WorldWideScience

Sample records for halloween coastal storm

  1. Predicting severe winter coastal storm damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hondula, David M; Dolan, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 40 years residents of, and visitors to, the North Carolina coastal barrier islands have experienced the destructive forces of several 'named' extratropical storms. These storms have caused large-scale redistributions of sand and loss of coastal structures and infrastructure. While most of the population living on the islands are familiar with the wintertime storms, the damage and scars of the 'super northeasters'-such as the Ash Wednesday storm of 7 March 1962, and the Halloween storm of 1989-are slipping away from the public's memory. In this research we compared the damage zones of the 1962 Ash Wednesday storm, as depicted on aerial photographs taken after the storm, with photos taken of the same areas in 2003. With these high-resolution aerial photos we were able to estimate the extent of new development which has taken place along the Outer Banks of North Carolina since 1962. Three damage zones were defined that extend across the islands from the ocean landward on the 1962 aerial photos: (1) the zone of almost total destruction on the seaward edge of the islands where the storm waves break; (2) the zone immediately inland where moderate structural damage occurs during severe storms; and (3) the zone of flood damage at the landward margin of the storm surge and overwash. We considered the rate of coastal erosion, the rate of development, and increases in property values as factors which may contribute to changing the financial risk for coastal communities. In comparing the values of these four factors with the 1962 damage data, we produced a predicted dollar value for storm damage should another storm of the magnitude of the 1962 Ash Wednesday storm occur in the present decade. This model also provides an opportunity to estimate the rate of increase in the potential losses through time as shoreline erosion continues to progressively reduce the buffer between the development and the edge of the sea. Our data suggest that the losses along the North

  2. Predicting severe winter coastal storm damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hondula, David M; Dolan, Robert, E-mail: hondula@virginia.edu [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Virginia, PO Box 400123, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Over the past 40 years residents of, and visitors to, the North Carolina coastal barrier islands have experienced the destructive forces of several 'named' extratropical storms. These storms have caused large-scale redistributions of sand and loss of coastal structures and infrastructure. While most of the population living on the islands are familiar with the wintertime storms, the damage and scars of the 'super northeasters'-such as the Ash Wednesday storm of 7 March 1962, and the Halloween storm of 1989-are slipping away from the public's memory. In this research we compared the damage zones of the 1962 Ash Wednesday storm, as depicted on aerial photographs taken after the storm, with photos taken of the same areas in 2003. With these high-resolution aerial photos we were able to estimate the extent of new development which has taken place along the Outer Banks of North Carolina since 1962. Three damage zones were defined that extend across the islands from the ocean landward on the 1962 aerial photos: (1) the zone of almost total destruction on the seaward edge of the islands where the storm waves break; (2) the zone immediately inland where moderate structural damage occurs during severe storms; and (3) the zone of flood damage at the landward margin of the storm surge and overwash. We considered the rate of coastal erosion, the rate of development, and increases in property values as factors which may contribute to changing the financial risk for coastal communities. In comparing the values of these four factors with the 1962 damage data, we produced a predicted dollar value for storm damage should another storm of the magnitude of the 1962 Ash Wednesday storm occur in the present decade. This model also provides an opportunity to estimate the rate of increase in the potential losses through time as shoreline erosion continues to progressively reduce the buffer between the development and the edge of the sea. Our data suggest that the

  3. Predicting severe winter coastal storm damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondula, David M.; Dolan, Robert

    2010-07-01

    Over the past 40 years residents of, and visitors to, the North Carolina coastal barrier islands have experienced the destructive forces of several 'named' extratropical storms. These storms have caused large-scale redistributions of sand and loss of coastal structures and infrastructure. While most of the population living on the islands are familiar with the wintertime storms, the damage and scars of the 'super northeasters'—such as the Ash Wednesday storm of 7 March 1962, and the Halloween storm of 1989—are slipping away from the public's memory. In this research we compared the damage zones of the 1962 Ash Wednesday storm, as depicted on aerial photographs taken after the storm, with photos taken of the same areas in 2003. With these high-resolution aerial photos we were able to estimate the extent of new development which has taken place along the Outer Banks of North Carolina since 1962. Three damage zones were defined that extend across the islands from the ocean landward on the 1962 aerial photos: (1) the zone of almost total destruction on the seaward edge of the islands where the storm waves break; (2) the zone immediately inland where moderate structural damage occurs during severe storms; and (3) the zone of flood damage at the landward margin of the storm surge and overwash. We considered the rate of coastal erosion, the rate of development, and increases in property values as factors which may contribute to changing the financial risk for coastal communities. In comparing the values of these four factors with the 1962 damage data, we produced a predicted dollar value for storm damage should another storm of the magnitude of the 1962 Ash Wednesday storm occur in the present decade. This model also provides an opportunity to estimate the rate of increase in the potential losses through time as shoreline erosion continues to progressively reduce the buffer between the development and the edge of the sea. Our data suggest that the losses along the

  4. Halloween High Jinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Doreen; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents a collection of fall and Halloween activities for elementary students, including pumpkin poetry, batty bulletin boards (graphing), vegetable variety art, old time radio mysteries, paper doll Halloween safety, career dress-up day, imaginative Halloween writing, and matching animals with foods they eat. A student page offers a Dracula…

  5. In the Eye of the Storm: A Participatory Course on Coastal Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Storm disasters are amplified in the coastal environment due to population pressures and the power of the sea. The upper-division/graduate university course "Coastal Storms" was designed to equip future practitioners with the skills necessary to understand, respond to, and mitigate for these natural disasters. To accomplish this, "Coastal Storms"…

  6. Observations of the F-region ionospheric irregularities in the South American sector during the October 2003 "Halloween Storms"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Sahai

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The response of the ionospheric F-region in the South American sector during the super geomagnetic storms on 29 and 30 October 2003 is studied in the present investigation. In this paper, we present ionospheric sounding observations during the period 29–31 October 2003 obtained at Palmas (a near equatorial location and Sao Jose dos Campos (a location under the southern crest of the equatorial ionospheric anomaly, Brazil, along with observations during the period 27–31 October 2003 from a chain of GPS stations covering the South American sector from Imperatriz, Brazil, to Rio Grande, Argentina. Also, complementary observations that include sequences of all-sky images of the OI 777.4 and 630.0 nm emissions observed at El Leoncito, Argentina, on the nights of 28–29 (geomagnetically quiet night and 29–30 (geomagnetically disturbed night October 2003, and ion densities observed in the South American sector by the DMSP F13, F14 and F15 satellites orbiting at about 800 km on 29 and 30 October 2003 are presented. In addition, global TEC maps derived from GPS observations collected from the global GPS network of International GPS Service (IGS are presented, showing widespread and drastic TEC changes during the different phases of the geomagnetic disturbances. The observations indicate that the equatorial ionospheric irregularities or plasma bubbles extend to the Argentinean station Rawson (geom. Lat. 33.1° S and map at the magnetic equator at an altitude of about 2500 km.

  7. Proxy records of Holocene storm events in coastal barrier systems: Storm-wave induced markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goslin, Jérôme; Clemmensen, Lars B.

    2017-10-01

    Extreme storm events in the coastal zone are one of the main forcing agents of short-term coastal system behavior. As such, storms represent a major threat to human activities concentrated along the coasts worldwide. In order to better understand the frequency of extreme events like storms, climate science must rely on longer-time records than the century-scale records of instrumental weather data. Proxy records of storm-wave or storm-wind induced activity in coastal barrier systems deposits have been widely used worldwide in recent years to document past storm events during the last millennia. This review provides a detailed state-of-the-art compilation of the proxies available from coastal barrier systems to reconstruct Holocene storm chronologies (paleotempestology). The present paper aims (I) to describe the erosional and depositional processes caused by storm-wave action in barrier and back-barrier systems (i.e. beach ridges, storm scarps and washover deposits), (ii) to understand how storm records can be extracted from barrier and back-barrier sedimentary bodies using stratigraphical, sedimentological, micro-paleontological and geochemical proxies and (iii) to show how to obtain chronological control on past storm events recorded in the sedimentary successions. The challenges that paleotempestology studies still face in the reconstruction of representative and reliable storm-chronologies using these various proxies are discussed, and future research prospects are outlined.

  8. Large-scale coastal impact induced by a catastrophic storm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fruergaard, Mikkel; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Johannessen, Peter N

    breaching. Our results demonstrate that violent, millennial-scale storms can trigger significant large-scale and long-term changes on barrier coasts, and that coastal changes assumed to take place over centuries or even millennia may occur in association with a single extreme storm event....

  9. Progress in the Study of Coastal Storm Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Haixian; Huang, Guangqing; Fu, Shuqing; Qian, Peng

    2018-05-01

    Numerous studies have been carried out to identify storm deposits and decipher storm-induced sedimentary processes in coastal and shallow-marine areas. This study aims to provide an in-depth review on the study of coastal storm deposits from the following five aspects. 1) The formation of storm deposits is a function of hydrodynamic and sedimentary processes under the constraints of local geological and ecological factors. Many questions remain to demonstrate the genetic links between storm-related processes and a variety of resulting deposits such as overwash deposits, underwater deposits and hummocky cross-stratification (HCS). Future research into the formation of storm deposits should combine flume experiments, field observations and numerical simulations, and make full use of sediment source tracing methods. 2) Recently there has been rapid growth in the number of studies utilizing sediment provenance analysis to investigate the source of storm deposits. The development of source tracing techniques, such as mineral composition, magnetic susceptibility, microfossil and geochemical property, has allowed for better understanding of the depositional processes and environmental changes associated with coastal storms. 3) The role of extreme storms in the sedimentation of low-lying coastal wetlands with diverse ecosystem services has also drawn a great deal of attention. Many investigations have attempted to quantify widespread land loss, vertical marsh sediment accumulation and wetland elevation change induced by major hurricanes. 4) Paleostorm reconstructions based on storm sedimentary proxies have shown many advantages over the instrumental records and historic documents as they allow for the reconstruction of storm activities on millennial or longer time scales. Storm deposits having been used to establish proxies mainly include beach ridges and shelly cheniers, coral reefs, estuary-deltaic storm sequences and overwash deposits. Particularly over the past few

  10. Coastal Storm Surge Analysis: Storm Surge Results. Report 5: Intermediate Submission No. 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Vickery, P., D. Wadhera, A. Cox, V. Cardone , J. Hanson, and B. Blanton. 2012. Coastal storm surge analysis: Storm forcing (Intermediate Submission No...CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Jeffrey L. Hanson, Michael F. Forte, Brian Blanton

  11. Coastal Storm Hazards from Virginia to Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    secondary terms • integration of joint probability of storm responses, including extratropical events. A diagram summarizing the JPM methodology is... Extratropical Cyclones. The GPD- based approach defined above was used to compute the final storm response statistics for XCs. ERDC/CHL TR-15-5 39...from the numerical modeling of all storms , tropical and extratropical . As discussed in Section 2.1.2, JPM methodology generally consists of the

  12. Business Potential of Halloween: Sales and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadim Strielkowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper assesses the business potential of Halloween by estimating the profits stemming from the sales of Halloween-related goods and activities. It also estimates two empirical models of Halloween spending with macroeconomic variables, using the sales data for the most traditional Halloween paraphernalia, the Halloween pumpkins, as well as for the three groups of products (candies, costumes and decorations, and finds that the share of more “consumer-oriented” products increases in relation to the share of “traditional” Halloween products. It comes to the conclusion that, as to its business potential, overall sales and economic significance, Halloween can now be only compared to Christmas.

  13. Dynamic interactions between coastal storms and salt marshes: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Nicoletta; Carnacina, Iacopo; Donatelli, Carmine; Ganju, Neil K.; Plater, Andrew James; Schuerch, Mark; Temmerman, Stijn

    2018-01-01

    This manuscript reviews the progresses made in the understanding of the dynamic interactions between coastal storms and salt marshes, including the dissipation of extreme water levels and wind waves across marsh surfaces, the geomorphic impact of storms on salt marshes, the preservation of hurricanes signals and deposits into the sedimentary records, and the importance of storms for the long term survival of salt marshes to sea level rise. A review of weaknesses, and strengths of coastal defences incorporating the use of salt marshes including natural, and hybrid infrastructures in comparison to standard built solutions is then presented.Salt marshes are effective in dissipating wave energy, and storm surges, especially when the marsh is highly elevated, and continuous. This buffering action reduces for storms lasting more than one day. Storm surge attenuation rates range from 1.7 to 25 cm/km depending on marsh and storms characteristics. In terms of vegetation properties, the more flexible stems tend to flatten during powerful storms, and to dissipate less energy but they are also more resilient to structural damage, and their flattening helps to protect the marsh surface from erosion, while stiff plants tend to break, and could increase the turbulence level and the scour. From a morphological point of view, salt marshes are generally able to withstand violent storms without collapsing, and violent storms are responsible for only a small portion of the long term marsh erosion.Our considerations highlight the necessity to focus on the indirect long term impact that large storms exerts on the whole marsh complex rather than on sole after-storm periods. The morphological consequences of storms, even if not dramatic, might in fact influence the response of the system to normal weather conditions during following inter-storm periods. For instance, storms can cause tidal flats deepening which in turn promotes wave energy propagation, and exerts a long term

  14. Dynamic interactions between coastal storms and salt marshes: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Nicoletta; Carnacina, Iacopo; Donatelli, Carmine; Ganju, Neil Kamal; Plater, Andrew James; Schuerch, Mark; Temmerman, Stijn

    2018-01-01

    This manuscript reviews the progresses made in the understanding of the dynamic interactions between coastal storms and salt marshes, including the dissipation of extreme water levels and wind waves across marsh surfaces, the geomorphic impact of storms on salt marshes, the preservation of hurricanes signals and deposits into the sedimentary records, and the importance of storms for the long term survival of salt marshes to sea level rise. A review of weaknesses, and strengths of coastal defences incorporating the use of salt marshes including natural, and hybrid infrastructures in comparison to standard built solutions is then presented. Salt marshes are effective in dissipating wave energy, and storm surges, especially when the marsh is highly elevated, and continuous. This buffering action reduces for storms lasting more than one day. Storm surge attenuation rates range from 1.7 to 25 cm/km depending on marsh and storms characteristics. In terms of vegetation properties, the more flexible stems tend to flatten during powerful storms, and to dissipate less energy but they are also more resilient to structural damage, and their flattening helps to protect the marsh surface from erosion, while stiff plants tend to break, and could increase the turbulence level and the scour. From a morphological point of view, salt marshes are generally able to withstand violent storms without collapsing, and violent storms are responsible for only a small portion of the long term marsh erosion. Our considerations highlight the necessity to focus on the indirect long term impact that large storms exerts on the whole marsh complex rather than on sole after-storm periods. The morphological consequences of storms, even if not dramatic, might in fact influence the response of the system to normal weather conditions during following inter-storm periods. For instance, storms can cause tidal flats deepening which in turn promotes wave energy propagation, and exerts a long term detrimental

  15. Vulnerability of Coastal Communities from Storm Surge and Flood Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathi, Jejal Reddy; Das, Himangshu S.

    2016-01-01

    Disasters in the form of coastal storms and hurricanes can be very destructive. Preparing for anticipated effects of such disasters can help reduce the public health and economic burden. Identifying vulnerable population groups can help prioritize resources for the most needed communities. This paper presents a quantitative framework for vulnerability measurement that incorporates both socioeconomic and flood inundation vulnerability. The approach is demonstrated for three coastal communities in Mississippi with census tracts being the study unit. The vulnerability results are illustrated as thematic maps for easy usage by planners and emergency responders to assist in prioritizing their actions to vulnerable populations during storm surge and flood disasters. PMID:26907313

  16. Coastal ecosystems for protection against storm surge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.

    and infrastructure in single catastrophe exceeded Rs. 2750 crore. Economic loss is thus prohibitive and hence unsustainable. This paper acknowledges the intrinsic protective value of coastal sand dunes, vegetation and wetlands as a functional natural defence...

  17. Coastal emergency managers' preferences for storm surge forecast communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Betty Hearn; Lazo, Jeffrey K

    2014-01-01

    Storm surge, the most deadly hazard associated with tropical and extratropical cyclones, is the basis for most evacuation decisions by authorities. One factor believed to be associated with evacuation noncompliance is a lack of understanding of storm surge. To address this problem, federal agencies responsible for cyclone forecasts are seeking more effective ways of communicating storm surge threat. To inform this process, they are engaging various partners in the forecast and warning process.This project focuses on emergency managers. Fifty-three emergency managers (EMs) from the Gulf and lower Atlantic coasts were surveyed to elicit their experience with, sources of, and preferences for storm surge information. The emergency managers-who are well seasoned in hurricane response and generally rate the surge risk in their coastal areas above average or extremely high-listed storm surge as their major concern with respect to hurricanes. They reported a general lack of public awareness about surge. Overall they support new ways to convey the potential danger to the public, including the issuance of separate storm surge watches and warnings, and the expression of surge heights using feet above ground level. These EMs would like more maps, graphics, and visual materials for use in communicating with the public. An important concern is the timing of surge forecasts-whether they receive them early enough to be useful in their evacuation decisions.

  18. Coastal Flooding Hazards due to storm surges and subsidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Carlo; Knudsen, Per; Andersen, Ole B.

    Flooding hazard and risk mapping are major topics in low-lying coastal areas before even considering the adverse effects of sea level rise (SLR) due to climate change. While permanent inundation may be a prevalent issue, more often floods related to extreme events (storm surges) have the largest...... damage potential.Challenges are amplified in some areas due to subsidence from natural and/or anthropogenic causes. Subsidence of even a few mm/y may over time greatly impair the safety against flooding of coastal communities and must be accounted for in order to accomplish the economically most viable...

  19. The Halloween Effect Evidence from Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Dragos Stefan Oprea

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the Halloween effect in the Romanian stock market. The analysis is conducted for four stock indices using monthly returns. The Halloween effect is not identified for any of the indices. Therefore, an investment strategy based on the Halloween effect was not suitable for investors in this market.

  20. Idealised modelling of storm surges in large-scale coastal basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Wenlong

    2015-01-01

    Coastal areas around the world are frequently attacked by various types of storms, threatening human life and property. This study aims to understand storm surge processes in large-scale coastal basins, particularly focusing on the influences of geometry, topography and storm characteristics on the

  1. Extreme coastal erosion enhanced by anomalous extratropical storm wave direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Mitchell D; Turner, Ian L; Kinsela, Michael A; Middleton, Jason H; Mumford, Peter J; Splinter, Kristen D; Phillips, Matthew S; Simmons, Joshua A; Hanslow, David J; Short, Andrew D

    2017-07-20

    Extratropical cyclones (ETCs) are the primary driver of large-scale episodic beach erosion along coastlines in temperate regions. However, key drivers of the magnitude and regional variability in rapid morphological changes caused by ETCs at the coast remain poorly understood. Here we analyze an unprecedented dataset of high-resolution regional-scale morphological response to an ETC that impacted southeast Australia, and evaluate the new observations within the context of an existing long-term coastal monitoring program. This ETC was characterized by moderate intensity (for this regional setting) deepwater wave heights, but an anomalous wave direction approximately 45 degrees more counter-clockwise than average. The magnitude of measured beach volume change was the largest in four decades at the long-term monitoring site and, at the regional scale, commensurate with that observed due to extreme North Atlantic hurricanes. Spatial variability in morphological response across the study region was predominantly controlled by alongshore gradients in storm wave energy flux and local coastline alignment relative to storm wave direction. We attribute the severity of coastal erosion observed due to this ETC primarily to its anomalous wave direction, and call for greater research on the impacts of changing storm wave directionality in addition to projected future changes in wave heights.

  2. Vulnerability assessment of storm surges in the coastal area of Guangdong Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Li

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Being bordered by the South China Sea and with long coastline, the coastal zone of Guangdong Province is often under severe risk of storm surges, as one of a few regions in China which is seriously threatened by storm surges. This article systematically analyzes the vulnerability factors of storm surges in the coastal area of Guangdong (from Yangjing to Shanwei. Five vulnerability assessment indicators of hazard-bearing bodies are proposed, which are social economic index, land use index, eco-environmental index, coastal construction index, and disaster-bearing capability index. Then storm surge vulnerability assessment index system in the coastal area of Guangdong is established. Additionally, the international general mode about coastal vulnerability assessment is improved, and the vulnerability evolution model of storm surges in the coastal area of Guangdong is constructed. Using ArcGIS, the vulnerability zoning map of storm surges in the study region is drawn. Results show that there is the highest degree of storm surge vulnerability in Zhuhai, Panyu, and Taishan; second in Zhongshan, Dongguan, Huiyang, and Haifeng; third in Jiangmen, Shanwei, Yangjiang, and Yangdong; fourth in Baoan, Kaiping, and Enping; and lowest in Guangzhou, Shunde, Shenzhen, and Longgang. This study on the risk of storm surges in these coastal cities can guide the land use of coastal cities in the future, and provide scientific advice for the government to prevent and mitigate the storm surge disasters. It has important theoretical and practical significance.

  3. Coastal Storm Surge Analysis: Storm Forcing. Report 3. Intermediate Submission No. 1.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The storm surge study considers both tropical storms and extratropical cyclones for determination of return period storm surge elevations. The...Appendix B: Extratropical Cyclone Selection in Support of FEMA Region III Storm Surge Modeling...stations applied in the storm selection process. ............................................. 56  Table B2. Extratropical cyclones selected from the

  4. Establishing Design Storm Values from Climate Models in Coastal Regions: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynamic interactions of atmospheric and hydrological processes result in large spatiotemporal changes of precipitation and wind speed in coastal storm events under both current and future climates. This variability can impact the design and sustainability of water infrastructure ...

  5. Piping Plover response to coastal storms occurring during the nonbreeding season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine R. Bourque

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase in coastal storm frequency and intensity expected under most climate change scenarios is likely to substantially modify beach configuration and associated habitats. This study aimed to analyze the impact of coastal storms on a nesting population of the endangered Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus melodus in southeastern New Brunswick, Canada. Previous studies have shown that numbers of nesting Piping Plovers may increase following storms that create new nesting habitat at individual beaches. However, to our knowledge, no test of this pattern has been conducted over a regional scale. We hypothesized that Piping Plover abundance would increase after large coastal storms occurring during the nonbreeding season. However, we expected a delay in the colonization of newly created habitat owing to low-density populations, combined with high site fidelity of adults and high variability in survival rate of subadults. We tested this hypothesis using a 27-year (1986-2012 data set of Piping Plover abundance and productivity (nesting pairs and fledged young collected at five sites in eastern New Brunswick. We identified 11 major storms that could potentially have modified Piping Plover habitat over the study period. The number of fledged young increased three years after a major storm, but the relationship was much weaker for the number of nesting pairs. These findings are consistent with the hypothesized increase in suitable habitat after coastal storms. Including storm occurrence with other factors influencing habitat quality will enhance Piping Plover conservation strategies.

  6. Characterization of storm flow dynamics of headwater streams in the South Carolina lower coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas H. Epps; Daniel R. Hitchcock; Anand D. Jayakaran; Drake R. Loflin; Thomas M. Williams; Devendra M. Amatya

    2013-01-01

    Hydrologic monitoring was conducted in two first-order lower coastal plain watersheds in South Carolina, United States, a region with increasing growth and land use change. Storm events over a three-year period were analyzed for direct runoff coefficients (ROC) and the total storm response (TSR) as percent rainfall. ROC calculations utilized an empirical hydrograph...

  7. Celebra Halloween de manera segura (Halloween: Have Fun and Stay Safe and Healthy)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Las celebraciones de Halloween son muy divertidas para los niños, pero enfermarse o lastimarse por esta causa no debe ser parte de la diversión. En este podcast para niños, los personajes de Kidtastics ofrecen algunos consejos sencillos para mantenerse seguro y saludable en Halloween.

  8. Coastal flooding hazard related to storms and coastal evolution in Valdelagrana spit (Cadiz Bay Natural Park, SW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavente, J.; Del Río, L.; Gracia, F. J.; Martínez-del-Pozo, J. A.

    2006-06-01

    Mapping of coastal inundation hazard related to storms requires the combination of multiple sources of information regarding meteorological, morphological and dynamic characteristics of both the area at risk and the studied phenomena. Variables such as beach slope, storm wave height or wind speed have traditionally been used, but detailed geomorphological features of the area as well as long-term shoreline evolution trends must also be taken into account in order to achieve more realistic results. This work presents an evaluation of storm flooding hazard in Valdelagrana spit and marshes (SW Spain), considering two types of storm that are characteristic of the area: a modal storm with 1 year of recurrence interval (maximum wave height of 3.3 m), and an extreme storm with 6-10 years of recurrence interval (maximum wave height of 10.6 m), both approaching the coast perpendicularly. After calculating theoretical storm surge elevation, a digital terrain model was made by adjusting topographic data to field work and detailed geomorphological analysis. A model of flooding extent was subsequently developed for each storm type, and then corrected according to the rates of shoreline change in the last decades, which were assessed by means of aerial photographs taking the dune toe as shoreline indicator. Results show that long-term coastline trend represents an important factor in the prediction of flooding extent, since shoreline retreat causes the deterioration of natural coastal defences as dune ridges, thus increasing coastal exposure to high-energy waves. This way, it has been stated that the lack of sedimentary supply plays an important role in spatial variability of inundation extent in Valdelagrana spit. Finally, a hazard map is presented, where calculated coastal retreat rates are employed in order to predict the areas that could be affected by future inundation events.

  9. Health Effects of Coastal Storms and Flooding in Urban Areas: A Review and Vulnerability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Lane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Coastal storms can take a devastating toll on the public's health. Urban areas like New York City (NYC may be particularly at risk, given their dense population, reliance on transportation, energy infrastructure that is vulnerable to flood damage, and high-rise residential housing, which may be hard-hit by power and utility outages. Climate change will exacerbate these risks in the coming decades. Sea levels are rising due to global warming, which will intensify storm surge. These projections make preparing for the health impacts of storms even more important. We conducted a broad review of the health impacts of US coastal storms to inform climate adaptation planning efforts, with a focus on outcomes relevant to NYC and urban coastal areas, and incorporated some lessons learned from recent experience with Superstorm Sandy. Based on the literature, indicators of health vulnerability were selected and mapped within NYC neighborhoods. Preparing for the broad range of anticipated effects of coastal storms and floods may help reduce the public health burden from these events.

  10. Health effects of coastal storms and flooding in urban areas: a review and vulnerability assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Kathryn; Charles-Guzman, Kizzy; Wheeler, Katherine; Abid, Zaynah; Graber, Nathan; Matte, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Coastal storms can take a devastating toll on the public's health. Urban areas like New York City (NYC) may be particularly at risk, given their dense population, reliance on transportation, energy infrastructure that is vulnerable to flood damage, and high-rise residential housing, which may be hard-hit by power and utility outages. Climate change will exacerbate these risks in the coming decades. Sea levels are rising due to global warming, which will intensify storm surge. These projections make preparing for the health impacts of storms even more important. We conducted a broad review of the health impacts of US coastal storms to inform climate adaptation planning efforts, with a focus on outcomes relevant to NYC and urban coastal areas, and incorporated some lessons learned from recent experience with Superstorm Sandy. Based on the literature, indicators of health vulnerability were selected and mapped within NYC neighborhoods. Preparing for the broad range of anticipated effects of coastal storms and floods may help reduce the public health burden from these events.

  11. The Framework of a Coastal Hazards Model - A Tool for Predicting the Impact of Severe Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; O'Reilly, Bill; van Ormondt, Maarten; Elias, Edwin; Ruggiero, Peter; Erikson, Li H.; Hapke, Cheryl; Collins, Brian D.; Guza, Robert T.; Adams, Peter N.; Thomas, Julie

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project in Southern California (Jones and others, 2007) is a five-year project (FY2007-FY2011) integrating multiple USGS research activities with the needs of external partners, such as emergency managers and land-use planners, to produce products and information that can be used to create more disaster-resilient communities. The hazards being evaluated include earthquakes, landslides, floods, tsunamis, wildfires, and coastal hazards. For the Coastal Hazards Task of the Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project in Southern California, the USGS is leading the development of a modeling system for forecasting the impact of winter storms threatening the entire Southern California shoreline from Pt. Conception to the Mexican border. The modeling system, run in real-time or with prescribed scenarios, will incorporate atmospheric information (that is, wind and pressure fields) with a suite of state-of-the-art physical process models (that is, tide, surge, and wave) to enable detailed prediction of currents, wave height, wave runup, and total water levels. Additional research-grade predictions of coastal flooding, inundation, erosion, and cliff failure will also be performed. Initial model testing, performance evaluation, and product development will be focused on a severe winter-storm scenario developed in collaboration with the Winter Storm Working Group of the USGS Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project in Southern California. Additional offline model runs and products will include coastal-hazard hindcasts of selected historical winter storms, as well as additional severe winter-storm simulations based on statistical analyses of historical wave and water-level data. The coastal-hazards model design will also be appropriate for simulating the impact of storms under various sea level rise and climate-change scenarios. The operational capabilities of this modeling system are designed to provide emergency planners with

  12. The Halloween Lateral Canthotomy Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur-Ain Nadir

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Audience: The Halloween Lateral Canthotomy Model” is designed to instruct Emergency Medicine residents PGY 1-4, as well as Emergency Medicine-bound students. Introduction: Although uncommon, retrobulbar hemorrhage associated with facial trauma is a potential cause of permanent vision loss due to orbital compartment syndrome. To prevent vision loss, treatment with lateral canthotomy is time-sensitive and to perform this procedure in an emergent setting requires properly trained practitioners. Objectives: The purpose of the model is to teach residents and students how to perform lateral canthotomy and to achieve competency in their skills. Method: Lateral canthotomy is an important skill to be proficient in for any Emergency Medicine Physician, as it is an uncommon, sight-saving procedure. It is indicated in scenarios of facial trauma that cause a retrobulbar hemorrhage. Patients are at risk for permanent vision loss due to acute orbital compartment syndrome if the procedure is not done expeditiously.1 A less likely cause of retrobulbar hemorrhage is spontaneous hemorrhage due to a bleeding disorder or anticoagulant use.2 The features of retrobulbar hemorrhage include acute loss of visual acuity, relative afferent pupillary defect, proptosis with resistance to retropulsion, increased intraocular pressure, and limited extra ocular movement.3 While the diagnosis is clinical, it can be confirmed by computed tomography (CT and measurement of intraocular pressure.2 When the diagnosis is established, lateral canthotomy and cantholysis should be performed emergently. Cantholysis is contraindicated when a globe rupture is suspected or with an orbital blowout fracture. Potential complications of this procedure include iatrogenic injury to the globe or lateral rectus muscle, damage to the elevator aponeurosis resulting in ptosis, injury to the lacrimal gland and lacrimal artery, bleeding and infection.3 This task trainer uses affordable materials to let

  13. Impacts on coralligenous outcrop biodiversity of a dramatic coastal storm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Teixidó

    Full Text Available Extreme events are rare, stochastic perturbations that can cause abrupt and dramatic ecological change within a short period of time relative to the lifespan of organisms. Studies over time provide exceptional opportunities to detect the effects of extreme climatic events and to measure their impacts by quantifying rates of change at population and community levels. In this study, we show how an extreme storm event affected the dynamics of benthic coralligenous outcrops in the NW Mediterranean Sea using data acquired before (2006-2008 and after the impact (2009-2010 at four different sites. Storms of comparable severity have been documented to occur occasionally within periods of 50 years in the Mediterranean Sea. We assessed the effects derived from the storm comparing changes in benthic community composition at sites exposed to and sheltered from this extreme event. The sites analyzed showed different damage from severe to negligible. The most exposed and impacted site experienced a major shift immediately after the storm, represented by changes in the species richness and beta diversity of benthic species. This site also showed higher compositional variability immediately after the storm and over the following year. The loss of cover of benthic species resulted between 22% and 58%. The damage across these species (e.g. calcareous algae, sponges, anthozoans, bryozoans, tunicates was uneven, and those with fragile forms were the most impacted, showing cover losses up to 50 to 100%. Interestingly, small patches survived after the storm and began to grow slightly during the following year. In contrast, sheltered sites showed no significant changes in all the studied parameters, indicating no variations due to the storm. This study provides new insights into the responses to large and rare extreme events of Mediterranean communities with low dynamics and long-lived species, which are among the most threatened by the effects of global change.

  14. Assessment of the Temporal Evolution of Storm Surge via Land to Water Isopleths in Coastal Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siverd, C. G.; Hagen, S. C.; Bilskie, M. V.; Braud, D.; Gao, S.; Peele, H.; Twilley, R.

    2017-12-01

    The low-lying coastal Louisiana deltaic landscape features an intricate system of fragmented wetlands, natural ridges, man-made navigation canals and flood protection infrastructure. Since 1900 and prior to the landfall of Hurricane Katrina in 2005, Louisiana lost approximately 480,000 ha (1,850 sq mi) of coastal wetlands and an additional 20,000 ha (77 sq mi) due to Katrina. This resulted in a total wetland storm protection value loss of USD 28.3 billion and USD 1.1 billion, respectively (Costanza 2008). To investigate the response of hurricane storm surge (e.g. peak water levels, inundation time and extent) through time due to land loss, hydrodynamic models that represent historical eras of the Louisiana coastal landscape were developed. Land:Water (L:W) isopleths (Gagliano 1970, 1971, Twilley 2016) have been calculated along the coast from the Sabine River to the Pearl River. These isopleths were utilized to create a simplified coastal landscape (bathymetry, topography, bottom roughness) representing circa 2010. Similar methodologies are employed with the objective of developing storm surge models that represent the coastal landscape for past eras. The goal is to temporally examine the evolution of storm surge along coastal Louisiana. The isopleths determined to best represent the Louisiana coast as a result of the methodology devised to develop the simple storm surge model for c.2010 are applied in the development of surge models for historical eras c.1930 and c.1970. The ADvaced CIRCulation (ADCIRC) code (Luettich 2004) is used to perform storm surge simulations with a predetermined suite of hurricane wind and pressure forcings. Hydrologic Unit Code 12 (HUC12) sub-watersheds provide geographical bounds to quantify mean maximum water surface elevations (WSEs), volume of inundation, and area of inundation. HUC12 sub-watersheds also provide a means to compare/contrast these quantified surge parameters on a HUC12-by-HUC12 basis for the c.1930, c.1970 and c.2010

  15. Numerical Modeling of Coastal Inundation and Sedimentation by Storm Surge, Tides, and Waves at Norfolk, Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    hurricanes (tropical) with a 50-year and a 100-year return period, and one winter storm ( extratropical ) occurred in October 1982. There are a total of 15...under the 0-m and 2-m SLR scenarios, respectively. • Tropical and extratropical storms induce extensive coastal inundation around the military...1 NUMERICAL MODELING OF COASTAL INUNDATION AND SEDIMENTATION BY STORM SURGE, TIDES, AND WAVES AT NORFOLK, VIRGINIA, USA Honghai Li 1 , Lihwa Lin 1

  16. Coastal wave measurements during passage of tropical storm Amy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, W. D.

    1977-01-01

    Aerial photographic and laser profilometer data of waves generated by tropical storm Amy are presented. The data mission consisted primarily of two legs, one in the direction of the wind waves, and the second along the direction of swell propagation, using Jennette's Pier at Nags Head, North Carolina, as a focal point. At flight time, Amy's center was 512 nmi from shore and had maximum winds of 60 knots. The storm's history is presented, along with a satellite photograph, showing the extent of the storm on the day of the flight. Flight ground tracks are presented along with sample aerial photographs of the wave conditions showing approximate wavelength and direction. Sample wave energy spectra are presented both from the laser profilometer onboard the aircraft, and from the Corps of Engineers Research Center (CERC) shore gauge at Nags Head, North Carolina.

  17. Integration of coastal inundation modeling from storm tides to individual waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Roeber, Volker; Yamazaki, Yoshiki; Heitmann, Troy W.; Bai, Yefei; Cheung, Kwok Fai

    2014-11-01

    Modeling of storm-induced coastal inundation has primarily focused on the surge generated by atmospheric pressure and surface winds with phase-averaged effects of the waves as setup. Through an interoperable model package, we investigate the role of phase-resolving wave processes in simulation of coastal flood hazards. A spectral ocean wave model describes generation and propagation of storm waves from deep to intermediate water, while a non-hydrostatic storm-tide model has the option to couple with a spectral coastal wave model for computation of phase-averaged processes in a near-shore region. The ocean wave and storm-tide models can alternatively provide the wave spectrum and the surface elevation as the boundary and initial conditions for a nested Boussinesq model. Additional surface-gradient terms in the Boussinesq equations maintain the quasi-steady, non-uniform storm tide for modeling of phase-resolving surf and swash-zone processes as well as combined tide, surge, and wave inundation. The two nesting schemes are demonstrated through a case study of Hurricane Iniki, which made landfall on the Hawaiian Island of Kauai in 1992. With input from a parametric hurricane model and global reanalysis and tidal datasets, the two approaches produce comparable significant wave heights and phase-averaged surface elevations in the surf zone. The nesting of the Boussinesq model provides a seamless approach to augment the inundation due to the individual waves in matching the recorded debris line along the coast.

  18. Multivariate return periods of sea storms for coastal erosion risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Corbella

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The erosion of a beach depends on various storm characteristics. Ideally, the risk associated with a storm would be described by a single multivariate return period that is also representative of the erosion risk, i.e. a 100 yr multivariate storm return period would cause a 100 yr erosion return period. Unfortunately, a specific probability level may be associated with numerous combinations of storm characteristics. These combinations, despite having the same multivariate probability, may cause very different erosion outcomes. This paper explores this ambiguity problem in the context of copula based multivariate return periods and using a case study at Durban on the east coast of South Africa. Simulations were used to correlate multivariate return periods of historical events to return periods of estimated storm induced erosion volumes. In addition, the relationship of the most-likely design event (Salvadori et al., 2011 to coastal erosion was investigated. It was found that the multivariate return periods for wave height and duration had the highest correlation to erosion return periods. The most-likely design event was found to be an inadequate design method in its current form. We explore the inclusion of conditions based on the physical realizability of wave events and the use of multivariate linear regression to relate storm parameters to erosion computed from a process based model. Establishing a link between storm statistics and erosion consequences can resolve the ambiguity between multivariate storm return periods and associated erosion return periods.

  19. Storms do not alter long-term watershed development influences on coastal water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    A twelve year (2000 − 2011) study of three coastal lagoons in the Gulf of Mexico was conducted to assess the impacts of local watershed development and tropical storms on water quality. The lagoons have similar physical and hydrological characteristics, but differ substantially i...

  20. Recent Atlantic Hurricanes, Pacific Super Typhoons, and Tropical Storm Awareness in Underdeveloped Island and Coastal Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plondke, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricane Harvey was the first major hurricane to make landfall in the continental U.S. in 12 years. The next tropical storm in the 2017 Atlantic Hurricane Season was Hurricane Irma, a category 5 storm and the strongest storm to strike the U.S. mainland since Hurricane Wilma in 2005. These two storms were the third and fourth in a sequence of 10 consecutive storms to reach hurricane status in this season that ranks at least seventh among the most active seasons as measured by the Accumulate Cyclone Energy (ACE) index. Assessment of damage from Harvey may prove it to be the costliest storm in U.S. history, approaching $190 billion. Irma was the first category 5 hurricane to hit the Leeward Islands, devastating island environments including Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Barbuda, Saint Barthelemy, and Anguilla with sustained winds reaching at times 185 mph. Together with the two super typhoons of the 2017 Pacific season, Noru and Lan, the two Atlantic hurricanes rank among the strongest, longest-lasting tropical cyclones on record. How many more billions of dollars will be expended in recovery and reconstruction efforts following future mega-disasters comparable to those of Hurricanes Harvey and Irma? Particularly on Caribbean and tropical Pacific islands with specialized and underdeveloped economies, aging and substandard infrastructure often cannot even partially mitigate against the impacts of major hurricanes. The most frequently used measurements of storm impact are insufficient to assess the economic impact. Analysis of the storm tracks and periods of greatest storm intensity of Hurricanes Harvey and Irma, and Super Typhoons Lan and Noru, in spatial relationship with island and coastal administrative regions, shows that rainfall totals, flooded area estimates, and property/infrastructure damage dollar estimates are all quantitative indicators of storm impact, but do not measure the costs that result from lack of storm preparedness and education of residents

  1. Self-organization and forcing templates in coastal barrier response to storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, E.

    2015-12-01

    When a storm event pushes water up and over a coastal barrier, cross-shore flow transports sediment from the barrier face to the back-barrier environment. This natural physical process is called "overwash", and "washover" is the sedimentary deposit it forms. Overwash and washover support critical coastal habitats, and enable barriers to maintain their height and width relative to rising sea level. On developed barrier coasts, overwash constitutes a natural hazard, which sea-level rise will exacerbate. Overwash is also a prerequisite for barrier breaching and coastal flooding. Predicting occurrence and characteristics of overwash and washover has significant societal value. Hazard models typically assume that pre-storm barrier morphology determines how the barrier changes during a storm. However, classic work has documented the absence of a relationship between pre/post-storm topography in some cases, and has also identified rhythmic patterns in washover alongshore. Previous explanations for these spatial patterns have looked to forcing templates, forms that get imprinted in the barrier shape. An alternative explanation is that washover patterns self-organize, emerging from feedbacks between water flow and sediment transport. Self-organization and forcing templates are often framed as mutually exclusive, but patterns likely form across a continuum of conditions. Here, I use data from a new physical experiment to suggest that spatial patterns in washover can self-organize within the limit of a forcing template of some critical "strength", beyond which pre/post-storm morphologies are highly correlated. Quantifying spatial patterns in washover deposits opens exciting questions regarding coastal morphodynamic response to storms. Measurement of relative template strength over extended spatial (and temporal) scales has the potential to improve hazard assessment and prediction, particularly where template strength is low and self-organization dominates barrier change.

  2. Factors controlling storm impacts on coastal barriers and beaches - A preliminary basis for near real-time forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of ground conditions and meteorological and oceanographic parameters for some of the most severe Atlantic and Gulf Coast storms in the U.S. reveals the primary factors affecting morphological storm responses of beaches and barrier islands. The principal controlling factors are storm characteristics, geographic position relative to storm path, timing of storm events, duration of wave exposure, wind stress, degree of flow confinement, antecedent topography and geologic framework, sediment textures, vegetative cover, and type and density of coastal development. A classification of commonly observed storm responses demonstrates the sequential interrelations among (1) land elevations, (2) water elevations in the ocean and adjacent lagoon (if present), and (3) stages of rising water during the storm. The predictable coastal responses, in relative order from high frequency beach erosion to low frequency barrier inundation, include: beach erosion, berm migration, dune erosion, washover terrace construction, perched fan deposition, sheetwash, washover channel incision, washout formation, and forced and unforced ebb flow. Near real-time forecasting of expected storm impacts is possible if the following information is available for the coast: a detailed morphological and topographic characterization, accurate storm-surge and wave-runup models, the real-time reporting of storm parameters, accurate forecasts of the storm position relative to a particular coastal segment, and a conceptual model of geological processes that encompasses observed morphological changes caused by extreme storms.

  3. SLR-induced changes on storm flooding in coastal areas: the role of accommodation space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Jose A.; Dockx, Stijn; Monbaliu, Jaak

    2015-04-01

    Most of existing predictions of climate-induce changes in coastal storminess in the Mediterranean indicate the absence of any significant increasing trend in neither wave height nor surge. However, this does not mean that magnitude and/or frequency of storm-induced coastal hazards will not be affected by climate change. Thus, sea level rise will induce a series of long-term changes in coastal areas that although not directly affecting storminess will interact with storm-induced processes and, thus, changing coastal storm risks. A typical approach to account SLR-induced effects on coastal inundation by storms is to modify present water level extreme climate by adding expected MWL increase. This implies to consider the coast as a static and passive system to SLR maintaining its configuration from actual to projected (rised) sea level and, as a result of this, the frequency of flood events should increase and, the magnitude of flooding associated to a probability of occurrence will also increase. This will only be realistic for really passive or rigid coasts. However, sandy coastlines will response to SLR and, thus, this approach should undervalue coastal resilience. Within this context, the main aim of this work is to propose a method to assess the effects of SLR on the magnitude of storm-induced coastal flooding on sandy coastlines taking into account their capacity of response. It combines the use of a inundation model (LISFLOOD-FP) for delineating the flood-prone area for given storm conditions and, a coastal module to account for SLR-induced changes in the coastal fringe. The method assumes an equilibrium-type coastal response to SLR which, ideally, implies that the beach profile will be reconstructed under the new higher water level, in such a way that the relative beach configuration will be the same. However, this should only be possible provided there is enough accommodation space in the hinterland. In most of developed coasts, the existence of human built

  4. A Basis Function Approach to Simulate Storm Surge Events for Coastal Flood Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenyan; Westra, Seth; Leonard, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Storm surge is a significant contributor to flooding in coastal and estuarine regions, especially when it coincides with other flood producing mechanisms, such as extreme rainfall. Therefore, storm surge has always been a research focus in coastal flood risk assessment. Often numerical models have been developed to understand storm surge events for risk assessment (Kumagai et al. 2016; Li et al. 2016; Zhang et al. 2016) (Bastidas et al. 2016; Bilskie et al. 2016; Dalledonne and Mayerle 2016; Haigh et al. 2014; Kodaira et al. 2016; Lapetina and Sheng 2015), and assess how these events may change or evolve in the future (Izuru et al. 2015; Oey and Chou 2016). However, numeric models often require a lot of input information and difficulties arise when there are not sufficient data available (Madsen et al. 2015). Alternative, statistical methods have been used to forecast storm surge based on historical data (Hashemi et al. 2016; Kim et al. 2016) or to examine the long term trend in the change of storm surge events, especially under climate change (Balaguru et al. 2016; Oh et al. 2016; Rueda et al. 2016). In these studies, often the peak of surge events is used, which result in the loss of dynamic information within a tidal cycle or surge event (i.e. a time series of storm surge values). In this study, we propose an alternative basis function (BF) based approach to examine the different attributes (e.g. peak and durations) of storm surge events using historical data. Two simple two-parameter BFs were used: the exponential function and the triangular function. High quality hourly storm surge record from 15 tide gauges around Australia were examined. It was found that there are significantly location and seasonal variability in the peak and duration of storm surge events, which provides additional insights in coastal flood risk. In addition, the simple form of these BFs allows fast simulation of storm surge events and minimises the complexity of joint probability

  5. Storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, Keizo; Melrose, D.B.; Suzuki, S.

    1985-01-01

    At metre and decametre wavelengths long-lasting solar radio emission, consisting of thousands of short-lived spikes superimposed on a slowly varying continuum, is observed. This type of storm emission may continue for periods ranging from a few hours to several days; the long duration is one of the characteristics which distinguish storms from other types of solar radio emission. These events are called storms or noise storms by analogy with geomagnetic storms. (author)

  6. The Effect of Coastal Development on Storm Surge Flooding in Biscayne Bay, Florida, USA (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K.; Liu, H.; Li, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Barrier islands and associated bays along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts are a favorite place for both living and visiting. Many of them are vulnerable to storm surge flooding because of low elevations and constantly being subjected to the impacts of storms. The population increase and urban development along the barrier coast have altered the shoreline configuration, resulting in a dramatic change in the coastal flooding pattern in some areas. Here we present such a case based on numerical simulations of storm surge flooding caused by the1926 hurricane in the densely populated area surrounding Biscayne Bay in Miami, Florida. The construction of harbor and navigation channels, and the development of real estate and the roads connecting islands along Biscayne Bay have changed the geometry of Biscayne Bay since 1910s. Storm surge simulations show that the Port of Miami and Dodge Island constructed by human after 1950 play an important role in changing storm surge inundation pattern along Biscayne Bay. Dodge Island enhances storm surge and increases inundation in the area south of the island, especially at the mouth of Miami River (Downtown of Miami), and reduces storm surge flooding in the area north of the island, especially in Miami Beach. If the Hurricane Miami of 1926 happened today, the flooding area would be reduced by 55% and 20% in the Miami Beach and North Miami areas, respectively. Consequently, it would prevent 400 million of property and 10 thousand people from surge flooding according to 2010 U.S census and 2007 property tax data. Meanwhile, storm water would penetrate further inland south of Dodge Island and increase the flooding area by 25% in the Miami River and Downtown Miami areas. As a result, 200 million of property and five thousand people would be impacted by storm surge.

  7. Study of storm surge trends in typhoon-prone coastal areas based on observations and surge-wave coupled simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xingru; Li, Mingjie; Yin, Baoshu; Yang, Dezhou; Yang, Hongwei

    2018-06-01

    This is a study of the storm surge trends in some of the typhoon-prone coastal areas of China. An unstructured-grid, storm surge-wave-tide coupled model was established for the coastal areas of Zhejiang, Fujian and Guangdong provinces. The coupled model has a high resolution in coastal areas, and the simulated results compared well with the in situ observations and satellite altimeter data. The typhoon-induced storm surges along the coast of the study areas were simulated based on the established coupled model for the past 20 years (1997-2016). The simulated results were used to analyze the trends of the storm surges in the study area. The extreme storm surge trends along the central coast of Fujian Province reached up to 0.06 m/y, significant at the 90% confidence level. The duration of the storm surges greater than 1.0 and 0.7 m had an increasing trend along the coastal area of northern Fujian Province, significant at confidence levels of 70%-91%. The simulated trends of the extreme storm surges were also validated by observations from two tide gauge stations. Further studies show that the correlation coefficient (RTE) between the duration of the storm surge greater than 1 m and the annual ENSO index can reach as high as 0.62, significant at the 99% confidence level. This occurred in a location where the storm surge trend was not significant. For the areas with significant increasing storm surge trends, RTE was small and not significant. This study identified the storm surge trends for the full complex coastline of the study area. These results are useful both for coastal management by the government and for coastal engineering design.

  8. Storms do not alter long-term watershed development influences on coastal water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yushun; Cebrian, Just; Lehrter, John; Christiaen, Bart; Stutes, Jason; Goff, Josh

    2017-09-15

    A twelve year (2000-2011) study of three coastal lagoons in the Gulf of Mexico was conducted to assess the impacts of local watershed development and tropical storms on water quality. The lagoons have similar physical and hydrological characteristics, but differ substantially in the degree of watershed urban development and nutrient loading rates. In total the lagoons experienced 22 storm events during the period studied. Specifically, we examine (1) whether there are influences on water quality in the lagoons from watershed development, (2) whether there are influences on water quality in the lagoons from storm activity, and (3) whether water quality is affected to a greater degree by watershed development versus storm activity. The two urbanized lagoons typically showed higher water-column nitrate, dissolved organic nitrogen, and phosphate compared with the non-urbanized lagoon. One of the urbanized lagoons had higher water-column chlorophyll a concentrations than the other two lagoons on most sampling dates, and higher light extinction coefficients on some sampling dates. The non-urbanized lagoon had higher water-column dissolved oxygen concentrations than other lagoons on many sampling dates. Our results suggest long-term influences of watershed development on coastal water quality. We also found some evidence of significant storm effects on water quality, such as increased nitrate, phosphate, and dissolved oxygen, and decreased salinity and water temperature. However, the influences of watershed development on water quality were greater. These results suggest that changes in water quality induced by human watershed development pervade despite the storm effects. These findings may be useful for environmental management since they suggest that storms do not profoundly alter long-term changes in water quality that resulted from human development of watersheds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The analysis of dependence between extreme rainfall and storm surge in the coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, F.; Westra, S.

    2012-12-01

    Flooding in coastal catchments can be caused by runoff generated by an extreme rainfall event, elevated sea levels due to an extreme storm surge event, or the combination of both processes occurring simultaneously or in close succession. Dependence in extreme rainfall and storm surge arises because common meteorological forcings often drive both variables; for example, cyclonic systems may produce extreme rainfall, strong onshore winds and an inverse barometric effect simultaneously, which the former factor influencing catchment discharge and the latter two factors influencing storm surge. Nevertheless there is also the possibility that only one of the variables is extreme at any given time, so that the dependence between rainfall and storm surge is not perfect. Quantification of the strength of dependence between these processes is critical in evaluating the magnitude of flood risk in the coastal zone. This may become more important in the future as the majority of the coastal areas are threatened by the sea level rise due to the climate change. This research uses the most comprehensive record of rainfall and storm surge along the coastline of Australia collected to-date to investigate the strength of dependence between the extreme rainfall and storm surge along the Australia coastline. A bivariate logistic threshold-excess model was employed to this end to carry out the dependence analysis. The strength of the estimated dependence is then evaluated as a function of several factors including: the distance between the tidal gauge and the rain gauge; the lag between the extreme precipitation event and extreme surge event; and the duration of the maximum storm burst. The results show that the dependence between the extreme rainfall and storm surge along the Australia coastline is statistically significant, although some locations clearly exhibit stronger dependence than others. We hypothesize that this is due to a combination of large-scale meteorological effects as

  10. Potential Hydrodynamic Loads on Coastal Bridges in the Greater New York Area due to Extreme Storm Surge and Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-18

    This project makes a computer modeling study on vulnerability of coastal bridges in New York City (NYC) metropolitan region to storm surges and waves. Prediction is made for potential surges and waves in the region and consequent hydrodynamic load an...

  11. Variations of ULF wave power throughout the Halloween 2003 superstorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daglis, I.; Balasis, G.; Papadimitriou, C.; Zesta, E.; Georgiou, M.; Mann, I.

    2013-09-01

    Focused on the exceptional 2003 Halloween geospace magnetic storm, when Dst reached a minimum of -383 nT, we examine data from topside ionosphere and two magnetospheric missions (CHAMP, Cluster, and Geotail) for signatures of ULF waves. We present the overall ULF wave activity through the six-day interval from 27 October to 1 November 2003 as observed by the three spacecraft and by the Andenes ground magnetic station of the IMAGE magnetometerer array in terms of time variations of the ULF wave power. The ULF wave activity is divided upon Pc3 and Pc5 wave power. Thus, we provide different ULF wave activity indices according to the wave frequency (Pc3 and Pc5) and location of observation (Earth’s magnetosphere, topside ionosphere and surface). We also look at three specific intervals during different phases of the storm when at least two of the satellites are in good local time (LT) conjunction and examine separately Pc3 and Pc4-5 ULF wave activity and its concurrence in the different regions of the magnetosphere and down to the topside ionosphere and on the ground. This work has received support from the European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme under grant agreement no. 284520 for the MAARBLE (Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Energization and Loss) collaborative research project.

  12. Celebra Halloween de manera segura (Halloween: Have Fun and Stay Safe and Healthy)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-15

    Las celebraciones de Halloween son muy divertidas para los niños, pero enfermarse o lastimarse por esta causa no debe ser parte de la diversión. En este podcast para niños, los personajes de Kidtastics ofrecen algunos consejos sencillos para mantenerse seguro y saludable en Halloween.  Created: 10/15/2012 by CDC Office of Women’s Health.   Date Released: 10/15/2012.

  13. Deciphering storm-event runoff behavior in a coastal plain watershed using chemical and physical hydrograph separation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy Callahan; Austin E. Morrison

    2016-01-01

    Interpreting storm-event runoff in coastal plain watersheds is challenging because of the space- and time-variable nature of different sources that contribute to stream flow. These flow vectors and the magnitude of water flux is dependent on the pre-storm soil moisture (as estimated from depth to water table) in the lower coastal plain (LCP) region.

  14. Increasing risk of compound flooding from storm surge and rainfall for major US coastal cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Thomas; Jain, Shaleen; Bender, Jens; Meyers, Steven; Luther, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Flood risk is a well-known facet of natural hazards along the US coastline where nearly 40% of the population resides in coastal counties. Given the heavy reliance on the coastal zone for natural resources and economic activity, flood preparedness and safety is a key element of long-term resilience. A clear understanding of the various flood types and changes in the frequency of their occurrence is critical towards reliable estimates of vulnerability and potential impacts in the near-term as well as into the future. When the two main flood drivers for coastal areas storm surge and heavy precipitation occur in tandem the potential for significant flooding is much greater than from either in isolation. Exploring the probability of these 'compound events' and understanding the processes driving them is essential to mitigate the associated high impact risks. For the contiguous US the likelihood of the joint occurrence of the two phenomena is largely unknown. Here we show - using storm surge and precipitation records spanning the last century - that the risk of compound flooding is higher for the US east and Gulf coasts, relative to the west coast. We also show that the number of compound events has increased significantly over the last century along large coastline stretches including many of the major coastal cities. For New York City - as an example - this increase is attributed to a shift towards storm surge weather patterns also favouring high precipitation. Preliminary analyses reveal that these synoptic scale changes are closely linked to large scale and low frequency climate variations. Our results demonstrate the importance of assessing the risk of compound flooding within the design process of coastal and urban infrastructure in a non-stationary framework and to explore the potential effects of climate change on these high impact events.

  15. Halloween: Have Fun and Stay Safe and Healthy!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-25

    Halloween is a fun time for kids, but it's no fun if you get sick or hurt. In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics offer some simple ways to stay safe and healthy on Halloween.  Created: 10/25/2010 by CDC Office of Women’s Health.   Date Released: 10/25/2010.

  16. Education in Disguise: Sanctioning Sexuality in Elementary School Halloween Celebrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boas, Erica Misako

    2016-01-01

    Halloween as celebrated in US elementary schools provides a rare opportunity to explore the more tangible manifestations of sexuality. A time of celebration, Halloween is perceived as a festive event for children, being both "innocent" and fun. Yet, because it is the one school day where sexuality is on display, sexuality becomes a…

  17. Monitoring and simulation of salinity changes in response to tide and storm surges in a sandy coastal aquifer system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizer, S.; Karaoulis, M.C.; Oude Essink, G.H.P.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    Tidal dynamics and especially storm surges can have an extensive impact on coastal fresh groundwater resources. Combined with the prospect of sea-level rise and the reliance of many people on these resources, this demonstrates the need to assess the vulnerability of coastal areas to these threats.

  18. Challenges in Downscaling Surge and Flooding Predictions Associated with Major Coastal Storm Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal zone managers, elected officials and emergency planning personnel are continually seeking more reliable estimates of storm surge and inundation for better land use planning, the design, construction and operation of coastal defense systems, resilience evaluation and evacuation planning. Customers of modern regional weather and storm surge prediction models demand high resolution, speed, accuracy, with informative, interactive graphics and easy evaluation of potentially dangerous threats to life and property. These challenges continue to get more difficult as the demand for street-scale and even building-scale predictions increase. Fluctuations in sub-grid-scale wind and water velocities can lead to unsuspected, unanticipated and dangerous flooding in local communities. But how reliable and believable are these models given the inherent natural uncertainty and chaotic behavior in the underlying dynamics, which can lead to rapid and unexpected perturbations in the wind and pressure fields and hence coastal flooding? Traditionally this uncertainty has been quantified by the use of the ensemble method, where a suite of model runs are made with varying physics and initial conditions, presenting the mean and variance of the ensemble as the best metrics possible. But this assumes that each component is equally possible and is statistically independent of the others. But this is rarely true, although the "safety in numbers" approach is comforting to those faced with life and death decisions. An example of the ensemble method is presented for the trajectory of superstorm Sandy's storm center as it approached coastal New Jersey. If one were to ask the question "was Sandy a worst case scenario", the answer would be "no: small variations in the timing (vis-à-vis tide phase) and location of landfall could easily have led to an additional surge of +50 cm at The Battery NY with even more catastrophic consequences to those experienced".

  19. Risks of Coastal Storm Surge and the Effect of Sea Level Rise in the Red River Delta, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Neumann, James; Ludwig, Lindsay; Verly, Caroleen; Emanuel, Kerry Andrew; Ravela, Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the impact of sea level rise and storm surge on the Red River delta region of Vietnam an area already known to be highly vulnerable to coastal risks. By combining a range of sea level rise scenarios for 2050 with the simulated storm surge level for the 100-year storm surge, we analyze permanently inundated lands and temporary flood zones. As is well-established in the literature, sea level rise will increase the risk of storms by raising the base sea level from which surg...

  20. Extreme storms, sea level rise, and coastal change: implications for infrastructure reliability in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anarde, K.; Kameshwar, S.; Irza, N.; Lorenzo-Trueba, J.; Nittrouer, J. A.; Padgett, J.; Bedient, P. B.

    2016-12-01

    Predicting coastal infrastructure reliability during hurricane events is important for risk-based design and disaster planning, such as delineating viable emergency response routes. Previous research has focused on either infrastructure vulnerability to coastal flooding or the impact of changing sea level and landforms on surge dynamics. Here we investigate the combined impact of sea level, morphology, and coastal flooding on the reliability of highway bridges - the only access points between barrier islands and mainland communities - during future extreme storms. We forward model coastal flooding for static projections of geomorphic change using ADCIRC+SWAN. First-order parameters that are adjusted include sea level and elevation. These are varied for each storm simulation to evaluate relative impact on the reliability of bridges surrounding Freeport, TX. Simulated storms include both synthetic and historical events, which are classified by intensity using the storm's integrated kinetic energy, a metric for surge generation potential. Reliability is estimated through probability of failure - given wave and surge loads - and time inundated. Findings include that: 1) bridge reliability scales inversely with surge height, and 2) sea level rise reduces bridge reliability due to a monotonic increase in surge height. The impact of a shifting landscape on bridge reliability is more complex: barrier island rollback can increase or decrease inundation times for storms of different intensity due to changes in wind-setup and back-barrier bay interactions. Initial storm surge readily inundates the coastal landscape during large intensity storms, however the draining of inland bays following storm passage is significantly impeded by the barrier. From a coastal engineering standpoint, we determine that to protect critical infrastructure, efforts now implemented that nourish low-lying barriers may be enhanced by also armoring back-bay coastlines and elevating bridge approach

  1. Hydrodynamic Based Decision Making Framework for Impact Assessment of Extreme Storm Events on Coastal Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, R.; Miller, K.; Hurler, C.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal and inland flooding has been a problematic occurrence, specifically over the past century. Global warming has caused an 8 inch sea level rise since 1990, which made the coastal flood zone wider, deeper and more damaging. Additionally, riverine flooding is extremely damaging to the country's substructure and economy as well which causes river banks to overflow, inundating low-lying areas. New Jersey and New York are two areas at severe risk for flood hazard, sea level rise, land depletion and economic loss which are the main study area of this work. A decision making framework is being built to help mitigate the impacts of the environmental and economical dangers of storm surges, sea level rise, flashfloods and inland flooding. With vigorous research and the use of innovative hydrologic modeling software, this tool can be built and utilized to form resiliency for coastal communities. This will allow the individuals living in a coastal community to understand the details of climatic hazards in their area and risks associated to their communities. This tool will also suggest the best solution for the problem each community faces. Atlantic City and New York City has been modeled and compared using potential storm events and the outcomes have been analyzed. The tool offers all the possible solutions for the type of flooding that occurs. Green infrastructure such as rain gardens, detention basins and green roofs can be used as small scale solutions. Greater scale solutions such as removable flood barriers, concrete walls and height adjustable walls will also be displayed if that poses as the best solution. The results and benefits from the simulation and modeling techniques, will allow coastal communities to choose the most appropriate method for building a long lasting and sustainable resilience plan in the future.

  2. Risks of Coastal Storm Surge and the Effect of Sea Level Rise in the Red River Delta, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E. Neumann

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the impact of sea level rise and storm surge on the Red River delta region of Vietnam. Permanently inundated lands and temporary flood zones are analyzed by combining sea level rise scenarios for 2050 with simulated storm surge levels for the 100-year event. Our analysis finds that sea level rise through 2050 could increase the effective frequency of the current 100-year storm surge, which is associated with a storm surge of roughly five meters, to once every 49 years. Approximately 10% of the Hanoi region’s GDP is vulnerable to permanent inundation due to sea level rise, and more than 40% is vulnerable to periodic storm surge damage consistent with the current 100-year storm. We conclude that coastal adaptation measures, such as a planned retreat from the sea, and construction of a more substantial seawall and dike system, are needed to respond to these threats.

  3. Concentration-Discharge Responses to Storm Events in Coastal California Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Rosana; Melack, John M.

