Sample records for haliotis discus hannai

  1. Primary Study on Experiment of Tetraploid Induction in Haliotis discus hannai with PEG

    LI Yajuan; MAO Lianju; LI Xia; WANG Zichen; YU Yi


    The experiment was performed on induction tetraploid of Haliotis discus hannai at two-cell stage through cell fusion with PEG treatment. In this paper, the orthogonal experiment of three factors and three levels [L9concentration: 45%, 50%, 55%; treatment duration time: 1, 2, 3 min, respectively. The results showed that the optimal pattern of three factors and three levels on inducing tetraploid of Haliotis discus hannai at two-cell stage through using PEG treatment were: molecular weight 4 000, concentration 55%, treatment duration time: 2 min. The highest tetraploid induction rate was 10.8% at embryo period. The three factors treatment sequence was treatment duration time →concentration→molecular weight.

  2. Characterization of genic microsatellite markers derived from expressed sequence tags in Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai)

    李琪; 束婧; 赵翠; 刘士凯; 孔令锋; 郑小东


    Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed from the expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai).Repeat motifs were found in 4.95% of the ESTs at a frequency of one repeat every 10.04 kb of EST sequences,after redundancy elimination.Seventeen polymorphic EST-SSRs were developed.The number of alleles per locus varied from 2-17,with an average of 6.8 alleles per locus.The expected and observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.159 to 0.928 and from 0.132 to 0.922,respective...

  3. Cloning and Characterization of an Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) Actin Gene

    MA Hongming; XU Wei; MAI Kangsen; LIUFU Zhiguo; CHEN Hong


    An actin encoding gene was cloned by using RT-PCR, 3' RACE and 5' RACE from abalone Haliotis discus hannai. The full length of the gene is 1532 base pairs, which contains a long 3' untranslated region of 307 base pairs and 79 base pairs of 5' untranslated sequence. The open reading frame encodes 376 amino acid residues. Sequence comparison with those of human and other mollusks showed high conservation among species at amino acid level. The identities was 96%, 97% and 96% respectively compared with Aplysia californica, Biomphalaria glabrata and Homo sapience β-actin. It is also indicated that this actin is more similar to the human cytoplasmic actin(β-actin)than to human muscle actin.

  4. Effects of dietary menadione on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    Fu, Jinghua; Xu, Wei; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Feng, Xiuni; Liufu, Zhiguo


    A 240-day growth experiment in a re-circulating water system was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary menadione on the growth and antioxidant responses of abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Triplicate groups of juvenile abalone (initial weight: 1.19 ± 0.01 g; shell length: 19.23 ± 0.01 mm) were fed to satiation with 3 semi-purified diets containing 0, 10, and 1 000 mg menadione sodium bisulfite (MSB)/kg, respectively. Results show that there were no significant differences in the rate of weight gain or in the daily increment in shell length of abalone among different treatments. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) in viscera were significantly decreased with dietary menadione. However, activities of these enzymes except for GPX in muscle were increased. Therefore, antioxidant responses of abalone were increased in muscle and decreased in viscera by dietary menadione.

  5. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of By-Products from Haliotis discus hannai in RAW 264.7 Cells

    Ho-Seok Rho


    Full Text Available Several reports promoted the potential of shellfish due to their ability to act as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial agents. Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai viscera is, reported to possess bioactivities such as antioxidative stress and anti-inflammatory. In this study, anti-inflammatory potential of mucus-secreting glands from shell-shucking waste of H. discus hannai was evaluated using RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cell model. Results indicated that presence of H. discus hannai mucosubstance by-products (AM significantly lowered the nitric oxide (NO production along the expressional suppression of inflammatory mediators such as cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 and enzymes iNOS and COX-2. Also, AM was shown to increase expression of anti-inflammatory response mediator HO-1. Presence of AM also scavenged the free radicals in vitro. In conclusion, by-products of H. discus hannai are suggested to possess notable anti-inflammatory potential which promotes the possibility of utilization as functional food ingredient.

  6. Comparative Studies on the Molecular Genetic Diversities among Haliotis discus hannai,H.discus discus and Their Hybrids

    Wan Junfen(万俊芬); Bao Zhenmin; Zhang Quanqi; Wang Xiaolong


    The hybrid (H. discus hannai♀× H. discus discus♂) shows strong heterosis in both growth and survival rates during aquaculture. In order to better understand the genetic basis of heterosis, AFLP markers are adopted to compare the genetic diversities of the two parents and their hybrids. Six primer combinations reveal 552 loci, among which 88 loci show significant difference between the two parent populations (P<0.01). Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicates the genetic variance between them is significantly different (P<0.001). Thus there should be genetic basis of heterosis for their hybrids. In contrast to parents, more loci with lower frequency are amplified in hybrids than those in parents, whereas the loci with 0% and 100% frequency are less in hybrids than those in parents. Moreover, the genetic diversities of hybrids increase since the similarity indexes are lower and heterozygosities are higher in hybrids than those in parents. In addition, the genetic distances between reciprocal F1s and H. discus discus are both smaller than those between reciprocal F1s H. discus hannai.

  7. Cytogenetic analysis and chromosomal characteristics of the polymorphic 18S rDNA of Haliotis discus hannai from Fujian, China.

    Wang, Haishan; Luo, Xuan; You, Weiwei; Dong, Yunwei; Ke, Caihuan


    We report on novel chromosomal characteristics of Haliotis discus hannai from a breeding population at Fujian, China. The karyotypes of H. discus hannai we obtained from an abalone farm include a common type 2n = 36 = 10M + 8SM (82%) and two rare types 2n = 36 = 11M + 7SM (14%) and 2n = 36 = 10M + 7SM + 1ST (4%). The results of silver staining showed that the NORs of H. discus hannai were usually located terminally on the long arms of chromosome pairs 14 and 17, NORs were also sometimes located terminally on the short arms of other chromosomes, either metacentric or submetacentric pairs. The number of Ag-nucleoli ranged from 2 to 8, and the mean number was 3.61 ± 0.93. Among the scored interphase cells, 41% had 3 detectable nucleoli and 37% had 4 nucleoli. The 18S rDNA FISH result is the first report of the location of 18S rDNA genes in H. discus hannai. The 18S rDNA locations were highly polymorphic in this species. Copies of the gene were observed in the terminal of long or/and short arms of submetacentric or/and metacentric chromosomes. Using FISH with probe for vertebrate-like telomeric sequences (CCCTAA)3 displayed positive green FITC signals at telomere regions of all analyzed chromosome types. We found about 7% of chromosomes had breaks in prophase. A special form of nucleolus not previously described from H. discus hannai was observed in some interphase cells. It consists of many small silver-stained nucleoli gathered together to form a larger nucleolus and may correspond to prenucleolar bodies.

  8. Cytogenetic analysis and chromosomal characteristics of the polymorphic 18S rDNA of Haliotis discus hannai from Fujian, China.

    Haishan Wang

    Full Text Available We report on novel chromosomal characteristics of Haliotis discus hannai from a breeding population at Fujian, China. The karyotypes of H. discus hannai we obtained from an abalone farm include a common type 2n = 36 = 10M + 8SM (82% and two rare types 2n = 36 = 11M + 7SM (14% and 2n = 36 = 10M + 7SM + 1ST (4%. The results of silver staining showed that the NORs of H. discus hannai were usually located terminally on the long arms of chromosome pairs 14 and 17, NORs were also sometimes located terminally on the short arms of other chromosomes, either metacentric or submetacentric pairs. The number of Ag-nucleoli ranged from 2 to 8, and the mean number was 3.61 ± 0.93. Among the scored interphase cells, 41% had 3 detectable nucleoli and 37% had 4 nucleoli. The 18S rDNA FISH result is the first report of the location of 18S rDNA genes in H. discus hannai. The 18S rDNA locations were highly polymorphic in this species. Copies of the gene were observed in the terminal of long or/and short arms of submetacentric or/and metacentric chromosomes. Using FISH with probe for vertebrate-like telomeric sequences (CCCTAA3 displayed positive green FITC signals at telomere regions of all analyzed chromosome types. We found about 7% of chromosomes had breaks in prophase. A special form of nucleolus not previously described from H. discus hannai was observed in some interphase cells. It consists of many small silver-stained nucleoli gathered together to form a larger nucleolus and may correspond to prenucleolar bodies.

  9. Experimental evaluation of heterobeltiosis and heterosis between two populations of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    DENG Yuewen; LIU Xiao; WU Fucun; ZHANG Guofan


    A2×2 factorial cross between two populations of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino,collected separately from Dalian(D)in China and Miyagi(M)in Japan,was conducted to compare performances in fertilization rate,hatching rate,metamorphosis rate and growth at days 20,43,160 and 330 between purebreds (DD and MM)and crossbreds(DM and MD)and investigate the magnitude of heterobeltiosis(better parent)and heteresis(mid-parent).Heterobehiosis and heterosis for all the traits analyzed were evidently different between crossbreds DM and MD.Heterobeltiosis in the crossbred DM varied among traits,with values of 2.5%for the fertilization rate.2.2%for the hatching rate,-1.9%for the metamorphosis rate and 7.4%for the growth at the day 330.The crossbred DM displayed positive heterotic values for fertilization rate(5.4%),hatching rate(7.4%),metamor-phosis rate(7.6%)and growth(12.0%)at the day 330.However,both heterobehiosis and heterosis for all the traits in the crossbred MD were negative except those for the growth at days 20 and 43.The results indicate the importance of selecting superi-or hybrid varieties if the exploitation of hybrid vigor is considered in the Pacific abalone breeding program.

  10. Effects of dietary carbohydrates sources on lipids compositions in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    Wang, Weifang; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Xu, Wei; Ai, Qinghui; Yao, Chunfeng; Li, Huitao


    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary carbohydrates on triglyceride, cholesterol and fatty acid concentrations in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Six semi-purified diets with different carbohydrates (dextrin, heat-treated wheat starch, wheat starch, corn starch, tapioca starch and potato starch, respectively), all containing a carbohydrate level of 33.5%, were fed to abalone (initial shell length: 29.98 mm ± 0.09 mm; initial weight: 3.42 g ± 0.02 g) for 24 weeks in a recirculation system. The results indicate that serum triglyceride concentrations were significantly ( P starch and wheat starch than those fed with corn starch, and serum cholesterol concentrations were significantly ( P starch than those fed with corn starch. Fatty acid C20:4n-6 in the foot muscles were significantly ( P starch, corn starch, tapioca starch and potato starch. Fatty acid C20:4n-6 in hepatopancreas was significantly ( P starch than those fed with corn starch, tapioca starch and potato starch. Fatty acid C22:6n-3 in the foot muscles were significantly ( P starch than those fed with wheat starch and potato starch.

  11. Effects of dietary menadione on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    FU Jinghua; XU Wei; MAI Kangsen; ZHANG Wenbing; FENG Xiuni; LIUFU Zhiguo


    A 240-day growth experiment in a re-circulating water system was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary menadione on the growth and antioxidant responses of abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino.Triplicate groups of juvenile abalone (initial weight:1.19 ± 0.01 g; shell length:19.23 ± 0.01 mm) were fed to satiation with 3 semi-purified diets containing 0,10,and 1 000 mg menadione sodium bisulfite (MSB)/kg,respectively.Results show that there were no significant differences in the rate of weight gain or in the daily increment in shell length of abalone among different treatments.Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD),glutathione peroxidase (GPX),glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) in viscera were significantly decreased with dietary menadione.However,activities of these enzymes except for GPX in muscle were increased.Therefore,antioxidant responses of abalone were increased in muscle and decreased in viscera by dietary menadione.

  12. Acute toxicity of live and decomposing green alga Ulva (Enteromorpha) prolifera to abalone Haliotis discus hannai

    WANG Chao; YU Rencheng; ZHOU Mingjiang


    From 2007 to 2009, large-scale blooms of green algae (the so-called "green tides")occurred every summer in the Yellow Sea, China. In June 2008, huge amounts of floating green algae accumulated along the coast of Qingdao and led to mass mortality of cultured abalone and sea cucumber. However, the mechanism for the mass mortality of cultured animals remains undetermined. This study examined the toxic effects of Ulva (Enteromorpha) prolifera, the causative species of green tides in the Yellow Sea during the last three years. The acute toxicity of fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent of U. prolifera to the cultured abalone Haliotis discus hannai were tested. It was found that both fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent had toxic effects to abalone, and decomposing algal effluent was more toxic than fresh culture medium. The acute toxicity of decomposing algal effluent could be attributed to the ammonia and sulfide presented in the effluent, as well as the hypoxia caused by the decomposition process.


    谭北平; 麦康森; 刘付志国


    An experiment was performed to determine the dietary phosphorus requirement of the young abalone, Haliotis discus hannai. Five semi-purified diets were formulated to provide a series of graded levels of dietary total phosphorus (0.23%-1.98) from monobasic potassium phosphate (KH2PO4). The brown alga, Laminaria japonica, was used as a control diet. Similar size abalone were distributed in a single-pass, flow-through system using a completely randomized design with six treatments and three replicates each treatment. The abalone were hand-fed to satiation with appropriate diets in excess, once daily at 17:00. The feeding trial was run for 120-d. Survival rate and soft-body to shell ratio (SB/S) were constantly maintained regardless of dietary treatment. However, the weight gain rate (WGR), daily increment in shell length (DISL), muscle RNA to DNA ratio (RNA/DNA), carcass levels of lipid and protein, soft-body alkaline phosphatase (SBAKP), and phosphorus concentrations of whole body (WB) and soft body (SB) were significantly (ANOVA, P<0.05) affected by the dietary phosphorus level. The dietary phosphorus requirements of the abalone were evaluated from the WGR, DISL, and RNA/DNA ratio respectively, by using second-order polynomial regression analysis. Based on these criteria, about 1.0%-1.2% total dietary phosphorus, i.e. 0.9%-1.1% dietary available phosphorus is recommended for the maximum growth of the abalone.

