Thermal Characterization of a Hall Effect Thruster
2008-03-01
Material Curie Temperature Iron 770 °C Nickel 358 °C Cobalt 1130 °C Gadolinium 20 °C Terfenol 380-430 °C Alnico 850 °C Hard Ferrites 400-700...C Barium Ferrite 450 °C Hall Effect thrusters generally use iron magnets with a Curie temperature of 770 °C. Decreasing the magnetic strength
Pseudospectral Model for Hybrid PIC Hall-effect Thruster Simulation
2015-07-01
1149. 8Goebel, D. M. and Katz, I., Fundamentals of Electric Propulsion : Ion and Hall Thrusters, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2008. 9Martin, R., J.W., K...Bilyeu, D., and Tran, J., “Dynamic Particle Weight Remapping in Hybrid PIC Hall -effect Thruster Simulation,” 34th Int. Electric Propulsion Conf...Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) July 2015-July 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Pseudospectral model for hybrid PIC Hall -effect thruster simulationect
Mode Transitions in Hall Effect Thrusters
Sekerak, Michael J.; Longmier, Benjamin W.; Gallimore, Alec D.; Brown, Daniel L.; Hofer, Richard R.; Polk, James E.
2013-01-01
Mode transitions have been commonly observed in Hall Effect Thruster (HET) operation where a small change in a thruster operating parameter such as discharge voltage, magnetic field or mass flow rate causes the thruster discharge current mean value and oscillation amplitude to increase significantly. Mode transitions in a 6-kW-class HET called the H6 are induced by varying the magnetic field intensity while holding all other operating parameters constant and measurements are acquired with ion saturation probes and ultra-fast imaging. Global and local oscillation modes are identified. In the global mode, the entire discharge channel oscillates in unison and azimuthal perturbations (spokes) are either absent or negligible. Downstream azimuthally spaced probes show no signal delay between each other and are very well correlated to the discharge current signal. In the local mode, signals from the azimuthally spaced probes exhibit a clear delay indicating the passage of "spokes" and are not well correlated to the discharge current. These spokes are localized oscillations propagating in the ExB direction that are typically 10-20% of the mean value. In contrast, the oscillations in the global mode can be 100% of the mean value. The transition between global and local modes occurs at higher relative magnetic field strengths for higher mass flow rates or higher discharge voltages. The thrust is constant through mode transition but the thrust-to-power decreased by 25% due to increasing discharge current. The plume shows significant differences between modes with the global mode significantly brighter in the channel and the near-field plasma plume as well as exhibiting a luminous spike on thruster centerline. Mode transitions provide valuable insight to thruster operation and suggest improved methods for thruster performance characterization.
Performance Characterization of a Three-Axis Hall Effect Thruster
2010-12-01
here represents the first efforts to operate and quantify the performance of a three-axis Hall effect thruster. This thruster is based on the Busek BHT ...thruster were developed and thrust and current density measurements were performed and compared with the baseline BHT -200. The three-axis thruster was...efficiencies than the BHT -200. Beam current density measurements conducted using a guarded Faraday probe showed significant differences in plume divergence
Hall Effect Thruster Ground Testing Challenges
2009-08-18
conditional stability of the inverted pendulum thrust stand provides improved measurement sensitivity.5 With the displacement of the inverted pendulum...July 2005. 12Samiento, C., “RHETT2/ EPDM Hall Thruster Propulsion System Electromagnetic Compatability Evaluation,” Proceed- ings of the 25th
Azimuthal Spoke Propagation in Hall Effect Thrusters
Sekerak, Michael J.; Longmier, Benjamin W.; Gallimore, Alec D.; Brown, Daniel L.; Hofer, Richard R.; Polk, James E.
2013-01-01
Spokes are azimuthally propagating perturbations in the plasma discharge of Hall Effect Thrusters (HETs) that travel in the E x B direction and have been observed in many different systems. The propagation of azimuthal spokes are investigated in a 6 kW HET known as the H6 using ultra-fast imaging and azimuthally spaced probes. A spoke surface is a 2-D plot of azimuthal light intensity evolution over time calculated from 87,500 frames/s videos. The spoke velocity has been determined using three methods with similar results: manual fitting of diagonal lines on the spoke surface, linear cross-correlation between azimuthal locations and an approximated dispersion relation. The spoke velocity for three discharge voltages (300, 400 and 450 V) and three anode mass flow rates (14.7, 19.5 and 25.2 mg/s) yielded spoke velocities between 1500 and 2200 m/s across a range of normalized magnetic field settings. The spoke velocity was inversely dependent on magnetic field strength for low B-field settings and asymptoted at B-field higher values. The velocities and frequencies are compared to standard drifts and plasma waves such as E x B drift, electrostatic ion cyclotron, magnetosonic and various drift waves. The empirically approximated dispersion relation yielded a characteristic velocity that matched the ion acoustic speed for 5 eV electrons that exist in the near-anode and near-field plume regions of the discharge channel based on internal measurements. Thruster performance has been linked to operating mode where thrust-to-power is maximized when azimuthal spokes are present so investigating the underlying mechanism of spokes will benefit thruster operation.
High Throughput 600 Watt Hall Effect Thruster for Space Exploration
Szabo, James; Pote, Bruce; Tedrake, Rachel; Paintal, Surjeet; Byrne, Lawrence; Hruby, Vlad; Kamhawi, Hani; Smith, Tim
2016-01-01
A nominal 600-Watt Hall Effect Thruster was developed to propel unmanned space vehicles. Both xenon and iodine compatible versions were demonstrated. With xenon, peak measured thruster efficiency is 46-48% at 600-W, with specific impulse from 1400 s to 1700 s. Evolution of the thruster channel due to ion erosion was predicted through numerical models and calibrated with experimental measurements. Estimated xenon throughput is greater than 100 kg. The thruster is well sized for satellite station keeping and orbit maneuvering, either by itself or within a cluster.
Hall Effect Thruster for High Power Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek proposes to develop a flight version of a high power Hall Effect thruster. While numerous high power Hall Effect thrusters have been demonstrated in the...
Background Pressure Effects on Krypton Hall Effect Thruster Internal Acceleration
2013-08-01
krypton operation of the BHT -600 at the conditions in Table 2 yields a thrust of 22.4 mN corresponding to an anode efficiency of approximately 31...measurement volume is ap- proximately 500 µm diameter by 1 mm length. Measurement Domain Figure 3 shows a cross-section of the BHT -600 Hall effect...of the BHT -600 Hall effect thruster with measurement volume shown in red. All dimensions are given in mm. tion of the transition
Szabo, James J.
2015-01-01
This Phase II project is developing a magnesium (Mg) Hall effect thruster system that would open the door for in situ resource utilization (ISRU)-based solar system exploration. Magnesium is light and easy to ionize. For a Mars- Earth transfer, the propellant mass savings with respect to a xenon Hall effect thruster (HET) system are enormous. Magnesium also can be combusted in a rocket with carbon dioxide (CO2) or water (H2O), enabling a multimode propulsion system with propellant sharing and ISRU. In the near term, CO2 and H2O would be collected in situ on Mars or the moon. In the far term, Mg itself would be collected from Martian and lunar regolith. In Phase I, an integrated, medium-power (1- to 3-kW) Mg HET system was developed and tested. Controlled, steady operation at constant voltage and power was demonstrated. Preliminary measurements indicate a specific impulse (Isp) greater than 4,000 s was achieved at a discharge potential of 400 V. The feasibility of delivering fluidized Mg powder to a medium- or high-power thruster also was demonstrated. Phase II of the project evaluated the performance of an integrated, highpower Mg Hall thruster system in a relevant space environment. Researchers improved the medium power thruster system and characterized it in detail. Researchers also designed and built a high-power (8- to 20-kW) Mg HET. A fluidized powder feed system supporting the high-power thruster was built and delivered to Busek Company, Inc.
Thermal stability of the krypton Hall effect thruster
Szelecka Agnieszka
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The Krypton Large IMpulse Thruster (KLIMT ESA/PECS project, which has been implemented in the Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IPPLM and now is approaching its final phase, was aimed at incremental development of a ~500 W class Hall effect thruster (HET. Xenon, predominantly used as a propellant in the state-of-the-art HETs, is extremely expensive. Krypton has been considered as a cheaper alternative since more than fifteen years; however, to the best knowledge of the authors, there has not been a HET model especially designed for this noble gas. To address this issue, KLIMT has been geared towards operation primarily with krypton. During the project, three subsequent prototype versions of the thruster were designed, manufactured and tested, aimed at gradual improvement of each next exemplar. In the current paper, the heat loads in new engine have been discussed. It has been shown that thermal equilibrium of the thruster is gained within the safety limits of the materials used. Extensive testing with both gases was performed to compare KLIMT’s thermal behaviour when supplied with krypton and xenon propellants.
Conducting Wall Hall Thrusters
Goebel, Dan M.; Hofer, Richard R.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Polk, James E.; Dotson, Brandon
2013-01-01
A unique configuration of the magnetic field near the wall of Hall thrusters, called Magnetic Shielding, has recently demonstrated the ability to significantly reduce the erosion of the boron nitride (BN) walls and extend the life of Hall thrusters by orders of magnitude. The ability of magnetic shielding to minimize interactions between the plasma and the discharge chamber walls has for the first time enabled the replacement of insulating walls with conducting materials without loss in thruster performance. The boron nitride rings in the 6 kW H6 Hall thruster were replaced with graphite that self-biased to near the anode potential. The thruster efficiency remained over 60% (within two percent of the baseline BN configuration) with a small decrease in thrust and increase in Isp typical of magnetically shielded Hall thrusters. The graphite wall temperatures decreased significantly compared to both shielded and unshielded BN configurations, leading to the potential for higher power operation. Eliminating ceramic walls makes it simpler and less expensive to fabricate a thruster to survive launch loads, and the graphite discharge chamber radiates more efficiently which increases the power capability of the thruster compared to conventional Hall thruster designs.
Hall Effect Thruster Plume Contamination and Erosion Study
Jaworske, Donald A.
2000-01-01
The objective of the Hall effect thruster plume contamination and erosion study was to evaluate the impact of a xenon ion plume on various samples placed in the vicinity of a Hall effect thruster for a continuous 100 hour exposure. NASA Glenn Research Center was responsible for the pre- and post-test evaluation of three sample types placed around the thruster: solar cell cover glass, RTV silicone, and Kapton(R). Mass and profilometer), were used to identify the degree of deposition and/or erosion on the solar cell cover glass, RTV silicone, and Kapton@ samples. Transmittance, reflectance, solar absorptance, and room temperature emittance were used to identify the degree of performance degradation of the solar cell cover glass samples alone. Auger spectroscopy was used to identify the chemical constituents found on the surface of the exposed solar cell cover glass samples. Chemical analysis indicated some boron nitride contamination on the samples, from boron nitride insulators used in the body of the thruster. However, erosion outweighted contamination. All samples exhibited some degree of erosion. with the most erosion occurring near the centerline of the plume and the least occurring at the +/- 90 deg positions. For the solar cell cover glass samples, erosion progressed through the antireflective coating and into the microsheet glass itself. Erosion occurred in the solar cell cover glass, RTV silicone and Kapton(R) at different rates. All optical properties changed with the degree of erosion, with solar absorptance and room temperature emittance increasing with erosion. The transmittance of some samples decreased while the reflectance of some samples increased and others decreased. All results are consistent with an energetic plume of xenon ions serving as a source for erosion.
Cylindrical geometry hall thruster
Raitses, Yevgeny; Fisch, Nathaniel J.
2002-01-01
An apparatus and method for thrusting plasma, utilizing a Hall thruster with a cylindrical geometry, wherein ions are accelerated in substantially the axial direction. The apparatus is suitable for operation at low power. It employs small size thruster components, including a ceramic channel, with the center pole piece of the conventional annular design thruster eliminated or greatly reduced. Efficient operation is accomplished through magnetic fields with a substantial radial component. The propellant gas is ionized at an optimal location in the thruster. A further improvement is accomplished by segmented electrodes, which produce localized voltage drops within the thruster at optimally prescribed locations. The apparatus differs from a conventional Hall thruster, which has an annular geometry, not well suited to scaling to small size, because the small size for an annular design has a great deal of surface area relative to the volume.
Elementary scaling laws for the design of low and high power hall effect thrusters
Dannenmayer, K.; Mazouffre, S.
2011-10-01
An advanced set of scaling laws for Hall effect thrusters running with Xenon as propellant is established on the basis of the existence of an optimum atom number density that warrants a high efficiency thruster operation. A set of general relationships between macroscopic quantities, like thrust and input power, dimensions, including the channel length, the channel width and the channel mean diameter, and magnetic field strength are inferred from the main physical processes at work in a Hall thruster discharge. The "atom density constraint" of which the nature is here critically interpreted allows simplifying those relationships as it leads to a linear dependency between the channel length and mean diameter. Scaling laws which represent an essential tool for sizing up and down Hall thrusters are eventually obtained after proportionnality coefficients are determined. This last step is realized by means of a vast database that presently encompasses 33 single-stage Hall thrusters. In order to illustrate the usefulness of this new set of scaling laws, two practical applications are given and discussed. The scaling laws are first employed to calculate the dimensions and the operating parameters for a 20-kilowatt Hall thruster capable of producing 1 N of thrust. Such an electrical engine would permit orbit transfer of large communication satellites. Finally, the geometry of a Hall thruster is determined for tolerating 100 kW, an interesting power level for interplanetary trips.
Dynamic Particle Weight Remapping in Hybrid PIC Hall-effect Thruster Simulation
2015-05-01
International Electric Propulsion Conference and 6th Nano-satellite Symposium Hyogo-Kobe, Japan July 410, 2015 Robert Martin∗ ERC Incorporated, Huntsville...Algorithms, . 8Koo, J. and Martin, R., Pseudospectral model for hybrid PIC Hall -eect thruster simulation, 34th Int. Electric Propul- sion Conf...Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) May 2015-July 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dynamic Particle Weight Remapping in Hybrid PIC Hall -effect Thruster
Szabo, James
2015-01-01
Iodine enables dramatic mass and cost savings for lunar and Mars cargo missions, including Earth escape and near-Earth space maneuvers. The demonstrated throttling ability of iodine is important for a singular thruster that might be called upon to propel a spacecraft from Earth to Mars or Venus. The ability to throttle efficiently is even more important for missions beyond Mars. In the Phase I project, Busek Company, Inc., tested an existing Hall thruster, the BHT-8000, on iodine propellant. The thruster was fed by a high-flow iodine feed system and supported by an existing Busek hollow cathode flowing xenon gas. The Phase I propellant feed system was evolved from a previously demonstrated laboratory feed system. Throttling of the thruster between 2 and 11 kW at 200 to 600 V was demonstrated. Testing showed that the efficiency of iodine fueled BHT-8000 is the same as with xenon, with iodine delivering a slightly higher thrust-to-power (T/P) ratio. In Phase II, a complete iodine-fueled system was developed, including the thruster, hollow cathode, and iodine propellant feed system. The nominal power of the Phase II system is 8 kW; however, it can be deeply throttled as well as clustered to much higher power levels. The technology also can be scaled to greater than 100 kW per thruster to support megawatt-class missions. The target thruster efficiency for the full-scale system is 65 percent at high specific impulse (Isp) (approximately 3,000 s) and 60 percent at high thrust (Isp approximately 2,000 s).
Performance of a Permanent-Magnet Cylindrical Hall-Effect Thruster
Polzin, K. A.; Sooby, E. S.; Kimberlin, A. C.; Raites, Y.; Merino, E.; Fisch, N. J.
2009-01-01
The performance of a low-power cylindrical Hall thruster, which more readily lends itself to miniaturization and low-power operation than a conventional (annular) Hall thruster, was measured using a planar plasma probe and a thrust stand. The field in the cylindrical thruster was produced using permanent magnets, promising a power reduction over previous cylindrical thruster iterations that employed electromagnets to generate the required magnetic field topology. Two sets of ring-shaped permanent magnets are used, and two different field configurations can be produced by reorienting the poles of one magnet relative to the other. A plasma probe measuring ion flux in the plume is used to estimate the current utilization for the two magnetic topologies. The measurements indicate that electron transport is impeded much more effectively in one configuration, implying higher thrust efficiency. Thruster performance measurements on this configuration were obtained over a power range of 70-350 W and with the cathode orifice located at three different axial positions relative to the thruster exit plane. The thrust levels over this power range were 1.25-6.5 mN, with anode efficiencies and specific impulses spanning 4-21% and 400-1950 s, respectively. The anode efficiency of the permanent-magnet thruster compares favorable with the efficiency of the electromagnet thruster when the power consumed by the electromagnets is taken into account.
Performance of a Cylindrical Hall-Effect Thruster with Magnetic Field Generated by Permanent Magnets
Polzin, Kurt A.; Raitses, Yevgeny; Fisch, Nathaniel J.
2008-01-01
While Hall thrusters can operate at high efficiency at kW power levels, it is difficult to construct one that operates over a broad envelope down to 100W while maintaining an efficiency of 45- 55%. Scaling to low power while holding the main dimensionless parameters constant requires a decrease in the thruster channel size and an increase in the magnetic field strength. Increasing the magnetic field becomes technically challenging since the field can saturate the miniaturized inner components of the magnetic circuit and scaling down the magnetic circuit leaves very little room for magnetic pole pieces and heat shields. An alternative approach is to employ a cylindrical Hall thruster (CHT) geometry. Laboratory model CHTs have operated at power levels ranging from the order of 50 Watts up to 1 kW. These thrusters exhibit performance characteristics which are comparable to conventional, annular Hall thrusters of similar size. Compared to the annular Hall thruster, the CHT has a lower insulator surface area to discharge chamber volume ratio. Consequently, there is the potential for reduced wall losses in the channel of a CHT, and any reduction in wall losses should translate into lower channel heating rates and reduced erosion. This makes the CHT geometry promising for low-power applications. Recently, a CHT that uses permanent magnets to produce the magnetic field topology was tested. This thruster has the promise of reduced power consumption over previous CHT iterations that employed electromagnets. Data are presented for two purposes: to expose the effect different controllable parameters have on the discharge and to summarize performance measurements (thrust, Isp, efficiency) obtained using a thrust stand. These data are used to gain insight into the thruster's operation and to allow for quantitative comparisons between the permanent magnet CHT and the electromagnet CHT.
Effects of facility backpressure on the performance and plume of a Hall thruster
Walker, Mitchell Louis Ronald
2005-07-01
This dissertation presents research aimed at understanding the relationship between facility background pressure, Hall thruster performance, and plume characteristics. Due to the wide range of facilities used in Hall thruster testing, it is difficult for researchers to make adequate comparisons between data sets because of both dissimilar instrumentation and backpressures. The differences in the data sets are due to the ingestion of background gas into the Hall thruster discharge channel and charge-exchange collisions in the plume. Thus, this research aims to understand facility effects and to develop the tools needed to allow researchers to obtain relevant plume and performance data for a variety of chambers and backpressures. The first portion of this work develops a technique for calibrating a vacuum chamber in terms of pressure to account for elevated backpressures while testing Hall thrusters. Neutral gas background pressure maps of the Large Vacuum Test Facility are created at a series of cold anode flow rates and one hot flow rate at two UM/AFRL P5 5 kW Hall thruster operating conditions. These data show that a cold flow pressure map can be used to approximate the neutral background pressure in the chamber with the thruster in operation. In addition, the data are used to calibrate a numerical model that accurately predicts facility backpressure within a vacuum chamber of specified geometry and pumping speed. The second portion of this work investigates how facility backpressure influences the plume, plume diagnostics, and performance of the P5 Hall thruster. Measurements of the plume and performance characteristics over a wide range of pressures show that ingestion, a decrease in the downstream plasma potential, and broadening of the ion energy distribution function cause the increase in thrust with backpressure. Furthermore, a magnetically-filtered Faraday probe accurately measures ion current density at elevated operating pressures. The third portion of
Light Metal Propellant Hall Thruster Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek proposes to develop light metal Hall Effect thrusters that will help reduce the travel time, mass, and cost of SMD spacecraft. Busek has identified three...
Iodine Hall Thruster for Space Exploration Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek Co. Inc. proposes to develop a high power (high thrust) electric propulsion system featuring an iodine fueled Hall Effect Thruster (HET). The system to be...
Electron-wall Interaction in Hall Thrusters
Y. Raitses; D. Staack; M. Keidar; N.J. Fisch
2005-02-11
Electron-wall interaction effects in Hall thrusters are studied through measurements of the plasma response to variations of the thruster channel width and the discharge voltage. The discharge voltage threshold is shown to separate two thruster regimes. Below this threshold, the electron energy gain is constant in the acceleration region and therefore, secondary electron emission (SEE) from the channel walls is insufficient to enhance electron energy losses at the channel walls. Above this voltage threshold, the maximum electron temperature saturates.
Effect of the Hollow Cathode Heat Power on the Performance of an Hall-Effect Thruster
NING Zhongxi; YU Daren; LI Hong; YAN Guojun
2009-01-01
Effect of the hollow cathode heat power on the performance of a Hall-effect thruster is investigated. The variations in the Hall-effect thruster's performance (thrust, specific impulse and anode efficiency) with the hollow cathode heat power was obtained from the analysis of the experimental data. Through an analysis on the coupling relationship between the electrons emitted from the hollow cathode and the environmental plasma, it was found that the heat power would affect the electron emission of the emitter and the space potential of the coupling zone, which would lead to a change in the effective discharge voltage. The experimental data agree well with the results of calculation which can be used to explain the experimental phenomena.
Performance of a Cylindrical Hall-Effect Thruster Using Permanent Magnets
Polzin, Kurt A.; Raitses, Y.; Merino, E.; Fisch, N. J.
2009-01-01
While annular Hall thrusters can operate at high efficiency at kW power levels, it is difficult to construct one that operates over a broad envelope from 1 kW down to 100 W while maintaining an efficiency of 45-55%. Scaling to low power while holding the main dimensionless parameters constant requires a decrease in the thruster channel size and an increase in the magnetic field strength. Increasing the magnetic field becomes technically challenging since the field can saturate the miniaturized inner components of the magnetic circuit and scaling down the magnetic circuit leaves very little room for magnetic pole pieces and heat shields. In addition, the central magnetic pole piece defining the interior wall of the annular channel can experience excessive heat loads in a miniaturized Hall thruster, with the temperature eventually exceeding the Curie temperature of the material and in extreme circumstances leading to accelerated erosion of the channel wall. An alternative approach is to employ a cylindrical Hall thruster (CHT) geometry. Laboratory model CHTs have operated at power levels ranging from 50 W up to 1 kW. These thrusters exhibit performance characteristics that are comparable to conventional, annular Hall thrusters of similar size. Compared to the annular Hall thruster, the CHTs insulator surface area to discharge chamber volume ratio is lower. Consequently, there is the potential for reduced wall losses in the channel of a CHT, and any reduction in wall losses should translate into lower channel heating rates and reduced erosion, making the CHT geometry promising for low-power applications. This potential for high performance in the low-power regime has served as the impetus for research and development efforts aimed at understanding and improving CHT performance. Recently, a 2.6 cm channel diameter permanent magnet CHT (shown in Fig. 1) was tested. This thruster has the promise of reduced power consumption over previous CHT iterations that employed
Shared Magnetics Hall Thruster Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the proposed Phase II program, Busek Co. will demonstrate an innovative methodology for clustering Hall thrusters into a high performance, very high power...
Shared Magnetics Hall Thruster Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the proposed Phase I program, Busek Co. will demonstrate an innovative methodology for clustering Hall thrusters into a high performance, very high power...
Effect of Background Pressure on the Plasma Oscillation Characteristics of the HiVHAc Hall Thruster
Huang, Wensheng; Kamhawi, Hani; Lobbia, Robert B.; Brown, Daniel L.
2014-01-01
During a component compatibility test of the NASA HiVHAc Hall thruster, a high-speed camera and a set of high-speed Langmuir probes were implemented to study the effect of varying facility background pressure on thruster operation. The results show a rise in the oscillation frequency of the breathing mode with rising background pressure, which is hypothesized to be due to a shortening accelerationionization zone. An attempt is made to apply a simplified ingestion model to the data. The combined results are used to estimate the maximum acceptable background pressure for performance and wear testing.
Long Life Cold Cathodes for Hall effect Thrusters Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An electron source incorporating long life, high current density cold cathodes inside a microchannel plate for use with ion thrusters is proposed. Cathode lifetime...
Effect of Background Pressure on the Performance and Plume of the HiVHAc Hall Thruster
Huang, Wensheng; Kamhawi, Hani; Haag, Thomas
2013-01-01
During the Single String Integration Test of the NASA HiVHAc Hall thruster, a number of plasma diagnostics were implemented to study the effect of varying facility background pressure on thruster operation. These diagnostics include thrust stand, Faraday probe, ExB probe, and retarding potential analyzer. The test results indicated a rise in thrust and discharge current with background pressure. There was also a decrease in ion energy per charge, an increase in multiply-charged species production, a decrease in plume divergence, and a decrease in ion beam current with increasing background pressure. A simplified ingestion model was applied to determine the maximum acceptable background pressure for thrust measurement. The maximum acceptable ingestion percentage was found to be around 1%. Examination of the diagnostics results suggest the ionization and acceleration zones of the thruster were shifting upstream with increasing background pressure.
Silicon Carbide (SiC) Power Processing Unit (PPU) for Hall Effect Thrusters
Reese, Bradley
2015-01-01
Arkansas Power Electronics International (APEI), Inc., is developing a high-efficiency, radiation-hardened 3.8-kW SiC power supply for the PPU of Hall effect thrusters. This project specifically targets the design of a PPU for the high-voltage Hall accelerator (HiVHAC) thruster, with target specifications of 80- to 160-V input, 200- to 700-V/5A output, efficiency greater than 96 percent, and peak power density in excess of 2.5 kW/kg. The PPU under development uses SiC junction field-effect transistor power switches, components that APEI, Inc., has irradiated under total ionizing dose conditions to greater than 3 MRad with little to no change in device performance.
Temperature Gradient in Hall Thrusters
D. Staack; Y. Raitses; N.J. Fisch
2003-11-24
Plasma potentials and electron temperatures were deduced from emissive and cold floating probe measurements in a 2 kW Hall thruster, operated in the discharge voltage range of 200-400 V. An almost linear dependence of the electron temperature on the plasma potential was observed in the acceleration region of the thruster both inside and outside the thruster. This result calls into question whether secondary electron emission from the ceramic channel walls plays a significant role in electron energy balance. The proportionality factor between the axial electron temperature gradient and the electric field is significantly smaller than might be expected by models employing Ohmic heating of electrons.
Mode Transitions in Magnetically Shielded Hall Effect Thrusters
Sekerak, Michael J.; Longmier, Benjamin W.; Gallimore, Alec D.; Huang, Wensheng; Kamhawi, Hani; Hofer, Richard R.; Jorns, Benjamin A.; Polk, James E.
2014-01-01
A mode transition study is conducted in magnetically shielded thrusters where the magnetic field magnitude is varied to induce mode transitions. Three different oscillatory modes are identified with the 20-kW NASA-300MS-2 and the 6-kW H6MS: Mode 1) global mode similar to unshielded thrusters at low magnetic fields, Mode 2) cathode oscillations at nominal magnetic fields, and Mode 3) combined spoke, cathode and breathing mode oscillations at high magnetic fields. Mode 1 exhibits large amplitude, low frequency (1-10 kHz), breathing mode type oscillations where discharge current mean value and oscillation amplitude peak. The mean discharge current is minimized while thrust-to-power and anode efficiency are maximized in Mode 2, where higher frequency (50-90 kHz), low amplitude, cathode oscillations dominate. Thrust is maximized in Mode 3 and decreases by 5-6% with decreasing magnetic field strength. The presence or absence of spokes and strong cathode oscillations do not affect each other or discharge current. Similar to unshielded thrusters, mode transitions and plasma oscillations affect magnetically shielded thruster performance and should be characterized during system development.
Investigation of Hall Effect Thruster Channel Wall Erosion Mechanisms
2016-08-01
mentorship, humor, and amazing barbecue parties. I would also like to thank my thesis committee, Dr. Yim, Prof Simon, and Dr. Ready for taking the...indicate that BN is depleted relative to silica in the highly eroded region of the thruster. This surprising result mirrors that obtained by Garnier...predict the decrease in BN in the HE region. Grain ejection provides a plausible mechanism that could explain this surprising observation. 3.6. Summary
Iodine Plasma Species Measurements in a Hall Effect Thruster Plume
2013-05-01
60 90 0 2 4 6 8 Current (mA/cm^2) A n g l e ( d e g ) Xenon Iodine 500 V, 2 A, I2 Presented at 2012 JPC 33 Distribution A: Approved for public...Over 1 hour of operation on iodine – Additional 1/2 hour with thruster flowing Xe – Current up to ~50 A into anode Presented at 2012 JPC
Electron dynamics in Hall thruster
Marini, Samuel; Pakter, Renato
2015-11-01
Hall thrusters are plasma engines those use an electromagnetic fields combination to confine electrons, generate and accelerate ions. Widely used by aerospace industries those thrusters stand out for its simple geometry, high specific impulse and low demand for electric power. Propulsion generated by those systems is due to acceleration of ions produced in an acceleration channel. The ions are generated by collision of electrons with propellant gas atoms. In this context, we can realize how important is characterizing the electronic dynamics. Using Hamiltonian formalism, we derive the electron motion equation in a simplified electromagnetic fields configuration observed in hall thrusters. We found conditions those must be satisfied by electromagnetic fields to have electronic confinement in acceleration channel. We present configurations of electromagnetic fields those maximize propellant gas ionization and thus make propulsion more efficient. This work was supported by CNPq.
Diagnostics Systems for Permanent Hall Thrusters Development
Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Soares Ferreira, Ivan; Santos, Jean; Miranda, Rodrigo; Possa, M. Gabriela
This work describes the development of Permanent Magnet Hall Effect Plasma Thruster (PHALL) and its diagnostic systems at The Plasma Physics Laboratory of University of Brasilia. The project consists on the construction and characterization of plasma propulsion engines based on the Hall Effect. Electric thrusters have been employed in over 220 successful space missions. Two types stand out: the Hall-Effect Thruster (HET) and the Gridded Ion Engine (GIE). The first, which we deal with in this project, has the advantage of greater simplicity of operation, a smaller weight for the propulsion subsystem and a longer shelf life. It can operate in two configurations: magnetic layer and anode layer, the difference between the two lying in the positioning of the anode inside the plasma channel. A Hall-Effect Thruster-HET is a type of plasma thruster in which the propellant gas is ionized and accelerated by a magneto hydrodynamic effect combined with electrostatic ion acceleration. So the essential operating principle of the HET is that it uses a J x B force and an electrostatic potential to accelerate ions up to high speeds. In a HET, the attractive negative charge is provided by electrons at the open end of the Thruster instead of a grid, as in the case of the electrostatic ion thrusters. A strong radial magnetic field is used to hold the electrons in place, with the combination of the magnetic field and the electrostatic potential force generating a fast circulating electron current, the Hall current, around the axis of the Thruster, mainly composed by drifting electrons in an ion plasma background. Only a slow axial drift towards the anode occurs. The main attractive features of the Hall-Effect Thruster are its simple design and operating principles. Most of the Hall-Effect Thrusters use electromagnet coils to produce the main magnetic field responsible for plasma generation and acceleration. In this paper we present a different new concept, a Permanent Magnet Hall-Effect
Facility Effect Characterization Test of NASA's HERMeS Hall Thruster
Huang, Wensheng; Kamhawi, Hani; Haag, Thomas W.; Ortega, Alejandro Lopez; Mikellides, Ioannis G.
2016-01-01
A test to characterize the effect of varying background pressure on NASA's 12.5-kW Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding had being completed. This thruster is the baseline propulsion system for the Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission (SEP TDM). Potential differences in thruster performance and oscillation characteristics when in ground facilities versus on-orbit are considered a primary risk for the propulsion system of the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission, which is a candidate for SEP TDM. The first primary objective of this test was to demonstrate that the tools being developed to predict the zero-background-pressure behavior of the thruster can provide self-consistent results. The second primary objective of this test was to provide data for refining a physics-based model of the thruster plume that will be used in spacecraft interaction studies. Diagnostics deployed included a thrust stand, Faraday probe, Langmuir probe, retarding potential analyzer, Wien filter spectrometer, and high-speed camera. From the data, a physics-based plume model was refined. Comparisons of empirical data to modeling results are shown.
Hall-effect thruster--Cathode coupling: The effect of cathode position and magnetic field topology
Sommerville, Jason D.
2009-12-01
Hall-effect thruster (HET) cathodes are responsible for the generation of the free electrons necessary to initiate and sustain the main plasma discharge and to neutralize the ion beam. The position of the cathode relative to the thruster strongly affects the efficiency of thrust generation. However, the mechanisms by which the position affects the efficiency are not well understood. This dissertation explores the effect of cathode position on HET efficiency. Magnetic field topology is shown to play an important role in the coupling between the cathode plasma and the main discharge plasma. The position of the cathode within the magnetic field affects the ion beam and the plasma properties of the near-field plume, which explains the changes in efficiency of the thruster. Several experiments were conducted which explored the changes of efficiency arising from changes in cathode coupling. In each experiment, the thrust, discharge current, and cathode coupling voltage were monitored while changes in the independent variables of cathode position, cathode mass flow and magnetic field topology were made. From the telemetry data, the efficiency of the HET thrust generation was calculated. Furthermore, several ion beam and plasma properties were measured including ion energy distribution, beam current density profile, near-field plasma potential, electron temperature, and electron density. The ion beam data show how the independent variables affected the quality of ion beam and therefore the efficiency of thrust generation. The measurements of near-field plasma properties partially explain how the changes in ion beam quality arise. The results of the experiments show that cathode position, mass flow, and field topology affect several aspects of the HET operation, especially beam divergence and voltage utilization efficiencies. Furthermore, the experiments show that magnetic field topology is important in the cathode coupling process. In particular, the magnetic field
Effect of Segmented Electrode Length on the Performances of an Aton-Type Hall Thruster
DUAN Ping; BIAN Xingyu; CAO Anning; LIU Guangrui; CHEN Long; YIN Yan
2016-01-01
The influences of the low-emissive graphite segmented electrode placed near the channel exit on the discharge characteristics of a Hall thruster are studied using the particlein-cell method.A two-dimensional physical model is established according to the Hall thruster discharge channel configuration.The effects of electrode length on the potential,ion density,electron temperature,ionization rate and discharge current are investigated.It is found that,with the increasing of the segmented electrode length,the equipotential lines bend towards the channel exit,and approximately parallel to the wall at the channel surface,the radial velocity and radial flow of ions are increased,and the electron temperature is also enhanced.Due to the conductive characteristic of electrodes,the radial electric field and the axial electron conductivity near the wall are enhanced,and the probability of the electron-atom ionization is reduced,which leads to the degradation of the ionization rate in the discharge channel.However,the interaction between electrons and the wall enhances the near wall conductivity,therefore the discharge current grows along with the segmented electrode length,and the performance of the thruster is also affected.
Laser ablation in a running hall effect thruster for space propulsion
Balika, L.; Focsa, C.; Gurlui, S.; Pellerin, S.; Pellerin, N.; Pagnon, D.; Dudeck, M.
2013-07-01
Hall Effect Thrusters (HETs) are promising electric propulsion devices for the station-keeping of geostationary satellites (more than 120 in orbit to date). Moreover, they can offer a cost-effective solution for interplanetary journey, as proved by the recent ESA SMART-1 mission to the Moon. The main limiting factor of the HETs lifetime is the erosion of the annular channel ceramics walls. In order to provide a better understanding of the energy deposition on the insulated walls, a laser irradiation study has been carried out on a PPS100-ML thruster during its run in the PIVOINE-2G ground test facility (CNRS Orléans, France). Two distinct approaches have been followed: continuous wave fiber laser irradiation (generation of thermal defects) and nanosecond pulsed laser ablation (generation of topological defects). The irradiated zones have been monitored in situ by IR thermography and optical emission spectroscopy and further investigated ex situ by scanning electron microscopy and profilometry.
Comparisons in Performance of Electromagnet and Permanent-Magnet Cylindrical Hall-Effect Thrusters
Polzin, K. A.; Raitses, Y.; Gayoso, J. C.; Fisch, N. J.
2010-01-01
Three different low-power cylindrical Hall thrusters, which more readily lend themselves to miniaturization and low-power operation than a conventional (annular) Hall thruster, are compared to evaluate the propulsive performance of each. One thruster uses electromagnet coils to produce the magnetic field within the discharge channel while the others use permanent magnets, promising power reduction relative to the electromagnet thruster. A magnetic screen is added to the permanent magnet thruster to improve performance by keeping the magnetic field from expanding into space beyond the exit of the thruster. The combined dataset spans a power range from 50-350 W. The thrust levels over this range were 1.3-7.3 mN, with thruster efficiencies and specific impulses spanning 3.5-28.7% and 400-1940 s, respectively. The efficiency is generally higher for the permanent magnet thruster with the magnetic screen, while That thruster s specific impulse as a function of discharge voltage is comparable to the electromagnet thruster.
Iodine Hall Thruster for Space Exploration Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the Phase I program, Busek Co. Inc. tested an existing Hall thruster, the BHT-8000, on iodine propellant. The thruster was fed by a high flow iodine feed system,...
Low-Voltage Hall Thruster Mode Transitions
2014-06-01
Technical Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) June 2014- July 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-House Low-Voltage Hall Thruster Mode...ABSTRACT Past investigations of the 6kW-class H6 Hall thruster during low-voltage operation revealed two operating modes, corresponding to the...topologies were characterized for the H6 Hall thruster from 100V to 200V discharge, with variation in cathode flow fraction, cathode position inside and
Polzin, K. A.; Raitses, Y.; Merino, E.; Fisch, N. J.
2008-01-01
The performance of a low-power cylindrical Hall thruster, which more readily lends itself to miniaturization and low-power operation than a conventional (annular) Hall thruster, was measured using a planar plasma probe and a thrust stand. The field in the cylindrical thruster was produced using permanent magnets, promising a power reduction over previous cylindrical thruster iterations that employed electromagnets to generate the required magnetic field topology. Two sets of ring-shaped permanent magnets are used, and two different field configurations can be produced by reorienting the poles of one magnet relative to the other. A plasma probe measuring ion flux in the plume is used to estimate the current utilization for the two magnetic configurations. The measurements indicate that electron transport is impeded much more effectively in one configuration, implying a higher thrust efficiency. Preliminary thruster performance measurements on this configuration were obtained over a power range of 100-250 W. The thrust levels over this power range were 3.5-6.5 mN, with anode efficiencies and specific impulses spanning 14-19% and 875- 1425 s, respectively. The magnetic field in the thruster was lower for the thrust measurements than the plasma probe measurements due to heating and weakening of the permanent magnets, reducing the maximum field strength from 2 kG to roughly 750-800 G. The discharge current levels observed during thrust stand testing were anomalously high compared to those levels measured in previous experiments with this thruster.
Performance and Thermal Characterization of the NASA-300MS 20 kW Hall Effect Thruster
Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng; Haag, Thomas; Shastry, Rohit; Soulas, George; Smith, Timothy; Mikellides, Ioannis; Hofer, Richard
2013-01-01
NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate is sponsoring the development of a high fidelity 15 kW-class long-life high performance Hall thruster for candidate NASA technology demonstration missions. An essential element of the development process is demonstration that incorporation of magnetic shielding on a 20 kW-class Hall thruster will yield significant improvements in the throughput capability of the thruster without any significant reduction in thruster performance. As such, NASA Glenn Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory collaborated on modifying the NASA-300M 20 kW Hall thruster to improve its propellant throughput capability. JPL and NASA Glenn researchers performed plasma numerical simulations with JPL's Hall2De and a commercially available magnetic modeling code that indicated significant enhancement in the throughput capability of the NASA-300M can be attained by modifying the thruster's magnetic circuit. This led to modifying the NASA-300M magnetic topology to a magnetically shielded topology. This paper presents performance evaluation results of the two NASA-300M magnetically shielded thruster configurations, designated 300MS and 300MS-2. The 300MS and 300MS-2 were operated at power levels between 2.5 and 20 kW at discharge voltages between 200 and 700 V. Discharge channel deposition from back-sputtered facility wall flux, and plasma potential and electron temperature measurements made on the inner and outer discharge channel surfaces confirmed that magnetic shielding was achieved. Peak total thrust efficiency of 64% and total specific impulse of 3,050 sec were demonstrated with the 300MS-2 at 20 kW. Thermal characterization results indicate that the boron nitride discharge chamber walls temperatures are approximately 100 C lower for the 300MS when compared to the NASA- 300M at the same thruster operating discharge power.
Wheeler, Pamela; Cobb, Richard; Hartsfield, Carl; Prince, Benjamin
2016-09-01
Space Situational Awareness (SSA) is of utmost importance in today's congested and contested space environment. Satellites must perform orbital corrections for station keeping, devices like high efficiency electric propulsion systems such as a Hall effect thrusters (HETs) to accomplish this are on the rise. The health of this system is extremely important to ensure the satellite can maintain proper position and perform its intended mission. Electron temperature is a commonly used diagnostic to determine the efficiency of a hall thruster. Recent papers have coordinated near infrared (NIR) spectral measurements of emission lines in xenon and krypton to electron temperature measurements. Ground based observations of these spectral lines could allow the health of the thruster to be determined while the satellite is in operation. Another issue worth considering is the availability of SSA assets for ground-based observations. The current SSA architecture is limited and task saturated. If smaller telescopes, like those at universities, could successfully detect these signatures they could augment data collection for the SSA network. To facilitate this, precise atmospheric modeling must be used to pull out the signature. Within the atmosphere, the NIR has a higher transmission ratio and typical HET propellants are approximately 3x the intensity in the NIR versus the visible spectrum making it ideal for ground based observations. The proposed research will focus on developing a model to determine xenon and krypton signatures through the atmosphere and estimate the efficacy through ground-based observations. The model will take power modes, orbit geometries, and satellite altitudes into consideration and be correlated with lab and field observations.
Measurements of Plasma Potential Distribution in Segmented Electrode Hall Thruster
Y. Raitses; D. Staack; N.J. Fisch
2001-10-16
Use of a segmented electrode placed at the Hall thruster exit can substantially reduce the voltage potential drop in the fringing magnetic field outside the thruster channel. In this paper, we investigate the dependence of this effect on thruster operating conditions and segmented electrode configuration. A fast movable emissive probe is used to measure plasma potential in a 1 kW laboratory Hall thruster with semented electrodes made of a graphite material. Relatively small probe-induced perturbations of the thruster discharge in the vicinity of the thruster exit allow a reasonable comparison of the measured results for different thruster configurations. It is shown that the plasma potential distribution is almost not sensitive to changes of the electrode potential, but depends on the magnetic field distribution and the electrode placement.
NASA HERMeS Hall Thruster Electrical Configuration Characterization
Peterson, Peter Y.; Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng; Yim, John; Herman, Daniel; Williams, George; Gilland, James; Hofer, Richard
2015-01-01
The NASA Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding (HERMeS) 12.5 kW Technology Demonstration Unit-1 (TDU-1) Hall thruster has been the subject of extensive technology maturation in preparation for development into a flight ready propulsion system. Part of the technology maturation was to test the TDU-1 thruster in several ground based electrical configurations to assess the thruster robustness and suitability to successful in-space operation. The ground based electrical configuration testing has recently been demonstrated as an important step in understanding and assessing how a Hall thruster may operate differently in-space compared to ground based testing, and to determine the best configuration to conduct development and qualification testing. This paper describes the electrical configuration testing of the HERMeS TDU-1 Hall thruster in NASA Glenn Research Center's Vacuum Facility 5. The three electrical configurations examined were 1) thruster body tied to facility ground, 2) thruster floating, and 3) thruster body electrically tied to cathode common. The HERMeS TDU-1 Hall thruster was also configured with two different exit plane boundary conditions, dielectric and conducting, to examine the influence on the electrical configuration characterization.
Theory for the anomalous electron transport in Hall effect thrusters. II. Kinetic model
Lafleur, T.; Baalrud, S. D.; Chabert, P.
2016-05-01
In Paper I [T. Lafleur et al., Phys. Plasmas 23, 053502 (2016)], we demonstrated (using particle-in-cell simulations) the definite correlation between an anomalously high cross-field electron transport in Hall effect thrusters (HETs), and the presence of azimuthal electrostatic instabilities leading to enhanced electron scattering. Here, we present a kinetic theory that predicts the enhanced scattering rate and provides an electron cross-field mobility that is in good agreement with experiment. The large azimuthal electron drift velocity in HETs drives a strong instability that quickly saturates due to a combination of ion-wave trapping and wave-convection, leading to an enhanced mobility many orders of magnitude larger than that expected from classical diffusion theory. In addition to the magnetic field strength, B0, this enhanced mobility is a strong function of the plasma properties (such as the plasma density) and therefore does not, in general, follow simple 1 /B02 or 1 /B0 scaling laws.
Compact High Current Rare-Earth Emitter Hollow Cathode for Hall Effect Thrusters
Hofer, Richard R. (Inventor); Goebel, Dan M. (Inventor); Watkins, Ronnie M. (Inventor)
2012-01-01
An apparatus and method for achieving an efficient central cathode in a Hall effect thruster is disclosed. A hollow insert disposed inside the end of a hollow conductive cathode comprises a rare-earth element and energized to emit electrons from an inner surface. The cathode employs an end opening having an area at least as large as the internal cross sectional area of the rare earth insert to enhance throughput from the cathode end. In addition, the cathode employs a high aspect ratio geometry based on the cathode length to width which mitigates heat transfer from the end. A gas flow through the cathode and insert may be impinged by the emitted electrons to yield a plasma. One or more optional auxiliary gas feeds may also be employed between the cathode and keeper wall and external to the keeper near the outlet.
High Throughput Hall Thruster for Small Spacecraft Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek Co. Inc. proposes to develop a high throughput, nominal 100 W Hall Effect Thruster (HET). This HET will be sized for small spacecraft (< 180 kg), including...
Magnesium Hall Thruster for Solar System Exploration Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation being developed in this program is a Mg Hall Effect Thruster system that would open the door for In-Situ Resource Utilization based solar system...
High Throughput Hall Thruster for Small Spacecraft Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek is developing a high throughput nominal 100-W Hall Effect Thruster. This device is well sized for spacecraft ranging in size from several tens of kilograms to...
Magnesium Hall Thruster for Solar System Exploration Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek proposes to prove the feasibility of a Mg Hall effect thruster system that would open the door for In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) based solar system...
Yu, Daren; Meng, Tianhang; Ning, Zhongxi; Liu, Hui
2017-04-01
A magnetic focusing type Hall thruster was designed with a cylindrical magnetic seperatrix. During the process of a hollow cathode crossing the separatrix, the variance of plume parameter distribution was monitored. Results show that the ion flux on the large spatial angle is significantly lower when the hollow cathode is located in the inner magnetic field. This convergence effect is preserved even in a distant area. A mechanism was proposed for plume divergence from the perspective of cathode-to-plume potential difference, through which the confinement effect of cylindrical-separatrix-type magnetic field on thruster plume was confirmed and proposed as a means of plume protection for plasma propulsion devices.
NASA HERMeS Hall Thruster Electrical Configuration Characterization
Peterson, Peter; Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng; Yim, John; Herman, Daniel; Williams, George; Gilland, James; Hofer, Richard
2016-01-01
NASAs Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding (HERMeS) 12.5 kW Technology Demonstration Unit-1 (TDU-1) Hall thruster has been the subject of extensive technology maturation in preparation for development into a flight ready propulsion system. Part of the technology maturation was to test the TDU-1 thruster in several ground based electrical configurations to assess the thruster robustness and suitability to successful in-space operation. The ground based electrical configuration testing has recently been demonstrated as an important step in understanding and assessing how a Hall thruster may operate differently in space compared to ground based testing, and to determine the best configuration to conduct development and qualification testing. This presentation will cover the electrical configuration testing of the TDU-1 HERMeS Hall thruster in NASA Glenn Research Centers Vacuum Facility 5. The three electrical configurations examined are the thruster body tied to facility ground, thruster floating, and finally the thruster body electrically tied to cathode common. The TDU-1 HERMeS was configured with two different exit plane boundary conditions, dielectric and conducting, to examine the influence on the electrical configuration characterization.
Dual Mode Low Power Hall Thruster Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sample and return missions desire and missions like Saturn Observer require a low power Hall thruster that can operate at high thrust to power as well as high...
Multiscale Modeling of Hall Thrusters Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — New multiscale modeling capability for analyzing advanced Hall thrusters is proposed. This technology offers NASA the ability to reduce development effort of new...
Discharge Oscillations in a Permanent Magnet Cylindrical Hall-Effect Thruster
Polzin, K. A.; Sooby, E. S.; Raitses, Y.; Merino, E.; Fisch, N. J.
2009-01-01
Measurements of the discharge current in a cylindrical Hall thruster are presented to quantify plasma oscillations and instabilities without introducing an intrusive probe into the plasma. The time-varying component of the discharge current is measured using a current monitor that possesses a wide frequency bandwidth and the signal is Fourier transformed to yield the frequency spectra present, allowing for the identification of plasma oscillations. The data show that the discharge current oscillations become generally greater in amplitude and complexity as the voltage is increased, and are reduced in severity with increasing flow rate. The breathing mode ionization instability is identified, with frequency as a function of discharge voltage not increasing with discharge voltage as has been observed in some traditional Hall thruster geometries, but instead following a scaling similar to a large-amplitude, nonlinear oscillation mode recently predicted in for annular Hall thrusters. A transition from lower amplitude oscillations to large relative fluctuations in the oscillating discharge current is observed at low flow rates and is suppressed as the mass flow rate is increased. A second set of peaks in the frequency spectra are observed at the highest propellant flow rate tested. Possible mechanisms that might give rise to these peaks include ionization instabilities and interactions between various oscillatory modes.
YU Daren; LIU Hui; FU Haiyang
2009-01-01
Considering the actual magnetic field configuration in a Hall thruster, the effect of magnetic mirror on the radial profile of near-wall conductivity (NWC) is studied in this paper. The plasma electron dynamic process is described by the test particle method. The Monte Carlo scheme is used to solve this model. The radial profile of electron mobility is obtained and the role of magnetic mirror in NWC is analysed both theoretically and numerically. The numerical results show that the electron mobility peak due to NWC is inversely proportional to the magnetic mirror ratio and the asymmetry of electron mobility along the radial direction gets greater when the magnetic mirror is considered. This effect indicates that apart from the disparity in the magnetic field strength, the difference in the magnetic mirror ratio near the inner and outer walls would actually augment the asymmetry of the radial profile of NWC in Hall thrusters.
Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng; Haag, Thomas; Shastry, Rohit; Thomas, Robert; Yim, John; Herman, Daniel; Williams, George; Myers, James; Hofer, Richard; Mikellides, Ioannis; Sekerak, Michael; Polk, James
2015-01-01
NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission (SEP/TDM) project is funding the development of a 12.5-kW Hall thruster system to support future NASA missions. The thruster designated Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding (HERMeS) is a 12.5-kW Hall thruster with magnetic shielding incorporating a centrally mounted cathode. HERMeS was designed and modeled by a NASA GRC and JPL team and was fabricated and tested in vacuum facility 5 (VF5) at NASA GRC. Tests at NASA GRC were performed with the Technology Development Unit 1 (TDU1) thruster. TDU1's magnetic shielding topology was confirmed by measurement of anode potential and low electron temperature along the discharge chamber walls. Thermal characterization tests indicated that during full power thruster operation at peak magnetic field strength, the various thruster component temperatures were below prescribed maximum allowable limits. Performance characterization tests demonstrated the thruster's wide throttling range and found that the thruster can achieve a peak thruster efficiency of 63% at 12.5 kW 500 V and can attain a specific impulse of 3,000 s at 12.5 kW and a discharge voltage of 800 V. Facility background pressure variation tests revealed that the performance, operational characteristics, and magnetic shielding effectiveness of the TDU1 design were mostly insensitive to increases in background pressure.
