P.; Henriques, Bruno; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Kafle, Prajwal R.; Robotham, Aaron S. G.; Thomas, Peter; Tonini, Chiara; Wild, Vivienne


    We present evidence for halo assembly bias as a function of geometric environment (GE). By classifying Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) galaxy groups as residing in voids, sheets, filaments or knots using a tidal tensor method, we find that low-mass haloes that reside in knots are older than haloes of the same mass that reside in voids. This result provides direct support to theories that link strong halo tidal interactions with halo assembly times. The trend with GE is reversed at large halo mass, with haloes in knots being younger than haloes of the same mass in voids. We find a clear signal of halo downsizing - more massive haloes host galaxies that assembled their stars earlier. This overall trend holds independently of GE. We support our analysis with an in-depth exploration of the L-Galaxies semi-analytic model, used here to correlate several galaxy properties with three different definitions of halo formation time. We find a complex relationship between halo formation time and galaxy properties, with significant scatter. We confirm that stellar mass to halo mass ratio, specific star formation rate (SFR) and mass-weighed age are reasonable proxies of halo formation time, especially at low halo masses. Instantaneous SFR is a poor indicator at all halo masses. Using the same semi-analytic model, we create mock spectral observations using complex star formation and chemical enrichment histories, which approximately mimic GAMA's typical signal-to-noise ratio and wavelength range. We use these mocks to assert how well potential proxies of halo formation time may be recovered from GAMA-like spectroscopic data.

  7. Chemical Abundances and Mixing in Stars in the Milky Way and its Satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Randich, Sofia; Proceedings of the ESO Workshop held in Castiglione della Pescaia, Italy, 13–17 September, 2004


    The field of chemical abundances and internal mixing of elements in stars has made large progress in the last decade. Both a wealth of new observational data and in the last years also the inauguration of new theoretical roads have been the stimulus for this ESO Workshop held in Castiglione della Pescaia, Italy, 13-17 September 2004. The proceedings cover topics from chemical abundances in the different components of the Milky Way and in local group galaxies, via observational and theoretical papers on mixing in stars to big bang nucleosynthesis and galaxy formation and evolution. As all volumes in this series of ESO Astrophysics Symposia this one gives a comprehensive state-of-the-art overview of the forefront of research in its area. It is thus a valuable reference for both students specializing in the field and researchers alike.

  8. Chemical abundances in the nucleus of the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy (United States)

    Mucciarelli, A.; Bellazzini, M.; Ibata, R.; Romano, D.; Chapman, S. C.; Monaco, L.


    We present iron, magnesium, calcium, and titanium abundances for 235 stars in the central region of the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy (within 9.0' ≃ 70 pc from the centre) from medium-resolution Keck/Deep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph spectra. All the considered stars belong to the massive globular cluster M 54 or to the central nucleus of the galaxy (Sgr, N). In particular we provide abundances for 109 stars with [Fe/H] ≥-1.0, more than doubling the available sample of spectroscopic metallicity and α-elements abundance estimates for Sgr dSph stars in this metallicity regime. We find for the first time a metallicity gradient in the Sgr, N population, whose peak iron abundance goes from [Fe/H] =-0.38 for R ≤ 2.5' to [Fe/H] =-0.57 for 5.0 chemical patterns of the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal as a whole with a chemical evolution model which implies that a high mass progenitor (MDM = 6 × 1010M⊙) and a significant event of mass-stripping occurred a few Gyr ago, presumably starting at the first peri-Galactic passage after infall. Full Table 1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

  9. Carbon and oxygen in H II regions of the Magellanic Clouds: abundance discrepancy and chemical evolution (United States)

    Toribio San Cipriano, L.; Domínguez-Guzmán, G.; Esteban, C.; García-Rojas, J.; Mesa-Delgado, A.; Bresolin, F.; Rodríguez, M.; Simón-Díaz, S.


    We present C and O abundances in the Magellanic Clouds derived from deep spectra of H II regions. The data have been taken with the Ultraviolet-Visual Echelle Spectrograph at the 8.2-m Very Large Telescope. The sample comprises five H II regions in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and four in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We measure pure recombination lines (RLs) of C ii and O ii in all the objects, permitting to derive the abundance discrepancy factors (ADFs) for O2+, as well as their O/H, C/H and C/O ratios. We compare the ADFs with those of other H II regions in different galaxies. The results suggest a possible metallicity dependence of the ADF for the low-metallicity objects; but more uncertain for high-metallicity objects. We compare nebular and B-type stellar abundances and we find that the stellar abundances agree better with the nebular ones derived from collisionally excited lines (CELs). Comparing these results with other galaxies we observe that stellar abundances seem to agree better with the nebular ones derived from CELs in low-metallicity environments and from RLs in high-metallicity environments. The C/H, O/H and C/O ratios show almost flat radial gradients, in contrast with the spiral galaxies where such gradients are negative. We explore the chemical evolution analysing C/O versus O/H and comparing with the results of H II regions in other galaxies. The LMC seems to show a similar chemical evolution to the external zones of small spiral galaxies and the SMC behaves as a typical star-forming dwarf galaxy.

  10. What is the Milky Way outer halo made of?. High resolution spectroscopy of distant red giants (United States)

    Battaglia, G.; North, P.; Jablonka, P.; Shetrone, M.; Minniti, D.; Díaz, M.; Starkenburg, E.; Savoy, M.


    In a framework where galaxies form hierarchically, extended stellar haloes are predicted to be an ubiquitous feature around Milky Way-like galaxies and to consist mainly of the shredded stellar component of smaller galactic systems. The type of accreted stellar systems are expected to vary according to the specific accretion and merging history of a given galaxy, and so is the fraction of stars formed in situ versus accreted. Analysis of the chemical properties of Milky Way halo stars out to large Galactocentric radii can provide important insights into the properties of the environment in which the stars that contributed to the build-up of different regions of the Milky Way stellar halo formed. In this work we focus on the outer regions of the Milky Way stellar halo, by determining chemical abundances of halo stars with large present-day Galactocentric distances, >15 kpc. The data-set we acquired consists of high resolution HET/HRS, Magellan/MIKE and VLT/UVES spectra for 28 red giant branch stars covering a wide metallicity range, -3.1 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲-0.6. We show that the ratio of α-elements over Fe as a function of [Fe/H] for our sample of outer halo stars is not dissimilar from the pattern shown by MW halo stars from solar neighborhood samples. On the other hand, significant differences appear at [Fe/H] ≳-1.5 when considering chemical abundance ratios such as [Ba/Fe], [Na/Fe], [Ni/Fe], [Eu/Fe], [Ba/Y]. Qualitatively, this type of chemical abundance trends are observed in massive dwarf galaxies, such as Sagittarius and the Large Magellanic Cloud. This appears to suggest a larger contribution in the outer halo of stars formed in an environment with high initial star formation rate and already polluted by asymptotic giant branch stars with respect to inner halo samples. Based on ESO program 093.B-0615(A).Based on observations obtained with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, which is a joint project of the University of Texas at Austin, the Pennsylvania State University

  11. Measurement of the abundance of stellar mass compact objects in the galactic halo by detecting micro-lenses in the Large Magellanic Cloud; Mesure de l'abondance des astres sombres de masse stellaire dans le halo galactique par la recherche de phenomenes de microlentilles vers les nuages de magellan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasserre, Th


    Many experimental and theoretical results lead to the conclusion that at least 80 percent of the mass of our Galaxy is dark. Part of this so-called dark matter could be in the form of stellar mass compact objects, called MACHOS; these could be detected using the gravitational microlensing effect. The first generation experiments EROS1 and MACHO have strongly constrained the galactic abundance of objects lighter than 0.01 solar mass to less than 10 percent of the total mass. In parallel, the observation by the MACHO group of massive candidates (half the Sun's mass), numerous enough to constitute 50 percent of galactic dark matter, was a further motivation for the EROS group to extend this search to stellar mass objects in a second phase, EROS2. The present work deals with the analysis of 25 million stellar light curves in the Large Magellanic Cloud, observed for three years in order to extract the rare microlensing candidates and to measure the galactic halo mass fraction in the form of compact objects. After recalling the motivations of this search and the theoretical context, I describe the EROS2 experiment. The observational strategy and the photometric reduction procedures needed to deal with the 1.2 To of data are then presented. A new method to detect micro-lenses is detailed, as well as a discussion of background light curves, poorly known. We do not find enough microlensing candidates to explain the galactic rotation curve; this confirms, and improve on previous EROS1 and EROS2 results. Combining all results from EROS allows to exclude that MACHOS with a mass between 10 e-7 and 10 solar mass are important constituents of the galactic halo. This statement agrees with recent results from the MACHO group, although our interpretations differ, namely on the topics of the location of the lenses, and of a possible contamination of the microlensing ample by background phenomena. (author)

  12. Borromean halo, Tango halo, and halo isomers in atomic nuclei (United States)

    Izosimov, Igor


    Structure of the ground and excited states in halo-like nuclei is discussed. Both the Borromean and tango halo types can be observed for n-p configurations of atomic nuclei.Structure of the halo may be different for the different levels and resonances in atomic nuclei. Isobar analog, double isobar analog, configuration, and double configuration states can simultaneously have n-n, n-p, and p-p halo components in their wave functions. When the halo structure of the excited state differs from that of the ground state, or the ground state has non-halo structure, the γ-transition from the excited state to the ground state can be essentially hindered, i.e. the formation of a specific type of isomers (halo isomers) becomes possible. B(Mγ) and B(Eγ) values for γ-transitions in 6,7,8Li, 8,9,10Be, 8,10,11B, 10,11,12,13,14C, 13,14,15,16,17N, 15,16,17,19O, and 17F are analyzed. Special attention is given to nuclei which ground state does not exhibit halo structure but the excited state (halo isomer) may have one.

  13. True Chemical Abundances of Galaxies in the Nearby Universe: A Comparison of Abundance Methods, Interstellar Processes, and Galaxy Types (United States)

    Berg, Danielle Amanda


    Peeples et al. (2008) identified low-mass, high oxygen abundance outliers from the mass-metallicity (M-Z) relationship. We present new MMT spectroscopy of four of these dwarf galaxy outliers. We re-examined these anomalous spectra and compared to the parameter space for which standard strong-line methods are calibrated. We discuss the physical nature of these galaxies that leads to their unusual spectra (and previous classification as outliers), finding their low excitation, elevated N/O, and strong Balmer absorption are consistent with the properties expected from galaxies evolving past the "Wolf-Rayet galaxy" phase. To address the issue of securing the low-luminosity end of the M-Z relationship, we present MMT spectroscopic observations of HII regions in 42 low-luminosity galaxies in the Spitzer LVL survey. Direct oxygen abundances were determined based on the temperature sensitive [O III] lambda4363 line, measured at a strength of 4sigma or greater, for 31 of the 42 galaxies in our sample. Combining our results with previous direct abundance studies, we present a further refined sample, requiring reliable distance determinations. We characterize the direct L-Z and M-Z relationships at low-luminosity using the resulting 38 object sample. We show that the luminosity of a low-luminosity galaxy is often a better indicator of metallicity than strong-line methods. Additionally, our results provide the first direct estimates of oxygen abundance for 19 local volume dwarf galaxies. Properties of the ISM of spiral galaxies are known to show radial variations. Motivated by the need to place gradients on the same scale for comparisons amongst galaxies, we present direct oxygen abundance gradients of the nearby spiral galaxies NGC 628 and NGC 2403. A bi-modal N/O gradient pattern is measured for NGC 628. Notably, the N/O ratio plateaus beyond R25, demonstrating that primary nitrogen production is the dominant mechanism in the outer disk. The outer disk beyond R 25 was not

  14. Verrucomicrobial community structure and abundance as indicators for changes in chemical factors linked to soil fertility. (United States)

    Navarrete, Acacio Aparecido; Soares, Tielle; Rossetto, Raffaella; van Veen, Johannes Antonie; Tsai, Siu Mui; Kuramae, Eiko Eurya


    Here we show that verrucomicrobial community structure and abundance are extremely sensitive to changes in chemical factors linked to soil fertility. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism fingerprint and real-time quantitative PCR assay were used to analyze changes in verrucomicrobial communities associated with contrasting soil nutrient conditions in tropical regions. In case study Model I ("Slash-and-burn deforestation") the verrucomicrobial community structures revealed disparate patterns in nutrient-enriched soils after slash-and-burn deforestation and natural nutrient-poor soils under an adjacent primary forest in the Amazonia (R = 0.819, P = 0.002). The relative proportion of Verrucomicrobia declined in response to increased soil fertility after slash-and-burn deforestation, accounting on average, for 4 and 2 % of the total bacterial signal, in natural nutrient-poor forest soils and nutrient-enriched deforested soils, respectively. In case study Model II ("Management practices for sugarcane") disparate patterns were revealed in sugarcane rhizosphere sampled on optimal and deficient soil fertility for sugarcane (R = 0.786, P = 0.002). Verrucomicrobial community abundance in sugarcane rhizosphere was negatively correlated with soil fertility, accounting for 2 and 5 % of the total bacterial signal, under optimal and deficient soil fertility conditions for sugarcane, respectively. In nutrient-enriched soils, verrucomicrobial community structures were related to soil factors linked to soil fertility, such as total nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sum of bases, i.e., the sum of calcium, magnesium and potassium contents. We conclude that community structure and abundance represent important ecological aspects in soil verrucomicrobial communities for tracking the changes in chemical factors linked to soil fertility under tropical environmental conditions.

  15. Project VeSElkA: abundance analysis of chemical species in HD 41076 and HD 148330 (United States)

    Khalack, V.; Gallant, G.; Thibeault, C.


    A new semi-automatic approach is employed to carry out the abundance analysis of high-resolution spectra of HD 41076 and HD 148330 obtained recently with the spectropolarimetre Echelle SpectroPolarimetric Device for Observations of Stars at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. This approach allows to prepare in a semi-automatic mode the input data for the modified zeeman2 code and to analyse several hundreds of line profiles in sequence during a single run. It also provides more information on abundance distribution for each chemical element at the deeper atmospheric layers. Our analysis of the Balmer profiles observed in the spectra of HD 41076 and HD 148330 has resulted in the estimates of their effective temperature, gravity, metallicity and radial velocity. The respective models of stellar atmosphere have been calculated with the code phoenix and used to carry out abundance analysis employing the modified zeeman2 code. The analysis shows a deficit of the C, N, F, Mg, Ca, Ti, V, Cu, Y, Mo, Sm and Gd, and overabundance of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Sr, Zr, Ba, Ce, Nd and Dy in the stellar atmosphere of HD 41076. In the atmosphere of HD 148330, the C, N and Mo appear to be underabundant, while the Ne, Na, Al, Si, P, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd and Dy are overabundant. We also have found signatures of vertical abundance stratification of Fe, Ti, Cr and Mn in HD 41076, and of Fe, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Y, Zr, Ce, Nd, Sm and Gd in HD 148330.

  16. Circulating Mitochondrial DNA as Biomarker Linking Environmental Chemical Exposure to Early Preclinical Lesions Elevation of mtDNA in Human Serum after Exposure to Carcinogenic Halo-Alkane-Based Pesticides


    Budnik, Lygia T; Stefan Kloth; Xaver Baur; Preisser, Alexandra M.; Heidi Schwarzenbach


    There is a need for a panel of suitable biomarkers for detection of environmental chemical exposure leading to the initiation or progression of degenerative diseases or potentially, to cancer. As the peripheral blood may contain increased levels of circulating cell-free DNA in diseased individuals, we aimed to evaluate this DNA as effect biomarker recognizing vulnerability after exposure to environmental chemicals. We recruited 164 individuals presumably exposed to halo-alkane-based pesticide...

  17. Chemical Abundances and Ages of the Bulge Stars in APOGEE High-velocity Peaks (United States)

    Zhou, Yingying; Shen, Juntai; Liu, Chao; Li, Zhao-Yu; Mao, Shude; Kunder, Andrea; Rich, R. Michael; Zasowski, G.; Fernandez-Trincado, J. G.; Majewski, Steven R.; Lin, Chien-Cheng; Geisler, Doug; Tang, Baitian; Villanova, S.; Roman-Lopes, A.; Schultheis, M.; Nidever, David L.; Meza, Andrés; Pan, Kaike; Bizyaev, D. V.


    A cold, high-velocity (HV, ˜200 km s-1) peak was first reported in several Galactic bulge fields based on the Apache Point Observatory Galaxy Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) commissioning observations. Both the existence and the nature of the HV peak are still under debate. Here we revisit this feature with the latest APOGEE DR13 data. We find that most of the low-latitude bulge fields display a skewed Gaussian distribution with an HV shoulder. However, only 3 out of 53 fields show distinct HV peaks around 200 km s-1. The velocity distribution can be well described by Gauss-Hermite polynomials, except for the three fields showing clear HV peaks. We find that the correlation between the skewness parameter (h 3) and the mean velocity (\\bar{v}), instead of a distinctive HV peak, is a strong indicator of the bar. It was recently suggested that the HV peak is composed of preferentially young stars. We choose three fields showing clear HV peaks to test this hypothesis using the metallicity, [α/M], and [C/N] as age proxies. We find that both young and old stars show HV features. The similarity between the chemical abundances of stars in the HV peaks and the main component indicates that they are not systematically different in terms of chemical abundance or age. In contrast, there are clear differences in chemical space between stars in the Sagittarius dwarf and the bulge stars. The strong HV peaks off-plane are still to be explained properly and could be different in nature.

  18. Synthesis, X-ray crystal structure, thermal behavior and spectroscopic analysis of 1-(1-naphthoyl)-3-(halo-phenyl)-thioureas complemented with quantum chemical calculations. (United States)

    Saeed, Aamer; Ashraf, Saba; White, Jonathan M; Soria, Delia B; Franca, Carlos A; Erben, Mauricio F


    Two novel 1-(1-naphthoyl)-3-(halo-phenyl) substituted thioureas, namely 1-(1-naphthoyl)-3-(2,4-di-fluoro-phenyl)-thiourea (1) and 1-(1-naphthoyl)-3-(3-chloro-4-fluoro-phenyl)-thiourea (2), were synthesized and fully characterized. The X-ray crystal and molecular structures have been determined resulting in a planar acylthiourea group, with the C=O and C=S adopting a pseudo-antiperiplanar conformation. An intramolecular N-H⋯O=C hydrogen bond occurs between the thioamide and carbonyl groups. The crystal packing of both compounds is characterized by extended intermolecular N-H⋯S=C and N-H⋯O=C hydrogen-bonding interactions involving the acylthiourea moiety. Compound 2 is further stabilized by π-stacking between adjacent naphthalene and phenyl rings. The thermal behavior, as well as the vibrational properties, studied by infrared and Raman spectroscopy data complemented by quantum chemical calculations at the B3PW91/6-311++G(d,p) support the formation of these intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds. Furthermore, the UV-Vis spectrum is interpreted in terms of TD-DFT quantum chemical calculations with the shapes of the simulated absorption spectra in good accordance with the experimental data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantitative NMR Approach to Optimize the Formation of Chemical Building Blocks from Abundant Carbohydrates. (United States)

    Elliot, Samuel G; Tolborg, Søren; Sádaba, Irantzu; Taarning, Esben; Meier, Sebastian


    The future role of biomass-derived chemicals relies on the formation of diverse functional monomers in high yields from carbohydrates. Recently, it has become clear that a series of α-hydroxy acids, esters, and lactones can be formed from carbohydrates in alcohol and water solvents using tin-containing catalysts such as Sn-Beta. These compounds are potential building blocks for polyesters bearing additional olefin and alcohol functionalities. An NMR approach was used to identify, quantify, and optimize the formation of these building blocks in the Sn-Beta-catalyzed transformation of abundant carbohydrates. Record yields of the target molecules can be achieved by obstructing competing reactions through solvent selection. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Gas accretion as the origin of chemical abundance gradients in distant galaxies. (United States)

    Cresci, G; Mannucci, F; Maiolino, R; Marconi, A; Gnerucci, A; Magrini, L


    It has recently been suggested that galaxies in the early Universe could have grown through the accretion of cold gas, and that this may have been the main driver of star formation and stellar mass growth. Because the cold gas is essentially primordial, it has a very low abundance of elements heavier than helium (referred to as metallicity). If funnelled to the centre of a galaxy, it will result in the central gas having an overall lower metallicity than gas further from the centre, because the gas further out has been enriched by supernovae and stellar winds, and not diluted by the primordial gas. Here we report chemical abundances across three rotationally supported star-forming galaxies at redshift z ≈ 3, only 2 Gyr after the Big Bang. We find 'inverse' gradients, with the central, star-forming regions having lower metallicities than less active ones, which is opposite to what is seen in local galaxies. We conclude that the central gas has been diluted by the accretion of primordial gas, as predicted by 'cold flow' models.

  1. Effect of chemical fertilization and green manure on the abundance and community structure of ammonia oxidizers in a paddy soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Fang


    Full Text Available Ammonia oxidization is a critical step in the soil N cycle and can be affected by the fertilization regimes. Chinese milk-vetch (Astragalus sinicus L., MV is a major green manure of rice (Oryza sativa L. fields in southern China, which is recommended as an important agronomic practice to improve soil fertility. Soil chemical properties, abundance and community structures of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA in a MV-rice rotation field under different fertilization regimes were investigated. The field experiment included six treatments: control, without MV and chemical fertilizer (CK; 100% chemical fertilizer (NPK; 18 000 kg MV ha-1 plus 100% chemical fertilizer (NPKM1; 18 000 kg MV ha-1 plus 40% chemical fertilizer (NPKM2; 18 000 kg MV ha-1 alone (MV; and 18 000 kg MV ha-1 plus 40% chemical fertilizer plus straw (NPKMS. Results showed that NPKMS treatment could improve the soil fertility greatly although the application of 60% chemical fertilizer. The abundance of AOB only in the MV treatment had significant difference with the control; AOA were more abundant than AOB in all corresponding treatments. The NPKMS treatment had the highest AOA abundance (1.19 x 10(8 amoA gene copies g-1 and the lowest abundance was recorded in the CK treatment (3.21 x 10(7 amoA gene copies g-1. The abundance of AOA was significantly positively related to total N, available N, NH4+-N, and NO3--N. The community structure of AOA exhibited little variation among different fertilization regimes, whereas the community structure of AOB was highly responsive. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all AOB sequences were affiliated with Nitrosospira or Nitrosomonas and all AOA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE bands belonged to the soil and sediment lineage. These findings could be fundamental to improve our understanding of AOB and AOA in the N cycle in the paddy soil.

  2. J0815+4729: A Chemically Primitive Dwarf Star in the Galactic Halo Observed with Gran Telescopio Canarias (United States)

    Aguado, David S.; González Hernández, Jonay I.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Rebolo, Rafael


    We report the discovery of the carbon-rich hyper metal-poor unevolved star J0815+4729. This dwarf star was selected from SDSS/BOSS as a metal-poor candidate and follow-up spectroscopic observations at medium resolution were obtained with the Intermediate dispersion Spectrograph and Imaging System (ISIS) at William Herschel Telescope and the Optical System for Imaging and low-intermediate-Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy (OSIRIS) at Gran Telescopio de Canarias. We use the FERRE code to derive the main stellar parameters, {T}{eff}=6215+/- 82 K, and {log}g=4.7+/- 0.5, an upper limit to the metallicity of [Fe/H] ≤ ‑5.8, and a carbon abundance of [C/Fe] ≥ +5.0, while [α /{Fe}]=0.4 is assumed. The metallicity upper limit is based on the Ca II K line, which at the resolving power of the OSIRIS spectrograph cannot be resolved from possible interstellar calcium. The star could be the most iron-poor unevolved star known and also be among the ones with the largest overabundances of carbon. High-resolution spectroscopy of J0815+4729 will certainly help to derive other important elemental abundances, possibly providing new fundamental constraints on the early stages of the universe, the formation of the first stars, and the properties of the first supernovae. Based on observations made with the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), installed in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, on the island of La Palma. Program ID GTC90-15B and the Discretionary Director Time GTC03-16ADDT and also based on observations made with the William Herschel Telescope (WHT).

  3. Circulating mitochondrial DNA as biomarker linking environmental chemical exposure to early preclinical lesions elevation of mtDNA in human serum after exposure to carcinogenic halo-alkane-based pesticides. (United States)

    Budnik, Lygia T; Kloth, Stefan; Baur, Xaver; Preisser, Alexandra M; Schwarzenbach, Heidi


    There is a need for a panel of suitable biomarkers for detection of environmental chemical exposure leading to the initiation or progression of degenerative diseases or potentially, to cancer. As the peripheral blood may contain increased levels of circulating cell-free DNA in diseased individuals, we aimed to evaluate this DNA as effect biomarker recognizing vulnerability after exposure to environmental chemicals. We recruited 164 individuals presumably exposed to halo-alkane-based pesticides. Exposure evaluation was based on human biomonitoring analysis; as biomarker of exposure parent halo-methanes, -ethanes and their metabolites, as well as the hemoglobin-adducts methyl valine and hydroxyl ethyl valine in blood were used, complemented by expert evaluation of exposure and clinical intoxication symptoms as well as a questionnaire. Assessment showed exposures to halo alkanes in the concentration range being higher than non-cancer reference doses (RfD) but (mostly) lower than the occupational exposure limits. We quantified circulating DNA in serum from 86 individuals with confirmed exposure to off-gassing halo-alkane pesticides (in storage facilities or in home environment) and 30 non-exposed controls, and found that exposure was significantly associated with elevated serum levels of circulating mitochondrial DNA (in size of 79 bp, mtDNA-79, p = 0.0001). The decreased integrity of mtDNA (mtDNA-230/mtDNA-79) in exposed individuals implicates apoptotic processes (p = 0.015). The relative amounts of mtDNA-79 in serum were positively associated with the lag-time after intoxication to these chemicals (r = 0.99, pvulnerable risk groups after exposure to toxic/carcinogenic chemicals.

  4. Circulating mitochondrial DNA as biomarker linking environmental chemical exposure to early preclinical lesions elevation of mtDNA in human serum after exposure to carcinogenic halo-alkane-based pesticides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lygia T Budnik

    Full Text Available There is a need for a panel of suitable biomarkers for detection of environmental chemical exposure leading to the initiation or progression of degenerative diseases or potentially, to cancer. As the peripheral blood may contain increased levels of circulating cell-free DNA in diseased individuals, we aimed to evaluate this DNA as effect biomarker recognizing vulnerability after exposure to environmental chemicals. We recruited 164 individuals presumably exposed to halo-alkane-based pesticides. Exposure evaluation was based on human biomonitoring analysis; as biomarker of exposure parent halo-methanes, -ethanes and their metabolites, as well as the hemoglobin-adducts methyl valine and hydroxyl ethyl valine in blood were used, complemented by expert evaluation of exposure and clinical intoxication symptoms as well as a questionnaire. Assessment showed exposures to halo alkanes in the concentration range being higher than non-cancer reference doses (RfD but (mostly lower than the occupational exposure limits. We quantified circulating DNA in serum from 86 individuals with confirmed exposure to off-gassing halo-alkane pesticides (in storage facilities or in home environment and 30 non-exposed controls, and found that exposure was significantly associated with elevated serum levels of circulating mitochondrial DNA (in size of 79 bp, mtDNA-79, p = 0.0001. The decreased integrity of mtDNA (mtDNA-230/mtDNA-79 in exposed individuals implicates apoptotic processes (p = 0.015. The relative amounts of mtDNA-79 in serum were positively associated with the lag-time after intoxication to these chemicals (r = 0.99, p<0.0001. Several months of post-exposure the specificity of this biomarker increased from 30% to 97% in patients with intoxication symptoms. Our findings indicate that mitochondrial DNA has a potential to serve as a biomarker recognizing vulnerable risk groups after exposure to toxic/carcinogenic chemicals.


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    Smith, Verne V.; Cunha, Katia [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Shetrone, Matthew D. [Department of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Meszaros, Szabolcs; Allende Prieto, Carlos [Instituto d' Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Bizyaev, Dmitry [Apache Point Observatory, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Garcia Perez, Ana; Majewski, Steven R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Schiavon, Ricardo [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 5UX (United Kingdom); Holtzman, Jon [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Johnson, Jennifer A., E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)


    High-resolution H-band spectra of five bright field K, M, and MS giants, obtained from the archives of the Kitt Peak National Observatory Fourier transform spectrometer, are analyzed to determine chemical abundances of 16 elements. The abundances were derived via spectrum synthesis using the detailed linelist prepared for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III Apache Point Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), which is a high-resolution near-infrared spectroscopic survey to derive detailed chemical abundance distributions and precise radial velocities for 100,000 red giants sampling all Galactic stellar populations. The red giant sample studied here was chosen to probe which chemical elements can be derived reliably from the H-band APOGEE spectral region. These red giants consist of two K-giants ({alpha} Boo and {mu} Leo), two M-giants ({beta} And and {delta} Oph), and one thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) star of spectral type MS (HD 199799). Measured chemical abundances include the cosmochemically important isotopes {sup 12}C, {sup 13}C, {sup 14}N, and {sup 16}O, along with Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu. The K and M giants exhibit the abundance signature of the first dredge-up of CN-cycle material, while the TP-AGB star shows clear evidence of the addition of {sup 12}C synthesized during {sup 4}He-burning thermal pulses and subsequent third dredge-up. A comparison of the abundances derived here with published values for these stars reveals consistent results to {approx}0.1 dex. The APOGEE spectral region and linelist is thus well suited for probing both Galactic chemical evolution, as well as internal nucleosynthesis and mixing in populations of red giants via high-resolution spectroscopy.

  6. Modelling chemical abundance distributions for dwarf galaxies in the Local Group: the impact of turbulent metal diffusion (United States)

    Escala, Ivanna; Wetzel, Andrew; Kirby, Evan N.; Hopkins, Philip F.; Ma, Xiangcheng; Wheeler, Coral; Kereš, Dušan; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Quataert, Eliot


    We investigate stellar metallicity distribution functions (MDFs), including Fe and α-element abundances, in dwarf galaxies from the Feedback in Realistic Environment (FIRE) project. We examine both isolated dwarf galaxies and those that are satellites of a Milky Way-mass galaxy. In particular, we study the effects of including a sub-grid turbulent model for the diffusion of metals in gas. Simulations that include diffusion have narrower MDFs and abundance ratio distributions, because diffusion drives individual gas and star particles towards the average metallicity. This effect provides significantly better agreement with observed abundance distributions in dwarf galaxies in the Local Group, including small intrinsic scatter in [α/Fe] versus [Fe/H] of ≲0.1 dex. This small intrinsic scatter arises in our simulations because the interstellar medium in dwarf galaxies is well mixed at nearly all cosmic times, such that stars that form at a given time have similar abundances to ≲0.1 dex. Thus, most of the scatter in abundances at z = 0 arises from redshift evolution and not from instantaneous scatter in the ISM. We find similar MDF widths and intrinsic scatter for satellite and isolated dwarf galaxies, which suggests that environmental effects play a minor role compared with internal chemical evolution in our simulations. Overall, with the inclusion of metal diffusion, our simulations reproduce abundance distribution widths of observed low-mass galaxies, enabling detailed studies of chemical evolution in galaxy formation.

  7. Properties of six short-period massive binaries: A study of the effects of binarity on surface chemical abundances (United States)

    Martins, F.; Mahy, L.; Hervé, A.


    Context. A significant percentage of massive stars are found in multiple systems. The effect of binarity on stellar evolution is poorly constrained. In particular, the role of tides and mass transfer on surface chemical abundances is not constrained observationally. Aims: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of binarity on the stellar properties and surface abundances of massive binaries. Methods: We performed a spectroscopic analysis of six Galactic massive binaries. We obtained the spectra of individual components via a spectral disentangling method and subsequently analyzed these spectra by means of atmosphere models. The stellar parameters and CNO surface abundances were determined. Results: Most of these six systems are comprised of main-sequence stars. Three systems are detached, two are in contact, and no information is available for the sixth system. For 11 out of the 12 stars studied, the surface abundances are only mildly affected by stellar evolution and mixing. The surface abundances are not different from those of single stars within the uncertainties. The secondary of XZ Cep is strongly chemically enriched. Considering previous determinations of surface abundances in massive binary systems suggests that the effect of tides on chemical mixing is limited, whereas the mass transfer and removal of outer layers of the mass donor leads to the appearance of chemically processed material at the surface, although this is not systematic. The evolutionary masses of the components of our six systems are on average 16.5% higher than the dynamical masses. Some systems seem to have reached synchronization, while others may still be in a transitory phase. Based on observations made with the SOPHIE spectrograph on the 1.93 m telescope at Observatoire de Haute-Provence (OHP, CNRS/AMU), France.

  8. Isospin in halo nuclei: Borromean halo, tango halo, and halo isomers (United States)

    Izosimov, I. N.


    It is shown that the wave functions for isobaric analog, double isobaric analog, configuration, and double configuration states may simultaneously have components corresponding to nn, np, and pp halos. The difference in the halo structure between the ground and excited states of a nucleus may lead to the formation of halo isomers. A halo structure of both Borromean and tango types can be observed for np configurations. The structure of ground and excited states with various isospins in halo-like nuclei is discussed. The reduced probabilities B( Mλ) and B( Eλ) for gamma transitions in 6-8Li, 8-10Be, 8,10,11B, 10-14C, 13-17N, 15-17,19O, and 17F nuclei are analyzed. Particular attention is given to the cases where the ground state of a nucleus does not have a halo structure, but where its excited state may have it.

  9. Something borrowed, something blue: The nature of blue metal-poor stars inferred from their colours and chemical abundances (United States)

    Hansen, C. J.; Jofré, P.; Koch, A.; McWilliam, A.; Sneden, C. S.


    Blue metal-poor (BMP) stars are main sequence stars that appear bluer and more luminous than normal turnoff stars. They were originally singled out by using B-V and U-B colour cuts.Early studies found that a larger fraction of field BMP stars were binaries compared to normal halo stars. Thus, BMP stars are ideal field blue straggler candidates for investigating internal stellar evolution processes and binary interaction. In particular, the presence or depletion in lithium in their spectra is a powerful indicator of their origin. They are either old, halo blue stragglers experiencing internal mixing processes or mass transfer (Li-depletion), or intermediate-age, single stars of possibly extragalactic origin (2.2 dex halo plateau Li). However, we note that internal mixing processes can lead to an increased level of Li. Hence, this study combines photometry and spectroscopy to unveil the origin of various BMP stars. We first show how to separate binaries from young blue stars using photometry, metallicity and lithium. Using a sample of 80 BMP stars (T > 6300 K), we find that 97% of the BMP binaries have V-Ks0 Based on their radial velocities, Li, α and s- and r-process abundances we show that BPS CS22874-042 is a single star (A(Li) = 2.38 ± 0.10 dex) while with A(Li)= 2.23 ± 0.07 dex CD-48 2445 is a binary, contrary to earlier findings. Our analysis emphasises that field blue stragglers can be segregated from single metal-poor stars, using (V-Ks) colours with a fraction of single stars polluting the binary sample, but not vice versa. These two groups can only be properly separated by using information from stellar spectra, illustrating the need for accurate and precise stellar parameters and high-resolution, high-S/N spectra in order to fully understand and classify this intriguing class of stars. Our high-resolution spectrum analysis confirms the findings from the colour cuts and shows that CS 22874-042 is single, while CD -48 2445 is most likely a binary

  10. Behavior of Abundances in Chemically Peculiar Dwarf and Subgiant A-Type Stars: HD 23193 and HD 170920 (United States)

    Kılıçoğlu, Tolgahan; Çalışkan, Şeyma; Ünal, Kübraözge


    To understand the origin of the abundance peculiarities of non-magnetic A-type stars, we present the first detailed chemical abundance analysis of a metallic line star HD 23193 (A2m) and an A-type subgiant HD 170920 (A5), which could have been a HgMn star on the main sequence. Our analysis is based on medium (R ∼ 14,000) and high (R ∼ 40,000) resolution spectroscopic data of the stars. The abundances of 18 elements are derived: C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Sr, Y, and Ba. The masses of HD 23193 and HD 170920 are estimated from evolutionary tracks as 2.3 ± 0.1 M ⊙ and 2.9 ± 0.1 M ⊙. The ages are found to be 635 ± 33 Myr for HD 23193 and 480 ± 50 Myr for HD 170920 using isochrones. The abundance pattern of HD 23193 shows deviations from solar values in the iron-peak elements and indicates remarkable overabundances of Sr (1.16), Y (1.03), and Ba (1.24) with respect to the solar abundances. We compare the derived abundances of this moderately rotating (v\\sin i =37.5 km s‑1) Am star to the theoretical chemical evolution models including rotational mixing. The theoretically predicted abundances resemble our derived abundance pattern, except for a few elements (Si and Cr). For HD 170920, we find nearly solar abundances, except for C (‑0.43), S (0.16), Ti (0.15), Ni (0.16), Zn (0.41), Y (0.57), and Ba (0.97). Its low rotational velocity (v\\sin i=14.5 km s‑1), reduced carbon abundance, and enhanced heavy element abundances suggest that the star is most likely an evolved HgMn star. Based on observations made at the TÜBITAK National Observatory (Program ID 14BRTT150–671), and the Ankara University Observatory, Turkey.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jounghun [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, FPRD, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Zhao, Gong-Bo [National Astronomy Observatories, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100012 (China); Li, Baojiu [Institute of Computational Cosmology, Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Koyama, Kazuya, E-mail: [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom)


    We investigate the effect of modified gravity on the specific angular momentum of galactic halos by analyzing the halo catalogs at z = 0 from high-resolution N-body simulations for a f(R) gravity model that meets the solar-system constraint. It is shown that the galactic halos in the f(R) gravity model tend to acquire significantly higher specific angular momentum than those in the standard {Lambda}CDM model. The largest difference in the specific angular momentum distribution between these two models occurs for the case of isolated galactic halos with mass less than 10{sup 11} h {sup -1} M {sub Sun }, which are likely least shielded by the chameleon screening mechanism. As the specific angular momentum of galactic halos is rather insensitive to other cosmological parameters, it can in principle be an independent discriminator of modified gravity. We speculate a possibility of using the relative abundance of low surface brightness galaxies (LSBGs) as a test of general relativity given that the formation of the LSBGs occurs in fast spinning dark halos.

  12. Dynamics, Chemical Abundances, and ages of Globular Clusters in the Virgo Cluster of Galaxies (United States)

    Guhathakurta, Puragra; NGVS Collaboration


    We present a study of the dynamics, metallicities, and ages of globular clusters (GCs) in the Next Generation Virgo cluster Survey (NGVS), a deep, multi-band (u, g, r, i, z, and Ks), wide-field (104 deg2) imaging survey carried out using the 3.6-m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope and MegaCam imager. GC candidates were selected from the NGVS survey using photometric and image morphology criteria and these were followed up with deep, medium-resolution, multi-object spectroscopy using the Keck II 10-m telescope and DEIMOS spectrograph. The primary spectroscopic targets were candidate GC satellites of dwarf elliptical (dE) and ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) in the Virgo cluster. While many objects were confirmed as GC satellites of Virgo dEs and UDGs, many turned out to be non-satellites based on their radial velocity and/or positional mismatch any identifiable Virgo cluster galaxy. We have used a combination of spectral characteristics (e.g., presence of absorption vs. emission lines), new Gaussian mixture modeling of radial velocity and sky position data, and a new extreme deconvolution analysis of ugrizKs photometry and image morphology, to classify all the objects in our sample into: (1) GC satellites of dE galaxies, (2) GC satellites of UDGs, (3) intra-cluster GCs (ICGCs) in the Virgo cluster, (4) GCs in the outer halo of the central cluster galaxy M87, (5) foreground Milky Way stars, and (6) distant background galaxies. We use these data to study the dynamics and dark matter content of dE and UDGs in the Virgo cluster, place important constraints on the nature of dE nuclei, and study the origin of ICGCs versus GCs in the remote M87 halo.We are grateful for financial support from the NSF and NASA/STScI.

  13. Abundances and Gradients in M31 - A Chemical Study of Planetary Nebulae in the Substructures (United States)

    Fang, Xuan; García-Benito, Rubén; Guerrero, Martín A.; Liu, Xiaowei; Zhang, Yong; Yuan, Haibo


    We present deep optical spectroscopy of seven planetary nebulae (PNe) in the substructures of M31, three in the Northern Spur and four associated with the Giant Stream. The spectra were obtained with the OSIRIS spectrograph on the 10.4 m GTC. The detection of the [O iii] λ4363 auroral line in all PNe of our sample enables reliable abundance determinations. Our targets have low N/O (oxygen abundances, with an average value of 8.56+/-0.10. Based on the abundances as well as the spatial and kinematical information of our targets, we speculate that the Northern Spur and the Giant Stream might have the same origin. We raise a hypothesis that the dwarf satellite M32 might be responsible for these two substructures. New observations have recently been made to assess this hypothesis.

  14. Lithium abundances in nearby FGK dwarf and subgiant stars: internal destruction, Galactic chemical evolution, and exoplanets


    Ramirez, I.; Fish, J. R.; Lambert, D. L.; Prieto, C. Allende


    We derive atmospheric parameters and lithium abundances for 671 stars and include our measurements in a literature compilation of 1381 dwarf and subgiant stars. First, a "lithium desert" in the effective temperature (Teff) versus lithium abundance (A_Li) plane is observed such that no stars with Teff~6075 K and A_Li~1.8 are found. We speculate that most of the stars on the low A_Li side of the desert have experienced a short-lived period of severe surface lithium destruction as main-sequence ...

  15. ALFA beam halo

    CERN Document Server

    Komarek, Tomas


    This note serves as a final report about CERN Summer Student Programme 2014 project. The beam halo is an undesired phenomenon for physics analyses on particle accelerators. It surrounds the beam core and constitutes an important part of background for signal measurements on some detectors, eg. in the forward region. In this study, the data from the ALFA detector were used, specifically from the run 191373 ($\\beta^*=90\\unit{m}$) and the run 213268 ($\\beta^*=1\\unit{km}$). Using the ROOT framework, a software for beam halo events selection was created and beam halo properties were examined. In the run 213268, excessive beam halo is suspected to be the reason for multiple beam scrapings that occurred. A kinematic reconstruction of beam halo particles is attempted in order to understand beam halo properties in the interaction point. Some further simulations are employed to find constraints for beam halo particles in order to survive in the accelerator for a longer time/many revolutions. This work represents a st...

  16. Hydrogen Atom Collision Processes in Cool Stellar Atmospheres: Effects on Spectral Line Strengths and Measured Chemical Abundances in Old Stars (United States)

    Barklem, Paul S.


    The precise measurement of the chemical composition of stars is a fundamental problem relevant to many areas of astrophysics. State-of-the-art approaches attempt to unite accurate descriptions of microphysics, non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) line formation and 3D hydrodynamical model atmospheres. In this paper I review progress in understanding inelastic collisions of hydrogen atoms with other species and their influence on spectral line formation and derived abundances in stellar atmospheres. These collisions are a major source of uncertainty in non-LTE modelling of spectral lines and abundance determinations, especially for old, metal-poor stars, which are unique tracers of the early evolution of our galaxy. Full quantum scattering calculations of direct excitation processes X(nl) + H leftrightarrow X(n'l') + H and charge transfer processes X(nl) + H leftrightarrow X+ + H- have been done for Li, Na and Mg [1,2,3] based on detailed quantum chemical data, e.g. [4]. Rate coefficients have been calculated and applied to non-LTE modelling of spectral lines in stellar atmospheres [5,6,7,8,9]. In all cases we find that charge transfer processes from the first excited S-state are very important, and the processes affect measured abundances for Li, Na and Mg in some stars by as much as 60%. Effects vary with stellar parameters (e.g. temperature, luminosity, metal content) and so these processes are important not only for accurate absolute abundances, but also for relative abundances among dissimilar stars.

  17. What's a Halo? (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... of quick or jerky movements, like jumping or dancing pulling or tugging on the halo or attached ...

  18. Chemical abundance analysis of symbiotic giants - II. AE Ara, BX Mon, KX TrA, and CL Sco (United States)

    Gałan, Cezary; Mikołajewska, Joanna; Hinkle, Kenneth H.


    Knowledge of the elemental abundances of symbiotic giants is essential to address the role of chemical composition in the evolution of symbiotic binaries, to map their parent population, and to trace their mass transfer history. However, there are few symbiotic giants for which the photospheric abundances are fairly well determined. This is the second in a series of papers on chemical composition of symbiotic giants determined from high-resolution (R ˜ 50 000) near-IR spectra. Results are presented for the late-type giant star in the AE Ara, BX Mon, KX TrA, and CL Sco systems. Spectrum synthesis employing standard local thermal equilibrium (LTE) analysis and stellar atmosphere models were used to obtain photospheric abundances of CNO and elements around the iron peak (Sc, Ti, Fe, and Ni). Our analysis resulted in sub-solar metallicities in BX Mon, KX TrA, and CL Sco by [Fe/H] ˜ -0.3 or -0.5 depending on the value of microturbulence. AE Ara shows metallicity closer to solar by ˜ 0.2 dex. The enrichment in 14N isotope found in all these objects indicates that the giants have experienced the first dredge-up. In the case of BX Mon first dredge-up is also confirmed by the low 12C/13C isotopic ratio of ˜ 8.

  19. Chemical abundances of primary stars in the Sirius-like binary systems (United States)

    Kong, X. M.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. K.; Shi, J. R.; Kumar, Y. Bharat; Wang, L.; Zhang, J. B.; Wang, Y.; Zhou, Y. T.


    Study of primary stars lying in Sirius-like systems with various masses of WD companions and orbital separations is one of the key aspects to understand the origin and nature of Barium (Ba) stars. In this paper, based on high resolution and high S/N spectra, we present systematic analysis of photospheric abundances for 18 FGK primary stars of Sirius-like systems including six giants and 12 dwarfs. Atmospheric parameters, stellar masses, and abundances of 24 elements (C, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce and Nd) are determined homogeneously. The abundance patterns in these sample stars show that most of the elements in our sample follow the behavior of field stars with similar metallicity. As expected, s-process elements in four known Ba giants show overabundance. A weak correlation was found between anomalies of s-process elemental abundance and orbital separation, suggesting the orbital separation of the binaries could not be the main constraint to differentiate strong Ba stars from mild Ba stars. Our study shows that the large mass (>0.51 M⊙) of a WD companion in a binary system is not a sufficient condition to form a Ba star, even if the separation between the two components is small. Although not sufficient it seems to be a necessary condition since Ba stars with lower mass WDs in the observed sample were not found. Our results support that [s/Fe] and [hs/ls] ratios of Ba stars are anti-correlated with the metallicity. However, the different levels of s-process overabundance among Ba stars may not to be dominated mainly by the metallicity.

  20. Red horizontal branch stars in the Galactic field: A chemical abundance survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fo B.-Q.


    Full Text Available A large sample survey of Galactic red horizontal-branch (RHB stars was conducted to investigate their atmospheric parameters and elemental abundances. High-resolution spectra of 76 Galactic field stars were obtained with the 2.7 m Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory. Only the color and the parallax were considered during the selection of the field stars. Equivalent width or synthetic spectrum analyses were used in order to determine the relative abundances of the following elements: proton-capture elements C, N, O and Li, alpha-elements Ca and Si, and neutron-capture elements Eu and La. Additionally, 12C/13C isotopic ratios were derived by using the CN features mainly located in the 7995 − 8040 Å spectral region. The evaluation of effective temperatures, surface gravities and 12C/13C isotopic ratios together with evolutionary stages of the candidates revealed that 18 out of 76 stars in our sample are probable RHBs. Including both kinematic and evolutionary status information, we conclude that we have five thick disk and 13 thin disk RHB stars in our sample. Although RHB stars have been regarded as thick disk members of the Galaxy, the low-velocity RHBs with a solar metallicity in our sample suggests the existence of a large number of thin disk RHBs, which cannot be easily explained by standard stellar evolutionary models.

  1. Quantitative NMR Approach to Optimize the Formation of Chemical Building Blocks from Abundant Carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elliot, Samuel Gilbert; Tolborg, Søren; Sádaba, Irantzu


    The future role of biomass-derived chemicals relies on the formation of diverse functional monomers in high yields from carbohydrates. Recently, it has become clear that a series of α-hydroxy acids, esters and lactones can be formed from carbohydrates in alcohols and water using tin-containing ca...

  2. Self-Conistent Dynamical Modeling of the Milky Way Halo with Stellar Orbits (United States)

    Valluri, Monica

    Despite significant advances in understanding our Galaxy in the context of LCDM, important questions remain unanswered. LCDM predicts that dark matter halos are triaxial overall, but oblate in regions where baryons dominate. However recent measurements of the shape of the Milky Way (MW) dark matter (DM) halo find it to be very triaxial with a shape and orientation that are significantly at odds with theoretical predictions. The European Space Agency s Gaia satellite will soon map the entire MW giving us six phase-space coordinates, ages and abundances for hundreds of thousands of stars. The PI and a postdoc will build a novel code (based on the Schwarzschild orbit superposition method and orbital frequency mapping), to determine the global shape of the Milky Way's dark matter halo using field stars from Gaia. Our technique will simultaneously yield the self-consistent phase-space distribution function of the stellar halo in the inner 20-30 kpc region. Detailed analysis of correlations between the chemical abundances, ages and orbits of halo stars in this distribution function will enable us to extract clues to the formation history of the MW that are encoded in orbital properties of halo stars. Our technique is unique since we will use independent sets of observational constraints, at small and large radii, to measure the radial variation in halo shape, in conjunction with a strategy tailored to modeling discrete stellar datasets. We will perform end-to-end tests of our new code with mock catalogs generated from state-of-the art cosmological simulations of MW like disk galaxies. Our team has the ideal combination of expertise in dynamical modeling, observations, simulations, and Gaia data analysis and processing necessary to achieve our goals. PI Valluri has significant prior experience with Schwarzschild modeling and the analysis of phase-space distribution functions of simulated halos, Co-I Loebman recently published the first measurement of the shape of the DM


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiyama, Tomoaki [Center for Computational Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Rieder, Steven; Portegies Zwart, Simon [Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300-RA Leiden (Netherlands); Makino, Junichiro [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan); Groen, Derek [Centre for Computational Science, Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London, WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); Nitadori, Keigo [RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science (Japan); De Laat, Cees [Section System and Network Engineering, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); McMillan, Stephen [Department of Physics, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Hiraki, Kei [Department of Creative Informatics, Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, the University of Tokyo (Japan); Harfst, Stefan, E-mail: [Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Technical University Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, D-10623 Berlin (Germany)


    We present the results of the ''Cosmogrid'' cosmological N-body simulation suites based on the concordance LCDM model. The Cosmogrid simulation was performed in a 30 Mpc box with 2048{sup 3} particles. The mass of each particle is 1.28 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} M{sub Sun }, which is sufficient to resolve ultra-faint dwarfs. We found that the halo mass function shows good agreement with the Sheth and Tormen fitting function down to {approx}10{sup 7} M{sub Sun }. We have analyzed the spherically averaged density profiles of the three most massive halos which are of galaxy group size and contain at least 170 million particles. The slopes of these density profiles become shallower than -1 at the innermost radius. We also find a clear correlation of halo concentration with mass. The mass dependence of the concentration parameter cannot be expressed by a single power law, however a simple model based on the Press-Schechter theory proposed by Navarro et al. gives reasonable agreement with this dependence. The spin parameter does not show a correlation with the halo mass. The probability distribution functions for both concentration and spin are well fitted by the log-normal distribution for halos with the masses larger than {approx}10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }. The subhalo abundance depends on the halo mass. Galaxy-sized halos have 50% more subhalos than {approx}10{sup 11} M{sub Sun} halos have.

  4. The Cosmogrid Simulation: Statistical Properties of Small Dark Matter Halos (United States)

    Ishiyama, Tomoaki; Rieder, Steven; Makino, Junichiro; Portegies Zwart, Simon; Groen, Derek; Nitadori, Keigo; de Laat, Cees; McMillan, Stephen; Hiraki, Kei; Harfst, Stefan


    We present the results of the "Cosmogrid" cosmological N-body simulation suites based on the concordance LCDM model. The Cosmogrid simulation was performed in a 30 Mpc box with 20483 particles. The mass of each particle is 1.28 × 105 M ⊙, which is sufficient to resolve ultra-faint dwarfs. We found that the halo mass function shows good agreement with the Sheth & Tormen fitting function down to ~107 M ⊙. We have analyzed the spherically averaged density profiles of the three most massive halos which are of galaxy group size and contain at least 170 million particles. The slopes of these density profiles become shallower than -1 at the innermost radius. We also find a clear correlation of halo concentration with mass. The mass dependence of the concentration parameter cannot be expressed by a single power law, however a simple model based on the Press-Schechter theory proposed by Navarro et al. gives reasonable agreement with this dependence. The spin parameter does not show a correlation with the halo mass. The probability distribution functions for both concentration and spin are well fitted by the log-normal distribution for halos with the masses larger than ~108 M ⊙. The subhalo abundance depends on the halo mass. Galaxy-sized halos have 50% more subhalos than ~1011 M ⊙ halos have.

  5. Chemical abundances of fast-rotating massive stars. I. Description of the methods and individual results (United States)

    Cazorla, Constantin; Morel, Thierry; Nazé, Yaël; Rauw, Gregor; Semaan, Thierry; Daflon, Simone; Oey, M. S.


    Aims: Recent observations have challenged our understanding of rotational mixing in massive stars by revealing a population of fast-rotating objects with apparently normal surface nitrogen abundances. However, several questions have arisen because of a number of issues, which have rendered a reinvestigation necessary; these issues include the presence of numerous upper limits for the nitrogen abundance, unknown multiplicity status, and a mix of stars with different physical properties, such as their mass and evolutionary state, which are known to control the amount of rotational mixing. Methods: We have carefully selected a large sample of bright, fast-rotating early-type stars of our Galaxy (40 objects with spectral types between B0.5 and O4). Their high-quality, high-resolution optical spectra were then analysed with the stellar atmosphere modelling codes DETAIL/SURFACE or CMFGEN, depending on the temperature of the target. Several internal and external checks were performed to validate our methods; notably, we compared our results with literature data for some well-known objects, studied the effect of gravity darkening, or confronted the results provided by the two codes for stars amenable to both analyses. Furthermore, we studied the radial velocities of the stars to assess their binarity. Results: This first part of our study presents our methods and provides the derived stellar parameters, He, CNO abundances, and the multiplicity status of every star of the sample. It is the first time that He and CNO abundances of such a large number of Galactic massive fast rotators are determined in a homogeneous way. Based on observations obtained with the Heidelberg Extended Range Optical Spectrograph (HEROS) at the Telescopio Internacional de Guanajuato (TIGRE) with the SOPHIE échelle spectrograph at the Haute-Provence Observatory (OHP; Institut Pytheas; CNRS, France), and with the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle (MIKE) spectrograph at the Magellan II Clay telescope

  6. Suzaku Results of SN 1006: Chemical Abundances of the ``youngest'' Galactic Type Ia Supernova Remnant (United States)

    Koyama, Katsuji


    SN 1006 is one of the supernova remnants (SNR) recorded in the Japanese diary ``Meigetsuki''. From the historical records including Meigetsuki, we conclude that SN 1006 was the brightest type Ia supernova remnant. We report on the observations of SN 1006 with the X-ray Imaging Spectrometers (XIS) on board the 5-th Japanese X-ray satellite Suzaku. We found that the ionization age of SN 1006 is the youngest among any Galactic SNRs, hence is the best SNR to study early phase of type Ia. In the X-ray spectrum, we found the K-shell emission lines from heavy elements, in particular that from iron, for the first time. The X-ray emitting plasma is highly overabundant in heavy elements, hence are likely due to ejecta. The abundance pattern agrees well to the theoretical prediction of type Ia supernova.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffield, Allyson A.; Johnston, Kathryn V. [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, Mail Code 5246, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Majewski, Steven R., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); and others


    We present a medium-resolution spectroscopic survey of late-type giant stars at mid-Galactic latitudes of (30 Degree-Sign < |b| < 60 Degree-Sign ), designed to probe the properties of this population to distances of {approx}9 kpc. Because M giants are generally metal-rich and we have limited contamination from thin disk stars by the latitude selection, most of the stars in the survey are expected to be members of the thick disk (([Fe/H]) {approx} -0.6) with some contribution from the metal-rich component of the nearby halo. Here we report first results for 1799 stars. The distribution of radial velocity (RV) as a function of l for these stars shows (1) the expected thick disk population and (2) local metal-rich halo stars moving at high speeds relative to the disk, which in some cases form distinct sequences in RV-l space. High-resolution echelle spectra taken for 34 of these ''RV outliers'' reveal the following patterns across the [Ti/Fe]-[Fe/H] plane: 17 of the stars have abundances reminiscent of the populations present in dwarf satellites of the Milky Way, 8 have abundances coincident with those of the Galactic disk and a more metal-rich halo, and 9 of the stars fall on the locus defined by the majority of stars in the halo. The chemical abundance trends of the RV outliers suggest that this sample consists predominantly of stars accreted from infalling dwarf galaxies. A smaller fraction of stars in the RV outlier sample may have been formed in the inner Galaxy and subsequently kicked to higher eccentricity orbits, but the sample is not large enough to distinguish conclusively between this interpretation and the alternative that these stars represent the tail of the velocity distribution of the thick disk. Our data do not rule out the possibility that a minority of the sample could have formed from gas in situ on their current orbits. These results are consistent with scenarios where the stellar halo, at least as probed by M giants, arises

  8. HaloPROTACS: Use of Small Molecule PROTACs to Induce Degradation of HaloTag Fusion Proteins. (United States)

    Buckley, Dennis L; Raina, Kanak; Darricarrere, Nicole; Hines, John; Gustafson, Jeffrey L; Smith, Ian E; Miah, Afjal H; Harling, John D; Crews, Craig M


    Small molecule-induced protein degradation is an attractive strategy for the development of chemical probes. One method for inducing targeted protein degradation involves the use of PROTACs, heterobifunctional molecules that can recruit specific E3 ligases to a desired protein of interest. PROTACs have been successfully used to degrade numerous proteins in cells, but the peptidic E3 ligase ligands used in previous PROTACs have hindered their development into more mature chemical probes or therapeutics. We report the design of a novel class of PROTACs that incorporate small molecule VHL ligands to successfully degrade HaloTag7 fusion proteins. These HaloPROTACs will inspire the development of future PROTACs with more drug-like properties. Additionally, these HaloPROTACs are useful chemical genetic tools, due to their ability to chemically knock down widely used HaloTag7 fusion proteins in a general fashion.