    2018-01-01

    Storm events in montane catchments are the main cause of mobilization of solutes and particulates into and within stream channels in coastal California. Nonlinear behavior of nutrients and suspended sediments during storms is evident in the hysteresis that arises in concentration-discharge (C-Q) relationships. We examined patterns in the C-Q hysteresis of nutrients (NO3-, NH4+, DON, and PO43-) and total suspended solids (TSS) during storms across 10 sites and water years 2002-2015 by quantifying the slope of the C-Q relationship and the rotational pattern of the hysteresis loop. We observed several hysteresis types in the ˜400 storms included in our study. Concentrations of constituents associated with sediment transport (PO43- and TSS) peaked during high flows. Conversely, nitrogen species had hysteretic responses such as dilution with clockwise rotation in urban sites and enrichment with anticlockwise rotation in undeveloped sites. The wide range of C-Q responses that occurred among sites and seasons reflected the variable hydrological and biogeochemical characteristics of catchments and storms. Responses for nitrate in nested catchments differed in slope and rotation of C-Q hysteresis. Upland undeveloped and lowland urban sites had anticlockwise rotation at the onset of the rainy season following a dry year, which implied a delay in the transport of this solute to the streams. Slopes by the middle of the rainy season showed that the urban site switched from dilution to enrichment, and then again to dilution with clockwise rotation at the end of the season, which implied high initial concentrations and proximal sources.

  4. Development of the Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) for predicting the impact of storms on high-energy, active-margin coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick; Maarten van Ormondt,; Erikson, Li H.; Jodi Eshleman,; Hapke, Cheryl J.; Peter Ruggiero,; Peter Adams,; Foxgrover, Amy C.

    2014-01-01

    The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) applies a predominantly deterministic framework to make detailed predictions (meter scale) of storm-induced coastal flooding, erosion, and cliff failures over large geographic scales (100s of kilometers). CoSMoS was developed for hindcast studies, operational applications (i.e., nowcasts and multiday forecasts), and future climate scenarios (i.e., sea-level rise + storms) to provide emergency responders and coastal planners with critical storm hazards information that may be used to increase public safety, mitigate physical damages, and more effectively manage and allocate resources within complex coastal settings. The prototype system, developed for the California coast, uses the global WAVEWATCH III wave model, the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite altimetry-based global tide model, and atmospheric-forcing data from either the US National Weather Service (operational mode) or Global Climate Models (future climate mode), to determine regional wave and water-level boundary conditions. These physical processes are dynamically downscaled using a series of nested Delft3D-WAVE (SWAN) and Delft3D-FLOW (FLOW) models and linked at the coast to tightly spaced XBeach (eXtreme Beach) cross-shore profile models and a Bayesian probabilistic cliff failure model. Hindcast testing demonstrates that, despite uncertainties in preexisting beach morphology over the ~500 km alongshore extent of the pilot study area, CoSMoS effectively identifies discrete sections of the coast (100s of meters) that are vulnerable to coastal hazards under a range of current and future oceanographic forcing conditions, and is therefore an effective tool for operational and future climate scenario planning.

  5. Identification of the Halloween Effect in Swedish Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Lind, Oskar; Uddin, Md Rayhan

    2013-01-01

    Our thesis researches the Halloween effects in the Swedish stock market from a sector perspective. The notion Halloween effect refers to higher returns during the period November until April than the period May until October. The anomaly has been confirmed by previous researchers in Sweden among other countries. There has not been any definite explanation for this anomaly. The majority of explanations base on the assumption that the anomaly is a market wide and induced by changes in investmen...

  6. Lower survival probabilities for adult Florida manatees in years with intense coastal storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langtimm, C.A.; Beck, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    The endangered Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) inhabits the subtropical waters of the southeastern United States, where hurricanes are a regular occurrence. Using mark-resighting statistical models, we analyzed 19 years of photo-identification data and detected significant annual variation in adult survival for a subpopulation in northwest Florida where human impact is low. That variation coincided with years when intense hurricanes (Category 3 or greater on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale) and a major winter storm occurred in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Mean survival probability during years with no or low intensity storms was 0.972 (approximate 95% confidence interval = 0.961-0.980) but dropped to 0.936 (0.864-0.971) in 1985 with Hurricanes Elena, Kate, and Juan; to 0.909 (0.837-0.951) in 1993 with the March "Storm of the Century"; and to 0.817 (0.735-0.878) in 1995 with Hurricanes Opal, Erin, and Allison. These drops in survival probability were not catastrophic in magnitude and were detected because of the use of state-of-the-art statistical techniques and the quality of the data. Because individuals of this small population range extensively along the north Gulf coast of Florida, it was possible to resolve storm effects on a regional scale rather than the site-specific local scale common to studies of more sedentary species. This is the first empirical evidence in support of storm effects on manatee survival and suggests a cause-effect relationship. The decreases in survival could be due to direct mortality, indirect mortality, and/or emigration from the region as a consequence of storms. Future impacts to the population by a single catastrophic hurricane, or series of smaller hurricanes, could increase the probability of extinction. With the advent in 1995 of a new 25- to 50-yr cycle of greater hurricane activity, and longer term change possible with global climate change, it becomes all the more important to reduce mortality and injury

  7. Analysis of Tide and Offshore Storm-Induced Water Table Fluctuations for Structural Characterization of a Coastal Island Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trglavcnik, Victoria; Morrow, Dean; Weber, Kela P.; Li, Ling; Robinson, Clare E.

    2018-04-01

    Analysis of water table fluctuations can provide important insight into the hydraulic properties and structure of a coastal aquifer system including the connectivity between the aquifer and ocean. This study presents an improved approach for characterizing a permeable heterogeneous coastal aquifer system through analysis of the propagation of the tidal signal, as well as offshore storm pulse signals through a coastal aquifer. Offshore storms produce high wave activity, but are not necessarily linked to significant onshore precipitation. In this study, we focused on offshore storm events during which no onshore precipitation occurred. Extensive groundwater level data collected on a sand barrier island (Sable Island, NS, Canada) show nonuniform discontinuous propagation of the tide and offshore storm pulse signals through the aquifer with isolated inland areas showing enhanced response to both oceanic forcing signals. Propagation analysis suggests that isolated inland water table fluctuations may be caused by localized leakage from a confined aquifer that is connected to the ocean offshore but within the wave setup zone. Two-dimensional groundwater flow simulations were conducted to test the leaky confined-unconfined aquifer conceptualization and to identify the effect of key parameters on tidal signal propagation in leaky confined-unconfined coastal aquifers. This study illustrates that analysis of offshore storm signal propagation, in addition to tidal signal propagation, provides a valuable and low resource approach for large-scale characterization of permeable heterogeneous coastal aquifers. Such an approach is needed for the effective management of coastal environments where water resources are threatened by human activities and the changing climate.

  8. Sele coastal plain flood risk due to wave storm and river flow interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassai, Guido; Aucelli, Pietro; Di Paola, Gianluigi; Della Morte, Renata; Cozzolino, Luca; Rizzo, Angela

    2016-04-01

    Wind waves, elevated water levels and river discharge can cause flooding in low-lying coastal areas, where the water level is the interaction between wave storm elevated water levels and river flow interaction. The factors driving the potential flood risk include weather conditions, river water stage and storm surge. These data are required to obtain inputs to run the hydrological model used to evaluate the water surface level during ordinary and extreme events regarding both the fluvial overflow and storm surge at the river mouth. In this paper we studied the interaction between the sea level variation and the river hydraulics in order to assess the location of the river floods in the Sele coastal plain. The wave data were acquired from the wave buoy of Ponza, while the water level data needed to assess the sea level variation were recorded by the tide gauge of Salerno. The water stages, river discharges and rating curves for Sele river were provided by Italian Hydrographic Service (Servizio Idrografico e Mareografico Nazionale, SIMN).We used the dataset of Albanella station (40°29'34.30"N, 15°00'44.30"E), located around 7 km from the river mouth. The extreme river discharges were evaluated through the Weibull equation, which were associated with their return period (TR). The steady state river water levels were evaluated through HEC-RAS 4.0 model, developed by Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC) of the United States Army Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Center (USACE,2006). It is a well-known 1D model that computes water surface elevation (WSE) and velocity at discrete cross-sections by solving continuity, energy and flow resistance (e.g., Manning) equation. Data requirements for HEC-RAS include topographic information in the form of a series of cross-sections, friction parameter in the form of Manning's n values across each cross-section, and flow data including flow rates, flow change locations, and boundary conditions. For a steady state sub

  9. A socioeconomic assessment of climate change-enhanced coastal storm hazards in the U.S. Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, H. M.; Ruggiero, P.; Harris, E.

    2010-12-01

    Every winter, coastal communities in the U.S. Pacific Northwest are at risk to coastal change hazards caused by extreme storm events. These storms have the potential to erode large portions of the primary foredune that may be a community’s only barrier from the ocean. Furthermore, the frequency and magnitude of significant erosion events appears to be increasing, likely due to climate-related processes such as sea level rise and increases in storm wave heights. To reduce risks posed by winter storms, it is not only important to determine the impending physical impacts but it is also necessary to explore the vulnerability of the social-ecological system in the context of these hazards. Here we assess the exposure to both annually occurring and extreme storm events at various planning timelines using a methodology that incorporates the effect of a variable and changing climate on future total water levels. To do this, we have developed a suite of climate change scenarios involving a range of projections for the wave climate, global sea level rise, and the occurrence of El Niño events through 2100. Simple geometric models are then used to conservatively determine the extent of erosion that may occur for a given combination of these climatic factors. We integrate the physical hazards with socioeconomic data using a geographic information system (GIS) in order to quantify societal vulnerability, characterized by the exposure and sensitivity of a community, which is based on the distribution of people, property, and resources. Here we focus on a 14 km stretch of dune-backed coast in northwest Oregon, from Cascade Head to Cape Kiwanda—the location of two communities that, historically, have experienced problematic storm-induced coastal change, Pacific City and Neskowin. Although both of these communities have similar exposure to coastal change hazards at the present, Neskowin is more than twice as sensitive to erosion because almost all of its residents and community

  10. Multi-scale variability of storm Ophelia 2017: The importance of synchronised environmental variables in coastal impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guisado-Pintado, Emilia; Jackson, Derek W T

    2018-07-15

    Low frequency, high magnitude storm events can dramatically alter coastlines, helping to relocate large volumes of sediments and changing the configuration of landforms. Increases in the number of intense cyclones occurring in the Northern Hemisphere since the 1970s is evident with more northward tracking patterns developing. This brings added potential risk to coastal environments and infrastructure in northwest Europe and therefore understanding how these high-energy storms impact sandy coasts in particular is important for future management. This study highlights the evolution of Storm (formally Hurricane) Ophelia in October 2017 as it passed up and along the western seaboard of Ireland. The largest ever recorded Hurricane to form in the eastern Atlantic, we describe, using a range of environmental measurements and wave modelling, its track and intensity over its duration whilst over Ireland. The impact on a stretch of sandy coast in NW Ireland during Storm Ophelia, when the winds were at their peak, is examined using terrestrial laser scanning surveys pre- and post-storm to describe local changes of intertidal and dune edge dynamics. During maximum wind conditions (>35 knots) waves no >2m were recorded with an oblique to parallel orientation and coincident with medium to low tide (around 0.8m). Therefore, we demonstrate that anticipated widespread coastal erosion and damage may not always unfold as predicted. In fact, around 6000m 3 of net erosion occurred along the 420m stretch of coastline with maximum differences in beach topographic changes of 0.8m. The majority of the sediment redistribution occurred within the intertidal and lower beach zone with some limited dune trimming in the southern section (10% of the total erosion). Asynchronous high water (tide levels), localised offshore winds as well as coastline orientation relative to the storm winds and waves plays a significant role in reducing coastal erosional impact. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All

  11. Coastal Storm Surge Analysis: Modeling System Validation. Report 4: Intermediate Submission No. 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Hurricane Isabel, Hurricane Ernesto, and Extratropical Storm Ida. Model skill was accessed by quantitative comparison of model output to wind, wave...25. Extratropical Storm Nor’Ida maximum wind speeds. ......................................................... 41  Figure 26. Extratropical Storm ...Nor’Ida wind validation stations. ........................................................ 42  Figure 27. Comparisons of Extratropical Storm Nor’Ida wind

  12. Probabilistic Forecasting of Coastal Morphodynamic Storm Response at Fire Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K.; Adams, P. N.; Hapke, C. J.; Lentz, E. E.; Brenner, O.

    2013-12-01

    Site-specific probabilistic models of shoreline change are useful because they are derived from direct observations so that local factors, which greatly influence coastal response, are inherently considered by the model. Fire Island, a 50-km barrier island off Long Island, New York, is periodically subject to large storms, whose waves and storm surge dramatically alter beach morphology. Nor'Ida, which impacted the Fire Island coast in 2009, was one of the larger storms to occur in the early 2000s. In this study, we improve upon a Bayesian Network (BN) model informed with historical data to predict shoreline change from Nor'Ida. We present two BN models, referred to as 'original' model (BNo) and 'revised' model (BNr), designed to predict the most probable magnitude of net shoreline movement (NSM), as measured at 934 cross-shore transects, spanning 46 km. Both are informed with observational data (wave impact hours, shoreline and dune toe change rates, pre-storm beach width, and measured NSM) organized within five nodes, but the revised model contains a sixth node to represent the distribution of material added during an April 2009 nourishment project. We evaluate model success by examining the percentage of transects on which the model chooses the correct (observed) bin value of NSM. Comparisons of observed to model-predicted NSM show BNr has slightly higher predictive success over the total study area and significantly higher success at nourished locations. The BNo, which neglects anthropogenic modification history, correctly predicted the most probable NSM in 66.6% of transects, with ambiguous prediction at 12.7% of the locations. BNr, which incorporates anthropogenic modification history, resulted in 69.4% predictive accuracy and 13.9% ambiguity. However, across nourished transects, BNr reported 72.9% predictive success, while BNo reported 61.5% success. Further, at nourished transects, BNr reported higher ambiguity of 23.5% compared to 9.9% in BNo. These results

  13. How sea level rise and storm climate impact the looming morpho-economic bubble in coastal property value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, D.; Keeler, A.; Smith, M.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Murray, A.

    2012-12-01

    In the United States, the coastal region is now the most densely populated zone in the country and as a result has become a significant source of tax revenue and has some of the highest property values in the country. The loss of land at the coastline from erosion and damage to property from storms has always been a source of vulnerability to coastal economies. To manage this vulnerability, humans have long engaged in the act of nourishing the coastline - placing sand, typically from offshore sources, onto the beach to widen the beach and increase the height of dunes. As humans alter natural coastal dynamics by nourishing, the altered natural dynamics then influence future beach management decisions. In this way human-occupied coastlines are a strongly coupled dynamical system and because of this coupling, the act of nourishment has become an intrinsic part of the economic value of a coastline. Predictions of increased rates of sea level rise and changing storminess suggest that coastal vulnerability is likely to increase. The evolving vulnerability of the coast has already caused changes to occur in the way humans manage the coastline. For example, the federal government has recently reduced subsidies to help coastal communities nourish their beaches. With a future of changing environmental forcing from sea level and storms, the prospect of changes in nourishment cost could have profound consequences on coastal value and sustainability. We utilize two modeling approaches to investigate how disappearing nourishment subsidies reduce coastal property value and to explore the potential for a bubble and subsequent crash in coastal property value as subsidies dwindle and vulnerability rises. The first model is an optimal control model that couples a cost benefit analysis to coastline dynamics. In the second model, we couple a numerical coastline model with an agent-based model for real estate markets. Results from both models suggest the total present value of coastal

  14. Purple pitcher plant (Sarracenia rosea Dieback and partial community disassembly following experimental storm surge in a coastal pitcher plant bog.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Abbott

    Full Text Available Sea-level rise and frequent intense hurricanes associated with climate change will result in recurrent flooding of inland systems such as Gulf Coastal pitcher plant bogs by storm surges. These surges can transport salt water and sediment to freshwater bogs, greatly affecting their biological integrity. Purple pitcher plants (Sarracenia rosea are Gulf Coast pitcher plant bog inhabitants that could be at a disadvantage under this scenario because their pitcher morphology may leave them prone to collection of saline water and sediment after a surge. We investigated the effects of storm surge water salinity and sediment type on S. rosea vitality, plant community structure, and bog soil-water conductivity. Plots (containing ≥1 ramet of S. rosea were experimentally flooded with fresh or saline water crossed with one of three sediment types (local, foreign, or no sediment. There were no treatment effects on soil-water conductivity; nevertheless, direct exposure to saline water resulted in significantly lower S. rosea cover until the following season when a prescribed fire and regional drought contributed to the decline of all the S. rosea to near zero percent cover. There were also significant differences in plant community structure between treatments over time, reflecting how numerous species increased in abundance and a few species decreased in abundance. However, in contrast to S. rosea, most of the other species in the community appeared resilient to the effects of storm surge. Thus, although the community may be somewhat affected by storm surge, those few species that are particularly sensitive to the storm surge disturbance will likely drop out of the community and be replaced by more resilient species. Depending on the longevity of these biological legacies, Gulf Coastal pitcher plant bogs may be incapable of fully recovering if they become exposed to storm surge more frequently due to climate change.

  15. Monitoring duration and extent of storm-surge and flooding in Western Coastal Louisiana marshes with Envisat ASAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, E.; Lu, Z.; Suzuoki, Y.; Rangoonwala, A.; Werle, D.

    2011-01-01

    Inundation maps of coastal marshes in western Louisiana were created with multitemporal Envisat Advanced Synthetic Aperture (ASAR) scenes collected before and during the three months after Hurricane Rita landfall in September 2005. Corroborated by inland water-levels, 7 days after landfall, 48% of coastal estuarine and palustrine marshes remained inundated by storm-surge waters. Forty-five days after landfall, storm-surge inundated 20% of those marshes. The end of the storm-surge flooding was marked by an abrupt decrease in water levels following the passage of a storm front and persistent offshore winds. A complementary dramatic decrease in flood extent was confirmed by an ASAR-derived inundation map. In nonimpounded marshes at elevations ;80 cm during the first month after Rita landfall. After this initial period, drainage from marshes-especially impounded marshes-was hastened by the onset of offshore winds. Following the abrupt drops in inland water levels and flood extent, rainfall events coinciding with increased water levels were recorded as inundation re-expansion. This postsurge flooding decreased until only isolated impounded and palustrine marshes remained inundated. Changing flood extents were correlated to inland water levels and largely occurred within the same marsh regions. Trends related to incremental threshold increases used in the ASAR change-detection analyses seemed related to the preceding hydraulic and hydrologic events, and VV and HH threshold differences supported their relationship to the overall wetland hydraulic condition.

  16. Building Coastal Resilience to sea-level rise and storm hazards: supporting decisions in the NE USA, Gulf of Mexico, and eastern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, C.; Beck, M. W.; Gilmer, B.; Ferdana, Z.; Raber, G.; Agostini, V.; Whelchel, A.; Stone, J.

    2012-12-01

    Coastal communities are increasingly vulnerable to coastal hazards including storm surge and sea level rise. We describe the use of Coastal Resilience, an approach to help support decisions to reduce socio-economic and ecological vulnerability to coastal hazards. We provide examples of this work from towns and cities around Long Island Sound (NY, CT) and the Gulf of Mexico (FL, AL, MS, LA, TX) in the USA and from the Eastern Caribbean (Grenada, St. Vincent and the Grenadines). All of these shores are densely populated and have significant coastal development only centimetres above the sea. This makes people and property very vulnerable and threatens coastal wetlands (marsh, mangrove) and reefs (oyster, coral) that provide habitat and natural buffers to storms while providing other ecosystem services. We describe this work specifically and then offer broader perspectives and recommendations for using ecological habitats to reduce vulnerability to coastal hazards. The Nature Conservancy's Coastal Resilience approach is driven by extensive community engagement and uses spatial information on storm surge, sea level rise, ecological and socio-economic variables to identify options for reducing the vulnerability of human and natural communities to coastal hazards (http://www.coastalresilience.org). We have worked with local communities to map current and future coastal hazards and to identify the vulnerable natural resources and human communities. Communities are able to visualize potential hazard impacts and identify options to reduce them within their existing planning and regulatory frameworks.

  17. Coastal flooding: impact of waves on storm surge during extremes – a case study for the German Bight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Staneva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the impact of wind, waves, tidal forcing and baroclinicity on the sea level of the German Bight during extreme storm events. The role of wave-induced processes, tides and baroclinicity is quantified, and the results are compared with in situ measurements and satellite data. A coupled high-resolution modelling system is used to simulate wind waves, the water level and the three-dimensional hydrodynamics. The models used are the wave model WAM and the circulation model GETM. The two-way coupling is performed via the OASIS3-MCT coupler. The effects of wind waves on sea level variability are studied, accounting for wave-dependent stress, wave-breaking parameterization and wave-induced effects on vertical mixing. The analyses of the coupled model results reveal a closer match with observations than for the stand-alone circulation model, especially during the extreme storm Xaver in December 2013. The predicted surge of the coupled model is significantly enhanced during extreme storm events when considering wave–current interaction processes. This wave-dependent approach yields a contribution of more than 30 % in some coastal areas during extreme storm events. The contribution of a fully three-dimensional model compared with a two-dimensional barotropic model showed up to 20 % differences in the water level of the coastal areas of the German Bight during Xaver. The improved skill resulting from the new developments justifies further use of the coupled-wave and three-dimensional circulation models in coastal flooding predictions.

  18. Modelling the effects of tides and storm surges on coastal aquifers using a coupled surface-subsurface approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Graf, Thomas; Herold, Maria; Ptak, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    Coastal aquifers are complex hydrologic systems because many physical processes interact: (i) variably saturated flow, (ii) spatial-temporal fluid density variations, (iii) tidal fluctuations, (iv) storm surges overtopping dykes, and (v) surface runoff of storm water. The HydroGeoSphere model is used to numerically simulate coastal flow dynamics, assuming a fully coupled surface-subsurface approach, accounting for all processes listed above. The diffusive wave approximation of the St. Venant equation is used to describe surface flow. Surface flow and salt transport are fully coupled with subsurficial variably saturated, variable-density flow and salt transport through mathematical terms that represent exchange of fluid mass and solute mass, respectively. Tides and storm surges induce a time-variant head that is applied to nodes of the surface domain. The approach is applied to real cases of tide and storm surge events. Tide simulation results confirm the existence of a recirculating zone, forming beneath the upper part of the intertidal zone. By monitoring the exchange fluid flux rates through the beach, it was found that the major inflow to the aquifer takes place at the upper part of the intertidal zone, which explains the formation of the recirculating zone. The recirculating zone is forming particularly during rising tide. Results from a storm surge simulation show that plume fingers develop below the flooded land surface. Natural remediation by seaward flowing freshwater is relatively slow, such that reducing the salt concentration in the aquifer down to drinking water standards takes up to 10 years. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of performance interdependencies on structural vulnerability: A systems perspective of storm surge risk to coastal residential communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatzikyriakou, Adam; Lin, Ning

    2017-01-01

    Interaction between residential structures during natural hazards can lead to interdependencies in their performance. During storm surge, for example, structures can affect the performance of inland buildings by generating damaging waterborne debris or by beneficially dampening surge loads. Quantifying the impact of this interaction on structural vulnerability is critical for risk assessment and informed decision-making. In this study we present and implement two general modeling approaches for investigating such interdependencies. The first method is to condition the vulnerability of a structure on the performance of neighboring buildings using a Markov model. The second uses a marginal model to account for correlation between damage observations when estimating a structure's vulnerability to the hazard. Both approaches are implemented using a case study of an impacted coastal community during Hurricane Sandy (2012). Findings indicate that a structure's performance during storm surge is strongly dependent on the damage state of the structure immediately seaward. Furthermore, considering the correlated damage states of buildings increases statistical uncertainty when relating structural performance to hazard intensity. Motivated by these findings, we propose a more coordinated approach to coastal risk mitigation which considers the effects of interdependencies on insurance pricing, structural design, mitigation strategies and community resilience. - Highlights: • Interaction between residential structures leads to performance interdependencies. • Interdependencies during storm surge are due to debris and structural shielding. • Markov model treats interdependencies as an additional demand parameter. • Marginal model incorporates damage correlation into regression estimation. • System behavior should be considered in community risk and resilience.

  20. Hurricane storm surge and amphibian communities in coastal wetlands of northwestern Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunzburger, M.S.; Hughes, W.B.; Barichivich, W.J.; Staiger, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Isolated wetlands in the Southeastern United States are dynamic habitats subject to fluctuating environmental conditions. Wetlands located near marine environments are subject to alterations in water chemistry due to storm surge during hurricanes. The objective of our study was to evaluate the effect of storm surge overwash on wetland amphibian communities. Thirty-two wetlands in northwestern Florida were sampled over a 45-month period to assess amphibian species richness and water chemistry. During this study, seven wetlands were overwashed by storm surge from Hurricane Dennis which made landfall 10 July 2005 in the Florida panhandle. This event allowed us to evaluate the effect of storm surge overwash on water chemistry and amphibian communities of the wetlands. Specific conductance across all wetlands was low pre-storm (marine habitats are resistant to the effects of storm surge overwash. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  1. Characterizing Storm Event Dynamics of a Forested Watershed in the Lower Atlantic Coastal Plain, South Carolina USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre Torres, I. B.; Amatya, D. M.; Callahan, T. J.; Levine, N. S.

    2007-12-01

    Hydrology research in the Southeast U.S. has primarily focused on upland mountainous areas; however, much less is known about hydrological processes in Lower Coastal Plain (LCP) watersheds. Such watersheds are difficult to characterize due to shallow water table conditions, low topographic gradient, complex surface- subsurface water interaction, and lack of detailed soil information. Although opportunities to conduct long term monitoring in relatively undeveloped watersheds are often limited, stream flow and rainfall in the Turkey Creek watershed (third-order watershed, about 7200 ha in the Francis Marion National Forest near Charleston, SC) have been monitored since 1964. In this study, event runoff-rainfall ratios have been determined for 51 storm events using historical data from 1964-1973. One of our objectives was to characterize relationships between seasonal event rainfall and storm outflow in this watershed. To this end, observed storm event data were compared with values predicted by established hydrological methods such as the Soil Conservation Service runoff curve number (SCS-CN) and the rational method integrated within a Geographical Information System (GIS), to estimate total event runoff and peak discharge, respectively. Available 1:15000 scale aerial images were digitized to obtain land uses, which were used with the SCS soil hydrologic groups to obtain the runoff coefficients (C) for the rational method and the CN values for the SCS-CN method. These methods are being tested with historical storm event responses in the Turkey Creek watershed scale, and then will be used to predict event runoff in Quinby Creek, an ungauged third-order watershed (8700 ha) adjacent to Turkey Creek. Successful testing with refinement of parameters in the rational method and SCS-CN method, both designed for small urban and agricultural dominated watersheds, may allow widespread application of these methods for studying the event rainfall-runoff dynamics for similar

  2. Using Bayesian Network as a tool for coastal storm flood impact prediction at Varna Bay (Bulgaria, Western Black Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valchev, Nikolay; Eftimova, Petya; Andreeva, Nataliya; Prodanov, Bogdan

    2017-04-01

    Coastal zone is among the fastest evolving areas worldwide. Ever increasing population inhabiting coastal settlements develops often conflicting economic and societal activities. The existing imbalance between the expansion of these activities, on one hand, and the potential to accommodate them in a sustainable manner, on the other, becomes a critical problem. Concurrently, coasts are affected by various hydro-meteorological phenomena such as storm surges, heavy seas, strong winds and flash floods, which intensities and occurrence frequency is likely to increase due to the climate change. This implies elaboration of tools capable of quick prediction of impact of those phenomena on the coast and providing solutions in terms of disaster risk reduction measures. One such tool is Bayesian network. Proposed paper describes the set-up of such network for Varna Bay (Bulgaria, Western Black Sea). It relates near-shore storm conditions to their onshore flood potential and ultimately to relevant impact as relative damage on coastal and manmade environment. Methodology for set-up and training of the Bayesian network was developed within RISC-KIT project (Resilience-Increasing Strategies for Coasts - toolKIT). Proposed BN reflects the interaction between boundary conditions, receptors, hazard, and consequences. Storm boundary conditions - maximum significant wave height and peak surge level, were determined on the basis of their historical and projected occurrence. The only hazard considered in this study is flooding characterized by maximum inundation depth. BN was trained with synthetic events created by combining estimated boundary conditions. Flood impact was modeled with the process-based morphodynamical model XBeach. Restaurants, sport and leisure facilities, administrative buildings, and car parks were introduced in the network as receptors. Consequences (impact) are estimated in terms of relative damage caused by given inundation depth. National depth

  3. Perception of Scary Halloween Masks by Zoo Animals and Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Sinnott, Joan M.; Speaker, H. Anton; Powell, Laura A.; Mosteller, Kelly W.

    2012-01-01

    Zoo animals were tested to see if they perceived the scary nature of Halloween masks, using a procedure that measured the avoidance response latency to take food from a masked human experimenter. Human perception of the masks was also assessed using a rating scale, with results showing that a Bill Clinton mask was rated not scary, while a Vampire mask was rated very scary. Animal results showed that primate latencies correlated significantly with the human ratings, while non-primate latencies...

  4. Cost-efficient and storm surge-sensitive bridge design for coastal Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Climatic variation felt through changing weather patterns is having increasingly acute effects on Maines : transportation infrastructure. Acute risk occurs as a result of events, such as storms and flooding, while chronic risk : surrounds longer r...

  5. Tokyo Halloween on the Street : Japanese Dressing Up Between Bricolage and Authenticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.H.; Takagi, Yoko

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on perspectives related to fashion and consumerist cultures on the one hand and anthropology and appropriation on the other hand, this paper addresses dressing up on the streets during the celebration of Halloween in Tokyo, Japan. By relating commercially marketed Halloween fun-dress to

  6. On the use of wave parameterizations and a storm impact scaling model in National Weather Service Coastal Flood and decision support operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignone, Anthony; Stockdon, H.; Willis, M.; Cannon, J.W.; Thompson, R.

    2012-01-01

    National Weather Service (NWS) Weather Forecast Offices (WFO) are responsible for issuing coastal flood watches, warnings, advisories, and local statements to alert decision makers and the general public when rising water levels may lead to coastal impacts such as inundation, erosion, and wave battery. Both extratropical and tropical cyclones can generate the prerequisite rise in water level to set the stage for a coastal impact event. Forecasters use a variety of tools including computer model guidance and local studies to help predict the potential severity of coastal flooding. However, a key missing component has been the incorporation of the effects of waves in the prediction of total water level and the associated coastal impacts. Several recent studies have demonstrated the importance of incorporating wave action into the NWS coastal flood program. To follow up on these studies, this paper looks at the potential of applying recently developed empirical parameterizations of wave setup, swash, and runup to the NWS forecast process. Additionally, the wave parameterizations are incorporated into a storm impact scaling model that compares extreme water levels to beach elevation data to determine the mode of coastal change at predetermined “hotspots” of interest. Specifically, the storm impact model compares the approximate storm-induced still water level, which includes contributions from tides, storm surge, and wave setup, to dune crest elevation to determine inundation potential. The model also compares the combined effects of tides, storm surge, and the 2 % exceedance level for vertical wave runup (including both wave setup and swash) to dune toe and crest elevations to determine if erosion and/or ocean overwash may occur. The wave parameterizations and storm impact model are applied to two cases in 2009 that led to significant coastal impacts and unique forecast challenges in North Carolina: the extratropical “Nor'Ida” event during 11-14 November and

  7. ULF wave activity during the 2003 Halloween superstorm: multipoint observations from CHAMP, Cluster and Geotail missions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Balasis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We examine data from a topside ionosphere and two magnetospheric missions (CHAMP, Cluster and Geotail for signatures of ultra low frequency (ULF waves during the exceptional 2003 Halloween geospace magnetic storm, when Dst reached ~−380 nT. We use a suite of wavelet-based algorithms, which are a subset of a tool that is being developed for the analysis of multi-instrument multi-satellite and ground-based observations to identify ULF waves and investigate their properties. Starting from the region of topside ionosphere, we first present three clear and strong signatures of Pc3 ULF wave activity (frequency 15–100 mHz in CHAMP tracks. We then expand these three time intervals for purposes of comparison between CHAMP, Cluster and Geotail Pc3 observations but also to be able to search for Pc4–5 wave signatures (frequency 1–10 mHz into Cluster and Geotail measurements in order to have a more complete picture of the ULF wave occurrence during the storm. Due to the fast motion through field lines in a low Earth orbit (LEO we are able to reliably detect Pc3 (but not Pc4–5 waves from CHAMP. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that ULF wave observations from a topside ionosphere mission are compared to ULF wave observations from magnetospheric missions. Our study provides evidence for the occurrence of a number of prominent ULF wave events in the Pc3 and Pc4–5 bands during the storm and offers a platform to study the wave evolution from high altitudes to LEO. The ULF wave analysis methods presented here can be applied to observations from the upcoming Swarm multi-satellite mission of ESA, which is anticipated to enable joint studies with the Cluster mission.

  8. Enhancing resilience to coastal flooding from severe storms in the USA: international lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumbroso, Darren M.; Suckall, Natalie R.; Nicholls, Robert J.; White, Kathleen D.

    2017-08-01

    Recent events in the USA have highlighted a lack of resilience in the coastal population to coastal flooding, especially amongst disadvantaged and isolated communities. Some low-income countries, such as Cuba and Bangladesh, have made significant progress towards transformed societies that are more resilient to the impacts of cyclones and coastal flooding. To understand how this has come about, a systematic review of the peer-reviewed and grey literature related to resilience of communities to coastal flooding was undertaken in both countries. In both Cuba and Bangladesh the trust between national and local authorities, community leaders and civil society is high. As a consequence evacuation warnings are generally followed and communities are well prepared. As a result over the past 25 years in Bangladesh the number of deaths directly related to cyclones and coastal flooding has decreased, despite an increase of almost 50 % in the number of people exposed to these hazards. In Cuba, over the course of eight hurricanes between 2003 and 2011, the normalized number of deaths related to cyclones and coastal floods was an order of magnitude less than in the USA. In low-income countries, warning systems and effective shelter/evacuation systems, combined with high levels of disaster risk-reduction education and social cohesion, coupled with trust between government authorities and vulnerable communities can help to increase resilience to coastal hazards and tropical cyclones. In the USA, transferable lessons include improving communication and the awareness of the risk posed by coastal surges, mainstreaming disaster risk reduction into the education system and building trusted community networks to help isolated and disadvantaged communities, and improve community resilience.

  9. Enhancing resilience to coastal flooding from severe storms in the USA: international lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Lumbroso

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent events in the USA have highlighted a lack of resilience in the coastal population to coastal flooding, especially amongst disadvantaged and isolated communities. Some low-income countries, such as Cuba and Bangladesh, have made significant progress towards transformed societies that are more resilient to the impacts of cyclones and coastal flooding. To understand how this has come about, a systematic review of the peer-reviewed and grey literature related to resilience of communities to coastal flooding was undertaken in both countries. In both Cuba and Bangladesh the trust between national and local authorities, community leaders and civil society is high. As a consequence evacuation warnings are generally followed and communities are well prepared. As a result over the past 25 years in Bangladesh the number of deaths directly related to cyclones and coastal flooding has decreased, despite an increase of almost 50 % in the number of people exposed to these hazards. In Cuba, over the course of eight hurricanes between 2003 and 2011, the normalized number of deaths related to cyclones and coastal floods was an order of magnitude less than in the USA. In low-income countries, warning systems and effective shelter/evacuation systems, combined with high levels of disaster risk-reduction education and social cohesion, coupled with trust between government authorities and vulnerable communities can help to increase resilience to coastal hazards and tropical cyclones. In the USA, transferable lessons include improving communication and the awareness of the risk posed by coastal surges, mainstreaming disaster risk reduction into the education system and building trusted community networks to help isolated and disadvantaged communities, and improve community resilience.

  10. Debris-flow and flooding hazards associated with the December 1999 storm in coastal Venezuela and strategies for mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, G.F.; Larsen, M.C.; Eaton, L.S.; Morgan, B.A.; Blair, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Heavy rainfall from the storm of December 14-16, 1999 triggered thousands of landslides on steep slopes of the Sierra de Avila north of Caracas, Venezuela. In addition to landslides, heavy rainfall caused flooding and massive debris flows that damaged coastal communities in the State of Vargas along the Caribbean Sea. Examination of the rainfall pattern obtained from the GOES-8 satellite showed that the pattern of damage was generally consistent with the area of heaviest rainfall. Field observations of the severely affected drainage basins and historical records indicate that previous flooding and massive debris-flow events of similar magnitude to that of December 1999 have occurred throughout this region. The volume of debris-flow deposits and the large boulders that the flows transported qualifies the 1999 event amongst the largest historical rainfall-induced debris flows documented worldwide.

  11. The investigation of form and processes in the coastal zone under extreme storm events - the case study of Rethymno, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afentoulis, Vasileios; Mohammadi, Bijan; Tsoukala, Vasiliki

    2017-04-01

    Coastal zone is a significant geographical and particular region, since it gathers a wide range of social-human's activities and appears to be a complex as well as fragile system of natural variables. Coastal communities are increasingly at risk from serious coastal hazards, such as shoreline erosion and flooding related to extreme hydro-meteorological events: storm surges, heavy precipitation, tsunamis and tides. In order to investigate the impact of these extreme events on the coastal zone, it is necessary to describe the driving mechanisms which contribute to its destabilization and more precisely the interaction between the wave forces and the transport of sediment. The aim of the present study is to examine the capability of coastal zone processes simulation under extreme wave events, using numerical models, in the coastal area of Rethymno, Greece. Rethymno city is one of the eleven case study areas of PEARL (Preparing for Extreme And Rare events in coastal regions) project, an EU funded research project, which aims at developing adaptive risk management strategies for coastal communities focusing on extreme hydro-meteorological events, with a multidisciplinary approach integrating social, environmental and technical research and innovation so as to increase the resilience of coastal regions all over the world. Within this framework, three different numerical models have been used: the MIKE 21 - DHI, the XBeach model and a numerical formulation for sea bed evolution, developed by Afaf Bouharguane and Bijan Mohammadi (2013). For the determination of the wave and hydrodynamic conditions, as well as the assessment of the sediment transport components, the MIKE 21 SW and the MIKE 21 FM modules have been applied and the bathymetry of Rethymno is arranged into a 2D unstructured mesh. This method of digitalization was selected because of its ability to easily represent the complex geometry of the coastal zone. It allows smaller scale wave characteristics to be

  12. Deep Uncertainties in Sea-Level Rise and Storm Surge Projections: Implications for Coastal Flood Risk Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddo, Perry C; Lee, Ben S; Garner, Gregory G; Srikrishnan, Vivek; Reed, Patrick M; Forest, Chris E; Keller, Klaus

    2017-09-05

    Sea levels are rising in many areas around the world, posing risks to coastal communities and infrastructures. Strategies for managing these flood risks present decision challenges that require a combination of geophysical, economic, and infrastructure models. Previous studies have broken important new ground on the considerable tensions between the costs of upgrading infrastructure and the damages that could result from extreme flood events. However, many risk-based adaptation strategies remain silent on certain potentially important uncertainties, as well as the tradeoffs between competing objectives. Here, we implement and improve on a classic decision-analytical model (Van Dantzig 1956) to: (i) capture tradeoffs across conflicting stakeholder objectives, (ii) demonstrate the consequences of structural uncertainties in the sea-level rise and storm surge models, and (iii) identify the parametric uncertainties that most strongly influence each objective using global sensitivity analysis. We find that the flood adaptation model produces potentially myopic solutions when formulated using traditional mean-centric decision theory. Moving from a single-objective problem formulation to one with multiobjective tradeoffs dramatically expands the decision space, and highlights the need for compromise solutions to address stakeholder preferences. We find deep structural uncertainties that have large effects on the model outcome, with the storm surge parameters accounting for the greatest impacts. Global sensitivity analysis effectively identifies important parameter interactions that local methods overlook, and that could have critical implications for flood adaptation strategies. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. A Perspective on Sea Level Rise and Coastal Storm Surge from Southern and Eastern Africa: A Case Study Near Durban, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek D. Stretch

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent coastal storms in southern Africa have highlighted the need for more proactive management of the coastline. Within the southern and eastern African region the availability of coastal information is poor. The greatest gap in information is the likely effects of a combination of severe sea storms and future sea level rise (SLR on the shoreline. This lack of information creates a barrier to informed decision making. This research outlines a practical localized approach to this problem, which can be applied as a first order assessment within the region. In so doing it provides a cost effective and simple decision support tool for the built environment and disaster professionals in development and disaster assessments. In a South African context the newly promulgated Integrated Coastal Management Act requires that all proposed coastal developments take into consideration future SLR, however such information currently does not exist, despite it being vital for informed planning in the coastal zone. This practical approach has been applied to the coastline of Durban, South Africa as a case study. The outputs are presented in a Geographic Information System (GIS based freeware viewer tool enabling ease of access to both professionals and laypersons. This demonstrates that a simple approach can provide valuable information about the current and future risk of flooding and coastal erosion under climate change to buildings, infrastructure as well as natural features along the coast.

  14. The electric storm of November 1882

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jeffrey J.

    2018-01-01

    In November 1882, an intense magnetic storm related to a large sunspot group caused widespread interference to telegraph and telephone systems and provided spectacular and unusual auroral displays. The (ring current) storm time disturbance index for this storm reached maximum −Dst ≈ 386 nT, comparable to Halloween storm of 29–31 October 2003, but from 17 to 20 November the aa midlatitude geomagnetic disturbance index averaged 214.25 nT, the highest 4 day level of disturbance since the beginning of aa index in 1868. This storm contributed to scientists' understanding of the reality of solar‐terrestrial interaction. Past occurrences of magnetic storms, like that of November 1882, can inform modern evaluations of the deleterious effects that a magnetic superstorm might have on technological systems of importance to society.

  15. Management of microbial contamination in storm runoff from California coastal dairy pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, David J; Atwill, Edward R; Lennox, Michael S; Pereira, Maria D G; Miller, Woutrina A; Conrad, Patricia A; Tate, Kenneth W

    2010-01-01

    A survey of storm runoff fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) from working farm and ranch pastures is presented in conjunction with a survey of FCB in manure management systems (MMS). The cross-sectional survey of pasture runoff was conducted on 34 pastures on five different dairies over 2 yr under varying conditions of precipitation, slope, manure management, and use of conservation practices such as vegetative filter strips. The MMS cross-sectional survey consisted of samples collected during 1 yr on nine different dairies from six loafing barns, nine primary lagoons, 12 secondary lagoons, and six irrigation sample points. Pasture runoff samples were additionally analyzed for Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia duodenalis, whereby detectable concentrations occurred sporadically at higher FCB concentrations resulting in poor correlations with FCB. Prevalence of both parasites was lower relative to high-use areas studied simultaneously on these same farms. Application of manure to pastures more than 2 wk in advance of storm-associated runoff was related to a > or =80% reduction in FCB concentration and load compared to applications within 2 wk before a runoff event. For every 10 m of buffer length, a 24% reduction in FCB concentration was documented. A one-half (75%), one (90%), and two (99%) log10 reduction in manure FCB concentration was observed for manure holding times in MMS of approximately 20, 66, and 133 d, respectively. These results suggest that there are several management and conservation practices for working farms that may result in reduced FCB fluxes from agricultural operations.

  16. Circulation during Storms and Dynamics of Suspended Matter in a Sheltered Coastal Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Paladini de Mendoza

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Gulf of Gaeta, in the western margin of central Italy, is characterized by a coastal morphology that creates a natural sheltered area in which fine sediment settles. The new port regulatory plan provides for dock expansions and dredging works that could alter the suspended particulate matter (SPM concentration. The present study investigates the dynamics of the Gulf of Gaeta with a focus on the dynamic processes that affect the fine particle concentration. The study was conducted through a multidisciplinary approach that involves remote sensing acquisitions (satellite imagery and X-band radar, measurements in situ (water sampling, wave buoy, weather station, turbidity station, CTD profiles, and numerical modelling (SWAN and Delft3D FLOW. The X-band radar system supports the analysis of the dynamic processes of the SPM concentration providing a large dataset useful for the hydrodynamic model’s validation. The analysis reveals a strong influence of nearby rivers in modulating the SPM at the regional scale. Short-term high and low fluctuations in SPM concentration within the gulf are triggered by the local effect of the main physical forces. In particular, the direction of events and bottom sediment resuspension play a key role in modulating the SPM concentration while micro-tidal regime does not appear to influence turbidity in the study area. This approach represents an important tool in improving the long-term coastal management strategy from the perspective of sustainable human activities in marine coastal ecosystems.

  17. Regional Risk Assessment for the analysis of the risks related to storm surge extreme events in the coastal area of the North Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Jonathan; Torresan, Silvia; Gallina, Valentina; Critto, Andrea; Marcomini, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Europe's coast faces a variety of climate change threats from extreme high tides, storm surges and rising sea levels. In particular, it is very likely that mean sea level rise will contribute to upward trends in extreme coastal high water levels, thus posing higher risks to coastal locations currently experiencing coastal erosion and inundation processes. In 2007 the European Commission approved the Flood Directive (2007/60/EC), which has the main purpose to establish a framework for the assessment and management of flood risks for inland and coastal areas, thus reducing the adverse consequences for human health, the environment, cultural heritage and economic activities. Improvements in scientific understanding are thus needed to inform decision-making about the best strategies for mitigating and managing storm surge risks in coastal areas. The CLIMDAT project is aimed at improving the understanding of the risks related to extreme storm surge events in the coastal area of the North Adriatic Sea (Italy), considering potential climate change scenarios. The project implements a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology developed in the FP7 KULTURisk project for the assessment of physical/environmental impacts posed by flood hazards and employs the DEcision support SYstem for Coastal climate change impact assessment (DESYCO) for the application of the methodology to the case study area. The proposed RRA methodology is aimed at the identification and prioritization of targets and areas at risk from water-related natural hazards in the considered region at the meso-scale. To this aim, it integrates information about extreme storm surges with bio-geophysical and socio-economic information (e.g. vegetation cover, slope, soil type, population density) of the analyzed receptors (i.e. people, economic activities, cultural heritages, natural and semi-natural systems). Extreme storm surge hazard scenarios are defined using tide gauge time series coming from 28 tide gauge

  18. Contribution of insurance data to cost assessment of coastal flood damage to residential buildings: insights gained from Johanna (2008) and Xynthia (2010) storm events

    OpenAIRE

    C. André; D. Monfort; M. Bouzit; C. Vinchon

    2013-01-01

    There are a number of methodological issues involved in assessing damage caused by natural hazards. The first is the lack of data, due to the rarity of events and the widely different circumstances in which they occur. Thus, historical data, albeit scarce, should not be neglected when seeking to build ex-ante risk management models. This article analyses the input of insurance data for two recent severe coastal storm events, to examine what causal relationships may exist bet...

  19. The Record of Tsunamis and Storms in a Coastal Mangrove Pond, NW Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, B. E.; Buckley, M. L.; Watt, S. G.; Moya, J. C.; Richmond, B. M.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.; La Selle, S.

    2017-12-01

    The written record of tsunamis in the Caribbean extends back over 500 years, yet, is incomplete. In particular, it is not known whether great earthquakes or submarine landslides near the Puerto Rico Trench have generated large tsunamis that impact the north coast of Puerto Rico. We cored a coastal mangrove pond in NW Puerto Rico to search for tsunami deposits. The pond extends from 150 to 350 m from the shoreline, and is 0.5 m above sea level. The area between the pond and the ocean presently has a high of 3 m above sea level, but had dunes up to 10 m high before they were mined for sand beginning in the 1960s. Pond sediments are predominately mud or mangrove peat and contain prominent sand layers. At the sediment surface, a tabular sandy overwash deposit up to 40 cm thick extends inland approximately 30 m from the pond's seaward edge and abruptly ends. This sand layer contains no evidence of vertical grading and was likely formed by one or more recent hurricanes, which with the removal of coastal dunes in the 1960s are able to flood the pond. In contrast, underlying the overwash deposit and mangrove peat at a depth of approximately 60 cm is a thin (1 - 7 cm thick) sand layer extending to the landward limit of the pond. This layer has features of a tsunami deposit, including suspension grading, which is a specific type of normal grading where the entire grain-size distribution shifts to finer sizes upward that is created when sediment settles out of suspension as a high-speed flow wanes, an erosive basal contact, and an organic cap. In addition, couplets or triplets of sand inter-layered with mud are present within the thin sandy layer at some locations. Alternation of sand and mud layers at this scale is a signature of series of tsunami waves. Radiocarbon dates from organic material above and below the thin sand layer constrain deposition as occurring sometime from 1446 to 1919 AD. We present the features of the coastal mangrove pond deposits and evaluate whether

  20. Coastal Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velden, E.T.J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Introduction, waves, sediment transport, littoral transport, lonshore sediment transport, onshore-offshore sediment transport, coastal changes, dune erosion and storm surges, sedimentation in channels and trenches, coastal engineering in practice.

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in storm runoff from urban and coastal South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngabe, B; Bidleman, T F; Scott, G I

    2000-06-08

    Stormwater runoff was collected in urbanized areas of South Carolina to investigate the levels and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Mean concentrations of total PAHs in runoff (sum(PAHs), 14 compounds), determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, were 5590 ng/l in the city of Columbia and 282 ng/l in the coastal community of Murrells Inlet. Lower concentrations were found in estuarine water at Murrells Inlet (mean = 35 ng/l) and at undeveloped North Inlet estuary (13 ng/l). The PAH profiles in Columbia and Murrells Inlet runoff were similar to those of atmospheric particulate matter and unlike those in used crankcase oil. Examination of the aliphatic fraction of Columbia runoff samples by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection showed patterns that were more similar to used crankcase oil than to urban aerosols.

  2. Application of a Coupled Vegetation Competition and Groundwater Simulation Model to Study Effects of Sea Level Rise and Storm Surges on Coastal Vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Yean Teh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change poses challenges to areas such as low-lying coastal zones, where sea level rise (SLR and storm-surge overwash events can have long-term effects on vegetation and on soil and groundwater salinities, posing risks of habitat loss critical to native species. An early warning system is urgently needed to predict and prepare for the consequences of these climate-related impacts on both the short-term dynamics of salinity in the soil and groundwater and the long-term effects on vegetation. For this purpose, the U.S. Geological Survey’s spatially explicit model of vegetation community dynamics along coastal salinity gradients (MANHAM is integrated into the USGS groundwater model (SUTRA to create a coupled hydrology–salinity–vegetation model, MANTRA. In MANTRA, the uptake of water by plants is modeled as a fluid mass sink term. Groundwater salinity, water saturation and vegetation biomass determine the water available for plant transpiration. Formulations and assumptions used in the coupled model are presented. MANTRA is calibrated with salinity data and vegetation pattern for a coastal area of Florida Everglades vulnerable to storm surges. A possible regime shift at that site is investigated by simulating the vegetation responses to climate variability and disturbances, including SLR and storm surges based on empirical information.

  3. Hurricane Ingrid and Tropical Storm Hanna's effects on the salinity of the coastal aquifer, Quintana Roo, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Shawn E.; Reinhardt, Eduard G.; Stastna, Marek; Coutino, Aaron; Werner, Christopher; Collins, Shawn V.; Devos, Fred; Le Maillot, Christophe

    2017-08-01

    There is a lack of information on aquifer dynamics in anchialine systems, especially in the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico. Most of our knowledge is based on ;spot; measurements of the aquifer with no long-term temporal monitoring. In this study spanning four years (2012-2016), sensors (water depth and conductivity (salinity)) were deployed and positioned (-9 and -10 m) in the meteoric Water Mass (WM) close to the transition with the marine WM (halocline) in 2 monitoring sites within the Yax Chen cave system to investigate precipitation effects on the salinity of the coastal aquifer. The results show variation in salinity (95 mm) such as Hurricane Ingrid (2013) and Tropical Storm Hanna (2014) shows meteoric water mass salinity rapidly increasing (approx. 6.39 to >8.6 ppt), but these perturbations have a shorter duration (weeks and days). Wavelet analysis of the salinity record indicates seasonal mixing effects in agreement with the wet and dry periods, but also seasonal effects of tidal mixing (meteoric and marine water masses) occurring on shorter time scales (diurnal and semi-diurnal). These results demonstrate that the salinity of the freshwater lens is influenced by precipitation and turbulent mixing with the marine WM. The salinity response is scaled with precipitation; larger more intense rainfall events (>95 mm) create a larger response in terms of the magnitude and duration of the salinity perturbation (>1 ppt). The balance of precipitation and its intensity controls the temporal and spatial patterning of meteoric WM salinity.

  4. Impacts of ionospheric electric fields on the GPS tropospheric delays during geomagnetic storms in Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suparta, W

    2017-01-01

    This paper aimed to overview the interaction of the thunderstorm with the ionospheric electric fields during major geomagnetic storms in Antarctica through the GPS tropospheric delays. For the purpose of study, geomagnetic activity and electric fields data for the period from 13 to 21 March 2015 representing the St. Patrick’s Day storm is analyzed. To strengthen the analysis, data for the period of 27 October to 1 st November 2003 representing for the Halloween storm is also compared. Our analysis showed that both geomagnetic storms were severe ( Ap ≥ 100 nT), where the intensity of Halloween storm is double compared to St. Patrick’s Day storm. For the ionospheric electric field, the peaks were dropped to -1.63 mV/m and -2.564 mV/m for St. Patrick and Halloween storms, respectively. At this time, the interplanetary magnetic field Bz component was significantly dropped to -17.31 nT with Ap > 150 nT (17 March 2015 at 19:20 UT) and -26.51 nT with Ap = 300 nT (29 October 2003 at 19:40 UT). For both geomagnetic storms, the electric field was correlated well with the ionospheric activity where tropospheric delays show a different characteristic. (paper)

  5. Probabilistic Mapping of Storm-induced Coastal Inundation for Climate Change Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, N.; Yamazaki, Y.; Roeber, V.; Cheung, K. F.; Chock, G.

    2016-02-01

    Global warming is posing an imminent threat to coastal communities worldwide. Under the IPCC RCP8.5 scenario, we utilize hurricane events downscaled from a CMIP5 global climate model using the stochastic-deterministic method of Emanuel (2013, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci.) in a pilot study to develop an inundation map with projected sea-level rise for the urban Honolulu coast. The downscaling is performed for a 20-year period from 2081 to 2100 to capture the ENSO, which strongly influences the hurricane activity in the Pacific. A total of 50 simulations provide a quasi-stationary dataset of 1000 years for probabilistic analysis of the flood hazards toward the end of the century. We utilize the meta-model Hakou, which is based on precomputed hurricane scenarios using ADCIRC, SWAN, and a 1D Boussinesq model (Kennedy et al., 2012, Ocean Modelling), to estimate the annual maximum inundation along the project coastline at the present sea level. Screening of the preliminary results identifies the most severe three events for detailed inundation modeling using the package of Li et al. (2014, Ocean Modelling) at the projected sea level. For each event, the third generation spectral model WAVEWATCH III of Tolman (2008, Ocean Modelling) provides the hurricane waves and the circulation model NEOWAVE of Yamazaki et al. (2009, 2011, Int. J. Num. Meth. Fluids) computes the surge using a system of telescopic nested grids from the open ocean to the project coastline. The output defines the boundary conditions and initial still-water elevation for computation of phase-resolving surf-zone and inundation processes using the 2D Boussinesq model of Roeber and Cheung (2012, Coastal Engineering). Each computed inundation event corresponds to an annual maximum, and with 1000 years of data, has an occurrence probability of 0.1% in a given year. Barring the tail of the distribution, aggregation of the three computed events allow delineation of the inundation zone with annual exceedance probability

  6. PCR and culture identification of pathogenic Leptospira spp. from coastal soil in Leyte, Philippines, after a storm surge during Super Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Mitsumasa; Miyahara, Satoshi; Villanueva, Sharon Y A M; Aramaki, Natsumi; Ikejiri, Mami; Kobayashi, Yoshie; Guevarra, Jonathan P; Masuzawa, Toshiyuki; Gloriani, Nina G; Yanagihara, Yasutake; Yoshida, Shin-ichi

    2014-11-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis caused by pathogenic Leptospira spp. Most of the outbreaks of leptospirosis occur after floods caused by heavy rain in countries where Leptospira spp. are endemic. It has been believed that the overflow of seawater rarely causes outbreaks of leptospirosis because the leptospires are killed by salt water. On 8 November 2013, a storm surge caused by Super Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda) inundated the entire coastal areas of Tacloban and Palo in Leyte, Philippines. The present study was carried out in order to determine whether the environmental leptospires in soil were able to survive after the storm surge in the affected areas. We collected 23 wet soil samples along the coastal areas of Tacloban and Palo 2 months after the storm surge. The samples were suspended in HEPES buffer, and the supernatants were cultured in liquid or semisolid Korthof's medium supplemented with five antimicrobial agents to inhibit the growth of contaminants. Leptospires were isolated from primary cultures of 22 out of 23 samples. The DNA of pathogenic Leptospira species was detected in 11 samples (47.8%) by analysis of flaB by nested PCR. Eventually, two pathogenic Leptospira strains were isolated and showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Leptospira kmetyi. When these isolates were experimentally mixed with soil, they were found to survive in seawater for 4 days. These results show the possibility that leptospires living in soil survived after the storm surge. Our findings may serve as a warning that when seawater inundates the land during a storm surge or a tsunami, an outbreak of leptospirosis could occur in the disaster-stricken area. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Storm-related sedimentation influenced by coastal configuration in the stratigraphic record of a tectonically active shelf (Upper Pleistocene Le Castella terrace, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalin, Ronald; Massari, Francesco

    2018-03-01

    Analysis of patterns of coastal circulation and sediment dispersal is an essential step for the study of controlling factors influencing the long-term dynamics of coastal systems. Modern settings offer the possibility to monitor relevant parameters over relatively short time spans. However, geological examples complement this perspective by providing a time-averaged record where longer trends and stratigraphically significant processes can be evaluated. This study investigates the shallow marine deposits of Le Castella terrace (Upper Pleistocene, southern Italy) to document how patterns of circulation influenced by coastline configuration can affect the preserved millennial-scale depositional record of a progradational shoreline system. The regressive portion of the Le Castella terrace deposits, developed during a relative sea-level highstand and falling stage, consists of a progradational wedge mainly composed of redistributed skeletal particles of a coeval shallow water carbonate factory. Preservation of the morphology of the paleocoastline and abundant current-related sedimentary structures allow reconstruction of the predominant sediment dispersal dynamics responsible for the formation of this sedimentary wedge. Facies and paleocurrent analysis indicate offshore and alongshore sediment transport modes, consistent with coastal circulation driven by storms normally incident to the shoreline and a sharp change in coastline orientation. This coastal inflection influenced circulation patterns causing flow separation and eddy formation in the lee of the curved coastline. Syndepositional tectonic deformation also affected the architecture of the preserved deposits, controlling the nucleation and development of a clinostratified body and determining localized lateral stratigraphic variability. This study illustrates how transient but recurrent circulation patterns associated with changes in coastal orientation and related to high-energy storm events can leave a

  8. Drained coastal peatlands: A potential nitrogen source to marine ecosystems under prolonged drought and heavy storm events-A microcosm experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongjun; Richardson, Curtis J; Ho, Mengchi; Flanagan, Neal

    2016-10-01

    Over the past several decades there has been a massive increase in coastal eutrophication, which is often caused by increased runoff input of nitrogen from landscape alterations. Peatlands, covering 3% of land area, have stored about 12-21% of global soil organic nitrogen (12-20Pg N) around rivers, lakes and coasts over millennia and are now often drained and farmed. Their huge nitrogen pools may be released by intensified climate driven hydrologic events-prolonged droughts followed by heavy storms-and later transported to marine ecosystems. In this study, we collected peat monoliths from drained, natural, and restored coastal peatlands in the Southeastern U.S., and conducted a microcosm experiment simulating coupled prolonged-drought and storm events to (1) test whether storms could trigger a pulse of nitrogen export from drought-stressed peatlands and (2) assess how differentially hydrologic managements through shifting plant communities affect nitrogen export by combining an experiment of nitrogen release from litter. During the drought phase, we observed a significant temporal variation in net nitrogen mineralization rate (NMR). NMR spiked in the third month and then decreased rapidly. This pattern indicates that drought duration significantly affects nitrogen mineralization in peat. NMR in the drained site reached up to 490±110kgha(-1)year(-1), about 5 times higher than in the restored site. After the 14-month drought phase, we simulated a heavy storm by bringing peat monoliths to saturation. In the discharge waters, concentrations of total dissolved nitrogen in the monoliths from the drained site (72.7±16.3mgL(-1)) was about ten times as high as from the restored site. Our results indicate that previously drained peatlands under prolonged drought are a potent source of nitrogen export. Moreover, drought-induced plant community shifts to herbaceous plants substantially raise nitrogen release with lasting effects by altering litter quality in peatlands

  9. High-resolution reconstruction of extreme storm events over the North Sea during the Late Holocene: inferences from aeolian sand influx in coastal mires, Western Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goslin, Jerome; Clemmensen, Lars B.

    2017-04-01

    Possessing long and accurate archives of storm events worldwide is the key for a better understanding of the atmospheric patterns driving these events and of the response of the coastal systems to storms. To be adequately addressed, the ongoing and potential future changes in wind regimes (including in particular the frequency and magnitude of storm events) have to be replaced in the context of long-time records of past storminess, i.e. longer than the century-scale records of instrumental weather data which do not allow the calculation of reliable return periods. During the last decade, several Holocene storminess chronologies have been based on storm-traces left by aeolian processes within coastal lakes, mires and peat bogs, (e.g. Björck and Clemmensen, 2004; De Jong et al., 2006; Clemmensen et al., 2009; Nielsen et al.; 2016; Orme et al., 2016). These data have shown to adequately complement the records which can be derived from the study of records related to wave-induced processes including e.g. washover deposits. Previous works along the west coast of Jutland, Denmark have revealed four main periods of dune building during the last 4200 yrs (Clemmensen et al., 2001; 2009). These were shown to be in phase with periods of climate deterioration (cold periods) recognized elsewhere in Europe and the North Atlantic region and suggest periods of increased aeolian activity. Yet, doubts remain on whether these periods where characterized by several big short-lived storm events or rather by an overall increase in wind energy. This study aims at constructing a high-resolution (centennial to multi-decadal) history of past storminess over the North Sea for the last millenaries. Plurimeter sequences of peat and gyttja have been retrieved from two coastal mires and were analyzed for their sand content. The quartz grains were systematically counted within centimetric slices (Aeolian Sand Influx method, Björck & Clemmensen, 2004), while the palaeo-environmental context and

  10. Coastal Flooding in Florida's Big Bend Region with Application to Sea Level Rise Based on Synthetic Storms Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott C. Hagen Peter Bacopoulos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Flooding is examined by comparing maximum envelopes of water against the 0.2% (= 1-in-500-year return-period flooding surface generated as part of revising the Federal Emergency Management Agency¡¦s flood insurance rate maps for Franklin, Wakulla, and Jefferson counties in Florida¡¦s Big Bend Region. The analysis condenses the number of storms to a small fraction of the original 159 used in production. The analysis is performed by assessing which synthetic storms contributed to inundation extent (the extent of inundation into the floodplain, coverage (the overall surface area of the inundated floodplain and the spatially variable 0.2% flooding surface. The results are interpreted in terms of storm attributes (pressure deficit, radius to maximum winds, translation speed, storm heading, and landfall location and the physical processes occurring within the natural system (storms surge and waves; both are contextualized against existing and new hurricane scales. The approach identifies what types of storms and storm attributes lead to what types of inundation, as measured in terms of extent and coverage, in Florida¡¦s Big Bend Region and provides a basis in the identification of a select subset of synthetic storms for studying the impact of sea level rise. The sea level rise application provides a clear contrast between a dynamic approach versus that of a static approach.

  11. History as a guide to the future for cities: coastal storms and Jamaica Bay in New York City as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, E. W.; Orton, P. M.; Giampieri, M.; Spagnoli, C.

    2015-12-01

    History can provide a guide to the future by revealing the physical climatic and geomorphological dynamics with which cities must contend. We used historical maps from the U.S. Coast Survey and the Stevens Estuarine and Coastal Ocean Model (sECOM) to simulate how and where coastal flooding from storm surge affected the Jamaica Bay region of southeastern New York City at different points in time. This area, which houses approximately 1.2 million people today and the John F. Kennedy International Airport, was heavily impacted by coastal flooding during Hurricane Sandy. Historical analysis showed that the Rockaway Peninsula was an active barrier island system up until the early twentieth century, growing approximately 70 meters per year to the west between 1844 - 1891. Older historical maps made by American and European cartographers from 1524 - 1844 suggest that Jamaica Bay may have been a much more open system, with few or no interior marsh islands, at the time of European discovery. From these studies, we constructed digital terrain models and land cover maps for two historical periods: ca. 1870s and ca. 1609, and today. Storm simulations of hurricanes over the historical and present-day landscapes showed how a smaller inlet, shallower channel depths, and larger floodplains all can reduce the height of flooding inside the bay, and suggested a series of leverage experiments that test the efficacy of present-day green infrastructure interventions to lessen peak flood heights while maintaining tidal flushing. By combining history, modelling, and policy-relevant scenarios, we believe we have developed a reshreshing and accessible toolkit for policymakers thinking about resilience measures in coastal cities like New York.