  14. Genetic variation of Chinese and Japanese wild Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) measured by microsatellite DNA markers

    LI Qi; KIJIMA Akihiro


    Population differentiation and relationships among three wild populations of the Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai collected from coastal seas around China and Japan were estimated using microsatellite DNA analysis. The results obtained with six microsatellite loci showed a high genetic diversity for China and Japan populations. The mean number of alleles per locus ranged from 11.7 to 23.0, and the average of observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.656 to 0.721, and from 0.721 to 0.793, respectively. The observed genotype frequencies at each locus were mostly in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg expectations with five exceptions. Significant differences were detected between Chinese and Japanese H. discus hannai populations [Weir and Cocker-ham's fixation index(Fst) range: 0.020~0.023; Slatkin's fixation index (Rst) range: 0.016~0.044], and no obvious difference was detected between the samples of Japanese H. discus hannai populations (Fst=0.002; Rst = 0.007). The level of differentiation among populations is further evidenced by the nNeighbor-joining tree topology on which the Japanese samples were closely clustered, and the Chinese population formed a separate cluster. These results suggest that care should be taken in future management of different populations.

  15. Effects of Dietary Carbohydrates Sources on Lipids Compositions in Abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    WANG Weifang; MAI Kangsen; ZHANG Wenbing; XU Wei; AI Qinghui; YAO Chunfeng; LI Huitao


    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary carbohydrates on triglyceride, cholesterol and fatty acid concentrations in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Six semi-purified diets with different carbohydrates (dextrin, heat-treated wheat starch, wheat starch, corn starch, tapioca starch and potato starch, respectively), all containing a carbohydrate level of 33.5%, were fed to abalone (initial shell length: 29.98 mm±0.09 mm; initial weight. 3.42 g±0.02 g) for 24 weeks in a recirculation system. The results indicate that serum triglyceride concentrations were significantly (P<0.05) higher in the abalone fed with dextrin, heat-treated wheat starch and wheat starch than those fed with corn starch, and serum cholesterol concentrations were significantly (P<0.05)higher in the abalone fed with dextrin, heat-treated wheat starch than those fed with corn starch. Fatty acid C20:4n-6 in the foot muscles were significantly (P<0.05) lower in the abalone fed with dextrin than those fed with wheat starch, corn starch, tapioca starch and potato starch. Fatty acid C20:4n-6 in hepatopancreas was significantly (P<0.05) lower in abalone fed with heat-treated wheat starch than those fed with corn starch, tapioca starch and potato starch. Fatty acid C22:6n-3 in the foot muscles were significantly (P< 0.05) lower in the abalone fed with dextrin and heat-treated wheat starch than those fed with wheat starch and potato starch.


    谭北平; 麦康森; 徐玮


    The availability of phosphorus to juvenile abalone, Haliotis discus hannai from primary, secondary and tertiary calcium phosphate, primary sodium or potassium phosphate separately or in combination was determined in a 120-day feeding trial. Seven semi-purified diets were formulated to contain relativelyconstant dietary phosphorus, ranging from 0.78%-0.82%. The concentrations of dietary phosphorus were presumed to be slightly below the requirement for abalone.A brown alga, Laminaria japonica, was used as a control diet. Abalone juvenilesof similar size (average weight 1.18 g; average shell length 18.74 mm) were distributed in a single-pass, flow-through system using a completely randomized design with eight treatments and three replicates each treatment. The survival ranged from 71.1% to 81.1%, and was not significantly (P>0.05) related to dietary treatment. However, the weight gain rate (41.72%-65.02%), daily increment in shelllength (36.87-55.07 μm) and muscle RNA-DNA ratio (3.44-4.69) were significantly (P<0.05) affected by dietary treatment. Soft body alkaline phosphatase activity (10.9-19.8 U/g wet tissue) and carcass levels of lipid (7.71%-9.33%) and protein (46.68%-49.35%) were significantly (P<0.05) responsive to available phosphorus of the diets. Dietary treatment had significant effect (P<0.05) on concentrations of phosphorus in the whole body (WB) and soft body (SB). Apparent digestibility coefficients (45%-97%) of phosphorus were also significantly (P<0.05) different between dietary treatments. The results indicated that among these inorganiccompounds, primary calcium, potassium and sodium phosphates separately or in combination could be utilized effectively by juvenile abalone as dietary phosphorus sources (availability ranging from 87%-97%). However, secondary and tertiary calcium phosphates were found to be low in availability, the values being 45% and77%, respectively. ``

  17. Effects of dietary vitamin A on antioxidant responses of abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    FU Jinghua; ZHANG Wenbing; MAI Kangsen; FENG Xiuni; XU Wei; LIUFU Zhiguo; TAN Beiping


    A 240 d growth experiment was conducted in a re-circulated water system to investigate the effects of dietary vitamin A on growth and antioxidant responses of abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Triplicate groups of juvenile abalone [initial mass was (0.96 ± 0.02) g, shell length was (17.70 ± 0.06) mm] were fed to satiation one of three semi-purified diets containing 0, 1×103, 1×106 IU vitamin A per kilogram diet, respectively. Results showed that the daily increment in shell length (DISL) of abalone in the treatment with 1×103 IU vitamin A per kilogram diet was significantly higher than that with 0 or 1×106 IU vitamin A per kilogram supplementation (P < 0.05). Vitamin A deficiency (0 IU/kg) significantly elevated the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GR) in the viscera of abalone (P < 0.05). In muscle, the effects of vitamin A deficiency on SOD and GPX activities were the same as those in viscera, however, the activity of GR significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Vitamin A deficiency significantly decreased the ratio of CAT to SOD (catalase/superoxide dismutase) in viscera (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, it significantly decreased the ratio of GR to GPX in muscle (P < 0.05). Compared with the supplement of 1×103 IU vitamin A per kilogram, excessive vitamin A (1×106 IU/kg) had no significant effects on the activities of CAT, SOD and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) (P > 0.05), but significantly elevated GPX and GR activities in viscera (P < 0.05). In muscle, the activities of CAT, SOD, GPX, GST and GR were significantly decreased by the excessive dietary vitamin A supplement (P < 0.05). Compared with the supplement of 1×103 IU vitamin A per kilogram, vitamin A-excessive had no significant effect on the value of ratio of CAT to SOD either in viscera or in muscle (P>0.05). The ratio of GR to GPX was significantly decreased in viscera, but significantly elevated in muscle in the vitamin A

  18. Cascading effects from survival to physiological activities, and gene expression of heat shock protein 90 on the abalone Haliotis discus hannai responding to continuous thermal stress.

    Park, Kiyun; Lee, Jung Sick; Kang, Ju-Chan; Kim, Jae Won; Kwak, Ihn-Sil


    Increasing temperatures can be a significant stressor for aquatic organisms. Abalones, a type of large marine gastropods, are the most commercially important species in aquaculture for Asia. To evaluate the potential ecological risk posed by temperature stress, we measured biological responses such as survival rate, adhesion ability (falling rate), and foot abnormalities in the abalone Haliotis discus hannai. Additionally, biochemical and molecular responses were evaluated in H. discus hannai exposed to various temperature gradients. The survival rate was reduced in abalones exposed to relative high temperatures (more than 26 °C). Increased temperature stress induced a higher falling rate and abnormal foot structure. Furthermore, increased antioxidant enzyme activities were observed in abalones exposed to relative high temperatures (26 and 28 °C). The activities of superoxide dismutase were induced in a time-dependent manner after high temperature stress. Generally, heat shock protein 90 also increased significantly in H. discus hannai exposed to temperature gradients (more than 24 °C) for 12 h. These results provide valuable information regarding stress responses to increased temperatures, in H. discus hannai: adverse biological and molecular outcomes could be utilized as risk assessments and stress monitoring of marine ecosystems under increased water temperatures.

  19. Alternative Splicing Profile and Sex-Preferential Gene Expression in the Female and Male Pacific Abalone Haliotis discus hannai

    Kim, Mi Ae; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Kim, Tae Ha; Lee, Jung Sick; Choi, Ah-Young; Choi, Beom-Soon; Choi, Ik-Young; Sohn, Young Chang


    In order to characterize the female or male transcriptome of the Pacific abalone and further increase genomic resources, we sequenced the mRNA of full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries derived from pooled tissues of female and male Haliotis discus hannai by employing the Iso-Seq protocol of the PacBio RSII platform. We successfully assembled whole full-length cDNA sequences and constructed a transcriptome database that included isoform information. After clustering, a total of 15,110 and 12,145 genes that coded for proteins were identified in female and male abalones, respectively. A total of 13,057 putative orthologs were retained from each transcriptome in abalones. Overall Gene Ontology terms and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways analyzed in each database showed a similar composition between sexes. In addition, a total of 519 and 391 isoforms were genome-widely identified with at least two isoforms from female and male transcriptome databases. We found that the number of isoforms and their alternatively spliced patterns are variable and sex-dependent. This information represents the first significant contribution to sex-preferential genomic resources of the Pacific abalone. The availability of whole female and male transcriptome database and their isoform information will be useful to improve our understanding of molecular responses and also for the analysis of population dynamics in the Pacific abalone. PMID:28282934

  20. Effects of dense phase carbon dioxide on muscle quality of Haliotis discus hannai%高密度CO2处理对皱纹盘鲍肌肉品质的影响

    吕妙兄; 刘书成; 屈小娟; 章超桦; 吉宏武; 高加龙


      为了探讨高密度 CO2(DPCD)应用于加工皱纹盘鲍的可行性,在压力5~25 MPa、温度30~50℃、处理时间10~50 min下分别处理皱纹盘鲍,研究DPCD对其色泽、pH值、保水性、质量损失、质构等指标的影响规律。结果表明:与未处理的相比,DPCD处理对皱纹盘鲍的外观和pH值无显著影响(P>0.05),但对其色泽、基本营养成分、质量损失、保水性和质构有显著影响(P<0.05),并且随着处理强度的增加,其影响程度也加强;结合杀菌效果,DPCD处理皱纹盘鲍的适宜条件为:20 MPa、45℃、(40~50)min。研究结果将为DPCD加工技术在贝类肌肉食品中的应用提供参考。%Dense phase carbon dioxide (DPCD) is a non-thermal processing technology, which affects microorganisms and enzymes through molecular effects of CO2 under pressures below 50 MPa and 60 . DPCD℃has less significance effect on the quality of foods. DPCD has been applied to the process of meats, vegetables, seeds and food powders, fruits, spices and herbs, and fish. The studied objective is to investigate the effects of DPCD on bacteria inactivation and qualities of Haliotis discus hannai and to explore whether it can be applied to process Haliotis discus hannai. In this paper, the effects of pressure (5-25 MPa), exposure time (10-50 min) and temperature (30-50℃) of DPCD treatment on bacteria inactivation and qualities of Haliotis discus hannai were studied. DPCD can reach the ideal sterilizing effect for Haliotis discus hannai under the conditions of pressure 20MPa, temperature 45℃, exposure time 40-50 min. Compared with Haliotis discus hannai cooked in boiling water for 2 min (logarithmic decline of 3.59), the sterilizing effect was the equivalent by DPCD of 20 MPa and 45 for 40℃ -50 min (logarithmic decline of 3.46). The total number of colonies was less than 1000 cfu/mL. Compared with untreated Haliotis discus hannai, DPCD treatment had no

  1. Comparison of polysaccharides of Haliotis discus hannai and Volutharpa ampullacea perryi by PMP-HPLC-MS(n) analysis upon acid hydrolysis.

    Wang, Hongxu; Zhao, Jun; Li, Dongmei; Wen, Chengrong; Liu, Haiman; Song, Shuang; Zhu, Beiwei


    Haliotis discus hannai Ino (Haliotis) is a highly valued marine shellfish, and it is sometimes replaced by another cheaper Gastropoda mollusk, Volutharpa ampullacea perryi (Volutharpa). Polysaccharides from pleopods, viscera and gonads of these two gastropods were compared by analyzing the mono- and di-saccharides in their acid hydrolysates using high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS(n)) after 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) derivatization. Disaccharide analysis revealed the distribution of uronic acid-containing polysaccharides (UACPs) in the biological samples. GlcA-(1 → 2)-Man, GlcA-(1 → 3)-GalN, and another disaccharide consisting of a hexuronic acid linked to a hexose were found in the hydrolysates, which indicated the existence of AGSP (abalone gonad sulfated polysaccharide) with the backbone composed of → 2)-α-Man(1 → 4)-β-GlcA(1 → repeating unit, AAP (abalone glycosaminoglycan-like polysaccharide) with the backbone of → 3)-GalNAc-(1 → 2)-GlcA-(1 → 3)-GalNAc-(1 → 4)-GlcA-(1 → repeating unit, and unidentified DS1P containing a hexuronic acid linked to a hexose unit, respectively. As shown by extracted ion chromatograms (XICs), AAP was the only UACP found in pleopods of the two gastropods; gonads and viscera of Haliotis contained DS1P and AGSP, while those of Volutharpa contained DS1P, AGSP as well as AAP. Monosaccharides in the acid hydrolysates were demonstrated in XICs by extracting their corresponding PMP derivative quasi-molecular ions one by one, and the results indicated the similar conclusion to the disaccharide analysis. Therefore, it could be concluded that polysaccharides from pleopods of the two gastropods are very similar, while those from their viscera and gonads differ greatly.