  9. Chemical Modeling for Predicting the Abundances of Certain Aldimines and Amines in Hot Cores (United States)

    Sil, Milan; Gorai, Prasanta; Das, Ankan; Bhat, Bratati; Etim, Emmanuel E.; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.


    We consider six isomeric groups ({{CH}}3{{N}}, {{CH}}5{{N}}, {{{C}}}2{{{H}}}5{{N}}, {{{C}}}2{{{H}}}7{{N}}, {{{C}}}3{{{H}}}7{{N}}, and {{{C}}}3{{{H}}}9{{N}}) to review the presence of amines and aldimines within the interstellar medium (ISM). Each of these groups contains at least one aldimine or amine. Methanimine ({{CH}}2{NH}) from {{CH}}3{{N}} and methylamine ({{CH}}3{{NH}}2) from {{CH}}5{{N}} isomeric group were detected a few decades ago. Recently, the presence of ethanimine ({{CH}}3{CHNH}) from {{{C}}}2{{{H}}}5{{N}} isomeric group has been discovered in the ISM. This prompted us to investigate the possibility of detecting any aldimine or amine from the very next three isomeric groups in this sequence: {{{C}}}2{{{H}}}7{{N}}, {{{C}}}3{{{H}}}7{{N}}, and {{{C}}}3{{{H}}}9{{N}}. We employ high-level quantum chemical calculations to estimate accurate energies of all the species. According to enthalpies of formation, optimized energies, and expected intensity ratio, we found that ethylamine (precursor of glycine) from {{{C}}}2{{{H}}}7{{N}} isomeric group, (1Z)-1-propanimine from {{{C}}}3{{{H}}}7{{N}} isomeric group, and trimethylamine from {{{C}}}3{{{H}}}9{{N}} isomeric group are the most viable candidates for the future astronomical detection. Based on our quantum chemical calculations and from other approximations (from prevailing similar types of reactions), a complete set of reaction pathways to the synthesis of ethylamine and (1Z)-1-propanimine is prepared. Moreover, a large gas-grain chemical model is employed to study the presence of these species in the ISM. Our modeling results suggest that ethylamine and (1Z)-1-propanimine could efficiently be formed in hot-core regions and could be observed with present astronomical facilities. Radiative transfer modeling is also implemented to additionally aid their discovery in interstellar space.

  10. Connecting Galaxies, Halos, and Star Formation Rates Across Cosmic Time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conroy, Charlie; Wechsler, Risa H.


    A simple, observationally-motivated model is presented for understanding how halo masses, galaxy stellar masses, and star formation rates are related, and how these relations evolve with time. The relation between halo mass and galaxy stellar mass is determined by matching the observed spatial abundance of galaxies to the expected spatial abundance of halos at multiple epochs--i.e. more massive galaxies are assigned to more massive halos at each epoch. This 'abundance matching' technique has been shown previously to reproduce the observed luminosity- and scale-dependence of galaxy clustering over a range of epochs. Halos at different epochs are connected by halo mass accretion histories estimated from N-body simulations. The halo-galaxy connection at fixed epochs in conjunction with the connection between halos across time provides a connection between observed galaxies across time. With approximations for the impact of merging and accretion on the growth of galaxies, one can then directly infer the star formation histories of galaxies as a function of stellar and halo mass. This model is tuned to match both the observed evolution of the stellar mass function and the normalization of the observed star formation rate--stellar mass relation to z {approx} 1. The data demands, for example, that the star formation rate density is dominated by galaxies with M{sub star} {approx} 10{sup 10.0-10.5} M{sub {circle_dot}} from 0 < z < 1, and that such galaxies over these epochs reside in halos with M{sub vir} {approx} 10{sup 11.5-12.5} M{sub {circle_dot}}. The star formation rate--halo mass relation is approximately Gaussian over the range 0 < z < 1 with a mildly evolving mean and normalization. This model is then used to shed light on a number of issues, including (1) a clarification of 'downsizing', (2) the lack of a sharp characteristic halo mass at which star formation is truncated, and (3) the dominance of star formation over merging to the stellar

  11. Spectrum of Sprite Halos

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gordillo-Vázquez, F.J.; Luque, A.; Šimek, Milan


    Roč. 116, č. 9 (2011), A09319-A09319 ISSN 0148-0227 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : sprites * halos * spectroscopy Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.021, year: 2011

  12. Exploration of earth-abundant transition metals (Fe, Co, and Ni) as catalysts in unreactive chemical bond activations. (United States)

    Su, Bo; Cao, Zhi-Chao; Shi, Zhang-Jie


    Activation of inert chemical bonds, such as C-H, C-O, C-C, and so on, is a very important area, to which has been drawn much attention by chemists for a long time and which is viewed as one of the most ideal ways to produce valuable chemicals. Under modern chemical bond activation logic, many conventionally viewed "inert" chemical bonds that were intact under traditional conditions can be reconsidered as novel functionalities, which not only avoids the tedious synthetic procedures for prefunctionalizations and the emission of undesirable wastes but also inspires chemists to create novel synthetic strategies in completely different manners. Although activation of "inert" chemical bonds using stoichiometric amounts of transition metals has been reported in the past, much more attractive and challenging catalytic transformations began to blossom decades ago. Compared with the broad application of late and noble transition metals in this field, the earth-abundant first-row transition-metals, such as Fe, Co, and Ni, have become much more attractive, due to their obvious advantages, including high abundance on earth, low price, low or no toxicity, and unique catalytic characteristics. In this Account, we summarize our recent efforts toward Fe, Co, and Ni catalyzed "inert" chemical bond activation. Our research first unveiled the unique catalytic ability of iron catalysts in C-O bond activation of both carboxylates and benzyl alcohols in the presence of Grignard reagents. The benzylic C-H functionalization was also developed via Fe catalysis with different nucleophiles, including both electron-rich arenes and 1-aryl-vinyl acetates. Cobalt catalysts also showed their uniqueness in both aromatic C-H activation and C-O activation in the presence of Grignard reagents. We reported the first cobalt-catalyzed sp(2) C-H activation/arylation and alkylation of benzo[h]quinoline and phenylpyridine, in which a new catalytic pathway via an oxidative addition process was demonstrated

  13. Two distinct halo populations in the solar neighborhood. IV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, P. E.; Schuster, W. J.


    We investigate if there is a difference in the lithium abundances of stars belonging to two halo populations of F and G main-sequence stars previously found to differ in [alpha/Fe] for the metallicity range -1.4 ...-resolution spectra using MARCS model atmospheres. Furthermore, masses of the stars are determined from the logTeff - logg diagram by interpolating between Yonsei-Yale evolutionary tracks. There is no significant systematic difference in the lithium abundances of high- and low-alpha halo stars. For the large majority...

  14. Chemical abundances in the protoplanetary disc LV 2 (Orion): clues to the causes of the abundance anomaly in H II regions (United States)

    Tsamis, Y. G.; Walsh, J. R.; Vílchez, J. M.; Péquignot, D.


    Optical integral field spectroscopy of the archetype protoplanetary disc LV 2 in the Orion nebula is presented, taken with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) FLAMES/Argus fibre array. The detection of recombination lines (RLs) of C II and O II from this class of objects is reported, and the lines are utilized as abundance diagnostics. The study is complemented with the analysis of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Faint Object Spectrograph ultraviolet and optical spectra of the target contained within the Argus field of view. By subtracting the local nebula background the intrinsic spectrum of the proplyd is obtained and its elemental composition is derived for the first time. The proplyd is found to be overabundant in carbon, oxygen and neon compared to the Orion nebula and the Sun. The simultaneous coverage over LV 2 of the C III]λ1908 and [O III]λ5007 collisionally excited lines (CELs) and C II and O II RLs has enabled us to measure the abundances of C2 + and O2 + for LV 2 with both sets of lines. The two methods yield consistent results for the intrinsic proplyd spectrum, but not for the proplyd spectrum contaminated by the generic nebula spectrum, thus providing one example where the long-standing abundance anomaly plaguing metallicity studies of H II regions has been resolved. These results would indicate that the standard forbidden-line methods used in the derivation of light metal abundances in H II regions in our own and other galaxies underestimate the true gas metallicity.

  15. Tracking the LHC halo

    CERN Document Server

    Antonella Del Rosso


    In the LHC, beams of 25-ns-spaced proton bunches travel at almost the speed of light and pass through many different devices installed along the ring that monitor their properties. During their whirling motion, beam particles might interact with the collimation instrumentation or with residual gas in the vacuum chambers and this creates the beam halo – an annoying source of background for the physics data. Newly installed CMS sub-detectors are now able to monitor it.   The Beam Halo Monitors (BHM) are installed around the CMS rotating shielding. The BHM are designed and built by University of Minnesota, CERN, Princeton University, INFN Bologna and the National Technical University of Athens. (Image: Andrea Manna). The Beam Halo Monitor (BHM) is a set of 20 Cherenkov radiators – 10-cm-long quartz crystals – installed at each end of the huge CMS detector. Their design goal is to measure the particles that can cause the so-called “machine-induced...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10063 - Halo substituted hydroxy nitrophenyl amide (generic). (United States)


    ... amide (generic). 721.10063 Section 721.10063 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10063 Halo substituted hydroxy nitrophenyl amide (generic). (a) Chemical... as halo substituted hydroxy nitrophenyl amide (PMN P-04-792) is subject to reporting under this...

  17. Exsolution halos surrounding ruptured inclusions in garnets from UHT and UHP rocks (United States)

    Axler, Jennifer; Ague, Jay


    Distinctive halos of rutile ± apatite needles and/or plates centered on quartz or multiphase inclusions with radial cracks in garnet are investigated. The quartz is likely former coesite and the multiphase inclusions are interpreted to be decrepitated fluid inclusions. We study samples from two localities: (1) ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) metapelitic gneisses from the Central Maine Terrane in Connecticut, USA (Ague et al., 2013) (rutile halos only) and (2) ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) diamondiferous saidenbachite from the Saxonian Erzgebirge (Massonne, 2003) (rutile and apatite halos). The rutile and apatite needles in the halos are typically oriented in three directions. Within the halos, garnet is depleted in Ti (and P if apatite is present). The halos extend about three inclusion radii away from the central quartz or multiphase inclusions. We propose that the inclusion halos of rutile ± apatite formed by exsolution out of garnet due to rupturing of the central inclusions. The internal pressure of an inclusion in garnet can be larger than the surrounding lithostatic pressure if the entrapment pressure is maintained or if a large positive volume phase change occurs. A large pressure difference between an inclusion and host strains the host and causes deformation, which in turn produces dislocations and other defects. During exhumation the pressure difference between inclusions and the surrounding rock matrix can become so great that rupturing of the garnet occurs. The rupturing creates more dislocations and defects in the garnet with the dislocation density highest around the inclusion. The defects in the crystal structure are ideal nucleation sites for exsolved precipitates. Another factor assisting exsolution is the drop in pressure in the surrounding garnet caused by the rupturing which should in turn decrease the solubility of Ti and P in garnet. To test the exsolution hypothesis, chemical reintegration of the Ti or P contents of the garnet in the halos plus the

  18. Stellar Mass—Halo Mass Relation and Star Formation Efficiency in High-Mass Halos (United States)

    Kravtsov, A. V.; Vikhlinin, A. A.; Meshcheryakov, A. V.


    We study relation between stellar mass and halo mass for high-mass halos using a sample of galaxy clusters with accurate measurements of stellar masses from optical and ifrared data and total masses from X-ray observations. We find that stellar mass of the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) scales as M *,BCG ∝ M 500 αBCG with the best fit slope of α BCG ≈ 0.4 ± 0.1. We measure scatter of M *,BCG at a fixed M 500 of ≈0.2 dex. We show that stellar mass-halo mass relations from abundance matching or halo modelling reported in recent studies underestimate masses of BCGs by a factor of ˜2-4. We argue that this is because these studies used stellar mass functions (SMF) based on photometry that severely underestimates the outer surface brightness profiles of massive galaxies. We show that M * -M relation derived using abundance matching with the recent SMF calibration by Bernardi et al. (2013) based on improved photometry is in a much better agreement with the relation we derive via direct calibration for observed clusters. The total stellar mass of galaxies correlates with total mass M 500 with the slope of ≈0.6 ± 0.1 and scatter of 0.1 dex. This indicates that efficiency with which baryons are converted into stars decreases with increasing cluster mass. The low scatter is due to large contribution of satellite galaxies: the stellar mass in satellite galaxies correlates with M 500 with scatter of ≈0.1 dex and best fit slope of αsat ≈ 0.8 ± 0.1. We show that for a fixed choice of the initial mass function (IMF) total stellar fraction in clusters is only a factor of 3-5 lower than the peak stellar fraction reached in M ≈ 1012 M ⊙ halos. The difference is only a factor of ˜1.5-3 if the IMF becomes progressively more bottom heavy with increasing mass in early type galaxies, as indicated by recent observational analyses. This means that the overall efficiency of star formation in massive halos is only moderately suppressed compared to L * galaxies and

  19. Halo Emission of the Cat's Eye Nebula, NGC 6543 Shock Excitation by Fast Stellar Winds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siek Hyung


    Full Text Available Images taken with the Chandra X-ray telescope have for the the first time revealed the central, wind-driven, hot bubble (Chu et al. 2001, while Hubble Space Telescope (HST WFPC2 images of the Cat's Eye nebula, NGC 6543, show that the temperature of the halo region of angular radius ~ 20'', is much higher than that of the inner bright H II region. With the coupling of a photoionization calculation to a hydrodynamic simulation, we predict the observed [O III] line intensities of the halo region with the same O abundance as in the core H II region: oxygen abundance gradient does not appear to exist in the NGC 6543 inner halo. An interaction between a (leaky fast stellar wind and halo gas may cause the higher excitation temperatures in the halo region and the inner hot bubble region observed with the Chandra X-ray telescope.

  20. Constraining cosmic scatter in the Galactic halo through a differential analysis of metal-poor stars (United States)

    Reggiani, Henrique; Meléndez, Jorge; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Karakas, Amanda; Placco, Vinicius


    Context. The chemical abundances of metal-poor halo stars are important to understanding key aspects of Galactic formation and evolution. Aims: We aim to constrain Galactic chemical evolution with precise chemical abundances of metal-poor stars (-2.8 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ -1.5). Methods: Using high resolution and high S/N UVES spectra of 23 stars and employing the differential analysis technique we estimated stellar parameters and obtained precise LTE chemical abundances. Results: We present the abundances of Li, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, and Ba. The differential technique allowed us to obtain an unprecedented low level of scatter in our analysis, with standard deviations as low as 0.05 dex, and mean errors as low as 0.05 dex for [X/Fe]. Conclusions: By expanding our metallicity range with precise abundances from other works, we were able to precisely constrain Galactic chemical evolution models in a wide metallicity range (-3.6 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ -0.4). The agreements and discrepancies found are key for further improvement of both models and observations. We also show that the LTE analysis of Cr II is a much more reliable source of abundance for chromium, as Cr I has important NLTE effects. These effects can be clearly seen when we compare the observed abundances of Cr I and Cr II with GCE models. While Cr I has a clear disagreement between model and observations, Cr II is very well modeled. We confirm tight increasing trends of Co and Zn toward lower metallicities, and a tight flat evolution of Ni relative to Fe. Our results strongly suggest inhomogeneous enrichment from hypernovae. Our precise stellar parameters results in a low star-to-star scatter (0.04 dex) in the Li abundances of our sample, with a mean value about 0.4 dex lower than the prediction from standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis; we also study the relation between lithium depletion and stellar mass, but it is difficult to assess a correlation due to the limited mass range. We

  1. Cosmic web type dependence of halo clustering (United States)

    Fisher, J. D.; Faltenbacher, A.


    We use the Millennium Simulation to show that halo clustering varies significantly with cosmic web type. Haloes are classified as node, filament, sheet and void haloes based on the eigenvalue decomposition of the velocity shear tensor. The velocity field is sampled by the peculiar velocities of a fixed number of neighbouring haloes, and spatial derivatives are computed using a kernel borrowed from smoothed particle hydrodynamics. The classification scheme is used to examine the clustering of haloes as a function of web type for haloes with masses larger than 1011 h- 1 M⊙. We find that node haloes show positive bias, filament haloes show negligible bias and void and sheet haloes are antibiased independent of halo mass. Our findings suggest that the mass dependence of halo clustering is rooted in the composition of web types as a function of halo mass. The substantial fraction of node-type haloes for halo masses ≳ 2 × 1013 h- 1 M⊙ leads to positive bias. Filament-type haloes prevail at intermediate masses, 1012-1013 h- 1 M⊙, resulting in unbiased clustering. The large contribution of sheet-type haloes at low halo masses ≲ 1012 h- 1 M⊙ generates antibiasing.

  2. Black holes with halos (United States)

    Monten, Ruben; Toldo, Chiara


    We present new AdS4 black hole solutions in N =2 gauged supergravity coupled to vector and hypermultiplets. We focus on a particular consistent truncation of M-theory on the homogeneous Sasaki–Einstein seven-manifold M 111, characterized by the presence of one Betti vector multiplet. We numerically construct static and spherically symmetric black holes with electric and magnetic charges, corresponding to M2 and M5 branes wrapping non-contractible cycles of the internal manifold. The novel feature characterizing these nonzero temperature configurations is the presence of a massive vector field halo. Moreover, we verify the first law of black hole mechanics and we study the thermodynamics in the canonical ensemble. We analyze the behavior of the massive vector field condensate across the small-large black hole phase transition and we interpret the process in the dual field theory.

  3. The Diversity of Chemical Composition: The Impact of Stellar Abundances on the Evolution of Stars and Habitable Zones (United States)

    Truitt, Amanda R.; Young, Patrick A.


    I have investigated how stars of different mass and composition evolve, and how stellar evolution impacts the location of the habitable zone around a star. Current research into habitability of exoplanets focuses mostly on the concept of a “classical” HZ, the range of distances from a star over which liquid water could exist on a planet's surface. This is determined by the host star's luminosity and spectral characteristics; in order to gauge the habitability potential of a given system, both the evolutionary history and the detailed chemical characterization of the host star must be considered. With the ever-accelerating discovery of new exoplanets, it is imperative to develop a better understanding of what factors play a role in creating “habitable” conditions of a planet. I will discuss how stellar evolution is integral to how we define the HZ, and how this work will apply to the search for Earth-like planets in the future.I have developed a catalog of stellar evolution models for Sun-like stars with variable compositions; masses range from 0.1-1.2 Msol (spectral types M4-F4) at scaled metallicities (Z) of 0.1-1.5 Zsol, and O/Fe, C/Fe, and Mg/Fe values of 0.44-2.28, 0.58-1.72, and 0.54-1.84, respectively. I use a spread in abundance values based on observations of variability in nearby stars. It is important to understand how specific elements, not just total Z, impacts stellar lifetime. Time-dependent HZ boundaries are calculated for each track. I have also created a grid of M-dwarfs, and I am currently working to estimate stellar activity vs. age for each model.This catalog is meant to characterize potential host stars of interest. I have explored how to use existing observational data (i.e. Hypatia Catalog) for a more robust comparison to my grid of theoretical models, and I will discuss a new statistical analysis of the catalog to further refine our definition of “continuous” habitability. This work is an important step to assess whether a planet

  4. Dynamical Constraints On The Galaxy-Halo Connection (United States)

    Desmond, Harry


    Dark matter halos comprise the bulk of the universe's mass, yet must be probed by the luminous galaxies that form within them. A key goal of modern astrophysics, therefore, is to robustly relate the visible and dark mass, which to first order means relating the properties of galaxies and halos. This may be expected not only to improve our knowledge of galaxy formation, but also to enable high-precision cosmological tests using galaxies and hence maximise the utility of future galaxy surveys. As halos are inaccessible to observations - as galaxies are to N-body simulations - this relation requires an additional modelling step.The aim of this thesis is to develop and evaluate models of the galaxy-halo connection using observations of galaxy dynamics. In particular, I build empirical models based on the technique of halo abundance matching for five key dynamical scaling relations of galaxies - the Tully-Fisher, Faber-Jackson, mass-size and mass discrepancy-acceleration relations, and Fundamental Plane - which relate their baryon distributions and rotation or velocity dispersion profiles. I then develop a statistical scheme based on approximate Bayesian computation to compare the predicted and measured values of a number of summary statistics describing the relations' important features. This not only provides quantitative constraints on the free parameters of the models, but also allows absolute goodness-of-fit measures to be formulated. I find some features to be naturally accounted for by an abundance matching approach and others to impose new constraints on the galaxy-halo connection; the remainder are challenging to account for and may imply galaxy-halo correlations beyond the scope of basic abundance matching.Besides providing concrete statistical tests of specific galaxy formation theories, these results will be of use for guiding the inputs of empirical and semi-analytic galaxy formation models, which require galaxy-halo correlations to be imposed by hand. As

  5. Galactic Pal-eontology: abundance analysis of the disrupting globular cluster Palomar 5 (United States)

    Koch, Andreas; Côté, Patrick


    We present a chemical abundance analysis of the tidally disrupted globular cluster (GC) Palomar 5. By co-adding high-resolution spectra of 15 member stars from the cluster's main body, taken at low signal-to-noise with the Keck/HIRES spectrograph, we were able to measure integrated abundance ratios of 24 species of 20 elements including all major nucleosynthetic channels (namely the light element Na; α-elements Mg, Si, Ca, Ti; Fe-peak and heavy elements Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn; and the neutron-capture elements Y, Zr, Ba, La, Nd, Sm, Eu). The mean metallicity of -1.56 ± 0.02 ± 0.06 dex (statistical and systematic errors) agrees well with the values from individual, low-resolution measurements of individual stars, but it is lower than previous high-resolution results of a small number of stars in the literature. Comparison with Galactic halo stars and other disrupted and unperturbed GCs renders Pal 5 a typical representative of the Milky Way halo population, as has been noted before, emphasizing that the early chemical evolution of such clusters is decoupled from their later dynamical history. We also performed a test as to the detectability of light element variations in this co-added abundance analysis technique and found that this approach is not sensitive even in the presence of a broad range in sodium of 0.6 dex, a value typically found in the old halo GCs. Thus, while methods of determining the global abundance patterns of such objects are well suited to study their overall enrichment histories, chemical distinctions of their multiple stellar populations is still best obtained from measurements of individual stars. Full Table 3 is is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

  6. Neutron halos in hypernuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Lue, H F; Meng, J; Zhou, S G


    Properties of single-LAMBDA and double-LAMBDA hypernuclei for even-N Ca isotopes ranging from the proton dripline to the neutron dripline are studied using the relativistic continuum Hartree-Bogolyubov theory with a zero-range pairing interaction. Compared with ordinary nuclei, the addition of one or two LAMBDA-hyperons lowers the Fermi level. The predicted neutron dripline nuclei are, respectively, sup 7 sup 5 subLAMBDA Ca and sup 7 sup 6 sub 2 subLAMBDA Ca, as the additional attractive force provided by the LAMBDA-N interaction shifts nuclei from outside to inside the dripline. Therefore, the last bound hypernuclei have two more neutrons than the corresponding ordinary nuclei. Based on the analysis of two-neutron separation energies, neutron single-particle energy levels, the contribution of continuum and nucleon density distribution, giant halo phenomena due to the pairing correlation, and the contribution from the continuum are suggested to exist in Ca hypernuclei similar to those that appear in ordinary ...

  7. A simple multistage closed-(box+reservoir model of chemical evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimmi R.


    Full Text Available Simple closed-box (CB models of chemical evolution are extended on two respects, namely (i simple closed-(box+reservoir (CBR models allowing gas outflow from the box into the reservoir (Hartwick 1976 or gas inflow into the box from the reservoir (Caimmi 2007 with rate proportional to the star formation rate, and (ii simple multistage closed-(box+reservoir (MCBR models allowing different stages of evolution characterized by different inflow or outflow rates. The theoretical differential oxygen abundance distribution (TDOD predicted by the model maintains close to a continuous broken straight line. An application is made where a fictitious sample is built up from two distinct samples of halo stars and taken as representative of the inner Galactic halo. The related empirical differential oxygen abundance distribution (EDOD is represented, to an acceptable extent, as a continuous broken line for two viable [O/H]-[Fe/H] empirical relations. The slopes and the intercepts of the regression lines are determined, and then used as input parameters to MCBR models. Within the errors (-+σ, regression line slopes correspond to a large inflow during the earlier stage of evolution and to low or moderate outflow during the subsequent stages. A possible inner halo - outer (metal-poor bulge connection is also briefly discussed. Quantitative results cannot be considered for applications to the inner Galactic halo, unless selection effects and disk contamination are removed from halo samples, and discrepancies between different oxygen abundance determination methods are explained.

  8. An extremely primitive star in the Galactic halo. (United States)

    Caffau, Elisabetta; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; François, Patrick; Sbordone, Luca; Monaco, Lorenzo; Spite, Monique; Spite, François; Ludwig, Hans-G; Cayrel, Roger; Zaggia, Simone; Hammer, François; Randich, Sofia; Molaro, Paolo; Hill, Vanessa


    The early Universe had a chemical composition consisting of hydrogen, helium and traces of lithium; almost all other elements were subsequently created in stars and supernovae. The mass fraction of elements more massive than helium, Z, is known as 'metallicity'. A number of very metal-poor stars has been found, some of which have a low iron abundance but are rich in carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. For theoretical reasons and because of an observed absence of stars with Z enriched above a critical value of Z, estimated to lie in the range 1.5 × 10(-8) to 1.5 × 10(-6) (ref. 8), although competing theories claiming the contrary do exist. (We use 'low-mass' here to mean a stellar mass of less than 0.8 solar masses, the stars that survive to the present day.) Here we report the chemical composition of a star in the Galactic halo with a very low Z (≤ 6.9 × 10(-7), which is 4.5 × 10(-5) times that of the Sun) and a chemical pattern typical of classical extremely metal-poor stars--that is, without enrichment of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. This shows that low-mass stars can be formed at very low metallicity, that is, below the critical value of Z. Lithium is not detected, suggesting a low-metallicity extension of the previously observed trend in lithium depletion. Such lithium depletion implies that the stellar material must have experienced temperatures above two million kelvin in its history, given that this is necessary to destroy lithium.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deason, A. J.; Conroy, C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Wetzel, A. R. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Tinker, J. L., E-mail: [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10013 (United States)


    We investigate the use of the halo mass-gap statistic—defined as the logarithmic difference in mass between the host halo and its most massive satellite subhalo—as a probe of halo age and concentration. A cosmological N-body simulation is used to study N ∼ 25, 000 group/cluster-sized halos in the mass range 10{sup 12.5} < M{sub halo}/M{sub ☉} < 10{sup 14.5}. In agreement with previous work, we find that halo mass-gap is related to halo formation time and concentration. On average, older and more highly concentrated halos have larger halo mass-gaps, and this trend is stronger than the mass-concentration relation over a similar dynamic range. However, there is a large amount of scatter owing to the transitory nature of the satellite subhalo population, which limits the use of the halo mass-gap statistic on an object-by-object basis. For example, we find that 20% of very large halo mass-gap systems (akin to {sup f}ossil groups{sup )} are young and have likely experienced a recent merger between a massive satellite subhalo and the central subhalo. We relate halo mass-gap to the observable stellar mass-gap via abundance matching. Using a galaxy group catalog constructed from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, we find that the star formation and structural properties of galaxies at fixed mass show no trend with stellar mass-gap. This is despite a variation in halo age of ≈2.5 Gyr over ≈1.2 dex in stellar mass-gap. Thus, we find no evidence to suggest that the halo formation history significantly affects galaxy properties.

  10. Halo modelling in chameleon theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombriser, Lucas; Koyama, Kazuya [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Li, Baojiu, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Ogden Centre for Fundamental Physics, Department of Physics, University of Durham, Science Laboratories, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)


    We analyse modelling techniques for the large-scale structure formed in scalar-tensor theories of constant Brans-Dicke parameter which match the concordance model background expansion history and produce a chameleon suppression of the gravitational modification in high-density regions. Thereby, we use a mass and environment dependent chameleon spherical collapse model, the Sheth-Tormen halo mass function and linear halo bias, the Navarro-Frenk-White halo density profile, and the halo model. Furthermore, using the spherical collapse model, we extrapolate a chameleon mass-concentration scaling relation from a ΛCDM prescription calibrated to N-body simulations. We also provide constraints on the model parameters to ensure viability on local scales. We test our description of the halo mass function and nonlinear matter power spectrum against the respective observables extracted from large-volume and high-resolution N-body simulations in the limiting case of f(R) gravity, corresponding to a vanishing Brans-Dicke parameter. We find good agreement between the two; the halo model provides a good qualitative description of the shape of the relative enhancement of the f(R) matter power spectrum with respect to ΛCDM caused by the extra attractive gravitational force but fails to recover the correct amplitude. Introducing an effective linear power spectrum in the computation of the two-halo term to account for an underestimation of the chameleon suppression at intermediate scales in our approach, we accurately reproduce the measurements from the N-body simulations.

  11. Surface abundance and the hunt for stratification in chemically peculiar hot subdwarfs: PG 0909+276 and UVO 0512-08 (United States)

    Wild, J. F.; Jeffery, C. S.


    Edelmann identified two chemically peculiar hot subdwarfs, PG 0909+276 and UVO 0512-08, as having very high overabundances of iron-group elements. We obtained high-resolution ultraviolet spectroscopy in order to measure abundances of species not observable in the optical, and to seek evidence for chemical stratification in the photosphere. Abundances were measured in three wavelength regions; the optical 3900-6900 Å range was re-analysed to confirm consistency with that analysed by Edelmann. Ultraviolet spectra were obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope, covering the far-UV (1140-1740 Å) and the near-UV (1740-2500 Å). We computed a grid of theoretical local thermodynamic equilibrium spectra to find basic parameters (effective temperatures, surface gravity, surface hydrogen and helium fractions). We measured abundances using a spectral-synthesis approach in each wavelength range. We confirm that several iron-group metals are highly enriched, including cobalt, copper and zinc, relative to typical sdB stars. We detect gallium, germanium, tin and lead, similar to analysis of ultraviolet spectra of some other sdB stars. Our results confirm that PG 0909+276 and UVO 0512-08 exhibit peculiarities which make them distinct from both the normal H-rich sdB and intermediate He-rich sdB stars. The process which leads to this particular composition has still to be identified.

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Very metal poor stars in MW halo (Mashonkina+, 2017) (United States)

    Mashonkina, L.; Jablonka, P.; Sitnova, T.; Pakhomov, Yu; North, P.


    Tables 3 and 4 from the article are presented. They include the LTE and NLTE abundances from individual lines and average abundances of the investigated stars in the dSphs Sculptor (Scl), Ursa Minor (UMi), Fornax (Fnx), Sextans (Sex), Bootes I (Boo), UMa II, and Leo IV and the Milky Way (MW) halo. (3 data files).

  13. La abundancia de galaxias y halos de materia oscura en el universo CDM (United States)

    Abadi, M. G.; Benítez-Llambay, A.; Ferrero, I.

    A long-standing puzzle of CDM cosmological model concerns to the different shape of the galaxy stellar mass function and the halo mass function on dwarf galaxy scales. Dwarf galaxies are much less numerous than halos massive enough to host them; suggesting a complex non-linear relation between the mass of a galaxy and the mass of its surrounding halo. Usually; this is reconciled by appealing to baryonic processes that can reduce the efficiency of galaxy formation in low-mass halos. Recent work applying the abundance matching technique require that virtually no dwarf galaxies form in halos with virial mass below . We use rotation curves of dwarf galaxies compiled from the literature to explore whether their total enclosed mass is consistent with these constraints. Almost one-half of the dwarfs in our sample are at odds with this restriction; they are in halos with masses substantially below . Using a cosmological simulation of the formation of the Local Group of galaxies we found that ram-pressure stripping against the cosmic web removes baryons from low-mass halos without appealing to feedback or reionization. This mechanism may help to explain the scarcity of dwarf galaxies compared with the numerous low-mass halos expected in CDM and the large diversity of star formation histories and morphologies characteristic of faint galaxies. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  14. The f(Script R) halo mass function in the cosmic web (United States)

    von Braun-Bates, F.; Winther, H. A.; Alonso, D.; Devriendt, J.


    An important indicator of modified gravity is the effect of the local environment on halo properties. This paper examines the influence of the local tidal structure on the halo mass function, the halo orientation, spin and the concentration-mass relation. We use the excursion set formalism to produce a halo mass function conditional on large-scale structure. Our simple model agrees well with simulations on large scales at which the density field is linear or weakly non-linear. Beyond this, our principal result is that f(Script R) does affect halo abundances, the halo spin parameter and the concentration-mass relationship in an environment-independent way, whereas we find no appreciable deviation from \\text{ΛCDM} for the mass function with fixed environment density, nor the alignment of the orientation and spin vectors of the halo to the eigenvectors of the local cosmic web. There is a general trend for greater deviation from \\text{ΛCDM} in underdense environments and for high-mass haloes, as expected from chameleon screening.

  15. The chemical abundances of the stellar populations in the Leo I and II dSph galaxies (United States)

    Bosler, Tammy L.; Smecker-Hane, Tammy A.; Stetson, Peter B.


    We have obtained calcium abundances and radial velocities for 102 red giant branch (RGB) stars in the Leo I dwarf spheroidal galaxy (dSph) and 74 RGB stars in the Leo II dSph using the low-resolution spectrograph (LRIS) on the Keck I 10-m telescope. We report on the calcium abundances [Ca/H] derived from the strengths of the CaII triplet absorption lines at 8498, 8542 and 8662 Å in the stellar spectra using a new empirical CaII triplet calibration to [Ca/H]. The two galaxies have different average [Ca/H] values of -1.34 +/- 0.02 for Leo I and -1.65 +/- 0.02 for Leo II with intrinsic abundance dispersions of 1.2 and 1.0 dex, respectively. The typical random and total errors in derived abundances are 0.10 and 0.17 dex per star. For comparison to the existing literature, we also converted our CaII measurements to [Fe/H] on the scale of Carretta and Gratton (1997) though we discuss why this may not be the best determinant of metallicity; Leo I has a mean [Fe/H] = -1.34 and Leo II has a mean [Fe/H] = -1.59. The metallicity distribution function of Leo I is approximately Gaussian in shape with an excess at the metal-rich end, while that of Leo II shows an abrupt cut-off at the metal-rich end. The lower mean metallicity of Leo II is consistent with the fact that it has a lower luminosity, hence lower the total mass than Leo I; thus, the evolution of Leo II may have been affected more by mass lost in galactic winds. Our direct and independent measurement of the metallicity distributions in these dSph will allow a more accurate star-formation histories to be derived from future analysis of their colour-magnitude diagrams(CMDs). Data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. E

  16. Galaxy models with live halos

    CERN Document Server

    Sellwood, J A


    Computer models of galaxies are described, in which the disc stars and the halo stars are both treated fully self consistently. These were used to test the validity of the 'rigid halo' approximation usually employed when studying the instabilities of a disc of stars. The models show that very little interaction between the populations occurs while the disc remains nearly axisymmetric, but a strong bar is able to transfer angular momentum from the disc to the halo. The global bar stability of the disc is not greatly affected by the interaction between the two stellar populations, and it is found that a large fraction of the total galactic mass is still required in the spheroidal component if bar formation is to be prevented. (36 refs).

  17. Two groups of red giants with distinct chemical abundances in the bulge globular cluster NGC 6553 through the eyes of APOGEE (United States)

    Tang, Baitian; Cohen, Roger E.; Geisler, Doug; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Majewski, Steven R.; Villanova, Sandro; Carrera, Ricardo; Zamora, Olga; Garcia-Hernandez, D. A.; Shetrone, Matthew; Frinchaboy, Peter; Meza, Andres; Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; Muñoz, Ricardo R.; Lin, Chien-Cheng; Lane, Richard R.; Nitschelm, Christian; Pan, Kaike; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Oravetz, Daniel; Simmons, Audrey


    Multiple populations revealed in globular clusters (GCs) are important windows to the formation and evolution of these stellar systems. The metal-rich GCs in the Galactic bulge are an indispensable part of this picture, but the high optical extinction in this region has prevented extensive research. In this work, we use the high-resolution near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic data from Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) to study the chemical abundances of NGC 6553, which is one of the most metal-rich bulge GCs. We identify 10 red giants as cluster members using their positions, radial velocities, iron abundances, and NIR photometry. Our sample stars show a mean radial velocity of -0.14 ± 5.47 km s-1, and a mean [Fe/H] of -0.15 ± 0.05. We clearly separate two populations of stars in C and N in this GC for the first time. NGC 6553 is the most metal-rich GC where the multiple stellar population phenomenon is found until now. Substantial chemical variations are also found in Na, O, and Al. However, the two populations show similar Si, Ca, and iron-peak element abundances. Therefore, we infer that the CNO, NeNa, and MgAl cycles have been activated, but the MgAl cycle is too weak to show its effect on Mg. Type Ia and Type II supernovae do not seem to have significantly polluted the second generation stars. Comparing with other GC studies, NGC 6553 shows similar chemical variations as other relatively metal-rich GCs. We also confront current GC formation theories with our results, and suggest possible avenues for improvement in the models.

  18. Halo-free Phase Contrast Microscopy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tan H Nguyen; Mikhail Kandel; Haadi M Shakir; Catherine Best-popescu; Jyothi Arikkath; Minh N Do; Gabriel Popescu


    We present a new approach for retrieving halo-free phase contrast microscopy (hfPC) images by upgrading the conventional PC microscope with an external interferometric module, which generates sufficient data for reversing the halo artifact...

  19. The influence of halo evolution on galaxy structure (United States)

    White, Simon


    If Einstein-Newton gravity holds on galactic and larger scales, then current observations demonstrate that the stars and interstellar gas of a typical bright galaxy account for only a few percent of its total nonlinear mass. Dark matter makes up the rest and cannot be faint stars or any other baryonic form because it was already present and decoupled from the radiation plasma at z = 1000, long before any nonlinear object formed. The weak gravito-sonic waves so precisely measured by CMB observations are detected again at z = 4 as order unity fluctuations in intergalactic matter. These subsequently collapse to form today's galaxy/halo systems, whose mean mass profiles can be accurately determined through gravitational lensing. High-resolution simulations link the observed dark matter structures seen at all these epochs, demonstrating that they are consistent and providing detailed predictions for all aspects of halo structure and growth. Requiring consistency with the abundance and clustering of real galaxies strongly constrains the galaxy-halo relation, both today and at high redshift. This results in detailed predictions for galaxy assembly histories and for the gravitational arena in which galaxies live. Dark halos are not expected to be passive or symmetric but to have a rich and continually evolving structure which will drive evolution in the central galaxy over its full life, exciting warps, spiral patterns and tidal arms, thickening disks, producing rings, bars and bulges. Their growth is closely related to the provision of new gas for galaxy building.

  20. Mergers and mass accretion for infalling halos both end well outside cluster virial radii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behroozi, Peter S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Lu, Yu; Hahn, Oliver; Busha, Michael T.; Klypin, Anatoly; Primack, Joel R.


    We find that infalling dark matter halos (i.e., the progenitors of satellite halos) begin losing mass well outside the virial radius of their eventual host halos. The peak mass occurs at a range of clustercentric distances, with median and 68th percentile range of $1.8^{+2.3}_{-1.0} \\,R_\\mathrm{vir,host}$ for progenitors of z = 0 satellites. The peak circular velocity for infalling halos occurs at significantly larger distances ($3.7^{+3.3}_{-2.2} \\,R_\\mathrm{vir,host}$ at z = 0). This difference arises because different physical processes set peak circular velocity (typically, ~1:5 and larger mergers which cause transient circular velocity spikes) and peak mass (typically, smooth accretion) for infalling halos. We find that infalling halos also stop having significant mergers well before they enter the virial radius of their eventual hosts. Mergers larger than a 1:40 ratio in halo mass end for infalling halos at similar clustercentric distances (~1.9 R vir, host) as the end of overall mass accretion. However, mergers larger than 1:3 typically end for infalling halos at more than four virial radial away from their eventual hosts. This limits the ability of mergers to affect quenching and morphology changes in clusters. We also note that the transient spikes which set peak circular velocity may lead to issues with abundance matching on that parameter, including unphysical galaxy stellar mass growth profiles near clusters; we propose a simple observational test to check if a better halo proxy for galaxy stellar mass exists.

  1. ZOMG - II. Does the halo assembly history influence central galaxies and gas accretion? (United States)

    Romano-Díaz, Emilio; Garaldi, Enrico; Borzyszkowski, Mikolaj; Porciani, Cristiano


    The growth rate and the internal dynamics of galaxy-sized dark-matter haloes depend on their location within the cosmic web. Haloes that sit at the nodes grow in mass till the present time and are dominated by radial orbits. Conversely, haloes embedded in prominent filaments do not change much in size and are dominated by tangential orbits. Using zoom hydrodynamical simulations including star formation and feedback, we study how gas accretes on to these different classes of objects, which, for simplicity, we dub 'accreting' and 'stalled' haloes. We find that all haloes get a fresh supply of newly accreted gas in their inner regions, although this slowly decreases with time, in particular for the stalled haloes. The inflow of new gas is always higher than (but comparable with) that of recycled material. Overall, the cold-gas fraction increases (decreases) with time for the accreting (stalled) haloes. In all cases, a stellar disc and a bulge form at the centre of the simulated haloes. The total stellar mass is in excellent agreement with expectations based on the abundance-matching technique. Many properties of the central galaxies do not seem to correlate with the large-scale environment in which the haloes reside. However, there are two notable exceptions that characterize stalled haloes with respect to their accreting counterparts: (I) The galaxy disc contains much older stellar populations. (II) Its vertical scaleheight is larger by a factor of 2 or more. This thickening is likely due to the heating of the long-lived discs by mergers and close flybys.

  2. The source, discharge, and chemical characteristics of selected springs, and the abundance and health of associated endemic anuran species in the Mojave network parks (United States)

    Schroeder, Roy A.; Smith, Gregory A.; Martin, Peter; Flint, Alan L.; Gallegos, Elizabeth; Fisher, Robert N.; Martin, Peter; Schroeder, Roy A.


    Hydrological and biological investigations were done during 2005 and 2006 in cooperation with the U.S. National Park Service to investigate the source, discharge, and chemical characteristics of selected springs and the abundance and health of endemic anuran (frog and toad) species at Darwin Falls in Death Valley National Park, Piute Spring in Mojave National Preserve, and Fortynine Palms Oasis in Joshua Tree National Park. Discharge from the springs at these sites sustains isolated riparian habitats in the normally dry Mojave Desert. Data were collected on water quantity (discharge) and quality, air and water temperature, and abundance and health of endemic anuran species. In addition, a single survey of the abundance and health of endemic anuran species was completed at Rattlesnake Canyon in Joshua Tree National Park. Results from this study were compared to limited historical data, where they exist, and can provide a baseline for future hydrological and biological investigations to evaluate the health and sustainability of the resource and its response to changing climate and increasing human use.

  3. Chemical, Physical, and zooplankton abundance/biomass data collected using several instruments in the Coastal Waters of California as a part of the California Cooperative Fisheries Investigation (CALCOFI) project, from 07 January 2000 to 01 July 2000 (NODC Accession 0000298) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, and zooplankton abundance/biomass data were collected using secchi disk, zooplankton net, current meter (ADCP), bottle, and CTD casts in the...

  4. Visibility of halos and rainbows. (United States)

    Gedzelman, S D


    A theory for the visibility of halos and rainbows is presented. The light reaching the observer's eye from the direction of the halo or rainbow is assumed to consist of two parts: (1) a beam of singly scattered sunlight (or moonlight) from a cloud of ice crystals or a rainswath, which, in turn, has suffered depletion by scattering or absorption in its passage to the observer, and (2) the general background brightness. The model is able to account for several long-known qualitative observations concerning halos, namely, that the brightest halos are produced by optically thin cirrostratus clouds (i.e., for which the cloud optical depth tau(c), rainbow the brightness of the beam increases monotonically with the optical depth tau(R) of the sunlit part of the rainswath, but the increase is quite small for tau(R) >/=1. On the other hand, the brightness of the background increases more rapidly with tau(R) for tau(R)> 1 so that the rainbow appears most easily visible for tau(R) less, similar1. This implies that the most easily visible rainbows are produced by light or moderate showers rather than heavy downpours. Finally, suggestions are made for applying the theory to other atmospheric optical phenomena, such as coronas and glories.

  5. Halo Mitigation Using Nonlinear Lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Sonnad, Kiran G


    This work shows that halos in beams with space charge effects can be controlled by combining nonlinear focusing and collimation. The study relies on Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations for a one dimensional, continuous focusing model. The PIC simulation results show that nonlinear focusing leads to damping of the beam oscillations thereby reducing the mismatch. It is well established that reduced mismatch leads to reduced halo formation. However, the nonlinear damping is accompanied by emittance growth causing the beam to spread in phase space. As a result, inducing nonlinear damping alone cannot help mitigate the halo. To compensate for this expansion in phase space, the beam is collimated in the simulation and further evolution of the beam shows that the halo is not regenerated. The focusing model used in the PIC is analysed using the Lie Transform perturbation theory showing that by averaging over a lattice period, one can reuduce the focusing force to a form that is identical to that used in the PIC simula...

  6. Terminal carbohydrates abundance, immune related enzymes, bactericidal activity and physico-chemical parameters of the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis, Kaup) skin mucus. (United States)

    Guardiola, Francisco A; Cuartero, María; Del Mar Collado-González, María; Díaz Baños, F Guillermo; Cuesta, Alberto; Moriñigo, Miguel Ángel; Esteban, M Ángeles


    Recently, interest in mucosal surfaces, more specifically fish skin and its secreted mucus, has greatly increased among immunologists. The abundance of terminal carbohydrates, several enzymes (proteases, lysozyme, peroxidase, alkaline phosphatase, esterases and ceruloplasmin), bactericidal activity against fish pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria and several physico-chemical parameters (protein concentration, pH, conductivity, redox potential, osmolarity, density and viscosity) in the skin mucus of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis, Kaup) have been evaluated. Present results evidence the abundance of N-acetylneuraminic acid, mannose, glucose and N-acetyl-galactosamine in skin mucus. The levels of lysozyme, proteases, esterases and alkaline phosphatase were very similar (from 20 to 30 Units mg-1 protein). However, 93 Units mg-1 protein were detected of ceruloplasmin and only 4'88 Units mg-1 protein of peroxidase. Skin mucus of S. senegalensis showed high bactericidal activity against the tested pathogen bacteria but weak activity against non-pathogenic bacteria. Finally, a clear relationship between mucus density and temperature was detected, while viscosity showed a direct shear- and temperature-dependent behaviour. These results could be useful for better understanding the role of the skin mucus as a key component of the innate immune system, as well as, for elucidating possible relationships between biological and physico-chemical parameters and disease susceptibility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Phytoplankton Composition and Abundance in Restored Maltański Reservoir under the Influence of Physico-Chemical Variables and Zooplankton Grazing Pressure (United States)

    Kozak, Anna; Gołdyn, Ryszard; Dondajewska, Renata


    In this paper we present the effects of environmental factors and zooplankton food pressure on phytoplankton in the restored man-made Maltański Reservoir (MR). Two methods of restoration: biomanipulation and phosphorus inactivation have been applied in the reservoir. Nine taxonomical groups of phytoplankton represented in total by 183 taxa were stated there. The richest groups in respect of taxa number were green algae, cyanobacteria and diatoms. The diatoms, cryptophytes, chrysophytes, cyanobacteria, green algae and euglenophytes dominated in terms of abundance and/or biomass. There were significant changes among environmental parameters resulting from restoration measures which influenced the phytoplankton populations in the reservoir. These measures led to a decrease of phosphorus concentration due to its chemical inactivation and enhanced zooplankton grazing as a result of planktivorous fish stocking. The aim of the study is to analyse the reaction of phytoplankton to the restoration measures and, most importantly, to determine the extent to which the qualitative and quantitative composition of phytoplankton depends on variables changing under the influence of restoration in comparison with other environmental variables. We stated that application of restoration methods did cause significant changes in phytoplankton community structure. The abundance of most phytoplankton taxa was negatively correlated with large zooplankton filter feeders, and positively with zooplankton predators and concentrations of ammonium nitrogen and partly of phosphates. However, restoration was insufficient in the case of decreasing phytoplankton abundance. The effects of restoration treatments were of less importance for the abundance of phytoplankton than parameters that were independent of the restoration. This was due to the continuous inflow of large loads of nutrients from the area of the river catchment. PMID:25906352

  8. Chemical abundances of 1111 FGK stars from the HARPS GTO planet search program. II. Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, Ce, Nd, and Eu (United States)

    Delgado Mena, E.; Tsantaki, M.; Adibekyan, V. Zh.; Sousa, S. G.; Santos, N. C.; González Hernández, J. I.; Israelian, G.


    Aims: To understand the formation and evolution of the different stellar populations within our Galaxy it is essential to combine detailed kinematical and chemical information for large samples of stars. The aim of this work is to explore the chemical abundances of neutron capture elements which are a product of different nucleosynthesis processes taking place in diverse objects in the Galaxy, such as massive stars, asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and supernovae (SNe) explosions. Methods: We derive chemical abundances of Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, Ce, Nd, and Eu for a large sample of more than 1000 FGK dwarf stars with high-resolution (R 115 000) and high-quality spectra from the HARPS-GTO program. The abundances are derived by a standard local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) analysis using measured equivalent widths (EWs) injected to the code MOOG and a grid of Kurucz ATLAS9 atmospheres. Results: We find that thick disc stars are chemically disjunct for Zn and Eu and also show on average higher Zr but lower Ba and Y than the thin disc stars. We also discovered that the previously identified high-α metal-rich population is also enhanced in Cu, Zn, Nd, and Eu with respect to the thin disc but presents lower Ba and Y abundances on average, following the trend of thick disc stars towards higher metallities and further supporting the different chemical composition of this population. By making a qualitative comparison of O (pure α), Mg, Eu (pure r-process), and s-process elements we can distinguish between the contribution of the more massive stars (SNe II for α and r-process elements) and the lower mass stars (AGBs) whose contribution to the enrichment of the Galaxy is delayed, due to their longer lifetimes. The ratio of heavy-s to light-s elements of thin disc stars presents the expected behaviour (increasing towards lower metallicities) and can be explained by a major contribution of low-mass AGB stars for s-process production at disc metallicities. However, the

  9. Following the Cosmic Evolution of Pristine Gas. I. Implications for Milky Way Halo Stars (United States)

    Sarmento, Richard; Scannapieco, Evan; Pan, Liubin


    We make use of a new subgrid model of turbulent mixing to accurately follow the cosmological evolution of the first stars, the mixing of their supernova (SN) ejecta, and the impact on the chemical composition of the Galactic Halo. Using the cosmological adaptive mesh refinement code ramses, we implement a model for the pollution of pristine gas as described in Pan et al. Tracking the metallicity of Pop III stars with metallicities below a critical value allows us to account for the fraction of Zmetallicity is well above {Z}{crit}. We demonstrate that such partially mixed regions account for 0.5 to 0.7 of all Pop III stars formed up to z = 5. Additionally, we track the creation and transport of “primordial metals” (PM) generated by Pop III SNe. These neutron-capture deficient metals are taken up by second-generation stars and likely lead to unique abundance signatures characteristic of carbon-enhanced, metal-poor (CEMP-no) stars. As an illustrative example, we associate primordial metals with abundance ratios used by Keller et al. to explain the source of metals in the star SMSS J031300.36-670839.3, finding good agreement with the observed [Fe/H], [C/H], [O/H], and [Mg/Ca] ratios in CEMP-no Milky Way halo stars. Similar future simulations will aid in further constraining the properties of Pop III stars using CEMP observations, as well as improve predictions of the spatial distribution of Pop III stars, as will be explored by the next generation of ground- and space-based telescopes.

  10. The Peculiar Behavior of Halo Coronal Mass Ejections in Solar Cycle 24 (United States)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Xie, H.; Akiyama, S.; Makela, P.; Yashiro, S.; Michalek, G.


    We report on the remarkable finding that the halo coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in cycle 24 are more abundant than in cycle 23, although the sunspot number in cycle 24 has dropped by approx. 40%. We also find that the distribution of halo-CME source locations is different in cycle 24: the longitude distribution of halos is much flatter with the number of halos originating at a central meridian distance greater than or equal to 60deg twice as large as that in cycle 23. On the other hand, the average speed and associated soft X-ray flare size are the same in both cycles, suggesting that the ambient medium into which the CMEs are ejected is significantly different. We suggest that both the higher abundance and larger central meridian longitudes of halo CMEs can be explained as a consequence of the diminished total pressure in the heliosphere in cycle 24. The reduced total pressure allows CMEs to expand more than usual making them appear as halos.

  11. Computational and statistical analyses of amino acid usage and physico-chemical properties of the twelve late embryogenesis abundant protein classes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Jaspard

    Full Text Available Late Embryogenesis Abundant Proteins (LEAPs are ubiquitous proteins expected to play major roles in desiccation tolerance. Little is known about their structure - function relationships because of the scarcity of 3-D structures for LEAPs. The previous building of LEAPdb, a database dedicated to LEAPs from plants and other organisms, led to the classification of 710 LEAPs into 12 non-overlapping classes with distinct properties. Using this resource, numerous physico-chemical properties of LEAPs and amino acid usage by LEAPs have been computed and statistically analyzed, revealing distinctive features for each class. This unprecedented analysis allowed a rigorous characterization of the 12 LEAP classes, which differed also in multiple structural and physico-chemical features. Although most LEAPs can be predicted as intrinsically disordered proteins, the analysis indicates that LEAP class 7 (PF03168 and probably LEAP class 11 (PF04927 are natively folded proteins. This study thus provides a detailed description of the structural properties of this protein family opening the path toward further LEAP structure - function analysis. Finally, since each LEAP class can be clearly characterized by a unique set of physico-chemical properties, this will allow development of software to predict proteins as LEAPs.

  12. Changes in physico-chemical conditions and macrophyte abundance in a shallow soft-water lake mediated by a Great Cormorant roosting colony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Klimaszyk


    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of the Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis L. roosting colony on the physico-chemical conditions and macrophyte abundance in a shallow soft-water lobelia lake. We compared data collected in 1998 and 2009, before and after 9 years the establishment of a bird colony (2000 along the shoreline of the Lake Dołgie Wielkie (Poland, Europe. Additionally, soils and groundwater beneath the roosting colony were analyzed to evaluate the potential loads of nutrients conveyed to the lake through bird feces. Significant changes in the water quality of the lake were observed in terms of decreased water transparency, and increased conductivity, nitrogen, phosphorus and chlorophyll-a content. Abundance of the more sensitive macrophytes (Littorella uniflora and Myriophyllum alterniflorum also decreased. At the same time, the occurrence of new, typically meso- and eutrophic macrophytes such as Myriophyllum spicatum and C. demersum was recorded. Soils beneath the bird roosting area were characterized by over 100 fold higher concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus comparing to not impacted littoral area. Increased nutrient content was also found in the groundwater below the bird colony. The present results suggest that the establishment of the Cormorants colony increases the trophic state of a soft-water lake and affects its macrophyte assemblages.

  13. The Chemical Abundance Structure of the Inner Milky Way: A Signature of “Upside-down” Disk Formation (United States)

    Freudenburg, Jenna K. C.; Weinberg, David H.; Hayden, Michael R.; Holtzman, Jon A.


    We present a model for the [α /{Fe}]{--}[{Fe}/{{H}}] distribution of stars in the inner Galaxy, 3 {kpc}thick disk formation, in which the thickness of the star-forming gas layer contracts as the stellar mass of the disk grows, we combine one-zone chemical evolution with a simple prescription in which the scale-height of the stellar distribution drops linearly from {z}h=0.8 {kpc} to {z}h=0.2 {kpc} over a timescale t c , remaining constant thereafter. We assume a linear-exponential star formation history, {\\dot{M}}* (t)\\propto {{te}}-t/{t{sf}}. With a star formation efficiency timescale {τ }* ={M}g(t)/{\\dot{M}}* (t)=2 {Gyr}, an outflow mass-loading factor η ={\\dot{M}}{out}(t)/{\\dot{M}}* (t)=1.5, {t}{sf}=3 {Gyr}, and {t}c=2.5 {Gyr}, the model reproduces the observed locus of inner disk stars in [α /{Fe}]{--}[{Fe}/{{H}}] and the metallicity distribution functions (MDFs) measured by H15 at | z| =0{--}0.5 {kpc}, 0.5{--}1 {kpc}, and 1{--}2 {kpc}. Substantial changes to model parameters lead to disagreement with the H15 data; for example, models with {t}c=1 {Gyr} or {t}{sf}=1 {Gyr} fail to match the observed MDF at high-| z| and low-| z| , respectively. The inferred scale-height evolution, with z h (t) dropping on a timescale {t}c∼ {t}{sf} at large lookback times, favors upside-down formation over dynamical heating of an initially thin stellar population as the primary mechanism regulating disk thickness. The failure of our short-t c models suggests that any model in which thick disk formation is a discrete event will not reproduce the continuous dependence of the MDF on | z| found by H15. Our scenario for the evolution of the inner disk can be tested by future measurements of the | z| -distribution and the age–metallicity distribution at R=3{--}5 {kpc}.