Studies of anode sheath phenomena in a Hall-effect thruster discharge
Dorf, Leonid
2005-10-01
Crossed electric and magnetic fields devices (plasma thrusters, magnetrons, coaxial plasma guns, plasma opening switches, etc.) are routinely used for plasma production and in other applications. Despite these numerous applications, the fundamental anode sheath phenomena in many of these devices have received surprisingly little experimental scrutiny. We chose a Hall-effect thruster (HT) discharge for our study of the anode sheath. It has been typically assumed in most fluid models of an HT that its steady-state operation requires the presence of a negative anode fall (electron-repelling anode sheath). Such anode fall behavior, opposite to that in typical glow discharges or hollow-anode plasma sources, is the result of a relatively high degree of ionization in HTs, achieved by applying a radial magnetic field transverse to the direction of the discharge current. Our data from non-perturbing probe measurements showed for the first time that the anode fall in HTs can be either negative or positive (electron-attracting anode sheath), depending on conditions at the anode surface. The path for current closure to the anode turns out to be quite subtle in HTs. This path determines the mechanism of the anode fall formation. In varying the magnetic field topology in the channel from a more uniform to a cusp-like one, we uncover intriguing results. For cusp configurations, in which the radial magnetic field changes polarity somewhere along the channel, the anode fall is positive, whereas it is negative for a more uniform field. This polarity difference could be attributed to the decreased electron mobility across the magnetic field in the cusp-like configuration. Our theoretical modeling of the anode sheath correlates well with the experimental results in describing how the magnitude of the sheath varies with the discharge voltage and mass flow rate.
Conducting wall Hall thrusters in magnetic shielding and standard configurations
Grimaud, Lou; Mazouffre, Stéphane
2017-07-01
Traditional Hall thrusters are fitted with boron nitride dielectric discharge channels that confine the plasma discharge. Wall properties have significant effects on the performances and stability of the thrusters. In magnetically shielded thrusters, interactions between the plasma and the walls are greatly reduced, and the potential drop responsible for ion acceleration is situated outside the channel. This opens the way to the utilization of alternative materials for the discharge channel. In this work, graphite walls are compared to BN-SiO2 walls in the 200 W magnetically shielded ISCT200-MS and the unshielded ISCT200-US Hall thrusters. The magnetically shielded thruster shows no significant change in the discharge current mean value and oscillations, while the unshielded thruster's discharge current increases by 25% and becomes noticeably less stable. The electric field profile is also investigated through laser spectroscopy, and no significant difference is recorded between the ceramic and graphite cases for the shielded thruster. The unshielded thruster, on the other hand, has its acceleration region shifted 15% of the channel length downstream. Lastly, the plume profile is measured with planar probes fitted with guard rings. Once again the material wall has little influence on the plume characteristics in the shielded thruster, while the unshielded one is significantly affected.
Theory for the anomalous electron transport in Hall-effect thrusters
Lafleur, Trevor; Baalrud, Scott; Chabert, Pascal
2016-09-01
Using insights from particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, we develop a kinetic theory to explain the anomalous cross-field electron transport in Hall-effect thrusters (HETs). The large axial electric field in the acceleration region of HETs, together with the radially applied magnetic field, causes electrons to drift in the azimuthal direction with a very high velocity. This drives an electron cyclotron instability that produces large amplitude oscillations in the plasma density and azimuthal electric field, and which is convected downstream due to the large axial ion drift velocity. The frequency and wavelength of the instability are of the order of 5 MHz and 1 mm respectively, while the electric field amplitude can be of a similar magnitude to axial electric field itself. The instability leads to enhanced electron scattering many orders of magnitude higher than that from standard electron-neutral or electron-ion Coulomb collisions, and gives electron mobilities in good agreement with experiment. Since the instability is a strong function of almost all plasma properties, the mobility cannot in general be fitted with simple 1/B or 1/B2 scaling laws, and changes to the secondary electron emission coefficient of the HET channel walls are expected to play a role in the evolution of the instability. This work received financial support from a CNES postdoctoral research award.
Two-Dimensional, Time-Dependent Plasma Structures of a Hall Effect Thruster
2011-09-01
47 3.7 Relative spectral response of the Shimadzu HPV -2 ultra-high speed camera taken from Shimadzu HPV -2 Spectral Response . 48 3.8 Sample...a National Instruments SCXI-1321 to measure the current of each component in real-time. 41 Figure 3.4: Electrical diagram of Hall thruster components...experiment. The direct emission data was collected with a Shimadzu HyperVision HPV -2 high-speed camera which is able to record at one-million frames per
Parametric Investigations of Non-Conventional Hall Thruster
Raitses, Y.; Fisch, N.J.
2001-01-12
Hall thrusters might better scale to low power with non-conventional geometry. A 9 cm cylindrical, ceramic-channel, Hall thruster with a cusp-type magnetic field distribution has been investigated. It exhibits discharge characteristics similar to conventional coaxial Hall thrusters, but does not expose as much channel surface. Significantly, its operation is not accompanied by large amplitude discharge low frequency oscillations.
Kamhawi, Hani; Pinero, Luis; Haag, Thomas; Huang, Wensheng; Ahern, Drew; Liang, Ray; Shilo, Vlad
2016-01-01
NASA's Science Mission Directorate is sponsoring the development of a 4 kW-class Hall propulsion system for implementation in NASA science and exploration missions. The main components of the system include the High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAc), an engineering model power processing unit (PPU) developed by Colorado Power Electronics, and a xenon flow control module (XFCM) developed by VACCO Industries. NASA Glenn Research Center is performing integrated tests of the Hall thruster propulsion system. This paper presents results from integrated tests of the PPU and XFCM with the HiVHAc engineering development thruster and a SPT-140 thruster provided by Space System Loral. The results presented in this paper demonstrate thruster discharge initiation along with open-loop and closed-loop control of the discharge current with anode flow for both the HiVHAc and the SPT-140 thrusters. Integrated tests with the SPT-140 thruster indicated that the PPU was able to repeatedly initiate the thruster's discharge, achieve steady state operation, and successfully throttle the thruster between 1.5 and 4.5 kW. The measured SPT-140 performance was identical to levels reported by Space Systems Loral.
Advanced laboratory for testing plasma thrusters and Hall thruster measurement campaign
Szelecka Agnieszka
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Plasma engines are used for space propulsion as an alternative to chemical thrusters. Due to the high exhaust velocity of the propellant, they are more efficient for long-distance interplanetary space missions than their conventional counterparts. An advanced laboratory of plasma space propulsion (PlaNS at the Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IPPLM specializes in designing and testing various electric propulsion devices. Inside of a special vacuum chamber with three performance pumps, an environment similar to the one that prevails in space is created. An innovative Micro Pulsed Plasma Thruster (LμPPT with liquid propellant was built at the laboratory. Now it is used to test the second prototype of Hall effect thruster (HET operating on krypton propellant. Meantime, an improved prototype of krypton Hall thruster is constructed.
Silicon Carbide (SiC) Power Processing Unit (PPU) for Hall Effect Thrusters Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR project, APEI, Inc. is proposing to develop a high efficiency, rad-hard 3.8 kW silicon carbide (SiC) Power Processing Unit (PPU) for Hall Effect...
Magnetic Field Tailored Annular Hall Thruster with Anode Layer
Lee, Seunghun; Kim, Holak; Kim, Junbum; Lim, Youbong; Choe, Wonho; Korea Institute of Materials Science Collaboration
2016-09-01
Plasma propulsion system is one of the key components for advanced missions of satellites as well as deep space exploration. A typical plasma propulsion system is Hall effect thruster that uses crossed electric and magnetic fields to ionize a propellant gas and to accelerate the ionized gas to generate momentum. In Hall thruster plasmas, magnetic field configuration is important due to the fact that electron confinement in the electromagnetic fields affects both plasma and ion beam characteristics as well as thruster performance parameters including thrust, specific impulse, power efficiency, and life time. In this work, development of an anode layer Hall thruster (TAL) with magnetic field tailoring has been attempted. The TAL is possible to keep discharge in 1 to 2 kilovolts of anode voltage, which is useful to obtain high specific impulse. The magnetic field tailoring is used to minimize undesirable heat dissipation and secondary electron emission from the wall surrounding the plasma. We will report 3 W and 200 W thrusters performances measured by a pendulum thrust stand according to the magnetic field configuration. Also, the measured result will be compared with the plasma diagnostics conducted by an angular Faraday probe, a retarding potential analyzer, and a ExB probe.
Global Linear Stability Analysis of the Spoke Oscillation in Hall Effect Thrusters
2014-07-15
characterize the spoke in a wide range of HETs, including both conventional and non-conventional designs (the H6 thruster, the NASA 173Mv1, the Busek BHT -600...near plume of the thruster[126]. Similarly, Liu [127, 128] also finds azimuthal oscillations in the BHT -200 and BHT -600 thrusters via high speed-imaging
Near-wall conductivity effect under a space-charge-saturated sheath in the Hall thruster
Zhang Feng-Kui; Ding Yong-Jie; Qing Shao-Wei; Wu Xian-De
2011-01-01
In this paper,we adopt the modified Morozov secondary electron emission model to investigate the influence of the characteristic of a space-charge-saturated sheath near the insulated wall of the Hall thruster on the near-wall conductivity,by the method of two-dimensional (2D) particle simulation (2D+3V).The results show that due to the sharp increase of collision frequency between the electrons and the wall under the space-charge-saturated sheath,the near-wall transport current under this sheath is remarkably higher than that under a classical sheath,and equals the near-wall transport current under a spatially oscillating sheath in order of magnitude.However,the transport currents under a space-charge-saturated sheath and a spatially oscillating sheath are different in mechanism,causing different current density distributions under the above two sheaths,and a great influence of channel width on the near-wall transport current under a space-charge-saturated sheath.
Effect of the Discharge Voltage on the Performance of the Hall Thruster
Duan, Ping; Cao, An-Ning; Liu, Guang-Rui; Bian, Xing-Yu; Yin, Yan; Chen, Long
2015-09-01
A two-dimensional physical model is established according to the discharging process in the Hall thruster discharge channel. By using particle-in-cell method, the influences of the discharge voltage on the distribution of the potential, ion number density, electron temperature and ion radial velocity are investigated in a fixed magnetic field configuration, and the reason of discharge current increasement along with discharge voltage is also analyzed. It is found that, while the discharge voltage increases during 250-650V, the distribution of electric potential has a small expansion towards anode in axis direction, the ion radial velocity at the exit is reduced, and collision frequency between ions and wall surface is also decreased. Meanwhile, the saturation of electron temperature is observed when discharge voltage is in the range of 400-450V, and the electron temperature decreases. When the discharge voltage increases to 700V, the distribution of potential expands towards anode in axis direction significantly, the acceleration region length is greatly increased, the ionization region is compressed to the vicinity of anode, the ion radial velocity near the wall increases and collision frequency between ions and wall surface is enhanced. As the increasement of near wall conductive current and high energy electron number inside the discharge channel, the discharge current increases monotonously with the increase of discharge voltage.
High Efficiency Hall Thruster Discharge Power Converter Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek leveraged previous, internally sponsored, high power, Hall thruster discharge converter development which allowed it to design, build, and test new printed...
Plume Comparisons between Segmented Channel Hall Thrusters
Niemack, Michael; Staack, David; Raitses, Yevgeny; Fisch, Nathaniel
2001-10-01
Angular ion flux plume measurements were taken in several configurations of segmented channel Hall thrusters. The configurations differed by the placement of relatively short rings made from materials with different conductive and secondary electron emission properties along the boron nitride ceramic channel of the thrusters (these have been shown to affect the plume [1]). The ion fluxes are compared with ion trajectory simulations based on plasma potential data acquired with a high speed emissive probe [2]. Preliminary results indicate that in addition to the physical properties of the segments, the plume angle can be strongly affected by the placement of segmented rings relative to the external and internal walls of the channel. [1] Y. Raitses, L. Dorf, A. Litvak and N. J. Fisch, Journal of Applied Physics 88, 1263, 2000 [2] D. Staack, Y. Raitses, N. J. Fisch, Parametric Investigations of Langmuir Probe Induced Perturbations in a Hall Thruster, DPP01 Poster Presentation This work was supported by the U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-ACO2-76-CHO3073.
Lukas, Joseph Nicholas
Using a Delta IV or Atlas V launch vehicle to send a payload into Low Earth Orbit can cost between 13,000 and 14,000 per kilogram. With payloads that utilize a propulsion system, maximizing the efficiency of that propulsion system would not only be financially beneficial, but could also increase the range of possible missions and allow for a longer mission lifetime. This dissertation looks into efficiency increases in the Micro-Cathode Arc Thruster (muCAT) and Hall Thruster. The muCAT is an electric propulsion device that ablates solid cathode material, through an electrical arc discharge, to create plasma and ultimately produce thrust. About 90% of the arc discharge current is conducted by electrons, which go toward heating the anode and contribute very little to thrust, with only the remaining 10% going toward thrust in the form of ion current. I will discuss the results of an experiment in which electron heating on a low melting point anode was shown to increase ion current, which theoretically should increase thrust levels at low frequencies. Another feature of the muCAT is the use of an external magnetic solenoid which increases thrust, ion current, and causes uniform cathode erosion. An experiment has shown that efficiency can also be increased by removing the external magnetic field power supply and, instead, utilizing the residual arc current to power the magnetic solenoid. A Hall Thruster is a type of electric propulsion device that accelerates ions across an electric potential between an anode and magnetically trapped electrons. The limiting factor in Hall Thruster operation is the lifetime of the wall material. During operation, a positively charged layer forms over the surface of the walls, known as a plasma sheath, which contributes to wall erosion. Therefore, by reducing or eliminating the sheath layer, Hall Thruster operational lifetime can increase. Computational modeling has shown that large magnetic field angles and large perpendicular electric
Carbon Back Sputter Modeling for Hall Thruster Testing
Gilland, James H.; Williams, George J.; Burt, Jonathan M.; Yim, John Tamin
2016-01-01
Lifetime requirements for electric propulsion devices, including Hall Effect thrusters, are continually increasing, driven in part by NASA's inclusion of this technology in it's exploration architecture. NASA will demonstrate high-power electric propulsion system on the Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission (SEP TDM). The Asteroid Redirect Robotic mission is one candidate SEP TDM, which is projected to require tens of thousands of thruster life. As thruster life is increased, for example through the use of improved magnetic field designs, the relative influence of facility effects increases. One such effect is the sputtering and redeposition, or back sputter, of facility materials by the high energy thruster plumes. In support of wear testing for the Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding (HERMeS) project, the back sputter from a Hall effect thruster plume has been modeled for the NASA Glenn Research Center's Vacuum Facility 5. The predicted wear at a near-worst case condition of 600 V, 12.5 kW was found to be on the order of 1 micron/kh in a fully carbon-lined chamber. A more detailed numerical Monte Carlo code was also modified to estimate back sputter for a detailed facility and pumping configuration. This code demonstrated similar back sputter rate distributions, but is not yet accurately modeling the magnitudes. The modeling has been benchmarked to recent HERMeS wear testing, using multiple microbalance measurements. These recent measurements have yielded values on the order of 1.5 - 2 micron/kh at 600 V and 12.5 kW.
Design and operations of Hall thruster with segmented electrodes
Fisch, N.J.; Raitses, Y.; Dorf, L.A.; Litvak, A.A.
1999-12-10
Principles of the Hall thruster with segmented electrodes are explored. A suitable vacuum facility was put into service. For purposes of comparison between segmented and conventional thruster approaches, a modular laboratory prototype thruster was designed and built. Under conventional operation, the thruster achieves state-of-the-art efficiencies (56% at 300 V and 890 W). Very preliminary results under operation with segmented electrodes are also described.
Design and Operation of Hall Thruster with Segmented Electrodes
A.A. Litvak; L.A. Dorf; N.J. Fisch; Y. Raitses
1999-07-01
Principles of the Hall thruster with segmented electrodes are explored. A suitable vacuum facility was put into service. For purposes of comparison between segmented and conventional thruster approaches, a modular laboratory prototype thruster was designed and built. Under conventional operation, the thruster achieves state-of-the-art efficiencies (56% at 300 V and 890 W). Very preliminary results under operation with segmented electrodes are also described.
Investigations of Probe Induced Perturbations in a Hall Thruster
D. Staack; Y. Raitses; N.J. Fisch
2002-08-12
An electrostatic probe used to measure spatial plasma parameters in a Hall thruster generates perturbations of the plasma. These perturbations are examined by varying the probe material, penetration distance, residence time, and the nominal thruster conditions. The study leads us to recommendations for probe design and thruster operating conditions to reduce discharge perturbations, including metal shielding of the probe insulator and operation of the thruster at lower densities.
Plasma Characterization of Hall Thruster with Active and Passive Segmented Electrodes
Raitses, Y.; Staack, D.; Fisch, N.J.
2002-09-04
Non-emissive electrodes and ceramic spacers placed along the Hall thruster channel are shown to affect the plasma potential distribution and the thruster operation. These effects are associated with physical properties of the electrode material and depend on the electrode configuration, geometry and the magnetic field distribution. An emissive segmented electrode was able to maintain thruster operation by supplying an additional electron flux to sustain the plasma discharge between the anode and cathode neutralizer. These results indicate the possibility of new configurations for segmented electrode Hall thruster.
Hall Effect Thruster for High Power Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Phase I Busek matured the design of an existing 15-kW laboratory thruster. Magnetic modeling was performed to generate a circuit incorporating magnetic shielding....
Plasma Diagnostic and Performance of a Permanent Magnet Hall Thruster
Ferreira, J L; Rego, I D S; Ferreira, I S; Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Souza, Joao Henrique Campos De; Rego, Israel Da Silveira; Ferreira, Ivan Soares
2004-01-01
Electric propulsion is now a sucessfull method for primary propulsion of deep space long duration missions and for geosyncronous satellite attitude control. Closed Drift Plasma Thruster, so called Hall Thruster or SPT (stationary plasma thruster) were primarily conceived in USSR (the ancient Soviet Union) and now it is been developed by space agencies, space research institutes and industries in several countries such as France, USA, Israel, Russian Federation and Brazil. In this work, we show plasma characteristics and performance of a Hall Thruster designed with an innovative concept which uses an array of permanent magnets, instead of an eletromagnet, to produce a radial magnetic field inside its cylindrical plasma drift channel. Within this new concept, we expect to develop a Hall Thruster within power consuption that will scale up to small and medium size satellites. A plasma density and temperature space profiles inside and outside the thruster channel will be shown. Space plasma potential, ion temperat...
Wide Throttling, High Throughput Hall Thruster for Science and Exploration Missions Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In response to Topic S3.04 "Propulsion Systems," Busek Co. Inc. will develop a high throughput Hall effect thruster with a nominal peak power of 1-kW and wide...
Wide Throttling, High Throughput Hall Thruster for Science and Exploration Missions Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In response to Topic S3-04 "Propulsion Systems," Busek proposes to develop a high throughput Hall effect thruster with a nominal peak power of 1-kW and wide...
2011-03-01
propellant was successfully operated through a BHT -200 thruster in the T6 vacuum facility at Busek Co. Inc. A feed system for the iodine was developed...15 Figure 4: Overall experimental setup of the vacuum ........................................................ 26 Figure 5: BHT -200...and BHC-1500, side view ................................................................. 27 Figure 6: Busek BHT -200 and BHC-1500, front view
Effect of Background Pressure on the Plasma Oscillation Characteristics of the HiVHAc Hall Thruster
2014-06-01
peculiar phenomenon where spokes mode is observed but only over a small section of the thruster annulus . Figures 14 and 15 show the theta-t diagrams...al., though the view was not perpendicular to the annulus plane and did not capture azimuthal plasma movement. The instrument Darnon, et. al...camera. The view of the camera is actually 4° off to the side instead of perfectly straight-on due to the need to accommodate an IR camera. This small
A High Performance Cathode Heater for Hall Thrusters Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High current hollow cathodes are the baseline electron source for next generation high power Hall thrusters. Currently for electron sources providing current levels...
High Input Voltage Hall Thruster Discharge Converter Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall scope of this Phase I/II effort is the development of a high efficiency 15kW (nominal) Hall thruster discharge converter. In Phase I, Busek Co. Inc. will...
Satellite Microwave Communication Signal Degradation Due To Hall Thruster Plasma Plumes
Wiley, J. C.; Hallock, G. A.; Spencer, E. A.; Meyer, J. W.; Loane, J. T.
2001-10-01
We have developed a geometric optics vector ray-tracing code, BeamServer, for analyzing the effects of Hall thruster plasma plumes on satellite microwave communication signals. The possible effects include main beam attenuation and squinting, side lobe degradation, and induced cross-polarization. We report on a study of Hall current thruster (HCT) mounting positions on a realistic satellite configuration and a study with a highly shaped reflector. Results indicate HCT signal degradation can occur and should be considered in the satellite design process. Initial results of antenna pattern perturbations due to low frequency plume oscillations driven by thruster instabilities are also given.
Hall Effect Thruster Interactions Data From the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 Satellites
Sitnikova, N.; Volkov, D.; Maximov, I.; Petrusevich, V.; Allen, D.
2003-01-01
This 12-part report documents the data obtained from various sensor measurements taken aboard the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 spacecraft in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). These GEO communications satellites, which were designed and built by NPO Prikladnoy Mekhaniki (NPO PM) of Zheleznogorsk, Russia, utilize Hall thruster propulsion systems for north-south and east-west stationkeeping and as of June 2002, were still operating at 80 E. and 11 W., respectively. Express-A2 was launched on March 12, 2000, while Express-A3 was launched on June 24, 2000. The diagnostic equipment from which these data were taken includes electric field strength sensors, ion current and energy sensors, and pressure sensors. The diagnostics and the Hall thruster propulsion systems are described in detail along with lists of tabular data from those diagnostics and propulsion system and other satellite systems. Space Power, Inc., now part of Pratt & Whitney's Chemical Systems Division, under contract NAS3 99151 to the NASA Glenn Research Center, obtained these data over several periods from March 12, 2000, through September 30, 2001. Each of the 12 individual reports describe, in detail, the propulsion systems as well as the diagnostic sensors utilized. Finally, parts 11 and 12 include the requirements to which NPO PM prepared and delivered these data.
Low-Mass, Low-Power Hall Thruster System
Pote, Bruce
2015-01-01
NASA is developing an electric propulsion system capable of producing 20 mN thrust with input power up to 1,000 W and specific impulse ranging from 1,600 to 3,500 seconds. The key technical challenge is the target mass of 1 kg for the thruster and 2 kg for the power processing unit (PPU). In Phase I, Busek Company, Inc., developed an overall subsystem design for the thruster/cathode, PPU, and xenon feed system. This project demonstrated the feasibility of a low-mass power processing architecture that replaces four of the DC-DC converters of a typical PPU with a single multifunctional converter and a low-mass Hall thruster design employing permanent magnets. In Phase II, the team developed an engineering prototype model of its low-mass BHT-600 Hall thruster system, with the primary focus on the low-mass PPU and thruster. The goal was to develop an electric propulsion thruster with the appropriate specific impulse and propellant throughput to enable radioisotope electric propulsion (REP). This is important because REP offers the benefits of nuclear electric propulsion without the need for an excessively large spacecraft and power system.
Tao, Lei; Gallimore, Alec D; Yalin, Azer P
2010-01-01
Sputter erosion of boron nitride (BN) is a critically important process in Hall thrusters from the point of view of both lifetime assessment and contamination effects. This contribution describes the development of a laser based sensor for in situ monitoring of sputtered BN from Hall thrusters. We present a continuous-wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy (cw-CRDS) system and its demonstrative measurement results from BN sputtering experiments.
Mission and System Advantages of Iodine Hall Thrusters
Dankanich, John W.; Szabo, James; Pote, Bruce; Oleson, Steve; Kamhawi, Hani
2014-01-01
The exploration of alternative propellants for Hall thrusters continues to be of interest to the community. Investments have been made and continue for the maturation of iodine based Hall thrusters. Iodine testing has shown comparable performance to xenon. However, iodine has a higher storage density and resulting higher ?V capability for volume constrained systems. Iodine's vapor pressure is low enough to permit low-pressure storage, but high enough to minimize potential adverse spacecraft-thruster interactions. The low vapor pressure also means that iodine does not condense inside the thruster at ordinary operating temperatures. Iodine is safe, it stores at sub-atmospheric pressure, and can be stored unregulated for years on end; whether on the ground or on orbit. Iodine fills a niche for both low power (10kW) electric propulsion regimes. A range of missions have been evaluated for direct comparison of Iodine and Xenon options. The results show advantages of iodine Hall systems for both small and microsatellite application and for very large exploration class missions.
Ion Current Density Study of the NASA-300M and NASA-457Mv2 Hall Thrusters
Huang, Wensheng; Shastry, Rohit; Herman, Daniel A.; Soulas, George C.; Kamhawi, Hani
2012-01-01
NASA Glenn Research Center is developing a Hall thruster in the 15-50 kW range to support future NASA missions. As a part of the process, the performance and plume characteristics of the NASA-300M, a 20-kW Hall thruster, and the NASA-457Mv2, a 50-kW Hall thruster, were evaluated. The collected data will be used to improve the fidelity of the JPL modeling tool, Hall2De, which will then be used to aid the design of the 15-50 kW Hall thruster. This paper gives a detailed overview of the Faraday probe portion of the plume characterization study. The Faraday probe in this study is a near-field probe swept radially at many axial locations downstream of the thruster exit plane. Threshold-based integration limits with threshold values of 1/e, 1/e(sup 2), and 1/e(sup 3) times the local peak current density are tried for the purpose of ion current integration and divergence angle calculation. The NASA-300M is operated at 7 conditions and the NASA-457Mv2 at 14 conditions. These conditions span discharge voltages of 200 to 500 V and discharge power of 10 to 50 kW. The ion current density profiles of the near-field plume originating from the discharge channel are discovered to strongly resemble Gaussian distributions. A novel analysis approach involving a form of ray tracing is used to determine an effective point of origin for the near-field plume. In the process of performing this analysis, definitive evidence is discovered that showed the near-field plume is bending towards the thruster centerline.
Croes, Vivien; Lafleur, Trevor; Bonaventura, Zdeněk; Bourdon, Anne; Chabert, Pascal
2017-03-01
In this work we study the electron drift instability in Hall-effect thrusters (HETs) using a 2D electrostatic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. The simulation is configured with a Cartesian coordinate system modeling the radial-azimuthal (r{--}θ ) plane for large radius thrusters. A magnetic field, {{B}}0, is aligned along the Oy axis (r direction), a constant applied electric field, {{E}}0, along the Oz axis (perpendicular to the simulation plane), and the {{E}}0× {{B}}0 direction is along the Ox axis (θ direction). Although electron transport can be well described by electron–neutral collisions for low plasma densities, at high densities (similar to those in typical HETs), a strong instability is observed that enhances the electron cross-field mobility; even in the absence of electron–neutral collisions. The instability generates high frequency (of the order of MHz) and short wavelength (of the order of mm) fluctuations in both the azimuthal electric field and charged particle densities, and propagates in the {{E}}0× {{B}}0 direction with a velocity close to the ion sound speed. The correlation between the electric field and density fluctuations (which leads to an enhanced electron–ion friction force) is investigated and shown to be directly responsible for the increased electron transport. Results are compared with a recent kinetic theory, showing good agreement with the instability properties and electron transport.
High Performance Plasma Channel Insulators for High Power Hall Thrusters Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA missions for planetary exploration require high power, long-life Hall thrusters. However, thruster power and lifetime are limited by the erosion of plasma...
High Performance Plasma Channel Insulators for High Power Hall Thrusters Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA missions for planetary exploration require high power, long-life Hall thrusters. However, thruster power and lifetime are limited by the erosion of plasma...
Experimental studies of anode sheath phenomena in a hall thruster.
Dorf, L. A. (Leonid A.); Fisch, N. J.; Raitses, Yevgeny F.
2004-01-01
Both electron-repelling (negative anode fall) and electron-attracting (positive anode fall) anode sheaths in a Hall thruster were identified experimentally by performing accurate, non-disturbing near-anode measurements with biased and emissive probes. An interesting new phenomenon revealed by the probe measurements is that the anode fall changes from positive to negative upon removal of the dielectric coating, which appears on the anode surface during the course of Hall thruster operation. Probe measurements in a Hall thruster with three different magnetic field configurations show that an anode fall at the clean anode is a function of the radial magnetic field profile inside the channel. A positive anode fall formation mechanism suggested in this work is that: (1) when the anode front surface is coated with dielectric, a discharge current closes to the anode at the surfaces that remain conductive, (2) a total thermal electron current toward the conductive area is significantly smaller than the discharge current, therefore an additional electron flux needs to be attracted toward the conductive surfaces by the electronattracting sheath that appears at these surfaces.
Low-Cost High-Performance Hall Thruster Support System Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Colorado Power Electronics (CPE) has built an innovative modular power processing unit (PPU) for Hall Thrusters, including discharge, magnet, heater and keeper...
Overview of NASA Iodine Hall Thruster Propulsion System Development
Smith, Timothy D.; Kamhawi, Hani; Hickman, Tyler; Haag, Thomas; Dankanich, John; Polzin, Kurt; Byrne, Lawrence; Szabo, James
2016-01-01
NASA is continuing to invest in advancing Hall thruster technologies for implementation in commercial and government missions. The most recent focus has been on increasing the power level for large-scale exploration applications. However, there has also been a similar push to examine applications of electric propulsion for small spacecraft in the range of 300 kg or less. There have been several recent iodine Hall propulsion system development activities performed by the team of the NASA Glenn Research Center, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, and Busek Co. Inc. In particular, the work focused on qualification of the Busek 200-W BHT-200-I and development of the 600-W BHT-600-I systems. This paper discusses the current status of iodine Hall propulsion system developments along with supporting technology development efforts.
Preliminary Results of Plasma Flow Measurements in a 2 KW Segmented Hall Thruster
Y. Raitses; D. Staack; A. Dunaevsky; L. Dorf; N.J. Fisch
2003-03-01
A 2-kW Hall thruster was developed, built, and operated in an upgraded vacuum facility. The thruster performance and parameters of the plasma flow were measured by new diagnostics for plume measurements and plasma measurements inside the thruster channel. The thruster demonstrated efficient operation in terms of propellant and current utilization efficiencies in the input power range of 0.5-3.5 kW. Preliminary measurements of the ion energy spectra from the thruster axis region and the distribution of plasma parameters in the vicinity of the thruster exit are reported.
Iodine Hall Thruster Propellant Feed System for a CubeSat
Polzin, Kurt A.; Peeples, Steven
2014-01-01
The components required for an in-space iodine vapor-fed Hall effect thruster propellant management system are described. A laboratory apparatus was assembled and used to produce iodine vapor and control the flow through the application of heating to the propellant reservoir and through the adjustment of the opening in a proportional flow control valve. Changing of the reservoir temperature altered the flowrate on the timescale of minutes while adjustment of the proportional flow control valve changed the flowrate immediately without an overshoot or undershoot in flowrate with the requisite recovery time associated with thermal control systems. The flowrates tested spanned a range from 0-1.5 mg/s of iodine, which is sufficient to feed a 200-W Hall effect thruster.
Croes, Vivien; Lafleur, Trevor; Bonaventura, Zdenek; Péchereau, François; Bourdon, Anne; Chabert, Pascal
2016-09-01
This work studies the electron-cyclotron instability in Hall-Effect Thrusters (HETs) using a 2D Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation. The simulation is configured with a Cartesian coordinate system where a magnetic field, B0, is aligned along the X-axis (radial direction, including absorbing walls), a constant electric field, E0, along the Z-axis (axial direction, perpendicular to simulation plane), and the E0xB0 direction along the Y-axis (O direction, with periodic boundaries). Although for low plasma densities classical electron-neutral collisions theory describes well electron transport, at sufficiently high densities (as measured in HETs) a strong instability can be observed that enhances the electron mobility, even in the absence of collisions. The instability generates high frequency ( MHz) and short wavelength ( mm) fluctuations in both the electric field and charged particle densities. We investigate the correlation between these fluctuations and their role with anomalous electron transport; complementing previous 1D simulations. Plasma is self-consistently heated by the instability, but since the latter does not reach saturation in an infinitely long 2D system, saturation is achieved through implementation of a finite axial length that models convection in E0 direction. With support of Safran Aircraft Engines.
High-Efficiency Hall Thruster Discharge Power Converter
Jaquish, Thomas
2015-01-01
Busek Company, Inc., is designing, building, and testing a new printed circuit board converter. The new converter consists of two series or parallel boards (slices) intended to power a high-voltage Hall accelerator (HiVHAC) thruster or other similarly sized electric propulsion devices. The converter accepts 80- to 160-V input and generates 200- to 700-V isolated output while delivering continually adjustable 300-W to 3.5-kW power. Busek built and demonstrated one board that achieved nearly 94 percent efficiency the first time it was turned on, with projected efficiency exceeding 97 percent following timing software optimization. The board has a projected specific mass of 1.2 kg/kW, achieved through high-frequency switching. In Phase II, Busek optimized to exceed 97 percent efficiency and built a second prototype in a form factor more appropriate for flight. This converter then was integrated with a set of upgraded existing boards for powering magnets and the cathode. The program culminated with integrating the entire power processing unit and testing it on a Busek thruster and on NASA's HiVHAC thruster.
Assessment of Pole Erosion in a Magnetically Shielded Hall Thruster
Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Ortega, Alejandro L.
2014-01-01
Numerical simulations of a 6-kW laboratory Hall thruster called H6 have been performed to quantify the erosion rate at the inner pole. The assessments have been made in two versions of the thruster, namely the unshielded (H6US) and magnetically shielded (H6MS) configurations. The simulations have been performed with the 2-D axisymmetric code Hall2De which employs a new multi-fluid ion algorithm to capture the presence of low-energy ions in the vicinity of the poles. It is found that the maximum computed erosion rate at the inner pole of the H6MS exceeds the measured rate of back-sputtered deposits by 4.5 times. This explains only part of the surface roughening that was observed after a 150-h wear test, which covered most of the pole area exposed to the plasma. For the majority of the pole surface the computed erosion rates are found to be below the back-sputter rate and comparable to those in the H6US which exhibited little to no sputtering in previous tests. Possible explanations for the discrepancy are discussed.
Assessment of Pole Erosion in a Magnetically Shielded Hall Thruster
Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Ortega, Alejandro L.
2014-01-01
Numerical simulations of a 6-kW laboratory Hall thruster called H6 have been performed to quantify the erosion rate at the inner pole. The assessments have been made in two versions of the thruster, namely the unshielded (H6US) and magnetically shielded (H6MS) configurations. The simulations have been performed with the 2-D axisymmetric code Hall2De which employs a new multi-fluid ion algorithm to capture the presence of low-energy ions in the vicinity of the poles. It is found that the maximum computed erosion rate at the inner pole of the H6MS exceeds the measured rate of back-sputtered deposits by 4.5 times. This explains only part of the surface roughening that was observed after a 150-h wear test, which covered most of the pole area exposed to the plasma. For the majority of the pole surface the computed erosion rates are found to be below the back-sputter rate and comparable to those in the H6US which exhibited little to no sputtering in previous tests. Possible explanations for the discrepancy are discussed.
Morozko, Zoe
A Hall thruster is an electric propulsion device that produces thrust electrostatically by accelerating propellant to velocities 5 to 10 times higher than is achievable using conventional chemical thrusters. This is accomplished through the application of static, crossed electric and magnetic fields that are concentrated in a region close to the exit plane of the thruster. During operation an azimuthal plasma-electron current develops in the region where the electric and magnetic fields are concentrated. This embedded plasma current is referred to as the Hall current. The thrust produced from accelerating the propellant is transferred to a satellite or spacecraft through interaction between the Hall current and the magnetic coils used to produce the static magnetic field within the thruster. The Hall current can be calculated and the thrust can be determined in real time by measuring the magnetic field produced by the Hall current using sensors located external to the thruster. This work investigates the feasibility of placing magnetic sensors in the regions close to the exit of the thruster to measure the external magnetic field and correlate it to the Hall current. A finite element magnetic solver was used to identify several locations outside of the thrust plume and near the pole piece where the magnetic field magnitude changes by several Gauss in a background field level of ˜50 Gauss. Magnetic sensors based on the giant magnetoresistive effect were identified as acceptable with regard to sensitivity, and measurements made with these sensors in a simulated high background magnetic field environment demonstrated that changes of 0.5 Gauss could be easily measured. This work also presents the development of a thrust stand that will be useful in future work to demonstrate the overall concept. Special focus was directed to the design of the data acquisition system and in-vacuum calibration system used to make measurements with the thrust stand.
Electron Cross-field Transport in a Low Power Cylindrical Hall Thruster
A. Smirnov; Y. Raitses; N.J. Fisch
2004-06-24
Conventional annular Hall thrusters become inefficient when scaled to low power. Cylindrical Hall thrusters, which have lower surface-to-volume ratio, are therefore more promising for scaling down. They presently exhibit performance comparable with conventional annular Hall thrusters. Electron cross-field transport in a 2.6 cm miniaturized cylindrical Hall thruster (100 W power level) has been studied through the analysis of experimental data and Monte Carlo simulations of electron dynamics in the thruster channel. The numerical model takes into account elastic and inelastic electron collisions with atoms, electron-wall collisions, including secondary electron emission, and Bohm diffusion. We show that in order to explain the observed discharge current, the electron anomalous collision frequency {nu}{sub B} has to be on the order of the Bohm value, {nu}{sub B} {approx} {omega}{sub c}/16. The contribution of electron-wall collisions to cross-field transport is found to be insignificant.
Elimination of Lifetime Limiting Mechanism of Hall Thrusters
Jacobson, David T. (Inventor); Manzella, David H. (Inventor)
2009-01-01
A Hall thruster includes inner and outer electromagnets, with the outer electromagnet circumferentially surrounding the inner electromagnet along a centerline axis and separated therefrom, inner and outer poles, in physical connection with their respective inner and outer electromagnets, with the inner pole having a mostly circular shape and the outer pole having a mostly annular shape, a discharge chamber separating the inner and outer poles, a combined anode electrode/gaseous propellant distributor, located at an upstream portion of the discharge chamber and supplying propellant gas and an actuator, in contact with a sleeve portion of the discharge chamber. The actuator is configured to extend the sleeve portion or portions of the discharge chamber along the centerline axis with respect to the inner and outer poles.
Operation of a Segmented Hall Thruster with Low-sputtering Carbon-velvet Electrodes
Raitses, Y.; Staack, D.; Dunaevsky, A.; Fisch, N.J.
2005-12-01
Carbon fiber velvet material provides exceptional sputtering resistance properties exceeding those for graphite and carbon composite materials. A 2 kW Hall thruster with segmented electrodes made of this material was operated in the discharge voltage range of 200–700 V. The arcing between the floating velvet electrodes and the plasma was visually observed, especially, during the initial conditioning time, which lasted for about 1 h. The comparison of voltage versus current and plume characteristics of the Hall thruster with and without segmented electrodes indicates that the magnetic insulation of the segmented thruster improves with the discharge voltage at a fixed magnetic field. The observations reported here also extend the regimes wherein the segmented Hall thruster can have a narrower plume than that of the conventional nonsegmented thruster.
Kinetic Molecular Dynamic Model of Hall Thruster Channel Wall Erosion Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hall thrusters are being considered for many space missions because their high specific impulse delivers a larger payload mass fraction than chemical rockets. With a...
Comparison of Numerical and Experimental Time-Resolved Near-Field Hall Thruster Plasma Properties
2014-03-06
RESOLVED NEAR-FIELD HALL THRUSTER PLASMA PROPERTIES 807 TABLE I BHT -600 HALL THRUSTER AT NOMINAL XENON OPERATING CONDITIONS AND PERFORMANCE [21] 1.2-m...is a 600 W BHT -600 with a 3.2-mm hollow cathode manufactured by the Busek Company (Natick, MA). This thruster has been studied previously using both...electrostatic probes and various opti- cal diagnostics [17]–[20]. The BHT -600 has an acceleration channel outer radius of 32 mm, inner radius of 24 mm
Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Hofer, Richard R.
2011-01-01
In a proof-of-principle effort to demonstrate the feasibility of magnetically shielded (MS) Hall thrusters, an existing laboratory thruster has been modified with the guidance of physics-based numerical simulation. When operated at a discharge power of 6-kilowatts the modified thruster has been designed to reduce the total energy and flux of ions to the channel insulators by greater than 1 and greater than 3 orders of magnitude, respectively. The erosion rates in this MS thruster configuration are predicted to be at least 2-4 orders of magnitude lower than those in the baseline (BL) configuration. At such rates no detectable erosion is expected to occur.
Ion behavior in low-power magnetically shielded and unshielded Hall thrusters
Grimaud, L.; Mazouffre, S.
2017-05-01
Magnetically shielded Hall thrusters achieve a longer lifespan than traditional Hall thrusters by reducing wall erosion. The lower erosion rate is attributed to a reduction of the high energy ion population impacting the walls. To investigate this phenomenon, the ion velocity distribution functions are measured with laser induced fluorescence at several points of interest in the magnetically shielded ISCT200-MS and the unshielded ISCT200-US Hall thrusters. The center of the discharge channel is probed to highlight the difference in plasma positioning between the shielded and unshielded thrusters. Erosion phenomena are investigated by taking measurements of the ion velocity distribution near the inner and outer wall as well as above the magnetic poles where some erosion is observed. The resulting distribution functions show a displacement of the acceleration region from inside the channel in the unshielded thruster to downstream of the exit plane in the ISCT200-MS. Near the walls, the unshielded thruster displays both a higher relative ion density as well as a significant fraction of the ions with velocities toward the walls compared to the shielded thruster. Higher proportions of high velocity ions are also observed. Those results are in accordance with the reduced erosion observed. Both shielded and unshielded thrusters have large populations of ions impacting the magnetic poles. The mechanism through which those ions are accelerated toward the magnetic poles has so far not been explained.
On the Application of Hall Thruster Working with Ambient Atmospheric Gas for Orbital Station-Keeping
D. V. Duhopel'nikov
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The paper considers the application of the Hall thruster using the ambient atmospheric air for orbital station keeping. This is a relevant direction at the up-to-date development stage of propulsion systems. Many teams of designers of electric rocket thrusters evaluate the application of different schemes of particle acceleration at the low-earth orbit. Such technical solution allows us to abandon the storage systems of the working agent on the spacecraft board. Thus, lifetime of such a system at the orbit wouldn`t be limited by fuel range. The paper suggests a scheme of the propulsion device with a parabolic confuser that provides a required compression ratio of the ambient air for correct operation. Formulates physical and structural restrictions on ambient air to be used as a working agent of the thruster. Pointes out that the altitudes from 200 to 300 km are the most promising for such propulsion devices. Shows that for operation at lower altitudes are required the higher capacities that are not provided by modern onboard power supply systems. For the orbit heightening the air intakes with significant compression rate are of necessity. The size of such air intakes would exceed nose fairing of exploited space launch systems. To perform further design calculations are shown dependencies that allow us to calculate an effective diameter of the thruster channel and a critical voltage to be desirable for thrust force excess over air resistance. The dependencies to calculate minimal and maximal fluxes of neutral particles of oxygen and nitrogen, that are necessary for normal thruster operation, are also shown. Calculation results of the propulsion system parameters for the spacecrafts with cross-sectional area within 1 - 3 m2 and inlet diameter of air intake within 1 - 3 m are demonstrated. The research results have practical significance in design of advanced propulsion devices for lowaltitude spacecrafts. The work has been supported by the RFFR
Plasma-Wall Interaction and Electron Temperature Saturation in Hall Thrusters
Smirnov, Artem
2005-10-01
Existing Hall thruster models predict that secondary electron emission from the channel walls is significant and that the near-wall sheaths are space charge saturated. The plasma-wall interaction and its dependence on the discharge voltage and channel width were studied through the measurements of the electron temperature, plasma potential, and plasma density in a 2 kW Hall thruster [1,2]. The experimental electron-wall collision frequency is computed using the measured plasma parameters. For high discharge voltages, the deduced electron-wall collision frequency is much lower than the theoretical value obtained for the space charge saturated sheath regime, but larger than the wall recombination frequency. The observed electron temperature saturation appears to be directly associated with a decrease of the Joule heating, rather than with the enhancement of the electron energy loss at the walls due to a strong secondary electron emission. The channel width is shown to have a more significant effect on the axial distribution of the plasma potential than the discharge voltage. 1. Y. Raitses, D. Staack, M. Keidar, and N.J. Fisch, Phys. Plasmas 12, 057104 (2005). 2. Y. Raitses, D. Staack, A. Smirnov, and N.J. Fisch, Phys. Plasmas 12, 073507 (2005).
Low Frequency Plasma Oscillations in a 6-kW Magnetically Shielded Hall Thruster
Jorns, Benjamin A.; Hofery, Richard R.
2013-01-01
The oscillations from 0-100 kHz in a 6-kW magnetically shielded thruster are experimen- tally characterized. Changes in plasma parameters that result from the magnetic shielding of Hall thrusters have the potential to significantly alter thruster transients. A detailed investigation of the resulting oscillations is necessary both for the purpose of determin- ing the underlying physical processes governing time-dependent behavior in magnetically shielded thrusters as well as for improving thruster models. In this investigation, a high speed camera and a translating ion saturation probe are employed to examine the spatial extent and nature of oscillations from 0-100 kHz in the H6MS thruster. Two modes are identified at 8 kHz and 75-90 kHz. The low frequency mode is azimuthally uniform across the thruster face while the high frequency oscillation is concentrated close to the thruster centerline with an m = 1 azimuthal dependence. These experimental results are discussed in the context of wave theory as well as published observations from an unshielded variant of the H6MS thruster.
Space Charge Saturated Sheath Regime and Electron Temperature Saturation in Hall Thrusters
Y. Raitses; D. Staack; A. Smirnov; N.J. Fisch
2005-03-16
Secondary electron emission in Hall thrusters is predicted to lead to space charge saturated wall sheaths resulting in enhanced power losses in the thruster channel. Analysis of experimentally obtained electron-wall collision frequency suggests that the electron temperature saturation, which occurs at high discharge voltages, appears to be caused by a decrease of the Joule heating rather than by the enhancement of the electron energy loss at the walls due to a strong secondary electron emission.
Hybrid-PIC Modeling of a High-Voltage, High-Specific-Impulse Hall Thruster
Smith, Brandon D.; Boyd, Iain D.; Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng
2013-01-01
The primary life-limiting mechanism of Hall thrusters is the sputter erosion of the discharge channel walls by high-energy propellant ions. Because of the difficulty involved in characterizing this erosion experimentally, many past efforts have focused on numerical modeling to predict erosion rates and thruster lifespan, but those analyses were limited to Hall thrusters operating in the 200-400V discharge voltage range. Thrusters operating at higher discharge voltages (V(sub d) >= 500 V) present an erosion environment that may differ greatly from that of the lower-voltage thrusters modeled in the past. In this work, HPHall, a well-established hybrid-PIC code, is used to simulate NASA's High-Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAc) at discharge voltages of 300, 400, and 500V as a first step towards modeling the discharge channel erosion. It is found that the model accurately predicts the thruster performance at all operating conditions to within 6%. The model predicts a normalized plasma potential profile that is consistent between all three operating points, with the acceleration zone appearing in the same approximate location. The expected trend of increasing electron temperature with increasing discharge voltage is observed. An analysis of the discharge current oscillations shows that the model predicts oscillations that are much greater in amplitude than those measured experimentally at all operating points, suggesting that the differences in oscillation amplitude are not strongly associated with discharge voltage.
An Investigation into the Spectral Imaging of Hall Thruster Plumes
2015-07-01
zone shifting to a more upstream location in the discharge channel as observed in Ref. 14 for the BHT -600 thruster likely due to increased electron...to a more upstream location in the discharge channel as observed in Ref. 14 for the BHT -600 thruster likely due to increased electron mobility from
Near-Surface Plasma Characterization of the 12.5-kW NASA TDU1 Hall Thruster
Shastry, Rohit; Huang, Wensheng; Kamhawi, Hani
2015-01-01
To advance the state-of-the-art in Hall thruster technology, NASA is developing a 12.5-kW, high-specific-impulse, high-throughput thruster for the Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission. In order to meet the demanding lifetime requirements of potential missions such as the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission, magnetic shielding was incorporated into the thruster design. Two units of the resulting thruster, called the Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding (HERMeS), were fabricated and are presently being characterized. The first of these units, designated the Technology Development Unit 1 (TDU1), has undergone extensive performance and thermal characterization at NASA Glenn Research Center. A preliminary lifetime assessment was conducted by characterizing the degree of magnetic shielding within the thruster. This characterization was accomplished by placing eight flush-mounted Langmuir probes within each discharge channel wall and measuring the local plasma potential and electron temperature at various axial locations. Measured properties indicate a high degree of magnetic shielding across the throttle table, with plasma potential variations along each channel wall being less than or equal to 5 eV and electron temperatures being maintained at less than or equal to 5 eV, even at 800 V discharge voltage near the thruster exit plane. These properties indicate that ion impact energies within the HERMeS will not exceed 26 eV, which is below the expected sputtering threshold energy for boron nitride. Parametric studies that varied the facility backpressure and magnetic field strength at 300 V, 9.4 kW, illustrate that the plasma potential and electron temperature are insensitive to these parameters, with shielding being maintained at facility pressures 3X higher and magnetic field strengths 2.5X higher than nominal conditions. Overall, the preliminary lifetime assessment indicates a high degree of shielding within the HERMeS TDU1, effectively
High-Efficiency Nested Hall Thrusters for Robotic Solar System Exploration
Hofer, Richard R.
2013-01-01
This work describes the scaling and design attributes of Nested Hall Thrusters (NHT) with extremely large operational envelopes, including a wide range of throttleability in power and specific impulse at high efficiency (>50%). NHTs have the potential to provide the game changing performance, powerprocessing capabilities, and cost effectiveness required to enable missions that cannot otherwise be accomplished. NHTs were first identified in the electric propulsion community as a path to 100- kW class thrusters for human missions. This study aimed to identify the performance capabilities NHTs can provide for NASA robotic and human missions, with an emphasis on 10-kW class thrusters well-suited for robotic exploration. A key outcome of this work has been the identification of NHTs as nearly constant-efficiency devices over large power throttling ratios, especially in direct-drive power systems. NHT systems sized for robotic solar system exploration are predicted to be capable of high-efficiency operation over nearly their entire power throttling range. A traditional Annular Hall Thruster (AHT) consists of a single annular discharge chamber where the propellant is ionized and accelerated. In an NHT, multiple annular channels are concentrically stacked. The channels can be operated in unison or individually depending on the available power or required performance. When throttling an AHT, performance must be sacrificed since a single channel cannot satisfy the diverse design attributes needed to maintain high thrust efficiency. NHTs can satisfy these requirements by varying which channels are operated and thereby offer significant benefits in terms of thruster performance, especially under deep power throttling conditions where the efficiency of an AHT suffers since a single channel can only operate efficiently (>50%) over a narrow power throttling ratio (3:1). Designs for 10-kW class NHTs were developed and compared with AHT systems. Power processing systems were
Plume Characterization of Busek 600W Hall Thruster
2012-03-09
Dr. William A. Hargus Jr. (Member) Date iv Abstract The BHT -600W thruster has a high potential to place on various commercial and...Thrust Measurement ........................................................................................71 A. BHT -200W...71 B. BHT -600W’s Performance
In-Situ Measurement of Hall Thruster Erosion Using a Fiber Optic Regression Probe
Polzin, Kurt; Korman, Valentin
2009-01-01
One potential life-limiting mechanism in a Hall thruster is the erosion of the ceramic material comprising the discharge channel. This is especially true for missions that require long thrusting periods and can be problematic for lifetime qualification, especially when attempting to qualify a thruster by analysis rather than a test lasting the full duration of the mission. In addition to lifetime, several analytical and numerical models include electrode erosion as a mechanism contributing to enhanced transport properties. However, there is still a great deal of dispute over the importance of erosion to transport in Hall thrusters. The capability to perform an in-situ measurement of discharge channel erosion is useful in addressing both the lifetime and transport concerns. An in-situ measurement would allow for real-time data regarding the erosion rates at different operating points, providing a quick method for empirically anchoring any analysis geared towards lifetime qualification. Erosion rate data over a thruster s operating envelope would also be useful in the modeling of the detailed physics inside the discharge chamber. There are many different sensors and techniques that have been employed to quantify discharge channel erosion in Hall thrusters. Snapshots of the wear pattern can be obtained at regular shutdown intervals using laser profilometry. Many non-intrusive techniques of varying complexity and sensitivity have been employed to detect the time-varying presence of erosion products in the thruster plume. These include the use quartz crystal microbalances, emission spectroscopy, laser induced flourescence, and cavity ring-down spectroscopy. While these techniques can provide a very accurate picture of the level of eroded material in the thruster plume, it is more difficult to use them to determine the location from which the material was eroded. Furthermore, none of the methods cited provide a true in-situ measure of erosion at the channel surface while
Iodine Hall Thruster Propellant Feed System for a CubeSat
Polzin, Kurt A.