  2. Effects of dietary zinc on gene expression of antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins in hepatopancreas of abalone Haliotis discus hannai.

    Wu, Chenglong; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Zhong, Xiaoli


    The expression patterns of different genes encoding antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins were investigated, in present study, by real-time quantitative PCR in the hepatopancreas of abalone Haliotis discus hannai fed with different levels of dietary zinc (6.69, 33.8, 710.6 and 3462.5 mg/kg) for 20 weeks. The antioxidant enzymes include Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), catalase (CAT), mu-glutathione-s-transferase (mu-GST) and thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx). The results showed that the mRNA expression of these antioxidant enzymes increased and reached the maximum at the dietary zinc level of 33.8 mg/kg, and then dropped progressively. Expression levels of the heat shock proteins (HSP26, HSP70 and HSP90) firstly increased at 33.8 mg/kg dietary Zn level, and reached to the maximum at 710.6 mg/kg, then dropped at 3462.5 mg/kg (pantioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in hepatopancreas (plevels of antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins, but excessive dietary Zn (710.6 and 3462.5 mg/kg) induces a high oxidative stress in abalone. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Dietary ascorbic acid modulates the expression profile of stress protein genes in hepatopancreas of adult Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino.

    Wu, Chenglong; Wang, Jia; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen


    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary ascorbic acid (AA) on transcriptional expression patterns of antioxidant proteins, heat shock proteins (HSP) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in the hepatopancreas of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino (initial average length: 84.36 ± 0.24 mm) using real-time quantitative PCR assays. L-ascorbyl-2-molyphosphate (LAMP) was added to the basal diet to formulate four experimental diets containing 0.0, 70.3, 829.8 and 4967.5 mg AA equivalent kg(-1) diets, respectively. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of adult abalone in acrylic tanks (200 L) in a flow-through seawater system. Each tank was stocked with 15 abalone. Animals were fed once daily (17:00) to apparent satiation for 24 weeks. The results showed that the dietary AA (70.3 mg kg(-1)) could significantly up-regulate the expression levels of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), feritin (FT) and heat shock protein 26 (HSP26) in the hepatopancreas of abalone in this treatment compared to the controls. However, the expression levels of Mn-SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx), selenium-binding protein (SEBP), HSP70 and HSP90 were significantly down-regulated. Compared with those in the group with 70.3 mg kg(-1) dietary AA, the expression levels of CAT, GST and HSP26 were decreased in abalone fed with very high dietary AA (4967.5 mg kg(-1)). In addition, significant up-regulations of expression levels of Mn-SOD, GPX, TPx, SEBP, FT, HSP70, HSP90 and NF-κB were observed in abalone fed with apparently excessive dietary AA (829.8 and 4967.5 mg kg(-1)) as compared to those fed 70.3 mg kg(-1) dietary AA. These findings showed that dietary AA influenced the expression levels of antioxidant proteins, heat shock proteins and NF-κB in the hepatopancreas of abalone at transcriptional level. Levels of dietary AA that appeared adequate (70.3 mg kg(-1)) reduced the oxidative stress

  4. Effects of Waterborne Cu and Cd on Anti-oxidative Response, Lipid Peroxidation and Heavy Metals Accumulation in AbaloneHaliotis discus hannai Ino

    LEI Yanju; ZHANG Wenbing; XU Wei; ZHANG Yanjiao; ZHOU Huihui; MAI Kangsen


    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of waterborne copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) on survival, anti-oxida- tive response, lipid peroxidation and metal accumulation in abaloneHaliotis discus hannai. Experimental animals (initial weight: 7.49g±0.01g) were exposed to graded concentrations of waterborne Cu (0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08mgL-1) or Cd (0.025, 0.05, 0.25, 0.5 mgL-1) for 28 days, respectively. Activities of the anti-oxidative enzymes (catalase, CAT; superoxide dismutase, SOD; glutathione peroxidases, GPx; glutathione S-transferase, GST), contents of the reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondiadehyde (MDA) in the hepatopancreas, and metal accumulation in hepatopancreas and muscles were analyzed after 0, 1, 3, 6, 10, 15, 21, 28 days of metal exposure, respectively. Results showed that 0.04mgL-1, 0.06mgL-1 and 0.08mgL-1 Cu caused 100% death of abalone on the 21st, 10th and 6th day, respectively. However, no dead abalone was found during the 28-day waterborne Cd exposure at all experimental concentrations. Generally, activities of SOD and GST in hepatopancreas under all Cu concentrations followed a decrease trend as the exposure time prolonged. However, these activities were firstly increased and then decreased to the control level and increased again during Cd exposure. Activities of CAT in all Cu exposure treatments were higher than those in the control. These activities were firstly increased and then decreased to the control level and increased again during Cd exposure. Contents of MDA in hepatopancreas in all Cu treatments significantly increased first and then decreased to the control level. However, the MDA contents in hepatopan-creas were not significantly changed during the 28-day Cd exposure. The metals accumulation in both hepatopancreas and muscles of abalone significantly increased with the increase of waterborne metals concentration and exposure time. These results indicated that H. discus hannai has a positive anti-oxidative defense against Cu

  5. Effect of dietary lipid on the growth, fatty acid composition and Δ5 Fads expression of abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai Ino) hepatopancreas

    Li, Mingzhu; Mai, Kangsen; Ai, Qinghui; He, Gen; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Wenbing; Zhang, Yanjiao; Zhou, Huihui; Liufu, Zhiguo


    This study investigated the effect of dietary lipid on the growth, fatty acid composition and Δ5 fatty acyl desaturase genes ( Fads) expression of juvenile abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai Ino) hepatopancreas. Six purified diets were formulated to contain tripalmitin (TP), olive oil (OO, 72.87% 18:1n-9), grape seed oil (GO, 68.67% 18:2n-6), linseed oil (LO, 70.48% 18:3n-3), ARA oil (AO, 41.81% ARA) or EPA oil (EO, 44.09% EPA and 23.67% DAH). No significant difference in survival rate was observed among abalone fed with different diets. Weight gain rate ( WGR) and daily growth rate of shell length ( DGR SL) were significantly increased in abalone fed with diets containing OO, AO and EO, but decreased in abalone fed with LO diet ( P < 0.05) in comparison with those fed with TP. High level of dietary 18:2n-6 resulted in higher content of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in abalone fed with GO than those fed with TP, OO, LO and EO ( P < 0.05). n-3 PUFAs in abalone fed with LO was significantly higher than those in abalone fed with TP, OO, GO and AO ( P < 0.05). The highest contents of 20:1n-9 and 22:1n-9 were observed in abalone fed with OO. The expression of Δ5 Fads in hepatopancreas of abalone was enhanced by high concentration of 18:3n-3 and suppressed by dietary LC-PUFAs; however it was not affected by dietary high concentration of 18:1n-9 or 18:2n-6. These results provided valuable information for understanding the synthesis of LC-PUFAs and nutritional regulation of Δ5 Fads expression in abalone.

  6. Identification and comparison of amorphous calcium carbonate-binding protein and acetylcholine-binding protein in the abalone, Haliotis discus hannai.

    Huang, Jing; Wang, Hongzhong; Cui, Yu; Zhang, Guiyou; Zheng, Guilan; Liu, Shiting; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing


    Nacre has two different microarchitectures: columnar nacre and sheet nacre. We previously identified an important regulator of the morphology of sheet nacre tablets, which was named amorphous calcium carbonate-binding protein (pf-ACCBP). However, little is known about its counterpart in columnar nacre. Moreover, pf-ACCBP shares significant sequence similarity with a group of acetylcholine-binding proteins (AChBP) that participate in neuronal synapses transmission, but the relationships between the two proteins, which are homologous in sequences but disparate in function, have not been studied yet. Here, we identified an amorphous calcium carbonate-binding protein and an acetylcholine-binding protein in the abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, named hdh-ACCBP and hdh-AChBP, respectively. Studies of hdh-ACCBP indicated that it was a counterpart of pf-ACCBP in gastropods that might function similarly in columnar nacre formation and supersaturated extrapallial fluid. Analysis of hdh-AChBP showed that unlike previously identified AChBP, hdh-AChBP was not only expressed in the nervous system but could also be detected in non-nervous system cells, such as the goblet cells of the mantle pallial. Additionally, its expression patterns during embryo and larval development did not accord with ganglion development. These phenomena indicated that AChBP might play more general roles than just in neuronal synapses transmission. Comparison of hdh-ACCBP and hdh-AChBP revealed that they were quite different in their post-translational modification and oligomerization and that they were controlled under different transcriptional regulation systems, consequently obtaining disparate expression profiles. Our results also implied that ACCBP and AChBP might come from a common ancestor through gene duplication and divergence.

  7. Preliminary configuration identification and immuno-enhancing activity of Haliotis discus hannai Ino visceral glycoprotein%皱纹盘鲍脏器糖蛋白结构的初步鉴定及其免疫活性研究

    包郁明; 侯虎; 乔若瑾; 陶宇; 李志皓; 李八方


    目的 分析鉴定皱纹盘鲍脏器糖蛋白AGP-Ⅲ初级结构并探讨脏器糖蛋白粗品AGP的免疫活性.方法 采用高效液相色谱法、氨基酸组成分析法、红外光谱法、β-消除反应对AGP-Ⅲ进行初步分析;建立小鼠免疫低下模型,探讨AGP不同剂量对小鼠免疫功能的调节作用.结果 AGP-Ⅲ的单糖组成有岩藻糖、半乳糖、氨基葡萄、甘露糖、氨基半乳糖、木糖、葡萄糖和鼠李糖.AGP-Ⅲ含有17种氨基酸,缬氨酸含量最高,其次为谷氨酸、甘氨酸.AGP-Ⅲ中存在糖蛋白的特征吸收峰及β折叠结构,糖肽键类型为O-糖肽键,糖苷键类型为吡喃型.AGP中、高剂量组能显著提高免疫低下小鼠的细胞免疫和非特异性免疫功能.结论 AGP-Ⅲ有糖蛋白的特征结构,AGP在适宜剂量条件下可提高小鼠的免疫能力.%Objective The configuration analysis and immuno-enhancing activity of purified Haliotis discus hannai Ino visceral glycoprotein AGP-Ⅲ were investigated in this study. Methods Methods of HPLC, amino acids analysis, IR analysis,β-elimination reaction were used. Results Monosaccharide compositions of AGP-Ⅲ were Man, GlcNac, Rha, GalNAc, Glc, Gal, Xyl and Fuc. Seventeen kinds of amino acids were determined in AGP- III , and it was rich in Val, Glu and Gly. AGP- HI shared with a typical absorption property of glycoprotein in a pyranose β-glycosidic and Oglycoside linkage. The medium dosage (50 mg · kg-1) and high dosage (100 mg · kg-1) of AGP could promote immuological function both in celluar and non-specific immunity in immunodepression mice. Conclusion AGP-Ⅲ had typical configuration of glycoprotein and the Haliotis discus hannai Ino visceral glycoprotein could enhance the immunity of mice.


    郑明刚; 毕元兑; 王玲; 孙修勤; 刘峰; 王波


    通过构建皱纹盘鲍(Haliotis discus Hannai)cDNA文库并进行大规模测序,获得了1282条高质量的ESTs序列,对这些序列进行拼接,获得了包括650条序列在内的244组片段重叠群(Contigs)和632个单一序列(Singletons).使用BlastX软件对876个Unigenes(Unigerie为Coiltig和Singleton的总和)进行同源性对比,有393个获得了功能提示,占总基因数的45%.根据EST信息,采用RACE方法.首次得到皱纹盘鲍神经肤Y(neuropeptide Y,NPY)受体基因,并对其结构进行了分析.结果表明,该受体基因cDNA由1534个核苷酸组成,编码区1050bp,可以编码350个氨基酸;该多肤的分子量为39.56kda,等电点为9.57,具有7个明显的跨膜螺旋且TM7区有NPXXY模体.%A cDNA library was constructed from liver and kidney of abalone (Haliotis discus Hannai) and 1445 clones were selected for sequencing. One thousand and two hundred eighty two high qualitative ESTs were obtained through bioinformatics analyses. Splicing of these sequences, 244 contigs (consisting of 650 sequences) and 632 singletons were obtained. Using BlastX program for the Homologous comparison, 393 unigenes shared signifi cant homology with known sequences in protein database of NCBI accounted for 45 % of the number of unigenes. Among that, 63 (16%) were immune-related. The full length of the NPY (neuropeptide Y) receptor cDNA was cloned through the 5'-RACE with the specific primers based on the sequence of the EST. The full length of NPY receptor cDNA from Haliotis discus hannai was 1534bp and encoded 350 amino acid. BLAST analysis revealed that the NPY receptor gene from Haliotis discus hannai shared high identity with the NPY receptor genes from other organisms in amino acid. This NPY receptor have a predicted molecular of 39.56 kDa and theoretical isoelectric point of 9.57, receptively.