  14. The halo mass function from the dark ages through the present day (United States)

    Reed, Darren S.; Bower, Richard; Frenk, Carlos S.; Jenkins, Adrian; Theuns, Tom


    We use an array of high-resolution N-body simulations to determine the mass function of dark matter haloes at redshifts 10-30. We develop a new method for compensating for the effects of finite simulation volume that allows us to find an approximation to the true `global' mass function. By simulating a wide range of volumes at different mass resolution, we calculate the abundance of haloes of mass 105-12h-1Msolar. This enables us to predict accurately the abundance of the haloes that host the sources that reionize the Universe. In particular, we focus on the small mass haloes (>~105.5-6h-1Msolar) likely to harbour Population III stars where gas cools by molecular hydrogen emission, early galaxies in which baryons cool by atomic hydrogen emission at a virial temperature of ~104K (~107.5-8 h-1Msolar), and massive galaxies that may be observable at redshift ~10. When we combine our data with simulations that include high-mass haloes at low redshift, we find that the best fit to the halo mass function depends not only on the linear overdensity, as is commonly assumed in analytic models, but also on the slope of the linear power spectrum at the scale of the halo mass. The Press-Schechter model gives a poor fit to the halo mass function in the simulations at all epochs; the Sheth-Tormen model gives a better match, but still overpredicts the abundance of rare objects at all times by up to 50 per cent. Finally, we consider the consequences of the recently released WMAP 3-yr cosmological parameters. These lead to much less structure at high redshift, reducing the number of z = 10 `mini-haloes' by more than a factor of two and the number of z = 30 galaxy hosts by nearly four orders of magnitude. Code to generate our best-fitting halo mass function may be downloaded from

  15. Comparative study on composition and abundance of major planktons and physico-chemical characteristics among two ponds and Lake Tana, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wondie Zelalem Amanu


    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the difference in physico-chemical characteristics, composition and abundance of plankton communities owing to the supplementary feed added in fish ponds as compared to Lake Tana. Methods: Physico-chemical and biological data of plankton were collected from 3 studied sites from November 2008 to October 2009. Data were compared using One-way ANOVA to see the difference among sites. Diversity indices such as Margalef's index, Shannon-Wiener index, and evenness index were employed to describe the distribution of plankton community among the studied sites. Results: The pH value was remarkably higher in ponds water. However, conductivity and total dissolved solids were the highest in lake water. Nitrate concentration was relatively high in ponds. Zooplankton species richness was higher in lake water than ponds. The lake also had the highest mean value of both Shannon-Wiener index and evenness index in phytoplankton. Conclusions: The results revealed that the supplementary feed added to each pond had influence on nutrient content which enhanced algal biomass and productivity of the ponds. However, the pond water has to be regularly refreshed to control eutrophication.

  16. Unbound particles in dark matter halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behroozi, Peter S.; Loeb, Abraham; Wechsler, Risa H.


    We investigate unbound dark matter particles in halos by tracing particle trajectories in a simulation run to the far future (a = 100). We find that the traditional sum of kinetic and potential energies is a very poor predictor of which dark matter particles will eventually become unbound from halos. We also study the mass fraction of unbound particles, which increases strongly towards the edges of halos, and decreases significantly at higher redshifts. We discuss implications for dark matter detection experiments, precision calibrations of the halo mass function, the use of baryon fractions to constrain dark energy, and searches for intergalactic supernovae.

  17. Halo scale predictions of symmetron modified gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clampitt, Joseph; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Khoury, Justin, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Center for Particle Cosmology and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd St., Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)


    We offer predictions of symmetron modified gravity in the neighborhood of realistic dark matter halos. The predictions for the fifth force are obtained by solving the nonlinear symmetron equation of motion in the spherical NFW approximation. In addition, we compare the three major known screening mechanisms: Vainshtein, Chameleon, and Symmetron around such dark matter halos, emphasizing the significant differences between them and highlighting observational tests which exploit these differences. Finally, we demonstrate the host halo environmental screening effect (''blanket screening'') on smaller satellite halos by solving for the modified forces around a density profile which is the sum of satellite and approximate host components.

  18. Labelling HaloTag Fusion Proteins with HaloTag Ligand in Living Cells. (United States)

    Duc, Huy Nguyen; Ren, Xiaojun


    HaloTag has been widely used to label proteins in vitro and in vivo (Los et al., 2008). In this protocol, we describe labelling HaloTag-Cbx fusion proteins by HaloTag ligands for live-cell single-molecule imaging (Zhen et al., 2016).

  19. Labelling HaloTag Fusion Proteins with HaloTag Ligand in Living Cells


    Duc, Huy Nguyen; Ren, Xiaojun


    HaloTag has been widely used to label proteins in vitro and in vivo (Los et al., 2008). In this protocol, we describe labelling HaloTag-Cbx fusion proteins by HaloTag ligands for live-cell single-molecule imaging (Zhen et al., 2016).

  20. Dwarf Galaxies in Voids: Dark Matter Halos and Gas Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Hoeft


    Full Text Available Galaxy surveys have shown that luminous galaxies are mainly distributed in large filaments and galaxy clusters. The remaining large volumes are virtually devoid of luminous galaxies. This is in concordance with the formation of the large-scale structure in the universe as derived from cosmological simulations. However, the numerical results indicate that cosmological voids are abundantly populated with dark matter haloes which may in principle host dwarf galaxies. Observational efforts have in contrast revealed that voids are apparently devoid of dwarf galaxies. We investigate the formation of dwarf galaxies in voids by hydrodynamical cosmological simulations. Due to the cosmic ultraviolet background radiation low-mass haloes show generally a reduced baryon fraction. We determine the characteristic mass below which dwarf galaxies are baryon deficient. We show that the circular velocity below which the accretion of baryons is suppressed is approximately 40 kms−1. The suppressed baryon accretion is caused by the photo-heating due to the UV background. We set up a spherical halo model and show that the effective equation of the state of the gas in the periphery of dwarf galaxies determines the characteristic mass. This implies that any process which heats the gas around dwarf galaxies increases the characteristic mass and thus reduces the number of observable dwarf galaxies.

  1. UARS Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) Level 2 V001 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The HALOE home page on the WWW is The Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) on NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite...

  2. Using frequency maps to explore the distribution function of the Milky Way stellar halo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valluri M.


    Full Text Available Resolved surveys of the Milky Way's stellar halo can obtain all 6 phase space coordinates of tens of thousands of individual stars, making it possible to compute their 3-dimensional orbits. When frequency mapping is applied to such orbits they also represent the underlying phase space distribution function since the orbits that the are drawn from 3. A frequency maps clearly separates out the major types of orbits that constitute the DF and their relative abundances. The structure of the frequency maps, especially the locations of resonant orbits, reflects the formation history and shape of the dark matter potential and its orientation relative to the disk. The application of frequency analysis to cosmological hydrodynamic simulations of disk galaxies shows that the orbital families occupied by halo stars and dark matter particles are very similar, implying that stellar halo orbits can be used to constrain the DF of the dark matter halo, possibly impacting the interpretation of results from direct dark matter detection experiments. An application of these methods to a sample of ~ 16,000 Milky Way halo and thick disk stars from the SDSS-SEGUE survey yields a frequency map with strong evidence for resonant trapping of halo stars by the Milky Way disk, in a manner predicted by controlled simulations in which the disk grows adiabatically. The application of frequency analysis methods to current and future phase space data for Milky Way halo stars will provide new insights into the formation history of the different components of the Galaxy and the DF of the halo.

  3. Studying dark matter haloes with weak lensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velander, Malin Barbro Margareta


    Our Universe is comprised not only of normal matter but also of unknown components: dark matter and dark energy. This Thesis recounts studies of dark matter haloes, using a technique known as weak gravitational lensing, in order to learn more about the nature of these dark components. The haloes

  4. Analytical halo model of galactic conformity (United States)

    Pahwa, Isha; Paranjape, Aseem


    We present a fully analytical halo model of colour-dependent clustering that incorporates the effects of galactic conformity in a halo occupation distribution framework. The model, based on our previous numerical work, describes conformity through a correlation between the colour of a galaxy and the concentration of its parent halo, leading to a correlation between central and satellite galaxy colours at fixed halo mass. The strength of the correlation is set by a tunable 'group quenching efficiency', and the model can separately describe group-level correlations between galaxy colour (1-halo conformity) and large-scale correlations induced by assembly bias (2-halo conformity). We validate our analytical results using clustering measurements in mock galaxy catalogues, finding that the model is accurate at the 10-20 per cent level for a wide range of luminosities and length-scales. We apply the formalism to interpret the colour-dependent clustering of galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We find good overall agreement between the data and a model that has 1-halo conformity at a level consistent with previous results based on an SDSS group catalogue, although the clustering data require satellites to be redder than suggested by the group catalogue. Within our modelling uncertainties, however, we do not find strong evidence of 2-halo conformity driven by assembly bias in SDSS clustering.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    We propose a form for dark haloes that embodies the fundamental aspect of Milgrom's modified dynamics (MOND): the discrepancy between the visible mass and the Newtonian dynamical mass appears below a critical acceleration. This is a halo having a density distribution, at least to several tens of

  6. Galactic stellar haloes in the CDM model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooper, A. P.; Cole, S.; Frenk, C. S.; White, S. D. M.; Helly, J.; Benson, A. J.; De Lucia, G.; Helmi, A.; Jenkins, A.; Navarro, J. F.; Springel, V.; Wang, J.


    We present six simulations of galactic stellar haloes formed by the tidal disruption of accreted dwarf galaxies in a fully cosmological setting. Our model is based on the Aquarius project, a suite of high-resolution N-body simulations of individual dark matter haloes. We tag subsets of particles in

  7. WFIRST: Surveying galactic halos within 10Mpc (United States)

    Courtney, Sol; Johnston, Kathryn; Sanderson, Robyn; WINGS Team


    Three aims of a WFIRST Infrared Nearby Galaxy Survey (WINGS) of stellar halos are: (i) to look at the global properties of the halos (e.g. radial profile and total content); (ii) to find and interpret structures that are signatures of accretion histories (including luminosity functions, merger rates and orbits); (iii) to find features at widest possible separations in order to constrain the distribution of dark matter. For all of the above purposes, the halos should be observed to the greatest radial extent possible. The extent to which this is possible or interesting will depend on expected densities of the stellar halos as well as contamination by background galaxies at faint magnitudes. This study “observes" the Bullock/Johnston stellar halo models as a guide for these expectations.

  8. Halo assembly bias and the tidal anisotropy of the local halo environment (United States)

    Paranjape, Aseem; Hahn, Oliver; Sheth, Ravi K.


    We study the role of the local tidal environment in determining the assembly bias of dark matter haloes. Previous results suggest that the anisotropy of a halo's environment (i.e, whether it lies in a filament or in a more isotropic region) can play a significant role in determining the eventual mass and age of the halo. We statistically isolate this effect using correlations between the large-scale and small-scale environments of simulated haloes at z = 0 with masses between 1011.6 ≲ (m/h-1M⊙) ≲ 1014.9. We probe the large-scale environment using a novel halo-by-halo estimator of linear bias. For the small-scale environment, we identify a variable αR that captures the tidal anisotropy in a region of radius R = 4R200b around the halo and correlates strongly with halo bias at fixed mass. Segregating haloes by αR reveals two distinct populations. Haloes in highly isotropic local environments (αR ≲ 0.2) behave as expected from the simplest, spherically averaged analytical models of structure formation, showing a negative correlation between their concentration and large-scale bias at all masses. In contrast, haloes in anisotropic, filament-like environments (αR ≳ 0.5) tend to show a positive correlation between bias and concentration at any mass. Our multi-scale analysis cleanly demonstrates how the overall assembly bias trend across halo mass emerges as an average over these different halo populations, and provides valuable insights towards building analytical models that correctly incorporate assembly bias. We also discuss potential implications for the nature and detectability of galaxy assembly bias.

  9. O and Fe abundance correlations and distributions inferred for the thick and thin disk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimmi R.


    Full Text Available A linear [Fe/H]-[O/H] relation is found for different stellar populations in the Galaxy (halo, thick disk, thin disk from a data sample obtained in a recent investigation (Ramґırez et al. 2013. These correlations support previous results inferred from poorer samples: stars display a “main sequence” expressed as [Fe/H] = a[O/H] + b -+ Δb where the unit slope, a = 1, implies a constant [O/Fe] abundance ratio. Oxygen and iron empirical abundance distributions are then determined for different subsamples, which are well explained by the theoretical predictions of multistage closed-(box+reservoir (MCBR chemical evolution models taking into account the found correlations. The interpretation of these distributions in the framework of MCBR models gives us clues about inflow/outflow rates in these different Galactic regions and their corresponding evolution. Outflow rates for the thick and the thin disks are lower than the halo outflow rate. Besides that, the iron-to-oxygen yield ratio and the primary to not primary contribution ratio for the iron production are obtained from the data, resulting consistent with the SNII progenitor nucleosynthesis and with the iron production from SNIa supernova events.

  10. Dark matter haloes: a multistream view (United States)

    Ramachandra, Nesar S.; Shandarin, Sergei F.


    Mysterious dark matter constitutes about 85 per cent of all masses in the Universe. Clustering of dark matter plays a dominant role in the formation of all observed structures on scales from a fraction to a few hundreds of Mega-parsecs. Galaxies play a role of lights illuminating these structures so they can be observed. The observations in the last several decades have unveiled opulent geometry of these structures currently known as the cosmic web. Haloes are the highest concentrations of dark matter and host luminous galaxies. Currently the most accurate modelling of dark matter haloes is achieved in cosmological N-body simulations. Identifying the haloes from the distribution of particles in N-body simulations is one of the problems attracting both considerable interest and efforts. We propose a novel framework for detecting potential dark matter haloes using the field unique for dark matter-multistream field. The multistream field emerges at the non-linear stage of the growth of perturbations because the dark matter is collisionless. Counting the number of velocity streams in gravitational collapses supplements our knowledge of spatial clustering. We assume that the virialized haloes have convex boundaries. Closed and convex regions of the multistream field are hence isolated by imposing a positivity condition on all three eigenvalues of the Hessian estimated on the smoothed multistream field. In a single-scale analysis of high multistream field resolution and low softening length, the halo substructures with local multistream maxima are isolated as individual halo sites.

  11. Effective field theory description of halo nuclei (United States)

    Hammer, H.-W.; Ji, C.; Phillips, D. R.


    Nuclear halos emerge as new degrees of freedom near the neutron and proton driplines. They consist of a core and one or a few nucleons which spend most of their time in the classically-forbidden region outside the range of the interaction. Individual nucleons inside the core are thus unresolved in the halo configuration, and the low-energy effective interactions are short-range forces between the core and the valence nucleons. Similar phenomena occur in clusters of 4He atoms, cold atomic gases near a Feshbach resonance, and some exotic hadrons. In these weakly-bound quantum systems universal scaling laws for s-wave binding emerge that are independent of the details of the interaction. Effective field theory (EFT) exposes these correlations and permits the calculation of non-universal corrections to them due to short-distance effects, as well as the extension of these ideas to systems involving the Coulomb interaction and/or binding in higher angular-momentum channels. Halo nuclei exhibit all these features. Halo EFT, the EFT for halo nuclei, has been used to compute the properties of single-neutron, two-neutron, and single-proton halos of s-wave and p-wave type. This review summarizes these results for halo binding energies, radii, Coulomb dissociation, and radiative capture, as well as the connection of these properties to scattering parameters, thereby elucidating the universal correlations between all these observables. We also discuss how Halo EFT's encoding of the long-distance physics of halo nuclei can be used to check and extend ab initio calculations that include detailed modeling of their short-distance dynamics.

  12. Degradation of HaloTag-fused nuclear proteins using bestatin-HaloTag ligand hybrid molecules. (United States)

    Tomoshige, Shusuke; Naito, Mikihiko; Hashimoto, Yuichi; Ishikawa, Minoru


    We have developed a protein knockdown technology using hybrid small molecules designed as conjugates of a ligand for the target protein and a ligand for ubiquitin ligase cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (cIAP1). However, this technology has several limitations. Here, we report the development of a novel protein knockdown system to address these limitations. In this system, target proteins are fused with HaloTag to provide a common binding site for a degradation inducer. We designed and synthesized small molecules consisting of alkyl chloride as the HaloTag-binding degradation inducer, which binds to HaloTag, linked to BE04 (2), which binds to cIAP1. Using this system, we successfully knocked down HaloTag-fused cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 (HaloTag-CREB1) and HaloTag-fused c-jun (HaloTag-c-jun), which are ligand-unknown nuclear proteins, in living cells. HaloTag-binding degradation inducers can be synthesized easily, and are expected to be useful as biological tools for pan-degradation of HaloTag-fused proteins.

  13. The Dark Halo of the Milky Way

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Charles Alcock


    .... This dark matter is distributed in space differently than the stars, forming a vast, diffuse halo, more spherical than disklike, which occupies more than 1000 times the volume of the disk of stars...

  14. Exact Relativistic Magnetized Haloes around Rotating Disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio C. Gutiérrez-Piñeres


    Full Text Available The study of the dynamics of magnetic fields in galaxies is one of important problems in formation and evolution of galaxies. In this paper, we present the exact relativistic treatment of a rotating disk surrounded by a magnetized material halo. The features of the halo and disk are described by the distributional energy-momentum tensor of a general fluid in canonical form. All the relevant quantities and the metric and electromagnetic potentials are exactly determined by an arbitrary harmonic function only. For instance, the generalized Kuzmin-disk potential is used. The particular class of solutions obtained is asymptotically flat and satisfies all the energy conditions. Moreover, the motion of a charged particle on the halo is described. As far as we know, this is the first relativistic model describing analytically the magnetized halo of a rotating disk.

  15. Simulating rainbows and halos in color. (United States)

    Gedzelman, S D


    Geometric optics rainbows and ice-crystal halos that include some effects of a Rayleigh-scattering atmosphere and a cloud of finite optical thickness are simulated in color by the use of a Monte Carlo approach.

  16. Spatial Clustering of Dark Matter Haloes: Secondary Bias, Neighbour Bias, and the Influence of Massive Neighbours on Halo Properties (United States)

    Salcedo, Andrés N.; Maller, Ariyeh H.; Berlind, Andreas A.; Sinha, Manodeep; McBride, Cameron K.; Behroozi, Peter S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Weinberg, David H.


    We explore the phenomenon commonly known as halo assembly bias, whereby dark matter haloes of the same mass are found to be more or less clustered when a second halo property is considered, for haloes in the mass range 3.7 × 1011 h-1 M⊙ - 5.0 × 1013 h-1 M⊙. Using the Large Suite of Dark Matter Simulations (LasDamas) we consider nine commonly used halo properties and find that a clustering bias exists if haloes are binned by mass or by any other halo property. This secondary bias implies that no single halo property encompasses all the spatial clustering information of the halo population. The mean values of some halo properties depend on their halo's distance to a more massive neighbour. Halo samples selected by having high values of one of these properties therefore inherit a neighbour bias such that they are much more likely to be close to a much more massive neighbour. This neighbour bias largely accounts for the secondary bias seen in haloes binned by mass and split by concentration or age. However, haloes binned by other mass-like properties still show a secondary bias even when the neighbour bias is removed. The secondary bias of haloes selected by their spin behaves differently than that for other halo properties, suggesting that the origin of the spin bias is different than of other secondary biases.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, Brian D.; O’Shea, Brian W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Beers, Timothy C. [Department of Physics and JINA—Center for the Evolution of the Elements, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Tumlinson, Jason, E-mail: [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)


    This paper presents the first results from a model for chemical evolution that can be applied to N-body cosmological simulations and quantitatively compared to measured stellar abundances from large astronomical surveys. This model convolves the chemical yield sets from a range of stellar nucleosynthesis calculations (including asymptotic giant branch stars, Type Ia and II supernovae, and stellar wind models) with a user-specified stellar initial mass function (IMF) and metallicity to calculate the time-dependent chemical evolution model for a “simple stellar population” (SSP) of uniform metallicity and formation time. These SSP models are combined with a semianalytic model for galaxy formation and evolution that uses merger trees from N-body cosmological simulations to track several α- and iron-peak elements for the stellar and multiphase interstellar medium components of several thousand galaxies in the early (z ≥ 6) universe. The simulated galaxy population is then quantitatively compared to two complementary data sets of abundances in the Milky Way stellar halo and is capable of reproducing many of the observed abundance trends. The observed abundance ratio distributions are best reproduced with a Chabrier IMF, a chemically enriched star formation efficiency of 0.2, and a redshift of reionization of 7. Many abundances are qualitatively well matched by our model, but our model consistently overpredicts the carbon-enhanced fraction of stars at low metallicities, likely owing to incomplete coverage of Population III stellar yields and supernova models and the lack of dust as a component of our model.

  18. Nanomechanics of HaloTag tethers. (United States)

    Popa, Ionel; Berkovich, Ronen; Alegre-Cebollada, Jorge; Badilla, Carmen L; Rivas-Pardo, Jaime Andrés; Taniguchi, Yukinori; Kawakami, Masaru; Fernandez, Julio M


    The active site of the Haloalkane Dehydrogenase (HaloTag) enzyme can be covalently attached to a chloroalkane ligand providing a mechanically strong tether, resistant to large pulling forces. Here we demonstrate the covalent tethering of protein L and I27 polyproteins between an atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilever and a glass surface using HaloTag anchoring at one end and thiol chemistry at the other end. Covalent tethering is unambiguously confirmed by the observation of full length polyprotein unfolding, combined with high detachment forces that range up to ∼2000 pN. We use these covalently anchored polyproteins to study the remarkable mechanical properties of HaloTag proteins. We show that the force that triggers unfolding of the HaloTag protein exhibits a 4-fold increase, from 131 to 491 pN, when the direction of the applied force is changed from the C-terminus to the N-terminus. Force-clamp experiments reveal that unfolding of the HaloTag protein is twice as sensitive to pulling force compared to protein L and refolds at a slower rate. We show how these properties allow for the long-term observation of protein folding-unfolding cycles at high forces, without interference from the HaloTag tether.

  19. New views of the distant stellar halo (United States)

    Sanderson, Robyn E.; Secunda, Amy; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Bochanski, John J.


    Currently, only a small number of Milky Way (MW) stars are known to exist beyond 100 kpc from the Galactic Centre. Though the distribution of these stars in the outer halo is believed to be sparse, they can provide evidence of more recent accretion events than in the inner halo and help map out the MW's dark matter halo to its virial radius. We have re-examined the outermost regions of 11 existing stellar halo models with two synthetic surveys: one mimicking present-day searches for distant M giants and another mimicking RR Lyra (RRL) projections for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). Our models suggest that colour and proper motion cuts currently used to select M giant candidates for follow-up successfully remove nearly all self-contamination from foreground halo dwarf stars and are useful for focusing observations on distant M giants, of which there are thousands to tens of thousands beyond 100 kpc in our models. We likewise expect that LSST will identify comparable numbers of RRLe at these distances. We demonstrate that several observable properties of both tracers, such as proximity of neighbouring stars, proper motions and distances (for RRLe), could help us separate different accreted dwarf galaxies from one another in the distant MW halo. We also discuss prospects for using ratios of M giants to RRLe as a proxy for accretion time, which in the future could provide new constraints on the recent accretion history of our Galaxy.

  20. RR Lyrae to understand the Galactic halo (United States)

    Fiorentino, Giuliana


    We present recent results obtained using old variable RR Lyrae stars on the Galactic halo structure and its connection with nearby dwarf galaxies. We compare the period and period-amplitude distributions for a sizeable sample of fundamental mode RR Lyrae stars (RRab) in dwarf spheroidals (~1300 stars) with those in the Galactic halo (~16'000 stars) and globular clusters (~1000 stars). RRab in dwarfs -as observed today- do not appear to follow the pulsation properties shown by those in the Galactic halo, nor they have the same properties as RRab in globulars. Thanks to the OGLE experiment we extended our comparison to massive metal-rich satellites like the dwarf irregular Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and the Sagittarius (Sgr) dwarf spheroidal. These massive and more metal-rich stellar systems likely have contributed to the Galactic halo formation more than classical dwarf spheroidals. Finally, exploiting the intrinsic nature of RR Lyrae as distance indicators we were able to study the period and period amplitude distributions of RRab within the Halo. It turned out that the inner and the outer Halo do show a difference that may suggest a different formation scenario (in situ vs accreted).

  1. HaloTag is an effective expression and solubilisation fusion partner for a range of fibroblast growth factors. (United States)

    Sun, Changye; Li, Yong; Taylor, Sarah E; Mao, Xianqing; Wilkinson, Mark C; Fernig, David G


    The production of recombinant proteins such as the fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) is the key to establishing their function in cell communication. The production of recombinant FGFs in E. coli is limited, however, due to expression and solubility problems. HaloTag has been used as a fusion protein to introduce a genetically-encoded means for chemical conjugation of probes. We have expressed 11 FGF proteins with an N-terminal HaloTag, followed by a tobacco etch virus (TEV) protease cleavage site to allow release of the FGF protein. These were purified by heparin-affinity chromatography, and in some instances by further ion-exchange chromatography. It was found that HaloTag did not adversely affect the expression of FGF1 and FGF10, both of which expressed well as soluble proteins. The N-terminal HaloTag fusion was found to enhance the expression and yield of FGF2, FGF3 and FGF7. Moreover, whereas FGF6, FGF8, FGF16, FGF17, FGF20 and FGF22 were only expressed as insoluble proteins, their N-terminal HaloTag fusion counterparts (Halo-FGFs) were soluble, and could be successfully purified. However, cleavage of Halo-FGF6, -FGF8 and -FGF22 with TEV resulted in aggregation of the FGF protein. Measurement of phosphorylation of p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase and of cell growth demonstrated that the HaloTag fusion proteins were biologically active. Thus, HaloTag provides a means to enhance the expression of soluble recombinant proteins, in addition to providing a chemical genetics route for covalent tagging of proteins.

  2. HaloTag is an effective expression and solubilisation fusion partner for a range of fibroblast growth factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changye Sun


    Full Text Available The production of recombinant proteins such as the fibroblast growth factors (FGFs is the key to establishing their function in cell communication. The production of recombinant FGFs in E. coli is limited, however, due to expression and solubility problems. HaloTag has been used as a fusion protein to introduce a genetically-encoded means for chemical conjugation of probes. We have expressed 11 FGF proteins with an N-terminal HaloTag, followed by a tobacco etch virus (TEV protease cleavage site to allow release of the FGF protein. These were purified by heparin-affinity chromatography, and in some instances by further ion-exchange chromatography. It was found that HaloTag did not adversely affect the expression of FGF1 and FGF10, both of which expressed well as soluble proteins. The N-terminal HaloTag fusion was found to enhance the expression and yield of FGF2, FGF3 and FGF7. Moreover, whereas FGF6, FGF8, FGF16, FGF17, FGF20 and FGF22 were only expressed as insoluble proteins, their N-terminal HaloTag fusion counterparts (Halo-FGFs were soluble, and could be successfully purified. However, cleavage of Halo-FGF6, -FGF8 and -FGF22 with TEV resulted in aggregation of the FGF protein. Measurement of phosphorylation of p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase and of cell growth demonstrated that the HaloTag fusion proteins were biologically active. Thus, HaloTag provides a means to enhance the expression of soluble recombinant proteins, in addition to providing a chemical genetics route for covalent tagging of proteins.

  3. Statistics of dark matter substructure - III. Halo-to-halo variance (United States)

    Jiang, Fangzhou; van den Bosch, Frank C.


    We present a study of unprecedented statistical power regarding the halo-to-halo variance of dark matter substructure. Combining N-body simulations and a semi-analytical model, we investigate the variance in subhalo mass fractions and occupation numbers, with an emphasis on their halo-formation-time dependence. We show that the average subhalo mass fraction, fsub, is mainly a function of halo formation time: at fixed formation redshift, the average subhalo mass fraction is virtually independent of halo mass and the mass dependence of fsub therefore mainly manifests the later assembly of more massive haloes. We note that the observational constraints on fsub from gravitational lensing are substantially higher than the median Λcold dark matter predictions, yet marginally lie within the 95th percentile when the halo-to-halo variance is considered. The halo occupation number distribution of subhaloes, P(Nsub|Mhalo), in addition to the well-known super-Poissonity for large 〈Nsub〉, is sub-Poissonian for 〈Nsub〉 ≲ 2. Ignoring this results in systematic errors of the predicted clustering of galaxies of a few percent, with a complicated scale- and luminosity dependence. The non-Poissonity is likely imprinted at accretion, and the dynamical evolution of subhaloes drives the statistics towards Poissonian. Contrary to a recent claim, the non-Poissonity of subhalo occupation statistics does not vanish by selecting haloes with fixed mass and fixed formation redshift. Finally, we use subhalo occupation statistics to put loose constraints on the mass and formation redshift of the Milky Way halo.

  4. Connecting massive galaxies to dark matter haloes in BOSS - I. Is galaxy colour a stochastic process in high-mass haloes? (United States)

    Saito, Shun; Leauthaud, Alexie; Hearin, Andrew P.; Bundy, Kevin; Zentner, Andrew R.; Behroozi, Peter S.; Reid, Beth A.; Sinha, Manodeep; Coupon, Jean; Tinker, Jeremy L.; White, Martin; Schneider, Donald P.


    We use subhalo abundance matching (SHAM) to model the stellar mass function (SMF) and clustering of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) `CMASS' sample at z ˜ 0.5. We introduce a novel method which accounts for the stellar mass incompleteness of CMASS as a function of redshift, and produce CMASS mock catalogues which include selection effects, reproduce the overall SMF, the projected two-point correlation function wp, the CMASS dn/dz, and are made publicly available. We study the effects of assembly bias above collapse mass in the context of `age matching' and show that these effects are markedly different compared to the ones explored by Hearin et al. at lower stellar masses. We construct two models, one in which galaxy colour is stochastic (`AbM' model) as well as a model which contains assembly bias effects (`AgM' model). By confronting the redshift dependent clustering of CMASS with the predictions from our model, we argue that that galaxy colours are not a stochastic process in high-mass haloes. Our results suggest that the colours of galaxies in high-mass haloes are determined by other halo properties besides halo peak velocity and that assembly bias effects play an important role in determining the clustering properties of this sample.

  5. A Comprehensive Analysis of Uncertainties Affecting the Stellar Mass-Halo Mass Relation for 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behroozi, Peter S.; Conroy, Charlie; Wechsler, Risa H.


    We conduct a comprehensive analysis of the relationship between central galaxies and their host dark matter halos, as characterized by the stellar mass - halo mass (SM-HM) relation, with rigorous consideration of uncertainties. Our analysis focuses on results from the abundance matching technique, which assumes that every dark matter halo or subhalo above a specific mass threshold hosts one galaxy. We provide a robust estimate of the SM-HM relation for 0 < z < 1 and discuss the quantitative effects of uncertainties in observed galaxy stellar mass functions (GSMFs) (including stellar mass estimates and counting uncertainties), halo mass functions (including cosmology and uncertainties from substructure), and the abundance matching technique used to link galaxies to halos (including scatter in this connection). Our analysis results in a robust estimate of the SM-HM relation and its evolution from z=0 to z=4. The shape and evolution are well constrained for z < 1. The largest uncertainties at these redshifts are due to stellar mass estimates (0.25 dex uncertainty in normalization); however, failure to account for scatter in stellar masses at fixed halo mass can lead to errors of similar magnitude in the SM-HM relation for central galaxies in massive halos. We also investigate the SM-HM relation to z = 4, although the shape of the relation at higher redshifts remains fairly unconstrained when uncertainties are taken into account. We find that the integrated star formation at a given halo mass peaks at 10-20% of available baryons for all redshifts from 0 to 4. This peak occurs at a halo mass of 7 x 10{sup 11} M{sub {circle_dot}} at z = 0 and this mass increases by a factor of 5 to z = 4. At lower and higher masses, star formation is substantially less efficient, with stellar mass scaling as M{sub *} {approx} M{sub h}{sup 2.3} at low masses and M{sub *} {approx} M{sub h}{sup 0.29} at high masses. The typical stellar mass for halos with mass less than 10{sup 12} M

  6. Gravitationally Consistent Halo Catalogs and Merger Trees for Precision Cosmology (United States)

    Behroozi, Peter S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Wu, Hao-Yi; Busha, Michael T.; Klypin, Anatoly A.; Primack, Joel R.


    We present a new algorithm for generating merger trees and halo catalogs which explicitly ensures consistency of halo properties (mass, position, and velocity) across time steps. Our algorithm has demonstrated the ability to improve both the completeness (through detecting and inserting otherwise missing halos) and purity (through detecting and removing spurious objects) of both merger trees and halo catalogs. In addition, our method is able to robustly measure the self-consistency of halo finders; it is the first to directly measure the uncertainties in halo positions, halo velocities, and the halo mass function for a given halo finder based on consistency between snapshots in cosmological simulations. We use this algorithm to generate merger trees for two large simulations (Bolshoi and Consuelo) and evaluate two halo finders (ROCKSTAR and BDM). We find that both the ROCKSTAR and BDM halo finders track halos extremely well; in both, the number of halos which do not have physically consistent progenitors is at the 1%-2% level across all halo masses. Our code is publicly available at Our trees and catalogs are publicly available at

  7. Revealing the Cosmic Web-dependent Halo Bias (United States)

    Yang, Xiaohu; Zhang, Youcai; Lu, Tianhuan; Wang, Huiyuan; Shi, Feng; Tweed, Dylan; Li, Shijie; Luo, Wentao; Lu, Yi; Yang, Lei


    Halo bias is the one of the key ingredients of the halo models. It was shown at a given redshift to be only dependent, to the first order, on the halo mass. In this study, four types of cosmic web environments—clusters, filaments, sheets, and voids—are defined within a state-of-the-art high-resolution N-body simulation. Within these environments, we use both halo-dark matter cross correlation and halo-halo autocorrelation functions to probe the clustering properties of halos. The nature of the halo bias differs strongly between the four different cosmic web environments described here. With respect to the overall population, halos in clusters have significantly lower biases in the {10}11.0˜ {10}13.5 {h}-1 {M}⊙ mass range. In other environments, however, halos show extremely enhanced biases up to a factor 10 in voids for halos of mass ˜ {10}12.0 {h}-1 {M}⊙ . Such a strong cosmic web environment dependence in the halo bias may play an important role in future cosmological and galaxy formation studies. Within this cosmic web framework, the age dependency of halo bias is found to be only significant in clusters and filaments for relatively small halos ≲ {10}12.5 {h}-1 {M}⊙ .

  8. Interaction of cosmic rays with cold clouds in galactic haloes (United States)

    Wiener, Joshua; Oh, S. Peng; Zweibel, Ellen G.


    We investigate the effects of cosmic ray (CR) dynamics on cold, dense clouds embedded in a hot, tenuous galactic halo. If the magnetic field does not increase too much inside the cloud, the local reduction in Alfvén speed imposes a bottleneck on CRs streaming out from the star-forming galactic disc. The bottleneck flattens the upstream CR gradient in the hot gas, implying that multiphase structure could have global effects on CR-driven winds. A large CR pressure gradient can also develop on the outward-facing edge of the cloud. This pressure gradient has two independent effects. The CRs push the cloud upwards, imparting it with momentum. On smaller scales, the CRs pressurize cold gas in the fronts, reducing its density, consistent with the low densities of cold gas inferred in recent Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) observations of local L* galaxies. They also heat the material at the cloud edge, broadening the cloud-halo interface and causing an observable change in interface ionic abundances. Due to the much weaker temperature dependence of CR heating relative to thermal-conductive heating, CR mediated fronts have a higher ratio of low-to-high ions compared to conduction fronts, in better agreement with observations. We investigate these effects separately using 1D simulations and analytic techniques.

  9. Electric Properties of One-Neutron Halo Nuclei in Halo EFT (United States)

    Braun, Jonas; Hammer, Hans-Werner


    We exploit the separation of scales in weakly-bound nuclei to compute E2 transitions and electric form factors in a halo effective field theory (EFT) framework. The relevant degrees of freedom are the core and the halo neutron. The EFT expansion is carried out in powers of R_{core}/R_{halo}, where R_{core} and R_{halo} denote the length scales of the core and halo, respectively. We include the strong s-wave and d-wave interactions by introducing dimer fields. The dimer propagators are regulated by employing the power divergence subtraction scheme and matched to the effective range expansion in the respective channel. Electromagnetic interactions are included via minimal substitution in the Lagrangian. We demonstrate that, depending on the observable and respective partial wave, additional local gauge-invariant operators contribute in LO, NLO and higher orders.

  10. Dependence of halo bias on mass and environment (United States)

    Shi, Jingjing; Sheth, Ravi K.


    The simplest analyses of halo bias assume that halo mass alone determines halo clustering. However, if the large-scale environment is fixed, then halo clustering is almost entirely determined by environment, and is almost completely independent of halo mass. We show why. Our analysis is useful for studies that use the environmental dependence of clustering to constrain cosmological and galaxy formation models. It also shows why many correlations between galaxy properties and environment are merely consequences of the underlying correlations between haloes and their environments, and provides a framework for quantifying such inherited correlations.

  11. On the building blocks of the M31 and Milky Way halos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monelli Matteo


    Full Text Available We discuss the formation of the halo of M31 and the Milky Way as traced by the population of RR Lyrae stars, in comparison with the population of such stars preent in satellite dwarf galaxies. We find that both halos and the massive dwarf host a population of high amplitude short period RRab stars, absent in low-mass dwarfs. These stars are explained as the metal-rich tail of the RR Lyrae distribution ([Fe/H] ∼ - 1.5, and thus their existence imply fast chemical enrichment in the host system. Their presence in both halos implies that massive building blocks had an important role in their formation.

  12. The relationship between galaxy and dark matter halo size from z ˜ 3 to the present (United States)

    Somerville, Rachel S.; Behroozi, Peter; Pandya, Viraj; Dekel, Avishai; Faber, S. M.; Fontana, Adriano; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Koo, David C.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Primack, Joel R.; Santini, Paola; Taylor, Edward N.; van der Wel, Arjen


    We explore empirical constraints on the statistical relationship between the radial size of galaxies and the radius of their host dark matter haloes from z ∼ 0.1-3 using the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) and Cosmic Assembly Near Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) surveys. We map dark matter halo mass to galaxy stellar mass using relationships from abundance matching, applied to the Bolshoi-Planck dissipationless N-body simulation. We define SRHR ≡ re/Rh as the ratio of galaxy radius to halo virial radius, and SRHRλ ≡ re/(λRh) as the ratio of galaxy radius to halo spin parameter times halo radius. At z ∼ 0.1, we find an average value of SRHR ≃ 0.018 and SRHRλ ≃ 0.5 with very little dependence on stellar mass. Stellar radius-halo radius (SRHR) and SRHRλ have a weak dependence on cosmic time since z ∼ 3. SRHR shows a mild decrease over cosmic time for low-mass galaxies, but increases slightly or does not evolve for more massive galaxies. We find hints that at high redshift (z ∼ 2-3), SRHRλ is lower for more massive galaxies, while it shows no significant dependence on stellar mass at z ≲ 0.5. We find that for both the GAMA and CANDELS samples, at all redshifts from z ∼ 0.1-3, the observed conditional size distribution in stellar mass bins is remarkably similar to the conditional distribution of λRh. We discuss the physical interpretation and implications of these results.

  13. Stability of BEC galactic dark matter halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzmán, F.S.; Lora-Clavijo, F.D.; González-Avilés, J.J.; Rivera-Paleo, F.J., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Edificio C-3, Cd. Universitaria, 58040 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico)


    In this paper we show that spherically symmetric BEC dark matter halos, with the sin r/r density profile, that accurately fit galactic rotation curves and represent a potential solution to the cusp-core problem are unstable. We do this by introducing back the density profiles into the fully time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii-Poisson system of equations. Using numerical methods to track the evolution of the system, we found that these galactic halos lose mass at an approximate rate of half of its mass in a time scale of dozens of Myr. We consider this time scale is enough as to consider these halos are unstable and unlikely to be formed. We provide some arguments to show that this behavior is general and discuss some other drawbacks of the model that restrict its viability.

  14. Chemical content of the circumstellar envelope of the oxygen-rich AGB star R Doradus. Non-LTE abundance analysis of CO, SiO, and HCN (United States)

    Van de Sande, M.; Decin, L.; Lombaert, R.; Khouri, T.; de Koter, A.; Wyrowski, F.; De Nutte, R.; Homan, W.


    Context. The stellar outflows of low- to intermediate-mass stars are characterised by a rich chemistry. Condensation of molecular gas species into dust grains is a key component in a chain of physical processes that leads to the onset of a stellar wind. In order to improve our understanding of the coupling between the micro-scale chemistry and macro-scale dynamics, we need to retrieve the abundance of molecules throughout the outflow. Aims: Our aim is to determine the radial abundance profile of SiO and HCN throughout the stellar outflow of R Dor, an oxygen-rich AGB star with a low mass-loss rate. SiO is thought to play an essential role in the dust-formation process of oxygen-rich AGB stars. The presence of HCN in an oxygen-rich environment is thought to be due to non-equilibrium chemistry in the inner wind. Methods: We analysed molecular transitions of CO, SiO, and HCN measured with the APEX telescope and all three instruments on the Herschel Space Observatory, together with data available in the literature. Photometric data and the infrared spectrum measured by ISO-SWS were used to constrain the dust component of the outflow. Using both continuum and line radiative transfer methods, a physical envelope model of both gas and dust was established. We performed an analysis of the SiO and HCN molecular transitions in order to calculate their abundances. Results: We have obtained an envelope model that describes the dust and the gas in the outflow, and determined the abundance of SiO and HCN throughout the region of the stellar outflow probed by our molecular data. For SiO, we find that the initial abundance lies between 5.5 × 10-5 and 6.0 × 10-5 with respect to H2. The abundance profile is constant up to 60 ± 10 R∗, after which it declines following a Gaussian profile with an e-folding radius of 3.5 ± 0.5 × 1013 cm or 1.4 ± 0.2 R∗. For HCN, we find an initial abundance of 5.0 × 10-7 with respect to H2. The Gaussian profile that describes the decline

  15. The dark halo of the Milky Way. (United States)

    Alcock, C.


    Most of the matter in the Milky Way is invisible to astronomers. Precise numbers are elusive, but it appears that the dark component is 20 times as massive as the visible disk of stars and gas. This dark matter is distributed in space differently than the stars, forming a vast, diffuse halo, more spherical than disklike, which occupies more than 1000 times the volume of the disk of stars. The composition of this dark halo is unknown, but it may comprise a mixture of ancient, degenerate dwarf stars and exotic, hypothetical elementary particles.

  16. Complex artificial halos for the classroom (United States)

    Selmke, Markus; Selmke, Sarah


    Halos represent a common and imposing atmospheric optics phenomenon whose displays are caused by tiny air-borne ice crystals. Their variety stems from a certain set of orientation classes to which these crystals belong. We present a robust and inexpensive device, made of modular components, that allows for the replication of most of these orientation classes in the laboratory. Under the illumination of light, the corresponding artificial halo counterparts emerge. The mechanical realization of this device allows a thorough understanding and demonstration of these beautiful atmospheric optics phenomena.

  17. Dark energy and extended dark matter halos (United States)

    Chernin, A. D.; Teerikorpi, P.; Valtonen, M. J.; Dolgachev, V. P.; Domozhilova, L. M.; Byrd, G. G.


    The cosmological mean matter (dark and baryonic) density measured in the units of the critical density is Ωm = 0.27. Independently, the local mean density is estimated to be Ωloc = 0.08-0.23 from recent data on galaxy groups at redshifts up to z = 0.01-0.03 (as published by Crook et al. 2007, ApJ, 655, 790 and Makarov & Karachentsev 2011, MNRAS, 412, 2498). If the lower values of Ωloc are reliable, as Makarov & Karachentsev and some other observers prefer, does this mean that the Local Universe of 100-300 Mpc across is an underdensity in the cosmic matter distribution? Or could it nevertheless be representative of the mean cosmic density or even be an overdensity due to the Local Supercluster therein. We focus on dark matter halos of groups of galaxies and check how much dark mass the invisible outer layers of the halos are able to host. The outer layers are usually devoid of bright galaxies and cannot be seen at large distances. The key factor which bounds the size of an isolated halo is the local antigravity produced by the omnipresent background of dark energy. A gravitationally bound halo does not extend beyond the zero-gravity surface where the gravity of matter and the antigravity of dark energy balance, thus defining a natural upper size of a system. We use our theory of local dynamical effects of dark energy to estimate the maximal sizes and masses of the extended dark halos. Using data from three recent catalogs of galaxy groups, we show that the calculated mass bounds conform with the assumption that a significant amount of dark matter is located in the invisible outer parts of the extended halos, sufficient to fill the gap between the observed and expected local matter density. Nearby groups of galaxies and the Virgo cluster have dark halos which seem to extend up to their zero-gravity surfaces. If the extended halo is a common feature of gravitationally bound systems on scales of galaxy groups and clusters, the Local Universe could be typical or even

  18. One-proton halo in 26P and two-proton halo in 27S (United States)

    Ren, Zhongzhou; Chen, Baoqiu; Ma, Zhongyu; Xu, Gongou


    Proton-drip-line nuclei 26P and 27S are studied in the nonlinear relativistic mean-field theory. Calculations show that the mean-square radius of protons in the 2s1/2 state is approximately 18-20 fm2 which is abnormally large as compared with the mean-square radii of proton, neutron, and matter distributions, giving a strong evidence for proton halos in 26P and 27S. This indicates that the size of proton halos is as large as that of neutron halos although there exists the Coulomb barrier in proton-drip-line nuclei.

  19. A comparison of metal and Ly-α absorption in galactic haloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirković M.M.


    Full Text Available The metallicity structure of galactic haloes is one of the major unknowns in modern galactic astrophysics and observational cosmology. Hereby we outline a very simple method for obtaining at least a crude picture of gas abundances, based on recent important statistical determination of the relationship between neutral hydrogen absorbing column density and galaxy impact parameter. It is a fine illustration of the great theoretical and observational power of low-redshift Lyα absorption studies. Future detailed analyses of large samples of absorption-selected galaxies will certainly provide us with more data on the abundance structure of extended gaseous component of galaxies.

  20. Numerical Convergence in the Dark Matter Halos Properties Using Cosmological Simulations (United States)

    Mosquera-Escobar, X. E.; Muñoz-Cuartas, J. C.


    Nowadays, the accepted cosmological model is the so called -Cold Dark Matter (CDM). In such model, the universe is considered to be homogeneous and isotropic, composed of diverse components as the dark matter and dark energy, where the latter is the most abundant one. Dark matter plays an important role because it is responsible for the generation of gravitational potential wells, commonly called dark matter halos. At the end, dark matter halos are characterized by a set of parameters (mass, radius, concentration, spin parameter), these parameters provide valuable information for different studies, such as galaxy formation, gravitational lensing, etc. In this work we use the publicly available code Gadget2 to perform cosmological simulations to find to what extent the numerical parameters of the simu- lations, such as gravitational softening, integration time step and force calculation accuracy affect the physical properties of the dark matter halos. We ran a suite of simulations where these parameters were varied in a systematic way in order to explore accurately their impact on the structural parameters of dark matter halos. We show that the variations on the numerical parameters affect the structural pa- rameters of dark matter halos, such as concentration, virial radius, and concentration. We show that these modifications emerged when structures become non- linear (at redshift 2) for the scale of our simulations, such that these variations affected the formation and evolution structure of halos mainly at later cosmic times. As a quantitative result, we propose which would be the most appropriate values for the numerical parameters of the simulations, such that they do not affect the halo properties that are formed. For force calculation accuracy we suggest values smaller or equal to 0.0001, integration time step smaller o equal to 0.005 and for gravitational softening we propose equal to 1/60th of the mean interparticle distance, these values, correspond to the

  1. The Effects of Halo Assembly Bias on Self-Calibration in Galaxy Cluster Surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hao-Yi; Rozo, Eduardo; Wechsler, Risa H.


    Self-calibration techniques for analyzing galaxy cluster counts utilize the abundance and the clustering amplitude of dark matter halos. These properties simultaneously constrain cosmological parameters and the cluster observable-mass relation. It was recently discovered that the clustering amplitude of halos depends not only on the halo mass, but also on various secondary variables, such as the halo formation time and the concentration; these dependences are collectively termed 'assembly bias'. Applying modified Fisher matrix formalism, we explore whether these secondary variables have a significant impact on the study of dark energy properties using the self-calibration technique in current (SDSS) and the near future (DES, SPT, and LSST) cluster surveys. The impact of the secondary dependence is determined by (1) the scatter in the observable-mass relation and (2) the correlation between observable and secondary variables. We find that for optical surveys, the secondary dependence does not significantly influence an SDSS-like survey; however, it may affect a DES-like survey (given the high scatter currently expected from optical clusters) and an LSST-like survey (even for low scatter values and low correlations). For an SZ survey such as SPT, the impact of secondary dependence is insignificant if the scatter is 20% or lower but can be enhanced by the potential high scatter values introduced by a highly-correlated background. Accurate modeling of the assembly bias is necessary for cluster self-calibration in the era of precision cosmology.

  2. Substructure in the Stellar Halos of the Aquarius Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmi, Amina; Cooper, A. P.; White, S. D. M.; Cole, S.; Frenk, C. S.; Navarro, J. F.


    We characterize the substructure in the simulated stellar halos of Cooper et al. which were formed by the disruption of satellite galaxies within the cosmological N-body simulations of galactic halos of the Aquarius project. These stellar halos exhibit a wealth of tidal features: broad overdensities

  3. Halo white dwarfs in the Gaia era

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oirschot, P.; Nelemans, G.; Pols, O.; Helmi, A.; Tolstoy, E.; Brown, A. G. A.; Pugliese, G.; de Koter, A.; Wijburg, M.

    The Galactic Halo is the oldest and most metal-poor component of the Galaxy. It is studied in detail both to understand the formation and evolution of galaxies, as well as the formation and evolution of the earliest stars. With this aim in mind, we plan to couple a population synthesis model to a

  4. New (theoretical) Perspectives on the Galactic Halo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmi, A.; Turon, C; Meynadier, F; Arenou, F

    1 discuss recent progress in our understanding of the formation of the stellar halo of the Milky Way in the context of the concordance cosmological model. The Gaia mission will provide unique insights especially into the early assembly of the Galaxy and likely be key in unraveling its merger

  5. Reflection halo twins : subsun and supersun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konnen, Gunther P.; van der Werf, Siebren Y.


    From an aircraft, a short distinct vertical structure is sometimes seen above the setting sun. Such a feature can be understood as a halo, which is the counterpart of the well-known subsun. Whereas the latter arises from reflections off basal faces of plate-oriented ice crystals illuminated from

  6. Streams in the Aquarius stellar haloes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez, Facundo A.; Helmi, Amina; Cooper, Andrew P.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Navarro, Julio F.; White, Simon D. M.


    We use the very high resolution, fully cosmological simulations from the Aquarius Project, coupled to a semi-analytical model of galaxy formation, to study the phase-space distribution of halo stars in 'solar neighbourhood' like volumes. We find that this distribution is very rich in substructure in

  7. Using Dark Matter Haloes to Learn about Cosmic Acceleration: A New Proposal for a Universal Mass Function (United States)

    Prescod-Weinstein, Chanda; Afshordi, Niayesh


    Structure formation provides a strong test of any cosmic acceleration model because a successful dark energy model must not inhibit or overpredict the development of observed large-scale structures. Traditional approaches to studies of structure formation in the presence of dark energy or a modified gravity implement a modified Press-Schechter formalism, which relates the linear overdensities to the abundance of dark matter haloes at the same time. We critically examine the universality of the Press-Schechter formalism for different cosmologies, and show that the halo abundance is best correlated with spherical linear overdensity at 94% of collapse (or observation) time. We then extend this argument to ellipsoidal collapse (which decreases the fractional time of best correlation for small haloes), and show that our results agree with deviations from modified Press-Schechter formalism seen in simulated mass functions. This provides a novel universal prescription to measure linear density evolution, based on current and future observations of cluster (or dark matter) halo mass function. In particular, even observations of cluster abundance in a single epoch will constrain the entire history of linear growth of cosmological of perturbations.

  8. A HaloTag-based multi-color fluorogenic sensor visualizes and quantifies proteome stress in live cells using solvatochromic and molecular rotor-based fluorophores. (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Miao, Kun; Li, Yinghao; Fares, Matthew; Chen, Shuyuan; Zhang, Xin


    Protein homeostasis, or proteostasis, is essential for cellular fitness and viability. Many environmental factors compromise proteostasis, induce global proteome stress, and cause diseases. Proteome stress sensor is a powerful tool to dissect the mechanism of cellular stress and find therapeutics that ameliorate these diseases. In this work, we present a multi-color HaloTag-based sensor (named AgHalo) to visualize and quantify proteome stresses in live cells. The current AgHalo sensor is equipped with three fluorogenic probes that turn on fluorescence when the sensor forms either soluble oligomers or insoluble aggregates upon exposure to stress conditions, both in vitro and in cellulo. Further, AgHalo probes can be combined with commercially available always-fluorescent HaloTag ligands to enable two-color imaging, allowing for direct visualization of the AgHalo sensor both before and after subjecting cells to stress conditions. Finally, pulse-chase experiments can be carried out to discern changes in cellular proteome in live cells by first forming the AgHalo conjugate and then either applying or removing stress at any desired time point. In summary, the AgHalo sensor can be used to visualize and quantify proteome stress in live cells, a task that is difficult to accomplish using previous always-fluorescent methods. This sensor should be suited to evaluate cellular proteostasis under various exogenous stresses, including chemical toxins, drugs, and environmental factors.

  9. The Impact of Theoretical Uncertainties in the Halo Mass Function and Halo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hao-Yi; Zentner, Andrew R.; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Pittsburgh U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC


    We study the impact of theoretical uncertainty in the dark matter halo mass function and halo bias on dark energy constraints from imminent galaxy cluster surveys. We find that for an optical cluster survey like the Dark Energy Survey, the accuracy required on the predicted halo mass function to make it an insignificant source of error on dark energy parameters is {approx}1%. The analogous requirement on the predicted halo bias is less stringent ({approx}5%), particularly if the observable-mass distribution can be well constrained by other means. These requirements depend upon survey area but are relatively insensitive to survey depth. The most stringent requirements are likely to come from a survey over a significant fraction of the sky that aims to observe clusters down to relatively low mass, M{sub th}{approx} 10{sup 13.7} h{sup -1} M{sub sun}; for such a survey, the mass function and halo bias must be predicted to accuracies of {approx}0.5% and {approx}1%, respectively. These accuracies represent a limit on the practical need to calibrate ever more accurate halo mass and bias functions. We find that improving predictions for the mass function in the low-redshift and low-mass regimes is the most effective way to improve dark energy constraints.

  10. Parametrizing the stellar haloes of galaxies (United States)

    D'Souza, Richard; Kauffman, Guinevere; Wang, Jing; Vegetti, Simona


    We study the stellar haloes of galaxies out to 70-100 kpc as a function of stellar mass and galaxy type by stacking aligned r- and g-band images from a sample of 45 508 galaxies from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 9 in the redshift range 0.06 ≤ z ≤ 0.1 and in the mass range 1010.0 M⊙ < M* < 1011.4 M⊙. We derive surface brightness profiles to a depth of almost μr ˜ 32 mag arcsec-2. We find that the ellipticity of the stellar halo is a function of galaxy stellar mass and that the haloes of high-concentration galaxies are more elliptical than those of low-concentration galaxies. Where the g - r colour of the stellar halo can be measured, we find that the stellar light is always bluer than in the main galaxy. The colour of the stellar halo is redder for more massive galaxies. We further demonstrate that the full two-dimensional surface intensity distribution of our galaxy stacks can only be fit through multicomponent Sérsic models. Using the fraction of light in the outer component of the models as a proxy for the fraction of accreted stellar light, we show that this fraction is a function of stellar mass and galaxy type. The fraction of accreted stellar light rises from 30 to 70 per cent and from 2 to 25 per cent for high- and low-concentration galaxies, respectively, over the mass range 1010.0-1011.4 M⊙.

  11. An Investigation into the Physico-chemical Factors Affecting the Abundance and Diversity of Aquatic Insects in Organically Manured Aquadams and Their Utilization by Oreochromis mossambicus (Perciformes: Cichlidae). (United States)

    Rapatsa, M M; Moyo, N A G


    The interaction between the fish Oreochromis mossambicus (Percifomes: Cichlidae) and aquatic insects after application of chicken, cow, and pig manure was studied in 7,000-liter plastic aquadams. Principal component analysis showed that most of the variation in water quality after application of manure was accounted for by potassium, nitrogen, dissolved oxygen, phosphate, and alkalinity. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that Gyrinidae, Elminidae, Hydrophilidae, Hydraenidae, and Athericidae were associated with high nutrient levels (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) characteristic of the chicken manure. However, the most abundant aquatic insects Gerridae, Notonectidae, and Culicidae were close to the centre of the ordination and not defined by any nutrient gradient. The Shannon-Wiener diversity was highest in the aquadams treated with chicken manure. The most frequently occurring aquatic insects in the diet of O. mossambicus were culicid mosquitoes in all the treatments. However, in the laboratory, Chironomidae were the most preferred because they lacked refuge. Notonectidae and Gerridae were not recorded in the diet of O. mossambicus despite their abundance. This may be because of their anti-predation strategies. Laboratory experiments showed that Notonectidae, Gyrinidae, and Gerridae fed on Chironomidae and Culicidae. This implies that aquatic predatory insects competed for food with O. mossambicus. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  12. Abundance profiles of CH3OH and H2CO toward massive young stars as tests of gas-grain chemical models (United States)

    van der Tak, F. F. S.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Caselli, P.


    The chemistry of CH3OH and H2CO in thirteen regions of massive star formation is studied through single-dish and interferometer line observations at submillimeter wavelengths. Single-dish spectra at 241 and 338 GHz indicate that Trot = 30-200 K for CH3OH, but only 60-90 K for H2CO. The tight correlation between Trot(CH3OH) and Tex(C2H2) from infrared absorption suggests a common origin of these species, presumably outgassing of icy grain mantles. The CH3OH line widths are 3-5 km s-1, consistent with those found earlier for C17O and C34S, except in GL 7009S and IRAS 20126, whose line shapes reveal CH3OH in the outflows. This difference suggests that for low-luminosity objects, desorption of CH3OH-rich ice mantles is dominated by shocks, while radiation is more important around massive stars. The wealth of CH3OH and H2CO lines covering a large range of excitation conditions allows us to calculate radial abundance profiles , using the physical structures of the sources derived earlier from submillimeter continuum and CS line data. The data indicate three types of abundance profiles: flat profiles at CH3OH/H2 ~ 10-9 for the coldest sources, profiles with a jump in its abundance from ~ 10-9 to ~ 10-7 for the warmer sources, and flat profiles at CH3OH/H2 ~ few 10-8 for the hot cores. The models are consistent with the ~ 3'' size of the CH3OH 107 GHz emission measured interferometrically. The location of the jump at T~ 100 K suggests that it is due to evaporation of grain mantles, followed by destruction in gas-phase reactions in the hot core stage. In contrast, the H2CO data can be well fit with a constant abundance of a few x 10-9 throughout the envelope, providing limits on its grain surface formation. These results indicate that Trot (CH3OH) can be used as evolutionary indicator during the embedded phase of massive star formation, independent of source optical depth or orientation. Model calculations of gas-grain chemistry show that CO is primarily reduced (into CH3OH

  13. Ages of 70 Dwarfs of Three Populations in the Solar Neighborhood: Considering O and C Abundances in Stellar Models (United States)

    Ge, Z. S.; Bi, S. L.; Chen, Y. Q.; Li, T. D.; Zhao, J. K.; Liu, K.; Ferguson, J. W.; Wu, Y. Q.