  12. Coastal Storm Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-30

    millibars, PMIN, taken at the center of the low pressure cell is punched in columns 18 to 24 on card 3. Usually, the minimum barometric pressure is...PKTE$j’t bkAL)I E NT. T HE SLAFACL Cl 1" C.1- 2 L E SVI-i,C nINO. THE ONSH.’II "Z",- N t )GGA CQP NT1 cC Ti . ND. "A~I I ~ L.I 4C 1 ,-~ AT HEIGT, PLR

  13. Effects of sea level rise, land subsidence, bathymetric change and typhoon tracks on storm flooding in the coastal areas of Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Yi, Si; Li, Mengya; Wang, Lei; Song, Chengcheng

    2018-04-15

    We compared the effects of three key environmental factors of coastal flooding: sea level rise (SLR), land subsidence (LS) and bathymetric change (BC) in the coastal areas of Shanghai. We use the hydrological simulation model MIKE 21 to simulate flood magnitudes under multiple scenarios created from combinations of the key environmental factors projected to year 2030 and 2050. Historical typhoons (TC9711, TC8114, TC0012, TC0205 and TC1109), which caused extremely high surges and considerable losses, were selected as reference tracks to generate potential typhoon events that would make landfalls in Shanghai (SHLD), in the north of Zhejiang (ZNLD) and moving northwards in the offshore area of Shanghai (MNS) under those scenarios. The model results provided assessment of impact of single and compound effects of the three factors (SLR, LS and BC) on coastal flooding in Shanghai for the next few decades. Model simulation showed that by the year 2030, the magnitude of storm flooding will increase due to the environmental changes defined by SLR, LS, and BC. Particularly, the compound scenario of the three factors will generate coastal floods that are 3.1, 2.7, and 1.9 times greater than the single factor change scenarios by, respectively, SLR, LS, and BC. Even more drastically, in 2050, the compound impact of the three factors would be 8.5, 7.5, and 23.4 times of the single factors. It indicates that the impact of environmental changes is not simple addition of the effects from individual factors, but rather multiple times greater of that when the projection time is longer. We also found for short-term scenarios, the bathymetry change is the most important factor for the changes in coastal flooding; and for long-term scenarios, sea level rise and land subsidence are the major factors that coastal flood prevention and management should address. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. An extraordinary ULF wave episode during the 2003 Halloween superstorm revealed by wavelet transforms of multipoint observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasis, G.; Daglis, I. A.; Georgiou, M.; Papadimitriou, C.; Zesta, E.; Mann, I.

    2013-09-01

    We investigate a rare concurrent observation of an ultra low frequency (ULF) wave event in the Earth's magnetosphere, topside ionosphere and surface employing a time-frequency analysis technique. We have examined the ULF wave activity in the Pc3 (22-100 mHz) and Pc4-5 (1-22 mHz) frequency bands within a short time interval during the Halloween 2003 magnetic storm, when the Cluster and CHAMP spacecraft were in good local time (LT) conjunction near the dayside noon-midnight meridian. A key finding of the wavelet spectral analysis of data collected from the Geotail, Cluster and CHAMP spacecraft, and the CARISMA and GIMA magnetometer networks was a remarkably clear transition of the waves' frequency into a higher regime within the Pc3 range. Our study offers insights into the energy transfer traced all the way from the solar wind through the magnetosphere and ionosphere to the ground. This work has received support from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme under grant agreement no. 284520 for the MAARBLE (Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Energization and Loss) collaborative research project.

  15. Clusters of community exposure to coastal flooding hazards based on storm and sea level rise scenarios—implications for adaptation networks in the San Francisco Bay region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Michelle; Wood, Nathan J.; Schweikert, Amy; Stacey, Mark T.; Jones, Jeanne; Barnard, Patrick L.; Erikson, Li H.

    2018-01-01

    Sea level is projected to rise over the coming decades, further increasing the extent of flooding hazards in coastal communities. Efforts to address potential impacts from climate-driven coastal hazards have called for collaboration among communities to strengthen the application of best practices. However, communities currently lack practical tools for identifying potential partner communities based on similar hazard exposure characteristics. This study uses statistical cluster analysis to identify similarities in community exposure to flooding hazards for a suite of sea level rise and storm scenarios. We demonstrate this approach using 63 jurisdictions in the San Francisco Bay region of California (USA) and compare 21 distinct exposure variables related to residents, employees, and structures for six hazard scenario combinations of sea level rise and storms. Results indicate that cluster analysis can provide an effective mechanism for identifying community groupings. Cluster compositions changed based on the selected societal variables and sea level rise scenarios, suggesting that a community could participate in multiple networks to target specific issues or policy interventions. The proposed clustering approach can serve as a data-driven foundation to help communities identify other communities with similar adaptation challenges and to enhance regional efforts that aim to facilitate adaptation planning and investment prioritization.

  16. Hurricane impacts on coastal wetlands: a half-century record of storm-generated features from southern Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Robert A.; Barras, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Temporally and spatially repeated patterns of wetland erosion, deformation, and deposition are observed on remotely sensed images and in the field after hurricanes cross the coast of Louisiana. The diagnostic morphological wetland features are products of the coupling of high-velocity wind and storm-surge water and their interaction with the underlying, variably resistant, wetland vegetation and soils. Erosional signatures include construction of orthogonal-elongate ponds and amorphous ponds, pond expansion, plucked marsh, marsh denudation, and shoreline erosion. Post-storm gravity reflux of floodwater draining from the wetlands forms dendritic incisions around the pond margins and locally integrates drainage pathways forming braided channels. Depositional signatures include emplacement of broad zones of organic wrack on topographic highs and inorganic deposits of variable thicknesses and lateral extents in the form of shore-parallel sandy washover terraces and interior-marsh mud blankets. Deformational signatures primarily involve laterally compressed marsh and displaced marsh mats and balls. Prolonged water impoundment and marsh salinization also are common impacts associated with wetland flooding by extreme storms. Many of the wetland features become legacies that record prior storm impacts and locally influence subsequent storm-induced morphological changes. Wetland losses caused by hurricane impacts depend directly on impact duration, which is controlled by the diameter of hurricane-force winds, forward speed of the storm, and wetland distance over which the storm passes. Distinguishing between wetland losses caused by storm impacts and losses associated with long-term delta-plain processes is critical for accurate modeling and prediction of future conversion of land to open water.

  17. Assessing storm erosion hazards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranasinghe, Ranasinghe W M R J B; Callaghan, D.; Ciavola, Paolo; Coco, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    The storm erosion hazard on coasts is usually expressed as an erosion volume and/or associated episodic coastline retreat. The accurate assessment of present-day and future storm erosion volumes is a key task for coastal zone managers, planners and engineers. There are four main approaches that can

  18. Toil and Trouble Confirmed: The Demise of Hallowe'en in English Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plater, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The claim that Hallowe'en has been eliminated from English primary schools is tested through empirical research in south-east England. The reasons given by teachers for their inclusion or non-inclusion of the subject are then explored. Finally, questions are raised about the implications of the findings for children's ongoing personal development,…

  19. The transforming perception of a regional geohazard between coastal defence and mediated discourse on global warming: Storm surges in Hamburg, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neverla, I.; Lüthje, C.

    2010-03-01

    The term regional geohazard is used for a major geophysical risk which can lead to a natural disaster. The effects will be strictly located to a specific region. It is expected but still not proven that global warming will intensify weather extremes and thus the number of regional geohazards will increase. Regional geohazards are not dangerous per se, but from the perspective of human being certain weather and nature extremes are considered dangerous as they impose damage on human beings and their belongings. Therefore the media often call them ‘natural disaster’ and as a matter of fact it seems to be a ‘must’ - according to theory and practice of news selections - that media report on any natural disaster that occur in their region. Moreover, media even report on geohazards in any other region as soon as these events seem to have any general impact. The major geophysical risk along the coast of the North Sea is storm surges. A long list of historical disasters has deeply engraved the ubiquity of this hazard into the collective memory and habitus of the local population. Not only coastal region is concerned by this danger but also the megacity of Hamburg. Hamburg is the second-largest city in Germany and the sixth-largest city in the European Union. The Hamburg Metropolitan Region has more than 4.3 million inhabitants. The estuary of the river Elbe extends from Cuxhaven (coast) to Hamburg a distance of about 130 km. Hamburg has often been subject to storm surges with significant damages. But after the storm flood in 1855 for more than 100 years until 1962 no severe storm surge happened. The Big Flood in the night from February 16 to February 17 1962 destroyed the homes of about 60.000 people. The death toll amounted to 315 in the city of Hamburg, where the storm surge had a traumatic impact and was followed by political decisions driven by the believe in technological solutions. After 1962 massive investments into the coastal defence were made and dikes

  20. Halloween Drama Contest: A Didactic Approach to English Language Teaching in a non-Bilingual School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Camelo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an action research project developed in Mayor de San Bartolomé School in 2007, when the authors’ teaching practice took place. The observation of 38 eighth graders, between 13 and 14 years old, highlighted their lack of motivation towards the English class. In the coming semester after the observation, the drama activities carried out in the English class made the students more eager to participate in the class activities and to use this language to communicate with their peers. The Halloween Drama Contest consisted of drama activities along with reading comprehension, writing production, vocabulary exercises and phonetics practice. Students were asked to prepare scripts of six horror movies to be performed on Halloween.

  1. Modeling of Coastal Inundation, Storm Surge, and Relative Sea-Level Rise at Naval Station Norfolk, Norfolk, Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Storm Surge, and Relative Sea-Level Rise at Naval Station Norfolk, Norfolk, Virginia, USA 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...tive comments on the manuscript. Permission was granted by the Chief, USACE, to publish this information. LITERATURE CITED Blanton, B.; Stillwell, L...Geospatial Center. http://www.agc.army.mil/ (accessed February 29, 2012). Vickery, P.; Wadhera, D.; Cox, A.; Cardone , V.; Hanson, J., and Blanton, B

  2. Contribution of insurance data to cost assessment of coastal flood damage to residential buildings: insights gained from Johanna (2008 and Xynthia (2010 storm events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. André

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of methodological issues involved in assessing damage caused by natural hazards. The first is the lack of data, due to the rarity of events and the widely different circumstances in which they occur. Thus, historical data, albeit scarce, should not be neglected when seeking to build ex-ante risk management models. This article analyses the input of insurance data for two recent severe coastal storm events, to examine what causal relationships may exist between hazard characteristics and the level of damage incurred by residential buildings. To do so, data was collected at two levels: from lists of about 4000 damage records, 358 loss adjustment reports were consulted, constituting a detailed damage database. The results show that for flooded residential buildings, over 75% of reconstruction costs are associated with interior elements, with damage to structural components remaining very localised and negligible. Further analysis revealed a high scatter between costs and water depth, suggesting that uncertainty remains high in drawing up damage functions with insurance data alone. Due to the paper format of the loss adjustment reports, and the lack of harmonisation between their contents, the collection stage called for a considerable amount of work. For future events, establishing a standardised process for archiving damage information could significantly contribute to the production of such empirical damage functions. Nevertheless, complementary sources of data on hazards and asset vulnerability parameters will definitely still be necessary for damage modelling; multivariate approaches, crossing insurance data with external material, should also be investigated more deeply.

  3. Contribution of insurance data to cost assessment of coastal flood damage to residential buildings: insights gained from Johanna (2008) and Xynthia (2010) storm events

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, C.; Monfort, D.; Bouzit, M.; Vinchon, C.

    2013-08-01

    There are a number of methodological issues involved in assessing damage caused by natural hazards. The first is the lack of data, due to the rarity of events and the widely different circumstances in which they occur. Thus, historical data, albeit scarce, should not be neglected when seeking to build ex-ante risk management models. This article analyses the input of insurance data for two recent severe coastal storm events, to examine what causal relationships may exist between hazard characteristics and the level of damage incurred by residential buildings. To do so, data was collected at two levels: from lists of about 4000 damage records, 358 loss adjustment reports were consulted, constituting a detailed damage database. The results show that for flooded residential buildings, over 75% of reconstruction costs are associated with interior elements, with damage to structural components remaining very localised and negligible. Further analysis revealed a high scatter between costs and water depth, suggesting that uncertainty remains high in drawing up damage functions with insurance data alone. Due to the paper format of the loss adjustment reports, and the lack of harmonisation between their contents, the collection stage called for a considerable amount of work. For future events, establishing a standardised process for archiving damage information could significantly contribute to the production of such empirical damage functions. Nevertheless, complementary sources of data on hazards and asset vulnerability parameters will definitely still be necessary for damage modelling; multivariate approaches, crossing insurance data with external material, should also be investigated more deeply.

  4. The effects of Hurricane Irene and Tropical Storm Lee on the bed sediment geochemistry of U.S. Atlantic coastal rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Arthur J.

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Irene and Tropical Storm Lee, both of which made landfall in the U.S. between late August and early September 2011, generated record or near record water discharges in 41 coastal rivers between the North Carolina/South Carolina border and the U.S./Canadian border. Despite the discharge of substantial amounts of suspended sediment from many of these rivers, as well as the probable influx of substantial amounts of eroded material from the surrounding basins, the geochemical effects on the TOC), total nitrogen (TN), Zn, Se, Co, Cu, Pb, As, Cr, and total carbon (TC). As a group, these constituents tend to be associated either with urbanization/elevated population densities and/or wastewater/solid sludge. The limited number of significant sediment-associated chemical changes that were detected probably resulted from two potential processes: (1) the flushing of in-stream land-use affected sediments that were replaced by baseline material more representative of local geology and/or soils (declining concentrations), and/or (2) the inclusion of more heavily affected material as a result of urban nonpoint-source runoff and/or releases from flooded treatment facilities (increasing concentrations). Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Molecular evolution of the insect Halloween family of cytochrome P450s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rewitz, Kim; O'Connor, Michael B.; Gilbert, Lawrence I.

    2007-01-01

    . In the present study, we examine the phylogenetic relationships of these P450 genes in holometabolous insects belonging to the orders Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera and Diptera. The analyzed insect genomes each contains single orthologs of Phantom (CYP306A1), Disembodied (CYP302A1), Shadow (CYP315A1...... of orthologous Halloween genes indicates selective constraint on these residues to prevent functional divergence. The results suggest that duplications of ancestral P450 genes that acquired novel functions may have been an important mechanism for evolving the ecdysteroidogenic pathway. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All...

  6. The Function and Evolution of the Halloween Genes; the Pathway to the Arthropod Molting Hormone. In Ecdysone, Structures and Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, Lawrence; Rewitz, Kim

    2009-01-01

    , Coleoptera, Hymenoptera and other Diptera allowed the development of a phylogenetic scheme for this gene family and suggests that the Halloween genes and vertebrate steroidogenic P450s originated from common ancestors that were perhaps destined for steroidogenesis, and arose before the deuterostome...

  7. Toward an integrated storm surge application: ESA Storm Surge project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Boram; Donlon, Craig; Arino, Olivier

    2010-05-01

    Storm surges and their associated coastal inundation are major coastal marine hazards, both in tropical and extra-tropical areas. As sea level rises due to climate change, the impact of storm surges and associated extreme flooding may increase in low-lying countries and harbour cities. Of the 33 world cities predicted to have at least 8 million people by 2015, at least 21 of them are coastal including 8 of the 10 largest. They are highly vulnerable to coastal hazards including storm surges. Coastal inundation forecasting and warning systems depend on the crosscutting cooperation of different scientific disciplines and user communities. An integrated approach to storm surge, wave, sea-level and flood forecasting offers an optimal strategy for building improved operational forecasts and warnings capability for coastal inundation. The Earth Observation (EO) information from satellites has demonstrated high potential to enhanced coastal hazard monitoring, analysis, and forecasting; the GOCE geoid data can help calculating accurate positions of tide gauge stations within the GLOSS network. ASAR images has demonstrated usefulness in analysing hydrological situation in coastal zones with timely manner, when hazardous events occur. Wind speed and direction, which is the key parameters for storm surge forecasting and hindcasting, can be derived by using scatterometer data. The current issue is, although great deal of useful EO information and application tools exist, that sufficient user information on EO data availability is missing and that easy access supported by user applications and documentation is highly required. Clear documentation on the user requirements in support of improved storm surge forecasting and risk assessment is also needed at the present. The paper primarily addresses the requirements for data, models/technologies, and operational skills, based on the results from the recent Scientific and Technical Symposium on Storm Surges (www

  8. Overview and Design Considerations of Storm Surge Barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooyaart, L.F.; Jonkman, S.N.

    2017-01-01

    The risk of flooding in coastal zones is expected to increase due to sea level rise and economic development. In larger bays, estuaries, and coastal waterways, storm surge barriers can be constructed to temporarily close off these systems during storm surges to provide coastal flood protection.

  9. Learning Storm

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Ankit

    2014-01-01

    If you are a Java developer who wants to enter into the world of real-time stream processing applications using Apache Storm, then this book is for you. No previous experience in Storm is required as this book starts from the basics. After finishing this book, you will be able to develop not-so-complex Storm applications.

  10. Observatory geoelectric fields induced in a two-layer lithosphere during magnetic storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Swidinsky, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    We report on the development and validation of an algorithm for estimating geoelectric fields induced in the lithosphere beneath an observatory during a magnetic storm. To accommodate induction in three-dimensional lithospheric electrical conductivity, we analyze a simple nine-parameter model: two horizontal layers, each with uniform electrical conductivity properties given by independent distortion tensors. With Laplace transformation of the induction equations into the complex frequency domain, we obtain a transfer function describing induction of observatory geoelectric fields having frequency-dependent polarization. Upon inverse transformation back to the time domain, the convolution of the corresponding impulse-response function with a geomagnetic time series yields an estimated geoelectric time series. We obtain an optimized set of conductivity parameters using 1-s resolution geomagnetic and geoelectric field data collected at the Kakioka, Japan, observatory for five different intense magnetic storms, including the October 2003 Halloween storm; our estimated geoelectric field accounts for 93% of that measured during the Halloween storm. This work demonstrates the need for detailed modeling of the Earth’s lithospheric conductivity structure and the utility of co-located geomagnetic and geoelectric monitoring.

  11. Strengthening the resiliency of the coastal transportation system through integrated simulation of storm surge, inundation, and non-recurrent congestion in Northeast Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    In this study, the MTEVA (Developed as part of CMS #2009-010) has been advanced to apply storm surge and evacuation models to the greater Jacksonville area of Northeast Florida. Heuristic and time dynamic algorithms have been enhanced to work with th...

  12. Geomagnetic Storm Impact On GPS Code Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uray, Fırat; Varlık, Abdullah; Kalaycı, İbrahim; Öǧütcü, Sermet

    2017-04-01

    This paper deals with the geomagnetic storm impact on GPS code processing with using GIPSY/OASIS research software. 12 IGS stations in mid-latitude were chosen to conduct the experiment. These IGS stations were classified as non-cross correlation receiver reporting P1 and P2 (NONCC-P1P2), non-cross correlation receiver reporting C1 and P2 (NONCC-C1P2) and cross-correlation (CC-C1P2) receiver. In order to keep the code processing consistency between the classified receivers, only P2 code observations from the GPS satellites were processed. Four extreme geomagnetic storms October 2003, day of the year (DOY), 29, 30 Halloween Storm, November 2003, DOY 20, November 2004, DOY 08 and four geomagnetic quiet days in 2005 (DOY 92, 98, 99, 100) were chosen for this study. 24-hour rinex data of the IGS stations were processed epoch-by-epoch basis. In this way, receiver clock and Earth Centered Earth Fixed (ECEF) Cartesian Coordinates were solved for a per-epoch basis for each day. IGS combined broadcast ephemeris file (brdc) were used to partly compensate the ionospheric effect on the P2 code observations. There is no tropospheric model was used for the processing. Jet Propulsion Laboratory Application Technology Satellites (JPL ATS) computed coordinates of the stations were taken as true coordinates. The differences of the computed ECEF coordinates and assumed true coordinates were resolved to topocentric coordinates (north, east, up). Root mean square (RMS) errors for each component were calculated for each day. The results show that two-dimensional and vertical accuracy decreases significantly during the geomagnetic storm days comparing with the geomagnetic quiet days. It is observed that vertical accuracy is much more affected than the horizontal accuracy by geomagnetic storm. Up to 50 meters error in vertical component has been observed in geomagnetic storm day. It is also observed that performance of Klobuchar ionospheric correction parameters during geomagnetic storm

  13. Assessment of Damage and Adaptation Strategies for Structures and Infrastructure from Storm Surge and Sea Level Rise for a Coastal Community in Rhode Island, United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Small

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an evaluation of inundation, erosion, and wave damage for a coastal community in Rhode Island, USA. A methodology called the Coastal Environmental Risk Index (CERI was used that incorporates levels of inundation including sea level rise, wave heights using STWAVE, and detailed information about individual structures from an E911 database. This information was input into damage functions developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers following Hurricane Sandy. Damage from erosion was evaluated separately from local published erosion rates. Using CERI, two different adaptation strategies were evaluated that included a combination of dune restoration, protective berms, and a tide gate. A total of 151 out of 708 structures were estimated to be protected from inundation and wave action by the combined measures. More importantly, the use of CERI allowed for the assessment of the impact of different adaptation strategies on both individual structures and an entire community in a Geographical Information Systems (GIS environment. This tool shows promise for use by coastal managers to assess damage and mitigate risk to coastal communities.

  14. Communicating Coastal Risk Analysis in an Age of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    extratropical storm systems); the geometry and geomorphology of the area (regional and local bathymetry and topography, including rivers, marshes, and...at risk from coastal hazards including storm surge inundation, precipitation driven flooding, waves, and coastal erosion. This population segment...will likely be exposed to increased risk as impacts of a changing climate are felt through elevated sea levels and potentially increased storm

  15. Measuring the Storm: Methods of Quantifying Hurricane Exposure in Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing coastal populations and storm intensity may lead to more adverse health effects from tropical storms and hurricanes. Exposure during pregnancy can influence birth outcomes through mechanisms related to healthcare, infrastructure disruption, stress, nutrition, and inju...

  16. Geomagnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNamara, A.G.

    1980-01-01

    Disturbances due to geomagnetic storms can affect the functioning of communications satellites and of power lines and other long conductors. Two general classes of geomagnetic activity can be distinguished: ionospheric current flow (the auroral electrojet), and magnetospheric compression. Super magnetic storms, such as the one of August 1972, can occur at any time and average about 17 occurrences per century. Electrical transmission systems can be made more tolerant of such events at a price, but the most effective way to minimize damage is by better operator training coupled with effective early warning systems. (LL)

  17. Development of a Geomagnetic Storm Correction to the International Reference Ionosphere E-Region Electron Densities Using TIMED/SABER Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, C. J.; Xu, X.; Fernandez, J. R.; Bilitza, D.; Russell, J. M., III; Mlynczak, M. G.

    2009-01-01

    Auroral infrared emission observed from the TIMED/SABER broadband 4.3 micron channel is used to develop an empirical geomagnetic storm correction to the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) E-region electron densities. The observation-based proxy used to develop the storm model is SABER-derived NO+(v) 4.3 micron volume emission rates (VER). A correction factor is defined as the ratio of storm-time NO+(v) 4.3 micron VER to a quiet-time climatological averaged NO+(v) 4.3 micron VER, which is linearly fit to available geomagnetic activity indices. The initial version of the E-region storm model, called STORM-E, is most applicable within the auroral oval region. The STORM-E predictions of E-region electron densities are compared to incoherent scatter radar electron density measurements during the Halloween 2003 storm events. Future STORM-E updates will extend the model outside the auroral oval.

  18. Spatial distribution of damages from winter 2014 coastal storms in the northern coast of Spain: hazard, vulnerability and elements at risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Garmendia Pedraja

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The succession of storms events that hit the Galician-Cantabrian coast during the winter of 2014 caused considerable damages, in both the natural environment and the infrastructures and equipment, whose restoration was worth around 70 million € . Taking in mind the sensibility of beaches to erosion, these types of environments focused much of the analysis. The results show that the spatial distribution of those damages keep a closer relationship with the greater appreciation of these spaces by the population rather than the magnitude of the natural phenomenon or the geomorphological background. That idea confirms that the consequences of the extreme climatic events do not depend exclusively on the process hazardousness but also on the vulnerability (natural and social of the geographical area affected and the quantity and value of the elements at risk.

  19. Empirical Storm-Time Correction to the International Reference Ionosphere Model E-Region Electron and Ion Density Parameterizations Using Observations from TIMED/SABER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Christoper J.; Winick, Jeremy R.; Russell, James M., III; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Evans, David S.; Bilitza, Dieter; Xu, Xiaojing

    2007-01-01

    The response of the ionospheric E-region to solar-geomagnetic storms can be characterized using observations of infrared 4.3 micrometers emission. In particular, we utilize nighttime TIMED/SABER measurements of broadband 4.3 micrometers limb emission and derive a new data product, the NO+(v) volume emission rate, which is our primary observation-based quantity for developing an empirical storm-time correction the IRI E-region electron density. In this paper we describe our E-region proxy and outline our strategy for developing the empirical storm model. In our initial studies, we analyzed a six day storm period during the Halloween 2003 event. The results of this analysis are promising and suggest that the ap-index is a viable candidate to use as a magnetic driver for our model.

  20. Storm-time ionization enhancements at the topside low-latitude ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dmitriev

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Ion density enhancements at the topside low-latitude ionosphere during a Bastille storm on 15–16 July 2000 and Halloween storms on 29–31 October 2003 were studied using data from ROCSAT-1/IPEI experiment. Prominent ion density enhancements demonstrate similar temporal dynamics both in the sunlit and in the nightside hemispheres. The ion density increases dramatically (up to two orders of magnitude during the main phase of the geomagnetic storms and reaches peak values at the storm maximum. The density enhancements are mostly localized in the region of a South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA, which is characterized by very intense fluxes of energetic particles. The dynamics of near-Earth radiation was studied using SAMPEX/LEICA data on >0.6 MeV electrons and >0.8 MeV protons at around 600 km altitude. During the magnetic storms the energetic particle fluxes in the SAA region and in its vicinity increase more than three orders of magnitude. The location of increased fluxes overlaps well with the regions of ion density enhancements. Two mechanisms were considered to be responsible for the generation of storm-time ion density enhancements: prompt penetration of the interplanetary electric field and abundant ionization of the ionosphere by enhanced precipitation of energetic particles from the radiation belt.

  1. 75 FR 28593 - Board on Coastal Engineering Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ...-Level Changes along the U.S. Atlantic Coast, Atlantic Region Coastal Storms, Overview of Climatic Variation Effects on Extratropical and Tropical Storms, Evidence for a Changing North Pacific Wave Climate...

  2. Adaptive mesh refinement for storm surge

    KAUST Repository

    Mandli, Kyle T.; Dawson, Clint N.

    2014-01-01

    An approach to utilizing adaptive mesh refinement algorithms for storm surge modeling is proposed. Currently numerical models exist that can resolve the details of coastal regions but are often too costly to be run in an ensemble forecasting framework without significant computing resources. The application of adaptive mesh refinement algorithms substantially lowers the computational cost of a storm surge model run while retaining much of the desired coastal resolution. The approach presented is implemented in the GeoClaw framework and compared to ADCIRC for Hurricane Ike along with observed tide gauge data and the computational cost of each model run. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Adaptive mesh refinement for storm surge

    KAUST Repository

    Mandli, Kyle T.

    2014-03-01

    An approach to utilizing adaptive mesh refinement algorithms for storm surge modeling is proposed. Currently numerical models exist that can resolve the details of coastal regions but are often too costly to be run in an ensemble forecasting framework without significant computing resources. The application of adaptive mesh refinement algorithms substantially lowers the computational cost of a storm surge model run while retaining much of the desired coastal resolution. The approach presented is implemented in the GeoClaw framework and compared to ADCIRC for Hurricane Ike along with observed tide gauge data and the computational cost of each model run. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Evaluation of Loss Due to Storm Surge Disasters in China Based on Econometric Model Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Xue Jin; Xiaoxia Shi; Jintian Gao; Tongbin Xu; Kedong Yin

    2018-01-01

    Storm surge has become an important factor restricting the economic and social development of China’s coastal regions. In order to improve the scientific judgment of future storm surge damage, a method of model groups is proposed to refine the evaluation of the loss due to storm surges. Due to the relative dispersion and poor regularity of the natural property data (login center air pressure, maximum wind speed, maximum storm water, super warning water level, etc.), storm surge disaster is di...

  5. Storm Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tammy; Kier, Meredith; Phillips, Kelsey

    2016-01-01

    To show students how engineering design practices reduce the impacts of a natural hazard, the authors--two science educators and an elementary teacher--taught a three-day 5E lesson that focused on hurricanes. They specifically focused on hurricanes because their students are located near a coastal area and are familiar with the effects of this…

  6. Coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on the coastal zone focuses on the impact of climate change on Canada's marine and Great Lakes coasts with tips on how to deal with the impacts associated with climate change in sensitive environments. This report is aimed at the sectors that will be most affected by adaptation decisions in the coastal zone, including fisheries, tourism, transportation and water resources. The impact of climate change in the coastal zone may include changes in water levels, wave patterns, storm surges, and thickness of seasonal ice cover. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projects global average sea level will rise between 9 and 88 centimetres between 1990 to 2100, but not all areas of Canada will experience the same rate of future sea level change. The main physical impact would be shoreline change that could result in a range of biophysical and socio-economic impacts, some beneficial, some negative. The report focuses on issues related to infrastructure and communities in coastal regions. It is noted that appropriate human adaptation will play a vital role in reducing the extent of potential impacts by decreasing the vulnerability of average zone to climate change. The 3 main trends in coastal adaptation include: (1) increase in soft protection, retreat and accommodation, (2) reliance on technology such as geographic information systems to manage information, and (3) awareness of the need for coastal adaptation that is appropriate for local conditions. 61 refs., 7 figs

  7. [Electrical storm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnay, C; Taieb, J; Morice, R

    2007-11-01

    Electrical storm is defined as repeated occurrence of severe ventricular arrhythmias requiring multiple cardioversions, two or more or three or more following different studies. The clinical aspect can sometimes be made of multiple, self aggravating, life threatening accesses. There are three main clinical circumstances of occurrence: in patients equipped with intracardiac defibrillators, during the acute phase of myocardial infarction and in Brugada syndrome. 10 to 15% of patients with cardiac defibrillators are subject to electrical storms in a period of two years. The causative arrhythmia is most often ventricular tachycardia than ventricular fibrillation, especially in secondary prevention and if the initial arrhythmias justifying the device was a ventricular tachycardia. Precipitaing factors are present in one third of cases, mainly acute heart failure, ionic disorders and arrhythmogenic drugs. Predictive factors are age, left ventricular ejection fractionelectrical shock in 50% of cases, antitachycardi stimulation in 30% and in 20% by association of the two. Treatment, after elimination of inappropriate shocks, is mainly based on beta-blockers and amiodarone, class I antiarrhythmics, lidocaïne or bretylium in some cases, and sedation pushed to general anesthesia in some cases. Radio-frequency ablation and even heart transplantation have been proposed in extreme cases. Quinidine has been proved efficient in cases of Brugada syndrome.

  8. Geomagnetic Storm Sudden Commencements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Storm Sudden Commencements (ssc) 1868 to present: STORM1 and STORM2 Lists: (Some text here is taken from the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy...

  9. Storm impacts on small barrier islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroon, Aart; Fruergaard, Mikkel

    The shorelines of the Baltic Sea and the inner coastal waters in Denmark consist of many barrier islands. These sandy barrier islands were mainly formed in the Holocene and are still very dynamic. The present day changes in the morphology are dominantly governed by storm waves and associated high...

  10. Analysis of Storm Surge in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, W. H.

    2017-12-01

    A storm surge is a type of coastal flood that is caused by low-pressure systems such as tropical cyclones. Storm surges caused by tropical cyclones can be very powerful and damaging, as they can flood coastal areas, and even destroy infrastructure in serious cases. Some serious cases of storm surges leading to more than thousands of deaths include Hurricane Katrina (2005) in New Orleans and Typhoon Haiyan (2013) in Philippines. Hong Kong is a coastal city that is prone to tropical cyclones, having an average of 5-6 tropical cyclones entering 500km range of Hong Kong per year. Storm surges have seriously damaged Hong Kong in the past, causing more than 100 deaths by Typhoon Wanda (1962), and leading to serious damage to Tai O and Cheung Chau by Typhoon Hagupit (2008). To prevent economic damage and casualties from storm surges, accurately predicting the height of storm surges and giving timely warnings to citizens is very important. In this project, I will be analyzing how different factors affect the height of storm surge, mainly using data from Hong Kong. These factors include the windspeed in Hong Kong, the atmospheric pressure in Hong Kong, the moon phase, the wind direction, the intensity of the tropical cyclone, distance between the tropical cyclone and Hong Kong, the direction of the tropical cyclone relative to Hong Kong, the speed of movement of the tropical cyclone and more. My findings will also be compared with cases from other places, to see if my findings also apply for other places.

  11. Coastal defence and societal activities in the coastal zone: Compatible or conflicting interests?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vuren, Saskia; Kok, Matthijs; Jorissen, Richard E.

    2004-01-01

    World-wide coastal zones are subject to physical and societal changes. Due to climate change sea level is expected to rise and storm conditions may become more intensive. Both may lead to shore erosion intensification in the coastal zone. Moreover, the coastal zone is intensely used for societal

  12. Solar noise storms

    CERN Document Server

    Elgaroy, E O

    2013-01-01

    Solar Noise Storms examines the properties and features of solar noise storm phenomenon. The book also presents some theories that can be used to gain a better understanding of the phenomenon. The coverage of the text includes topics that cover the features and behavior of noise storms, such as the observable features of noise storms; the relationship between noise storms and the observable features on the sun; and ordered behavior of storm bursts in the time-frequency plane. The book also covers the spectrum, polarization, and directivity of noise storms. The text will be of great use to astr

  13. Risk assessment of storm surge disaster based on numerical models and remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingrong; Ruan, Chengqing; Zhong, Shan; Li, Jian; Yin, Zhonghui; Lian, Xihu

    2018-06-01

    Storm surge is one of the most serious ocean disasters in the world. Risk assessment of storm surge disaster for coastal areas has important implications for planning economic development and reducing disaster losses. Based on risk assessment theory, this paper uses coastal hydrological observations, a numerical storm surge model and multi-source remote sensing data, proposes methods for valuing hazard and vulnerability for storm surge and builds a storm surge risk assessment model. Storm surges in different recurrence periods are simulated in numerical models and the flooding areas and depth are calculated, which are used for assessing the hazard of storm surge; remote sensing data and GIS technology are used for extraction of coastal key objects and classification of coastal land use are identified, which is used for vulnerability assessment of storm surge disaster. The storm surge risk assessment model is applied for a typical coastal city, and the result shows the reliability and validity of the risk assessment model. The building and application of storm surge risk assessment model provides some basis reference for the city development plan and strengthens disaster prevention and mitigation.

  14. Comprehensive Condition Survey and Storm Waves, Circulation, and Sediment Study, Dana Point Harbor, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    waters; 3) west to northwest local sea; 4) prefrontal local sea; 5) tropical storm swell; and 6) extratropical cyclone in the southern hemisphere...14-13 58 Prefrontal local sea The coastal zone within the south Orange County area is vulnerable under extratropical winter storm conditions (a...wave characteristics for severe extratropical storms during the 39 yr time period (1970–2008) are comparable to peak storm wave heights that were

  15. The effects of storms and storm-generated currents on sand beaches in Southern Maine, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, H.W.; Kelley, J.T.; Belknap, D.F.; Dickson, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    Storms are one of the most important controls on the cycle of erosion and accretion on beaches. Current meters placed in shoreface locations of Saco Bay and Wells Embayment, ME, recorded bottom currents during the winter months of 2000 and 2001, while teams of volunteers profiled the topography of nearby beaches. Coupling offshore meteorological and beach profile data made it possible to determine the response of nine beaches in southern Maine to various oceanographic and meteorological conditions. The beaches selected for profiling ranged from pristine to completely developed and permitted further examination of the role of seawalls on the response of beaches to storms. Current meters documented three unique types of storms: frontal passages, southwest storms, and northeast storms. In general, the current meter results indicate that frontal passages and southwest storms were responsible for bringing sediment towards the shore, while northeast storms resulted in a net movement of sediment away from the beach. During the 1999-2000 winter, there were a greater percentage of frontal passages and southwest storms, while during the 2000-2001 winter, there were more northeast storms. The sediment that was transported landward during the 1999-2000 winter was reworked into the berm along moderately and highly developed beaches during the next summer. A northeast storm on March 5-6, 2001, resulted in currents in excess of 1 m s-1 and wave heights that reached six meters. The storm persisted over 10 high tides and caused coastal flooding and property damage. Topographic profiles made before and after the storm demonstrate that developed beaches experienced a loss of sediment volume during the storm, while sediment was redistributed along the profile on moderately developed and undeveloped beaches. Two months after the storm, the profiles along the developed beaches had not reached their pre-storm elevation. In comparison, the moderately developed and undeveloped beaches

  16. Outreach for Families and Girls- Astronomy at Outdoor Concerts and at Super Bowl or Halloween Star Parties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, Donald A.

    2011-05-01

    Bring telescope to where the people are! Music and Astronomy Under the Stars (MAUS) is a NASA-funded as astronomy outreach program at community parks and music festivals (1000 - 25,000 people/event). While there have been many astronomy outreach activities and telescope observations at sidewalks and parks, this program targets a different audience - music lovers who are attending concerts in community parks or festivals. These music lovers who may not have visited science museums, planetariums, or star parties are exposed to telescope observations and astronomy information with no additional travel costs. MAUS includes solar observing, telescope observations including a live imaging system, an astronomical video, astronomy banners/posters, and hands-on activities. MAUS increased awareness, engagement, and interest in astronomy at classical, pop, rock, and ethnic music concerts. Since 2009 over 50,000 people have participated in these outreach activities including a significant number of families and young girls. In addition to concerts in local Long Island parks, there were MUAS events at Tanglewood (summer home of the Boston Symphony Orchestra), Jazz in Central Park, and Astronomy Night on the National Mall (co-sponsored by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy). In 2011 MUAS will be expanded to include Ravinia (summer home of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra), the Newport Folk Festival, and the Bethel Woods Center for the Arts (site of the 1969 Woodstock festival). According to our survey results, music lovers became more informed about astronomy. Expanding Hofstra University's successful outreach programs, I propose the creation of a National Halloween Stars event targeting children and a National Super Bowl Star Party targeting girls, women, and the 2/3 of Americans who do not watch the Super Bowl. This can be combined with astronomers or amateur astronomers bringing telescopes to Super Bowl parties for football fans to stargaze during

  17. Identification, characterization and developmental expression of Halloween genes encoding P450 enzymes mediating ecdysone biosynthesis in the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rewitz, Kim; Rybczynski, Robert; Warren, James T.

    2006-01-01

    this work to the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta, an established model for endocrinological and developmental studies. cDNA clones were obtained for three Manduca orthologs of CYP306A1 (phantom; phm, the 25-hydroxylase), CYP302A1 (disembodied; dib, the 22-hydroxylase) and CYP315A1 (shadow; sad, the 2...... in the developmentally varying steroidogenic capacities of the prothoracic glands during the fifth instar. The consistent expression of the Halloween genes confirms the importance of the prothoracic glands in pupal-adult development. These studies establish Manduca as an excellent model for examining the regulation...

  18. Hurricane Isaac: observations and analysis of coastal change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Kristy K.; Stockdon, Hilary F.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Doran, Kara S.; Morgan, Karen L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding storm-induced coastal change and forecasting these changes require knowledge of the physical processes associated with a storm and the geomorphology of the impacted coastline. The primary physical process of interest is sediment transport that is driven by waves, currents, and storm surge associated with storms. Storm surge, which is the rise in water level due to the wind, barometric pressure, and other factors, allows both waves and currents to impact parts of the coast not normally exposed to these processes. Coastal geomorphology reflects the coastal changes associated with extreme-storm processes. Relevant geomorphic variables that are observable before and after storms include sand dune elevation, beach width, shoreline position, sediment grain size, and foreshore beach slope. These variables, in addition to hydrodynamic processes, can be used to quantify coastal change and are used to predict coastal vulnerability to storms (Stockdon and others, 2007). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards (NACCH) project (http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/national-assessment/) provides hazard information to those concerned about the Nation’s coastlines, including residents of coastal areas, government agencies responsible for coastal management, and coastal researchers. Extreme-storm research is a component of the NACCH project (http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/hurricanes/) that includes development of predictive understanding, vulnerability assessments using models, and updated observations in response to specific storm events. In particular, observations were made to determine morphological changes associated with Hurricane Isaac, which made landfall in the United States first at Southwest Pass, at the mouth of the Mississippi River, at 0000 August 29, 2012 UTC (Coordinated Universal Time) and again, 8 hours later, west of Port Fourchon, Louisiana (Berg, 2013). Methods of observation included oblique aerial photography

  19. Probabilistic storm surge inundation maps for Metro Manila based on Philippine public storm warning signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tablazon, J.; Caro, C. V.; Lagmay, A. M. F.; Briones, J. B. L.; Dasallas, L.; Lapidez, J. P.; Santiago, J.; Suarez, J. K.; Ladiero, C.; Gonzalo, L. A.; Mungcal, M. T. F.; Malano, V.

    2015-03-01

    A storm surge is the sudden rise of sea water over the astronomical tides, generated by an approaching storm. This event poses a major threat to the Philippine coastal areas, as manifested by Typhoon Haiyan on 8 November 2013. This hydro-meteorological hazard is one of the main reasons for the high number of casualties due to the typhoon, with 6300 deaths. It became evident that the need to develop a storm surge inundation map is of utmost importance. To develop these maps, the Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards under the Department of Science and Technology (DOST-Project NOAH) simulated historical tropical cyclones that entered the Philippine Area of Responsibility. The Japan Meteorological Agency storm surge model was used to simulate storm surge heights. The frequency distribution of the maximum storm surge heights was calculated using simulation results of tropical cyclones under a specific public storm warning signal (PSWS) that passed through a particular coastal area. This determines the storm surge height corresponding to a given probability of occurrence. The storm surge heights from the model were added to the maximum astronomical tide data from WXTide software. The team then created maps of inundation for a specific PSWS using the probability of exceedance derived from the frequency distribution. Buildings and other structures were assigned a probability of exceedance depending on their occupancy category, i.e., 1% probability of exceedance for critical facilities, 10% probability of exceedance for special occupancy structures, and 25% for standard occupancy and miscellaneous structures. The maps produced show the storm-surge-vulnerable areas in Metro Manila, illustrated by the flood depth of up to 4 m and extent of up to 6.5 km from the coastline. This information can help local government units in developing early warning systems, disaster preparedness and mitigation plans, vulnerability assessments, risk-sensitive land use plans, shoreline

  20. NCDC Storm Events Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Storm Data is provided by the National Weather Service (NWS) and contain statistics on personal injuries and damage estimates. Storm Data covers the United States of...

  1. Modeling the ocean effect of geomagnetic storms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Kuvshinov, A.

    2004-01-01

    At coastal sites, geomagnetic variations for periods shorter than a few days are strongly distorted by the conductivity of the nearby sea-water. This phenomena, known as the ocean (or coast) effect, is strongest in the magnetic vertical component. We demonstrate the ability to predict the ocean...... if the oceans are considered. Our analysis also indicates a significant local time asymmetry (i.e., contributions from spherical harmonics other than P-I(0)), especially during the main phase of the storm....

  2. Hurricane Ike: Observations and Analysis of Coastal Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Kara S.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Stockdon, Hilary F.; Sallenger, Asbury H.; Serafin, Katherine A.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding storm-induced coastal change and forecasting these changes require knowledge of the physical processes associated with the storm and the geomorphology of the impacted coastline. The primary physical processes of interest are the wind field, storm surge, and wave climate. Not only does wind cause direct damage to structures along the coast, but it is ultimately responsible for much of the energy that is transferred to the ocean and expressed as storm surge, mean currents, and large waves. Waves and currents are the processes most responsible for moving sediments in the coastal zone during extreme storm events. Storm surge, the rise in water level due to the wind, barometric pressure, and other factors, allows both waves and currents to attack parts of the coast not normally exposed to those processes. Coastal geomorphology, including shapes of the shoreline, beaches, and dunes, is equally important to the coastal change observed during extreme storm events. Relevant geomorphic variables include sand dune elevation, beach width, shoreline position, sediment grain size, and foreshore beach slope. These variables, in addition to hydrodynamic processes, can be used to predict coastal vulnerability to storms The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards Project (http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/hurricanes), strives to provide hazard information to those interested in the Nation's coastlines, including residents of coastal areas, government agencies responsible for coastal management, and coastal researchers. As part of the National Assessment, observations were collected to measure coastal changes associated with Hurricane Ike, which made landfall near Galveston, Texas, on September 13, 2008. Methods of observation included aerial photography and airborne topographic surveys. This report documents these data-collection efforts and presents qualitative and quantitative descriptions of hurricane-induced changes to the shoreline

  3. A Climate Change Adaptation Strategy for Management of Coastal Marsh Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sea level rise is causing shoreline erosion, increased coastal flooding, and marsh vulnerability to the impact of storms. Coastal marshes provide flood abatement, carbon and nutrient sequestration, water quality maintenance, and habitat for fish, shellfish, and wildlife, includin...

  4. Developing an early warning system for storm surge inundation in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tablazon, J.; Caro, C. V.; Lagmay, A. M. F.; Briones, J. B. L.; Dasallas, L.; Lapidez, J. P.; Santiago, J.; Suarez, J. K.; Ladiero, C.; Gonzalo, L. A.; Mungcal, M. T. F.; Malano, V.

    2014-10-01

    A storm surge is the sudden rise of sea water generated by an approaching storm, over and above the astronomical tides. This event imposes a major threat in the Philippine coastal areas, as manifested by Typhoon Haiyan on 8 November 2013 where more than 6000 people lost their lives. It has become evident that the need to develop an early warning system for storm surges is of utmost importance. To provide forecasts of the possible storm surge heights of an approaching typhoon, the Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards under the Department of Science and Technology (DOST-Project NOAH) simulated historical tropical cyclones that entered the Philippine Area of Responsibility. Bathymetric data, storm track, central atmospheric pressure, and maximum wind speed were used as parameters for the Japan Meteorological Agency Storm Surge Model. The researchers calculated the frequency distribution of maximum storm surge heights of all typhoons under a specific Public Storm Warning Signal (PSWS) that passed through a particular coastal area. This determines the storm surge height corresponding to a given probability of occurrence. The storm surge heights from the model were added to the maximum astronomical tide data from WXTide software. The team then created maps of probable area inundation and flood levels of storm surges along coastal areas for a specific PSWS using the results of the frequency distribution. These maps were developed from the time series data of the storm tide at 10 min intervals of all observation points in the Philippines. This information will be beneficial in developing early warnings systems, static maps, disaster mitigation and preparedness plans, vulnerability assessments, risk-sensitive land use plans, shoreline defense efforts, and coastal protection measures. Moreover, these will support the local government units' mandate to raise public awareness, disseminate information about storm surge hazards, and implement appropriate counter

  5. Hurricane Gustav: Observations and Analysis of Coastal Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Kara S.; Stockdon, Hilary F.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Sallenger, Asbury H.; Guy, Kristy K.; Serafin, Katherine A.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding storm-induced coastal change and forecasting these changes require knowledge of the physical processes associated with a storm and the geomorphology of the impacted coastline. The primary physical processes of interest are the wind field, storm surge, currents, and wave field. Not only does wind cause direct damage to structures along the coast, but it is ultimately responsible for much of the energy that is transferred to the ocean and expressed as storm surge, mean currents, and surface waves. Waves and currents are the processes most responsible for moving sediments in the coastal zone during extreme storm events. Storm surge, which is the rise in water level due to the wind, barometric pressure, and other factors, allows both waves and currents to attack parts of the coast not normally exposed to these processes. Coastal geomorphology, including shapes of the shoreline, beaches, and dunes, is also a significant aspect of the coastal change observed during extreme storms. Relevant geomorphic variables include sand dune elevation, beach width, shoreline position, sediment grain size, and foreshore beach slope. These variables, in addition to hydrodynamic processes, can be used to predict coastal vulnerability to storms. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project (http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/hurricanes) strives to provide hazard information to those concerned about the Nation's coastlines, including residents of coastal areas, government agencies responsible for coastal management, and coastal researchers. As part of the National Assessment, observations were collected to measure morphological changes associated with Hurricane Gustav, which made landfall near Cocodrie, Louisiana, on September 1, 2008. Methods of observation included oblique aerial photography, airborne topographic surveys, and ground-based topographic surveys. This report documents these data-collection efforts and presents qualitative and

  6. Identification of storm surge vulnerable areas in the Philippines through the simulation of Typhoon Haiyan-induced storm surge levels over historical storm tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapidez, J. P.; Tablazon, J.; Dasallas, L.; Gonzalo, L. A.; Cabacaba, K. M.; Ramos, M. M. A.; Suarez, J. K.; Santiago, J.; Lagmay, A. M. F.; Malano, V.

    2015-07-01

    Super Typhoon Haiyan entered the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR) on 7 November 2013, causing tremendous damage to infrastructure and loss of lives mainly due to the storm surge and strong winds. Storm surges up to a height of 7 m were reported in the hardest hit areas. The threat imposed by this kind of natural calamity compelled researchers of the Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards (Project NOAH) which is the flagship disaster mitigation program of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) of the Philippine government to undertake a study to determine the vulnerability of all Philippine coastal communities to storm surges of the same magnitude as those generated by Haiyan. This study calculates the maximum probable storm surge height for every coastal locality by running simulations of Haiyan-type conditions but with tracks of tropical cyclones that entered PAR from 1948-2013. One product of this study is a list of the 30 most vulnerable coastal areas that can be used as a basis for choosing priority sites for further studies to implement appropriate site-specific solutions for flood risk management. Another product is the storm tide inundation maps that the local government units can use to develop a risk-sensitive land use plan for identifying appropriate areas to build residential buildings, evacuation sites, and other critical facilities and lifelines. The maps can also be used to develop a disaster response plan and evacuation scheme.

  7. Identification of storm surge vulnerable areas in the Philippines through the simulation of Typhoon Haiyan-induced storm surge levels over historical storm tracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Lapidez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Super Typhoon Haiyan entered the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR on 7 November 2013, causing tremendous damage to infrastructure and loss of lives mainly due to the storm surge and strong winds. Storm surges up to a height of 7 m were reported in the hardest hit areas. The threat imposed by this kind of natural calamity compelled researchers of the Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards (Project NOAH which is the flagship disaster mitigation program of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST of the Philippine government to undertake a study to determine the vulnerability of all Philippine coastal communities to storm surges of the same magnitude as those generated by Haiyan. This study calculates the maximum probable storm surge height for every coastal locality by running simulations of Haiyan-type conditions but with tracks of tropical cyclones that entered PAR from 1948–2013. One product of this study is a list of the 30 most vulnerable coastal areas that can be used as a basis for choosing priority sites for further studies to implement appropriate site-specific solutions for flood risk management. Another product is the storm tide inundation maps that the local government units can use to develop a risk-sensitive land use plan for identifying appropriate areas to build residential buildings, evacuation sites, and other critical facilities and lifelines. The maps can also be used to develop a disaster response plan and evacuation scheme.

  8. South Texas coastal classification maps - Mansfield Channel to the Rio Grande

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Robert A.; Peterson, Russell L.

    2006-01-01

    The Nation's rapidly growing coastal population requires reliable information regarding the vulnerability of coastal regions to storm impacts. This has created a need for classifying coastal lands and evaluating storm-hazard vulnerability. Government officials and resource managers responsible for dealing with natural hazards also need accurate assessments of potential storm impacts in order to make informed decisions before, during, and after major storm events. Both economic development and coastal-damage mitigation require integrated models of storm parameters, hazard vulnerability, and expected coastal responses. Thus, storm-hazard vulnerability assessments constitute one of the fundamental components of forecasting storm impacts. Each year as many as 10 to 12 hurricanes and tropical storms will be the focus of national attention. Of particular interest are intense hurricanes (Categories 3 to 5 of the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale) that have the potential to cause substantial economic and environmental damage to the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the United States. These coastal regions include some of the largest metropolitan areas in the country and they continue to experience rapid population growth. Based on media reports, there is a general lack of public knowledge regarding how different coastal segments will respond to the same storm or how the same coastal segment will respond differently depending on storm conditions. A primary purpose of the USGS National Assessment of Coastal Change Project is to provide accurate representations of pre-storm ground conditions for areas that are designated high priority because they have dense populations or valuable resources that are at risk. A secondary purpose is to develop a broad coastal classification that, with only minor modification, can be applied to most coastal regions in the United States.

  9. Estimating Areas of Vulnerability: Sea Level Rise and Storm Surge Hazards in the National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffrey, M.; Beavers, R. L.; Slayton, I. A.

    2013-12-01

    The University of Colorado Boulder in collaboration with the National Park Service has undertaken the task of compiling sea level change and storm surge data for 105 coastal parks. The aim of our research is to highlight areas of the park system that are at increased risk of rapid inundation as well as periodic flooding due to sea level rise and storms. This research will assist park managers and planners in adapting to climate change. The National Park Service incorporates climate change data into many of their planning documents and is willing to implement innovative coastal adaptation strategies. Events such as Hurricane Sandy highlight how impacts of coastal hazards will continue to challenge management of natural and cultural resources and infrastructure along our coastlines. This poster will discuss the current status of this project. We discuss the impacts of Hurricane Sandy as well as the latest sea level rise and storm surge modeling being employed in this project. In addition to evaluating various drivers of relative sea-level change, we discuss how park planners and managers also need to consider projected storm surge values added to sea-level rise magnitudes, which could further complicate the management of coastal lands. Storm surges occurring at coastal parks will continue to change the land and seascapes of these areas, with the potential to completely submerge them. The likelihood of increased storm intensity added to increasing rates of sea-level rise make predicting the reach of future storm surges essential for planning and adaptation purposes. The National Park Service plays a leading role in developing innovative strategies for coastal parks to adapt to sea-level rise and storm surge, whilst coastal storms are opportunities to apply highly focused responses.

  10. Vertical Transport by Coastal Mesoscale Convective Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, K.; Kading, T.

    2016-12-01

    This work is part of an ongoing investigation of coastal mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), including changes in vertical transport of boundary layer air by storms moving from inland to offshore. The density of a storm's cold pool versus that of the offshore marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL), in part, determines the ability of the storm to successfully cross the coast, the mechanism driving storm propagation, and the ability of the storm to lift air from the boundary layer aloft. The ability of an MCS to overturn boundary layer air can be especially important over the eastern US seaboard, where warm season coastal MCSs are relatively common and where large coastal population centers generate concentrated regions of pollution. Recent work numerically simulating idealized MCSs in a coastal environment has provided some insight into the physical mechanisms governing MCS coastal crossing success and the impact on vertical transport of boundary layer air. Storms are simulated using a cloud resolving model initialized with atmospheric conditions representative of a Mid-Atlantic environment. Simulations are run in 2-D at 250 m horizontal resolution with a vertical resolution stretched from 100 m in the boundary layer to 250 m aloft. The left half of the 800 km domain is configured to represent land, while the right half is assigned as water. Sensitivity experiments are conducted to quantify the influence of varying MABL structure on MCS coastal crossing success and air transport, with MABL values representative of those observed over the western Mid-Atlantic during warm season. Preliminary results indicate that when the density of the cold pool is much greater than the MABL, the storm successfully crosses the coastline, with lifting of surface parcels, which ascend through the troposphere. When the density of the cold pool is similar to that of the MABL, parcels within the MABL remain at low levels, though parcels above the MABL ascend through the troposphere.

  11. A Numerical Simulation of Extratropical Storm Surge and Hydrodynamic Response in the Bohai Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Yumei; Ding, Lei

    2014-01-01

    A hindcast of typical extratropical storm surge occurring in the Bohai Sea in October 2003 is performed using a three-dimensional (3D) Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM). The storm surge model is forced by 10 m winds obtained from the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model simulation. It is shown that the simulated storm surge and tides agree well with the observations. The nonlinear interaction between the surge and astronomical tides, the spatial distribution of the max...

  12. Determining Storm Surge Return Periods: The Use of Evidence of Historic Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kristine S.; Sørensen, Carlo Sass; Schmith, Torben

    Storm surges are a major concern for many coastal communities, and rising levels of surges is a key concern in relation to climate change. The sea level of a statistical 100-year or 1000-year storm surge event and similar statistical measures are used for spatial planning and emergency preparedness...

  13. Winter storm intensity, hazards, and property losses in the New York tristate area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimkus, Cari E; Ting, Mingfang; Booth, James F; Adamo, Susana B; Madajewicz, Malgosia; Kushnir, Yochanan; Rieder, Harald E

    2017-07-01

    Winter storms pose numerous hazards to the Northeast United States, including rain, snow, strong wind, and flooding. These hazards can cause millions of dollars in damages from one storm alone. This study investigates meteorological intensity and impacts of winter storms from 2001 to 2014 on coastal counties in Connecticut, New Jersey, and New York and underscores the consequences of winter storms. The study selected 70 winter storms on the basis of station observations of surface wind strength, heavy precipitation, high storm tide, and snow extremes. Storm rankings differed between measures, suggesting that intensity is not easily defined with a single metric. Several storms fell into two or more categories (multiple-category storms). Following storm selection, property damages were examined to determine which types lead to high losses. The analysis of hazards (or events) and associated damages using the Storm Events Database of the National Centers for Environmental Information indicates that multiple-category storms were responsible for a greater portion of the damage. Flooding was responsible for the highest losses, but no discernible connection exists between the number of storms that afflict a county and the damage it faces. These results imply that losses may rely more on the incidence of specific hazards, infrastructure types, and property values, which vary throughout the region. © 2017 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of The New York Academy of Sciences.

  14. Nippon Storm Study design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kurita

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of the clinical aspects of electrical storm (E-storms in patients with implantable cardiac shock devices (ICSDs: ICDs or cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator [CRT-D] may provide important information for clinical management of patients with ICSDs. The Nippon Storm Study was organized by the Japanese Heart Rhythm Society (JHRS and Japanese Society of Electrocardiology and was designed to prospectively collect a variety of data from patients with ICSDs, with a focus on the incidence of E-storms and clinical conditions for the occurrence of an E-storm. Forty main ICSD centers in Japan are participating in the present study. From 2002, the JHRS began to collect ICSD patient data using website registration (termed Japanese cardiac defibrillator therapy registration, or JCDTR. This investigation aims to collect data on and investigate the general parameters of patients with ICSDs, such as clinical backgrounds of the patients, purposes of implantation, complications during the implantation procedure, and incidence of appropriate and inappropriate therapies from the ICSD. The Nippon Storm Study was planned as a sub-study of the JCDTR with focus on E-storms. We aim to achieve registration of more than 1000 ICSD patients and complete follow-up data collection, with the assumption of a 5–10% incidence of E-storms during the 2-year follow-up.

  15. Flood Losses Associated with Winter Storms in the U.S. Northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, M.; Shimkus, C.

    2015-12-01

    Winter storms pose a number of hazards to coastal communities in the U.S. Northeast including heavy rain, snow, strong wind, cold temperatures, and flooding. These hazards can cause millions in property damages from one storm alone. This study addresses the impacts of winter storms from 2001 - 2012 on coastal counties in the U.S. Northeast and underscores the significant economic consequences extreme winter storms have on property. The analysis on the types of hazards (floods, strong wind, snow, etc.) and associated damage from the National Climatic Data Center Storm Events Database indicates that floods were responsible for the highest damages. This finding suggests that winter storm vulnerability could grow in the future as precipitation intensity increases and sea level rise exacerbate flood losses. Flood loss maps are constructed based on damage amount, which can be compared to the flood exposure maps constructed by the NOAA Office of Coastal Management. Interesting agreements and discrepancies exist between the two methods, which warrant further examination. Furthermore, flood losses often came from storms characterized as heavy precipitation storms and strong surge storms, and sometimes both, illustrating the compounding effect of flood risks in the region. While New Jersey counties experienced the most damage per unit area, there is no discernable connection between population density and damage amount, which suggests that societal impacts may rely less on population characteristics and more on infrastructure types and property values, which vary throughout the region.

  16. Observing Storm Surges from Space: A New Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guoqi; Ma, Zhimin; Chen, Dake; de Young, Brad; Chen, Nancy

    2013-04-01

    Coastal tide gauges can be used to monitor variations of a storm surge along the coast, but not in the cross-shelf direction. As a result, the cross-shelf structure of a storm surge has rarely been observed. In this study we focus on Hurricane Igor-induced storm surge off Newfoundland, Canada. Altimetric observations at about 2:30, September 22, 2010 UTC (hours after the passage of Hurricane Igor) reveal prominent cross-shelf variation of sea surface height during the storm passage, including a large nearshore slope and a mid-shelf depression. A significant coastal surge of 1 m derived from satellite altimetry is found to be consistent with tide-gauge measurements at nearby St. John's station. The post-storm sea level variations at St. John's and Argentia are argued to be associated with free equatorward-propagating continental shelf waves (with phase speeds of 11-13 m/s), generated along the northeast Newfoundland coast hours after the storm moved away from St. John's. The cross-shelf e-folding scale of the shelf wave was estimated to be ~100 km. We further show approximate agreement of altimetric and tide-gauge observations in the Gulf of Mexico during Hurricane Katrina (2005) and Isaac (2012). The study for the first time in the literature shows the robustness of satellite altimetry to observe storm surges, complementing tide-gauge observations for the analysis of storm surge characteristics and for the validation and improvement of storm surge models.

  17. Measuring storm tide and high-water marks caused by Hurricane Sandy in New York: Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, Amy E.; Behrens, Riley

    2015-01-01

    In response to Hurricane Sandy, personnel from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) deployed a temporary network of storm-tide sensors from Virginia to Maine. During the storm, real-time water levels were available from tide gages and rapid-deployment gages (RDGs). After the storm, USGS scientists retrieved the storm-tide sensors and RDGs and surveyed high-water marks. These data demonstrate that the timing of peak storm surge relative to astronomical tide was extremely important in southeastern New York. For example, along the south shores of New York City and western Suffolk County, the peak storm surge of 6–9 ft generally coincided with the astronomical high tide, which resulted in substantial coastal flooding. In the Peconic Estuary and northern Nassau County, however, the peak storm surge of 9 ft and nearly 12 ft, respectively, nearly coincided with normal low tide, which helped spare these communities from more severe coastal flooding.

  18. Coastal Morphology and Coastal Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Graaff, J.

    2009-01-01

    Lecture notes ct5309. Tides, currents and water; coastal problems; sediment transport processes; coastal transport modes; longshore transport; cross-shore transport; fundamentals of mud; channels and trenches; coastal protection; application of structures; application of nourishments.

  19. Assessing Impacts of Climate Change on Coastal Military Installations: Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    the risks of mission impairment during and immediately after tropical and extratropical storms , assuming that sea level rise scenarios intensify these...timescales. .................................... 28 Figure 15: The sedimentary record can be used to obtain long-term storm histories...result in a variety of outcomes across the nation. Key coastal climate stressors include rising sea levels and changes in storm intensity and

  20. Development of a Climate Change Adaptation Strategy for Management of Coastal Marsh Systems in Southern New England USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sea level rise is accelerating throughout the U.S. Northeast causing shoreline erosion, increased coastal flooding, and marsh vulnerability to the impact of storms. Coastal marshes provide flood abatement, carbon and nutrient sequestration, water quality maintenance, and habitat ...

  1. Development of a Climate-Change Adaptation Strategy for Management of Coastal Marsh Systems in Southern New England USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sea level rise is accelerating throughout the U.S. Northeast causing shoreline erosion, increased coastal flooding, and marsh vulnerability to the impact of storms. Coastal marshes provide flood abatement, carbon and nutrient sequestration, water quality maintenance, and habitat ...