  9. Effects of three dietary treatments on the energy budget of different sized Haliotis discus hannai Ino%饵料对不同规格皱纹盘鲍能量收支的影响

    任黎华; 张继红; 王文琪; 杜美荣; 高亚平; 张明亮


    对3种不同规格的皱纹盘鲍(41.40士2.05、54.22±2.66、63.17±2.52 mm)分别进行不同饵科搭配的投喂,并对各生理活动的能量代谢进行了测量与计算.实验结果表明,搭配投喂的实验纽中皱纹盘鲍能够摄取更多的有机物作为能量代谢的基质.扣除代谢能、排泄能和排粪能后,搭配投喂能提供给皱纹盘鲍的生长能显著高于对照组(P<0.05),尤其是孔石莼与裙带菜搭配投喂组以及裙带菜与海带搭配投喂组,其获得的生长能的比例在3种规格组中均处在很高的水平,是鲍的筏式养殖中值得推广使用的投喂方法.%With the increasing price of kelp, sustainable food and suitable feeding strategy are becoming important in the abalone culture industry. In this experiment, Haliotis discus hannai Ino were sized into three groups, A (41.40 + 2. 05mm), B (54. 22±2. 66mm) and C (63. 17zb2. 52 mm) respectively, and fed with four dietary treatments. Energy budget of various stages were measured and calculated. The mixed-diet treatments showed more organic matter intake than groups fed on kelp alone, indicating that they could get more energy for metabolism. According to the energy budget equation, growth energy of group fed on mixed diet was significantly higher than that of the group fed on kelp alone (P<0. 05), especially in group 1 and group 2. Level of growth energy was high in all of the experimental groups, and the feeding methods were worthy to be used in the abalone culture industry.


    崔龙波; 刘传琳; 刘迅; 陆瑶华


    对皱纹盘鲍消化腺进行了组织学、组织化学、超微结构及酶活性测定等研究。消化腺由消化细胞和嗜碱性细胞组成。消化细胞能内吞腺管腔内的外源性物质,细胞内充满大量与异噬功能有关的囊泡。消化细胞具有内吞和细胞内消化、分泌、贮存等功能。嗜碱性细胞含有发达的粗面内质网以及许多含铁的折光小体,具有分泌和贮存金属离子的功能。消化腺还呈现多种水解酶活性。%Histology, histochemistry, ultrastructure and activity of some hydrolytical enzymes of the digestive gland of Haliotis discus hannai Ino have been studied.The gland consists of two types of cells, digestive cells and basophilic cells. The digestive cells are capable of ingesting exogenous material from the lumen of the tubule, and contain a number of vesicles concerning with the heterophagic function of the cells. The vesicles exhibit considerable variation in size and appearance in different regions of the cells. Those in the apical and sub-apical regions of the cells, which are considered as heterophagosomes, are involved in accumulation of the ingested material. Those in the mid-regions, regarded as heterolysosomes, give a positive reaction to tests for acid phosphatase and non-specific esterase. They concern with intracellular digestion of the ingested material. The vesicles in the basal regions, considered as residual bodies, are involved in accumulation of undigested and indigestible residues. The digestive cells secrete proteinase. Numerous lipid globules in the cells show that the digestive cells can reserve food material. The basophilic cells are characterized by the possession of a well-developed rough endoplasmic reticulum and many refractile spherules which give a intense reaction to test for iron. The cells also secrete proteinase. The refractile spherules which contain metals may serve a detoxification function. The tests for enzymatic activity in vitro show

  11. 皱纹盘鲍眼部组织的显微及亚显微结构观察%Light and electron microscopic study of the eye ofHaliotis discus hannai Ino

    高霄龙; 张墨; 李贤; 宋昌斌; 刘鹰


    采用组织学和电镜的方法,对皱纹盘鲍(Haliotis discus hannai Ino)的眼部组织进行了光镜和电镜观察,以期为进一步从分子生物学角度解析鲍对光照的生理响应机制提供组织学与细胞学基础。结果发现,眼部组织由外至内依次为视网膜色素上皮细胞层、外核层、光感受器内节、内核层、黑色素颗粒沉积层、视觉纤维层。组织表面布满乳头状突起,每一乳状突起的顶端均具有一簇或两簇纤毛环。疏松结缔组织和平滑肌纤维等是组织内的主要成分,结缔组织间分布的胶原纤维等对保持细胞的弹性和韧性具有重要的作用。研究结果显示了鲍的眼部组织在感受和辨识外界光环境因子中的重要作用,也为鲍养殖生产中的光环境因子优化和调控、深入探讨鲍对光照的生理应答机制提供了形态学依据。%Light is a key environmental factor that influences the growth, culture and survival of aquatic organisms. In the present study, the eye tissues ofHaliotis discus hannaiIno were observed under the light microscope, scan-ning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope to provide an enhanced histological and cytologi-cal basis for analysis of the physiological response mechanism of abalone to light from the perspective of mo-lecular biology. Findings show that the eye tissues, from the outside to the inside, are: retinal pigment epithelium, outer nuclear layer, inner segment, inner nuclear layer, melanin granules sediment and optical fiber layer. Connec-tive tissue mainly exists between the epithelium and the outer nuclear layer, and a portion of the connective tissue nucleus is a darker color. The optical fiber layer mainly comprises the light red reticular nerve fibers which gradually become dense from the outside to the inside. The front ends of eye tissues are cylinder-shaped with an obvious circular depression, in which the reticular nerve fibers are

  12. 鲍鱼内脏中天然牛磺酸的提取与检测%Extraction and determination of taurine from viscera of abalone (Haliotis discus hannai)

    章骞; 郑福来; 翁凌; 张凌晶; 曹敏杰


    目的:以皱纹盘鲍内脏为原料,优化高纯度牛磺酸的提取工艺,并建立用高压液相色谱检测牛磺酸纯度的方法。方法经水煮、乙醇抽提、蒸发浓缩、沉淀、活性炭处理、结晶等步骤,获得高纯度天然牛磺酸。用高压液相色谱检测牛磺酸纯度的方法为:色谱柱:Discovery C18;流动相:甲醇-0.05 mol/L乙酸钠缓冲液(pH 5.3)(v/v,50:50);流速:1 mL/min;检测波长:330 nm;柱温:室温。结果该提取工艺能从1 kg 鲍鱼内脏中提取得到天然牛磺酸3.07 g。采用该检测方法,牛磺酸的出峰时间为6.037 min,在1~20μg/mL浓度范围内线性关系良好(R2=0.9999),最低检出限为0.03μg/mL,最低定量限为0.12μg/mL,样品测定的平均回收率为99.44%(RSD=0.25%),方法的精密度和稳定性好(RSD<1%),用该方法检测提取得到的牛磺酸纯度为96.06%。采用红外光谱法(IR)对提取得到的鲍鱼内脏牛磺酸进一步作结构鉴定,发现它与标准品的红外特征吸收峰一致。结论获得了高纯度牛磺酸的提取工艺。本方法精密度和稳定性好,回收率高。%Objective The viscera from abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) was used as raw materials to isolate natural taurine and an HPLC method for the determination of the purity of taurine was established. Methods Natural taurine was isolated by combining methods of high temperature stewing, activated carbon treatment, ethanol extraction, concentration, precipitation and crystallization. The HPLC method for determination of the purity of taurine was performed on a Discovery C18 column eluted with a mobile phase of 50% methyl alcohol and 50% sodium acetate (pH 5.3) at flow rate of 1.0 mL/min at room tem-perature and detected by a UV detector at 330 nm. Results Taurine (3.07 g) was isolated from 1 kg ab-alone viscera by the extraction method. The retention time of taurine was at 6.037 min on HPLC and the method showed a good linearity within concentration of

  13. 周期性断食对皱纹盘鲍生长、摄食、排粪和血细胞组成的影响%Effect of periodic starvation on growth, feeding, defecation and granulocyte of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    任黎华; 张继红; 王文琪; 杜美荣; 张明亮; 高亚平; 吴桃


    对壳长为65 mm的皱纹盘鲍进行投喂2d、饥饿1~4 d的周期性断食处理,连续投喂组作为对照.皱纹盘鲍的摄食、生长、排粪和血细胞组成的研究结果表明,当投喂2d,饥饿天数少于2d时,皱纹盘鲍的生长没有显著差异(P>0.05),饥饿天数多于3d,鲍体重开始下降;摄食率呈随解饿时间增加呈升高趋势,但实验组间无显著差异(P>0.05);排粪率与粪便中的有机物含量随饥饿时间增长而降低,其中,各处理阶段间的差异显著(P<0.05).血细胞中颗粒细胞的比例在饥饿少于2d的实验组间无差异,但显著高于投喂2d、饥饿3d的实验组与投喂2d、饥饿4d的实验组(P<0.05).%Aquaculture of abalone was limited in northern China by the lack of fresh food in summer.For a new feeding method,the Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino at shell length of 65mm were treated with periodic starvation,i.e.feeding for 2d,then starving for 1~ 4d,with continuous feeding treatment as control.Results of growth,feeding,defecation and granulocyte suggested that there was no significant difference in growth when starvation was less than 2d (P>0.05),while body weight dropped in other groups(more than 3d starvation).Food intake rate increased as starvation lasted,but there was no significant difference between each group (P>0.05).Fecal production rate and organic matter in feces decreased with prolonged starvation,and it was significantly different during each treatment stage (P<0.05); Ratio of granulocyte showed no difference in treatments of starvation less than 2d,and significantly higher for group of starvation less than 2d than groups of f2s3 and f2s4 (P<0.05).

  14. Sequences Characterization of Microsatellite DNA Sequences in Pacific Abalone (Haliotis discus hannat)

    LI Qi; Kijima Akihiro


    The microsatellite-enriched library was constructed using magnetic bead hybridization selection method, and the microsatellite DNA sequences were analyzed in Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai. Three hundred and fifty white colonies were screened using PCR-based technique, and 84 clones were identified to potentially contain microsatellite repeat motif. The 84 clones were sequenced, and 42 microsatellites and 4 minisatellites with a minimum of five repeats were found (13.1% of white colonies screened). Besides the motif of CA contained in the oligoprobe, we also found other 16 types of microsatellite repeats including a dinucleotide repeat, two tetranucleotide repeats, twelve pentanucleotide repeats and a hexanucleotide repeat. According to Weber(1990), the microsatellite sequences obtained could be categorized structurally into perfect repeats (73.3%), imperfect repeats(13.3%), and compound repeats (13.4%). Among the microsatellite repeats, relatively short arrays (< 20 repeats) were most abundant,accounting for 75.0%. The largest length of microsatellites was 48 repeats, and the average number of repeats was 13.4. The data on the composition and length distribution of microsatellites obtained in the present study can be useful for choosing the repeat motifs for microsatetlite isolation in other abalone species.


    王蔚芳; 张文兵; 麦康森; 徐玮; 刘付志国; 艾庆辉; 李会涛


    在以酪蛋白和明胶为蛋白源的半精制基础饲料中,添加不同浓度梯度的钾(0、2、4、8、16、32 g 钾/kg 饲料),钾源为KCl,配制成6种实验饲料(实测钾含量分别为:0.10、2.12、4.39、9.79、20.08和27.26 g/kg),探讨皱纹盘鲍(Haliotis discus hannai) 幼鲍对饲料中钾的需求量及其在长期适应不同含量钾的过程中的生理反应.幼鲍初始体重为(0.24 ± 0.00)g,初始壳长为(12.24 ± 0.04)mm,实验在流水系统中进行,养殖周期为15周.实验期间水温12-23℃,海水钾含量为(472.94 ± 3.59)mg/L.结果表明,饲料中不同含量的钾对皱纹盘鲍的增重率(WGR,%)、贝壳日增长(DISL,μm/d)及存活率没有显著影响(P > 0.05).皱纹盘鲍软体部的水分、粗脂肪和贝壳的灰分含量受饲料中钾含量的影响不显著(P > 0.05).当饲料中钾含量大于等于4.39 g/kg时,与0.10 g/kg饲料组相比,软体部粗蛋白质含量显著升高(P 0.05).幼鲍软体部钠含量在饲料钾含量为20.08、27.26 g/kg时显著低于其他各组(P 0.05) differences in the weight gain ratio (WGR, %), daily increment in shell length (DISL, um/d) and the survival of abalone among treatments. There were also no significant (P > 0.05) differences in lipid, moisture contents in soft body and ash content in shell among the six dietary treatments. Compared with that in the treatment of 0.10 g/kg diet, the protein content in soft body increased significantly (P < 0.05) when dietary potassium was more than 4.39 g/kg diet. The content of potassium in the soft body and potassium, sodium in the shell was maintained relatively constant regardless of dietary treatment. The soft body sodium content was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in 20.08 and 27.26 g/kg of dietary treatment than any other treatments. The activity of gill Na -K ATPase decreased steadily with the increasing of dietary potassium. Data from the growth parameters (WGR and DISL) showed that it was unnecessary to add potassium to

  16. Kazal-type proteinase inhibitor from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus): molecular characterization and transcriptional response upon immune stimulation.