    Oxygen and carbon are important elements in stellar populations. Their behavior refers to the formation history of the stellar populations. C and O abundances would also obviously influence stellar opacities and the overall metal abundance Z. With observed high-quality spectroscopic properties, we construct stellar models with C and O elements to give more accurate ages for 70 metal-poor dwarfs, which have been determined to be high-α halo, low-α halo, and thick-disk stars. Our results show that high-α halo stars are somewhat older than low-α halo stars by around 2.0 Gyr. The thick-disk population has an age range in between the two halo populations. The age distribution profiles indicate that high-α halo and low-α halo stars match the in situ accretion simulation by Zolotov et al., and the thick-disk stars might be formed in a relatively quiescent and long-lasting process. We also note that stellar ages are very sensitive to O abundance, since the ages clearly increase with increasing [O/Fe] values. Additionally, we obtain several stars with peculiar ages, including 2 young thick-disk stars and 12 stars older than the universe age.


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  15. Characteristic time for halo current growth and rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boozer, Allen H., E-mail: [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)


    A halo current flows for part of its path through the plasma edge and for part through the chamber walls and during tokamak disruptions can be as large as tenths of the plasma current. The primary interest in halo currents is the large force that they can exert on machine components particularly if the toriodal rotation of the halo current resonates with a natural oscillation frequency of the tokamak device. Halo currents arise when required to slow down the growth of a kink that is too unstable to be stabilized by the chamber walls. The width of the current channel in the halo plasma is comparable to the amplitude of the kink, and the halo current grows linearly, not exponentially, in time. The current density in the halo is comparable to that of the main plasma body. The rocket force due to plasma flowing out of the halo and recombining on the chamber walls can cause the non-axisymmetric magnetic structure produced by the kink to rotate toroidally at a speed comparable to the halo speed of sound. Gerhardt's observations of the halo current in NSTX shot 141 687 [Nucl. Fusion 53, 023005 (2013)] illustrate many features of the theory of halo currents and are discussed as a summary of the theory.

  16. Dynamics of the Disruption Halo Current Toroidal Asymmetry in NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.P. Gerhardt


    This paper describes the dynamics of disruption halo current non-axisymmetries in the lower divertor of the National Spherical Torus Experiment [M. Ono, et al. Nuclear Fusion 40, 557 (2000)]. While. The halo currents typically have a strongly asymmetric structure where they enter the divertor floor, and this asymmetry has been observed to complete up to 7 toroidal revolutions over the duration of the halo current pulse. However, the rotation speed and toroidal extend of the asymmetry can vary significantly during the pulse. The rotation speed, halo current pulse duration, and total number of revolutions tend to be smaller in cases with large halo currents. The halo current pattern is observed to become toroidally symmetric at the end of the halo current pulse. It is proposed that this symmeterization is due to the loss of most or all of the closed field line geometry in the final phase of the vertical displacement event.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falck, Bridget L.; Neyrinck, Mark C.; Szalay, Alexander S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)


    We present the ORIGAMI method of identifying structures, particularly halos, in cosmological N-body simulations. Structure formation can be thought of as the folding of an initially flat three-dimensional manifold in six-dimensional phase space. ORIGAMI finds the outer folds that delineate these structures. Halo particles are identified as those that have undergone shell-crossing along three orthogonal axes, providing a dynamical definition of halo regions that is independent of density. ORIGAMI also identifies other morphological structures: particles that have undergone shell-crossing along 2, 1, or 0 orthogonal axes correspond to filaments, walls, and voids, respectively. We compare this method to a standard friends-of-friends halo-finding algorithm and find that ORIGAMI halos are somewhat larger, more diffuse, and less spherical, though the global properties of ORIGAMI halos are in good agreement with other modern halo-finding algorithms.

  18. Using Tidal Tails to Probe Dark Matter Halos (United States)

    Mihos, Chris; Dubinski, John; Hernquist, Lars


    We present a series of numerical simulations of merging galaxies to explore the effect of differing halo mass distributions on the morphology of tidal tails. We employ composite disk/bulge/halo galaxy models which span a range of halo properties from low mass, compact halos to very massive, extended halos, and possess identically flat rotation curves inside a few disk scale lengths. These merger experiments are performed with a range of impact parameters, inclinations and mass ratios for the galaxies as well. Our simulations indicate that even under the most favorable conditions, galaxies with extended dark matter halos produce very anemic tidal tails when merging. In light of several observed mergers which sport prominent tidal tails --- e.g., NGC 7252, NGC 4038/39 (``The Antennae"), NGC 4676, and most spectacularly IRAS 19254-7245 (``The Superantennae") --- our results suggest that galaxy halos may be significantly more compact and less massive than expected in Omega =1 cosmological scenarios.

  19. The evolution of the C/O ratio in metal-poor halo stars (United States)

    Akerman, C. J.; Carigi, L.; Nissen, P. E.; Pettini, M.; Asplund, M.


    We report new measurements of carbon and oxygen abundances in 34 F and G dwarf and subgiant stars belonging to the halo population and spanning a range of metallicity from [Fe/H] = -0.7 to -3.2 . The survey is based on observations of four permitted lines of C I near 9100 Å and the O I,λ 7774 triplet, all recorded at high signal-to-noise ratios with the UVES echelle spectrograph on the ESO VLT. The line equivalent widths were analysed with the 1D, LTE, MARCS model atmosphere code to deduce C and O abundances; corrections due to non-LTE and 3D effects are discussed. When combined with similar published data for disk stars, our results confirm the metallicity dependence of the C/O ratio known from previous stellar and interstellar studies: C/O drops by a factor of ˜3-4 as O/H decreases from solar to ˜1/10 solar. Analysed within the context of standard models for the chemical evolution of the solar vicinity, this drop results from the metallicity dependence of the C yields from massive stars with mass loss, augmented by the delayed release of C from stars of low and intermediate mass. The former is, however, always the dominant factor. Our survey has also uncovered tentative evidence to suggest that, as the oxygen abundance decreases below [O/H] = -1, [C/O] may not remain constant at [C/O] = -0.5, as previously thought, but increase again, possibly approaching near-solar values at the lowest metallicities ([O/H] ≲ -3). With the current dataset this is no more than a 3σ effect and it may be due to metallicity-dependent non-LTE corrections to the [C/O] ratio which have not been taken into account. However, its potential importance as a window on the nucleosynthesis by Population III stars is a strong incentive for future work, both observational and theoretical, to verify its reality. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile (ESO No. 67.D-0106).

  20. Real- and redshift-space halo clustering in f(R) cosmologies (United States)

    Arnalte-Mur, Pablo; Hellwing, Wojciech A.; Norberg, Peder


    We present two-point correlation function statistics of the mass and the haloes in the chameleon f(R) modified gravity scenario using a series of large-volume N-body simulations. Three distinct variations of f(R) are considered (F4, F5 and F6) and compared to a fiducial Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model in the redshift range z ∈ [0, 1]. We find that the matter clustering is indistinguishable for all models except for F4, which shows a significantly steeper slope. The ratio of the redshift- to real-space correlation function at scales >20 h-1 Mpc agrees with the linear General Relativity (GR) Kaiser formula for the viable f(R) models considered. We consider three halo populations characterized by spatial abundances comparable to that of luminous red galaxies and galaxy clusters. The redshift-space halo correlation functions of F4 and F5 deviate significantly from ΛCDM at intermediate and high redshift, as the f(R) halo bias is smaller than or equal to that of the ΛCDM case. Finally, we introduce a new model-independent clustering statistic to distinguish f(R) from GR: the relative halo clustering ratio - R. The sampling required to adequately reduce the scatter in R will be available with the advent of the next-generation galaxy redshift surveys. This will foster a prospective avenue to obtain largely model-independent cosmological constraints on this class of modified gravity models.

  1. Relations between the Sizes of Galaxies and Their Dark Matter Halos at Redshifts 0 < z < 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Kuang-Han [University of California Davis, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Fall, S. Michael; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman; Koekemoer, Anton [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Van der Wel, Arjen [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Lee, Seong-Kook [Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Pérez-González, Pablo G. [Departamento de Astrofísica, Facultad de CC. Física, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040, Madrid (Spain); Wuyts, Stijn, E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath, BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)


    We derive relations between the effective radii R {sub eff} of galaxies and the virial radii R {sub 200} {sub c} of their dark matter halos over the redshift range 0 < z < 3. For galaxies, we use the measured sizes from deep images taken with Hubble Space Telescope for the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey; for halos, we use the inferred sizes from abundance matching to cosmological dark matter simulations via a stellar mass–halo mass (SMHM) relation. For this purpose, we derive a new SMHM relation based on the same selection criteria and other assumptions as for our sample of galaxies with size measurements. As a check on the robustness of our results, we also derive R {sub eff}–R {sub 200} {sub c} relations for three independent SMHM relations from the literature. We find that galaxy R {sub eff} is proportional on average to halo R {sub 200} {sub c}, confirming and extending to high redshifts the z = 0 results of Kravtsov. Late-type galaxies (with low Sérsic index and high specific star formation rate (sSFR)) follow a linear R {sub eff}– R {sub 200} {sub c} relation, with effective radii at 0.5 < z < 3 close to those predicted by simple models of disk formation; at z < 0.5, the sizes of late-type galaxies appear to be slightly below this prediction. Early-type galaxies (with high Sérsic index and low sSFR) follow a roughly parallel R {sub eff}– R {sub 200} {sub c} relation, ∼0.2–0.3 dex below the one for late-type galaxies. Our observational results, reinforced by recent hydrodynamical simulations, indicate that galaxies grow quasi-homologously with their dark matter halos.

  2. Cosmology with massive neutrinos III: the halo mass function and an application to galaxy clusters (United States)

    Costanzi, Matteo; Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco; Viel, Matteo; Xia, Jun-Qing; Borgani, Stefano; Castorina, Emanuele; Sefusatti, Emiliano


    We use a suite of N-body simulations that incorporate massive neutrinos as an extra-set of particles to investigate their effect on the halo mass function. We show that for cosmologies with massive neutrinos the mass function of dark matter haloes selected using the spherical overdensity (SO) criterion is well reproduced by the fitting formula of Tinker et al. (2008) once the cold dark matter power spectrum is considered instead of the total matter power, as it is usually done. The differences between the two implementations, i.e. using Pcdm(k) instead of Pm(k), are more pronounced for large values of the neutrino masses and in the high end of the halo mass function: in particular, the number of massive haloes is higher when Pcdm(k) is considered rather than Pm(k). As a quantitative application of our findings we consider a Planck-like SZ-clusters survey and show that the differences in predicted number counts can be as large as 30% for ∑mν = 0.4 eV. Finally, we use the Planck-SZ clusters sample, with an approximate likelihood calculation, to derive Planck-like constraints on cosmological parameters. We find that, in a massive neutrino cosmology, our correction to the halo mass function produces a shift in the σ8(Ωm/0.27)γ relation which can be quantified as Δγ ~ 0.05 and Δγ ~ 0.14 assuming one (Nν = 1) or three (Nν = 3) degenerate massive neutrino, respectively. The shift results in a lower mean value of σ8 with Δσ8 = 0.01 for Nν = 1 and Δσ8 = 0.02 for Nν = 3, respectively. Such difference, in a cosmology with massive neutrinos, would increase the tension between cluster abundance and Planck CMB measurements.

  3. Precise halo orbit design and optimal transfer to halo orbits from earth using differential evolution (United States)

    Nath, Pranav; Ramanan, R. V.


    The mission design to a halo orbit around the libration points from Earth involves two important steps. In the first step, we design a halo orbit for a specified size and in the second step, we obtain an optimal transfer trajectory design to the halo orbit from an Earth parking orbit. Conventionally, the preliminary design for these steps is obtained using higher order analytical solution and the dynamical systems theory respectively. Refinements of the design are carried out using gradient based methods such as differential correction and pseudo arc length continuation method under the of circular restricted three body model. In this paper, alternative single level schemes are developed for both of these steps based on differential evolution, an evolutionary optimization technique. The differential evolution based scheme for halo orbit design produces precise halo orbit design avoiding the refinement steps. Further, in this approach, prior knowledge of higher order analytical solutions for the halo orbit design is not needed. The differential evolution based scheme for the transfer trajectory, identifies the precise location on the halo orbit that needs minimum energy for insertion and avoids exploration of multiple points. The need of a close guess is removed because the present scheme operates on a set of bounds for the unknowns. The constraint on the closest approach altitude from Earth is handled through objective function. The use of these schemes as the design and analysis tools within the of circular restricted three body model is demonstrated through case studies for missions to the first libration point of Sun-Earth system.

  4. The use of natural abundance stable isotopic ratios to indicate the presence of oxygen-containing chemical linkages between cellulose and lignin in plant cell walls. (United States)

    Zhou, Youping; Stuart-Williams, Hilary; Farquhar, Graham D; Hocart, Charles H


    Qualitative and quantitative understanding of the chemical linkages between the three major biochemical components (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) of plant cell walls is crucial to the understanding of cell wall structure. Although there is convincing evidence for chemical bonds between hemicellulose and lignin and the absence of chemical bonds between hemicellulose and cellulose, there is no conclusive evidence for the presence of covalent bonds between cellulose and lignin. This is caused by the lack of selectivity of current GC/MS-, NMR- and IR-based methods for lignin characterisation as none of these techniques directly targets the possible ester and ether linkages between lignin and cellulose. We modified the widely-accepted "standard" three-step extraction method for isolating cellulose from plants by changing the order of the steps for hemicellulose and lignin removal (solubilisation with concentrated NaOH and oxidation with acetic acid-containing NaClO(2), respectively) so that cellulose and lignin could be isolated with the possible chemical bonds between them intact. These linkages were then cleaved with NaClO(2) reagent in aqueous media of contrasting (18)O/(16)O ratios. We produced cellulose with higher purity (a lower level of residual hemicellulose and no detectable lignin) than that produced by the "standard" method. Oxidative artefacts may potentially be introduced at the lignin removal stage; but testing showed this to be minimal. Cellulose samples isolated from processing plant-derived cellulose-lignin mixtures in media of contrasting (18)O/(16)O ratios were compared to provide the first quantitative evidence for the presence of oxygen-containing ester and ether bonds between cellulose and lignin in Zea mays leaves. However, no conclusive evidence for the presence or lack of similar bonds in Araucaria cunninghamii wood was obtained. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Weak Galactic halo-Fornax dSph connection from RR Lyrae stars (United States)

    Fiorentino, G.; Monelli, M.; Stetson, P. B.; Bono, G.; Gallart, C.; Martínez-Vázquez, C. E.; Bernard, E. J.; Massari, D.; Braga, V. F.; Dall'Ora, M.


    Aims: For the first time accurate pulsation properties of the ancient variable stars of the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy (dSph) are discussed in the broad context of galaxy formation and evolution. Methods: Homogeneous multi-band BVI optical photometry of spanning twenty years has allowed us to identify and characterize more than 1400 RR Lyrae stars (RRLs) in this galaxy. Results: Roughly 70% are new discoveries. We investigate the period-amplitude distribution and find that Fornax shows a lack of high amplitude (AV ⪆ 0.75 mag) short period fundamental-mode RRLs (P ≲ 0.48 d, HASPs). These objects occur in stellar populations more metal-rich than [Fe/H] -1.5 and they are common in the Galactic halo (hereafter Halo) and in globulars. This evidence suggests that old Fornax stars (older than 10 Gyr) are relatively metal poor. A detailed statistical analysis of the role of the present-day Fornax dSph in reproducing the Halo period distribution shows that it can only account for up to 20% of the Halo when combined with RRLs in massive dwarf galaxies (Sagittarius dSph, Large Magellanic Cloud). This finding indicates that Fornax-like systems played a smaller role than massive dwarfs in building up the Halo. Conclusions: We also discuss the occurrence of HASPs in connection with the luminosity and the early chemical composition of nearby dwarf galaxies. We find that, independently of their individual star formation histories, bright (MV ≲ -13.5 mag) galaxies have HASPs, whereas faint ones (MV ⪆ -11 mag) do not. Interestingly enough, Fornax belongs to a luminosity range (-11 < MV ≲ -13.5 mag) in which the occurrence of HASPs appears to be correlated with the early star formation and chemical enrichment of the host galaxy.

  6. Electron diffraction study of meta- and para-fluoronitrobenzene using results from quantum chemical calculations. Trends in the carbon halogen bond length found in ortho-, meta- and para-halonitrobenzenes (Halo=F, Cl, Br, I) (United States)

    Shishkov, Igor F.; Khristenko, Lyudmila V.; Samdal, Svein; Gundersen, Snefrid; Volden, Hans V.; Vilkov, Lev V.


    The molecular geometry of meta- and para-fluoronitrobenzene has been determined by gas electron diffraction and quantum chemical calculations using HF, MP2 and DFT, and 6-311G**, 6-311++G** and cc-pVTZ basis sets. The obtained geometrical parameters ( rg, in Å, ∠ α in degrees) for meta-fluoronitrobenzene are: r(C-C) av=1.397(4), r(N-O) av=1.227(3), r(C-N)=1.484(3), r(C-F)=1.333(8), r(C-H) av=1.107(16), ∠C1C2N=118.3(6), ∠C5C6F=120.6(24), ∠ONO=125.3(37), ∠C1C2C3=122.9(24), ∠C3C4C5=119.2(18) and ϕ(C-N)=0 (fixed) and for para-fluoronitrobenzene: r(C-C) av=1.393(2), r(N-O) av=1.232(3), r(C-N)=1.479 (dependent), r(C-F)=1.338(12), r(C-H) av=1.124(27), ∠C6C4F=118.7 (fixed), ∠ONO=124.2(23), ∠C4C5C6=123.8(17), ∠C3C2N=119.1 (fixed) and ϕ(C-N)=0 (fixed). Estimated error limits are three standard deviations from least-squares refinement using a diagonal weight matrix. B3LYP/6-311G** has been used to calculate the molecular structure for all sixteen different molecules XC 6H 5 (X=F, Cl, Br, I) and ortho-, meta- and para-XC 6H 4NO 2 (X=F, Cl, Br, I). These general trends are predicted by the calculations: the C-X bond in XC 6H 5 is longer than the C-X bond in ortho-XC 6H 4NO 2, the C-X bond in ortho-XC 6H 4NO 2, is shorter than the C-X bond in meta-XC 6H 4NO 2, the C-X bond in meta-XC 6H 4NO 2 is slightly longer than the C-X bond in para-XC 6H 4NO 2, the variation in the C-X bond length is approximately the same for X=F and Cl, smaller for X=Br and smallest for X=I. These trends are essentially also found experimentally. The C-X bond lengths are all calculated too long compared to experimental values.

  7. The Halo B2B Studio (United States)

    Gorzynski, Mark; Derocher, Mike; Mitchell, April Slayden

    Research underway at Hewlett-Packard on remote communication resulted in the identification of three important components typically missing in existing systems. These missing components are: group nonverbal communication capabilities, high-resolution interactive data capabilities, and global services. Here we discuss some of the design elements in these three areas as part of the Halo program at HP, a remote communication system shown to be effective to end-users.

  8. Beam Shape and Halo Monitor Study

    CERN Document Server

    Lallement, J B; Hori, M; CERN. Geneva. AB Department


    The Beam Shape and Halo Monitor, designed by Masaki Hori, is the main diagnostic tool for the 3 MeV test stand scheduled in 2008. This detector will be able to measure the transverse halo generated in the RFQ and the Chopper-line and to detect and measure the longitudinal halo composed of the incompletely chopped bunches. Its principle of functioning is the following: H- ions hit a carbon foil and generate secondary electrons with the same spatial distribution than the incoming beam and a current depending on an emission coefficient given by the carbon foil. These electrons are accelerated towards a phosphor screen by an electric field applied between accelerating grids. Once the electrons reach the phosphor screen, they generate light which is transmitted to a CCD camera via optic fibers [1]. It is expected to give a time resolution of 1-2ns and a spatial resolution of 1mm. The first test of the BSHM done with a Laser has shown a spatial resolution bigger than 1cm and the time resolution bigger than 2ns[2]. ...

  9. Dissecting Halo Components in IFU Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Merrifield


    Full Text Available While most astronomers are now familiar with tools to decompose images into multiple components such as disks, bulges, and halos, the equivalent techniques for spectral data cubes are still in their infancy. This is unfortunate, as integral field unit (IFU spectral surveys are now producing a mass of data in this format, which we are ill-prepared to analyze effectively. We have therefore been developing new tools to separate out components using this full spectral data. The results of such analyses will prove invaluable in determining not only whether such decompositions have an astrophysical significance, but, where they do, also in determining the relationship between the various elements of a galaxy. Application to a pilot study of IFU data from the cD galaxy NGC 3311 confirms that the technique can separate the stellar halo from the underlying galaxy in such systems, and indicates that, in this case, the halo is older and more metal poor than the galaxy, consistent with it forming from the cannibalism of smaller satellite galaxies. The success of the method bodes well for its application to studying the larger samples of cD galaxies that IFU surveys are currently producing.

  10. The Extended Baryonic Halo of NGC 3923

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan W. Miller


    Full Text Available Galaxy halos and their globular cluster systems build up over time by the accretion of small satellites. We can learn about this process in detail by observing systems with ongoing accretion events and comparing the data with simulations. Elliptical shell galaxies are systems that are thought to be due to ongoing or recent minor mergers. We present preliminary results of an investigation of the baryonic halo—light profile, globular clusters, and shells/streams—of the shell galaxy NGC 3923 from deep Dark Energy Camera (DECam g and i-band imaging. We present the 2D and radial distributions of the globular cluster candidates out to a projected radius of about 185 kpc, or ∼ 37 R e , making this one of the most extended cluster systems studied. The total number of clusters implies a halo mass of M h ∼ 3 × 10 13 M ⊙ . Previous studies had identified between 22 and 42 shells, making NGC 3923 the system with the largest number of shells. We identify 23 strong shells and 11 that are uncertain. Future work will measure the halo mass and mass profile from the radial distributions of the shell, N-body models, and line-of-sight velocity distribution (LOSVD measurements of the shells using the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE.

  11. Two chemically similar stellar overdensities on opposite sides of the plane of the Galactic disk. (United States)

    Bergemann, Maria; Sesar, Branimir; Cohen, Judith G; Serenelli, Aldo M; Sheffield, Allyson; Li, Ting S; Casagrande, Luca; Johnston, Kathryn V; Laporte, Chervin F P; Price-Whelan, Adrian M; Schönrich, Ralph; Gould, Andrew


    Our Galaxy is thought to have an active evolutionary history, dominated over the past ten billion years or so by star formation, the accretion of cold gas and, in particular, the merging of clumps of baryonic and dark matter. The stellar halo-the faint, roughly spherical component of the Galaxy-reveals rich 'fossil' evidence of these interactions, in the form of stellar streams, substructures and chemically distinct stellar components. The effects of interactions with dwarf galaxies on the content and morphology of the Galactic disk are still being explored. Recent studies have identified kinematically distinct stellar substructures and moving groups of stars in our Galaxy, which may have extragalactic origins. There is also mounting evidence that stellar overdensities (regions with greater-than-average stellar density) at the interface between the outer disk and the halo could have been caused by the interaction of a dwarf galaxy with the disk. Here we report a spectroscopic analysis of 14 stars from two stellar overdensities, each lying about five kiloparsecs above or below the Galactic plane-locations suggestive of an association with the stellar halo. We find that the chemical compositions of these two groups of stars are almost identical, both within and between these overdensities, and closely match the abundance patterns of stars in the Galactic disk. We conclude that these stars came from the disk, and that the overdensities that they are part of were created by tidal interactions of the disk with passing or merging dwarf galaxies.

  12. Abundance analysis of a CEMP-no star in the Carina dwarf spheroidal galaxy (United States)

    Susmitha, A.; Koch, A.; Sivarani, T.


    Carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars bear important imprints of the early chemical enrichment of any stellar system. While these stars are known to exist in copious amounts in the Milky Way halo, detailed chemical abundance data from the faint dwarf spheroidal (dSph) satellites are still sparse, although the relative fraction of these stars increases with decreasing metallicity. Here, we report the abundance analysis of a metal-poor ([ Fe / H ] = - 2.5 dex), carbon-rich ([C/Fe] = 1.4 dex) star, ALW-8, in the Carina dSph using high-resolution spectroscopy obtained with the ESO/UVES instrument. Its spectrum does not indicate any over-enhancements of neutron capture elements. Thus classified as a CEMP-no star, this is the first detection of this kind of star in Carina. Another of our sample stars, ALW-1, is shown to be a CEMP-s star, but its immediate binarity prompted us to discard it from a detailed analysis. The majority of the 18 chemical elements we measured are typical of Carina's field star population and also agree with CEMP stars in other dSph galaxies. Similar to the only known CEMP-no star in the Sculptor dSph and the weak-r-process star HD 122563, the lack of any strong barium-enhancement is accompanied by a moderate overabundance in yttrium, indicating a weak r-process activity. The overall abundance pattern confirms that, also in Carina, the formation site for CEMP-no stars has been affected by both faint supernovae and by standard core collapse supernovae. Whichever process was responsible for the heavy element production in ALW-8 must be a ubiquitous source to pollute the CEMP-no stars, acting independently of the environment such as in the Galactic halo or in dSphs. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory at Paranal, Chile; Large Programme proposal 171.B- 0520.Table A.1 is also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via http://cdsarc

  13. The Effects of Protostellar Disk Turbulence on CO Emission Lines: A Comparison Study of Disks with Constant CO Abundance versus Chemically Evolving Disks (United States)

    Yu, Mo; Evans, Neal J., II; Dodson-Robinson, Sarah E.; Willacy, Karen; Turner, Neal J.


    Turbulence is the leading candidate for angular momentum transport in protoplanetary disks and therefore influences disk lifetimes and planet formation timescales. However, the turbulent properties of protoplanetary disks are poorly constrained observationally. Recent studies have found turbulent speeds smaller than what fully-developed MRI would produce (Flaherty et al.). However, existing studies assumed a constant CO/H2 ratio of 10-4 in locations where CO is not frozen-out or photo-dissociated. Our previous studies of evolving disk chemistry indicate that CO is depleted by incorporation into complex organic molecules well inside the freeze-out radius of CO. We consider the effects of this chemical depletion on measurements of turbulence. Simon et al. suggested that the ratio of the peak line flux to the flux at line center of the CO J = 3-2 transition is a reasonable diagnostic of turbulence, so we focus on that metric, while adding some analysis of the more complex effects on spatial distribution. We simulate the emission lines of CO based on chemical evolution models presented in Yu et al., and find that the peak-to-trough ratio changes as a function of time as CO is destroyed. Specifically, a CO-depleted disk with high turbulent velocity mimics the peak-to-trough ratios of a non-CO-depleted disk with lower turbulent velocity. We suggest that disk observers and modelers take into account the possibility of CO depletion when using line profiles or peak-to-trough ratios to constrain the degree of turbulence in disks. Assuming that {CO}/{{{H}}}2={10}-4 at all disk radii can lead to underestimates of turbulent speeds in the disk by at least 0.2 km s-1.

  14. Low-thrust transfers from distant retrograde orbits to L2 halo orbits in the earth-moon system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parrish, N.L.; Parker, Jeffrey S.; Hughes, S.P.; Heiligers, M.J.


    Enable future missions Any mission to a DRO or halo orbit could benefit from the capability to transfer between these orbits Chemical propulsion could be used for these transfers, but at high propellant cost Fill gaps in knowledge A variety of transfers using SEP or solar sails have been studied for

  15. Recoiling supermassive black hole escape velocities from dark matter haloes (United States)

    Choksi, Nick; Behroozi, Peter; Volonteri, Marta; Schneider, Raffaella; Ma, Chung-Pei; Silk, Joseph; Moster, Benjamin


    We simulate recoiling black hole trajectories from z = 20 to z = 0 in dark matter haloes, quantifying how parameter choices affect escape velocities. These choices include the strength of dynamical friction, the presence of stars and gas, the accelerating expansion of the Universe (Hubble acceleration), host halo accretion and motion, and seed black hole mass. Lambda cold dark matter halo accretion increases escape velocities by up to 0.6 dex and significantly shortens return time-scales compared to non-accreting cases. Other parameters change orbit damping rates but have subdominant effects on escape velocities; dynamical friction is weak at halo escape velocities, even for extreme parameter values. We present formulae for black hole escape velocities as a function of host halo mass and redshift. Finally, we discuss how these findings affect black hole mass assembly as well as minimum stellar and halo masses necessary to retain supermassive black holes.

  16. The “Building Blocks” of Stellar Halos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle A. Oman


    Full Text Available The stellar halos of galaxies encode their accretion histories. In particular, the median metallicity of a halo is determined primarily by the mass of the most massive accreted object. We use hydrodynamical cosmological simulations from the apostle project to study the connection between the stellar mass, the metallicity distribution, and the stellar age distribution of a halo and the identity of its most massive progenitor. We find that the stellar populations in an accreted halo typically resemble the old stellar populations in a present-day dwarf galaxy with a stellar mass ∼0.2–0.5 dex greater than that of the stellar halo. This suggests that had they not been accreted, the primary progenitors of stellar halos would have evolved to resemble typical nearby dwarf irregulars.

  17. HaloTag technology for specific and covalent labeling of fusion proteins. (United States)

    Benink, Hélène A; Urh, Marjeta


    Appending proteins of interest to fluorescent protein tags such as GFP has revolutionized how proteins are studied in the cellular environment. Over the last few decades many varieties of fluorescent proteins have been generated, each bringing new capability to research. However, taking full advantage of standard fluorescent proteins with advanced and differential features requires significant effort on the part of the researcher. This approach necessitates that many genetic fusions be generated and confirmed to function properly in cells with the same protein of interest. To lessen this burden, a newer category of protein fusion tags termed "self-labeling protein tags" has been developed. This approach utilizes a single protein tag, the function of which can be altered by attaching various chemical moieties (fluorescent labels, affinity handles, etc.). In this way a single genetically encoded protein fusion can easily be given functional diversity and adaptability as supplied by synthetic chemistry. Here we present protein labeling methods using HaloTag technology; comprised of HaloTag protein and the collection of small molecules designed to bind it specifically and provide it with varied functionalities. For imaging purposes these small molecules, termed HaloTag ligands, contain distinct fluorophores. Due to covalent and rapid binding between HaloTag protein and its ligands, labeling is permanent and efficient. Many of these ligands have been optimized for permeability across cellular membranes allowing for live cell labeling and imaging analysis. Nonpermeable ligands have also been developed for specific labeling of surface proteins. Overall, HaloTag is a versatile technology that empowers the end user to label a protein of interest with the choice of different fluorophores while alleviating the need for generation of multiple genetic fusions.

  18. HaloTag is an effective expression and solubilisation fusion partner for a range of fibroblast growth factors


    Changye Sun; Yong Li; Sarah E. Taylor; Xianqing Mao; Wilkinson, Mark C.; David G. Fernig


    The production of recombinant proteins such as the fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) is the key to establishing their function in cell communication. The production of recombinant FGFs in E. coli is limited, however, due to expression and solubility problems. HaloTag has been used as a fusion protein to introduce a genetically-encoded means for chemical conjugation of probes. We have expressed 11 FGF proteins with an N-terminal HaloTag, followed by a tobacco etch virus (TEV) protease cleavage ...

  19. N-body dark matter haloes with simple hierarchical histories (United States)

    Jiang, Lilian; Helly, John C.; Cole, Shaun; Frenk, Carlos S.


    We present a new algorithm which groups the subhaloes found in cosmological N-body simulations by structure finders such as SUBFIND into dark matter haloes whose formation histories are strictly hierarchical. One advantage of these `Dhaloes' over the commonly used friends-of-friends (FoF) haloes is that they retain their individual identity in the cases when FoF haloes are artificially merged by tenuous bridges of particles or by an overlap of their outer diffuse haloes. Dhaloes are thus well suited for modelling galaxy formation and their merger trees form the basis of the Durham semi-analytic galaxy formation model, GALFORM. Applying the Dhalo construction to the Λ cold dark matter Millennium II Simulation, we find that approximately 90 per cent of Dhaloes have a one-to-one, bijective match with a corresponding FoF halo. The remaining 10 per cent are typically secondary components of large FoF haloes. Although the mass functions of both types of haloes are similar, the mass of Dhaloes correlates much more tightly with the virial mass, M200, than FoF haloes. Approximately 80 per cent of FoF and bijective and non-bijective Dhaloes are relaxed according to standard criteria. For these relaxed haloes, all three types have similar concentration-M200 relations and, at fixed mass, the concentration distributions are described accurately by log-normal distributions.

  20. Reversed Halo Sign: Presents in Different Pulmonary Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Zhan

    Full Text Available To observe the incidence of reversed halo sign in different pulmonary diseases and the pathological correspondence of reversed halo sign.Retrospectively studied the high resolution computer tomography scans of all the patients who were admitted in our department with abnormal pulmonary imaging, from 1st of January 2011 to 31st of December 2013, and all the cases with reversed halo sign on the high resolution computer tomography were collected. Clinical data such as pathological findings and confirmed diagnosis of the patients with reversed halo sign on the high resolution computer tomography scan were collected and summarized.Of 1546 abnormal High resolution computer tomography scans 108 had a reverse halo sign present, including 108 cases were observed with reversed halo sign in the high resolution computer tomography, including 40 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis, 43 cases of cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, 16 cases of lung cancer, 7 cases of sarcoidosis, and 1 case of pulmonary cryptococcosis, 1 case of granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Reversed halo sign had a higher incidence in granulomatous diseases (16.28% compared with non-granulomatous diseases (9.97%.Reversed halo sign is relatively non specific; it can be observed in different lung diseases, and different phases of diseases; reversed halo sign is more commonly found in granulomatous diseases compared with non-granulomatous diseases, and is most commonly observed in pulmonary tuberculosis among the granulomatous diseases, and in cryptogenic organizing pneumonia among the non-granulomatous diseases.

  1. Brightest galaxies as halo centre tracers in SDSS DR7 (United States)

    Lange, Johannes U.; van den Bosch, Frank C.; Hearin, Andrew; Campbell, Duncan; Zentner, Andrew R.; Villarreal, Antonio; Mao, Yao-Yuan


    Determining the positions of halo centres in large-scale structure surveys is crucial for many cosmological studies. A common assumption is that halo centres correspond to the location of their brightest member galaxies. In this paper, we study the dynamics of brightest galaxies with respect to other halo members in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7. Specifically, we look at the line-of-sight velocity and spatial offsets between brightest galaxies and their neighbours. We compare those to detailed mock catalogues, constructed from high-resolution, dark-matter-only N-body simulations, in which it is assumed that satellite galaxies trace dark matter subhaloes. This allows us to place constraints on the fraction fBNC of haloes in which the brightest galaxy is not the central. Compared to previous studies, we explicitly take into account the unrelaxed state of the host haloes, velocity offsets of halo cores and correlations between fBNC and the satellite occupation. We find that fBNC strongly decreases with the luminosity of the brightest galaxy and increases with the mass of the host halo. Overall, in the halo mass range 1013-1014.5 h- 1M⊙ we find fBNC ∼ 30 per cent, in good agreement with a previous study by Skibba et al. We discuss the implications of these findings for studies inferring the galaxy-halo connection from satellite kinematics, models of the conditional luminosity function and galaxy formation in general.

  2. Mapping stellar content to dark matter haloes - II. Halo mass is the main driver of galaxy quenching (United States)

    Zu, Ying; Mandelbaum, Rachel


    We develop a simple yet comprehensive method to distinguish the underlying drivers of galaxy quenching, using the clustering and galaxy-galaxy lensing of red and blue galaxies in Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Building on the iHOD framework developed by Zu & Mandelbaum, we consider two quenching scenarios: (1) a `halo' quenching model in which halo mass is the sole driver for turning off star formation in both centrals and satellites; and (2) a `hybrid' quenching model in which the quenched fraction of galaxies depends on their stellar mass, while the satellite quenching has an extra dependence on halo mass. The two best-fitting models describe the red galaxy clustering and lensing equally well, but halo quenching provides significantly better fits to the blue galaxies above 1011 h-2 M⊙. The halo quenching model also correctly predicts the average halo mass of the red and blue centrals, showing excellent agreement with the direct weak lensing measurements of locally brightest galaxies. Models in which quenching is not tied to halo mass, including an age-matching model in which galaxy colour depends on halo age at fixed M*, fail to reproduce the observed halo mass for massive blue centrals. We find similar critical halo masses responsible for the quenching of centrals and satellites (˜1.5 × 1012 h-1 M⊙), hinting at a uniform quenching mechanism for both, e.g. the virial shock heating of infalling gas. The success of the iHOD halo quenching model provides strong evidence that the physical mechanism that quenches star formation in galaxies is tied principally to the masses of their dark matter haloes rather than the properties of their stellar components.

  3. Evidence for a vanishing 6Li/7Li isotopic signature in the metal-poor halo star HD84937

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, K.; Asplund, M.; Collet, Remo


    The claimed detections of 6Li in the atmospheres of some metal-poor halo stars have lead to speculative additions to the standard model of Big Bang nucleosynthesis and the early Universe, as the inferred abundances cannot be explained by Galactic cosmic ray production. A prominent example of a so...

  4. Testing the conditional mass function of dark matter haloes against numerical N-body simulations (United States)

    Tramonte, D.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Betancort-Rijo, J.; Dalla Vecchia, C.


    We compare the predicted conditional mass function (CMF) of dark matter haloes from two theoretical prescriptions against numerical N-body simulations, both in overdense and underdense regions and at different Eulerian scales ranging from 5 to 30 h-1 Mpc. In particular, we consider in detail a locally implemented rescaling of the unconditional mass function (UMF) already discussed in the literature, and also a generalization of the standard rescaling method described in the extended Press-Schechter formalism. First, we test the consistency of these two rescalings by verifying the normalization of the CMF at different scales, and showing that none of the proposed cases provides a normalized CMF. In order to satisfy the normalization condition, we include a modification in the rescaling procedure. After this modification, the resulting CMF generally provides a better description of numerical results. We finally present an analytical fit to the ratio between the CMF and the UMF (also known as the matter-to-halo bias function) in underdense regions, which could be of special interest to speed up the computation of the halo abundance when studying void statistics. In this case, the CMF prescription based on the locally implemented rescaling provides a slightly better description of the numerical results when compared to the standard rescaling.

  5. Fast low-energy halo-to-halo transfers between Sun–planet systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang Haibin


    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of fast low-energy halo-to-halo transfers between Sun–planet systems is discussed under ephemeris constraints. According to the structure of an invariant manifold, employing an invariant manifold and planetary gravity assist to save fuel consumption is analyzed from the view of orbital energy. Then, a pseudo-manifold is introduced to replace the invariant manifold in such a way that more transfer opportunities are allowed. Fast escape and capture can be achieved along the pseudo-manifold. Furthermore, a global searching method that is based on patched-models is proposed to find an appropriate transfer trajectory. In this searching method, the trajectory is divided into several segments that can be designed under simple dynamical models, and an analytical algorithm is developed for connecting the segments. Earth–Mars and Earth–Venus halo-to-halo transfers are designed to demonstrate the proposed approach. Numerical results show that the transfers that combine the pseudo-manifolds and planetary gravity assist can offer significant fuel consumption and flight time savings over traditional transfer schemes.

  6. Haloes, molecules and multi-neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques Moreno, F.M


    Away from the equilibrium between protons and neutrons within stable nuclei, many exotic nuclei exist. Most of the known nuclear properties evolve smoothly with exoticism, but some extreme proton-neutron combinations have revealed during the last decade completely new concepts. They will be illustrated through three examples: the extended and dilute halo formed by very weakly bound neutrons, the molecular-like neutron orbitals found in nuclei exhibiting a clustering, and the recently revived debate on the possible existence of neutral nuclei. The different experimental results will be reviewed, and we will see how several properties of these new phenomena can be well understood within relatively simple theoretical approaches. (author)

  7. Clustering and correlations in neutrons haloes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orr, N.A


    In the present paper clustering and correlations within halo systems is explored. In particular, the application of neutron-neutron interferometry and Dalitz-plot type analyses is presented through the example provided by the dissociation of {sup 14}Be. A novel approach for producing and detection bound neutron clusters is also described. The observation of some 6 events with characteristics consistent with the liberation of a multi-neutron cluster in the breakup of {sup 14}Be - possibly in the channel {sup 10}Be+{sup 4}n - is discussed. (author)

  8. Project ECHO: Electronic Communications from Halo Orbit (United States)

    Borrelli, Jason; Cooley, Bryan; Debole, Marcy; Hrivnak, Lance; Nielsen, Kenneth; Sangmeister, Gary; Wolfe, Matthew


    The design of a communications relay to provide constant access between the Earth and the far side of the Moon is presented. Placement of the relay in a halo orbit about the L2 Earth-Moon Lagrange point allows the satellite to maintain constant simultaneous communication between Earth and scientific payloads on the far side of the Moon. The requirements of NASA's Discovery-class missions adopted and modified for this design are: total project cost should not exceed $150 million excluding launch costs, launch must be provided by Delta-class vehicle, and the satellite should maintain an operational lifetime of 10 to 15 years. The spacecraft will follow a transfer trajectory to the L2 point, after launch by a Delta II 7925 vehicle in 1999. Low-level thrust is used for injection into a stationkeeping-free halo orbit once the spacecraft reaches the L2 point. The shape of this halo orbit is highly elliptical with the maximum excursion from the L2 point being 35000 km. A spun section and despun section connected through a bearing and power transfer assembly (BAPTA) compose the structure of the spacecraft. Communications equipment is placed on the despun section to provide for a stationary dual parabolic offset-feed array antenna system. The dual system is necessary to provide communications coverage during portions of maximum excursion on the halo orbit. Transmissions to the NASA Deep Space Network 34 m antenna include six channels (color video, two voice, scientific data from lunar payloads, satellite housekeeping and telemetry and uplinked commands) using the S- and X-bands. Four radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's) provide a total of 1360 W to power onboard systems and any two of the four Hughes 13 cm ion thrusters at once. Output of the ion thrusters is approximately 17.8 mN each with xenon as the propellant. Presence of torques generated by solar pressure on the antenna dish require the addition of a 'skirt' extending from the spun section of the satellite

  9. Universal properties of dark matter halos. (United States)

    Boyarsky, A; Neronov, A; Ruchayskiy, O; Tkachev, I


    We discuss the universal relation between density and size of observed dark matter halos that was recently shown to hold on a wide range of scales, from dwarf galaxies to galaxy clusters. Predictions of cold dark matter (ΛCDM) N-body simulations are consistent with this relation. We demonstrate that this property of ΛCDM can be understood analytically in the secondary infall model. Qualitative understanding given by this model provides a new way to predict which deviations from ΛCDM or large-scale modifications of gravity can affect universal behavior and, therefore, to constrain them observationally.

  10. The Prevalence of the 22 deg Halo in Cirrus Clouds (United States)

    Diedenhoven, vanBastiaan


    Halos at 22 deg from the sun attributed to randomly-orientated, pristine hexagonal crystals are frequently observed through ice clouds. These frequent sightings of halos formed by pristine crystals pose an apparent inconsistency with the dominance of distorted, nonpristine ice crystals indicated by in situ and remote sensing data. Furthermore, the 46 deg halo, which is associated with pristine hexagonal crystals as well, is observed far less frequently than the 22 deg halo. Considering that plausible mechanisms that could cause crystal distortion such as aggregation, sublimation, riming and collisions are stochastic processes that likely lead to distributions of crystals with varying distortion levels, here the presence of the 22 deg and 46 deg halo features in phase functions of mixtures of pristine and distorted hexagonal ice crystals is examined. We conclude that the 22 deg halo feature is generally present if the contribution by pristine crystals to the total scattering cross section is greater than only about 10% in the case of compact particles or columns, and greater than about 40% for plates. The 46 deg halo feature is present only if the mean distortion level is low and the contribution of pristine crystals to the total scattering cross section is above about 20%, 50% and 70%, in the case of compact crystals, plates and columns, respectively. These results indicate that frequent sightings of 22 deg halos are not inconsistent with the observed dominance of distorted, non-pristine ice crystals. Furthermore, the low mean distortion levels and large contributions by pristine crystals needed to produce the 461 halo features provide a potential explanation of the common sighting of the 22 deg halo without any detectable 46 deg halo.

  11. Diverse stellar haloes in nearby Milky Way mass disc galaxies (United States)

    Harmsen, Benjamin; Monachesi, Antonela; Bell, Eric F.; de Jong, Roelof S.; Bailin, Jeremy; Radburn-Smith, David J.; Holwerda, Benne W.


    We have examined the resolved stellar populations at large galactocentric distances along the minor axis (from 10 kpc up to between 40 and 75 kpc), with limited major axis coverage, of six nearby highly inclined Milky Way (MW) mass disc galaxies using Hubble Space Telescope data from the Galaxy haloes, Outer discs, Substructure, Thick discs, and Star clusters (GHOSTS) survey. We select red giant branch stars to derive stellar halo density profiles. The projected minor axis density profiles can be approximated by power laws with projected slopes of -2 to -3.7 and a diversity of stellar halo masses of 1-6 × 109 M⊙, or 2-14 per cent of the total galaxy stellar masses. The typical intrinsic scatter around a smooth power-law fit is 0.05-0.1 dex owing to substructure. By comparing the minor and major axis profiles, we infer projected axis ratios c/a at ˜25 kpc between 0.4and0.75. The GHOSTS stellar haloes are diverse, lying between the extremes charted out by the (rather atypical) haloes of the MW and M31. We find a strong correlation between the stellar halo metallicities and the stellar halo masses. We compare our results with cosmological models, finding good agreement between our observations and accretion-only models where the stellar haloes are formed by the disruption of dwarf satellites. In particular, the strong observed correlation between stellar halo metallicity and mass is naturally reproduced. Low-resolution hydrodynamical models have unrealistically high stellar halo masses. Current high-resolution hydrodynamical models appear to predict stellar halo masses somewhat higher than observed but with reasonable metallicities, metallicity gradients, and density profiles.

  12. 77 FR 75672 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration, Halo Pharmaceutical, Inc. (United States)


    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration, Halo Pharmaceutical... 47114, Halo Pharmaceutical, Inc., 30 North Jefferson Road, Whippany, New Jersey 07981, made application... determined that the registration of Halo Pharmaceutical, Inc., to manufacture the listed basic classes of...

  13. 77 FR 16264 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration; Halo Pharmaceutical Inc. (United States)


    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration; Halo Pharmaceutical... FR 77850, Halo Pharmaceutical Inc., 30 North Jefferson Road, Whippany, New Jersey 07981, made... determined that the registration of Halo Pharmaceutical Inc. to manufacture the listed basic classes of...

  14. Convergence properties of halo merger trees; halo and substructure merger rates across cosmic history (United States)

    Poole, Gregory B.; Mutch, Simon J.; Croton, Darren J.; Wyithe, Stuart


    We introduce GBPTREES: an algorithm for constructing merger trees from cosmological simulations, designed to identify and correct for pathological cases introduced by errors or ambiguities in the halo finding process. GBPTREES is built upon a halo matching method utilizing pseudo-radial moments constructed from radially sorted particle ID lists (no other information is required) and a scheme for classifying merger tree pathologies from networks of matches made to-and-from haloes across snapshots ranging forward-and-backward in time. Focusing on SUBFIND catalogues for this work, a sweep of parameters influencing our merger tree construction yields the optimal snapshot cadence and scanning range required for converged results. Pathologies proliferate when snapshots are spaced by ≲0.128 dynamical times; conveniently similar to that needed for convergence of semi-analytical modelling, as established by Benson et al. Total merger counts are converged at the level of ∼5 per cent for friends-of-friends (FoF) haloes of size np ≳ 75 across a factor of 512 in mass resolution, but substructure rates converge more slowly with mass resolution, reaching convergence of ∼10 per cent for np ≳ 100 and particle mass mp ≲ 109 M⊙. We present analytic fits to FoF and substructure merger rates across nearly all observed galactic history (z ≤ 8.5). While we find good agreement with the results presented by Fakhouri et al. for FoF haloes, a slightly flatter dependence on merger ratio and increased major merger rates are found, reducing previously reported discrepancies with extended Press-Schechter estimates. When appropriately defined, substructure merger rates show a similar mass ratio dependence as FoF rates, but with stronger mass and redshift dependencies for their normalization.

  15. HaloTag: a novel protein labeling technology for cell imaging and protein analysis. (United States)

    Los, Georgyi V; Encell, Lance P; McDougall, Mark G; Hartzell, Danette D; Karassina, Natasha; Zimprich, Chad; Wood, Monika G; Learish, Randy; Ohana, Rachel Friedman; Urh, Marjeta; Simpson, Dan; Mendez, Jacqui; Zimmerman, Kris; Otto, Paul; Vidugiris, Gediminas; Zhu, Ji; Darzins, Aldis; Klaubert, Dieter H; Bulleit, Robert F; Wood, Keith V


    We have designed a modular protein tagging system that allows different functionalities to be linked onto a single genetic fusion, either in solution, in living cells, or in chemically fixed cells. The protein tag (HaloTag) is a modified haloalkane dehalogenase designed to covalently bind to synthetic ligands (HaloTag ligands). The synthetic ligands comprise a chloroalkane linker attached to a variety of useful molecules, such as fluorescent dyes, affinity handles, or solid surfaces. Covalent bond formation between the protein tag and the chloroalkane linker is highly specific, occurs rapidly under physiological conditions, and is essentially irreversible. We demonstrate the utility of this system for cellular imaging and protein immobilization by analyzing multiple molecular processes associated with NF-kappaB-mediated cellular physiology, including imaging of subcellular protein translocation and capture of protein--protein and protein--DNA complexes.

  16. Seasonal variation in fish abundance and physicochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a positive correlation between fish abundance and biomass for wet and dry seasons (r = 0.60 and 0.76 respectively). There was no significant difference between fish abundance in the two seasons. Variations occurred between physico-chemical parameters of water samples. Analysis of the lagoon waters showed ...

  17. Alternative techniques for beam halo measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Welsch, CP; Burel, B; Lefèvre, T; Chapman, T; Pilon, MJ


    In future high intensity, high energy accelerators it must be ensured that particle losses are minimized, as activation of the vacuum chambers or other components makes maintenance and upgrade work time consuming and costly. It is imperative to have a clear understanding of the mechanisms that can lead to halo formation and to have the possibility to test available theoretical models with an adequate experimental setup. Measurements based on optical transition radiation (OTR) are a well-established technique for measurements of the transverse beam profile. However, in order to be suitable for halo measurements as well, the dynamic range of the final image acquisition system needs to be high, being able to cover at least five orders of magnitude in intensity changes. Here, the performance of a standard acquisition system as it is used in the CLIC test facility (CTF3) is compared to a step-by-step measurement with a small movable photo multiplier tube and an innovative camera system based on charge injection de...

  18. The CMS Beam Halo Monitor Detector System

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration


    A new Beam Halo Monitor (BHM) detector system has been installed in the CMS cavern to measure the machine-induced background (MIB) from the LHC. This background originates from interactions of the LHC beam halo with the final set of collimators before the CMS experiment and from beam gas interactions. The BHM detector uses the directional nature of Cherenkov radiation and event timing to select particles coming from the direction of the beam and to suppress those originating from the interaction point. It consists of 40 quartz rods, placed on each side of the CMS detector, coupled to UV sensitive PMTs. For each bunch crossing the PMT signal is digitized by a charge integrating ASIC and the arrival time of the signal is recorded. The data are processed in real time to yield a precise measurement of per-bunch-crossing background rate. This measurement is made available to CMS and the LHC, to provide real-time feedback on the beam quality and to improve the efficiency of data taking. In this talk we will describ...

  19. The CMS Beam Halo Monitor Detector System

    CERN Document Server

    Stifter, Kelly


    A new Beam Halo Monitor (BHM) detector system has been installed in the CMS cavern to measure the machine-induced background (MIB) from the LHC. This background originates from interactions of the LHC beam halo with the final set of collimators before the CMS experiment and from beam gas interactions. The BHM detector uses the directional nature of Cherenkov radiation and event timing to select particles coming from the direction of the beam and to supress those originating from the interaction point. It consists of 40 quartz rods, placed on each side of the CMS detector, coupled to UV sensitive PMTs. For each bunch crossing the PMT signal is digitized by a charge integrating ASIC and the arrival time of the signal is recorded. The data are processed in real time to yield a precise measurement of per-bunch-crossing background rate. This measurement is made available to CMS and the LHC, to provide real-time feedback on the beam quality and to improve the efficiency of data taking. In this talk we will descri...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olszewski, Edward W.; Saha, Abhijit; Knezek, Patricia; Subramaniam, Annapurni; de Boer, Thomas; Seitzer, Patrick


    Using imaging that shows 4 mag of main-sequence stars, we have discovered that the Galactic globular cluster NGC 1851 is surrounded by a halo that is visible from the tidal radius of 700 arcsec (41 pc) to more than 4500 arcsec (> 250 pc). This halo is symmetric and falls in density as a power law of

  1. Is the dark halo of our Galaxy spherical?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmi, A


    It has been recently claimed that the confined structure of the debris from the Sagittarius dwarf implies that the dark matter halo of our Galaxy should be nearly spherical, in strong contrast with predictions from cold dark matter simulations, where dark haloes are found to have typical density

  2. Investigating Halo and Ceiling Effects in Student Evaluations of Instruction (United States)

    Keeley, Jared W.; English, Taylor; Irons, Jessica; Henslee, Amber M.


    Many measurement biases affect student evaluations of instruction (SEIs). However, two have been relatively understudied: halo effects and ceiling/floor effects. This study examined these effects in two ways. To examine the halo effect, using a videotaped lecture, we manipulated specific teacher behaviors to be "good" or "bad"…

  3. Binary white dwarfs in the halo of the Milky Way

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oirschot, Pim; Nelemans, Gijs; Toonen, Silvia; Pols, Onno; Brown, Anthony G. A.; Helmi, Amina; Portegies Zwart, Simon

    Aims: We study single and binary white dwarfs in the inner halo of the Milky Way in order to learn more about the conditions under which the population of halo stars was born, such as the initial mass function (IMF), the star formation history, or the binary fraction. Methods: We simulate the

  4. Disk response to a lopsided halo potential (Jog 1997, 2002):

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Disk response to a lopsided halo potential (Jog 1997, 2002):. consider small (few %) perturbation in potential. --- solve equations of motion using epicyclic theory. The symmetric disk potential = ψ_0 (R ) = Vc 2 ln R. and the perturbation halo potential = Vc 2 εlop cos φ ...

  5. A two-point correlation function for Galactic halo stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooper, A. P.; Cole, S.; Frenk, C. S.; Helmi, A.


    We describe a correlation function statistic that quantifies the amount of spatial and kinematic substructure in the stellar halo. We test this statistic using model stellar halo realizations constructed from the Aquarius suite of six high-resolution cosmological N-body simulations, in combination

  6. Influence of halo doping profiles on MOS transistor mismatch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andricciola, P.; Tuinhout, H.


    Halo implants are used in modern CMOS technology to reduce the short channel effect. However, the lateral non-uniformity of the channel doping has been proven to degenerate the mismatch performance. With this paper we want to discuss the influence of the halo profile on MOS transistor mismatch. The

  7. A Hidden Radio Halo in the Galaxy Cluster A1682?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    High sensitivity observations of radio halos in galaxy clusters at frequencies ≤ 330 MHz are still relatively rare, and very little is known compared to the classical 1.4 GHz images. The few radio halos imaged down to 150–240 MHz show a considerable spread in size, morphology and spectral properties. All clusters ...

  8. Double folding model analysis of elastic scattering of halo nucleus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    features of halo nuclei largely affect the interaction with light and heavy targets at low bombarding energies and have created tremendous interest in the study of nuclear reac- tions. Elastic scattering is sensitive to the nature of the surface of nuclei and hence it is effective in studying halo nuclei. Pramana – J. Phys., Vol.

  9. The Connection between Radio Halos and Cluster Mergers and the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We discuss the statistical properties of the radio halo population in galaxy clusters. Radio bi-modality is observed in galaxy clusters: a fraction of clusters host giant radio halos while a majority of clusters do not show evidence of diffuse cluster-scale radio emission. The radio bi-modality has a correspondence in terms of ...

  10. RR Lyrae to build up the Galactic Halo (United States)

    Fiorentino, Giuliana


    We compare the period and period-amplitude distributions for a sizeable sample of rrab in dwarfs (~1300stars) with those in the galactic halo (~14,000stars) and globular clusters (~1000stars). Field rrab show a significant change in their period distribution when moving from the inner (dg~14kpc) halo regions, suggesting that the halo formed from (at least) two dissimilar progenitors or events. Rrab in dwarfs-as observed today-do not appear to follow the pulsation properties shown by those in the galactic halo, nor do they have the same properties as rrls in globulars. Only massive and metal rich satellites likely have mainly contributed to the galactic halo formation, e.g. Sgr dSph.