  2. On the improvement of wave and storm surge hindcasts by downscaled atmospheric forcing: application to historical storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresson, Émilie; Arbogast, Philippe; Aouf, Lotfi; Paradis, Denis; Kortcheva, Anna; Bogatchev, Andrey; Galabov, Vasko; Dimitrova, Marieta; Morvan, Guillaume; Ohl, Patrick; Tsenova, Boryana; Rabier, Florence

    2018-04-01

    Winds, waves and storm surges can inflict severe damage in coastal areas. In order to improve preparedness for such events, a better understanding of storm-induced coastal flooding episodes is necessary. To this end, this paper highlights the use of atmospheric downscaling techniques in order to improve wave and storm surge hindcasts. The downscaling techniques used here are based on existing European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts reanalyses (ERA-20C, ERA-40 and ERA-Interim). The results show that the 10 km resolution data forcing provided by a downscaled atmospheric model gives a better wave and surge hindcast compared to using data directly from the reanalysis. Furthermore, the analysis of the most extreme mid-latitude cyclones indicates that a four-dimensional blending approach improves the whole process, as it assimilates more small-scale processes in the initial conditions. Our approach has been successfully applied to ERA-20C (the 20th century reanalysis).

  3. Arctic Storms and Their Influence on Surface Climate in the Chukchi-Beaufort Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Zhang, X.; Rinke, A.; Zhang, J.

    2017-12-01

    Increases in the frequency and intensity of Arctic storms and resulting weather hazards may endanger the offshore environment, coastal community, and energy infrastructure in the Arctic as sea ice retreats. Advancing ability to identify fine-scale variations in surface climate produced by progressively stronger storm would be extremely helpful to resources management and sustainable development for coastal community. In this study, we analyzed the storms and their impacts on surface climate over the Beaufort-Chukchi seas by employing the date sets from both the hindcast simulations of the coupled Arctic regional climate model HIRHAM-NAOSIM and the recently developed Chukchi-Beaufort High-resolution Atmospheric Reanalysis (CBHAR). Based on the characteristics of spatial pattern and temporal variability of the Arctic storm activity, we categorized storms to three groups with their different origins: the East Siberia Sea, Alaska and the central Arctic Ocean. The storms originating from the central Arctic Ocean have the strongest intensity in winter with relatively less storm number. Storms traveling from Alaska to the Beaufort Sea most frequently occurred in autumn with weaker intensity. A large portion of storms originated from the East Siberia Sea region in summer. Further statistical analysis suggests that increase in surface air temperature and wind speed could be attributed to the increased frequency of storm occurrence in autumn (September to November) along the continental shelf in the Beaufort Sea.

  4. Defense Coastal/Estuarine Research Program (DCERP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-19

    activities, splash points and Landing Craft Air Cushion (LCAC) operations) and non-military Base activities (e.g., sewage treatment , storm water runoff and...We will measure the metabolism of benthic microalgae, the water column, eelgrass, and any dominant macroalgae by developing series of photosynthesis...activities (storm water control and sewage treatment ). Defense Coastal/Estuarine Research Program (DCERP) Research Plan DCERP Research Plan 32 September 19

  5. Building with Nature: in search of resilient storm surge protection strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slobbe, van E.J.J.; Vriend, de H.J.; Aarninkhof, S.G.J.; Lulofs, K.; Vries, de M.; Dircke, P.

    2013-01-01

    Low-lying, densely populated coastal areas worldwide are under threat, requiring coastal managers to develop new strategies to cope with land subsidence, sea-level rise and the increasing risk of storm-surge-induced floods. Traditional engineering approaches optimizing for safety are often

  6. Giant boulders and Last Interglacial storm intensity in the North Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rovere, A.; Casella, E.; Harris, D.L.; Lorscheid, T; Nandasena, N.A.K.; Dyer, B.; Sandstrom, M.R.; Stocchi, P.; D’Andrea, W.J.; Raymo, M.E.

    2017-01-01

    As global climate warms and sea level rises, coastal areas will be subject to more frequent extreme flooding and hurricanes. Geologic evidence for extreme coastal storms during past warm periods has the potential to provide fundamental insights into their future intensity. Recent studies argue that

  7. Increasing Risk Awareness: The Coastal Community Resilience Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jody A.; Sempier, Tracie; Swann, LaDon

    2012-01-01

    As the number of people moving to the Gulf Coast increases, so does the risk of exposure to floods, hurricanes, and other storm-related events. In an effort to assist communities in preparing for future storm events, the Coastal Community Resilience Index was created. The end result is for communities to take actions to address the weaknesses they…

  8. Hindcast storm events in the Bering Sea for the St. Lawrence Island and Unalakleet Regions, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, Li H.; McCall, Robert T.; van Rooijen, Arnold; Norris, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    This study provides viable estimates of historical storm-induced water levels in the coastal communities of Gambell and Savoonga situated on St. Lawrence Island in the Bering Sea, as well as Unalakleet located at the head of Norton Sound on the western coast of Alaska. Gambell, Savoonga, and Unalakleet are small Native Villages that are regularly impacted by coastal storms but where little quantitative information about these storms exists. The closest continuous water-level gauge is at Nome, located more than 200 kilometers from both St. Lawrence Island and Unalakleet. In this study, storms are identified and quantified using historical atmospheric and sea-ice data and then used as boundary conditions for a suite of numerical models. The work includes storm-surge (temporary rise in water levels due to persistent strong winds and low atmospheric pressures) modeling in the Bering Strait region, as well as modeling of wave runup along specified sections of the coast in Gambell and Unalakleet. Modeled historical water levels are used to develop return periods of storm surge and storm surge plus wave runup at key locations in each community. It is anticipated that the results will fill some of the data void regarding coastal flood data in western Alaska and be used for production of coastal vulnerability maps and community planning efforts.

  9. The value of wetlands in protecting southeast louisiana from hurricane storm surges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Edward B; Georgiou, Ioannis Y; Enchelmeyer, Brian; Reed, Denise J

    2013-01-01

    The Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004 and Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005 have spurred global interest in the role of coastal wetlands and vegetation in reducing storm surge and flood damages. Evidence that coastal wetlands reduce storm surge and attenuate waves is often cited in support of restoring Gulf Coast wetlands to protect coastal communities and property from hurricane damage. Yet interdisciplinary studies combining hydrodynamic and economic analysis to explore this relationship for temperate marshes in the Gulf are lacking. By combining hydrodynamic analysis of simulated hurricane storm surges and economic valuation of expected property damages, we show that the presence of coastal marshes and their vegetation has a demonstrable effect on reducing storm surge levels, thus generating significant values in terms of protecting property in southeast Louisiana. Simulations for four storms along a sea to land transect show that surge levels decline with wetland continuity and vegetation roughness. Regressions confirm that wetland continuity and vegetation along the transect are effective in reducing storm surge levels. A 0.1 increase in wetland continuity per meter reduces property damages for the average affected area analyzed in southeast Louisiana, which includes New Orleans, by $99-$133, and a 0.001 increase in vegetation roughness decreases damages by $24-$43. These reduced damages are equivalent to saving 3 to 5 and 1 to 2 properties per storm for the average area, respectively.

  10. Storm Data Publication

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 'Storm Data and Unusual Weather Phenomena' is a monthly publication containing a chronological listing, by state, of hurricanes, tornadoes, thunderstorms, hail,...

  11. Storm surge climatology report

    OpenAIRE

    Horsburgh, Kevin; Williams, Joanne; Cussack, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Any increase in flood frequency or severity due to sea level rise or changes in storminess would adversely impact society. It is crucial to understand the physical drivers of extreme storm surges to have confidence in the datasets used for extreme sea level statistics. We will refine and improve methods to the estimation of extreme sea levels around Europe and more widely. We will do so by developing a comprehensive world picture of storm surge distribution (including extremes) for both tropi...

  12. Effect of Tide Elevation on Extratropical Storm Surge in Northwest Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshtpoor, M.; Carnacina, I.; Yablonsky, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    Extratropical cyclones (ETCs) are the major storm surge-generating meteorological events in northwest Europe. The total water level increase induced by these ETCs is significantly influenced by the local tidal range, which exceeds 8 meters along the southwestern UK coastline. In particular, a surge-generating ETC during high tide may put coastal assets and infrastructure in risk. Also, during low tide, the risk of surge induced by extreme ETC events is diminished. Here, the effect of tidal elevation on storm surge is investigated at 196 tide gauges in northwest Europe. A numerical, hydrodynamic model was developed using Delft3D-FM framework to simulate the coastal hydrodynamics during ETCs. Then, 1750 historical events were simulated to investigate the pattern of coastal inundation. Results suggest that in areas with a large tidal range ( 8 meters) and during the time period surrounding high or low tide, the pattern of coastal hydrodynamics is governed by tide and not storm surge. This result is most evident near the English Channel and Bristol Channel, where low frequency maximum water levels are observed when storm surge is combined with high tide. In contrast, near the tidal phase reversal, coastal hydrodynamics responds primarily to the storm surge, and low frequency maximum water elevation largely depends on the surge. In the areas with a small tidal range, ETC strength determines the pattern of coastal inundation.

  13. Hindcasting of storm waves using neural networks

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, S.; Mandal, S.

    Department NN neural network net i weighted sum of the inputs of neuron i o k network output at kth output node P total number of training pattern s i output of neuron i t k target output at kth output node 1. Introduction Severe storms occur in Bay of Bengal...), forecasting of runoff (Crespo and Mora, 1993), concrete strength (Kasperkiewicz et al., 1995). The uses of neural network in the coastal the wave conditions will change from year to year, thus a proper statistical and climatological treatment requires several...

  14. The ionosphere of Europe and North America before the magnetic storm of October 28, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagoveshchensky, D. V.; Macdugall, J. W.; Pyatkova, A. V.

    2006-05-01

    The X17 solar flare occurred on October 28, 2003, and was followed by the X10 flare on October 29. These flares caused very strong geomagnetic storms (Halloween storms). The aim of the present study is to compare the variations in two main ionospheric parameters ( foF2 and hmF2) at two chains of ionosondes located in Europe and North America for the period October 23-28, 2003. This interval began immediately before the storm of October 28 and includes its commencement. Another task of the work is to detect ionospheric precursors of the storm or substorm expansion phase. An analysis is based on SPIDR data. The main results are as follows. The positive peak of δ foF2 (where δ is the difference between disturbed and quiet values) is observed several hours before the magnetic storm or substorm commencement. This peak can serve as a disturbance precursor. The amplitude of δ foF2 values varies from 20 to 100% of the foF2 values. The elements of similarity in the variations in the δ foF2 values at two chains are as follows: (a) the above δ foF2 peak is as a rule observed simultaneously at two chains before the disturbance; (b) the δ foF2 variations are similar at all midlatitude (or, correspondingly, high-latitude) ionosondes of the chain. The differences in the δ foF2 values are as follows: (a) the effect of the main phase and the phase of strong storm recovery at one chain differs from such an effect at another chain; (b) the manifestation of disturbances at high-latitude stations of the chain differ from the manifestations at midlatitude stations. The δ hmF2 variations are approximately opposite to the δ foF2 variations, and the δ hmF2 values lie in the interval 15-25% of the hmF2 values. The performed study is useful and significant in studying the problems of the space weather, especially in a short-term prediction of ionospheric disturbances caused by magnetospheric storms or substorms.

  15. Foredune Classification and Storm Response: Automated Analysis of Terrestrial Lidar DEMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-15

    since Hurricane Sandy. 041 20/3/2015 4 Figure 1. A. The study site in Duck , NC showing the alongshore coordinates of the local coordinate...waves on March 10: Hs = 4.8 m at 16 sec Coastal Lidar and Radar Imaging System (CLARIS) Nor’easter Storm Conditions Study Site: Duck , NC...Engineer Research and Development Center, Coastal & Hydraulics Laboratory, Coastal Observation & Analysis Branch, 1261 Duck Rd, Duck , NC 27949, USA

  16. Visualizing Coastal Erosion, Overwash and Coastal Flooding in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young Morse, R.; Shyka, T.

    2017-12-01

    Powerful East Coast storms and their associated storm tides and large, battering waves can lead to severe coastal change through erosion and re-deposition of beach sediment. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) has modeled such potential for geological response using a storm-impact scale that compares predicted elevations of hurricane-induced water levels and associated wave action to known elevations of coastal topography. The resulting storm surge and wave run-up hindcasts calculate dynamic surf zone collisions with dune structures using discrete regime categories of; "collision" (dune erosion), "overwash" and "inundation". The National Weather Service (NWS) recently began prototyping this empirical technique under the auspices of the North Atlantic Regional Team (NART). Real-time erosion and inundation forecasts were expanded to include both tropical and extra-tropical cyclones along vulnerable beaches (hotspots) on the New England coast. Preliminary results showed successful predictions of impact during hurricane Sandy and several intense Nor'easters. The forecasts were verified using observational datasets, including "ground truth" reports from Emergency Managers and storm-based, dune profile measurements organized through a Maine Sea Grant partnership. In an effort to produce real-time visualizations of this forecast output, the Northeastern Regional Association of Coastal Ocean Observing Systems (NERACOOS) and the Gulf of Maine Research Institute (GMRI) partnered with NART to create graphical products of wave run-up levels for each New England "hotspot". The resulting prototype system updates the forecasts twice daily and allows users the ability to adjust atmospheric and sea state input into the calculations to account for model errors and forecast uncertainty. This talk will provide an overview of the empirical wave run-up calculations, the system used to produce forecast output and a demonstration of the new web based tool.

  17. Toward a new paradigm for boulder dislodgement during storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Robert; Sheremet, Alex

    2017-07-01

    Boulders are an important coastal hazard event deposit because they can only be moved by tsunamis and energetic storms effects of storms. Storms and tsunami are competing processes for coastal change along many shorelines. Therefore, distinguishing the boulders that were moved during a storm from those moved by a tsunami is important. In this contribution, we present the results of a parameter study based on the TRIADS model for wave shoaling on mildly sloping beaches, coupled with a boulder-dislodgement model that is based on Newton's Second Law of Motion. The results show how smaller slopes expose the waves longer to the nonlinear processes, thus increasing the energy in the infragravity wave band. More energy in the infragravity wave band means that there are more energy wave lengths that can dislodge larger boulders. At the same time, a steeper slope lowers the threshold for boulder dislodgement (critical angle of dislodgement), making it more likely for larger boulders to be dislodged on a steeper slope. The competition between these two processes govern boulder dislodgement during storms and is investigated inhere.

  18. Overview of the ARkStorm scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Keith; Wein, Anne; Alpers, Charles N.; Baez, Allan; Barnard, Patrick L.; Carter, James; Corsi, Alessandra; Costner, James; Cox, Dale; Das, Tapash; Dettinger, Mike; Done, James; Eadie, Charles; Eymann, Marcia; Ferris, Justin; Gunturi, Prasad; Hughes, Mimi; Jarrett, Robert; Johnson, Laurie; Le-Griffin, Hanh Dam; Mitchell, David; Morman, Suzette; Neiman, Paul; Olsen, Anna; Perry, Suzanne; Plumlee, Geoffrey; Ralph, Martin; Reynolds, David; Rose, Adam; Schaefer, Kathleen; Serakos, Julie; Siembieda, William; Stock, Jonathan; Strong, David; Wing, Ian Sue; Tang, Alex; Thomas, Pete; Topping, Ken; Wills, Chris; Jones, Lucile

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Multi Hazards Demonstration Project (MHDP) uses hazards science to improve resiliency of communities to natural disasters including earthquakes, tsunamis, wildfires, landslides, floods and coastal erosion. The project engages emergency planners, businesses, universities, government agencies, and others in preparing for major natural disasters. The project also helps to set research goals and provides decision-making information for loss reduction and improved resiliency. The first public product of the MHDP was the ShakeOut Earthquake Scenario published in May 2008. This detailed depiction of a hypothetical magnitude 7.8 earthquake on the San Andreas Fault in southern California served as the centerpiece of the largest earthquake drill in United States history, involving over 5,000 emergency responders and the participation of over 5.5 million citizens. This document summarizes the next major public project for MHDP, a winter storm scenario called ARkStorm (for Atmospheric River 1,000). Experts have designed a large, scientifically realistic meteorological event followed by an examination of the secondary hazards (for example, landslides and flooding), physical damages to the built environment, and social and economic consequences. The hypothetical storm depicted here would strike the U.S. West Coast and be similar to the intense California winter storms of 1861 and 1862 that left the central valley of California impassible. The storm is estimated to produce precipitation that in many places exceeds levels only experienced on average once every 500 to 1,000 years. Extensive flooding results. In many cases flooding overwhelms the state's flood-protection system, which is typically designed to resist 100- to 200-year runoffs. The Central Valley experiences hypothetical flooding 300 miles long and 20 or more miles wide. Serious flooding also occurs in Orange County, Los Angeles County, San Diego, the San Francisco Bay area, and other

  19. Biological effects of geomagnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chibisov, S.M.; Breus, T.K.; Levitin, A.E.; Drogova, G.M.; AN SSSR, Moscow; AN SSSR, Moscow

    1995-01-01

    Six physiological parameters of cardio-vascular system of rabbits and ultrastructure of cardiomyocytes were investigated during two planetary geomagnetic storms. At the initial and main phase of the storm the normal circadian structure in each cardiovascular parameter was lost. The disynchronozis was growing together with the storm and abrupt drop of cardia activity was observed during the main phase of storm. The main phase of storm followed by the destruction and degradation of cardiomyocytes. Parameters of cardia activity became substantially synchronized and characterized by circadian rhythm structure while the amplitude of deviations was still significant at the recovery stage of geomagnetic storm. 3 refs.; 7 figs

  20. Policies for Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickson, D.; Johnson, S.

    2014-12-01

    Hurricane- and coastal storm-related economic losses have increased substantially over the past century, largely due to expanding population and development in susceptible coastal areas. Concurrent with this growth, the federal government has assumed an increasing proportion of the financial responsibility associated with U.S. coastal storms, which may discourage state and local governments from taking appropriate actions to reduce risk and enhance resilience. Strategies to manage coastal storm risks fall into two categories: reducing the probability of flooding or wave impact (such as seawalls, storm surge barriers, beach nourishment, dune building, restoration/expansion of oyster reefs, salt marshes, and mangroves) and reducing the number or vulnerability of people or structures (such as relocation, land-use planning, and elevating or floodproofing buildings). Over the past century, most coastal risk management programs have emphasized coastal armoring, while doing little to decrease development in harm's way. This National Research Council report calls for the development of a national vision for managing coastal risks that includes a long-term view, regional solutions, and recognition of all benefits. A national coastal risk assessment is needed to identify high priority areas. Benefit-cost analysis provides a reasonable framework to evaluate national investments in coastal risk reduction, if constrained by other important environmental, social, and life-safety factors. Extensive collaboration and additional policy changes will be necessary to move from a nation that is primarily reactive to coastal disasters to one that invests wisely in coastal risk reduction and builds resilience among coastal communities.

  1. Advances in coastal disasters risk management : Lessons from the 2011 Tohoku tsunami

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, S.N.; Yasuda, T.; Tsimopoulou, V.; Kawai, H.; Kato, F.

    2012-01-01

    The earthquake and tsunami of March 2011 led to death and destruction in coastal areas in Japan. A seminar was held in June 2012 for Japanese and Dutch coastal researchers to discuss lessons for the management of the risks in coastal areas associated with tsunamis, typhoons and storm surges. The

  2. Great magnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurutani, B.T.; Yen Te Lee; Tang, F.; Gonzalez, W.D.

    1992-01-01

    The five largest magnetic storms that occurred between 1971 and 1986 are studied to determine their solar and interplanetary causes. All of the events are found to be associated with high speed solar wind streams led by collisionless shocks. The high speed streams are clearly related to identifiable solar flares. It is found that (1) it is the extreme values of the southward interplanetary magnetic fields rather than solar wind speeds that are the primary causes of great magnetic storms, (2) shocked and draped sheath fields preceding the driver gas (magnetic cloud) are at least as effective in causing the onset of great magnetic storms (3 of 5 events ) as the strong fields within the driver gas itself, and (3) precursor southward fields ahead of the high speed streams allow the shock compression mechanism (item 2) to be particularly geoeffective

  3. Multidecadal Scale Detection Time for Potentially Increasing Atlantic Storm Surges in a Warming Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Benjamin Seiyon; Haran, Murali; Keller, Klaus

    2017-10-01

    Storm surges are key drivers of coastal flooding, which generate considerable risks. Strategies to manage these risks can hinge on the ability to (i) project the return periods of extreme storm surges and (ii) detect potential changes in their statistical properties. There are several lines of evidence linking rising global average temperatures and increasingly frequent extreme storm surges. This conclusion is, however, subject to considerable structural uncertainty. This leads to two main questions: What are projections under various plausible statistical models? How long would it take to distinguish among these plausible statistical models? We address these questions by analyzing observed and simulated storm surge data. We find that (1) there is a positive correlation between global mean temperature rise and increasing frequencies of extreme storm surges; (2) there is considerable uncertainty underlying the strength of this relationship; and (3) if the frequency of storm surges is increasing, this increase can be detected within a multidecadal timescale (≈20 years from now).

  4. Developing Local Scale, High Resolution, Data to Interface with Numerical Storm Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkop, R.; Becker, A.; Stempel, P.

    2017-12-01

    High resolution, physical storm models that can rapidly predict storm surge, inundation, rainfall, wind velocity and wave height at the intra-facility scale for any storm affecting Rhode Island have been developed by Researchers at the University of Rhode Island's (URI's) Graduate School of Oceanography (GSO) (Ginis et al., 2017). At the same time, URI's Marine Affairs Department has developed methods that inhere individual geographic points into GSO's models and enable the models to accurately incorporate local scale, high resolution data (Stempel et al., 2017). This combination allows URI's storm models to predict any storm's impacts on individual Rhode Island facilities in near real time. The research presented here determines how a coastal Rhode Island town's critical facility managers (FMs) perceive their assets as being vulnerable to quantifiable hurricane-related forces at the individual facility scale and explores methods to elicit this information from FMs in a format usable for incorporation into URI's storm models.

  5. Storm and cloud dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Cotton, William R

    1992-01-01

    This book focuses on the dynamics of clouds and of precipitating mesoscale meteorological systems. Clouds and precipitating mesoscale systems represent some of the most important and scientifically exciting weather systems in the world. These are the systems that produce torrential rains, severe winds including downburst and tornadoes, hail, thunder and lightning, and major snow storms. Forecasting such storms represents a major challenge since they are too small to be adequately resolved by conventional observing networks and numerical prediction models.Key Features* Key Highlight

  6. Assessing and Mitigating Hurricane Storm Surge Risk in a Changing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, N.; Shullman, E.; Xian, S.; Feng, K.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricanes have induced devastating storm surge flooding worldwide. The impacts of these storms may worsen in the coming decades because of rapid coastal development coupled with sea-level rise and possibly increasing storm activity due to climate change. Major advances in coastal flood risk management are urgently needed. We present an integrated dynamic risk analysis for flooding task (iDraft) framework to assess and manage coastal flood risk at the city or regional scale, considering integrated dynamic effects of storm climatology change, sea-level rise, and coastal development. We apply the framework to New York City. First, we combine climate-model projected storm surge climatology and sea-level rise with engineering- and social/economic-model projected coastal exposure and vulnerability to estimate the flood damage risk for the city over the 21st century. We derive temporally-varying risk measures such as the annual expected damage as well as temporally-integrated measures such as the present value of future losses. We also examine the individual and joint contributions to the changing risk of the three dynamic factors (i.e., sea-level rise, storm change, and coastal development). Then, we perform probabilistic cost-benefit analysis for various coastal flood risk mitigation strategies for the city. Specifically, we evaluate previously proposed mitigation measures, including elevating houses on the floodplain and constructing flood barriers at the coast, by comparing their estimated cost and probability distribution of the benefit (i.e., present value of avoided future losses). We also propose new design strategies, including optimal design (e.g., optimal house elevation) and adaptive design (e.g., flood protection levels that are designed to be modified over time in a dynamic and uncertain environment).

  7. Geomorphometry in coastal morphodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guisado-Pintado, Emilia; Jackson, Derek

    2017-04-01

    -energy events). Other examples include long-term monitoring of beach dynamics and evolution, examining the impact of natural hazards (surges, storms, sea-level rise) on coastal areas using GPS-linked drones to acquire repeat topographic (point clouds) surveys over inter-tidal and dune edge/back beach zones. Nearshore 3D bathymetric information generated from navigation charts, echo-sonar instruments or more recently from Satellite (LANDSAT) imagery is also highlighted as a key dataset in geomorphometry. The recent technological developments in 3D data acquisition within the coastal and marine environment now offers exciting opportunities in which to reveal how these systems function across multiple time and space scales. Whilst this can offer new insights, it also presents significant analytical challenges due to the sheer volume of data generated, the necessity of specialist personnel and software to process the data. Geomorphometry can help play a key role in this progression and take analysis within coastal science to new levels.

  8. California's Perfect Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, David

    2010-01-01

    The United States today faces an economic crisis worse than any since the Great Depression of the 1930s. Nowhere is it sharper than in the nation's schools. Last year, California saw a perfect storm of protest in virtually every part of its education system. K-12 teachers built coalitions with parents and students to fight for their jobs and their…

  9. Dave Storm esitleb singlit

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    7. märtsil klubis Spirit ja 8. märtsil klubis Terminal presenteerib tallinlane DJ Dave Storm oma uut singlit "Ride", millel teeb laulmisega kaasa ameeriklane Charlie C. Singelplaadi annab peadselt välja Inglise plaadifirma Refunkt

  10. Interview with Gert Storm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storm, Gerrit

    2013-01-01

    Gert Storm studied biology at the Utrecht University, The Netherlands, and obtained his PhD degree in 1987 at the Department of Pharmaceutics of the same university. He is now Professor of targeted drug delivery at the University of Utrecht, as well as Professor of targeted therapeutics at the MIRA

  11. Predicting Typhoon Induced Storm Surges Using the Operational Ocean Forecast System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Hyup You

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to compare storm surges simulated by the operational storm surges/tide forecast system (STORM : Storm surges/Tide Operational Model of the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA with observations from 30 coastal tidal stations during nine typhoons that occurred between 2005 and 2007. The results (bias showed that for cases of overestimation (or underestimation, storm surges tended to be overestimated (as well as underestimated at all coastal stations. The maximum positive bias was approximately 6.92 cm for Typhoon Ewiniar (2006, while the maximum negative bias was approximately -12.06 cm for Typhoon Khanun (2005. The maximum and minimum root mean square errors (RMSEs were 14.61 and 6.78 cm, which occurred for Typhoons Khanun (2005 and Usagi (2007, respectively. For all nine typhoons, total averaged RMSE was approximately 10.2 cm. Large differences between modeled and observed storm surges occurred in two cases. In the first, a very weak typhoon, such as Typhoon Khanun (2005, caused low storm surges. In the other, exemplified by Typhoon Nari (2007, there were errors in the predicted typhoon strength used as input data for the storm surge model.

  12. Evaluation of Loss Due to Storm Surge Disasters in China Based on Econometric Model Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaoxia; Xu, Tongbin; Yin, Kedong

    2018-01-01

    Storm surge has become an important factor restricting the economic and social development of China’s coastal regions. In order to improve the scientific judgment of future storm surge damage, a method of model groups is proposed to refine the evaluation of the loss due to storm surges. Due to the relative dispersion and poor regularity of the natural property data (login center air pressure, maximum wind speed, maximum storm water, super warning water level, etc.), storm surge disaster is divided based on eight kinds of storm surge disaster grade division methods combined with storm surge water, hypervigilance tide level, and disaster loss. The storm surge disaster loss measurement model groups consist of eight equations, and six major modules are constructed: storm surge disaster in agricultural loss, fishery loss, human resource loss, engineering facility loss, living facility loss, and direct economic loss. Finally, the support vector machine (SVM) model is used to evaluate the loss and the intra-sample prediction. It is indicated that the equations of the model groups can reflect in detail the relationship between the damage of storm surges and other related variables. Based on a comparison of the original value and the predicted value error, the model groups pass the test, providing scientific support and a decision basis for the early layout of disaster prevention and mitigation. PMID:29584628

  13. Evaluation of Loss Due to Storm Surge Disasters in China Based on Econometric Model Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xue; Shi, Xiaoxia; Gao, Jintian; Xu, Tongbin; Yin, Kedong

    2018-03-27

    Storm surge has become an important factor restricting the economic and social development of China's coastal regions. In order to improve the scientific judgment of future storm surge damage, a method of model groups is proposed to refine the evaluation of the loss due to storm surges. Due to the relative dispersion and poor regularity of the natural property data (login center air pressure, maximum wind speed, maximum storm water, super warning water level, etc.), storm surge disaster is divided based on eight kinds of storm surge disaster grade division methods combined with storm surge water, hypervigilance tide level, and disaster loss. The storm surge disaster loss measurement model groups consist of eight equations, and six major modules are constructed: storm surge disaster in agricultural loss, fishery loss, human resource loss, engineering facility loss, living facility loss, and direct economic loss. Finally, the support vector machine (SVM) model is used to evaluate the loss and the intra-sample prediction. It is indicated that the equations of the model groups can reflect in detail the relationship between the damage of storm surges and other related variables. Based on a comparison of the original value and the predicted value error, the model groups pass the test, providing scientific support and a decision basis for the early layout of disaster prevention and mitigation.

  14. Using Satellite Altimetry to Calibrate the Simulation of Typhoon Seth Storm Surge off Southeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Satellite altimeters can capture storm surges generated by typhoons and tropical storms, if the satellite flies over at the right time. In this study, we show TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter-observed storm surge features off Southeast China on 10 October 1994 during Typhoon Seth. We then use a three-dimensional, barotropic, finite-volume community ocean model (FVCOM to simulate storm surges. An innovative aspect is that satellite data are used to calibrate the storm surge model to improve model performance, by adjusting model wind forcing fields (the National Center for Environment Prediction (NCEP reanalysis product in reference to the typhoon best-track data. The calibration reduces the along-track root-mean-square (RMS difference between model and altimetric data from 0.15 to 0.10 m. It also reduces the RMS temporal difference from 0.21 to 0.18 m between the model results and independent tide-gauge data at Xiamen. In particular, the calibrated model produces a peak storm surge of 1.01 m at 6:00 10 October 1994 at Xiamen, agreeing with tide-gauge data; while the peak storm surge with the NCEP forcing is 0.71 m only. We further show that the interaction between storm surges and astronomical tides contributes to the peak storm surge by 34% and that the storm surge propagates southwestward as a coastally-trapped Kelvin wave.

  15. Evaluation of Loss Due to Storm Surge Disasters in China Based on Econometric Model Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Jin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Storm surge has become an important factor restricting the economic and social development of China’s coastal regions. In order to improve the scientific judgment of future storm surge damage, a method of model groups is proposed to refine the evaluation of the loss due to storm surges. Due to the relative dispersion and poor regularity of the natural property data (login center air pressure, maximum wind speed, maximum storm water, super warning water level, etc., storm surge disaster is divided based on eight kinds of storm surge disaster grade division methods combined with storm surge water, hypervigilance tide level, and disaster loss. The storm surge disaster loss measurement model groups consist of eight equations, and six major modules are constructed: storm surge disaster in agricultural loss, fishery loss, human resource loss, engineering facility loss, living facility loss, and direct economic loss. Finally, the support vector machine (SVM model is used to evaluate the loss and the intra-sample prediction. It is indicated that the equations of the model groups can reflect in detail the relationship between the damage of storm surges and other related variables. Based on a comparison of the original value and the predicted value error, the model groups pass the test, providing scientific support and a decision basis for the early layout of disaster prevention and mitigation.

  16. Hurricane Sandy science plan: coastal impact assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronko, Jakob M.

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy devastated some of the most heavily populated eastern coastal areas of the Nation. With a storm surge peaking at more than 19 feet, the powerful landscape-altering destruction of Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards. In response to this natural disaster, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received a total of $41.2 million in supplemental appropriations from the Department of the Interior (DOI) to support response, recovery, and rebuilding efforts. These funds support a science plan that will provide critical scientific information necessary to inform management decisions for recovery of coastal communities, and aid in preparation for future natural hazards. This science plan is designed to coordinate continuing USGS activities with stakeholders and other agencies to improve data collection and analysis that will guide recovery and restoration efforts. The science plan is split into five distinct themes: coastal topography and bathymetry, impacts to coastal beaches and barriers, impacts of storm surge, including disturbed estuarine and bay hydrology, impacts on environmental quality and persisting contaminant exposures, impacts to coastal ecosystems, habitats, and fish and wildlife. This fact sheet focuses assessing impacts to coastal beaches and barriers.

  17. Coupling atmospheric and ocean wave models for storm simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Jianting

    the atmosphere must, by conservation, result in the generation of the surface waves and currents. The physics-based methods are sensitive to the choice of wind-input source function (Sin), parameterization of high-frequency wave spectra tail, and numerical cut-off frequencies. Unfortunately, literature survey......This thesis studies the wind-wave interactions through the coupling between the atmospheric model and ocean surface wave models. Special attention is put on storm simulations in the North Sea for wind energy applications in the coastal zones. The two aspects, namely storm conditions and coastal...... shows that in most wind-wave coupling systems, either the Sin in the wave model is different from the one used for the momentum flux estimation in the atmospheric model, or the methods are too sensitive to the parameterization of high-frequency spectra tail and numerical cut-off frequencies. To confront...

  18. Analysis of storm-tide impacts from Hurricane Sandy in New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Christopher E.; Busciolano, Ronald J.; Hearn, Paul P.; Rahav, Ami N.; Behrens, Riley; Finkelstein, Jason S.; Monti, Jack; Simonson, Amy E.

    2015-07-21

    The hybrid cyclone-nor’easter known as Hurricane Sandy affected the mid-Atlantic and northeastern United States during October 28-30, 2012, causing extensive coastal flooding. Prior to storm landfall, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) deployed a temporary monitoring network from Virginia to Maine to record the storm tide and coastal flooding generated by Hurricane Sandy. This sensor network augmented USGS and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) networks of permanent monitoring sites that also documented storm surge. Continuous data from these networks were supplemented by an extensive post-storm high-water-mark (HWM) flagging and surveying campaign. The sensor deployment and HWM campaign were conducted under a directed mission assignment by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The need for hydrologic interpretation of monitoring data to assist in flood-damage analysis and future flood mitigation prompted the current analysis of Hurricane Sandy by the USGS under this FEMA mission assignment.

  19. Modeling Coastal Vulnerability through Space and Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Thomas; Meixler, Marcia S

    2016-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems experience a wide range of stressors including wave forces, storm surge, sea-level rise, and anthropogenic modification and are thus vulnerable to erosion. Urban coastal ecosystems are especially important due to the large populations these limited ecosystems serve. However, few studies have addressed the issue of urban coastal vulnerability at the landscape scale with spatial data that are finely resolved. The purpose of this study was to model and map coastal vulnerability and the role of natural habitats in reducing vulnerability in Jamaica Bay, New York, in terms of nine coastal vulnerability metrics (relief, wave exposure, geomorphology, natural habitats, exposure, exposure with no habitat, habitat role, erodible shoreline, and surge) under past (1609), current (2015), and future (2080) scenarios using InVEST 3.2.0. We analyzed vulnerability results both spatially and across all time periods, by stakeholder (ownership) and by distance to damage from Hurricane Sandy. We found significant differences in vulnerability metrics between past, current and future scenarios for all nine metrics except relief and wave exposure. The marsh islands in the center of the bay are currently vulnerable. In the future, these islands will likely be inundated, placing additional areas of the shoreline increasingly at risk. Significant differences in vulnerability exist between stakeholders; the Breezy Point Cooperative and Gateway National Recreation Area had the largest erodible shoreline segments. Significant correlations exist for all vulnerability (exposure/surge) and storm damage combinations except for exposure and distance to artificial debris. Coastal protective features, ranging from storm surge barriers and levees to natural features (e.g. wetlands), have been promoted to decrease future flood risk to communities in coastal areas around the world. Our methods of combining coastal vulnerability results with additional data and across multiple time

  20. Design and quantification of an extreme winter storm scenario for emergency preparedness and planning exercises in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettinger, M.D.; Martin, Ralph F.; Hughes, M.; Das, T.; Neiman, P.; Cox, D.; Estes, G.; Reynolds, D.; Hartman, R.; Cayan, D.; Jones, L.

    2012-01-01

    The USGS Multihazards Project is working with numerous agencies to evaluate and plan for hazards and damages that could be caused by extreme winter storms impacting California. Atmospheric and hydrological aspects of a hypothetical storm scenario have been quantified as a basis for estimation of human, infrastructure, economic, and environmental impacts for emergency-preparedness and flood-planning exercises. In order to ensure scientific defensibility and necessary levels of detail in the scenario description, selected historical storm episodes were concatentated to describe a rapid arrival of several major storms over the state, yielding precipitation totals and runoff rates beyond those occurring during the individual historical storms. This concatenation allowed the scenario designers to avoid arbitrary scalings and is based on historical occasions from the 19th and 20th Centuries when storms have stalled over the state and when extreme storms have arrived in rapid succession. Dynamically consistent, hourly precipitation, temperatures, barometric pressures (for consideration of storm surges and coastal erosion), and winds over California were developed for the so-called ARkStorm scenario by downscaling the concatenated global records of the historical storm sequences onto 6- and 2-km grids using a regional weather model of January 1969 and February 1986 storm conditions. The weather model outputs were then used to force a hydrologic model to simulate ARkStorm runoff, to better understand resulting flooding risks. Methods used to build this scenario can be applied to other emergency, nonemergency and non-California applications. ?? 2011 The Author(s).

  1. Multi-satellite study of the excitation of Pc3 and Pc4-5 ULF waves and their penetration across the plasmapause during the 2003 Halloween superstorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasis, G.; Daglis, I. A.; Mann, I. R.; Papadimitriou, C.; Zesta, E.; Georgiou, M.; Haagmans, R.; Tsinganos, K.

    2015-10-01

    We use multi-satellite and ground-based magnetic data to investigate the concurrent characteristics of Pc3 (22-100 mHz) and Pc4-5 (1-22 mHz) ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves on the 31 October 2003 during the Halloween magnetic superstorm. ULF waves are seen in the Earth's magnetosphere, topside ionosphere, and Earth's surface, enabling an examination of their propagation characteristics. We employ a time-frequency analysis technique and examine data from when the Cluster and CHAMP spacecraft were in good local time (LT) conjunction near the dayside noon-midnight meridian. We find clear evidence of the excitation of both Pc3 and Pc4-5 waves, but more significantly we find a clear separation in the L shell of occurrence of the Pc4-5 and Pc3 waves in the equatorial inner magnetosphere, separated by the density gradients at the plasmapause boundary layer. A key finding of the wavelet spectral analysis of data collected from the Geotail, Cluster, and CHAMP spacecraft and the CARISMA and GIMA magnetometer networks was a remarkably clear transition of the waves' frequency into dominance in a higher-frequency regime within the Pc3 range. Analysis of the local field line resonance frequency suggests that the separation of the Pc4-5 and Pc3 emissions across the plasmapause is consistent with the structure of the inhomogeneous field line resonance Alfvén continuum. The Pc4-5 waves are consistent with direct excitation by the solar wind in the plasma trough, as well as Pc3 wave absorption in the plasmasphere following excitation by upstream waves originating at the bow shock in the local noon sector. However, despite good solar wind coverage, our study was not able to unambiguously identify a clear explanation for the sharp universal time (UT) onset of the discrete frequency and large-amplitude Pc3 wave power.

  2. Multi-satellite study of the excitation of Pc3 and Pc4-5 ULF waves and their penetration across the plasmapause during the 2003 Halloween superstorm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Balasis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We use multi-satellite and ground-based magnetic data to investigate the concurrent characteristics of Pc3 (22–100 mHz and Pc4-5 (1–22 mHz ultra-low-frequency (ULF waves on the 31 October 2003 during the Halloween magnetic superstorm. ULF waves are seen in the Earth's magnetosphere, topside ionosphere, and Earth's surface, enabling an examination of their propagation characteristics. We employ a time–frequency analysis technique and examine data from when the Cluster and CHAMP spacecraft were in good local time (LT conjunction near the dayside noon–midnight meridian. We find clear evidence of the excitation of both Pc3 and Pc4-5 waves, but more significantly we find a clear separation in the L shell of occurrence of the Pc4-5 and Pc3 waves in the equatorial inner magnetosphere, separated by the density gradients at the plasmapause boundary layer. A key finding of the wavelet spectral analysis of data collected from the Geotail, Cluster, and CHAMP spacecraft and the CARISMA and GIMA magnetometer networks was a remarkably clear transition of the waves' frequency into dominance in a higher-frequency regime within the Pc3 range. Analysis of the local field line resonance frequency suggests that the separation of the Pc4-5 and Pc3 emissions across the plasmapause is consistent with the structure of the inhomogeneous field line resonance Alfvén continuum. The Pc4-5 waves are consistent with direct excitation by the solar wind in the plasma trough, as well as Pc3 wave absorption in the plasmasphere following excitation by upstream waves originating at the bow shock in the local noon sector. However, despite good solar wind coverage, our study was not able to unambiguously identify a clear explanation for the sharp universal time (UT onset of the discrete frequency and large-amplitude Pc3 wave power.

  3. Responses of two genetically superior loblolly pine clonal ideotypes to a severe ice storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauren S. Pile; Christopher A. Maier; G. Geoff Wang; Dapao Yu; Tim M. Shearman

    2016-01-01

    An increase in the frequency and magnitude of extreme weather events, such as major ice storms, can have severe impacts on southern forests. We investigated the damage inflicted by a severe ice storm that occurred in February 2014 on two loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) ideotypes in Cross, South Carolina located in the southeastern coastal plain. The ‘‘narrow crown”...

  4. Leonid storm research

    CERN Document Server

    Rietmeijer, Frans; Brosch, Noah; Fonda, Mark

    2000-01-01

    This book will appeal to all researchers that have an interest in the current Leonid showers It contains over forty research papers that present some of the first observational results of the November 1999 Leonid meteor storm, the first storm observed by modern observing techniques The book is a first glimpse of the large amount of information obtained during NASA's Leonid Multi-Instrument Aircraft Campaign and groundbased campaigns throughout the world It provides an excellent overview on the state of meteor shower research for any professional researcher or amateur meteor observer interested in studies of meteors and meteoroids and their relation to comets, the origin of life on Earth, the satellite impact hazard issue, and upper atmosphere studies of neutral atom chemistry, the formation of meteoric debris, persistent trains, airglow, noctilucent clouds, sprites and elves

  5. Dust storm, northern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    This large dust storm along the left side of the photo, covers a large portion of the state of Coahuila, Mexico (27.5N, 102.0E). The look angle of this oblique photo is from the south to the north. In the foreground is the Sierra Madre Oriental in the states Coahuila and Nuevo Leon with the Rio Grande River, Amistad Reservoir and Texas in the background.

  6. Solar storms; Tormentas solares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collaboration: Pereira Cuesta, S.; Pereira Pagan, B.

    2016-08-01

    Solar storms begin with an explosion, or solar flare, on the surface of the sun. The X-rays and extreme ultraviolet radiation from the flare reach the Earths orbit minutes later-travelling at light speed. The ionization of upper layers of our atmosphere could cause radio blackouts and satellite navigation errors (GPS). Soon after, a wave of energetic particles, electrons and protons accelerated by the explosion crosses the orbit of the Earth, and can cause real and significant damage. (Author)

  7. LibrarySTORM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breüner, Niels; Bech, Tine

    2013-01-01

    Når flere uddannelser samles i en nybygning til Campus C på Ceres grunden i Aarhus, skal der også indrettes et fælles bibliotek. Når der samtidig er midler til at arbejde med brugerdreven innovation, lå det lige for at inddrage de studerende og få deres visioner for fremtidens bibliotek. Der blev...... arrangeret en udviklingsdag, hvor der skulle brainstormes – og projektet blev kaldt LibrarySTORM....

  8. Modeling storm waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoit, M.; Marcos, F.; Teisson, Ch.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear power stations located on the coast take the water they use to cool their circuits from the sea. The water intake and discharge devices must be able to operate in all weathers, notably during extreme storms, with waves 10 m high and over. To predict the impact of the waves on the equipment, they are modeled digitally from the moment they form in the middle of the ocean right up to the moment they break on the shore. (authors)

  9. Noise storm coordinated observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgaroey, Oe.; Tlamicha, A.

    1983-01-01

    The usually accepted bipolar model of noise storm centers is irrelevant for the present observations. An alternative model has been proposed in which the different sources of a noise storm center are located in different flux tubes connecting active regions with their surroundings. Radio emission is observed from the wide, descending branch of the flux tubes, opposite to the flaring site. The relation between the sense of circular polarization of the radio emission and the magnetic polarity, has been more precisely defined. The radiation is in the ordinary mode with respect to the underlying large scale photospheric magnetic polarity. Thus the ''irregular'' polarity of noice storm center ''B'' is explained. As regards center ''C'', one should note that although the observed radio emission is polarized in the ordinary mode with respect to the leading spot of region HR 17653, center ''C'' is not situated in flux tubes originating from the leading part of this region according to the proposed model. Rather, the radio sources are located in the wide and descending part of flux tubes connecting a large, quiet area of south magnetic polarity with the following part of the region HR 17653 (of north magnetic polarity). Thus it is the polarity of the extended area which determines the polarization of the radio emission. The observed polarization should result rather from the emission process than from complicated conditions of propagation for the radio waves

  10. Modeling Flood Inundation Induced by River Flow and Storm Surges over a River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Bo Chen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Low-lying coastal regions and their populations are at risk during storm surge events and high freshwater discharges from upriver. An integrated storm surge and flood inundation modeling system was used to simulate storm surge and inundation in the Tsengwen River basin and the adjacent coastal area in southern Taiwan. A three-dimensional hydrodynamic model with an unstructured grid was used, which was driven by the tidal elevation at the open boundaries and freshwater discharge at the upriver boundary. The model was validated against the observed water levels for three typhoon events. The simulation results for the model were in reasonable agreement with the observational data. The model was then applied to investigate the effects of a storm surge, freshwater discharge, and a storm surge combined with freshwater discharge during an extreme typhoon event. The super Typhoon Haiyan (2013 was artificially shifted to hit Taiwan: the modeling results showed that the inundation area and depth would cause severe overbank flow and coastal flooding for a 200 year return period flow. A high-resolution grid model is essential for the accurate simulation of storm surges and inundation.

  11. Understanding Variability in Beach Slope to Improve Forecasts of Storm-induced Water Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, K. S.; Stockdon, H. F.; Long, J.

    2014-12-01

    The National Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Coastal Erosion Hazards combines measurements of beach morphology with storm hydrodynamics to produce forecasts of coastal change during storms for the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coastlines of the United States. Wave-induced water levels are estimated using modeled offshore wave height and period and measured beach slope (from dune toe to shoreline) through the empirical parameterization of Stockdon et al. (2006). Spatial and temporal variability in beach slope leads to corresponding variability in predicted wave setup and swash. Seasonal and storm-induced changes in beach slope can lead to differences on the order of a meter in wave runup elevation, making accurate specification of this parameter essential to skillful forecasts of coastal change. Spatial variation in beach slope is accounted for through alongshore averaging, but temporal variability in beach slope is not included in the final computation of the likelihood of coastal change. Additionally, input morphology may be years old and potentially very different than the conditions present during forecast storm. In order to improve our forecasts of hurricane-induced coastal erosion hazards, the temporal variability of beach slope must be included in the final uncertainty of modeled wave-induced water levels. Frequently collected field measurements of lidar-based beach morphology are examined for study sites in Duck, North Carolina, Treasure Island, Florida, Assateague Island, Virginia, and Dauphin Island, Alabama, with some records extending over a period of 15 years. Understanding the variability of slopes at these sites will help provide estimates of associated water level uncertainty which can then be applied to other areas where lidar observations are infrequent, and improve the overall skill of future forecasts of storm-induced coastal change. Stockdon, H. F., Holman, R. A., Howd, P. A., and Sallenger Jr, A. H. (2006). Empirical parameterization of setup

  12. Identification of Storm Surge Vulnerable Areas in the Philippines Through Simulations of Typhoon Haiyan-Induced Storm Surge Using Tracks of Historical Tropical Cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapidez, John Phillip; Suarez, John Kenneth; Tablazon, Judd; Dasallas, Lea; Gonzalo, Lia Anne; Santiago, Joy; Cabacaba, Krichi May; Ramos, Michael Marie Angelo; Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo; Malano, Vicente

    2014-05-01

    Super Typhoon Haiyan entered the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR) 07 November 2013, causing tremendous damage to infrastructure and loss of lives mainly due to the typhoon's storm surge and strong winds. Storm surges up to a height of 7 meters were reported in the hardest hit areas. The threat imposed by this kind of natural calamity compelled researchers of the Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards, the flagship disaster mitigation program of the Department of Science and Technology, Government of the Philippines, to undertake a study to determine the vulnerability of all Philippine coastal communities to storm surges of the same magnitude as those generated by Haiyan. This study calculates the maximum probable storm surge height for every coastal locality by running simulations of Haiyan-type conditions but with tracks of tropical cyclones that entered PAR from 1948-2013. DOST-Project NOAH used the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) Storm Surge Model, a numerical code that simulates and predicts storm surges spawned by tropical cyclones. Input parameters for the storm surge model include bathymetric data, storm track, central atmospheric pressure, and maximum wind speed. The simulations were made using Haiyan's pressure and wind speed as the forcing parameters. The simulated storm surge height values were added to the maximum tide level obtained from WXTide, software that contains a catalogue of worldwide astronomical tides, to come up with storm tide levels. The resulting water level was used as input to FLO-2D to generate the storm tide inundation maps. One product of this study is a list of the most vulnerable coastal areas that can be used as basis for choosing priority sites for further studies to implement appropriate site-specific solutions. Another product is the storm tide inundation maps that the local government units can use to develop a Risk-Sensitive Land Use Plan for identifying appropriate areas to build residential buildings

  13. Coastal Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelvink, J.A.; Steetzel, H.J.; Bliek, A.; Rakhorst, H.D.; Roelse, P.; Bakker, W.T.

    1998-01-01

    This book deals on "Coastal Dynamics", which will be defined in a narrow sense as a mathematical theory, which starts from given equations of motion for the sediment, which leads with the continuity equation and given boundary conditions to a calculated (eventually schematized) coastal topography,

  14. Elevation uncertainty in coastal inundation hazard assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesch, Dean B.; Cheval, Sorin

    2012-01-01

    Coastal inundation has been identified as an important natural hazard that affects densely populated and built-up areas (Subcommittee on Disaster Reduction, 2008). Inundation, or coastal flooding, can result from various physical processes, including storm surges, tsunamis, intense precipitation events, and extreme high tides. Such events cause quickly rising water levels. When rapidly rising water levels overwhelm flood defenses, especially in heavily populated areas, the potential of the hazard is realized and a natural disaster results. Two noteworthy recent examples of such natural disasters resulting from coastal inundation are the Hurricane Katrina storm surge in 2005 along the Gulf of Mexico coast in the United States, and the tsunami in northern Japan in 2011. Longer term, slowly varying processes such as land subsidence (Committee on Floodplain Mapping Technologies, 2007) and sea-level rise also can result in coastal inundation, although such conditions do not have the rapid water level rise associated with other flooding events. Geospatial data are a critical resource for conducting assessments of the potential impacts of coastal inundation, and geospatial representations of the topography in the form of elevation measurements are a primary source of information for identifying the natural and human components of the landscape that are at risk. Recently, the quantity and quality of elevation data available for the coastal zone have increased markedly, and this availability facilitates more detailed and comprehensive hazard impact assessments.

  15. STORMTOOLS: Coastal Environmental Risk Index (CERI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm L. Spaulding

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenges facing coastal zone managers and municipal planners is the development of an objective, quantitative assessment of the risk to structures, infrastructure, and public safety that coastal communities face from storm surge in the presence of changing climatic conditions, particularly sea level rise and coastal erosion. Here we use state of the art modeling tool (ADCIRC and STWAVE to predict storm surge and wave, combined with shoreline change maps (erosion, and damage functions to construct a Coastal Environmental Risk Index (CERI. Access to the state emergency data base (E-911 provides information on structure characteristics and the ability to perform analyses for individual structures. CERI has been designed as an on line Geographic Information System (GIS based tool, and hence is fully compatible with current flooding maps, including those from FEMA. The basic framework and associated GIS methods can be readily applied to any coastal area. The approach can be used by local and state planners to objectively evaluate different policy options for effectiveness and cost/benefit. In this study, CERI is applied to RI two communities; Charlestown representing a typical coastal barrier system directly exposed to ocean waves and high erosion rates, with predominantly low density single family residences and Warwick located within Narragansett Bay, with more limited wave exposure, lower erosion rates, and higher residential housing density. Results of these applications are highlighted herein.

  16. Climate change risks to United States infrastructure: impacts on coastal development, roads, bridges, and urban drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changes in temperature, precipitation, sea level, and coastal storms will likely increase the vulnerability of infrastructure across the United States. Using four models of vulnerability, impacts, and adaptation of infrastructure, its deployment, and its role in protecting econom...

  17. Mangroves can provide protection against wind damage during storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saudamini; Crépin, Anne-Sophie

    2013-12-01

    Research has established that mangroves can protect lives and property from storms by buffering the impacts of storm surges. However, their effects in attenuating wind velocity and providing protection from wind damage during storms are not known. This study examined whether mangroves attenuate damage from cyclonic winds and found that they provide substantial protection to properties, even relatively far away from mangroves and the coast. We devised a theoretical model of wind protection by mangroves and calibrated and applied this model using data from the 1999 cyclone in the Odisha region of India. The model predicted and quantified the actual level of damage reasonably accurately and showed that mangroves reduced wind damage to houses. The wind protection value of mangroves in reducing house damage amounted to approximately US$177 per hectare at 1999 prices. This provides additional evidence of the storm protection ecosystem services that mangroves supply in the region and an additional reason to invest in mangrove ecosystems to provide better adaptability to coastal disasters such as storms.

  18. Storm Surge and Tide Interaction: A Complete Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsburgh, K.

    2014-12-01

    Estimates show that in 2005, in the largest 136 coastal cities, there were 40 million people and 3,000 billion of assets exposed to 1 in 100 year coastal flood events. Mean sea level rise will increase this exposure to 150 million people and 35,000 billion of assets by 2070. Any further change in the statistics of flood frequency or severity would impact severely on economic and social systems. It is therefore crucial to understand the physical drivers of extreme storm surges, and to have confidence in datasets used for extreme sea level statistics. Much previous research has focussed on the process of tide-surge interaction, and it is now widely accepted that the physical basis of tide-surge interaction is that a phase shift of the tidal signal represents the effect of the surge on the tide. The second aspect of interaction is that shallow water momentum considerations imply that differing tidal states should modulate surge generation: wind stress should have greater surge-generating potential on lower tides. We present results from a storm surge model of the European shelf that demonstrate that tidal range does have an effect on the surges generated. The cycle-integrated effects of wind stress (i.e. the skew surge) are greater when tidal range is low. Our results contradict the absence of any such correlation in tide gauge records. This suggests that whilst the modulating effect of the tide on the skew surge (the time-independent difference between peak prediction and observations) is significant, the difference between individual storms is dominant. This implies that forecasting systems must predict salient detail of the most intense storms. A further implication is that flood forecasting models need to simulate tides with acceptable accuracy at all coastal locations. We extend our model analysis to show that the same modulation of storm surges (by tidal conditions) applies to tropical cyclones. We conduct simulations using a mature operational storm surge model

  19. Stresses and storms: the case of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, N

    1993-01-01

    The problems of women and environmental degradation have recently come to be addressed by women's groups, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and government policies in Bangladesh. NGOs have been the most active, with 600 registered organizations: 40% international, 38% national, and 22% local. NGOs have promoted the recent inclusion of environmental concerns into development plans. About 100 NGOs are engaged in forestry projects. The National Association for Resource Improvement, for example, involves women in tree planting along roadsides and income-generating activities. About 75% of upazilas (administrative units) have environmental and women's projects, but under 20% of all villages are affected and 1% of landless people are reached. Women's groups have created awareness of women's problems and advocated for socioeconomic changes. Women, despite cultural and social restrictions on their social behavior, have changed environmental and economic conditions. Women's leadership and organizing abilities have contributed to public awareness of environmental degradation. Because Bangladesh is a delta, a rise in sea level from greenhouse effects would have serious consequences for the land and population. Global warming has contributed to river flooding and climate changes that have increased rainfall and tropical storms. Deforestation upriver adds to the water runoff problems. About 20% of the cultivable land area is affected by natural disasters. Population density is 760 persons per sq km. About 50% of forested areas have been destroyed within the past 20 years. 4% of gross domestic product comes from forest activity. The lack of wood fuel limits the ability of people to boil water and contributes to the increased incidence of diarrhea, other intestinal problems, and less nutritious food. Drought is another problem. Urban migration has overwhelmed the ability of urban centers to provide basic services. Coastal areas have been settled by 20% of total population

  20. Effects of cluster land reclamation projects on storm surge in Jiaojiang Estuary, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-lin Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations in coastline geometry caused by coastal engineering affect tides, storm surges, and storm tides. Three cluster land reclamation projects have been planned for construction in the Jiaojiang Estuary during the period from 2011 to 2023. They will cause significant changes in coastline geometry. In this study, a surge-tide coupled model was established based on a three-dimensional finite-volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM. A series of numerical experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of variations in coastline geometry on tides, storm surges, and storm tides. This model was calibrated using data observed at the Haimen and Ruian gauge stations and then used to reproduce the tides, storm surges, and storm tides in the Jiaojiang Estuary caused by Typhoon Winnie in 1997. Results show that the high tide level, peak storm surge, and high storm tide level at the Haimen Gauge Station increased along with the completion of reclamation projects, and the maximum increments caused by the third project were 0.13 m, 0.50 m, and 0.43 m, respectively. The envelopes with maximum storm tide levels of 7.0 m and 8.0 m inside the river mouth appeared to move seaward, with the latter shifting 1.8 km, 3.3 km, and 4.4 km due to the first project, second project, and third project, respectively. The results achieved in this study contribute to reducing the effects of, and preventing storm disasters after the land reclamation in the Jiaojiang Estuary.

  1. Biogeochemical Impact of Hurricane Harvey on Texas Coastal Lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, P.; Hu, X.; Walker, L.; Wetz, M.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricane Harvey made landfall Friday 25 August 2017 as a Category 4 hurricane, which is the strongest hurricane to hit the middle Texas coast since Carla in 1961. After the wind storm and storm surge, coastal flooding occurred due to the storm lingering over Texas for four more days, dumping as much as 50" of rain near Houston, producing 1:1000 year flood event. The Texas coast is characterized by lagoons behind barrier islands, and their ecology and biogeochemistry are strongly influenced by coastal hydrology. The ensuing inflow event replaced brackish water with fresh water that was high in inorganic an organic matter, significantly enhancing respiration of coastal blue carbon, and dissolved oxygen went to zero for a long period of time. Recovery will likely take months or nearly one year.

  2. Erosion of Coastal Foredunes: A Review on the Effect of Dune Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    inhabited by vegetation (Figure 2).The collision regime occurs when the total storm water level exceeds the elevation of the dune toe but is lower than the...of Dune Vegetation by Duncan B. Bryant, Mary A. Bryant, and Alison S. Grzegorzewski PURPOSE: The purpose of this Coastal and Hydraulics...Engineering Technical Note (CHETN) is to identify the potential roles of vegetation in mitigating coastal dune erosion during storm events by presenting a

  3. Empirical STORM-E Model. [I. Theoretical and Observational Basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Xu, Xiaojing; Bilitza, Dieter; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Russell, James M., III

    2013-01-01

    Auroral nighttime infrared emission observed by the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument onboard the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite is used to develop an empirical model of geomagnetic storm enhancements to E-region peak electron densities. The empirical model is called STORM-E and will be incorporated into the 2012 release of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI). The proxy for characterizing the E-region response to geomagnetic forcing is NO+(v) volume emission rates (VER) derived from the TIMED/SABER 4.3 lm channel limb radiance measurements. The storm-time response of the NO+(v) 4.3 lm VER is sensitive to auroral particle precipitation. A statistical database of storm-time to climatological quiet-time ratios of SABER-observed NO+(v) 4.3 lm VER are fit to widely available geomagnetic indices using the theoretical framework of linear impulse-response theory. The STORM-E model provides a dynamic storm-time correction factor to adjust a known quiescent E-region electron density peak concentration for geomagnetic enhancements due to auroral particle precipitation. Part II of this series describes the explicit development of the empirical storm-time correction factor for E-region peak electron densities, and shows comparisons of E-region electron densities between STORM-E predictions and incoherent scatter radar measurements. In this paper, Part I of the series, the efficacy of using SABER-derived NO+(v) VER as a proxy for the E-region response to solar-geomagnetic disturbances is presented. Furthermore, a detailed description of the algorithms and methodologies used to derive NO+(v) VER from SABER 4.3 lm limb emission measurements is given. Finally, an assessment of key uncertainties in retrieving NO+(v) VER is presented

  4. Storm Warnings for Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Services: Telephone: (310) 451-7002; Fax: (310) 451-6915; Internet : order@rand.org. al Accesion For "Ni %&’ Storm WarningsDTI’ TAB E03 --- - - -for...reaction leading to an uncontrol- lable burgeoning of private entrepreneurial activity. As one observer 14See Acuerdo del Buro Politico , "Para llevar a...34 10Comisi6n de Relaciones Internacionales, Asamblea Nacional del Poder Popular, Datos, Reflexiones y Argumentos Sobre la Actual Situaci6n de Cuba, n.p

  5. The women day storm

    OpenAIRE

    Parnowski, Aleksei; Polonska, Anna; Semeniv, Oleg

    2012-01-01

    On behalf of the International Women Day, the Sun gave a hot kiss to our mother Earth in a form of a full halo CME generated by the yesterday's double X-class flare. The resulting geomagnetic storm gives a good opportunity to compare the performance of space weather forecast models operating in near-real-time. We compare the forecasts of most major models and identify some common problems. We also present the results of our own near-real-time forecast models.

  6. Are inundation limit and maximum extent of sand useful for differentiating tsunamis and storms? An example from sediment transport simulations on the Sendai Plain, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masashi; Goto, Kazuhisa; Bricker, Jeremy D.; Imamura, Fumihiko

    2018-02-01

    We examined the quantitative difference in the distribution of tsunami and storm deposits based on numerical simulations of inundation and sediment transport due to tsunami and storm events on the Sendai Plain, Japan. The calculated distance from the shoreline inundated by the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami was smaller than that inundated by storm surges from hypothetical typhoon events. Previous studies have assumed that deposits observed farther inland than the possible inundation limit of storm waves and storm surge were tsunami deposits. However, confirming only the extent of inundation is insufficient to distinguish tsunami and storm deposits, because the inundation limit of storm surges may be farther inland than that of tsunamis in the case of gently sloping coastal topography such as on the Sendai Plain. In other locations, where coastal topography is steep, the maximum inland inundation extent of storm surges may be only several hundred meters, so marine-sourced deposits that are distributed several km inland can be identified as tsunami deposits by default. Over both gentle and steep slopes, another difference between tsunami and storm deposits is the total volume deposited, as flow speed over land during a tsunami is faster than during a storm surge. Therefore, the total deposit volume could also be a useful proxy to differentiate tsunami and storm deposits.

  7. Influence of storm characteristics on soil erosion and storm runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnny M. III Grace

    2008-01-01

    Unpaved forest roads can be major sources of sediment from forested watersheds. Storm runoff from forest roads are a concern due to their potential delivery of sediments and nutrients to stream systems resulting in degraded water quality. The volume and sediment concentrations of stormwater runoff emanating from forest roads can be greatly influenced by storm...