    Wickramaarachchi, W D Niroshana; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Whang, Ilson; Wan, Qiang; Lee, Jehee


    Proteinases and proteinase inhibitors are involved in several biological and physiological processes in all multicellular organisms. Proteinase inhibitors play a key role in regulating the activity of the respective proteinases. Among serine proteinase inhibitors, kazal-type proteinase inhibitors (KPIs) are widely found in mammals, avians, and a variety of invertebrates. In this study, we describe the identification of a kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor (Ab-KPI) from the disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus, which is presumably involved in innate immunity. The full-length cDNA of Ab-KPI includes 600 bp nucleotides with an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 143 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of Ab-KPI contains a putative 17-amino acid signal peptide and two tandem kazal domains with high similarity to other kazal-type SPIs. Each kazal domain consists of reactive site (P1) residue containing a leucine (L), and a threonine (T) located in the second amino acid position after the second conserved cysteine of each domain. Temporal expression of Ab-KPI was assessed by real time quantitative PCR in hemocytes and mantle tissue following bacterial and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) challenge, and tissue injury. At 6 h post-bacterial and -VHSV challenge, Ab-KPI expression in hemocytes was increased 14-fold and 4-fold, respectively, compared to control samples. The highest up-regulations upon tissue injury were shown at 9 h and 12 h in hemocytes and mantle, respectively. The transcriptional modulation of Ab-KPI following bacterial and viral challenges and tissue injury indicates that it might be involved in immune defense as well as wound healing process in abalone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Development and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers for the Pacific Abalone (Haliotis discus) via EST Database Mining

    ZHAN Aibin; BAO Zhenmin; WANG Mingling; CHANG Dan; YUAN Jian; WANG Xiaolong; HU Xiaoli; LIANG Chengzhu; HU Jingjie


    The EST database of the Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus) was mined for developing mierosatellite markers. A total of 1476 EST sequences were registered in GenBank when data mining was performed. Fifty sequences (approximately 3.4%) were found to contain one or more mierosatellites. Based on the length and GC content of the flanking regions, duster analysis and BLASTN, 13 microsatellite-containing ESTs were selected for PCR primer design. The results showed that 10 out of 13 primer pairs could amplify seorable PCR products and showed polymorphism. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 13 and the values of Hoand He varied from 0.1222 to 0.8611 and 0.2449 to 0.9311, respectively. No significant linkage disequilibrium (LD) between any pairs of these loci was found, and 6 of 10 loci conformed to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). These EST-SSRs are therefore potential tools for studies of intraspecies variation and hybrid identification.

  18. Analysis of microbiota on abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) in South Korea for improved product management.

    Lee, Min-Jung; Lee, Jin-Jae; Chung, Han Young; Choi, Sang Ho; Kim, Bong-Soo


    Abalone is a popular seafood in South Korea; however, because it contains various microorganisms, its ingestion can cause food poisoning. Therefore, analysis of the microbiota on abalone can improve understanding of outbreaks and causes of food poisoning and help to better manage seafood products. In this study, we collected a total of 40 abalones from four different regions in March and July, which are known as the maximum abalone production areas in Korea. The microbiota were analyzed using high-throughput sequencing, and bacterial loads on abalone were quantified by real-time PCR. Over 2700 species were detected in the samples, and Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria were the predominant classes. The differences in microbiota among regions and at each sampling time were also investigated. Although Psychrobacter was the dominant genus detected on abalone in both March and July, the species compositions were different between the two sampling times. Five potential pathogens (Lactococcus garvieae, Yersinia kristensenii, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus warneri, and Staphylococcus epidermidis) were detected among the abalone microbiota. In addition, we analyzed the influence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection on shifts in abalone microbiota during storage at different temperatures. Although the proportion of Vibrio increased over time in infected and non-infected abalone, the shifts of microbiota were more dynamic in infected abalone. These results can be used to better understand the potential of food poisoning caused by abalone consumption and manage abalone products according to the microbiota composition.

  19. 杂色鲍与盘鲍杂交F1的早期生物学表现%Early-stage performance of hybrid between Haliotis diversicolor and H. discus discus

    蔡明夷; 柯才焕; 郭峰; 王桂忠; 王志勇; 王艺磊


    比较研究杂色鲍(Haliotis diversicolor)(S)与盘鲍(H.discus discus)(J)正反交F1及其亲本自繁后代的卵裂速度和孵化速度,以及杂色鲍与盘鲍杂交F及杂色鲍自繁幼体的成活率.在22~23℃下,杂色鲍自繁后代的早期发育速度快于盘鲍自繁后代.杂色鲍和盘鲍2细胞期分别为授精后45.3 min±8.9 min和59.3min±8.9min.卵裂间隔时间分别为21.7min±2.9min和27.0min±2.6min,孵化时间分别为授精后563.4 min和711.8 min.SJ和JS杂交F的第一次卵裂速度均比他们的双亲慢,2细胞期分别为69.3min±17.5 min和71.7 min±5.8 min;而卵裂间隔时间(τ)表现出较强的母本效应,略长于母本,分别为22.2 min±4.7 min和31.3 min±6.1 min;孵化速度均慢于其母本自繁后代,分别为授精后632.7 min和授精后874.3 min.计算结果表明,自繁和杂交胚胎过程发育经历细胞周期数相当,SS、SJ、JJ和JS的从2细胞到孵化经历时间分别相当于23.9τ、25.4τ、24.1τ和24.8τ.另一方面,SJ杂交F在附着变态阶段大量畸形、死亡,变态后成活率仅为母本自繁组合的1.2%,显现出较高程度的杂交不亲和.本文的研究结果为杂色鲍与盘鲍杂交F的后续应用开发提供了依据,也为进一步研究杂交F的遗传本质及父母本的基因互作关系奠定基础.%In present study, mitotic intervals, hatching speed and survival rate of embryos produced from reciprocal hybrid cross and pure cross of small abalone (S, Haliotis diversicolor) and Japanese abalone (J, H. discus discus) were investigated. At 22~23 ℃, the small abalone developed faster than the Japanese abalone at early stage. The times to reach the two-cell stage were 45.3 min ± 8.9 min post insemination (p.i.) for the small abalone and 59.3 min ± 8.9 min for the Japanese abalone. The small abalone took 21.7 min ± 2.9 min to complete a cleavage cycle and 563.4 min to hatch out, while the Japanese abalone took 31.3 min ± 6.1 min and 711.8 min

  20. An invertebrate signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) ortholog from the disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus: Genomic structure, early developmental expression, and immune responses to bacterial and viral stresses.

    Bathige, S D N K; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Park, Hae-Chul; Lee, Jehee


    Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) family members are key signaling molecules that transduce cellular responses from the cell membrane to the nucleus upon Janus kinase (JAK) activation. Although seven STAT members have been reported in mammals, very limited information on STAT genes in molluscans is available. In this study, we identified and characterized a STAT paralog that is homologous to STAT5 from the disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus, and designated as AbSTAT5. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence for AbSTAT5 (790 amino acids) with other counterparts revealed conserved residues important for functions and typical domain regions, including the N-terminal domain, coiled-coil domain, DNA-binding domain, linker domain, and Src homology 2 (SH2) domains as mammalian counterparts. Analysis of STAT phylogeny revealed that AbSTAT5 was clustered with the molluscan subgroup in STAT5 clade with distinct evolution. According to the genomic structure of AbSTAT5, the coding sequence was distributed into 20 exons with 19 introns. Immunologically essential transcription factor-binding sites, such as GATA-1, HNF, SP1, C/EBP, Oct-1, AP1, c-Jun, and Sox-2, were predicted at the 5'-proximal region of AbSTAT5. Expression of AbSTAT5 mRNA was detected in different stages of embryonic development and observed at considerably higher levels in the morula and late veliger stages. Tissue-specific expressional studies revealed that the highest level of AbSTAT5 transcripts was detected in hemocytes, followed by gill tissues. Temporal expressions of AbSTAT5 were analyzed upon live bacterial (Vibrio parahemolyticus and Listeria monocytogenes), viral (viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus), and pathogen-associated molecular pattern (lipopolysaccharides and Poly I:C) stimulations, and significant elevations indicated immune modulation. These results suggest that AbSTAT5 may be involved in maintaining innate immune responses from developmental to adult stages in

  1. Histological Study on Circulatory System and Excretory System of Haliotis discus hannai%皱纹盘鲍循环系统和排泄系统的组织学研究

    杨文新; 苏秀榕; 李太武; 郭皓



  2. Research Using a Discus Based Network Emulator.


    functions, scheduled to run on a single processor, is provided by the test harness option in the DISCUS system generator . This at present produces code which...substantial re-arrangement of the DISCUS operating system and system generator will be required. It will probably not be necessary to modify the

  3. Individualized optimal release angles in discus throwing.

    Leigh, Steve; Liu, Hui; Hubbard, Mont; Yu, Bing


    The purpose of this study was to determine individualized optimal release angles for elite discus throwers. Three-dimensional coordinate data were obtained for at least 10 competitive trials for each subject. Regression relationships between release speed and release angle, and between aerodynamic distance and release angle were determined for each subject. These relationships were linear with subject-specific characteristics. The subject-specific relationships between release speed and release angle may be due to subjects' technical and physical characteristics. The subject-specific relationships between aerodynamic distance and release angle may be due to interactions between the release angle, the angle of attack, and the aerodynamic distance. Optimal release angles were estimated for each subject using the regression relationships and equations of projectile motion. The estimated optimal release angle was different for different subjects, and ranged from 35 degrees to 44 degrees . The results of this study demonstrate that the optimal release angle for discus throwing is thrower-specific. The release angles used by elite discus throwers in competition are not necessarily optimal for all discus throwers, or even themselves. The results of this study provide significant information for understanding the biomechanics of discus throwing techniques.

  4. Optimization of LED light quality and time for artificial breeding of Haliotis discushannai%养殖皱纹盘鲍人工育苗LED光质及光照时期优选

    高霄龙; 李贤; 张墨; 史策; 宋昌斌; 刘鹰


    , green light and dark setting) and initial stage of lighting (fertilized egg, trochophore, eye spot larvae) on the growth, development and survival of the larvae ofHaliotis discus hannaiIno were examined. Experimental results suggested that the hatching rate of larvae under green, blue, and dark setting were all >80% and were significantly higher compared with those under red, orange, or white light (P10% of larvae, which was significantly higher than in any other treatment group (P0.05). The metamorphosis rate of larvae cultured under blue light since the fertilized egg stage was significantly higher than in any other light quality group lit at the same stage (P0.05). Under blue, green light, the survival rate of juvenile was significantly higher than any other light quality group (P0.05). In cultures lit since the fertilized egg stage, trochophore size was significantly larger under blue, green, or dark setting, compared with white or red light (P0.05). Under blue, green light, since the stage of trochophore or eye spot larvae, the size of completion of larval shell and metamorphosis was significantly bigger than any other group since the fertilized egg stage (P<0.05). However, the required time of metamorphosis of larvae since the eye spot larvae stage was significantly longer if compared to that of any other group since the stage of fertilized egg or trochophore (P<0.05). Therefore, blue, green light used as light source and lighting starting from the stage of trochophore in the culture and growth of the larvae ofH. discus hannaiIno can be highly referential to boost the hatching efficiency of seeds, increase the yield per water body and for the rapid development of the aquaculture industry.

  5. The Symbolic Characters in The Discus Thrower

    FENG Jian-ming


    The Discus Thrower by Richard Selzer is symbolic in characterization. The nameless patient in "Rom 542" stands for an everyman in his society. His blindness shows that he is a man in darkness. And darkness is upon the face of the modern society. His legless condition shows that he has lost his freedom of action in the so-called land of liberty. His ironic words imply his indignation at his adverse fortune. The crack of the broken plate symbolizes a hope for the span-new life. The doctor-narrator represents a common toiler who supports the society. The head nurse represents a ruler in the modern western world. The symbolic meanings reflect the author's careful observation and meditation on the existent society.

  6. The pathogenic Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934 (Cestoda in the Red discus (Symphysodon discus

    Košuthová L.


    Full Text Available The Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934, was detected for the first time in breeding of discus fish Symphysodon discus (Perciformes, Cichlidae, a popular South American cichlid. In examined samples, the adult and juvenile cestodes of B. acheilognathi with mean intensity of infection 30 (range 19 - 47 individuals per fish were found. The infected fish displayed acute behavioral symptoms. Mortality was significant; it reached almost 80 % in youngest age categories. As treatment, praziquantel immersions in dose 2 mg per liter were well tolerated and efficacious. The risk of spreading pathogens via imported fish is actual menace for ornamental breeding fish, therefore, thorough quarantine and prophylactic measures needs to be done by all fish imports and introductions. Import and subsequent release of infected ornamental fish into freshwater ecosystems may represent serious risk for spread and establishment of the parasite in native fish species. This case study illustrates that ornamental fish play also a key role in national and international movements of parasites in freshwater habitats.

  7. Histopathological study of parasitic infestation of skin and gill on Oscar (Astronotus ocellatus and discus (Symphysodon discus

    Forough Mohammadi


    Full Text Available Histopathology provides a rapid method to detect effects of irritants and pathogens in different organs and it can be considered as theindicator for abnormal condition for fish environment. The present study was initiated to record the histopathological lesions of gill and skinassociated with external parasites in two common aquarium fish, Oscar (Astronotus ocellatus and Discus (Symphysodon discus fish. TwentyOscar and twenty Discus were obtained from aquarium shops and wet mount was prepared from skin and gill mucosa and histopathologicalstudy was performed on tissue samples of gills and skin on tissue sections which were stained with haematoxilin-eosin. Based on the results,Dactylogyrus sp. was the most prevalent parasites in Oscar and Discus fish. Ichthyophthirius multifliis, Trichodina sp. and Gyrodactylus sp.,Epistylis sp. and Vorticella sp. were seen in the skin and gill of fish. In histopathological examination, fusion of secondary lamella associatedwith hyperplasia, aneurysm, edema, purulent bronchitis were seen. Sections of Ichthyobodo sp. and purulent bronchitis are rare and in skin.Dermatitis was observed. Histopathological lesions in Oscar were in high rate in comparison with lesions which were seen in Discus and theyare in relation to parasitic infestation.