  11. Binary white dwarfs in the halo of the Milky Way (United States)

    van Oirschot, Pim; Nelemans, Gijs; Toonen, Silvia; Pols, Onno; Brown, Anthony G. A.; Helmi, Amina; Portegies Zwart, Simon


    Aims: We study single and binary white dwarfs in the inner halo of the Milky Way in order to learn more about the conditions under which the population of halo stars was born, such as the initial mass function (IMF), the star formation history, or the binary fraction. Methods: We simulate the evolution of low-metallicity halo stars at distances up to ~3 kpc using the binary population synthesis code SeBa. We use two different white dwarf cooling models to predict the present-day luminosities of halo white dwarfs. We determine the white dwarf luminosity functions (WDLFs) for eight different halo models and compare these with the observed halo WDLF of white dwarfs in the SuperCOSMOS Sky Survey. Furthermore, we predict the properties of binary white dwarfs in the halo and determine the number of halo white dwarfs that is expected to be observed with the Gaia satellite. Results: By comparing the WDLFs, we find that a standard IMF matches the observations more accurately than a top-heavy one, but the difference with a bottom-heavy IMF is small. A burst of star formation 13 Gyr ago fits slightly better than a star formation burst 10 Gyr ago and also slightly better than continuous star formation 10-13 Gyr ago. Gaia will be the first instument to constrain the bright end of the field halo WDLF, where contributions from binary WDs are considerable. Many of these will have He cores, of which a handful have atypical surface gravities (log g 0 in our standard model for WD cooling. These so called pre-WDs, if observed, can help us to constrain white dwarf cooling models and might teach us something about the fraction of halo stars that reside in binaries. Appendices are available in electronic form at

  12. What sets the central structure of dark matter haloes? (United States)

    Ogiya, Go; Hahn, Oliver


    Dark matter (DM) haloes forming near the thermal cut-off scale of the density perturbations are unique, since they are the smallest objects and form through monolithic gravitational collapse, while larger haloes contrastingly have experienced mergers. While standard cold dark matter (CDM) simulations readily produce haloes that follow the universal Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) density profile with an inner slope, ρ ∝ r-α, with α = 1, recent simulations have found that when the free-streaming cut-off expected for the CDM model is resolved, the resulting haloes follow nearly power-law density profiles of α ∼ 1.5. In this paper, we study the formation of density cusps in haloes using idealized N-body simulations of the collapse of proto-haloes. When the proto-halo profile is initially cored due to particle free-streaming at high redshift, we universally find ∼r-1.5 profiles irrespective of the proto-halo profile slope outside the core and large-scale non-spherical perturbations. Quite in contrast, when the proto-halo has a power-law profile, then we obtain profiles compatible with the NFW shape when the density slope of the proto-halo patch is shallower than a critical value, αini ∼ 0.3, while the final slope can be steeper for αini ≳ 0.3. We further demonstrate that the r-1.5 profiles are sensitive to small-scale noise, which gradually drives them towards an inner slope of -1, where they become resilient to such perturbations. We demonstrate that the r-1.5 solutions are in hydrostatic equilibrium, largely consistent with a simple analytic model, and provide arguments that angular momentum appears to determine the inner slope.

  13. Raccoon abundance inventory report (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of a raccoon abundance inventory on Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuge in 2012. Determining raccoon abundance allows for...

  14. Abundances of neutron-capture elements in G 24-25

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, S.; Nissen, Poul Erik; Schuster, W. J.


    Aims. The differences between the neutron-capture element abundances of halo stars are important to our understanding of the nucleosynthesis of elements heavier than the iron group. We present a detailed abundance analysis of carbon and twelve neutron-capture elements from Sr up to Pb...... overabundances of carbon and heavy s-process elements and mild overabundances of Eu and light s-process elements. This abundance distribution is consistent with that of a typical CH giant. The abundance pattern can be explained by mass transfer from a former asymptotic giant branch component, which is now...

  15. [Halos and multifocal intraocular lenses: origin and interpretation]. (United States)

    Alba-Bueno, F; Vega, F; Millán, M S


    To present the theoretical and experimental characterization of the halo in multifocal intraocular lenses (MIOL). The origin of the halo in a MIOL is the overlaying of 2 or more images. Using geometrical optics, it can be demonstrated that the diameter of each halo depends on the addition of the lens (ΔP), the base power (P(d)), and the diameter of the IOL that contributes to the «non-focused» focus. In the image plane that corresponds to the distance focus, the halo diameter (δH(d)) is given by: δH(d)=d(pn) ΔP/P(d), where d(pn) is the diameter of the IOL that contributes to the near focus. Analogously, in the near image plane the halo diameter (δH(n)) is: δH(n)=d(pd) ΔP/P(d), where d(pd) is the diameter of the IOL that contributes to the distance focus. Patients perceive halos when they see bright objects over a relatively dark background. In vitro, the halo can be characterized by analyzing the intensity profile of the image of a pinhole that is focused by each of the foci of a MIOL. A comparison has been made between the halos induced by different MIOL of the same base power (20D) in an optical bench. As predicted by theory, the larger the addition of the MIOL, the larger the halo diameter. For large pupils and with MIOL with similar aspheric designs and addition (SN6AD3 vs ZMA00), the apodized MIOL has a smaller halo diameter than a non-apodized one in distance vision, while in near vision the size is very similar, but the relative intensity is higher in the apodized MIOL. When comparing lenses with the same diffractive design, but with different spherical-aspheric base design (SN60D3 vs SN6AD3), the halo in distance vision of the spherical MIOL is larger, while in near vision the spherical IOL induces a smaller halo, but with higher intensity due to the spherical aberration of the distance focus in the near image. In the case of a trifocal-diffractive IOL (AT LISA 839MP) the most noticeable characteristic is the double-halo formation due to the 2 non

  16. The Outer Halos of Very Massive Galaxies: BCGs and their DSC in the Magneticum Simulations (United States)

    Remus, Rhea-Silvia; Dolag, Klaus; Hoffmann, Tadziu


    Recent hydrodynamic cosmological simulations cover volumes up to Gpc^3 and resolve halos across a wide range of masses and environments, from massive galaxy clusters down to normal galaxies, while following a large variety of physical processes (star formation, chemical enrichment, AGN feedback) to allow a self-consistent comparison to observations at multiple wavelengths. Using the Magneticum simulations, we investigate the buildup of the diffuse stellar component (DSC) around massive galaxies within group and cluster environments. The DSC in our simulations reproduces the spatial distribution of the observed intracluster light (ICL) as well as its kinematic properties remarkably well. For galaxy clusters and groups we find that, although the DSC in almost all cases shows a clear separation from the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) with regard to its dynamic state, the radial stellar density distribution in many halos is often characterized by a single Sersic profile, representing both the BCG component and the DSC, very much in agreement with current observational results. Interestingly, even in those halos that clearly show two components in both the dynamics and the spatial distribution of the stellar component, no correlation between them is evident.

  17. Historic halo displays as weather indicator: Criteria and examples (United States)

    Neuhäuser, Dagmar L.; Neuhäuser, Ralph


    There are numerous celestial signs reported in historic records, many of them refer to atmospheric ("sub-lunar") phenomena, such as ice halos and aurorae. In an interdisciplinary collaboration between astrophysics and cultural astronomy, we noticed that celestial observations including meteorological phenomena are often misinterpreted, mostly due to missing genuine criteria: especially ice crystal halos were recorded frequently in past centuries for religious reasons, but are mistaken nowadays often for other phenomena like aurorae. Ice halo displays yield clear information on humidity and temperature in certain atmospheric layers, and thereby indicate certain weather patterns. Ancient so-called rain makers used halo observations for weather forecast; e.g., a connection between certain halo displays and rain a few day later is statistically significant. Ice halos exist around sun and moon and are reported for both (they can stay for several days): many near, middle, and far eastern records from day- and night-time include such observations with high frequency. (Partly based on publications on halos by D.L. Neuhäuser & R. Neuhäuser, available at

  18. Accurate mass and velocity functions of dark matter haloes (United States)

    Comparat, Johan; Prada, Francisco; Yepes, Gustavo; Klypin, Anatoly


    N-body cosmological simulations are an essential tool to understand the observed distribution of galaxies. We use the MultiDark simulation suite, run with the Planck cosmological parameters, to revisit the mass and velocity functions. At redshift z = 0, the simulations cover four orders of magnitude in halo mass from ˜1011M⊙ with 8783 874 distinct haloes and 532 533 subhaloes. The total volume used is ˜515 Gpc3, more than eight times larger than in previous studies. We measure and model the halo mass function, its covariance matrix w.r.t halo mass and the large-scale halo bias. With the formalism of the excursion-set mass function, we explicit the tight interconnection between the covariance matrix, bias and halo mass function. We obtain a very accurate (Planck cosmology. Finally, we provide precise analytical fits of the Vmax maximum velocity function up to redshift z < 2.3 to push for the development of halo occupation distribution using Vmax. The data and the analysis code are made publicly available in the Skies and Universes data base.

  19. Structure and Kinematics of the Stellar Halos and Thick Disks of the Milky Way Based on Calibration Stars from SDSS DR7 (United States)

    Carollo, D.; Beers, T. C.; Chiba, M.; Norris, J. E.; Freeman, K. C.; Lee, Y. S.


    The structure and kinematics of the recognized stellar components of the Milky Way are explored, based on well-determined atmospheric parameters and kinematic quantities for 32360 “calibration stars” from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and its first extension, (SDSS-II), which included the sub-survey SEGUE: Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration. Full space motions for a sub-sample of 16920 stars, exploring a local volume within 4 kpc of the Sun, are used to derive velocity ellipsoids for the inner- and outer-halo components of the Galaxy, as well as for the canonical thick-disk and proposed metal-weak thick-disk populations. This new sample of calibration stars represents an increase of 60% relative to the numbers used in a previous analysis. A Maximum Likelihood analysis of a local sub-sample of 16920 calibration stars has been developed in order to extract kinematic information for the major Galactic components (thick disk, inner halo, and outer halo), as well as for the elusive metal-weak thick disk (MWTD). We measure velocity ellipsoids for the thick disk, the MWTD, the inner halo, and the outer halo, demonstrate that the MWTD may be a component that is kinematically and chemically independent of the canonical thick disk (and put limits on the metallicity range of the MWTD), and derive the inferred spatial density profiles of the inner/outer halo components. We also present evidence for tilts in the velocity ellipsoids for stars in our sample as a function of height above the plane, for several ranges in metallicity, and confirm the shift of the observed metallicity distribution function (MDF) from the inner-halo to the outer-halo dominated sample.

  20. Abundances in planetary nebulae : NGC 6826

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Surendiranath, R.; Pottasch, S. R.

    Aims. We determine the chemical abundances and other parameters of the nebula NGC 6826 and its central star. Methods. We present new ISO spectra and combine them with archival IUE and optical spectra from the literature to get a complete, extinction-corrected, spectrum. The chemical composition of

  1. Stellar halos: a rosetta stone for galaxy formation and cosmology (United States)

    Inglis Read, Justin


    Stellar halos make up about a percent of the total stellar mass in galaxies. Yet their old age and long phase mixing times make them living fossil records of galactic history. In this talk, I review the latest simulations of structure formation in our standard Lambda Cold Dark Matter cosmology. I discuss the latest predictions for stellar halos and the relationship between the stellar halo light and the underlying dark matter. Finally, I discuss how these simulations compare to observations of the Milky Way and Andromeda and, ultimately, what this means for our cosmological model and the formation history of the Galaxy.

  2. Peripheral cholangiocarcinoma : Radiologic significance of hypoechoic halo sign on sonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Young Eok; Moon, Haeng Jin; Lee, Eun Ja; Ahn, In Oak [Gyeong Sang National Univ., College of Medicine, Chinju (Korea, Republic of)


    To determine the prevalence and characteristics of the hypoechoic halo sign in peripheral cholangiocarcinoma. Seventeen sonograms of 17 patients with peripheral cholangiocarcinoma histologically proven by either percutaneous needle biopsy (n=16) or surgical biopsy (n=1) were retrospectively reviewed. The size, margin, homogeneity and internal echogenicity of the masses as well as their peritumoral ductal dilatation and intratumoral calcification were ascertained, and the presence of a hypoechoic halo, and if present, its thickness and type, were also determined. We arbitrarily defined a 'thin' and 'thick' halo respectively, as one with a thickness less than of less than 3 mm, and 3 mm or more, and classified halos as 'intratumoral', 'extratumoral', or 'mixed'. Tumor diameter ranged from 4 to 13.5 (mean,7.3)cm, and the margin was well-defined in 15 cases (smooth: n=2; lobulated: n=13) and irregular in two. Echogenicity was slightly heterogeneous in 11 cases, severely heterogeneous in three, and hemogeneous in three, while the central portion was hyperechoic in eight cases, isoechoic in seven, and hypoechoic in only two. A hypoechoic halo was detected in 10 of 15 tumors (67%) with isoechoic centers. In evaluating the halo, two cases in which the mass was hypoechoic were excluded. All ten hypoechoic halos were at least 3 (range, 4-13; mean, 8.3) mm thick; in two cases the presence of a halo was equivocal, and in three there was no halo. Eight of ten halos were the mixed type, two were intratumoral, and none were extratumoral. Peritumoral ductal dilatation was seen in four cases (24%), but no internal calcification was observed. US showed that the margins of peripheral cholangiocarcinomas were mostly well-defined and smooth (12%) or lobulated (76%), and that masses were mainly heterogeneous (64%) A hypoechoic halo, which in all cases was thick and in 80% of cases was mixed, was noted in 67% of tumors with a hyper (47

  3. Evolution of Southern Hemisphere spring air masses observed by HALOE (United States)

    Pierce, R. Bradley; Grose, William L.; Russell, James M., III; Tuck, Adrian F.


    The evolution of Southern Hemisphere air masses observed by the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) during September 21 through October 15, 1992, is investigated using isentropic trajectories computed from United Kingdom Meteorological Office (UKMO) assimilated winds and temperatures. Maps of constituent concentrations are obtained by accumulation of air masses from previous HALOE occultations. Lagged correlations between initial and subsequent HALOE observations of the same air mass are used to validate the air mass trajectories. High correlations are found for lag times as large as 10 days. Frequency distributions of the air mass constituent concentrations are used to examine constituent distributions in and around the Southern Hemisphere polar vortex.

  4. The immitigable nature of assembly bias: the impact of halo definition on assembly bias (United States)

    Villarreal, Antonio S.; Zentner, Andrew R.; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Purcell, Chris W.; van den Bosch, Frank C.; Diemer, Benedikt; Lange, Johannes U.; Wang, Kuan; Campbell, Duncan


    Dark matter halo clustering depends not only on halo mass, but also on other properties such as concentration and shape. This phenomenon is known broadly as assembly bias. We explore the dependence of assembly bias on halo definition, parametrized by spherical overdensity parameter, Δ. We summarize the strength of concentration-, shape-, and spin-dependent halo clustering as a function of halo mass and halo definition. Concentration-dependent clustering depends strongly on mass at all Δ. For conventional halo definitions (Δ ˜ 200 - 600 m), concentration-dependent clustering at low mass is driven by a population of haloes that is altered through interactions with neighbouring haloes. Concentration-dependent clustering can be greatly reduced through a mass-dependent halo definition with Δ ˜ 20 - 40 m for haloes with M200 m ≲ 1012 h-1M⊙. Smaller Δ implies larger radii and mitigates assembly bias at low mass by subsuming altered, so-called backsplash haloes into now larger host haloes. At higher masses (M200 m ≳ 1013 h-1M⊙) larger overdensities, Δ ≳ 600 m, are necessary. Shape- and spin-dependent clustering are significant for all halo definitions that we explore and exhibit a relatively weaker mass dependence. Generally, both the strength and the sense of assembly bias depend on halo definition, varying significantly even among common definitions. We identify no halo definition that mitigates all manifestations of assembly bias. A halo definition that mitigates assembly bias based on one halo property (e.g. concentration) must be mass dependent. The halo definitions that best mitigate concentration-dependent halo clustering do not coincide with the expected average splashback radii at fixed halo mass.

  5. Blending bias impacts the host halo masses derived from a cross-correlation analysis of bright submillimetre galaxies (United States)

    Cowley, William I.; Lacey, Cedric G.; Baugh, Carlton M.; Cole, Shaun; Wilkinson, Aaron


    Placing bright submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) within the broader context of galaxy formation and evolution requires accurate measurements of their clustering, which can constrain the masses of their host dark matter haloes. Recent work has shown that the clustering measurements of these galaxies may be affected by a 'blending bias', which results in the angular correlation function of the sources extracted from single-dish imaging surveys being boosted relative to that of the underlying galaxies. This is due to confusion introduced by the coarse angular resolution of the single-dish telescope and could lead to the inferred halo masses being significantly overestimated. We investigate the extent to which this bias affects the measurement of the correlation function of SMGs when it is derived via a cross-correlation with a more abundant galaxy population. We find that the blending bias is essentially the same as in the autocorrelation case and conclude that the best way to reduce its effects is to calculate the angular correlation function using SMGs in narrow redshift bins. Blending bias causes the inferred host halo masses of the SMGs to be overestimated by a factor of ∼6 when a redshift interval of δz = 3 is used. However, this reduces to a factor of ∼2 for δz = 0.5. The broadening of photometric redshift probability distributions with increasing redshift can therefore impart a mild halo 'downsizing' effect on to the inferred host halo masses, though this trend is not as strong as seen in recent observational studies.

  6. Reconstruction of halo power spectrum from redshift-space galaxy distribution: cylinder-grouping method and halo exclusion effect (United States)

    Okumura, Teppei; Takada, Masahiro; More, Surhud; Masaki, Shogo


    The peculiar velocity field measured by redshift-space distortions (RSD) in galaxy surveys provides a unique probe of the growth of large-scale structure. However, systematic effects arise when including satellite galaxies in the clustering analysis. Since satellite galaxies tend to reside in massive haloes with a greater halo bias, the inclusion boosts the clustering power. In addition, virial motions of the satellite galaxies cause a significant suppression of the clustering power due to non-linear RSD effects. We develop a novel method to recover the redshift-space power spectrum of haloes from the observed galaxy distribution by minimizing the contamination of satellite galaxies. The cylinder-grouping method (CGM) we study effectively excludes satellite galaxies from a galaxy sample. However, we find that this technique produces apparent anisotropies in the reconstructed halo distribution over all the scales which mimic RSD. On small scales, the apparent anisotropic clustering is caused by exclusion of haloes within the anisotropic cylinder used by the CGM. On large scales, the misidentification of different haloes in the large-scale structures, aligned along the line of sight, into the same CGM group causes the apparent anisotropic clustering via their cross-correlation with the CGM haloes. We construct an empirical model for the CGM halo power spectrum, which includes correction terms derived using the CGM window function at small scales as well as the linear matter power spectrum multiplied by a simple anisotropic function at large scales. We apply this model to a mock galaxy catalogue at z = 0.5, designed to resemble Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) CMASS galaxies, and find that our model can predict both the monopole and quadrupole power spectra of the host haloes up to k < 0.5 {{h Mpc^{-1}}} to within 5 per cent.

  7. On the galaxy-halo connection in the EAGLE simulation (United States)

    Desmond, Harry; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Wechsler, Risa H.; Crain, Robert A.; Schaye, Joop


    Empirical models of galaxy formation require assumptions about the correlations between galaxy and halo properties. These may be calibrated against observations or inferred from physical models such as hydrodynamical simulations. In this Letter, we use the EAGLE simulation to investigate the correlation of galaxy size with halo properties. We motivate this analysis by noting that the common assumption of angular momentum partition between baryons and dark matter in rotationally supported galaxies overpredicts both the spread in the stellar mass-size relation and the anticorrelation of size and velocity residuals, indicating a problem with the galaxy-halo connection it implies. We find the EAGLE galaxy population to perform significantly better on both statistics, and trace this success to the weakness of the correlations of galaxy size with halo mass, concentration and spin at fixed stellar mass. Using these correlations in empirical models will enable fine-grained aspects of galaxy scalings to be matched.

  8. Impact of Neutrinos on Dark Matter Halo Environment (United States)

    Court, Travis; Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco


    The spatial clustering of galaxies is commonly used to infer the shape of the matter power spectrum and therefore to place constraints on the value of the cosmological parameters. In order to extract the maximum information from galaxy surveys it is required to provide accurate theoretical predictions. The first step to model galaxy clustering is to understand the spatial distribution of the structures where they reside: dark matter halos. I will show that the clustering of halos does not depend only on mass, but on other quantities like local matter overdensity. I will point out that halo clustering is also sensitive to the local overdensity of the cosmic neutrino background. I will show that splitting halos according to neutrino overdensity induces a very large scale-dependence bias, an effect that may lead to a new technique to constraint the sum of the neutrino masses.

  9. Visibility of stars, halos, and rainbows during solar eclipses. (United States)

    Können, Gunther P; Hinz, Claudia


    The visibility of stars, planets, diffraction coronas, halos, and rainbows during the partial and total phases of a solar eclipse is studied. The limiting magnitude during various stages of the partial phase is presented. The sky radiance during totality with respect to noneclipse conditions is revisited and found to be typically 1/4000. The corresponding limiting magnitude is +3.5. At totality, the signal-to-background ratio of diffraction coronas, halos, and rainbows has dropped by a factor of 250. It is found that diffraction coronas around the totally eclipsed Sun may nevertheless occur. Analyses of lunar halo observations during twilight indicate that bright halo displays may also persist during totality. Rainbows during totality seem impossible.

  10. Planetary nebulae as kinematic tracers of galaxy stellar halos (United States)

    Coccato, Lodovico


    The kinematic and dynamical properties of galaxy stellar halos are difficult to measure because of the faint surface brightness that characterizes these regions. Spiral galaxies can be probed using the radio Hi emission; on the contrary, early-type galaxies contain less gas, therefore alternative kinematic tracers need to be used. Planetary nebulae (PNe) can be easily detected far out in the halo thanks to their bright emission lines. It is therefore possible to map the halo kinematics also in early-type galaxies, typically out to 5 effective radii or beyond. Thanks to the recent spectroscopic surveys targeting extra-galactic PNe, we can now rely on a few tens of galaxies where the kinematics of the stellar halos are measured. Here, I will review the main results obtained in this field in the last decades.

  11. Halo performance on low light level image intensifiers (United States)

    Cui, Dongxu; Ren, Ling; Chang, Benkang; Shi, Feng; Shi, Jifang; Qian, Yunsheng; Wang, Honggang; Zhang, Junju

    To analyze the formation mechanism of the halo on low light level image intensifiers and the influencing factors on the halo size, a halo tester has been designed. Under the illumination between 10-2 lx and 10-4 lx, we use the tester to collect a 0.1922 mm hole image directly with CoolSNAPK4 charge-coupled device (CCD) in a darkroom. The practical measurement result shows that the amplification ratio is 343.4. Then we put the super second and third generation image intensifiers after the hole, and the halo sizes of the hole images on the screens are determined as 0.2388 and 0.5533 mm respectively. The results are helpful to improve the quality of the low light level image intensifiers.

  12. Summary of the 2014 Beam-Halo Monitoring Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Alan


    Understanding and controlling beam halo is important for high-intensity hadron accelerators, for high-brightness electron linacs, and for low-emittance light sources. This can only be achieved by developing suitable diagnostics. The main challenge faced by such instrumentation is the high dynamic range needed to observe the halo in the presence of an intense core. In addition, measurements must often be made non-invasively. This talk summarizes the one-day workshop on Beam-Halo Monitoring that was held at SLAC on September 19 last year, immediately following IBIC 2014 in Monterey. Workshop presentations described invasive techniques using wires, screens, or crystal collimators, and non-invasive measurements with gas or scattered electrons. Talks on optical methods showed the close links between observing halo and astronomical problems like observing the solar corona or directly observing a planet orbiting another star.

  13. UARS Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) Level 3AT V001 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) Level 3AT data product consists of daily vertical profiles of temperature, aerosol extinction and concentrations of HCl,...

  14. Following The Cosmic Evolution Of Pristine Gas I: Implications For Milky Way Halo Stars


    Sarmento, Richard; Scannapieco, Evan; Pan, Liubin


    We make use of new subgrid model of turbulent mixing to accurately follow the cosmological evolution of the first stars, the mixing of their supernova ejecta, and the impact on the chemical composition of the Galactic Halo. Using the cosmological adaptive mesh refinement code RAMSES, we implement a model for the pollution of pristine gas as described in Pan et al. Tracking the metallicity of Pop III stars with metallicities below a critical value allows us to account for the fraction of Z < Z...

  15. Revisiting Scaling Relations for Giant Radio Halos in Galaxy Clusters (United States)

    Cassano, R.; Ettori, S.; Brunetti, G.; Giacintucci, S.; Pratt, G. W.; Venturi, T.; Kale, R.; Dolag, K.; Markevitch, Maxim L.


    Many galaxy clusters host megaparsec-scale radio halos, generated by ultrarelativistic electrons in the magnetized intracluster medium. Correlations between the synchrotron power of radio halos and the thermal properties of the hosting clusters were established in the last decade, including the connection between the presence of a halo and cluster mergers. The X-ray luminosity and redshift-limited Extended GMRT Radio Halo Survey provides a rich and unique dataset for statistical studies of the halos. We uniformly analyze the radio and X-ray data for the GMRT cluster sample, and use the new Planck Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) catalog to revisit the correlations between the power of radio halos and the thermal properties of galaxy clusters. We find that the radio power at 1.4 GHz scales with the cluster X-ray (0.1-2.4 keV) luminosity computed within R(sub 500) as P(sub 1.4) approx. L(2.1+/-0.2) - 500). Our bigger and more homogenous sample confirms that the X-ray luminous (L(sub 500) > 5 × 10(exp 44) erg/s)) clusters branch into two populations-radio halos lie on the correlation, while clusters without radio halos have their radio upper limits well below that correlation. This bimodality remains if we excise cool cores from the X-ray luminosities. We also find that P(sub 1.4) scales with the cluster integrated SZ signal within R(sub 500), measured by Planck, as P(sub 1.4) approx. Y(2.05+/-0.28) - 500), in line with previous findings. However, contrary to previous studies that were limited by incompleteness and small sample size, we find that "SZ-luminous" Y(sub 500) > 6×10(exp -5) Mpc(exp 2) clusters show a bimodal behavior for the presence of radio halos, similar to that in the radio-X-ray diagram. Bimodality of both correlations can be traced to clusters dynamics, with radio halos found exclusively in merging clusters. These results confirm the key role of mergers for the origin of giant radio halos, suggesting that they trigger the relativistic particle acceleration.

  16. Testing approximate predictions of displacements of cosmological dark matter halos (United States)

    Munari, Emiliano; Monaco, Pierluigi; Koda, Jun; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Sefusatti, Emiliano; Borgani, Stefano


    We present a test to quantify how well some approximate methods, designed to reproduce the mildly non-linear evolution of perturbations, are able to reproduce the clustering of DM halos once the grouping of particles into halos is defined and kept fixed. The following methods have been considered: Lagrangian Perturbation Theory (LPT) up to third order, Truncated LPT, Augmented LPT, MUSCLE and COLA. The test runs as follows: halos are defined by applying a friends-of-friends (FoF) halo finder to the output of an N-body simulation. The approximate methods are then applied to the same initial conditions of the simulation, producing for all particles displacements from their starting position and velocities. The position and velocity of each halo are computed by averaging over the particles that belong to that halo, according to the FoF halo finder. This procedure allows us to perform a well-posed test of how clustering of the matter density and halo density fields are recovered, without asking to the approximate method an accurate reconstruction of halos. We have considered the results at z=0,0.5,1, and we have analysed power spectrum in real and redshift space, object-by-object difference in position and velocity, density Probability Distribution Function (PDF) and its moments, phase difference of Fourier modes. We find that higher LPT orders are generally able to better reproduce the clustering of halos, while little or no improvement is found for the matter density field when going to 2LPT and 3LPT. Augmentation provides some improvement when coupled with 2LPT, while its effect is limited when coupled with 3LPT. Little improvement is brought by MUSCLE with respect to Augmentation. The more expensive particle-mesh code COLA outperforms all LPT methods, and this is true even for mesh sizes as large as the inter-particle distance. This test sets an upper limit on the ability of these methods to reproduce the clustering of halos, for the cases when these objects are

  17. Vaporization in comets - The icy grain halo of Comet West (United States)

    Ahearn, M. F.; Cowan, J. J.


    The variation with heliocentric distance of the production rates of various species in Comet West (1975n = 1976 VI) is explained with a cometary model consisting of a CO2 dominated nucleus plus a halo of icy grains of H2O or clathrate hydrate. It is concluded that the parents of CN and C3 are released primarily from the nucleus but that the parent of C2 is released primarily from the halo of icy grains.

  18. Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) Di PT Halo Rumah Bernyanyi


    Rismayanti, Rebekka


    : This research aims to describe the effectiveness of Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC) in PT Halo Rumah Bernyanyi which, from the perspective of marketing strategy, could be studied by analyzing the segmentation, targeting, and positioning. Using case-study method with in-depth interview, the result shows that the implementation of IMC at PT Halo Rumah Bernyayi is arranged in one single strategy and tend to neglect the complexities of running multi-brand family karaoke-house. This con...

  19. Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) di PT Halo Rumah Bernyanyi


    Rebekka Rismayanti


    Abstract: This research aims to describe the effectiveness of Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC) in PT Halo Rumah Bernyanyi which, from the perspective of marketing strategy, could be studied by analyzing the segmentation, targeting, and positioning. Using case-study method with in-depth interview, the result shows that the implementation of IMC at PT Halo Rumah Bernyayi is arranged in one single strategy and tend to neglect the complexities of running multi-brand family karaoke-house. ...

  20. Non-Gaussianity and Excursion Set Theory: Halo Bias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adshead, Peter [Enrico Fermi Institute, Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Baxter, Eric J. [Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Dodelson, Scott [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Lidz, Adam [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)


    We study the impact of primordial non-Gaussianity generated during inflation on the bias of halos using excursion set theory. We recapture the familiar result that the bias scales as $k^{-2}$ on large scales for local type non-Gaussianity but explicitly identify the approximations that go into this conclusion and the corrections to it. We solve the more complicated problem of non-spherical halos, for which the collapse threshold is scale dependent.

  1. MD 1691: Active halo control using tune ripple at injection

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia Morales, Hector; Bruce, Roderik; Redaelli, Stefano; Fitterer, Miriam; Fiascaris, Maria; Nisbet, David; Thiesen, Hugues; Valentino, Gianluca; Xu, Chen; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department


    In this MD we performed halo excitation through tune ripple. This consists in an excitation that introduces new resonance sidebands around the existing resonance lines. In presence of sufficient detuning with amplitude, these sidebands can in principle affect only the dynamics of the halo particles at large amplitudes. Tune ripple was induced through a current modulation of the warm trim quadrupoles in IR7. This is the first time this method is experimentally tested at the LHC.

  2. Nano-mechanics of HaloTag Tethers


    Popa, Ionel; Berkovich, Ronen; Alegre-Cebollada, Jorge; Badilla, Carmen L.; Rivas-Pardo, Jaime Andres; Taniguchi, Yukinori; Kawakami, Masaru; Fernandez, Julio M.


    The active site of the Haloalkane Dehydrogenase (HaloTag) enzyme can be covalently attached to a chloroalkane ligand providing a mechanically strong tether, resistant to large pulling forces. Here we demonstrate the covalent tethering of protein L and I27 polyproteins between an AFM cantilever and a glass surface using HaloTag anchoring at one end, and thiol chemistry at the other end. Covalent tethering is unambiguously confirmed by the observation of full length polyprotein unfolding, combi...

  3. Two Stellar Components in the Halo of the Milky Way (United States)


    distributed throughout the primordial interstellar medium by stellar winds and supernovae . Previous work has provided evidence that the halo of the Milky...the number of stars), for samples in which a counter-rotating halo has been claimed, ordered by sample size. The samples listed in the first column...sample by the authors are listed in the third column (see original papers for details). The method of analysis used for each determination is listed : F&W

  4. The globular cluster-dark matter halo connection (United States)

    Boylan-Kolchin, Michael


    I present a simple phenomenological model for the observed linear scaling of the stellar mass in old globular clusters (GCs) with $z=0$ halo mass in which the stellar mass in GCs scales linearly with progenitor halo mass at $z=6$ above a minimum halo mass for GC formation. This model reproduces the observed $M_{\\rm GCs}-M_{\\rm halo}$ relation at $z=0$ and results in a prediction for the minimum halo mass at $z=6$ required for hosting one GC: $M_{\\rm min}(z=6)=1.07 \\times 10^9\\,M_{\\odot}$. Translated to $z=0$, the mean threshold mass is $M_{\\rm halo}(z=0) \\approx 2\\times 10^{10}\\,M_{\\odot}$. I explore the observability of GCs in the reionization era and their contribution to cosmic reionization, both of which depend sensitively on the (unknown) ratio of GC birth mass to present-day stellar mass, $\\xi$. Based on current detections of $z \\gtrsim 6$ objects with $M_{1500} 10$ are strongly disfavored; this, in turn, has potentially important implications for GC formation scenarios. Even for low values of $\\xi$, some observed high-$z$ galaxies may actually be GCs, complicating estimates of reionization-era galaxy ultraviolet luminosity functions and constraints on dark matter models. GCs are likely important reionization sources if $5 \\lesssim \\xi \\lesssim 10$. I also explore predictions for the fraction of accreted versus in situ GCs in the local Universe and for descendants of systems at the halo mass threshold of GC formation (dwarf galaxies). An appealing feature of the model presented here is the ability to make predictions for GC properties based solely on dark matter halo merger trees.

  5. Stellar-to-halo mass relation of cluster galaxies (United States)

    Niemiec, Anna; Jullo, Eric; Limousin, Marceau; Giocoli, Carlo; Erben, Thomas; Hildebrant, Hendrik; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Leauthaud, Alexie; Makler, Martin; Moraes, Bruno; Pereira, Maria E. S.; Shan, Huanyuan; Rozo, Eduardo; Rykoff, Eli; Van Waerbeke, Ludovic


    In the formation of galaxy groups and clusters, the dark matter haloes containing satellite galaxies are expected to be tidally stripped in gravitational interactions with the host. We use galaxy-galaxy weak lensing to measure the average mass of dark matter haloes of satellite galaxies as a function of projected distance to the centre of the host, since stripping is expected to be greater for satellites closer to the centre of the cluster. We further classify the satellites according to their stellar mass: Assuming that the stellar component of the galaxy is less disrupted by tidal stripping, stellar mass can be used as a proxy of the infall mass. We study the stellar-to-halo mass relation of satellites as a function of the cluster-centric distance to measure tidal stripping. We use the shear catalogues of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) science verification archive, the Canada-France-Hawaii Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS) and the CFHT Stripe 82 surveys, and we select satellites from the redMaPPer catalogue of clusters. For galaxies located in the outskirts of clusters, we find a stellar-to- halo mass relation in good agreement with the theoretical expectations from Moster et al. for central galaxies. In the centre of the cluster, we find that this relation is shifted to smaller halo mass for a given stellar mass. We interpret this finding as further evidence for tidal stripping of dark matter haloes in high-density environments.

  6. Nano-mechanics of HaloTag Tethers (United States)

    Popa, Ionel; Berkovich, Ronen; Alegre-Cebollada, Jorge; Badilla, Carmen L.; Rivas-Pardo, Jaime Andres; Taniguchi, Yukinori; Kawakami, Masaru; Fernandez, Julio M.


    The active site of the Haloalkane Dehydrogenase (HaloTag) enzyme can be covalently attached to a chloroalkane ligand providing a mechanically strong tether, resistant to large pulling forces. Here we demonstrate the covalent tethering of protein L and I27 polyproteins between an AFM cantilever and a glass surface using HaloTag anchoring at one end, and thiol chemistry at the other end. Covalent tethering is unambiguously confirmed by the observation of full length polyprotein unfolding, combined with high detachment forces that range up to ~2000 pN. We use these covalently anchored polyproteins to study the remarkable mechanical properties of HaloTag proteins. We show that the force that triggers unfolding of the HaloTag protein exhibits a four-fold increase, from 131 pN to 491 pN, when the direction of the applied force is changed from the C-terminus to the N-terminus. Force-clamp experiments reveal that unfolding of the HaloTag protein is twice more sensitive to pulling force compared to protein L, and refolds at a slower rate. We show how these properties allow for the long-term observation of protein folding-unfolding cycles at high forces, without interference from the HaloTag tether. PMID:23909704

  7. What to expect from dynamical modelling of galactic haloes (United States)

    Wang, Wenting; Han, Jiaxin; Cole, Shaun; Frenk, Carlos; Sawala, Till


    Many dynamical models of the Milky Way halo require assumptions that the distribution function of a tracer population should be independent of time (I.e. a steady-state distribution function) and that the underlying potential is spherical. We study the limitations of such modelling by applying a general dynamical model with minimal assumptions to a large sample of galactic haloes from cosmological N-body and hydrodynamical simulations. Using dark matter particles as dynamical tracers, we find that the systematic uncertainties in the measured mass and concentration parameters typically have an amplitude of 25-40 per cent. When stars are used as tracers, however, the systematic uncertainties can be as large as a factor of 2-3. The systematic uncertainties are not reduced by increasing the tracer sample size and vary stochastically from halo to halo. These systematic uncertainties are mostly driven by underestimated statistical noise caused by correlated phase-space structures that violate the steady-state assumption. The number of independent phase-space structures inferred from the uncertainty level sets a limiting sample size beyond which a further increase no longer significantly improves the accuracy of dynamical inferences. The systematic uncertainty level is determined by the halo merger history, the shape and environment of the halo. Our conclusions apply generally to any spherical steady-state model.

  8. Cold dark matter. 1: The formation of dark halos (United States)

    Gelb, James M.; Bertschinger, Edmund


    We use numerical simulations of critically closed cold dark matter (CDM) models to study the effects of numerical resolution on observable quantities. We study simulations with up to 256(exp 3) particles using the particle-mesh (PM) method and with up to 144(exp 3) particles using the adaptive particle-particle-mesh (P3M) method. Comparisons of galaxy halo distributions are made among the various simulations. We also compare distributions with observations, and we explore methods for identifying halos, including a new algorithm that finds all particles within closed contours of the smoothed density field surrounding a peak. The simulated halos show more substructure than predicted by the Press-Schechter theory. We are able to rule out all omega = 1 CDM models for linear amplitude sigma(sub 8) greater than or approximately = 0.5 because the simulations produce too many massive halos compared with the observations. The simulations also produce too many low-mass halos. The distribution of halos characterized by their circular velocities for the P3M simulations is in reasonable agreement with the observations for 150 km/s less than or = V(sub circ) less than or = 350 km/s.

  9. Design of CMS Beam Halo Monitor system

    CERN Document Server



    A fast and directional monitoring system for the CMS experiment is designed to provide an online, bunch-by-bunch measurement of beam background induced by beam halo interactions, separately for each beam. The background detection is based on Cherenkov radiation produced in synthetic fused silica read out by a fast, UV sensitive photomultiplier tube. Twenty detector units per end will be azimuthally distributed around the rotating shielding of CMS, covering ~408 cm2 at 20.6m from the interaction point, at a radius of ~180 cm. The directional and fast response of the system allows the discrimination of the background particles from the dominant flux in the cavern induced by pp collision debris, produced within the 25 ns bunch spacing. A robust multi-layered shielding will enclose each detector unit to protect the photomultiplier tube from the magnetic field and to eliminate the occupancy from low energy particles. The design of the front-end units is validated by experimental results. An overview of the new sy...

  10. The CMS Beam Halo Monitor electronics (United States)

    Tosi, N.; Dabrowski, A. E.; Fabbri, F.; Grassi, T.; Hughes, E.; Mans, J.; Montanari, A.; Orfanelli, S.; Rusack, R.; Torromeo, G.; Stickland, D. P.; Stifter, K.


    The CMS Beam Halo Monitor has been successfully installed in the CMS cavern in LHC Long Shutdown 1 for measuring the machine induced background for LHC Run II. The system is based on 40 detector units composed of synthetic quartz Cherenkov radiators coupled to fast photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The readout electronics chain uses many components developed for the Phase 1 upgrade to the CMS Hadronic Calorimeter electronics, with dedicated firmware and readout adapted to the beam monitoring requirements. The PMT signal is digitized by a charge integrating ASIC (QIE10), providing both the signal rise time, with few nanosecond resolution, and the charge integrated over one bunch crossing. The backend electronics uses microTCA technology and receives data via a high-speed 5 Gbps asynchronous link. It records histograms with sub-bunch crossing timing resolution and is read out via IPbus using the newly designed CMS data acquisition for non-event based data. The data is processed in real time and published to CMS and the LHC, providing online feedback on the beam quality. A dedicated calibration monitoring system has been designed to generate short triggered pulses of light to monitor the efficiency of the system. The electronics has been in operation since the first LHC beams of Run II and has served as the first demonstration of the new QIE10, Microsemi Igloo2 FPGA and high-speed 5 Gbps link with LHC data.

  11. Beam halo collimation in heavy ion synchrotrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Strašík


    Full Text Available This paper presents a systematic study of the halo collimation of ion beams from proton up to uranium in synchrotrons. The projected Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research synchrotron SIS100 is used as a reference case. The concepts are separated into fully stripped (e.g., ^{238}U^{92+} and partially stripped (e.g., ^{238}U^{28+} ion collimation. An application of the two-stage betatron collimation system, well established for proton accelerators, is intended also for fully stripped ions. The two-stage system consists of a primary collimator (a scattering foil and secondary collimators (bulky absorbers. Interaction of the particles with the primary collimator (scattering, momentum losses, and nuclear interactions was simulated by using fluka. Particle-tracking simulations were performed by using mad-x. Finally, the dependence of the collimation efficiency on the primary ion species was determined. The influence of the collimation system adjustment, lattice imperfections, and beam parameters was estimated. The concept for the collimation of partially stripped ions employs a thin stripping foil in order to change their charge state. These ions are subsequently deflected towards a dump location using a beam optical element. The charge state distribution after the stripping foil was obtained from global. The ions were tracked by using mad–x.

  12. Performance of the CMS Beam Halo Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration


    The CMS Beam Halo Monitor has been successfully installed in the CMS cavern in LHC Long Shutdown 1 for measuring the machine induced background for LHC Run II. The system is based on 40 detector units composed of radiation hard synthetic quartz Cherenkov radiators coupled to fast photomultiplier tubes for a direction sensitive measurement. The readout electronics chain uses many components developed for the Phase 1 upgrade to the CMS Hadronic Calorimeter electronics, with dedicated firmware and readout adapted to the beam monitoring requirements. The PMT signal is digitized by a charge integrating ASIC (QIE10), providing both the signal rise time, with few ns resolution, and the charge integrated over one bunch crossing. The backend electronics uses microTCA technology and received data via a high-speed 5 Gbps asynchronous link. It records histograms with sub-bunch crossing timing resolution and is readout by IPbus using the newly designed CMS data acquisition for non-event based data. The data is processed i...

  13. The CMS Beam Halo Monitor Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2080684; Fabbri, F.; Grassi, T.; Hughes, E.; Mans, J.; Montanari, A.; Orfanelli, S.; Rusack, R.; Torromeo, G.; Stickland, D.P.; Stifter, K.


    The CMS Beam Halo Monitor has been successfully installed in the CMS cavern in LHC Long Shutdown 1 for measuring the machine induced background for LHC Run II. The system is based on 40 detector units composed of synthetic quartz Cherenkov radiators coupled to fast photomultiplier tubes. The readout electronics chain uses many components developed for the Phase 1 upgrade to the CMS Hadronic Calorimeter electronics, with dedicated firmware and readout adapted to the beam monitoring requirements. The PMT signal is digitized by a charge integrating ASIC (QIE10), providing both the signal rise time, with few ns resolution, and the charge integrated over one bunch crossing. The backend electronics uses microTCA technology and receives data via a high-speed 5 Gbps asynchronous link. It records histograms with sub-bunch crossing timing resolution and is readout by IPbus using the newly designed CMS data acquisition for non-event based data. The data is processed in real time and published to CMS and the LHC, providi...

  14. Galactic Archaeology: The Chemical Composition of a Fossil Stellar Stream (United States)

    Ivans, I. I.


    Mounting evidence suggests that the Milky Way may have formed by an ``assembly'' process. Star formation and chemical enrichment possibly took place in proto-galactic fragments (subsystems possibly resembling small irregular galaxies) prior to and during their assembly into the Galaxy. Clear evidence of an ancient galactic merger has been uncovered in the local solar neighbourhood (in a statistically significant clumping of stars in angular momentum phase space, along with an additional trail of stars). These stars, possibly the debris originating from the accretion of a dwarf galaxy system, could have experienced an entirely different chemical history from those born within the Milky Way. Equally interesting is the prospect of discovering that the smaller and less massive dwarf galaxy or proto-galactic fragment could have produced abundance patterns indistinguishable from those of ``normal'' halo field stars. I have employed high resolution stellar spectra to analyze the abundances of important elements which are required (i) to help unravel the nucleosynthetic history of these stars and (ii) that could set further constraints on the evolution of low-mass dwarf galaxies as they existed at the time of the merger. At this meeting, I will report initial chemical composition results which were derived in order to infer the mass function and star formation history of the merger object, as well as to test the ``universality'' of the heavy element r-process production mechanism.

  15. Abundance measurements in stellar environments (United States)

    Leone, F.


    Most of what we know about stars, and systems of stars, is derived from the analysis of their electromagnetic radiation. This lesson is an attempt to describe to Physicists, without any Astrophysical background, the framework to understand the present status of abundance determination in stellar environments and its limit. These notes are dedicated to the recently passed, November 21, 2013, Prof. Dimitri Mihalas who spent his life confuting the 19th century positivist philosopher Auguste Comte who stated that we shall not at all be able to determine the chemical composition of stars.

  16. Abundance measurements in stellar environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leone, F. [Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Sezione Astrofisica, Via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania (Italy)


    Most of what we know about stars, and systems of stars, is derived from the analysis of their electromagnetic radiation. This lesson is an attempt to describe to Physicists, without any Astrophysical background, the framework to understand the present status of abundance determination in stellar environments and its limit. These notes are dedicated to the recently passed, November 21, 2013, Prof. Dimitri Mihalas who spent his life confuting the 19th century positivist philosopher Auguste Comte who stated that we shall not at all be able to determine the chemical composition of stars.

  17. Chemical analysis of eight giant stars of the globular cluster NGC 6366 (United States)

    Puls, Arthur A.; Brito, Alan Alves; Campos, Fabíola; Dias, Bruno; Barbuy, Beatriz


    The metal-rich Galactic globular cluster NGC 6366 is the fifth closest to the Sun. Despite its interest, it has received scarce attention, and little is known about its internal structure. Its kinematics suggests a link to the halo, but its metallicity indicates otherwise. We present a detailed chemical analysis of eight giant stars of NGC 6366, using high resolution and high quality spectra (R > 40 000, S/N > 60) obtained at the VLT (8.2 m) and CFHT (3.6 m) telescopes. We attempted to characterize its chemistry and to search for evidence of multiple stellar populations. The atmospheric parameters were derived using the method of excitation and ionization equilibrium of Fe I and Fe II lines and from those atmospheric parameters we calculated the abundances for other elements and found that none of the elements measured presents star-to-star variation greater than the uncertainties. We compared the derived abundances with those of other globular clusters and field stars available in the literature. We determined a mean [Fe/H] = -0.60 ± 0.03 for NGC 6366 and found some similarity of this object with M 71, another inner halo globular cluster. The Na-O anticorrelation extension is short and no star-to-star variation in Al is found. The presence of second generation stars is not evident in NGC 6366.

  18. The shape of the invisible halo: N-body simulations on parallel supercomputers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, M.S.; Zurek, W.H. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Quinn, P.J. (Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia). Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories); Salmon, J.K. (California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (USA))


    We study the shapes of halos and the relationship to their angular momentum content by means of N-body (N {approximately} 10{sup 6}) simulations. Results indicate that in relaxed halos with no apparent substructure: (i) the shape and orientation of the isodensity contours tends to persist throughout the virialised portion of the halo; (ii) most ({approx}70%) of the halos are prolate; (iii) the approximate direction of the angular momentum vector tends to persist throughout the halo; (iv) for spherical shells centered on the core of the halo the magnitude of the specific angular momentum is approximately proportional to their radius; (v) the shortest axis of the ellipsoid which approximates the shape of the halo tends to align with the rotation axis of the halo. This tendency is strongest in the fastest rotating halos. 13 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Discovering protein interactions and characterizing protein function using HaloTag technology. (United States)

    Daniels, Danette L; Méndez, Jacqui; Benink, Hélène; Niles, Andrew; Murphy, Nancy; Ford, Michael; Jones, Richard; Amunugama, Ravi; Allen, David; Urh, Marjeta


    Research in proteomics has exploded in recent years with advances in mass spectrometry capabilities that have led to the characterization of numerous proteomes, including those from viruses, bacteria, and yeast. In comparison, analysis of the human proteome lags behind, partially due to the sheer number of proteins which must be studied, but also the complexity of networks and interactions these present. To specifically address the challenges of understanding the human proteome, we have developed HaloTag technology for protein isolation, particularly strong for isolation of multiprotein complexes and allowing more efficient capture of weak or transient interactions and/or proteins in low abundance. HaloTag is a genetically encoded protein fusion tag, designed for covalent, specific, and rapid immobilization or labelling of proteins with various ligands. Leveraging these properties, numerous applications for mammalian cells were developed to characterize protein function and here we present methodologies including: protein pull-downs used for discovery of novel interactions or functional assays, and cellular localization. We find significant advantages in the speed, specificity, and covalent capture of fusion proteins to surfaces for proteomic analysis as compared to other traditional non-covalent approaches. We demonstrate these and the broad utility of the technology using two important epigenetic proteins as examples, the human bromodomain protein BRD4, and histone deacetylase HDAC1. These examples demonstrate the power of this technology in enabling the discovery of novel interactions and characterizing cellular localization in eukaryotes, which will together further understanding of human functional proteomics.

  20. The Cation−π Interaction Enables a Halo-Tag Fluorogenic Probe for Fast No-Wash Live Cell Imaging and Gel-Free Protein Quantification (United States)


    The design of fluorogenic probes for a Halo tag is highly desirable but challenging. Previous work achieved this goal by controlling the chemical switch of spirolactones upon the covalent conjugation between the Halo tag and probes or by incorporating a “channel dye” into the substrate binding tunnel of the Halo tag. In this work, we have developed a novel class of Halo-tag fluorogenic probes that are derived from solvatochromic fluorophores. The optimal probe, harboring a benzothiadiazole scaffold, exhibits a 1000-fold fluorescence enhancement upon reaction with the Halo tag. Structural, computational, and biochemical studies reveal that the benzene ring of a tryptophan residue engages in a cation−π interaction with the dimethylamino electron-donating group of the benzothiadiazole fluorophore in its excited state. We further demonstrate using noncanonical fluorinated tryptophan that the cation−π interaction directly contributes to the fluorogenicity of the benzothiadiazole fluorophore. Mechanistically, this interaction could contribute to the fluorogenicity by promoting the excited-state charge separation and inhibiting the twisting motion of the dimethylamino group, both leading to an enhanced fluorogenicity. Finally, we demonstrate the utility of the probe in no-wash direct imaging of Halo-tagged proteins in live cells. In addition, the fluorogenic nature of the probe enables a gel-free quantification of fusion proteins expressed in mammalian cells, an application that was not possible with previously nonfluorogenic Halo-tag probes. The unique mechanism revealed by this work suggests that incorporation of an excited-state cation−π interaction could be a feasible strategy for enhancing the optical performance of fluorophores and fluorogenic sensors. PMID:28221782

  1. The Cation-π Interaction Enables a Halo-Tag Fluorogenic Probe for Fast No-Wash Live Cell Imaging and Gel-Free Protein Quantification. (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Miao, Kun; Dunham, Noah P; Liu, Hongbin; Fares, Matthew; Boal, Amie K; Li, Xiaosong; Zhang, Xin


    The design of fluorogenic probes for a Halo tag is highly desirable but challenging. Previous work achieved this goal by controlling the chemical switch of spirolactones upon the covalent conjugation between the Halo tag and probes or by incorporating a "channel dye" into the substrate binding tunnel of the Halo tag. In this work, we have developed a novel class of Halo-tag fluorogenic probes that are derived from solvatochromic fluorophores. The optimal probe, harboring a benzothiadiazole scaffold, exhibits a 1000-fold fluorescence enhancement upon reaction with the Halo tag. Structural, computational, and biochemical studies reveal that the benzene ring of a tryptophan residue engages in a cation-π interaction with the dimethylamino electron-donating group of the benzothiadiazole fluorophore in its excited state. We further demonstrate using noncanonical fluorinated tryptophan that the cation-π interaction directly contributes to the fluorogenicity of the benzothiadiazole fluorophore. Mechanistically, this interaction could contribute to the fluorogenicity by promoting the excited-state charge separation and inhibiting the twisting motion of the dimethylamino group, both leading to an enhanced fluorogenicity. Finally, we demonstrate the utility of the probe in no-wash direct imaging of Halo-tagged proteins in live cells. In addition, the fluorogenic nature of the probe enables a gel-free quantification of fusion proteins expressed in mammalian cells, an application that was not possible with previously nonfluorogenic Halo-tag probes. The unique mechanism revealed by this work suggests that incorporation of an excited-state cation-π interaction could be a feasible strategy for enhancing the optical performance of fluorophores and fluorogenic sensors.

  2. HaloTag as a reporter gene: positron emission tomography imaging with 64Cu-labeled second generation HaloTag ligands


    Hong, Hao; Benink, Hélène A.; Uyeda, H. Tetsuo; Valdovinos, Hector F.; Zhang, Yin; Meisenheimer, Poncho; Barnhart, Todd E.; Fan, Frank; Cai, Weibo


    The goal of this study is to employ the HaloTag technology for positron emission tomography (PET), which involves two components: the HaloTag protein (a modified hydrolase which covalently binds to synthetic ligands) and HaloTag ligands (HTLs). 4T1 murine breast cancer cells were stably transfected to express HaloTag protein on the surface (termed as 4T1-HaloTag-ECS, ECS denotes extracellular surface). Two new HTLs were synthesized and termed NOTA-HTL2G-S and NOTA-HTL2G-L (2G indicates second...

  3. Estimating abundance: Chapter 27 (United States)

    Royle, J. Andrew


    This chapter provides a non-technical overview of ‘closed population capture–recapture’ models, a class of well-established models that are widely applied in ecology, such as removal sampling, covariate models, and distance sampling. These methods are regularly adopted for studies of reptiles, in order to estimate abundance from counts of marked individuals while accounting for imperfect detection. Thus, the chapter describes some classic closed population models for estimating abundance, with considerations for some recent extensions that provide a spatial context for the estimation of abundance, and therefore density. Finally, the chapter suggests some software for use in data analysis, such as the Windows-based program MARK, and provides an example of estimating abundance and density of reptiles using an artificial cover object survey of Slow Worms (Anguis fragilis).

  4. Halo formation and evolution: unifying physical properties with structure (United States)

    Ernest, Alllan David; Collins, Matthew P.


    The assembly of matter in the universe proliferates a variety of structures with diverse properties. For example, massive halos of clusters of galaxies have temperatures often an order of magnitude or more higher than the individual galaxy halos within the cluster, or the temperatures of isolated galaxy halos. Giant spiral galaxies contain large quantities of both dark matter and hot gas while other structures like globular clusters appear to have little or no dark matter or gas. Still others, like the dwarf spheroidal galaxies have low gravity and little hot gas, but ironically contain some of the largest fractions of dark matter in the universe. Star forming rates (SFRs) also vary: compare for example the SFRs of giant elliptical galaxies, globular clusters, spiral and starburst galaxies. Furthermore there is evidence that the various structure types have existed over a large fraction of cosmic history. How can this array of variation in properties be reconciled with galaxy halo formation and evolution?We propose a model of halo formation [1] and evolution [2] that is consistent with both primordial nucleosynthesis (BBN) and the isotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The model uses two simple parameters, the total mass and size of a structure, to (1) explain why galaxies have the fractions of dark matter that they do (including why dwarf spheroidals are so dark matter dominated despite their weak gravity), (2) enable an understanding of the black hole-bulge/black hole-dark halo relations, (3) explain how fully formed massive galaxies can occur so early in cosmic history, (4) understand the connection between spiral and elliptical galaxies (5) unify the nature of globular clusters, dwarf spheroidal galaxies and bulges and (6) predict the temperatures of hot gas halos and understand how cool galaxy halos can remain stable in the hot environments of cluster-galaxy halos.[1] Ernest, A. D., 2012, in Prof. Ion Cotaescu (Ed) Advances in Quantum Theory, pp

  5. The Angular Momentum of Baryons and Dark Matter Halos Revisited (United States)

    Kimm, Taysun; Devriendt, Julien; Slyz, Adrianne; Pichon, Christophe; Kassin, Susan A.; Dubois, Yohan


    Recent theoretical studies have shown that galaxies at high redshift are fed by cold, dense gas filaments, suggesting angular momentum transport by gas differs from that by dark matter. Revisiting this issue using high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamics simulations with adaptive-mesh refinement (AMR), we find that at the time of accretion, gas and dark matter do carry a similar amount of specific angular momentum, but that it is systematically higher than that of the dark matter halo as a whole. At high redshift, freshly accreted gas rapidly streams into the central region of the halo, directly depositing this large amount of angular momentum within a sphere of radius r = 0.1R(sub vir). In contrast, dark matter particles pass through the central region unscathed, and a fraction of them ends up populating the outer regions of the halo (r/R(sub vir) > 0.1), redistributing angular momentum in the process. As a result, large-scale motions of the cosmic web have to be considered as the origin of gas angular momentum rather than its virialised dark matter halo host. This generic result holds for halos of all masses at all redshifts, as radiative cooling ensures that a significant fraction of baryons remain trapped at the centre of the halos. Despite this injection of angular momentum enriched gas, we predict an amount for stellar discs which is in fair agreement with observations at z=0. This arises because the total specific angular momentum of the baryons (gas and stars) remains close to that of dark matter halos. Indeed, our simulations indicate that any differential loss of angular momentum amplitude between the two components is minor even though dark matter halos continuously lose between half and two-thirds of their specific angular momentum modulus as they evolve. In light of our results, a substantial revision of the standard theory of disc formation seems to be required. We propose a new scenario where gas efficiently carries the angular momentum generated


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luck, R. E.; Andrievsky, S. M. [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106-7215 (United States); Korotin, S. N.; Kovtyukh, V. V., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy and Astronomical Observatory, Odessa National University, Isaac Newton Institute of Chile, Odessa Branch, Shevchenko Park, 65014 Odessa (Ukraine)


    Oxygen abundances in later-type stars, and intermediate-mass stars in particular, are usually determined from the [O I] line at 630.0 nm, and to a lesser extent, from the O I triplet at 615.7 nm. The near-IR triplets at 777.4 nm and 844.6 nm are strong in these stars and generally do not suffer from severe blending with other species. However, these latter two triplets suffer from strong non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects and thus see limited use in abundance analyses. In this paper, we derive oxygen abundances in a large sample of Cepheids using the near-IR triplets from an NLTE analysis, and compare those abundances to values derived from a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) analysis of the [O I] 630.0 nm line and the O I 615.7 nm triplet as well as LTE abundances for the 777.4 nm triplet. All of these lines suffer from line strength problems making them sensitive to either measurement complications (weak lines) or to line saturation difficulties (strong lines). Upon this realization, the LTE results for the [O I] lines and the O I 615.7 nm triplet are in adequate agreement with the abundance from the NLTE analysis of the near-IR triplets.