2014-01-01
There has been significant work recently in the development of iodine-fed Hall thrusters for in-space propulsion applications.1 The use of iodine as a propellant provides many advantages over present xenon-gas-fed Hall thruster systems. Iodine is a solid at ambient temperature (no pressurization required) and has no special handling requirements, making it safe for secondary flight opportunities. It has exceptionally high ?I sp (density times specific impulse), making it an enabling technology for small satellite near-term applications and providing system level advantages over mid-term high power electric propulsion options. Iodine provides thrust and efficiency that are comparable to xenonfed Hall thrusters while operating in the same discharge current and voltage regime, making it possible to leverage the development of flight-qualified xenon Hall thruster power processing units for the iodine application. Work at MSFC is presently aimed at designing, integrating, and demonstrating a flight-like iodine feed system suitable for the Hall thruster application. This effort represents a significant advancement in state-of-the-art. Though Iodine thrusters have demonstrated high performance with mission enabling potential, a flight-like feed system has never been demonstrated and iodine compatible components do not yet exist. Presented in this paper is the end-to-end integrated feed system demonstration. The system includes a propellant tank with active feedback-control heating, fill and drain interfaces, latching and proportional flow control valves (PFCV), flow resistors, and flight-like CubeSat power and control electronics. Hardware is integrated into a CubeSat-sized structure, calibrated and tested under vacuum conditions, and operated under under hot-fire conditions using a Busek BHT-200 thruster designed for iodine. Performance of the system is evaluated thorugh accurate measurement of thrust and a calibrated of mass flow rate measurement, which is a function of
2015-07-01
used in previous work,21 but well within the linear regime of operation. 3 Joint Conference of 30th ISTS, 34th IEPC and 6th NSAT, Hyogo-Kobe, Japan July...PA Clearance No. 15329 4 BHT-600 Specifications • 600 W annular Hall thruster • Manufactured by Busek Co. • Tested in Chamber 6 at AFRL Nominal
Diagnostic Setup for Characterization of Near-Anode Processes in Hall Thrusters
L. Dorf; Y. Raitses; N.J. Fisch
2003-09-08
A diagnostic setup for characterization of near-anode processes in Hall-current plasma thrusters consisting of biased and emissive electrostatic probes, high-precision positioning system and low-noise electronic circuitry was developed and tested. Experimental results show that radial probe insertion does not cause perturbations to the discharge and therefore can be used for accurate near-anode measurements.
Hybrid-PIC Modeling of the Transport of Atomic Boron in a Hall Thruster
Smith, Brandon D.; Boyd, Iaian D.; Kamhawi, Hani
2015-01-01
Computational analysis of the transport of boron eroded from the walls of a Hall thruster is performed by implementing sputter yields of hexagonal boron nitride and velocity distribution functions of boron within the hybrid-PIC model HPHall. The model is applied to simulate NASA's HiVHAc Hall thruster at a discharge voltage of 500V and discharge powers of 1-3 kW. The number densities of ground- and 4P-state boron are computed. The density of ground-state boron is shown to be a factor of about 30 less than the plasma density. The density of the excited state is shown to be about three orders of magnitude less than that of the ground state, indicating that electron impact excitation does not significantly affect the density of ground-state boron in the discharge channel or near-field plume of a Hall thruster. Comparing the rates of excitation and ionization suggests that ionization has a greater influence on the density of ground-state boron, but is still negligible. The ground-state boron density is then integrated and compared to cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) measurements for each operating point. The simulation results show good agreement with the measurements for all operating points and provide evidence in support of CRDS as a tool for measuring Hall thruster erosion in situ.
Measurements of neutral and ion velocity distribution functions in a Hall thruster
Svarnas, Panagiotis; Romadanov, Iavn; Diallo, Ahmed; Raitses, Yevgeny
2015-11-01
Hall thruster is a plasma device for space propulsion. It utilizes a cross-field discharge to generate a partially ionized weakly collisional plasma with magnetized electrons and non-magnetized ions. The ions are accelerated by the electric field to produce the thrust. There is a relatively large number of studies devoted to characterization of accelerated ions, including measurements of ion velocity distribution function using laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic. Interactions of these accelerated ions with neutral atoms in the thruster and the thruster plume is a subject of on-going studies, which require combined monitoring of ion and neutral velocity distributions. Herein, laser-induced fluorescence technique has been employed to study neutral and single-charged ion velocity distribution functions in a 200 W cylindrical Hall thruster operating with xenon propellant. An optical system is installed in the vacuum chamber enabling spatially resolved axial velocity measurements. The fluorescence signals are well separated from the plasma background emission by modulating the laser beam and using lock-in detectors. Measured velocity distribution functions of neutral atoms and ions at different operating parameters of the thruster are reported and analyzed. This work was supported by DOE contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.
Non-Contact Thermal Characterization of NASA's HERMeS Hall Thruster
Huang, Wensheng; Kamhawi, Hani; Meyers, James L.; Yim, John T.; Neff, Gregory
2015-01-01
The Thermal Characterization Test of NASAs 12.5-kW Hall thruster is being completed. This thruster is being developed to support of a number of potential Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission concepts, including the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission concept. As a part of this test, an infrared-based, non-contact thermal imaging system was developed to measure Hall thruster surfaces that are exposed to high voltage or harsh environment. To increase the accuracy of the measurement, a calibration array was implemented, and a pilot test was performed to determine key design parameters for the calibration array. The raw data is analyzed in conjunction with a simplified thermal model of the channel to account for reflection. The reduced data will be used to refine the thruster thermal model, which is critical to the verification of the thruster thermal specifications. The present paper will give an overview of the decision process that led to identification of the need for a non-contact temperature diagnostic, the development of said diagnostic, the measurement results, and the simplified thermal model of the channel.
Rotating plasma structures in the cross-field discharge of Hall thrusters
Mazouffre, Stephane; Grimaud, Lou; Tsikata, Sedina; Matyash, Konstantin
2016-09-01
Rotating plasma structures, also termed rotating spokes, are observed in various types of low-pressure discharges with crossed electric and magnetic field configurations, such as Penning sources, magnetron discharges, negative ion sources and Hall thrusters. Such structures correspond to large-scale high-density plasma blocks that rotate in the E×B drift direction with a typical frequency on the order of a few kHz. Although such structures have been extensively studied in many communities, the mechanism at their origin and their role in electron transport across the magnetic field remain unknown. Here, we will present insights into the nature of spokes, gained from a combination of experiments and advanced particle-in-cell numerical simulations that aim at better understanding the physics and the impact of rotating plasma structures in the ExB discharge of the Hall thruster. As rotating spokes appear in the ionization region of such thrusters, and are therefore difficult to probe with diagnostics, experiments have been performed with a wall-less Hall thruster. In this configuration, the entire plasma discharge is pushed outside the dielectric cavity, through which the gas is injected, using the combination of specific magnetic field topology with appropriate anode geometry.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hall thrusters are being considered for many space missions because their high specific impulse delivers a larger payload mass fraction than chemical rockets. With a...
Performance Test Results of the NASA-457M v2 Hall Thruster
Soulas, George C.; Haag, Thomas W.; Herman, Daniel A.; Huang, Wensheng; Kamhawi, Hani; Shastry, Rohit
2012-01-01
Performance testing of a second generation, 50 kW-class Hall thruster labeled NASA-457M v2 was conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This NASA-designed thruster is an excellent candidate for a solar electric propulsion system that supports human exploration missions. Thruster discharge power was varied from 5 to 50 kW over discharge voltage and current ranges of 200 to 500 V and 15 to 100 A, respectively. Anode efficiencies varied from 0.56 to 0.71. The peak efficiency was similar to that of other state-of-the-art high power Hall thrusters, but outperformed these thrusters at lower discharge voltages. The 0.05 to 0.18 higher anode efficiencies of this thruster compared to its predecessor were primarily due to which of two stable discharge modes the thruster was operated. One stable mode was at low magnetic field strengths, which produced high anode efficiencies, and the other at high magnetic fields where its predecessor was operated. Cathode keeper voltages were always within 2.1 to 6.2 V and cathode voltages were within 13 V of tank ground during high anode efficiency operation. However, during operation at high magnetic fields, cathode-to-ground voltage magnitudes increased dramatically, exceeding 30 V, due to the high axial magnetic field strengths in the immediate vicinity of the centrally-mounted cathode. The peak thrust was 2.3 N and this occurred at a total thruster input power of 50.0 kW at a 500 V discharge voltage. The thruster demonstrated a thrust-to-power range of 76.4 mN/kW at low power to 46.1 mN/kW at full power, and a specific impulse range of 1420 to 2740 s. For a discharge voltage of 300 V, where specific impulses would be about 2000 s, thrust efficiencies varied from 0.57 to 0.63.
High Input Voltage Discharge Supply for High Power Hall Thrusters Using Silicon Carbide Devices
Pinero, Luis R.; Scheidegger, Robert J.; Aulsio, Michael V.; Birchenough, Arthur G.
2014-01-01
A power processing unit for a 15 kW Hall thruster is under development at NASA Glenn Research Center. The unit produces up to 400 VDC with two parallel 7.5 kW discharge modules that operate from a 300 VDC nominal input voltage. Silicon carbide MOSFETs and diodes were used in this design because they were the best choice to handle the high voltage stress while delivering high efficiency and low specific mass. Efficiencies in excess of 97 percent were demonstrated during integration testing with the NASA-300M 20 kW Hall thruster. Electromagnet, cathode keeper, and heater supplies were also developed and will be integrated with the discharge supply into a vacuum-rated brassboard power processing unit with full flight functionality. This design could be evolved into a flight unit for future missions that requires high power electric propulsion.
Space charge saturated sheath regime and electron temperature saturation in Hall thrusters
Raitses, Y.; Staack, D.; Smirnov, A.; Fisch, N. J.
2005-07-01
Existing electron-wall interaction models predict that secondary electron emission in Hall thrusters is significant and that the near-wall sheaths are space charge saturated. The experimental electron-wall collision frequency is computed using plasma parameters measured in a laboratory Hall thruster. In spite of qualitative similarities between the measured and predicted dependencies of the maximum electron temperature on the discharge voltage, the deduced electron-wall collision frequency for high discharge voltages is much lower than the theoretical value obtained for space charge saturated sheath regime, but larger than the wall recombination frequency. The observed electron temperature saturation appears to be directly associated with a decrease of the Joule heating rather than with the enhancement of the electron energy loss at the walls due to a strong secondary electron emission. Another interesting experimental result is related to the near-field plasma plume, where electron energy balance appears to be independent on the magnetic field.
Power Dependence of the Electron Mobility Profile in a Hall Thruster
Jorns, Benjamin A.; Hofery, Richard H.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.
2014-01-01
The electron mobility profile is estimated in a 4.5 kW commercial Hall thruster as a function of discharge power. Internal measurements of plasma potential and electron temperature are made in the thruster channel with a high-speed translating probe. These measurements are presented for a range of throttling conditions from 150 - 400 V and 0.6 - 4.5 kW. The fluid-based solver, Hall2De, is used in conjunction with these internal plasma parameters to estimate the anomalous collision frequency profile at fixed voltage, 300 V, and three power levels. It is found that the anomalous collision frequency profile does not change significantly upstream of the location of the magnetic field peak but that the extent and magnitude of the anomalous collision frequency downstream of the magnetic peak does change with thruster power. These results are discussed in the context of developing phenomenological models for how the collision frequency profile depends on thruster operating conditions.
Performance Characterization of the Air Force Transformational Satellite 12 kW Hall Thruster
Kamhawi, Hani; Haag, Thomas W.; Smith, Timothy; Herman, Daniel; Huang, Wensheng; Shastry, Rohit; Peterson, Peter; Mathers, Alex
2013-01-01
The STMD GCD ISP project is tasked with developing, maturing, and testing enabling human exploration propulsion requirements and potential designs for advanced high-energy, in-space propulsion systems to support deep-space human exploration and reduce travel time between Earth's orbit and future destinations for human activity. High-power Hall propulsion systems have been identified as enabling technologies and have been the focus of the activities at NASA Glenn-In-house effort to evaluate performance and interrogate operation of NASA designed and manufactured Hall thrusters. Evaluate existing high TRL EP devices that may be suitable for implementation in SEP TDM.
First Firing of a 100-kW Nested-Channel Hall Thruster
2013-09-01
need to complete their mission (i.e., SEP cargo vessel ) drive the requirement for high-power (>100 kW) EP. N The 33st International Electric ...Frisbee, R., ““Evaluation of High-power Solar Electric Propulsion Using Advanced Ion, Hall, MPD, and PIT Thrusters for Lunar and Mars Cargo ...Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited. PA#13553 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Conference paper for the 33rd International Electric Propulsion
Bernevig, B.Andrei; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2010-01-15
The quantum Hall liquid is a novel state of matter with profound emergent properties such as fractional charge and statistics. Existence of the quantum Hall effect requires breaking of the time reversal symmetry caused by an external magnetic field. In this work, we predict a quantized spin Hall effect in the absence of any magnetic field, where the intrinsic spin Hall conductance is quantized in units of 2 e/4{pi}. The degenerate quantum Landau levels are created by the spin-orbit coupling in conventional semiconductors in the presence of a strain gradient. This new state of matter has many profound correlated properties described by a topological field theory.
Development Status of Power Processing Unit for 250mN-Class Hall Thruster
Osuga, H.; Suzuki, K.; Ozaki, T.; Nakagawa, T.; Suga, I.; Tamida, T.; Akuzawa, Y.; Suzuki, H.; Soga, Y.; Furuichi, T.; Maki, S.; Matui, K.
2008-09-01
Institute for Unmanned Space Experiment Free Flyer (USEF) and Mitsubishi Electric Corporation (MELCO) are developing the next generation ion engine system under the sponsorship of Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) within six years. The system requirement specifications are a thrust level of over 250mN and specific impulse of over 1500 sec with a less than 5kW electric power supply, and a lifetime of over 3,000 hours. These target specifications required the development of both a Hall Thruster and a Power Processing Unit (PPU). In the 2007 fiscal year, the PPU called Second Engineering Model (EM2) consist of all power supplies was a model for the Hall Thruster system. The EM2 PPU showed the discharge efficiency was over 96.2% for 250V and 350V at output power between 1.8kW to 4.5kW. And also the Hall Thruster could start up quickly and smoothly to control the discharge voltage, the inner magnet current, the outer magnet current and the xenon flow rate. This paper reports on the design and test results of the EM2 PPU.
Hybrid-PIC Computer Simulation of the Plasma and Erosion Processes in Hall Thrusters
Hofer, Richard R.; Katz, Ira; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Gamero-Castano, Manuel
2010-01-01
HPHall software simulates and tracks the time-dependent evolution of the plasma and erosion processes in the discharge chamber and near-field plume of Hall thrusters. HPHall is an axisymmetric solver that employs a hybrid fluid/particle-in-cell (Hybrid-PIC) numerical approach. HPHall, originally developed by MIT in 1998, was upgraded to HPHall-2 by the Polytechnic University of Madrid in 2006. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has continued the development of HPHall-2 through upgrades to the physical models employed in the code, and the addition of entirely new ones. Primary among these are the inclusion of a three-region electron mobility model that more accurately depicts the cross-field electron transport, and the development of an erosion sub-model that allows for the tracking of the erosion of the discharge chamber wall. The code is being developed to provide NASA science missions with a predictive tool of Hall thruster performance and lifetime that can be used to validate Hall thrusters for missions.
Hardware in the Loop Testing of an Iodine-Fed Hall Thruster
Polzin, Kurt A.; Peeples, Steven R.; Cecil, Jim; Lewis, Brandon L.; Molina Fraticelli, Jose C.; Clark, James P.
2015-01-01
CUBESATS are relatively new spacecraft platforms that are typically deployed from a launch vehicle as a secondary payload,1 providing low-cost access to space for a wide range of end-users. These satellites are comprised of building blocks having dimensions of 10x10x10 cm cu and a mass of 1.33 kg (a 1-U size). While providing low-cost access to space, a major operational limitation is the lack of a propulsion system that can fit within a CubeSat and is capable of executing high delta v maneuvers. This makes it difficult to use CubeSats on missions requiring certain types of maneuvers (i.e. formation flying, spacecraft rendezvous). Recently, work has been performed investigating the use of iodine as a propellant for Hall-effect thrusters (HETs) 2 that could subsequently be used to provide a high specific impulse path to CubeSat propulsion. Iodine stores as a dense solid at very low pressures, making it acceptable as a propellant on a secondary payload. It has exceptionally high ?Isp (density times specific impulse), making it an enabling technology for small satellite near-term applications and providing the potential for systems-level advantages over mid-term high power electric propulsion options. Iodine flow can also be thermally regulated, subliming at relatively low temperature ( less than100 C) to yield I2 vapor at or below 50 torr. At low power, the measured performance of an iodine-fed HET is very similar to that of a state-of-the-art xenon-fed thruster. Just as importantly, the current-voltage discharge characteristics of low power iodine-fed and xenon-fed thrusters are remarkably similar, potentially reducing development and qualifications costs by making it possible to use an already-qualified xenon-HET PPU in an iodine-fed system. Finally, a cold surface can be installed in a vacuum test chamber on which expended iodine propellant can deposit. In addition, the temperature doesn't have to be extremely cold to maintain a low vapor pressure in the vacuum
Polzin, Kurt A.
2016-01-01
CUBESATS are relatively new spacecraft platforms that are typically deployed from a launch vehicle as a secondary payload, providing low-cost access to space for a wide range of end-users. These satellites are comprised of building blocks having dimensions of 10x10x10 cu cm and a mass of 1.33 kg (a 1-U size). While providing low-cost access to space, a major operational limitation is the lack of a propulsion system that can fit within a CubeSat and is capable of executing high (Delta)v maneuvers. This makes it difficult to use CubeSats on missions requiring certain types of maneuvers (i.e. formation flying, spacecraft rendezvous). Recently, work has been performed investigating the use of iodine as a propellant for Hall-effect thrusters (HETs) 2 that could subsequently be used to provide a high specific impulse path to CubeSat propulsion. 3, 4 Iodine stores as a dense solid at very low pressures, making it acceptable as a propellant on a secondary payload. It has exceptionally high ?Isp (density times specific impulse), making it an enabling technology for small satellite near-term applications and providing the potential for systems-level advantages over mid-term high power electric propulsion options. Iodine flow can also be thermally regulated, subliming at relatively low temperature (< 100 C) to yield I2 vapor at or below 50 torr. At low power, the measured performance of an iodine-fed HET is very similar to that of a state-of-the-art xenon-fed thruster. Just as importantly, the current-voltage discharge characteristics of low power iodine-fed and xenon-fed thrusters are remarkably similar, potentially reducing development and qualifications costs by making it possible to use an already-qualified xenon-HET PPU in an iodine-fed system. Finally, a cold surface can be installed in a vacuum test chamber on which expended iodine propellant can deposit. In addition, the temperature doesn't have to be extremely cold to maintain a low vapor pressure in the vacuum
Implementation and Initial Validation of a 100-Kilowatt Class Nested-Channel Hall Thruster
Hall, Scott J.; Florenz, Roland E.; Gallimore, Alec D.; Kamhawi, Hani; Brown, Daniel L.; Polk, James E.; Goebel, Dan; Hofer, Richard R.
2014-01-01
The X3 is a 100-kilowatt class nested-channel Hall thruster developed by the Plasmadynamics and Electric Propulsion Laboratory at the University of Michigan in collaboration with the Air Force Research Laboratory and NASA. The cathode, magnetic circuit, boron nitride channel rings, and anodes all required specific design considerations during thruster development, and thermal modeling was used to properly account for thermal growth in material selection and component design. A number of facility upgrades were required at the University of Michigan to facilitate operation of the X3. These upgrades included a re-worked propellant feed system, a completely redesigned power and telemetry break-out box, and numerous updates to thruster handling equipment. The X3 was tested on xenon propellant at two current densities, 37% and 73% of the nominal design value. It was operated to a maximum steady-state discharge power of 60.8 kilowatts. The tests presented here served as an initial validation of thruster operation. Thruster behavior was monitored with telemetry, photography and high-speed current probes. The photography showed a uniform plume throughout testing. At constant current density, reductions in mass flow rate of 18% and 26% were observed in the three-channel operating configuration as compared to the superposition of each channel running individually. The high-speed current probes showed that the thruster was stable at all operating points and that the channels influence each other when more than one is operating simultaneously. Additionally, the ratio of peak-to-peak AC-coupled discharge current oscillations to mean discharge current did not exceed 51% for any operating points reported here, and did not exceed 17% at the higher current density.
Permanent magnet Hall Thrusters development and applications on future brazilian space missions
Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Martins, Alexandre A.; Miranda, Rodrigo; Schelling, Adriane; de Souza Alves, Lais; Gonçalves Costa, Ernesto; de Oliveira Coelho Junior, Helbert; Castelo Branco, Artur; de Oliveira Lopes, Felipe Nathan
2015-10-01
The Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPLUnB) has been developing a Permanent Magnet Hall Thruster (PHALL) for the Space Research Program for Universities (UNIESPAÇO), part of the Brazilian Space Activities Program (PNAE) since 2004. The PHALL project consists on a plasma source design, construction and characterization of the Hall type that will function as a plasma propulsion engine and characterized by several plasma diagnostics sensors. PHALL is based on a plasma source in which a Hall current is generated inside a cylindrical annular channel with an axial electric field produced by a ring anode and a radial magnetic field produced by permanent magnets. In this work it is shown a brief description of the plasma propulsion engine, its diagnostics instrumentation and possible applications of PHALL on orbit transfer maneuvering for future Brazilian geostationary satellite space missions.
D. Staack, Y. Raitses, and N.J. Fisch
2003-07-10
Electrostatic probes are widely used to measure spatial plasma parameters of the quasi-neutral plasma in Hall thrusters and similar ExB electric discharge devices. Significant perturbations of the plasma, induced by such probes, can mask the actual physics involved in operation of these devices. In Hall thrusters, probe-induced perturbations can produce changes in the discharge current and plasma parameters on the order of their steady state values. These perturbations are explored by varying the material, penetration distance, and residence time of various probe designs. A possible cause of these perturbations appears to be the secondary electron emission, induced by energetic plasma electrons, from insulator ceramic tubes in which the probe wire is inserted. A new probe in which a low secondary electron emission material, such as metal, shields the probe ceramic tube, is shown to function without producing such large perturbations. A segmentation of this shield further prevents probe -induced perturbations, by not shortening the plasma through the conductive shield. In a set of experiments with a segmented shield probe, the thruster was operated in the input power range of 500-2.5 kW and discharge voltages of 200-500 V, while the probe-induced perturbations of the discharge current were below 4% of its steady state value in the region in which 90% of the voltage drop takes place.
A cavity ring-down spectroscopy sensor for real-time Hall thruster erosion measurements
Lee, B. C. [Physics Department, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80521 (United States); Huang, W. [NASA Glenn Research Center, 2100 Brookpark Rd., Cleveland, Ohio 44135 (United States); Tao, L.; Yamamoto, N.; Yalin, A. P., E-mail: ayalin@engr.colostate.edu [Mechanical Engineering Department, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80521 (United States); Gallimore, A. D. [Aerospace Engineering Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)
2014-05-15
A continuous-wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy sensor for real-time measurements of sputtered boron from Hall thrusters has been developed. The sensor uses a continuous-wave frequency-quadrupled diode laser at 250 nm to probe ground state atomic boron sputtered from the boron nitride insulating channel. Validation results from a controlled setup using an ion beam and target showed good agreement with a simple finite-element model. Application of the sensor for measurements of two Hall thrusters, the H6 and SPT-70, is described. The H6 was tested at power levels ranging from 1.5 to 10 kW. Peak boron densities of 10 ± 2 × 10{sup 14} m{sup −3} were measured in the thruster plume, and the estimated eroded channel volume agreed within a factor of 2 of profilometry. The SPT-70 was tested at 600 and 660 W, yielding peak boron densities of 7.2 ± 1.1 × 10{sup 14} m{sup −3}, and the estimated erosion rate agreed within ∼20% of profilometry. Technical challenges associated with operating a high-finesse cavity in the presence of energetic plasma are also discussed.
A New Method for Analyzing Near-Field Faraday Probe Data in Hall Thrusters
Huang, Wensheng; Shastry, Rohit; Herman, Daniel A.; Soulas, George C.; Kamhawi, Hani
2013-01-01
This paper presents a new method for analyzing near-field Faraday probe data obtained from Hall thrusters. Traditional methods spawned from far-field Faraday probe analysis rely on assumptions that are not applicable to near-field Faraday probe data. In particular, arbitrary choices for the point of origin and limits of integration have made interpretation of the results difficult. The new method, called iterative pathfinding, uses the evolution of the near-field plume with distance to provide feedback for determining the location of the point of origin. Although still susceptible to the choice of integration limits, this method presents a systematic approach to determining the origin point for calculating the divergence angle. The iterative pathfinding method is applied to near-field Faraday probe data taken in a previous study from the NASA-300M and NASA-457Mv2 Hall thrusters. Since these two thrusters use centrally mounted cathodes the current density associated with the cathode plume is removed before applying iterative pathfinding. A procedure is presented for removing the cathode plume. The results of the analysis are compared to far-field probe analysis results. This paper ends with checks on the validity of the new method and discussions on the implications of the results.
Magnetic field deformation due to electron drift in a Hall thruster
Liang, Han; Yongjie, Ding; Xu, Zhang; Liqiu, Wei; Daren, Yu
2017-01-01
The strength and shape of the magnetic field are the core factors in the design of the Hall thruster. However, Hall current can affect the distribution of static magnetic field. In this paper, the Particle-In-Cell (PIC) method is used to obtain the distribution of Hall current in the discharge channel. The Hall current is separated into a direct and an alternating part to calculate the induced magnetic field using Finite Element Method Magnetics (FEMM). The results show that the direct Hall current decreases the magnetic field strength in the acceleration region and also changes the shape of the magnetic field. The maximum reduction in radial magnetic field strength in the exit plane is 10.8 G for an anode flow rate of 15 mg/s and the maximum angle change of the magnetic field line is close to 3° in the acceleration region. The alternating Hall current induces an oscillating magnetic field in the whole discharge channel. The actual magnetic deformation is shown to contain these two parts.
Magnetic field deformation due to electron drift in a Hall thruster
Han Liang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The strength and shape of the magnetic field are the core factors in the design of the Hall thruster. However, Hall current can affect the distribution of static magnetic field. In this paper, the Particle-In-Cell (PIC method is used to obtain the distribution of Hall current in the discharge channel. The Hall current is separated into a direct and an alternating part to calculate the induced magnetic field using Finite Element Method Magnetics (FEMM. The results show that the direct Hall current decreases the magnetic field strength in the acceleration region and also changes the shape of the magnetic field. The maximum reduction in radial magnetic field strength in the exit plane is 10.8 G for an anode flow rate of 15 mg/s and the maximum angle change of the magnetic field line is close to 3° in the acceleration region. The alternating Hall current induces an oscillating magnetic field in the whole discharge channel. The actual magnetic deformation is shown to contain these two parts.
Lucca Fabris, Andrea; Young, Christopher; MacDonald-Tenenbaum, Natalia; Hargus, William, Jr.; Cappelli, Mark
2016-10-01
Hall thrusters are a mature form of electric propulsion for spacecraft. One commonly observed low frequency (10-50 kHz) discharge current oscillation in these E × B devices is the breathing mode, linked to a propagating ionization front traversing the channel. The complex time histories of ion production and acceleration in the discharge channel and near-field plume lead to interesting dynamics and interactions in the central plasma jet and downstream plume regions. A time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) diagnostic non-intrusively measures 2-D ion velocity and relative ion density throughout the plume of a commercial BHT-600 Hall thruster manufactured by Busek Co. Low velocity classes of ions observed in addition to the main accelerated population are linked to propellant ionization outside of the device. Effects of breathing mode dynamics are shown to persist far downstream where modulations in ion velocity and LIF intensity are correlated with discharge current oscillations. This work is sponsored by the U.S. Air Force Office of Scientific Research with Dr. M. Birkan as program manager. C.Y. acknowledges support from the DOE NSSA Stewardship Science Graduate Fellowship under contract DE-FC52-08NA28752.
Sitnikova, N.; Volkov, D.; Maximov, I.; Petrusevich, V.; Allen, D.; Dunning, John (Technical Monitor)
2003-01-01
This 12-part report documents the data obtained from various sensor measurements taken aboard the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 spacecraft in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). These GEO communications satellites, which were designed and built by NPO Prikladnoy Mekhaniki (NPO PM) of Zheleznogorsk, Russia, utilize Hall thruster propulsion systems for north-south and east-west stationkeeping and as of June 2002, were still operating at 80deg E. and 11deg W., respectively. Express-A2 was launched on March 12, 2000, while Express-A3 was launched on June 24, 2000. The diagnostic equipment from which these data were taken includes electric field strength sensors, ion current and energy sensors, and pressure sensors. The diagnostics and the Hall thruster propulsion systems are described in detail along with lists of tabular data from those diagnostics and propulsion system and other satellite systems. Space Power, Inc., now part of Pratt & Whitney's Chemical Systems Division, under contract NAS3-99151 to the NASA Glenn Research Center, obtained these data over several periods from March 12, 2000, through September 30, 2001. Each of the 12 individual reports describe, in detail, the propulsion systems as well as the diagnostic sensors utilized. Finally, parts 11 and 12 include the requirements to which NPO PM prepared and delivered these data.
Dunning, John (Technical Monitor); Sitnikova, N.; Volkov, D.; Maximov, I.; Petrusevich, V.; Allen, D.
2003-01-01
This 12-part report documents the data obtained from various sensor measurements taken aboard the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 spacecraft in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). These GEO communications satellites, which were designed and built by NPO Prikladnoy Mekhaniki (NPO PM) of Zheleznogorsk, Russia, utilize Hall thruster propulsion systems for north-south and east-west stationkeeping and as of June 2002, were still operating at 80 deg. E. and 11 deg. W respectively. Express-A2 was launched on March 12, 2000, while Express-A3 was launched on June 24, 2000. The diagnostic equipment from which these data were taken includes electric field strength sensors, ion current and energy sensors, and pressure sensors. The diagnostics and the Hall thruster propulsion systems are described in detail along with lists of tabular data from those diagnostics and propulsion system and other satellite systems. Space Power, Inc., now part of Pratt & Whitney's Chemical Systems Division, under contract NAS3 99151 to the NASA Glenn Research Center, obtained these data over several periods from March 12, 2000, through September 30, 2001. Each of the 12 individual reports describe, in detail, the propulsion systems as well as the diagnostic sensors utilized. Finally, parts 11 and 12 include the requirements to which NPO PM prepared and delivered these data.
Sitnikova, N.; Volkov, D.; Maximov, I.; Petrusevich, V.; Allen, D.
2003-01-01
This 12-part report documents the data obtained from various sensor measurements taken aboard the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 spacecraft in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). These GEO communications satellites, which were designed and built by NPO Prikladnoy Mekhaniki (NPO PM) of Zheleznogorsk, Russia, utilize Hall thruster propulsion systems for north-south and east-west stationkeeping and as of June 2002, were still operating at 80 deg E and 11 deg W, respectively. Express-A2 was launched on March 12, 2000, while Express-A3 was launched on June 24, 2000. The diagnostic equipment from which these data were taken includes electric field strength sensors, ion current and energy sensors, and pressure sensors. The diagnostics and the Hall thruster propulsion systems are described in detail along with lists of tabular data from those diagnostics and propulsion system and other satellite systems. Space Power, Inc., now part of Pratt & Whitney's Chemical Systems Division, under contract NAS3-99151 to the NASA Glenn Research Center, obtained these data over several periods from March 12, 2000, through September 30, 2001. Each of the 12 individual reports describe, in detail, the propulsion systems as well as the diagnostic sensors utilized. Finally, parts 11 and 12 include the requirements to which NPO PM prepared and delivered these data.
Nonlinear ion dynamics in Hall thruster plasma source by ion transit-time instability
Lim, Youbong; Choe, Wonho; Mazouffre, Stéphane; Park, Jae Sun; Kim, Holak; Seon, Jongho; Garrigues, L.
2017-03-01
High-energy tail formation in an ion energy distribution function (IEDF) is explained in a Hall thruster plasma with the stationary crossed electric and magnetic fields whose discharge current is oscillated at the ion transit-time scale with a frequency of 360 kHz. Among ions in different charge states, singly charged Xe ions (Xe+) have an IEDF that is significantly broadened and shifted toward the high-energy side, which contributes to tail formation in the entire IEDF. Analytical and numerical investigations confirm that the IEDF tail is due to nonlinear ion dynamics in the ion transit-time oscillation.
Development of High-Power Hall Thruster Power Processing Units at NASA GRC
Pinero, Luis R.; Bozak, Karin E.; Santiago, Walter; Scheidegger, Robert J.; Birchenough, Arthur G.
2015-01-01
NASA GRC successfully designed, built and tested four different power processor concepts for high power Hall thrusters. Each design satisfies unique goals including the evaluation of a novel silicon carbide semiconductor technology, validation of innovative circuits to overcome the problems with high input voltage converter design, development of a direct-drive unit to demonstrate potential benefits, or simply identification of lessonslearned from the development of a PPU using a conventional design approach. Any of these designs could be developed further to satisfy NASA's needs for high power electric propulsion in the near future.
Nonlocal Anomalous Hall Effect.
Zhang, Steven S-L; Vignale, Giovanni
2016-04-01
The anomalous Hall (AH) effect is deemed to be a unique transport property of ferromagnetic metals, caused by the concerted action of spin polarization and spin-orbit coupling. Nevertheless, recent experiments have shown that the effect also occurs in a nonmagnetic metal (Pt) in contact with a magnetic insulator [yttrium iron garnet (YIG)], even when precautions are taken to ensure that there is no induced magnetization in the metal. We propose a theory of this effect based on the combined action of spin-dependent scattering from the magnetic interface and the spin-Hall effect in the bulk of the metal. At variance with previous theories, we predict the effect to be of first order in the spin-orbit coupling, just as the conventional anomalous Hall effect-the only difference being the spatial separation of the spin-orbit interaction and the magnetization. For this reason we name this effect the nonlocal anomalous Hall effect and predict that its sign will be determined by the sign of the spin-Hall angle in the metal. The AH conductivity that we calculate from our theory is in order of magnitude agreement with the measured values in Pt/YIG structures.
Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Kamhawi, Hani; Vannoord, Jonathan L.
2011-01-01
This paper reports on numerical simulations of the NASA-300M, a 20-kW class Hall thruster developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). The numerical simulations have been performed with a 2-D axisymmetric, magnetic field-aligned-mesh (MFAM) plasma solver developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The main objective of the collaborative effort is to combine physics-based simulation, plasma diagnostics and recent findings on erosion physics to design and demonstrate a high-power, high-performance Hall thruster that exceeds the life of state-of-the-art Hall thrusters by more than one order of magnitude. The thruster simulations have been carried out at a discharge voltage of 500 V and discharge current of 40 A. The results indicate that although the impact energy of ions may attain values that are comparable to the discharge voltage along the downstream portions of the channel, a withdrawn ionization region and significant ion focusing combine to sustain erosion rates below 1 mm/kh. A more extensive evaluation of the baseline NASA-300M configuration and re-design of this thruster with magnetically shielded walls constitute the main focus of our work in the coming months.
Nonlocal Anomalous Hall Effect
Zhang, Steven S.-L.; Vignale, Giovanni
2016-04-01
The anomalous Hall (AH) effect is deemed to be a unique transport property of ferromagnetic metals, caused by the concerted action of spin polarization and spin-orbit coupling. Nevertheless, recent experiments have shown that the effect also occurs in a nonmagnetic metal (Pt) in contact with a magnetic insulator [yttrium iron garnet (YIG)], even when precautions are taken to ensure that there is no induced magnetization in the metal. We propose a theory of this effect based on the combined action of spin-dependent scattering from the magnetic interface and the spin-Hall effect in the bulk of the metal. At variance with previous theories, we predict the effect to be of first order in the spin-orbit coupling, just as the conventional anomalous Hall effect—the only difference being the spatial separation of the spin-orbit interaction and the magnetization. For this reason we name this effect the nonlocal anomalous Hall effect and predict that its sign will be determined by the sign of the spin-Hall angle in the metal. The AH conductivity that we calculate from our theory is in order of magnitude agreement with the measured values in Pt /YIG structures.
Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Martins, Alexandre; Cerda, Rodrigo
2016-07-01
The Plasma Physics Laboratory of UnB has been developing a Permanent Magnet Hall Thruster (PHALL) for the UNIESPAÇO program, part of the Space Activities Program conducted by AEB- The Brazillian Space Agency since 2004. Electric propulsion is now a very successful method for primary and secondary propulsion systems. It is essential for several existing geostationary satellite station keeping systems and for deep space long duration solar system missions, where the thrusting system can be designed to be used on orbit transfer maneuvering and/or for satellite attitude control in long term space missions. Applications of compact versions of Permanent Magnet Hall Thrusters on future brazillian space missions are needed and foreseen for the coming years beginning with the use of small divergent cusp field (DCFH) Hall Thrusters type on CUBESATS ( 5-10 kg , 1W-5 W power consumption) and on Micro satellites ( 50- 100 kg, 10W-100W). Brazillian (AEB) and German (DLR) space agencies and research institutions are developing a new rocket dedicated to small satellite launching. The VLM- Microsatellite Launch Vehicle. The development of PHALL compact versions can also be important for the recently proposed SBG system, a future brazillian geostationary satellite system that is already been developed by an international consortium of brazillian and foreign space industries. The exploration of small bodies in the Solar System with spacecraft has been done by several countries with increasing frequency in these past twenty five years. Since their historical beginning on the sixties, most of the Solar System missions were based on gravity assisted trajectories very much depended on planet orbit positioning relative to the Sun and the Earth. The consequence was always the narrowing of the mission launch window. Today, the need for Solar System icy bodies in situ exploration requires less dependence on gravity assisted maneuvering and new high precision low thrust navigation methods
Magnetic circuit for hall effect plasma accelerator
Manzella, David H. (Inventor); Jacobson, David T. (Inventor); Jankovsky, Robert S. (Inventor); Hofer, Richard (Inventor); Peterson, Peter (Inventor)
2009-01-01
A Hall effect plasma accelerator includes inner and outer electromagnets, circumferentially surrounding the inner electromagnet along a thruster centerline axis and separated therefrom, inner and outer magnetic conductors, in physical connection with their respective inner and outer electromagnets, with the inner magnetic conductor having a mostly circular shape and the outer magnetic conductor having a mostly annular shape, a discharge chamber, located between the inner and outer magnetic conductors, a magnetically conducting back plate, in magnetic contact with the inner and outer magnetic conductors, and a combined anode electrode/gaseous propellant distributor, located at a bottom portion of the discharge chamber. The inner and outer electromagnets, the inner and outer magnetic conductors and the magnetically conducting back plate form a magnetic circuit that produces a magnetic field that is largely axial and radially symmetric with respect to the thruster centerline.
Ion properties in a Hall current thruster operating at high voltage
Garrigues, L.
2016-04-01
Operation of a 5 kW-class Hall current Thruster for various voltages from 400 V to 800 V and a xenon mass flow rate of 6 mg s-1 have been studied with a quasi-neutral hybrid model. In this model, anomalous electron transport is fitted from ion mean velocity measurements, and energy losses due to electron-wall interactions are used as a tuned parameter to match expected electron temperature strength for same class of thruster. Doubly charged ions production has been taken into account and detailed collisions between heavy species included. As the electron temperature increases, the main channel of Xe2+ ion production becomes stepwise ionization of Xe+ ions. For an applied voltage of 800 V, the mass utilization efficiency is in the range of 0.8-1.1, and the current fraction of doubly charged ions varies between 0.1 and 0.2. Results show that the region of ion production of each species is located at the same place inside the thruster channel. Because collision processes mean free path is larger than the acceleration region, each type of ions experiences same potential drop, and ion energy distributions of singly and doubly charged are very similar.
Laser characterization of electric field oscillations in the Hall thruster breathing mode
Young, Christopher; Lucca Fabris, Andrea; MacDonald-Tenenbaum, Natalia; Hargus, William, Jr.; Cappelli, Mark
2016-10-01
Hall thrusters are a mature technology for space propulsion applications that exhibit a wide array of dynamic behavior, including plasma waves, instabilities and turbulence. One common low frequency (10-50 kHz) discharge current oscillation is the breathing mode, a cycle of neutral propellant injection, strong ionization, and ion acceleration by a steep potential gradient. A time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic non-intrusively captures this propagating ionization front in the channel of a commercial BHT-600 Hall thruster manufactured by Busek Co. Measurements of ion velocity and relative ion density (using the 5 d[ 4 ] 7 / 2 - 6 p[ 3 ] 5 / 2 Xe II transition at 834.95 nm, vacuum) reveal a dynamic electric field structure traversing the channel throughout the breathing mode cycle. This work is sponsored by the U.S. Air Force Office of Scientific Research, with Dr. M. Birkan as program manager. C.Y. acknowledges support from the DOE NSSA Stewardship Science Graduate Fellowship under contract DE-FC52-08NA28752.
Development and Testing of High Current Hollow Cathodes for High Power Hall Thrusters
Kamhawi, Hani; Van Noord, Jonathan
2012-01-01
NASA's Office of the Chief Technologist In-Space Propulsion project is sponsoring the testing and development of high power Hall thrusters for implementation in NASA missions. As part of the project, NASA Glenn Research Center is developing and testing new high current hollow cathode assemblies that can meet and exceed the required discharge current and life-time requirements of high power Hall thrusters. This paper presents test results of three high current hollow cathode configurations. Test results indicated that two novel emitter configurations were able to attain lower peak emitter temperatures compared to state-of-the-art emitter configurations. One hollow cathode configuration attained a cathode orifice plate tip temperature of 1132 degC at a discharge current of 100 A. More specifically, test and analysis results indicated that a novel emitter configuration had minimal temperature gradient along its length. Future work will include cathode wear tests, and internal emitter temperature and plasma properties measurements along with detailed physics based modeling.
Ben-Abdallah, Philippe
2015-01-01
A near-field thermal Hall effect (i.e.Righi-Leduc effect) in lattices of magneto-optical particles placed in a constant magnetic field is predicted. This effect is related to a symetry breaking in the system induced by the magnetic field which gives rise to preferential channels for the heat-transport by photon tunneling thanks to the particles anisotropy tuning.
Geng, Jinyue [School of Astronautics, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, District of Columbia 20052 (United States); Brieda, Lubos [Particle in Cell Consulting LLC, Falls Church, Virginia 22046 (United States); Rose, Laura; Keidar, Michael [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, District of Columbia 20052 (United States)
2013-09-14
In Hall thrusters, the potential distribution plays an important role in discharge processes and ion acceleration. This paper presents a 2D potential solver in the Hall thruster instead of the “thermalized potential”, and compares equipotential contours solved by these two methods for different magnetic field conditions. The comparison results reveal that the expected “thermalized potential” works very well when the magnetic field is nearly uniform and electron temperature is constant along the magnetic field lines. However for the case with a highly non-uniform magnetic field or variable electron temperature along the magnetic field lines, the “thermalized potential” is not accurate. In some case with magnetic separatrix inside the thruster channel, the “thermalized potential” model cannot be applied at all. In those cases, a full 2D potential solver must be applied. Overall, this paper shows the limit of applicability of the “thermalized potential” model.
Multiscale Modeling of Hall Thrusters. Chapter 7: Plume Modeling
2012-03-06
8572 m/s, giving θ = tan−1(vr/vz) = 27 ◦. A much stronger effect is seen on the CEX ions. Since these ions can be approximated as initially stationary ...each tet . The motivation for this implementation was that the VT Draco was coupled with an immersed finite element (IFE) solver that utilized such a mesh
ZHOU Xiang; HU Cheng-zheng; GONG Ping; WANG Ai-jun
2005-01-01
The relations between Hall effect and symmetry are discussed for all 2- and 3 dimensional quasicrystals with crystallographically forbidden symmetries. The results show that the numbers of independent components of the Hall coefficient (RH) are one for 3-dimensional quasicrystals, two for those 2 dimensional quasicrystals whose symmetry group is non-Abelian, and three for those 2-dimensional quasicrystals whose symmetry group is Abelian, respectively. The quasicrystals with the same number of independent components have the same form of the components of RH.
Kunkel, W. B.
1981-01-01
Describes an apparatus and procedure for conducting an undergraduate laboratory experiment to quantitatively study the Hall effect in a plasma. Includes background information on the Hall effect and rationale for conducting the experiment. (JN)
Qing Shao-Wei; E Peng; Duan Ping; Xu Dian-Guo
2013-01-01
Electron-wall interaction is always recognized as an important physical problem because of its remarkable influences on thruster discharge and performance.Based on existing theories,an electrode is predicted to weaken electron-wall interaction due to its low secondary electron emission characteristic.In this paper,the electron-wall interaction in an Aton-type Hall thruster with low-emissive electrodes placed near the exit of discharge channel is studied by a fully kinetic particle-incell method.The results show that the electron-wall interaction in the region of segmented electrode is indeed weakened,but it is significantly enhanced in the remaining region of discharge channel.It is mainly caused by electrode conductive property which makes equipotential lines convex toward channel exit and even parallel to wall surface in near-wall region; this convex equipotential configuration results in significant physical effects such as repelling electrons,which causes the electrons to move toward the channel center,and the electrons emitted from electrodes to be remarkably accelerated,thereby increasing electron temperature in the discharge channel,etc.Furthermore,the results also indicate that the discharge current in the segmented electrode case is larger than in the non-segmented electrode case,which is qualitatively in accordance with previous experimental results.
A comprehensive study on the atom flow in the cross-field discharge of a Hall thruster
Mazouffre, S; Bourgeois, G [ICARE, CNRS, 1C avenue de la Recherche Scientifique, 45071 Orleans (France); Garrigues, L [Toulouse University, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 9, France/CNRS, LAPLACE, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Pawelec, E, E-mail: stephane.mazouffre@cnrs-orleans.fr [Opole University, Oleska 48, Opole (Poland)
2011-03-16
The flow properties of Xe atoms were investigated in the 1 kW class PPS100-ML Hall effect thruster by means of Doppler-shifted laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy in the near infrared. Fluorescence spectra of the 6s [1/2]{sub 2}{sup o} resonant level and the 6s [3/2]{sub 2}{sup o} metastable level have been acquired inside and outside the thruster channel under several operating conditions. Analytical treatment and modelling of the measured lineshapes indicate the atom axial velocity increases inside the channel to a value well above the sound speed before decreasing quickly in the near-field plume. Numerical simulations performed with a fluid/kinetic hybrid approach allow us to explain the shape of the velocity profile. Atomic flow acceleration originates in the combination of three processes, namely the selective ionization of slow atoms, the flow expansion and the creation of fast neutrals on BN-SiO{sub 2} walls owing to recombination of ions. Deceleration results from the invasion of the atomic jet by slow and relatively cold atoms from the residual background gas and from the cathode. In addition, it is shown that charge-exchange collisions have a non-negligible impact on the atom velocity in spite of the low background pressure in test chambers.
A comprehensive study on the atom flow in the cross-field discharge of a Hall thruster
Mazouffre, S.; Bourgeois, G.; Garrigues, L.; Pawelec, E.
2011-03-01
The flow properties of Xe atoms were investigated in the 1 kW class PPS100-ML Hall effect thruster by means of Doppler-shifted laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy in the near infrared. Fluorescence spectra of the 6s\\,[1/2]_2^o resonant level and the 6s\\,[3/2]_2^o metastable level have been acquired inside and outside the thruster channel under several operating conditions. Analytical treatment and modelling of the measured lineshapes indicate the atom axial velocity increases inside the channel to a value well above the sound speed before decreasing quickly in the near-field plume. Numerical simulations performed with a fluid/kinetic hybrid approach allow us to explain the shape of the velocity profile. Atomic flow acceleration originates in the combination of three processes, namely the selective ionization of slow atoms, the flow expansion and the creation of fast neutrals on BN-SiO2 walls owing to recombination of ions. Deceleration results from the invasion of the atomic jet by slow and relatively cold atoms from the residual background gas and from the cathode. In addition, it is shown that charge-exchange collisions have a non-negligible impact on the atom velocity in spite of the low background pressure in test chambers.
Herman, Daniel A.; Shastry, Rohit; Huang, Wensheng; Soulas, George C.; Kamhawi, Hani
2012-01-01
In order to aid in the design of high-power Hall thrusters and provide experimental validation for existing modeling efforts, plasma potential and Langmuir probe measurements were performed in the near-field plume of the NASA-300M Hall thruster. A probe array consisting of a Faraday probe, Langmuir probe, and emissive probe was used to interrogate the plume from approximately 0.1 - 2.0 mean thruster diameters downstream of the thruster exit plane at four operating conditions: 300 V, 400 V, and 500 V at 20 kW as well as 300 V at 10 kW. Results show that the acceleration zone and high-temperature region were contained within 0.3 mean thruster diameters from the exit plane at all operating conditions. Isothermal lines were shown to strongly follow magnetic field lines in the near-field, with maximum temperatures ranging from 19 - 27 eV. The electron temperature spatial distribution created large drops in measured floating potentials in front of the magnetic pole surfaces where the plasma density was low, which suggests strong sheaths at these surfaces. The data taken have provided valuable information for future design and modeling validation, and complements ongoing internal measurement efforts on the NASA-300M.
The possibility of a Hall thruster operation in the absence of the anode sheath
Dorf, L; Raitses, Y; Fisch, N J
2002-01-01
A method of determining boundary conditions for quasi 1-D modeling of steady-state operation of a Hall Thruster with ceramic channel is presented. For a given mass flow rate and magnetic field profile the imposed condition of a smooth sonic transition uniquely determines plasma density at the anode. The discharge voltage determines the structure of the anode sheath and thus determines electron and ion velocities at the anode. These parameters appear to be sufficient for constructing a solution with given temperature profile. It is shown that a good correlation between simulated and experimental results can be achieved by selecting an appropriate electron mobility and temperature profile. The structure of the electrode sheath was studied theoretically over a wide range of input parameters, such as discharge voltage, incoming neutral velocity and channel length, and the possibility of realization of the no-sheath operating regime is discussed here.
The X3: A 200 kW Class Nested Channel Hall Thruster
Sheehan, J. P.
2016-10-01
Electric propulsion has seen rapid adoption in recent years for commercial, scientific, and exploratory space missions. The X3 is a three channel nested channel Hall thruster, designed to push the boundaries of high power electric propulsion for cargo transfer to Mars and large military assets. It has been operated at thermal steady state up to 30 kW of power. Thrust measurements were made on an inverted pendulum thrust stand, indicating over 2000 s specific impulse and 65 mN/kW thrust to power ratio. Detailed plume measurements were made with Faraday and Langmuir probes. The multiple concentric channels provide better performance than the sum of the individual channel operations due to superior propellant utilization from its compact design. Using a high speed camera, the breathing and spoke mode instabilities were captured in all three channels. Spoke and breathing instabilities couple between the channels, indicating that complex plasma and neutral interactions are at play. Electron transport, both cross field and in the cathode plume, are well suited to be explored in a thruster of this size. Supported under NASA contract No. NNH16CP17C.
Cappelli, Mark; Young, Christopher
2016-10-01
We present continued efforts towards introducing physical models for cross-magnetic field electron transport into Hall thruster discharge simulations. In particular, we seek to evaluate whether such models accurately capture ion dynamics, both averaged and resolved in time, through comparisons with measured ion velocity distributions which are now becoming available for several devices. Here, we describe a turbulent electron transport model that is integrated into 2-D hybrid fluid/PIC simulations of a 72 mm diameter laboratory thruster operating at 400 W. We also compare this model's predictions with one recently proposed by Lafluer et al.. Introducing these models into 2-D hybrid simulations is relatively straightforward and leverages the existing framework for solving the electron fluid equations. The models are tested for their ability to capture the time-averaged experimental discharge current and its fluctuations due to ionization instabilities. Model predictions are also more rigorously evaluated against recent laser-induced fluorescence measurements of time-resolved ion velocity distributions.
Multi-Scale Modeling of Novel Hall Thrusters: Understanding Physics of CHT and DCF Thrusters
2011-12-30
benefit of being able to capture not just a general non - Maxwellian velocity distribution space , but also radial variation in mass flux. B. Hybrid...continues to grow as more ions are accelerated from the bulk plasma towards the wall. This result is somewhat non -physical, since in a real device, the...The QN solution is non -physical, since the magnitude of the near-wall electric field is directly related to the cell spacing . The wall effect in the
Avdonin, A., E-mail: avdonin@ifpan.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland); Skupiński, P. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland); Grasza, K. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland); Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, ul. Wólczyńska 133, 01-919 Warszawa (Poland)
2016-02-15
A simple description of the Hall effect in the hopping regime of conductivity in semiconductors is presented. Expressions for the Hall coefficient and Hall mobility are derived by considering averaged equilibrium electron transport in a single triangle of localization sites in a magnetic field. Dependence of the Hall coefficient is analyzed in a wide range of temperature and magnetic field values. Our theoretical result is applied to our experimental data on temperature dependence of Hall effect and Hall mobility in ZnO. - Highlights: • Expressions for Hall coefficient and mobility for hopping conductivity are derived. • Theoretical result is compared with experimental curves measured on ZnO. • Simultaneous action of free and hopping conduction channels is considered. • Non-linearity of hopping Hall coefficient is predicted.