  8. Latex Allergy with Discus Form of Inhalation Drug of Asthma

    Ogun Sezer


    Full Text Available The prevalence of latex allergy in healthcare workers and which was taken chronic medical therapy has significantly increased during the last 15 years. Latex allergy generally refers to a type 1 reaction to natural rubber latex (NRL proteins with clinical manifestations ranging from contact urticaria to asthma and anaphylaxis. In this report, we discuss latex allergy with discus form of inhalation drug of asthma after contact of discus form to lips. Still, latex allergy is an important problem in patients with latex allergy. We must inform all patients about latex allergy and all latex containing devices. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(5.000: 451-452


    Rio Ary Sudarmawan


    Full Text Available Haliotis asininna dan Haliotis squamata merupakan jenis abalon yang banyak dijumpai dan dikembangkan di Indonesia. Kendala yang sering dihadapi yaitu  menentukan jumlah induk yang berujung pada rendahnya produksi benih. Upaya peningkatan kualitas benih terus dilakukan salah satunya dengan kawin silang dengan perbandingan jumlah induk yang sesuai. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengetahui jumlah induk betina abalon yang dibutuhkan untuk menghasilkan larva yang optimal, serta mengetahui perbedaan tingkat keberhasilan persilangan dua jenis induk. Metode yang digunakan adalah eksperimental dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap  dua faktor. Faktor pertama, jumlah induk betina (1:2, 1:3 dan 1:4. Faktor kedua, persilangan dengan dua aras yaitu H. asinina jantan dengan H. squamata betina dan H. asinina betina dengan H. squamta jantan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan rasio jumlah induk tidak berpengaruh nyata terhadap keberhasilan pemijahan. Namun faktor persilangan memberikan pengaruh  nyata (p<0,05 terhadap jumlah telur, tingkat pembuahan dan tingkat penetasan. Persilangan dengan induk betina H. squamata menghasilkan tingkat keberhasilan lebih tinggi dibandingakan dengan induk betina H. asinina. Kata kunci: H. asinina, H. squamata, jumlah induk, kawin silang


    F. Conte


    Full Text Available The antibiotic resistance (AR of Gram negative bacteria from Haliotis tuberculata (Ht and Mytilus galloprovincialis (Mg was assessed. Essential differences between R profiles of Pseudomonas spp and of other strains was not observed. Strains AR from Ht and Mg was similar.

  11. Experiences in using DISCUS for visualizing human communication

    Groehn, Matti; Nieminen, Marko; Haho, Paeivi; Smeds, Riitta


    In this paper, we present further improvement to the DISCUS software that can be used to record and analyze the flow and constants of business process simulation session discussion. The tool was initially introduced in 'visual data exploration and analysis IV' conference. The initial features of the tool enabled the visualization of discussion flow in business process simulation sessions and the creation of SOM analyses. The improvements of the tool consists of additional visualization possibilities that enable quick on-line analyses and improved graphical statistics. We have also created the very first interface to audio data and implemented two ways to visualize it. We also outline additional possibilities to use the tool in other application areas: these include usability testing and the possibility to use the tool for capturing design rationale in a product development process. The data gathered with DISCUS may be used in other applications, and further work may be done with data ming techniques.

  12. DiSCuS: an open platform for (not only) virtual screening results management.

    Wójcikowski, Maciej; Zielenkiewicz, Piotr; Siedlecki, Paweł


    DiSCuS, a "Database System for Compound Selection", has been developed. The primary goal of DiSCuS is to aid researchers in the steps subsequent to generating high-throughput virtual screening (HTVS) results, such as selection of compounds for further study, purchase, or synthesis. To do so, DiSCuS provides (1) a storage facility for ligand-receptor complexes (generated with external programs), (2) a number of tools for validating these complexes, such as scoring functions, potential energy contributions, and med-chem features with ligand similarity estimates, and (3) powerful searching and filtering options with logical operators. DiSCuS supports multiple receptor targets for a single ligand, so it can be used either to evaluate different variants of an active site or for selectivity studies. DiSCuS documentation, installation instructions, and source code can be found at .

  13. Capillariosis in breeder discus (Symphysodon aequifasciatus in Iran

    Rahmati-Holasoo Hooman


    Full Text Available The global ornamental fish trade is a rapidly growing industry. Cultivation and propagation of ornamental fishes have been increasing in the last 20 years in Iran. Discus (Symphysodon aequifasciatus from Cichlidae is one of the most popular and expensive aquarium fish. In the past few years farming of this fish has been well developed in Iran. Two breeder discus fish (Symphysodon aequifasciatus from two different propagation centres (with high mortality with signs of anorexia, loss of balance, moribundity and darkness in skin colour were referred to Laboratory of Aquatic Diseases of Veterinary Faculty, University of Tehran. After the survey of ectoparasites, necropsy was performed under aseptic conditions; bacterial culture on standard media was done and the alimentary canal was extruded. In both fish no ectoparasite was detected and no bacteria from these cases grew on the standard media. In internal survey 5 and 25 nematodes were detected in each fish. A high number of free eggs were observed in intestine of fish. Regarding morphological characteristics of the nematodes and their eggs, they were identified as Capillaria sp. Treatment of other fish with levamisole was effective and the loss was terminated. Some helminthes like Capillaria pterophylli Heinze, 1933, can cause a high mortality in cichlid aquarium fishes. This study showed that infection with some species of Capillaria could cause a heavy loss in ornamental fish from Cichlidae. Diagnosis of parasites of these fishes can help us to prevent high mortalities.


    Ibnu Rusdi


    Full Text Available Abalon merupakan hewan yang bersifat herbivora di alam memakan berbagai jenis makroalga. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh berbagai makroalga sebagai pakan terhadap perkembangan gonad abalon Haliotis squamata. Dalam penelitian ini diterapkan 4 perlakuan pemberian pakan yaitu: (A Gracilaria sp., (B Ulva sp., (C Sargassum sp., (D Kombinasi Gracilaria sp. + Ulva sp. + Sargassum sp. (rasio 1:1:1. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah rancangan acak lengkap masing-masing dengan 3 ulangan. Induk-induk abalon dipelihara dalam 12 buah kontainer plastik berlubang ukuran 0,58 m x 0,39 m x 0,31 m dan ditempatkan dalam sebuah bak semen ukuran 3 m x 2 m x 1 m. Setiap kontainer berisi abalon sebanyak 10 ekor dengan ukuran awal rata-rata panjang cangkang dan bobot masing-masing 58,9±1,37 mm dan 36,1±4,06 g. Pakan diberikan dengan dosis 15%-20% dari bobot biomassa setiap 2 hari sekali. Pergantian air menggunakan sistem sirkulasi dengan debit 5-6 L/menit. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa rata-rata pertumbuhan bobot mutlak dan laju pertumbuhan bobot harian berbeda nyata (P<0,05 antar perlakuan. Tingkat kematangan gonad (TKG induk abalon pada hari ke-70 diperoleh TKG-III tertinggi dihasilkan pada perlakuan kombinasi Gracilaria + Ulva sp. + Sargassum sp. (P<0,05. Perlakuan pakan kombinasi Gracilaria sp. + Ulva sp. dan Sargassum sp. terlihat lebih sesuai dalam memacu pematangan gonad induk abalon H. squamata.  Abalone is a herbivorous animal which consumes various kinds of macroalgae in the wild. The aim of the study was to study the effects of various kinds of macroalgae on gonadal maturation of abalone, Haliotis squamata. The experiment applied four kinds of macroalgae i.e.: (A Gracilaria sp.; (B Ulva sp.; (C Sargassum sp.; and (D Combination of Gracilaria sp. + Ulva sp. + Sargassum sp. (ratio 1:1:1 as food for abalone broodstock. The experiment was arranged in complete random design with three replications. One cemented tank of 3 m x 2 m x 1 m in

  15. Ecology and life history of an Amazon floodplain cichlid: the discus fish Symphysodon (Perciformes: Cichlidae

    William G. R. Crampton

    Full Text Available The discus fishes of the genus Symphysodon are popular ornamental cichlids that occur in floodplain lakes and flooded forests of the lowland Amazon Basin. These habitats are characterized by extreme seasonal fluctuations in the availability of food, shelter and dissolved oxygen, and also the densities of predators and parasites. Most aspects of discus biology are influenced by these fluctuating conditions. This paper reports an autoecological study of the western Amazonian discus S. haraldi (until recently classified as S. aequifasciatus. This species feeds predominantly on algal periphyton, fine organic detritus, plant matter, and small aquatic invertebrates. At high water it forages alone or in small groups in flooded forests. At low water it forms large aggregations in fallen tree crowns along lake margins. Breeding occurs at the beginning of the flood season, ensuring that the progeny are well grown before the next low water period. Symphysodon haraldi is an iteroparous partial spawner, reaches reproductive maturity within a year, and undertakes parental care of its eggs and larvae. The timing of spawning events, and/or the rate of brood survival, may be influenced by fluctuations in the flood level, resulting in a non-unimodal distribution of size classes for the subsequent 1+ cohort.

  16. Cryopreservation of sperm of red abalone (Haliotis rufescens)

    Salinas-Flores, L.; Paniagua-Chavez, C. G.; Jenkins, J.A.; Tiersch, T.R.


    Abalone culture, a developing industry in Baja California, Mexico, would benefit from genetic improvement and controlled breeding. The use of cryopreserved sperm would allow germplasm availability, and this study was designed to develop sperm cryopreservation protocols for red abalone Haliotis rufescens. The acute toxic effects of the cryoprotectants dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), propylene glycol (PG), and glycerol (GLY) were assessed after suspending sperm in different concentrations, whereby cryoprotectant treatments of 10% DMSO and 10% GLY equilibrated for 10 min yielded the highest range of motile sperm in preliminary freezing trials and were used for cryopreservation studies. To determine effective cooling rates, three freezing chambers were tested. Replicate samples of sperm from 4 males were placed in 0.5-mL French straws and frozen using a commercial freezing chamber (CFC) used for bull sperm, a programmable rate chamber (PRC), and a manually controlled styrofoam chamber (MCC). For the CFC, the cooling rate was 16??C/min, from 4??C to -140??C. For the PRC and MCC, it was 1??C/min, from -20??C to -30??C. The samples were held at -30??C for 5 min before being plunged into liquid nitrogen (-196??C) for storage, and each sample was thawed in a water bath at 45??C for 8 s. The quality of thawed sperm was determined by estimating percent motility, evaluating membrane integrity using a dual-staining technique and flow cytometry, and estimating fertilization rate. Statistical analyses were performed using 2-way ANOVA where chamber and treatment were the independent variables. Sperm quality parameters were independent. For motilities, a significant interaction was noted between the cryoprotective treatment and the chamber type, whereby motilities for DMSO and GLY were higher (P = 0.0055) using MCC. Membrane integrities were significantly lower after using the PRC than the CFC or the MCC (P = 0.0167). The highest post-thaw motility (48 ?? 7%) was found using sperm

  17. Unusual micrometric calcite-aragonite interface in the abalone shell Haliotis (Mollusca, Gastropoda).

    Dauphin, Yannicke; Cuif, Jean-Pierre; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Chevallard, Corinne; Farre, Bastien; Meibom, Anders


    Species of Haliotis (abalone) show high variety in structure and mineralogy of the shell. One of the European species (Haliotis tuberculata) in particular has an unusual shell structure in which calcite and aragonite coexist at a microscale with small patches of aragonite embedded in larger calcitic zones. A detailed examination of the boundary between calcite and aragonite using analytical microscopies shows that the organic contents of calcite and aragonite differ. Moreover, changes in the chemical composition of the two minerals seem to be gradual and define a micrometric zone of transition between the two main layers. A similar transition zone has been observed between the layers in more classical and regularly structured mollusk shells. The imbrication of microscopic patches of aragonite within a calcitic zone suggests the occurrence of very fast physiological changes in these taxa.

  18. Population structure of Haliotis rubra from South Australia inferred from nuclear and mtDNA analyses

    LI Zhongbao; Sharon A Appleyard; Nicholas G Elliott


    Microsatellite loci and mtDNA-RFLPs were surveyed in four spatially separated populations of Haliotis rubra and two populations of putative Haliotis conicorpora from South Australia. A high level of microsatellite genetic diversity was observed in all populations although several loci were characterized by homozygote excesses, probably due to null alleles. MtDNA variation was also moderate with an average of 80% haplotype variation across the six populations. Despite the high levels of genetic variation, significant pair-wise spatial differentiation is not detected among the populations. Hierarchical AMOVA analysis revealed very low levels of genetic partitioning on either a spatial or putative species level. Both molecular techniques revealed little genetic differentiation across the six populations, suggesting a panmictic population model for these South Australian abalone populations. Furthermore, no molecular evidence suggests that the putative H. conicorpora individuals sampled from South Australia belong to a separate species.

  19. Population dynamics and resilience of green abalone Haliotis fulgens in Isla Natividad

    Rossetto, Marisa


    Aim of my thesis project was to evaluate the efficacy of two marine reserves in Isla Natividad (Mexico) as a management tool for the green abalone (Haliotis fulgens) fishery. The first step was to develop and calibrate a demographic for green abalone to describe its dynamic when subjected to exploitation. To do so, I defined a size-based matrix model that allows incorporating information on growth, size-specific survival and size-specific fecundities; specifically, I conducted an extensive li...