  8. Composition Changes After the "Halloween" Solar Proton Event: The High-Energy Particle Precipitation in the Atmosphere (HEPPA) Model Versus MIPAS Data Intercomparison Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, B.; Baumgaertner, A.; Calisto, M.; Egorova, T.; Jackman, C. H.; Kieser, J.; Krivolutsky, A.; Lopez-Puertas, M.; Marsh. D. R.; Reddmann, T.; hide

    2010-01-01

    We have compared composition changes of NO, NO2, H2O2,O3, N2O, HNO3 , N2O5, HNO4, ClO, HOCl, and ClONO2 as observed by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) on Envisat in the aftermath of the "Halloween" solar proton event (SPE) in October/November 2003 at 25-0.01 hPa in the Northern hemisphere (40-90 N) and simulations performed by the following atmospheric models: the Bremen 2D model (B2dM) and Bremen 3D Chemical Transport Model (B3dCTM), the Central Aerological Observatory (CAO) model, FinROSE, the Hamburg Model of the Neutral and Ionized Atmosphere (HAMMONIA), the Karlsruhe Simulation Model of the Middle Atmosphere (KASIMA), the ECHAM5/MESSY Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model, the modeling tool for SO1ar Climate Ozone Links studies (SOCOL and SOCOLi), and the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM4). The large number of participating models allowed for an evaluation of the overall ability of atmospheric models to reproduce observed atmospheric perturbations generated by SPEs, particularly with respect to NOS, and ozone changes. We have further assessed the meteorological conditions and their implications on the chemical response to the SPE in both the models and observations by comparing temperature and tracer (CH4 and CO) fields. Simulated SPE-induced ozone losses agree on average within 5% with the observations. Simulated NO(y) enhancements around 1 hPa, however, are typically 30% higher than indicated by the observations which can be partly attributed to an overestimation of simulated electron-induced ionization. The analysis of the observed and modeled NO(y) partitioning in the aftermath of the SPE has demonstrated the need to implement additional ion chemistry (HNO3 formation via ion-ion recombination and water cluster ions) into the chemical schemes. An overestimation of observed H2O2 enhancements by all models hints at an underestimation of the OH/HO2 ratio in the upper polar stratosphere during the SPE. The

  9. Using 18th century storm-surge data from the Dutch Coast to improve the confidence in flood-risk estimates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, F.; Bakker, M.A.J.; Van Dongeren, A.; Den Heijer, C.; Van Heteren, S.; Smit, M.W.J.; Van Koningsveld, M.; Pool, A.

    2011-01-01

    For the design of cost-effective coastal defence a precise estimate is needed of the 1/10 000 per year storm surge. A more precise estimate requires more observations. Therefore, the three greatest storm surges that hit the northern part of the Holland Coast in the 18th century are reconstructed.

  10. Impacts of Hurricane Rita on the beaches of western Louisiana: Chapter 5D in Science and the storms-the USGS response to the hurricanes of 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdon, Hilary F.; Fauver, Laura A.; Sallenger,, Asbury H.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2007-01-01

    Hurricane Rita made landfall as a category 3 storm in western Louisiana in late September 2005, 1 month following Hurricane Katrina's devastating landfall in the eastern part of the State. Large waves and storm surge inundated the lowelevation coastline, destroying many communities and causing extensive coastal change including beach, dune, and marsh erosion.

  11. Multivariate Hybrid Modelling of Future Wave-Storms at the Northwestern Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jue Lin-Ye

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of future wave-storms and their relationship to large-scale climate can provide useful information for environmental or urban planning at coastal areas. A hybrid methodology (process-based and statistical was used to characterize the extreme wave-climate at the northwestern Black Sea. The Simulating WAve Nearshore spectral wave-model was employed to produce wave-climate projections, forced with wind-fields projections for two climate change scenarios: Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs 4.5 and 8.5. A non-stationary multivariate statistical model was built, considering significant wave-height and peak-wave-period at the peak of the wave-storm, as well as storm total energy and storm-duration. The climate indices of the North Atlantic Oscillation, East Atlantic Pattern, and Scandinavian Pattern have been used as covariates to link to storminess, wave-storm threshold, and wave-storm components in the statistical model. The results show that, first, under both RCP scenarios, the mean values of significant wave-height and peak-wave-period at the peak of the wave-storm remain fairly constant over the 21st century. Second, the mean value of storm total energy is more markedly increasing in the RCP4.5 scenario than in the RCP8.5 scenario. Third, the mean value of storm-duration is increasing in the RCP4.5 scenario, as opposed to the constant trend in the RCP8.5 scenario. The variance of each wave-storm component increases when the corresponding mean value increases under both RCP scenarios. During the 21st century, the East Atlantic Pattern and changes in its pattern have a special influence on wave-storm conditions. Apart from the individual characteristics of each wave-storm component, wave-storms with both extreme energy and duration can be expected in the 21st century. The dependence between all the wave-storm components is moderate, but grows with time and, in general, the severe emission scenario of RCP8.5 presents

  12. Using recent hurricanes and associated event layers to evaluate regional storm impacts on estuarine-wetland systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C. G.; Marot, M. E.; Osterman, L. E.; Adams, C. S.; Haller, C.; Jones, M.

    2016-12-01

    Tropical cyclones are a major driver of change in coastal and estuarine environments. Heightened waves and sea level associated with tropical cyclones act to erode sediment from one environment and redistribute it to adjacent environments. The fate and transport of this redistributed material is of great importance to the long-term sediment budget, which in turns affects the vulnerability of these coastal systems. The spatial variance in both storm impacts and sediment redistribution is large. At the regional-scale, difference in storm impacts can often be attributed to natural variability in geologic parameters (sediment availability/erodibility), coastal geomorphology (including fetch, shoreline tortuosity, back-barrier versus estuarine shoreline, etc.), storm characteristics (intensity, duration, track/approach), and ecology (vegetation type, gradient, density). To assess storm characteristics and coastal geomorphology on a regional-scale, cores were collected from seven Juncus marshes located in coastal regions of Alabama and Mississippi (i.e., Mobile Bay, Bon Secour Bay, Mississippi Sound, and Grand Bay) expected to have been impacted by Hurricane Frederic (1979). All cores were sectioned and processed for water content, organic matter (loss-on-ignition), and select cores analyzed for foraminiferal assemblages, stable isotopes and bulk metals to aid in the identification of storm events. Excess lead-210 and cesium-137 were used to develop chronologies for the cores and evaluate mass accumulation rates and sedimentation rates. Temporal variations in accumulation rates of inorganic and organic sediments were compared with shoreline and areal change rates derived from historic aerial imagery to evaluate potential changes in sediment exchange prior to, during, and following the storm. A combined geospatial and geologic approach will improve our understanding of coastal change in estuarine marsh environments, as well help refine the influence of storms on regional

  13. Substorms during different storm phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Partamies

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available After the deep solar minimum at the end of the solar cycle 23, a small magnetic storm occurred on 20–26 January 2010. The Dst (disturbance storm time index reached the minimum of −38 nT on 20 January and the prolonged recovery that followed the main phase that lasted for about 6 days. In this study, we concentrate on three substorms that took place (1 just prior to the storm, (2 during the main phase of the storm, and (3 at the end of the recovery of the storm. We analyse the solar wind conditions from the solar wind monitoring spacecraft, the duration and intensity of the substorm events as well as the behaviour of the electrojet currents from the ground magnetometer measurements. We compare the precipitation characteristics of the three substorms. The results show that the F-region electron density enhancements and dominant green and red auroral emission of the substorm activity during the storm recovery resembles average isolated substorm precipitation. However, the energy dissipated, even at the very end of a prolonged storm recovery, is very large compared to the typical energy content of isolated substorms. In the case studied here, the dissipation of the excess energy is observed over a 3-h long period of several consecutive substorm intensifications. Our findings suggest that the substorm energy dissipation varies between the storm phases.

  14. Storm wave deposits in southern Istria (Croatia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biolchi, Sara; Furlani, Stefano; Devoto, Stefano; Scicchitano, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    the infralittoral and sublittoral zones as source area (joint bounded, submerged scenario). Moreover, some boulders show typical coastal karst features that are very similar to those observed in the coastal area, attesting a subaerial scenario and a consequent detachment, lifting and re-arrangement by waves. The comparison between satellite images from 2008 to 2016, pictures collected from the WEB, pictures collected during the swim survey of the coast during summer 2012 and UAV images taken in December 2016 allowed to observe movements of some boulders and the arrival of a new one. The latter is 2.25 x 1.65 x 0.95 m, with an estimate weight of 7.65 tonnes. Our observations and results, compared with the available wave data, seem to refer to multiple storm events, even very recent.

  15. Relationship between substorms and storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamide, Y.

    1980-01-01

    In an attempt to deduce a plausible working model of the relationship between magnetospheric substorms and storms, recent relevant studies of various processes occurring during disturbed periods are integrated along with some theoretical suggestions. It has been shown that the main phase of geomagnetic storms is associated with the successive occurrence of intense substorms and with the sustained southward component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). However, these relations are only qualitatively understood, and thus basic questions remain unanswered involving the hypothesis whether a magnetic storm is a non-linear (or linear) superposition of intense substorms, each of which constitutes an elementary storm, or the main phase of magnetic storms occurs as a result of the intense southward IMF which enhances magnetospheric convection and increases occurrence probability of substorms. (Auth.)

  16. Thyroid storm: an updated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiha, Maguy; Samarasinghe, Shanika; Kabaker, Adam S

    2015-03-01

    Thyroid storm, an endocrine emergency first described in 1926, remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. No laboratory abnormalities are specific to thyroid storm, and the available scoring system is based on the clinical criteria. The exact mechanisms underlying the development of thyroid storm from uncomplicated hyperthyroidism are not well understood. A heightened response to thyroid hormone is often incriminated along with increased or abrupt availability of free hormones. Patients exhibit exaggerated signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism and varying degrees of organ decompensation. Treatment should be initiated promptly targeting all steps of thyroid hormone formation, release, and action. Patients who fail medical therapy should be treated with therapeutic plasma exchange or thyroidectomy. The mortality of thyroid storm is currently reported at 10%. Patients who have survived thyroid storm should receive definite therapy for their underlying hyperthyroidism to avoid any recurrence of this potentially fatal condition. © The Author(s) 2013.

  17. A framework for modeling scenario-based barrier island storm impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickey, Rangley; Long, Joseph W.; Dalyander, P. Soupy; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Thompson, David M.

    2018-01-01

    Methods for investigating the vulnerability of existing or proposed coastal features to storm impacts often rely on simplified parametric models or one-dimensional process-based modeling studies that focus on changes to a profile across a dune or barrier island. These simple studies tend to neglect the impacts to curvilinear or alongshore varying island planforms, influence of non-uniform nearshore hydrodynamics and sediment transport, irregular morphology of the offshore bathymetry, and impacts from low magnitude wave events (e.g. cold fronts). Presented here is a framework for simulating regionally specific, low and high magnitude scenario-based storm impacts to assess the alongshore variable vulnerabilities of a coastal feature. Storm scenarios based on historic hydrodynamic conditions were derived and simulated using the process-based morphologic evolution model XBeach. Model results show that the scenarios predicted similar patterns of erosion and overwash when compared to observed qualitative morphologic changes from recent storm events that were not included in the dataset used to build the scenarios. The framework model simulations were capable of predicting specific areas of vulnerability in the existing feature and the results illustrate how this storm vulnerability simulation framework could be used as a tool to help inform the decision-making process for scientists, engineers, and stakeholders involved in coastal zone management or restoration projects.

  18. Comparison of two recent storm surge events based on results of field surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Ryota; Shibayama, Tomoya; Mikami, Takahito; Esteban, Miguel; Takagi, Hiroshi; Maell, Martin; Iwamoto, Takumu

    2017-10-01

    This paper compares two different types of storm surge disaster based on field surveys. Two cases: a severe storm surge flood with its height of over 5 m due to Typhoon Haiyan (2013) in Philippine, and inundation of storm surge around Nemuro city in Hokkaido of Japan with its maximum surge height of 2.8 m caused by extra-tropical cyclone are taken as examples. For the case of the Typhoon Haiyan, buildings located in coastal region were severely affected due to a rapidly increase in ocean surface. The non-engineering buildings were partially or completely destroyed due to their debris transported to an inner bay region. In fact, several previous reports indicated two unique features, bore-like wave and remarkably high speed currents. These characteristics of the storm surge may contribute to a wide-spread corruption for the buildings around the affected region. Furthermore, in the region where the surge height was nearly 3 m, the wooden houses were completely or partially destroyed. On the other hand, in Nemuro city, a degree of suffering in human and facility caused by the storm surge is minor. There was almost no partially destroyed residential houses even though the height of storm surge reached nearly 2.8 m. An observation in the tide station in Nemuro indicated that this was a usual type of storm surge, which showed a gradual increase of sea level height in several hours without possessing the unique characteristics like Typhoon Haiyan. As a result, not only the height of storm surge but also the robustness of the buildings and characteristics of storm surge, such as bore like wave and strong currents, determined the existent of devastation in coastal regions.

  19. Geomagnetic storm forecasting service StormFocus: 5 years online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podladchikova, Tatiana; Petrukovich, Anatoly; Yermolaev, Yuri

    2018-04-01

    Forecasting geomagnetic storms is highly important for many space weather applications. In this study, we review performance of the geomagnetic storm forecasting service StormFocus during 2011-2016. The service was implemented in 2011 at SpaceWeather.Ru and predicts the expected strength of geomagnetic storms as measured by Dst index several hours ahead. The forecast is based on L1 solar wind and IMF measurements and is updated every hour. The solar maximum of cycle 24 is weak, so most of the statistics are on rather moderate storms. We verify quality of selection criteria, as well as reliability of real-time input data in comparison with the final values, available in archives. In real-time operation 87% of storms were correctly predicted while the reanalysis running on final OMNI data predicts successfully 97% of storms. Thus the main reasons for prediction errors are discrepancies between real-time and final data (Dst, solar wind and IMF) due to processing errors, specifics of datasets.

  20. Storm tide monitoring during the blizzard of January 26-28, 2015, in eastern Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Andrew J.; Verdi, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) deployed a temporary monitoring network of six storm surge sensors and four barometric pressure sensors along the Atlantic coast in eastern Massachusetts, from Plymouth to Newburyport, before the blizzard of January 26–28, 2015 (Blizzard of January 2015), to record the timing and magnitude of storm tide at select locations where forecasters had predicted the potential for coastal flooding. Additionally, water-level data were recorded and transmitted in near real-time from four permanent USGS tidal stations—three on Cape Cod and one near the mouth of the Merrimack River in Newburyport. The storm surge sensors were deployed at previously established fixed sites outfitted with presurveyed mounting brackets. The mounting brackets were installed in 2014 as part of the USGS Surge, Wave, and Tide Hydrodynamic (SWaTH) Network (https://water.usgs.gov/floods/STN/), which was funded through congressional supplemental appropriations for the U.S. Department of the Interior after the devastating landfall of Hurricane Sandy on October 29, 2012 (Simmons and others, 2014). The USGS received this funding to enable better understanding of coastal flooding hazards in the region, to improve preparedness for future coastal storms, and to increase the resilience of coastal cities, infrastructure, and natural systems in the region (Buxton and others, 2013). The USGS established 163 monitoring locations along the New England coast for the SWaTH Network, including 70 sites in Massachusetts.

  1. Thromboembolic complications of thyroid storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, T; Benjamin, S; Cozma, L

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid storm is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication of hyperthyroidism. Early recognition and prompt treatment are essential. Atrial fibrillation can occur in up to 40% of patients with thyroid storm. Studies have shown that hyperthyroidism increases the risk of thromboembolic events. There is no consensus with regard to the initiation of anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation in severe thyrotoxicosis. Anticoagulation is not routinely initiated if the risk is low on a CHADS2 score; however, this should be considered in patients with thyroid storm or severe thyrotoxicosis with impending storm irrespective of the CHADS2 risk, as it appears to increase the risk of thromboembolic episodes. Herein, we describe a case of thyroid storm complicated by massive pulmonary embolism. Diagnosis of thyroid storm is based on clinical findings. Early recognition and prompt treatment could lead to a favourable outcome.Hypercoagulable state is a recognised complication of thyrotoxicosis.Atrial fibrillation is strongly associated with hyperthyroidism and thyroid storm.Anticoagulation should be considered for patients with severe thyrotoxicosis and atrial fibrillation irrespective of the CHADS2 score.Patients with severe thyrotoxicosis and clinical evidence of thrombosis should be immediately anticoagulated until hyperthyroidism is under control.

  2. IRI STORM validation over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haralambous, Haris; Vryonides, Photos; Demetrescu, Crişan; Dobrică, Venera; Maris, Georgeta; Ionescu, Diana

    2014-05-01

    The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model includes an empirical Storm-Time Ionospheric Correction Model (STORM) extension to account for storm-time changes of the F layer peak electron density (NmF2) during increased geomagnetic activity. This model extension is driven by past history values of the geomagnetic index ap (The magnetic index applied is the integral of ap over the previous 33 hours with a weighting function deduced from physically based modeling) and it adjusts the quiet-time F layer peak electron density (NmF2) to account for storm-time changes in the ionosphere. In this investigation manually scaled hourly values of NmF2 measured during the main and recovery phases of selected storms for the maximum solar activity period of the current solar cycle are compared with the predicted IRI-2012 NmF2 over European ionospheric stations using the STORM model option. Based on the comparison a subsequent performance evaluation of the STORM option during this period is quantified.

  3. New technology and tool prepared for communication against storm surges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letkiewicz, Beata

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the presentation is description of the new technology and tool prepared for communication, information and issue of warnings against storm surges. The Maritime Branch of the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management is responsible for preparing the forecast as warning, where the end users are Government Officials and Public. The Maritime Branch carry out the project "Strengthening the administrative capacity in order to improve the management of Polish coastal zone environment" (supported by a grant from Norway through the Norwegian Financial Mechanism). The expected final result of the project is web site www.baltyk.pogodynka.pl. One of the activities of the project is - set up of information website www.baltyk.pogodynka.pl, giving public access to the complied data. Information on web site: - meta data - marine data (on-line measurement: sea level, water temperature, salinity, oxygen concentration); - data bases of mathematical model outputs - forecast data (sea level, currents); - ice conditions of the Baltic Sea, - instructions, information materials with information of polish coastal zone. The aim of set up of the portal is development of communication between users of the system, exchange of the knowledge of marine environment and natural hazards such as storm surges, improving the ability of the region in the scope of the data management about the sea environment and the coastal zone.

  4. Measuring and building resilience after big storms: Lessons learned from Super-Storm Sandy for the Harvey, Irma, Jose, and Maria coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, P. S.; Penn, K. M.; Taylor, S. M.; Subramanian, B.; Bennett, R.

    2017-12-01

    As we recover from recent large storms, we need information to support increased environmental and socio-economic resilience of the Nation's coasts. Defining baseline conditions, tracking effects of mitigation actions, and measuring the uncertainty of resilience to future disturbance are essential so that the best management practices can be determined. The US Dept. of the Interior invested over $787 million dollars in 2013 to understand and mitigate coastal storm vulnerabilities and enhance resilience of the Northeast coast following Super-Storm Sandy. Several lessons-learned from that investment have direct application to mitigation and restoration needs following Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, Jose and Maria. New models of inundation, overwash, and erosion, developed during the Sandy projects have already been applied to coastlines before and after these recent storms. Results from wetland, beach, back-bay, estuary, and built-environment projects improved models of inundation and erosion from surge and waves. Tests of nature-based infrastructure for mitigating coastal disturbance yielded new concepts for best-practices. Ecological and socio-economic measurements established for detecting disturbance and tracking recovery provide baseline data critical to early detection of vulnerabilities. The Sandy lessons and preliminary applications on the recent storms could help define best-resilience practices before more costly mitigation or restoration efforts are required.

  5. Effect of hurricanes and violent storms on salt marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, N.; Ganju, N. K.; Fagherazzi, S.

    2016-12-01

    Salt marsh losses have been documented worldwide because of land use change, wave erosion, and sea-level rise. It is still unclear how resistant salt marshes are to extreme storms and whether they can survive multiple events without collapsing. Based on a large dataset of salt marsh lateral erosion rates collected around the world, here, we determine the general response of salt marsh boundaries to wave action under normal and extreme weather conditions. As wave energy increases, salt marsh response to wind waves remains linear, and there is not a critical threshold in wave energy above which salt marsh erosion drastically accelerates. We apply our general formulation for salt marsh erosion to historical wave climates at eight salt marsh locations affected by hurricanes in the United States. Based on the analysis of two decades of data, we find that violent storms and hurricanes contribute less than 1% to long-term salt marsh erosion rates. In contrast, moderate storms with a return period of 2.5 mo are those causing the most salt marsh deterioration. Therefore, salt marshes seem more susceptible to variations in mean wave energy rather than changes in the extremes. The intrinsic resistance of salt marshes to violent storms and their predictable erosion rates during moderate events should be taken into account by coastal managers in restoration projects and risk management plans.

  6. Monitoring Inland Storm Surge and Flooding from Hurricane Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Benton D.; Tollett, Roland W.; Mason, Jr., Robert R.

    2006-01-01

    Pressure transducers (sensors) and high-water marks were used to document the inland water levels related to storm surge generated by Hurricane Rita in southwestern Louisiana and southeastern Texas. On September 22-23, 2005, an experimental monitoring network of sensors was deployed at 33 sites over an area of about 4,000 square miles to record the timing, extent, and magnitude of inland hurricane storm surge and coastal flooding. Sensors were programmed to record date and time, temperature, and barometric or water pressure. Water pressure was corrected for changes in barometric pressure and salinity. Elevation surveys using global-positioning systems and differential levels were used to relate all storm-surge water-level data, reference marks, benchmarks, sensor measuring points, and high-water marks to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88). The resulting data indicated that storm-surge water levels over 14 feet above NAVD 88 occurred at three locations, and rates of water-level rise greater than 5 feet per hour occurred at three locations near the Louisiana coast.

  7. A simplified approach for simulating changes in beach habitat due to the combined effectgs of long-term sea level rise, storm erosion, and nourishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Better understanding of vulnerability of coastal habitats to sea level rise and major storm events require the use of simulation models. Coastal habitats also undergo frequent nourishment restoration works in order to maintain their viability. Vulnerability models must be able to assess the combined...

  8. Intensified coastal development in beach-nourishment zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, E.; Armstrong, S.; Limber, P. W.; Goldstein, E. B.; Ballinger, R.

    2016-12-01

    Population density, housing development, and property values in coastal counties along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts continue to rise despite increasing hazard from storm impacts. Beach nourishment, a method for mitigating coastal storm damage or chronic erosion by deliberately replacing sand on an eroded beach, has been the leading form of coastal protection in the U.S. since the 1970s. However, investment in hazard protection can have the unintended consequence of encouraging development in places especially vulnerable to damage. To quantitatively compare development in nourishing and non-nourishing zones, we examine the parcel-scale housing stock of all shorefront single-family homes in the state of Florida. We find that houses in nourishing zones are significantly larger and more numerous than in non-nourishing zones. Florida represents both an advanced case of coastal risk and an exemplar of ubiquitous, fundamental challenges in coastal management. The predominance of larger homes in nourishing zones indicates a positive feedback between nourishment and development that is compounding coastal risk in zones already characterized by high vulnerability. We offer that this phenomenon represents a variant of Jevons' paradox, a theoretical argument from environmental economics in which more efficient use of a resource spurs an increase in its consumption. Here, we suggest reductions in coastal risk through hazard protection are ultimately offset or reversed by increased coastal development.

  9. Proceedings of a workshop on coastal impacts and adaptation related to climate change : the C-CIARN Coastal Node

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    Coastal zones are sensitive to increases in air, sea and ground temperatures as well as to variations in sea level, precipitation, ice thickness, and storm intensity. In order to address concerns regarding climate change in coastal areas, the government of Canada established a Coastal Node as part of the Canadian Climate Impact and Adaptation Research Network (C-CIARN). The role of C-CIARN Coastal Node was recently outlined in a workshop aimed at providing guidelines and research priorities for stakeholders from all coastal regions of Canada. The workshop considered the integration of the node function with one or more of the regional nodes or with the fisheries node. Topics of discussion included both direct impacts on coastal infrastructure or human-use activities as well as indirect impacts resulting from changes in the ecosystem. refs., tabs

  10. Composition changes after the "Halloween" solar proton event: the High Energy Particle Precipitation in the Atmosphere (HEPPA model versus MIPAS data intercomparison study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Funke

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We have compared composition changes of NO, NO2, H2O2, O3, N2O, HNO3, N2O5, HNO4, ClO, HOCl, and ClONO2 as observed by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS on Envisat in the aftermath of the "Halloween" solar proton event (SPE in late October 2003 at 25–0.01 hPa in the Northern Hemisphere (40–90° N and simulations performed by the following atmospheric models: the Bremen 2-D model (B2dM and Bremen 3-D Chemical Transport Model (B3dCTM, the Central Aerological Observatory (CAO model, FinROSE, the Hamburg Model of the Neutral and Ionized Atmosphere (HAMMONIA, the Karlsruhe Simulation Model of the Middle Atmosphere (KASIMA, the ECHAM5/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC model, the modeling tool for SOlar Climate Ozone Links studies (SOCOL and SOCOLi, and the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM4. The large number of participating models allowed for an evaluation of the overall ability of atmospheric models to reproduce observed atmospheric perturbations generated by SPEs, particularly with respect to NOy and ozone changes. We have further assessed the meteorological conditions and their implications for the chemical response to the SPE in both the models and observations by comparing temperature and tracer (CH4 and CO fields.

    Simulated SPE-induced ozone losses agree on average within 5 % with the observations. Simulated NOy enhancements around 1 hPa, however, are typically 30 % higher than indicated by the observations which are likely to be related to deficiencies in the used ionization rates, though other error sources related to the models' atmospheric background state and/or transport schemes cannot be excluded. The analysis of the observed and modeled NOy partitioning in the aftermath of the SPE has demonstrated the need to implement

  11. Impact of storms on coastlines: preparing for the future without forgetting the past? Examples from European coastlines using a Storm Impact Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciavola, Paolo; Garnier, Emmanuel; Ferreira, Oscar; Spencer, Thomas; Armaroli, Clara

    2017-04-01

    Severe storms have historically affected many European coastlines but the impact of each storm has been evaluated in different ways in different countries, often using local socio-economic impact criteria (e.g. loss of lives and damage to properties). Although the Xynthia (2010) storm, Atlantic coast of France, was the largest coastal disaster of the last 50 years, similar events have previously impacted Europe. The 1953 storm surge in the southern North Sea, resulted in over 2000 deaths and extensive flooding and was the catalyst for post WWII improvements in flood defences and storm early warning systems. On a longer timescale, the very extreme storm of 1634 AD re-configured Wadden Sea coastlines, accompanied by thousands of deaths. Establishing patterns of coastal risk and vulnerability is greatly helped by the use of historical sources, as these allow the development of more complete time series of storm events and their impacts. The work to be presented was supported by the EU RISC-KIT (Resilience-Increasing Strategies for Coasts - toolKIT) Project. RISC-KIT (http://www.risckit.eu/np4/home.html) is a EU FP7 Collaborative project that has developed methods, tools and management approaches to reduce risk and increase resilience to low frequency, high-impact hydro-meteorological events in the coastal zone. These products will enhance forecasting, prediction and early warning capabilities, improve the assessment of long-term coastal risk and optimize the mix of prevention, mitigation and preparedness measures. We analyse historical large-scale events occurred from The Middle Ages to the 1960s at the case study sites of North Norfolk Coast (UK), the Charente-Maritime and Vendée coast (France), the Cinque Terre-Liguria (Italy), the Emilia-Romagna coast (Italy), and the Ria Formosa coast (Portugal). The work presented here uses a database of events built by the project, examining records for the last 300 years, including the characteristics of the storms as well as

  12. Storm-wave trends in Mexican waters of the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ojeda

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-year time series of hindcast wave data were analysed for 10 coastal locations along the eastern Mexican coast to obtain information about storm events occurring in the region, with the goal of examining the possible presence of interannual trends in the number of storm-wave events and their main features (wave height, duration and energy content. The storms were defined according to their significant wave height and duration, and the events were classified as related to either tropical cyclones or Norte events. The occurrence and characteristics of both types of events were analysed independently. There is no statistically significant change in the number of storm-wave events related to Nortes or their characteristics during the study period. However, there is a subtle increase in the number of events related to tropical cyclones in the western Caribbean region and a more evident increase in wave height and energy content of these events.

  13. US Weather Bureau Storm Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather Bureau and US Army Corps and other reports of storms from 1886-1955. Hourly precipitation from recording rain gauges captured during heavy rain, snow,...

  14. Magnetic storms and induction hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Rigler, E. Joshua; Pulkkinen, Antti; Balch, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic storms are potentially hazardous to the activities and technological infrastructure of modern civilization. This reality was dramatically demonstrated during the great magnetic storm of March 1989, when surface geoelectric fields, produced by the interaction of the time-varying geomagnetic field with the Earth's electrically conducting interior, coupled onto the overlying Hydro-Québec electric power grid in Canada. Protective relays were tripped, the grid collapsed, and about 9 million people were temporarily left without electricity [Bolduc, 2002].

  15. [Thyroid Storm and Myxedema Coma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milkau, Malte; Sayk, Friedhelm

    2018-03-01

    Thyroid storm and myxedema coma are the most severe clinical forms of thyroid dysfunction. While both hyper- and hypothyroidsm are common diseases, thyroid storm and myxedema coma are rare. Due to their unspecific signs and symptoms they are often difficult to diagnose. Both disorders are medical emergencies, which still show a significant mortality. The following article summarizes diagnostic tools and treatment options for these disorders. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Great Britain Storm Surge Modeling for a 10,000-Year Stochastic Catalog with the Effect of Sea Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshtpoor, M.; Carnacina, I.; Blair, A.; Yablonsky, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    Storm surge caused by Extratropical Cyclones (ETCs) has significantly impacted not only the life of private citizens but also the insurance and reinsurance industry in Great Britain. The storm surge risk assessment requires a larger dataset of storms than the limited recorded historical ETCs. Thus, historical ETCs were perturbed to generate a 10,000-year stochastic catalog that accounts for surge-generating ETCs in the study area with return periods from one year to 10,000 years. Delft3D-Flexible Mesh hydrodynamic model was used to numerically simulate the storm surge along the Great Britain coastline. A nested grid technique was used to increase the simulation grid resolution up to 200 m near the highly populated coastal areas. Coarse and fine mesh models were calibrated and validated using historical recorded water elevations. Then, numerical simulations were performed on a 10,000-year stochastic catalog. The 50-, 100-, and 500-year return period maps were generated for Great Britain coastal areas. The corresponding events with return periods of 50-, 100-, and 500-years in Humber Bay and Thames River coastal areas were identified, and simulated with the consideration of projected sea level rises to reveal the effect of rising sea levels on the inundation return period maps in two highly-populated coastal areas. Finally, the return period of Storm Xaver (2013) was determined with and without the effect of rising sea levels.

  17. Coastal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oumeraci, H.; Burcharth, H. F.; Rouck, J. De

    1995-01-01

    The paper attempts to present an overview of five research projects supported by the Commission of the European Communities, Directorate General XII, under the MAST 2- Programme (Marine Sciences and Technology), with the overall objective of contributing to the development of improved rational me...... methods for the design of coastal structures....

  18. Data Assimilation within the Advanced Circulation (ADCIRC) Modeling Framework for Hurricane Storm Surge Forecasting

    KAUST Repository

    Butler, T.

    2012-07-01

    Accurate, real-time forecasting of coastal inundation due to hurricanes and tropical storms is a challenging computational problem requiring high-fidelity forward models of currents and water levels driven by hurricane-force winds. Despite best efforts in computational modeling there will always be uncertainty in storm surge forecasts. In recent years, there has been significant instrumentation located along the coastal United States for the purpose of collecting data—specifically wind, water levels, and wave heights—during these extreme events. This type of data, if available in real time, could be used in a data assimilation framework to improve hurricane storm surge forecasts. In this paper a data assimilation methodology for storm surge forecasting based on the use of ensemble Kalman filters and the advanced circulation (ADCIRC) storm surge model is described. The singular evolutive interpolated Kalman (SEIK) filter has been shown to be effective at producing accurate results for ocean models using small ensemble sizes initialized by an empirical orthogonal function analysis. The SEIK filter is applied to the ADCIRC model to improve storm surge forecasting, particularly in capturing maximum water levels (high water marks) and the timing of the surge. Two test cases of data obtained from hindcast studies of Hurricanes Ike and Katrina are presented. It is shown that a modified SEIK filter with an inflation factor improves the accuracy of coarse-resolution forecasts of storm surge resulting from hurricanes. Furthermore, the SEIK filter requires only modest computational resources to obtain more accurate forecasts of storm surge in a constrained time window where forecasters must interact with emergency responders.

  19. Coastal Foredune Evolution, Part 2: Modeling Approaches for Meso-Scale Morphologic Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    for Meso-Scale Morphologic Evolution by Margaret L. Palmsten1, Katherine L. Brodie2, and Nicholas J. Spore2 PURPOSE: This Coastal and Hydraulics ...managers because foredunes provide ecosystem services and can reduce storm damages to coastal infrastructure, both of which increase the resiliency...MS 2 U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory, Duck, NC ERDC/CHL CHETN-II-57 March 2017 2 models of

  20. Storm-surge flooding on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terenzi, John; Ely, Craig R.; Jorgenson, M. Torre

    2014-01-01

    Coastal regions of Alaska are regularly affected by intense storms of ocean origin, the frequency and intensity of which are expected to increase as a result of global climate change. The Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD), situated in western Alaska on the eastern edge of the Bering Sea, is one of the largest deltaic systems in North America. Its low relief makes it especially susceptible to storm-driven flood tides and increases in sea level. Little information exists on the extent of flooding caused by storm surges in western Alaska and its effects on salinization, shoreline erosion, permafrost thaw, vegetation, wildlife, and the subsistence-based economy. In this paper, we summarize storm flooding events in the Bering Sea region of western Alaska during 1913 – 2011 and map both the extent of inland flooding caused by autumn storms on the central YKD, using Radarsat-1 and MODIS satellite imagery, and the drift lines, using high-resolution IKONOS satellite imagery and field surveys. The largest storm surges occurred in autumn and were associated with high tides and strong (> 65 km hr-1) southwest winds. Maximum inland extent of flooding from storm surges was 30.3 km in 2005, 27.4 km in 2006, and 32.3 km in 2011, with total flood area covering 47.1%, 32.5%, and 39.4% of the 6730 km2 study area, respectively. Peak stages for the 2005 and 2011 storms were 3.1 m and 3.3 m above mean sea level, respectively—almost as high as the 3.5 m amsl elevation estimated for the largest storm observed (in November 1974). Several historically abandoned village sites lie within the area of inundation of the largest flood events. With projected sea level rise, large storms are expected to become more frequent and cover larger areas, with deleterious effects on freshwater ponds, non-saline habitats, permafrost, and landscapes used by nesting birds and local people.

  1. Water NOT wanted - Coastal Floods and Flooding Protection in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Carlo Sass

    2016-01-01

    vulnerability towards coastal flooding, the country has experienced severe storm surges throughout history, and hitherto safe areas will become increasingly at risk this century as the climate changes. Historically a seafarers’ nation, Denmark has always been connected with the sea. From medieval time ports...

  2. Moroccan Coastal Management : Building Capacity to Adapt to ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Impacts from rising sea levels, coastal flooding and storm surges are becoming a challenging policy issue for planners, local authorities and stakeholders in areas such as Morocco's northeastern coast. This project will support ... Atelier de formation en SIG et GPS, 16-17 Aoí»t 2010 à Nador et Berkane. Téléchargez le PDF.

  3. Moroccan Coastal Management : Building Capacity to Adapt to ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Impacts from rising sea levels, coastal flooding and storm surges are becoming a challenging policy issue for planners, local authorities and stakeholders in areas such as Morocco's northeastern coast. This project will support capacity building and the development of tools and methods to underpin preparation for and ...

  4. Whitecapping and wave field evolution in a coastal bay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulligan, R.P.; Bowen, A.J.; Hay, A.E.; Van der Westhuysen, A.J.; Battjes, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Evolution of the wave field in a coastal bay is investigated, by comparison between field observations and numerical simulations using a spectral wave model (Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN)). The simulations were conducted for the passage of an extratropical storm, during which surface elevation

  5. The application of microtextural and heavy mineral analysis to discriminate between storm and tsunami deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Pedro J.M.; Gelfenbaum, Guy R.; Dawson, Sue; La selle, Seanpaul; Milne, F; Cascalho, J.; Ponte Lira, C.; Andrade, C.; Freitas, M. C.; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2017-01-01

    Recent work has applied microtextural and heavy mineral analyses to sandy storm and tsunami deposits from Portugal, Scotland, Indonesia and the USA. We looked at the interpretation of microtextural imagery (scanning electron microscopy) of quartz grains and heavy mineral compositions. We consider inundation events of different chronologies and sources (the AD 1755 Lisbon and 2004 Indian Ocean tsunamis, the Great Storm of 11 January 2005 in Scotland, and Hurricane Sandy in 2012) that affected contrasting coastal and hinterland settings with different regional oceanographic conditions. Storm and tsunami deposits were examined along with potential source sediments (alluvial, beach, dune and nearshore sediments) to determine provenance.Results suggest that tsunami deposits typically exhibit a significant spatial variation in grain sizes, microtextures and heavy minerals. Storm deposits show less variability, especially in vertical profiles. Tsunami and storm quartz grains had more percussion marks and fresh surfaces compared to potential source material. Moreover, in the studied cases, tsunami samples had fewer fresh surfaces than storm deposits.Heavy mineral assemblages are typically site-specific. The concentration of heavy minerals decreases upwards in tsunamigenic units, whereas storm sediments show cyclic concentrations of heavy minerals, reflected in the laminations observed macroscopically in the deposits.

  6. The Development of Storm Surge Ensemble Prediction System and Case Study of Typhoon Meranti in 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Y. L.; Wu, T. R.; Terng, C. T.; Chu, C. H.

    2017-12-01

    Taiwan is under the threat of storm surge and associated inundation, which is located at a potentially severe storm generation zone. The use of ensemble prediction can help forecasters to know the characteristic of storm surge under the uncertainty of track and intensity. In addition, it can help the deterministic forecasting. In this study, the kernel of ensemble prediction system is based on COMCOT-SURGE (COrnell Multi-grid COupled Tsunami Model - Storm Surge). COMCOT-SURGE solves nonlinear shallow water equations in Open Ocean and coastal regions with the nested-grid scheme and adopts wet-dry-cell treatment to calculate potential inundation area. In order to consider tide-surge interaction, the global TPXO 7.1 tide model provides the tidal boundary conditions. After a series of validations and case studies, COMCOT-SURGE has become an official operating system of Central Weather Bureau (CWB) in Taiwan. In this study, the strongest typhoon in 2016, Typhoon Meranti, is chosen as a case study. We adopt twenty ensemble members from CWB WRF Ensemble Prediction System (CWB WEPS), which differs from parameters of microphysics, boundary layer, cumulus, and surface. From box-and-whisker results, maximum observed storm surges were located in the interval of the first and third quartile at more than 70 % gauge locations, e.g. Toucheng, Chengkung, and Jiangjyun. In conclusion, the ensemble prediction can effectively help forecasters to predict storm surge especially under the uncertainty of storm track and intensity

  7. The effect of wave current interactions on the storm surge and inundation in Charleston Harbor during Hurricane Hugo 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lian; Liu, Huiqing; Peng, Machuan

    The effects of wave-current interactions on the storm surge and inundation induced by Hurricane Hugo in and around the Charleston Harbor and its adjacent coastal regions are examined by using a three-dimensional (3-D) wave-current coupled modeling system. The 3-D storm surge and inundation modeling component of the coupled system is based on the Princeton ocean model (POM), whereas the wave modeling component is based on the third-generation wave model, simulating waves nearshore (SWAN). The results indicate that the effects of wave-induced surface, bottom, and radiation stresses can separately or in combination produce significant changes in storm surge and inundation. The effects of waves vary spatially. In some areas, the contribution of waves to peak storm surge during Hurricane Hugo reached as high as 0.76 m which led to substantial changes in the inundation and drying areas simulated by the storm surge model.

  8. A Coupled Atmospheric and Wave Modeling System for Storm Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Jianting; Larsén, Xiaoli Guo; Bolanos, R.

    2015-01-01

    to parametrize z0. The results are validated through QuikScat data and point measurements from an open ocean site Ekosk and a coastal, relatively shallow water site Horns Rev. It is found that the modeling system captures in general better strong wind and strong wave characteristics for open ocean condition than......This study aims at improving the simulation of wind and waves during storms in connection with wind turbine design and operations in coastal areas. For this particular purpose, we investigated the Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) Modeling System which couples the Weather...... resolution ranging from 25km to 2km. Meanwhile, the atmospheric forcing data of dierent spatial resolution, with one about 100km (FNL) and the other about 38km (CFSR) are both used. In addition, bathymatry data of diferent resolutions (1arc-minute and 30arc-seconds) are used. We used three approaches...

  9. Current understanding of magnetic storms: Storm-substorm relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamide, Y.; Gonzalez, W.D.; Baumjohann, W.; Daglis, I.A.; Grande, M.; Joselyn, J.A.; Singer, H.J.; McPherron, R.L.; Phillips, J.L.; Reeves, E.G.; Rostoker, G.; Sharma, A.S.; Tsurutani, B.T.

    1998-01-01

    This paper attempts to summarize the current understanding of the storm/substorm relationship by clearing up a considerable amount of controversy and by addressing the question of how solar wind energy is deposited into and is dissipated in the constituent elements that are critical to magnetospheric and ionospheric processes during magnetic storms. (1) Four mechanisms are identified and discussed as the primary causes of enhanced electric fields in the interplanetary medium responsible for geomagnetic storms. It is pointed out that in reality, these four mechanisms, which are not mutually exclusive, but interdependent, interact differently from event to event. Interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) and corotating interaction regions (CIRs) are found to be the primary phenomena responsible for the main phase of geomagnetic storms. The other two mechanisms, i.e., HILDCAA (high-intensity, long-duration, continuous auroral electrojet activity) and the so-called Russell-McPherron effect, work to make the ICME and CIR phenomena more geoeffective. The solar cycle dependence of the various sources in creating magnetic storms has yet to be quantitatively understood. (2) A serious controversy exists as to whether the successive occurrence of intense substorms plays a direct role in the energization of ring current particles or whether the enhanced electric field associated with southward IMF enhances the effect of substorm expansions. While most of the Dst variance during magnetic storms can be solely reproduced by changes in the large-scale electric field in the solar wind and the residuals are uncorrelated with substorms, recent satellite observations of the ring current constituents during the main phase of magnetic storms show the importance of ionospheric ions. This implies that ionospheric ions, which are associated with the frequent occurrence of intense substorms, are accelerated upward along magnetic field lines, contributing to the energy density of the

  10. SLR-induced temporal and spatial changes in hotspots to storms along the Catalan coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Jose A.; Sanuy, Marc; Valdemoro, Herminia

    2017-04-01

    Coastal hotspots to storms can be simply defined as locations where the magnitude of the storm-induced risk is significantly higher than neighbouring areas for a given probability of occurrence. Their distribution along the coast depends on the magnitude of storm-induced hazards and on the coastal resilient capacity. Increasing damages observed in our coasts during the last decades have driven the need to include specific chapters on risk management in ICZM plans. In this context, the identification of hotspots is one of the first points to be considered. This permits to better allocate resources for risk management by concentrating efforts in specific locations. Within this context, we have identified hotspots along the Catalan coast (Spanish Mediterranean) to storm-induced erosion and inundation hazards. This has been done by using the methodology developed within the RISCKIT EU project where storm-induced hazards (erosion and inundation) are characterised in probabilistic terms by using simple inundation and erosion models as a function of water level and wave climates and local coastal morphology. The final result was a set of inundation and erosion hotspots along the coast under current conditions for selected probabilities of occurrences, P. For low return periods, Tr, few hotspots appear and they represent coastal locations frequently affected by the corresponding hazard. On the other, for high Tr, a larger number (and of larger extension) of hotspots appear, that although less frequently affected, they are subjected to a larger impact. Although this is valuable information for coastal managers, it is only valid for making decisions for a short time horizon or under steady conditions. However, since the proper time scale for coastal planning is in the order of several decades, it is not likely that conditions will remain steady. Thus, although most of existing predictions of climate-induce changes in storminess in the Mediterranean indicate the absence of

  11. Radiotracer studies for coastal zone management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, C.; Kluss, T.; Airey, P.

    2001-01-01

    Coastal engineers and coastal zone managers increasingly rely on numerical models of fluid, sediment and contaminant dynamics. These are used to underpin coastal structure design and to predict environmental response to specific events such as storms or pollutant spills, and gradual changes such as sea-level rise or changes in bathymetry. Radiotracer techniques can be used to provide dynamic data on the movement of a specific patch of water, sediment or pollutant over time, which can be compared with model predictions. Two case studies are presented where radiotracer studies were used to improve confidence in numerical models of: (1) 2D hydrodynamics and sediment transport at the Port of Songkhla, Thailand; and (2) 3D hydrodynamics and algal bloom transport in Manila Bay, Philippines

  12. Giant boulders and Last Interglacial storm intensity in the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovere, Alessio; Casella, Elisa; Harris, Daniel L.; Lorscheid, Thomas; Nandasena, Napayalage A. K.; Dyer, Blake; Sandstrom, Michael R.; Stocchi, Paolo; D'Andrea, William J.; Raymo, Maureen E.

    2017-11-01

    As global climate warms and sea level rises, coastal areas will be subject to more frequent extreme flooding and hurricanes. Geologic evidence for extreme coastal storms during past warm periods has the potential to provide fundamental insights into their future intensity. Recent studies argue that during the Last Interglacial (MIS 5e, ˜128–116 ka) tropical and extratropical North Atlantic cyclones may have been more intense than at present, and may have produced waves larger than those observed historically. Such strong swells are inferred to have created a number of geologic features that can be observed today along the coastlines of Bermuda and the Bahamas. In this paper, we investigate the most iconic among these features: massive boulders atop a cliff in North Eleuthera, Bahamas. We combine geologic field surveys, wave models, and boulder transport equations to test the hypothesis that such boulders must have been emplaced by storms of greater-than-historical intensity. By contrast, our results suggest that with the higher relative sea level (RSL) estimated for the Bahamas during MIS 5e, boulders of this size could have been transported by waves generated by storms of historical intensity. Thus, while the megaboulders of Eleuthera cannot be used as geologic proof for past “superstorms,” they do show that with rising sea levels, cliffs and coastal barriers will be subject to significantly greater erosional energy, even without changes in storm intensity.

  13. Giant boulders and Last Interglacial storm intensity in the North Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovere, Alessio; Casella, Elisa; Harris, Daniel L; Lorscheid, Thomas; Nandasena, Napayalage A K; Dyer, Blake; Sandstrom, Michael R; Stocchi, Paolo; D'Andrea, William J; Raymo, Maureen E

    2017-11-14

    As global climate warms and sea level rises, coastal areas will be subject to more frequent extreme flooding and hurricanes. Geologic evidence for extreme coastal storms during past warm periods has the potential to provide fundamental insights into their future intensity. Recent studies argue that during the Last Interglacial (MIS 5e, ∼128-116 ka) tropical and extratropical North Atlantic cyclones may have been more intense than at present, and may have produced waves larger than those observed historically. Such strong swells are inferred to have created a number of geologic features that can be observed today along the coastlines of Bermuda and the Bahamas. In this paper, we investigate the most iconic among these features: massive boulders atop a cliff in North Eleuthera, Bahamas. We combine geologic field surveys, wave models, and boulder transport equations to test the hypothesis that such boulders must have been emplaced by storms of greater-than-historical intensity. By contrast, our results suggest that with the higher relative sea level (RSL) estimated for the Bahamas during MIS 5e, boulders of this size could have been transported by waves generated by storms of historical intensity. Thus, while the megaboulders of Eleuthera cannot be used as geologic proof for past "superstorms," they do show that with rising sea levels, cliffs and coastal barriers will be subject to significantly greater erosional energy, even without changes in storm intensity.

  14. Intensified coastal development behind nourished beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Scott; Lazarus, Eli; Limber, Patrick; Goldstein, Evan; Thorpe, Curtis; Ballinger, Rhoda

    2016-04-01

    Population density, housing development, and property values in coastal counties along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts continue to rise despite increasing hazard from storm impacts. Since the 1970s, beach nourishment, which involves importing sand to deliberately widen an eroding beach, has been the main strategy in the U.S. for protecting coastal properties from erosion and flooding hazards. Paradoxically, investment in hazard protection may intensify development. Here, we examine the housing stock of all existing shorefront single-family homes in Florida - a microcosm of U.S. coastal hazards and development - to quantitatively compare development in nourishing and non-nourishing towns. We find that nourishing towns now account for more than half of Florida's coastline, and that houses in nourishing towns are larger and more numerous. Even as the mean size of single-family homes nationwide has grown steadily since 1970, Florida's shorefront stock has exceeded the national average by 34%, and in nourishing towns by 45%. This emergent disparity between nourishing and non-nourishing towns in Florida demonstrates a pattern of intensifying coastal risk, and is likely representative of a dominant trend in coastal development more generally. These data lend empirical support to the hypothesis that US coastal development and hazard mitigation through beach nourishment have become dynamically coupled.

  15. Coastal resuspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, J.A.

    1991-11-01

    There are several potential mechanisms for the suspension in air of radioactive or other pollutants from coastal sea water, beaches, mud banks and salt marshes. Available measurements rarely allow these mechanisms to be distinguished. The limited data show a broad spread of results. When normalised by the concentration of radionuclides in beach sediments most of the data indicate concentrations equivalent to 1 to 30 μg m -3 of sediment suspended in air, both for sampling sites on open coasts and near estuaries. Limited evidence for sampling sites located on salt marshes indicates about 0.2 μg m -3 of suspended sediment. These values represent the aggregate effect of the mechanisms that operate at a limited number of coastal locations. At other locations it is possible that additional mechanisms will contribute to the suspension of sediment. (Author)

  16. Exceptional winter storms affecting Western Iberia and extremes: diagnosis, modelling and multi-model ensemble projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberato, M. L. R.; Pinto, J. G.; Gil, V.; Ramos, A. M.; Trigo, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    Extratropical cyclones dominate autumn and winter weather over Western Europe and particularly over the Iberian Peninsula. Intense, high-impact storms are one of the major weather risks in the region, mostly due to the simultaneous occurrence of high winds and extreme precipitation events. These intense extratropical cyclones may result in windstorm damage, flooding and coastal storm surges, with large societal impacts. In Portugal, due to the extensive human use of coastal areas, the natural and built coastal environments have been amongst the most affected. In this work several historical winter storms that adversely affected the Western Iberian Peninsula are studied in detail in order to contribute to an improved assessment of the characteristics of these events. The diagnosis has been performed based on instrumental daily precipitation and wind records, on satellite images, on reanalysis data and through model simulations. For several examples the synoptic evolution and upper-level dynamics analysis of physical processes controlling the life cycle of extratropical storms associated with the triggering of the considered extreme events has also been accomplished. Furthermore, the space-time variability of the exceptionally severe storms affecting Western Iberia over the last century and under three climate scenarios (the historical simulation, the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios) is presented. These studies contribute to improving the knowledge of atmospheric dynamics controlling the life cycle of midlatitude storms associated to severe weather (precipitation and wind) in the Iberian Peninsula. AcknowledgementsThis work is supported by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT), Portugal, through project UID/GEO/50019/2013 - Instituto Dom Luiz. A. M. Ramos is also supported by a FCT postdoctoral grant (FCT/DFRH/SFRH/BPD/84328/2012).

  17. Tormenta tiroidea Thyroid storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisette Leal Curí

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La tormenta tiroidea es una de las situaciones más críticas entre las emergencias endocrinas y tiene una significativa mortalidad. La etiología más común de tirotoxicosis es la enfermedad de Graves y el factor precipitante que predomina es la infección. Clínicamente se caracteriza por la disfunción de varios sistemas (termorregulador, nervioso central, gastrointestinal y cardiovascular, con niveles de hormonas tiroideas libres o totales por encima de los valores normales. El tratamiento debe tener un enfoque multidisciplinario, e incluye medidas de soporte en unidades de cuidados intensivos, normalización de la temperatura corporal, reducción de la producción y liberación de hormonas tiroideas, con antitiroideos de síntesis y yodo respectivamente, bloqueo de los efectos periféricos mediante la administración de beta-bloqueadores, y corrección del factor desencadenante. Una vez que el paciente se encuentra estable es necesario planificar una terapia definitiva que impida la recurrencia futura de la crisis tirotóxica.The thyroid storm is one of the most critical situations in the endocrine emergencies and exhibits a significant mortality rate. The most common etiology of thyrotoxicosis is Graves' disease and the predominant precipitating factor is infection. The clinical characteristics are dysfunction of several systems (heat-regulator, central nervous, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular, and levels of total or free thyroid hormones that exceed the normal values. The treatment must be multidisciplinary and include support measures in intensive care units, normalization of body temperature, reduction of the production and the release of thyroid hormones by using synthesis and iodine anti-thyroid products respectively, blockade of the peripheral effects through administration of Beta-blockers and correction of the unleashing factor. Once the patients are stabilized, it is necessary to plan the final therapy that will prevent the

  18. Coastal and Riverine Flood Forecast Model powered by ADCIRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, A.; Ferreira, C.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal flooding is becoming a major threat to increased population in the coastal areas. To protect coastal communities from tropical storms & hurricane damages, early warning systems are being developed. These systems have the capability of real time flood forecasting to identify hazardous coastal areas and aid coastal communities in rescue operations. State of the art hydrodynamic models forced by atmospheric forcing have given modelers the ability to forecast storm surge, water levels and currents. This helps to identify the areas threatened by intense storms. Study on Chesapeake Bay area has gained national importance because of its combined riverine and coastal phenomenon, which leads to greater uncertainty in flood predictions. This study presents an automated flood forecast system developed by following Advanced Circulation (ADCIRC) Surge Guidance System (ASGS) guidelines and tailored to take in riverine and coastal boundary forcing, thus includes all the hydrodynamic processes to forecast total water in the Potomac River. As studies on tidal and riverine flow interaction are very scarce in number, our forecast system would be a scientific tool to examine such area and fill the gaps with precise prediction for Potomac River. Real-time observations from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and field measurements have been used as model boundary feeding. The model performance has been validated by using major historical riverine and coastal flooding events. Hydrodynamic model ADCIRC produced promising predictions for flood inundation areas. As better forecasts can be achieved by using coupled models, this system is developed to take boundary conditions from Global WaveWatchIII for the research purposes. Wave and swell propagation will be fed through Global WavewatchIII model to take into account the effects of swells and currents. This automated forecast system is currently undergoing rigorous testing to include any missing parameters which

  19. Storm surge evolution and its relationship to climate oscillations at Duck, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munroe, Robert; Curtis, Scott

    2017-07-01

    Coastal communities experience increased vulnerability during storm surge events through the risk of damage to coastal infrastructure, erosion/deposition, and the endangerment of human life. Policy and planning measures attempt to avoid or mitigate storm surge consequences through building codes and setbacks, beach stabilization, insurance rates, and coastal zoning. The coastal emergency management community and public react and respond on shorter time scales, through temporary protection, emergency stockpiling, and evacuation. This study utilizes time series analysis, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test, Pearson's correlation, and the generalized extreme value (GEV) theorem to make the connection between climate oscillation indices and storm surge characteristics intra-seasonally to inter-annually. Results indicate that an El Niño (+ENSO), negative phase of the NAO, and positive phase of the PNA pattern all support longer duration and hence more powerful surge events, especially in winter. Increased surge duration increases the likelihood of extensive erosion, inland inundation, among other undesirable effects of the surge hazard.

  20. Quaternary geophysical framework of the northeastern North Carolina coastal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieler, E.R.; Foster, D.S.; Mallinson, D.M.; Himmelstoss, E.A.; McNinch, J.E.; List, J.H.; Hammar-Klose, E.S.

    2013-01-01

    The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that mapped the Quaternary geologic framework of the estuaries, barrier islands, and inner continental shelf. This information provides a basis to understand the linkage between geologic framework, physical processes, and coastal evolution at time scales from storm events to millennia. The study area attracts significant tourism to its parks and beaches, contains a number of coastal communities, and supports a local fishing industry, all of which are impacted by coastal change. Knowledge derived from this research program can be used to mitigate hazards and facilitate effective management of this dynamic coastal system.

  1. The Power of Three: Coral Reefs, Seagrasses and Mangroves Protect Coastal Regions and Increase Their Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guannel, Greg; Arkema, Katie; Ruggiero, Peter; Verutes, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Natural habitats have the ability to protect coastal communities against the impacts of waves and storms, yet it is unclear how different habitats complement each other to reduce those impacts. Here, we investigate the individual and combined coastal protection services supplied by live corals on reefs, seagrass meadows, and mangrove forests during both non-storm and storm conditions, and under present and future sea-level conditions. Using idealized profiles of fringing and barrier reefs, we quantify the services supplied by these habitats using various metrics of inundation and erosion. We find that, together, live corals, seagrasses, and mangroves supply more protection services than any individual habitat or any combination of two habitats. Specifically, we find that, while mangroves are the most effective at protecting the coast under non-storm and storm conditions, live corals and seagrasses also moderate the impact of waves and storms, thereby further reducing the vulnerability of coastal regions. Also, in addition to structural differences, the amount of service supplied by habitats in our analysis is highly dependent on the geomorphic setting, habitat location and forcing conditions: live corals in the fringing reef profile supply more protection services than seagrasses; seagrasses in the barrier reef profile supply more protection services than live corals; and seagrasses, in our simulations, can even compensate for the long-term degradation of the barrier reef. Results of this study demonstrate the importance of taking integrated and place-based approaches when quantifying and managing for the coastal protection services supplied by ecosystems.

  2. Declining Radial Growth Response of Coastal Forests to Hurricanes and Nor'easters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Arnold; Rollinson, Christine R.; Kearney, William S.; Dietze, Michael C.; Fagherazzi, Sergio

    2018-03-01

    The Mid-Atlantic coastal forests in Virginia are stressed by episodic disturbance from hurricanes and nor'easters. Using annual tree ring data, we adopt a dendroclimatic and statistical modeling approach to understand the response and resilience of a coastal pine forest to extreme storm events, over the past few decades. Results indicate that radial growth of trees in the study area is influenced by age, regional climate trends, and individual tree effects but dominated periodically by growth disturbance due to storms. We evaluated seven local extreme storm events to understand the effect of nor'easters and hurricanes on radial growth. A general decline in radial growth was observed in the year of the extreme storm and 3 years following it, after which the radial growth started recovering. The decline in radial growth showed a statistically significant correlation with the magnitude of the extreme storm (storm surge height and wind speed). This study contributes to understanding declining tree growth response and resilience of coastal forests to past disturbances. Given the potential increase in hurricanes and storm surge severity in the region, this can help predict vegetation response patterns to similar disturbances in the future.

  3. Space storms as natural hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Dorman

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Eruptive activity of the Sun produces a chain of extreme geophysical events: high-speed solar wind, magnetic field disturbances in the interplanetary space and in the geomagnetic field and also intense fluxes of energetic particles. Space storms can potentially destroy spacecrafts, adversely affect astronauts and airline crew and human health on the Earth, lead to pipeline breaking, melt electricity transformers, and discontinue transmission. In this paper we deal with two consequences of space storms: (i rise in failures in the operation of railway devices and (ii rise in myocardial infarction and stroke incidences.

  4. Assessing storm events for energy meteorology: using media and scientific reports to track a North Sea autumn storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettle, Anthony

    2016-04-01

    Important issues for energy meteorology are to assess meteorological conditions for normal operating conditions and extreme events for the ultimate limit state of engineering structures. For the offshore environment in northwest Europe, energy meteorology encompasses weather conditions relevant for petroleum production infrastructure and also the new field of offshore wind energy production. Autumn and winter storms are an important issue for offshore operations in the North Sea. The weather in this region is considered as challenging for extreme meteorological events as the Gulf of Mexico with its attendant hurricane risk. The rise of the Internet and proliferation of digital recording devices has placed a much greater amount of information in the public domain than was available to national meteorological agencies even 20 years ago. This contribution looks at reports of meteorology and infrastructure damage from a storm in the autumn of 2006 to trace the spatial and temporal record of meteorological events. Media reports give key information to assess the events of the storm. The storm passed over northern Europe between Oct.31-Nov. 2, 2006, and press reports from the time indicate that its most important feature was a high surge that inundated coastal areas. Sections of the Dutch and German North Sea coast were affected, and there was record flooding in Denmark and East Germany in the southern Baltic Sea. Extreme wind gusts were also reported that were strong enough to damage roofs and trees, and there was even tornado recorded near the Dutch-German border. Offshore, there were a series of damage reports from ship and platforms that were linked with sea state, and reports of rogue waves were explicitly mentioned. Many regional government authorities published summaries of geophysical information related to the storm, and these form part of a regular series of online winter storm reports that started as a public service about 15 years ago. Depending on the

  5. COASTAL, Pacific, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for Coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping, submitted as a coastal study.

  6. Coastal Inlet Model Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Coastal Inlet Model Facility, as part of the Coastal Inlets Research Program (CIRP), is an idealized inlet dedicated to the study of coastal inlets and equipped...

  7. High Resolution Hurricane Storm Surge and Inundation Modeling (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luettich, R.; Westerink, J. J.

    2010-12-01

    Coastal counties are home to nearly 60% of the U.S. population and industry that accounts for over 16 million jobs and 10% of the U.S. annual gross domestic product. However, these areas are susceptible to some of the most destructive forces in nature, including tsunamis, floods, and severe storm-related hazards. Since 1900, tropical cyclones making landfall on the US Gulf of Mexico Coast have caused more than 9,000 deaths; nearly 2,000 deaths have occurred during the past half century. Tropical cyclone-related adjusted, annualized losses in the US have risen from 1.3 billion from 1949-1989, to 10.1 billion from 1990-1995, and $35.8 billion per year for the period 2001-2005. The risk associated with living and doing business in the coastal areas that are most susceptible to tropical cyclones is exacerbated by rising sea level and changes in the characteristics of severe storms associated with global climate change. In the five years since hurricane Katrina devastated the northern Gulf of Mexico Coast, considerable progress has been made in the development and utilization of high resolution coupled storm surge and wave models. Recent progress will be presented with the ADCIRC + SWAN storm surge and wave models. These tightly coupled models use a common unstructured grid in the horizontal that is capable of covering large areas while also providing high resolution (i.e., base resolution down to 20m plus smaller subgrid scale features such as sea walls and levees) in areas that are subject to surge and inundation. Hydrodynamic friction and overland winds are adjusted to account for local land cover. The models scale extremely well on modern high performance computers allowing rapid turnaround on large numbers of compute cores. The models have been adopted for FEMA National Flood Insurance Program studies, hurricane protection system design and risk analysis, and quasi-operational forecast systems for several regions of the country. They are also being evaluated as

  8. Monitoring the change of coastal zones from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, A. A.; Le Cozannet, G.; Benveniste, J.; Woodworth, P. L.

    2017-12-01

    The world's coastal zones, where an important fraction of the world population is currently living, are under serious threat because of coastal erosion, cyclones, storms, and salinization of estuaries and coastal aquifers. In the future, these hazards are expected to increase due to the combined effects of sea level rise, climate change, human activities and population increase. The response of coastal environments to natural and anthropogenic forcing factors (including climate change) depends on the characteristics of the forcing agents, as well as on the internal properties of the coastal systems, that remain poorly known and mostly un-surveyed at global scale. To better understand changes affecting coastal zones and to provide useful information to decision makers, various types of observations with global coverage need to be collected and analysed. Observations from space appear as an important complement to existing in situ observing systems (e.g., regional tide gauge networks). In this presentation, we discuss the benefit of systematic coastal monitoring from space, addressing both observations of forcing agents and of the coastal response. We highlight the need for a global coastal sea level data set based on retracked nadir altimetry missions and new SAR technology.

  9. Patterns of Storm Injury and Tree Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin Smith; Walter Shortle; Kenneth Dudzik

    2001-01-01

    The ice storm of January 1998 in the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada was an extreme example of severe weather that injures trees every year. Broken branches, split branch forks, and snapped stems are all examples of storm injury.

  10. Simulating Storm Surge Impacts with a Coupled Atmosphere-Inundation Model with Varying Meteorological Forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra N. Ramos Valle

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Storm surge events have the potential to cause devastating damage to coastal communities. The magnitude of their impacts highlights the need for increased accuracy and real-time forecasting and predictability of storm surge. In this study, we assess two meteorological forcing configurations to hindcast the storm surge of Hurricane Sandy, and ultimately support the improvement of storm surge forecasts. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model is coupled to the ADvanced CIRCulation Model (ADCIRC to determine water elevations. We perform four coupled simulations and compare storm surge estimates resulting from the use of a parametric vortex model and a full-physics atmospheric model. One simulation is forced with track-based meteorological data calculated from WRF, while three simulations are forced with the full wind and pressure field outputs from WRF simulations of varying resolutions. Experiments were compared to an ADCIRC simulation forced by National Hurricane Center best track data, as well as to station observations. Our results indicated that given accurate meteorological best track data, a parametric vortex model can accurately forecast maximum water elevations, improving upon the use of a full-physics coupled atmospheric-surge model. In the absence of a best track, atmospheric forcing in the form of full wind and pressure field from a high-resolution atmospheric model simulation prove reliable for storm surge forecasting.