Bliokh, Konstantin Y
2011-01-01
We consider the relativistic deformation of quantum waves and mechanical bodies carrying intrinsic angular momentum (AM). When observed in a moving reference frame, the centroid of the object undergoes an AM-dependent transverse shift. This is the relativistic analogue of the spin Hall effect, which occurs in free space without any external fields. Remarkably, the shifts of the geometric and energy centroids differ by a factor of 2, and both centroids are crucial for the correct Lorentz transformations of the AM tensor. We examine manifestations of the relativistic Hall effect in quantum vortices, mechanical flywheel, and discuss various fundamental aspects of the phenomenon. The perfect agreement of quantum and relativistic approaches allows applications at strikingly different scales: from elementary spinning particles, through classical light, to rotating black-holes.
Bason, Y.; Klein, L.; Yau, J. -B.; Hong, X.; Hoffman, J.; Ahn, C. H.
2005-01-01
We suggest a new type of magnetic random access memory (MRAM) that is based on the phenomenon of the planar Hall effect (PHE) in magnetic films, and we demonstrate this idea with manganite films. The PHE-MRAM is structurally simpler than currently developed MRAM that is based on magnetoresistance tunnel junctions (MTJ), with the tunnel junction structure being replaced by a single layer film.
Stults, Joshua
This research presents a numerical framework for diagnosing electron properties in collisional plasmas. Microwave diagnostics achieved a significant level of development during the middle part of the last century due to work in nuclear weapons and fusion plasma research. With the growing use of plasma-based devices in fields as diverse as space propulsion, materials processing and fluid flow control, there is a need for improved, flexible diagnostic techniques suitable for use under the practical constraints imposed by plasma fields generated in a wide variety of aerospace devices. Much of the current diagnostic methodology in the engineering literature is based on analytical diagnostic, or forward, models. The Appleton-Hartree formula is an oft-used analytical relation for the refractive index of a cold, collisional plasma. Most of the assumptions underlying the model are applicable to diagnostics for plasma fields such as those found in Hall Thrusters and dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators. Among the assumptions is uniform material properties, this assumption is relaxed in the present research by introducing a flexible, numerical model of diagnostic wave propagation that can capture the effects of spatial gradients in the plasma state. The numerical approach is chosen for its flexibility in handling future extensions such as multiple spatial dimensions to account for scattering effects when the spatial extent of the plasma is small relative to the probing beam's width, and velocity dependent collision frequency for situations where the constant collision frequency assumption is not justified. The numerical wave propagation model (forward model) is incorporated into a general tomographic reconstruction framework that enables the combination of multiple interferometry measurements. The combined measurements provide a quantitative picture of the spatial variation in the plasma properties. The benefit of combining multiple measurements in a coherent
Azimuthal Spoke Propagation in Hall Effect Thrusters
2013-10-01
to bk. The cross-correlation function is17 Rjk = lim T→∞ 1 T ∫ T 0 bj (t) bk (t + τ)dt (2) Signal delays for non -frequency dispersive propagation can...During the neutral replenishment period within the discharge channel, slight perturbations or azimuthal non - uniformities in electron density, electron...electron thermal velocity is the average of an assumed Maxwellian distribution37 vthe = √ 8qTe/(πme) with Te in eV. The region from 0.16 < z/Lchnl
Long Life 600W Hall Thruster System for Radioisotope Electric Propulsion Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radioisotope Electric Propulsion (REP) offers the prospect for a variety of new science missions by enabling use of Hall Effect propulsion in the outer solar system,...
Sheehan, J. P.; Raitses, Yevgeny; Hershkowitz, Noah; Fisch, Nathaniel
2010-11-01
Theory suggests that when increasing the electron emission of an emissive probe the floating potential will saturate ˜Te/e below the plasma potential. This can introduce significant errors in plasma potential measurements in Hall thrusters where Te> 10 eV. The method of determining the plasma potential from the inflection point of emissive IV traces in the limit of zero emission may give a more accurate measurement of the plasma potential. The two methods are compared in a Hall thruster where ne˜10^11 cm-3, Te˜20 eV, and ion flows are significant. The results can be generalized to other types of plasmas.
2015-01-01
This paper describes a simple microwave apparatus to measure the Hall effect in semiconductor wafers. The advantage of this technique is that it does not require contacts on the sample or the use of a resonant cavity. Our method consists of placing the semiconductor wafer into a slot cut in an X-band (8 - 12 GHz) waveguide series tee, injecting microwave power into the two opposite arms of the tee, and measuring the microwave output at the third arm. A magnetic field applied perpendicular to ...
Shastry, Rohit; Huang, Wensheng; Herman, Daniel A.; Soulas, George C.; Kamhawi, Hani
2012-01-01
In order to further the design of future high-power Hall thrusters and provide experimental validation for ongoing modeling efforts, plasma potential and Langmuir probe measurements were performed on the 50-kW NASA-457Mv2. An electrostatic probe array comprised of a near-field Faraday probe, single Langmuir probe, and emissive probe was used to interrogate the near-field plume from approximately 0.1 - 2.0 mean thruster diameters downstream of the thruster exit plane at the following operating conditions: 300 V, 400 V and 500 V at 30 kW and 500 V at 50 kW. Results have shown that the acceleration zone is limited to within 0.4 mean thruster diameters of the exit plane while the high-temperature region is limited to 0.25 mean thruster diameters from the exit plane at all four operating conditions. Maximum plasma potentials in the near-field at 300 and 400 V were approximately 50 V with respect to cathode potential, while maximum electron temperatures varied from 24 - 32 eV, depending on operating condition. Isothermal lines at all operating conditions were found to strongly resemble the magnetic field topology in the high-temperature regions. This distribution was found to create regions of high temperature and low density near the magnetic poles, indicating strong, thick sheath formation along these surfaces. The data taken from this study are considered valuable for future design as well as modeling validation.
Shumilin, Nikolay; Shumilin, Vladimir; Shumilin, Alexander
2014-10-01
In paper the simple model for the definition of interrelation between integral characteristics of Hall thrusters with an anode layer is offered. Concrete calculations were made for one of most often used Hall thrusters - TAL-WSF/D-55. While analysing the received theoretical dependences an attempt of comparison with results of an experimental research of thruster TAL-WSF/D-55 was made. With this purpose experimental dependence of specific impulse of Hall thruster TAL-WSF/D-55 on working voltage in range from 150 up to 350 V resulted in was used. It appeared, that these data contain some serious mistake and there is no reference to original works in this paper. In present report this mistake is corrected using original works. It is shown, that the offered simple model gives results close to a reality both qualitatively and quantitatively.
Thermal Hall Effect of Magnons
Murakami, Shuichi; Okamoto, Akihiro
2017-01-01
We review recent developments in theories and experiments on the magnon Hall effect. We derive the thermal Hall conductivity of magnons in terms of the Berry curvature of magnonic bands. In addition to the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, we show that the dipolar interaction can make the Berry curvature nonzero. We mainly discuss theoretical aspects of the magnon Hall effect and related theoretical works. Experimental progress in this field is also mentioned.
Characteristics of a Sheath with Secondary Electron Emission in the Double Walls of a Hall Thruster
段萍; 李肸; 沈鸿娟; 陈龙; 鄂鹏
2012-01-01
In order to investigate the effects of secondary electrons, which are emitted from the wall, on the performance of a thruster, a one-dimensional fluid model of the plasma sheath in double walls is applied to study the characteristics of a magnetized sheath. The effects of secondary electron emission (SEE) coefficients and trapping coefficients, as well as magnetic field, on the structure of the plasma sheath are investigated. The results show that sheath potential and wall potential rise with the increment of SEE coefficient and trapping coefficient which results in a reduced sheath thickness. In addition, magnetic field strength will influence the sheath potential distributions.
A two-dimensional (azimuthal-axial) particle-in-cell model of a Hall thruster
Coche, P.; Garrigues, L., E-mail: laurent.garrigues@laplace.univ-tlse.fr [LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d' Energie), Université de Toulouse, UPS, INPT Toulouse 118, route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France); CNRS, LAPLACE, F-31062 Toulouse (France)
2014-02-15
We have developed a two-dimensional Particle-In-Cell model in the azimuthal and axial directions of the Hall thruster. A scaling method that consists to work at a lower plasma density to overcome constraints on time-step and grid-spacing is used. Calculations are able to reproduce the breathing mode due to a periodic depletion of neutral atoms without the introduction of a supplementary anomalous mechanism, as in fluid and hybrid models. Results show that during the increase of the discharge current, an electron-cyclotron drift instability (frequency in the range of MHz and wave number on the order of 3000 rad s{sup −1}) is formed in the region of the negative gradient of magnetic field. During the current decrease, an axial electric wave propagates from the channel toward the exhaust (whose frequency is on the order of 400 kHz) leading to a broadening of the ion energy distribution function. A discussion about the influence of the scaling method on the calculation results is also proposed.
Herman, Daniel A; Shastry, Rohit; Huang, Wensheng; Soulas, George C.; KamHawi, Hani
2012-01-01
In order to aid in the design of high-power Hall thrusters and provide experimental validation for existing modeling efforts, plasma potential and Langmuir probe measurements were performed in the near-field plume of the NASA 300M Hall thruster. A probe array consisting of a Faraday probe, Langmuir probe, and emissive probe was used to interrogate the plume from approximately 0.1 - 2.0 DT,m downstream of the thruster exit plane at four operating conditions: 300 V, 400 V, and 500 V at 20 kW as well as 300 V at 10 kW. Results show that the acceleration zone and high-temperature region were contained within 0.3 DT,m from the exit plane at all operating conditions. Isothermal lines were shown to strongly follow magnetic field lines in the nearfield, with maximum temperatures ranging from 19 - 27 eV. The electron temperature spatial distribution created large drops in measured floating potentials in front of the magnetic pole surfaces where the plasma density was small, which suggests strong sheaths at these surfaces. The data taken have provided valuable information for future design and modeling validation, and complements ongoing internal measurement efforts on the NASA 300 M.
Sydorenko, D.; Smolyakov, A.; Kaganovich, I.; Raitses, Y.
2008-04-23
Particle-in-cell simulation of Hall thruster plasmas reveals a plasma-sheath instability manifesting itself as a rearrangement of the plasma sheath near the thruster channel walls accompanied by a sudden change of many discharge parameters. The instability develops when the sheath current as a function of the sheath voltage is in the negative conductivity regime. The major part of the sheath current is produced by beams of secondary electrons counter-streaming between the walls. The negative conductivity is the result of nonlinear dependence of beam-induced secondary electron emission on the plasma potential. The intensity of such emission is defined by the beam energy. The energy of the beam in crossed axial electric and radial magnetic fields is a quasi-periodical function of the phase of cyclotron rotation, which depends on the radial profile of the potential and the thruster channel width. There is a discrete set of stability intervals determined by the final phase of the cyclotron rotation of secondary electrons. As a result, a small variation of the thruster channel width may result in abrupt changes of plasma parameters if the plasma state jumps from one stability interval to another.
Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng; Haag, Thomas; Yim, John; Chang, Li; Clayman, Lauren; Herman, Daniel; Shastry, Rohit; Thomas, Robert; Verhey, Timothy; Griffith, Christopher; Myers, James; Williams, George; Mikellides, Ioannis; Hofer, Richard; Polk, James; Goebel, Dan
2014-01-01
NASA is developing mission concepts for a solar electric propulsion technology demonstration mission. A number of mission concepts are being evaluated including ambitious missions to near Earth objects. The demonstration of a high-power solar electric propulsion capability is one of the objectives of the candidate missions under consideration. In support of NASA's exploration goals, a number of projects are developing extensible technologies to support NASA's near and long term mission needs. Specifically, the Space Technology Mission Directorate Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission project is funding the development of a 12.5-kilowatt magnetically shielded Hall thruster system to support future NASA missions. This paper presents the design attributes of the thruster that was collaboratively developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The paper provides an overview of the magnetic, plasma, thermal, and structural modeling activities that were carried out in support of the thruster design. The paper also summarizes the results of the functional tests that have been carried out to date. The planned thruster performance, plasma diagnostics (internal and in the plume), thermal, wear, and mechanical tests are outlined.
Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Hofer, Richard R.; Goebel, Dan M.
2012-01-01
A proof-of-principle effort to demonstrate a technique by which erosion of the acceleration channel in Hall thrusters of the magnetic-layer type can be eliminated has been completed. The first principles of the technique, now known as "magnetic shielding," were derived based on the findings of numerical simulations in 2-D axisymmetric geometry. The simulations, in turn, guided the modification of an existing 6-kW laboratory Hall thruster. This magnetically shielded (MS) thruster was then built and tested. Because neither theory nor experiment alone can validate fully the first principles of the technique, the objective of the 2-yr effort was twofold: (1) to demonstrate in the laboratory that the erosion rates can be reduced by >order of magnitude, and (2) to demonstrate that the near-wall plasma properties can be altered according to the theoretical predictions. This paper concludes the demonstration of magnetic shielding by reporting on a wide range of comparisons between results from numerical simulations and laboratory diagnostics. Collectively, we find that the comparisons validate the theory. Near the walls of the MS thruster, theory and experiment agree: (1) the plasma potential has been sustained at values near the discharge voltage, and (2) the electron temperature has been lowered by at least 2.5-3 times compared to the unshielded (US) thruster. Also, based on carbon deposition measurements, the erosion rates at the inner and outer walls of the MS thruster are found to be lower by at least 2300 and 1875 times, respectively. Erosion was so low along these walls that the rates were below the resolution of the profilometer. Using a sputtering yield model with an energy threshold of 25 V, the simulations predict a reduction of 600 at the MS inner wall. At the outer wall ion energies are computed to be below 25 V, for which case we set the erosion to zero in the simulations. When a 50-V threshold is used the computed ion energies are below the threshold at both
Smith, Brandon D.; Boyd, Iain D.; Kamhawi, Hani
2014-01-01
The sensitivity of xenon ionization rates to collision cross-sections is studied within the framework of a hybrid-PIC model of a Hall thruster discharge. A revised curve fit based on the Drawin form is proposed and is shown to better reproduce the measured crosssections at high electron energies, with differences in the integrated rate coefficients being on the order of 10% for electron temperatures between 20 eV and 30 eV. The revised fit is implemented into HPHall and the updated model is used to simulate NASA's HiVHAc EDU2 Hall thruster at discharge voltages of 300, 400, and 500 V. For all three operating points, the revised cross-sections result in an increase in the predicted thrust and anode efficiency, reducing the error relative to experimental performance measurements. Electron temperature and ionization reaction rates are shown to follow the trends expected based on the integrated rate coefficients. The effects of triply-charged xenon are also assessed. The predicted thruster performance is found to have little or no dependence on the presence of triply-charged ions. The fraction of ion current carried by triply-charged ions is found to be on the order of 1% and increases slightly with increasing discharge voltage. The reaction rates for the 0?III, I?III, and II?III ionization reactions are found to be of similar order of magnitude and are about one order of magnitude smaller than the rate of 0?II ionization in the discharge channel.
Hall Effect Gyrators and Circulators
Viola, Giovanni; DiVincenzo, David P.
2014-04-01
The electronic circulator and its close relative the gyrator are invaluable tools for noise management and signal routing in the current generation of low-temperature microwave systems for the implementation of new quantum technologies. The current implementation of these devices using the Faraday effect is satisfactory but requires a bulky structure whose physical dimension is close to the microwave wavelength employed. The Hall effect is an alternative nonreciprocal effect that can also be used to produce desired device functionality. We review earlier efforts to use an Ohmically contacted four-terminal Hall bar, explaining why this approach leads to unacceptably high device loss. We find that capacitive coupling to such a Hall conductor has much greater promise for achieving good circulator and gyrator functionality. We formulate a classical Ohm-Hall analysis for calculating the properties of such a device, and show how this classical theory simplifies remarkably in the limiting case of the Hall angle approaching 90°. In this limit, we find that either a four-terminal or a three-terminal capacitive device can give excellent circulator behavior, with device dimensions far smaller than the ac wavelength. An experiment is proposed to achieve GHz-band gyration in millimeter (and smaller) scale structures employing either semiconductor heterostructure or graphene Hall conductors. An inductively coupled scheme for realizing a Hall gyrator is also analyzed.
Experimental Investigation of the Near-Wall Region in the NASA HiVHAc EDU2 Hall Thruster
Shastry, Rohit; Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng; Haag, Thomas W.
2015-01-01
The HiVHAc propulsion system is currently being developed to support Discovery-class NASA science missions. Presently, the thruster meets the required operational lifetime by utilizing a novel discharge channel replacement mechanism. As a risk reduction activity, an alternative approach is being investigated that modifies the existing magnetic circuit to shift the ion acceleration zone further downstream such that the magnetic components are not exposed to direct ion impingement during the thruster's lifetime while maintaining adequate thruster performance and stability. To measure the change in plasma properties between the original magnetic circuit configuration and the modified, "advanced" configuration, six Langmuir probes were flush-mounted within each channel wall near the thruster exit plane. Plasma potential and electron temperature were measured for both configurations across a wide range of discharge voltages and powers. Measurements indicate that the upstream edge of the acceleration zone shifted downstream by as much as 0.104 channel lengths, depending on operating condition. The upstream edge of the acceleration zone also appears to be more insensitive to operating condition in the advanced configuration, remaining between 0.136 and 0.178 channel lengths upstream of the thruster exit plane. Facility effects studies performed on the original configuration indicate that the plasma and acceleration zone recede further upstream into the channel with increasing facility pressure. These results will be used to inform further modifications to the magnetic circuit that will provide maximum protection of the magnetic components without significant changes to thruster performance and stability.
Investigation of Low Discharge Voltage Hall Thruster Operating Modes and Ionization Processes
2009-08-14
a null-type, inverted pendulum thrust stand based on the NASA GRC design.11 The thruster is shown mounted to the thrust stand in Figure 3... cloud of neutral propellant. This thruster operation was studied in detail using the far-field diagnostics and characterized with variations in
Planar Hall effect bridge magnetic field sensors
Henriksen, A.D.; Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Skieller, D.H.
2010-01-01
Until now, the planar Hall effect has been studied in samples with cross-shaped Hall geometry. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the planar Hall effect can be observed for an exchange-biased ferromagnetic material in a Wheatstone bridge topology and that the sensor signal can...... Hall effect bridge sensors....
Lopez Ortega, Alejandro; Mikellides, Ioannis G.
2015-01-01
Hall2De is a first-principles, 2-D axisymmetric code that solves the equations of motion for ions, electrons, and neutrals on a magnetic-field-aligned grid. The computational domain downstream of the acceleration channel exit plane is large enough to include self-consistently the cathode boundary. In this paper, we present results from numerical simulations of the H6 laboratory thruster with an internally mounted cathode, with the aim of highlighting the importance of properly accounting for the interactions between the ion beam and cathode plume. The anomalous transport of electrons across magnetic field lines in Hall2De is modelled using an anomalous collision frequency, ?anom, yielding ?anom approximately equal to omega ce (i.e., the electron cyclotron frequency) in the plume. We first show that restricting the anomalous collision frequency to only regions where the current density of ions is large does not alter the plasma discharge in the Hall thruster as long as the interaction between the ion beam and the cathode plume is captured properly in the computational domain. This implies that the boundary conditions must be placed sufficiently far as to not interfere with the electron transport in this region. These simulation results suggest that electron transport across magnetic field lines occurs largely inside the beam and may be driven by the interactions between beam ions and electrons. A second finding that puts in relevance the importance of including the cathode plume in numerical simulations is on the significance of accounting for the ion acoustic turbulence (IAT), now known to occur in the vicinity of the cathode exit. We have included in the Hall2De simulations a model of the IAT-driven anomalous collision frequency based on Sagdeev's model for saturation of the ion-acoustic instability. This implementation has allowed us to achieve excellent agreement with experimental measurements in the near plume obtained during the operation of the H6 thruster at
2008-09-23
in Fig. 1. An alternating current source operating at frequency f1 is attached to contacts B and D with a respective lock-in amplifier monitoring...that floats the signal and a transconductance amplifier . The input voltage of each lock-in amplifier is composed of two signals: the Hall voltage at...alternating current sources operating at frequencies f1 and f2 respectively. VAC and VDB are lock-in amplifiers set for the reference frequencies f2 and f1
Snyder, John S.; Brophy, John R.; Hofer, Richard R.; Goebel, Dan M.; Katz, Ira
2012-01-01
As NASA considers future exploration missions, high-power solar-electric propulsion (SEP) plays a prominent role in achieving many mission goals. Studies of high-power SEP systems (i.e. tens to hundreds of kilowatts) suggest that significant mass savings may be realized by implementing a direct-drive power system, so NASA recently established the National Direct-Drive Testbed to examine technical issues identified by previous investigations. The testbed includes a 12-kW solar array and power control station designed to power single and multiple Hall thrusters over a wide range of voltages and currents. In this paper, single Hall thruster operation directly from solar array output at discharge voltages of 200 to 450 V and discharge powers of 1 to 10 kW is reported. Hall thruster control and operation is shown to be simple and no different than for operation on conventional power supplies. Thruster and power system electrical oscillations were investigated over a large range of operating conditions and with different filter capacitances. Thruster oscillations were the same as for conventional power supplies, did not adversely affect solar array operation, and were independent of filter capacitance from 8 to 80 ?F. Solar array current and voltage oscillations were very small compared to their mean values and showed a modest dependence on capacitor size. No instabilities or anomalous behavior were observed in the thruster or power system at any operating condition investigated, including near and at the array peak power point. Thruster startup using the anode propellant flow as the power 'switch' was shown to be simple and reliable with system transients mitigated by the proper selection of filter capacitance size. Shutdown via cutoff of propellant flow was also demonstrated. A simple electrical circuit model was developed and is shown to have good agreement with the experimental data.
Topological Hall and spin Hall effects in disordered skyrmionic textures
Ndiaye, Papa Birame
2017-02-24
We carry out a thorough study of the topological Hall and topological spin Hall effects in disordered skyrmionic systems: the dimensionless (spin) Hall angles are evaluated across the energy-band structure in the multiprobe Landauer-Büttiker formalism and their link to the effective magnetic field emerging from the real-space topology of the spin texture is highlighted. We discuss these results for an optimal skyrmion size and for various sizes of the sample and find that the adiabatic approximation still holds for large skyrmions as well as for nanoskyrmions. Finally, we test the robustness of the topological signals against disorder strength and show that the topological Hall effect is highly sensitive to momentum scattering.
Hall effect accompanying a static skin effect
Volkenshtein, N.V.; Marchenkov, V.V.; Startsev, V.E.; Cherepanov, A.N.; Glin' skii, M.
1985-05-10
The Hall effect and the magnetoresistance of tungsten single crystals with rho/sub 293K//rho/sub 4.2K/ = 80 000 have been measured at 4.2 K in magnetic fields up to 150 kOe. The results reveal that a static skin effect gives rise to an anomalously pronounced increase in the Hall coefficient.
Berry curvature and various thermal Hall effects
Zhang, Lifa
2016-10-01
Applying the approach of semiclassical wave packet dynamics, we study various thermal Hall effects where carriers can be electron, phonon, magnon, etc. A general formula of thermal Hall conductivity is obtained to provide an essential physics for various thermal Hall effects, where the Berry phase effect manifests naturally. All the formulas of electron thermal Hall effect, phonon Hall effect, and magnon Hall effect can be directly reproduced from the general formula. It is also found that the Strěda formula can not be directly applied to the thermal Hall effects, where only the edge magnetization contributes to the Hall effects. Furthermore, we obtain a combined formula for anomalous Hall conductivity, thermal Hall electronic conductivity and thermal Hall conductivity for electron systems, where the Berry curvature is weighted by a different function. Finally, we discuss particle magnetization and its relation to angular momentum of the carrier, change of which could induce a mechanical rotation; and possible experiments for thermal Hall effect associated with a mechanical rotation are also proposed.
Optical Hall effect-model description: tutorial.
Schubert, Mathias; Kühne, Philipp; Darakchieva, Vanya; Hofmann, Tino
2016-08-01
The optical Hall effect is a physical phenomenon that describes the occurrence of magnetic-field-induced dielectric displacement at optical wavelengths, transverse and longitudinal to the incident electric field, and analogous to the static electrical Hall effect. The electrical Hall effect and certain cases of the optical Hall effect observations can be explained by extensions of the classic Drude model for the transport of electrons in metals. The optical Hall effect is most useful for characterization of electrical properties in semiconductors. Among many advantages, while the optical Hall effect dispenses with the need of electrical contacts, electrical material properties such as effective mass and mobility parameters, including their anisotropy as well as carrier type and density, can be determined from the optical Hall effect. Measurement of the optical Hall effect can be performed within the concept of generalized ellipsometry at an oblique angle of incidence. In this paper, we review and discuss physical model equations, which can be used to calculate the optical Hall effect in single- and multiple-layered structures of semiconductor materials. We define the optical Hall effect dielectric function tensor, demonstrate diagonalization approaches, and show requirements for the optical Hall effect tensor from energy conservation. We discuss both continuum and quantum approaches, and we provide a brief description of the generalized ellipsometry concept, the Mueller matrix calculus, and a 4×4 matrix algebra to calculate data accessible by experiment. In a follow-up paper, we will discuss strategies and approaches for experimental data acquisition and analysis.
Planar Hall effect bridge magnetic field sensors
Henriksen, A. D.; Dalslet, B. T.; Skieller, D. H.; Lee, K. H.; Okkels, F.; Hansen, M. F.
2010-07-01
Until now, the planar Hall effect has been studied in samples with cross-shaped Hall geometry. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the planar Hall effect can be observed for an exchange-biased ferromagnetic material in a Wheatstone bridge topology and that the sensor signal can be significantly enhanced by a geometric factor. For the samples in the present study, we demonstrate an enhancement of the sensor output by a factor of about 100 compared to cross-shaped sensors. The presented construction opens a new design and application area of the planar Hall effect, which we term planar Hall effect bridge sensors.
The Other Hall Effect: College Board Physics
Sheppard, Keith; Gunning, Amanda M.
2013-01-01
Edwin Herbert Hall (1855-1938), discoverer of the Hall effect, was one of the first winners of the AAPT Oersted Medal for his contributions to the teaching of physics. While Hall's role in establishing laboratory work in high schools is widely acknowledged, his position as chair of the physics section of the Committee on College Entrance…
Dunning, John (Technical Monitor); Sitnikova, N.; Volkov, D.; Maximov, I.; Petrusevich, V.; Allen, D.
2003-01-01
This 12-part report documents the data obtained from various sensor measurements taken aboard the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 spacecraft in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). These GEO communications satellites, which were designed and built by NPO Prikladnoy Mekhaniki (NPO PM) of Zheleznogorsk, Russia, utilize Hall thruster propulsion systems for north-south and east-west stationkeeping and as of June 2002, were still operating at 80 E. and 11 W., respectively. Express-A2 was launched on March 12, 2000, while Express-A3 was launched on June 24, 2000. The diagnostic equipment from which these data were taken includes electric field strength sensors, ion current and energy sensors, and pressure sensors. The diagnostics and the Hall thruster propulsion systems are described in detail along with lists of tabular data from those diagnostics and propulsion system and other satellite systems. Space Power, Inc., now part of Pratt & Whitney's Chemical Systems Division, under contract NAS3 99151 to the NASA Glenn Research Center, obtained these data over several periods from March 12, 2000, through September 30, 2001. Each of the 12 individual reports describe, in detail, the propulsion systems as well as the diagnostic sensors utilized. Finally, parts 11 and 12 include the requirements to which NPO PM prepared and delivered these data.
Sitnikova, N.; Volkov, D.; Maximov, I.; Petrusevich, V.; Allen, D.
2003-01-01
This 12-part report documents the data obtained from various sensor measurements taken aboard the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 spacecraft in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). These GEO communications satellites, which were designed and built by NPO Prikladnoy Mekhaniki (NPO PM) of Zheleznogorsk, Russia, utilize Hall thruster propulsion systems for north-south and east-west stationkeeping and as of June 2002, were still operating at 80deg E., and 11deg W., respectively. Express-A2 was launched on March 12, 2000, while Express-A3 was launched on June 24, 2000. The diagnostic equipment from which these data were taken includes electric field strength sensors, ion current and energy sensors, and pressure sensors. The diagnostics and the Hall thruster propulsion systems are described in detail along with lists of tabular data from those diagnostics and propulsion system and other satellite systems. Space Power, Inc., now part of Pratt & Whitney's Chemical Systems Division, under contract NAS3-99151 to the NASA Glenn Research Center, obtained these data over several periods from March 12, 2000, through September 30, 2001. Each of the 12 individual reports describe, in detail, the propulsion systems as well as the diagnostic sensors utilized. Finally, parts 11 and 12 include the requirements to which NPO PM prepared and delivered these data.
Dunning, John (Technical Monitor); Sitnikova, N.; Volkov, D.; Maximov, I.; Petrusevich, V.; Allen, D.
2003-01-01
This 12-part report documents the data obtained from various sensor measurements taken aboard the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 spacecraft in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). These GEO communications satellites, which were designed and built by NPO Prikladnoy Mekhaniki (NPO PM) of Zheleznogorsk, Russia, utilize Hall thruster propulsion systems for north-south and east-west stationkeeping and as of June 2002, were still operating at 80deg E. and 11deg W., respectively. Express-A2 was launched on March 12, 2000, while Express-A3 was launched on June 24, 2000. The diagnostic equipment from which these data were taken includes electric field strength sensors, ion current and energy sensors, and pressure sensors. The diagnostics and the Hall thruster propulsion systems are described in detail along with lists of tabular data from those diagnostics and propulsion system and other satellite systems. Space Power, Inc., now part of Pratt & Whitney's Chemical Systems Division, under contract NAS3 99151 to the NASA Glenn Research Center, obtained these data over several periods from March 12, 2000, through September 30, 2001. Each of the 12 individual reports describe, in detail, the propulsion systems as well as the diagnostic sensors utilized. Finally, parts 11 and 12 include the requirements to which NPO PM prepared and delivered these data.
Dunning, John (Technical Monitor); Sitnikova, N.; Volkov, D.; Maximov, I.; Petrusevich, V.; Allen, D.
2003-01-01
This 12-part report documents the data obtained from various sensor measurements taken aboard the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 spacecraft in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). These GEO communications satellites, which were designed and built by NPO Prikladnoy Mekhaniki (NPO PM) of Zheleznogorsk, Russia, utilize Hall thruster propulsion systems for north-south and east-west stationkeeping and as of June 2002, were still operating at 80 E. and 11 W., respectively. Express-A2 was launched on March 12, 2000, while Express-A3 was launched on June 24, 2000. The diagnostic equipment from which these data were taken includes electric field strength sensors, ion current and energy sensors, and pressure sensors. The diagnostics and the Hall thruster propulsion systems are described in detail along with lists of tabular data from those diagnostics and propulsion system and other satellite systems. Space Power, Inc., now part of Pratt & Whitney's Chemical Systems Division, under contract NAS3 99151 to the NASA Glenn Research Center, obtained these data over several periods from March 12, 2000, through September 30, 2001. Each of the 12 individual reports describe, in detail, the propulsion systems as well as the diagnostic sensors utilized. Finally, parts 11 and 12 include the requirements to which NPO PM prepared and delivered these data.
Spin Hall effect by surface roughness
Zhou, Lingjun
2015-01-08
The spin Hall and its inverse effects, driven by the spin orbit interaction, provide an interconversion mechanism between spin and charge currents. Since the spin Hall effect generates and manipulates spin current electrically, to achieve a large effect is becoming an important topic in both academia and industries. So far, materials with heavy elements carrying a strong spin orbit interaction, provide the only option. We propose here a new mechanism, using the surface roughness in ultrathin films, to enhance the spin Hall effect without heavy elements. Our analysis based on Cu and Al thin films suggests that surface roughness is capable of driving a spin Hall angle that is comparable to that in bulk Au. We also demonstrate that the spin Hall effect induced by surface roughness subscribes only to the side-jump contribution but not the skew scattering. The paradigm proposed in this paper provides the second, not if only, alternative to generate a sizable spin Hall effect.
Shastry, Rohit; Huang, Wensheng; Haag, Thomas W.; Kamhawi, Hani
2013-01-01
NASA is presently developing a high-power, high-efficiency, long-lifetime Hall thruster for the Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission. In support of this task, studies have been performed on the 20-kW NASA-300M Hall thruster to aid in the overall design process. The ability to incorporate magnetic shielding into a high-power Hall thruster was also investigated with the NASA- 300MS, a modified version of the NASA-300M. The inclusion of magnetic shielding would allow the thruster to push existing state-of-the-art technology in regards to service lifetime, one of the goals of the Technology Demonstration Mission. Langmuir probe measurements were taken within the discharge channels of both thrusters in order to characterize differences at higher power levels, as well as validate ongoing modeling efforts using the axisymmetric code Hall2De. Flush-mounted Langmuir probes were also used within the channel of the NASA-300MS to verify that magnetic shielding was successfully applied. Measurements taken from 300 V, 10 kW to 600 V, 20 kW have shown plasma potentials near anode potential and electron temperatures of 4 to 12 eV at the walls near the thruster exit plane of the NASA-300MS, verifying magnetic shielding and validating the design process at this power level. Channel centerline measurements on the NASA-300M from 300 V, 10 kW to 500 V, 20 kW show the electron temperature peak at approximately 0.1 to 0.2 channel lengths upstream of the exit plane, with magnitudes increasing with discharge voltage. The acceleration profiles appear to be centered about the exit plane with a width of approximately 0.3 to 0.4 channel lengths. Channel centerline measurements on the NASA-300MS were found to be more challenging due to additional probe heating. Ionization and acceleration zones appeared to move downstream on the NASA-300MS compared to the NASA-300M, as expected based on the shift in peak radial magnetic field. Additional measurements or alternative
Automated Micro Hall Effect measurements
Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Henrichsen, Henrik Hartmann; Lin, Rong
2014-01-01
With increasing complexity of processes and variety of materials used for semiconductor devices, stringent control of the electronic properties is becoming ever more relevant. Collinear micro four-point probe (M4PP) based measurement systems have become high-end metrology methods for characteriza......With increasing complexity of processes and variety of materials used for semiconductor devices, stringent control of the electronic properties is becoming ever more relevant. Collinear micro four-point probe (M4PP) based measurement systems have become high-end metrology methods...... for characterization and monitoring of sheet resistance as well as sheet carrier density and mobility via the Micro Hall Effect (MHE) method....
DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED HALL EFFECT SENSORS.
HALL EFFECT , MAGNETOMETERS, GAIN, SENSITIVITY, MAGNETIC FIELDS, DETECTION, ELECTROMAGNETIC PROBES, WEIGHT, VOLUME, BATTERY COMPONENTS, INDIUM ALLOYS, ANTIMONY ALLOYS, FERRITES, MANPORTABLE EQUIPMENT.
AN A. C. HALL EFFECT GAUSSMETER,
MEASURING INSTRUMENTS, MEASURING INSTRUMENTS, HALL EFFECT , MAGNETOMETERS, MEASUREMENT, GENERATORS, CIRCUITS, ALTERNATING CURRENT, GERMANIUM, SEMICONDUCTOR DIODES, GALVANOMETERS, VOLTAGE, DIRECT CURRENT, MAGNETIC FIELDS.
Lectures on the Quantum Hall Effect
Tong, David
2016-01-01
The purpose of these lectures is to describe the basic theoretical structures underlying the rich and beautiful physics of the quantum Hall effect. The focus is on the interplay between microscopic wavefunctions, long-distance effective Chern-Simons theories, and the modes which live on the boundary. The notes are aimed at graduate students in any discipline where $\\hbar=1$. A working knowledge of quantum field theory is assumed. Contents: 1. The Basics (Landau levels and Berry phase). 2. The Integer Quantum Hall Effect. 3. The Fractional Quantum Hall Effect. 4. Non-Abelian Quantum Hall States. 5. Chern-Simons Theories. 6. Edge Modes.
Bound values for Hall conductivity of heterogeneous medium under quantum Hall effect conditions
V E Arkhincheev
2008-02-01
Bound values for Hall conductivity under quantum Hall effect (QHE) conditions in inhomogeneous medium has been studied. It is shown that bound values for Hall conductivity differ from bound values for metallic conductivity. This is due to the unusual character of current percolation under quantum Hall effect conditions.
Two-Dimensional Modelling of the Hall Thruster Discharge: Final Report
2007-09-10
corresponding to regime P (mainly for heavy gases ). Second and more relevant, the presheath character, which is determined by the behavior of the attracted...un código pic-fluido bidimensional para el flujo de plasma en motores de efecto hall. Master’s thesis, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros...editors. Partially ionized gases . Wiley, 1973. [28] R.S.Jankovsky, D. T. Jacobson, C. J. Sarmiento, L. R. Piñero, D. H. Manzella, R. R. Hofer, and P. Y
Anomalous Hall effect in polycrystalline Ni films
Guo, Zaibing
2012-02-01
We systematically studied the anomalous Hall effect in a series of polycrystalline Ni films with thickness ranging from 4 to 200 nm. It is found that both the longitudinal and anomalous Hall resistivity increased greatly as film thickness decreased. This enhancement should be related to the surface scattering. In the ultrathin films (46 nm thick), weak localization corrections to anomalous Hall conductivity were studied. The granular model, taking into account the dominated intergranular tunneling, has been employed to explain this phenomenon, which can explain the weak dependence of anomalous Hall resistivity on longitudinal resistivity as well. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Studies of Non-Conventional Configuration Closed Electron Drift Thrusters
Y. Raitses; D. Staack; A. Smirnov; A.A. Litvak; L.A. Dorf; T. Graves; and N.J. Fisch
2001-09-10
In this paper, we review recent results obtained for segmented electrode and cylindrical Hall thrusters. A low sputtering graphite segmented electrode, placed at the exit of the annular thruster, is shown to affect the plasma potential distribution in the ceramic channel. This effect appears to be correlated with an observed plume reduction compared to a conventional, nonsegmented thruster. In preliminary experiments a 3-cm thruster was operated in the 50-200 W power range. Two operating regimes, stable and oscillating, were observed and investigated.
Star Formation and the Hall Effect
Braiding, Catherine
2011-01-01
Magnetic fields play an important role in star formation by regulating the removal of angular momentum from collapsing molecular cloud cores. Hall diffusion is known to be important to the magnetic field behaviour at many of the intermediate densities and field strengths encountered during the gravitational collapse of molecular cloud cores into protostars, and yet its role in the star formation process is not well-studied. This thesis describes a semianalytic self-similar model of the collapse of rotating isothermal molecular cloud cores with both Hall and ambipolar diffusion, presenting similarity solutions that demonstrate that the Hall effect has a profound influence on the dynamics of collapse. ... Hall diffusion also determines the strength of the magnetic diffusion and centrifugal shocks that bound the pseudo and rotationally-supported discs, and can introduce subshocks that further slow accretion onto the protostar. In cores that are not initially rotating Hall diffusion can even induce rotation, whic...
Optical Hall effect in strained graphene
Nguyen, V. Hung; Lherbier, A.; Charlier, J.-C.
2017-06-01
When passing an optical medium in the presence of a magnetic field, the polarization of light can be rotated either when reflected at the surface (Kerr effect) or when transmitted through the material (Faraday rotation). This phenomenon is a direct consequence of the optical Hall effect arising from the light-charge carrier interaction in solid state systems subjected to an external magnetic field, in analogy with the conventional Hall effect. The optical Hall effect has been explored in many thin films and also more recently in 2D layered materials. Here, an alternative approach based on strain engineering is proposed to achieve an optical Hall conductivity in graphene without magnetic field. Indeed, strain induces lattice symmetry breaking and hence can result in a finite optical Hall conductivity. First-principles calculations also predict this strain-induced optical Hall effect in other 2D materials. Combining with the possibility of tuning the light energy and polarization, the strain amplitude and direction, and the nature of the optical medium, large ranges of positive and negative optical Hall conductivities are predicted, thus opening the way to use these atomistic thin materials in novel specific opto-electro-mechanical devices.
The quantum Hall effects: Philosophical approach
Lederer, P.
2015-05-01
The Quantum Hall Effects offer a rich variety of theoretical and experimental advances. They provide interesting insights on such topics as gauge invariance, strong interactions in Condensed Matter physics, emergence of new paradigms. This paper focuses on some related philosophical questions. Various brands of positivism or agnosticism are confronted with the physics of the Quantum Hall Effects. Hacking's views on Scientific Realism, Chalmers' on Non-Figurative Realism are discussed. It is argued that the difficulties with those versions of realism may be resolved within a dialectical materialist approach. The latter is argued to provide a rational approach to the phenomena, theory and ontology of the Quantum Hall Effects.
Quantum Hall effect in momentum space
Ozawa, Tomoki; Price, Hannah M.; Carusotto, Iacopo
2016-05-01
We theoretically discuss a momentum-space analog of the quantum Hall effect, which could be observed in topologically nontrivial lattice models subject to an external harmonic trapping potential. In our proposal, the Niu-Thouless-Wu formulation of the quantum Hall effect on a torus is realized in the toroidally shaped Brillouin zone. In this analogy, the position of the trap center in real space controls the magnetic fluxes that are inserted through the holes of the torus in momentum space. We illustrate the momentum-space quantum Hall effect with the noninteracting trapped Harper-Hofstadter model, for which we numerically demonstrate how this effect manifests itself in experimental observables. Extension to the interacting trapped Harper-Hofstadter model is also briefly considered. We finally discuss possible experimental platforms where our proposal for the momentum-space quantum Hall effect could be realized.
Observation of the magnon Hall effect.
Onose, Y; Ideue, T; Katsura, H; Shiomi, Y; Nagaosa, N; Tokura, Y
2010-07-16
The Hall effect usually occurs in conductors when the Lorentz force acts on a charge current in the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field. Neutral quasi-particles such as phonons and spins can, however, carry heat current and potentially exhibit the thermal Hall effect without resorting to the Lorentz force. We report experimental evidence for the anomalous thermal Hall effect caused by spin excitations (magnons) in an insulating ferromagnet with a pyrochlore lattice structure. Our theoretical analysis indicates that the propagation of the spin waves is influenced by the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya spin-orbit interaction, which plays the role of the vector potential, much as in the intrinsic anomalous Hall effect in metallic ferromagnets.
Hall effect degradation of rail gun performance
Witalis, E. A.; Gunnarsson, Patrik
1993-01-01
The paper discusses the Hall effect and shows it to be significant in the low-density and high-field trailing part of a plasma armature. Without the Hall effect a simple armature model is derived. It exhibits properties expected from classical MHD theory and shows that the purely relativistic electric charge buildup on the rails is a fundamental gun property, leading to V(breech) = 1.5 V(muzzle). The mathematics involved in accounting for Hall effect phenomena is described. These are of two types: the Hall-skewing of the armature current and the superimposed plasma flow rotation. For decreasing gun current the two effects efficiently combine to eject armature plasma rearwards, thus creating conditions for arc separation and parasitic arcs.
Quantum Hall Effect in Higher Dimensions
Karabali, Dimitra; Karabali, Dimitra
2002-01-01
Following recent work on the quantum Hall effect on $S^4$, we solve the Landau problem on the complex projective spaces ${\\bf C}P^k$ and discuss quantum Hall states for such spaces. Unlike the case of $S^4$, a finite spatial density can be obtained with a finite number of internal states for each particle. We treat the case of ${\\bf C}P^2$ in some detail considering both Abelian and nonabelian background fields. The wavefunctions are obtained and incompressibility of the Hall states is shown. The case of ${\\bf C}P^3$ is related to the case of $S^4$.
Piezo Voltage Controlled Planar Hall Effect Devices
Zhang, Bao; Meng, Kang-Kang; Yang, Mei-Yin; Edmonds, K. W.; Zhang, Hao; Cai, Kai-Ming; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Nan; Ji, Yang; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Zheng, Hou-Zhi; Wang, Kai-You
2016-06-01
The electrical control of the magnetization switching in ferromagnets is highly desired for future spintronic applications. Here we report on hybrid piezoelectric (PZT)/ferromagnetic (Co2FeAl) devices in which the planar Hall voltage in the ferromagnetic layer is tuned solely by piezo voltages. The change of planar Hall voltage is associated with magnetization switching through 90° in the plane under piezo voltages. Room temperature magnetic NOT and NOR gates are demonstrated based on the piezo voltage controlled Co2FeAl planar Hall effect devices without the external magnetic field. Our demonstration may lead to the realization of both information storage and processing using ferromagnetic materials.
Piezo Voltage Controlled Planar Hall Effect Devices.
Zhang, Bao; Meng, Kang-Kang; Yang, Mei-Yin; Edmonds, K W; Zhang, Hao; Cai, Kai-Ming; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Nan; Ji, Yang; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Zheng, Hou-Zhi; Wang, Kai-You
2016-06-22
The electrical control of the magnetization switching in ferromagnets is highly desired for future spintronic applications. Here we report on hybrid piezoelectric (PZT)/ferromagnetic (Co2FeAl) devices in which the planar Hall voltage in the ferromagnetic layer is tuned solely by piezo voltages. The change of planar Hall voltage is associated with magnetization switching through 90° in the plane under piezo voltages. Room temperature magnetic NOT and NOR gates are demonstrated based on the piezo voltage controlled Co2FeAl planar Hall effect devices without the external magnetic field. Our demonstration may lead to the realization of both information storage and processing using ferromagnetic materials.
Hall effect in organic layered conductors
R.A.Hasan
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The Hall effect in organic layered conductors with a multisheeted Fermi surfaces was considered. It is shown that the experimental study of Hall effect and magnetoresistance anisotropy at different orientations of current and a quantizing magnetic field relative to the layers makes it possible to determine the contribution of various charge carriers groups to the conductivity, and to find out the character of Fermi surface anisotropy in the plane of layers.
Iodine Plasma Species Measurements in a Hall Effect Thruster Plume
2013-04-01
vary across the plume. Furthermore, ion energy measurements here and historically show non - Maxwellian ion velocity distributions that vary with...related to beam composition or to non -uniformities in the gas flow distribution. Thus, thrust data are not reported...distribution is far from Maxwellian . D. Combined Probe The combined ESA/ExB probe was used to analyze specific populations selected from the ESA data
Hall-effect Thruster Channel Surface Properties Investigation (PREPRINT)
2011-03-03
beryllium window separating the specimen vacuum chamber and the Lithium- drifted Silicon detector. Within the detector, the photons pass into a cooled...palladium alloy is applied to the samples. The samples are placed into a vacuum chamber where the gold-palladium is sputtered onto the sample surface in...graphite beam dump used during vacuum chamber testing; this carbon deposition initially has a fairly uniform concentration. The non-uniformity of carbon
The phonon Hall effect: theory and application
Zhang Lifa; Wang Jiansheng; Li Baowen [Department of Physics and Centre for Computational Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Ren Jie [NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering, Singapore 117456 (Singapore)
2011-08-03
We present a systematic theory of the phonon Hall effect in a ballistic crystal lattice system, and apply it on the kagome lattice which is ubiquitous in various real materials. By proposing a proper second quantization for the non-Hermitian in the polarization-vector space, we obtain a new heat current density operator with two separate contributions: the normal velocity responsible for the longitudinal phonon transport, and the anomalous velocity manifesting itself as the Hall effect of transverse phonon transport. As exemplified in kagome lattices, our theory predicts that the direction of Hall conductivity at low magnetic field can be reversed by tuning the temperatures, which we hope can be verified by experiments in the future. Three phonon-Hall-conductivity singularities induced by phonon-band-topology change are discovered as well, which correspond to the degeneracies at three different symmetric center points, {Gamma}, K, X, in the wavevector space of the kagome lattice.
Hall effect on the triangular lattice
Leon Suros, Gladys Eliana; Berthod, Christophe; Giamarchi, Thierry; Millis, A.
2008-01-01
We investigate the high frequency Hall effect on a two-dimensional triangular lattice with nearest-neighbor hopping and a local Hubbard interaction. The complete temperature and doping dependencies of the high-frequency Hall coefficient $R_H$ are evaluated analytically and numerically for small, intermediate, and strong interactions using various approximation schemes. We find that $R_H$ follows the semiclassical $1/qn^*$ law near T=0, but exhibits a striking $T$-linear behavior with an inter...
Numerical Simulation of Interaction between Hall Thruster CEX Ions and SMART-1 Spacecraft
Kang Shan
2015-01-01
effect of the disturbance force and thermal loading caused by charge exchange ions (CEX impingement on the surface of the spacecraft. The parameters such as heat flux and forces of CEX ions which impinge on SMART-1 and solar arrays are obtained. The disturbance force of CEX ions to the spacecraft is calculated for different divergence angles and different solar array rotation cases. The simulation results show that the disturbance force and heat flux on spacecraft change very little as the divergence angle changes. The effect of maximum disturbance force can be neglected since it is so small comparing with the nominal value of the main thrust. Solar arrays receive the least thermal heating from the CEX ions when the beam ions flow is perpendicular to the solar array plane.
Experimental Analysis of Dampened Breathing Mode Oscillation on Hall Thruster Performance
2013-03-01
Goebel and Katz, from force applied to thrust, Isp and effi- ciency, with corrections for non -ideal situations, is essential for the basic understand... Maxwellian velocity distribution for the electrons, Equation 22 is solved to yield the gyro-radius as rg = me eB √ 8kTe πm = 1 B √ 8mTeV πe (23) where Te is...fraction of the total mass flow is ionized, with the non -ionized portion being wasted mass as it does not contribute effectively to the thrust. This, along
Minimum Fuel Low-Thrust Transfers for Satellites Using a Permanent Magnet Hall Thruster
Thais Carneiro Oliveira
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Most of the satellite missions require orbital maneuvers to accomplish its goals. An orbital maneuver is an operation where the orbit of a satellite is changed, usually applying a type of propulsion. The maneuvers may have several purposes, such as the transfer of a satellite to its final orbit, the interception of another spacecraft, or the adjustment of the orbit to compensate the shifts caused by external forces. In this situation it is essential to minimize the fuel consumption to allow a greater number of maneuvers to be performed, and thus the lifetime of the satellite can be extended. There are several papers and studies which aim at the fuel minimization in maneuvers performed by space vehicles. In this context, this paper has two goals: (i to develop an algorithm capable of finding optimal trajectories with continuous thrust that can fit different types of missions and constraints at the same time and (ii to study the performance of two propulsion devices for orbital maneuvers under development at the Universidade de Brasilia, including a study of the effects of the errors in magnitude of these new devices.
Charge carrier coherence and Hall effect in organic semiconductors.
Yi, H T; Gartstein, Y N; Podzorov, V
2016-03-30
Hall effect measurements are important for elucidating the fundamental charge transport mechanisms and intrinsic mobility in organic semiconductors. However, Hall effect studies frequently reveal an unconventional behavior that cannot be readily explained with the simple band-semiconductor Hall effect model. Here, we develop an analytical model of Hall effect in organic field-effect transistors in a regime of coexisting band and hopping carriers. The model, which is supported by the experiments, is based on a partial Hall voltage compensation effect, occurring because hopping carriers respond to the transverse Hall electric field and drift in the direction opposite to the Lorentz force acting on band carriers. We show that this can lead in particular to an underdeveloped Hall effect observed in organic semiconductors with substantial off-diagonal thermal disorder. Our model captures the main features of Hall effect in a variety of organic semiconductors and provides an analytical description of Hall mobility, carrier density and carrier coherence factor.
Integer quantum Hall effect in graphene
Jellal, Ahmed, E-mail: ahmed.jellal@gmail.com [Saudi Center for Theoretical Physics, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Theoretical Physics Group, Faculty of Sciences, Chouaïb Doukkali University, 24000 El Jadida (Morocco)
2016-04-08
We study the quantum Hall effect in a monolayer graphene by using an approach based on thermodynamical properties. This can be done by considering a system of Dirac particles in an electromagnetic field and taking into account of the edges effect as a pseudo-potential varying continuously along the x direction. At low temperature and in the weak electric field limit, we explicitly determine the thermodynamical potential. With this, we derive the particle numbers in terms of the quantized flux and therefore the Hall conductivity immediately follows.
Mesoscopic effects in the quantum Hall regime
R N Bhatt; Xin Wan
2002-02-01
We report results of a study of (integer) quantum Hall transitions in a single or multiple Landau levels for non-interacting electrons in disordered two-dimensional systems, obtained by projecting a tight-binding Hamiltonian to the corresponding magnetic subbands. In ﬁnite-size systems, we ﬁnd that mesoscopic effects often dominate, leading to apparent non-universal scaling behavior in higher Landau levels. This is because localization length, which grows exponentially with Landau level index, exceeds the system sizes amenable to the numerical study at present. When band mixing between multiple Landau levels is present, mesoscopic effects cause a crossover from a sequence of quantum Hall transitions for weak disorder to classical behavior for strong disorder. This behavior may be of relevance to experimentally observed transitions between quantum Hall states and the insulating phase at low magnetic ﬁelds.