  7. Clustering in the stellar abundance space (United States)

    Boesso, R.; Rocha-Pinto, H. J.


    We have studied the chemical enrichment history of the interstellar medium through an analysis of the n-dimensional stellar abundance space. This work is a non-parametric analysis of the stellar chemical abundance space. The main goal is to study the stars from their organization within this abundance space. Within this space, we seek to find clusters (in a statistical sense), that is, stars likely to share similar chemo-evolutionary history, using two methods: the hierarchical clustering and the principal component analysis. We analysed some selected abundance surveys available in the literature. For each sample, we labelled the group of stars according to its average abundance curve. In all samples, we identify the existence of a main enrichment pattern of the stars, which we call chemical enrichment flow. This flow is set by the structured and well-defined mean rate at which the abundances of the interstellar medium increase, resulting from the mixture of the material ejected from the stars and stellar mass-loss and interstellar medium gas. One of the main results of our analysis is the identification of subgroups of stars with peculiar chemistry. These stars are situated in regions outside of the enrichment flow in the abundance space. These peculiar stars show a mismatch in the enrichment rate of a few elements, such as Mg, Si, Sc and V, when compared to the mean enrichment rate of the other elements of the same stars. We believe that the existence of these groups of stars with peculiar chemistry may be related to the accretion of planetary material on to stellar surfaces or may be due to production of the same chemical element by different nucleosynthetic sites.

  8. HaloTag technology: a versatile platform for biomedical applications. (United States)

    England, Christopher G; Luo, Haiming; Cai, Weibo


    Exploration of protein function and interaction is critical for discovering links among genomics, proteomics, and disease state; yet, the immense complexity of proteomics found in biological systems currently limits our investigational capacity. Although affinity and autofluorescent tags are widely employed for protein analysis, these methods have been met with limited success because they lack specificity and require multiple fusion tags and genetic constructs. As an alternative approach, the innovative HaloTag protein fusion platform allows protein function and interaction to be comprehensively analyzed using a single genetic construct with multiple capabilities. This is accomplished using a simplified process, in which a variable HaloTag ligand binds rapidly to the HaloTag protein (usually linked to the protein of interest) with high affinity and specificity. In this review, we examine all current applications of the HaloTag technology platform for biomedical applications, such as the study of protein isolation and purification, protein function, protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions, biological assays, in vitro cellular imaging, and in vivo molecular imaging. In addition, novel uses of the HaloTag platform are briefly discussed along with potential future applications.

  9. Deep brain transcranial magnetic stimulation using variable "Halo coil" system (United States)

    Meng, Y.; Hadimani, R. L.; Crowther, L. J.; Xu, Z.; Qu, J.; Jiles, D. C.


    Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation has the potential to treat various neurological disorders non-invasively and safely. The "Halo coil" configuration can stimulate deeper regions of the brain with lower surface to deep-brain field ratio compared to other coil configurations. The existing "Halo coil" configuration is fixed and is limited in varying the site of stimulation in the brain. We have developed a new system based on the current "Halo coil" design along with a graphical user interface system that enables the larger coil to rotate along the transverse plane. The new system can also enable vertical movement of larger coil. Thus, this adjustable "Halo coil" configuration can stimulate different regions of the brain by adjusting the position and orientation of the larger coil on the head. We have calculated magnetic and electric fields inside a MRI-derived heterogeneous head model for various positions and orientations of the coil. We have also investigated the mechanical and thermal stability of the adjustable "Halo coil" configuration for various positions and orientations of the coil to ensure safe operation of the system.

  10. Halo-Independent Direct Detection Analyses Without Mass Assumptions

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Adam J.; Kahn, Yonatan; McCullough, Matthew


    Results from direct detection experiments are typically interpreted by employing an assumption about the dark matter velocity distribution, with results presented in the $m_\\chi-\\sigma_n$ plane. Recently methods which are independent of the DM halo velocity distribution have been developed which present results in the $v_{min}-\\tilde{g}$ plane, but these in turn require an assumption on the dark matter mass. Here we present an extension of these halo-independent methods for dark matter direct detection which does not require a fiducial choice of the dark matter mass. With a change of variables from $v_{min}$ to nuclear recoil momentum ($p_R$), the full halo-independent content of an experimental result for any dark matter mass can be condensed into a single plot as a function of a new halo integral variable, which we call $\\tilde{h}(p_R)$. The entire family of conventional halo-independent $\\tilde{g}(v_{min})$ plots for all DM masses are directly found from the single $\\tilde{h}(p_R)$ plot through a simple re...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOLDEN, N.E.


    Following Thomson's discovery of stable isotopes in non-radioactive chemical elements, the derivation of atomic weight values from mass spectrometric measurements of isotopic abundance ratios moved very slowly. Forty years later, only 3 1/2 % of the recommended values were based on mass spectrometric measurements and only 38% in the first half century. It might be noted that two chemical elements (tellurium and mercury) are still based on chemical measurements, where the atomic weight value calculated from the relative isotopic abundance measurement either agrees with the value from the chemical measurement or the atomic weight value calculated from the relative isotopic abundance measurement falls within the uncertainty of the chemical measurement of the atomic weight. Of the 19 chemical elements, whose atomic weight is based on non-corrected relative isotopic abundance measurements, five of these are two isotope systems (indium, iridium, lanthanum, lutetium and tantalum) and one is a three-isotope system (oxygen).

  12. Properties of dark matter haloes as a function of local environment density (United States)

    Lee, Christoph T.; Primack, Joel R.; Behroozi, Peter; Rodríguez-Puebla, Aldo; Hellinger, Doug; Dekel, Avishai


    We study how properties of discrete dark matter haloes depend on halo environment, characterized by the mass density around the haloes on scales from 0.5 to 16 h-1 Mpc. We find that low-mass haloes (those less massive than the characteristic mass MC of haloes collapsing at a given epoch) in high-density environments have lower accretion rates, lower spins, higher concentrations and rounder shapes than haloes in median density environments. Haloes in median- and low-density environments have similar accretion rates and concentrations, but haloes in low-density environments have lower spins and are more elongated. Haloes of a given mass in high-density regions accrete material earlier than haloes of the same mass in lower density regions. All but the most massive haloes in high-density regions are losing mass (i.e. being stripped) at low redshifts, which causes artificially lowered NFW scale radii and increased concentrations. Tidal effects are also responsible for the decreasing spins of low-mass haloes in high-density regions at low redshifts z spins because they lack nearby haloes whose tidal fields can spin them up. We also show that the simulation density distribution is well fit by an extreme value distribution, and that the density distribution becomes broader with cosmic time.

  13. Early evolution of the Galactic halo revealed from Hipparcos observations of metal-poor stars (United States)

    Chiba, Masashi; Yoshii, Yuzuru


    The kinematics of 122 red giant and 124 RR Lyrae stars in the solar neighborhood are studied using accurate measurements of their proper motions obtained by the Hipparcos astrometry satellite, combined with their published photometric distances, metal abundances, and radial velocities. A majority of these sample stars have metal abundances of (Fe/H) = -1 or less and thus represent the old stellar populations in the Galaxy. The halo component, with (Fe/H) = -1.6 or less, is characterized by a lack of systemic rotation and a radially elongated velocity ellipsoid. About 16 percent of such metal-poor stars have low orbital eccentricities, and we see no evidence of a correlation between (Fe/H) and e. Based on the model for the e-distribution of orbits, we show that this fraction of low-e stars for (Fe/H) = -1.6 or less is explained by the halo component alone, without introducing the extra disk component claimed by recent workers. This is also supported by the absence of a significant change in the e-distribution with height from the Galactic plane. In the intermediate-metallicity range, we find that stars with disklike kinematics have only modest effects on the distributions of rotational velocities and e for the sample at absolute value of z less than 1 kpc. This disk component appears to constitute only 10 percent for (Fe/H) between -1.6 and -1 and 20 percent for (Fe/H) between -1.4 and -1.

  14. Subdural abscess associated with halo-pin traction. (United States)

    Garfin, S R; Botte, M J; Triggs, K J; Nickel, V L


    Osteomyelitis and intracranial abscess are among the most serious complications that have been reported in association with the use of the halo device. The cases of five patients who had formation of an intracranial abscess related to the use of a halo cervical immobilizer are described. All of the infections resolved after drainage of the abscess, débridement, and parenteral administration of antibiotics. Meticulous care of the pin sites is essential to avoid this serious complication. Additionally, since all of the infections were associated with prolonged halo-skeletal traction, this technique should be used with caution and with an awareness of the possible increased risks of pin-site infection and of formation of a subdural abscess.

  15. Direct photoassociation of halo molecules in ultracold 86 Sr (United States)

    Aman, J. A.; Hill, Joshua; Killian, T. C.


    We investigate the creation of 1S0 +1S0 halo molecules in strontium 86 through direct photoassociation in an optical dipole trap. We drive two photon Raman transitions near-resonance with a molecular level of the 1S0 +3P1 interatomic potential as the intermediate state. This provides large Frank-Condon factors and allows us to observe resonances for the creation of halo molecules through higher order Raman processes. The halo molecule is bound by EB 85 kHz at low excitation-laser intensity, but experiments show large AC Stark shifts of the molecular binding energy. These conditions suggest that STIRAP should be very effective for improving molecular conversion efficiency. Further experiments in a 3D lattice will explore molecular lifetimes and collision rates. Travel support provided by Shell Corporation.

  16. Axionic dark matter signatures in various halo models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vergados, J.D., E-mail: [Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); ARC Centre of Excellence in Particle Physics at the Terascale and Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter (CSSM), University of Adelaide, Adelaide SA 5005 (Australia); Semertzidis, Y.K. [Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of)


    In the present work we study possible signatures in the Axion Dark Matter searches. We focus on the dependence of the expected width in resonant cavities for various popular halo models, leading to standard velocity distributions, e.g. Maxwell–Boltzmann, as well as phase-mixed and non-virialized axionic dark matter (flows, caustic rings). We study, in particular, the time dependence of the resonance width (modulation) arising from such models. We find that the difference between the maximum (in June) and the minimum (in December) can vary by about 10% in the case of standard halos. In the case of mixed phase halos the variation is a bit bigger and for caustic rings the maximum is expected to occur a bit later. Experimentally such a modulation is observable with present technology.

  17. Particle ejection during mergers of dark matter halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carucci, Isabella P.; Sparre, Martin; Hansen, Steen H. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, Copenhagen, 2100 Denmark (Denmark); Joyce, Michael, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et Hautes Énergies, Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris 6, CNRS IN2P3 UMR 7585, 4 Place Jussieu, Paris Cedex 05, 75752 France (France)


    Dark matter halos are built from accretion and merging. During merging some of the dark matter particles may be ejected with velocities higher than the escape velocity. We use both N-body simulations and single-particle smooth-field simulations to demonstrate that rapid changes to the mean field potential are responsible for such ejection, and in particular that dynamical friction plays no significant role in it. Studying a range of minor mergers, we find that typically between 5–15% of the particles from the smaller of the two merging structures are ejected. We also find that the ejected particles originate essentially from the small halo, and more specifically are particles in the small halo which pass later through the region in which the merging occurs.

  18. Simulation Studies of the Helium and Lead Observatory (HALO) (United States)

    Sanford, Nikki; Scholberg, Kate


    Simulation studies for were conducted for the Helium and Lead Observatory (HALO), the supernova neutrino detector at SNOLAB, Sudbury, Ontario. HALO consists of 79 tons of lead, with 128 ^3He counters which detect the scattered lead neutrons resulting from incoming neutrinos. Improvements were made to the Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation's geometry by the addition of water boxes and plastic baseboards, which serve to reflect scattered neutrons back towards counters, and shield against outside neutrons and gammas. Several box designs were created, and the resulting event detection efficiencies and labeling of 1n and 2n events were studied. It was found that these additions cause a 2% efficiency increase, a slight improvement of correctly labeled events, and are a significant improvement to the HALO simulation.

  19. Reactions of Proton Halo Nuclei in a Relativistic Optical Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Rashdan, M


    The reaction cross section, sigma sub R; of the proton halo nuclei sup 1 sup 7 Ne and sup 1 sup 2 N on Si is calculated using an optical potential derived from the solution of the Dirac-Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone equation, starting from the one-boson-exchange potential of Bonn. The nuclear densities are generated from self-consistent Hartree-Fock calculations using the recent Skyrme interaction SKRA. It is found that the enhancement in the reaction cross section found experimentally for the sup 1 sup 7 Ne + Si system in comparison to sup 1 sup 5 O + Si, where sup 1 sup 5 O has been considered as a core of sup 1 sup 7 Ne, is mainly due to the proton halo structure of sup 1 sup 7 Ne which increases the interaction, in the surface and tail regions. Glauber model calculations did not produce this enhancement in sigma sub R for proton halo nuclei

  20. Synthesis of Janelia Fluor HaloTag and SNAP-Tag Ligands and Their Use in Cellular Imaging Experiments. (United States)

    Grimm, Jonathan B; Brown, Timothy A; English, Brian P; Lionnet, Timothée; Lavis, Luke D


    The development of genetically encoded self-labeling protein tags such as the HaloTag and SNAP-tag has expanded the utility of chemical dyes in microscopy. Intracellular labeling using these systems requires small, cell-permeable dyes with high brightness and photostability. We recently discovered a general method to improve the properties of classic fluorophores by replacing N,N-dimethylamino groups with four-membered azetidine rings to create the "Janelia Fluor" dyes. Here, we describe the synthesis of the HaloTag and SNAP-tag ligands of Janelia Fluor 549 and Janelia Fluor 646 as well as standard labeling protocols for use in ensemble and single-molecule cellular imaging.

  1. The redshift evolution of the distribution of star formation among dark matter halos as seen in the infrared (United States)

    Béthermin, Matthieu; Wang, Lingyu; Doré, Olivier; Lagache, Guilaine; Sargent, Mark; Daddi, Emanuele; Cousin, Morgane; Aussel, Hervé


    Recent studies have revealed a strong correlation between the star formation rate (SFR) and stellar mass of the majority of star-forming galaxies, the so-called star-forming main sequence. An empirical modeling approach (the 2-SFM framework) that distinguishes between the main sequence and rarer starburst galaxies is capable of reproducing most statistical properties of infrared galaxies, such as number counts, luminosity functions, and redshift distributions. In this paper, we extend this approach by establishing a connection between stellar mass and halo mass with the technique of abundance matching. Based on a few simple assumptions and a physically motivated formalism, our model successfully predicts the (cross-)power spectra of the cosmic infrared background (CIB), the cross-correlation between CIB and cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing, and the correlation functions of bright, resolved infrared galaxies measured by Herschel, Planck, ACT, and SPT. We use this model to infer the redshift distribution of CIB-anisotropies and of the CIB × CMB lensing signal, as well as the level of correlation between CIB-anisotropies at different wavelengths. We study the link between dark matter halos and star-forming galaxies in the framework of our model. We predict that more than 90% of cosmic star formation activity occurs in halos with masses between 1011.5 and 1013.5 M⊙. If taking subsequent mass growth of halos into account, this implies that the majority of stars were initially (at z > 3) formed in the progenitors of clusters (Mh(z = 0) > 1013.5 M⊙), then in groups (1012.5 php?id=537"> The effective SEDs are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

  2. Three-body halo nuclei in an effective theory framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canham, David L.


    The universal properties and structure of halo nuclei composed of two neutrons (2n) and a core are investigated within an effective quantum mechanics framework. We construct an effective interaction potential that exploits the separation of scales in halo nuclei and treat the nucleus as an effective three-body system, which to leading order is described by the large S-wave scattering lengths in the underlying two-body subsystems. The uncertainty from higher orders in the expansion is quantified through theoretical error bands. First, we investigate the possibility to observe excited Efimov states in 2n halo nuclei. Based on the experimental data, {sup 20}C is the only halo nucleus candidate to possibly have an Efimov excited state, with an energy less than 7 keV below the scattering threshold. Second, we study the structure of {sup 20}C and other 2n halo nuclei. In particular, we calculate their matter density form factors, radii, and two-neutron opening angles. We then make a systematic improvement upon these calculations by extending the effective potential to the next-to-leading order. To this order, we require an additional two-body parameter, which we tune to the effective range of the interaction. In addition to range corrections to the 2n halo nuclei results, we show corrections to the Efimov effect in the three-boson system. Furthermore, we explore universality in the linear range corrections to the Efimov spectrum. Finally, we study the scattering of D{sup 0} and D{sup *0} mesons and their antiparticles off the X(3872) in an effective field theory for short-range interactions. We present results for the S-wave scattering amplitude, total interaction cross section and S-wave scattering length. (orig.)

  3. Capacity of straylight and disk halo size to diagnose cataract. (United States)

    Palomo-Álvarez, Catalina; Puell, María C


    To examine the capacity of straylight and disk halo size to diagnose cataract. Faculty of Optics and Optometry, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain. Prospective study. Straylight, disk halo radius, and high-contrast corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) measurements were compared between patients with age-related cataract and age-matched normal-sighted control subjects by calculating the area under the curve (AUC) receiver operating characteristic. Measurements were made in 53 eyes of 53 patients with a mean age of 67.94 years ± 7.11 (SD) and 31 eyes of 31 controls with a mean age 66.06 ± 5.43 years. Significantly worse (P cataract group than in the control group (1.17 ± 0.11 log[s], 2.10 ± 0.16 log arcmin, and 0.08 ± 0.08 logMAR). Significant differences in AUCs were observed for disk halo radius (0.89 ± 0.04) versus straylight (0.77 ± 0.05) (P = .03) and disk halo radius versus CDVA (0.72 ± 0.05) (P = .001). The comparison of disk halo radius versus the discriminant function with input from CDVA and straylight (0.80 ± 0.05) was at the limit of significance only (0.091 ± 0.05, P = .051). Although all 3 variables discriminated well between normal eyes and eyes with cataract, the disk halo radius showed the best diagnostic capacity. Neither author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The orbital eccentricity distribution of solar-neighbourhood halo stars (United States)

    Hattori, K.; Yoshii, Y.


    We present theoretical calculations for the differential distribution of stellar orbital eccentricity for a sample of solar-neighbourhood halo stars. Two types of static, spherical gravitational potentials are adopted to define the eccentricity e for given energy E and angular momentum L, such as an isochrone potential and a Navarro-Frenk-White potential that can serve as two extreme ends covering in between any realistic potential of the Milky Way halo. The solar-neighbourhood eccentricity distribution ΔN(e) is then formulated, based on a static distribution function of the form f(E, L) in which the velocity anisotropy parameter β monotonically increases in the radial direction away from the galaxy centre, such that β is below unity (near-isotropic velocity dispersion) in the central region and asymptotically approaches ˜1 (radially anisotropic velocity dispersion) in the far distant region of the halo. We find that ΔN(e) sensitively depends upon the radial profile of β, and this sensitivity is used to constrain such a profile in comparison with some observational properties of ΔNobs(e) recently reported by Carollo et al. In particular, the linear e-distribution and the fraction of higher e stars for their sample of solar-neighbourhood inner-halo stars rule out a constant profile of β, contrary to the opposite claim by Bond et al. Our constraint of β≲ 0.5 at the galaxy centre indicates that the violent relaxation that has acted on the inner halo is effective within a scale radius of ˜10 kpc from the galaxy centre. We argue that our result would help to understand the formation and evolution of the Milky Way halo.

  5. The Halo Boundary of Galaxy Clusters in the SDSS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Eric; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Sheth, Ravi K. [Center for Particle Cosmology, Department of Physics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Chang, Chihway; Kravtsov, Andrey [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Adhikari, Susmita; Dalal, Neal [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL 61801 (United States); More, Surhud [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba, 277-8583 (Japan); Rozo, Eduardo [Department of Physics, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Rykoff, Eli, E-mail: [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, P.O. Box 2450, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)


    Analytical models and simulations predict a rapid decline in the halo density profile associated with the transition from the “infalling” regime outside the halo to the “collapsed” regime within the halo. Using data from SDSS, we explore evidence for such a feature in the density profiles of galaxy clusters using several different approaches. We first estimate the steepening of the outer galaxy density profile around clusters, finding evidence for truncation of the halo profile. Next, we measure the galaxy density profile around clusters using two sets of galaxies selected on color. We find evidence of an abrupt change in galaxy colors that coincides with the location of the steepening of the density profile. Since galaxies that have completed orbits within the cluster are more likely to be quenched of star formation and thus appear redder, this abrupt change in galaxy color can be associated with the transition from single-stream to multi-stream regimes. We also use a standard model comparison approach to measure evidence for a “splashback”-like feature, but find that this approach is very sensitive to modeling assumptions. Finally, we perform measurements using an independent cluster catalog to test for potential systematic errors associated with cluster selection. We identify several avenues for future work: improved understanding of the small-scale galaxy profile, lensing measurements, identification of proxies for the halo accretion rate, and other tests. With upcoming data from the DES, KiDS, and HSC surveys, we can expect significant improvements in the study of halo boundaries.

  6. The role of binaries in the enrichment of the early Galactic halo. II. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars: CEMP-no stars (United States)

    Hansen, T. T.; Andersen, J.; Nordström, B.; Beers, T. C.; Placco, V. M.; Yoon, J.; Buchhave, L. A.


    Context. The detailed composition of most metal-poor halo stars has been found to be very uniform. However, a fraction of 20-70% (increasing with decreasing metallicity) exhibit dramatic enhancements in their abundances of carbon; these are the so-called carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars. A key question for Galactic chemical evolution models is whether this non-standard composition reflects that of the stellar natal clouds or is due to local, post-birth mass transfer of chemically processed material from a binary companion; CEMP stars should then all be members of binary systems. Aims: Our aim is to determine the frequency and orbital parameters of binaries among CEMP stars with and without over-abundances of neutron-capture elements - CEMP-s and CEMP-no stars, respectively - as a test of this local mass-transfer scenario. This paper discusses a sample of 24 CEMP-no stars, while a subsequent paper will consider a similar sample of CEMP-s stars. Methods: High-resolution, low S/N spectra of the stars were obtained at roughly monthly intervals over a time span of up to eight years with the FIES spectrograph at the Nordic Optical Telescope. Radial velocities of ~100 m s-1 precision were determined by cross-correlation after each observing night, allowing immediate, systematic follow-up of any variable object. Results: Most programme stars exhibit no statistically significant radial-velocity variation over this period and appear to be single, while four are found to be binaries with orbital periods of 300-2000 days and normal eccentricity; the binary frequency for the sample is 17 ± 9%. The single stars mostly belong to the recently identified low-C band, while the binaries have higher absolute carbon abundances. Conclusions: We conclude that the nucleosynthetic process responsible for the strong carbon excess in these ancient stars is unrelated to their binary status; the carbon was imprinted on their natal molecular clouds in the early Galactic interstellar

  7. Abundance Ratios and the Formation of the Milky Way (United States)

    Chiappini, C.

    Although the data for the Milky Way are not yet conclusive about the existence of a N/O abundance gradient along the Galactic disk, such a gradient is clearly seen in other spiral galaxies [7]. In this work we computed the abundance gradient of N/O for the MW. In our formalist the MW formed out of two-infall episodes, one forming the halo/thick disk on a short timescale and a second one forming the thin disk on a much longer timescale. Moreover, in our framework the thin disk formed inside-out (see details in [3]). Here we show that a negative gradient is predicted for N/O once we adopt stellar yields where rotation is taken into account (see Fig.1 - thick line). We point out that although [5] did not include formally the hot bottom burning (HBB), models computed with their stellar yields are still compatible with the available observational data.

  8. Signatures of compact halos of sterile-neutrino dark matter (United States)

    Kühnel, Florian; Ohlsson, Tommy


    We investigate compact halos of sterile-neutrino dark matter and examine observable signatures with respect to neutrino and photon emission. Primarily, we consider two cases: primordial black-hole halos and ultracompact minihalos. In both cases, we find that there exists a broad range of possible parameter choices such that detection in the near future with x-ray and gamma-ray telescopes might be well possible. In fact, for energies above 10 TeV, the neutrino telescope IceCube would be a splendid detection machine for such macroscopic dark-matter candidates.

  9. The FUSE Survey of 0 VI in the Galactic Halo (United States)

    Sonneborn, George; Savage, B. D.; Wakker, B. P.; Sembach, K. R.; Jenkins, E. B.; Moos, H. W.; Shull, J. M.


    This paper summarizes the results of the Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) program to study 0 VI in the Milky Way halo. Spectra of 100 extragalactic objects and two distant halo stars are analyzed to obtain measures of O VI absorption along paths through the Milky Way thick disk/halo. Strong O VI absorption over the velocity range from -100 to 100 km/s reveals a widespread but highly irregular distribution of O VI, implying the existence of substantial amounts of hot gas with T approx. 3 x 10(exp 5) K in the Milky Way thick disk/halo. The overall distribution of O VI is not well described by a symmetrical plane-parallel layer of patchy O VI absorption. The simplest departure from such a model that provides a reasonable fit to the observations is a plane-parallel patchy absorbing layer with an average O VI mid-plane density of n(sub 0)(O VI) = 1.7 x 10(exp -2)/cu cm, a scale height of approx. 2.3 kpc, and a approx. 0.25 dex excess of O VI in the northern Galactic polar region. The distribution of O VI over the sky is poorly correlated with other tracers of gas in the halo, including low and intermediate velocity H I, Ha emission from the warm ionized gas at approx. l0(exp 4) K, and hot X-ray emitting gas at approx. l0(exp 6) K . The O VI has an average velocity dispersion, b approx. 60 km/s and standard deviation of 15 km/s. Thermal broadening alone cannot explain the large observed profile widths. A combination of models involving the radiative cooling of hot fountain gas, the cooling of supernova bubbles in the halo, and the turbulent mixing of warm and hot halo gases is required to explain the presence of O VI and other highly ionized atoms found in the halo. The preferential venting of hot gas from local bubbles and superbubbles into the northern Galactic polar region may explain the enhancement of O VI in the North.

  10. Abundances of planetary nebula NGC2392

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, S. R.; Bernard-Salas, J.; Roellig, T. L.

    The spectra of the planetary nebula NGC2392 is reanalysed using spectral measurements made in the mid-infrared with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The aim is to determine the chemical composition of this object. We also make use of IUE and ground based spectra. Abundances determined from the

  11. On protein abundance distributions in complex mixtures. (United States)

    Koziol, Ja; Griffin, Nm; Long, F; Li, Y; Latterich, M; Schnitzer, Je


    Mass spectrometry, an analytical technique that measures the mass-to-charge ratio of ionized atoms or molecules, dates back more than 100 years, and has both qualitative and quantitative uses for determining chemical and structural information. Quantitative proteomic mass spectrometry on biological samples focuses on identifying the proteins present in the samples, and establishing the relative abundances of those proteins. Such protein inventories create the opportunity to discover novel biomarkers and disease targets. We have previously introduced a normalized, label-free method for quantification of protein abundances under a shotgun proteomics platform (Griffin et al., 2010). The introduction of this method for quantifying and comparing protein levels leads naturally to the issue of modeling protein abundances in individual samples. We here report that protein abundance levels from two recent proteomics experiments conducted by the authors can be adequately represented by Sichel distributions. Mathematically, Sichel distributions are mixtures of Poisson distributions with a rather complex mixing distribution, and have been previously and successfully applied to linguistics and species abundance data. The Sichel model can provide a direct measure of the heterogeneity of protein abundances, and can reveal protein abundance differences that simpler models fail to show.

  12. Toward a Combined SAGE II-HALOE Aerosol Climatology: An Evaluation of HALOE Version 19 Stratospheric Aerosol Extinction Coefficient Observations (United States)

    Thomason, L. W.


    Herein, the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) aerosol extinction coefficient data is evaluated in the low aerosol loading period after 1996 as the first necessary step in a process that will eventually allow the production of a combined HALOE/SAGE II (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment) aerosol climatology of derived aerosol products including surface area density. Based on these analyses, it is demonstrated that HALOE's 3.46 microns is of good quality above 19 km and suitable for scientific applications above that altitude. However, it is increasingly suspect at lower altitudes and should not be used below 17 km under any circumstances after 1996. The 3.40 microns is biased by about 10% throughout the lower stratosphere due to the failure to clear NO2 but otherwise appears to be a high quality product down to 15 km. The 2.45 and 5.26 micron aerosol extinction coefficient measurements are clearly biased and should not be used for scientific applications after the most intense parts of the Pinatubo period. Many of the issues in the aerosol data appear to be related to either the failure to clear some interfering gas species or doing so poorly. For instance, it is clear that the 3.40micronaerosol extinction coefficient measurements can be improved through the inclusion of an NO2 correction and could, in fact, end up as the highest quality overall HALOE aerosol extinction coefficient measurement. It also appears that the 2.45 and 5.26 micron channels may be improved by updating the Upper Atmosphere Pilot Database which is used as a resource for the removal of gas species otherwise not available from direct HALOE measurements. Finally, a simple model to demonstrate the promise of mixed visible/infrared aerosol extinction coefficient ensembles for the retrieval of bulk aerosol properties demonstrates that a combined HALOE/SAGE II aerosol climatology is feasible and may represent a substantial improvement over independently derived data sets.

  13. HaloTag: a novel reporter gene for positron emission tomography


    Hong, Hao; Benink, Hélène A.; Zhang, Yin; Yang, Yunan; Uyeda, H. Tetsuo; Engle, Jonathan W.; Severin, Gregory W.; McDougall, Mark G; Barnhart, Todd E.; Klaubert, Dieter H.; Nickles, Robert J; Fan, Frank; Cai, Weibo


    Among the many molecular imaging techniques, reporter gene imaging has been a dynamic area of research. The HaloTag protein is a modified haloalkane dehalogenase which was designed to covalently bind to synthetic ligands (i.e. the HaloTag ligands [HTL]). Covalent bond formation between the HaloTag protein and the chloroal-kane within the HTL occurs rapidly under physiological conditions, which is highly specific and essentially irreversible. Over the years, HaloTag technology has been investi...

  14. Resolution of vitiligo following excision of halo congenital melanocytic nevus: a rare case report. (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Wang, Zhi; Huang, Weiqing


    Halo congenital melanocytic nevus (CMN) associated with vitiligo is rare, especially with regard to CMN excision. Only two reports of excision of halo CMN following repigmentation of vitiligo are found in the literature. We present a case of a girl with halo CMN and periorbital vitiligo. The halo CMN was excised and followed by spontaneous improvement of vitiligo. The result suggests excision of the inciting lesion may be a promising way to control vitiligo. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. De bepaling van halo-azijnzuren, chloriet en chloraat in drinkwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters RJB; van de Meer-Arp KKM; Versteegh JFM


    A method was developed to determine halo-acetic acids with a detection limit of 0.1 mug/L. Halo-acetic acids were determined in samples drinking water derived from surface- and bankfiltrated water however, not in drinking water derived from groundwater. Halo-acetic acids were found in chlorinated

  16. Describing one-and two-neutron halos in effective field theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Nov 1, 2014 ... Click here to view fulltext PDF ... In this paper, the recent work our group has undertaken on effective field theory (EFT) analyses of experimental data pertaining to one- and two-neutron halo nuclei is discussed. The cases of 19C and 8Li (one-neutron halos) and 22C (two-neutron halo) are considered.

  17. Galactic Halo Stars in Phase Space: A Hint of Satellite Accretion? (United States)

    Brook, Chris B.; Kawata, Daisuke; Gibson, Brad K.; Flynn, Chris


    The present-day chemical and dynamical properties of the Milky Way bear the imprint of the Galaxy's formation and evolutionary history. One of the most enduring and critical debates surrounding Galactic evolution is that regarding the competition between ``satellite accretion'' and ``monolithic collapse'' the apparent strong correlation between orbital eccentricity and metallicity of halo stars was originally used as supporting evidence for the latter. While modern-day unbiased samples no longer support the claims for a significant correlation, recent evidence has been presented by Chiba & Beers for the existence of a minor population of high-eccentricity metal-deficient halo stars. It has been suggested that these stars represent the signature of a rapid (if minor) collapse phase in the Galaxy's history. Employing velocity and integrals of motion phase-space projections of these stars, coupled with a series of N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamic chemodynamical simulations, we suggest that an alternative mechanism for creating such stars may be the recent accretion of a polar orbit dwarf galaxy.

  18. Fragmentation inside atomic cooling haloes exposed to Lyman-Werner radiation (United States)

    Regan, John A.; Downes, Turlough P.


    Supermassive stars born in pristine environments in the early Universe hold the promise of being the seeds for the supermassive black holes observed as high redshift quasars shortly after the epoch of reionisation. {H_2} suppression is thought to be crucial in order to negate normal Population III star formation and allow high accretion rates to drive the formation of supermassive stars. Only in the cases where vigorous fragmentation is avoided will a monolithic collapse be successful giving rise to a single massive central object. We investigate the number of fragmentation sites formed in collapsing atomic cooling haloes subject to various levels of background Lyman-Werner flux. The background Lyman-Werner flux manipulates the chemical properties of the gas in the collapsing halo by destroying {H_2}. We find that only when the collapsing gas cloud shifts from the molecular to the atomic cooling regime is the degree of fragmentation suppressed. In our particular case we find that this occurs above a critical Lyman-Werner background of J ˜ 10 J21. The important criterion being the transition to the atomic cooling regime rather than the actual value of J, which will vary locally. Once the temperature of the gas exceeds T ≳ 104 K and the gas transitions to atomic line cooling, then vigorous fragmentation is strongly suppressed.

  19. Prospects for detecting supersymmetric dark matter in the Galactic halo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Springel, V.; White, S. D. M.; Frenk, C. S.; Navarro, J. F.; Jenkins, A.; Vogelsberger, M.; Wang, J.; Ludlow, A.; Helmi, A.


    Dark matter is the dominant form of matter in the Universe, but its nature is unknown. It is plausibly an elementary particle, perhaps the lightest supersymmetric partner of known particle species(1). In this case, annihilation of dark matter in the halo of the Milky Way should produce gamma-rays at

  20. The Galactic Halo in Mixed Dark Matter Cosmologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderhalden, D.; Diemand, J.; Bertone, G.; Macciò, A.V.; Schneider, A.


    A possible solution to the small scale problems of the cold dark matter (CDM) scenario is that the dark matter consists of two components, a cold and a warm one. We perform a set of high resolution simulations of the Milky Way halo varying the mass of the WDM particle (mWDM) and the cosmic dark

  1. The prolate shape of the galactic dark-matter halo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmi, A; Spooner, NJC; Kudryavtsev,


    Knowledge of the distribution of dark-matter in our Galaxy plays a crucial role in the interpretation of dark-matter detection experiments. I will argue here that probably the best way of constraining the properties of the dark-matter halo is through astrophysical observations. These provide

  2. Redshift space bias and beta from the halo model


    Seljak, Uros


    We analyze scale dependence of redshift space bias $b$ and $\\beta \\equiv \\Omega_m^{0.6}/b$ in the context of the halo model. We show that linear bias is a good approximation only on large scales, for $k

  3. On the shape of the Galactic dark matter halo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmi, A


    The confined nature of the debris from the Sagittarius dwarf to a narrow trail on the sky has recently prompted the suggestion that the dark matter halo of our Galaxy should be nearly spherical (Ibata et al. 2001; Majewski et al. 2003). This would seem to be in strong contrast with predictions from

  4. Jet interactions with the hot halos of clusters and galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McNamara, B.R.; Bîrzan, L.; Rafferty, D.A.; Nulsen, P.E.J.; Carilli, C.; Wise, M.W.


    X-ray observations of cavities and shock fronts produced by jets streaming through hot halos have significantly advanced our understanding of the energetics and dynamics of extragalactic radio sources. Radio sources at the centers of clusters have dynamical ages between ten and several hundred

  5. The Disk Mass Project: breaking the disk-halo degeneracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijen, Marc A. W.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Swaters, Rob A.; Andersen, David R.; Westfall, Kyle B.; DE JONG, R. S.


    Little is known about the content and distribution of dark matter in spiral galaxies. To break the degeneracy in galaxy rotation curve decompositions, which allows a wide range of dark matter halo density profiles, an independent measure of the mass surface density of stellar disks is needed. Here,

  6. Halo-like structures studied by atomic force microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Alexis Hammer; Kyhle, Anders; Hansen, L. Theil


    Nanometer-sized clusters of copper have been produced in a hollow cathode sputtering source and deposited on SiOx. Halo-like structures consisting of micrometer sized protrusions in the solicon oxide surface surrounded by thin rings of smaller particles are observed. The area in between seems...

  7. Large-scale assembly bias of dark matter halos (United States)

    Lazeyras, Titouan; Musso, Marcello; Schmidt, Fabian


    We present precise measurements of the assembly bias of dark matter halos, i.e. the dependence of halo bias on other properties than the mass, using curved "separate universe" N-body simulations which effectively incorporate an infinite-wavelength matter overdensity into the background density. This method measures the LIMD (local-in-matter-density) bias parameters bn in the large-scale limit. We focus on the dependence of the first two Eulerian biases bE1 and bE2 on four halo properties: the concentration, spin, mass accretion rate, and ellipticity. We quantitatively compare our results with previous works in which assembly bias was measured on fairly small scales. Despite this difference, our findings are in good agreement with previous results. We also look at the joint dependence of bias on two halo properties in addition to the mass. Finally, using the excursion set peaks model, we attempt to shed new insights on how assembly bias arises in this analytical model.

  8. Halo formation from mismatched beam-beam interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Ji


    In this paper, we report on the halo formation and emittance growth driven by a parametric resonance during mismatched beam-beam collisions. In the regime of the weak-strong beam-beam interaction, if two beams have the same machine tunes, on-axis head-on collisions between a mismatched strong beam and a weak beam will not cause the formation of halo. However, if the two beams collide with an initial offset, the beam-beam force from the mismatched strong beam can cause halo formation and emittance growth in the weak beam. Meanwhile, if two beams have different machine tunes, for opposite charged colliding beams, when the machine tune of the weak beam is smaller than that of strong beam, there is emittance growth in the weak beam. When the machine tune of the weak beam is larger than that of the strong beam, there is little emittance growth. In the regime of strong-strong beam-beam interaction, halo is formed in both beams even when the two beams collide head-on on the axis with equal machine tunes. This puts a strong requirement for a good beam match during the injection to colliders in order to avoid the emittance growth.

  9. Haloes and clustering in light, neutron-rich nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orr, N.A


    Clustering is a relatively widespread phenomenon which takes on many guises across the nuclear landscape. Selected topics concerning the study of halo systems and clustering in light, neutron-rich nuclei are discussed here through illustrative examples taken from the Be isotopic chain. (author)

  10. Planetary Nebulae as kinematic and dynamical tracers of galaxy halos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coccato, Lodovico; Napolitano, Nicola; Arnaboldi, Magda; Cortesi, Arianna; Romanowsky, Aaron; Gerhard, Ortwin; Merrifield, Michael; Kuijken, Konrad; Freeman, Ken; Douglas, Nigel


    The kinematics and dynamical properties of galaxy halos are difficult to measure, given the faint stellar surface brightness that characterizes those regions. Gas-rich systems such as spiral galaxies can be probed using the radio emission of their gas component. Early type galaxies contain less gas,

  11. Uncovering the hidden iceberg structure of the Galactic halo (United States)

    Moss, Vanessa A.; Di Teodoro, Enrico M.; McClure-Griffiths, Naomi M.; Lockman, Felix; Pisano, D. J.; Price, Daniel; Rees, Glen


    How the Milky Way gets its gas and keeps its measured star formation rate going are both long-standing mysteries in Galactic studies, with important implications for galaxy evolution across the Universe. I will present our recent discovery of two populations of neutral hydrogen (HI) in the halo of the Milky Way: 1) a narrow line-width dense population typical of the majority of bright high velocity cloud (HVC) components, and 2) a fainter, broad line-width diffuse population that aligns well with the population found in very sensitive pointings such as in Lockman et al. (2002). From our existing data, we concluded that the diffuse population likely outweighs the dense HI by a factor of 3. This discovery of diffuse HI, which appears to be prevalent throughout the halo, takes us closer to solving the Galactic mystery of accretion and reveals a gaseous neutral halo hidden from the view of most large-scale surveys. We are currently carrying out deep Parkes observations to investigate these results further, in order to truly uncover the nature of the diffuse HI and determine whether our 3:1 ratio (based on the limited existing data) is consistent with what is seen when Parkes and the 140 ft Green Bank telescope are employed at comparable sensitivity. With these data, through a combination of both known and new sightline measurements, we aim to reveal the structure of the Galactic halo in more detail than ever before.

  12. The reversed halo sign: update and differential diagnosis (United States)

    Godoy, M C B; Viswanathan, C; Marchiori, E; Truong, M T; Benveniste, M F; Rossi, S; Marom, E M


    The reversed halo sign is characterised by a central ground-glass opacity surrounded by denser air–space consolidation in the shape of a crescent or a ring. It was first described on high-resolution CT as being specific for cryptogenic organising pneumonia. Since then, the reversed halo sign has been reported in association with a wide range of pulmonary diseases, including invasive pulmonary fungal infections, paracoccidioidomycosis, pneumocystis pneumonia, tuberculosis, community-acquired pneumonia, lymphomatoid granulomatosis, Wegener granulomatosis, lipoid pneumonia and sarcoidosis. It is also seen in pulmonary neoplasms and infarction, and following radiation therapy and radiofrequency ablation of pulmonary malignancies. In this article, we present the spectrum of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases that may show the reversed halo sign and offer helpful clues for assisting in the differential diagnosis. By integrating the patient's clinical history with the presence of the reversed halo sign and other accompanying radiological findings, the radiologist should be able to narrow the differential diagnosis substantially, and may be able to provide a presumptive final diagnosis, which may obviate the need for biopsy in selected cases, especially in the immunosuppressed population. PMID:22553298

  13. Alpha alpha scattering in halo effective field theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Higa, R.; Hammer, H. -W.; van Kolck, U.


    We study the two-alpha-particle (alpha alpha) system in an Effective Field Theory (EFT) for halo-like systems. We propose a power Counting that incorporates the subtle interplay of strong and electromagnetic forces leading to a narrow resonance at an energy of about 0.1 MeV. We investigate the EFT

  14. Matting of Hair Due to Halo-egg Shampoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z M Mani


    Full Text Available A case of hair matting in an 18 year old female is reported. The hair got densely entangled immediately after washing the hair with ′Halo Egg′ shampoo. The hair was disentangled completely after prolonged dipping of the hair in arachis oil frr 5 days.

  15. A galaxy-halo model for multiple cosmological tracers (United States)

    Bull, Philip


    The information extracted from large galaxy surveys with the likes of DES, DESI, Euclid, LSST, SKA, and WFIRST will be greatly enhanced if the resultant galaxy catalogues can be cross-correlated with one another. Predicting the nature of the information gain, and developing the tools to realize it, depends on establishing a consistent model of how the galaxies detected by each survey trace the same underlying matter distribution. Existing analytic methods, such as halo occupation distribution modelling, are not well suited for this task, and can suffer from ambiguities and tuning issues when applied to multiple tracers. In this paper, we take the first step towards constructing an alternative that provides a common model for the connection between galaxies and dark matter haloes across a wide range of wavelengths (and thus tracer populations). This is based on a chain of parametrized statistical distributions that model the connection between (I) halo mass and bulk physical properties of galaxies, such as star formation rate; and (II) those same physical properties and a variety of emission processes. The result is a flexible parametric model that allows analytic halo model calculations of one-point functions to be carried out for multiple tracers, as well as providing semi realistic galaxy properties for fast mock catalogue generation.

  16. Giant Radio Halos in Galaxy Clusters as Probes of Particle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Giant radio halos in galaxy clusters probe mechanisms of particle acceleration connected with cluster merger events. Shocks and turbulence are driven in the inter-galactic medium (IGM) during clusters mergers and may have a deep impact on the non-thermal properties of galaxy clusters. Models of turbulent ...

  17. Inheritance of halo blight resistance in common bean | Chataika ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Halo blight caused by (Pseudomonas syringe pv. phaseolicola (Burkh) (Psp)) is an important disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) world-wide. Several races of the Psp exist and likewise some sources of resistance in common bean have been identified. CAL 143, is a CIAT-bred common bean line, which was ...

  18. DM haloes in the fifth-force cosmology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellwing, Wojciech A.; Cautun, Marius; Knebe, Alexander; Juszkiewicz, Roman; Knollmann, Steffen


    We investigate how long-range scalar interactions affect the properties of dark matter haloes. For doing so we employ the ReBEL model which implements an additional interaction between dark matter particles. On the phenomenological level this is equivalent to a modification of gravity. We analyse

  19. Prospects for detecting supersymmetric dark matter in the Galactic halo. (United States)

    Springel, V; White, S D M; Frenk, C S; Navarro, J F; Jenkins, A; Vogelsberger, M; Wang, J; Ludlow, A; Helmi, A


    Dark matter is the dominant form of matter in the Universe, but its nature is unknown. It is plausibly an elementary particle, perhaps the lightest supersymmetric partner of known particle species. In this case, annihilation of dark matter in the halo of the Milky Way should produce gamma-rays at a level that may soon be observable. Previous work has argued that the annihilation signal will be dominated by emission from very small clumps (perhaps smaller even than the Earth), which would be most easily detected where they cluster together in the dark matter haloes of dwarf satellite galaxies. Here we report that such small-scale structure will, in fact, have a negligible impact on dark matter detectability. Rather, the dominant and probably most easily detectable signal will be produced by diffuse dark matter in the main halo of the Milky Way. If the main halo is strongly detected, then small dark matter clumps should also be visible, but may well contain no stars, thereby confirming a key prediction of the cold dark matter model.

  20. Is the halo responsible for the microlensing events?

    CERN Document Server

    Roulet, E.; Giudice, G.F.


    Abstract: We discuss whether the astrophysical objects responsible for the recently reported microlensing events of sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud can be identified as the brown dwarf components of the spheroid of our galaxy, rather than the constituents of a dark baryonic halo.

  1. Lensing effects of misaligned disks in dark matter halos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quadri, R.; Möller, O.; Natarajan, P.


    Published in: Astrophys. J. 597 (2003) 659-671 citations recorded in [Science Citation Index] Abstract: We study the observational signatures of the lensing signal produced by dark matter halos with embedded misaligned disks. This issue is of particular interest at the present time since most of the

  2. Spin alignment of dark matter haloes in filaments and walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aragón-Calvo, M. A.; Weygaert, R. van de; Jones, B. J. T.; Hulst, T. van der


    Abstract: The MMF technique is used to segment the cosmic web as seen in a cosmological N-body simulation into wall-like and filament-like structures. We find that the spins and shapes of dark matter haloes are significantly correlated with each other and with the orientation of their host

  3. Spin alignment of dark matter halos in filaments and walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aragon-Calvo, Miguel A.; van de Weygaert, Rien; Jones, Bernard J. T.; van der Hulst, J. M.


    The MMF technique is used to segment the cosmic web as seen in a cosmological N-body simulation into wall-like and filament-like structures. We find that the spins and shapes of dark matter halos are significantly correlated with each other and with the orientation of their host structures. The

  4. Fast weak-lensing simulations with halo model (United States)

    Giocoli, Carlo; Di Meo, Sandra; Meneghetti, Massimo; Jullo, Eric; de la Torre, Sylvain; Moscardini, Lauro; Baldi, Marco; Mazzotta, Pasquale; Metcalf, R. Benton


    Full ray-tracing maps of gravitational lensing, constructed from N-body simulations, represent a fundamental tool to interpret present and future weak-lensing data. However, the limitation of computational resources and storage capabilities severely restricts the number of realizations that can be performed in order to accurately sample both the cosmic shear models and covariance matrices. In this paper, we present a halo model formalism for weak gravitational lensing that alleviates these issues by producing weak-lensing mocks at a reduced computational cost. Our model takes as input the halo population within a desired light cone and the linear power spectrum of the underlined cosmological model. We examine the contribution given by the presence of substructures within haloes to the cosmic shear power spectrum and quantify it to the percent level. Our method allows us to reconstruct high-resolution convergence maps, for any desired source redshifts, of light cones that realistically trace the matter density distribution in the universe, account for masked area and sample selections. We compare our analysis on the same large-scale structures constructed using ray-tracing techniques and find very good agreements in both the linear and non-linear regimes up to few percent levels. The accuracy and speed of our method demonstrate the potential of our halo model for weak-lensing statistics and the possibility to generate a large sample of convergence maps for different cosmological models as needed for the analysis of large galaxy redshift surveys.

  5. Giant Radio Halos in Galaxy Clusters as Probes of Particle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Giant radio halos in galaxy clusters probe mechanisms of particle acceleration connected with cluster merger events. Shocks and turbulence are driven in the inter-galactic medium (IGM) during clusters mergers and may have a deep impact on the non-thermal properties of galaxy clusters. Models of turbulent ...

  6. Cosmic Rays in the Disk and Halo of Galaxies (United States)

    Dogiel, V. A.; Breitschwerdt, D.


    We give a review of cosmic ray propagation models. It is shown that the development of the theory of cosmic ray origin leads inevitably to the conclusion that cosmic ray propagation in the Galaxy is determined by effective particle scattering, which is described by spatial diffusion. The Galactic Disk is surrounded by an extended halo, in which cosmic rays are confined before escaping into intergalactic space. For a long time cosmic ray convective outflow from the Galaxy (galactic wind) was believed to be insignificant. However, investigations of hydrodynamic stability and an analysis of ISM dynamics (including cosmic rays) showed that a galactic wind was emanating near the disk, and accelerating towards the halo, reaching its maximum velocity far away from the disk. Therefore convective cosmic ray transport should be important in galactic halos. Recent analysis of the gamma-ray emissivity in the Galactic disk of EGRET data, which showed that cosmic rays are more or less uniformly distributed in the radial direction of the disk, as well as the interpretation of soft X-ray emission in galactic halos, give convincing evidence of the existence of a galactic wind in star forming galaxies.

  7. The halo sign: HRCT findings in 85 patients. (United States)

    Alves, Giordano Rafael Tronco; Marchiori, Edson; Irion, Klaus; Nin, Carlos Schuler; Watte, Guilherme; Pasqualotto, Alessandro Comarú; Severo, Luiz Carlos; Hochhegger, Bruno


    The halo sign consists of an area of ground-glass opacity surrounding pulmonary lesions on chest CT scans. We compared immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients in terms of halo sign features and sought to identify those of greatest diagnostic value. This was a retrospective study of CT scans performed at any of seven centers between January of 2011 and May of 2015. Patients were classified according to their immune status. Two thoracic radiologists reviewed the scans in order to determine the number of lesions, as well as their distribution, size, and contour, together with halo thickness and any other associated findings. Of the 85 patients evaluated, 53 were immunocompetent and 32 were immunosuppressed. Of the 53 immunocompetent patients, 34 (64%) were diagnosed with primary neoplasm. Of the 32 immunosuppressed patients, 25 (78%) were diagnosed with aspergillosis. Multiple and randomly distributed lesions were more common in the immunosuppressed patients than in the immunocompetent patients (p Pacientes imunocompetentes e imunodeprimidos foram comparados quanto a características do sinal do halo a fim de identificar as de maior valor diagnóstico. Estudo retrospectivo de tomografias realizadas em sete centros entre janeiro de 2011 e maio de 2015. Os pacientes foram classificados de acordo com seu estado imunológico. Dois radiologistas torácicos analisaram os exames a fim de determinar o número de lesões e sua distribuição, tamanho e contorno, bem como a espessura do halo e quaisquer outros achados associados. Dos 85 pacientes avaliados, 53 eram imunocompetentes e 32 eram imunodeprimidos. Dos 53 pacientes imunocompetentes, 34 (64%) receberam diagnóstico de neoplasia primária. Dos 32 pacientes imunodeprimidos, 25 (78%) receberam diagnóstico de aspergilose. Lesões múltiplas e distribuídas aleatoriamente foram mais comuns nos imunodeprimidos do que nos imunocompetentes (p pacientes imunocompetentes são bastante diferentes das observadas em

  8. Efficient protein knockdown of HaloTag-fused proteins using hybrid molecules consisting of IAP antagonist and HaloTag ligand. (United States)

    Tomoshige, Shusuke; Hashimoto, Yuichi; Ishikawa, Minoru


    We previously reported a protein knockdown system for HaloTag-fused proteins using hybrid small molecules consisting of alkyl chloride, which binds covalently to HaloTag, linked to BE04 (2), a bestatin (3) derivative with an affinity for cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (cIAP1, a kind of ubiquitin ligase). This system addressed several limitations of prior protein knockdown technology, and was applied to degrade two HaloTag-fused proteins. However, the degradation activity of these hybrid small molecules was not potent. Therefore, we set out to improve this system. We report here the design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel hybrid compounds 4a and 4b consisting of alkyl chloride linked to IAP antagonist MV1 (5). Compounds 4a and 4b were confirmed to reduce the levels of HaloTag-fused tumor necrosis factor α (HaloTag-TNFα), HaloTag-fused cell division control protein 42 (HaloTag-Cdc42), and unfused HaloTag protein in living cells more potently than did BE04-linked compound 1b. Analysis of the mode of action revealed that the reduction of HaloTag-TNFα is proteasome-dependent, and is also dependent on the linker structure between MV1 (5) and alkyl chloride. These compounds appear to induce ubiquitination at the HaloTag moiety of HaloTag-fused proteins. Our results indicate that these newly synthesized MV1-type hybrid compounds, 4a and 4b, are efficient tools for protein knockdown for HaloTag-fused proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Chemical Confirmation of the Faint Boötes II Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy (United States)

    Koch, Andreas; Rich, R. Michael


    We present a chemical abundance study of the brightest confirmed member star of the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Boötes II from Keck/HIRES high-resolution spectroscopy at moderate signal-to-noise ratios. At [Fe/H] = -2.93 ± 0.03(stat.) ± 0.17(sys.), this star chemically resembles metal-poor halo field stars and the signatures of other faint dwarf spheroidal galaxies at the same metallicities in that it shows enhanced [α/Fe] ratios, Solar Fe-peak element abundances, and low upper limits on the neutron-capture element Ba. Moreover, this star shows no chemical peculiarities in any of the eight elements we were able to measure. This implies that the chemical outliers found in other systems remain outliers pertaining to the unusual enrichment histories of the respective environments, while Boo II appears to have experienced an enrichment history typical of its very low mass. We also re-calibrated previous measurements of the galaxy's metallicity from the calcium triplet (CaT) and find a much lower value than reported before. The resulting broad metallicity spread, in excess of one dex, the very metal-poor mean, and the chemical abundance patterns of the present star imply that Boötes II is a low-mass, old, metal-poor dwarf galaxy and not an overdensity associated with the Sagittarius Stream as has been previously suggested based on its sky position and kinematics. The low, mean CaT metallicity of -2.7 dex falls right on the luminosity-metallicity relation delineated over four orders of magnitude from the more luminous to the faintest galaxies. Thus Boötes II's chemical enrichment appears representative of the galaxy's original mass, while tidal stripping and other mass loss mechanisms were probably not significant as for other low-mass satellites.

  10. Expression, one-step purification, and immobilization of HaloTag(TM) fusion proteins on chloroalkane-functionalized magnetic beads. (United States)

    Motejadded, Hassan; Kranz, Bertolt; Berensmeier, Sonja; Franzreb, Matthias; Altenbuchner, Josef


    The presented work introduces a novel method to immobilize enzymes either purified or directly out of a crude extract onto magnetic particles in the micrometer range. This method is based on the creation of a fusion protein consisting of the enzyme of choice and a mutant dehalogenase. The dehalogenase gene is commercially available from the company Promega under the name HaloTag(TM). When the fusion protein is contacted with magnetic beads having chemically synthesized, chloroalkane ligands on their surface, the dehalogenase and the ligand undergo a covalent coupling leading to stable and spatially defined immobilization. The principle was proved with a lipase fused to the HaloTag(TM) gene and magnetic poly(methyl)methacrylate beads as carriers. The solubility of the tagged lipase was strongly increased by fusion of the malE gene at the N-terminal end of the HaloTag(TM) lipase gene. This tripartite protein was purified on amylose resin and used for immobilization. About 13 µg protein could be immobilized per 1 mg of beads within a few minutes. Due to the defined binding site, no activity loss was observed in the course of the immobilization. The resulting enzyme carrier was tested with the same beads up to six times for lipase activity over a storage period of 36 days at 8 °C. No loss of activity was found during this time.

  11. Magellanic Cloud Cepheids - Abundances (United States)

    Luck, R. Earle; Moffett, Thomas J.; Barnes, Thomas G., III; Gieren, Wolfgang P.


    We have determined parameters and abundances for three SMC and nine LMC Cepheids that have not been previously studied spectroscopically for metallicity, as well as three SMC and one LMC Cepheids observed previously by Luck and Lambert. This work nearly doubles the number of Cepheids with spectroscopic metallicities in the SMC and triples the number in the LMC. For Galactic reference stars we have determined the abundances of 11 supergiants of spectral type F0 to K1. These abundances are used herein to examine the dispersion in cosmic (Fe/H) values found in LMC Cepheids by Luck and Lambert. The Magellanic Cloud Cepheids tend to be longer-period Cepheids, and thus have physical gravities that are 1.0 dex and lower. Spectroscopic gravities are even lower. Fortunately, the (Fe/H) content as determined from Fe I is not strongly dependent on gravity and is thus well determined. We combine our abundances with other published high-resolution spectroscopic results, deriving a mean (Fe/H) for the SMC of -0.68. The total range seen in the (Fe/H) ratios derived herein is -0.84 to -0.65. This result is in agreement with previous studies showing a small intrinsic range in the metallicities in the SMC. For the LMC, from the Cepheids studied here we obtain -0.30, with a range of -0.55 to -0.19. Combining all available data, we obtain a mean (Fe/H) of -0.34. From this analysis, there is little evidence for a significant metallicity dispersion in the LMC.