  20. Diffuse scattering and defect structure simulations a cook book using the program DISCUS

    Neder, Reinhard B


    In recent years it has become apparent that knowing the average atomic structure of materials is insufficient to understand their properties. Diffuse scattering in addition to the Bragg scattering holds the key to learning about defects in materials, the topic of many recent books. What has been missing is a detailed step-by-step guide how to simulate disordered materials. The DISCUS cook book fills this need covering simple topics such as building a computer crystal to complextopic such as domain structures, stacking faults or using advanced refinement techniques to adjust parameters on a dis


    Mitrička Stardelova


    Full Text Available This paper includes an experiment that was performed on a hundred patients by using our self-developed methods during a two year period. The treatment of discus hernia was carried out by using our self-developed methods combined with a completely new technology, as well as clinical biomechanics, chiropractics, massotherapy, thermotherapy, cryotherapy and various other specific exercises practiced in esthetic and orthopedic kinesiology - kinesitherapy.50 females and 50 males aged 35 to 55 underwent our therapy and the results we obtained display very high curative effects.

  2. Temporal variation in biodeposit organic content and sinking velocity in long-line shellfish culture

    Ren, Lihua; Zhang, Jihong


    We measured the organic content and sinking velocities of biodeposits from two scallop species ( Chlamys farreri, Patinopecten yessoensis) and abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai) that were cultured on suspended long-lines. Measurements were conducted every two months from April 2010 to February 2011. The shellfish were divided into three size groups (small, middle, and big sizes). At each sample point, we assessed biodeposit organic content, average sinking velocity, the frequency distribution of sinking velocities, and the correlation between organic content and sinking velocity. The organic content of biodeposits varied significantly among months ( Pchange varied among species. Sinking velocities varied significantly, ranging from 1.9 cm/s. The sinking velocities of biodeposits from C. farreri and P. yessoensis were 0.5-1.5 cm/s and from H. discus hannai were <0.7 cm/s. The organic content was significantly negatively correlated to the sinking velocity of biodeposits in C. farreri ( P<0.001) and P. yessoensis ( P<0.05).

  3. Herencia mendeliana en microsatélites de abulón amarillo Haliotis corrugata

    Noé Díaz-Viloria; Ricardo Pérez-Enríquez; Pedro Cruz-Hernández; Daniel Aguilar-Osuna


    En México la pesquería de abulón amarillo (Haliotis corrugata) se ha visto fuertemente afectada por la sobrepesca y factores ambientales. En este contexto, la repoblación de los bancos silvestres mediante liberación de larvas o juveniles producidos en laboratorio se ha vislumbrado como una alternativa para incrementar la producción. Cualquier programa de repoblamiento debe considerar una estrategia de manejo genético que evite la pérdida de diversidad genética y que permita dar seguimiento de...

  4. Kryoelektronenmikroskopie von Proteinen: 3D-Struktur (12 A) des Hämocyanins der Schnecke Haliotis

    Meißner, Ulrich


    Zusammenfassung:Die Quartärstruktur des respiratorischen Proteins Hämocyanin (Isoform HtH1) aus der marinen Schnecke Haliotis tuberculata wurde vermittels Kryoelektronen-mikroskopie und 3D-Rekonstruktion untersucht. Das Molekül ist zylinderförmig, hat einen Durchmesser von ca. 35 nm und besteht aus einer Zylinderwand und einem internen Kragenkomplex. Dieser wiederum besteht aus einem Collar und einem Arc.Die kryoelektronenmikroskopischen Aufnahmen von in glasartigem Eis fixierten HtH1-Molekül...

  5. The Prediction of Performance of Olympic Athletes in Discus, Hammer, Javelin, and Shotput from Measures of Personality Characteristics.

    Ward, G. Robert; And Others


    For each of four subsamples of Olympic-quality athletes--14 discus, 8 hammer, 11 javelin, and 12 shotput measures of 19 personality constructs yielded only two statistically significant validity coefficients (out of 76 possible significant indices) in the prediction of average length of throw. (Author/JKS)

  6. Investigating the establishment of primary cell culture from different abalone (Haliotis midae) tissues.

    van der Merwe, Mathilde; Auzoux-Bordenave, Stéphanie; Niesler, Carola; Roodt-Wilding, Rouvay


    The abalone, Haliotis midae, is the most valuable commodity in South African aquaculture. The increasing demand for marine shellfish has stimulated research on the biology and physiology of target species in order to improve knowledge on growth, nutritional requirements and pathogen identification. The slow growth rate and long generation time of abalone restrict efficient design of in vivo experiments. Therefore, in vitro systems present an attractive alternative for short term experimentation. The use of marine invertebrate cell cultures as a standardised and controlled system to study growth, endocrinology and disease contributes to the understanding of the biology of economically important molluscs. This paper investigates the suitability of two different H. midae tissues, larval and haemocyte, for establishing primary cell cultures. Cell cultures are assessed in terms of culture initiation, cell yield, longevity and susceptibility to contamination. Haliotis midae haemocytes are shown to be a more feasible tissue for primary cell culture as it could be maintained without contamination more readily than larval cell cultures. The usefulness of short term primary haemocyte cultures is demonstrated here with a growth factor trial. Haemocyte cultures can furthermore be used to relate phenotypic changes at the cellular level to changes in gene expression at the molecular level.

  7. Initial characterization of receptors for molecules that induce the settlement and metamorphosis of Haliotis rufescens larvae

    Trapido-Rosenthal, H.G.


    Larvae of the marine gastropod mollusc Haliotis refescens are induced to undergo metamorphosis by ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and stereochemically related compounds. The most potent of these inducers is (-)-..beta..-(parachlorophenyl)-GABA (baclofen). The inductive response exhibits positive cooperatively, and is subject to both facilitation (up-regulation) and habituation (down-regulation). Facilitation is brought about by diamino acids such as L-diaminopropionic acid (L-DAPA), and is characterized by decreased Hill coefficients (n/sub H/) and concentration requirements (EC/sub 50/) for inducers. Facilitation does not require the simultaneous presence of facilitating and inducing compounds, and the facilitated state is persistent. Larvae are capable of being up-regulated 2 days before they are capable of undergoing settlement and metamorphosis. Habituation can be brought about by exposure of pre-competent larvae to GABA 4 days prior to the attainment of competence; it is then slowly reversible. Larvae specifically bind tritiated (-)-baclofen in a manner that is saturable with both increasing time of exposure of larvae to, and with increasing concentration of, this compound. Specific binding can be competed for by unlabeled GABA-mimetic inducing molecules; the order of effectiveness of these molecules as competitors for specific binding correlates well with their effectiveness as inducers of metamorphosis. Facilitation of larvae by exposure to diamino acids does not alter their specific binding of tritiated (-)-baclofen. It is concluded from these findings that Haliotis larvae possess receptors for GABA-mimetic compounds.

  8. The hydrogen peroxide impact on larval settlement and metamorphosis of abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta


    Abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta is an important economic mollusk. The settlement and metamorphosis are two critical stages during its development period, which has direct influence on abalone survival and production. The influence of reactive oxygen species (hydrogen peroxide) on abalone embryo and juvenile development were examined in this study. Larvae of Haliotis diversicolor supertexta were induced to settlement and metamorphose by exposure to seawater supplemented with hydrogen peroxide. They had the best performance at 800 μmol/L. The concentration of 1 000 μmol/L or higher was toxic to the larvae, as the larvae could settle down only at benthic diatom plates without complete metamorphosis. In addition, H2O2 adding time was critical to the larval performance. 24h after two-day post-fertilization was proved to be the optimal adding time. In this paper, two action mechanisms of hydrogen peroxide are discussed: (1) hydrogen peroxide has direct toxicity to ciliated cells, thus cause apoptosis; (2) hydrogen peroxide, as a product from catecholamines' autoxidation process in vivo, can reverse this process to produce neuro-transmitters to induce abalone metamorphosis.

  9. Accumulation of dietary and aqueous cadmium into the epidermal mucus of the discus fish Symphysodon sp

    Maunder, Richard J., E-mail: [School of Marine Science and Engineering, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Buckley, Jonathan, E-mail: [School of Marine Science and Engineering, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Val, Adalberto L., E-mail: [Department of Ecology, Laboratory of Ecophysiology and Molecular Evolution, INPA, Manaus (Brazil); Sloman, Katherine A., E-mail: [School of Science, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley, PA1 2BE, Scotland (United Kingdom)


    The discus fish Symphysodon sp. is an Amazonian cichlid with a unusual form of parental care where fry obligately feed from parental mucus for the first few weeks of life. Here, we investigated the possible impact of environmental cadmium on this species, particularly with respect to mucus contamination. We exposed groups of fish to cadmium either through their food (400 mg kg{sup -1}) or through the water (3 {mu}g l{sup -1}) for 4 weeks, and measured tissue concentrations and ATPase activities at weekly intervals. Cadmium significantly accumulated in all tissues (except for muscle) after 7 days, and tissue concentrations increased until the end of the experiment. Significant alterations in ATPase activities of intestine and kidney were observed at day 7 and 14, but no alterations in gill ATPase activities occurred. The epidermal mucus showed a high accumulation of cadmium from both exposures, but particularly from the diet, indicating that dietary cadmium can be transferred from gut to mucus. Combining this data with approximations of fry bite volumes and bite frequencies, we constructed daily estimates of the cadmium that could potentially be consumed by newly hatched fry feeding on this mucus. These calculations suggest that feeding fry might consume up to 11 {mu}g g{sup -1} day{sup -1}, and hence indicate that this species' dependency on parental mucus feeding of fry could make them particularly susceptible to cadmium contamination of their native habitat.

  10. Gene expression profiling in respond to TBT exposure in small abalone Haliotis diversicolor.

    Jia, Xiwei; Zou, Zhihua; Wang, Guodong; Wang, Shuhong; Wang, Yilei; Zhang, Ziping


    In this study, we investigated the gene expression profiling of small abalone, Haliotis diversicolor by tributyltin (TBT) exposure using a cDNA microarray containing 2473 unique transcripts. Totally, 107 up-regulated genes and 41 down-regulated genes were found. For further investigation of candidate genes from microarray data and EST analysis, quantitative real-time PCR was performed at 6 h, 24 h, 48 h, 96 h and 192 h TBT exposure. 26 genes were found to be significantly differentially expressed in different time course, 3 of them were unknown. Some gene homologues like cellulose, endo-beta-1,4-glucanase, ferritin subunit 1 and thiolester containing protein II CG7052-PB might be the good biomarker candidate for TBT monitor. The identification of stress response genes and their expression profiles will permit detailed investigation of the defense responses of small abalone genes.

  11. Genetic diversity and stock identification of small abalone (Haliotis diversicolor) in Taiwan and Japan.

    Hsu, Te-Hua; Gwo, Jin-Chywan


    Small abalone (Haliotis diversicolor) is a commercially valuable species for both fisheries and aquaculture. The production of annual farmed small abalone in Taiwan, once the highest in the world, has dramatically decreased in the past 15 years, and currently, the industry is close to collapse. Understanding the genetic diversity of small abalone and developing stock identification methods will be useful for genetic breeding, restoring collapsed stocks, managing stocks, and preventing illegal trade. We investigated 307 cultured and wild individuals from Taiwan, Japan, and Bali Island (Indonesia) by using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. Network analysis of mtDNA COI gene sequences revealed that the individuals collected from Taiwan, Japan, and Indonesia could be identified, and showed significant genetic divergence. In addition, the Indonesian population (Haliotis diversicolor squamata) was significantly different from the other populations and might need to be considered a separate species. We discovered a single nucleotide polymorphism marker in the mtDNA COI gene that can be used to distinguish the Taiwan population from the Japan population. We also developed a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method for rapid detection. Furthermore, we could identify the cultured stocks, wild population, and hybrid stocks by using 6 microsatellites and amplified fragment length polymorphism. This study contributes useful tools for stock identification and the production of high-disease resistant small abalone strains (Japan × Taiwan or Taiwan × Japan). Efforts should be made to avoid unintentional random genetic mixing of the Taiwan population with the Japan population and subsequent breakdown of population differentiation, which impair local adaptation of the Taiwan wild population. Molecular markers revealed a split between the Taiwan and Japan populations, and the existence of a possible barrier to the free

  12. A Mox homeobox gene in the gastropod mollusc Haliotis rufescens is differentially expressed during larval morphogenesis and metamorphosis.

    Degnan, B M; Degnan, S M; Fentenany, G; Morse, D E


    We have isolated a homeobox-containing cDNA from the gastropod mollusc Haliotis rufescens that is most similar to members of the Mox homeobox gene class. The derived Haliotis homeodomain sequence is 85% identical to mouse and frog Mox-2 homeodomains and 88.9% identical to the partial cnidarian cnox5-Hm homeodomain. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of mRNA accumulation reveals that this gene, called HruMox, is expressed in the larva, but not in the early embryo. Transcripts are most prevalent during larval morphogenesis from trochophore to veliger. There are also transient increases in transcript prevalence 1 and 3 days after the intitiation of metamorphosis from veliger to juvenile. The identification of a molluscan Mox homeobox gene that is more closely related to vertebrate genes than other protostome (e.g. Drosophila) genes suggests the Mox class of homeobox genes may consist of several different families that have been conserved through evolution.

  13. Mox homeobox expression in muscle lineage of the gastropod Haliotis asinina: evidence for a conserved role in bilaterian myogenesis.

    Hinman, V F; Degnan, B M


    Mox homeobox genes are expressed during early vertebrate somitogenesis. Here we describe the expression of Has-Mox, a Mox gene from the gastropod Haliotis asinina. Has-Moxis expressed in the trochophore larva in paraxial mesodermal bands. During larval development, Has-Mox expression remains restricted to mesodermal cells destined to form adult muscle in the foot. This restricted expression of Has-Mox in Haliotis is similar to that observed for vertebrate Mox genes, suggesting a conserved role in myogenesis in deuterostomes and lophotrochozoans. In contrast, Mox is not expressed in muscle lineages in the ecdysozoan representatives Caenorhabditis elegans or Drosophila; the C. elegansgenome has lost Mox altogether. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer Link server located at

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome of Haliotis laevigata (Gastropoda: Haliotidae) using MiSeq and HiSeq sequencing.