The Hall effect in star formation
Braiding, Catherine R
2011-01-01
Magnetic fields play an important role in star formation by regulating the removal of angular momentum from collapsing molecular cloud cores. Hall diffusion is known to be important to the magnetic field behaviour at many of the intermediate densities and field strengths encountered during the gravitational collapse of molecular cloud cores into protostars, and yet its role in the star formation process is not well-studied. We present a semianalytic self-similar model of the collapse of rotating isothermal molecular cloud cores with both Hall and ambipolar diffusion, and similarity solutions that demonstrate the profound influence of the Hall effect on the dynamics of collapse. The solutions show that the size and sign of the Hall parameter can change the size of the protostellar disc by up to an order of magnitude and the protostellar accretion rate by fifty per cent when the ratio of the Hall to ambipolar diffusivities is varied between -0.5 <= eta_H / eta_A <= 0.2. These changes depend upon the orien...
Quantized photonic spin Hall effect in graphene
Cai, Liang; Liu, Mengxia; Chen, Shizhen; Liu, Yachao; Shu, Weixing; Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun
2017-01-01
We examine the photonic spin Hall effect (SHE) in a graphene-substrate system with the presence of an external magnetic field. In the quantum Hall regime, we demonstrate that the in-plane and transverse spin-dependent splittings in the photonic SHE exhibit different quantized behaviors. The quantized SHE can be described as a consequence of a quantized geometric phase (Berry phase), which corresponds to the quantized spin-orbit interaction. Furthermore, an experimental scheme based on quantum weak value amplification is proposed to detect the quantized SHE in the terahertz frequency regime. By incorporating the quantum weak measurement techniques, the quantized photonic SHE holds great promise for detecting quantized Hall conductivity and the Berry phase. These results may bridge the gap between the electronic SHE and photonic SHE in graphene.
Inverse spin Hall effect by spin injection
Liu, S. Y.; Horing, Norman J. M.; Lei, X. L.
2007-09-01
Motivated by a recent experiment [S. O. Valenzuela and M. Tinkham, Nature (London) 442, 176 (2006)], the authors present a quantitative microscopic theory to investigate the inverse spin-Hall effect with spin injection into aluminum considering both intrinsic and extrinsic spin-orbit couplings using the orthogonalized-plane-wave method. Their theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental data. It is also clear that the magnitude of the anomalous Hall resistivity is mainly due to contributions from extrinsic skew scattering.
Anomalous Hall Effect for chiral fermions
Zhang, P -M
2014-01-01
Semiclassical chiral fermions manifest the anomalous spin-Hall effect: when put into a pure electric field, they suffer a side jump, analogous to what happens to their massive counterparts in non-commutative mechanics. The transverse shift is consistent with the conservation of the angular momentum. In a pure magnetic field a cork-screw-like, spiraling motion is found.
Fractional Quantization of the Hall Effect
Laughlin, R. B.
1984-02-27
The Fractional Quantum Hall Effect is caused by the condensation of a two-dimensional electron gas in a strong magnetic field into a new type of macroscopic ground state, the elementary excitations of which are fermions of charge 1/m, where m is an odd integer. A mathematical description is presented.
Towards a Better Understanding of the Anomalous Hall Effect
Yue, Di; Jin, Xiaofeng
2017-01-01
Recent experimental efforts to identify the intrinsic and extrinsic contributions in the anomalous Hall effect are reviewed. Benefited from the experimental control of artificial impurity density in single crystalline magnetic thin films, a comprehensive physical picture of the anomalous Hall effect involving multiple competing scattering processes has been established. Some new insights into the microscopic mechanisms of the anomalous Hall effect are discussed.
Improved Hall-Effect Sensors For Magnetic Memories
Wu, Jiin-Chuan; Stadler, Henry L.; Katti, Romney R.; Chen, Y. C.; Bhattacharya, Pallab K.
1993-01-01
High-electron-mobility sensor films deposited on superlattice buffer (strain) layers. Improved Hall-effect sensors offer combination of adequate response and high speed needed for use in micromagnet/Hall-effect random-access memories. Hall-effect material chosen for use in sensors is InAs.
Destruction of the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect by Disorder
Laughlin, R. B.
1985-07-01
It is suggested that Hall steps in the fractional quantum Hall effect are physically similar to those in the ordinary quantum Hall effect. This proposition leads to a simple scaling diagram containing a new type of fixed point, which is identified with the destruction of the fractional states by disorder. 15 refs., 3 figs.
Geometric Photonic Spin Hall Effect with Metapolarization
2014-01-01
We develop a geometric photonic spin Hall effect (PSHE) which manifests as spin-dependent shift in momentum space. It originates from an effective space-variant Pancharatnam-Berry (PB) phase created by artificially engineering the polarization distribution of the incident light. Unlikely the previously reported PSHE involving the light-matter interaction, the resulting spin-dependent splitting in the geometric PSHE is purely geometrically depend upon the polarization distribution of light whi...
Accurate micro Hall effect measurements on scribe line pads
Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Wang, Fei
2009-01-01
Hall mobility and sheet carrier density are important parameters to monitor in advanced semiconductor production. If micro Hall effect measurements are done on small pads in scribe lines, these parameters may be measured without using valuable test wafers. We report how Hall mobility can...
Quantum anomalous Hall effect in real materials
Zhang, Jiayong; Zhao, Bao; Zhou, Tong; Yang, Zhongqin
2016-11-01
Under a strong magnetic field, the quantum Hall (QH) effect can be observed in two-dimensional electronic gas systems. If the quantized Hall conductivity is acquired in a system without the need of an external magnetic field, then it will give rise to a new quantum state, the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) state. The QAH state is a novel quantum state that is insulating in the bulk but exhibits unique conducting edge states topologically protected from backscattering and holds great potential for applications in low-power-consumption electronics. The realization of the QAH effect in real materials is of great significance. In this paper, we systematically review the theoretical proposals that have been brought forward to realize the QAH effect in various real material systems or structures, including magnetically doped topological insulators, graphene-based systems, silicene-based systems, two-dimensional organometallic frameworks, quantum wells, and functionalized Sb(111) monolayers, etc. Our paper can help our readers to quickly grasp the recent developments in this field. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CB921803), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11574051), the Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai, China (Grant No. 14ZR1403400), and Fudan High-end Computing Center, China.
Generic superweak chaos induced by Hall effect.
Ben-Harush, Moti; Dana, Itzhack
2016-05-01
We introduce and study the "kicked Hall system" (KHS), i.e., charged particles periodically kicked in the presence of uniform magnetic (B) and electric (E) fields that are perpendicular to each other and to the kicking direction. We show that for resonant values of B and E and in the weak-chaos regime of sufficiently small nonintegrability parameter κ (the kicking strength), there exists a generic family of periodic kicking potentials for which the Hall effect from B and E significantly suppresses the weak chaos, replacing it by "superweak" chaos (SWC). This means that the system behaves as if the kicking strength were κ^{2} rather than κ. For E=0, SWC is known to be a classical fingerprint of quantum antiresonance, but it occurs under much less generic conditions, in particular only for very special kicking potentials. Manifestations of SWC are a decrease in the instability of periodic orbits and a narrowing of the chaotic layers, relative to the ordinary weak-chaos case. Also, for global SWC, taking place on an infinite "stochastic web" in phase space, the chaotic diffusion on the web is much slower than the weak-chaos one. Thus, the Hall effect can be relatively stabilizing for small κ. In some special cases, the effect is shown to cause ballistic motion for almost all parameter values. The generic global SWC on stochastic webs in the KHS appears to be the two-dimensional closest analog to the Arnol'd web in higher dimensional systems.
Parallel Hall effect from 3D single-component metamaterials
Kern, Christian; Wegener, Martin
2015-01-01
We propose a class of three-dimensional metamaterial architectures composed of a single doped semiconductor (e.g., n-Si) in air or vacuum that lead to unusual effective behavior of the classical Hall effect. Using an anisotropic structure, we numerically demonstrate a Hall voltage that is parallel---rather than orthogonal---to the external static magnetic-field vector ("parallel Hall effect"). The sign of this parallel Hall voltage can be determined by a structure parameter. Together with the previously demonstrated positive or negative orthogonal Hall voltage, we demonstrate four different sign combinations
A Magnetic Balance with Hall Effect Sensors
Sawada, Hideo; Kunimasu, Tetsuya; Suda, Shinichi; Mizoguti, Yasushi; Okada, Takumi
Magnetic force acting on a model fixed at the center of the JAXA 60cm MSBS was measured with an industry manufactured balance system when MSBS control coil currents were varied. At the same time, magnetic field intensity was also measured with 11 Hall sensors, which were arranged around the MSBS test section. From relations between coil currents and its corresponding controlled magnetic forces, regressive curves were given and maximum deviation from the curves was evaluated. From relations between Hall sensor outputs and the magnetic forces, regressive curves and deviation were also obtained. Obtained results show Hall sensor outputs are much better indexes of balance than the coil currents. The maximum deviations were reduced to a half or one-third times as much as those evaluated using the control coil currents. However, when couples acting on the model are controlled, they are not effective to reduce hysteresis phenomenon in the relation. The deviation can be reduced by decreasing the range of calibration. Then, the error of the balance of the MSBS was reduced to about 1% of the calibration range.
Excitons in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect
Laughlin, R. B.
1984-09-01
Quasiparticles of charge 1/m in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect form excitons, which are collective excitations physically similar to the transverse magnetoplasma oscillations of a Wigner crystal. A variational exciton wavefunction which shows explicitly that the magnetic length is effectively longer for quasiparticles than for electrons is proposed. This wavefunction is used to estimate the dispersion relation of these excitons and the matrix elements to generate them optically out of the ground state. These quantities are then used to describe a type of nonlinear conductivity which may occur in these systems when they are relatively clean.
Composite particle and field theory in atomic quantum Hall effect
Zhao Bo; Chen Zeng-Bing
2005-01-01
In this paper, we explore the composite particle description of the atomic quantum Hall (QH) effect. We further give the Chern-Simon-Gross-Pitaevskii (CSGP) effective theory for the atomic Hall liquid, which is the counterpart of Chern-Simon theory in electron Hall effect. What we obtained is equivalent to the Laughlin wavefunction approach.Our results show that in terms of composite particles, the atomic Hall effect is really the same as the electronic QH effect. The CSGP effective theory would shed new light on the atomic QH effect.
Guterding, Daniel; Jeschke, Harald O.; Valentí, Roser
2016-05-01
Electronic states with non-trivial topology host a number of novel phenomena with potential for revolutionizing information technology. The quantum anomalous Hall effect provides spin-polarized dissipation-free transport of electrons, while the quantum spin Hall effect in combination with superconductivity has been proposed as the basis for realizing decoherence-free quantum computing. We introduce a new strategy for realizing these effects, namely by hole and electron doping kagome lattice Mott insulators through, for instance, chemical substitution. As an example, we apply this new approach to the natural mineral herbertsmithite. We prove the feasibility of the proposed modifications by performing ab-initio density functional theory calculations and demonstrate the occurrence of the predicted effects using realistic models. Our results herald a new family of quantum anomalous Hall and quantum spin Hall insulators at affordable energy/temperature scales based on kagome lattices of transition metal ions.
Guterding, Daniel; Jeschke, Harald O; Valentí, Roser
2016-05-17
Electronic states with non-trivial topology host a number of novel phenomena with potential for revolutionizing information technology. The quantum anomalous Hall effect provides spin-polarized dissipation-free transport of electrons, while the quantum spin Hall effect in combination with superconductivity has been proposed as the basis for realizing decoherence-free quantum computing. We introduce a new strategy for realizing these effects, namely by hole and electron doping kagome lattice Mott insulators through, for instance, chemical substitution. As an example, we apply this new approach to the natural mineral herbertsmithite. We prove the feasibility of the proposed modifications by performing ab-initio density functional theory calculations and demonstrate the occurrence of the predicted effects using realistic models. Our results herald a new family of quantum anomalous Hall and quantum spin Hall insulators at affordable energy/temperature scales based on kagome lattices of transition metal ions.
Guterding, Daniel; Jeschke, Harald O.; Valentí, Roser
2016-01-01
Electronic states with non-trivial topology host a number of novel phenomena with potential for revolutionizing information technology. The quantum anomalous Hall effect provides spin-polarized dissipation-free transport of electrons, while the quantum spin Hall effect in combination with superconductivity has been proposed as the basis for realizing decoherence-free quantum computing. We introduce a new strategy for realizing these effects, namely by hole and electron doping kagome lattice Mott insulators through, for instance, chemical substitution. As an example, we apply this new approach to the natural mineral herbertsmithite. We prove the feasibility of the proposed modifications by performing ab-initio density functional theory calculations and demonstrate the occurrence of the predicted effects using realistic models. Our results herald a new family of quantum anomalous Hall and quantum spin Hall insulators at affordable energy/temperature scales based on kagome lattices of transition metal ions. PMID:27185665
Anomalous Hall Effect in a Kagome Ferromagnet
Ye, Linda; Wicker, Christina; Suzuki, Takehito; Checkelsky, Joseph; Joseph Checkelsky Team
The ferromagnetic kagome lattice is theoretically known to possess topological band structures. We have synthesized large single crystals of a kagome ferromagnet Fe3Sn2 which orders ferromagnetically well above room temperature. We have studied the electrical and magnetic properties of these crystals over a broad temperature and magnetic field range. Both the scaling relation of anomalous Hall effect and anisotropic magnetic susceptibility show that the ferromagnetism of Fe3Sn2 is unconventional. We discuss these results in the context of magnetism in kagome systems and relevance to the predicted topological properties in this class of compounds. This research is supported by DMR-1231319.
Commemorative Symposium on the Hall Effect and its Applications
Westgate, C
1980-01-01
In 1879, while a graduate student under Henry Rowland at the Physics Department of The Johns Hopkins University, Edwin Herbert Hall discovered what is now universally known as the Hall effect. A symposium was held at The Johns Hopkins University on November 13, 1979 to commemorate the lOOth anniversary of the discovery. Over 170 participants attended the symposium which included eleven in vited lectures and three speeches during the luncheon. During the past one hundred years, we have witnessed ever ex panding activities in the field of the Hall effect. The Hall effect is now an indispensable tool in the studies of many branches of condensed matter physics, especially in metals, semiconductors, and magnetic solids. Various components (over 200 million!) that utilize the Hall effect have been successfully incorporated into such devices as keyboards, automobile ignitions, gaussmeters, and satellites. This volume attempts to capture the important aspects of the Hall effect and its applications. It includes t...
MAGNETORESISTANCE AND HALL EFFECT IN SINGLE CRYSTALS OF ALUMINUM
ALUMINUM, *SINGLE CRYSTALS, CRYSTALS, HALL EFFECT , IMPURITIES, LOW PRESSURE, MAGNETIC FIELDS, MAGNETIC PROPERTIES, PARTICLE TRAJECTORIES, ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE, SOLID STATE PHYSICS, SURFACE PROPERTIES.
Inertial-Hall effect: the influence of rotation on the Hall conductivity
Brandão, Julio E.; Moraes, F.; Cunha, M. M.; Lima, Jonas R. F.; Filgueiras, C.
Inertial effects play an important role in classical mechanics but have been largely overlooked in quantum mechanics. Nevertheless, the analogy between inertial forces on mass particles and electromagnetic forces on charged particles is not new. In this paper, we consider a rotating non-interacting planar two-dimensional electron gas with a perpendicular uniform magnetic field and investigate the effects of the rotation in the Hall conductivity. The rotation introduces a shift and a split in the Landau levels. As a consequence of the break of the degeneracy, the counting of the states fully occupied below the Fermi energy increases, tuning the Hall quantization steps. The rotation also changes the quantum Hall plateau widths. Additionally, we find the Hall quantization steps as a function of rotation at a fixed value of the magnetic field.
Inertial-Hall effect: the influence of rotation on the Hall conductivity
Julio E. Brandão
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Inertial effects play an important role in classical mechanics but have been largely overlooked in quantum mechanics. Nevertheless, the analogy between inertial forces on mass particles and electromagnetic forces on charged particles is not new. In this paper, we consider a rotating non-interacting planar two-dimensional electron gas with a perpendicular uniform magnetic field and investigate the effects of the rotation in the Hall conductivity. The rotation introduces a shift and a split in the Landau levels. As a consequence of the break of the degeneracy, the counting of the states fully occupied below the Fermi energy increases, tuning the Hall quantization steps. The rotation also changes the quantum Hall plateau widths. Additionally, we find the Hall quantization steps as a function of rotation at a fixed value of the magnetic field.
Estimates of Quantities in a Hall Effect Geodynamo Theory
Annraoi M de Paor
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Currents, resistances, dynamo constant, Hall voltage coefficient and inductances are estimated for the author’s geodynamo theory incorporating the Hall Effect. It is concluded that the Hall Coefficient in the bulk liquid core of the Earth is approximately 1.512x10-1, orders of magnitude greater than in normal liquid metals. The ordering effect of enormous pressure is a possible cause.
Estimates of quantities in a Hall effect geodynamo theory
Annraoi M de Paor
2008-01-01
Currents, resistances, dynamo constant, Hall voltage coefficient and inductances are estimated for the author’s geodynamo theory incorporating the Hall Effect. It is concluded that the Hall Coefficient in the bulk liquid core of the Earth is approximately 1.512x10-1, orders of magnitude greater than in normal liquid metals. The ordering effect of enormous pressure is a possible cause.
Magnetic Field Effects on the Plume of a Diverging Cusped-Field Thruster
Matlock, Taylor
2010-07-25
The Diverging Cusped-Field Thruster (DCFT) uses three permanent ring magnets of alternating polarity to create a unique magnetic topology intended to reduce plasma losses to the discharge chamber surfaces. The magnetic field strength within the DCFT discharge chamber (up to 4 kG on axis) is much higher than in thrusters of similar geometry, which is believed to be a driving factor in the high measured anode efficiencies. The field strength in the near plume region is large as well, which may bear on the high beam divergences measured, with peaks in ion current found at angles of around 30-35 from the thruster axis. Characterization of the DCFT has heretofore involved only one magnetic topology. It is then the purpose of this study to investigate changes to the near-field plume caused by altering the shape and strength of the magnetic field. A thick magnetic collar, encircling the thruster body, is used to lower the field strength outside of the discharge chamber and thus lessen any effects caused by the external field. Changes in the thruster plume with field topology are monitored by the use of normal Langmuir and emissive probes interrogating the near-field plasma. Results are related to other observations that suggest a unified conceptual framework for the important near-exit region of the thruster.
Laughlin's argument for the quantized thermal Hall effect
Nakai, Ryota; Nomura, Kentaro
2016-01-01
We extend Laughlin's magnetic-flux-threading argument to the quantized thermal Hall effect. A proper analogue of Laughlin's adiabatic magnetic-flux threading process for the case of the thermal Hall effect is given in terms of an external gravitational field. From the perspective of the edge theories of quantum Hall systems, the quantized thermal Hall effect is closely tied to the breakdown of large diffeomorphism invariance, that is, a global gravitational anomaly. In addition, we also give an argument from the bulk perspective in which a free energy, decomposed into its Fourier modes, is adiabatically transferred under an adiabatic process involving external gravitational perturbations.
Owerre, S. A.
2016-07-01
Quite recently, the magnon Hall effect of spin excitations has been observed experimentally on the kagome and pyrochlore lattices. The thermal Hall conductivity κxy changes sign as a function of magnetic field or temperature on the kagome lattice, and κxy changes sign upon reversing the sign of the magnetic field on the pyrochlore lattice. Motivated by these recent exciting experimental observations, we theoretically propose a simple realization of the magnon Hall effect in a two-band model on the honeycomb lattice. The magnon Hall effect of spin excitations arises in the usual way via the breaking of inversion symmetry of the lattice, however, by a next-nearest-neighbour Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction. We find that κxy has a fixed sign for all parameter regimes considered. These results are in contrast to the Lieb, kagome, and pyrochlore lattices. We further show that the low-temperature dependence on the magnon Hall conductivity follows a T2 law, as opposed to the kagome and pyrochlore lattices. These results suggest an experimental procedure to measure thermal Hall conductivity within a class of 2D honeycomb quantum magnets and ultracold atoms trapped in a honeycomb optical lattice.
Quantized Anomalous Hall Effect in Magnetic Topological Insulators
YU Rui
2011-01-01
@@ The Hall effect, the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) and the spin Hall effect are fundamental transport processes in solids arising from the Lorentz force and the spin-orbit coupling respectively.The AHE, in which a voltage transverse to the electric current appears even in the absence of an external magnetic field, was first detected in ferromagnetic (FM) metals in 1881 and later found to arise from the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) between the current and magnetic moments.Recent progress on the mechanism of AHE has established a link between the AHE and the topological nature of the Hall current by adopting the Berry-phase concepts in close analogy to the intrinsic spin Hall effect.Given the experimental discovery of the quantum Hall and the quantum spin Hall effects, it is natural to ask whether the AHE can also be quantized.In a quantized anomalous Hall (QAH) insulator, spontaneous magnetic moments and spin-orbit coupling combine to give rise to a topologically non-trivial electronic structure, leading to the quantized Hall effect without any external magnetic field.
Global model of an iodine gridded plasma thruster
Grondein, P.; Lafleur, T.; Chabert, P.; Aanesland, A.
2016-03-01
Most state-of-the-art electric space propulsion systems such as gridded and Hall effect thrusters use xenon as the propellant gas. However, xenon is very rare, expensive to produce, and used in a number of competing industrial applications. Alternatives to xenon are currently being investigated, and iodine has emerged as a potential candidate. Its lower cost and larger availability, its solid state at standard temperature and pressure, its low vapour pressure and its low ionization potential make it an attractive option. In this work, we compare the performances of a gridded ion thruster operating separately with iodine and xenon, under otherwise identical conditions using a global model. The thruster discharge properties such as neutral, ion, and electron densities and electron temperature are calculated, as well as the thruster performance parameters such as thrust, specific impulse, and system efficiencies. For similar operating conditions, representative of realistic thrusters, the model predicts similar thrust levels and performances for both iodine and xenon. The thruster efficiency is however slightly higher for iodine compared with xenon, due to its lower ionization potential. This demonstrates that iodine could be a viable alternative propellant for gridded plasma thrusters.
Intrinsic valley Hall effect in graphene
Yang, Mou; Zhang, Wen-Lian; Liu, Hai; Bai, Yan-Kui
2017-04-01
If electrons are incident from an armchair graphene ribbon into the bulk graphene region, the electronic diffraction occurs. Because of the different triangular wrapping of the energy dispersion between valleys K and K ‧ , the electrons of valley K tend to be diffracted to one side and those of valley K ‧ to the other side. When the current is injected from the armchair ribbon of a four-terminal graphene device, the major portion of the incident current of valley K flows through one side arm and the minor portion through the other side arm. The ratio between them is derived to be 1 + 4 E / 3 in the low energy limit, where E is the energy in units of hopping parameter. The major arm for valley K is the minor arm for valley K ‧ . This results in the rise of the valley Hall effect, which is an intrinsic property of graphene stemming from the different electronic structure of the two valleys. The valley Hall conductance is calculated to be (2 E / 3)G0 with G0 being the conductance supported by the injection ribbon.
Photonic spin Hall effect in topological insulators
Zhou, Xinxing; Ling, Xiaohui; Chen, Shizhen; Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun
2013-01-01
In this paper we theoretically investigate the photonic spin Hall effect (SHE) of a Gaussian beam reflected from the interface between air and topological insulators (TIs). The photonic SHE is attributed to spin-orbit coupling and manifests itself as in-plane and transverse spin-dependent splitting. We reveal that the spin-orbit coupling effect in TIs can be routed by adjusting the axion angle variations. Unlike the transverse spin-dependent splitting, we find that the in-plane one is sensitive to the axion angle. It is shown that the polarization structure in magneto-optical Kerr effect is significantly altered due to the spin-dependent splitting in photonic SHE. We theoretically propose a weak measurement method to determine the strength of axion coupling by probing the in-plane splitting of photonic SHE.
Hall effect in strongly correlated low dimensional systems
Leon Suros, Gladys Eliana; Berthod, Christophe; Giamarchi, Thierry
2006-01-01
We investigate the Hall effect in a quasi one-dimensional system made of weakly coupled Luttinger Liquids at half filling. Using a memory function approach, we compute the Hall coefficient as a function of temperature and frequency in the presence of umklapp scattering. We find a power-law correction to the free-fermion value (band value), with an exponent depending on the Luttinger parameter $K_{\\rho}$. At high enough temperature or frequency the Hall coefficient approaches the band value.
Quantized Thermal Transport in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect
Kane, C. L.; Fisher, Matthew P. A.
1996-01-01
We analyze thermal transport in the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE), employing a Luttinger liquid model of edge states. Impurity mediated inter-channel scattering events are incorporated in a hydrodynamic description of heat and charge transport. The thermal Hall conductance, $K_H$, is shown to provide a new and universal characterization of the FQHE state, and reveals non-trivial information about the edge structure. The Lorenz ratio between thermal and electrical Hall conductances {\\i...
Geometric spin Hall effect of light with inhomogeneous polarization
Ling, Xiaohui; Zhou, Xinxing; Yi, Xunong
2017-01-01
The spin Hall effect of light originates from spin-orbit interaction of light, which manifests two types of geometric phases. In this paper, we report the observation of a geometric spin Hall effect by generating a light beam with inhomogeneous polarization distribution. Unlike the previously reported geometric spin Hall effect observed in a tilted beam-detector system, which is believed to result from an effective spin-redirection Berry geometric phase, the geometric spin Hall effect demonstrated here is attributed to an effective, spatially varying Pancharatnam-Berry geometric phase generated by the inhomogeneous polarization geometry. Our further experiments show that the geometric spin Hall effect can be tuned by tailoring the polarization geometry of light, demonstrating the spin states of photons can be steered with a great flexibility.
Geometric Photonic Spin Hall Effect with Metapolarization
Ling, Xiaohui; Yi, Xunong; Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun
2014-01-01
We develop a geometric photonic spin Hall effect (PSHE) which manifests as spin-dependent shift in momentum space. It originates from an effective space-variant Pancharatnam-Berry (PB) phase created by artificially engineering the polarization distribution of the incident light. Unlikely the previously reported PSHE involving the light-matter interaction, the resulting spin-dependent splitting in the geometric PSHE is purely geometrically depend upon the polarization distribution of light which can be tailored by assembling its circular polarization basis with suitably magnitude and phase. This metapolarization idea enables us to manipulate the geometric PSHE by suitably tailoring the polarization geometry of light. Our scheme provides great flexibility in the design of various polarization geometry and polarization-dependent application, and can be extrapolated to other physical system, such as electron beam or atom beam, with the similar spin-orbit coupling underlying.
Gauge Physics of Spin Hall Effect
Tan, Seng Ghee; Jalil, Mansoor B. A.; Ho, Cong Son; Siu, Zhuobin; Murakami, Shuichi
2015-12-01
Spin Hall effect (SHE) has been discussed in the context of Kubo formulation, geometric physics, spin orbit force, and numerous semi-classical treatments. It can be confusing if the different pictures have partial or overlapping claims of contribution to the SHE. In this article, we present a gauge-theoretic, time-momentum elucidation, which provides a general SHE equation of motion, that unifies under one theoretical framework, all contributions of SHE conductivity due to the kinetic, the spin orbit force (Yang-Mills), and the geometric (Murakami-Fujita) effects. Our work puts right an ambiguity surrounding previously partial treatments involving the Kubo, semiclassical, Berry curvatures, or the spin orbit force. Our full treatment shows the Rashba 2DEG SHE conductivity to be instead of -, and Rashba heavy hole instead of -. This renewed treatment suggests a need to re-derive and re-calculate previously studied SHE conductivity.
Useful Pedagogical Applications of the Classical Hall Effect
Houari, Ahmed
2007-01-01
One of the most known phenomena in physics is the Hall effect. This is mainly due to its simplicity and to the wide range of its theoretical and practical applications. To complete the pedagogical utility of the Hall effect in physics teaching, I will apply it here to determine the Faraday constant as a fundamental physical number and the number…
Bulk Versus Edge in the Quantum Hall Effect
Kao, Y. -C.; Lee, D.-H.
1996-01-01
The manifestation of the bulk quantum Hall effect on edge is the chiral anomaly. The chiral anomaly {\\it is} the underlying principle of the ``edge approach'' of quantum Hall effect. In that approach, $\\sxy$ should not be taken as the conductance derived from the space-local current-current correlation function of the pure one-dimensional edge problem.
In-plane magnetization-induced quantum anomalous Hall effect.
Liu, Xin; Hsu, Hsiu-Chuan; Liu, Chao-Xing
2013-08-23
The quantum Hall effect can only be induced by an out-of-plane magnetic field for two-dimensional electron gases, and similarly, the quantum anomalous Hall effect has also usually been considered for systems with only out-of-plane magnetization. In the present work, we predict that the quantum anomalous Hall effect can be induced by in-plane magnetization that is not accompanied by any out-of-plane magnetic field. Two realistic two-dimensional systems, Bi2Te3 thin film with magnetic doping and HgMnTe quantum wells with shear strains, are presented and the general condition for the in-plane magnetization-induced quantum anomalous Hall effect is discussed based on the symmetry analysis. Nonetheless, an experimental setup is proposed to confirm this effect, the observation of which will pave the way to search for the quantum anomalous Hall effect in a wider range of materials.
Mesoscopic spin Hall effect in semiconductor nanostructures
Zarbo, Liviu
The spin Hall effect (SHE) is a name given to a collection of diverse phenomena which share two principal features: (i) longitudinal electric current flowing through a paramagnetic semiconductor or metallic sample leads to transverse spin current and spin accumulation of opposite sign at opposing lateral edges; (ii) SHE does not require externally applied magnetic field or magnetic ordering in the equilibrium state of the sample, instead it relies on the presence of spin-orbit (SO) couplings within the sample. This thesis elaborates on a new type of phenomenon within the SHE family, predicted in our recent studies [Phys. Rev. B 72, 075361 (2005); Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 046601 (2005); Phys. Rev. B 72, 075335 (2005); Phys. Rev. B 73 , 075303 (2006); and Europhys. Lett. 77, 47004 (2007)], where pure spin current flows through the transverse electrodes attached to a clean finitesize two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) due to unpolarized charge current injected through its longitudinal leads. If transverse leads are removed, the effect manifests as nonequilibrium spin Hall accumulation at the lateral edges of 2DEG wires. The SO coupling driving this SHE effect is of the Rashba type, which arises due to structural inversion asymmetry of semiconductor heterostructure hosting the 2DEG. We term the effect "mesoscopic" because the spin Hall currents and accumulations reach optimal value in samples of the size of the spin precession length---the distance over which the spin of an electron precesses by an angle pi. In strongly SO-coupled structures this scale is of the order of ˜100 nm, and, therefore, mesoscopic in the sense of being much larger than the characteristic microscopic scales (such as the Fermi wavelength, screening length, or the mean free path in disordered systems), but still much smaller than the macroscopic ones. Although the first theoretical proposal for SHE, driven by asymmetry in SO-dependent scattering of spin-up and spin-down electrons off impurities
Antiferromagnetic skyrmion crystals: Generation, topological Hall, and topological spin Hall effect
Göbel, Börge; Mook, Alexander; Henk, Jürgen; Mertig, Ingrid
2017-08-01
Skyrmions are topologically nontrivial, magnetic quasiparticles that are characterized by a topological charge. A regular array of skyrmions, a skyrmion crystal (SkX), features the topological Hall effect (THE) of electrons, which, in turn, gives rise to the Hall effect of the skyrmions themselves. It is commonly believed that antiferromagnetic skyrmion crystals (AFM-SkXs) lack both effects. In this Rapid Communication, we present a generally applicable method to create stable AFM-SkXs by growing a two-sublattice SkX onto a collinear antiferromagnet. As an example we show that both types of skyrmion crystals, conventional and antiferromagnetic, exist in honeycomb lattices. While AFM-SkXs with equivalent lattice sites do not show a THE, they exhibit a topological spin Hall effect. On top of this, AFM-SkXs on inequivalent sublattices exhibit a nonzero THE, which may be utilized in spintronics devices. Our theoretical findings call for experimental realization.
Formulation of the Relativistic Quantum Hall Effect and "Parity Anomaly"
Yonaga, Kouki; Shibata, Naokazu
2016-01-01
We present a relativistic formulation of the quantum Hall effect on a Riemann sphere. An explicit form of the pseudopotential is derived for the relativistic quantum Hall effect with/without mass term.We clarify particular features of the relativistic quantum Hall states with use of the exact diagonalization study of the pseudopotential Hamiltonian. Physical effects of the mass term to relativistic quantum Hall states are investigated in detail.The mass term acts as an interporating parameter between the relativistic and non-relativistic quantum Hall effects. It is pointed out that the mass term inequivalently affects to many-body physics of the positive and negative Landau levels and brings instability of the Laughlin state of the positive first relativistic Landau level as a consequence of the "parity anomaly".
Gerhardts, Rolf R.
2017-01-01
Recent low-temperature scanning-force-microscopy experiments on narrow Hall bars, under the conditions of the integer quantum Hall effect (IQHE) and its breakdown, have revealed an interesting position dependence of the Hall potential, which changes drastically with the applied magnetic field and the strength of the imposed current through the sample. The present paper shows, that inclusion of Joule heating into an existing self-consistent theory of screening and magneto-transport, which assumes translation invariant Hall bars with a homogeneous background charge due to doping, can explain the experimental results on the breakdown of the IQHE in the so called edge-dominated regime.
Kim, Sang-Il; Seo, Min-Su; Park, Seung-Young, E-mail: parksy@kbsi.re.kr [Division of Materials Science, Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong-Jun; Park, Byong-Guk [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)
2015-05-07
The dependence of the measured DC voltage on the non-magnetic material (NM) in NM/CoFeB and CoFeB/NM bilayers is studied under ferromagnetic resonance conditions in a TE{sub 011} resonant cavity. The directional change of the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) voltage V{sub ISHE} for the stacking order of the bilayer can separate the pure V{sub ISHE} and the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) voltage V{sub AHE} utilizing the method of addition and subtraction. The Ta and Ti NMs show a broad deviation of the spin Hall angle θ{sub ISH}, which originates from the AHE in accordance with the high resistivity of NMs. However, the Pt and Pd NMs show that the kinds of NMs with low resistivity are consistent with the previously reported θ{sub ISH} values. Therefore, the characteristics that NM should simultaneously satisfy to obtain a reasonable V{sub ISHE} value in bilayer systems are large θ{sub ISH} and low resistivity.
Dissipationless spin-Hall current contribution in the extrinsic spin-Hall effect
Yan Yu-Zhen; Li Hui-Wu; Hu Liang-Bin
2009-01-01
This paper shows that a substantial amount of dissipationless spin-Hall current contribution may exist in the extrinsic spin-Hall effect, which originates from the spin-orbit coupling induced by the applied external electric field itself that drives the extrinsic spin-Hall effect in a nonmagnetic semiconductor (or metal). By assuming that the impurity density is in a moderate range such that the total scattering potential due to all randomly distributed impurities is a smooth function of the space coordinate, it is shown that this dissipationless contribution shall be of the same orders of magnitude as the usual extrinsic contribution from spin-orbit dependent impurity scatterings (or may even be larger than the latter one). The theoretical results obtained are in good agreement with recent relevant experimental results.
Piezo Voltage Controlled Planar Hall Effect Devices
Bao Zhang; Kang-Kang Meng; Mei-Yin Yang; Edmonds, K. W.; Hao Zhang; Kai-Ming Cai; Yu Sheng; Nan Zhang; Yang Ji; Jian-Hua Zhao; Hou-Zhi Zheng; Kai-You Wang
2015-01-01
The electrical control of the magnetization switching in ferromagnets is highly desired for future spintronic applications. Here we report on hybrid piezoelectric (PZT)/ferromagnetic (Co2FeAl) devices in which the planar Hall voltage in the ferromagnetic layer is tuned solely by piezo voltages. The change of planar Hall voltage is associated with magnetization switching through 90° in the plane under piezo voltages. Room temperature magnetic NOT and NOR gates are demonstrated based on the pie...
Topological insulator in junction with ferromagnets: Quantum Hall effects
Chudnovskiy, A. L.; Kagalovsky, V.
2015-06-01
The ferromagnet-topological insulator-ferromagnet (FM-TI-FM) junction exhibits thermal and electrical quantum Hall effects. The generated Hall voltage and transverse temperature gradient can be controlled by the directions of magnetizations in the FM leads, which inspires the use of FM-TI-FM junctions as electrical and as heat switches in spintronic devices. Thermal and electrical Hall coefficients are calculated as functions of the magnetization directions in ferromagnets and the spin-relaxation time in TI. Both the Hall voltage and the transverse temperature gradient decrease but are not completely suppressed even at very short spin-relaxation times. The Hall coefficients turn out to be independent of the spin-relaxation time for symmetric configuration of FM leads.
Quantum Hall effect in kagome lattices under staggered magnetic field
Zhang Zhiyong, E-mail: zyzhang@nju.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)
2011-10-26
The interplay of staggered magnetic field (SMF) and uniform magnetic field (UMF) on the quantum Hall effect (QHE) in kagome lattices is investigated in the weak UMF limit. The topological band gaps coming from SMF are robust against UMF although the extended bands split into a series of Landau levels. With SMF applied, in the unconventional QHE region, one plateau of Hall conductance becomes wider and the others are compressed. Meanwhile, one of the two series of integer Hall plateaus splits and the resulting two series of Hall plateaus still exhibit the integer behavior. The Hall conductance varies with SMF step by step with the step height being e{sup 2}/h or 2e{sup 2}/h according to the QHE being conventional or unconventional. In the transitional regions, redistribution of Chern numbers happens even in the weak UMF limit. (paper)
Unconventional quantum Hall effect in Floquet topological insulators
Tahir, M.
2016-07-27
We study an unconventional quantum Hall effect for the surface states of ultrathin Floquet topological insulators in a perpendicular magnetic field. The resulting band structure is modified by photon dressing and the topological property is governed by the low-energy dynamics of a single surface. An exchange of symmetric and antisymmetric surface states occurs by reversing the lights polarization. We find a novel quantum Hall state in which the zeroth Landau level undergoes a phase transition from a trivial insulator state, with Hall conductivity αyx = 0 at zero Fermi energy, to a Hall insulator state with αyx = e2/2h. These findings open new possibilities for experimentally realizing nontrivial quantum states and unusual quantum Hall plateaus at (±1/2,±3/2,±5/2, ...)e2/h. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd Printed in the UK.
Unconventional quantum Hall effect in Floquet topological insulators.
Tahir, M; Vasilopoulos, P; Schwingenschlögl, U
2016-09-28
We study an unconventional quantum Hall effect for the surface states of ultrathin Floquet topological insulators in a perpendicular magnetic field. The resulting band structure is modified by photon dressing and the topological property is governed by the low-energy dynamics of a single surface. An exchange of symmetric and antisymmetric surface states occurs by reversing the light's polarization. We find a novel quantum Hall state in which the zeroth Landau level undergoes a phase transition from a trivial insulator state, with Hall conductivity [Formula: see text] at zero Fermi energy, to a Hall insulator state with [Formula: see text]. These findings open new possibilities for experimentally realizing nontrivial quantum states and unusual quantum Hall plateaus at [Formula: see text].
Composed planar Hall effect sensors with dual-mode operation
Vladislav Mor; Debangsu Roy; Moty Schultz; Lior Klein
2016-01-01
We present a composed planar Hall effect sensor with two modes of operation: (a) an ON mode where the composed sensor responds to magnetic field excitations similarly to the response of a regular planar Hall effect sensor, and (b) an OFF mode where the response is negligible. The composed planar Hall effect sensor switches from the OFF mode to the ON mode when it is exposed to a magnetic field which exceeds a certain threshold determined by the sensor design. The features of this sensor make ...
Quantized Anomalous Hall Effect in Magnetic Topological Insulators
YU Rui
2011-01-01
The Hall effect, the anomalous Hall effect （AHE） and the spin Hall effect are thndamental transport processes in solids arising from the Lorentz force and the spin-orbit coupling respectively. The AHE, in which a voltage transverse to the electric current appears even in the absence of an external magnetic field, was first detected in ferromagnetic （FM） metals in 1881 and later found to arise from the spin-orbit coupling （SOC） between the current and magnetic moments.
Fractional quantum Hall effect in the absence of Landau levels.
Sheng, D N; Gu, Zheng-Cheng; Sun, Kai; Sheng, L
2011-07-12
It is well known that the topological phenomena with fractional excitations, the fractional quantum Hall effect, will emerge when electrons move in Landau levels. Here we show the theoretical discovery of the fractional quantum Hall effect in the absence of Landau levels in an interacting fermion model. The non-interacting part of our Hamiltonian is the recently proposed topologically non-trivial flat-band model on a checkerboard lattice. In the presence of nearest-neighbouring repulsion, we find that at 1/3 filling, the Fermi-liquid state is unstable towards the fractional quantum Hall effect. At 1/5 filling, however, a next-nearest-neighbouring repulsion is needed for the occurrence of the 1/5 fractional quantum Hall effect when nearest-neighbouring repulsion is not too strong. We demonstrate the characteristic features of these novel states and determine the corresponding phase diagram.
Hall effect in CNT doped YBCO high temperature superconductor
S Dadras
2010-09-01
Full Text Available In order to study Hall effect in pure and CNT doped YBCO polycrystalline samples, we have measured longitudinal and transverse voltages at the different magnetic field (0-9T in the vortex state. We found a sign reversal for pure sample near 3T and double sign reversal of the Hall coefficient for CNT doped sample near 3 and 5T. It can be deduced that CNT doping caused strong flux pinning and Hall double sign reversal in this compound.
Phonon Hall Effect in Four-Terminal Junctions
Zhang, Lifa; Wang, Jian-Sheng; Li, Baowen
2009-01-01
Using an exact nonequilibrium Green's function formulism, the phonon Hall effect for paramagnetic dielectrics is studied in a four-terminal device setting. The temperature difference in the transverse direction of the heat current is calculated for two-dimensional models with the magnetic field perpendicular to the plane. We find a surprising result that the square lattice does not have the phonon Hall effect while a honeycomb lattice has. This can be explained by symmetry. The temperature di...
Chern-Simons Dynamics and the Quantum Hall Effect
Balachandran, A P
1991-01-01
Theoretical developments during the past several years have shown that large scale properties of the Quantum Hall system can be successfully described by effective field theories which use the Chern-Simons interaction. In this article, we first recall certain salient features of the Quantum Hall Effect and their microscopic explanation. We then review one particular approach to their description based on the Chern-Simons Lagrangian and its variants.
Valleytronics. The valley Hall effect in MoS₂ transistors.
Mak, K F; McGill, K L; Park, J; McEuen, P L
2014-06-27
Electrons in two-dimensional crystals with a honeycomb lattice structure possess a valley degree of freedom (DOF) in addition to charge and spin. These systems are predicted to exhibit an anomalous Hall effect whose sign depends on the valley index. Here, we report the observation of this so-called valley Hall effect (VHE). Monolayer MoS2 transistors are illuminated with circularly polarized light, which preferentially excites electrons into a specific valley, causing a finite anomalous Hall voltage whose sign is controlled by the helicity of the light. No anomalous Hall effect is observed in bilayer devices, which have crystal inversion symmetry. Our observation of the VHE opens up new possibilities for using the valley DOF as an information carrier in next-generation electronics and optoelectronics.
Hybrid-PIC simulation of Hall thruster plume shield on GEO satellites%GEO卫星霍尔推力器羽流防护结构混合PIC模拟
刘辉; 罗晓明; 温正; 王珏; 于达仁
2016-01-01
The plume of the Hall thruster has negative effects on cover glasses of the solar panel which have high light transmission.Therefore,it is necessary to design some protective structures for solar array. Firstly, some related works were reviewed. Then, two different protection schemes were simulated using hybrid-PIC for a GEO satellite equipped with a SPT100.Finally,the advantages and disadvantages of the two schemes were analyzed and some valuable suggestions were proposed.The output power of solar array will be decreased if they are polluted.%霍尔推力器应用于GEO卫星时,羽流会对太阳能翼板表面高透光玻璃盖片产生一定的影响,导致太阳能电池整体输入功率降低.因此,有必要针对羽流的影响对翼板表面进行一定的防护.在对目前国内外羽流安全性评估及防护方面的工作进行一定调研的基础上,针对SPT100应用于典型的GEO轨道卫星时的情况,利用SPIS软件运用混合单元粒子(PIC)方法模拟了两种可能的太阳能翼板羽流防护方案,并分析比较了每种方案的优缺点及防护效果,为推力器在轨飞行时的羽流防护提供一定的借鉴.
The spin Hall effect in a quantum gas.
Beeler, M C; Williams, R A; Jiménez-García, K; LeBlanc, L J; Perry, A R; Spielman, I B
2013-06-13
Electronic properties such as current flow are generally independent of the electron's spin angular momentum, an internal degree of freedom possessed by quantum particles. The spin Hall effect, first proposed 40 years ago, is an unusual class of phenomena in which flowing particles experience orthogonally directed, spin-dependent forces--analogous to the conventional Lorentz force that gives the Hall effect, but opposite in sign for two spin states. Spin Hall effects have been observed for electrons flowing in spin-orbit-coupled materials such as GaAs and InGaAs (refs 2, 3) and for laser light traversing dielectric junctions. Here we observe the spin Hall effect in a quantum-degenerate Bose gas, and use the resulting spin-dependent Lorentz forces to realize a cold-atom spin transistor. By engineering a spatially inhomogeneous spin-orbit coupling field for our quantum gas, we explicitly introduce and measure the requisite spin-dependent Lorentz forces, finding them to be in excellent agreement with our calculations. This 'atomtronic' transistor behaves as a type of velocity-insensitive adiabatic spin selector, with potential application in devices such as magnetic or inertial sensors. In addition, such techniques for creating and measuring the spin Hall effect are clear prerequisites for engineering topological insulators and detecting their associated quantized spin Hall effects in quantum gases. As implemented, our system realizes a laser-actuated analogue to the archetypal semiconductor spintronic device, the Datta-Das spin transistor.
Anisotropic intrinsic spin Hall effect in quantum wires.
Cummings, A W; Akis, R; Ferry, D K
2011-11-23
We use numerical simulations to investigate the spin Hall effect in quantum wires in the presence of both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling. We find that the intrinsic spin Hall effect is highly anisotropic with respect to the orientation of the wire, and that the nature of this anisotropy depends strongly on the electron density and the relative strengths of the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings. In particular, at low densities, when only one subband of the quantum wire is occupied, the spin Hall effect is strongest for electron momentum along the [N110] axis, which is the opposite of what is expected for the purely 2D case. In addition, when more than one subband is occupied, the strength and anisotropy of the spin Hall effect can vary greatly over relatively small changes in electron density, which makes it difficult to predict which wire orientation will maximize the strength of the spin Hall effect. These results help to illuminate the role of quantum confinement in spin-orbit-coupled systems, and can serve as a guide for future experimental work on the use of quantum wires for spin-Hall-based spintronic applications.
Experimental Demonstration of Microwave Signal/Electric Thruster Plasma Interaction Effects
Zaman, Afroz J.; Lambert, Kevin M.; Curran, Frank M.
1995-01-01
An experiment was designed and conducted in the Electric Propulsion Laboratory of NASA Lewis Research Center to assess the impact of ion thruster exhaust plasma plume on electromagnetic signal propagation. A microwave transmission experiment was set up inside the propulsion test bed using a pair of broadband horn antennas and a 30 cm 2.3 kW ion thruster. Frequency of signal propagation covered from 6.5 to 18 GHz range. The stainless steel test bed when enclosed can be depressurized to simulate a near vacuum environment. A pulsed CW system with gating hardware was utilized to eliminate multiple chamber reflections from the test signal. Microwave signal was transmitted and received between the two hours when the thruster was operating at a given power level in such a way that the signal propagation path crossed directly through the plume volume. Signal attenuation and phase shift due to the plume was measured for the entire frequency band. Results for this worst case configuration simulation indicate that the effects of the ion thruster plume on microwave signals is a negligible attenuation (within 0.15 dB) and a small phase shift (within 8 deg.). This paper describes the detailed experiment and presents some of the results.
A collisionless plasma thruster plume expansion model
Merino, Mario; Cichocki, Filippo; Ahedo, Eduardo
2015-06-01
A two-fluid model of the unmagnetized, collisionless far region expansion of the plasma plume for gridded ion thrusters and Hall effect thrusters is presented. The model is integrated into two semi-analytical solutions valid in the hypersonic case. These solutions are discussed and compared against the results from the (exact) method of characteristics; the relative errors in density and velocity increase slowly axially and radially and are of the order of 10-2-10-3 in the cases studied. The plasma density, ion flux and ambipolar electric field are investigated. A sensitivity analysis of the problem parameters and initial conditions is carried out in order to characterize the far plume divergence angle in the range of interest for space electric propulsion. A qualitative discussion of the physics of the secondary plasma plume is also provided.
The quantum Hall's effect:A quantum electrodynamic phenomenon
A.I. Arbab
2012-01-01
We have applied Maxwell's equations to study the physics of quantum Hall's effect.The electromagnetic properties of this system are obtained.The Hall's voltage,VH =2πh2ns/e rn,where ns is the electron number density,for a 2-dimensional system,and h =2πh is the Planck's constant,is found to coincide with the voltage drop across the quantum capacitor.Consideration of the cyclotronic motion of electrons is found to give rise to Hall's resistance.Ohmic resistances in the horizontal and vertical directions have been found to exist before equilibrium state is reached.At a fundamental level,the Hall's effect is found to be equivalent to a resonant LCR circuit with LH =2π m/e2ns and CH =me2/2πh2ns satisfying the resonance condition with resonant frequency equal to the inverse of the scattering (relaxation) time,Ts.The Hall's resistance is found to be RH =√LH/CH.The Hall's resistance may be connected with the impedance that the electron wave experiences when it propagates in the 2-dimeasional gas.
The BMDO Thruster-on-a-Pallet Program
Caveny, Leonard H.; Curran, Francis M.; Sankovic, John M.; Allen, Douglas M.; Brophy, John R.; Garner, Charles
1995-01-01
The Ballistic Missile Defense Organization sponsors an aggressive program to develop and demonstrate electric propulsion and space power technologies for future missions. This program supports a focused effort to design, fabricate, and space qualify a Russian Hall thruster system-on-a-pallet ready to take advantage of a near-term flight opportunity. The Russian Hall Effect Thruster Technology (RHETT) program will demonstrate an integrated pallet design in late FY95. The program also includes a parallel effort to develop advanced Solar Concentrator Arrays with Refractive Linear Element Technology (SCARLET). This synergistic technology will be demonstrated in a flight experiment this summer on the Comet satellite. This paper provides an overview of the RHETT and SCARLET programs with an emphasis on electric propulsion, recent progress, and near-term program plans.
Higher (odd dimensional quantum Hall effect and extended dimensional hierarchy
Kazuki Hasebe
2017-07-01
Full Text Available We demonstrate dimensional ladder of higher dimensional quantum Hall effects by exploiting quantum Hall effects on arbitrary odd dimensional spheres. Non-relativistic and relativistic Landau models are analyzed on S2k−1 in the SO(2k−1 monopole background. The total sub-band degeneracy of the odd dimensional lowest Landau level is shown to be equal to the winding number from the base-manifold S2k−1 to the one-dimension higher SO(2k gauge group. Based on the chiral Hopf maps, we clarify the underlying quantum Nambu geometry for odd dimensional quantum Hall effect and the resulting quantum geometry is naturally embedded also in one-dimension higher quantum geometry. An origin of such dimensional ladder connecting even and odd dimensional quantum Hall effects is illuminated from a viewpoint of the spectral flow of Atiyah–Patodi–Singer index theorem in differential topology. We also present a BF topological field theory as an effective field theory in which membranes with different dimensions undergo non-trivial linking in odd dimensional space. Finally, an extended version of the dimensional hierarchy for higher dimensional quantum Hall liquids is proposed, and its relationship to quantum anomaly and D-brane physics is discussed.