  11. Rapid wave and storm surge warning system for tropical cyclones in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appendini, C. M.; Rosengaus, M.; Meza, R.; Camacho, V.

    2015-12-01

    The National Hurricane Center (NHC) in Miami, is responsible for the forecast of tropical cyclones in the North Atlantic and Eastern North Pacific basins. As such, Mexico, Central America and Caribbean countries depend on the information issued by the NHC related to the characteristics of a particular tropical cyclone and associated watch and warning areas. Despite waves and storm surge are important hazards for marine operations and coastal dwellings, their forecast is not part of the NHC responsibilities. This work presents a rapid wave and storm surge warning system based on 3100 synthetic tropical cyclones doing landfall in Mexico. Hydrodynamic and wave models were driven by the synthetic events to create a robust database composed of maximum envelops of wind speed, significant wave height and storm surge for each event. The results were incorporated into a forecast system that uses the NHC advisory to locate the synthetic events passing inside specified radiuses for the present and forecast position of the real event. Using limited computer resources, the system displays the information meeting the search criteria, and the forecaster can select specific events to generate the desired hazard map (i.e. wind, waves, and storm surge) based on the maximum envelop maps. This system was developed in a limited time frame to be operational in 2015 by the National Hurricane and Severe Storms Unit of the Mexican National Weather Service, and represents a pilot project for other countries in the region not covered by detailed storm surge and waves forecasts.

  12. Adaptation Decision Support: An Application of System Dynamics Modeling in Coastal Communities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel Lane; Shima Beigzadeh; Richard Moll

    2017-01-01

    This research develops and applies a system dynamics (SD) model for the strategic evaluation of environmental adaptation options for coastal communities.The article defines and estimates asset-based measures for community vulnerability,resilience,and adaptive capacity with respect to the environmental,economic,social,and cultural pillars of the coastal community under threat.The SD model simulates the annual multidimensional dynamic impacts of severe coastal storms and storm surges on the community pillars under alternative adaptation strategies.The calculation of the quantitative measures provides valuable information for decision makers for evaluating the alternative strategies.The adaptation strategies are designed model results illustrated for the specific context of the coastal community of Charlottetown,Prince Edward Island,Canada.The dynamic trend of the measures and model sensitivity analyses for Charlottetown-facing increased frequency of severe storms,storm surges,and sea-level rise-provide impetus for enhanced community strategic planning for the changing coastal environment.This research is presented as part of the International Community-University Research Alliance C-Change project "Managing Adaptation to Environmental Change in Coastal Communities:Canada and the Caribbean" sponsored by the Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada and the International Development Resource Centre.

  13. Storm Water Management Model (SWMM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormwater discharges continue to cause impairment of our Nation’s waterbodies. Regulations that require the retention and/or treatment of frequent, small storms that dominate runoff volumes and pollutant loads are becoming more common. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (E...

  14. Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianquan; Ma, Hongqiang; Liu, Yang

    2017-07-05

    Super-resolution (SR) fluorescence microscopy, a class of optical microscopy techniques at a spatial resolution below the diffraction limit, has revolutionized the way we study biology, as recognized by the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2014. Stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), a widely used SR technique, is based on the principle of single molecule localization. STORM routinely achieves a spatial resolution of 20 to 30 nm, a ten-fold improvement compared to conventional optical microscopy. Among all SR techniques, STORM offers a high spatial resolution with simple optical instrumentation and standard organic fluorescent dyes, but it is also prone to image artifacts and degraded image resolution due to improper sample preparation or imaging conditions. It requires careful optimization of all three aspects-sample preparation, image acquisition, and image reconstruction-to ensure a high-quality STORM image, which will be extensively discussed in this unit. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  15. Shoreline resilience to individual storms and storm clusters on a meso-macrotidal barred beach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angnuureng, Donatus Bapentire; Almar, Rafael; Senechal, Nadia; Castelle, Bruno; Addo, Kwasi Appeaning; Marieu, Vincent; Ranasinghe, Roshanka

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of individual storms and storm clusters on shoreline recovery for the meso-to macrotidal, barred Biscarrosse beach in SW France, using 6 years of daily video observations. While the study area experienced 60 storms during the 6-year study period, only 36 storms

  16. Northeast storms ranked by wind stress and wave-generated bottom stress observed in Massachusetts Bay, 1990-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butman, B.; Sherwood, C.R.; Dalyander, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    Along the coast of the northeastern United States, strong winds blowing from the northeast are often associated with storms called northeasters, coastal storms that strongly influence weather. In addition to effects caused by wind stress, the sea floor is affected by bottom stress associated with these storms. Bottom stress caused by orbital velocities associated with surface waves integrated over the duration of a storm is a metric of storm strength at the sea floor. Near-bottom wave-orbital velocities calculated by using measurements of significant wave height and dominant wave period and the parametric spectral method described in Wiberg and Sherwood [Wiberg, P.L., Sherwood, C.R. Calculating wave-generated bottom orbital velocities from surface wave parameters. Computers in Geosciences, in press] compared well with observations in Massachusetts Bay. Integrated bottom-wave stress (called IWAVES), calculated at 30 m water depth, and a companion storm-strength metric, integrated surface wind stress at 10 m (called IWINDS), are used to provide an overview of the strength, frequency, and timing of large storms in Massachusetts Bay over a 17-year period from January 1990 through December 2006. These new metrics reflect both storm duration and intensity. Northeast storms were the major cause of large waves in Massachusetts Bay because of the long fetch to the east: of the strongest 10% of storms (n=38) ranked by IWAVES, 22 had vector-averaged wind stress from the northeast quadrant. The Blizzard of December 1992, the Perfect Storm of October 1991, and a December 2003 storm were the strongest three storms ranked by IWAVES and IWINDS, and all were northeasters. IWAVES integrated over the winter season (defined as October-May) ranged by about a factor of 11; the winters with the highest integrated IWAVES were 1992-1993 and 2004-2005 and the winter with the lowest integrated IWAVES was 2001-2002. May 2005 was the only month in the 17-year record that two of the nine

  17. XBeach-G: a tool for predicting gravel barrier response to extreme storm conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masselink, Gerd; Poate, Tim; McCall, Robert; Roelvink, Dano; Russell, Paul; Davidson, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Gravel beaches protect low-lying back-barrier regions from flooding during storm events and their importance to society is widely acknowledged. Unfortunately, breaching and extensive storm damage has occurred at many gravel sites and this is likely to increase as a result of sea-level rise and enhanced storminess due to climate change. Limited scientific guidance is currently available to provide beach managers with operational management tools to predict the response of gravel beaches to storms. The New Understanding and Prediction of Storm Impacts on Gravel beaches (NUPSIG) project aims to improve our understanding of storm impacts on gravel coastal environments and to develop a predictive capability by modelling these impacts. The NUPSIG project uses a 5-pronged approach to address its aim: (1) analyse hydrodynamic data collected during a proto-type laboratory experiment on a gravel beach; (2) collect hydrodynamic field data on a gravel beach under a range of conditions, including storm waves with wave heights up to 3 m; (3) measure swash dynamics and beach response on 10 gravel beaches during extreme wave conditions with wave heights in excess of 3 m; (4) use the data collected under 1-3 to develop and validate a numerical model to model hydrodynamics and morphological response of gravel beaches under storm conditions; and (5) develop a tool for end-users, based on the model formulated under (4), for predicting storm response of gravel beaches and barriers. The aim of this presentation is to present the key results of the NUPSIG project and introduce the end-user tool for predicting storm response on gravel beaches. The model is based on the numerical model XBeach, and different forcing scenarios (wave and tides), barrier configurations (dimensions) and sediment characteristics are easily uploaded for model simulations using a Graphics User Interface (GUI). The model can be used to determine the vulnerability of gravel barriers to storm events, but can also be

  18. 46 CFR 108.221 - Storm rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 108.221 Section 108.221 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Rails § 108.221 Storm rails. Each unit must have a storm rail in the following...

  19. 46 CFR 169.329 - Storm rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 169.329 Section 169.329 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Rails and Guards § 169.329 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be...

  20. Er Storm P. en hardcore vagabond?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sortkær, Allan

    2002-01-01

    Den vagabond, som vi kender som Storm P.s, er ikke en figur, der kom fra en guddommelig inspiration eller deslige. Den var en allerede velkendt figur, før Storm P. tog den til sig, og figuren gennemgik radikale forandringer gennem Storm P.s liv: Krads social satire, hypervoldelig eller hyggelig...

  1. 46 CFR 116.920 - Storm rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 116.920 Section 116.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... and Guards § 116.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be installed where necessary...

  2. 46 CFR 177.920 - Storm rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 177.920 Section 177.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 177.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be...

  3. 46 CFR 127.320 - Storm rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 127.320 Section 127.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS Rails and Guards § 127.320 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails must be installed in each passageway and at...

  4. Advancing UAS methods for monitoring coastal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, J.; Seymour, A.; Rodriguez, A. B.; Dale, J.; Newton, E.; Johnston, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    Utilizing fixed-wing Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), we are working to improve coastal monitoring by increasing the accuracy, precision, temporal resolution, and spatial coverage of habitat distribution maps. Generally, multirotor aircraft are preferred for precision imaging, but recent advances in fixed-wing technology have greatly increased their capabilities and application for fine-scale (decimeter-centimeter) measurements. Present mapping methods employed by North Carolina coastal managers involve expensive, time consuming and localized observation of coastal environments, which often lack the necessary frequency to make timely management decisions. For example, it has taken several decades to fully map oyster reefs along the NC coast, making it nearly impossible to track trends in oyster reef populations responding to harvesting pressure and water quality degradation. It is difficult for the state to employ manned flights for collecting aerial imagery to monitor intertidal oyster reefs, because flights are usually conducted after seasonal increases in turbidity. In addition, post-storm monitoring of coastal erosion from manned platforms is often conducted days after the event and collects oblique aerial photographs which are difficult to use for accurately measuring change. Here, we describe how fixed wing UAS and standard RGB sensors can be used to rapidly quantify and assess critical coastal habitats (e.g., barrier islands, oyster reefs, etc.), providing for increased temporal frequency to isolate long-term and event-driven (storms, harvesting) impacts. Furthermore, drone-based approaches can accurately image intertidal habitats as well as resolve information such as vegetation density and bathymetry from shallow submerged areas. We obtain UAS imagery of a barrier island and oyster reefs under ideal conditions (low tide, turbidity, and sun angle) to create high resolution (cm scale) maps and digital elevation models to assess habitat condition

  5. Development of VLF noise storm and its relation to dynamics of magnetosphere during geomagnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedyakina, N.I.; Khorosheva, O.V.

    1989-01-01

    Dependence between the development of geomagnetic storm and VLF noise storm is studied. Two conditions should be met for the development of noise storm in VLF-hiss (f ≅ 0.5-10 kHz): a) threshold intensity of electron fluxes with E e > 40 keV in plasma layers; b) the presence of substorms resulting to widening of electron belt and its collision with cold plasma of plasmasphere. The noise storm at the fixed longitude begins about midnight independently of the phase of magnetic storm; Noise storm duration is connected with geomagnetic storm intensity by direct linear relationship

  6. Implications of Sea Level Rise on Coastal Flood Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeber, V.; Li, N.; Cheung, K.; Lane, P.; Evans, R. L.; Donnelly, J. P.; Ashton, A. D.

    2012-12-01

    Recent global and local projections suggest the sea level will be on the order of 1 m or higher than the current level by the end of the century. Coastal communities and ecosystems in low-lying areas are vulnerable to impacts resulting from hurricane or large swell events in combination with sea-level rise. This study presents the implementation and results of an integrated numerical modeling package to delineate coastal inundation due to storm landfalls at future sea levels. The modeling package utilizes a suite of numerical models to capture both large-scale phenomena in the open ocean and small-scale processes in coastal areas. It contains four components to simulate (1) meteorological conditions, (2) astronomical tides and surge, (3) wave generation, propagation, and nearshore transformation, and (4) surf-zone processes and inundation onto dry land associated with a storm event. Important aspects of this package are the two-way coupling of a spectral wave model and a storm surge model as well as a detailed representation of surf and swash zone dynamics by a higher-order Boussinesq-type wave model. The package was validated with field data from Hurricane Ivan of 2005 on the US Gulf coast and applied to tropical and extratropical storm scenarios respectively at Eglin, Florida and Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. The results show a nonlinear increase of storm surge level and nearshore wave energy with a rising sea level. The exacerbated flood hazard can have major consequences for coastal communities with respect to erosion and damage to infrastructure.

  7. Using 18th century storm-surge data from the Dutch Coast to improve the confidence in flood-risk estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Baart

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available For the design of cost-effective coastal defence a precise estimate is needed of the 1/10 000 per year storm surge. A more precise estimate requires more observations. Therefore, the three greatest storm surges that hit the northern part of the Holland Coast in the 18th century are reconstructed. The reconstructions are based on paintings, drawings, written records and shell deposits that have recently appeared. The storm-surge levels of these storms have been estimated using numerical modelling of the coastal processes. Here we show how these reconstructions can be used in combination with extreme value statistics to give a more confident estimate of low probability events.

  8. An Exploration of Wind Stress Calculation Techniques in Hurricane Storm Surge Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyra M. Bryant

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As hurricanes continue to threaten coastal communities, accurate storm surge forecasting remains a global priority. Achieving a reliable storm surge prediction necessitates accurate hurricane intensity and wind field information. The wind field must be converted to wind stress, which represents the air-sea momentum flux component required in storm surge and other oceanic models. This conversion requires a multiplicative drag coefficient for the air density and wind speed to represent the air-sea momentum exchange at a given location. Air density is a known parameter and wind speed is a forecasted variable, whereas the drag coefficient is calculated using an empirical correlation. The correlation’s accuracy has brewed a controversy of its own for more than half a century. This review paper examines the lineage of drag coefficient correlations and their acceptance among scientists.

  9. Wetland shoreline recession in the Mississippi River Delta from petroleum oiling and cyclonic storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangoonwala, Amina; Jones, Cathleen E.; Ramsey, Elijah W.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate the relative impact of petroleum spill and storm surge on near-shore wetland loss by quantifying the lateral movement of coastal shores in upper Barataria Bay, Louisiana (USA), between June 2009 and October 2012, a study period that extends from the year prior to the Deepwater Horizon spill to 2.5 years following the spill. We document a distinctly different pattern of shoreline loss in the 2 years following the spill, both from that observed in the year prior to the spill, during which there was no major cyclonic storm, and from change related to Hurricane Isaac, which made landfall in August 2012. Shoreline erosion following oiling was far more spatially extensive and included loss in areas protected from wave-induced erosion. We conclude that petroleum exposure can substantially increase shoreline recession particularly in areas protected from storm-induced degradation and disproportionally alters small oil-exposed barrier islands relative to natural erosion.

  10. Storm surges-An option for Hamburg, Germany, to mitigate expected future aggravation of risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storch, Hans von; Goennert, Gabriele; Meine, Manfred

    2008-01-01

    Summary: Rising sea level together with regionally increased storm activity, caused by elevated and increasing levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will in many parts of the world increase the risk of storm surges significantly. Reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere may mitigate the increasing risks somewhat, but the major task for regional and local stakeholders will be to prepare for appropriate adaptation. In most cases, possible strategies include intensification of coastal defense measures, in particular strengthening dykes, and adaptation to intermittent flooding. In case of Hamburg and the tidal Elbe river a third option seems to be available, which aims at mitigating storm surge risks by applying estuary engineering constructions. This option is sketched in this paper. The option has the potential to significantly reduce the expected future increases of local surge heights

  11. The Use of Pre-Storm Boundary-Layer Baroclinicity in Determining and Operationally Implementing the Atlantic Surface Cyclone Intensification Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cione, Joseph; Pietrafes, Leonard J.

    The lateral motion of the Gulf Stream off the eastern seaboard of the United States during the winter season can act to dramatically enhance the low-level baroclinicity within the coastal zone during periods of offshore cold advection. The ralative close proximity of the Gulf Stream current off the mid-Atlantic coast can result in the rapid and intense destabilization of the marine atmospheric boundary layer directly above and shoreward of the Gulf Stream within this region. This airmass modification period often precedes either wintertime coastal cyclogenesis or the cyclonic re-development of existing mid-latitude cyclones. A climatological study investigating the relationship between the severity of the pre-storm, cold advection period and subsequent cyclogenic intensification was undertaken by Cione et al. in 1993. Findings from this study illustrate that the thermal structure of the continental airmass as well as the position of the Gulf Stream front relative to land during the pre-storm period (i.e., 24-48 h prior to the initial cyclonic intensification) are linked to the observed rate of surface cyclonic deepening for storms that either advected into or initially developed within the Carolina-southeast Virginia offshore coastal zone. It is a major objective of this research to test the potential operational utility of this pre-storm low level baroclinic linkage to subsequent cyclogenesis in an actual National Weather Service (NWS) coastal winter storm forecast setting.The ability to produce coastal surface cyclone intensity forecasts recently became available to North Carolina State University researchers and NWS forecasters. This statistical forecast guidance utilizes regression relationships derived from a nine-season (January 1982-April 1990), 116-storm study conducted previously. During the period between February 1994 and February 1996, the Atlantic Surface Cyclone Intensification Index (ASCII) was successfully implemented in an operational setting by

  12. [Diagnosis and treatment of thyroid storm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamizu, Takashi

    2012-11-01

    Thyrotoxic storm is a life-threatening condition requiring emergency treatment. Neither its epidemiological data nor diagnostic criteria have been fully established. We clarified the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of thyroid storm using nationwide surveys and then formulate diagnostic criteria for thyroid storm. To perform the nationwide survey on thyroid storm, we first developed tentative diagnostic criteria for thyroid storm, mainly based upon the literature (the first edition). We analyzed the relationship of the major features of thyroid storm to mortality and to certain other features. Finally, based upon the findings of these surveys, we revised the diagnostic criteria. Thyrotoxic storm is still a life-threatening disorder with over 10% mortality in Japan.

  13. Magnetic Storms at Mars and Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Falkenberg, Thea Vilstrup

    In analogy with magnetic storms at the Earth, periods of significantly enhanced global magnetic activity also exist at Mars. The extensive database of magnetic measurements from Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), covering almost an entire solar cycle, is used in combination with geomagnetic activity...... indices at Earth to compare the occurrence of magnetic storms at Mars and Earth. Based on superposed epochs analysis the time-development of typical magnetic storms at Mars and Earth is described. In contradiction to storms at Earth, most magnetic storms at Mars are found to be associated...... with heliospheric current sheet crossings, where the IMF changes polarity. While most storms at the Earth occur due to significant southward excursions of the IMF associated with CMEs, at Mars most storms seem to be associated with the density enhancement of the heliospheric current sheet. Density enhancements...

  14. Thermospheric storms and related ionospheric effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, S.; Spencer, N.W.

    1976-01-01

    A comparative study of thermospheric storms for the equinox and winter conditions is presented based on the neutral composition measurements from the Aeros-A Nate (Neutral Atmosphere Temperature Experiment) experiment. The main features of the two storms as inferred from the changes in N 2 , Ar, He, and O are described, and their implications to current theories of thermospheric storms are discussed. On the basis of the study of the F region critical frequency measured from a chain of ground-based ionospheric stations during the two storm periods, the general characteristics of the ionospheric storms and the traveling ionospheric disturbances are described. It is suggested that the positive and negative phases of ionospheric storms are the various manifestations of thermospheric storms

  15. Thyroid storm precipitated by duodenal ulcer perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsuda, Shoko; Nakashima, Yomi; Horie, Ichiro; Ando, Takao; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid storm is a rare and life-threatening complication of thyrotoxicosis that requires prompt treatment. Thyroid storm is also known to be associated with precipitating events. The simultaneous treatment of thyroid storm and its precipitant, when they are recognized, in a patient is recommended; otherwise such disorders, including thyroid storm, can exacerbate each other. Here we report the case of a thyroid storm patient (a 55-year-old Japanese male) complicated with a perforated duodenal ulcer. The patient was successfully treated with intensive treatment for thyroid storm and a prompt operation. Although it is believed that peptic ulcer rarely coexists with hyperthyroidism, among patients with thyroid storm, perforation of a peptic ulcer has been reported as one of the causes of fatal outcome. We determined that surgical intervention was required in this patient, reported despite ongoing severe thyrotoxicosis, and reported herein a successful outcome.

  16. Thyroid Storm Precipitated by Duodenal Ulcer Perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoko Natsuda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid storm is a rare and life-threatening complication of thyrotoxicosis that requires prompt treatment. Thyroid storm is also known to be associated with precipitating events. The simultaneous treatment of thyroid storm and its precipitant, when they are recognized, in a patient is recommended; otherwise such disorders, including thyroid storm, can exacerbate each other. Here we report the case of a thyroid storm patient (a 55-year-old Japanese male complicated with a perforated duodenal ulcer. The patient was successfully treated with intensive treatment for thyroid storm and a prompt operation. Although it is believed that peptic ulcer rarely coexists with hyperthyroidism, among patients with thyroid storm, perforation of a peptic ulcer has been reported as one of the causes of fatal outcome. We determined that surgical intervention was required in this patient, reported despite ongoing severe thyrotoxicosis, and reported herein a successful outcome.

  17. The Influence of Pickup Protons, from Interstellar Neutral Hydrogen, on the Propagation of Interplanetary Shocks from the Halloween 2003 Solar Events to ACE and Ulysses: A 3-D MHD Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detman, T. R.; Intriligator, D. S.; Dryer, M.; Sun, W.; Deehr, C. S.; Intriligator, J.

    2012-01-01

    We describe our 3-D, time ]dependent, MHD solar wind model that we recently modified to include the physics of pickup protons from interstellar neutral hydrogen. The model has a time-dependent lower boundary condition, at 0.1 AU, that is driven by source surface map files through an empirical interface module. We describe the empirical interface and its parameter tuning to maximize model agreement with background (quiet) solar wind observations at ACE. We then give results of a simulation study of the famous Halloween 2003 series of solar events. We began with shock inputs from the Fearless Forecast real ]time shock arrival prediction study, and then we iteratively adjusted input shock speeds to obtain agreement between observed and simulated shock arrival times at ACE. We then extended the model grid to 5.5 AU and compared those simulation results with Ulysses observations at 5.2 AU. Next we undertook the more difficult tuning of shock speeds and locations to get matching shock arrival times at both ACE and Ulysses. Then we ran this last case again with neutral hydrogen density set to zero, to identify the effect of pickup ions. We show that the speed of interplanetary shocks propagating from the Sun to Ulysses is reduced by the effects of pickup protons. We plan to make further improvements to the model as we continue our benchmarking process to 10 AU, comparing our results with Cassini observations, and eventually on to 100 AU, comparing our results with Voyager 1 and 2 observations.

  18. The role of the reef–dune system in coastal protection in Puerto Morelos (Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Franklin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Reefs and sand dunes are critical morphological features providing natural coastal protection. Reefs dissipate around 90 % of the incident wave energy through wave breaking, whereas sand dunes provide the final natural barrier against coastal flooding. The storm impact on coastal areas with these features depends on the relative elevation of the extreme water levels with respect to the sand dune morphology. However, despite the importance of barrier reefs and dunes in coastal protection, poor management practices have degraded these ecosystems, increasing their vulnerability to coastal flooding. The present study aims to theoretically investigate the role of the reef–dune system in coastal protection under current climatic conditions at Puerto Morelos, located in the Mexican Caribbean Sea, using a widely validated nonlinear non-hydrostatic numerical model (SWASH. Wave hindcast information, tidal level, and a measured beach profile of the reef–dune system in Puerto Morelos are employed to estimate extreme runup and the storm impact scale for current and theoretical scenarios. The numerical results show the importance of including the storm surge when predicting extreme water levels and also show that ecosystem degradation has important implications for coastal protection against storms with return periods of less than 10 years. The latter highlights the importance of conservation of the system as a mitigation measure to decrease coastal vulnerability and infrastructure losses in coastal areas in the short to medium term. Furthermore, the results are used to evaluate the applicability of runup parameterisations for beaches to reef environments. Numerical analysis of runup dynamics suggests that runup parameterisations for reef environments can be improved by including the fore reef slope. Therefore, future research to develop runup parameterisations incorporating reef geometry features (e.g. reef crest elevation, reef lagoon width, fore

  19. The role of the reef-dune system in coastal protection in Puerto Morelos (Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Gemma L.; Torres-Freyermuth, Alec; Medellin, Gabriela; Allende-Arandia, María Eugenia; Appendini, Christian M.

    2018-04-01

    Reefs and sand dunes are critical morphological features providing natural coastal protection. Reefs dissipate around 90 % of the incident wave energy through wave breaking, whereas sand dunes provide the final natural barrier against coastal flooding. The storm impact on coastal areas with these features depends on the relative elevation of the extreme water levels with respect to the sand dune morphology. However, despite the importance of barrier reefs and dunes in coastal protection, poor management practices have degraded these ecosystems, increasing their vulnerability to coastal flooding. The present study aims to theoretically investigate the role of the reef-dune system in coastal protection under current climatic conditions at Puerto Morelos, located in the Mexican Caribbean Sea, using a widely validated nonlinear non-hydrostatic numerical model (SWASH). Wave hindcast information, tidal level, and a measured beach profile of the reef-dune system in Puerto Morelos are employed to estimate extreme runup and the storm impact scale for current and theoretical scenarios. The numerical results show the importance of including the storm surge when predicting extreme water levels and also show that ecosystem degradation has important implications for coastal protection against storms with return periods of less than 10 years. The latter highlights the importance of conservation of the system as a mitigation measure to decrease coastal vulnerability and infrastructure losses in coastal areas in the short to medium term. Furthermore, the results are used to evaluate the applicability of runup parameterisations for beaches to reef environments. Numerical analysis of runup dynamics suggests that runup parameterisations for reef environments can be improved by including the fore reef slope. Therefore, future research to develop runup parameterisations incorporating reef geometry features (e.g. reef crest elevation, reef lagoon width, fore reef slope) is warranted.

  20. The Surge, Wave, and Tide Hydrodynamics (SWaTH) network of the U.S. Geological Survey—Past and future implementation of storm-response monitoring, data collection, and data delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdi, Richard J.; Lotspeich, R. Russell; Robbins, Jeanne C.; Busciolano, Ronald J.; Mullaney, John R.; Massey, Andrew J.; Banks, William S.; Roland, Mark A.; Jenter, Harry L.; Peppler, Marie C.; Suro, Thomas P.; Schubert, Christopher E.; Nardi, Mark R.

    2017-06-20

    After Hurricane Sandy made landfall along the northeastern Atlantic coast of the United States on October 29, 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) carried out scientific investigations to assist with protecting coastal communities and resources from future flooding. The work included development and implementation of the Surge, Wave, and Tide Hydrodynamics (SWaTH) network consisting of more than 900 monitoring stations. The SWaTH network was designed to greatly improve the collection and timely dissemination of information related to storm surge and coastal flooding. The network provides a significant enhancement to USGS data-collection capabilities in the region impacted by Hurricane Sandy and represents a new strategy for observing and monitoring coastal storms, which should result in improved understanding, prediction, and warning of storm-surge impacts and lead to more resilient coastal communities.As innovative as it is, SWaTH evolved from previous USGS efforts to collect storm-surge data needed by others to improve storm-surge modeling, warning, and mitigation. This report discusses the development and implementation of the SWaTH network, and some of the regional stories associated with the landfall of Hurricane Sandy, as well as some previous events that informed the SWaTH development effort. Additional discussions on the mechanics of inundation and how the USGS is working with partners to help protect coastal communities from future storm impacts are also included.

  1. Probabilistic hurricane-induced storm surge hazard assessment in Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krien, Y.; Dudon, B.; Roger, J.; Zahibo, N.

    2015-08-01

    Current storm surge hazard maps in the French West Indies are essentially based on simple statistical methods using limited historical data and early low-resolution models which do not take the effect of waves into account. In this paper, we infer new 100-year and 1000-year surge levels in Guadeloupe from the numerical modelling of storm surges induced by a large set of synthetic events that are in statistical agreement with features of historical hurricanes in the North Atlantic Basin between 1980 and 2011. Computations are performed using the wave-current coupled model ADCIRC-SWAN with high grid resolutions (up to 40-60 m) in the coastal and wave dissipation areas. This model is validated against observations during past events such as hurricane HUGO (1989). Results are generally found to be in reasonable agreement with past studies in areas where surge is essentially wind-driven, but found to differ significantly in coastal regions where the transfer of momentum from waves to the water column constitutes a non-negligible part of the total surge. The methodology, which can be applied to other islands in the Lesser Antilles, allows storm surge level maps to be obtained that can be of major interest for coastal planners and decision makers in terms of risk management.

  2. Shoreline recovery from storms on the east coast of Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbella, S.; Stretch, D. D.

    2012-01-01

    Episodic extreme waves due to sea storms can cause severe coastal erosion. The recovery times of such events are important for the analysis of risk and coastal vulnerability. The recovery period of a storm damaged coastline represents a time when the coastline is most vulnerable and nearby infrastructure is at the greatest risk. We propose that identification of the beach recovery period can be used as a coastal management tool when determining beach usage. As a case study, we analyse 37 yr of beach profile data on the east coast of South Africa. Considering beach length and cross-sectional area, we establish a global recovery period and rate and identify the physical characteristics of the coastlines that either accelerate or retard recovery. The beaches in the case study were found to take an average of two years to recover at a rate of approximately 90 m3 m-1 yr-1. Beach profiles with vegetated dunes recovered faster than urbanized beaches. Perpendicular beach structures have both positive and negative effects on beach recovery. Coastlines with rock outcrops in the surf zone tend to recover slowly and long-term sediment loss was identified in cases where storm damaged beaches have not recovered to pre-erosion levels.

  3. Shoreline recovery from storms on the east coast of Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Corbella

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Episodic extreme waves due to sea storms can cause severe coastal erosion. The recovery times of such events are important for the analysis of risk and coastal vulnerability. The recovery period of a storm damaged coastline represents a time when the coastline is most vulnerable and nearby infrastructure is at the greatest risk. We propose that identification of the beach recovery period can be used as a coastal management tool when determining beach usage. As a case study, we analyse 37 yr of beach profile data on the east coast of South Africa. Considering beach length and cross-sectional area, we establish a global recovery period and rate and identify the physical characteristics of the coastlines that either accelerate or retard recovery. The beaches in the case study were found to take an average of two years to recover at a rate of approximately 90 m3 m−1 yr−1. Beach profiles with vegetated dunes recovered faster than urbanized beaches. Perpendicular beach structures have both positive and negative effects on beach recovery. Coastlines with rock outcrops in the surf zone tend to recover slowly and long-term sediment loss was identified in cases where storm damaged beaches have not recovered to pre-erosion levels.

  4. Studies of 212Pb storm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunoki, E.; Kataoka, T.; Michihiro, K.; Sugiyama, H.; Shimizu, M.; Mori, T.

    1996-01-01

    212 Pb which reached its equilibrium state with its daughters in the air was measured around small uranium mines in Japan. Environmental. 212 Pb concentrations rose suddenly and reached a value ten times as high as usual values. These Phenomena were observed many times during the past six Years. We called these Phenomena 212 Pb storms. Meteorological conditions lead to the variations of 220 Rn progeny concentrations. These phenomena have been studied in the point of meteorology. (author)

  5. Scaling laws for coastal overwash morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Eli D.

    2016-12-01

    Overwash is a physical process of coastal sediment transport driven by storm events and is essential to landscape resilience in low-lying barrier environments. This work establishes a comprehensive set of scaling laws for overwash morphology: unifying quantitative descriptions with which to compare overwash features by their morphological attributes across case examples. Such scaling laws also help relate overwash features to other morphodynamic phenomena. Here morphometric data from a physical experiment are compared with data from natural examples of overwash features. The resulting scaling relationships indicate scale invariance spanning several orders of magnitude. Furthermore, these new relationships for overwash morphology align with classic scaling laws for fluvial drainages and alluvial fans.

  6. Use of historical information in extreme storm surges frequency analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, Yasser; Duluc, Claire-Marie; Deville, Yves; Bardet, Lise; Rebour, Vincent

    2013-04-01

    The prevention of storm surge flood risks is critical for protection and design of coastal facilities to very low probabilities of failure. The effective protection requires the use of a statistical analysis approach having a solid theoretical motivation. Relating extreme storm surges to their frequency of occurrence using probability distributions has been a common issue since 1950s. The engineer needs to determine the storm surge of a given return period, i.e., the storm surge quantile or design storm surge. Traditional methods for determining such a quantile have been generally based on data from the systematic record alone. However, the statistical extrapolation, to estimate storm surges corresponding to high return periods, is seriously contaminated by sampling and model uncertainty if data are available for a relatively limited period. This has motivated the development of approaches to enlarge the sample extreme values beyond the systematic period. The nonsystematic data occurred before the systematic period is called historical information. During the last three decades, the value of using historical information as a nonsystematic data in frequency analysis has been recognized by several authors. The basic hypothesis in statistical modeling of historical information is that a perception threshold exists and that during a giving historical period preceding the period of tide gauging, all exceedances of this threshold have been recorded. Historical information prior to the systematic records may arise from high-sea water marks left by extreme surges on the coastal areas. It can also be retrieved from archives, old books, earliest newspapers, damage reports, unpublished written records and interviews with local residents. A plotting position formula, to compute empirical probabilities based on systematic and historical data, is used in this communication paper. The objective of the present work is to examine the potential gain in estimation accuracy with the

  7. nuSTORM Costing document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bross, Alan D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Detailed costing of the nuSTORM conventional facilities has been done by the Fermilab Facilities Engineering Services Section (FESS) and is reported on in the nuSTORM Project Definition Report (PDR) 6-13-1. Estimates for outfitting the primary proton beam line, the target station, the pion capture/transport line and decay ring are based on either experience from existing Fermilab infrastructure (NuMI) or is based on the detailed costing exercises for DOE CD-1 approval for future experiments (mu2e and LBNE). The detector costing utilized the Euronu costing for the Neutrino Factory Magnetized Iron Neutrino Detector (MIND), extrapolations from MINOS as-built costs and from recent vendor quotes. Costs included all manpower and are fully burdened (FY2013 dollars). The costs are not escalated, however, beyond the 5-year project timeline, since a project start for nuSTORM is unknown. Escalation can be estimated from various models (see Figure 1). LBNE has used the Jacob’s model to determine their cost escalation.

  8. Paracas dust storms: Sources, trajectories and associated meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño-Zuluaga, F.; Castagna, A.; Rutllant, J. A.; Flores-Aqueveque, V.; Caquineau, S.; Sifeddine, A.; Velazco, F.; Gutierrez, D.; Cardich, J.

    2017-09-01

    Dust storms that develop along the Pisco-Ica desert in Southern Peru, locally known as ;Paracas; winds have ecological, health and economic repercussions. Here we identify dust sources through MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) imagery and analyze HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single Particles Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) model trajectories and dispersion patterns, along with concomitant synoptic-scale meteorological conditions from National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis (NCEP/NCAR). Additionally, surface pressure data from the hourly METeorological Aerodrome Report (METAR) at Arica (18.5°S, 70.3°W) and Pisco (13.7°S, 76.2°W) were used to calculate Alongshore (sea-level) Pressure Gradient (APG) anomalies during Paracas dust storms, their duration and associated wind-speeds and wind directions. This study provides a review on the occurrence and strength of the Paracas dust storms as reported in the Pisco airfield for five-year period and their correspondence with MODIS true-color imagery in terms of dust-emission source areas. Our results show that most of the particle fluxes moving into the Ica-Pisco desert area during Paracas wind events originate over the coastal zone, where strong winds forced by steep APGs develop as the axis of a deep mid-troposphere trough sets in along north-central Chile. Direct relationships between Paracas wind intensity, number of active dust-emission sources and APGs are also documented, although the scarcity of simultaneous METAR/MODIS data for clearly observed MODIS dust plumes prevents any significant statistical inference. Synoptic-scale meteorological composites from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data show that Paracas wind events (steep APGs) are mostly associated with the strengthening of anticyclonic conditions in northern Chile, that can be attributed to cold air advection associated with the incoming trough. Compared to the MODIS images, HYSPLIT outputs were able

  9. Monitoring storm tide and flooding from Hurricane Matthew along the Atlantic coast of the United States, October 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Eric R.; Byrne,, Michael L.; Caldwell, Andral W.; Harden, Stephen L.

    2017-11-02

    IntroductionHurricane Matthew moved adjacent to the coasts of Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina. The hurricane made landfall once near McClellanville, South Carolina, on October 8, 2016, as a Category 1 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) deployed a temporary monitoring network of storm-tide sensors at 284 sites along the Atlantic coast from Florida to North Carolina to record the timing, areal extent, and magnitude of hurricane storm tide and coastal flooding generated by Hurricane Matthew. Storm tide, as defined by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, is the water-level rise generated by a combination of storm surge and astronomical tide during a coastal storm.The deployment for Hurricane Matthew was the largest deployment of storm-tide sensors in USGS history and was completed as part of a coordinated Federal emergency response as outlined by the Stafford Act (Public Law 92–288, 42 U.S.C. 5121–5207) under a directed mission assignment by the Federal Emergency Management Agency. In total, 543 high-water marks (HWMs) also were collected after Hurricane Matthew, and this was the second largest HWM recovery effort in USGS history after Hurricane Sandy in 2012.During the hurricane, real-time water-level data collected at temporary rapid deployment gages (RDGs) and long-term USGS streamgage stations were relayed immediately for display on the USGS Flood Event Viewer (https://stn.wim.usgs.gov/FEV/#MatthewOctober2016). These data provided emergency managers and responders with critical information for tracking flood-effected areas and directing assistance to effected communities. Data collected from this hurricane can be used to calibrate and evaluate the performance of storm-tide models for maximum and incremental water level and flood extent, and the site-specific effects of storm tide on natural and anthropogenic features of the environment.

  10. Typhoon Haiyan-Induced Storm Surge Simulation in Metro Manila Using High-Resolution LiDAR Topographic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Storm surge is the abnormal rise in sea water over and above astronomical tides due to a forthcoming storm. Developing an early warning system for storm surges is vital due to the high level of hazard they might cause. On 08 November 2013, Typhoon Haiyan generated storm surges that killed over 6,000 people in the central part of the Philippines. The Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards under the Department of Science and Technology was tasked to create storm surge hazard maps for the country's coastal areas. The research project aims to generate storm surge hazard maps that can be used for disaster mitigation and planning. As part of the research, the team explored a scenario wherein a tropical cyclone hits the Metro Manila with strength as strong as Typhoon Haiyan. The area was chosen primarily for its political, economic and cultural significance as the country's capital. Using Japan Meteorological Agency Storm Surge model, FLO2D flooding software, LiDAR topographic data, and GIS technology, the effects of a Haiyan-induced tropical cyclone passing through Metro Manila was examined. The population affected, number of affected critical facilities, and potential evacuation sites were identified. The outputs of this study can be used by the authorities as basis for policies that involve disaster risk reduction and management.

  11. Multidsciplinary Approaches to Coastal Adaptation - Aplying Machine Learning Techniques to assess coastal risk in Latin America and The Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calil, J.

    2016-12-01

    The global population, currently at 7.3 billion, is increasing by nearly 230,000 people every day. As the world's population grows to an estimated 11.2 billion by 2100, the number of people living in low elevation areas, exposed to coastal hazards, is continuing to increase. In 2013, 22 million people were displaced by extreme weather events, with 37 events displacing at least 100,000 people each. Losses from natural disasters and disaster risk are determined by a complex interaction between physical hazards and the vulnerability of a society or social-ecological system, and its exposure to such hazards. Impacts from coastal hazards depend on the number of people, value of assets, and presence of critical resources in harm's way. Moreover, coastal risks are amplified by challenging socioeconomic dynamics, including ill-advised urban development, income inequality, and poverty level. Our results demonstrate that in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), more than half a million people live in areas where coastal hazards, exposure (of people, assets and ecosystems), and poverty converge, creating the ideal conditions for a perfect storm. In order to identify the population at greatest risk to coastal hazards in LAC, and in response to a growing demand for multidisciplinary coastal adaptation approaches, this study employs a combination of machine learning clustering techniques (K-Means and Self Organizing Maps), and a spatial index, to assess coastal risks on a comparative scale. Data for more than 13,000 coastal locations in LAC were collected and allocated into three categories: (1) Coastal Hazards (including storm surge, wave energy and El Niño); (2) Geographic Exposure (including population, agriculture, and ecosystems); and (3) Vulnerability (including income inequality, infant mortality rate and malnutrition). This study identified hotspots of coastal vulnerability, the key drivers of coastal risk at each geographic location. Our results provide important

  12. Seasonal timing of first rain storms affects rare plant population dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, J.M.; McEachern, A.K.; Cowan, C.

    2011-01-01

    A major challenge in forecasting the ecological consequences of climate change is understanding the relative importance of changes to mean conditions vs. changes to discrete climatic events, such as storms, frosts, or droughts. Here we show that the first major storm of the growing season strongly influences the population dynamics of three rare and endangered annual plant species in a coastal California (USA) ecosystem. In a field experiment we used moisture barriers and water addition to manipulate the timing and temperature associated with first major rains of the season. The three focal species showed two- to fivefold variation in per capita population growth rates between the different storm treatments, comparable to variation found in a prior experiment imposing eightfold differences in season-long precipitation. Variation in germination was a major demographic driver of how two of three species responded to the first rains. For one of these species, the timing of the storm was the most critical determinant of its germination, while the other showed enhanced germination with colder storm temperatures. The role of temperature was further supported by laboratory trials showing enhanced germination in cooler treatments. Our work suggests that, because of species-specific cues for demographic transitions such as germination, changes to discrete climate events may be as, if not more, important than changes to season-long variables.

  13. Analysis of coastal protection under rising flood risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan J. Lickley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infrastructure located along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts is exposed to rising risk of flooding from sea level rise, increasing storm surge, and subsidence. In these circumstances coastal management commonly based on 100-year flood maps assuming current climatology is no longer adequate. A dynamic programming cost–benefit analysis is applied to the adaptation decision, illustrated by application to an energy facility in Galveston Bay. Projections of several global climate models provide inputs to estimates of the change in hurricane and storm surge activity as well as the increase in sea level. The projected rise in physical flood risk is combined with estimates of flood damage and protection costs in an analysis of the multi-period nature of adaptation choice. The result is a planning method, using dynamic programming, which is appropriate for investment and abandonment decisions under rising coastal risk.

  14. Extreme Geomagnetic Storms – 1868–2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Lefèvre, L.; Dumbović, M.

    2016-01-01

    presents our investigation of the corresponding solar eventsand their characteristics. The storms were selected based on their intensity in the aa index,which constitutes the longest existing continuous series of geomagnetic activity. They areanalyzed statistically in the context of more well...... occurring in May 1921 and the Quebec storm from March 1989. We identifykey characteristics of the storms by combining several different available data sources, listsof storm sudden commencements (SSCs) signifying occurrence of interplanetary shocks,solar wind in-situ measurements, neutron monitor data...... %), Forbushdecreases (100 %), and energetic solar proton events (70 %). A quantitative comparison ofthese associations relative to less intense storms is also presented. Most notably, we findthat most often the extreme storms are characterized by a complexity that is associated with multiple, often interacting, solar...

  15. Characterizing storm response and recovery using the beach change envelope: Fire Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Owen T.; Lentz, Erika E.; Hapke, Cheryl J.; Henderson, Rachel E.; Wilson, Kat E.; Nelson, Timothy R.

    2018-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy at Fire Island, New York presented unique challenges in the quantification of storm impacts using traditional metrics of coastal change, wherein measured changes (shoreline, dune crest, and volume change) did not fully reflect the substantial changes in sediment redistribution following the storm. We used a time series of beach profile data at Fire Island, New York to define a new contour-based morphologic change metric, the Beach Change Envelope (BCE). The BCE quantifies changes to the upper portion of the beach likely to sustain measurable impacts from storm waves and capture a variety of storm and post-storm beach states. We evaluated the ability of the BCE to characterize cycles of beach change by relating it to a conceptual beach recovery regime, and demonstrated that BCE width and BCE height from the profile time series correlate well with established stages of recovery. We also investigated additional applications of this metric to capture impacts from storms and human modification by applying it to several post-storm historical datasets in which impacts varied considerably; Nor'Ida (2009), Hurricane Irene (2011), Hurricane Sandy (2012), and a 2009 community replenishment. In each case, the BCE captured distinctive upper beach morphologic change characteristic of these different beach building and erosional events. Analysis of the beach state at multiple profile locations showed spatial trends in recovery consistent with recent morphologic island evolution, which other studies have linked with sediment availability and the geologic framework. Ultimately we demonstrate a new way of more effectively characterizing beach response and recovery cycles to evaluate change along sandy coasts.

  16. The impact of dust storms on the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Jish Prakash, P.

    2015-01-12

    Located in the dust belt, the Arabian Peninsula is a major source of atmospheric dust. Frequent dust outbreaks and some 15 to 20 dust storms per year have profound effects on all aspects of human activity and natural processes in this region. To quantify the effect of severe dust events on radiation fluxes and regional climate characteristics, we simulated the storm that occurred from 18 to 20 March 2012 using a regional weather research forecast model fully coupled with the chemistry/aerosol module (WRF–Chem). This storm swept over a remarkably large area affecting the entire Middle East, northeastern Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. It was caused by a southward propagating cold front, and the associated winds activated the dust production in river valleys of the lower Tigris and Euphrates in Iraq; the coastal areas in Kuwait, Iran, and the United Arab Emirates; the Rub al Khali, An Nafud, and Ad Dahna deserts; and along the Red Sea coast on the west side of the Arabian Peninsula. Our simulation results compare well with available ground-based and satellite observations. We estimate the total amount of dust generated by the storm to have reached 94 Mt. Approximately 78% of this dust was deposited within the calculation domain. The Arabian Sea and Persian Gulf received 5.3 Mt and the Red Sea 1.2 Mt of dust. Dust particles bring nutrients to marine ecosystems, which is especially important for the oligotrophic Northern Red Sea. However, their contribution to the nutrient balance in the Red Sea remains largely unknown. By scaling the effect of one storm to the number of dust storms observed annually over the Red Sea, we estimate the annual dust deposition to the Red Sea, associated with major dust storms, to be 6 Mt.

  17. The impact of dust storms on the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Jish Prakash, P.; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Kalenderski, Stoitchko; Osipov, Sergey; Bangalath, Hamza Kunhu

    2015-01-01

    Located in the dust belt, the Arabian Peninsula is a major source of atmospheric dust. Frequent dust outbreaks and some 15 to 20 dust storms per year have profound effects on all aspects of human activity and natural processes in this region. To quantify the effect of severe dust events on radiation fluxes and regional climate characteristics, we simulated the storm that occurred from 18 to 20 March 2012 using a regional weather research forecast model fully coupled with the chemistry/aerosol module (WRF–Chem). This storm swept over a remarkably large area affecting the entire Middle East, northeastern Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. It was caused by a southward propagating cold front, and the associated winds activated the dust production in river valleys of the lower Tigris and Euphrates in Iraq; the coastal areas in Kuwait, Iran, and the United Arab Emirates; the Rub al Khali, An Nafud, and Ad Dahna deserts; and along the Red Sea coast on the west side of the Arabian Peninsula. Our simulation results compare well with available ground-based and satellite observations. We estimate the total amount of dust generated by the storm to have reached 94 Mt. Approximately 78% of this dust was deposited within the calculation domain. The Arabian Sea and Persian Gulf received 5.3 Mt and the Red Sea 1.2 Mt of dust. Dust particles bring nutrients to marine ecosystems, which is especially important for the oligotrophic Northern Red Sea. However, their contribution to the nutrient balance in the Red Sea remains largely unknown. By scaling the effect of one storm to the number of dust storms observed annually over the Red Sea, we estimate the annual dust deposition to the Red Sea, associated with major dust storms, to be 6 Mt.

  18. Estimating Coastal Digital Elevation Model (DEM) Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amante, C.; Mesick, S.

    2017-12-01

    Integrated bathymetric-topographic digital elevation models (DEMs) are representations of the Earth's solid surface and are fundamental to the modeling of coastal processes, including tsunami, storm surge, and sea-level rise inundation. Deviations in elevation values from the actual seabed or land surface constitute errors in DEMs, which originate from numerous sources, including: (i) the source elevation measurements (e.g., multibeam sonar, lidar), (ii) the interpolative gridding technique (e.g., spline, kriging) used to estimate elevations in areas unconstrained by source measurements, and (iii) the datum transformation used to convert bathymetric and topographic data to common vertical reference systems. The magnitude and spatial distribution of the errors from these sources are typically unknown, and the lack of knowledge regarding these errors represents the vertical uncertainty in the DEM. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) has developed DEMs for more than 200 coastal communities. This study presents a methodology developed at NOAA NCEI to derive accompanying uncertainty surfaces that estimate DEM errors at the individual cell-level. The development of high-resolution (1/9th arc-second), integrated bathymetric-topographic DEMs along the southwest coast of Florida serves as the case study for deriving uncertainty surfaces. The estimated uncertainty can then be propagated into the modeling of coastal processes that utilize DEMs. Incorporating the uncertainty produces more reliable modeling results, and in turn, better-informed coastal management decisions.

  19. Alternative salvage technique during postcardiotomy electrical storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Y G; Baek, M J; Kim, H J

    2010-08-01

    Cardiac electrical storm is generally treated with antiarrhythmic drugs, electrical cardioversion, or catheter ablation. However, these conservative treatment modalities are considered neither curative nor preventive with regard to recurrent arrhythmias in postoperative electrical storm after open heart surgery. We present a case of surgical ventricular assist device placement for postcardiotomy electrical storm in a 38-year-old patient. Copyright (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart-New York.

  20. New storm water regulations impact industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemar, C.

    1991-01-01

    In November 1990, new Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations aimed at governing the discharge of storm water from industrial facilities became effective. Because some industrial runoff contains toxics and other pollutants, the EPA considers storm water a major source of water contamination. The new regulations will have a profound impact on the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit requirements for industry. This paper summarizes the new storm water regulations, focusing on the requirements for industrial facilities. It also presents suggestions for compliance

  1. Validation of Storm Water Management Model Storm Control Measures Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, M. A.; Platz, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    EPA's Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is a computational code heavily relied upon by industry for the simulation of wastewater and stormwater infrastructure performance. Many municipalities are relying on SWMM results to design multi-billion-dollar, multi-decade infrastructure upgrades. Since the 1970's, EPA and others have developed five major releases, the most recent ones containing storm control measures modules for green infrastructure. The main objective of this study was to quantify the accuracy with which SWMM v5.1.10 simulates the hydrologic activity of previously monitored low impact developments. Model performance was evaluated with a mathematical comparison of outflow hydrographs and total outflow volumes, using empirical data and a multi-event, multi-objective calibration method. The calibration methodology utilized PEST++ Version 3, a parameter estimation tool, which aided in the selection of unmeasured hydrologic parameters. From the validation study and sensitivity analysis, several model improvements were identified to advance SWMM LID Module performance for permeable pavements, infiltration units and green roofs, and these were performed and reported herein. Overall, it was determined that SWMM can successfully simulate low impact development controls given accurate model confirmation, parameter measurement, and model calibration.

  2. Topographic Correction Module at Storm (TC@Storm)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaksek, K.; Cotar, K.; Veljanovski, T.; Pehani, P.; Ostir, K.

    2015-04-01

    Different solar position in combination with terrain slope and aspect result in different illumination of inclined surfaces. Therefore, the retrieved satellite data cannot be accurately transformed to the spectral reflectance, which depends only on the land cover. The topographic correction should remove this effect and enable further automatic processing of higher level products. The topographic correction TC@STORM was developed as a module within the SPACE-SI automatic near-real-time image processing chain STORM. It combines physical approach with the standard Minnaert method. The total irradiance is modelled as a three-component irradiance: direct (dependent on incidence angle, sun zenith angle and slope), diffuse from the sky (dependent mainly on sky-view factor), and diffuse reflected from the terrain (dependent on sky-view factor and albedo). For computation of diffuse irradiation from the sky we assume an anisotropic brightness of the sky. We iteratively estimate a linear combination from 10 different models, to provide the best results. Dependent on the data resolution, we mask shades based on radiometric (image) or geometric properties. The method was tested on RapidEye, Landsat 8, and PROBA-V data. Final results of the correction were evaluated and statistically validated based on various topography settings and land cover classes. Images show great improvements in shaded areas.

  3. Application of radiotracer technology to the study of coastal processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airey, P.; Szymczak, R.; Zaw, M.; Tu, J.; Kluss, T.; Barry, J.

    1999-01-01

    Recent progress at ANSTO in the applications of radiotracer techniques to the study of coastal processes is reviewed. Tracers are used in detailed studies of specific components of complex environmental systems and are applied to the evaluation and extension of numerical models. Examples include studies of the aggregation of sewage particles following release from ocean outfalls. The use of tracers to study the impact of storm events on bedload transport at depth has also been demonstrated

  4. Ice storm 1998 : lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCready, J. [Eastern Ontario Model Forest, Kemptville, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This paper presented details of a partnership formed in response to the ice storm of 1998, which caused extensive damage to trees in woodlots and urban settings in eastern Ontario and western Quebec. The aim of the Ice Storm Forest Recovery Group was to assist in the recovery of eastern forests, collect information on the extent of the damage to trees as well as contribute to the development of assistance programs for woodlot owners and municipalities. In response to the group's request, an initial aerial survey was conducted by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources to map the extent of the damage in eastern Ontario, which was followed by a more scientific survey with the Canadian Forest Service through the development of a flying grid pattern to observe the status of trees, followed by extensive ground checks. Damage was variable, depending on tree species, stand age and composition, management practices, wind direction, topography and ice deposition patterns. A summary of the severity of damage indicated that conifers suffered less than hardwoods. Consultants were hired to prepare news releases and extension notes to the public in order to provide information for the caring of trees. Various educational workshops were held which attracted large numbers of landowners and homeowners. A literature review was undertaken to produce a summary of current published knowledge covering the effects of storms and ice damage to trees and forests. Science efforts were published in a series of papers, and financial assistance programs were then organized by governmental agencies. It was concluded that cooperation between all agencies, groups and levels of government is needed in order to coordinate effective emergency strategies. 7 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  5. Perceptions of severe storms, climate change, ecological structures and resiliency three years post-hurricane Sandy in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2017-12-01

    Global warming is leading to increased frequency and severity of storms that are associated with flooding, increasing the risk to urban, coastal populations. This study examined perceptions of the relationship between severe storms, sea level rise, climate change and ecological barriers by a vulnerable environmental justice population in New Jersey. Patients using New Jersey's Federally Qualified Health Centers were interviewed after Hurricane [Superstorm] Sandy because it is essential to understand the perceptions of uninsured, underinsured, and economically challenged people to better develop a resiliency strategy for the most vulnerable people. Patients ( N = 355) using 6 centers were interviewed using a structured interview form. Patients were interviewed in the order they entered the reception area, in either English or Spanish. Respondents were asked to rate their agreement with environmental statements. Respondents 1) agreed with experts that "severe storms were due to climate change", "storms will come more often", and that "flooding was due to sea level rise", 2) did not agree as strongly that "climate change was due to human activity", 3) were neutral for statements that " Sandy damages were due to loss of dunes or salt marshes". 4) did not differ as a function of ethnic/racial categories, and 5) showed few gender differences. It is imperative that the public understand that climate change and sea level rise are occurring so that they support community programs (and funding) to prepare for increased frequency of storms and coastal flooding. The lack of high ratings for the role of dunes and marshes in preventing flooding indicates a lack of understanding that ecological structures protect coasts, and suggests a lack of support for management actions to restore dunes as part of a coastal preparedness strategy. Perceptions that do not support a public policy of coastal zone management to protect coastlines can lead to increased flooding, extensive property

  6. The role of nature-based infrastructure (NBI) in coastal resiliency planning: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Firas; Weinstein, Michael P

    2016-12-01

    The use of nature-based infrastructure (NBI) has attracted increasing attention in the context of protection against coastal flooding. This review is focused on NBI approaches to improve coastal resilience in the face of extreme storm events, including hurricanes. We not only consider the role of NBI as a measure to protect people and property but also in the context of other ecological goods and services provided by tidal wetlands including production of fish and shellfish. Although the results of many studies suggest that populated areas protected by coastal marshes were less likely to experience damage when exposed to the full force of storm surge, it was absolutely critical to place the role of coastal wetlands into perspective by noting that while tidal marshes can reduce wave energy from low-to-moderate-energy storms, their capacity to substantially reduce storm surge remains poorly quantified. Moreover, although tidal marshes can reduce storm surge from fast moving storms, very large expanses of habitat are needed to be most effective, and for most urban settings, there is insufficient space to rely on nature-based risk reduction strategies alone. The success of a given NBI method is also context dependent on local conditions, with potentially confounding influences from substrate characteristics, topography, near shore bathymetry, distance from the shore and other physical factors and human drivers such as development patterns. Furthermore, it is important to better understand the strengths and weaknesses of newly developed NBI projects through rigorous evaluations and characterize the local specificities of the particular built and natural environments surrounding these coastal areas. In order for the relevant science to better inform policy, and assist in land-use challenges, scientists must clearly state the likelihood of success in a particular circumstance and set of conditions. We conclude that "caution is advised" before selecting a particular NBI

  7. Projected 21st century coastal flooding in the Southern California Bight. Part 1: Development of the third generation CoSMoS model

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Andrea; Erikson, Li; Barnard, Patrick; Limber, Patrick; Vitousek, Sean; Warrick, Jonathan; Foxgrover, Amy C.; Lovering, Jessica

    2018-01-01

    Due to the effects of climate change over the course of the next century, the combination of rising sea levels, severe storms, and coastal change will threaten the sustainability of coastal communities, development, and ecosystems as we know them today. To clearly identify coastal vulnerabilities and develop appropriate adaptation strategies due to projected increased levels of coastal flooding and erosion, coastal managers need local-scale hazards projections using the best available climate and coastal science. In collaboration with leading scientists world-wide, the USGS designed the Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) to assess the coastal impacts of climate change for the California coast, including the combination of sea-level rise, storms, and coastal change. In this project, we directly address the needs of coastal resource managers in Southern California by integrating a vast range of global climate change projections in a thorough and comprehensive numerical modeling framework. In Part 1 of a two-part submission on CoSMoS, methods and the latest improvements are discussed, and an example of hazard projections is presented.

  8. Response of the Mississippi Bight and Sound to the Passage of Tropical Storm Cindy Through the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hode, L. E.; Howden, S. D.; Diercks, A. R.; Cambazoglu, M. K.; Jones, E. B.; Martin, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    Damage inflicted by tropical storms and hurricanes on coastal communities and industries has become a growing concern in recent decades. Consequently, utilizing products from existing ocean observing platforms, ocean modeling forecasts and satellite data helps to identify the effects of individual storms on the northern Gulf of Mexico. Using data from the jointly-operated United States Geological Survey and Mississippi Department of Marine Resources (USGS-MDMR) hydrological stations, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) tide gages, and the Central Gulf of Mexico Ocean Observing System (CenGOOS) high frequency radar (HFR) network, we tracked temperature, salinity, water level and surface current changes in the Mississippi Sound and Bight during June 2017. We performed time series analyses and compared conditions during the buildup and passage of tropical storm Cindy to climatological values as well as to satellite observations and results from a regional application of the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM). Elevated salinities proceeded Cindy's landfall on June 22, 2017, while anomalously fresh water marked all Mississippi Sound stations afterwards. Onshore surface currents dominated the Mississippi Bight, and current speeds exceeded more than four times the climatological average in the southeastern Bight. Indeed, regions of enhanced current speeds were observed throughout the month of June 2017. Tidal ranges in the Mississippi Sound were on average half a meter higher than predicted, and Shell Beach (Louisiana) and the Bay Waveland Yacht Club (Mississippi) saw extended periods where tides exceeded one meter above predicted values. These results help to quantify the tidal inundation caused by Cindy but also illustrate the massive riverine discharge driven by the storm's precipitation. Model results provide information on areas of the study region not covered by measurements; additionally, comparing observations to model products helps estimate model

  9. The structure of the big magnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihajlivich, J. Spomenko; Chop, Rudi; Palangio, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    The records of geomagnetic activity during Solar Cycles 22 and 23 (which occurred from 1986 to 2006) indicate several extremely intensive A-class geomagnetic storms. These were storms classified in the category of the Big Magnetic Storms. In a year of maximum solar activity during Solar Cycle 23, or more precisely, during a phase designated as a post-maximum phase in solar activity (PPM - Phase Post maximum), near the autumn equinox, on 29, October 2003, an extremely strong and intensive magnetic storm was recorded. In the first half of November 2004 (7, November 2004) an intensive magnetic storm was recorded (the Class Big Magnetic Storm). The level of geomagnetic field variations which were recorded for the selected Big Magnetic Storms, was ΔD st=350 nT. For the Big Magnetic Storms the indicated three-hour interval indices geomagnetic activity was Kp = 9. This study presents the spectral composition of the Di - variations which were recorded during magnetic storms in October 2003 and November 2004. (Author)

  10. [Thyrotoxic storm and myxedema coma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasu, N

    1999-08-01

    Thyrotoxic or hyperthyroid storm is a grave, life-threatening, but relatively infrequent medical emergency. Immediate causes of death in this emergency are severe hyperpyrexia and pulmonary edema associated with arrhythmias, shock, and coma. This emergency is found in Graves' patients most frequently. Myxedema coma is an emergency clinical state caused by severe deficiency of thyroid hormones. This crisis represents the extreme expression of hypothyroidism. While it is quite useful to elicit a history of previous hypothyroidism, thyroid surgery, or radioactive iodine treatment, it is not obtainable.

  11. Southern African Coastal vulnerability assessment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rautenbach, C

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available or business. The CSIR coastal systems group uses specialist skills in coastal engineering, geographic engineering systems and numerical modelling to assess and map vulnerable coastal ecosystems to develop specific adaptation measures and coastal protection...

  12. Optimal index related to the shoreline dynamics during a storm: the case of Jesolo beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archetti, Renata; Paci, Agnese; Carniel, Sandro; Bonaldo, Davide

    2016-05-01

    The paper presents an application of shoreline monitoring aimed at understanding the response of a beach to single storms and at identifying its typical behaviour, in order to be able to predict shoreline changes and to properly plan the defence of the shore zone. On the study area, in Jesolo beach (northern Adriatic Sea, Italy), a video monitoring station and an acoustic wave and current profiler were installed in spring 2013, recording, respectively, images and hydrodynamic data. The site lacks previous detailed hydrodynamic and morphodynamic data. Variations in the shoreline were quantified in combination with available near-shore wave conditions, making it possible to analyse the relationship between the shoreline displacement and the wave features. Results denote characteristic patterns of beach response to storm events, and highlight the importance of improving beach protection in this zone, notwithstanding the many interventions experimented in the last decades. A total of 31 independent storm events were selected during the period October 2013-October 2014, and for each of them synthetic indexes based on storm duration, energy and maximum wave height were developed and estimated. It was found that the net shoreline displacements during a storm are well correlated with the total wave energy associated to the considered storm by an empirical power law equation. A sub-selection of storms in the presence of an artificial dune protecting the beach (in the winter season) was examined in detail, allowing to conclude that the adoption of this coastal defence strategy in the study area can reduce shoreline retreat during a storm. This type of intervention can sometimes contribute to prolonging overall stability not only in the replenished zone but also in downdrift areas. The implemented methodology, which confirms to be economically attractive if compared to more traditional monitoring systems, proves to be a valuable system to monitor beach erosive processes and

  13. Development of Storm Surge Hazard Maps and Advisory System for the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Joy; Mahar Francisco Lagymay, Alfredo; Caro, Carl Vincent; Suarez, John Kenneth; Tablazon, Judd; Dasallas, Lea; Garnet Goting, Prince

    2016-04-01

    The Philippines, located in the most active region of cyclogenesis in the world, experiences an average of 20 tropical cyclones annually. Strong winds brought by tropical cyclones, among other factors, cause storm surges that inundate the coastal areas of the country. As an archipelago with the fourth longest coastline in the world, the country is expose to the threats of storm surges. This was manifested by Typhoon Haiyan on 8 November 2013, which devastated the country and left 6,293 deaths and approximately USD 2 billion worth of damages. To prevent such disaster from happening again, the Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards (Project NOAH) developed a Storm Surge Advisory (SSA) that aims to warn communities in coastal areas against impending floods due to storm surges. The Japan Meteorological Agency storm surge model was used to simulate 721 tropical cyclones that entered the Philippine Area of Responsibility from 1951-2013. The resulting storm surge time series from the simulations were added to the maximum tide levels from the WXTide software for the 4,996 observation points placed nearshore in the entire country. The storm tide levels were categorized into four groups based on their peak height to create the SSA - SSA 1 (0.01m to 2m), SSA 2 (2.01m to 3m), SSA 3 (3.01m to 4m), and SSA 4 (4m and above). The time series for each advisory level was used in inundation modelling using FLO-2D, a two-dimensional flood modeling software that uses continuity and dynamic wave momentum equation. The model produced probable extent, depth of inundation, and hazard level for each advisory level. The SSA hazard maps are used as reference to warn communities that are likely to be affected by storm surges. Advisory is released 24 hours in advance and is updated every six hours in the Project NOAH website. It is also being utilized in the pre-disaster risk assessment of the national government agencies and local government units in designing appropriate response to

  14. Hurricane Sandy science plan: coastal topographic and bathymetric data to support hurricane impact assessment and response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronko, Jakob M.