  12. Constraints on the Formation of M31’s Stellar Halo from the SPLASH Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline Gilbert


    Full Text Available The SPLASH (Spectroscopic and Photometric Landscape of Andromeda’s Stellar Halo Survey has observed fields throughout M31’s stellar halo, dwarf satellites, and stellar disk. The observations and derived measurements have either been compared to predictions from simulations of stellar halo formation or modeled directly in order to derive inferences about the formation and evolution of M31’s stellar halo. We summarize some of the major results from the SPLASH survey and the resulting implications for our understanding of the build-up of M31’s stellar halo.

  13. A Phenomenological Model of Star Formation Efficiency in Dark Matter Halos (United States)

    Finnegan, Daniel; Alsheshakly, Ghadeer; Moustakas, John


    The efficiency of star formation in massive dark matter halos is extraordinarily low, less than 10% in >10^13 Msun sized halos. Although many physical processes have been proposed to explain this low efficiency, such as feedback from supermassive black halos and massive stars, this question remains one of the most important outstanding problems in galaxy evolution. To explore this problem, we build a simple phenomenological model to predict the variations in gas fraction and star formation efficiency as a function of halo mass. We compare our model predictions to central galaxy stellar masses and halo masses drawn from the literature, and discuss plans for our future work.

  14. Arp 202: a TDG formed in a parent's extended dark matter halo? (United States)

    Scott, T. C.; Lagos, P.; Ramya, S.; Sengupta, C.; Paudel, S.; Sahu, D. K.; Misra, K.; Woo, J.-H.; Sohn, B. W.


    We report on H α + [N II] imaging of the Arp 202 interacting pair and its tidal dwarf galaxy (TDG) candidate as well as a GMOS long slit spectrum from the TDG candidate, observed with the Gemini North telescope. Our H α + [N II] imaging reveals the TDG to have an elongated structure, ˜ 1.9 kpc in length with the two principal star-forming knots at either end. Our observations also show the TDG candidate has a recessional VH α ˜ 3032 km s-1, within 100 km s-1 of the parent pair's mean velocity and an oxygen abundance of 12+log(O/H) = 8.10±0.41. The TDG's oxygen abundance is in good agreement with that of a star-forming region in NGC 2719A, one of the parent galaxies, which has an estimated oxygen abundance of 12+log(O/H) = 8.05 ± 0.41. The TDG's VH α and oxygen abundance confirm previous results validating the candidate as a TDG. The absence of detectable emission from the TDG in Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 μm images together with the lack of absorption lines and weak continuum in the spectrum is consistent with absence the of an old population (≳0.5 Gyr). The location of the TDG within the interaction debris and the absence of indicators of an old stellar population in the TDG is consistent with a scenario in which the TDG is formed from H I stripped from the parent galaxies and within the extended dark matter halo of one of the parents as proposed by Bournaud et al. and Duc et al.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Bowman, M. Oliver, E-mail: [Planetary Sciences Group, Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2385 (United States)


    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. and Eriksson. It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature–pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows and Sharp, the free thermochemical equilibrium code Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA), and the example given by Burrows and Sharp. Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is available under a reproducible-research, open-source license via

  16. ZOMG - III. The effect of halo assembly on the satellite population (United States)

    Garaldi, Enrico; Romano-Díaz, Emilio; Borzyszkowski, Mikolaj; Porciani, Cristiano


    We use zoom hydrodynamical simulations to investigate the properties of satellites within galaxy-sized dark-matter haloes with different assembly histories. We consider two classes of haloes at redshift z = 0: 'stalled' haloes that assembled at z > 1 and 'accreting' ones that are still forming nowadays. Previously, we showed that the stalled haloes are embedded within thick filaments of the cosmic web, while the accreting ones lie where multiple thin filaments converge. We find that satellites in the two classes have both similar and different properties. Their mass spectra, radial count profiles, baryonic and stellar content, and the amount of material they shed are indistinguishable. However, the mass fraction locked in satellites is substantially larger for the accreting haloes as they experience more mergers at late times. The largest difference is found in the satellite kinematics. Substructures fall towards the accreting haloes along quasi-radial trajectories whereas an important tangential velocity component is developed, before accretion, while orbiting the filament that surrounds the stalled haloes. Thus, the velocity anisotropy parameter of the satellites (β) is positive for the accreting haloes and negative for the stalled ones. This signature enables us to tentatively categorize the Milky Way halo as stalled based on a recent measurement of β. Half of our haloes contain clusters of satellites with aligned orbital angular momenta corresponding to flattened structures in space. These features are not driven by baryonic physics and are only found in haloes hosting grand-design spiral galaxies, independently of their assembly history.

  17. Detection of Hot Halo Gets Theory Out of Hot Water (United States)


    Scientists using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have detected an extensive halo of hot gas around a quiescent spiral galaxy. This discovery is evidence that galaxies like our Milky Way are still accumulating matter from the gradual inflow of intergalactic gas. "What we are likely witnessing here is the ongoing galaxy formation process," said Kristian Pedersen of the University of Copenhagen, Denmark, and lead author of a report on the discovery. Chandra observations show that the hot halo extends more than 60,000 light years on either side of the disk of the galaxy known as NGC 5746. The detection of such a large halo alleviates a long-standing problem for the theory of galaxy formation. Spiral galaxies are thought to form from enormous clouds of intergalactic gas that collapse to form giant, spinning disks of stars and gas. Chandra X-ray Image of NGC 5746 Chandra X-ray Image of NGC 5746 One prediction of this theory is that large spiral galaxies should be immersed in halos of hot gas left over from the galaxy formation process. Hot gas has been detected around spiral galaxies in which vigorous star formation is ejecting matter from the galaxy, but until now hot halos due to infall of intergalactic matter have not been detected. "Our observations solve the mystery of the missing hot halos around spiral galaxies," said Pedersen. "The halos exist, but are so faint that an extremely sensitive telescope such as Chandra is needed to detect them." DSS Optical Image of NGC 5746 DSS Optical Image of NGC 5746 NGC 5746 is a massive spiral galaxy about a 100 million light years from Earth. Its disk of stars and gas is viewed almost edge-on. The galaxy shows no signs of unusual star formation, or energetic activity from its nuclear region, making it unlikely that the hot halo is produced by gas flowing out of the galaxy. "We targeted NGC 5746 because we thought its distance and orientation would give us the best chance to detect a hot halo caused by the infall of

  18. Constraining the mSUGRA (minimal supergravity) parameter space using the entropy of dark matter halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez, Dario; Zavala, Jesus; Nellen, Lukas; Sussman, Roberto A [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (ICN-UNAM), AP 70-543, Mexico 04510 DF (Mexico); Cabral-Rosetti, Luis G [Departamento de Posgrado, Centro Interdisciplinario de Investigacion y Docencia en Educacion Tecnica (CIIDET), Avenida Universidad 282 Pte., Col. Centro, Apartado Postal 752, C. P. 76000, Santiago de Queretaro, Qro. (Mexico); Mondragon, Myriam, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (IF-UNAM), Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico DF (Mexico); Collaboration: For the Instituto Avanzado de Cosmologia, IAC


    We derive an expression for the entropy of a dark matter halo described using a Navarro-Frenk-White model with a core. The comparison of this entropy with that of dark matter in the freeze-out era allows us to constrain the parameter space in mSUGRA models. Moreover, combining these constraints with the ones obtained from the usual abundance criterion and demanding that these criteria be consistent with the 2{sigma} bounds for the abundance of dark matter: 0.112{<=}{Omega}{sub DM}h{sup 2}{<=}0.122, we are able to clearly identify validity regions among the values of tan{beta}, which is one of the parameters of the mSUGRA model. We found that for the regions of the parameter space explored, small values of tan{beta} are not favored; only for tan {beta} Asymptotically-Equal-To 50 are the two criteria significantly consistent. In the region where the two criteria are consistent we also found a lower bound for the neutralino mass, m{sub {chi}}{>=}141 GeV.

  19. Halo histories versus Galaxy properties at z = 0 - I. The quenching of star formation (United States)

    Tinker, Jeremy L.; Wetzel, Andrew R.; Conroy, Charlie; Mao, Yao-Yuan


    We test whether halo age and galaxy age are correlated at fixed halo and galaxy mass. The formation histories, and thus ages, of dark matter haloes correlate with their large-scale density ρ, an effect known as assembly bias. We test whether this correlation extends to galaxies by measuring the dependence of galaxy stellar age on ρ. To clarify the comparison between theory and observation, and to remove the strong environmental effects on satellites, we use galaxy group catalogues to identify central galaxies and measure their quenched fraction, fQ, as a function of large-scale environment. Models that match halo age to central galaxy age predict a strong positive correlation between fQ and ρ. However, we show that the amplitude of this effect depends on the definition of halo age: assembly bias is significantly reduced when removing the effects of splashback haloes - those haloes that are central but have passed through a larger halo or experienced strong tidal encounters. Defining age using halo mass at its peak value rather than current mass removes these effects. In Sloan Digital Sky Survey data, at M* ≳ 1010 M⊙ h-2, there is a ∼5 per cent increase in fQ from low-to-high densities, which is in agreement with predictions of dark matter haloes using peak halo mass. At lower stellar mass there is little to no correlation of fQ with ρ. For these galaxies, age matching is inconsistent with the data across the range of halo formation metrics that we tested. This implies that halo formation history has a small but statistically significant impact on quenching of star formation at high masses, while the quenching process in low-mass central galaxies is uncorrelated with halo formation history.

  20. The vertical structure of gaseous galaxy discs in cold dark matter haloes (United States)

    Benítez-Llambay, Alejandro; Navarro, Julio F.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Ludlow, Aaron D.


    We study the vertical structure of polytropic centrifugally supported gaseous discs embedded in cold dark matter (CDM) haloes. At fixed radius, R, the shape of the vertical density profile depends weakly on whether the disc is self-gravitating (SG) or non-self-gravitating (NSG). The disc 'characteristic' thickness, zH, set by the midplane sound speed and circular velocity, zNSG = (cs/Vc)R, in the NSG case, and by the sound speed and surface density, z_SG = c_s^2/GΣ, in SG discs, is smaller than zSG and zNSG. SG discs are typically Toomre unstable, NSG discs are stable. Exponential discs in CDM haloes with roughly flat circular velocity curves 'flare' outwards. Flares in mono abundance or coeval populations in galaxies like the Milky Way are thus not necessarily due to radial migration. For the polytropic equation of state of the Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments (EAGLE) simulations, discs that match observational constraints are NSG for Md < 3 × 109 M⊙ and SG at higher masses, if fully gaseous. We test these analytic results using a set of idealized smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations and find excellent agreement. Our results clarify the role of the gravitational softening on the thickness of simulated discs, and on the onset of radial instabilities. EAGLE low-mass discs are NSG so the softening plays no role in their vertical structure. High-mass discs are expected to be SG and unstable, and may be artificially thickened and stabilized unless gravity is well resolved. Simulations with spatial resolution high enough to not compromise the vertical structure of a disc also resolve the onset of their instabilities, but the converse is not true.

  1. Moving-mesh cosmology: characteristics of galaxies and haloes (United States)

    Kereš, Dušan; Vogelsberger, Mark; Sijacki, Debora; Springel, Volker; Hernquist, Lars


    We discuss cosmological hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy formation performed with the new moving-mesh code AREPO, which promises higher accuracy compared with the traditional smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) technique that has been widely employed for this problem. In this exploratory study, we deliberately limit the complexity of the physical processes followed by the code for ease of comparison with previous calculations, and include only cooling of gas with a primordial composition, heating by a spatially uniform ultraviolet background, and a simple subresolution model for regulating star formation in the dense interstellar medium. We use an identical set of physics in corresponding simulations carried out with the well-tested SPH code GADGET, adopting also the same high-resolution gravity solver. We are thus able to compare both simulation sets on an object-by-object basis, allowing us to cleanly isolate the impact of different hydrodynamical methods on galaxy and halo properties. In accompanying papers, Vogelsberger et al. and Sijacki et al., we focus on an analysis of the global baryonic statistics predicted by the simulation codes, and complementary idealized simulations that highlight the differences between the hydrodynamical schemes. Here we investigate their influence on the baryonic properties of simulated galaxies and their surrounding haloes. We find that AREPO leads to significantly higher star formation rates for galaxies in massive haloes and to more extended gaseous discs in galaxies, which also feature a thinner and smoother morphology than their GADGET counterparts. Consequently, galaxies formed in AREPO have larger sizes and higher specific angular momentum than their SPH correspondents. Interestingly, the more efficient cooling flows in AREPO yield higher densities and lower entropies in halo centres compared to GADGET, whereas the opposite trend is found in halo outskirts. The cooling differences leading to higher star formation rates

  2. Distribution, abundance and ecology of the sponge Spheciospongia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution, abundance and physico-chemical parameters affecting the sponge Spheciospongia vagabunda were studied in a shallow lagoon (Albion) of Mauritius. Visual censuses were conducted along the 2 Km lagoon and GPS coordinates around sponge assemblages (patches) were noted. Sponge abundance ...

  3. Spatial and temporal patterns of phytoplankton abundance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytoplankton abundance and composition in relation to physico-chemical parameters were investigated from September 2005 to October 2007 at 51 stations of various depths in the nearshore, intermediate and deep offshore waters of Lake Victoria. Shallow nearshore waters had the highest abundance of phytoplankton ...

  4. Structure of dark matter halos in warm dark matter models and in models with long-lived charged massive particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamada, Ayuki; Yoshida, Naoki [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Kohri, Kazunori [Cosmophysics Group, Theory Center, IPNS, KEK, Tsukuba, 305-0801 (Japan); Takahashi, Tomo, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Saga University, Saga 840-8502 (Japan)


    We study the formation of non-linear structures in warm dark matter (WDM) models and in a long-lived charged massive particle (CHAMP) model. CHAMPs with a decay lifetime of about 1 yr induce characteristic suppression in the matter power spectrum at subgalactic scales through acoustic oscillations in the thermal background. We explore structure formation in such a model. We also study three WDM models, where the dark matter particles are produced through the following mechanisms: i) WDM particles are produced in the thermal background and then kinematically decoupled; ii) WDM particles are fermions produced by the decay of thermal heavy bosons; and iii) WDM particles are produced by the decay of non-relativistic heavy particles. We show that the linear matter power spectra for the three models are all characterised by the comoving Jeans scale at the matter-radiation equality. Furthermore, we can also describe the linear matter power spectrum for the long-lived CHAMP model in terms of a suitably defined characteristic cut-off scale k{sub Ch}, similarly to the WDM models. We perform large cosmological N-body simulations to study the non-linear growth of structures in these four models. We compare the halo mass functions, the subhalo mass functions, and the radial distributions of subhalos in simulated Milky Way-size halos. For the characteristic cut-off scale k{sub cut} = 51 h Mpc{sup −1}, the subhalo abundance ( ∼ 10{sup 9}M{sub sun}) is suppressed by a factor of ∼ 10 compared with the standard ΛCDM model. We then study the models with k{sub cut} ≅ 51, 410, 820 h Mpc{sup −1}, and confirm that the halo and the subhalo abundances and the radial distributions of subhalos are indeed similar between the different WDM models and the long-lived CHAMP model. The result suggests that the cut-off scale k{sub cut} not only characterises the linear power spectra but also can be used to predict the non-linear clustering properties. The radial distribution of subhalos

  5. Proton halos in the 1 s0 d shell (United States)

    Brown, B. A.; Hansen, P. G.


    The shell-model properties of proton halo states in proton-rich 1 s0 d shell nuclei are investigated. The most interesting cases appear to be those in 26,27P and 27S. The parallel-momentum distributions of core fragments from proton stripping reactions may provide experimental insight into the structure of the halo states and the role played by the reaction mechanism. The “generalized Coulomb shift”, defined as the difference between the neutron and proton separation energies for an analogue pair, is shown to vary smoothly as a function of proton-separation energy and provides a good tool for mass extrapolations. The relation between the total interaction cross section and the matter radius is discussed.

  6. Galactic Halo Wormhole Solutions in f(T Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sharif


    Full Text Available The proposal of galactic halo region is based on the idea that dark halos contain some characteristics needed to support traversable wormhole solutions. We explore wormhole solutions in this region in the framework of generalized teleparallel gravity. We consider static spherically symmetric wormhole spacetime with flat galactic rotational curves and obtain expressions of matter components for nondiagonal tetrad. The effective energy-momentum tensor leads to the violation of energy conditions which may impose condition on the normal matter to satisfy these conditions. We take two well-known f(T models in exponential and logarithmic forms to discuss wormhole solutions as well as the equilibrium condition. It is concluded that wormhole solutions violating weak energy condition are obtained for both models with stable configuration.

  7. Two distinct halo populations in the solar neighborhood. III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuster, W. J.; Moreno, E.; Nissen, Poul Erik


    Context. In Papers I and II of this series, we have found clear indications of the existence of two distinct populations of stars in the solar neighborhood belonging to the metal-rich end of the halo metallicity distribution function. Based on high-resolution, high S/N spectra, it is possible...... to distinguish between “high-alpha” and “low-alpha” components using the [α/Fe] versus [Fe/H] diagram. Aims. Precise relative ages and orbital parameters are determined for 67 halo and 16 thick-disk stars having metallicities in the range −1.4 ... populations in the formation and evolution of the Galaxy. Methods. Ages are derived by comparing the positions of stars in the log Teff–log g diagram with isochrones from the Y2 models interpolated to the exact [Fe/H] and [α/Fe] values of each star. The stellar parameters have been adopted from the preceding...

  8. Relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov description of the halo nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, J.; Ring, P. [Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany)


    Here the authors report the development of the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov theory in coordinate space. Pairing correlations are taken into account by both density dependent force of zero range and finite range Gogny force. As a primary application the relativistic HB theory is used to describe the chain of Lithium isotopes reaching from {sup 6}Li to {sup 11}Li. In contrast to earlier investigations within a relativistic mean field theory and a density dependent Hartree Fock theory, where the halo in {sup 11}Li could only be reproduced by an artificial shift of the 1p{sub 1/2} level close to the continuum limit, the halo is now reproduced in a self-consistent way without further modifications using the scattering of Cooper pairs to the 2s{sub 1/2} level in the continuum. Excellent agreement with recent experimental data is observed.

  9. Toward a combined SAGE II-HALOE aerosol climatology: an evaluation of HALOE version 19 stratospheric aerosol extinction coefficient observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. W. Thomason


    Full Text Available Herein, the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE aerosol extinction coefficient data is evaluated in the low aerosol loading period after 1996 as the first necessary step in a process that will eventually allow the production of a combined HALOE/SAGE II (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment aerosol climatology of derived aerosol products including surface area density. Based on these analyses, it is demonstrated that HALOE's 3.46 μm is of good quality above 19 km and suitable for scientific applications above that altitude. However, it is increasingly suspect at lower altitudes and should not be used below 17 km under any circumstances after 1996. The 3.40 μm is biased by about 10% throughout the lower stratosphere due to the failure to clear NO2 but otherwise appears to be a high quality product down to 15 km. The 2.45 and 5.26 μm aerosol extinction coefficient measurements are clearly biased and should not be used for scientific applications after the most intense parts of the Pinatubo period. Many of the issues in the aerosol data appear to be related to either the failure to clear some interfering gas species or doing so poorly. For instance, it is clear that the 3.40 μm aerosol extinction coefficient measurements can be improved through the inclusion of an NO2 correction and could, in fact, end up as the highest quality overall HALOE aerosol extinction coefficient measurement. It also appears that the 2.45 and 5.26 μm channels may be improved by updating the Upper Atmosphere Pilot Database which is used as a resource for the removal of gas species otherwise not available from direct HALOE measurements. Finally, a simple model to demonstrate the promise of mixed visible/infrared aerosol extinction coefficient ensembles for the retrieval of bulk aerosol properties demonstrates that a combined HALOE/SAGE II aerosol climatology is feasible and may represent a substantial improvement over independently derived

  10. Are the supergiant halos experimental evidence for the pionic radioactivity? (United States)

    Ion, D. B.; Ion-Mihai, R.


    Pionic radiohalos (PIRH), as an integral time record of the pionic nuclear radioactivity of the heavy nuclides with Z > 80 from the inclusions from ancient minerals, are introduced. It is then shown that the essential characteristic features of the observed supergiant halos (SGH) are reproduced with a surprisingly high accuracy by those of the pionic radiohalos. For the clarification of this problem new experimental investigations including pionic detection methods are suggested.

  11. Mapping Milky Way Halo Structure with Blue Horizontal Branch Stars (United States)

    Martin, Charles; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Carlin, Jeffrey L.


    The use of blue horizontal brach (BHB) and red giant branch stars as tracers of stellar debris streams is a common practice and has been useful in the confirmation of kinematic properties of previously identified streams. This work explores less common ways of untangling the velocity signatures of streams traveling radially to our line of sight, and to peer toward the higher density region of the Galactic Center using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Using spectra of BHB stars, we are able to kinematically distinguish moving groups in the Milky Way halo. The results of this thesis advance our knowledge of the following stellar halo substructures: the Pisces Stellar Stream, the Hercules-Aquila Cloud, the Hercules Halo Stream, and the Hermus Stream. A study of red giant stars led to the kinematic discovery of the Pisces Stellar Stream. Red giant stars were also examined to determine that the previously identified velocity signature that was suggested for the Hercules-Aquila Cloud was due to disk star contamination and errors in preliminary SDSS velocities. The Hercules Halo Stream is a previously unidentified structure that could be related to the Hercules-Aquila Cloud, and was discovered as a velocity excess of SDSS BHB stars. We identify a group of 10 stars with similar velocities that are spatially coincident with the Hermus Stream. An orbit is fit to the Hermus Stream that rules out a connection with the Phoenix Stream.This work was supported by NSF grants AST 09-37523, 14-09421, 16-15688, the NASA/NY Space Grant fellowship, and contributions made by The Marvin Clan, Babette Josephs, Manit Limlamai, and the 2015 Crowd Funding Campaign to Support Milky Way Research.

  12. The Connection between Radio Halos and Cluster Mergers and the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and the Statistical Properties of the Radio Halo Population. R. Cassano1,2,∗. , G. Brunetti2 & T. ... sources located in the cluster central regions, with spatial extent similar to that of the hot ICM and steep radio spectra, α > 1.1 ... distribution of clusters in the P1.4 − LX diagram (Brunetti et al. 2007): RH trace the well-known ...

  13. Can $\\beta$-decay probe excited state halos?

    CERN Multimedia


    In the first experiment at the newly constructed ISOLDE Facility the first-forbidden $\\beta$-decay of $^{17}$Ne into the first excited state of $^{17}$F has been measured. It is a factor two faster than the corresponding mirror decay and thus gives one of the largest recorded asymmetries for $\\beta$-decays feeding bound final states. Shell-model calculations can only reproduce the asymmetry if the halo structure of the $^{17}$F state is taken into account.

  14. The Effects of Varying Cosmological Parameters on Halo Substructure (United States)

    Dooley, Gregory A.; Griffen, Brendan F.; Zukin, Phillip; Ji, Alexander P.; Vogelsberger, Mark; Hernquist, Lars E.; Frebel, Anna


    We investigate how different cosmological parameters, such as those delivered by the WMAP and Planck missions, affect the nature and evolution of the dark matter halo substructure. We use a series of flat Λ cold dark matter cosmological N-body simulations of structure formation, each with a different power spectrum but with the same initial white noise field. Our fiducial simulation is based on parameters from the WMAP seventh year cosmology. We then systematically vary the spectral index, ns ; matter density, Ω M ; and normalization of the power spectrum, σ8, for seven unique simulations. Across these, we study variations in the subhalo mass function, mass fraction, maximum circular velocity function, spatial distribution, concentration, formation times, accretion times, and peak mass. We eliminate dependence of subhalo properties on host halo mass and average the values over many hosts to reduce variance. While the "same" subhalos from identical initial overdensity peaks in higher σ8, ns , and Ω m simulations accrete earlier and end up less massive and closer to the halo center at z = 0, the process of continuous subhalo accretion and destruction leads to a steady state distribution of these properties across all subhalos in a given host. This steady state mechanism eliminates cosmological dependence on all of the properties listed above except for subhalo concentration and V max, which remain greater for higher σ8, ns , and Ω m simulations, and subhalo formation time, which remains earlier. We also find that the numerical technique for computing the scale radius and the halo finder that were used can significantly affect the concentration-mass relationship as computed for a simulation.

  15. A multi-machine scaling of halo current rotation (United States)

    Myers, C. E.; Eidietis, N. W.; Gerasimov, S. N.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Granetz, R. S.; Hender, T. C.; Pautasso, G.; Contributors, JET


    Halo currents generated during unmitigated tokamak disruptions are known to develop rotating asymmetric features that are of great concern to ITER because they can dynamically amplify the mechanical stresses on the machine. This paper presents a multi-machine analysis of these phenomena. More specifically, data from C-Mod, NSTX, ASDEX Upgrade, DIII-D, and JET are used to develop empirical scalings of three key quantities: (1) the machine-specific minimum current quench time, \

  16. A look into the inside of haloes: a characterization of the halo shape as a function of overdensity in the Planck cosmology (United States)

    Despali, Giulia; Giocoli, Carlo; Bonamigo, Mario; Limousin, Marceau; Tormen, Giuseppe


    In this paper, we study the triaxial properties of dark matter haloes of a wide range of masses extracted from a set of cosmological N-body simulations. We measure the shape at different distances from the halo centre (characterized by different overdensity thresholds), both in three and in two dimensions. We discuss how halo triaxiality increases with mass, redshift and distance from the halo centre. We also examine how the orientations of the different ellipsoids are aligned with each other and what is the gradient in internal shapes for haloes with different virial configurations. Our findings highlight that the internal part of the halo retains memory of the violent formation process keeping the major axis oriented towards the preferential direction of the infalling material while the outer part becomes rounder due to continuous isotropic merging events. This effect is clearly evident in high-mass haloes - which formed more recently - while it is more blurred in low-mass haloes. We present simple distributions that may be used as priors for various mass reconstruction algorithms, operating in different wavelengths, in order to recover a more complex and realistic dark matter distribution of isolated and relaxed systems.

  17. Decay Properties of the Halo Nucleus $^{11}$Li

    CERN Multimedia


    During the past years a considerable experimental effort has been devoted to the production and study of nuclei close to the neutron and proton drip-lines. The most spectacular phenomenon encountered is the occurrence of neutron halos in the loosely bound neutron rich nuclei. \\\\ \\\\ Another interesting feature, observed at ISOLDE, which most likely is connected to the halo structure, is the very strong (super-allowed) Gamow-Teller $\\beta$- transitions to highly excited states which are systematically observed for the lightest neutron rich drip-line nuclei. These transitions might be viewed as arising from the quasi-free $\\beta$ -decay of the halo neutrons. It is proposed to make a detailed study of the $\\beta$- strength function for $^{11}$Li, a nuclide having a half-life of 8.2 ms and a Q $\\beta$-value of 20.73~MeV. \\\\ \\\\ So far only a lower limit of the Gamow-Teller transition rate to highly excited states ($\\approx$~18.5~MeV) in the daughter nucleus has been obtained from measurements of $\\beta$-delayed tri...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veljanoski, J.; Ferguson, A. M. N.; Bernard, E. J.; Penarrubia, J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Mackey, A. D. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Mt Stromlo Observatory, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Huxor, A. P. [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum fur Astronomie der Universitat Heidelberg, Monchhofstr. 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Irwin, M. J.; Chapman, S. C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Cote, P. [NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, British Columbia V9E 2E7 (Canada); Tanvir, N. R.; McConnachie, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Ibata, R. A.; Martin, N. F. [Observatoire de Strasbourg, 11 rue de l' Universite, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Fardal, M. [University of Massachusetts, Department of Astronomy, LGRT 619-E, 710 N. Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003-9305 (United States); Lewis, G. F. [Institute of Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)


    We present the first kinematic analysis of the far outer halo globular cluster (GC) population in the Local Group galaxy M31. Our sample contains 53 objects with projected radii of {approx}20-130 kpc, 44 of which have no previous spectroscopic information. GCs with projected radii {approx}> 30 kpc are found to exhibit net rotation around the minor axis of M31, in the same sense as the inner GCs, albeit with a smaller amplitude of 79 {+-} 19 km s{sup -1}. The rotation-corrected velocity dispersion of the full halo GC sample is 106 {+-} 12 km s{sup -1}, which we observe to decrease with increasing projected radius. We find compelling evidence for kinematic coherence among GCs that project on top of halo substructure, including a clear signature of infall for GCs lying along the northwest stream. Using the tracer mass estimator, we estimate the dynamical mass of M31 within 200 kpc to be M{sub M31} = (1.2-1.5) {+-} 0.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} M{sub Sun }. This value is highly dependent on the chosen model and assumptions within.

  19. Hypervelocity Stars: From the Galactic Center to the Halo (United States)

    Kenyon, Scott J.; Bromley, Benjamin C.; Geller, Margaret J.; Brown, Warren R.


    Hypervelocity stars (HVSs) traverse the Galaxy from the central black hole to the outer halo. We show that the Galactic potential within 200 pc acts as a high-pass filter preventing low-velocity HVSs from reaching the halo. To trace the orbits of HVSs throughout the Galaxy, we construct two forms of the potential which reasonably represent the observations in the range 5-105 pc: a simple spherically symmetric model and a bulge-disk-halo model. We use the Hills mechanism (disruption of binaries by the tidal field of the central black hole) to inject HVSs into the Galaxy and to compute the observable spatial and velocity distributions of HVSs with masses in the range 0.6-4 M⊙. These distributions reflect the mass function in the Galactic center, properties of binaries in the Galactic center, and aspects of stellar evolution and the injection mechanism. For 0.6-4 M⊙ main-sequence stars, the fraction of unbound HVSs and the asymmetry of the velocity distribution for their bound counterparts increase with stellar mass. The density profiles for unbound HVSs decline with distance from the Galactic center approximately as r-2 (but are steeper for the most massive stars, which evolve off the main sequence during their travel time from the Galactic center); the density profiles for the bound ejecta decline with distance approximately as r-3. In a survey with a limiting magnitude of Vlesssim 23, the detectability of HVSs (unbound or bound) increases with stellar mass.

  20. Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC di PT Halo Rumah Bernyanyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekka Rismayanti


    Full Text Available Abstract: This research aims to describe the effectiveness of Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC in PT Halo Rumah Bernyanyi which, from the perspective of marketing strategy, could be studied by analyzing the segmentation, targeting, and positioning. Using case-study method with in-depth interview, the result shows that the implementation of IMC at PT Halo Rumah Bernyayi is arranged in one single strategy and tend to neglect the complexities of running multi-brand family karaoke-house. This considers as ineffective because it leads to “cannibalization” among brands, especially when costumer’s targetting is overlooked before drafting the IMC plan. Keywords: Business, Integrated Marketing Communication, Marketing   Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan efektivitas penerapan Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC yang dilihat dari aspek segmentation, targeting dan positioning. Metode penelitian adalah studi kasus dengan menggunakan wawancara mendalam. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penerapan IMC di PT Halo Rumah Bernyanyi dibuat dalam satu strategi dan tidak memerhatikan kompleksitas dari aspek segmentation, targeting dan positioning sebagai pedoman dasar. Langkah tersebut dinilai tidak efektif karena dapat mengakibatkan “kanibalisasi” antar brand, terlebih jika perhatian terhadap target konsumen diabaikan sebelum menyusun perencanaan IMC. Kata Kunci: Bisnis, Integrated Marketing Communications, Pemasaran

  1. Design alternatives for beam halo monitors in high intensity accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, H; Corsini, R; Lefèvre, T; Schulte, Daniel; Tecker, F A; Welsch, C P


    In future high intensity, high energy accelerators it must be ensured that particle losses are minimized as activation of the vacuum chambers or other components makes maintenance and upgrade work time consuming and costly. It is imperative to have a clear understanding of the mechanisms that can lead to halo formation and to have the possibility to test available theoretical models with an adequate experimental setup. Optical transition radiation (OTR) provides an interesting opportunity for linear real-time measurements of the transverse beam profile with a resolution which has been so far at best in the some μm range. However, the dynamic range of standard OTR systems is typically limited and needs to be improved for its application for halo measurements. In this contribution, the existing OTR system as it is installed in the CLIC test facility (CTF3) is analyzed and the contribution of each component to the final image quality discussed. Finally, possible halo measurement techniques based on OTR are pres...

  2. Detecting Hot Gaseous Halos of Galaxies with Arcus (United States)

    Bregman, Joel N.; Hodges-Kluck, Edmund; Li, Jiangtao; Li, Yunyang; Miller, Matthew; Qu, Zhijie


    A long-lived component of galaxies is the hot extended atmosphere with a temperature near the virial temperature. It can contain a significant fraction of the missing baryons and can act as a reservoir of matter for future generations of stars. This extended hot halo is detected around the Milky Way in absorption and emission lines of highly ionized species (e.g., O VII, O VIII), but weighted to be within about 50 kpc. From current data there are not many high fidelity absorption line detections and the lines are badly under-resolved. These shortcomings will be rectified with Arcus, which will provide high-quality line measurements in several ions for about 50 sight lines. Lines will often be resolved, revealing the dynamics of the hot halo, such as rotation and the turbulence resulting from feedback. We show how metallicities will be determined from a comparison of these absorption lines with existing emission line data. Arcus will detect O VII absorption from similar halos around external galaxies, for the first time, and out to ~R200, if not beyond. Using random lines of sight, Arcus will complete the metal census of the Universe.

  3. Ultra-Deep Imaging: Structure of Disks and Haloes (United States)

    Knapen, Johan H.; Trujillo, Ignacio

    Deep imaging is a fundamental tool in the study of the outermost structures of galaxies. We review recent developments in ultra-deep imaging of galaxy disks and haloes, highlighting the technical advances as well as the challenges and summarizing observational results in the context of modern theory and simulations. The deepest modern galaxy imaging comes from three main sources: (1) surveys such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey's Stripe 82 project; (2) very long exposures on small telescopes, including by amateurs; and (3) long exposures on the largest professional telescopes. The technical challenges faced are common in all these approaches and include the treatment of light scattered by atmosphere and telescope/instrument, correct flat fielding and the subtraction of non-galaxy light in the images. We review scientific results on galaxy disks and haloes obtained with deep imaging, including the detection and characterization of stellar haloes, tidal features and stellar streams, disk truncations and thick disks. The area of ultra-deep imaging is still very much unexplored territory, and future work in this area promises significant advances in our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution.

  4. Shot noise and biased tracers: A new look at the halo model (United States)

    Ginzburg, Dimitry; Desjacques, Vincent; Chan, Kwan Chuen


    Shot noise is an important ingredient to any measurement or theoretical modeling of discrete tracers of the large scale structure. Recent work has shown that the shot noise in the halo power spectrum becomes increasingly sub-Poissonian at high mass. Interestingly, while the halo model predicts a shot noise power spectrum in qualitative agreement with the data, it leads to an unphysical white noise in the cross halo-matter and matter power spectrum. In this work, we show that absorbing all the halo model sources of shot noise into the halo fluctuation field leads to meaningful predictions for the shot noise contributions to halo clustering statistics and remove the unphysical white noise from the cross halo-matter statistics. Our prescription straightforwardly maps onto the general bias expansion, so that the renormalized shot noise terms can be expressed as combinations of the halo model shot noises. Furthermore, we demonstrate that non-Poissonian contributions are related to volume integrals over correlation functions and their response to long-wavelength density perturbations. This leads to a new class of consistency relations for discrete tracers, which appear to be satisfied by our reformulation of the halo model. We test our theoretical predictions against measurements of halo shot noise bispectra extracted from a large suite of numerical simulations. Our model reproduces qualitatively the observed sub-Poissonian noise, although it underestimates the magnitude of this effect.

  5. Studies on abundance of zooplanktons in lakes of Mysore, India. (United States)

    Savitha, N; Yamakanamardi, Sadanand M


    This is the first comprehensive ecological study on the abundance of zooplankton in Kalale, Alanahalli and Dalvoy lakes of Mysore. The abundance of zooplankton as well as their relation with physico-chemical parameters was analyzed, every month in these lakes from June 2008-May 2010. The mean abundance of Rotifer (281 Org (l-1)), Cladocerans (27 Org l(-1)) and total abundance of zooplankton (343 Org l(-1)) were more and significantly different in Dalvoy lake; whereas, in Kalale lake the mean abundance of Rotifer (19 Org l(-1)), Cladocerans (3 Org l(-1)) and total abundance of zooplankton (79 Org l(-1)) and in Alanahalli lake the mean abundance of Rotifer (84 Org l(-1)), Cladocerans (9 Org l(-1)) and total abundance of zooplankton (149 Org l(-1)) were significantly less. However, the abundance of Copepods and Ostracods was similar in all the three lakes studied. The water bodies of Kalale lake were less polluted when compared toAlanahalli and Dalvoy lakes. The increases in conductivity, Chl a, turbidity, phosphate, carbon-di-oxide and total anions in Alanahalli and Dalvoy lakes may be attributed to the various anthropogenic activities in the catchment areas. Interrelationships between zooplankton variables and physico-chemical parameters were calculated using Pearson's correlation co-efficient (r) which revealed (25) significant (P lake and moderate (7) in Alanahalli and Kalale lakes). The stepwise multiple regression analysis (r2) showed out of 21 physico-chemical parameters studied, as many as 12 were positively controlling the abundance of zooplankton, where as the phosphate and chloride were negatively controlling the total abundance of zooplankton and the abundance of ostracods respectively. The results obtained have been discussed in the light of the present literature available in the field of aquatic microbial ecology.

  6. Chemical evolution of the Galactic bulge as traced by microlensed dwarf and subgiant stars. VI. Age and abundance structure of the stellar populations in the central sub-kpc of the Milky Way (United States)

    Bensby, T.; Feltzing, S.; Gould, A.; Yee, J. C.; Johnson, J. A.; Asplund, M.; Meléndez, J.; Lucatello, S.; Howes, L. M.; McWilliam, A.; Udalski, A.; Szymański, M. K.; Soszyński, I.; Poleski, R.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Ulaczyk, K.; Kozłowski, S.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Skowron, J.; Mróz, P.; Pawlak, M.; Abe, F.; Asakura, Y.; Bhattacharya, A.; Bond, I. A.; Bennett, D. P.; Hirao, Y.; Nagakane, M.; Koshimoto, N.; Sumi, T.; Suzuki, D.; Tristram, P. J.


    We present a detailed elemental abundance study of 90 F and G dwarf, turn-off, and subgiant stars in the Galactic bulge. Based on high-resolution spectra acquired during gravitational microlensing events, stellar ages and abundances for 11 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Zn, Y and Ba) have been determined. Four main findings are presented: (1) a wide metallicity distribution with distinct peaks at [Fe/H] = -1.09, -0.63, -0.20, + 0.12, + 0.41; (2) ahigh fraction of intermediate-age to young stars where at [Fe/H] > 0 more than 35% are younger than 8 Gyr, and for [Fe/H] ≲ -0.5 most stars are 10 Gyr or older; (3) several episodes of significant star formation in the bulge has been identified: 3, 6, 8, and 11 Gyr ago; (4) tentatively the "knee" in the α-element abundance trends of the sub-solar metallicity bulge is located at a slightly higher [Fe/H] than in the local thick disk. These findings show that the Galactic bulge has complex age and abundance properties that appear to be tightly connected to the main Galactic stellar populations. In particular, the peaks in the metallicity distribution, the star formation episodes, and the abundance trends, show similarities with the properties of the Galactic thin and thick disks. At the same time, the star formation rate appears to have been slightly faster in the bulge than in the local thick disk, which most likely is an indication of the denser stellar environment closer to the Galactic centre. There are also additional components not seen outside the bulge region, and that most likely can be associated with the Galactic bar. Our results strengthen the observational evidence that support the idea of a secular origin for the Galactic bulge, formed out of the other main Galactic stellar populations present in the central regions of our Galaxy. Additionally, our analysis of this enlarged sample suggests that the (V-I)0 colour of the bulge red clump should be revised to 1.09. Based on data obtained with the

  7. Merger Histories of Galaxy Halos and Implications for Disk Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Kyle R.; Bullock, James S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Maller, Ariyeh H.; Zentner, Andrew R.


    The authors study the merger histories of galaxy dark matter halos using a high resolution {Lambda}CDM N-body simulation. The merger trees follow {approx} 17,000 halos with masses M{sub 0} = (10{sup 11} - 10{sup 13})h{sup -1}M{sub {circle_dot}} at z = 0 and track accretion events involving objects as small as m {approx_equal} 10{sup 10} h{sup -1}M{sub {circle_dot}}. They find that mass assembly is remarkably self-similar in m/M{sub 0}, and dominated by mergers that are {approx}10% of the final halo mass. While very large mergers, m {approx}> 0.4 M{sub 0}, are quite rare, sizeable accretion events, m {approx} 0.1 M{sub 0}, are common. Over the last {approx} 10 Gyr, an overwhelming majority ({approx} 95%) of Milky Way-sized halos with M{sub 0} = 10{sup 12} h{sup -1}M{sub {circle_dot}} have accreted at least one object with greater total mass than the Milky Way disk (m > 5 x 10{sup 10} h{sup -1}M{sub {circle_dot}}), and approximately 70% have accreted an object with more than twice that mass (m > 10{sup 11} h{sup -1}M{sub {circle_dot}}). The results raise serious concerns about the survival of thin-disk dominated galaxies within the current paradigm for galaxy formation in a {Lambda}CDM universe. in order to achieve a {approx} 70% disk-dominated fraction in Milky Way-sized {Lambda}CDM halos, mergers involving m {approx_equal} 2 x 10{sup 11} h{sup -1}M{sub {circle_dot}} objects must not destroy disks. Considering that most thick disks and bulges contain old stellar populations, the situation is even more restrictive: these mergers must not heat disks or drive gas into their centers to create young bulges.

  8. Galaxy power spectrum in redshift space: Combining perturbation theory with the halo model (United States)

    Okumura, Teppei; Hand, Nick; Seljak, Uroš; Vlah, Zvonimir; Desjacques, Vincent


    Theoretical modeling of the redshift-space power spectrum of galaxies is crucially important to correctly extract cosmological information from galaxy redshift surveys. The task is complicated by the nonlinear biasing and redshift space distortion (RSD) effects, which change with halo mass, and by the wide distribution of halo masses and their occupations by galaxies. One of the main modeling challenges is the existence of satellite galaxies that have both radial distribution inside the halos and large virial velocities inside halos, a phenomenon known as the Finger-of-God (FoG) effect. We present a model for the redshift-space power spectrum of galaxies in which we decompose a given galaxy sample into central and satellite galaxies and relate different contributions to the power spectrum to 1-halo and 2-halo terms in a halo model. Our primary goal is to ensure that any parameters that we introduce have physically meaningful values, and are not just fitting parameters. For the lowest order 2-halo terms we use the previously developed RSD modeling of halos in the context of distribution function and perturbation theory approach. This term needs to be multiplied by the effect of radial distances and velocities of satellites inside the halo. To this one needs to add the 1-halo terms, which are nonperturbative. We show that the real space 1-halo terms can be modeled as almost constant, with the finite extent of the satellites inside the halo inducing a small k2R2 term over the range of scales of interest, where R is related to the size of the halo given by its halo mass. We adopt a similar model for FoG in redshift space, ensuring that FoG velocity dispersion is related to the halo mass. For FoG k2 type expansions do not work over the range of scales of interest and FoG resummation must be used instead. We test several simple damping functions to model the velocity dispersion FoG effect. Applying the formalism to mock galaxies modeled after the "CMASS" sample of the

  9. Are small-scale substructures a universal property of galaxy haloes? The case of the giant elliptical NGC 5128 (United States)

    Mouhcine, M.; Ibata, R.; Rejkuba, M.


    We present an analysis of the spatial and chemical substructures in a remote halo field in the nearby giant elliptical galaxy Centaurus A (NGC 5128), situated ˜38 kpc from the centre of the galaxy. The observations were taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys instrument on-board the Hubble Space Telescope, and reach down to the horizontal branch. In this relatively small 3.8 × 3.8 kpc2 field, after correcting for Poisson noise, we do not find any statistically strong evidence for the presence of small-scale substructures in the stellar spatial distribution on scales ≳100 pc. However, we do detect the presence of significant small spatial-scale inhomogeneities in the stellar median metallicity over the surveyed field. We argue that these localized chemical substructures could be associated with not fully mixed debris from the disruption of low-mass systems. NGC 5128 joins the ranks of the late-type spiral galaxies the Milky Way, for which the stellar halo appears to be dominated by small-scale spatial substructures, and NGC 891, where localized metallicity variations have been detected in the inner extraplanar regions. This suggests that the presence of small-scale substructures may be a generic property of stellar haloes of large galaxies. This work was based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  10. Injection halos of hydrocarbons above oil-gas fields with super-high pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhtin, V.V.


    We studied the origin of injection halos of hydrocarbons above oil-gas fields with anomalously high formation pressures (AHFP). Using fields in Azerbaydzhan and Chechen-Ingushetiya as an example, we demonstrate the effect of certain factors (in particular, faults and zones of increased macro- and micro-jointing) on the morpholoy of the halos. The intensity of micro-jointing (jointing permeability, three-dimensional density of micro-jointing) is directly connected with vertical dimensions of the halos. We measured halos based on transverse profiles across the Khayan-Kort field and studied the distribution of bitumen saturation within the injection halo. Discovery of injection halos during drilling has enabled us to improve the technology of wiring deep-seated exploratory wells for oil and gas in regions with development of AHFP.

  11. Hydrocarbon halo distribution above oil and gas deposits with abnormally high stratal pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhtin, V.V.


    An examination is made of the emergence of hydrocarbon halos over oil and gas deposits with abnormally high stratal pressure. Fields in Azerbaidzhan and Checheno-Ingushetiya are used to illustrate the effect of certain factors (particularly fractures, zones with heightened macro and microfissure formation) on halo morphology. A direct relationship was found between the intensity of microfissure formation (fissure permeability, volumetric density of microfissures) and the size of vertically directed halos. Dimensions are given for halos by cross-sectional profiles of the Khayan-Kort field, and information is given on the nature of bitumen saturation distribution within the halo. The identification of halos in the process of drilling will make it possible to improve the technology of cutting deep gas and oil exploratory wells in the regions of abnormally high stratal pressures are developing. 22 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  12. Group support system and explanatory feedback: An experimental study of mitigating halo effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intiyas Utami


    Full Text Available Comprehensive assessment potentially leads to halo effect that will affect accuracy of auditors decision-making process. Biased initial audit decision will potentially influence final audit decision. It is there-fore necessary to mitigate halo effect that is the consequence of auditors good impression on clients initial condition. This re-search aims to empirically show that halo effect can be mitigated by explanatory feedback and Group Support System (GSS. The researchers experimentally mani-pulate explanatory feedback and GSS using online web-site. The subjects are stu-dents who have already taken auditing courses. The results show that: 1 explanato-ry feedback can mitigate halo effect so that audit decision will be more accurate 2 GSS can also mitigate halo effect 3 explanatory feedback and GSS are the best me-thods to mitigate halo effect.

  13. HaloTag as a reporter gene: positron emission tomography imaging with 64Cu-labeled second generation HaloTag ligands (United States)

    Hong, Hao; Benink, Hélène A; Uyeda, H Tetsuo; Valdovinos, Hector F; Zhang, Yin; Meisenheimer, Poncho; Barnhart, Todd E; Fan, Frank; Cai, Weibo


    The goal of this study is to employ the HaloTag technology for positron emission tomography (PET), which involves two components: the HaloTag protein (a modified hydrolase which covalently binds to synthetic ligands) and HaloTag ligands (HTLs). 4T1 murine breast cancer cells were stably transfected to express HaloTag protein on the surface (termed as 4T1-HaloTag-ECS, ECS denotes extracellular surface). Two new HTLs were synthesized and termed NOTA-HTL2G-S and NOTA-HTL2G-L (2G indicates second generation, S stands for short, L stands for long, NOTA denotes 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-N,N’N’’-triacetic acid). Microscopy studies confirmed surface expression of HaloTag in 4T1-HaloTag-ECS cells, which specifically bind NOTA-HTL2G-S/L. Uptake of 64Cu-NOTA-HTL2G-L in 4T1-HaloTag-ECS tumors (4.3 ± 0.5, 4.1± 0.2, 4.0 ± 0.2, 2.3 ± 0.1, and 2.2 ± 0.1 %ID/g at 0.5, 3, 6, 18, and 24 h post-injection respectively; n = 4) was significantly higher than that in the 4T1 tumors (3.0 ± 0.3, 3.0± 0.1, 3.0 ± 0.2, 2.0 ± 0.4, and 2.4 ± 0.3 %ID/g at 0.5, 3, 6, 18, and 24 h post-injection respectively; n = 4) at early time points. In comparison, 64Cu-NOTA-HTL2G-S did not demonstrate significant uptake in either 4T1-HaloTag-ECS or 4T1 tumors. Blocking studies and autoradiography of tumor lysates confirmed that 64Cu-NOTA-HTL2G-L binds specifically to HaloTag protein in the 4T1-HaloTag-ECS tumors, corroborated by histology. HaloTag protein-specific targeting and PET imaging in vivo with 64Cu-NOTA-HTL2G-L serves as a proof-of-principle for future non-invasive and sensitive tracking of HaloTag-transfected cells with PET, as well as many other studies of gene/protein/cell function in vivo. PMID:23634240

  14. Size matters: abundance matching, galaxy sizes, and the Tully-Fisher relation in EAGLE (United States)

    Ferrero, Ismael; Navarro, Julio F.; Abadi, Mario G.; Sales, Laura V.; Bower, Richard G.; Crain, Robert A.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom


    The Tully-Fisher relation (TFR) links the stellar mass of a disc galaxy, Mstr, to its rotation speed: it is well approximated by a power law, shows little scatter, and evolves weakly with redshift. The relation has been interpreted as reflecting the mass-velocity scaling (M ∝ V3) of dark matter haloes, but this interpretation has been called into question by abundance-matching (AM) models, which predict the galaxy-halo mass relation to deviate substantially from a single power law and to evolve rapidly with redshift. We study the TFR of luminous spirals and its relation to AM using the EAGLE set of Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmological simulations. Matching both relations requires disc sizes to satisfy constraints given by the concentration of haloes and their response to galaxy assembly. EAGLE galaxies approximately match these constraints and show a tight mass-velocity scaling that compares favourably with the observed TFR. The TFR is degenerate to changes in galaxy formation efficiency and the mass-size relation; simulations that fail to match the galaxy stellar mass function may fit the observed TFR if galaxies follow a different mass-size relation. The small scatter in the simulated TFR results because, at fixed halo mass, galaxy mass and rotation speed correlate strongly, scattering galaxies along the main relation. EAGLE galaxies evolve with lookback time following approximately the prescriptions of AM models and the observed mass-size relation of bright spirals, leading to a weak TFR evolution consistent with observation out to z = 1. ΛCDM models that match both the abundance and size of galaxies as a function of stellar mass have no difficulty reproducing the observed TFR and its evolution.

  15. The Impact of Assembly Bias on the Galaxy Content of Dark Matter Halos (United States)

    Zehavi, Idit; Contreras, Sergio; Padilla, Nelson; Smith, Nicholas J.; Baugh, Carlton M.; Norberg, Peder


    We study the dependence of the galaxy content of dark matter halos on large-scale environment and halo formation time using semi-analytic galaxy models applied to the Millennium simulation. We analyze subsamples of halos at the extremes of these distributions and measure the occupation functions for the galaxies they host. We find distinct differences among these occupation functions. The main effect with environment is that central galaxies (and in one model, also the satellites) in denser regions start populating lower-mass halos. A similar, but significantly stronger, trend exists with halo age, where early-forming halos are more likely to host central galaxies at lower halo mass. We discuss the origin of these trends and the connection to the stellar mass–halo mass relation. We find that, at fixed halo mass, older halos and to some extent also halos in dense environments tend to host more massive galaxies. Additionally, we see a reverse trend for the occupation of satellite galaxies where early-forming halos have fewer satellites, likely due to having more time for them to merge with the central galaxy. We describe these occupancy variations in terms of the changes in the occupation function parameters, which can aid in constructing realistic mock galaxy samples. Finally, we study the corresponding galaxy auto- and cross-correlation functions of the different samples and elucidate the impact of assembly bias on galaxy clustering. Our results can inform theoretical modeling of galaxy assembly bias and attempts to detect it in the real universe.

  16. Pressure at the ISM-halo interface: A reheating frequency dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirković M.M.


    Full Text Available The dependence of the thermal pressure of hot galactic halos on a model parameter describing the frequency of major reheating episodes during galactic history is investigated. Pressure on the interface between interstellar medium and the halo gas is especially interesting, since empirical evidence here offers one of the simplest constraints on halo models. It is shown that two-phase model of Mo & Miralda-Escudé is sufficiently robust with respect to uncertainties in the average interval between reheating.

  17. HaloTag-based purification of functional human kinases from mammalian cells. (United States)

    Ohana, Rachel Friedman; Hurst, Robin; Vidugiriene, Jolanta; Slater, Michael R; Wood, Keith V; Urh, Marjeta


    Although cultured mammalian cells are preferred for producing functional mammalian proteins with appropriate post-translational modifications, purification of recombinant proteins is frequently hampered by low expression. We have addressed this by creating a new method configured specifically for mammalian cell culture that provides rapid detection and efficient purification. This approach is based on HaloTag, a protein fusion tag designed to bind rapidly, selectively and covalently to a series of synthetic ligands that can carry a variety of functional groups, including fluorescent dyes for detection or solid supports for purification. Since the binding of HaloTag to the HaloLink resin is essentially irreversible, it overcomes the equilibrium-based binding limitations associated with affinity tags and enables efficient capture and purification of target protein, even at low expression levels. The target protein is released from the HaloLink resin by specific cleavage using a TEV protease fused to HaloTag (HaloTEV), leaving both HaloTag and HaloTEV permanently attached to the resin and highly pure, tag-free protein in solution. HaloTag fluorescent ligands enable fluorescent labeling of HaloTag fusion proteins, providing a convenient way to monitor expression, and thus facilitate the identification of optimal transient transfection conditions as well as the selection of high expression stable cell lines. The capabilities of this method have been demonstrated by the efficient purification of five functional human kinases from HEK293T cells. In addition, when purifications using FLAG, 3xFLAG, His(6)Tag and HaloTag were performed in parallel, HaloTag was shown to provide significantly higher yields, purity and overall recovery of the expressed proteins. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. HaloTag: a novel reporter gene for positron emission tomography. (United States)

    Hong, Hao; Benink, Hélène A; Zhang, Yin; Yang, Yunan; Uyeda, H Tetsuo; Engle, Jonathan W; Severin, Gregory W; McDougall, Mark G; Barnhart, Todd E; Klaubert, Dieter H; Nickles, Robert J; Fan, Frank; Cai, Weibo


    Among the many molecular imaging techniques, reporter gene imaging has been a dynamic area of research. The HaloTag protein is a modified haloalkane dehalogenase which was designed to covalently bind to synthetic ligands (i.e. the HaloTag ligands [HTL]). Covalent bond formation between the HaloTag protein and the chloroal-kane within the HTL occurs rapidly under physiological conditions, which is highly specific and essentially irreversible. Over the years, HaloTag technology has been investigated for various applications such as in vitro/in vivo imaging, protein purification/trafficking, high-throughput assays, among others. The goal of this study is to explore the use of the HaloTag protein as a novel reporter gene for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. By attaching a HaloTag -reactive chloroalkane to 1, 4, 7-triazacyclononane-N, N', N"-triacetic acid (NOTA) through hydrophilic linkers, the resulting NOTA-conjugated HTLs were labeled with (64)Cu and tested for PET imaging in living mice bearing 4T1-HaloTag-ECS tumors, which stably express the HaloTag protein on the cell surface. Significantly higher uptake of (64)Cu-NOTA-HTL-S (which contains a short hydrophilic linker) in the 4T1-HaloTag-ECS than the non-HaloTag-expressing 4T1 tumors was observed, which demonstrated the HaloTag specificity of (64)Cu-NOTA-HTL-S and warranted future investigation of the HaloTag protein as a PET reporter gene.

  19. HaloTag Protein-Mediated Specific Labeling of Living Cells with Quantum Dots


    So, Min-kyung; Yao, Hequan; Rao, Jianghong


    Quantum dots emerge as an attractive alternative to small molecule fluorophores as fluorescent tags for in vivo cell labeling and imaging. This communication presents a method for specific labeling of live cells using quantum dots. The labeling is mediated by HaloTag protein expressed at the cell surface which forms a stable covalent adduct with its ligand (HaloTag ligand). The labeling can be performed in one single step with quantum dot conjugates that are functionalized with HaloTag ligand...

  20. ZOMG - I. How the cosmic web inhibits halo growth and generates assembly bias (United States)

    Borzyszkowski, Mikolaj; Porciani, Cristiano; Romano-Díaz, Emilio; Garaldi, Enrico


    The clustering of dark matter haloes with fixed mass depends on their formation history, an effect known as assembly bias. We use zoom N-body simulations to investigate the origin of this phenomenon. For each halo at redshift z = 0, we determine the time in which the physical volume containing its final mass becomes stable. We consider five examples for which this happens at z ˜ 1.5 and two that do not stabilize by z = 0. The zoom simulations show that early-collapsing haloes do not grow in mass at z = 0 while late-forming ones show a net inflow. The reason is that 'accreting' haloes are located at the nodes of a network of thin filaments feeding them. Conversely, each 'stalled' halo lies within a prominent filament that is thicker than the halo size. Infalling material from the surroundings becomes part of the filament while matter within it recedes from the halo. We conclude that assembly bias originates from quenching halo growth due to tidal forces following the formation of non-linear structures in the cosmic web, as previously conjectured in the literature. Also the internal dynamics of the haloes change: the velocity anisotropy profile is biased towards radial (tangential) orbits in accreting (stalled) haloes. Our findings reveal the cause of the yet unexplained dependence of halo clustering on the anisotropy. Finally, we extend the excursion-set theory to account for these effects. A simple criterion based on the ellipticity of the linear tidal field combined with the spherical-collapse model provides excellent predictions for both classes of haloes.