Higher (odd) dimensional quantum Hall effect and extended dimensional hierarchy
Hasebe, Kazuki
2017-07-01
We demonstrate dimensional ladder of higher dimensional quantum Hall effects by exploiting quantum Hall effects on arbitrary odd dimensional spheres. Non-relativistic and relativistic Landau models are analyzed on S 2 k - 1 in the SO (2 k - 1) monopole background. The total sub-band degeneracy of the odd dimensional lowest Landau level is shown to be equal to the winding number from the base-manifold S 2 k - 1 to the one-dimension higher SO (2 k) gauge group. Based on the chiral Hopf maps, we clarify the underlying quantum Nambu geometry for odd dimensional quantum Hall effect and the resulting quantum geometry is naturally embedded also in one-dimension higher quantum geometry. An origin of such dimensional ladder connecting even and odd dimensional quantum Hall effects is illuminated from a viewpoint of the spectral flow of Atiyah-Patodi-Singer index theorem in differential topology. We also present a BF topological field theory as an effective field theory in which membranes with different dimensions undergo non-trivial linking in odd dimensional space. Finally, an extended version of the dimensional hierarchy for higher dimensional quantum Hall liquids is proposed, and its relationship to quantum anomaly and D-brane physics is discussed.
Spin Hall effects in mesoscopic Pt films with high resistivity
Qin, Chuan; Luo, Yongming; Zhou, Chao; Cai, Yunjiao; Jia, Mengwen; Chen, Shuhan; Wu, Yizheng; Ji, Yi
2016-10-01
The energy efficiency of the spin Hall effects (SHE) can be enhanced if the electrical conductivity is decreased without sacrificing the spin Hall conductivity. The resistivity of Pt films can be increased to 150-300 µΩ · cm by mesoscopic lateral confinement, thereby decreasing the conductivity. The SHE and inverse spin Hall effects (ISHE) in these mesoscopic Pt films are explored at 10 K by using the nonlocal spin injection/detection method. All relevant physical quantities are determined in situ on the same substrate, and a quantitative approach is developed to characterize all processes effectively. Extensive measurements with various Pt thickness values reveal an upper limit for the Pt spin diffusion length: {λ\\text{pt}} ⩽ 0.8 nm. The average product of {λ\\text{pt}} and the Pt spin Hall angle {α\\text{H}} is substantial: {α\\text{H}}{λ\\text{pt}} = (0.142 ± 0.040) nm for 4 nm thick Pt, though a gradual decrease is observed at larger Pt thickness. The results suggest enhanced spin Hall effects in resistive mesoscopic Pt films.
Crossover between spin swapping and Hall effect in disordered systems
Saidaoui, Hamed Ben Mohamed
2015-07-16
We theoretically study the crossover between spin Hall effect and spin swapping, a recently predicted phenomenon that consists of the interchange between the current flow and its spin polarization directions [M. B. Lifshits and M. I. Dyakonov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 186601 (2009)]. Using a tight-binding model with spin-orbit coupled disorder, spin Hall effect, spin relaxation, and spin swapping are treated on equal footing. We demonstrate that spin swapping and spin Hall effect present very different dependencies as a function of the spin-orbit coupling and disorder strengths and confirm that the former exceeds the latter in the parameter range considered. Three setups are proposed for the experimental observation of the spin swapping effect.
The onset of MHD nanofluid convection with Hall current effect
Yadav, Dhananjay; Lee, Jinho
2015-08-01
In this paper, the combined effects of Hall current and magnetic field on the onset of convection in an electrically conducting nanofluid layer heated from below is investigated. A physically more realistic boundary condition on the nanoparticle volume fraction is taken i.e. the nanoparticle flux is assumed to be zero rather than prescribing a nanoparticle volume fraction on the rigid impermeable boundaries. The employed model incorporates the effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. The resulting eigenvalue problem is solved using the Galerkin method. The results obtained during the analysis are presented graphically for an alumina-water nanofluid. It is observed that the effect of smaller values of the Hall current parameter and the nanoparticle parameters accelerate the onset of convection, while larger values of the Hall current parameter (≥ 15) have no effect on the system stabilities.
The spin Hall effect of light in moving medium
Li, Hehe; Li, Xinzhong; Wang, Jingge
2017-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the spin Hall effect of light in moving inhomogeneous medium using the Gordon metric and the Maxwell’s equations in the gravitational field. Light experiences a moving medium as a gravitational field by means of the Gordon metric. It is shown that the spin Hall effect of light is modified by the motion of medium, and the deflection of the ray trajectory is dependent on the polarization and the motion of the medium. It is interesting that there is no coupling of the spin angular momentum of light and the effective gravitational field when the medium is moving along the direction of the gradient ∇n(r). The results provide a potential method for controlling the spin Hall effect of light in medium.
无
2010-01-01
In view of the low thrust power ratio caused by the high resistance of pulsed plasma thruster using water propellant,the paper argues that the easily ionized elements Na and K with low ionic potentials are added in the water propellant to improve its performance. The measurement of the discharging current and plasma emission spectrographic analysis prove the improvement. The experiments show that the elements Na and K have certain effect on the improvement of the performance of pulsed plasma thruster: In comparison with water propellant,the NaCl and KCl water propellant has a lower total resistance and a higher ratio of thruster power and specific impulse,and the NaCl water propellant has a slightly stronger effect on pulsed plasma thruster than the KCl. The plasma emission spectrographic analysis is in consistent with the experiment of measuring the discharging current: The elements Na and K can intensify the plasma emission spectrographic signal.
Micro-four-point Probe Hall effect Measurement method
Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Hansen, Ole; Lin, Rong
2008-01-01
barriers and with a magnetic field applied normal to the plane of the sheet. Based on this potential, analytical expressions for the measured four-point resistance in presence of a magnetic field are derived for several simple sample geometries. We show how the sheet resistance and Hall effect......We report a new microscale Hall effect measurement method for characterization of semiconductor thin films without need for conventional Hall effect geometries and metal contact pads. We derive the electrostatic potential resulting from current flow in a conductive filamentary sheet with insulating...... contributions may be separated using dual configuration measurements. The method differs from conventional van der Pauw measurements since the probe pins are placed in the interior of the sample region, not just on the perimeter. We experimentally verify the method by micro-four-point probe measurements...
Graphene and the universality of the quantum Hall effect
Tzalenchuk, A.; Janssen, T. J.B.M.; Kazakova, O.
2013-01-01
The quantum Hall effect allows the standard for resistance to be defined in terms of the elementary charge and Planck's constant alone. The effect comprises the quantization of the Hall resistance in two-dimensional electron systems in rational fractions of RK=h/e2=25812.8074434(84) Ω (Mohr P. J....... et al., Rev. Mod. Phys., 84 (2012) 1527), the resistance quantum. Despite 30 years of research into the quantum Hall effect, the level of precision necessary for metrology, a few parts per billion, has been achieved only in silicon and III-V heterostructure devices. In this lecture we show...... that graphene - a single layer of carbon atoms - beats these well-established semiconductor materials as the system of choice for the realisation of the quantum resistance standard. Here we shall briefly describe graphene technology, discuss the structure and electronic properties of graphene, including...
Composed planar Hall effect sensors with dual-mode operation
Mor, Vladislav; Roy, Debangsu; Schultz, Moty; Klein, Lior
2016-02-01
We present a composed planar Hall effect sensor with two modes of operation: (a) an ON mode where the composed sensor responds to magnetic field excitations similarly to the response of a regular planar Hall effect sensor, and (b) an OFF mode where the response is negligible. The composed planar Hall effect sensor switches from the OFF mode to the ON mode when it is exposed to a magnetic field which exceeds a certain threshold determined by the sensor design. The features of this sensor make it useful as a switch triggered by magnetic field and as a sensing device with memory, as its mode of operation indicates exposure to a magnetic field larger than a certain threshold without the need to be activated during the exposure itself.
Composed planar Hall effect sensors with dual-mode operation
Vladislav Mor
2016-02-01
Full Text Available We present a composed planar Hall effect sensor with two modes of operation: (a an ON mode where the composed sensor responds to magnetic field excitations similarly to the response of a regular planar Hall effect sensor, and (b an OFF mode where the response is negligible. The composed planar Hall effect sensor switches from the OFF mode to the ON mode when it is exposed to a magnetic field which exceeds a certain threshold determined by the sensor design. The features of this sensor make it useful as a switch triggered by magnetic field and as a sensing device with memory, as its mode of operation indicates exposure to a magnetic field larger than a certain threshold without the need to be activated during the exposure itself.
Investigation on plume interference effect of solid propellant micro-thruster
ZHANG Bin; MAO Gen-wang; HU Song-qi; CHEN Mao-lin
2011-01-01
The three-dimensional numerical simulation of two-phase plume flow of solid propellant micro-thrusters was developed.Then it was used to investigate the plume interference effect by combining the direct simulation Monte Carlo（DSMC） method for multi-component gas flow with the two-way coupling model for two-phase rarefied flow.At different space between the two micro-thrusters and different wall temperature,the plume interference effect was analyzed specifically.The results show that under the plume interference effect the gas is compressed and the flow direction is changed,which resulted in the increasing of gas pressure and temperature;solid phase made no significant effect on the flow parameters of gas phase;with the rising of the space between the two micro-thrusters,the maximum pressure decreased and the maximum temperature increased in the domain under the plume interference effect;the wall temperature could influence the temperature of the gas which is extremely close to the wall,but not the gas pressure.
The local nature of incompressibility of quantum Hall effect
Kendirlik, E. M.; Sirt, S.; Kalkan, S. B.; Ofek, N.; Umansky, V.; Siddiki, A.
2017-01-01
Since the experimental realization of the integer quantum Hall effect in a two-dimensional electron system, the interrelation between the conductance quantization and the topological properties of the system has been investigated. Assuming that the two-dimensional electron system is described by a Bloch Hamiltonian, system is insulating in the bulk of sample throughout the quantum Hall plateau due to a magnetic field induced energy gap. Meanwhile, the system is conducting at the edges resembling a 2+1 dimensional topological insulator without time-reversal symmetry. Here, by our magneto-transport measurements performed on GaAs/AlGaAs high purity Hall bars with two inner contacts we show that incompressible strips formed at the edges result in Hall quantization, even if the bulk is compressible. Consequently, the relationship between the quantum Hall effect and topological bulk insulator breaks for specific field intervals within the plateaus. The measurement of conducting bulk, strongly challenges all existing single-particle theories. PMID:28071652
The local nature of incompressibility of quantum Hall effect
Kendirlik, E. M.; Sirt, S.; Kalkan, S. B.; Ofek, N.; Umansky, V.; Siddiki, A.
2017-01-01
Since the experimental realization of the integer quantum Hall effect in a two-dimensional electron system, the interrelation between the conductance quantization and the topological properties of the system has been investigated. Assuming that the two-dimensional electron system is described by a Bloch Hamiltonian, system is insulating in the bulk of sample throughout the quantum Hall plateau due to a magnetic field induced energy gap. Meanwhile, the system is conducting at the edges resembling a 2+1 dimensional topological insulator without time-reversal symmetry. Here, by our magneto-transport measurements performed on GaAs/AlGaAs high purity Hall bars with two inner contacts we show that incompressible strips formed at the edges result in Hall quantization, even if the bulk is compressible. Consequently, the relationship between the quantum Hall effect and topological bulk insulator breaks for specific field intervals within the plateaus. The measurement of conducting bulk, strongly challenges all existing single-particle theories.
Observation of the Spin Hall Effect in Semiconductors
Kato, Y. K.; Myers, R. C.; Gossard, A. C.; Awschalom, D. D.
2004-12-01
Electrically induced electron-spin polarization near the edges of a semiconductor channel was detected and imaged with the use of Kerr rotation microscopy. The polarization is out-of-plane and has opposite sign for the two edges, consistent with the predictions of the spin Hall effect. Measurements of unstrained gallium arsenide and strained indium gallium arsenide samples reveal that strain modifies spin accumulation at zero magnetic field. A weak dependence on crystal orientation for the strained samples suggests that the mechanism is the extrinsic spin Hall effect.
Quantitative Analysis of Spin Hall Effect in Nanostructures
S. Katiyal
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Spin transport in nano structured devices depends on interfaceresistance, electrode resistance, Spin polarization and Spindiffusion length. Spin Hall Effect (SHE, caused by Spin–orbitscattering in nonmagnetic conductors, gives rise to theconversion between Spin and charge currents in a non localdevice. Recently, SHE has been observed using non local Spininjection in metal-based nanostructured devices, which pavesthe way for future Spin electronic applications. In presentwork we have theoretically analyzed the SHE phenomenabased on experimental results obtained till date. We have usedthe Hamiltonian of two dimensional electron systems withRashba Spin-orbit coupling. We undertake the quantitativeanalysis of Spin Hall Effect in low dimensional materialsusing Spin dynamical equations and Spin Hall conductivity.
Thermal Hall Effect of Spin Excitations in a Kagome Magnet.
Hirschberger, Max; Chisnell, Robin; Lee, Young S; Ong, N P
2015-09-04
At low temperatures, the thermal conductivity of spin excitations in a magnetic insulator can exceed that of phonons. However, because they are charge neutral, the spin waves are not expected to display a thermal Hall effect. However, in the kagome lattice, theory predicts that the Berry curvature leads to a thermal Hall conductivity κ(xy). Here we report observation of a large κ(xy) in the kagome magnet Cu(1-3, bdc) which orders magnetically at 1.8 K. The observed κ(xy) undergoes a remarkable sign reversal with changes in temperature or magnetic field, associated with sign alternation of the Chern flux between magnon bands. The close correlation between κ(xy) and κ(xx) firmly precludes a phonon origin for the thermal Hall effect.
Diaphragm Effect of Steel Space Roof Systems in Hall Structures
Mehmet FENKLİ
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Hall structures have been used widely for different purposes. They have are reinforced concrete frames and shear wall with steel space roof systems. Earthquake response of hall structures is different from building type structures. One of the most critical nodes is diaphragm effect of steel space roof on earthquake response of hall structures. Diaphragm effect is depending on lateral stiffness capacity of steel space roof system. Lateral stiffness of steel space roof system is related to modulation geometry, support conditions, selected sections and system geometry. In current paper, three representative models which are commonly used in Turkey were taken in to account for investigation. Results of numerical tests were present comparatively
Photonic analogue of quantum spin Hall effect
He, Cheng; Liu, Xiao-ping; Lu, Ming-Hui; Chen, Yulin; Feng, Liang; Chen, Yan-Feng
2014-01-01
Symmetry-protected photonic topological insulator exhibiting robust pseudo-spin-dependent transportation, analogous to quantum spin Hall (QSH) phases and topological insulators, are of great importance in fundamental physics. Such transportation robustness is protected by time-reversal symmetry. Since electrons (fermion) and photons (boson) obey different statistics rules and associate with different time-reversal operators (i.e., Tf and Tb, respectively), whether photonic counterpart of Kramers degeneracy is topologically protected by bosonic Tb remains unidentified. Here, we construct the degenerate gapless edge states of two photonic pseudo-spins (left/right circular polarizations) in the band gap of a two-dimensional photonic crystal with strong magneto-electric coupling. We further demonstrated that the topological edge states are in fact protected by Tf rather than commonly believed Tb and their pseudo-spin dependent transportation is robust against Tf invariant impurities, discovering for the first tim...
The quantum Hall effect and its contexts
Rodríguez,Víctor
2017-01-01
En este artículo, se atienden ciertas facetas conceptuales y experimentales del efecto Hall cuántico. Se argumenta que el mismo ofrece variados matices para la reflexión filosófica, desde la generación de entidades teóricas hasta la epistemología de la experimentación. La exposición pretende mantener cierta sensibilidad por la dinámica histórica en torno del tema, como así también por las implicaciones metrológicas de ámbitos cuánticos específicos. Dada la enorme producción científica sobre e...
Nonlinear Quantum Hall effects in Rarita-Schwinger gas
Luo, Xi; Wan, Xiangang; Yu, Yue
2016-01-01
Emergence of higher spin relativistic fermionic materials becomes a new favorite in the study of condensed matter physics. Massive Rarita-Schwinger 3/2-spinor was known owning very exotic properties, such as the superluminal fermionic modes and even being unstable in an external magnetic field. Due to the superluminal modes and the non-trivial constraints on the Rarita-Schwinger gas, we exposit anomalous properties of the Hall effects in (2+1)-dimensions which subvert the well-known quantum Hall paradigms. First, the Hall conductance of a pure Rarita-Schwinger gas is step-like but not plateau-quantized, instead of the linear dependence on the filling factor for a pure spin-1/2 Dirac gas. In reality, the Hall conductance of the Dirac gas is of quantized integer plateaus with the unit $\\frac{e^2}h$ due to the localization away from the Landau level centers. If the general localization rule is applicable to the disordered Rarita-Schwinger gas, the Hall plateaus are also expected to appear but they are nonlinearl...
Precise quantization of anomalous Hall effect near zero magnetic field
Bestwick, Andrew; Fox, Eli; Kou, Xufeng; Pan, Lei; Wang, Kang; Goldhaber-Gordon, David
2015-03-01
The quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) has recently been of great interest due to its recent experimental realization in thin films of Cr-doped (Bi, Sb)2Te3, a ferromagnetic 3D topological insulator. The presence of ferromagnetic exchange breaks time-reversal symmetry, opening a gap in the surface states, but gives rise to dissipationless chiral conduction at the edge of a magnetized film. Ideally, this leads to vanishing longitudinal resistance and Hall resistance quantized to h /e2 , where h is Planck's constant and e is the electron charge, but perfect quantization has so far proved elusive. Here, we study the QAHE in the limit of zero applied magnetic field, and measure Hall resistance quantized to within one part per 10,000. Deviation from quantization is due primarily to thermally activated carriers, which can be nearly eliminated through adiabatic demagnetization cooling. This result demonstrates an important step toward dissipationless electron transport in technologically relevant conditions.
A Simulation Study of Hall Effect on Double Tearing Modes
ZHANG Chenglong; MA Zhiwei; DONG Jiaqi
2008-01-01
A Hall magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulation is carried out to study the dy-namic process of double tearing mode. The results indicated that the growth rates in the earlier nonlinear and transition phases agree with the previous results. With further development of reconnection, the current sheet thickness is much smaller than the ion inertia length, which leads to a strong influence of the Hall effects. As a result, the reconnection in the late nonlinear phase exhibits an explosive nature with a time scale nearly independent of resistivity. A localized and severely intensified current density is observed and the maximum kinetic energy is over one order of magnitude higher in Hall MHD than that in resistive MHD.
Quantum anomalous Hall effect in magnetic insulator heterostructure.
Xu, Gang; Wang, Jing; Felser, Claudia; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Shou-Cheng
2015-03-11
On the basis of ab initio calculations, we predict that a monolayer of Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3 and GdI2 heterostructure is a quantum anomalous Hall insulator with a nontrivial band gap up to 38 meV. The principle behind our prediction is that the band inversion between two topologically trivial ferromagnetic insulators can result in a nonzero Chern number, which offers a better way to realize the quantum anomalous Hall state without random magnetic doping. In addition, a simple effective model is presented to describe the basic mechanism of spin polarized band inversion in this system. Moreover, we predict that 3D quantum anomalous Hall insulator could be realized in (Bi2/3Cr1/3)2Te3 /GdI2 superlattice.
The transport mechanism of the integer quantum Hall effect
LiMing, W
2016-01-01
The integer quantum Hall effect is analysed using a transport mechanism with a semi-classic wave packages of electrons in this paper. A strong magnetic field perpendicular to a slab separates the electron current into two branches with opposite wave vectors $({\\it k})$ and locating at the two edges of the slab, respectively, along the current. In this case back scattering of electrons ($k\\rightarrow -k$) is prohibited by the separation of electron currents. Thus the slab exhibits zero longitudinal resistance and plateaus of Hall resistance. When the Fermi level is scanning over a Landau level when the magnetic field increases, however, the electron waves locate around the central axis of the slab and overlap each other thus back scattering of electrons takes place frequently. Then longitudinal resistance appears and the Hall resistance goes up from one plateau to a new plateau.
Anomalous Hall Effect in a 2D Rashba Ferromagnet.
Ado, I A; Dmitriev, I A; Ostrovsky, P M; Titov, M
2016-07-22
Skew scattering on rare impurity configurations is shown to dominate the anomalous Hall effect in a 2D Rashba ferromagnet. The mechanism originates in scattering on rare impurity pairs separated by distances of the order of the Fermi wavelength. The corresponding theoretical description goes beyond the conventional noncrossing approximation. The mechanism provides the only contribution to the anomalous Hall conductivity in the most relevant metallic regime and strongly modifies previously obtained results for lower energies in the leading order with respect to impurity strength.
Quantum anomalous Hall effect in topological insulator memory
Jalil, Mansoor B. A., E-mail: elembaj@nus.edu.sg [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Data Storage Institute, Agency for Science, Technology and Research A*STAR, DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore, Singapore 117608 (Singapore); Tan, S. G. [Data Storage Institute, Agency for Science, Technology and Research A*STAR, DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore, Singapore 117608 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Siu, Z. B. [Data Storage Institute, Agency for Science, Technology and Research A*STAR, DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore, Singapore 117608 (Singapore); NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore)
2015-05-07
We theoretically investigate the quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) in a magnetically coupled three-dimensional-topological insulator (3D-TI) system. We apply the generalized spin-orbit coupling Hamiltonian to obtain the Hall conductivity σ{sup xy} of the system. The underlying topology of the QAHE phenomenon is then analyzed to show the quantization of σ{sup xy} and its relation to the Berry phase of the system. Finally, we analyze the feasibility of utilizing σ{sup xy} as a memory read-out in a 3D-TI based memory at finite temperatures, with comparison to known magnetically doped 3D-TIs.
Few-body, hyperspherical treatment of the quantum Hall effect
Wooten R. E.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The quantum Hall effect arises from the quantum behavior of two-dimensional, strongly-interacting electrons exposed to a strong, perpendicular magnetic field [1, 2]. Conventionally treated from a many-body perspective, we instead treat the system from the few-body perspective using collective coordinates and the hyperspherical adiabatic technique developed originally for atomic systems [3]. The grand angular momentum K from K-harmonic few-body theory, is shown to be an approximate good collective quantum number in this system, and is shown to correlate with known fractional quantum Hall (FQH states at experimentally observed filling factors.
Phonon Hall effect in four-terminal nano-junctions
Zhang Lifa; Wang Jiansheng; Li Baowen [Department of Physics and Centre for Computational Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117546 Singapore (Singapore)], E-mail: phylibw@nus.edu.sg
2009-11-15
Using an exact nonequilibrium Green's function formulation, the phonon Hall effect (PHE) for paramagnetic dielectrics is studied in a nanoscale four-terminal device setting. The temperature difference in the transverse direction of the heat current is calculated for two-dimensional models with the magnetic field perpendicular to the plane. We find that there is a PHE in nanoscale paramagnetic dielectrics, the magnitude of which is comparable to millimeter scale experiments. If the dynamic matrix of the system satisfies mirror reflection symmetry, the PHE disappears. The Hall temperature difference changes sign if the magnetic field is sufficiently large or if the size increases.
Inverse spin Hall effect in a closed loop circuit
Omori, Y.; Auvray, F.; Wakamura, T.; Niimi, Y., E-mail: niimi@issp.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Fert, A. [Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS/Thales, 91767 Palaiseau France associée à l' Université de Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Otani, Y. [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); RIKEN-CEMS, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)
2014-06-16
We present measurements of inverse spin Hall effects (ISHEs), in which the conversion of a spin current into a charge current via the ISHE is detected not as a voltage in a standard open circuit but directly as the charge current generated in a closed loop. The method is applied to the ISHEs of Bi-doped Cu and Pt. The derived expression of ISHE for the loop structure can relate the charge current flowing into the loop to the spin Hall angle of the SHE material and the resistance of the loop.
The Quantum Hall Effect in Supersymmetric Chern-Simons Theories
Tong, David
2015-01-01
In d=2+1 dimensions, there exist gauge theories which are supersymmetric but non-relativistic. We solve the simplest U(1) gauge theory in this class and show that the low-energy physics is that of the fractional quantum Hall effect, with ground states given by the Laughlin wavefunctions. We do this by quantising the vortices and relating them to the quantum Hall matrix model. We further construct coherent state representations of the excitations of vortices. These are quasi-holes. By an explicit computation of the Berry phase, without resorting to a plasma analogy, we show that these excitations have fractional charge and spin.
Geometric phase gradient and spin Hall effect of light
Ling, Xiaohui; Zhou, Xinxing; Qiu, Cheng-Wei
2016-10-01
The spin Hall effect (SHE) of light originates from the spin-orbit interaction, which can be explained in terms of two geometric phases: the Rytov-Vladimirskii-Berry phase and the Pancharatnam-Berry phase. Here we present a unified theoretical description of the SHE based on the two types of geometric phase gradients, and observe experimentally the SHE in structured dielectric metasurfaces induced by the PB phase. Unlike the weak real-space spin-Hall shift induced by the SRB phase occurring at interfacial reflection/refraction, the observed SHE occurs in momentum space is large enough to be measured directly.
Inverse spin Hall effect in Pt/(Ga,Mn)As
Nakayama, H. [Laboratory for Nanoelectronics and Spintronics, Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Chen, L. [WPI-Advanced Institute for Materials Research (WPI-AIMR), Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Chang, H. W. [Laboratory for Nanoelectronics and Spintronics, Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Department of Physics and Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Ohno, H.; Matsukura, F., E-mail: f-matsu@wpi-aimr.tohoku.ac.jp [Laboratory for Nanoelectronics and Spintronics, Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); WPI-Advanced Institute for Materials Research (WPI-AIMR), Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Center for Spintronics Integrated Systems, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)
2015-06-01
We investigate dc voltages under ferromagnetic resonance in a Pt/(Ga,Mn)As bilayer structure. A part of the observed dc voltage is shown to originate from the inverse spin Hall effect. The sign of the inverse spin Hall voltage is the same as that in Py/Pt bilayer structure, even though the stacking order of ferromagnetic and nonmagnetic layers is opposite to each other. The spin mixing conductance at the Pt/(Ga,Mn)As interface is determined to be of the order of 10{sup 19 }m{sup −2}, which is about ten times greater than that of (Ga,Mn)As/p-GaAs.
High-Resolution ac Measurements of the Hall Effect in Organic Field-Effect Transistors
Chen, Y.; Yi, H. T.; Podzorov, V.
2016-03-01
We describe a high resolving power technique for Hall-effect measurements, efficient in determining Hall mobility and carrier density in organic field-effect transistors and other low-mobility systems. We utilize a small low-frequency ac magnetic field (Brmsphase-sensitive (lock-in) detection of Hall voltage, with the necessary corrections for Faraday induction. This method significantly enhances the signal-to-noise ratio and eliminates the necessity of using high magnetic fields in Hall-effect studies. With the help of this method, we are able to obtain the Hall mobility and carrier density in organic transistors with a mobility as low as μ ˜0.3 cm2 V-1 s-1 by using a compact desktop apparatus and low magnetic fields. We find a good agreement between Hall-effect and electric-field-effect measurements, indicating that, contrary to the common belief, certain organic semiconductors with mobilities below 1 cm2 V-1 s-1 can still exhibit a fully developed, band-semiconductor-like Hall effect, with the Hall mobility and carrier density matching those obtained in longitudinal transistor measurements. This suggests that, even when μ organic semiconductors can still behave as delocalized coherent carriers. This technique paves the way to ubiquitous Hall-effect studies in a wide range of low-mobility materials and devices, where it is typically very difficult to resolve the Hall effect even in very high dc magnetic fields.
Towards a quantum Hall effect for atoms using electric fields
Ericsson, M; Ericsson, Marie; Sjoqvist, Erik
2002-01-01
An atomic analogue of Landau quantization based on the Aharonov-Casher (AC) interaction is developed. The effect provides a first step towards an atomic quantum Hall system using electric fields, which may be realized in a Bose-Einstein condensate.
Low-frequency noise in planar Hall effect bridge sensors
Persson, Anders; Bejhedb, R.S.; Bejhed, R.S.
2011-01-01
The low-frequency characteristics of planar Hall effect bridge sensors are investigated as function of the sensor bias current and the applied magnetic field. The noise spectra reveal a Johnson-like spectrum at high frequencies, and a 1/f-like excess noise spectrum at lower frequencies, with a knee...
Planar Hall effect sensor for magnetic micro- and nanobead detection
Ejsing, Louise Wellendorph; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Menon, Aric Kumaran
2004-01-01
Magnetic bead sensors based on the planar Hall effect in thin films of exchange-biased permalloy have been fabricated and characterized. Typical sensitivities are 3 muV/Oe mA. The sensor response to an applied magnetic field has been measured without and with coatings of commercially available 2 ...
Dynamics of antiferromagnetic skyrmion driven by the spin Hall effect
Jin, Chendong; Song, Chengkun; Wang, Jianbo; Liu, Qingfang
2016-10-01
Magnetic skyrmion moved by the spin-Hall effect is promising for the application of the generation racetrack memories. However, the Magnus force causes a deflected motion of skyrmion, which limits its application. Here, we create an antiferromagnetic skyrmion by injecting a spin-polarized pulse in the nanostripe and investigate the spin Hall effect-induced motion of antiferromagnetic skyrmion by micromagnetic simulations. In contrast to ferromagnetic skyrmion, we find that the antiferromagnetic skyrmion has three evident advantages: (i) the minimum driving current density of antiferromagnetic skyrmion is about two orders smaller than the ferromagnetic skyrmion; (ii) the velocity of the antiferromagnetic skyrmion is about 57 times larger than the ferromagnetic skyrmion driven by the same value of current density; (iii) antiferromagnetic skyrmion can be driven by the spin Hall effect without the influence of Magnus force. In addition, antiferromagnetic skyrmion can move around the pinning sites due to its property of topological protection. Our results present the understanding of antiferromagnetic skyrmion motion driven by the spin Hall effect and may also contribute to the development of antiferromagnetic skyrmion-based racetrack memories.
The integer quantum hall effect revisited
Michalakis, Spyridon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hastings, Matthew [Q STATION, CALIFORNIA
2009-01-01
For T - L x L a finite subset of Z{sup 2}, let H{sub o} denote a Hamiltonian on T with periodic boundary conditions and finite range, finite strength intetactions and a unique ground state with a nonvanishing spectral gap. For S {element_of} T, let q{sub s} denote the charge at site s and assume that the total charge Q = {Sigma}{sub s {element_of} T} q{sub s} is conserved. Using the local charge operators q{sub s}, we introduce a boundary magnetic flux in the horizontal and vertical direction and allow the ground state to evolve quasiadiabatically around a square of size one magnetic flux, in flux space. At the end of the evolution we obtain a trivial Berry phase, which we compare, via a method reminiscent of Stokes Theorem. to the Berry phase obtained from an evolution around an exponentially small loop near the origin. As a result, we show, without any averaging assumption, that the Hall conductance is quantized in integer multiples of e{sup 2}/h up to exponentially small corrections of order e{sup -L/{zeta}}, where {zeta}, is a correlation length that depends only on the gap and the range and strength of the interactions.
Li, Kai; Liu, Jun; Liu, Weiqiang
2017-01-01
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) heat shield system, a novel thermal protection technique in the hypersonic field, has been paid much attention in recent years. In the real flight condition, not only the Lorentz force but also the Hall electric field is induced by the interaction between ionized air post shock and magnetic field. In order to analyze the action mechanisms of the Hall effect, numerical methods of coupling thermochemical nonequilibrium flow field with externally applied magnetic field as well as the induced electric field are constructed and validated. Based on the nonequilibrium model of Hall parameter, numerical simulations of the MHD heat shield system is conducted under two different magnetic induction strengths (B0=0.2 T, 0.5 T) on a reentry capsule forebody. Results show that, the Hall effect is the same under the two magnetic induction strengths when the wall is assumed to be conductive. For this case, with the Hall effect taken into account, the Lorentz force counter stream diminishes a lot and the circumferential component dominates, resulting that the heat flux and shock-off distance approach the case without MHD control. However, for the insulating wall, the Hall effect acts in different ways under these two magnetic induction strengths. For this case, with the Hall effect taken into account, the performance of MHD heat shield system approaches the case neglecting the Hall effect when B0 equals 0.2 T. Such performance becomes worse when B0 equals 0.5 T and the aerothermal environment on the capsule shoulder is even worse than the case without MHD control.
Anomalous Hall effect in Cr doped FeSi
Yadam, Sankararao, E-mail: sankararao.yadam@gmail.com; Lakhani, Archana; Singh, Durgesh; Prasad, Rudra; Ganesan, V. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore-452001 (India)
2016-05-23
Investigations of economically affordable bulk materials for the spin based electronics are in huge demand. In this direction, electrical and Hall transport properties of the polycrystalline Cr doped Kondo insulator FeSi, i.e Fe{sub 0.975}Cr{sub 0.025}Si is reported. Well agreement between temperature dependence of the Hall and linear resistivity are observed. The observed minimum at ~19 K in the resistivity is attributed to the ferromagnetic transition temperature (T{sub C}). Anomalous Hall resistivity is seen in the itinerant ferromagnet, Fe{sub 0.975}Cr{sub 0.025}Si well below the T{sub C}. The obtained Hall resistivity is comparable with that of the spintronic material Fe{sub 0.9}Co{sub 0.1}Si. The present study proves that the electrical transport properties of bulk materials made by low cost elements such as Fe, Cr and Si exhibits large magnetic field effects and are useful for the spintronics applications, unlike spintronics material (Ga, Mn)As that demand higher costs.
Current Percolation in Medium with Boundaries under Quantum Hall Effect Conditions
M. U. Malakeeva
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The current percolation has been considered in the medium with boundaries under quantum Hall effect conditions. It has been shown that in that case the effective Hall conductivity has a nonzero value due to percolation of the Hall current through the finite number of singular points (in our model these are corners at the phase joints.
Electrodeless plasma thrusters for spacecraft: A review
Bathgate, S. N.; Bilek, M. M. M.; McKenzie, D. R.
2017-08-01
The physics of electrodeless electric thrusters that use directed plasma to propel spacecraft without employing electrodes subject to plasma erosion is reviewed. Electrodeless plasma thrusters are potentially more durable than presently deployed thrusters that use electrodes such as gridded ion, Hall thrusters, arcjets and resistojets. Like other plasma thrusters, electrodeless thrusters have the advantage of reduced fuel mass compared to chemical thrusters that produce the same thrust. The status of electrodeless plasma thrusters that could be used in communications satellites and in spacecraft for interplanetary missions is examined. Electrodeless thrusters under development or planned for deployment include devices that use a rotating magnetic field; devices that use a rotating electric field; pulsed inductive devices that exploit the Lorentz force on an induced current loop in a plasma; devices that use radiofrequency fields to heat plasmas and have magnetic nozzles to accelerate the hot plasma and other devices that exploit the Lorentz force. Using metrics of specific impulse and thrust efficiency, we find that the most promising designs are those that use Lorentz forces directly to expel plasma and those that use magnetic nozzles to accelerate plasma.
Observation of the geometric spin Hall effect of light
Korger, Jan; Chille, Vanessa; Banzer, Peter; Wittmann, Christoffer; Lindlein, Norbert; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd
2013-01-01
The spin Hall effect of light (SHEL) is the photonic analogue of spin Hall effects occurring for charge carriers in solid-state systems. A prime example of this intriguing phenomenon occurs when a light beam refracts at an air-glass interface. It amounts to a polarization-dependent displacement perpendicular to the plane of incidence. At optical wavelengths, this shift is about a few tens of nanometres. Recently, it was predicted that a light beam projected onto an oblique plane can undergo a significantly larger displacement. This effect, named geometric SHEL, is a consequence of spin-orbit coupling and is largely independent from the physical implementation of the projection. Here, we experimentally demonstrate this novel phenomenon by observing an optical beam transmitted across an oblique polarizer. The spatial intensity distribution of the transmitted beam depends on the incident state of polarization and its centroid undergoes a positional displacement exceeding one wavelength. This novel type of spin-o...
Effect of quantum tunneling on spin Hall magnetoresistance
Ok, Seulgi; Chen, Wei; Sigrist, Manfred; Manske, Dirk
2017-02-01
We present a formalism that simultaneously incorporates the effect of quantum tunneling and spin diffusion on the spin Hall magnetoresistance observed in normal metal/ferromagnetic insulator bilayers (such as Pt/Y3Fe5O12) and normal metal/ferromagnetic metal bilayers (such as Pt/Co), in which the angle of magnetization influences the magnetoresistance of the normal metal. In the normal metal side the spin diffusion is known to affect the landscape of the spin accumulation caused by spin Hall effect and subsequently the magnetoresistance, while on the ferromagnet side the quantum tunneling effect is detrimental to the interface spin current which also affects the spin accumulation. The influence of generic material properties such as spin diffusion length, layer thickness, interface coupling, and insulating gap can be quantified in a unified manner, and experiments that reveal the quantum feature of the magnetoresistance are suggested.
Observation of the geometric spin Hall effect of light.
Korger, Jan; Aiello, Andrea; Chille, Vanessa; Banzer, Peter; Wittmann, Christoffer; Lindlein, Norbert; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd
2014-03-21
The spin Hall effect of light (SHEL) is the photonic analogue of the spin Hall effect occurring for charge carriers in solid-state systems. This intriguing phenomenon manifests itself when a light beam refracts at an air-glass interface (conventional SHEL) or when it is projected onto an oblique plane, the latter effect being known as the geometric SHEL. It amounts to a polarization-dependent displacement perpendicular to the plane of incidence. In this work, we experimentally investigate the geometric SHEL for a light beam transmitted across an oblique polarizer. We find that the spatial intensity distribution of the transmitted beam depends on the incident state of polarization and its centroid undergoes a positional displacement exceeding one wavelength. This novel phenomenon is virtually independent from the material properties of the polarizer and, thus, reveals universal features of spin-orbit coupling.
Hall Effect Devices with Three Terminals: Their Magnetic Sensitivity and Offset Cancellation Scheme
Udo Ausserlechner
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses properties of Hall effect sensors with only three terminals and compares them to conventional four-terminal devices. It covers both Horizontal and Vertical Hall effect devices. Their Hall-geometry factor is computed analytically. Several modes of operation are proposed and their signal-to-noise ratio is compared. A six-phase offset cancellation scheme is developed. All theoretical results are checked by measurements. The residual offset of Vertical Hall effect devices with three contacts is found to be smaller than the offset of conventional Vertical Hall effect devices with five contacts.
Hall Effects on MHD Flow Through a Porous Straight Channel
N. Bhaskara Reddy
1982-10-01
Full Text Available The effect of Hall currents on the flow of a viscous incompressible slightly conducting fluid through a porous straight channel under a uniform transverse magnetic field is considered. The pressure gradient is taken as constant quantity and the case of steady flow is obtained by taking the time since the start of the motion to be infinite. Skin friction, temperature distribution and coefficients of heat transfer at both the plates have been evaluated. The effects of Hall parameter, magnetic parameter and Reynolds number on the above physical quantities have been investigated. Velocity distribution when the pressure gradient (i varies linearly with time, and (ii decreases exponentially with time has also been evaluated.
Strong Spin Hall effect in PtMn
Ou, Yongxi; Shi, Shengjie; Ralph, Daniel; Buhrman, Robert
Recent reports indicate that certain metallic antiferromagnets (AFM) can exhibit a significant spin Hall effect. Here we report a large damping-like spin torque efficiency (ξDL) in PtMn/ferromagnet(FM) bilayer structures, determined from both FM-thickness-dependent spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance (ST-FMR), and harmonic response (HR) measurements of layers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA). We find that ξDL can vary from 0.15, depending on the thickness of PtMn, the stacking order of the samples, and the choice of the FM material. The field-like spin torque efficiency (ξFL) is also quite variable, 0phase diagram. These results indicate that AFM PtMn has significant potential both for advancing the understanding the physics of the spin Hall effect in Pt alloys, and for enabling new spintronics functionality.
Precise quantization of anomalous Hall effect near zero magnetic field
Bestwick, A. J. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fox, E. J. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kou, Xufeng [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Pan, Lei [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Wang, Kang L. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Goldhaber-Gordon, D. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
2015-05-04
In this study, we report a nearly ideal quantum anomalous Hall effect in a three-dimensional topological insulator thin film with ferromagnetic doping. Near zero applied magnetic field we measure exact quantization in the Hall resistance to within a part per 10,000 and a longitudinal resistivity under 1 Ω per square, with chiral edge transport explicitly confirmed by nonlocal measurements. Deviations from this behavior are found to be caused by thermally activated carriers, as indicated by an Arrhenius law temperature dependence. Using the deviations as a thermometer, we demonstrate an unexpected magnetocaloric effect and use it to reach near-perfect quantization by cooling the sample below the dilution refrigerator base temperature in a process approximating adiabatic demagnetization refrigeration.
Hall effect in quantum critical charge-cluster glass.
Wu, Jie; Bollinger, Anthony T; Sun, Yujie; Božović, Ivan
2016-04-19
Upon doping, cuprates undergo a quantum phase transition from an insulator to a d-wave superconductor. The nature of this transition and of the insulating state is vividly debated. Here, we study the Hall effect in La2-xSrxCuO4(LSCO) samples doped near the quantum critical point atx∼ 0.06. Dramatic fluctuations in the Hall resistance appear belowTCG∼ 1.5 K and increase as the sample is cooled down further, signaling quantum critical behavior. We explore the doping dependence of this effect in detail, by studying a combinatorial LSCO library in which the Sr content is varied in extremely fine steps,Δx∼ 0.00008. We observe that quantum charge fluctuations wash out when superconductivity emerges but can be restored when the latter is suppressed by applying a magnetic field, showing that the two instabilities compete for the ground state.
Hall Effect Influence on a Highly Conducting Fluid
Witalis, E.A.
1966-11-15
The properties of an incompressible perfect fluid exhibiting Hall effect is investigated in the limit of infinite electrical conductivity and mobility. The magnetic field strength and the fluid velocity are found to obey the equations B = {mu}{rho}/{sigma} x curlV and V -{mu}/({sigma}{mu}{sub 0}) x curlB (MKS units) where {rho}, {sigma} and {mu} denote mass density, conductivity and charge carrier mobility. Some physical interpretations and applications are given.
Extraordinary Hall-effect in colloidal magnetic nanoparticle films
Ben Gur, Leah; Tirosh, Einat; Segal, Amir; Markovich, Gil; Gerber, Alexander
2017-03-01
Colloidal nickel nanoparticles (NPs) coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were synthesized. The nanoparticle dispersions were deposited on substrates and dried under mild heating to form conductive films. The films exhibited very small coercivity, nearly metallic conductivity, and a significant extraordinary Hall effect signal. This method could be useful for preparing simple, printed magnetic field sensors with the advantage of relatively high sensitivity around zero magnetic field, in contrast to magnetoresistive sensors, which have maximal field sensitivity away from zero magnetic field.
Topological thermal Hall effect in frustrated kagome antiferromagnets
Owerre, S. A.
2017-01-01
In frustrated magnets the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction (DMI) arising from spin-orbit coupling can induce a magnetic long-range order. Here, we report a theoretical prediction of the thermal Hall effect in frustrated kagome magnets such as KCr3(OH) 6(SO4) 2 and KFe3(OH) 6(SO4)2 . The thermal Hall effects in these materials are induced by scalar spin chirality as opposed to DMI in previous studies. The scalar spin chirality originates from the magnetic-field-induced chiral spin configuration due to noncoplanar spin textures, but in general it can be spontaneously developed as a macroscopic order parameter in chiral quantum spin liquids. Therefore, we infer that there is a possibility of the thermal Hall effect in frustrated kagome magnets such as herbertsmithite ZnCu3(OH) 6Cl2 and the chromium compound Ca10Cr7O28 , although they also show evidence of magnetic long-range order in the presence of applied magnetic field or pressure.
Dynamical quantum Hall effect in the parameter space.
Gritsev, V; Polkovnikov, A
2012-04-24
Geometric phases in quantum mechanics play an extraordinary role in broadening our understanding of fundamental significance of geometry in nature. One of the best known examples is the Berry phase [M.V. Berry (1984), Proc. Royal. Soc. London A, 392:45], which naturally emerges in quantum adiabatic evolution. So far the applicability and measurements of the Berry phase were mostly limited to systems of weakly interacting quasi-particles, where interference experiments are feasible. Here we show how one can go beyond this limitation and observe the Berry curvature, and hence the Berry phase, in generic systems as a nonadiabatic response of physical observables to the rate of change of an external parameter. These results can be interpreted as a dynamical quantum Hall effect in a parameter space. The conventional quantum Hall effect is a particular example of the general relation if one views the electric field as a rate of change of the vector potential. We illustrate our findings by analyzing the response of interacting spin chains to a rotating magnetic field. We observe the quantization of this response, which we term the rotational quantum Hall effect.
Finite-temperature effective boundary theory of the quantized thermal Hall effect
Nakai, Ryota; Ryu, Shinsei; Nomura, Kentaro
2016-02-01
A finite-temperature effective free energy of the boundary of a quantized thermal Hall system is derived microscopically from the bulk two-dimensional Dirac fermion coupled with a gravitational field. In two spatial dimensions, the thermal Hall conductivity of fully gapped insulators and superconductors is quantized and given by the bulk Chern number, in analogy to the quantized electric Hall conductivity in quantum Hall systems. From the perspective of effective action functionals, two distinct types of the field theory have been proposed to describe the quantized thermal Hall effect. One of these, known as the gravitational Chern-Simons action, is a kind of topological field theory, and the other is a phenomenological theory relevant to the Strěda formula. In order to solve this problem, we derive microscopically an effective theory that accounts for the quantized thermal Hall effect. In this paper, the two-dimensional Dirac fermion under a static background gravitational field is considered in equilibrium at a finite temperature, from which an effective boundary free energy functional of the gravitational field is derived. This boundary theory is shown to explain the quantized thermal Hall conductivity and thermal Hall current in the bulk by assuming the Lorentz symmetry. The bulk effective theory is consistently determined via the boundary effective theory.
Effects of surface and interface scattering on anomalous Hall effect in Co/Pd multilayers
Guo, Z. B.
2012-09-27
In this paper, we report the results of surface and interface scattering on anomalous Hall effect in Co/Pd multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The surface scattering effect has been extracted from the total anomalous Hall effect. By scaling surface scattering contribution with ρAHs∼ργss, the exponent γ has been found to decrease with the increase of surface scattering resistivity, which could account for the thickness-dependent anomalous Hall effect. Interface diffusion induced by rapid thermal annealing modifies not only the magnetization and longitudinal resistivity but also the anomalous Hall effect; a large exponent γ ∼ 5.7 has been attributed to interface scattering-dominated anomalous Hall effect.
Generalized Surface Polaritons and their quantum spin Hall effect
Xu, Yadong; Chen, Huanyang
2016-01-01
Surface polaritons, e.g., surface plasmon polaritons, are invaluable tools in nanophotonics. However, considerable plasmon loss narrows the application regime of plasmonic devices. Here we reveal some general conditions for lossless surface polaritons to emerge at the interface of a gain and a loss media. The gain medium does not only compensate the energy loss, but also modifies surface wave oscillation mechanisms. A new type of surface polaritons induced by the sign switch of the imaginary part of the permittivity across the interface is discovered. The surface polaritons exhibit spin Hall effect due to spin-momentum locking and unique Berry phase. The spin Hall coefficient changes the sign across the parity-time symmetric limit and becomes quantized for perfect metal-dielectric interface and for dielectric-dielectric interface with very large permittivity contrast, carrying opposite topological numbers. Our study opens a new direction for manipulating light with surface polaritons in non-Hermitian optical ...
Spin Hall effect induced spin transfer through an insulator
Chen, Wei; Sigrist, Manfred; Manske, Dirk
2016-09-01
When charge current passes through a normal metal that exhibits the spin Hall effect, spin accumulates at the edge of the sample in the transverse direction. We predict that this spin accumulation, or spin voltage, enables quantum tunneling of spin through an insulator or vacuum to reach a ferromagnet without transferring charge. In a normal metal/insulator/ferromagnetic insulator trilayer (such as Pt/oxide/YIG), the quantum tunneling explains the spin-transfer torque and spin pumping that exponentially decay with the thickness of the insulator. In a normal metal/insulator/ferromagnetic metal trilayer (such as Pt/oxide/Co), the spin transfer in general does not decay monotonically with the thickness of the insulator. Combining with the spin Hall magnetoresistance, this tunneling mechanism points to the possibility of a tunneling spectroscopy that can probe the magnon density of states of a ferromagnetic insulator in an all-electrical and noninvasive manner.
Admittance measurements in the quantum Hall effect regime
Hernández, C., E-mail: carlos.hernandezr@unimilitar.edu.co [Departamento de Física, Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, Carrera 11 # 101-80, Bogotá D.C. (Colombia); Laboratorio de Magnetismo, Departamento de Física, Universidad de los Andes, A.A. 4976, Bogotá D.C. (Colombia); Consejo, C.; Chaubet, C. [Laboratoire Charles Coulomb L2C, Université Montpellier II, Pl. E. Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France)
2014-11-15
In this work we present an admittance study of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in the quantum Hall effect (QHE) regime. We have studied several Hall bars in different contacts configurations in the frequency range 100 Hz–1 MHz. Our interpretation is based on the Landauer–Büttiker theory and takes into account both the capacitance and the topology of the coaxial cables which are connected to the sample holder. We show that we always observe losses through the capacitive impedance of the coaxial cables, except in the two contacts configuration in which the cable capacitance does not influence the admittance measurement of the sample. In this case, we measure the electrochemical capacitance of the 2DEG and show its dependence with the filling factor ν.
Quantum Hall effect in epitaxial graphene with permanent magnets
Parmentier, F. D.; Cazimajou, T.; Sekine, Y.; Hibino, H.; Irie, H.; Glattli, D. C.; Kumada, N.; Roulleau, P.
2016-12-01
We have observed the well-kown quantum Hall effect (QHE) in epitaxial graphene grown on silicon carbide (SiC) by using, for the first time, only commercial NdFeB permanent magnets at low temperature. The relatively large and homogeneous magnetic field generated by the magnets, together with the high quality of the epitaxial graphene films, enables the formation of well-developed quantum Hall states at Landau level filling factors v = ±2, commonly observed with superconducting electro-magnets. Furthermore, the chirality of the QHE edge channels can be changed by a top gate. These results demonstrate that basic QHE physics are experimentally accessible in graphene for a fraction of the price of conventional setups using superconducting magnets, which greatly increases the potential of the QHE in graphene for research and applications.
Spin Hall effect-driven spin torque in magnetic textures
Manchon, Aurelien
2011-07-13
Current-induced spin torque and magnetization dynamics in the presence of spin Hall effect in magnetic textures is studied theoretically. The local deviation of the charge current gives rise to a current-induced spin torque of the form (1 - ΒM) × [(u 0 + αH u 0 M) ∇] M, where u0 is the direction of the injected current, H is the Hall angle and is the non-adiabaticity parameter due to spin relaxation. Since αH and ×can have a comparable order of magnitude, we show that this torque can significantly modify the current-induced dynamics of both transverse and vortex walls. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.
Non-collinear antiferromagnets and the anomalous Hall effect
Kübler, J.; Felser, C.
2014-12-01
The anomalous Hall effect is investigated theoretically by employing density functional calculations for the non-collinear antiferromagnetic order of the hexagonal compounds Mn3Ge and Mn3Sn using various planar triangular magnetic configurations as well as unexpected non-planar configurations. The former give rise to anomalous Hall conductivities (AHC) that are found to be extremely anisotropic. For the planar cases the AHC is connected with Weyl points in the energy-band structure. If this case were observable in Mn3Ge, a large AHC of about σzx≈ 900 (Ω \\text{cm})-1 should be expected. However, in Mn3Ge it is the non-planar configuration that is energetically favored, in which case it gives rise to an AHC of σxy≈ 100 (Ω \\text{cm})-1 . The non-planar configuration allows a quantitative evaluation of the topological Hall effect that is seen to determine this value of σxy to a large extent. For Mn3Sn it is the planar configurations that are predicted to be observable. In this case the AHC can be as large as σyz≈250 (Ω \\text{cm})-1 .
Anomalous Hall Effect in Type-I Weyl Metals
Steiner, J. F.; Andreev, A. V.; Pesin, D. A.
2017-07-01
We study the ac anomalous Hall conductivity σx y(ω ) of a Weyl semimetal with broken time-reversal symmetry. Even in the absence of free carriers these materials exhibit a "universal" anomalous Hall response determined solely by the locations of the Weyl nodes. We show that the free carriers, which are generically present in an undoped Weyl semimetal, give an additional contribution to the ac Hall conductivity. We elucidate the phy146sical mechanism of the effect and develop a microscopic theory of the free carrier contribution to σx y(ω ). The latter can be expressed in terms of a small number of parameters (the electron velocity matrix, the Fermi energy μ , and the "tilt" of the Weyl cone). The resulting σx y(ω ) has resonant features at ω ˜2 μ which may be used to separate the free carrier response from the filled-band response using, for example, Kerr effect measurements. This may serve as a diagnostic tool to characterize the doping of individual valleys.