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy devastated some of the most heavily populated eastern coastal areas of the Nation. With a storm surge peaking at more than 19 feet, the powerful landscape-altering destruction of Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards. In response to this natural disaster, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received a total of $41.2 million in supplemental appropriations from the Department of the Interior (DOI) to support response, recovery, and rebuilding efforts. These funds support a science plan that will provide critical scientific information necessary to inform management decisions for recovery of coastal communities, and aid in preparation for future natural hazards. This science plan is designed to coordinate continuing USGS activities with stakeholders and other agencies to improve data collection and analysis that will guide recovery and restoration efforts. The science plan is split into five distinct themes: • Coastal topography and bathymetry • Impacts to coastal beaches and barriers • Impacts of storm surge, including disturbed estuarine and bay hydrology • Impacts on environmental quality and persisting contaminant exposures • Impacts to coastal ecosystems, habitats, and fish and wildlife This fact sheet focuses on coastal topography and bathymetry. This fact sheet focuses on coastal topography and bathymetry.

  15. Coastal Erosion Armoring 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Coastal armoring along the coast of California, created to provide a database of all existing coastal armoring based on data available at the time of creation....

  16. Channel Shallowing as Mitigation of Coastal Flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M. Orton

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Here, we demonstrate that reductions in the depth of inlets or estuary channels can be used to reduce or prevent coastal flooding. A validated hydrodynamic model of Jamaica Bay, New York City (NYC, is used to test nature-based adaptation measures in ameliorating flooding for NYC's two largest historical coastal flood events. In addition to control runs with modern bathymetry, three altered landscape scenarios are tested: (1 increasing the area of wetlands to their 1879 footprint and bathymetry, but leaving deep shipping channels unaltered; (2 shallowing all areas deeper than 2 m in the bay to be 2 m below Mean Low Water; (3 shallowing only the narrowest part of the inlet to the bay. These three scenarios are deliberately extreme and designed to evaluate the leverage each approach exerts on water levels. They result in peak water level reductions of 0.3%, 15%, and 6.8% for Hurricane Sandy, and 2.4%, 46% and 30% for the Category-3 hurricane of 1821, respectively (bay-wide averages. These results suggest that shallowing can provide greater flood protection than wetland restoration, and it is particularly effective at reducing "fast-pulse" storm surges that rise and fall quickly over several hours, like that of the 1821 storm. Nonetheless, the goal of flood mitigation must be weighed against economic, navigation, and ecological needs, and practical concerns such as the availability of sediment.

  17. Assessing inundation hazards to nuclear powerplant sites using geologically extended histories of riverine floods, tsunamis, and storm surges

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Jim; Atwater, Brian F.; Cohn, Timothy A.; Cronin, Thomas M.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Smith, Christopher G.; Mason, Jr., Robert R.

    2014-01-01

    Most nuclear powerplants in the United States are near rivers, large lakes, or oceans. As evident from the Fukushima Daiichi, Japan, disaster of 2011, these water bodies pose inundation threats. Geologic records can extend knowledge of rare hazards from flooding, storm surges, and tsunamis. This knowledge can aid in assessing the safety of critical structures such as dams and energy plants, for which even remotely possible hazards are pertinent. Quantitative analysis of inundation from geologic records perhaps is most developed for and applied to riverine flood hazards, but because of recent natural disasters, geologic investigations also are now used widely for understanding tsunami hazards and coastal storm surges.

  18. Erosion and its rate on an accumulative Polish dune coast: the effects of the January 2012 storm surge

    OpenAIRE

    Łabuz, Tomasz A.

    2014-01-01

    The Polish coast is a non-tidal area; its shores are affected mainly by autumn-winter storm surges. Those of 6 and 14 January 2012 are representative of the forces driving the erosion of normally accumulative sections of coastal dunes, monitored by the author since 1997. The sea level maximum during these two storm surges reached 1.2 to 1.5 m amsl along the Polish coast. Land forms up to 3 m amsl were inundated. Beaches and low parts of the coast up to this height were rebuilt by sea waves at...

  19. Spring Dust Storm Smothers Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A few days earlier than usual, a large, dense plume of dust blew southward and eastward from the desert plains of Mongolia-quite smothering to the residents of Beijing. Citizens of northeastern China call this annual event the 'shachenbao,' or 'dust cloud tempest.' However, the tempest normally occurs during the spring time. The dust storm hit Beijing on Friday night, March 15, and began coating everything with a fine, pale brown layer of grit. The region is quite dry; a problem some believe has been exacerbated by decades of deforestation. According to Chinese government estimates, roughly 1 million tons of desert dust and sand blow into Beijing each year. This true-color image was made using two adjacent swaths (click to see the full image) of data from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the OrbView-2 satellite, on March 17, 2002. The massive dust storm (brownish pixels) can easily be distinguished from clouds (bright white pixels) as it blows across northern Japan and eastward toward the open Pacific Ocean. The black regions are gaps between SeaWiFS' viewing swaths and represent areas where no data were collected. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  20. A superposed epoch analysis of geomagnetic storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Taylor

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available A superposed epoch analysis of geomagnetic storms has been undertaken. The storms are categorised via their intensity (as defined by the Dst index. Storms have also been classified here as either storm sudden commencements (SSCs or storm gradual commencements (SGCs, that is all storms which did not begin with a sudden commencement. The prevailing solar wind conditions defined by the parameters solar wind speed (vsw, density (ρsw and pressure (Psw and the total field and the components of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF during the storms in each category have been investigated by a superposed epoch analysis. The southward component of the IMF, appears to be the controlling parameter for the generation of small SGCs (-100 nT< minimum Dst ≤ -50 nT for ≥ 4 h, but for SSCs of the same intensity solar wind pressure is dominant. However, for large SSCs (minimum Dst ≤ -100 nT for ≥ 4 h the solar wind speed is the controlling parameter. It is also demonstrated that for larger storms magnetic activity is not solely driven by the accumulation of substorm activity, but substantial energy is directly input via the dayside. Furthermore, there is evidence that SSCs are caused by the passage of a coronal mass ejection, whereas SGCs result from the passage of a high speed/ slow speed coronal stream interface. Storms are also grouped by the sign of Bz during the first hour epoch after the onset. The sign of Bz at t = +1 h is the dominant sign of the Bz for ~24 h before the onset. The total energy released during storms for which Bz was initially positive is, however, of the same order as for storms where Bz was initially negative.

  1. Predicting typhoon-induced storm surge tide with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model and artificial neural network model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.-B.; Liu, W.-C.; Hsu, M.-H.

    2012-12-01

    Precise predictions of storm surges during typhoon events have the necessity for disaster prevention in coastal seas. This paper explores an artificial neural network (ANN) model, including the back propagation neural network (BPNN) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) algorithms used to correct poor calculations with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model in predicting storm surge height during typhoon events. The two-dimensional model has a fine horizontal resolution and considers the interaction between storm surges and astronomical tides, which can be applied for describing the complicated physical properties of storm surges along the east coast of Taiwan. The model is driven by the tidal elevation at the open boundaries using a global ocean tidal model and is forced by the meteorological conditions using a cyclone model. The simulated results of the hydrodynamic model indicate that this model fails to predict storm surge height during the model calibration and verification phases as typhoons approached the east coast of Taiwan. The BPNN model can reproduce the astronomical tide level but fails to modify the prediction of the storm surge tide level. The ANFIS model satisfactorily predicts both the astronomical tide level and the storm surge height during the training and verification phases and exhibits the lowest values of mean absolute error and root-mean-square error compared to the simulated results at the different stations using the hydrodynamic model and the BPNN model. Comparison results showed that the ANFIS techniques could be successfully applied in predicting water levels along the east coastal of Taiwan during typhoon events.

  2. Reconnaissance level study Mississippi storm surge barrier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ledden, M.; Lansen, A.J.; De Ridder, H.A.J.; Edge, B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a reconnaissance level study of a storm surge barrier in the Mississippi River. Historical hurricanes have shown storm surge of several meters along the Mississippi River levees up to and upstream of New Orleans. Future changes due to sea level rise and subsidence will further

  3. The evaluation and management of electrical storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eifling, Michael; Razavi, Mehdi; Massumi, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Electrical storm is an increasingly common and life-threatening syndrome that is defined by 3 or more sustained episodes of ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, or appropriate shocks from an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator within 24 hours. The clinical presentation can be dramatic. Electrical storm can manifest itself during acute myocardial infarction and in patients who have structural heart disease, an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, or an inherited arrhythmic syndrome. The presence or absence of structural heart disease and the electrocardiographic morphology of the presenting arrhythmia can provide important diagnostic clues into the mechanism of electrical storm. Electrical storm typically has a poor outcome.The effective management of electrical storm requires an understanding of arrhythmia mechanisms, therapeutic options, device programming, and indications for radiofrequency catheter ablation. Initial management involves determining and correcting the underlying ischemia, electrolyte imbalances, or other causative factors. Amiodarone and β-blockers, especially propranolol, effectively resolve arrhythmias in most patients. Nonpharmacologic treatment, including radiofrequency ablation, can control electrical storm in drug-refractory patients. Patients who have implantable cardioverter-defibrillators can present with multiple shocks and may require drug therapy and device reprogramming. After the acute phase of electrical storm, the treatment focus should shift toward maximizing heart-failure therapy, performing revascularization, and preventing subsequent ventricular arrhythmias. Herein, we present an organized approach for effectively evaluating and managing electrical storm.

  4. Normothermic thyroid storm: an unusual presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabir, Anas Ahmad; Sada, Kabiru; Yusuf, Bashir O.; Aliyu, Idris

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid storm is a rare life-threatening emergency due to thyrotoxicosis. A 30-year-old female presented with restlessness, tachycardia and vomiting but with normothermia which is an unusual presentation. There is the need for clinicians to be aware of atypical clinical features that can make the diagnosis of thyroid storm difficult. PMID:27540465

  5. Predicting the occurrence of super-storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Srivastava

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of five super-storms (Dst<-300 nT of the current solar cycle after the launch of SoHO, to identify solar and interplanetary variables that influence the magnitude of resulting geomagnetic storms, is described. Amongst solar variables, the initial speed of a CME is considered the most reliable predictor of the strength of the associated geomagnetic storm because fast mass ejections are responsible for building up the ram pressure at the Earth's magnetosphere. However, although most of the super-storms studied were associated with high speed CMEs, the Dst index of the resulting geomagnetic storms varied between -300 to -472 nT. The most intense storm of 20 November 2003, (Dst ~ -472 nT had its source in a comparatively smaller active region and was associated with a relatively weaker, M-class flare while all other super-storms had their origins in large active regions and were associated with strong X-class flares. However, this superstorm did not show any associated extraordinary solar and interplanetary characteristics. The study also reveals the challenge in the reliable prediction of the magnitude of a geomagnetic storm from solar and interplanetary variables.

  6. Predicting the occurrence of super-storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Srivastava

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of five super-storms (Dst<-300 nT of the current solar cycle after the launch of SoHO, to identify solar and interplanetary variables that influence the magnitude of resulting geomagnetic storms, is described. Amongst solar variables, the initial speed of a CME is considered the most reliable predictor of the strength of the associated geomagnetic storm because fast mass ejections are responsible for building up the ram pressure at the Earth's magnetosphere. However, although most of the super-storms studied were associated with high speed CMEs, the Dst index of the resulting geomagnetic storms varied between -300 to -472 nT. The most intense storm of 20 November 2003, (Dst ~ -472 nT had its source in a comparatively smaller active region and was associated with a relatively weaker, M-class flare while all other super-storms had their origins in large active regions and were associated with strong X-class flares. However, this superstorm did not show any associated extraordinary solar and interplanetary characteristics. The study also reveals the challenge in the reliable prediction of the magnitude of a geomagnetic storm from solar and interplanetary variables.

  7. Storm Sewage Dilution in Smaller Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Vestergaard, Kristian

    1987-01-01

    A numerical model has been used to show how dilution in smaller streams can be effected by unsteady hydraulic conditions caused by a storm sewage overflow.......A numerical model has been used to show how dilution in smaller streams can be effected by unsteady hydraulic conditions caused by a storm sewage overflow....

  8. Living with storm damage to forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardiner, B.; Schuck, A.; Schelhaas, M.J.; Orazio, C.; Blennow, K.; Nicoll, B.

    2013-01-01

    Windstorms are a major disturbance factor for European forests. In the past six decades wind storms have damaged standing forest volume, which on a yearly average equals about the size of Poland's annual fellings. The evedence also indicates that the actual severity of storms in the wake of climatic

  9. Storm real-time processing cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Quinton

    2013-01-01

    A Cookbook with plenty of practical recipes for different uses of Storm.If you are a Java developer with basic knowledge of real-time processing and would like to learn Storm to process unbounded streams of data in real time, then this book is for you.

  10. Projected 21st century coastal flooding in the Southern California Bight. Part 2: Tools for assessing climate change-driven coastal hazards and socio-economic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, Li; Barnard, Patrick; O'Neill, Andrea; Wood, Nathan J.; Jones, Jeanne M.; Finzi Hart, Juliette; Vitousek, Sean; Limber, Patrick; Hayden, Maya; Fitzgibbon, Michael; Lovering, Jessica; Foxgrover, Amy C.

    2018-01-01

    This paper is the second of two that describes the Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) approach for quantifying physical hazards and socio-economic hazard exposure in coastal zones affected by sea-level rise and changing coastal storms. The modelling approach, presented in Part 1, downscales atmospheric global-scale projections to local scale coastal flood impacts by deterministically computing the combined hazards of sea-level rise, waves, storm surges, astronomic tides, fluvial discharges, and changes in shoreline positions. The method is demonstrated through an application to Southern California, United States, where the shoreline is a mix of bluffs, beaches, highly managed coastal communities, and infrastructure of high economic value. Results show that inclusion of 100-year projected coastal storms will increase flooding by 9–350% (an additional average 53.0 ± 16.0 km2) in addition to a 25–500 cm sea-level rise. The greater flooding extents translate to a 55–110% increase in residential impact and a 40–90% increase in building replacement costs. To communicate hazards and ranges in socio-economic exposures to these hazards, a set of tools were collaboratively designed and tested with stakeholders and policy makers; these tools consist of two web-based mapping and analytic applications as well as virtual reality visualizations. To reach a larger audience and enhance usability of the data, outreach and engagement included workshop-style trainings for targeted end-users and innovative applications of the virtual reality visualizations.

  11. Electrical storm: clinical manifestations and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littmann, L; Rennyson, S L

    2007-10-01

    Electrical storm is the clustering of hemodynamically destabilizing ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation that typically requires multiple electrical cardioversions or defibrillations within a 24-hour period. Electrical storm is frequently seen in the acute phase of myocardial infarction, in patients with the genetic arrhythmia syndromes, and in patients with implanted cardioverters-defibrillators. The evaluation and management should focus on the immediate suppression of the arrhythmia, a search for possible reversible causes, and attempts to prevent recurrences. In this review we present the most common conditions associated with electrical storm, therapeutic options for suppression of electrical storm, and new investigational techniques emerging for the treatment of electrical storm in refractory cases. The management of this life threatening arrhythmia typically requires the coordinated efforts of emergency medicine, critical care, cardiology, cardiac electrophysiology, and pacemaker experts.

  12. Thyroid storm precipitated by acute biliary pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Karimi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid storm is an acute, life-threatening exacerbation and sudden releasing large amounts of thyroid hormone in a short period of time. Nevertheless, critical aggravation of hyperthyroidism typically resulted from concurrent disorder. Synchronous management of thyroid storm along with its precipitant, such as infection is recommended. We described the case of an acute biliary pancreatitis complicated with a thyroid storm. The patient was successfully managed with a quick surgical intervention and further critical care for thyroid storm. Although it is widely believed that pancreatitis is seldom concurrent with thyrotoxicosis, thyroid storm can be precipitated by a variety of factors, including intra-abdominal infections such as acute pancreatitis or perforated peptic ulcer. In conclusion, acute pancreatitis in patients with thyrotoxicosis seems to be extremely rare, but such patients should be managed intensively against underlying thyroid disorders as well as pancreatitis.

  13. Curve number derivation for watersheds draining two headwater streams in lower coastal plain South Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas H. Epps; Daniel R. Hitchcock; Anand D. Jayakaran; Drake R. Loflin; Thomas M. Williams; Devendra M. Amatya

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess curve number (CN) values derived for two forested headwater catchments in the Lower Coastal Plain (LCP) of South Carolina using a three-year period of storm event rainfall and runoff data in comparison with results obtained from CN method calculations. Derived CNs from rainfall/runoff pairs ranged from 46 to 90 for the Upper...

  14. Morphodynamics of seasonally closed coastal inlets at the central coast of Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, T.T.

    2011-01-01

    Situated in a monsoon-prone humid tropical region, Vietnam is affected by both oceanic and continental climates causing disasters to the country like riverine flooding and storm induced damage. The coastal districts of Vietnam have a population of about 18 million habitants, account for nearly one

  15. Calibration and validation of the SWAT model for a forested watershed in coastal South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra M. Amatya; Elizabeth B. Haley; Norman S. Levine; Timothy J. Callahan; Artur Radecki-Pawlik; Manoj K. Jha

    2008-01-01

    Modeling the hydrology of low-gradient coastal watersheds on shallow, poorly drained soils is a challenging task due to the complexities in watershed delineation, runoff generation processes and pathways, flooding, and submergence caused by tropical storms. The objective of the study is to calibrate and validate a GIS-based spatially-distributed hydrologic model, SWAT...

  16. Evaluating the SWAT model for a low-gradient forested watershed in coastal South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.M. Amatya; M.K. Jha.

    2011-01-01

    Modeling the hydrology of low�]gradient forested watersheds on shallow, poorly drained soils of the coastal plain is a challenging task due to complexities in watershed delineation, microtopography, evapotranspiration, runoff generation processes and pathways including flooding and submergence caused by tropical storms, and complexity of vegetation species....

  17. South Baltic representative coastal field surveys, including monitoring at the Coastal Research Station in Lubiatowo, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Rafał; Schönhofer, Jan; Szmytkiewicz, Piotr

    2016-10-01

    The paper contains a brief description of selected investigations carried out in the south Baltic coastal zone, with the particular focus on the history and recent activities conducted at the Coastal Research Station in Lubiatowo (CRS Lubiatowo), Poland. These activities comprise field investigations of nearshore hydrodynamic, lithodynamic, and morphodynamic processes. The study area is a sandy multi-bar shore with a mild slope, much exposed to the impact of waves approaching from NW-NE sector. The shore has a dissipative character which means that the wave energy is subject to gradual dissipation in the nearshore zone and only a small part of this energy is reflected by the shore. Due to the big wind fetch in N-NNE direction, the location of CRS Lubiatowo is favourable to registration of the maximum values of parameters of hydrodynamic and morphodynamic processes which occur in the Baltic during extreme storms.

  18. Influence of potential sea level rise on societal vulnerability to hurricane storm-surge hazards, Sarasota County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Tim G.; Wood, Nathan; Yarnal, Brent; Bauer, Denise H.

    2010-01-01

    Although the potential for hurricanes under current climatic conditions continue to threaten coastal communities, there is concern that climate change, specifically potential increases in sea level, could influence the impacts of future hurricanes. To examine the potential effect of sea level rise on community vulnerability to future hurricanes, we assess variations in socioeconomic exposure in Sarasota County, FL, to contemporary hurricane storm-surge hazards and to storm-surge hazards enhanced by sea level rise scenarios. Analysis indicates that significant portions of the population, economic activity, and critical facilities are in contemporary and future hurricane storm-surge hazard zones. The addition of sea level rise to contemporary storm-surge hazard zones effectively causes population and asset (infrastructure, natural resources, etc) exposure to be equal to or greater than what is in the hazard zone of the next higher contemporary Saffir–Simpson hurricane category. There is variability among communities for this increased exposure, with greater increases in socioeconomic exposure due to the addition of sea level rise to storm-surge hazard zones as one progresses south along the shoreline. Analysis of the 2050 comprehensive land use plan suggests efforts to manage future growth in residential, economic and infrastructure development in Sarasota County may increase societal exposure to hurricane storm-surge hazards.

  19. Risk Analysis of Coastal hazard Considering Sea-level Rise and Local Environment in Coastal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangjin, P.; Lee, D. K.; KIM, H.; Ryu, J. E.; Yoo, S.; Ryoo, H.

    2014-12-01

    Recently, natural hazards has been more unpredictable with increasing frequency and strength due to climate change. Especially, coastal areas would be more vulnerable in the future because of sea-level rise (SLR). In case of Korea, it is surrounded by oceans and has many big cities at coastal area, thus a hazard prevention plan in coastal area is absolutely necessary. However, prior to making the plan, finding areas at risk would be the first step. In order to find the vulnerable area, local characteristics of coastal areas should also be considered along with SLR. Therefore, the objective of the research is to find vulnerable areas, which could be damaged by coastal hazards considering local environment and SLR of coastal areas. Spatial scope of the research was set up as 1km from the coastline according to the 'coastal management law' in Korea. The assessment was done up to the year of 2050, and the highest sea level rise scenario was used. For risk analysis, biophysical and socioeconomic characteristics were considered as to represent local characteristics of coastal area. Risk analysis was carried out through the combination of 'possibility of hazard' and the 'level of damages', and both of them reflect the above-mentioned regional characteristics. Since the range of inundation was narrowed down to the inundation from typhoon in this research, the possibility of inundation caused by typhoon was estimated by using numerical model, which calculated the height of storm surge considering wave, tide, sea-level pressure and SLR. Also the level of damage was estimated by categorizing the socioeconomic character into four factors; human, infrastructure, ecology and socioeconomic. Variables that represent each factor were selected and used in damage estimation with their classification and weighting value. The result shows that the urban coastal areas are more vulnerable and hazardous than other areas because of socioeconomic factors. The east and the south coast are

  20. Dust Storm Hits Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A thick pall of sand and dust blew out from the Sahara Desert over the Atlantic Ocean yesterday (January 6, 2002), engulfing the Canary Islands in what has become one of the worst sand storms ever recorded there. In this scene, notice how the dust appears particularly thick in the downwind wake of Tenerife, the largest of the Canary Islands. Perhaps the turbulence generated by the air currents flowing past the island's volcanic peaks is churning the dust back up into the atmosphere, rather than allowing it to settle toward the surface. This true-color image was captured by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, on January 7, 2002. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  1. Copper disinfection ban causes storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Alan

    2013-05-01

    Since 1 February this year, under the EU's Biocidal Products Directive, it has been illegal to sell or use water treatment systems that use elemental copper, a practice employed historically by a significant number of UK healthcare facilities to combat Legionella. Alan Lester, managing director of specialist supplier of 'environmentally-friendly' water treatment systems, Advanced Hydro, says the ban has caused 'a storm of giant proportion,' with advocates of copper ion-based treatment systems arguing that this disinfection method dates back 3,000 years to Egyptian times, making it an 'undoubtedly proven' technology. Here he explains why the ban came into force, considers why the UK's Health and Safety Executive (HSE) is seeking a derogation, looks at the ban's likely impact, and gives a personal viewpoint on the 'pros and cons' of some of the alternative treatment technologies, including a titanium dioxide-based system marketed by Advanced Hydro itself in the UK.

  2. Storm Surge Modeling of Typhoon Haiyan at the Naval Oceanographic Office Using Delft3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, M. J.; Lovering, J. L.

    2016-02-01

    The Naval Oceanographic Office provides estimates of the rise in sea level along the coast due to storm surge associated with tropical cyclones, typhoons, and hurricanes. Storm surge modeling and prediction helps the US Navy by providing a threat assessment tool to help protect Navy assets and provide support for humanitarian assistance/disaster relief efforts. Recent advancements in our modeling capabilities include the use of the Delft3D modeling suite as part of a Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) developed Coastal Surge Inundation Prediction System (CSIPS). Model simulations were performed on Typhoon Haiyan, which made landfall in the Philippines in November 2013. Comparisons of model simulations using forecast and hindcast track data highlight the importance of accurate storm track information for storm surge predictions. Model runs using the forecast track prediction and hindcast track information give maximum storm surge elevations of 4 meters and 6.1 meters, respectively. Model results for the hindcast simulation were compared with data published by the JSCE-PICE Joint survey for locations in San Pedro Bay (SPB) and on the Eastern Samar Peninsula (ESP). In SPB, where wind-induced set-up predominates, the model run using the forecast track predicted surge within 2 meters in 38% of survey locations and within 3 meters in 59% of the locations. When the hindcast track was used, the model predicted within 2 meters in 77% of the locations and within 3 meters in 95% of the locations. The model was unable to predict the high surge reported along the ESP produced by infragravity wave-induced set-up, which is not simulated in the model. Additional modeling capabilities incorporating infragravity waves are required to predict storm surge accurately along open coasts with steep bathymetric slopes, such as those seen in island arcs.

  3. Implementation and validation of a coastal forecasting system for wind waves in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Inghilesi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A coastal forecasting system was implemented to provide wind wave forecasts over the whole Mediterranean Sea area, and with the added capability to focus on selected coastal areas. The goal of the system was to achieve a representation of the small-scale coastal processes influencing the propagation of waves towards the coasts. The system was based on a chain of nested wave models and adopted the WAve Model (WAM to analyse the large-scale, deep-sea propagation of waves; and the Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN to simulate waves in key coastal areas. Regional intermediate-scale WAM grids were introduced to bridge the gap between the large-scale and each coastal area. Even applying two consecutive nestings (Mediterranean grid → regional grid → coastal grid, a very high resolution was still required for the large scale WAM implementation in order to get a final resolution of about 400 m on the shores. In this study three regional areas in the Tyrrhenian Sea were selected, with a single coastal area embedded in each of them. The number of regional and coastal grids in the system could easily be modified without significantly affecting the efficiency of the system. The coastal system was tested in three Italian coastal regions in order to optimize the numerical parameters and to check the results in orographically complex zones for which wave records were available. Fifteen storm events in the period 2004–2009 were considered.

  4. Coastal vulnerability across the Pacific dominated by El Niño-Southern Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Short, Andrew D.; Harley, Mitchell D.; Splinter, Kristen D.; Vitousek, Sean; Turner, Ian L.; Allan, Jonathan; Banno, Masayuki; Bryan, Karin R.; Doria, André; Hansen, Jeff E.; Kato, Shigeru; Kuriyama, Yoshiaki; Randall-Goodwin, Evan; Ruggiero, Peter; Walker, Ian J.; Heathfield, Derek K.

    2015-01-01

    To predict future coastal hazards, it is important to quantify any links between climate drivers and spatial patterns of coastal change. However, most studies of future coastal vulnerability do not account for the dynamic components of coastal water levels during storms, notably wave-driven processes, storm surges and seasonal water level anomalies, although these components can add metres to water levels during extreme events. Here we synthesize multi-decadal, co-located data assimilated between 1979 and 2012 that describe wave climate, local water levels and coastal change for 48 beaches throughout the Pacific Ocean basin. We find that observed coastal erosion across the Pacific varies most closely with El Niño/Southern Oscillation, with a smaller influence from the Southern Annular Mode and the Pacific North American pattern. In the northern and southern Pacific Ocean, regional wave and water level anomalies are significantly correlated to a suite of climate indices, particularly during boreal winter; conditions in the northeast Pacific Ocean are often opposite to those in the western and southern Pacific. We conclude that, if projections for an increasing frequency of extreme El Niño and La Niña events over the twenty-first century are confirmed, then populated regions on opposite sides of the Pacific Ocean basin could be alternately exposed to extreme coastal erosion and flooding, independent of sea-level rise.

  5. Coastal Economic Trends for Coastal Geographies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These market data provide a comprehensive set of measures of changes in economic activity throughout the coastal regions of the United States. In regard to the...

  6. Geometric effects of ICMEs on geomagnetic storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, KyungSuk; Lee, Jae-Ok

    2017-04-01

    It has been known that the geomagnetic storm is occurred by the interaction between the Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection (ICME) and the Earth's magnetosphere; especially, the southward Bz component of ICME is thought as the main trigger. In this study, we investigate the relationship between Dst index and solar wind conditions; which are the southward Bz, electric field (VBz), and time integral of electric field as well as ICME parameters derived from toroidal fitting model in order to find what is main factor to the geomagnetic storm. We also inspect locations of Earth in ICMEs to understand the geometric effects of the Interplanetary Flux Ropes (IFRs) on the geomagnetic storms. Among 59 CDAW ICME lists, we select 30 IFR events that are available by the toroidal fitting model and classify them into two sub-groups: geomagnetic storms associated with the Magnetic Clouds (MCs) and the compression regions ahead of the MCs (sheath). The main results are as follows: (1) The time integral of electric field has a higher correlation coefficient (cc) with Dst index than the other parameters: cc=0.85 for 25 MC events and cc=0.99 for 5 sheath events. (2) The sheath associated intense storms (Dst ≤-100nT) having usually occur at flank regions of ICMEs while the MC associated intense storms occur regardless of the locations of the Earth in ICMEs. The strength of a geomagnetic storm strongly depends on electric field of IFR and durations of the IFR passages through the Earth.

  7. Coastal hazards and groundwater salinization on low coral islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, James P.; Chui, T. F. May

    2016-04-01

    Remote oceanic communities living on low-lying coral islands (atolls) without surface water rely for their survival on the continuing viability of fragile groundwater resources. These exist in the form of fresh groundwater lenses (FGLs) that develop naturally within the porous coral sand and gravel substrate. Coastal hazards such as inundation by high-energy waves driven by storms and continuing sea-level rise (SLR) are among many possible threats to viable FGL size and quality on atolls. Yet, not much is known about the combined effects of wave washover during powerful storms and SLR on different sizes of coral island, nor conversely how island size influences lens resilience against damage. This study investigates FGL damage by salinization (and resilience) caused by such coastal hazards using a modelling approach. Numerical modelling is carried out to generate steady-state FGL configurations at three chosen island sizes (400, 600 and 800 m widths). Steady-state solutions reveal how FGL dimensions are related in a non-linear manner to coral island size, such that smaller islands develop much more restricted lenses than larger islands. A 40 cm SLR scenario is then imposed. This is followed by transient simulations to examine storm-induced wave washover and subsequent FGL responses to saline damage over a 1 year period. Smaller FGLs display greater potential for disturbance by SLR, while larger and more robust FGLs tend to show more resilience. Further results produce a somewhat counterintuitive finding: in the post-SLR condition, FGL vulnerability to washover salinization may actually be reduced, owing to the thinner layer of unsaturated substrate lying above the water table into which saline water can infiltrate during a storm event. Nonetheless, combined washover and SLR impacts imply overall that advancing groundwater salinization may lead to some coral islands becoming uninhabitable long before they are completely submerged by sea-level rise, thereby calling

  8. Global Squeeze: Assessing Climate-Critical Resource Constraints for Coastal Climate Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, N. T.; Becker, A.; Schwegler, B.; Fischer, M.

    2014-12-01

    The projected impacts of climate change in the coastal zone will require local planning and local resources to adapt to increasing risks of social, environmental, and economic consequences from extreme events. This means that, for the first time in human history, aggregated local demands could outpace global supply of certain "climate-critical resources." For example, construction materials such as sand and gravel, steel, and cement may be needed to fortify many coastal locations at roughly the same point in time if decision makers begin to construct new storm barriers or elevate coastal lands. Where might adaptation bottlenecks occur? Can the world produce enough cement to armour the world's seaports as flood risks increase due to sea-level rise and more intense storms? Just how many coastal engineers would multiple such projects require? Understanding such global implications of adaptation requires global datasets—such as bathymetry, coastal topography, local sea-level rise and storm surge projections, and construction resource production capacity—that are currently unavailable at a resolution appropriate for a global-scale analysis. Our research group has identified numerous gaps in available data necessary to make such estimates on both the supply and demand sides of this equation. This presentation examines the emerging need and current availability of these types of datasets and argues for new coordinated efforts to develop and share such data.

  9. Hurricane Sandy science plan: impacts of storm surge, including disturbed estuarine and bay hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caskie, Sarah A.

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy devastated some of the most heavily populated eastern coastal areas of the Nation. With a storm surge peaking at more than 19 feet, the powerful landscape-altering destruction of Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards. In response to this natural disaster, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received a total of $41.2 million in supplemental appropriations from the Department of the Interior (DOI) to support response, recovery, and rebuilding efforts. These funds support a science plan that will provide critical scientific information necessary to inform management decisions for recovery of coastal communities, and aid in preparation for future natural hazards. This science plan is designed to coordinate continuing USGS activities with stakeholders and other agencies to improve data collection and analysis that will guide recovery and restoration efforts. The science plan is split into five distinct themes: • Coastal topography and bathymetry • Impacts to coastal beaches and barriers

  10. Synoptic conditions and hazards in coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surkova, Galina; Arkhipkin, Victor; Kislov, Alexsandr

    2013-04-01

    This work is an approach to the methodology of prediction of hazards in the coastal zone. For the past 60 years, according to the observations and reanalysis, meteorological conditions are rough in connection with the storm waves and strong winds resulting in catastrophic damage in the coastal zone of the Black and Caspian Seas. Forecast of similar events is taken from CMIP3 modeled for the future climate 2046-2065 by general global atmosphere and ocean circulation model MPI-ECHAM5. The research was conducted for the three types of calendar data samples: 1) storm wave and surge from observations (1948-2012), 2) storm simulations with wave height of 4 m and more (1948-2010), and 3) prognostic climate scenarios for 2046-2065. In the first sample especially rare events were chosen, accompanied by a large damage in the coastal zone. Second sample of cases was derived from modeling of SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore). The third sample was derived from projections of cases from group 1 in the MPI-ECHAM5 climate forecasts for 2046-2065. For each sample the data of large-scale fields of surface pressure, height 500 hPa isobaric surfaces, 700gPa (Reanalysis NCEP / NCAR) was analyzed. On the basis of statistical techniques (decomposition of fields in the natural orthogonal functions (EOF) and cluster analysis) the synoptic situations associated with these events were classified. Centroids of pressure fields for dominated cases show that there are two basic types of synoptic situations in case of storm waves for the Black Sea. In the first case main role play the Mediterranean cyclones located in the east of the Mediterranean Sea, they are spread over the Black Sea, and often form a local center of low pressure. Their movement is blocked by the high pressure over the European Russia and Eastern Europe. If the center of the cyclone is over Asia and the southern part of the Black Sea, the weather is dominated by the north-eastern, eastern, south-easterly winds. In some cases

  11. The combined risk of extreme tropical cyclone winds and storm surges along the U.S. Gulf of Mexico Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepanier, J. C.; Yuan, J.; Jagger, T. H.

    2017-03-01

    Tropical cyclones, with their nearshore high wind speeds and deep storm surges, frequently strike the United States Gulf of Mexico coastline influencing millions of people and disrupting offshore economic activities. The combined risk of occurrence of tropical cyclone nearshore wind speeds and storm surges is assessed at 22 coastal cities throughout the United States Gulf of Mexico. The models used are extreme value copulas fitted with margins defined by the generalized Pareto distribution or combinations of Weibull, gamma, lognormal, or normal distributions. The statistical relationships between the nearshore wind speed and storm surge are provided for each coastal city prior to the copula model runs using Spearman's rank correlations. The strongest significant relationship between the nearshore wind speed and storm surge exists at Shell Beach, LA (ρ = 0.67), followed by South Padre Island, TX (ρ = 0.64). The extreme value Archimedean copula models for each city then provide return periods for specific nearshore wind speed and storm surge pairs. Of the 22 cities considered, Bay St. Louis, MS, has the shortest return period for a tropical cyclone with at least a 50 ms-1 nearshore wind speed and a 3 m surge (19.5 years, 17.1-23.5). The 90% confidence intervals are created by recalculating the return periods for a fixed set of wind speeds and surge levels using 100 samples of the model parameters. The results of this study can be utilized by policy managers and government officials concerned with coastal populations and economic activity in the Gulf of Mexico.

  12. High resolution modelling of wind fields for optimization of empirical storm flood predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecht, B.; Frank, H.

    2014-05-01

    High resolution wind fields are necessary to predict the occurrence of storm flood events and their magnitude. Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD) created a catalogue of detailed wind fields of 39 historical storms at the German North Sea coast from the years 1962 to 2011. The catalogue is used by the Niedersächsisches Landesamt für Wasser-, Küsten- und Naturschutz (NLWKN) coastal research center to improve their flood alert service. The computation of wind fields and other meteorological parameters is based on the model chain of the DWD going from the global model GME via the limited-area model COSMO with 7 km mesh size down to a COSMO model with 2.2 km. To obtain an improved analysis COSMO runs are nudged against observations for the historical storms. The global model GME is initialised from the ERA reanalysis data of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). As expected, we got better congruency with observations of the model for the nudging runs than the normal forecast runs for most storms. We also found during the verification process that different land use data sets could influence the results considerably.

  13. Improvements of Storm Surge Modelling in the Gulf of Venice with Satellite Data: The ESA Due Esurge-Venice Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Biasio, F.; Bajo, M.; Vignudelli, S.; Papa, A.; della Valle, A.; Umgiesser, G.; Donlon, C.; Zecchetto, S.

    2016-08-01

    Among the most detrimental natural phenomena, storm surges heavily endanger the environment, the economy and the everyday life of sea-side countries and coastal zones. Considering that 120.000.000 people live in the Mediterranean area, with additional 200.000.000 presences in Summer for tourism purposes, the correct prediction of storm surges is crucial to avoid fatalities and economic losses. Earth Observation (EO) can play an important role in operational storm surge forecasting, yet it is not widely diffused in the storm surge community. In 2011 the European Space Agency (ESA), through its Data User Element (DUE) programme, financed two projects aimed at encouraging the uptake of EO data in this sector: eSurge and eSurge-Venice (eSV). The former was intended to address the issues of a wider users' community, while the latter was focused on a restricted geographical area: the northern Adriatic Sea and the Gulf of Venice. Among the objectives of the two projects there were a number of storm surge hindcast experiments using satellite data, to demonstrate the improvements on the surge forecast brought by EO. We report here the results of the hindcast experiments of the eSV project. They were aimed to test the sensitivity of a storm surge model to a forcing wind field modified with scatterometer data in order to reduce the bias between simulated and observed winds. Hindcast experiments were also performed to test the response of the storm surge model to the assimilation, with a dual 4D-Var system, of satellite altimetry observations as model errors of the initial state of the sea surface level. Remarkable improvements on the storm surge forecast have been obtained for what concerns the modified model wind forcing. Encouraging results have been obtained also in the assimilation experiments.

  14. Coastal structures, waste materials and fishery enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, K.J.; Jensen, A.C.; Lockwood, A.P.M.; Lockwood, S.J. [University of Southampton, Southampton (United Kingdom). Dept. of Oceanography

    1994-09-01

    Current UK practice relating to the disposal of material at sea is reviewed. The use of stabilization technology relating to bulk waste materials, coal ash, oil ash and incinerator ash is discussed. The extension of this technology to inert minestone waste and tailings, contaminated dredged sediments and phosphogypsum is explored. Uses of stabilized wastes are considered in the areas of habitat restoration, coastal defense and fishery enhancement. It is suggested that rehabilitation of marine dump sites receiving loose waste such as pulverized fuel ash (PFA) could be enhanced by the continued dumping of the material but in a stabilized block form, so creating new habitat diversity. Global warming predictions include sea level rise and increased storm frequency. This is of particular concern along the southern and eastern coasts of the UK. The emphasis of coastal defense is changing from hard seawalls to soft options which include offshore barriers to reduce wave energy reaching the coast. Stabilized waste materials could be included in these and other marine constructions with possible economic benefit. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF), the regulatory authority in England and Wales for marine disposal/construction, policy regarding marine structures and fishery enhancement is outlined. A case is made for the inclusion of fishery enhancement features in future coastal structures. Examples of the productivity of man-made structures are given. Slight modification of planned structures and inclusion of suitable habitat niches could allow for the cultivation of kelp, molluscs, crustacea and fish.

  15. U.S. Coastal Flood Damage Reduction Projects: Federal Authorization and Investment Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, N. T.

    2015-12-01

    The 2015 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency report Climate Change in the United States: Benefits of Global Action estimated the potential cumulative future economic impacts of storm surge and sea-level rise on U.S. coasts during this century at 5 trillion (2014 dollars) if no adaptation measures are implemented. These impacts drop to 0.8 trillion if investments are made in cost-effective adaptations and protections. Awareness of flood risk and its long-term fiscal impact historically has proven insufficient to motivate pre-disaster land use changes and investments in mitigation and protection. While many adaptations and protections fall largely under state and local authority, some stakeholders are interested in federal coastal flood protection projects, including projects by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Since the 1950s, Congress has authorized the Corps to construct specific coastal projects. The broad vision, strategy, and priorities for the federal role in coastal flood damage reduction projects nonetheless remain ill-defined. This research analyzes (1) the authorization and appropriations trends for Corps coastal storm damage reduction projects, and (2) how Corps feasibility studies account for and address coastal flood hazards. Identified trends include: emergency appropriations for storm-damaged areas outstrip annual investments in coastal flood projects; the rate at which projects are congressionally approved for construction outpaces the rate at which construction is funded; and how coastal protection projects are evaluated in Corps feasibility studies shows variation and change in agency practices. These trends have consequences; they affect public and local expectations when projects begin providing protection benefits, and may influence investments in other adaptation measures. These trends also raise questions for policymakers at all levels and for scientists and practitioners interested in coastal flood resilience.

  16. Historical reconstruction of storms in the West of France in the early Little Ice Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athimon, Emmanuelle; Maanan, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    This research offers to : 1) identify, as accurately as possible, the storms and the coastal flooding in the early Little Ice Age, 2) expose their impacts on the environment and populations, 3) query the « resilience » and adaptation of medieval and modern coastal societies in the West of France by presenting their perceptions and reactions. The space-time frame of the study is located in France, from Brittany to Gascony, between the xivth and the xvith century. Sensitive and brittle, this area is regularly battered by violent winds. It also undergoes episodic sea flooding that can cause ruptures of balance. Hence, the historical reconstruction and analysis of storms and coastal flooding in a long period appear fundamental. A thorough knowledge of past meteo-marine hazards allows to recreate a link with the territory, particularly through the (re)construction of an effective memory of these phenomena. This process is essential however difficult because of many documentary gaps. They are due to historical contingencies such as wars, French Revolution, or archival disasters like the fire of the Chamber of Accounts in Paris in 1737. Many limits must also be taken into account and discussed as inaccurate dates, exaggerated or undervalued descriptions, strict spatial demarcation almost impossible to achieve for the xivth-xvith centuries. Furthermore, during this period, no death toll, material and economic balance was done after a climate disaster. Yet, many historical records - especially narrative sources, books of accounts or cities repairs - expose the impacts of storms and marine submersion on agriculture, environment, infrastructures, etc. For instance, a violent storm hit the coast on June 24th 1452. It washed away part of the roof of a castle on Noirmoutier island and knocked down the bell towers of two churches in Angers. Storms and sea flooding have affected activities, constructions and populations' lives. They have therefore forced societies to adapt

  17. Towards a record of Holocene tsunami and storms for northern Hawke's Bay, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, U.A.; Berryman, K.R.; Mildenhall, D.C.; Hayward, B.W.; Southall, K.; Hollis, C.J.

    2005-01-01

    Eleven sand layers occur within Holocene low-energy estuarine and marginal marine sequences of blue-grey silty clay at two sites on the coastal plain between Wairoa and Mahia Peninsula, northern Hawke's Bay, New Zealand. The sedimentology and fossil assemblages of these layers are consistent with deposition by high-energy influxes to the sites. Three influxes are terrestrial in nature and are thought to represent alluvial flood events. All other sand layers are marine derived and are likely to be the result of storm surges or tsunami. Tsunami inundation is favoured for two sand layers that occur in association with evidence for sudden subsidence at c. 6300 and c. 4800 yr BP. The c. 6300 yr inundation also coincides with previously identified evidence for a tsunami at a site 10 km westwards along the coast. Further investigation is required to distinguish between tsunami and storm surge deposition for the remaining six layers. (author). 50 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  18. A numerical study of wave-current interaction through surface and bottom stresses: Coastal ocean response to Hurricane Fran of 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, L.; Pietrafesa, L. J.; Wu, K.

    2003-02-01

    A three-dimensional wave-current coupled modeling system is used to examine the influence of waves on coastal currents and sea level. This coupled modeling system consists of the wave model-WAM (Cycle 4) and the Princeton Ocean Model (POM). The results from this study show that it is important to incorporate surface wave effects into coastal storm surge and circulation models. Specifically, we find that (1) storm surge models without coupled surface waves generally under estimate not only the peak surge but also the coastal water level drop which can also cause substantial impact on the coastal environment, (2) introducing wave-induced surface stress effect into storm surge models can significantly improve storm surge prediction, (3) incorporating wave-induced bottom stress into the coupled wave-current model further improves storm surge prediction, and (4) calibration of the wave module according to minimum error in significant wave height does not necessarily result in an optimum wave module in a wave-current coupled system for current and storm surge prediction.

  19. Assessing storm surge hazard and impact of sea level rise in the Lesser Antilles case study of Martinique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krien, Yann; Dudon, Bernard; Roger, Jean; Arnaud, Gael; Zahibo, Narcisse

    2017-09-01

    In the Lesser Antilles, coastal inundations from hurricane-induced storm surges pose a great threat to lives, properties and ecosystems. Assessing current and future storm surge hazards with sufficient spatial resolution is of primary interest to help coastal planners and decision makers develop mitigation and adaptation measures. Here, we use wave-current numerical models and statistical methods to investigate worst case scenarios and 100-year surge levels for the case study of Martinique under present climate or considering a potential sea level rise. Results confirm that the wave setup plays a major role in the Lesser Antilles, where the narrow island shelf impedes the piling-up of large amounts of wind-driven water on the shoreline during extreme events. The radiation stress gradients thus contribute significantly to the total surge - up to 100 % in some cases. The nonlinear interactions of sea level rise (SLR) with bathymetry and topography are generally found to be relatively small in Martinique but can reach several tens of centimeters in low-lying areas where the inundation extent is strongly enhanced compared to present conditions. These findings further emphasize the importance of waves for developing operational storm surge warning systems in the Lesser Antilles and encourage caution when using static methods to assess the impact of sea level rise on storm surge hazard.

  20. Coastal Innovation Imperative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce C. Glavovic

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the second of two articles that explores the coastal innovation paradox and imperative. Paradoxically, innovation is necessary to escape the vulnerability trap created by past innovations that have degraded coastal ecosystems and imperil coastal livelihoods. The innovation imperative is to reframe and underpin business and technology with coherent governance innovations that lead to social transformation for coastal sustainability. How might coastal management help to facilitate this transition? It is argued that coastal management needs to be reconceptualised as a transformative practice of deliberative coastal governance. A foundation comprising four deliberative or process outcomes is posited. The point of departure is to build human and social capital through issue learning and improved democratic attitudes and skills. Attention then shifts to facilitating community-oriented action and improving institutional capacity and decision-making. Together, these endeavours enable improved community problem-solving. The ultimate process goal is to build more collaborative communities. Instituting transformative deliberative coastal governance will help to stimulate innovations that chart new sustainability pathways and help to resolve the coastal problems. This framework could be adapted and applied in other geographical settings.

  1. Rain storm models and the relationship between their parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stol, P.T.

    1977-01-01

    Rainfall interstation correlation functions can be obtained with the aid of analytic rainfall or storm models. Since alternative storm models have different mathematical formulas, comparison should be based on equallity of parameters like storm diameter, mean rainfall amount, storm maximum or total

  2. 46 CFR 72.40-10 - Storm rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 72.40-10 Section 72.40-10 Shipping COAST... and Guards § 72.40-10 Storm rails. (a) Suitable storm rails shall be installed in all passageways and at the deckhouse sides where passengers or crew might have normal access. Storm rails shall be...

  3. Hindicast and forecast of the Parsifal storm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertotti, L.; Cavaleri, L. [Istituto Studio Dinamica Grandi Masse, Venice (Italy); De girolamo, P.; Magnaldi, S. [Rome, Univ. `La Sapienza` (Italy). Dip. di Idraulica, Trasporti e Strade; Franco, L. [Rome, III Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Scienze dell`Ingegneria Civile

    1998-05-01

    On 2 November 1995 a Mistral storm in the Gulf of Lions sank the 16 metre yacht Parsifal claiming six lives out of the nine member crew. The authors analyse the storm with different meteorological and wave models, verifying the results against the available buoy and satellite measurements. Then the authors consider the accuracy of the storm forecasts and the information available the days before the accident. The limitations related to the resolution of the meteorological models are explored by hind casting the storm also with the winds produced by some limited area models. Finally, the authors discuss the present situation of wind and wave hind cast and forecast in the Mediterranean Sea, and the distribution of these results to the public.

  4. Storm Water General Permit 2 for Construction

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — General permit #2 for storm water discharges associated with industrial activity for Construction Activities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination...

  5. Nuclear magnetohydrodynamic EMP, solar storms, and substorms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabinowitz, M.; Meliopoulous, A.P.S.; Glytsis, E.N.

    1992-01-01

    In addition to a fast electromagnetic pulse (EMP), a high altitude nuclear burst produces a relatively slow magnetohydrodynamic EMP (MHD EMP), whose effects are like those from solar storm geomagnetically induced currents (SS-GIC). The MHD EMP electric field E approx-lt 10 - 1 V/m and lasts approx-lt 10 2 sec, whereas for solar storms E approx-gt 10 - 2 V/m and lasts approx-gt 10 3 sec. Although the solar storm electric field is lower than MHD EMP, the solar storm effects are generally greater due to their much longer duration. Substorms produce much smaller effects than SS-GIC, but occur much more frequently. This paper describes the physics of such geomagnetic disturbances and analyzes their effects

  6. Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) Storm Wallets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) is responsible for typhoon forecasts and warnings for the Western Pacific and Indian Ocean basins. After each storm, the JTWC...

  7. Storm Water BMP Tool Implementation Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Under project 2015-ORIL 7, a screening tool was developed to assist Local communities with selecting post-construction storm water best management practices (BMPs) to comply with the Ohio Environmental Protection Agencys (Ohio EPA) statewide Const...

  8. Ionospheric behaviour during storm recovery phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buresova, D.; Lastovicka, J.; Boska, J.; Sindelarova, T.; Chum, J.

    2012-04-01

    Intensive ionospheric research, numerous multi-instrumental observations and large-scale numerical simulations of ionospheric F region response to magnetic storm-induced disturbances during the last several decades were primarily focused on the storm main phase, in most cases covering only a few hours of the recovery phase following after storm culmination. Ionospheric behaviour during entire recovery phase still belongs to not sufficiently explored and hardly predictable features. In general, the recovery phase is characterized by an abatement of perturbations and a gradual return to the "ground state" of ionosphere. However, observations of stormy ionosphere show significant departures from the climatology also within this phase. This paper deals with the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the ionospheric behaviour during the entire recovery phase of strong-to-severe magnetic storms at middle latitudes for nowadays and future modelling and forecasting purposes.

  9. Drinking water vulnerability to climate change and alternatives for adaptation in coastal South and South East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Hoque, M. A.; Scheelbeek, P. F. D.; Vineis, P.; Khan, A. E.; Ahmed, K. M.; Butler, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Drinking water in much of Asia, particularly in coastal and rural settings, is provided by a variety of sources, which are widely distributed and frequently managed at an individual or local community level. Coastal and near-inland drinking water sources in South and South East (SSE) Asia are vulnerable to contamination by seawater, most dramatically from tropical cyclone induced storm surges. This paper assesses spatial vulnerabilities to salinisation of drinking water sources due to meteoro...

  10. Satellite Assessment of Bio-Optical Properties of Northern Gulf of Mexico Coastal Waters Following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    OpenAIRE

    Lohrenz, Steven E.; Cai, Wei-Jun; Chen, Xiaogang; Tuel, Merritt

    2008-01-01

    The impacts of major tropical storms events on coastal waters include sediment resuspension, intense water column mixing, and increased delivery of terrestrial materials into coastal waters. We examined satellite imagery acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) ocean color sensor aboard the Aqua spacecraft following two major hurricane events: Hurricane Katrina, which made landfall on 29 August 2005, and Hurricane Rita, which made landfall on 24 September. MODIS A...

  11. Geomagnetic storms, super-storms, and their impacts on GPS-based navigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astafyeva, E.; Yasyukevich, Yu.; Maksikov, A.; Zhivetiev, I.

    2014-07-01

    Using data of GPS receivers located worldwide, we analyze the quality of GPS performance during four geomagnetic storms of different intensity: two super-storms and two intense storms. We show that during super-storms the density of GPS Losses-of-Lock (LoL) increases up to 0.25% at L1 frequency and up to 3% at L2 frequency, and up to 0.15% (at L1) and 1% (at L2) during less intense storms. Also, depending on the intensity of the storm time ionospheric disturbances, the total number of total electron content (TEC) slips can exceed from 4 to 40 times the quiet time level. Both GPS LoL and TEC slips occur during abrupt changes of SYM-H index of geomagnetic activity, i.e., during the main phase of geomagnetic storms and during development of ionospheric storms. The main contribution in the total number of GPS LoL was found to be done by GPS sites located at low and high latitudes, whereas the area of numerous TEC slips seemed to mostly correspond to the boundary of the auroral oval, i.e., region with intensive ionospheric irregularities. Our global maps of TEC slips show where the regions with intense irregularities of electron density occur during geomagnetic storms and will let us in future predict appearance of GPS errors for geomagnetically disturbed conditions.

  12. Ice Storms in a Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    CHANGING CLIMATE by Jennifer M. McNitt June 2016 Thesis Advisor: Wendell Nuss Co-Advisor: David W. Titley THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT...SUBTITLE ICE STORMS IN A CHANGING CLIMATE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Jennifer M. McNitt 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS...increase in global temperatures, due to climate change, could affect the frequency, intensity, and geographic location of ice storms. Three known ice

  13. Coastal Analysis, Nassau,NY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study as defined in FEMA Guides and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping submitted as a result of a coastal study....

  14. Coastal Analysis, Mathews County, VA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study as defined in FEMA Guides and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping submitted as a result of a coastal study....

  15. Mapping Hurricane Rita inland storm tide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenbrock, Charles; Mason, Jr., Robert R.; Blanchard, Stephen F.; Simonovic, Slobodan P.

    2009-01-01

    Flood-inundation data are most useful for decision makers when presented in the context of maps of effected communities and (or) areas. But because the data are scarce and rarely cover the full extent of the flooding, interpolation and extrapolation of the information are needed. Many geographic information systems (GIS) provide various interpolation tools, but these tools often ignore the effects of the topographic and hydraulic features that influence flooding. A barrier mapping method was developed to improve maps of storm tide produced by Hurricane Rita. Maps were developed for the maximum storm tide and at 3-hour intervals from midnight (0000 hour) through noon (1200 hour) on September 24, 2005. The improved maps depict storm-tide elevations and the extent of flooding. The extent of storm-tide inundation from the improved maximum storm-tide map was compared to the extent of flood-inundation from a map prepared by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The boundaries from these two maps generally compared quite well especially along the Calcasieu River. Also a cross-section profile that parallels the Louisiana coast was developed from the maximum storm-tide map and included FEMA high-water marks.

  16. Development of a coastal drought index using salinity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrads, Paul; Darby, Lisa S.

    2017-01-01

    A critical aspect of the uniqueness of coastal drought is the effects on the salinity dynamics of creeks, rivers, and estuaries. The location of the freshwater–saltwater interface along the coast is an important factor in the ecological and socioeconomic dynamics of coastal communities. Salinity is a critical response variable that integrates hydrologic and coastal dynamics including sea level, tides, winds, precipitation, streamflow, and tropical storms. The position of the interface determines the composition of freshwater and saltwater aquatic communities as well as the freshwater availability for water intakes. Many definitions of drought have been proposed, with most describing a decline in precipitation having negative impacts on the water supply. Indices have been developed incorporating data such as rainfall, streamflow, soil moisture, and groundwater levels. These water-availability drought indices were developed for upland areas and may not be ideal for characterizing coastal drought. The availability of real-time and historical salinity datasets provides an opportunity for the development of a salinity-based coastal drought index. An approach similar to the standardized precipitation index (SPI) was modified and applied to salinity data obtained from sites in South Carolina and Georgia. Using the SPI approach, the index becomes a coastal salinity index (CSI) that characterizes coastal salinity conditions with respect to drought periods of higher-saline conditions and wet periods of higher-freshwater conditions. Evaluation of the CSI indicates that it provides additional coastal response information as compared to the SPI and the Palmer hydrologic drought index, and the CSI can be used for different estuary types and for comparison of conditions along coastlines.

  17. Engaging Communities Where They Are: New Hampshire's Coastal Adaptation Workgroup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake, C. P.; Godlewski, S.; Howard, K.; Labranche, J.; Miller, S.; Peterson, J.; Ashcraft, C.

    2015-12-01

    for the impacts of rising seas and coastal storms.

  18. Assessing economic impact of storm surge under projected sea level rise scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Angel, D. C.; Yoskowitz, D.

    2017-12-01

    Global sea level is expected to rise 0.2-2m by the year 2100. Rising sea level is expected to have a number of impacts such as erosion, saltwater intrusion, and decline in coastal wetlands; all which have direct and indirect socio-economic impact to coastal communities. By 2050, 25% of the world's population will reside within flood-prone areas. These statistics raise a concern for the economic cost that sea level and flooding has on the growing coastal communities. Economic cost of storm surge inundation and rising seas may include loss or damage to public facilities and infrastructure that may become temporarily inaccessible, as well as disruptions to business and services. This goal of this project is to assess economic impacts of storms under four SLR scenarios including low, intermediate-low, intermediate-high, and high (0.2m, 0.5m, 1.2m and 2m, respectively) in the Northern Gulf of Mexico region. To assess flooding impact on communities from storm surge, this project utilizes HAZUS-MH software - a Geographic Information System (GIS)-based modeling tool developed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency - to estimate physical, economic, and social impacts of natural disasters such as floods, earthquakes and hurricanes. The HAZUS database comes integrated with aggregate and site specific inventory which includes: demographic data, general building stock, agricultural statistics, vehicle inventory, essential facilities, transportation systems, utility systems (among other sensitive facilities). User-defined inundation scenarios will serve to identify assets at risk and damage estimates will be generated using the Depth Damage Function included in the HAZUS software. Results will focus on 3 communities in the Gulf and highlight changes in storm flood impact. This approach not only provides a method for economic impact assessment but also begins to create a link between ecosystem services and natural and nature-based features such as wetlands, beaches and dunes

  19. Identifying hotspots of coastal risk and evaluating DRR measures: results from the RISC-KIT project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dongeren, A.; Ciavola, P.; Viavattene, C.; Dekleermaeker, S.; Martinez, G.; Ferreira, O.; Costa, C.

    2016-02-01

    High-impact storm events have demonstrated the vulnerability of coastal zones in Europe and beyond. These impacts are likely to increase due to predicted climate change and ongoing coastal development. In order to reduce impacts, disaster risk reduction (DRR) measures need to be taken, which prevent or mitigate the effects of storm events. To drive the DRR agenda, the UNISDR formulated the Sendai Framework for Action, and the EU has issued the Floods Directive. However, neither is specific about the methods to be used to develop actionable DRR measures in the coastal zone. Therefore, there is a need to develop methods, tools and approaches which make it possible to: identify and prioritize the coastal zones which are most at risk through a Coastal Risk Assessment Framework, evaluate the effectiveness of DRR options for these coastal areas, using an Early Warning/Decision Support System, which can be used both in the planning and event-phase. This paper gives an overview of the products and results obtained in the FP7-funded project RISC-KIT, which aims to develop and apply a set of tools with which highly-vulnerable coastal areas (so-called "hotspots") can be identified. The identification is done using the Coastal Risk Assessment Framework, or CRAF, which computes the intensity from multi-hazards, the exposure and the vulnerability, all components of risk, including network and cascading effects. Based on this analysis hot spots of risk which warrant coastal protection investments are selected. For these hotspot areas, high-resolution Early Warning and Decision Support Tools are developed with which it is possible to compute in detail the effectiveness of Disaster Risk Reduction measures in storm event scenarios, which helps decide which measures to implement in the planning phase. The same systems, but now driven with real time data, can also be used for early warning systems. All tools are tested on eleven case study areas, at least one on each EU Regional Sea

  20. Monitoring Coastal Change after the Tsunami in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantanahiran, W

    2014-01-01

    The tsunami on December 26, 2004 caused widespread devastation along the coast of Thailand, especially in Ban Nam Khem, Phang Nga province. This disaster claimed more than 941 lives, with 502 other people missing when the storm surge caught the residents of this area. The coastal geomorphology was impacted by this disaster. The objectives of the research were to study the effect of the tsunami on coastal change and the recovery of coastal areas. Six time-series datasets of aerial photographs and satellite images from 2002, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2009, and 2010 were compared using the Geographic Information System (GIS). The results showed the effect of the tsunami on the buildings in the area. Fifty-eight point sixty-three percent of the buildings in the urban area were destroyed by the tsunami and constructions was raised to 103.60% and 197.12% between 2004 and 2010, thus indicating the recovery of the local community. Geomorphological change in Ko Kho Khao (the island) was found after the tsunami disaster, including coastal erosion and coastal deposition. The balance of nature played a major role in controlling the erosion and deposition. The coastal deposits were the highest in 2005; however, deposition was not found in 2004. The erosion rate from 2002-2003 was the highest (48.10 meter per year) and higher than 2003-2004 (39.03 meters per year), 2004-2009 (15.64 meters per year) and 2009-2010 (29.49 meters per year). The coastal area was more severe eroded than the estuary area, and severe coastal erosion caused the loss of coastal area, approximately 0.28 ha. Severe coastal erosion has been repeatedly found since 2005 in the lower part of the area, and hard structures such as concrete seawalls might have been affected by coastal erosion. In addition, extrapolation of coastal erosion at the rate of 30 meters per year showed that the lower part of Ko Kho Khao should disappear in 2015

  1. Observations and operational model simulations reveal the impact of Hurricane Matthew (2016) on the Gulf Stream and coastal sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezer, Tal; Atkinson, Larry P.; Tuleya, Robert

    2017-12-01

    In October 7-9, 2016, Hurricane Matthew moved along the southeastern coast of the U.S., causing major flooding and significant damage, even to locations farther north well away from the storm's winds. Various observations, such as tide gauge data, cable measurements of the Florida Current (FC) transport, satellite altimeter data and high-frequency radar data, were analyzed to evaluate the impact of the storm. The data show a dramatic decline in the FC flow and increased coastal sea level along the U.S. coast. Weakening of the Gulf Stream (GS) downstream from the storm's area contributed to high coastal sea levels farther north. Analyses of simulations of an operational hurricane-ocean coupled model reveal the disruption that the hurricane caused to the GS flow, including a decline in transport of ∼20 Sv (1 Sv = 106 m3 s-1). In comparison, the observed FC reached a maximum transport of ∼40 Sv before the storm on September 10 and a minimum of ∼20 Sv after the storm on October 12. The hurricane impacts both the geostrophic part of the GS and the wind-driven currents, generating inertial oscillations with velocities of up to ±1 m s-1. Analysis of the observed FC transport since 1982 indicated that the magnitude of the current weakening in October 2016 was quite rare (outside 3 standard deviations from the mean). Such a large FC weakening in the past occurred more often in October and November, but is extremely rare in June-August. Similar impacts on the FC from past tropical storms and hurricanes suggest that storms may contribute to seasonal and interannual variations in the FC. The results also demonstrated the extended range of coastal impacts that remote storms can cause through their influence on ocean currents.