  1. High-resolution disruption halo current measurements using Langmuir probes in Alcator C-Mod (United States)

    Tinguely, R. A.; Granetz, R. S.; Berg, A.; Kuang, A. Q.; Brunner, D.; LaBombard, B.


    Halo currents generated during disruptions on Alcator C-Mod have been measured with Langmuir ‘rail’ probes. These rail probes are embedded in a lower outboard divertor module in a closely-spaced vertical (poloidal) array. The dense array provides detailed resolution of the spatial dependence (~1 cm spacing) of the halo current distribution in the plasma scrape-off region with high time resolution (400 kHz digitization rate). As the plasma limits on the outboard divertor plate, the contact point is clearly discernible in the halo current data (as an inversion of current) and moves vertically down the divertor plate on many disruptions. These data are consistent with filament reconstructions of the plasma boundary, from which the edge safety factor of the disrupting plasma can be calculated. Additionally, the halo current ‘footprint’ on the divertor plate is obtained and related to the halo flux width. The voltage driving halo current and the effective resistance of the plasma region through which the halo current flows to reach the probes are also investigated. Estimations of the sheath resistance and halo region resistivity and temperature are given. This information could prove useful for modeling halo current dynamics.

  2. Estimating the geoeffectiveness of halo CMEs from associated solar and IP parameters using neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Uwamahoro


    Full Text Available Estimating the geoeffectiveness of solar events is of significant importance for space weather modelling and prediction. This paper describes the development of a neural network-based model for estimating the probability occurrence of geomagnetic storms following halo coronal mass ejection (CME and related interplanetary (IP events. This model incorporates both solar and IP variable inputs that characterize geoeffective halo CMEs. Solar inputs include numeric values of the halo CME angular width (AW, the CME speed (Vcme, and the comprehensive flare index (cfi, which represents the flaring activity associated with halo CMEs. IP parameters used as inputs are the numeric peak values of the solar wind speed (Vsw and the southward Z-component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF or Bs. IP inputs were considered within a 5-day time window after a halo CME eruption. The neural network (NN model training and testing data sets were constructed based on 1202 halo CMEs (both full and partial halo and their properties observed between 1997 and 2006. The performance of the developed NN model was tested using a validation data set (not part of the training data set covering the years 2000 and 2005. Under the condition of halo CME occurrence, this model could capture 100% of the subsequent intense geomagnetic storms (Dst ≤ −100 nT. For moderate storms (−100 < Dst ≤ −50, the model is successful up to 75%. This model's estimate of the storm occurrence rate from halo CMEs is estimated at a probability of 86%.

  3. HaloTag: a new versatile reporter gene system in plant cells. (United States)

    Lang, Christina; Schulze, Jutta; Mendel, Ralf-R; Hänsch, Robert


    HaloTag Interchangeable Labeling Technology (HaloTag) was originally developed for mammalian cell analysis. In this report, the use of HaloTag is demonstrated in plant cells for the first time. This system allows different fluorescent colours to be used to visualize the localization of the non-fluorescent HaloTag protein within living cells. A vector was constructed which expresses the HaloTag protein under the control of the 35S promoter of cauliflower mosaic virus. The functionality of the HaloTag construct was tested in transient assays by (i) transforming tobacco protoplasts and (ii) using biolistic transformation of intact leaf cells of tobacco and poplar plants. Two to fourteen days after transformation, the plant material was incubated with ligands specific for labelling the HaloTag protein, and fluorescence was visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The results demonstrate that HaloTag technology is a flexible system which generates efficient fluorescence in different types of plant cells. The ligand-specific labelling of HaloTag protein was not hampered by the plant cell wall.

  4. Discovering Protein Interactions and Characterizing Protein Function Using HaloTag Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniels, Danette L; Méndez, Jacqui; Benink, Hélène; Niles, Andrew; Murphy, Nancy; Ford, Michael; Jones, Richard; Amunugama, Ravi; Allen, David; Urh, Marjeta


    .... To specifically address the challenges of understanding the human proteome, we have developed HaloTag technology for protein isolation, particularly strong for isolation of multiprotein complexes...

  5. Chemical evolution with rotating massive star yields I. The solar neighborhood and the s-process elements (United States)

    Prantzos, N.; Abia, C.; Limongi, M.; Chieffi, A.; Cristallo, S.


    We present a comprehensive study of the abundance evolution of the elements from H to U in the Milky Way halo and local disk. We use a consistent chemical evolution model, metallicity dependent isotopic yields from low and intermediate mass stars and yields from massive stars which include, for the first time, the combined effect of metallicity, mass loss and rotation for a large grid of stellar masses and for all stages of stellar evolution. The yields of massive stars are weighted by a metallicity dependent function of the rotational velocities, constrained by observations as to obtain a primary-like 14N behavior at low metallicity and to avoid overproduction of s-elements at intermediate metallicities. We show that the solar system isotopic composition can be reproduced to better than a factor of two for isotopes up to the Fe-peak, and at the 10% level for most pure s-isotopes, both light ones (resulting from the weak s-process in rotating massive stars) and the heavy ones (resulting from the main s-process in low and intermediate mass stars). We conclude that the light element primary process (LEPP), invoked to explain the apparent abundance deficiency of the s-elements with Astars - as a result of the contribution of rotating massive stars at sub-solar metallicities. We find that those stars produce primary F and dominate its solar abundance and we confirm their role in the observed primary behavior of N. In contrast, we show that their action is insufficient to explain the small observed values of ^{12}C/^{13}C in halo red giants, which is rather due to internal processes in those stars.

  6. Probing the interstellar dust towards the Galactic Centre: dust-scattering halo around AX J1745.6-2901 (United States)

    Jin, Chichuan; Ponti, Gabriele; Haberl, Frank; Smith, Randall


    AX J1745.6-2901 is an X-ray binary located at only 1.45 arcmin from Sgr A⋆, showcasing a strong X-ray dust-scattering halo. We combine Chandra and XMM-Newton observations to study the halo around this X-ray binary. Our study shows two major thick dust layers along the line of sight (LOS) towards AX J1745.6-2901. The LOS position and NH of these two layers depend on the dust grain models with different grain size distributions and abundances. But for all the 19 dust grain models considered, dust layer-1 is consistently found to be within a fractional distance of 0.11 (mean value: 0.05) to AX J1745.6-2901 and contains only (19-34) per cent (mean value: 26 per cent) of the total LOS dust. The remaining dust is contained in layer-2, which is distributed from the Earth up to a mean fractional distance of 0.64. A significant separation between the two layers is found for all the dust grain models, with a mean fractional distance of 0.31. Besides, an extended wing component is discovered in the halo, which implies a higher fraction of dust grains with typical sizes ≲590 Å than considered in current dust grain models. Assuming AX J1745.6-2901 is 8 kpc away, dust layer-2 would be located in the Galactic disc several kpc away from the Galactic Centre (GC). The dust scattering halo biases the observed spectrum of AX J1745.6-2901 severely in both spectral shape and flux, and also introduces a strong dependence on the size of the instrumental point spread function and the source extraction region. We build xspec models to account for this spectral bias, which allow us to recover the intrinsic spectrum of AX J1745.6-2901 free from dust-scattering opacity. If dust layer-2 also intervenes along the LOS to Sgr A⋆ and other nearby GC sources, a significant spectral correction for the dust-scattering opacity would be necessary for all these GC sources.

  7. The upper bound on the lowest mass halo (United States)

    Jethwa, P.; Erkal, D.; Belokurov, V.


    We explore the connection between galaxies and dark matter haloes in the Milky Way (MW) and quantify the implications on properties of the dark matter particle and the phenomenology of low-mass galaxy formation. This is done through a probabilistic comparison of the luminosity function of MW dwarf satellite galaxies to models based on two suites of zoom-in simulations. One suite is dark-matter-only, while the other includes a disc component, therefore we can quantify the effect of the MW's baryonic disc on our results. We apply numerous stellar-mass-halo-mass (SMHM) relations allowing for multiple complexities: scatter, a characteristic break scale, and subhaloes which host no galaxy. In contrast to previous works, we push the model/data comparison to the faintest dwarfs by modelling observational incompleteness, allowing us to draw three new conclusions. First, we constrain the SMHM relation for 102 2.4 × 108 M⊙ (1σ). Secondly, by translating to a warm dark matter (WDM) cosmology, we bound the thermal relic mass mWDM > 2.9 keV at 95 per cent confidence, on a par with recent constraints from the Lyman-α forest. Lastly, we find that the observed number of ultra-faint MW dwarfs is in tension with the theoretical prediction that reionization prevents galaxy formation in almost all 108 M⊙ haloes. This can be tested with the next generation of deep imaging surveys. To this end, we predict the likely number of detectable satellite galaxies in the Subaru/Hyper Suprime-Cam survey and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. Confronting these predictions with future observations will be amongst our strongest tests of WDM and the effect reionization on low-mass systems.

  8. HaloTag as a reporter gene: positron emission tomography imaging with (64)Cu-labeled second generation HaloTag ligands. (United States)

    Hong, Hao; Benink, Hélène A; Uyeda, H Tetsuo; Valdovinos, Hector F; Zhang, Yin; Meisenheimer, Poncho; Barnhart, Todd E; Fan, Frank; Cai, Weibo


    THE GOAL OF THIS STUDY IS TO EMPLOY THE HALOTAG TECHNOLOGY FOR POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY (PET), WHICH INVOLVES TWO COMPONENTS: the HaloTag protein (a modified hydrolase which covalently binds to synthetic ligands) and HaloTag ligands (HTLs). 4T1 murine breast cancer cells were stably transfected to express HaloTag protein on the surface (termed as 4T1-HaloTag-ECS, ECS denotes extracellular surface). Two new HTLs were synthesized and termed NOTA-HTL2G-S and NOTA-HTL2G-L (2G indicates second generation, S stands for short, L stands for long, NOTA denotes 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-N,N'N''-triacetic acid). Microscopy studies confirmed surface expression of HaloTag in 4T1-HaloTag-ECS cells, which specifically bind NOTA-HTL2G-S/L. Uptake of (64)Cu-NOTA-HTL2G-L in 4T1-HaloTag-ECS tumors (4.3 ± 0.5, 4.1± 0.2, 4.0 ± 0.2, 2.3 ± 0.1, and 2.2 ± 0.1 %ID/g at 0.5, 3, 6, 18, and 24 h post-injection respectively; n = 4) was significantly higher than that in the 4T1 tumors (3.0 ± 0.3, 3.0± 0.1, 3.0 ± 0.2, 2.0 ± 0.4, and 2.4 ± 0.3 %ID/g at 0.5, 3, 6, 18, and 24 h post-injection respectively; n = 4) at early time points. In comparison, (64)Cu-NOTA-HTL2G-S did not demonstrate significant uptake in either 4T1-HaloTag-ECS or 4T1 tumors. Blocking studies and autoradiography of tumor lysates confirmed that (64)Cu-NOTA-HTL2G-L binds specifically to HaloTag protein in the 4T1-HaloTag-ECS tumors, corroborated by histology. HaloTag protein-specific targeting and PET imaging in vivo with (64)Cu-NOTA-HTL2G-L serves as a proof-of-principle for future non-invasive and sensitive tracking of HaloTag-transfected cells with PET, as well as many other studies of gene/protein/cell function in vivo.

  9. Factors Controlling Pre-Columbian and Early Historic Maize Productivity in the American Southwest, Part 2: The Chaco Halo, Mesa Verde, Pajarito Plateau/Bandelier, and Zuni Archaeological Regions (United States)

    Benson, L.V.


    Chemical and nutrient analyses of 471 soil samples from 161 sites within four archaeological regions (Pajarito Plateau/Bandelier, Zuni, Mesa Verde, and the Chaco Halo) were combined with historical climate data in order to evaluate the agricultural productivity of each region. In addition, maize productivity and field-life calculations were performed using organic-nitrogen (N) values from the upper 50 cm of soil in each region and a range (1-3%/year) of N-mineralization rates. The endmember values of this range were assumed representative of dry and wet climate states. With respect to precipitation and heat, the Pajarito Plateau area has excellent agricultural potential; the agricultural potentials of the Zuni and Mesa Verde regions are good; and the agricultural potential of the Chaco Halo is poor. Calculations of N mineralization and field life indicate that Morfield Valley in Mesa Verde should be able to provide 10 bu/ac of maize for decades (without the addition of N) when organic N-mineralization rates exceed 2%. Productivity and field-life potential decrease in the following order: Zuni, Mesa Verde, Bandelier, Chaco Halo. The Chaco Halo is very unproductive; e. g., 10 bushels per acre can be achieved within the Halo only from soils having the highest organic N concentration (third quartile) and which undergo the highest rate (3%) of N mineralization. ?? 2010 US Government.

  10. Abundance effects on the Cepheid distance scale (United States)

    Stothers, Richard B.


    A new investigation is made of the dependence of the period-luminosity (PL) and period-luminosity-color (PLC) relations on the helium (Y) and metal (Z) abundances in classical Cepheids. For consistency in overall approach and in error estimation, theoretical data alone have been used. These data come from stellar evolution, atmosphere, and pulsation theory. Composition dependences have been assigned to all quantities. A major quantitative result is that the PLC relation in B, V magnitudes is at least 5 times more sensitive to chemical composition than is the PL relation. If the PL relation is adopted and the helium abundance is held fixed, a Cepheid with Z = 0.005 should be fainter than one with Z = 0.02 by ≡0.04 mag. Since the slope of the predicted PL relation is independent of chemical composition, the PL relation can be considered to be effectively universal. Theoretical results are also presented for the bolometric PL relation, whose slope and dependence on metal abundance should be roughly applicable to infrared observations of Cepheids.

  11. Gravitational lensing of wormholes in the galactic halo region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhfittig, Peter K.F. [Milwaukee School of Engineering, Department of Mathematics, Milwaukee, WI (United States)


    A recent study by Rahaman et al. has shown that the galactic halo possesses the necessary properties for supporting traversable wormholes, based on two observational results, the Navarro-Frenk-White density profile and the observed flat rotation curves of galaxies. Using a method for calculating the deflection angle pioneered by V. Bozza, it is shown that the deflection angle diverges at the throat of the wormhole. The resulting photon sphere has a radius of about 0.40 ly. Given the dark-matter background, detection may be possible from past data using ordinary light. (orig.)

  12. Charge Radii and Neutron Correlations in Helium Halo Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadimitriou, Georgios [ORNL; Kruppa, A. T. [Institute of Nuclear Research, Debrecen, Hungary; Michel, N. [University of Jyvaskyla; Nazarewicz, W. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Ploszajczak, M. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL); Rotureau, J. [University of Arizona


    Within the complex-energy configuration interaction framework, we study correlations of valence neutrons to explain the behavior of charge radii in the neutron halo nuclei ^{6,8}He. We find that the experimentally observed decrease of the charge radius between ^{6}He and ^{8}He is caused by a subtle interplay between three effects: dineutron correlations, a spin-orbit contribution to the charge radius, and a core swelling effect. We demonstrate that two-neutron angular correlations in the 2^+}_{1} resonance of ^{6}He differ markedly from the ground-state correlations in ^{6,8}He.

  13. MD 2179: Scraping of off-momentum halo after injection

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia Morales, Hector; Patecki, Marcin; Wretborn, Sven Joel; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department


    In this MD, a beam scraping was performed using the momentum primary collimator in IR3 where dispersion is high. A second scraping was performed using a TCSG in IR7 where dispersion is almost negligible. In such a way, we aim to disentangle the contribution of off-momentum particles to halo population. These scrapings will provide useful information to better understand the usual off-momentum losses we see at the start of the ramp. The MD results would also be used to benchmark simulations of off-momentum beam losses in order to gain confidence in simulation models.

  14. Flows of Baryons through the Milky Way Halo (United States)

    Fox, Andrew J.


    The Milky Way provides an ideal opportunity to study baryon flows in the circumgalactic medium of a star-forming spiral galaxy. High velocity clouds (HVCs) seen in UV absorption toward background AGN probe the multi-phase ionized gas in the Galactic CGM. In this talk new observations from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on Hubble will be presented, focusing on two Galactic regions: the biconical outflow from the Galactic Center, which drives gas into the Fermi Bubbles, and the Smith Cloud, an accreting HVC close to the Galactic disk showing clear signs of fragmentation. These observations allow us to constrain the rates of gas circulation in the Galactic halo.

  15. Study of galactic halo F(T,TG) wormhole solutions (United States)

    Sharif, M.; Nazir, Kanwal

    In this paper, we investigate static spherically symmetric wormhole solutions with galactic halo region in the background of F(T,TG) gravity. Here, T represents torsion scalar and TG is teleparallel equivalent Gauss-Bonnet term. For this purpose, we consider a diagonal tetrad and two specific F(T,TG) models. We analyze the wormhole structure through shape function graphically for both models. We also investigate the behavior of null/weak energy conditions. Finally, we evaluate the equilibrium condition to check stability of the wormhole solutions. It is concluded that there exists physically viable wormhole solution only for the first model that turns out to be stable.

  16. Mass measurement of short-lived halo nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachelet, C.; Audi, G.; Gaulard, C.; Guenaut, C.; Lunney, D.; De Saint Simon, M.; Thibault, C. [CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS, Orsay (France); Herfurth, F. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany)


    A direct mass measurement of the very-short-lived halo nuclide {sup 11}Li (T{sub 1/2}=8.7ms) has been performed with the transmission mass spectrometer MISTRAL. The preliminary result for the two-neutron separation energy is S{sub 2n}=376{+-}5 keV, improving the precision seven times with an increase of 20% compared to the previous value. In order to confirm this value, the mass excess of {sup 11}Be has also been measured, ME=20171{+-}4 keV, in good agreement with the previous value. (orig.)

  17. Charge Radius Measurement of the Halo Nucleus $^{11}$Li

    CERN Multimedia

    Kluge, H-J; Kuehl, T; Simon, H; Wang, Haiming; Zimmermann, C; Onishi, T; Tanihata, I; Wakasugi, M


    %IS385 %title\\\\ \\\\The root-mean-square charge radius of $^{11}$Li will be determined by measuring the isotope shift of a suitable atomic transition in a laser spectroscopic experiment. Comparing the charge radii of the lithium isotopes obtained by this nuclear-model-independent method with the relevant mass radii obtained before will help to answer the question whether the proton distribution in halo nuclei at the neutron drip-line is decoupled to the first order from their neutron distribution. The necessary experimental sensitivity requires the maximum possible rate of $^{11}$Li nuclei in a beam of low emittance which can only be provided by ISOLDE.

  18. The abundance of ultra-diffuse galaxies from groups to clusters : UDGs are relatively more common in more massive haloes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Burg, Remco F. J.; Hoekstra, Henk; Muzzin, Adam; Sifon, Cristobal; Viola, Massimo; Bremer, Malcolm N.; Brough, Sarah; Driver, Simon P.; Erben, Thomas; Heymans, Catherine; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Holwerda, Benne W.; Klaes, Dominik; Kuijken, Konrad; McGee, Sean; Nakajima, Reiko; Napolitano, Nicola; Norberg, Peder; Taylor, Edward N.; Valentijn, Edwin


    In recent years, multiple studies have reported substantial populations of large, low-surface-brightness galaxies in local galaxy clusters. Various theories that aim to explain the presence of such ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) have since been proposed. A key question that will help to differentiate

  19. Cold streams in early massive hot haloes as the main mode of galaxy formation. (United States)

    Dekel, A; Birnboim, Y; Engel, G; Freundlich, J; Goerdt, T; Mumcuoglu, M; Neistein, E; Pichon, C; Teyssier, R; Zinger, E


    Massive galaxies in the young Universe, ten billion years ago, formed stars at surprising intensities. Although this is commonly attributed to violent mergers, the properties of many of these galaxies are incompatible with such events, showing gas-rich, clumpy, extended rotating disks not dominated by spheroids. Cosmological simulations and clustering theory are used to explore how these galaxies acquired their gas. Here we report that they are 'stream-fed galaxies', formed from steady, narrow, cold gas streams that penetrate the shock-heated media of massive dark matter haloes. A comparison with the observed abundance of star-forming galaxies implies that most of the input gas must rapidly convert to stars. One-third of the stream mass is in gas clumps leading to mergers of mass ratio greater than 1:10, and the rest is in smoother flows. With a merger duty cycle of 0.1, three-quarters of the galaxies forming stars at a given rate are fed by smooth streams. The rarer, submillimetre galaxies that form stars even more intensely are largely merger-induced starbursts. Unlike destructive mergers, the streams are likely to keep the rotating disk configuration intact, although turbulent and broken into giant star-forming clumps that merge into a central spheroid. This stream-driven scenario for the formation of discs and spheroids is an alternative to the merger picture.

  20. A search for massive compact halo objects in our galaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alock, C.; Axelrod, T.; Cook, K.; Park, H. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Griest, K.; Stubbs, C. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Center for Particle Astrophysics); Freeman, K.; Peterson, B.; Quinn, P.; Rodgers, A. (Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia). Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories); Bennett, D.P.


    MAssive Compact Halo Objects such as brown dwarfs, Jupiters, and black holes are prime candidates to comprise the dark halo of our galaxy. Paczynski noted that these objects (dubbed MACHOs) can be detected via gravitational microlensing of stars in the Magellanic Clouds with the caveat that only about one in 10{sup 6} stars will be lensed at any given time. Our group is currently involved in constructing a dedicated observing system at the Mount Stromlo Observatory in Australia. We will use a refurbished 1.27 meter telescope and an innovative two-color CCD camera with 3.4 {times} 10{sup 7} pixels to monitor 10{sup 6} {minus} 10{sup 7} stars in the Magellanic Clouds. During the first year of operation (1991--1992), we hope to detect (or rule out) objects in the mass range 0.001M{sub {circle dot}} {le} M {le} 0.1M{sub {circle dot}}, and after five years, we hope to have covered the range 10{sup {minus}6}M{sub {circle dot}} < M {approx lt} 100M{sub {circle dot}}. 4 refs.

  1. Halo Skeletal Fixation: Techniques of Application and Prevention of Complications. (United States)

    Botte; Byrne; Abrams; Garfin


    The halo skeletal fixator provides the most rigid cervical immobilization of all orthoses. However, complications such as pin loosening and infection are common. Appreciation of local anatomy and adherence to established application guidelines should minimize pin-related problems. A relatively safe zone for anterior pin placement is located 1 cm above the orbital rim and superior to the lateral two thirds of the orbit. Posterior pin-site locations are less critical; positioning on the posterolateral aspect of the skull, diagonal to the contralateral anterior pins, is generally desirable. Pins should enter the skull perpendicular to the cortex, with the ring or crown sitting below the widest portion of the skull and passing about 1 cm above the helix of the ear. Pins are inserted at a torque of 8 in-lb and retightened once to 8 in-lb at 48 hours. A loose pin can be retightened to 8 in-lb if resistance is met; otherwise, a loose pin should be replaced at a nearby site. Superficially infected pins are managed with local pin care and oral antibiotics. Persistent or severe infections require pin replacement to a nearby site, parenteral antibiotic therapy, and incision and drainage as needed. In-ability to maintain acceptable cervical reduction with a halo fixator is an indication for alternative treatment, such as internal fixation or traction.

  2. Stellar haloes in massive early-type galaxies (United States)

    Buitrago, F.


    The Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) opens up an unique window to witness galaxy assembly at all cosmic distances. Thanks to its extraordinary depth, it is a privileged tool to beat the cosmological dimming, which affects any extragalactic observations and has a very strong dependence with redshift (1 +z)^4. In particular, massive (M_{stellar}>5 × 10^{10} M_⊙) Early Type Galaxies (ETGs) are the most interesting candidates for these studies, as they must grow in an inside-out fashion developing an extended stellar envelope/halo that accounts for their remarkable size evolution (˜5 times larger in the nearby Universe than at z=2-3). To this end we have analysed the 6 most massive ETGs at z data reduction and the exhaustive treatment of the Point Spread Function (PSF), we are able to trace the galaxy surface brightness profiles up to the same levels as in the local Universe but this time at = 0.65 (31 mag arcsec^{-2} in all 8 HST bands, ˜ 29 mag arcsec^{-2} restframe or beyond 25 effective radii). This fact enables us to investigate the galactic outskirts or stellar haloes at a previously unexplored era, characterising their light and mass profiles, colors and for the first time the amount of mass in ongoing mergers.

  3. Evidence against cuspy dark matter haloes in large galaxies (United States)

    Rodrigues, Davi C.; del Popolo, Antonino; Marra, Valerio; de Oliveira, Paulo L. C.


    We develop and apply new techniques to uncover systematic effects in galaxy rotation curves (RCs). Considering that an ideal dark matter (DM) profile should yield RCs that have no bias towards any particular radius, we find that the Burkert DM profile satisfies the test, while the Navarro-Frenk-While (NFW) profile is better at fitting the region between one and two disc scale lengths than the inner disc scale length region. Our sample indicates that this behaviour happens to more than 75 per cent of the galaxies fitted with an NFW halo. Also, this tendency is not weakened by considering large galaxies, for instance those with M* ≳ 1010 M⊙. Besides the tests on the homogeneity of the fits, we also use a sample of 62 galaxies of diverse types to test the quality of the overall fit of each galaxy, and to search for correlations with stellar mass, gas mass and the disc scale length. In particular, we find that only 13 galaxies are better fitted by the NFW halo, and that even for the galaxies with M* ≳ 1010 M⊙, the Burkert profile either fits as well as, or better than, the NFW profile. This result is relevant since different baryonic effects important for the smaller galaxies, like supernova feedback and dynamical friction from baryonic clumps, indicate that at such large stellar masses the NFW profile should be preferred over the Burkert profile. Hence, our results suggest either there is a new baryonic effect or a change to the DM physics is required.

  4. The phase-space structure of tidally stripped haloes (United States)

    Drakos, Nicole E.; Taylor, James E.; Benson, Andrew J.


    We propose a new method for generating equilibrium models of spherical systems of collisionless particles that are finite in extent, but whose central regions resemble dark matter haloes from cosmological simulations. This method involves iteratively removing unbound particles from a Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profile truncated sharply at some radius. The resulting models are extremely stable, and thus provide a good starting point for N-body simulations of isolated haloes. We provide a code to generate such models for NFW and a variety of other common density profiles. We then develop an analytic approximation to this truncated distribution function. Our method proceeds by analogy with the King model, truncating and shifting the original distribution function of an infinitely extended NFW profile in energy space. We show that the density profiles of our models closely resemble the tidally truncated density profiles seen previously in studies of satellite evolution. Pursuing this analogy further with a series of simulations of tidal mass-loss, we find that our models provide a good approximation to the full distribution function of tidally stripped systems, thus allowing theoretically motivated phase-space calculations for such systems.

  5. Triple Halo Coil: Development and Comparison with Other TMS Coils (United States)

    Rastogi, Priyam; Hadimani, Ravi; Jiles, David

    Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive stimulation technique that can be used for the treatment of various neurological disorders such as Parkinson's Disease, PTSD, TBI and anxiety by regulating synaptic activity. TMS is FDA approved for the treatment of major depressive disorder. There is a critical need to develop deep TMS coils that can stimulate deeper regions of the brain without excessively stimulating the cortex in order to provide an alternative to surgical methods. We have developed a novel multi-coil configuration called ``Triple Halo Coil'' (THC) that can stimulate deep brain regions. Investigation of induced electric and magnetic field in these regions have been achieved by computer modelling. Comparison of the results due to THC configuration have been conducted with other TMS coils such as ``Halo Coil'', circular coil and ``Figure of Eight'' coil. There was an improvement of more than 15 times in the strength of magnetic field, induced by THC configuration at 10 cm below the vertex of the head when compared with the ``Figure of Eight'' coil alone. Carver Charitable Trust.

  6. HaloTag, a Platform Technology for Protein Analysis. (United States)

    Urh, Marjeta; Rosenberg, Martin


    Understanding protein function and interaction is central to the elucidation of biological processes. Systematic analysis of protein interactions have shown that the eukaryotic proteome is highly interconnected and that biological function frequently depends on the orchestrated action of many proteins. Perturbation of these functions or interactions can lead to various disease states and pharmacologic intervention can result in corrective therapies. The fact that proteins rarely act in isolation, but rather comprise complex machines that stably and/or transiently interact with many different partners at different times, demands the need for robust tools that allow comprehensive global analyses of these events. Here we describe a powerful protein fusion technology, the HaloTag platform, and how it enables the study of many facets of protein biology by offering a broad choice of applications. We review the development of the key aspects of the technology and it's performance in both in vitro and in vivo applications. In particular, we focus on HaloTag's multifunctional utility in protein imaging, protein isolation and display, and in the study of protein complexes and interactions. We demonstrate it's potential to help elucidate important facets of proteomic biology across complex biological systems at the biochemical, cell-based and whole animal level.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bernabei


    Full Text Available Experimental efforts and theoretical developmens support that most of the Universe is Dark and a large fraction of it should be made of relic particles; many possibilities are open on their nature and interaction types. In particular, the DAMA/LIBRA experiment at Gran Sasso Laboratory (sensitive mass: ~250 kg is mainly devoted to the investigation of Dark Matter (DM particles in the Galactic halo by exploiting the model independent DM annual modulation signature with higly radiopure Na I(Tl targets. DAMA/LIBRA is the succesor of the first generation DAMA/NaI (sensitive mass: ~100 kg; cumulatively the two experiments have released so far the results obtained by analyzing an exposure of 1.17 t yr, collected over 13 annual cycles. The data show a model independent evidence of the presence of DM particles in the galactic halo at 8.9σ confidence level (C.L.. Some of the already achieved results are shortly reminded, the last upgrade occurred at fall 2010 is mentioned and future perspectives are sumarized.

  8. The bias of weighted dark matter halos from peak theory

    CERN Document Server

    Verde, Licia; Simpson, Fergus; Alvarez-Gaume, Luis; Heavens, Alan; Matarrese, Sabino


    We give an analytical form for the weighted correlation function of peaks in a Gaussian random field. In a cosmological context, this approach strictly describes the formation bias and is the main result here. Nevertheless, we show its validity and applicability to the evolved cosmological density field and halo field, using Gaussian random field realisations and dark matter N-body numerical simulations. Using this result from peak theory we compute the bias of peaks (and dark matter halos) and show that it reproduces results from the simulations at the ${\\mathcal O}(10\\%)$ level. Our analytical formula for the bias predicts a scale-dependent bias with two characteristics: a broad band shape which, however, is most affected by the choice of weighting scheme and evolution bias, and a more robust, narrow feature localised at the BAO scale, an effect that is confirmed in simulations. This scale-dependent bias smooths the BAO feature but, conveniently, does not move it. We provide a simple analytic formula to des...

  9. Keck Spectroscopy of NGVS Sources: Milky Way Halo Star Kinematics (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Peng, Eric W.; Toloba, Elisa; Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS) Collaboration


    We present a study of the kinematics of main sequence turnoff stars in the halo of the Milky Way based on Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey photometry and Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopic follow-up. Specifically, we investigate the properties of the Virgo overdensity and Sagittarius stream Milky Way halo substructures in the foreground of the Virgo Cluster of galaxies. We use an inverse concentration (iC) parameter that characterizes the angular size of a source, which is defined by the magnitude difference measured by two different apertures for the same object. After combining this information as well as redshift measured from spectra into a Z vs iC plot, all of the objects are separated clearly into three categories: foreground Milky Way stars, Virgo globular clusters, and background galaxies. Most objects located in unexpected regions in the V_iC plot are subsequently rejected through a rigorous examination due to low spectral quality or bad imaging quality, indicating that our sample selection approach gives a very clean classification. We then select Sagittarius stream stars and Virgo overdensity stars out of the foreground star sample to characterize their distributions of spatial position, radial velocity and metallicity, from which we can probe deeper into the history of structure formation in the Milky Way Galaxy. This research was supported by NASA and the National Science Foundation. HZ has been sponsored by China Scholarship Council to carry out this research project at University of California, Santa Cruz.

  10. Chemical evolution of star clusters. (United States)

    van Loon, Jacco Th


    I discuss the chemical evolution of star clusters, with emphasis on old Galactic globular clusters (GCs), in relation to their formation histories. GCs are clearly formed in a complex fashion, under markedly different conditions from any younger clusters presently known. Those special conditions must be linked to the early formation epoch of the Galaxy and must not have occurred since. While a link to the formation of GCs in dwarf galaxies has been suggested, present-day dwarf galaxies are not representative of the gravitational potential wells within which the GCs formed. Instead, a formation deep within the proto-Galaxy or within dark-matter mini-haloes might be favoured. Not all GCs may have formed and evolved similarly. In particular, we may need to distinguish Galactic Halo from Galactic Bulge clusters.

  11. 77 FR 47114 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Halo Pharmaceutical Inc. (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Halo Pharmaceutical... that on July 6, 2012, Halo Pharmaceutical Inc., 30 North Jefferson Road, Whippany, New Jersey 07981...

  12. 78 FR 51210 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Halo Pharmaceutical, Inc. (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Halo Pharmaceutical... that on July 8, 2013, Halo Pharmaceutical, Inc., 30 North Jefferson Road, Whippany, New Jersey 07981...

  13. Alignments of Dark Matter Halos with Large-scale Tidal Fields: Mass and Redshift Dependence (United States)

    Chen, Sijie; Wang, Huiyuan; Mo, H. J.; Shi, Jingjing


    Large-scale tidal fields estimated directly from the distribution of dark matter halos are used to investigate how halo shapes and spin vectors are aligned with the cosmic web. The major, intermediate, and minor axes of halos are aligned with the corresponding tidal axes, and halo spin axes tend to be parallel with the intermediate axes and perpendicular to the major axes of the tidal field. The strengths of these alignments generally increase with halo mass and redshift, but the dependence is only on the peak height, ν \\equiv {δ }{{c}}/σ ({M}{{h}},z). The scaling relations of the alignment strengths with the value of ν indicate that the alignment strengths remain roughly constant when the structures within which the halos reside are still in a quasi-linear regime, but decreases as nonlinear evolution becomes more important. We also calculate the alignments in projection so that our results can be compared directly with observations. Finally, we investigate the alignments of tidal tensors on large scales, and use the results to understand alignments of halo pairs separated at various distances. Our results suggest that the coherent structure of the tidal field is the underlying reason for the alignments of halos and galaxies seen in numerical simulations and in observations.

  14. Abort Options for Human Missions to Earth-Moon Halo Orbits (United States)

    Jesick, Mark C.


    Abort trajectories are optimized for human halo orbit missions about the translunar libration point (L2), with an emphasis on the use of free return trajectories. Optimal transfers from outbound free returns to L2 halo orbits are numerically optimized in the four-body ephemeris model. Circumlunar free returns are used for direct transfers, and cislunar free returns are used in combination with lunar gravity assists to reduce propulsive requirements. Trends in orbit insertion cost and flight time are documented across the southern L2 halo family as a function of halo orbit position and free return flight time. It is determined that the maximum amplitude southern halo incurs the lowest orbit insertion cost for direct transfers but the maximum cost for lunar gravity assist transfers. The minimum amplitude halo is the most expensive destination for direct transfers but the least expensive for lunar gravity assist transfers. The on-orbit abort costs for three halos are computed as a function of abort time and return time. Finally, an architecture analysis is performed to determine launch and on-orbit vehicle requirements for halo orbit missions.

  15. On the shape of dark matter haloes from MultiDark Planck simulations (United States)

    Vega-Ferrero, Jesús; Yepes, Gustavo; Gottlöber, Stefan


    The halo shape plays a central role in determining important observational properties of the haloes such as mass, concentration and lensing cross-sections. The triaxiality of lensing galaxy clusters has a substantial impact on the distribution of the largest Einstein radii, while weak lensing techniques are sensitive to the intrinsic halo ellipticity. In this work, we provide scaling relations for the shapes of dark matter haloes as a function of mass (peak height) and redshift over more than four orders of magnitude in halo masses, namely from 1011.5 to 1015.8 h-1 M⊙. We have analysed four dark matter only simulations from the MultiDark cosmological simulation suite with more than 56 billion particles within boxes of 4.0, 2.5, 1.0 and 0.4 h-1 Gpc size assuming Planck cosmology. The dark matter haloes have been identified in the simulations using the rockstar halo finder, which also determines the axis ratios in terms of the diagonalization of the inertia tensor. In order to infer the shape for a hypothetical halo of a given mass at a given redshift, we provide fitting functions to the minor-to-major and intermediate-to-major axis ratios as a function of the peak height.

  16. Halo statistics analysis within medium volume cosmological N-body simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinović N.


    Full Text Available In this paper we present halo statistics analysis of a ΛCDM N body cosmological simulation (from first halo formation until z = 0. We study mean major merger rate as a function of time, where for time we consider both per redshift and per Gyr dependence. For latter we find that it scales as the well known power law (1 + zn for which we obtain n = 2.4. The halo mass function and halo growth function are derived and compared both with analytical and empirical fits. We analyse halo growth through out entire simulation, making it possible to continuously monitor evolution of halo number density within given mass ranges. The halo formation redshift is studied exploring possibility for a new simple preliminary analysis during the simulation run. Visualization of the simulation is portrayed as well. At redshifts z = 0−7 halos from simulation have good statistics for further analysis especially in mass range of 1011 − 1014 M./h. [176021 ’Visible and invisible matter in nearby galaxies: theory and observations

  17. The build up of the correlation between halo spin and the large-scale structure (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Kang, Xi


    Both simulations and observations have confirmed that the spin of haloes/galaxies is correlated with the large-scale structure (LSS) with a mass dependence such that the spin of low-mass haloes/galaxies tend to be parallel with the LSS, while that of massive haloes/galaxies tend to be perpendicular with the LSS. It is still unclear how this mass dependence is built up over time. We use N-body simulations to trace the evolution of the halo spin-LSS correlation and find that at early times the spin of all halo progenitors is parallel with the LSS. As time goes on, mass collapsing around massive halo is more isotropic, especially the recent mass accretion along the slowest collapsing direction is significant and it brings the halo spin to be perpendicular with the LSS. Adopting the fractional anisotropy (FA) parameter to describe the degree of anisotropy of the large-scale environment, we find that the spin-LSS correlation is a strong function of the environment such that a higher FA (more anisotropic environment) leads to an aligned signal, and a lower anisotropy leads to a misaligned signal. In general, our results show that the spin-LSS correlation is a combined consequence of mass flow and halo growth within the cosmic web. Our predicted environmental dependence between spin and large-scale structure can be further tested using galaxy surveys.

  18. Synthesis of organothioacrylonitriles and organoselenoacrylonitriles by reaction of 1-Halo-1-chalcogenoalkenes with CuCN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Claudio C.; Caliari, Vinicius; Vieira, Adriano S.; Mendes, Samuel R. [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail:


    Reaction of 1-halo-1-organothio or 1-halo-1-organoseleno alkenes with CuCN in NMP as solvent provides {alpha}-phenylthio or {alpha}-phenylseleno acrylonitriles in good yields. The reaction showed a low stereoselectivity and the products were obtained as E/Z mixtures of isomers. (author)

  19. Structure and substructure in the stellar halo of the Milky Way

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pila Díez, Berenice


    In this thesis we present research on the stellar halo of our Galaxy. In particular we focus on measuring the shape and profile of the stellar halo through photometric techniques and main sequence turnoff point star counts. We also present a cross-correlation algorithm that can detect stellar

  20. The mass function of unprocessed dark matter haloes and merger tree branching rates (United States)

    Benson, Andrew J.


    A common approach in semi-analytic modelling of galaxy formation is to construct Monte Carlo realizations of merger histories of dark matter haloes whose masses are sampled from a halo mass function. Both the mass function itself and the merger rates used to construct merging histories are calibrated to N-body simulations. Typically, 'backsplash' haloes (those which were once subhaloes within a larger halo, but which have since moved outside of the halo) are counted in both the halo mass functions and in the merger rates (or, equivalently, progenitor mass functions). This leads to a double counting of mass in Monte Carlo merger histories, which will bias results relative to N-body results. We measure halo mass functions and merger rates with this double counting removed in a large, cosmological N-body simulation with cosmological parameters consistent with current constraints. Furthermore, we account for the inherently noisy nature of N-body halo mass estimates when fitting functions to N-body data, and show that ignoring these errors leads to a significant systematic bias given the precision statistics available from state-of-the-art N-body cosmological simulations.

  1. The shape of dark matter haloes in the Aquarius simulations : evolution and memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vera-Ciro, Carlos A.; Sales, Laura V.; Helmi, Amina; Frenk, Carlos S.; Navarro, Julio F.; Springel, Volker; Vogelsberger, Mark; White, Simon D. M.

    We use the high-resolution cosmological N-body simulations from the Aquarius project to investigate in detail the mechanisms that determine the shape of Milky Way type dark matter haloes. We find that, when measured at the instantaneous virial radius, the shape of individual haloes changes with

  2. The kinematics of globular clusters systems in the outer halos of the Aquarius simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veljanoski, J.; Helmi, A.


    Stellar halos and globular cluster (GC) systems contain valuable information regarding the assembly history of their host galaxies. Motivated by the detection of a significant rotation signal in the outer halo GC system of M 31, we investigate the likelihood of detecting such a rotation signal in

  3. The shape of dark matter haloes in the Aquarius simulations : Evolution and memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vera-Ciro, C.A.; Sales, L. V.; Helmi, A.; Reyle, C; Robin, A; Schultheis, M

    We use the high resolution cosmological N-body simulations from the Aquarius project to investigate in detail the mechanisms that determine the shape of Milky Way-type dark matter haloes. We find that, when measured at the instantaneous virial radius, the shape of individual haloes changes with

  4. The shape of dark matter haloes in the Aquarius simulations: Evolution and memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vera-Ciro, C. A.; Sales, L. V.; Helmi, A.

    We use the high resolution cosmological N-body simulations from the Aquarius project to investigate in detail the mechanisms that determine the shape of Milky Way-type dark matter haloes. We find that, when measured at the instantaneous virial radius, the shape of individual haloes changes with

  5. The shape of dark matter haloes in the Aquarius simulations: Evolution and memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sales L.V.


    Full Text Available We use the high resolution cosmological N-body simulations from the Aquarius project to investigate in detail the mechanisms that determine the shape of Milky Way-type dark matter haloes. We find that, when measured at the instantaneous virial radius, the shape of individual haloes changes with time, evolving from a typically prolate configuration at early stages to a more triaxial/oblate geometry at the present day. This evolution in halo shape correlates well with the distribution of the infalling material: prolate configurations arise when haloes are fed through narrow filaments, which characterizes the early epochs of halo assembly, whereas triaxial/oblate configurations result as the accretion turns more isotropic at later times. Interestingly, at redshift z = 0, clear imprints of the past history of each halo are recorded in their shapes at different radii, which also exhibit a variation from prolate in the inner regions to triaxial/oblate in the outskirts. Provided that the Aquarius haloes are fair representatives of Milky Way-like 1012M☉ objects, we conclude that the shape of such dark matter haloes is a complex, time-dependent property, with each radial shell retaining memory of the conditions at the time of collapse.

  6. The Galaxy-Halo Connection in High-redshift Universe: Details and Evolution of Stellar-to-halo Mass Ratios of Lyman Break Galaxies on CFHTLS Deep Fields (United States)

    Ishikawa, Shogo; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Toshikawa, Jun; Tanaka, Masayuki; Hamana, Takashi; Niino, Yuu; Ichikawa, Kohei; Uchiyama, Hisakazu


    We present the results of clustering analyses of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at z˜ 3, 4, and 5 using the final data release of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS). Deep- and wide-field images of the CFHTLS Deep Survey enable us to obtain sufficiently accurate two-point angular correlation functions to apply a halo occupation distribution analysis. The mean halo masses, calculated as ={10}11.7{--}{10}12.8 {h}-1 {M}⊙ , increase with the stellar-mass limit of LBGs. The threshold halo mass to have a central galaxy, {M}\\min , follows the same increasing trend as the low-z results, whereas the threshold halo mass to have a satellite galaxy, M 1, shows higher values at z=3{--}5 than z=0.5{--}1.5, over the entire stellar mass range. Satellite fractions of dropout galaxies, even at less massive halos, are found to drop sharply, from z = 2 down to less than 0.04, at z=3{--}5. These results suggest that satellite galaxies form inefficiently within dark halos at z=3{--}5, even for less massive satellites with {M}\\star pivot}, which is the halo mass at a peak in the star-formation efficiency, at 3 3. In addition, {M}{{h}}{pivot} and its normalization are found to be almost unchanged during 0< z< 5. Our study provides observational evidence that galaxy formation is ubiquitously most efficient near a halo mass of {M}{{h}}˜ {10}12 {M}⊙ over cosmic time.

  7. Group Finding in the Stellar Halo Using Photometric Surveys: Current Sensitivity and Future Prospects (United States)

    Sharma, Sanjib; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Majewski, Steven R.; Bullock, James; Muñoz, Ricardo R.


    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) provided the first deep and global photometric catalogs of stars in our halo and not only clearly mapped its structure but also demonstrated the ubiquity of substructure within it. Future surveys promise to push such catalogs to ever increasing depths and larger numbers of stars. This paper examines what can be learned from current and future photometric databases using group-finding techniques. We compare groups recovered from a sample of M-giants from 2MASS with those found in synthetic surveys of simulated ΛCDM stellar halos that were built entirely from satellite accretion events and demonstrate broad consistency between the properties of the two sets. We also find that these recovered groups are likely to represent the majority of high-luminosity (L > 5 × 106 L sun) satellites accreted within the last 10 Gyr and on orbits with apocenters within 100 kpc. However, the sensitivity of the M-giant survey to accretion events that were either ancient from low-luminosity objects or those on radial orbits is limited because of the low number of stars, bias toward high-metallicity stars, and the shallow depth (distance explored only out to 100 kpc from the Sun). We examine the extent to which these limitations are addressed by current and future surveys, in particular catalogs of main-sequence turnoff (MSTO) stars from SDSS and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), and of RR Lyrae stars from LSST or PanSTARRS. The MSTO and RR Lyrae surveys are more sensitive to low-luminosity events (L ~ 105 L sun or less) than the 2MASS M-giant sample. Additionally, RR Lyrae surveys, with superior depth, are also good at detecting events on highly eccentric orbits whose debris tends to lie beyond 100 kpc. When combined we expect these photometric surveys to provide a comprehensive picture of the last 10 Gyr of Galactic accretion. Events older than this are too phase mixed to be discovered. Pushing

  8. Sensitivity of the halo nuclei-12C elastic scattering at incident nucleon energy 800 MeV to the halo density distribution (United States)

    Hassan, M. A. M.; Nour El-Din, M. S. M.; Ellithi, A.; Hosny, H.; Salama, T. N. E.


    In the framework of Glauber optical limit approximation where Coulomb effect is taken into account, the elastic scattering differential cross section for halo nuclei with {}^{12}{C} at 800 MeV/N has been calculated. Its sensitivity to the halo densities and the root mean square of the core and halo is the main goal of the current study. The projectile nuclei are taken to be one-neutron and two-neutron halo. The calculations are carried out for Gaussian-Gaussian, Gaussian-Oscillator and Gaussian-2 s phenomenological densities for each considered projectile in the mass number range 6-29. Also included a comparison between the obtained results of phenomenological densities and the results within the microscopic densities LSSM of {}6{He} and {}^{11}{Li} and microscopic densities GCM of {}^{11}{Be} where the density of the target nucleus {}^{12}{C} obtained from electron-{}^{12}{C} scattering is used. The zero range approximation is considered in the calculations. We found that the sensitivity of elastic scattering differential cross section to the halo density is clear if the nucleus appears as two clear different clusters, core and halo.

  9. Isobar analog states (IAS), double isobar analog states (DIAS), configuration states (CS), and double configuration states (DCS) in halo nuclei. Halo isomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izosimov, I. N., E-mail: [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)


    It has been shown that IAS, DIAS, CS, and DCS can simultaneously have n-n, n-p, and p-p halo components in their wave functions. Differences in halo structure of the excited and ground states can result in the formation of isomers (halo-isomers). Both the Borromean and tango halo types can be observed for n-p configurations of atomic nuclei. The structure of the ground and excited states with different isospin quantum number in halo like nuclei is discussed. B(Mλ) and B(Eλ) for γ-transitions in {sup 6,7,8}Li, {sup 8,9,10}Be, {sup 8,10,11}B, {sup 10,11,12,13,14}C, {sup 13,14,15,16,17}N, {sup 15,16,17,19}O, and {sup 17}F are analyzed. Special attention is given to nuclei whose ground state does not exhibit halo structure but the excited state may have one.

  10. The Splashback Radius of Halos from Particle Dynamics. I. The SPARTA Algorithm (United States)

    Diemer, Benedikt


    Motivated by the recent proposal of the splashback radius as a physical boundary of dark-matter halos, we present a parallel computer code for Subhalo and PARticle Trajectory Analysis (Sparta). The code analyzes the orbits of all simulation particles in all host halos, billions of orbits in the case of typical cosmological N-body simulations. Within this general framework, we develop an algorithm that accurately extracts the location of the first apocenter of particles after infall into a halo, or splashback. We define the splashback radius of a halo as the smoothed average of the apocenter radii of individual particles. This definition allows us to reliably measure the splashback radii of 95% of host halos above a resolution limit of 1000 particles. We show that, on average, the splashback radius and mass are converged to better than 5% accuracy with respect to mass resolution, snapshot spacing, and all free parameters of the method.

  11. Transverse Beam Halo Measurements at High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) using Vibrating Wire Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, M.; Hanna, B.; Scarpine, V.; Shiltsev, V.; Steimel, J.; Artinian, S.; Arutunian, S.


    The measurement and control of beam halos will be critical for the applications of future high-intensity hadron linacs. In particular, beam profile monitors require a very high dynamic range when used for the transverse beam halo measurements. In this study, the Vibrating Wire Monitor (VWM) with aperture 60 mm was installed at the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) front-end to measure the transverse beam halo. A vibrating wire is excited at its resonance frequency with the help of a magnetic feedback loop, and the vibrating and sensitive wires are connected through a balanced arm. The sensitive wire is moved into the beam halo region by a stepper motor controlled translational stage. We study the feasibility of the vibrating wire for the transverse beam halo measurements in the low-energy front-end of the proton linac.

  12. HaloTag protein-mediated specific labeling of living cells with quantum dots. (United States)

    So, Min-kyung; Yao, Hequan; Rao, Jianghong


    Quantum dots emerge as an attractive alternative to small molecule fluorophores as fluorescent tags for in vivo cell labeling and imaging. This communication presents a method for specific labeling of live cells using quantum dots. The labeling is mediated by HaloTag protein expressed at the cell surface which forms a stable covalent adduct with its ligand (HaloTag ligand). The labeling can be performed in one single step with quantum dot conjugates that are functionalized with HaloTag ligand, or in two steps with biotinylated HaloTag ligand first and followed by streptavidin coated quantum dots. Live cell fluorescence imaging indicates that the labeling is specific and takes place at the cell surface. This HaloTag protein-mediated cell labeling method should facilitate the application of quantum dots for live cell imaging.

  13. Direct observations of the formation of the solar wind halo from the strahl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurgiolo, C. [Bitterroot Basic Research, Hamilton, MT (United States); Goldstein, M.L.; Vinas, A.F. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Geospace Science Lab.; Fazakerley, A.N. [Univ. College London, Holmbury St. Mary Dorking, Surrey (United Kingdom). Mullard Space Science Lab.


    Observations of a continual erosion of the strahl and build up of the halo with distance from the sun suggests that, at least in part, the halo may be formed as a result of scattering of the strahl. This hypothesis is supported in this paper by observation of intense scattering of strahl electrons, which gives rise to a proto-halo electron population. This population eventually merges into, or becomes the halo. The fact that observations of intense scattering of the strahl are not common implies that the formation of the halo may not be a continuous process, but one that occurs, in part, in bursts in regions where the conditions responsible for the scattering are optimum. (orig.)

  14. Halo Models of Large Scale Structure and Reliability of Cosmological N-Body Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gaite


    Full Text Available Halo models of the large scale structure of the Universe are critically examined, focusing on the definition of halos as smooth distributions of cold dark matter. This definition is essentially based on the results of cosmological N-body simulations. By a careful analysis of the standard assumptions of halo models and N-body simulations and by taking into account previous studies of self-similarity of the cosmic web structure, we conclude that N-body cosmological simulations are not fully reliable in the range of scales where halos appear. Therefore, to have a consistent definition of halos is necessary either to define them as entities of arbitrary size with a grainy rather than smooth structure or to define their size in terms of small-scale baryonic physics.

  15. Cosmic ray source abundance of calcium

    CERN Document Server

    Perron, C


    Re-examines the results of experiments in which ultra-high purity iron targets were irradiated by protons from the two CERN accelerators (600 MeV and 21 GeV); the spallation products were then chemically separated, and their isotopic composition determined by mass spectrometry. Ratios of cross-sections for calcium production by spallation of iron show that /sup 42/Ca, /sup 43/Ca and /sup 44/Ca have about the same abundance, about 10-15% that of iron, confirming earlier studies. (11 refs).

  16. What Makes the Family of Barred Disc Galaxies So Rich: Damping Stellar Bars in Spinning Haloes (United States)

    Collier, Angela; Shlosman, Isaac; Heller, Clayton


    We model and analyze the secular evolution of stellar bars in spinning dark matter (DM) haloes with the cosmological spin λ ˜ 0 - 0.09. Using high-resolution stellar and DM numerical simulations, we focus on angular momentum exchange between stellar discs and DM haloes of various axisymmetric shapes — spherical, oblate and prolate. We find that stellar bars experience a diverse evolution which is guided by the ability of parent haloes to absorb angular momentum, J, lost by the disc through the action of gravitational torques, resonant and non-resonant. We confirm that dynamical bar instability is accelerated via resonant J-transfer to the halo. Our main findings relate to the long-term, secular evolution of disc-halo systems: with an increasing λ, bars experience less growth and basically dissolve after they pass through vertical buckling instability. Specifically, with increasing λ, (1) The vertical buckling instability in stellar bars colludes with inability of the inner halo to absorb J — this emerges as the main factor weakening or destroying bars in spinning haloes; (2) Bars lose progressively less J, and their pattern speeds level off; (3) Bars are smaller, and for λ ≳ 0.06 cease their growth completely following buckling; (4) Bars in λ > 0.03 halos have ratio of corotation-to-bar radii, RCR/Rb > 2, and represent so-called slow bars without offset dust lanes. We provide a quantitative analysis of J-transfer in disc-halo systems, and explain the reasons for absence of growth in fast spinning haloes and its observational corollaries. We conclude that stellar bar evolution is substantially more complex than anticipated, and bars are not as resilient as has been considered so far.

  17. Pushing down the low-mass halo concentration frontier with the Lomonosov cosmological simulations (United States)

    Pilipenko, Sergey V.; Sánchez-Conde, Miguel A.; Prada, Francisco; Yepes, Gustavo


    We introduce the Lomonosov suite of high-resolution N-body cosmological simulations covering a full box of size 32 h-1 Mpc with low-mass resolution particles (2 × 107 h-1 M⊙) and three zoom-in simulations of overdense, underdense and mean density regions at much higher particle resolution (4 × 104 h-1 M⊙). The main purpose of this simulation suite is to extend the concentration-mass relation of dark matter haloes down to masses below those typically available in large cosmological simulations. The three different density regions available at higher resolution provide a better understanding of the effect of the local environment on halo concentration, known to be potentially important for small simulation boxes and small halo masses. Yet, we find the correction to be small in comparison with the scatter of halo concentrations. We conclude that zoom simulations, despite their limited representativity of the volume of the Universe, can be effectively used for the measurement of halo concentrations at least at the halo masses probed by our simulations. In any case, after a precise characterization of this effect, we develop a robust technique to extrapolate the concentration values found in zoom simulations to larger volumes with greater accuracy. Altogether, Lomonosov provides a measure of the concentration-mass relation in the halo mass range 107-1010 h-1 M⊙ with superb halo statistics. This work represents a first important step to measure halo concentrations at intermediate, yet vastly unexplored halo mass scales, down to the smallest ones. All Lomonosov data and files are public for community's use.

  18. Neon and sulfur abundances of planetary nebulae in the Magellanic Clouds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernard-Salas, J.; Pottasch, S. R.; Gutenkunst, S.; Morris, P. W.; Houck, J. R.


    The chemical abundances of neon and sulfur for 25 planetary nebulae (PNe) in the Magellanic Clouds are presented. These abundances have been derived using mainly infrared data from the Spitzer Space Telescope. The implications for the chemical evolution of these elements are discussed. A comparison

  19. Chemical ozone loss in the Arctic winter 1991─1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Camy-Peyret


    Full Text Available Chemical ozone loss in winter 1991–1992 is recalculated based on observations of the HALOE satellite instrument, Version 19, ER-2 aircraft measurements and balloon data. HALOE satellite observations are shown to be reliable in the lower stratosphere below 400 K, at altitudes where the measurements are most likely disturbed by the enhanced sulfate aerosol loading, as a result of the Mt.~Pinatubo eruption in June 1991. Significant chemical ozone loss (13–17 DU is observed below 380 K from Kiruna balloon observations and HALOE satellite data between December 1991 and March 1992. For the two winters after the Mt. Pinatubo eruption, HALOE satellite observations show a stronger extent of chemical ozone loss towards lower altitudes compared to other Arctic winters between 1991 and 2003. In spite of already occurring deactivation of chlorine in March 1992, MIPAS-B and LPMA balloon observations indicate that chlorine was still activated at lower altitudes, consistent with observed chemical ozone loss occurring between February and March and April. Large chemical ozone loss of more than 70 DU in the Arctic winter 1991–1992 as calculated in earlier studies is corroborated here.

  20. Electromagnetic properties of the Beryllium-11 nucleus in Halo EFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammer H.-W.


    Full Text Available We compute electromagnetic properties of the Beryllium-11 nucleus using an effective field theory that exploits the separation of scales in this halo system. We fix the parameters of the EFT from measured data on levels and scattering lengths in the 10Be plus neutron system. We then obtain predictions for the B(E1 strength of the 1/2+ to 1/2− transition in the 11Be nucleus. We also compute the charge radius of the ground state of 11Be. Agreement with experiment within the expected accuracy of a leading-order computation in this EFT is obtained. We also indicate how higher-order corrections that affect both s-wave and p-wave 10 Be-neutron interactions will affect our results.