Capillary Discharge Thruster Experiments and Modeling (Briefing Charts)
2016-06-01
PROPULSION MODELS & EXPERIMENTS Spacecraft Propulsion Relevant Plasma: From hall thrusters to plumes and fluxes on components Complex reaction physics i.e...PROPULSION MODELS & EXPERIMENTS Spacecraft Propulsion Relevant Plasma: From hall thrusters to plumes and fluxes on components Complex reaction ...Conductivity h is the Enthalpy Cs is the Sound Speed Θ is the Wall Energy Flux Pekker, 40th AIAA Plasmadynamics and Laser Conference, 2009. R.S. MARTIN (ERC INC
Covariant effective action for a Galilean invariant quantum Hall system
Geracie, Michael; Prabhu, Kartik; Roberts, Matthew M.
2016-09-01
We construct effective field theories for gapped quantum Hall systems coupled to background geometries with local Galilean invariance i.e. Bargmann spacetimes. Along with an electromagnetic field, these backgrounds include the effects of curved Galilean spacetimes, including torsion and a gravitational field, allowing us to study charge, energy, stress and mass currents within a unified framework. A shift symmetry specific to single constituent theories constraints the effective action to couple to an effective background gauge field and spin connection that is solved for by a self-consistent equation, providing a manifestly covariant extension of Hoyos and Son's improvement terms to arbitrary order in m.
The microwave Hall effect measured using a waveguide tee
Coppock, J. E.; Anderson, J. R.; Johnson, W. B.
2016-03-01
This paper describes a simple microwave apparatus to measure the Hall effect in semiconductor wafers. The advantage of this technique is that it does not require contacts on the sample or the use of a resonant cavity. Our method consists of placing the semiconductor wafer into a slot cut in an X-band (8-12 GHz) waveguide series tee, injecting microwave power into the two opposite arms of the tee, and measuring the microwave output at the third arm. A magnetic field applied perpendicular to the wafer gives a microwave Hall signal that is linear in the magnetic field and which reverses phase when the magnetic field is reversed. The microwave Hall signal is proportional to the semiconductor mobility, which we compare for calibration purposes with d.c. mobility measurements obtained using the van der Pauw method. We obtain the resistivity by measuring the microwave reflection coefficient of the sample. This paper presents data for silicon and germanium samples doped with boron or phosphorus. The measured mobilities ranged from 270 to 3000 cm2/(V s).
Silicon Carbide (SiC) Power Processing Unit (PPU) for Hall Effect Thrusters Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR project, APEI, Inc. is proposing to develop a high efficiency, rad-hard 3.8 kW silicon carbide (SiC) power supply for the Power Processing Unit (PPU) of...
Comparison of Medium Power Hall Effect Thruster Ion Acceleration for Krypton and Xenon Propellants
2016-09-14
industrial demand for items such as high efficiency lighting and windows, as well as plasma based micro-fabrication, has produced wide price swings in the...past decade. Xenon prices have varied by as much as factor of ten in the past five years alone. For missions that benefit from higher specific impulse...Concentration ppb 87 1000 Stable Isotopes 9 6 Odd Isotopes 2 1 Critical Pressure MPa 5.84 5.50 Critical Temperature K 290 209 Boiling Point (1 atm) K 161 120
Hall-Effect Thruster Modifications for Dual-Mode Electric Propulsion Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The integrated NASA/DoD electric propulsion objectives are for a specific mass less than 3 kg/kW while demonstrating a throttlable thrust-to-power ratio of 100:1 at...
Demonstration of Laser-Induced Fluorescence on Krypton Hall Effect Thruster
2011-08-10
then divided into two equal components by a 50:50 cube beam splitter (BS). The first compo- nent passes through a krypton opto- galvanic cell and is...terminated by a beam dump. The opto- galvanic cell current is capacitively coupled to a lock-in amplifier in order to monitor the Kr II 728.98 nm 5d4D7/2
Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng; Haag, Thomas; Spektor, Rostislav
2014-01-01
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Science Mission Directorate In-Space Propulsion Technology office is sponsoring NASA Glenn Research Center to develop a 4 kW-class Hall thruster propulsion system for implementation in NASA science missions. A study was conducted to assess the impact of varying the facility background pressure on the High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAc) thruster performance and voltage-current characteristics. This present study evaluated the HiVHAc thruster performance in the lowest attainable background pressure condition at NASA GRC Vacuum Facility 5 to best simulate space-like conditions. Additional tests were performed at selected thruster operating conditions to investigate and elucidate the underlying physics that change during thruster operation at elevated facility background pressure. Tests were performed at background pressure conditions that are three and ten times higher than the lowest realized background pressure. Results indicated that the thruster discharge specific impulse and efficiency increased with elevated facility background pressure. The voltage-current profiles indicated a narrower stable operating region with increased background pressure. Experimental observations of the thruster operation indicated that increasing the facility background pressure shifted the ionization and acceleration zones upstream towards the thruster's anode. Future tests of the HiVHAc thruster are planned at background pressure conditions that are expected to be two to three times lower than what was achieved during this test campaign. These tests will not only assess the impact of reduced facility background pressure on thruster performance, voltage-current characteristics, and plume properties; but will also attempt to quantify the magnitude of the ionization and acceleration zones upstream shifting as a function of increased background pressure.
Quark confinement and the fractional quantum Hall effect
WANG Hai-Jun; GENG Wen-Tong
2008-01-01
Working in the physics of Wilson factor and Aharonov-Bohm effect,we find in the fluxtubequark system the topology of a baryon consisting of three heavy flavor quarks resembles that of the fractional quantum Hall effect(FQHE)in condensed matter.This similarity yields the result that the constituent quarks of baryon have the"filling factor"1/3.thus the previous conjecture that quark confinement is a correlation effect is confirmed.Moreover,by deriving a Hamiltonian of the system analogous to that of FQHE,we predict an energy gap for the ground state of a heavy three-quark system.
Zhang, Yang; Sun, Yan; Yang, Hao; Železný, Jakub; Parkin, Stuart P. P.; Felser, Claudia; Yan, Binghai
2017-02-01
We have carried out a comprehensive study of the intrinsic anomalous Hall effect and spin Hall effect of several chiral antiferromagnetic compounds Mn3X (X = Ge, Sn, Ga, Ir, Rh and Pt) by ab initio band structure and Berry phase calculations. These studies reveal large and anisotropic values of both the intrinsic anomalous Hall effect and spin Hall effect. The Mn3X materials exhibit a noncollinear antiferromagnetic order which, to avoid geometrical frustration, forms planes of Mn moments that are arranged in a Kagome-type lattice. With respect to these Kagome planes, we find that both the anomalous Hall conductivity (AHC) and the spin Hall conductivity (SHC) are quite anisotropic for any of these materials. Based on our calculations, we propose how to maximize AHC and SHC for different materials. The band structures and corresponding electron filling, that we show are essential to determine the AHC and SHC, are compared for these different compounds. We point out that Mn3Ga shows a large SHC of about 600 (ℏ /e ) (Ωcm) -1 . Our work provides insights into the realization of strong anomalous Hall effects and spin Hall effects in chiral antiferromagnetic materials.
Anomalous Hall Effect in Geometrically Frustrated Magnets
D. Boldrin
2012-01-01
space mechanism based on spin chirality that was originally applied to the pyrochlore Nd2Mo2O7 appears unsatisfactory. Recently, an orbital description based on the Aharonov-Bohm effect has been proposed and applied to both the ferromagnetic pyrochlores Nd2Mo2O7 and Pr2Ir2O7; the first of which features long-ranged magnetic order while the latter is a chiral spin liquid. Two further examples of geometrically frustrated conducting magnets are presented in this paper—the kagome-like Fe3Sn2 and the triangular PdCrO2. These possess very different electronic structures to the 3-dimensional heavy-metal pyrochlores and provide new opportunities to explore the different origins of the AHE. This paper summarises the experimental findings in these materials in an attempt to unite the conflicting theoretical arguments.
Anomalous Hall effect of heavy holes in Ⅲ-Ⅴ semiconductor quantum wells
Wang Zhi-Gang; Zhang Ping
2007-01-01
The anomalous Hall effect of heavy holes in semiconductor quantum wells is studied in the intrinsic transport regime, where the Berry curvature governs the Hall current properties. Based on the first-order perturbation of wave function the expression of the Hall conductivity the same as that from the semiclassical equation of motion of the Bloch particles is derived. The dependence of Hall conductivity on the system parameters is shown. The amplitude of Hall conductivity is found to be balanced by a competition between the Zeeman splitting and the spin-orbit splitting.
High temperature hall effect measurement system design, measurement and analysis
Berkun, Isil
A reliable knowledge of the transport properties of semiconductor materials is essential for the development and understanding of a number of electronic devices. In this thesis, the work on developing a Hall Effect measurement system with software based data acqui- sition and control for a temperature range of 300K-700K will be described. A system was developed for high temperature measurements of materials including single crystal diamond, poly-crystalline diamond, and thermoelectric compounds. An added capability for monitor- ing the current versus voltage behavior of the contacts was used for studying the influence of ohmic and non-ohmic contacts on Hall Effect measurements. The system has been primar- ily used for testing the transport properties of boron-doped single crystal diamond (SCD) deposited in a microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) reactor [1]. Diamond has several outstanding properties that are of high interest for its development as an electronic material. These include a relatively wide band gap of 5.5 (eV), high thermal conductivity, high mobility, high saturation velocity, and a high breakdown voltage. For a temperature range of 300K-700K, IV curves, Hall mobilities and carrier concentrations are shown. Temperature dependent Hall effect measurements have shown carrier concentrations from below 1017cm --3 to approximately 1021 cm--3 with mobilities ranging from 763( cm2/V s) to 0.15(cm 2/V s) respectively. Simulation results have shown the effects of single and mixed carrier models, activation energies, effective mass and doping concentrations. These studies have been helpful in the development of single crystal diamond for diode applications. Reference materials of Ge and GaAs were used to test the Hall Effect system. The system was also used to characterize polycrystalline diamond deposited on glass for electrochemical applications, and Mg2(Si,Sn) compounds which are promising candidates of low-cost, light weight and non
Orbitronics: the Intrinsic Orbital Hall Effect in p-Doped Silicon
Bernevig, B.Andrei; Hughes, Taylor L.; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2010-01-15
The spin Hall effect depends crucially on the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling of the energy band. Because of the smaller spin-orbit coupling in silicon, the spin Hall effect is expected to be much reduced. We show that the electric field in p-doped silicon can induce a dissipationless orbital current in a fashion reminiscent of the spin Hall effect. The vertex correction due to impurity scattering vanishes and the effect is therefore robust against disorder. The orbital Hall effect can lead to the accumulation of local orbital momentum at the edge of the sample, and can be detected by the Kerr effect.
The spin Hall effect as a probe of nonlinear spin fluctuations.
Wei, D H; Niimi, Y; Gu, B; Ziman, T; Maekawa, S; Otani, Y
2012-01-01
The spin Hall effect and its inverse have key roles in spintronic devices as they allow conversion of charge currents to and from spin currents. The conversion efficiency strongly depends on material details, such as the electronic band structure and the nature of impurities. Here we show an anomaly in the inverse spin Hall effect in weak ferromagnetic NiPd alloys near their Curie temperatures with a shape independent of material details, such as Ni concentrations. By extending Kondo's model for the anomalous Hall effect, we explain the observed anomaly as originating from the second-order nonlinear spin fluctuation of Ni moments. This brings to light an essential symmetry difference between the spin Hall effect and the anomalous Hall effect, which reflects the first-order nonlinear fluctuations of local moments. Our finding opens up a new application of the spin Hall effect, by which a minuscule magnetic moment can be detected.
Vortex equations governing the fractional quantum Hall effect
Medina, Luciano, E-mail: lmedina@nyu.edu [Department of Mathematics, Polytechnic School of Engineering, New York University, Brooklyn, New York 11201 (United States)
2015-09-15
An existence theory is established for a coupled non-linear elliptic system, known as “vortex equations,” describing the fractional quantum Hall effect in 2-dimensional double-layered electron systems. Via variational methods, we prove the existence and uniqueness of multiple vortices over a doubly periodic domain and the full plane. In the doubly periodic situation, explicit sufficient and necessary conditions are obtained that relate the size of the domain and the vortex numbers. For the full plane case, existence is established for all finite-energy solutions and exponential decay estimates are proved. Quantization phenomena of the magnetic flux are found in both cases.
TOPICAL REVIEW: Spin current, spin accumulation and spin Hall effect
Saburo Takahashi and Sadamichi Maekawa
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Nonlocal spin transport in nanostructured devices with ferromagnetic injector (F1 and detector (F2 electrodes connected to a normal conductor (N is studied. We reveal how the spin transport depends on interface resistance, electrode resistance, spin polarization and spin diffusion length, and obtain the conditions for efficient spin injection, spin accumulation and spin current in the device. It is demonstrated that the spin Hall effect is caused by spin–orbit scattering in nonmagnetic conductors and gives rise to the conversion between spin and charge currents in a nonlocal device. A method of evaluating spin–orbit coupling in nonmagnetic metals is proposed.
Spin Hall effect of light in metallic reflection
Hermosa, N; Aiello, A; Woerdman, J P
2011-01-01
We report the first measurement of the Spin Hall Effect of Light (SHEL) on an air-metal interface. The SHEL is a polarization-dependent out-of-plane shift on the reflected beam. For the case of metallic reflection with a linearly polarized incident light, both the spatial and angular variants of the shift are observed and are maximum for -45\\cdot/45\\cdot polarization, but zero for pure s- and p-polarization. For an incoming beam with circular polarization states however, only the spatial out-of-plane shift is present.
Coherent control of plasmonic Spin Hall effect (Conference Presentation)
Xiao, Shiyi; Zhong, Fan; Liu, Hui; Zhu, Shining; Li, Jensen
2016-10-01
We demonstrate spin-induced manipulation of surface-plasmon polariton (SPP) by exploiting the plasmonic spin Hall effect. By constructing metasurfaces with plasmonic atoms and varying spin-dependent geometric phase, we establish a holographic interface between an incident plane wave and the SPP on an optical chip. It allows us to gain spin-splitting and flexible control of the shapes and phases of the local SPP orbitals. Furthermore, a linearly polarized incident light with rotating polarization angle can be used to play a motion picture of the orbitals. These investigations provide a feasible route to many applications, including spin-enabled imaging, data storage and integrated optics.
Measurement of spin Hall effect of reflected light.
Qin, Yi; Li, Yan; He, Huanyu; Gong, Qihuang
2009-09-01
We have measured the spin-dependent nanometer-sized displacements of the spin Hall effect of the reflected light from a planar air-glass interface. In the case of the vertical polarization, the displacement is found to increase with the incident angle and subsequently decrease after approximately 48 deg, while in the case of the horizontal polarization, it changes rapidly near the Brewster angle. For a fixed incident angle of 30 deg, the displacement decreases to zero as the polarization angle approaches approximately 39 deg from 0 deg (the horizontal polarization) and then increases in the opposite direction until 90 deg (the vertical polarization).
Spin Hall effect of a light beam in anisotropic metamaterials
Tang Ming; Zhou Xin-Xing; Luo Hai-Lu; Wen Shuang-Chun
2012-01-01
We theoretically investigate a switchable spin Hall effect of light (SHEL) in reflection for three specific dispersion relations at an air-anisotropic metamaterial interface.The displacements of horizontal and vertical polarization components vary with the incident angle at different dispersion relations.The transverse displacements can be obtained with the relevant metamaterial whose refractive index can be arbitrarily tailed.The results of the SHEL in the metamaterial provide a new way for manipulating the transverse displacements of a specific polarization component.
$W_{\\infty}$ algebra in the integer quantum Hall effects
Azuma, Hiroo
1994-01-01
We investigate the $W_{\\infty}$ algebra in the integer quantum Hall effects. Defining the simplest vacuum, the Dirac sea, we evaluate the central extension for this algebra. A new algebra which contains the central extension is called the $W_{1+\\infty}$ algebra. We show that this $W_{1+\\infty}$ algebra is an origin of the Kac-Moody algebra which determines the behavior of edge states of the system. We discuss the relation between the $W_{1+\\infty}$ algebra and the incompressibility of the int...
Numerical simulations of Hall-effect plasma accelerators on a magnetic-field-aligned mesh
Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira
2012-10-01
The ionized gas in Hall-effect plasma accelerators spans a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, and exhibits diverse physics some of which remain elusive even after decades of research. Inside the acceleration channel a quasiradial applied magnetic field impedes the current of electrons perpendicular to it in favor of a significant component in the E×B direction. Ions are unmagnetized and, arguably, of wide collisional mean free paths. Collisions between the atomic species are rare. This paper reports on a computational approach that solves numerically the 2D axisymmetric vector form of Ohm's law with no assumptions regarding the resistance to classical electron transport in the parallel relative to the perpendicular direction. The numerical challenges related to the large disparity of the transport coefficients in the two directions are met by solving the equations on a computational mesh that is aligned with the applied magnetic field. This approach allows for a large physical domain that extends more than five times the thruster channel length in the axial direction and encompasses the cathode boundary where the lines of force can become nonisothermal. It also allows for the self-consistent solution of the plasma conservation laws near the anode boundary, and for simulations in accelerators with complex magnetic field topologies. Ions are treated as an isothermal, cold (relative to the electrons) fluid, accounting for the ion drag in the momentum equation due to ion-neutral (charge-exchange) and ion-ion collisions. The density of the atomic species is determined using an algorithm that eliminates the statistical noise associated with discrete-particle methods. Numerical simulations are presented that illustrate the impact of the above-mentioned features on our understanding of the plasma in these accelerators.
Large anomalous Hall effect in a half-Heusler antiferromagnet
Suzuki, T.; Chisnell, R.; Devarakonda, A.; Liu, Y.-T.; Feng, W.; Xiao, D.; Lynn, J. W.; Checkelsky, J. G.
2016-12-01
The quantum mechanical (Berry) phase of the electronic wavefunction plays a critical role in the anomalous and spin Hall effects, including their quantized limits. While progress has been made in understanding these effects in ferromagnets, less is known in antiferromagnetic systems. Here we present a study of antiferromagnet GdPtBi, whose electronic structure is similar to that of the topologically non-trivial HgTe (refs ,,), and where the Gd ions offer the possibility to tune the Berry phase via control of the spin texture. We show that this system supports an anomalous Hall angle ΘAH > 0.1, comparable to the largest observed in bulk ferromagnets and significantly larger than in other antiferromagnets. Neutron scattering measurements and electronic structure calculations suggest that this effect originates from avoided crossing or Weyl points that develop near the Fermi level due to a breaking of combined time-reversal and lattice symmetries. Berry phase effects associated with such symmetry breaking have recently been explored in kagome networks; our results extend this to half-Heusler systems with non-trivial band topology. The magnetic textures indicated here may also provide pathways towards realizing the topological insulating and semimetallic states predicted in this material class.
Effect of hall currents on thermal instability of dusty couple stress fluid
Aggarwal Amrish Kumar
2016-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, effect of Hall currents on the thermal instability of couple-stress fluid permeated with dust particles has been considered. Following the linearized stability theory and normal mode analysis, the dispersion relation is obtained. For the case of stationary convection, dust particles and Hall currents are found to have destabilizing effect while couple stresses have stabilizing effect on the system. Magnetic field induced by Hall currents has stabilizing/destabilizing effect under certain conditions. It is found that due to the presence of Hall currents (hence magnetic field, oscillatory modes are produced which were non-existent in their absence.
Anomalous Hall effect in Fe/Au multilayers
Zhang, Q.
2016-07-22
To understand the interfacial scattering effect on the anomalous Hall effect (AHE), we prepared multilayers of (Fe(36/n)nm/Au(12/n)nm)n using an e-beam evaporator. This structure design allowed us to investigate the effect of interfacial scattering on the AHE, while keeping the samples\\' thickness and composition unchanged. We measured the (magneto)transport properties of the samples in a wide temperature range (10–310 K) with magnetic fields up to 50 kOe. We found that the scaling between the anomalous Hall resistivity (ρAHE) and longitudinal resistivity (ρxx) can be roughly described by ρAHE∼ργxx with γ=2.65±0.10 and 1.90 ± 0.04 for samples from n=1 to n=4 and samples from n=4 to n=12, respectively. Our quantitative analysis results showed that the interfacial scattering suppresses the contribution of the intrinsic mechanism and gives rise to a side-jump contribution.
Contacts and Edge State Equilibration in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect
Kane, C. L.; Fisher, Matthew P. A.
1995-01-01
We develop a simple kinetic equation description of edge state dynamics in the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE), which allows us to examine in detail equilibration processes between multiple edge modes. As in the integer quantum Hall effect (IQHE), inter-mode equilibration is a prerequisite for quantization of the Hall conductance. Two sources for such equilibration are considered: Edge impurity scattering and equilibration by the electrical contacts. Several specific models for electric...
Magnetoelectric tuning of the inverse spin-Hall effect
Vargas, José M.; Gómez, Javier E.; Avilés-Félix, Luis; Butera, Alejandro
2017-05-01
We demonstrate in this article that the magnetoelectric (ME) mechanism can be exploited to control the spin current emitted in a spin pumping experiment using moderate electric fields. Spin currents were generated at the interface of a ferromagnet/metal bilayer by driving the system to the ferromagnetic resonance condition at X-Band (9.78 GHz) with an incident power of 200 mW. The ME structure, a thin (20 nm) FePt film grown on top of a polished 011-cut single crystal lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) slab, was prepared by dc magnetron sputtering. The PMN-PT/FePt was operated in the L-T mode (longitudinal magnetized-transverse polarized). This hybrid composite showed a large ME coefficient of 140 Oe cm/kV, allowing to easily tune the ferromagnetic resonance condition with electric field strengths below 4 kV/cm. A thin layer of Pt (10 nm) was grown on top of the PMN-PT/FePt structure and was used to generate and detect the spin current by taking advantage of its large spin-orbit coupling that produces a measurable signal via the inverse spin-Hall effect. These results proved an alternative way to tune the magnetic field at which the spin current is established and consequently the inverse spin-Hall effect signal, which can promote advances in hybrid spintronic devices.
Quantum spin Hall effect in twisted bilayer graphene
Finocchiaro, F.; Guinea, F.; San-Jose, P.
2017-06-01
Motivated by a recent experiment (Sanchez-Yamagishi et al 2016 Nat. Nanotechnol. 214) reporting evidence of helical spin-polarized edge states in layer-biased twisted bilayer graphene under a magnetic flux, we study the possibility of stabilising a quantum spin Hall (QSH) phase in such a system, without Zeeman or spin-orbit couplings, and with a QSH gap induced instead by electronic interactions. We analyse how magnetic flux, electric field, interlayer rotation angle, and interactions (treated at a mean field level) combine to produce a pseudo-QSH with broken time-reversal symmetry, and spin-polarized helical edge states. The effect is a consequence of a robust interaction-induced ferrimagnetic ordering of the quantum Hall ground state under an interlayer bias, provided the two rotated layers are effectively decoupled at low energies. We discuss in detail the electronic structure and the constraints on system parameters, such as the angle, interactions and magnetic flux, required to reach the pseudo-QSH phase. We find, in particular, that purely local electronic interactions are not sufficient to account for the experimental observations, which demand at least nearest-neighbour interactions to be included.
Extrinsic spin Hall effect induced by resonant skew scattering in graphene.
Ferreira, Aires; Rappoport, Tatiana G; Cazalilla, Miguel A; Castro Neto, A H
2014-02-14
We show that the extrinsic spin Hall effect can be engineered in monolayer graphene by decoration with small doses of adatoms, molecules, or nanoparticles originating local spin-orbit perturbations. The analysis of the single impurity scattering problem shows that intrinsic and Rashba spin-orbit local couplings enhance the spin Hall effect via skew scattering of charge carriers in the resonant regime. The solution of the transport equations for a random ensemble of spin-orbit impurities reveals that giant spin Hall currents are within the reach of the current state of the art in device fabrication. The spin Hall effect is robust with respect to thermal fluctuations and disorder averaging.
Time-reversal-breaking induced quantum spin Hall effect
Luo, Wei; Shao, D. X.; Deng, Ming-Xun; Deng, W. Y.; Sheng, L.
2017-01-01
We show that quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect does not occur in a square lattice model due to cancellation of the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling coming from different hopping paths. However, we show that QSH effect can be induced by the presence of staggered magnetic fluxes alternating directions square by square. When the resulting Peierls phase takes a special value , the system has a composite symmetry ΘΡ− with Θ the time-reversal operator and Ρ− transforming the Peierls phase from γ to γ − , which protects the gapless edge states. Once the phase deviates from , the edge states open a gap, as the composite symmetry is broken. We further investigate the effect of a Zeeman field on the QSH state, and find that the edge states remain gapless for . This indicates that the QSH effect is immune to the magnetic perturbation. PMID:28220858
Hallock, Ashley K.; Polzin, Kurt A.; Kimberlin, Adam C.; Perdue, Kevin A.
2012-01-01
Operational characteristics of two separate inductive thrusters with conical theta pinch coils of different cone angles are explored through thrust stand measurements and time- integrated, unfiltered photography. Trends in impulse bit measurements indicate that, in the present experimental configuration, the thruster with the inductive coil possessing a smaller cone angle produced larger values of thrust, in apparent contradiction to results of a previous thruster acceleration model. Areas of greater light intensity in photographs of thruster operation are assumed to qualitatively represent locations of increased current density. Light intensity is generally greater in images of the thruster with the smaller cone angle when compared to those of the thruster with the larger half cone angle for the same operating conditions. The intensity generally decreases in both thrusters for decreasing mass flow rate and capacitor voltage. The location of brightest light intensity shifts upstream for decreasing mass flow rate of propellant and downstream for decreasing applied voltage. Recognizing that there typically exists an optimum ratio of applied electric field to gas pressure with respect to breakdown efficiency, this result may indicate that the optimum ratio was not achieved uniformly over the coil face, leading to non-uniform and incomplete current sheet formation in violation of the model assumption of immediate formation where all the injected propellant is contained in a magnetically-impermeable current sheet.
Emergence of integer quantum Hall effect from chaos
Tian, Chushun; Wang, Jiao
2015-01-01
We present an analytic microscopic theory showing that in a large class of spin-$\\frac{1}{2}$ quasiperiodic quantum kicked rotors, a dynamical analog of the integer quantum Hall effect (IQHE) emerges from an intrinsic chaotic structure. Specifically, the inverse of the Planck's quantum ($h_e$) and the rotor's energy growth rate mimic the `filling fraction' and the `longitudinal conductivity' in conventional IQHE, respectively, and a hidden quantum number is found to mimic the `quantized Hall conductivity'. We show that for an infinite discrete set of critical values of $h_e$, the long-time energy growth rate is universal and of order of unity (`metallic' phase), but otherwise vanishes (`insulating' phase). Moreover, the rotor insulating phases are topological, each of which is characterized by a hidden quantum number. This number exhibits universal behavior for small $h_e$, i.e., it jumps by unity whenever $h_e$ decreases, passing through each critical value. This intriguing phenomenon is not triggered by the...
Photonic spin Hall effect in metasurfaces: a brief review
Liu, Yachao; Ke, Yougang; Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun
2017-01-01
The photonic spin Hall effect (SHE) originates from the interplay between the photon-spin (polarization) and the trajectory (extrinsic orbital angular momentum) of light, i.e. the spin-orbit interaction. Metasurfaces, metamaterials with a reduced dimensionality, exhibit exceptional abilities for controlling the spin-orbit interaction and thereby manipulating the photonic SHE. Spin-redirection phase and Pancharatnam-Berry phase are the manifestations of spin-orbit interaction. The former is related to the evolution of the propagation direction and the latter to the manipulation with polarization state. Two distinct forms of splitting based on these two types of geometric phases can be induced by the photonic SHE in metasurfaces: the spin-dependent splitting in position space and in momentum space. The introduction of Pacharatnam-Berry phases, through space-variant polarization manipulations with metasurfaces, enables new approaches for fabricating the spin-Hall devices. Here, we present a short review of photonic SHE in metasurfaces and outline the opportunities in spin photonics.
A study on InSb Magnetic Sensor Using Hall Effect
Chon, C.S. [Inha Univ., Inchon (Korea, Republic of)
1994-02-01
InSb thin film magnetic sensor, which have been prepared on glass substrate by vacuum evaporation, is investigated in this paper. The dependence of hall voltage with on magnetic field and temperature is examined by Hall effect. The variation of Hall voltage with magnetic field is almost linear at constant current drive but it is deviated from the linearity at constant voltage drive. Hall voltage decreases as the ambient temperature increases, so it is necessary to take into account the temperature effect when the InSb thin film is used as magnetic sensor. (author). 17 refs., 5 figs.
Hall and ion slip effects on peristaltic flow of Jeffrey nanofluid with Joule heating
Hayat, T.; Shafique, Maryam; Tanveer, A.; Alsaedi, A.
2016-06-01
This paper addresses mixed convective peristaltic flow of Jeffrey nanofluid in a channel with complaint walls. The present investigation includes the viscous dissipation, thermal radiation and Joule heating. Hall and ion slip effects are also taken into account. Related problems through long wavelength and low Reynolds number are examined for stream function, temperature and concentration. Impacts of thermal radiation, Hartman number, Brownian motion parameter, thermophoresis, Joule heating, Hall and ion slip parameters are investigated in detail. It is observed that velocity increases and temperature decreases with Hall and ion slip parameters. Further the thermal radiation on temperature has qualitatively similar role to that of Hall and ion slip effects.
Pseudo Magnetic Faraday and Quantum Hall Effect In Oscillating Graphene
Bhagat, Anita; Mullen, Kieran
When a graphene layer is stressed, the strain changes the phase between sites in a tight binding model of the system. This phase can be viewed as a pseudo-magnetic vector potential. The corresponding pseudo-magnetic field has been experimentally verified in static cases. We examine the case of oscillating graphene ribbons and explore two new effects. The first is to investigate an oscillating pseudo-magnetic field that produces a quantum Hall effect: we calculate the I-V characteristic of an oscillating graphene nanoribbon as a function of frequency, and amplitude in both the oscillations and the applied driving voltage. Second, the time dependent pseudo-magnetic field should produce a pseudo-Faraday effect driving electrons in different valleys in opposite directions. In both cases, we make explicit calculations for experiment. This project was supported in part by the US National Science Foundation under Grant DMR-1310407.
Planar Hall effect sensor with magnetostatic compensation layer
Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Donolato, Marco; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt
2012-01-01
Demagnetization effects in cross-shaped planar Hall effect sensors cause inhomogeneous film magnetization and a hysteretic sensor response. Furthermore, when using sensors for detection of magnetic beads, the magnetostatic field from the sensor edges attracts and holds magnetic beads near...... the sensor edges causing inhomogeneous and non-specific binding of the beads. We show theoretically that adding a compensation magnetic stack beneath the sensor stack and exchange-biasing it antiparallel to the sensor stack, the magnetostatic field is minimized. We show experimentally that the compensation...... stack removes nonlinear effects from the sensor response, it strongly reduces hysteresis, and it increases the homogeneity of the bead distribution. Finally, it reduces the non-specific binding due to magnetostatic fields allowing us to completely remove beads from the compensated sensor using a water...
Geometric Spin Hall Effect of Light at Polarizing Interfaces
Korger, Jan; Gabriel, Christian; Banzer, Peter; Kolb, Tobias; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd
2011-01-01
The geometric Spin Hall Effect of Light (geometric SHEL) amounts to a polarization-dependent positional shift when a light beam is observed from a reference frame tilted with respect to its direction of propagation. Motivated by this intriguing phenomenon, the energy density of the light beam is decomposed into its Cartesian components in the tilted reference frame. This illustrates the occurrence of the characteristic shift and the significance of the effective response function of the detector. We introduce the concept of a tilted polarizing interface and provide a scheme for its experimental implementation. A light beam passing through such an interface undergoes a shift resembling the original geometric SHEL in a tilted reference frame. This displacement is generated at the polarizer and its occurrence does not depend on the properties of the detection system. We give explicit results for this novel type of geometric SHEL and show that at grazing incidence this effect amounts to a displacement of multiple...
PAN Wen-Xia; LI Teng; WU Cheng-Kang
2009-01-01
An arc-heated thruster of 130-800 W input power is tested in a vacuum chamber at pressures lower than 20 Pa with argon or H_2-N_2 gas mixture as propellant.The time-dependent arc voltage-current curve,outside-surface temperature of the anode nozzle and the produced thrust of the firing arcjet thruster are measured in situ simultaneously,in order to analyze and evaluate the dependence of thruster working characteristics and output properties,such as specific impulse and thrust efficiency,on nozzle temperature.
Hall and Nernst effects in monolayer MoS2
Zhang, Yun-Hai; Zhang, Ming-Hua
2016-03-01
We study Hall and Nernst transports in monolayer MoS2 based on Green’s function formalism. We have derived analytical results for spin and valley Hall conductivities in the zero temperature and spin and valley Nernst conductivities in the low temperature. We found that tuning of the band gap and spin-orbit splitting can drive system transition from spin Hall insulator (SHI) to valley Hall insulator (VHI). When the system is subjected to a temperature gradient, the spin and valley Nernst conductivities are dependent on Berry curvature.
Andersson, G.
2015-09-01
The thruster module described in this paper provides a low but controlled acceleration in a mission which would normally be labelled “microgravity”. The first mission was Cryofenix, where tanks containing liquid hydrogen were used in the experiment. The experiment utilizing the low acceleration is using liquids and requires a precise acceleration profile throughout the mission. Acceleration obtained by payload rotation is not feasible due to that the transversal forces required to change the acceleration will cause undesired liquid turbulence. In order to satisfy the experiment requirements a thruster module was developed by SSC for the Cryofenix mission funded by CNES. The Cryofenix mission had a payload weight of 380 kg and an apogee of about 260 km. The module produces a controlled thrust in flight direction by means of a cold gas system.
Heterodyne Hall effect in a two-dimensional electron gas
Oka, Takashi; Bucciantini, Leda
2016-10-01
We study the hitherto unaddressed phenomenon of the quantum Hall effect with a magnetic and electric field oscillating in time with resonant frequencies. This phenomenon highlights an example of a heterodyne device with the magnetic field acting as a driving force, and it is analyzed in detail in its classical and quantum versions using Floquet theory. A bulk current flowing perpendicularly to the applied electric field is found, with a frequency shifted by integer multiples of the driving frequency. When the ratio of the cyclotron and driving frequency takes special values, the electron's classical trajectory forms a loop and the effective mass diverges, while in the quantum case we find an analog of the Landau quantization. A possible realization using metamaterial plasmonics is discussed.
The quantum anomalous Hall effect in kagome lattices
Zhang Zhiyong, E-mail: zyzhang@nju.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)
2011-09-14
The quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect in kagome lattices is investigated in the presence of both Rashba spin-orbit coupling and an exchange field. In addition to the gap at the Dirac points as found in graphene, a new topological energy gap is opened at the {Gamma} point. With the Fermi energy lying in the first gap, the Chern number c = 2 as in graphene, whereas with it lying in the second one, c = 1. The distribution of Berry curvature is obtained to reveal the nontrivial topological properties in momentum space. For stripes with 'armchair' and 'zigzag' edges, the topological characteristics of gapless edge states on the genus g = 2 Riemann surface are studied. The obtained nonzero winding numbers also demonstrate the QAH effect. (paper)
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Spin Hall Effects of Dirac Electrons
Fukazawa, Takaaki; Kohno, Hiroshi; Fujimoto, Junji
2017-09-01
We investigate the spin Hall effect (SHE) of electrons described by the Dirac equation, which is used as an effective model near the L-points in bismuth. By considering short-range nonmagnetic impurities, we calculate the extrinsic as well as intrinsic contributions on an equal footing. The vertex corrections are taken into account within the ladder type and the so-called skew-scattering type. The intrinsic SHE which we obtain is consistent with that of Fuseya et al. [https://doi.org/10.1143/JPSJ.81.093704" xlink:type="simple">J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 81, 093704 (2012)]. It is found that the extrinsic contribution dominates the intrinsic one when the system is metallic. The extrinsic SHE due to the skew scattering is proportional to Δ/niu, where 2Δ is the band gap, ni is the impurity concentration, and u is the strength of the impurity potential.
Influence of disorder on anomalous Hall effect for Heusler compounds
Vilanova Vidal, E.; Schneider, H.; Jakob, G.
2011-05-01
The anomalous Hall effect (AHE) is a long known but still not fully understood transport effect. Most theory papers focus on the influence of one particular contribution to the AHE. Actual measured experimental data, however, often are not in accord with idealized assumptions. In this work we discuss the data analysis for materials with low residual resistivity ratios. As prototypical materials we study half metallic Heusler compounds. Here the influence of defects and disorder is apparent in a material with a complex topology of the Fermi surface. Using films of different degree of disorder, we show how different scattering mechanisms can be separated. For Co2FeSi0.6Al0.4 and Co2FeGa0.5Ge0.5 the AHE induced by B2-type disorder and temperature-dependent scattering is positive, while DO3-type disorder and possible intrinsic contributions possess a negative sign.
Deformed Calogero-Sutherland model and fractional quantum Hall effect
Atai, Farrokh; Langmann, Edwin
2017-01-01
The deformed Calogero-Sutherland (CS) model is a quantum integrable system with arbitrary numbers of two types of particles and reducing to the standard CS model in special cases. We show that a known collective field description of the CS model, which is based on conformal field theory (CFT), is actually a collective field description of the deformed CS model. This provides a natural application of the deformed CS model in Wen's effective field theory of the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE), with the two kinds of particles corresponding to electrons and quasi-hole excitations. In particular, we use known mathematical results about super-Jack polynomials to obtain simple explicit formulas for the orthonormal CFT basis proposed by van Elburg and Schoutens in the context of the FQHE.
Controlling the optical spin Hall effect with light
Lafont, O; Lewandowski, P; Kwong, N H; Chan, K P; Babilon, M; Leung, P T; Galopin, E; Lemaitre, A; Tignon, J; Schumacher, S; Baudin, E; Binder, R
2016-01-01
The optical spin Hall effect (OSHE) is a transport phenomenon of exciton polaritons in semiconductor microcavities, caused by the polaritonic spin-orbit interaction, that leads to the formation of spin textures. In the semiconductor cavity, the physical basis of the spin orbit coupling is an effective magnetic field caused by the splitting of transverse-electric and transverse-magnetic (TE-TM) modes. The spin textures can be observed in the near field (local spin distribution of polaritons), and as light polarization patterns in the more readily observable far field. For future applications in spinoptronic devices, a simple and robust control mechanism, which establishes a one-to-one correspondence between stationary incident light intensity and far-field polarization pattern, is needed. We present such a control scheme, which is made possible by a specific double-microcavity design.
Temperature dependent nonlinear Hall effect in macroscopic Si-MOS antidot array
Kuntsevich, A. Yu.; Shupltetsov, A. V.; Nunuparov, M. S.
2015-01-01
By measuring magnetoresistance and Hall effect in classically moderate perpendicular magnetic field in Si-MOSFET-type macroscopic antidot array we found a novel effect: nonlinear with field, temperature- and density-dependent Hall resistivity. We discuss qualitative explanation of the phenomenon and suggest that it might originate from strong temperature dependence of the resistivity and mobility in the shells of the antidots.
Thickness Dependence of the Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect in Magnetic Topological Insulator Films.
Feng, Xiao; Feng, Yang; Wang, Jing; Ou, Yunbo; Hao, Zhenqi; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Zuocheng; Zhang, Liguo; Lin, Chaojing; Liao, Jian; Li, Yongqing; Wang, Li-Li; Ji, Shuai-Hua; Chen, Xi; Ma, Xucun; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Wang, Yayu; He, Ke; Xue, Qi-Kun
2016-08-01
The evolution of the quantum anomalous Hall effect with the thickness of Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2 Te3 magnetic topological insulator films is studied, revealing how the effect is caused by the interplay of the surface states, band-bending, and ferromagnetic exchange energy. Homogeneity in ferromagnetism is found to be the key to high-temperature quantum anomalous Hall material.
Effect of Ambipolar Potential on the Propulsive Performance of the GDM Plasma Thruster Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The gasdynamic mirror (GDM) plasma thruster has the ability to confine high-density plasma for the length of time required to heat it to the temperatures...
Effect of Ambipolar Potential on the Propulsive Performance of the GDM Plasma Thruster Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Gasdynamic Mirror (GDM) thruster is an electric propulsion device, without electrodes, that will magnetically confine a plasma with such density and temperature...
Spin analogs of superconductivity and integer quantum Hall effect in an array of spin chains
Hill, Daniel; Kim, Se Kwon; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav
2017-05-01
Motivated by the successful idea of using weakly coupled quantum electronic wires to realize the quantum Hall effects and the quantum spin Hall effects, we theoretically study two systems composed of weakly coupled quantum spin chains within the mean-field approximations, which can exhibit spin analogs of superconductivity and the integer quantum Hall effect. First, a certain bilayer of two arrays of interacting spin chains is mapped, via the Jordan-Wigner transformation, to an attractive Hubbard model that exhibits fermionic superconductivity, which corresponds to spin superconductivity in the original spin Hamiltonian. Secondly, an array of spin-orbit-coupled spin chains in the presence of a suitable external magnetic field is transformed to an array of quantum wires that exhibits the integer quantum Hall effect, which translates into its spin analog in the spin Hamiltonian. The resultant spin superconductivity and spin integer quantum Hall effect can be characterized by their ability to transport spin without any resistance.
Planar Hall effect sensor for magnetic micro- and nanobead detection
Ejsing, L.; Hansen, M. F.; Menon, A. K.; Ferreira, H. A.; Graham, D. L.; Freitas, P. P.
2004-06-01
Magnetic bead sensors based on the planar Hall effect in thin films of exchange-biased permalloy have been fabricated and characterized. Typical sensitivities are 3 μV/Oe mA. The sensor response to an applied magnetic field has been measured without and with coatings of commercially available 2 μm and 250 nm magnetic beads used for bioapplications (Micromer-M and Nanomag-D, Micromod, Germany). Detection of both types of beads and single bead detection of 2 μm beads is demonstrated, i.e., the technique is feasible for magnetic biosensors. Single 2 μm beads yield 300 nV signals at 10 mA and 15 Oe applied field.
The quantum anomalous Hall effect in kagomé lattices.
Zhang, Zhi-Yong
2011-09-14
The quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect in kagomé lattices is investigated in the presence of both Rashba spin-orbit coupling and an exchange field. In addition to the gap at the Dirac points as found in graphene, a new topological energy gap is opened at the Γ point. With the Fermi energy lying in the first gap, the Chern number = 2 as in graphene, whereas with it lying in the second one, = 1. The distribution of Berry curvature is obtained to reveal the nontrivial topological properties in momentum space. For stripes with 'armchair' and 'zigzag' edges, the topological characteristics of gapless edge states on the genus g = 2 Riemann surface are studied. The obtained nonzero winding numbers also demonstrate the QAH effe
Matrix method analysis of quantum Hall effect device connections
Ortolano, M.; Callegaro, L.
2012-02-01
The modelling of electrical connections of single, or several, multiterminal quantum Hall effect (QHE) devices is relevant for electrical metrology: it is known, in fact, that certain particular connections allow (i) the realization of multiples or fractions of the quantized resistance, or (ii) the rejection of stray impedances, so that the configuration maintains the status of quantum standard. Ricketts-Kemeny and Delahaye equivalent circuits are known to be accurate models of the QHE: however, the numerical or analytical solution of electrical networks including these equivalent circuits can be difficult. In this paper, we introduce a method of analysis based on the representation of a QHE device by means of the indefinite admittance matrix: external connections are then represented with another matrix, easily written by inspection. Some examples, including the solution of double- and triple-series connections, are shown.
Matrix method analysis of quantum Hall effect device connections
Ortolano, Massimo
2011-01-01
The modelling of electrical connections of single, or several, multiterminal quantum Hall effect (QHE) devices is relevant for electrical metrology: it is known, in fact, that certain particular connections allow i) the realization of multiples or fractions of the quantised resistance, or ii) the rejection of stray impedances, so that the configuration maintains the status of quantum standard. Ricketts-Kemeny and Delahaye equivalent circuits are known to be accurate models of the QHE: however, the numerical or analytical solution of electrical networks including these equivalent circuits can be difficult. In this paper, we introduce a method of analysis based on the representation of a QHE device by means of the \\emph{indefinite admittance matrix}: external connections are then represented with another matrix, easily written by inspection. Some examples, including the solution of double- and triple-series connections, are shown.
Quantum spin Hall effect and topological insulators for light
Bliokh, Konstantin Y
2015-01-01
We show that free-space light has intrinsic quantum spin-Hall effect (QSHE) properties. These are characterized by a non-zero topological spin Chern number, and manifest themselves as evanescent modes of Maxwell equations. The recently discovered transverse spin of evanescent modes demonstrates spin-momentum locking stemming from the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling in Maxwell equations. As a result, any interface between free space and a medium supporting surface modes exhibits QSHE of light with opposite transverse spins propagating in opposite directions. In particular, we find that usual isotropic metals with surface plasmon-polariton modes represent natural 3D topological insulators for light. Several recent experiments have demonstrated transverse spin-momentum locking and spin-controlled unidirectional propagation of light at various interfaces with evanescent waves. Our results show that all these experiments can be interpreted as observations of the QSHE of light.
Microbeads detection using spin-valve planar Hall effect sensors.
Volmer, M; Avram, M
2012-09-01
In this paper we present a micromagnetic approach to describe the detection of magnetic nanobeads using planar Hall effect sensors. The magnetic beads polarized by a dc magnetic field generate a field, which can affect the magnetization state of spin-valve sensor, leading in principle, to a detectable signal. For magnetic nanobeads we assumed a superparamagnetic behaviour. Three detection geometries are discussed and some specific behaviours were highlighted by micromagnetic simulations. We found that when the polarising field is applied parallel with the sensor surface a very weak signal can be obtained. This is because at working fields, for which the magnetic nanobeads are magnetised, the sensor saturates. We identified other setups that can overcome this shortcoming and deliver a net signal.
Hall current effects in mean-field dynamo theory
Lingam, Manasvi
2016-01-01
The role of the Hall term on large scale dynamo action is investigated by means of the First Order Smoothing Approximation. It is shown that the standard $\\alpha$ coefficient is altered, and is zero when a specific double Beltrami state is attained, in contrast to the Alfv\\'enic state for MHD dynamos. The $\\beta$ coefficient is no longer positive definite, and thereby enables dynamo action even if $\\alpha$-quenching were to operate. The similarities and differences with the (magnetic) shear-current effect are pointed out, and a mechanism that may be potentially responsible for $\\beta < 0$ is advanced. The results are compared against previous studies, and their astrophysical relevance is also highlighted.
Magnetic bilayer-skyrmions without skyrmion Hall effect
Zhang, Xichao; Zhou, Yan; Ezawa, Motohiko
2016-01-01
Magnetic skyrmions might be used as information carriers in future advanced memories, logic gates and computing devices. However, there exists an obstacle known as the skyrmion Hall effect (SkHE), that is, the skyrmion trajectories bend away from the driving current direction due to the Magnus force. Consequently, the skyrmions in constricted geometries may be destroyed by touching the sample edges. Here we theoretically propose that the SkHE can be suppressed in the antiferromagnetically exchange-coupled bilayer system, since the Magnus forces in the top and bottom layers are exactly cancelled. We show that such a pair of SkHE-free magnetic skyrmions can be nucleated and be driven by the current-induced torque. Our proposal provides a promising means to move magnetic skyrmions in a perfectly straight trajectory in ultra-dense devices with ultra-fast processing speed.
Massive Dirac fermions and the zero field quantum Hall effect
Raya, Alfredo
2008-01-01
Through an explicit calculation for a Lagrangian in quantum electrodynamics in (2+1)-space--time dimensions (QED$_3$), making use of the relativistic Kubo formula, we demonstrate that the filling factor accompanying the quantized electrical conductivity for massive Dirac fermions of a single species in two spatial dimensions is a half (in natural units) when time reversal and parity symmetries of the Lagrangian are explicitly broken by the fermion mass term. We then discuss the most general form of the QED$_3$ Lagrangian, both for irreducible and reducible representations of the Dirac matrices in the plane, with emphasis on the appearance of a Chern-Simons term. We also identify the value of the filling factor with a zero field quantum Hall effect (QHE).
Massive Dirac fermions and the zero field quantum Hall effect
Raya, Alfredo; Reyes, Edward D.
2008-09-01
Through an explicit calculation for a Lagrangian in quantum electrodynamics in (2+1)-spacetime dimensions (QED3), making use of the relativistic Kubo formula, we demonstrate that the filling factor accompanying the quantized electrical conductivity for massive Dirac fermions of a single species in two spatial dimensions is a half (in natural units) when time reversal and parity symmetries of the Lagrangian are explicitly broken by the fermion mass term. We then discuss the most general form of the QED3 Lagrangian, for both irreducible and reducible representations of the Dirac matrices in the plane, with emphasis on the appearance of a Chern-Simons term. We also identify the value of the filling factor with a zero field quantum Hall effect (QHE).
Rotational spin Hall effect in a uniaxial crystal
Fadeyeva, Tatyana A.; Alexeyev, Constantine N.; Rubass, Alexander F.; Ivanov, Maksym O.; Zinov'ev, Alexey O.; Konovalenko, Victor L.; Volyar, Alexander V.
2012-04-01
We have considered the propagation process of the phase-matched array of singular beams through a uniaxial crystal. We have revealed that local beams in the array are rotated when propagating. However the right and left rotations are unequal. There are at least two processes responsible for the array rotation: the interference of local beams and the spatial depolarization. The interference takes place in the vortex birth and annihilation events forming the symmetrical part of the rotation. The depolarization process contributes to the asymmetry of the rotation that is called the rotational spin Hall effect. It can be brought to light due to the difference between the envelopes of the dependences of the angular displacement on the inclination angle of the local beams or the crystal length reaching the value some angular degree. The direction of the additional array rotation is exclusively defined by the handedness of the circular polarization in the initial beam array.
Crossed Andreev effects in two-dimensional quantum Hall systems
Hou, Zhe; Xing, Yanxia; Guo, Ai-Min; Sun, Qing-Feng
2016-08-01
We study the crossed Andreev effects in two-dimensional conductor/superconductor hybrid systems under a perpendicular magnetic field. Both a graphene/superconductor hybrid system and an electron gas/superconductor one are considered. It is shown that an exclusive crossed Andreev reflection, with other Andreev reflections being completely suppressed, is obtained in a high magnetic field because of the chiral edge states in the quantum Hall regime. Importantly, the exclusive crossed Andreev reflection not only holds for a wide range of system parameters, e.g., the size of system, the width of central superconductor, and the quality of coupling between the graphene and the superconductor, but also is very robust against disorder. When the applied bias is within the superconductor gap, a robust Cooper-pair splitting process with high-efficiency can be realized in this system.
Generalized Pseudopotentials for the Anisotropic Fractional Quantum Hall Effect
Yang, Bo; Hu, Zi-Xiang; Lee, Ching Hua; Papić, Z.
2017-04-01
We generalize the notion of Haldane pseudopotentials to anisotropic fractional quantum Hall (FQH) systems that are physically realized, e.g., in tilted magnetic field experiments or anisotropic band structures. This formalism allows us to expand any translation-invariant interaction over a complete basis, and directly reveals the intrinsic metric of incompressible FQH fluids. We show that purely anisotropic pseudopotentials give rise to new types of bound states for small particle clusters in the infinite plane, and can be used as a diagnostic of FQH nematic order. We also demonstrate that generalized pseudopotentials quantify the anisotropic contribution to the effective interaction potential, which can be particularly large in models of fractional Chern insulators.
J series thruster thermal test results
Bechtel, R. T.; Dulgeroff, C. R.
1982-01-01
Test experience with J series ion thrusters have indicated that the present thruster design may result in excessive temperatures in areas which utilize organic materials such as wire insulation, with the resultant outgassing and potential contamination of insulating materials. Further, it appears that thermal data obtained with earlier thruster designs, such as the 700 series thruster, may not be directly applicable to the J series design. Two J series thrusters were fitted with thermocouples and critical temperatures measured for a variety of configurations and operating parameters. Completely enclosing the thruster to reduce facility contamination significantly increased temperatures prompting the selection of a compromise geometry for life testing. The operating parameter having the largest effect on temperatures was discharge power, while beam power affected little else than extraction system temperatures. Several off-normal operating modes were also investigated. Data believed to be sufficient to effectively modify existing thermal models were obtained from the tests.
Hall effect in the normal phase of the organic superconductor (TMTSF)2PF6
Moser, J.; Cooper, J.R.; Jerome, D.