  2. Adapting Coastal State Indicators to end-users: the iCoast Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarchi, Alessandro; Isotta Cristofori, Elena; Gracia, Vicente; Sairouní, Abdel; García-León, Manuel; Cámaro, Walther; Facello, Anna

    2016-04-01

    The extraordinary development of the built environment and of the population densities in the coastal areas are making coastal communities highly exposed. The sea level rise induced by climate change will worsen this coastal vulnerability scenario and a considerable amount of people are expected to be threatened by coastal flooding in the future. Due to the increasing number of catastrophic events, and the consequent increased number of damages and people affected, over the last decades coastal hazard management has become a fundamental activity in order to improve the resilience of coastal community. In this scenario, iCoast (integrated COastal Alert SysTem) project has been founded to develop a tool able to address coastal risks caused by extreme waves and high sea water levels in European coastal areas. In the framework of iCoast Project, a set of Coastal State Indicators (CSIs) has been developed in order to improve the forecasting and the assessment of coastal risks. CSIs are indeed parameters able to provide end-users with an essential information about coastal hazards and related impacts. Within the iCoast Project, following a comprehensive literature review about existing indicators concerning coastal risks, a list of CSIs have been chosen as parameters that can be derived from the meteorological and the hydrodynamic modules. They include both physical variables used as trigger for meteorological and flood warnings from the majority of the operational National/Regional warning systems and further essential parameters, so called 'storm integrated' coastal-storm indicators, able to describe the physical processes that drive coastal damages, such as erosion, accumulation, flooding, destructions. Nowadays, it is generally acknowledged that communities are not homogenous and hence their different vulnerable groups might need different warnings. Generally, even existing national EWS in developed countries are often ineffective to issue targeted warnings for

  3. Thyroid Storm: A Japanese Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamizu, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    Thyroid storm (TS) is life threatening. In the mid-2000s, its incidence was poorly defined, peer-reviewed diagnostic criteria were not available, and management and treatment did not seem to be verified based upon evidence and latest advances in medicine. First, diagnostic criteria were developed based on 99 patients in the literature and seven patients in this study. Then, initial and follow-up surveys were conducted from 2004 through 2008, targeting all hospitals in Japan to obtain and verify information on patients who met diagnostic criteria for TS. Based on these data, the diagnostic criteria were revised, and management and treatment guidelines were created. The incidence of TS in hospitalized patients in Japan was estimated to be 0.20 per 100,000 per year and 0.22% of all thyrotoxic patients. The mortality rate was 10.7%. Multiple organ failure was the most common cause of death, followed by congestive heart failure, respiratory failure, and arrhythmia. In the final diagnostic criteria for TS, the definition of jaundice as serum bilirubin concentration >3 mg/dL was added. Based upon nationwide surveys and the latest information, guidelines for the management and treatment for TS were extensively revised and algorithms were developed. TS remains a life-threatening disorder, with >10% mortality in Japan. New peer-reviewed diagnostic criteria for TS are presented and its clinical features, prognosis, and incidence are clarified based on nationwide surveys. Furthermore, this information helped to establish detailed guidelines for the management and treatment of TS. A prospective prognostic study to validate the guidelines is eagerly anticipated.

  4. Resilience from coastal protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Lesley C

    2015-10-28

    Coastal areas are important residential, commercial and industrial areas; but coastal hazards can pose significant threats to these areas. Shoreline/coastal protection elements, both built structures such as breakwaters, seawalls and revetments, as well as natural features such as beaches, reefs and wetlands, are regular features of a coastal community and are important for community safety and development. These protection structures provide a range of resilience to coastal communities. During and after disasters, they help to minimize damages and support recovery; during non-disaster times, the values from shoreline elements shift from the narrow focus on protection. Most coastal communities have limited land and resources and few can dedicate scarce resources solely for protection. Values from shore protection can and should expand to include environmental, economic and social/cultural values. This paper discusses the key aspects of shoreline protection that influence effective community resilience and protection from disasters. This paper also presents ways that the economic, environmental and social/cultural values of shore protection can be evaluated and quantified. It presents the Coastal Community Hazard Protection Resilience (CCHPR) Index for evaluating the resilience capacity to coastal communities from various protection schemes and demonstrates the use of this Index for an urban beach in San Francisco, CA, USA. © 2015 The Author(s).

  5. Wave model downscaling for coastal applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valchev, Nikolay; Davidan, Georgi; Trifonova, Ekaterina; Andreeva, Nataliya

    2010-05-01

    Downscaling is a suitable technique for obtaining high-resolution estimates from relatively coarse-resolution global models. Dynamical and statistical downscaling has been applied to the multidecadal simulations of ocean waves. Even as large-scale variability might be plausibly estimated from these simulations, their value for the small scale applications such as design of coastal protection structures and coastal risk assessment is limited due to their relatively coarse spatial and temporal resolutions. Another advantage of the high resolution wave modeling is that it accounts for shallow water effects. Therefore, it can be used for both wave forecasting at specific coastal locations and engineering applications that require knowledge about extreme wave statistics at or near the coastal facilities. In the present study downscaling is applied to both ECMWF and NCEP/NCAR global reanalysis of atmospheric pressure over the Black Sea with 2.5 degrees spatial resolution. A simplified regional atmospheric model is employed for calculation of the surface wind field at 0.5 degrees resolution that serves as forcing for the wave models. Further, a high-resolution nested WAM/SWAN wave model suite of nested wave models is applied for spatial downscaling. It aims at resolving the wave conditions in a limited area at the close proximity to the shore. The pilot site is located in the northern part the Bulgarian Black Sea shore. The system involves the WAM wave model adapted for basin scale simulation at 0.5 degrees spatial resolution. The WAM output for significant wave height, mean wave period and mean angle of wave approach is used in terms of external boundary conditions for the SWAN wave model, which is set up for the western Black Sea shelf at 4km resolution. The same model set up on about 400m resolution is nested to the first SWAN run. In this case the SWAN 2D spectral output provides boundary conditions for the high-resolution model run. The models are implemented for a

  6. Coastal Hazards and Climate Change. A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wratt, D.; Mullan, B.; Salinger, J.; Allan, S.; Morgan, T.; Kenny, G.

    2004-05-01

    Climate change will not introduce any new types of coastal hazards, but it will affect existing hazards. Coastal hazards in many areas are expected to increase as a result of the effects of climate change. As development of coastal areas and property values increase, the potential impacts of coastal hazards increase. There is increasing confidence in the predictions of the effects of climate change. Sea level has risen in New Zealand by about 0.25 m since the mid-1800s (historical sea-level rise has been approximately 0.16 m per century), and this rise is expected to accelerate. Under the most likely mid-range projections, sea level is projected to rise a further 0.14 - 0.18 m by 2050, and 0.31 - 0.49 m by 2100. In developing scenarios, it is recommended that at least the most likely mid-range scenario for sea-level rise is used: it is recommended that council staff use a figure of 0.2 m by 2050 and 0.5 m by 2100 when considering sea-level rise in projects or plans. Sea-level rise and other climate change effects, such as increased intensity of storms and changes in sediment supply to coastlines, are expected to modify coastal hazards in many areas around New Zealand. Because climate change effects are very gradual, land-use planning decisions must have long-term horizons to accommodate the lifetimes of structures. It is vital that planning occurs now for climate change effects, particularly where decisions are being made on issues and developments that have planning horizons and life expectancies of 50 years or more. This Guidance Manual is intended to help local authorities manage coastal hazards by: providing information on the effects of climate change on coastal hazards; presenting a decision-making framework to assess the associated risks; providing guidance on appropriate response options. Three main types of coastal hazard are addressed: coastal erosion caused by storms and/or long-term processes; coastal inundation caused by storms or gradual inundation

  7. Investigating extreme event loading on coastal bridges using wireless sensor technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelineau, Douglas A.; Davis, Justin R.; Rice, Jennifer A.

    2017-04-01

    Coastal infrastructure, such as bridges, are susceptible to many forms of coastal hazards: particularly hurricane surge and wave loading. These two forms of loading can cause catastrophic damage to aging highway infrastructure. It is estimated that storm damage costs the United States about $50 Billion per year. In light of this, it is crucial that we understand the damaging forces placed on infrastructure during storm events so that we can develop safer and more resilient coastal structures. This paper presents the ongoing research to enable the efficient collection of extreme event loads acting on both the substructure and superstructure of low clearance, simple span, reinforced concrete bridges. Bridges of this type were commonly constructed during the 1950's and 60's and are particularly susceptible to deck unseating caused by hurricane surge and wave loading. The sensing technology used to capture this data must be ruggedized to survive in an extremely challenging environment, be designed to allow for redundancy in the event of sensors or other network components being lost in the storm, and be relatively low cost to allow for more bridges to be instrumented per storm event. The prototype system described in this paper includes wireless technology, rapid data transmission, and, for the sensors, self-contained power. While this specific application focuses on hurricane hazards, the framework can be extended to include other natural hazards.

  8. Doubling of coastal flooding frequency within decades due to sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitousek, Sean; Barnard, Patrick L.; Fletcher, Charles H.; Frazer, Neil; Erikson, Li; Storlazzi, Curt D.

    2017-01-01

    Global climate change drives sea-level rise, increasing the frequency of coastal flooding. In most coastal regions, the amount of sea-level rise occurring over years to decades is significantly smaller than normal ocean-level fluctuations caused by tides, waves, and storm surge. However, even gradual sea-level rise can rapidly increase the frequency and severity of coastal flooding. So far, global-scale estimates of increased coastal flooding due to sea-level rise have not considered elevated water levels due to waves, and thus underestimate the potential impact. Here we use extreme value theory to combine sea-level projections with wave, tide, and storm surge models to estimate increases in coastal flooding on a continuous global scale. We find that regions with limited water-level variability, i.e., short-tailed flood-level distributions, located mainly in the Tropics, will experience the largest increases in flooding frequency. The 10 to 20 cm of sea-level rise expected no later than 2050 will more than double the frequency of extreme water-level events in the Tropics, impairing the developing economies of equatorial coastal cities and the habitability of low-lying Pacific island nations.

  9. Doubling of coastal flooding frequency within decades due to sea-level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitousek, Sean; Barnard, Patrick L; Fletcher, Charles H; Frazer, Neil; Erikson, Li; Storlazzi, Curt D

    2017-05-18

    Global climate change drives sea-level rise, increasing the frequency of coastal flooding. In most coastal regions, the amount of sea-level rise occurring over years to decades is significantly smaller than normal ocean-level fluctuations caused by tides, waves, and storm surge. However, even gradual sea-level rise can rapidly increase the frequency and severity of coastal flooding. So far, global-scale estimates of increased coastal flooding due to sea-level rise have not considered elevated water levels due to waves, and thus underestimate the potential impact. Here we use extreme value theory to combine sea-level projections with wave, tide, and storm surge models to estimate increases in coastal flooding on a continuous global scale. We find that regions with limited water-level variability, i.e., short-tailed flood-level distributions, located mainly in the Tropics, will experience the largest increases in flooding frequency. The 10 to 20 cm of sea-level rise expected no later than 2050 will more than double the frequency of extreme water-level events in the Tropics, impairing the developing economies of equatorial coastal cities and the habitability of low-lying Pacific island nations.

  10. The Rachel-B/coastal towing incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawn, D.R. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    On June 23, 1989, the outbound tanker ship Rachel-B and the towboat Gayolyn Ann Griffin, towing barges owned by Coastal Towing, collided in the northern end of the Houston Sip Channel near its confluence with the Bayport Channel. The collision resulted in a spill of approximately 6,000 barrels of slurry oil into upper Galveston Bay. This paper reports that the U.S. Coast Guard assumed the role of on-scene coordinator. Several State agencies were involved in the various on-site activities. The Texas Water Commission (TWC), as the State's lead agency in spill response, closely monitored the spill and cleanup activities. Despite the efforts of all the aforementioned agencies, the weather ultimately directed spill response activities as it became readily apparent that the eye of Tropical Storm Allison would pass near the site of the spill

  11. Future Coastal Population Growth and Exposure to Sea-Level Rise and Coastal Flooding - A Global Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Barbara; Vafeidis, Athanasios T.; Zimmermann, Juliane; Nicholls, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Coastal zones are exposed to a range of coastal hazards including sea-level rise with its related effects. At the same time, they are more densely populated than the hinterland and exhibit higher rates of population growth and urbanisation. As this trend is expected to continue into the future, we investigate how coastal populations will be affected by such impacts at global and regional scales by the years 2030 and 2060. Starting from baseline population estimates for the year 2000, we assess future population change in the low-elevation coastal zone and trends in exposure to 100-year coastal floods based on four different sea-level and socio-economic scenarios. Our method accounts for differential growth of coastal areas against the land-locked hinterland and for trends of urbanisation and expansive urban growth, as currently observed, but does not explicitly consider possible displacement or out-migration due to factors such as sea-level rise. We combine spatially explicit estimates of the baseline population with demographic data in order to derive scenario-driven projections of coastal population development. Our scenarios show that the number of people living in the low-elevation coastal zone, as well as the number of people exposed to flooding from 1-in-100 year storm surge events, is highest in Asia. China, India, Bangladesh, Indonesia and Viet Nam are estimated to have the highest total coastal population exposure in the baseline year and this ranking is expected to remain largely unchanged in the future. However, Africa is expected to experience the highest rates of population growth and urbanisation in the coastal zone, particularly in Egypt and sub-Saharan countries in Western and Eastern Africa. The results highlight countries and regions with a high degree of exposure to coastal flooding and help identifying regions where policies and adaptive planning for building resilient coastal communities are not only desirable but essential. Furthermore, we

  12. Future coastal population growth and exposure to sea-level rise and coastal flooding--a global assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Barbara; Vafeidis, Athanasios T; Zimmermann, Juliane; Nicholls, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Coastal zones are exposed to a range of coastal hazards including sea-level rise with its related effects. At the same time, they are more densely populated than the hinterland and exhibit higher rates of population growth and urbanisation. As this trend is expected to continue into the future, we investigate how coastal populations will be affected by such impacts at global and regional scales by the years 2030 and 2060. Starting from baseline population estimates for the year 2000, we assess future population change in the low-elevation coastal zone and trends in exposure to 100-year coastal floods based on four different sea-level and socio-economic scenarios. Our method accounts for differential growth of coastal areas against the land-locked hinterland and for trends of urbanisation and expansive urban growth, as currently observed, but does not explicitly consider possible displacement or out-migration due to factors such as sea-level rise. We combine spatially explicit estimates of the baseline population with demographic data in order to derive scenario-driven projections of coastal population development. Our scenarios show that the number of people living in the low-elevation coastal zone, as well as the number of people exposed to flooding from 1-in-100 year storm surge events, is highest in Asia. China, India, Bangladesh, Indonesia and Viet Nam are estimated to have the highest total coastal population exposure in the baseline year and this ranking is expected to remain largely unchanged in the future. However, Africa is expected to experience the highest rates of population growth and urbanisation in the coastal zone, particularly in Egypt and sub-Saharan countries in Western and Eastern Africa. The results highlight countries and regions with a high degree of exposure to coastal flooding and help identifying regions where policies and adaptive planning for building resilient coastal communities are not only desirable but essential. Furthermore, we

  13. Future coastal population growth and exposure to sea-level rise and coastal flooding--a global assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Neumann

    Full Text Available Coastal zones are exposed to a range of coastal hazards including sea-level rise with its related effects. At the same time, they are more densely populated than the hinterland and exhibit higher rates of population growth and urbanisation. As this trend is expected to continue into the future, we investigate how coastal populations will be affected by such impacts at global and regional scales by the years 2030 and 2060. Starting from baseline population estimates for the year 2000, we assess future population change in the low-elevation coastal zone and trends in exposure to 100-year coastal floods based on four different sea-level and socio-economic scenarios. Our method accounts for differential growth of coastal areas against the land-locked hinterland and for trends of urbanisation and expansive urban growth, as currently observed, but does not explicitly consider possible displacement or out-migration due to factors such as sea-level rise. We combine spatially explicit estimates of the baseline population with demographic data in order to derive scenario-driven projections of coastal population development. Our scenarios show that the number of people living in the low-elevation coastal zone, as well as the number of people exposed to flooding from 1-in-100 year storm surge events, is highest in Asia. China, India, Bangladesh, Indonesia and Viet Nam are estimated to have the highest total coastal population exposure in the baseline year and this ranking is expected to remain largely unchanged in the future. However, Africa is expected to experience the highest rates of population growth and urbanisation in the coastal zone, particularly in Egypt and sub-Saharan countries in Western and Eastern Africa. The results highlight countries and regions with a high degree of exposure to coastal flooding and help identifying regions where policies and adaptive planning for building resilient coastal communities are not only desirable but essential

  14. Coherence between coastal and river flooding along the California coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odigie, Kingsley O.; Warrick, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Water levels around river mouths are intrinsically determined by sea level and river discharge. If storm-associated coastal water-level anomalies coincide with extreme river discharge, landscapes near river mouths will be flooded by the hydrodynamic interactions of these two water masses. Unfortunately, the temporal relationships between ocean and river water masses are not well understood. The coherence between extreme river discharge and coastal water levels at six California river mouths across different climatic and geographic regions was examined. Data from river gauges, wave buoys, and tide gauges from 2007 to 2014 were integrated to investigate the relationships between extreme river discharge and coastal water levels near the mouths of the Eel, Russian, San Lorenzo, Ventura, Arroyo Trabuco, and San Diego rivers. Results indicate that mean and extreme coastal water levels during extreme river discharge are significantly higher compared with background conditions. Elevated coastal water levels result from the combination of nontidal residuals (NTRs) and wave setups. Mean and extreme (>99th percentile of observations) NTRs are 3–20 cm and ∼30 cm higher during extreme river discharge conditions, respectively. Mean and extreme wave setups are up to 40 cm and ∼20–90 cm higher during extreme river discharge than typical conditions, respectively. These water-level anomalies were generally greatest for the northern rivers and least for the southern rivers. Time-series comparisons suggest that increases in NTRs are largely coherent with extreme river discharge, owing to the low atmospheric pressure systems associated with storms. The potential flooding risks of the concurrent timing of these water masses are tempered by the mixed, semidiurnal tides of the region that have amplitudes of 2–2.5 m. In summary, flooding hazard assessments for floodplains near California river mouths for current or future conditions with sea-level rise should include the temporal

  15. A Case Study of Preliminary Cost-Benefit Analysis of Building Levees to Mitigate the Joint Effects of Sea Level Rise and Storm Surge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binbin Peng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sea-level rise (SLR will magnify the impacts of storm surge; the resulting severe flooding and inundation can cause huge damage to coastal communities. Community leaders are considering implementing adaptation strategies, typically hard engineering projects, to protect coastal assets and resources. It is important to understand the costs and benefits of the proposed project before any decision is made. To mitigate the flooding impact of joint effects of storm surge and SLR, building levee segments is chosen to be a corresponding adaptation strategy to protect the real estate assets in the study area—the City of Miami, FL, USA. This paper uses the classic Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA to assess the cost efficiency and proposes corresponding improvements in the benefit estimation, by estimating the avoided damages of implementing levee projects. Results show that the city will benefit from implementing levee projects along the Miami River in both a one-time 10 year storm event with SLR and cumulative long-term damage scenarios. This study also suggests that conducting CBA is a critical process before making coastal adaptation planning investment. A more meaningful result of cost effectiveness is estimated by accounting for the appreciation and time value. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is conducted to verify how the choice of discount rate influences the result. Uncertain factors including the rate of SLR, storm intensification, land use changes, and real estate appreciation are further analyzed.

  16. The StoRM Certification Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronchieri, Elisabetta; Dibenedetto, Michele; Zappi, Riccardo; Dal Pra, Stefano; Aiftimiei, Cristina; Traldi, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    StoRM is an implementation of the SRM interface version 2.2 used by all Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments and non-LHC experiments as SRM endpoint at different Tiers of Worldwide LHC Computing Grid. The complexity of its services and the demand of experiments and users are increasing day by day. The growing needs in terms of service level by the StoRM users communities make it necessary to design and implement a more effective testing procedure to quickly and reliably validate new StoRM candidate releases both in code side (for example via test units, and schema valuator) and in final product software (for example via functionality tests, and stress tests). Testing software service is a very critical quality activity performed in a very ad-hoc informal manner by developers, testers and users of StoRM up to now. In this paper, we describe the certification mechanism used by StoRM team to increase the robustness and reliability of the StoRM services. Various typologies of tests, such as quality, installation, configuration, functionality, stress and performance, defined on the base of a set of use cases gathered as consequence of the collaboration among the StoRM team, experiments and users, are illustrated. Each typology of test is either increased or decreased easily from time to time. The proposed mechanism is based on a new configurable testsuite. This is executed by the certification team, who is responsible for validating the release candidate package as well as bug fix (or patch) package, given a certain testbed that considers all possible use cases. In correspondence of each failure, the package is given back to developers waiting for validating a new package.

  17. Healthcare4VideoStorm: Making Smart Decisions Based on Storm Metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weishan; Duan, Pengcheng; Chen, Xiufeng; Lu, Qinghua

    2016-04-23

    Storm-based stream processing is widely used for real-time large-scale distributed processing. Knowing the run-time status and ensuring performance is critical to providing expected dependability for some applications, e.g., continuous video processing for security surveillance. The existing scheduling strategies' granularity is too coarse to have good performance, and mainly considers network resources without computing resources while scheduling. In this paper, we propose Healthcare4Storm, a framework that finds Storm insights based on Storm metrics to gain knowledge from the health status of an application, finally ending up with smart scheduling decisions. It takes into account both network and computing resources and conducts scheduling at a fine-grained level using tuples instead of topologies. The comprehensive evaluation shows that the proposed framework has good performance and can improve the dependability of the Storm-based applications.

  18. Using science to strengthen our Nation's resilience to tomorrow's challenges: understanding and preparing for coastal impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Dale L.; Andersen, Matthew E.; Dean, Teresa A.; Focazio, Michael J.; Fulton, John W.; Haines, John W.; Mason, Jr., Robert R.; Tihansky, Ann B.; Young, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy caused unprecedented damage across some of the most densely populated coastal areas of the northeastern United States. The costly, landscape-altering destruction left in the wake of this storm is a stark reminder of our Nation’s need to become more resilient as we inevitably face future coastal hazards. As our Nation recovers from this devastating natural disaster, it is clear that accurate scientific information is essential as we seek to identify and develop strategies to address trends in coastal landscape change and reduce our future vulnerability to major storm events. To address this need, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received $43.2 million in supplemental appropriations from the Department of the Interior (DOI) to conduct the scientific research needed to guide response, recovery, and rebuilding activities and to develop effective strategies for protecting coastal communities and resources in the future. This fact sheet describes how the USGS is combining interdisciplinary science with state-of-the-art technologies to achieve a comprehensive understanding of coastal change caused by Hurricane Sandy. By assessing coastal change impacts through research and by developing tools that enhance our science capabilities, support coastal stakeholders, and facilitate effective decision making, we continue to build a greater understanding of the processes at work across our Nation’s complex coastal environment—from wetlands, estuaries, barrier islands, and nearshore marine areas to infrastructure and human communities. This improved understanding will increase our resilience as we prepare for future short-term, extreme events as well as long-term coastal change.

  19. First results of the research project MIRAMAR, Innovative Methodologies for Coastal Environmental Monitoring and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovere, A.; Casella, E.; Vacchi, M.; Mucerino, L.; Pedroncini, A.; Ferrari, M.; Firpo, M.

    2013-12-01

    A large part of the Mediterranean coastlines are strongly affected by coastal erosion. This is mainly due to human impact, natural hazards and their mutual interaction. All along the Regione Liguria coastlines (Northwestern Mediterranean), significant problems of coastal erosion are reported since the '60s. In this study, we focus on the coastal area between Albenga and Savona, where dramatic coastal retreat of ~2 m y-1 has been inferred from comparison of historic maps and older aerial pictures. Beach monitoring is essential in order to understand the mechanisms of evolution of soft coasts, and the rates of erosion. Traditional beach monitoring techniques involve topographic and bathymetric surveys of the emerged and submerged beach, and/or aerial photos repeated in time and compared through geographical information systems. A major problem of this kind of approach is the high economic cost. This often leads to increase the time lag between successive monitoring campaigns to reduce survey costs, with the consequence of fragmenting the information available for coastal zone management. MIRAMar is a project funded by Regione Liguria through the PO CRO European Social Fund, and it has two main objectives: i) to study and develop an innovative technique, relatively low-cost, to monitor the evolution of the shoreline using low-altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) photos; ii) to study the impact of different type of storm events on a vulnerable coastal tract subject to coastal erosion using also the data collected by the UAV instrument. To achieve these aims we use a drone with its hardware and software suit, traditional survey techniques (bathymetric surveys, topographic GPS surveys and GIS techniques) and we implement a numerical modeling chain (coupling hydrodynamic, wave and sand transport modules) in order to study the impact of different type of storm events on a vulnerable coastal tract subject to coastal erosion. Aerial picture of one of the beaches studied

  20. Connecting large-scale coastal behaviour with coastal management of the Rhône delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatier, François; Samat, Olivier; Ullmann, Albin; Suanez, Serge

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to connect the Large Scale Coastal Behaviour (LSCB) of the Rhône delta (shoreface sediment budget, river sediment input to the beaches, climatic change) with the impact and efficiency of hard engineering coastal structures. The analysis of the 1895 to 1974 bathymetric maps as well as 2D modelling of the effect of wave blocking on longshore transport allows us to draw up a conceptual model of the LSCB of the Rhône delta. The river sand input, settled in the mouth area (prodeltaic lobe), favours the advance of adjacent beaches. There is however a very weak alongshore sand feeding of the non-adjacent beaches farther off the mouth. After a mouth shift, the prodelta is eroded by aggressive waves and the sand is moved alongshore to build spits. This conceptual model suggests that there is a "timeshift" between the input of river sediments to the sea and the build up of a beach (nonadjacent to the mouth). Nowadays, as the river channels are controlled by dykes and human interventions, a river shift is not possible. It thus appears unlikely that the river sediments can supply the beaches of the Rhône delta coast. Under these conditions, we must expect that the problems of erosion will continue at Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer and on the Faraman shore, in areas with chronic erosion where the shoreline retreat has been partially stopped by hard engineering practices in the 1980s. Therefore, these artificially stabilised sectors remain potentially under threat because of profile steepening and downdrift erosion evidenced in this paper by bathymetric profile measurements. In the long-term (1905 to 2003), the temporal analysis of the storm surges and the sea level show very weak but reliable increasing trends. Thus, these climatic agents will be more aggressive on the beaches and on the coastal structures calling their efficiency into question. We also evidence that the hard engineering structures were built in a favourable climatic context during the

  1. Identifying Preserved Storm Events on Beaches from Trenches and Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadman, H. M.; Gallagher, E. L.; McNinch, J.; Reniers, A.; Koktas, M.

    2014-12-01

    Recent research suggests that even small scale variations in grain size in the shallow stratigraphy of sandy beaches can significantly influence large-scale morphology change. However, few quantitative studies of variations in shallow stratigraphic layers, as differentiated by variations in mean grain size, have been conducted, in no small part due to the difficulty of collecting undisturbed sediment cores in the energetic lower beach and swash zone. Due to this lack of quantitative stratigraphic grain size data, most coastal morphology models assume that uniform grain sizes dominate sandy beaches, allowing for little to no temporal or spatial variations in grain size heterogeneity. In a first-order attempt to quantify small-scale, temporal and spatial variations in beach stratigraphy, thirty-five vibracores were collected at the USACE Field Research Facility (FRF), Duck, NC, in March-April of 2014 using the FRF's Coastal Research and Amphibious Buggy (CRAB). Vibracores were collected at set locations along a cross-shore profile from the toe of the dune to a water depth of ~1m in the surf zone. Vibracores were repeatedly collected from the same locations throughout a tidal cycle, as well as pre- and post a nor'easter event. In addition, two ~1.5m deep trenches were dug in the cross-shore and along-shore directions (each ~14m in length) after coring was completed to allow better interpretation of the stratigraphic sequences observed in the vibracores. The elevations of coherent stratigraphic layers, as revealed in vibracore-based fence diagrams and trench data, are used to relate specific observed stratigraphic sequences to individual storm events observed at the FRF. These data provide a first-order, quantitative examination of the small-scale temporal and spatial variability of shallow grain size along an open, sandy coastline. The data will be used to refine morphological model predictions to include variations in grain size and associated shallow stratigraphy.

  2. Examples of storm impacts on barrier islands: Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Nathaniel G.; Doran, Kara; Stockdon, Hilary F.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the morphologic variability of barrier islands and on the differences in storm response. It describes different types of barrier island response to individual storms, as well as the integrated response of barrier islands to many storms. The chapter considers case study on the Chandeleur Island chain, where a decadal time series of island elevation measurements have documented a wide range of barrier island responses to storms and long-term processes that are representative of barrier island behaviour at many other locations. These islands are low elevation, extremely vulnerable to storms and exhibit a diversity of storm responses. Additionally, this location experiences a moderately high rate of relative sea-level rise, increasing its vulnerability to the combined impacts of storms and long-term erosional processes. Understanding how natural processes, including storm impacts and intervening recovery periods interact with man-made restoration processes is also broadly relevant to understand the natural and human response to future storms.

  3. Acceleration and loss of relativistic electrons during small geomagnetic storms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B R; Millan, R M; Reeves, G D; Friedel, R H W

    2015-12-16

    Past studies of radiation belt relativistic electrons have favored active storm time periods, while the effects of small geomagnetic storms ( D s t  > -50 nT) have not been statistically characterized. In this timely study, given the current weak solar cycle, we identify 342 small storms from 1989 through 2000 and quantify the corresponding change in relativistic electron flux at geosynchronous orbit. Surprisingly, small storms can be equally as effective as large storms at enhancing and depleting fluxes. Slight differences exist, as small storms are 10% less likely to result in flux enhancement and 10% more likely to result in flux depletion than large storms. Nevertheless, it is clear that neither acceleration nor loss mechanisms scale with storm drivers as would be expected. Small geomagnetic storms play a significant role in radiation belt relativistic electron dynamics and provide opportunities to gain new insights into the complex balance of acceleration and loss processes.

  4. A geospatial dataset for U.S. hurricane storm surge and sea-level rise vulnerability: Development and case study applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan C. Maloney

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of future sea-level rise for coastal communities are a priority concern arising from anthropogenic climate change. Here, previously published methods are scaled up in order to undertake a first pass assessment of exposure to hurricane storm surge and sea-level rise for the U.S. Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coasts. Sea-level rise scenarios ranging from +0.50 to +0.82 m by 2100 increased estimates of the area exposed to inundation by 4–13% and 7–20%, respectively, among different Saffir-Simpson hurricane intensity categories. Potential applications of these hazard layers for vulnerability assessment are demonstrated with two contrasting case studies: potential exposure of current energy infrastructure in the U.S. Southeast and exposure of current and future housing along both the Gulf and Atlantic Coasts. Estimates of the number of Southeast electricity generation facilities potentially exposed to hurricane storm surge ranged from 69 to 291 for category 1 and category 5 storms, respectively. Sea-level rise increased the number of exposed facilities by 6–60%, depending on the sea-level rise scenario and the intensity of the hurricane under consideration. Meanwhile, estimates of the number of housing units currently exposed to hurricane storm surge ranged from 4.1 to 9.4 million for category 1 and category 4 storms, respectively, while exposure for category 5 storms was estimated at 7.1 million due to the absence of landfalling category 5 hurricanes in the New England region. Housing exposure was projected to increase 83–230% by 2100 among different sea-level rise and housing scenarios, with the majority of this increase attributed to future housing development. These case studies highlight the utility of geospatial hazard information for national-scale coastal exposure or vulnerability assessment as well as the importance of future socioeconomic development in the assessment of coastal vulnerability.

  5. Coastal Hazards: Hurricanes, Tsunamis, Coastal Erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandas, Steve

    1998-01-01

    Details an ocean-based lesson and provides background information on the designation of 1998 as the "Year of the Ocean" by the United Nations. Contains activities on the poster insert that can help raise student awareness of coastal-zone hazards. (DDR)

  6. The development of a probabilistic approach to forecast coastal change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Erika E.; Hapke, Cheryl J.; Rosati, Julie D.; Wang, Ping; Roberts, Tiffany M.

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrates the applicability of a Bayesian probabilistic model as an effective tool in predicting post-storm beach changes along sandy coastlines. Volume change and net shoreline movement are modeled for two study sites at Fire Island, New York in response to two extratropical storms in 2007 and 2009. Both study areas include modified areas adjacent to unmodified areas in morphologically different segments of coast. Predicted outcomes are evaluated against observed changes to test model accuracy and uncertainty along 163 cross-shore transects. Results show strong agreement in the cross validation of predictions vs. observations, with 70-82% accuracies reported. Although no consistent spatial pattern in inaccurate predictions could be determined, the highest prediction uncertainties appeared in locations that had been recently replenished. Further testing and model refinement are needed; however, these initial results show that Bayesian networks have the potential to serve as important decision-support tools in forecasting coastal change.

  7. Coastal Geographic Structures in Coastal-Marine Environmental Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baklanov, P. Ya.; Ganzei, K. S.; Ermoshin, V. V.

    2018-01-01

    It has been proposed to distinguish the coastal geographic structures consisting of a spatial combination of three interconnected and mutually conditioned parts (coastal-territorial, coastal, coastal-marine), which are interlinked with each other by the cumulative effect of real-energy flows. Distinguishing specific resource features of the coastal structures, by which they play a connecting role in the complex coastalmarine management, has been considered. The main integral resource feature of the coastal structures is their connecting functions, which form transitional parts mutually connecting the coastal-territorial and coastalmarine environmental management.

  8. Mathematical modeling of tornadoes and squall storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Arsen’yev

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in modeling of tornadoes and twisters consist of significant achievements in mathematical calculation of occurrence and evolution of a violent F5-class tornado on the Fujita scale, and four-dimensional mathematical modeling of a tornado with the fourth coordinate time multiplied by its characteristic velocity. Such a tornado can arise in a thunderstorm supercell filled with turbulent whirlwinds. A theory of the squall storms is proposed. The squall storm is modeled by running perturbation of the temperature inversion on the lower boundary of cloudiness. This perturbation is induced by the action of strong, hurricane winds in the upper and middle troposphere, and looks like a running solitary wave (soliton; which is developed also in a field of pressure and velocity of a wind. If a soliton of a squall storm gets into the thunderstorm supercell then this soliton is captured by supercell. It leads to additional pressure fall of air inside a storm supercell and stimulate amplification of wind velocity here. As a result, a cyclostrophic balance inside a storm supercell generates a tornado. Comparison of the radial distribution of wind velocity inside a tornado calculated by using the new formulas and equations with radar observations of the wind velocity inside Texas Tornado Dummit in 1995 and inside the 3 May 1999 Oklahoma City Tornado shows good correspondence.

  9. Factors Associated With Mortality of Thyroid Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Yosuke; Ono, Sachiko; Yasunaga, Hideo; Matsui, Hiroki; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Tanaka, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Thyroid storm is a life-threatening and emergent manifestation of thyrotoxicosis. However, predictive features associated with fatal outcomes in this crisis have not been clearly defined because of its rarity. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations of patient characteristics, treatments, and comorbidities with in-hospital mortality. We conducted a retrospective observational study of patients diagnosed with thyroid storm using a national inpatient database in Japan from April 1, 2011 to March 31, 2014. Of approximately 21 million inpatients in the database, we identified 1324 patients diagnosed with thyroid storm. The mean (standard deviation) age was 47 (18) years, and 943 (71.3%) patients were female. The overall in-hospital mortality was 10.1%. The number of patients was highest in the summer season. The most common comorbidity at admission was cardiovascular diseases (46.6%). Multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that higher mortality was significantly associated with older age (≥60 years), central nervous system dysfunction at admission, nonuse of antithyroid drugs and β-blockade, and requirement for mechanical ventilation and therapeutic plasma exchange combined with hemodialysis. The present study identified clinical features associated with mortality of thyroid storm using large-scale data. Physicians should pay special attention to older patients with thyrotoxicosis and coexisting central nervous system dysfunction. Future prospective studies are needed to clarify treatment options that could improve the survival outcomes of thyroid storm. PMID:26886648

  10. The storm time central plasma sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schödel

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The plasma sheet plays a key role during magnetic storms because it is the bottleneck through which large amounts of magnetic flux that have been eroded from the dayside magnetopause have to be returned to the dayside magnetosphere. Using about five years of Geotail data we studied the average properties of the near- and midtail central plasma sheet (CPS in the 10–30 RE range during magnetic storms. The earthward flux transport rate is greatly enhanced during the storm main phase, but shows a significant earthward decrease. Hence, since the magnetic flux cannot be circulated at a sufficient rate, this leads to an average dipolarization of the central plasma sheet. An increase of the specific entropy of the CPS ion population by a factor of about two during the storm main phase provides evidence for nonadiabatic heating processes. The direction of flux transport during the main phase is consistent with the possible formation of a near-Earth neutral line beyond ~20 RE.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (plasma convection; plasma sheet; storms and substorms

  11. Thyrotoxicosis and Choledocholithiasis Masquerading as Thyroid Storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian L. Horn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 26-year-old female, thirteen months postpartum, presented to the emergency department for four weeks of epigastric abdominal pain, pruritus, new onset jaundice, and 11.3 kgs (25 lbs unintentional weight loss. On examination, she was afebrile, tachycardic, alert, and oriented and had jaundice with scleral icterus. Labs were significant for undetectable TSH, FT4 that was too high to measure, and elevated total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, and transaminases. Abdominal ultrasound revealed cholelithiasis without biliary ductal dilation. Treatment for presumed thyroid storm was initiated. Further work-up with magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP revealed an obstructing cholelith within the distal common bile duct. With the presence of choledocholithiasis explaining the jaundice and abdominal pain, plus the absence of CNS alterations, the diagnosis of thyroid storm was revised to thyrotoxicosis complicated by choledocholithiasis. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogram (ERCP with sphincterotomy was performed to alleviate the biliary obstruction, with prompt symptomatic improvement. Thyroid storm is a rare manifestation of hyperthyroidism with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis of thyroid storm is based on clinical examination, and abnormal thyroid function tests do not correlate with disease severity. Knowledge of the many manifestations of thyroid storm will facilitate a quick and accurate diagnosis and treatment.

  12. Advancing Sentinel-1 use in Coastal Climate Impact Assessments and Adaptation – A Case Study from the Danish North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Carlo Sass; Marinkovic, Petar; Larsen, Yngvar

    Low-lying coastal communities face increasing challenges from rise in sea level, more extreme storm surge levels and floods. In addition, changing groundwater levels and precipitation patterns may further exacerbate the water-related impacts of climate change on society. Approximately 40,000 km2 ...

  13. Rapid shelf-wide cooling response of a stratified coastal ocean to hurricanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seroka, Greg; Miles, Travis; Xu, Yi; Kohut, Josh; Schofield, Oscar; Glenn, Scott

    2017-06-01

    Large uncertainty in the predicted intensity of tropical cyclones (TCs) persists compared to the steadily improving skill in the predicted TC tracks. This intensity uncertainty has its most significant implications in the coastal zone, where TC impacts to populated shorelines are greatest. Recent studies have demonstrated that rapid ahead-of-eye-center cooling of a stratified coastal ocean can have a significant impact on hurricane intensity forecasts. Using observation-validated, high-resolution ocean modeling, the stratified coastal ocean cooling processes observed in two U.S. Mid-Atlantic hurricanes were investigated: Hurricane Irene (2011)-with an inshore Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB) track during the late summer stratified coastal ocean season-and Tropical Storm Barry (2007)-with an offshore track during early summer. For both storms, the critical ahead-of-eye-center depth-averaged force balance across the entire MAB shelf included an onshore wind stress balanced by an offshore pressure gradient. This resulted in onshore surface currents opposing offshore bottom currents that enhanced surface to bottom current shear and turbulent mixing across the thermocline, resulting in the rapid cooling of the surface layer ahead-of-eye-center. Because the same baroclinic and mixing processes occurred for two storms on opposite ends of the track and seasonal stratification envelope, the response appears robust. It will be critical to forecast these processes and their implications for a wide range of future storms using realistic 3-D coupled atmosphere-ocean models to lower the uncertainty in predictions of TC intensities and impacts and enable coastal populations to better respond to increasing rapid intensification threats in an era of rising sea levels.

  14. Rapid shelf‐wide cooling response of a stratified coastal ocean to hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Travis; Xu, Yi; Kohut, Josh; Schofield, Oscar; Glenn, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Large uncertainty in the predicted intensity of tropical cyclones (TCs) persists compared to the steadily improving skill in the predicted TC tracks. This intensity uncertainty has its most significant implications in the coastal zone, where TC impacts to populated shorelines are greatest. Recent studies have demonstrated that rapid ahead‐of‐eye‐center cooling of a stratified coastal ocean can have a significant impact on hurricane intensity forecasts. Using observation‐validated, high‐resolution ocean modeling, the stratified coastal ocean cooling processes observed in two U.S. Mid‐Atlantic hurricanes were investigated: Hurricane Irene (2011)—with an inshore Mid‐Atlantic Bight (MAB) track during the late summer stratified coastal ocean season—and Tropical Storm Barry (2007)—with an offshore track during early summer. For both storms, the critical ahead‐of‐eye‐center depth‐averaged force balance across the entire MAB shelf included an onshore wind stress balanced by an offshore pressure gradient. This resulted in onshore surface currents opposing offshore bottom currents that enhanced surface to bottom current shear and turbulent mixing across the thermocline, resulting in the rapid cooling of the surface layer ahead‐of‐eye‐center. Because the same baroclinic and mixing processes occurred for two storms on opposite ends of the track and seasonal stratification envelope, the response appears robust. It will be critical to forecast these processes and their implications for a wide range of future storms using realistic 3‐D coupled atmosphere‐ocean models to lower the uncertainty in predictions of TC intensities and impacts and enable coastal populations to better respond to increasing rapid intensification threats in an era of rising sea levels. PMID:28944132

  15. Strategy to evaluate persistent contaminant hazards resulting from sea-level rise and storm-derived disturbances—Study design and methodology for station prioritization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Timothy J.; Jones, Daniel K.; Focazio, Michael J.; Aquino, Kimberly C.; Carbo, Chelsea L.; Kaufhold, Erika E.; Zinecker, Elizabeth K.; Benzel, William M.; Fisher, Shawn C.; Griffin, Dale W.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Loftin, Keith A.; Schill, William B.

    2015-10-26

    Coastal communities are uniquely vulnerable to sea-level rise (SLR) and severe storms such as hurricanes. These events enhance the dispersion and concentration of natural and anthropogenic chemicals and pathogenic microorganisms that could adversely affect the health and resilience of coastal communities and ecosystems in coming years. The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a strategy to define baseline and post-event sediment-bound environmental health (EH) stressors (hereafter referred to as the Sediment-Bound Contaminant Resiliency and Response [SCoRR] strategy). A tiered, multimetric approach will be used to (1) identify and map contaminant sources and potential exposure pathways for human and ecological receptors, (2) define the baseline mixtures of EH stressors present in sediments and correlations of relevance, (3) document post-event changes in EH stressors present in sediments, and (4) establish and apply metrics to quantify changes in coastal resilience associated with sediment-bound contaminants. Integration of this information provides a means to improve assessment of the baseline status of a complex system and the significance of changes in contaminant hazards due to storm-induced (episodic) and SLR (incremental) disturbances. This report describes the purpose and design of the SCoRR strategy and the methods used to construct a decision support tool to identify candidate sampling stations vulnerable to contaminants that may be mobilized by coastal storms.

  16. An evolving research agenda for human-coastal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Eli D.; Ellis, Michael A.; Brad Murray, A.; Hall, Damon M.

    2016-03-01

    Within the broad discourses of environmental change, sustainability science, and anthropogenic Earth-surface systems, a focused body of work involves the coupled economic and physical dynamics of developed shorelines. Rapid rates of change in coastal environments, from wetlands and deltas to inlets and dune systems, help researchers recognize, observe, and investigate coupling in natural (non-human) morphodynamics and biomorphodynamics. This same intrinsic quality of fast-paced change also makes developed coastal zones exemplars of observable coupling between physical processes and human activities. In many coastal communities, beach erosion is a natural hazard with economic costs that coastal management counters through a variety of mitigation strategies, including beach replenishment, groynes, revetments, and seawalls. As cycles of erosion and mitigation iterate, coastline change and economically driven interventions become mutually linked. Emergent dynamics of two-way economic-physical coupling is a recent research discovery. Having established a strong theoretical basis, research into coupled human-coastal systems has passed its early proof-of-concept phase. This paper frames three major challenges that need resolving in order to advance theoretical and empirical treatments of human-coastal systems: (1) codifying salient individual and social behaviors of decision-making in ways that capture societal actions across a range of scales (thus engaging economics, social science, and policy disciplines); (2) quantifying anthropogenic effects on alongshore and cross-shore sediment pathways and long-term landscape evolution in coastal zones through time, including direct measurement of cumulative changes to sediment cells resulting from coastal development and management practices (e.g., construction of buildings and artificial dunes, bulldozer removal of overwash after major storms); and (3) reciprocal knowledge and data exchange between researchers in coastal

  17. Coupled atmosphere-ocean-wave simulations of a storm event over the Gulf of Lion and Balearic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Lionel; Chiggiato, Jacopo; Warner, John C.; Gomez, Marta; Vizoso, Guillermo; Tintore, Joaquin

    2012-01-01

    The coastal areas of the North-Western Mediterranean Sea are one of the most challenging places for ocean forecasting. This region is exposed to severe storms events that are of short duration. During these events, significant air-sea interactions, strong winds and large sea-state can have catastrophic consequences in the coastal areas. To investigate these air-sea interactions and the oceanic response to such events, we implemented the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport Modeling System simulating a severe storm in the Mediterranean Sea that occurred in May 2010. During this event, wind speed reached up to 25 m.s-1 inducing significant sea surface cooling (up to 2°C) over the Gulf of Lion (GoL) and along the storm track, and generating surface waves with a significant height of 6 m. It is shown that the event, associated with a cyclogenesis between the Balearic Islands and the GoL, is relatively well reproduced by the coupled system. A surface heat budget analysis showed that ocean vertical mixing was a major contributor to the cooling tendency along the storm track and in the GoL where turbulent heat fluxes also played an important role. Sensitivity experiments on the ocean-atmosphere coupling suggested that the coupled system is sensitive to the momentum flux parameterization as well as air-sea and air-wave coupling. Comparisons with available atmospheric and oceanic observations showed that the use of the fully coupled system provides the most skillful simulation, illustrating the benefit of using a fully coupled ocean-atmosphere-wave model for the assessment of these storm events.

  18. VLF Wave Properties During Geomagnetic Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancarte, J.; Artemyev, A.; Mozer, F.; Agapitov, O. V.

    2017-12-01

    Whistler-mode chorus is important for the global dynamics of the inner magnetosphere electron population due to its ability to scatter and accelerate electrons of a wide energy range in the outer radiation belt. The parameters of these VLF emissions change dynamically during geomagnetic storms. Presented is an analysis of four years of Van Allen probe data, utilizing electric and magnetic field in the VLF range focused on the dynamics of chorus wave properties during the enhancement of geomagnetic activity. It is found that VLF emissions respond to geomagnetic storms in more complicated ways than just by affecting the waves' amplitude growth or depletion. Oblique wave amplitudes grow together with parallel waves during periods of intermediate geomagnetic activity, while the occurrence rate of oblique waves decreases during larger geomagnetic storms.

  19. Thyroid storm precipitated by radioactive iodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redkar, Neelam N.; Rawat, Kavita J.; Yelale, Abhijit; Shivchand, Akshay

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid storm or thyrotoxic crisis is a rare but life-threatening condition requiring immediate treatment, preferably in an intensive care unit. Its incidence is about 1-2% among patients with overt hyperthyroidism. A thyrotoxic crisis occurs predominantly in the elderly and is three to five times more common in women than in men. The overall mortality is 10-20%. Even though the pathogenesis is still not fully understood, an increased sensitivity to catecholamines appears to be an important mechanism, and a number of endogenous and exogenous stress factors that can provoke the onset of a thyrotoxic storm have been identified. Authors presented a case where the cause of precipitation of thyroid storm was improper preparation of patient for Radioactive iodine treatment

  20. The assessment of Urban Storm Inundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyandito, Oki; Wijayanti, Yureana; Alwan, Muhammad; Chayati, Cholilul; Meilani

    2017-12-01

    A Sustainable and integrated plan in order to solve urban storm inundation problem, is an urgent issue in Indonesia. A reliable and complete datasets of urban storm inundation area in Indonesia should become its basis to give clear description of inundation area for formulating the best solution. In this study, Statistics Indonesia data in thirty three provinces were assessed during 2000 until 2012 providing data series of urban flood area, flood frequency and land cover changes. Drainage system condition in big cities should be well understood to ensure its infrastructure condition and performance. If inundation occurred, it can be concluded that there is drainage system problem. Inundation data is also important for drainage system design process in the future. The study result is provided estimation of urban storm inundation area based on calculation of Statistics Indonesia data. Moreover, this study is preceded by analyzing and reviewing the capacity of existing drainage channel, using case study of Mataram, West Nusa Tenggara. Rainfall data was obtained from three rainfall stations surround Mataram City. The storm water quantity was calculated using three different approaches as follows: 1) Rational Method; 2) Summation of existing inundation and surface run off discharge; 3) Discharge calculation from existing channel dimensions. After that, the result of these approaches was compared. The storm water quantity gap was concluded as quantity of inundation. The result shows that 36% of drainage channel in Brenyok Kanan River sub system could not accommodate the storm water runoff in this area, which causing inundation. The redesign of drainage channel using design discharge from Rational Method approach should be performed. Within area with the lowest level topography, a construction of detention or storage pond is essential to prevent inundation in this area. Furthermore, the benefits and drawbacks of the statistics database are discussed. Recommendations

  1. Zonal wind observations during a geomagnetic storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, N. J.; Spencer, N. W.

    1986-01-01

    In situ measurements taken by the Wind and Temperature Spectrometer (WATS) onboard the Dynamics Explorer 2 spacecraft during a geomagnetic storm display zonal wind velocities that are reduced in the corotational direction as the storm intensifies. The data were taken within the altitudes 275 to 475 km in the dusk local time sector equatorward of the auroral region. Characteristic variations in the value of the Dst index of horizontal geomagnetic field strength are used to monitor the storm evolution. The detected global rise in atmospheric gas temperature indicates the development of thermospheric heating. Concurrent with that heating, reductions in corotational wind velocities were measured equatorward of the auroral region. Just after the sudden commencement, while thermospheric heating is intense in both hemispheres, eastward wind velocities in the northern hemisphere show reductions ranging from 500 m/s over high latitudes to 30 m/s over the geomagnetic equator. After 10 hours storm time, while northern thermospheric heating is diminishing, wind velocity reductions, distinct from those initially observed, begin to develop over southern latitudes. In the latter case, velocity reductions range from 300 m/s over the highest southern latitudes to 150 m/s over the geomagnetic equator and extend into the Northern Hemisphere. The observations highlight the interhemispheric asymmetry in the development of storm effects detected as enhanced gas temperatures and reduced eastward wind velocities. Zonal wind reductions over high latitudes can be attributed to the storm induced equatorward spread of westward polar cap plasma convection and the resulting plasma-neutral collisions. However, those collisions are less significant over low latitudes; so zonal wind reductions over low latitudes must be attributed to an equatorward extension of a thermospheric circulation pattern disrupted by high latitude collisions between neutrals transported via eastward winds and ions

  2. Climate change impacts on rural poverty in low-elevation coastal zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Edward B.

    2015-11-01

    This paper identifies the low-elevation coastal zone (LECZ) populations and developing regions most vulnerable to sea-level rise and other coastal hazards, such as storm surges, coastal erosion and salt-water intrusion. The focus is on the rural poor in the LECZ, as their economic livelihoods are especially endangered both directly by coastal hazards and indirectly through the impacts of climate change on key coastal and near-shore ecosystems. Using geo-spatially referenced malnutrition and infant mortality data for 2000 as a proxy for poverty, this study finds that just 15 developing countries contain over 90% of the world's LECZ rural poor. Low-income countries as a group have the highest incidence of poverty, which declines somewhat for lower middle-income countries, and then is much lower for upper middle-income economies. South Asia, East Asia and the Pacific and Sub-Saharan Africa account for most of the world's LECZ rural poor, and have a high incidence of poverty among their rural LECZ populations. Although fostering growth, especially in coastal areas, may reduce rural poverty in the LECZ, additional policy actions will be required to protect vulnerable communities from disasters, to conserve and restore key coastal and near-shore ecosystems, and to promote key infrastructure investments and coastal community response capability.

  3. Erosion reasons and rate on accumulative Polish dune coast caused by the January 2012 storm surge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz A. Łabuz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Polish coast is a non-tidal area; its shores are affected mainly by autumn-winter storm surges. Those of 6 and 14 January 2012 are representative of the forces driving the erosion of normally accumulative sections of coastal dunes, monitored by the author since 1997. The sea level maximum during these two storm surges reached 1.2 to 1.5 m amsl along the Polish coast. Land forms up to 3 m amsl were inundated. Beaches and low parts of the coast up to this height were rebuilt by sea waves attacking the coast for almost 12 days. Quantitative analyses of the morphological dynamics of the coastal dunes are presented for 57 profiles located along the coast. Only those accumulative sections of the Polish coast are analysed where sand accumulation did occur and led to new foredune development. The mean rate of dune erosion was 2.5 m3 per square metre with an average toe retreat of 1.4 m. Erosion understood as dune retreat was greater when a beach was lower (correlation coefficient 0.8. Dune erosion did not occur on coasts with beaches higher than 3.2 m or on lower ones covered by embryo dunes.

  4. Catastrophe loss modelling of storm-surge flood risk in eastern England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir Wood, Robert; Drayton, Michael; Berger, Agnete; Burgess, Paul; Wright, Tom

    2005-06-15

    Probabilistic catastrophe loss modelling techniques, comprising a large stochastic set of potential storm-surge flood events, each assigned an annual rate of occurrence, have been employed for quantifying risk in the coastal flood plain of eastern England. Based on the tracks of the causative extratropical cyclones, historical storm-surge events are categorized into three classes, with distinct windfields and surge geographies. Extreme combinations of "tide with surge" are then generated for an extreme value distribution developed for each class. Fragility curves are used to determine the probability and magnitude of breaching relative to water levels and wave action for each section of sea defence. Based on the time-history of water levels in the surge, and the simulated configuration of breaching, flow is time-stepped through the defences and propagated into the flood plain using a 50 m horizontal-resolution digital elevation model. Based on the values and locations of the building stock in the flood plain, losses are calculated using vulnerability functions linking flood depth and flood velocity to measures of property loss. The outputs from this model for a UK insurance industry portfolio include "loss exceedence probabilities" as well as "average annualized losses", which can be employed for calculating coastal flood risk premiums in each postcode.

  5. External flood probabilistic safety analysis of a coastal NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisharady, Ajai S.; Chakraborty, M.K.; Acharya, Sourav; Roshan, A.D.; Bishnoi, L.R.

    2015-01-01

    External events pose a definitive challenge to safety of NPP, solely due to their ability to induce common cause failures. Flooding incidents at Le Blayais NPP, France, Fort Calhoun NPP, USA and Fukushima Daiichi have pointed to the importance of external flooding as an important contributor to NPP risk. A methodology developed for external flood PSA of a coastal NPP vulnerable to flooding due to tsunami, cyclonic storm and intense local precipitation is presented in this paper. Different tasks for EFPSA has been identified along with general approach for completing each task

  6. Stratified coastal ocean interactions with tropical cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, S. M.; Miles, T. N.; Seroka, G. N.; Xu, Y.; Forney, R. K.; Yu, F.; Roarty, H.; Schofield, O.; Kohut, J.

    2016-01-01

    Hurricane-intensity forecast improvements currently lag the progress achieved for hurricane tracks. Integrated ocean observations and simulations during hurricane Irene (2011) reveal that the wind-forced two-layer circulation of the stratified coastal ocean, and resultant shear-induced mixing, led to significant and rapid ahead-of-eye-centre cooling (at least 6 °C and up to 11 °C) over a wide swath of the continental shelf. Atmospheric simulations establish this cooling as the missing contribution required to reproduce Irene's accelerated intensity reduction. Historical buoys from 1985 to 2015 show that ahead-of-eye-centre cooling occurred beneath all 11 tropical cyclones that traversed the Mid-Atlantic Bight continental shelf during stratified summer conditions. A Yellow Sea buoy similarly revealed significant and rapid ahead-of-eye-centre cooling during Typhoon Muifa (2011). These findings establish that including realistic coastal baroclinic processes in forecasts of storm intensity and impacts will be increasingly critical to mid-latitude population centres as sea levels rise and tropical cyclone maximum intensities migrate poleward. PMID:26953963

  7. Coastal Wetland Restoration Bibliography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yozzo, David

    1997-01-01

    This bibliography was compiled to provide biologists, engineers, and planners at Corps Districts and other agencies/ institutions with a guide to the diverse body of literature on coastal wetland restoration...

  8. Coastal Harbors Modeling Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Coastal Harbors Modeling Facility is used to aid in the planning of harbor development and in the design and layout of breakwaters, absorbers, etc.. The goal is...

  9. Coastal California Digital Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This digital ortho-imagery dataset is a survey of coastal California. The project area consists of approximately 3774 square miles. The project design of the digital...

  10. Pollution of Coastal Seas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These are the things ideally required for locating industries also. The mega-cities .... waste water released into coastal seas raises the ambient temperature causing .... Problems of ozone holes and greenhouse gases were, perhaps, beyond ...

  11. National Coastal Condition Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCCA is a collaborative, statistical survey of the nation's coastal waters and the Great Lakes. It is one of four national surveys that EPA and its partners conduct to assess the condition and health of the nation's water resources.

  12. Pollution of coastal seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    Pollution of various environments is a consequence of population growth and industrialisation. Coastal seas form part of marine environment and are very rich in minerals, crude oil fishes etc. They are also being used for disposal of wastes from...

  13. National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) National Coastal Mapping Program (NCMP) is designed to provide high-resolution elevation and imagery data along U.S....

  14. Controls of multi-modal wave conditions in a complex coastal setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegermiller, Christie; Rueda, Ana C.; Erikson, Li H.; Barnard, Patrick L.; Antolinez, J.A.A.; Mendez, Fernando J.

    2017-01-01

    Coastal hazards emerge from the combined effect of wave conditions and sea level anomalies associated with storms or low-frequency atmosphere-ocean oscillations. Rigorous characterization of wave climate is limited by the availability of spectral wave observations, the computational cost of dynamical simulations, and the ability to link wave-generating atmospheric patterns with coastal conditions. We present a hybrid statistical-dynamical approach to simulating nearshore wave climate in complex coastal settings, demonstrated in the Southern California Bight, where waves arriving from distant, disparate locations are refracted over complex bathymetry and shadowed by offshore islands. Contributions of wave families and large-scale atmospheric drivers to nearshore wave energy flux are analyzed. Results highlight the variability of influences controlling wave conditions along neighboring coastlines. The universal method demonstrated here can be applied to complex coastal settings worldwide, facilitating analysis of the effects of climate change on nearshore wave climate.

  15. Damage and protection cost curves for coastal floods within the 600 largest European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahl, Boris F.; Boettle, Markus; Costa, Luís; Kropp, Jürgen P.; Rybski, Diego

    2018-01-01

    The economic assessment of the impacts of storm surges and sea-level rise in coastal cities requires high-level information on the damage and protection costs associated with varying flood heights. We provide a systematically and consistently calculated dataset of macroscale damage and protection cost curves for the 600 largest European coastal cities opening the perspective for a wide range of applications. Offering the first comprehensive dataset to include the costs of dike protection, we provide the underpinning information to run comparative assessments of costs and benefits of coastal adaptation. Aggregate cost curves for coastal flooding at the city-level are commonly regarded as by-products of impact assessments and are generally not published as a standalone dataset. Hence, our work also aims at initiating a more critical discussion on the availability and derivation of cost curves. PMID:29557944

  16. Changes of hydrological environment and their influences on coastal wetlands in the southern Laizhou Bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuliang; Zhang, Yuanzhi; Sun, Hongxia; Xia, Dongxing

    2006-08-01

    The structure and function of the coastal wetland ecosystem in the southern Laizhou Bay have been changed greatly and influenced by regional hydrological changes. The coastal wetlands have degraded significantly during the latest 30 years due to successive drought, decreasing of runoff, pollution, underground saline water intrusion, and aggravating marine disasters such as storm tides and sea level rising. Most archaic lakes have vanished, while artificial wetlands have been extending since natural coastal wetlands replaced by salt areas and ponds of shrimps and crabs. The pollution of sediments in inter-tidal wetlands and the pollution of water quality in sub-tidal wetlands are getting worse and therefore "red tides" happen more often than before. The biodiversity in the study area has been decreased. Further studies are still needed to protect the degraded coastal wetlands in the area.

  17. Damage and protection cost curves for coastal floods within the 600 largest European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahl, Boris F.; Boettle, Markus; Costa, Luís; Kropp, Jürgen P.; Rybski, Diego

    2018-03-01

    The economic assessment of the impacts of storm surges and sea-level rise in coastal cities requires high-level information on the damage and protection costs associated with varying flood heights. We provide a systematically and consistently calculated dataset of macroscale damage and protection cost curves for the 600 largest European coastal cities opening the perspective for a wide range of applications. Offering the first comprehensive dataset to include the costs of dike protection, we provide the underpinning information to run comparative assessments of costs and benefits of coastal adaptation. Aggregate cost curves for coastal flooding at the city-level are commonly regarded as by-products of impact assessments and are generally not published as a standalone dataset. Hence, our work also aims at initiating a more critical discussion on the availability and derivation of cost curves.

  18. Hurricane Sandy science plan: impacts to coastal ecosystems, habitats, and fish and wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Warren H.

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy devastated some of the most heavily populated eastern coastal areas of the Nation. With a storm surge peaking at more than 19 feet, the powerful landscape-altering destruction of Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards. In response to this natural disaster, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received a total of $41.2 million in supplemental appropriations from the Department of the Interior (DOI) to support response, recovery, and rebuilding efforts. These funds support a science plan that will provide critical scientific information necessary to inform management decisions for recovery of coastal communities, and aid in preparation for future natural hazards. This science plan is designed to coordinate continuing USGS activities with stakeholders and other agencies to improve data collection and analysis that will guide recovery and restoration efforts. The science plan is split into five distinct themes: • Coastal topography and bathymetry

  19. Coastal Adaptation: The Case of Ocean Beach, San Francisco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, S.

    2012-12-01

    Coastal erosion, storms, sea-level rise, and tsunamis all lead to inundation that puts people and communities at risk. Adapting to these coastal hazards has gained increasing attention with climate change. Instead of promoting one particular strategy such as seawalls or defending against one type of hazard, scholars and practitioners encourage a combination of existing methods and strategies to promote synergistic effects. The recently published Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on climate extremes reflects this trend in the integration of disaster risk management and climate change adaptation. This paper focuses on the roles, compatibilities, and synergies of three coastal adaptation options - engineering, vegetation, and policy - in the case of Ocean Beach in San Francisco. Traditionally engineering approach and ecosystem conservation often have stood in opposition as hard shoreline structures destroy coastal habitats, worsen coastal erosion, divert ocean currents, and prevent the natural migration of shores. A natural migration of shores without structure translates into the abandonment of properties in the coastal zone, and is at odds with property rights and development. For example, policies of relocation, retreat, and insurance may not be popular given the concerns of infrastructure and coastal access. As such, engineering, natural defense, and policy can be more conflictual than complementary. Nonetheless, all these responses are used in combination in many locations. Complementarities and compatibilities, therefore, must be assessed when considering the necessity of engineering responses, natural defense capabilities, and policy options. In this light, the question is how to resolve the problem of mixed responses and short- and long-term interests and values, identify compatibilities, and generate synergies. In the case of Ocean Beach, recent erosions that endangered San Francisco's wastewater treatment system acted as major

  20. Adaptation to Sea Level Rise in Coastal Units of the National Park Service (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavers, R. L.

    2010-12-01

    83 National Park Service (NPS) units contain nearly 12,000 miles of coastal, estuarine and Great Lakes shoreline and their associated resources. Iconic natural features exist alon