2000-01-01
We report accurate Hall effect measurements performed in the normal phase of the quasi-one-dimensional organic conductor (TMTSF)(2)PF(6) at ambient pressure. The Hall coefficient is found to be strongly temperature dependent all the way from 300 K down to the spin density wave onset arising aroun...
Liu, Hui; Chen, Peng-Bo; Zhao, Yin-Jian; Yu, Da-Ren
2015-08-01
Magnetic mirror used as an efficient tool to confine plasma has been widely adopted in many different areas especially in recent cusped field thrusters. In order to check the influence of magnetic mirror effect on the plasma distribution in a cusped field thruster, three different radii of the discharge channel (6 mm, 4 mm, and 2 mm) in a cusped field thruster are investigated by using Particle-in-Cell Plus Monte Carlo (PIC-MCC) simulated method, under the condition of a fixed axial length of the discharge channel and the same operating parameters. It is found that magnetic cusps inside the small radius discharge channel cannot confine electrons very well. Thus, the electric field is hard to establish. With the reduction of the discharge channel’s diameter, more electrons will escape from cusps to the centerline area near the anode due to a lower magnetic mirror ratio. Meanwhile, the leak width of the cusped magnetic field will increase at the cusp. By increasing the magnetic field strength in a small radius model of a cusped field thruster, the negative effect caused by the weak magnetic mirror effect can be partially compensated. Therefore, according to engineering design, the increase of magnetic field strength can contribute to obtaining a good performance, when the radial distance between the magnets and the inner surface of the discharge channel is relatively big. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51006028) and the Foundation for Innovative Research Groups of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51121004).
Quantum anomalous Hall effect in stanene on a nonmagnetic substrate
Zhang, Huisheng; Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Jiayong; Zhao, Bao; Yao, Yugui; Yang, Zhongqin
2016-12-01
Since the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect was realized in magnetic topological insulators, research on the effect has become a hot topic. The very harsh realizing requirements of the effect in experiments, however, hinder its practical applications. Based on ab initio methods, we find that nonmagnetic Pb I2 films are ideal substrates for the two-dimensional honeycomb stanene. The QAH effect with a pretty large band gap (up to 90 meV) can be achieved in the functionalized stanene /Pb I2 heterostructure. Despite van der Waals interactions in the heterostructure, band inversions are found to be happening between Sn (s and px ,y ) and Pb (px ,y) orbitals, playing a key role in determining the nontrivial topology and the large band gap of the system. Having no magnetic atoms is imperative to triggering the QAH effect. A very stable rudimentary device having QAH effects is proposed based on the Sn /Pb I2 heterostructure. Our results demonstrate that QAH effects can be easily realized in the Sn /Pb I2 heterostructures in experiments.
Edge states and integer quantum Hall effect in topological insulator thin films.
Zhang, Song-Bo; Lu, Hai-Zhou; Shen, Shun-Qing
2015-08-25
The integer quantum Hall effect is a topological state of quantum matter in two dimensions, and has recently been observed in three-dimensional topological insulator thin films. Here we study the Landau levels and edge states of surface Dirac fermions in topological insulators under strong magnetic field. We examine the formation of the quantum plateaux of the Hall conductance and find two different patterns, in one pattern the filling number covers all integers while only odd integers in the other. We focus on the quantum plateau closest to zero energy and demonstrate the breakdown of the quantum spin Hall effect resulting from structure inversion asymmetry. The phase diagrams of the quantum Hall states are presented as functions of magnetic field, gate voltage and chemical potential. This work establishes an intuitive picture of the edge states to understand the integer quantum Hall effect for Dirac electrons in topological insulator thin films.
Hall and ion slip effects on peristaltic flow of Jeffrey nanofluid with Joule heating
Hayat, T. [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); NAAM Research Group, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Shafique, Maryam [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Tanveer, A., E-mail: anum@math.qau.edu.pk [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Alsaedi, A. [NAAM Research Group, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)
2016-06-01
This paper addresses mixed convective peristaltic flow of Jeffrey nanofluid in a channel with complaint walls. The present investigation includes the viscous dissipation, thermal radiation and Joule heating. Hall and ion slip effects are also taken into account. Related problems through long wavelength and low Reynolds number are examined for stream function, temperature and concentration. Impacts of thermal radiation, Hartman number, Brownian motion parameter, thermophoresis, Joule heating, Hall and ion slip parameters are investigated in detail. It is observed that velocity increases and temperature decreases with Hall and ion slip parameters. Further the thermal radiation on temperature has qualitatively similar role to that of Hall and ion slip effects. - Highlights: • Peristalsis in the presence of Jeffery nanofluid is formulated. • Compliant properties of channel walls are addressed. • Impact of Hall and ion slip effects is outlined. • Influence of Joule heating and radiation is investigated. • Mixed convection for both heat and mass transfer is present.
The Investigation Of Carbon Contamination And Sputtering Effects Of Xenon Ion Thrusters
Prak, Moline K.
2004-01-01
The Electro-Physics Branch of the NASA Glenn Research Center investigates the effect of atomic oxygen, environmental durability of high performance power materials and surfaces, and low earth orbit. One of its current projects involves the analysis of ion thrusters. Ion thrusters are devices that initiate a beam of ions to a target area. The type of ion thruster that I have been working with this Summer of 2004 emits positively charged Xenon (Xe(+)) atoms through two grids, the screen grid and the accelerator grid, after it enters an ionization chamber. Insulators are used to mechanically hold and separate these two grids. A propellant isolator, an instrument that closely resembles insulators, is placed in front of the ionization chamber. Both the insulator and isolator are made with a ceramic compound and filled with insulating beads. The main difference between the two devices is that the propellant isolator allows gas to flow through, in this case, the gas is Xe(+) and the insulators do not. In order to avoid carbon deposits and other contaminating chemicals to settle on the insulators and propellant isolator, a metal shadow shield is placed around them. These shadow shields function as a protectant and can be shaped in numerous configurations. Part of my job responsibility this summer is to investigate the effectiveness of different shadow shields that are utilized on three different ion engines: the NSTAR (NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Application Readiness), JIMO (Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter), and NEXIS (Nuclear Electric Xenon Ion System). Using calculus and other mathematical tactics, I was asked to find the total flux of carbon contamination that was able to pass the protectant shadow shield. I familiarized myself with the software program, MathCad2004, to help perform some mathematical computations such as complex integration. Another method of studying the probability of contamination is by experimental simulation. After attaining the precise
Horava-Lifshitz Gravity and Effective Theory of the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect
Wu, Chaolun
2014-01-01
We show that Horava-Lifshitz gravity theory can be employed as a covariant framework to build an effective field theory for the fractional quantum Hall effect that respects all the spacetime symmetries such as non-relativistic diffeomorphism invariance and anisotropic Weyl invariance as well as the gauge symmetry. The key to this formalism is a set of correspondence relations that maps all the field degrees of freedom in the Horava-Lifshitz gravity theory to external background (source) fields among others in the effective action of the quantum Hall effect, according to their symmetry transformation properties. We originally derive the map as a holographic dictionary, but its form is independent of the existence of holographic duality. This paves the way for the application of Horava-Lifshitz holography on fractional quantum Hall effect. Using the simplest holographic Chern-Simons model, we compute the low energy effective action at leading orders and show that it captures universal electromagnetic and geomet...
Effective Field Theory of Fractional Quantized Hall Nematics
Mulligan, Michael; /MIT, LNS; Nayak, Chetan; /Station Q, UCSB; Kachru, Shamit; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC
2012-06-06
We present a Landau-Ginzburg theory for a fractional quantized Hall nematic state and the transition to it from an isotropic fractional quantum Hall state. This justifies Lifshitz-Chern-Simons theory - which is shown to be its dual - on a more microscopic basis and enables us to compute a ground state wave function in the symmetry-broken phase. In such a state of matter, the Hall resistance remains quantized while the longitudinal DC resistivity due to thermally-excited quasiparticles is anisotropic. We interpret recent experiments at Landau level filling factor {nu} = 7/3 in terms of our theory.
Anomalous Hall effect in Fe/Gd bilayers
Xu, W. J.
2010-04-01
Non-monotonic dependence of anomalous Hall resistivity on temperature and magnetization, including a sign change, was observed in Fe/Gd bilayers. To understand the intriguing observations, we fabricated the Fe/Gd bilayers and single layers of Fe and Gd simultaneously. The temperature and field dependences of longitudinal resistivity, Hall resistivity and magnetization in these films have also been carefully measured. The analysis of these data reveals that these intriguing features are due to the opposite signs of Hall resistivity/or spin polarization and different Curie temperatures of Fe and Gd single-layer films. Copyright (C) EPLA, 2010
Effects of Hall Current in the Driven Reconnection with Various Scales
YANG Hong-Ang; JIN Shu-Ping
2004-01-01
In the driven reconnection process with various scales, the effect of Hall current is studied numerically using a Hall magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) code derived from a multi-step implicit scheme. In the cases with Lc/di ≤ 1.0 (Lcis the half-thickness of initial current layer, di is the ion inertial length), the features of Hall MHD reconnection are shown as follows: a quasi-steady single X-line reconnection is obtained, the By component with a quadrupolar structure is generated and the maximum reconnection rate is larger than 0.11. In the cases with Lc/di ＞ 1.0, the effect of Hall current on the reconnection dynamics weakens and Hall MHD reconnection is gradually transformed into resistive MHD reconnection as Lc/di increases.
Magnetic Topological Insulators and Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect
Kou, Xufeng
The engineering of topological surface states is a key to realize applicable devices based on topological insulators (TIs). Among various proposals, introducing magnetic impurities into TIs has been proven to be an effective way to open a surface gap and integrate additional ferromagnetism with the original topological order. In this Dissertation, we study both the intrinsic electrical and magnetic properties of the magnetic TI thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. By doping transition element Cr into the host tetradymite-type V-VI semiconductors, we achieve robust ferromagnetic order with a strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. With additional top-gating capability, we realize the electric-field-controlled ferromagnetism in the magnetic TI systems, and demonstrate such magneto-electric effects can be effectively manipulated, depending on the interplays between the band topology, magnetic exchange coupling, and structural engineering. Most significantly, we report the observation of quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) in the Cr-doped (BiSb)2Te3 samples where dissipationless chiral edge conduction is realized in the macroscopic millimeter-size devices without the presence of any external magnetic field, and the stability of the quantized Hall conductance of e2/h is well-maintained as the film thickness varies across the 2D hybridization limit. With additional quantum confinement, we discover the metal-to-insulator switching between two opposite QAHE states, and reveal the universal QAHE phase diagram in the thin magnetic TI samples. In addition to the uniform magnetic TIs, we further investigate the TI/Cr-doped TI bilayer structures prepared by the modulation-doped growth method. By controlling the magnetic interaction profile, we observe the Dirac hole-mediated ferromagnetism and develop an effective way to manipulate its strength. Besides, the giant spin-orbit torque in such magnetic TI-based heterostructures enables us to demonstrate the current
Magnon Hall effect without Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction
Owerre, S. A.
2017-01-01
Topological magnon bands and magnon Hall effect in insulating collinear ferromagnets are induced by the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) even at zero magnetic field. In the geometrically frustrated star lattice, a coplanar/noncollinear \\mathbf{q}=0 magnetic ordering may be present due to spin frustration. This magnetic structure, however, does not exhibit topological magnon effects even with DMI in contrast to collinear ferromagnets. We show that a magnetic field applied perpendicular to the star plane induces a non-coplanar spin configuration with nonzero spin scalar chirality, which provides topological effects without the need of DMI. The non-coplanar spin texture originates from the topology of the spin configurations and does not need the presence of DMI or magnetic ordering, which suggests that this phenomenon may be present in the chiral spin liquid phases of frustrated magnetic systems. We propose that these anomalous topological magnon effects can be accessible in polymeric iron (III) acetate—a star-lattice antiferromagnet with both spin frustration and long-range magnetic ordering.
Comparing Hall Effect and Field Effect Measurements on the Same Single Nanowire.
Hultin, Olof; Otnes, Gaute; Borgström, Magnus T; Björk, Mikael; Samuelson, Lars; Storm, Kristian
2016-01-13
We compare and discuss the two most commonly used electrical characterization techniques for nanowires (NWs). In a novel single-NW device, we combine Hall effect and back-gated and top-gated field effect measurements and quantify the carrier concentrations in a series of sulfur-doped InP NWs. The carrier concentrations from Hall effect and field effect measurements are found to correlate well when using the analysis methods described in this work. This shows that NWs can be accurately characterized with available electrical methods, an important result toward better understanding of semiconductor NW doping.
Quantum spin/valley Hall effect and topological insulator phase transitions in silicene
Tahir, M.
2013-04-26
We present a theoretical realization of quantum spin and quantum valley Hall effects in silicene. We show that combination of an electric field and intrinsic spin-orbit interaction leads to quantum phase transitions at the charge neutrality point. This phase transition from a two dimensional topological insulator to a trivial insulating state is accompanied by a quenching of the quantum spin Hall effect and the onset of a quantum valley Hall effect, providing a tool to experimentally tune the topological state of silicene. In contrast to graphene and other conventional topological insulators, the proposed effects in silicene are accessible to experiments.
Tunnelling anomalous and planar Hall effects (Conference Presentation)
Matos-Abiague, Alex; Scharf, Benedikt; Han, Jong E.; Hankiewicz, Ewelina M.; Zutic, Igor
2016-10-01
We theoretically show how the interplay between spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and magnetism can result in a finite tunneling Hall conductance, transverse to the applied bias. For two-dimensional tunnel junctions with a ferromagnetic lead and magnetization perpendicular to the current flow, the detected anomalous Hall voltage can be used to extract information not only about the spin polarization but also about the strength of the interfacial SOC. In contrast, a tunneling current across a ferromagnetic barrier on the surface of a three-dimensional topological insulator (TI) can induce a planar Hall response even when the magnetization is oriented along the current flow[1]. The tunneling nature of the states contributing to the planar Hall conductance can be switched from the ordinary to the Klein regimes by the electrostatic control of the barrier strength. This allows for an enhancement of the transverse response and a giant Hall angle, with the tunneling planar Hall conductance exceeding the longitudinal component. Despite the simplicity of a single ferromagnetic region, the TI/ferromagnet system exhibits a variety of functionalities. In addition to a spin-valve operation for magnetic sensing and storing information, positive, negative, and negative differential conductances can be tuned by properly adjusting the barrier potential and/or varying the magnetization direction. Such different resistive behaviors in the same system are attractive for potential applications in reconfigurable spintronic devices. [1] B. Scharf, A. Matos-Abiague, J. E. Han, E. M. Hankiewicz, and I. Zutic, arXiv:1601.01009 (2016).
Extraordinary Hall effect on Fe-rich amorphous thin films and Fe-rich/Cu multilayers
Michea, S. [Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Avda. Ecuador, 3493, Estacion Central, Santiago (Chile); Denardin, J.C., E-mail: juliano.denardin@usach.cl [Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Avda. Ecuador, 3493, Estacion Central, Santiago (Chile); Gamino, M.; Dorneles, L.S. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria 97105-900, RS (Brazil); Correa, M.A. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitario Lagoa Seca, 59072-970 - Natal, RN - Brazil (Brazil)
2012-08-15
In this study we investigated the magnetic and transport properties of thin Fe-rich amorphous films and Fe-rich/Cu multilayers. We compared the extraordinary Hall effect in these two types of samples and discussed it in terms of thickness and sample structure. The thicker films exhibited a strong in-plane magnetic anisotropy, and by decreasing film thickness both saturated Hall resistivity and Hall sensitivity increase. A Hall resistivity value of 20 {mu} Ohm-Sign cm is observed in 100 nm thick Fe-rich films at 12 K and a sensitivity of 1.3 Ohm-Sign /T is obtained at room temperature. Electrical conductance increases and Hall resistivity decreases when the films are sandwiched with Cu.
Influence of the Hall effect and electron inertia in collisionless magnetic reconnection
Andrés, Nahuel; Gómez, Daniel
2015-01-01
We study the role of the Hall current and electron inertia in collisionless magnetic reconnection within the framework of full two-fluid MHD. At spatial scales smaller than the electron inertial length, a topological change of magnetic field lines exclusively due to electron inertia becomes possible. Assuming stationary conditions, we derive a theoretical scaling for the reconnection rate, which is simply proportional to the Hall parameter. Using a pseudo-spectral code with no dissipative effects, our numerical results confirm this theoretical scaling. In particular, for a sequence of different Hall parameter values, our numerical results show that the width of the current sheet is independent of the Hall parameter while its thickness is of the order of the electron inertial range, thus confirming that the stationary reconnection rate is proportional to the Hall parameter.
Lu, Y. M.
2013-03-05
Scaling of the anomalous Hall conductivity to longitudinal conductivity σAH∝σ2xx has been observed in the dirty regime of two-dimensional weak and strong localization regions in ultrathin, polycrystalline, chemically disordered, ferromagnetic FePt films. The relationship between electron transport and temperature reveals a quantitatively insignificant Coulomb interaction in these films, while the temperature dependent anomalous Hall conductivity experiences quantum correction from electron localization. At the onset of this correction, the low-temperature anomalous Hall resistivity begins to be saturated when the thickness of the FePt film is reduced, and the corresponding Hall conductivity scaling exponent becomes 2, which is above the recent unified theory of 1.6 (σAH∝σ1.6xx). Our results strongly suggest that the correction of the electron localization modulates the scaling exponent of the anomalous Hall effect.
Large anomalous Hall effect in a non-collinear antiferromagnet at room temperature.
Nakatsuji, Satoru; Kiyohara, Naoki; Higo, Tomoya
2015-11-12
In ferromagnetic conductors, an electric current may induce a transverse voltage drop in zero applied magnetic field: this anomalous Hall effect is observed to be proportional to magnetization, and thus is not usually seen in antiferromagnets in zero field. Recent developments in theory and experiment have provided a framework for understanding the anomalous Hall effect using Berry-phase concepts, and this perspective has led to predictions that, under certain conditions, a large anomalous Hall effect may appear in spin liquids and antiferromagnets without net spin magnetization. Although such a spontaneous Hall effect has now been observed in a spin liquid state, a zero-field anomalous Hall effect has hitherto not been reported for antiferromagnets. Here we report empirical evidence for a large anomalous Hall effect in an antiferromagnet that has vanishingly small magnetization. In particular, we find that Mn3Sn, an antiferromagnet that has a non-collinear 120-degree spin order, exhibits a large anomalous Hall conductivity of around 20 per ohm per centimetre at room temperature and more than 100 per ohm per centimetre at low temperatures, reaching the same order of magnitude as in ferromagnetic metals. Notably, the chiral antiferromagnetic state has a very weak and soft ferromagnetic moment of about 0.002 Bohr magnetons per Mn atom (refs 10, 12), allowing us to switch the sign of the Hall effect with a small magnetic field of around a few hundred oersted. This soft response of the large anomalous Hall effect could be useful for various applications including spintronics--for example, to develop a memory device that produces almost no perturbing stray fields.
Framing anomaly in the effective theory of the fractional quantum Hall effect.
Gromov, Andrey; Cho, Gil Young; You, Yizhi; Abanov, Alexander G; Fradkin, Eduardo
2015-01-09
We consider the geometric part of the effective action for the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE). It is shown that accounting for the framing anomaly of the quantum Chern-Simons theory is essential to obtain the correct gravitational linear response functions. In the lowest order in gradients, the linear response generating functional includes Chern-Simons, Wen-Zee, and gravitational Chern-Simons terms. The latter term has a contribution from the framing anomaly which fixes the value of thermal Hall conductivity and contributes to the Hall viscosity of the FQH states on a sphere. We also discuss the effects of the framing anomaly on linear responses for non-Abelian FQH states.
Intrinsic Spin Hall Effect Induced by Quantum Phase Transition in HgCdTe Quantum Wells
Yang, Wen; Chang, Kai; /Beijing, Inst. Semiconductors; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2010-03-19
Spin Hall effect can be induced both by the extrinsic impurity scattering and by the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling in the electronic structure. The HgTe/CdTe quantum well has a quantum phase transition where the electronic structure changes from normal to inverted. We show that the intrinsic spin Hall effect of the conduction band vanishes on the normal side, while it is finite on the inverted side. This difference gives a direct mechanism to experimentally distinguish the intrinsic spin Hall effect from the extrinsic one.
Robust quantum anomalous Hall effect in ferromagnetic transition metal halides
Huang, Chengxi; Wu, Haiping; Deng, Kaiming; Jena, Puru; Kan, Erjun
2016-01-01
The quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect is a novel topological spintronic phenomenon arising from inherent magnetization and spin-orbit coupling. Various theoretical and experimental efforts have been devoted in search of robust intrinsic QAH insulators. However, up to now, it has only been observed in Cr or V doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3 film in experiments with very low working temperature. Based on the successful synthesis of transition metal halides, we use first-principles calculations to predict that RuI3 monolayer is an intrinsic ferromagnetic QAH insulator with a topologically nontrivial global band gap of 11 meV. This topologically nontrivial band gap at the Fermi level is due to its crystal symmetry, thus the QAH effect is robust. Its Curie temperature, estimated to be ~360 K using Monte-Carlo simulation, is above room temperature and higher than most of two-dimensional ferromagnetic thin films. We also discuss the manipulation of its exchange energy and nontrivial band gap by applying in-plane strain. Our wor...
Quantum anomalous Hall effect in ferromagnetic transition metal halides
Huang, Chengxi; Zhou, Jian; Wu, Haiping; Deng, Kaiming; Jena, Puru; Kan, Erjun
2017-01-01
The quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect is a novel topological spintronic phenomenon arising from inherent magnetization and spin-orbit coupling. Various theoretical and experimental efforts have been devoted in search of intrinsic QAH insulators. However, up to now, it has only been observed in Cr or V doped (Bi,Sb ) 2T e3 film in experiments with very low working temperature. Based on the successful synthesis of transition metal halides, we use first-principles calculations to predict that the Ru I3 monolayer is an intrinsic ferromagnetic QAH insulator with a topologically nontrivial global band gap of 11 meV. This topologically nontrivial band gap at the Fermi level is due to its crystal symmetry, thus the QAH effect is robust. Its Curie temperature, estimated to be ˜360 K using Monte Carlo simulation, is above room temperature and higher than most two-dimensional ferromagnetic thin films. The inclusion of Hubbard U in the Ru-d electrons does not affect this result. We also discuss the manipulation of its exchange energy and nontrivial band gap by applying in-plane strain. Our work adds an experimentally feasible member to the QAH insulator family, which is expected to have broad applications in nanoelectronics and spintronics.
Numerical simulation of the Hall effect in magnetized accretion disks with the Pluto code
Nakhaei, Mohammad; Safaei, Ghasem; Abbassi, Shahram
2014-01-01
We investigate the Hall effect in a standard magnetized accretion disk which is accompanied by dissipation due to viscosity and magnetic resistivity. By considering an initial magnetic field, using the PLUTO code, we perform a numerical magnetohydrodynamic simulation in order to study the effect of Hall diffusion on the physical structure of the disk. Current density and temperature of the disk are significantly modified by Hall diffusion, but the global structure of the disk is not substantially affected. The changes in the current densities and temperature of the disk lead to a modification in the disk luminosity and radiation.
Cabo-Montes de Oca, Alejandro
2002-01-01
It is shown how the electromagnetic response of 2DEG under Quantum Hall Effect regime, characterized by the Chern-Simons topological action, transforms the sample impurities and defects in charge-reservoirs that stabilize the Hall conductivity plateaus. The results determine the basic dynamical origin of the singular properties of localization under the occurrence of the Quantum Hall Effect obtained in the pioneering works of Laughlin and of Joynt and Prange, by means of a gauge invariance argument and a purely electronic analysis, respectively. The common intuitive picture of electrons moving along the equipotential lines gets an analytical realization through the Chern-Simons current and charge densities.
Localization correction to the anomalous Hall effect in amorphous CoFeB thin films
丁进军; 吴少兵; 杨晓非; 朱涛
2015-01-01
An obvious weak localization correction to anomalous Hall conductance (AHC) in very thin CoFeB film is reported. We find that both the weak localization to AHC and the mechanism of anomalous Hall effect are related to the CoFeB thickness. When the film is thicker than 3 nm, the side jump mechanism dominates and the weak localization to AHC vanishes. For very thin CoFeB films, both the side jump and skew scattering mechanisms contribute to the anomalous Hall effect, and the weak localization correction to AHC is observed.
Strong Intrinsic Spin Hall Effect in the TaAs Family of Weyl Semimetals.
Sun, Yan; Zhang, Yang; Felser, Claudia; Yan, Binghai
2016-09-30
Since their discovery, topological insulators are expected to be ideal spintronic materials owing to the spin currents carried by surface states with spin-momentum locking. However, the bulk doping problem remains an obstacle that hinders such an application. In this work, we predict that a newly discovered family of topological materials, the Weyl semimetals, exhibits a large intrinsic spin Hall effect that can be utilized to generate and detect spin currents. Our ab initio calculations reveal a large spin Hall conductivity in the TaAs family of Weyl materials. Considering the low charge conductivity of semimetals, Weyl semimetals are believed to present a larger spin Hall angle (the ratio of the spin Hall conductivity over the charge conductivity) than that of conventional spin Hall systems such as the 4d and 5d transition metals. The spin Hall effect originates intrinsically from the bulk band structure of Weyl semimetals, which exhibit a large Berry curvature and spin-orbit coupling, so the bulk carrier problem in the topological insulators is naturally avoided. Our work not only paves the way for employing Weyl semimetals in spintronics, but also proposes a new guideline for searching for the spin Hall effect in various topological materials.
Quantum transport in graphene Hall bars: Effects of vacancy disorder
Petrović, M. D.; Peeters, F. M.
2016-12-01
Using the tight-binding model, we investigate the influence of vacancy disorder on electrical transport in graphene Hall bars in the presence of quantizing magnetic fields. Disorder, induced by a random distribution of monovacancies, breaks the graphene sublattice symmetry and creates states localized on the vacancies. These states are observable in the bend resistance, as well as in the total DOS. Their energy is proportional to the square root of the magnetic field, while their localization length is proportional to the cyclotron radius. At the energies of these localized states, the electron current flows around the monovacancies and, as we show, it can follow unexpected paths depending on the particular arrangement of vacancies. We study how these localized states change with the vacancy concentration, and what are the effects of including the next-nearest-neighbor hopping term. Our results are also compared with the situation when double vacancies are present in the system. Double vacancies also induce localized states, but their energy and magnetic field dependencies are different. Their localization energy scales linearly with the magnetic field, and their localization length appears not to depend on the field strength.
Concepts of ferrovalley material and anomalous valley Hall effect
Tong, Wen-Yi; Gong, Shi-Jing; Wan, Xiangang; Duan, Chun-Gang
2016-12-01
Valleytronics rooted in the valley degree of freedom is of both theoretical and technological importance as it offers additional opportunities for information storage, as well as electronic, magnetic and optical switches. In analogy to ferroelectric materials with spontaneous charge polarization, or ferromagnetic materials with spontaneous spin polarization, here we introduce a new member of ferroic family, that is, a ferrovalley material with spontaneous valley polarization. Combining a two-band k.p model with first-principles calculations, we show that 2H-VSe2 monolayer, where the spin-orbit coupling coexists with the intrinsic exchange interaction of transition-metal d electrons, is such a room-temperature ferrovalley material. We further predict that such system could demonstrate many distinctive properties, for example, chirality-dependent optical band gap and, more interestingly, anomalous valley Hall effect. On account of the latter, functional devices based on ferrovalley materials, such as valley-based nonvolatile random access memory and valley filter, are contemplated for valleytronic applications.
Spin Hall effects in metallic multilayers (Conference Presentation)
Woltersdorf, Georg; Wei, Dahai H.; Obstbaum, Martin; Back, Christian H.; Decker, Martin
2016-10-01
We study the direct as well as the inverse SHE. In the case of the direct SHE a dc charge current is applied in the plane of a ferromagnet/normal metal layer stack and the SHE creates a spin polarization at the surface of the normal metal leading to the injection of a spin current into the ferromagnet. This spin current is absorbed in the ferromagnet and causes a spin transfer torque. Using time and spatially resolved Kerr microscopy we measure the transferred spin momentum and compute the spin Hall angle. In a second set of experiments using identical samples pure spin currents are injected by the spin pumping effect from the ferromagnet into the normal metal. The spin current injected by spin pumping has a large ac component transverse to the static magnetization direction and a very small dc component parallel to the magnetization direction. The inverse SHE converts these spin current into charge current. The corresponding inverse SHE voltages induced by spin pumping at ferromagnetic resonance are measured in permalloy/platinum and permalloy/gold multilayers in various excitation geometries and as a function of frequency in order to separate the contributions of anisotropic magnetoresistance and SHE. In addition, we present experimental evidence for the ac component of inverse SHE voltages generated by spin pumping.
Quasiparticle-mediated spin Hall effect in a superconductor
Wakamura, Taro
Superconductivity often brings novel phenomena to spintronics. According to theoretical predictions, superconductivity may enhance the spin Hall effect (SHE) due to the increase in the resistance of superconducting quasiparticles which mediate spin transport in superconductors. In this work, we show a first experimental observation of quasiparticle-mediated SHE in a superconducting NbN, which exhibits an enormous enhancement below the superconducting critical temperature (TC = 10 K). We fabricated a lateral device structure composed of Py (NiFe) and NbN wires bridged by a nonmagnetic Cu wire. A pure spin current is generated in the Cu bridge by a spin injection current (I) between the Py and the Cu, and absorbed into the NbN wire. The absorbed spin currents are converted into charge currents via the inverse SHE, thereby generating the inverse SH voltage (VISHE) . When NbN is in the normal state at 20 K (>TC) , inverse SH signals ΔRISHE (RISHE ≡VISHE / I) are independent of I. However, at 3 K (
Does the Hall Effect Solve the Flux Pileup Saturation Problem?
Dorelli, John C.
2010-01-01
It is well known that magnetic flux pileup can significantly speed up the rate of magnetic reconnection in high Lundquist number resistive MHD,allowing reconnection to proceed at a rate which is insensitive to the plasma resistivity over a wide range of Lundquist number. Hence, pileup is a possible solution to the Sweet-Parker time scale problem. Unfortunately, pileup tends to saturate above a critical value of the Lundquist number, S_c, where the value ofS_c depends on initial and boundary conditions, with Sweet-Parker scaling returning above S_c. It has been argued (see Dorelli and Bim [2003] and Dorelli [2003]) that the Hall effect can allow flux pileup to saturate (when the scale of the current sheet approaches ion inertial scale, di) before the reconnection rate begins to stall. However, the resulting saturated reconnection rate, while insensitive to the plasma resistivity, was found to depend strongly on the di. In this presentation, we revisit the problem of magnetic island coalescence (which is a well known example of flux pileup reconnection), addressing the dependence of the maximum coalescence rate on the ratio of di in the "large island" limit in which the following inequality is always satisfied: l_eta di lambda, where I_eta is the resistive diffusion length and lambda is the island wavelength.
Hall effect in charged conducting ferroelectric domain walls.
Campbell, M P; McConville, J P V; McQuaid, R G P; Prabhakaran, D; Kumar, A; Gregg, J M
2016-12-12
Enhanced conductivity at specific domain walls in ferroelectrics is now an established phenomenon. Surprisingly, however, little is known about the most fundamental aspects of conduction. Carrier types, densities and mobilities have not been determined and transport mechanisms are still a matter of guesswork. Here we demonstrate that intermittent-contact atomic force microscopy (AFM) can detect the Hall effect in conducting domain walls. Studying YbMnO3 single crystals, we have confirmed that p-type conduction occurs in tail-to-tail charged domain walls. By calibration of the AFM signal, an upper estimate of ∼1 × 10(16) cm(-3) is calculated for the mobile carrier density in the wall, around four orders of magnitude below that required for complete screening of the polar discontinuity. A carrier mobility of∼50 cm(2)V(-1)s(-1) is calculated, about an order of magnitude below equivalent carrier mobilities in p-type silicon, but sufficiently high to preclude carrier-lattice coupling associated with small polarons.
Quantum Hall effect, Quillen metric and holomorphic anomaly
Klevtsov, Semyon; Marinescu, George; Wiegmann, Paul
2015-01-01
We study the generating functional, the adiabatic curvature and the adiabatic phase for the integer quantum Hall effect (QHE) on a compact Riemann surface. For the generating functional we derive its asymptotic expansion for the large flux of the magnetic field, i.e., for the large degree k of the positive Hermitian line bundle $L^k$. The expansion consists of the anomalous and exact terms. The anomalous terms are the leading terms of the expansion. This part is responsible for the quantization of the adiabatic transport coefficients in QHE. We then identify the anomalous part of the expansion with the Quillen metric on the determinant line bundle, and the subleading exact part with the asymptotics of the regularized spectral determinant of the Laplacian for the line bundle $L^k$, at large k. Finally, we show how the generating functional of the integer QHE is related to the gauge and gravitational (2+1)d Chern-Simons functionals. We observe the relation between the Bismut-Gillet-Soul\\'e curvature formula for...
Concepts of ferrovalley material and anomalous valley Hall effect.
Tong, Wen-Yi; Gong, Shi-Jing; Wan, Xiangang; Duan, Chun-Gang
2016-12-16
Valleytronics rooted in the valley degree of freedom is of both theoretical and technological importance as it offers additional opportunities for information storage, as well as electronic, magnetic and optical switches. In analogy to ferroelectric materials with spontaneous charge polarization, or ferromagnetic materials with spontaneous spin polarization, here we introduce a new member of ferroic family, that is, a ferrovalley material with spontaneous valley polarization. Combining a two-band k·p model with first-principles calculations, we show that 2H-VSe2 monolayer, where the spin-orbit coupling coexists with the intrinsic exchange interaction of transition-metal d electrons, is such a room-temperature ferrovalley material. We further predict that such system could demonstrate many distinctive properties, for example, chirality-dependent optical band gap and, more interestingly, anomalous valley Hall effect. On account of the latter, functional devices based on ferrovalley materials, such as valley-based nonvolatile random access memory and valley filter, are contemplated for valleytronic applications.
Emergence and mechanism in the fractional quantum Hall effect
Bain, Jonathan
2016-11-01
For some authors, an adequate notion of emergence must include an account of a mechanism by means of which emergent behavior is realized. This appeal to mechanism is problematic in the case of the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE). There is a consensus among physicists that the FQHE exhibits emergent phenomena, but there are at least four alternative explanations of the latter that, arguably, appeal to ontologically distinct mechanisms, both at the microphysics level and at the level of general organizing principles. In light of this underdetermination of mechanism, one is faced with the following options: (I) deny that emergence is present in the FQHE; (II) argue for the priority of one mechanistic explanation over the others; or (III) temper the desire for a mechanism-centric account of emergence. I will argue that there are good reasons to reject (I) and (II) and accept (III). In particular, I will suggest that a law-centric account of emergence does just fine in explaining the emergent phenomena associated with the FQHE.
Hall effect in charged conducting ferroelectric domain walls
Campbell, M. P.; McConville, J. P. V.; McQuaid, R. G. P.; Prabhakaran, D.; Kumar, A.; Gregg, J. M.
2016-12-01
Enhanced conductivity at specific domain walls in ferroelectrics is now an established phenomenon. Surprisingly, however, little is known about the most fundamental aspects of conduction. Carrier types, densities and mobilities have not been determined and transport mechanisms are still a matter of guesswork. Here we demonstrate that intermittent-contact atomic force microscopy (AFM) can detect the Hall effect in conducting domain walls. Studying YbMnO3 single crystals, we have confirmed that p-type conduction occurs in tail-to-tail charged domain walls. By calibration of the AFM signal, an upper estimate of ~1 × 1016 cm-3 is calculated for the mobile carrier density in the wall, around four orders of magnitude below that required for complete screening of the polar discontinuity. A carrier mobility of~50 cm2V-1s-1 is calculated, about an order of magnitude below equivalent carrier mobilities in p-type silicon, but sufficiently high to preclude carrier-lattice coupling associated with small polarons.
Observation of orbital resonance Hall effect in (TMTSF)2ClO4.
Kobayashi, Kaya; Satsukawa, H; Yamada, J; Terashima, T; Uji, S
2014-03-21
We report the observation of a Hall effect driven by orbital resonance in the quasi-1-dimensional (q1D) organic conductor (TMTSF)2ClO4. Although a conventional Hall effect is not expected in this class of materials due to their reduced dimensionality, we observed a prominent Hall response at certain orientations of the magnetic field B corresponding to lattice vectors of the constituent molecular chains, known as the magic angles (MAs). We show that this Hall effect can be understood as the response of conducting planes generated by an effective locking of the orbital motion of the charge carriers to the MA driven by an electron-trajectory resonance. This phenomenon supports a class of theories describing the rich behavior of MA phenomena in q1D materials based on altered dimensionality. Furthermore, we observed that the effective carrier density of the conducting planes is exponentially suppressed in large B, which indicates possible density wave formation.
Sanchez, P.; Sanchez, H. [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia). Dept. de Fisica
2000-07-01
Hall effect and resistivity measurements in Bi-2223 thin films were carried out using the van der Pauw method. A two-band model involving holes and electrons was used to fit the experimental data. The analysis showed that the resistivity and Hall coefficient are mainly hole dependent. However, the electron contribution to the Hall coefficient cannot be ruled out. (orig.)
OL-AC Phillips Laboratory MPD thruster research program
Tilley, Dennis L.
1992-01-01
The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: facility construction; quadruple langmuir probe measurements; hollow/porous anode magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster; the measurement of the ionization fraction inside of the MPD thruster; and the experimental investigation of the effects of microturbulence on MPD thruster performance.
Keefer, Dennis; Rhodes, Robert
1993-01-01
Electrically powered arc jets which produce thrust at high specific impulse could provide a substantial cost reduction for orbital transfer and station keeping missions. There is currently a limited understanding of the complex, nonlinear interactions in the plasma propellant which has hindered the development of high efficiency arc jet thrusters by making it difficult to predict the effect of design changes and to interpret experimental results. A computational model developed at the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) to study laser powered thrusters and radio frequency gas heaters has been adapted to provide a tool to help understand the physical processes in arc jet thrusters. The approach is to include in the model those physical and chemical processes which appear to be important, and then to evaluate our judgement by the comparison of numerical simulations with experimental data. The results of this study have been presented at four technical conferences. The details of the work accomplished in this project are covered in the individual papers included in the appendix of this report. We present a brief description of the model covering its most important features followed by a summary of the effort.
High-temperature intrinsic quantum anomalous Hall effect in rare Earth monohalide
Wu, Menghao
2017-06-01
Although the quantum anomalous Hall effect was verified in 2013, presently its experimental realization is limited to doped magnetic topological insulators under extremely low temperature, while its theoretical existence is limited within doped or functionalized materials, or heterostructures. Based on first-principles calculations, LaCl and LaBr monolayer and bulk forms, which were fabricated in 1980s (Mattausch et al 1980 Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 466 7-22 Araujo and Corbett 1981 Inorg. Chem. 20 3082-6), are both revealed to exhibit intrinsic 2D/3D quantum anomalous Hall effect with energy gaps up to 36 meV. These simple binary compounds are also revealed to be ferromagnets with high Curie temperature, which guarantees that the quantum anomalous Hall effect survives at ambient condictions. Besides holding promise for low-dissipation electronics and quantum computing, this proposal realizes 3D quantum anomalous Hall effect.
Large local Hall effect in pin-hole dominated multigraphene spin-valves.
Muduli, P K; Barzola-Quiquia, J; Dusari, S; Ballestar, A; Bern, F; Böhlmann, W; Esquinazi, P
2013-01-11
We report local and non-local measurements in pin-hole dominated mesoscopic multigraphene spin-valves. Local spin-valve measurements show spurious switching behavior in resistance during magnetic field sweeping similar to the signal observed due to spin injection into multigraphene. The switching behavior has been explained in terms of a local Hall effect due to a thickness irregularity of the tunnel barrier. The local Hall effect appears due to a large local magnetostatic field produced near the roughness in the AlO(x) tunnel barrier. In our samples the resistance change due to the local Hall effect remains negligibly small above 75 K. A strong local Hall effect might hinder spin injection into multigraphene, resulting in no spin signal in non-local measurements.
Effect of electron-phonon scattering anisotropy on the Hall effect in molybdenum
Cherepanov, V.I.; Startsev, V.E.; Volkenshtein, N.V.
1979-10-01
The Hall effect is studied in the temperature interval 2--150 K in monocrystalline molybdenum with resistance ratio rho/sub 273.2//rho/sub 4.2/ =32000. For T<80 /sup 0/K the Hall coefficient is anisotropic and has a nonmonotonic temperature dependence. An extremum in R/sub H/(T) is observed at hydrogen temperatures and is sensitive to the magnitude of the magnetic field. The observed behavior of R/sub H/(T) is explained by the Fermi surface geometry of molybdenum and by the influence of the electron-phonon scattering anisotropy. The interpretation of the experimental data is supported by a comparison of the temperature dependences of the Hall coefficient for molybdenum and tungsten.
Gate Bias Effects on Samples with Edge Gates in the Quantum Hall Regime
若林 淳一; 風間 重雄; 長嶋 登志夫
2001-01-01
We have fabricated GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure Hall samples that have edge gate with several widths along both sides of the sample. The gate width dependence of an effect of the gate voltage to the Hall resistance was measured at the middle of a transition region between the adjacent quantum Hall plateaus. The results have been analyzed based on two model functions of current distribution;an exponential type and the modified Beenakker type. The results of the former have shown qualitative agr...
Inverse spin Hall effect in ferromagnetic metal with Rashba spin orbit coupling
M.-J. Xing
2012-09-01
Full Text Available We report an intrinsic form of the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE in ferromagnetic (FM metal with Rashba spin orbit coupling (RSOC, which is driven by a normal charge current. Unlike the conventional form, the ISHE can be induced without the need for spin current injection from an external source. Our theoretical results show that Hall voltage is generated when the FM moment is perpendicular to the ferromagnetic layer. The polarity of the Hall voltage is reversed upon switching the FM moment to the opposite direction, thus promising a useful reading mechanism for memory or logic applications.
Fuzzy spaces, the M(atrix) model and the quantum Hall effect
Karabali, D; Randjbar-Daemi, S; Karabali, Dimitra
2004-01-01
This is a short review of recent work on fuzzy spaces in their relation to the M(atrix) theory and the quantum Hall effect. We give an introduction to fuzzy spaces and how the limit of large matrices is obtained. The complex projective spaces ${\\bf CP}^k$, and to a lesser extent spheres, are considered. Quantum Hall effect and the behavior of edge excitations of a droplet of fermions on these spaces and their relation to fuzzy spaces are also discussed.
Yu, H. L.; Jiang, C.; Zhai, Z. Y.
2017-01-01
We investigate numerically the integer quantum Hall effect in a three-band triangular-lattice model. The three bands own the Chern number C=2,-1,-1, respectively. The lowest topological flat band carrying Chern number C=2, which leads to the Hall plateau σH = 2 (e2 / h) . This Hall plateau is sensitive to the disorder scattering and is rapidly destroyed by the weak disorder. Further increasing the strength of disorder, the gap of density of states always disappears before the vanishing of the corresponding Hall plateau. The scaling behavior of quantum phase transition between an insulator and a quantum Hall plateau is studied. We find that the insulator-plateau transition becomes sharper with increasing the size of system. Due to the different of edge states, the critical energy Ec1 gradually shifts to the center of Hall plateau while Ec2 is unaffected with increasing the disorder strength.
Experiments on the Parallel Hall Effect in Three-Dimensional Metamaterials
Kern, Christian; Schuster, Vittoria; Kadic, Muamer; Wegener, Martin
2017-04-01
The classical Hall effect in ordinary isotropic conducting materials describes the occurrence of a voltage perpendicular to the direction of the electric-current flow and perpendicular to the imposed magnetic-field vector. The Hall effect is routinely used in magnetic-field sensors. Here, we fabricate and characterize microstructured anisotropic metamaterials composed of a single semiconducting constituent (n -type ZnO) for which the direction and the sign of the Hall electric field can be tailored by microstructure. This class of metamaterials includes the possibility of a Hall voltage parallel—rather than perpendicular—to the magnetic-field vector. One possible future application arising from this far-reaching control of the effective electric-conductivity tensor is a sensor measuring the circulation of a magnetic field.
Ferromagnetic/Nonmagnetic Nanostructures for the Electrical Measurement of the Spin Hall Effect.
Pham, Van Tuong; Vila, Laurent; Zahnd, Gilles; Marty, Alain; Savero-Torres, Williams; Jamet, Matthieu; Attané, Jean-Philippe
2016-11-09
Spin-orbitronics is based on the ability of spin-orbit interactions to achieve the conversion between charge currents and pure spin currents. As the precise evaluation of the conversion efficiency becomes a crucial issue, the need for straightforward ways to observe this conversion has emerged as one of the main challenges in spintronics. Here, we propose a simple device, akin to the ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic bilayers used in most spin-orbit torques experiments, and consisting of a spin Hall effect wire connected to two transverse ferromagnetic electrodes. We show that this system allows probing electrically the direct and inverse conversion in a spin Hall effect system and measuring both the spin Hall angle and the spin diffusion length. By applying this method to several spin Hall effect materials (Pt, Pd, Au, Ta, W), we show that it represents a promising tool for the metrology of spin-orbit materials.
Magnetic vector sensors based on the Hall effect
Roumenin, Ch. S.
Integrated two- and three-dimensional vector versions of the parallel-field Hall microsensor proposed by Roumenin (1987) are presented. The characteristics of Roumenin's microsensor, which is activated by the external magnetic field parallel to the IC plane, are reviewed. The configurations of the magnetic two- and three-dimensional vector microsensors are illustrated and the operation of the microsensors is discussed.
Precision of single-engage micro Hall effect measurements
Henrichsen, Henrik Hartmann; Hansen, Ole; Kjær, Daniel
2014-01-01
]. In this study we calculate the measurement error on RS, NHS and μH resulting from electrode position errors, probe placement, sample size and Hall signal magnitude. We show the relationship between measurement precision and electrode pitch, which is important when down-scaling the micro 4-point probe to fit...
From magnetically doped topological insulator to the quantum anomalous Hall effect
He Ke; Ma Xu-Cun; Chen Xi; Lü Li; Wang Ya-Yu; Xue Qi-Kun
2013-01-01
Quantum Hall effect (QHE),as a class of quantum phenomena that occur in macroscopic scale,is one of the most important topics in condensed matter physics.It has long been expected that QHE may occur without Landau levels so that neither extemal magnetic field nor high sample mobility is required for its study and application.Such a QHE free of Landau levels,can appear in topological insulators (TIs) with ferromagnetism as the quantized version of the anomalous Hall effect,i.e.,quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect.Here we review our recent work on experimental realization of the QAH effect in magnetically doped TIs.With molecular beam epitaxy,we prepare thin films of Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3 TIs with wellcontrolled chemical potential and long-range ferromagnetic order that can survive the insulating phase.In such thin films,we eventually observed the quantization of the Hall resistance at h/e2 at zero field,accompanied by a considerable drop in the longitudinal resistance.Under a strong magnetic field,the longitudinal resistance vanishes,whereas the Hall resistance remains at the quantized value.The realization of the QAH effect provides a foundation for many other novel quantum phenomena predicted in TIs,and opens a route to practical applications of quantum Hall physics in low-power-consumption electronics.
The Quantum Spin Hall Effect: Theory and Experiment
Konig, Markus; Buhmann, Hartmut; Molenkamp, Laurens W.; /Wurzburg U.; Hughes, Taylor L.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Liu, Chao-Xing; /Tsinghua U., Beijing /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2010-03-19
The search for topologically non-trivial states of matter has become an important goal for condensed matter physics. Recently, a new class of topological insulators has been proposed. These topological insulators have an insulating gap in the bulk, but have topologically protected edge states due to the time reversal symmetry. In two dimensions the helical edge states give rise to the quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect, in the absence of any external magnetic field. Here we review a recent theory which predicts that the QSH state can be realized in HgTe/CdTe semiconductor quantum wells. By varying the thickness of the quantum well, the band structure changes from a normal to an 'inverted' type at a critical thickness d{sub c}. We present an analytical solution of the helical edge states and explicitly demonstrate their topological stability. We also review the recent experimental observation of the QSH state in HgTe/(Hg,Cd)Te quantum wells. We review both the fabrication of the sample and the experimental setup. For thin quantum wells with well width d{sub QW} < 6.3 nm, the insulating regime shows the conventional behavior of vanishingly small conductance at low temperature. However, for thicker quantum wells (d{sub QW} > 6.3 nm), the nominally insulating regime shows a plateau of residual conductance close to 2e{sup 2}/h. The residual conductance is independent of the sample width, indicating that it is caused by edge states. Furthermore, the residual conductance is destroyed by a small external magnetic field. The quantum phase transition at the critical thickness, d{sub c} = 6.3 nm, is also independently determined from the occurrence of a magnetic field induced insulator to metal transition.
Understanding the physics of a possible non-Abelian fractional quantum hall effect state.
Pan, Wei; Crawford, Matthew; Tallakulam, Madhu; Ross, Anthony Joseph, III
2010-10-01
We wish to present in this report experimental results from a one-year Senior Council Tier-1 LDRD project that focused on understanding the physics of a possible non-Abelian fractional quantum Hall effect state. We first give a general introduction to the quantum Hall effect, and then present the experimental results on the edge-state transport in a special fractional quantum Hall effect state at Landau level filling {nu} = 5/2 - a possible non-Abelian quantum Hall state. This state has been at the center of current basic research due to its potential applications in fault-resistant topological quantum computation. We will also describe the semiconductor 'Hall-bar' devices we used in this project. Electron physics in low dimensional systems has been one of the most exciting fields in condensed matter physics for many years. This is especially true of quantum Hall effect (QHE) physics, which has seen its intellectual wealth applied in and has influenced many seemingly unrelated fields, such as the black hole physics, where a fractional QHE-like phase has been identified. Two Nobel prizes have been awarded for discoveries of quantum Hall effects: in 1985 to von Klitzing for the discovery of integer QHE, and in 1998 to Tsui, Stormer, and Laughlin for the discovery of fractional QHE. Today, QH physics remains one of the most vibrant research fields, and many unexpected novel quantum states continue to be discovered and to surprise us, such as utilizing an exotic, non-Abelian FQHE state at {nu} = 5/2 for fault resistant topological computation. Below we give a briefly introduction of the quantum Hall physics.
Numerical Modeling of the Hall Thruster Discharge
2005-04-01
and B. The magnetic field introduces a large anisotropy in the transport properties of electrons. In order 14 to take advantage of it, vectorial ...The vectorial equation for heat conduction, qe, is treated similarly to the momentum equation. Assuming that the mass and thermal diffusitivities...are the same, and after some algebraic manipulation the heat conduction equation reduces to 0 ’ −ωeq⊥e − νeqθe, (40) q⊥e = −52neTe rνe eωe ∂Te ∂λ . (41
Eight Kilowatt Hall Thruster System Characterization
2013-08-01
730-V, 55-A power supply allowed to float with respect to facility ground. A 40- F capacitor bank was typically placed in parallel with the...and 2.41, respectively. 27 Discharge current oscillations were measured with a current probe and a digital oscilloscope. In this case, a capacitor ... bank shown in Figure 4 was not located in parallel with the discharge. Figure 12 shows predator-prey28 or breathing mode29 oscillations found when
The effect of atomic oxygen for the hollow-cathode in a 20 mN class ion thruster
長野, 寛; 早川, 幸男; 稲永, 康隆; 尾崎, 敏之; 首藤, 和雄; NAGANO, Hiroshi; Hayakawa, Yukio; Inanaga, Yasutaka; Ozaki, Toshiyuki; Shuto, Kazuo
2014-01-01
The super-low earth orbits under the altitude of 250 km are very attractive for earth and atmospheric observation. JAXA plans to launch the first test satellite in super-low altitude called SLATS. Such satellites use ion thrusters to compensate for air drag and keep their altitude. However, there are a lot of atomic oxygen in super-low earth orbit. The dispenser cathodes generally show degradation by oxidation. Therefore, the effect of atomic oxygen for the hollow-cathode was evaluated here. ...
Enhanced Hall effect in Co/Pd multilayered nanodomes with perpendicular anisotropy
Sebastian Michea
2017-05-01
Full Text Available In this work, multilayers of Co/Pd with out of plane anisotropy have been deposited on the bottom of porous alumina membranes, forming nanodomes films with 100 and 200 nm diameter. The magnetization reversal of the multilayers is investigated by magnetization curves, extraordinary Hall effect and magnetic force microscopy (MFM experiments. The results show that as the pore diameter increase, a larger hall resistivity is obtained, compared with the continuous film.