    Robinson, Nick A; Hall, Nathan E; Ross, Elizabeth M; Cooke, Ira R; Shiel, Brett P; Robinson, Andrew J; Strugnell, Jan M


    The mitochondrial genome of greenlip abalone, Haliotis laevigata, is reported. MiSeq and HiSeq sequencing of one individual was assembled to yield a single 16,545 bp contig. The sequence shares 92% identity to the H. rubra mitochondrial genome (a closely related species that hybridize with H. laevigata in the wild). The sequence will be useful for determining the maternal contribution to hybrid populations, for investigating population structure and stock-enhancement effectiveness.


    Fitriyah Husnul Khotimah


    Full Text Available Masalah yang paling utama dalam budidaya abalon tropis adalah pertumbuhan yang lambat. Penggunaan rElGH (recombinant giant grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus growth hormone untuk menstimulasi pertumbuhan beberapa spesies ikan sudah dilakukan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji akselerasi pertumbuhan juvenil abalon tropis, Haliotis squamata setelah diberi perlakuan perendaman hormon rekombinan ikan kerapu kertang, Epinephelus lanceolatus pada frekuensi yang berbeda. Ada empat perlakuan frekuensi perendaman rElGH yaitu 4, 9, 16 kali, dan tanpa perendaman (kontrol. Masing-masing perlakuan diulang tiga kali. Perendaman dilakukan selama tiga jam, dengan interval waktu empat hari. Kepadatan abalon tropis 100 ekor/L air laut yang mengandung 30 mg rElGH. Wadah untuk perendaman berupa beaker glass yang dilengkapi dengan aerasi. Penelitian dilakukan selama tujuh bulan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa abalon tropis yang direndam rElGH dengan frekuensi empat kali menghasilkan pertumbuhan bobot tubuh dan panjang cangkang tertinggi dan berbeda nyata dengan perlakuan lainnya (P<0,05. Sintasan abalon tropis yang diberi perlakuan perendaman hormon rElGH lebih tinggi dibandingkan perlakuan kontrol. The most crucial problem in tropical abalone aquaculture is the slow growth of the species. Studies investigating the use of rElGH (recombinant giant grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus growth hormone for promoting growth have been performed in various species. This research aimed to examine the growth acceleration of tropical abalone, Haliotis squamata juvenile after being treated in different immersion frequencies of recombinant giant grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus growth hormone (rElGH. There were four treatments of rElGH immersion frequency: 4, 9, 16 times and without rElGH immersion (control. Each treatment was performed in triplicates. Immersion was performed for 3 hours, at 4-day intervals and a density of 100 tropical abalones in 1 L seawater containing 30

  16. Construction of the BAC Library of Small Abalone (Haliotis diversicolor) for Gene Screening and Genome Characterization.

    Jiang, Likun; You, Weiwei; Zhang, Xiaojun; Xu, Jian; Jiang, Yanliang; Wang, Kai; Zhao, Zixia; Chen, Baohua; Zhao, Yunfeng; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A; Ke, Caihuan; Xu, Peng


    The small abalone (Haliotis diversicolor) is one of the most important aquaculture species in East Asia. To facilitate gene cloning and characterization, genome analysis, and genetic breeding of it, we constructed a large-insert bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library, which is an important genetic tool for advanced genetics and genomics research. The small abalone BAC library includes 92,610 clones with an average insert size of 120 Kb, equivalent to approximately 7.6× of the small abalone genome. We set up three-dimensional pools and super pools of 18,432 BAC clones for target gene screening using PCR method. To assess the approach, we screened 12 target genes in these 18,432 BAC clones and identified 16 positive BAC clones. Eight positive BAC clones were then sequenced and assembled with the next generation sequencing platform. The assembled contigs representing these 8 BAC clones spanned 928 Kb of the small abalone genome, providing the first batch of genome sequences for genome evaluation and characterization. The average GC content of small abalone genome was estimated as 40.33%. A total of 21 protein-coding genes, including 7 target genes, were annotated into the 8 BACs, which proved the feasibility of PCR screening approach with three-dimensional pools in small abalone BAC library. One hundred fifty microsatellite loci were also identified from the sequences for marker development in the future. The BAC library and clone pools provided valuable resources and tools for genetic breeding and conservation of H. diversicolor.

  17. In vitro Anti-Thrombotic Activity of Extracts from Blacklip Abalone (Haliotis rubra Processing Waste

    Hafiz Ansar Rasul Suleria


    Full Text Available Waste generated from the processing of marine organisms for food represents an underutilized resource that has the potential to provide bioactive molecules with pharmaceutical applications. Some of these molecules have known anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant activities and are being investigated as alternatives to common anti-thrombotic drugs, like heparin and warfarin that have serious side effects. In the current study, extracts prepared from blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra processing waste, using food grade enzymes papain and bromelain, were found to contain sulphated polysaccharide with anti-thrombotic activity. Extracts were found to be enriched with sulphated polysaccharides and assessed for anti-thrombotic activity in vitro through heparin cofactor-II (HCII-mediated inhibition of thrombin. More than 60% thrombin inhibition was observed in response to 100 μg/mL sulphated polysaccharides. Anti-thrombotic potential was further assessed as anti-coagulant activity in plasma and blood, using prothrombin time (PT, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT, and thromboelastography (TEG. All abalone extracts had significant activity compared with saline control. Anion exchange chromatography was used to separate extracts into fractions with enhanced anti-thrombotic activity, improving HCII-mediated thrombin inhibition, PT and aPTT almost 2-fold. Overall this study identifies an alternative source of anti-thrombotic molecules that can be easily processed offering alternatives to current anti-thrombotic agents like heparin.

  18. Expression of biomineralisation genes in tissues and cultured cells of the abalone Haliotis tuberculata.

    O'Neill, Matthew; Gaume, Béatrice; Denis, Françoise; Auzoux-Bordenave, Stéphanie


    Mollusc shell biomineralisation involves a variety of organic macromolecules (matrix proteins and enzymes) that control calcium carbonate (CaCO3) deposition, growth of crystals, the selection of polymorph, and the microstructure of the shell. Since the mantle and the hemocytes play an important role in the control of shell formation, primary cell cultures have been developed to study the expression of three biomineralisation genes recently identified in the abalone Haliotis tuberculata: a matrix protein, Lustrin A, and two carbonic anhydrase enzymes. Mantle cells and hemocytes were successfully maintained in primary cultures and were evaluated for their viability and proliferation over time using a semi-automated assay (XTT). PCR and densitometric analysis were used to semi-quantify the gene expression and compare the level of expression in native tissues and cultured cells. The results demonstrated that the three genes of interest were being expressed in abalone tissues, with expression highest in the mantle and much lower in the hemocytes and the gills. Biomineralisation genes were also expressed significantly in mantle cells, confirming that primary cultures of target tissues are suitable models for in vitro investigation of matrix protein secretion.


    Gusti Ngurah Permana


    Full Text Available Produksi benih abalon Haliotis squamata skala massal di hatcheri telah berhasil dilakukan di Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Budidaya Laut Gondol, Bali. Permasalahan utama dalam budidaya abalon adalah pertumbuhan yang lambat. Keadaan tersebut diduga karena pengaruh faktor genetik dan lingkungan. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui keragaan pertumbuhan dan variasi genetik abalon tumbuh cepat hasil seleksi individu. Hasil penelitian ini diketahui bahwa pembentukan populasi F-1 mempunyai pertumbuhan yang lebih baik dengan F-1 kontrol. Peningkatan bobot yang dicapai 22,15 g atau 17,93% lebih baik dibandingkan F-1 kontrol. Keragaman genetik F-1 terseleksi yang ditunjukkan dari nilai heterozigositas adalah (Ho. 0,023 terjadi penurunan 21,7% jika dibandingkan F-0. Hal ini dapat terjadi karena hilangnya beberapa allele dalam proses seleksi. Terdapat hubungan antara jumlah heterozigot pada lokus tertentu dengan pertumbuhan abalon. Hasil ini diharapkan dapat mendukung upaya meningkatkan produksi benih yang mempunyai performa fenotipe dan genotipe unggul sehingga dapat mendukung kegiatan budidaya abalon yang berkelanjutan.

  20. Feeding preferences and the nutritional value of tropical algae for the abalone Haliotis asinina.

    Alex R Angell

    Full Text Available Understanding the feeding preferences of abalone (high-value marine herbivores is integral to new species development in aquaculture because of the expected link between preference and performance. Performance relates directly to the nutritional value of algae--or any feedstock--which in turn is driven by the amino acid content and profile, and specifically the content of the limiting essential amino acids. However, the relationship between feeding preferences, consumption and amino acid content of algae have rarely been simultaneously investigated for abalone, and never for the emerging target species Haliotis asinina. Here we found that the tropical H. asinina had strong and consistent preferences for the red alga Hypnea pannosa and the green alga Ulva flexuosa, but no overarching relationship between protein content (sum of amino acids and preference existed. For example, preferred Hypnea and Ulva had distinctly different protein contents (12.64 vs. 2.99 g 100 g(-1 and the protein-rich Asparagopsis taxiformis (>15 g 100 g(-1 of dry weight was one of the least preferred algae. The limiting amino acid in all algae was methionine, followed by histidine or lysine. Furthermore we demonstrated that preferences can largely be removed using carrageenan as a binder for dried alga, most likely acting as a feeding attractant or stimulant. The apparent decoupling between feeding preference and algal nutritive values may be due to a trade off between nutritive values and grazing deterrence associated with physical and chemical properties.

  1. Toxic effects of several phthalate esters on the embryos and larvae of abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta

    YANG Zhihui; ZHANG Xiangjing; CAI Zhonghua


    As the most widely used plasticizers in the world, phthalate esters (PAEs) are potential endocrine disruption compounds (EDCs). In the present study, the toxicity of dimethyl phthalate (DMP),diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) on embryogenesis and larvae development of the marine univalve Haliotis diversicolor supertexta was examined in laboratory. The results show that the malformation of embryos appeared during the experiment, such as embryos died or lysed, small transparent flocculent rings studded on the periphery of the embryo, and the larvae could failed to hatch. In embryo toxic test, embryos incubated at the highest concentration of DMP,DEP and DBP solutions showed significantly high abnormal rate compared with the control, while DEHP solutions displayed no significant difference. In larval toxic test, in all concentrations of DMP, DEP and DBP solutions, larval settlement rates were low significantly than that of the control. Similarly, DEHP solutions show nearly no effect on the larval settlement. The order of toxicity on embryos and larvae is DBP>DEP>DMP>DEHP. Being a simple and easy stimulation to indoor spawn, sensitive to environmental factors, and short culture time, the embryos of 1-1. diversicolor supertexta can be used to indicate toxicity of the PAEs.

  2. Splice variants of perlucin from Haliotis laevigata modulate the crystallisation of CaCO3.

    Tanja Dodenhof

    Full Text Available Perlucin is one of the proteins of the organic matrix of nacre (mother of pearl playing an important role in biomineralisation. This nacreous layer can be predominately found in the mollusc lineages and is most intensively studied as a compound of the shell of the marine Australian abalone Haliotis laevigata. A more detailed analysis of Perlucin will elucidate some of the still unknown processes in the complex interplay of the organic/inorganic compounds involved in the formation of nacre as a very interesting composite material not only from a life science-based point of view. Within this study we discovered three unknown Perlucin splice variants of the Australian abalone H. laevigata. The amplified cDNAs vary from 562 to 815 base pairs and the resulting translation products differ predominantly in the absence or presence of a varying number of a 10 mer peptide C-terminal repeat. The splice variants could further be confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF MS analysis as endogenous Perlucin, purified from decalcified abalone shell. Interestingly, we observed that the different variants expressed as maltose-binding protein (MBP fusion proteins in E. coli showed strong differences in their influence on precipitating CaCO3 and that these differences might be due to a splice variant-specific formation of large protein aggregates influenced by the number of the 10 mer peptide repeats. Our results are evidence for a more complex situation with respect to Perlucin functional regulation by demonstrating that Perlucin splice variants modulate the crystallisation of calcium carbonate. The identification of differentially behaving Perlucin variants may open a completely new perspective for the field of nacre biomineralisation.

  3. 杂色鲍的遗传育种研究进展%Advances in Genetics and Breeding of Haliotis diversicolor

    柯才焕; 游伟伟


    Haliotis diversicolor is an economically important shellfish speices in southern China. However, massive mortality of the Haliotis diversicolor has occurred at post-larval and grow-out stages and production of Haliotis diversicolor has dramatically reduced in recent years. Genetic improvement plays an important role in sustainable development for Haliotis diversicolor aquaculture industry. This review concentrated on advances in genetic and breeding in Haliotis diversicotor , such as biological characteristics , selective breeding,crossbreeding,gynogenesis, molecular markers, genetic linkage map and QTL mapping, functional genes and transgenosis. The further reseach directions in these topics were also proposed.%杂色鲍是我国南方重要的海水养殖种,但近年来因种质退化等原因导致暴发性病害频发,杂色鲍的遗传改良研究对于杂色鲍养殖产业的可持续健康发展十分重要.综合厦门大学贝类遗传育种课题组近10年的研究成果,评述了近年来杂色鲍的生物学特征、选择育种、杂交育种、雌核发育、DNA分子标记开发和利用、遗传图谱构建和QTL定位、功能基因及转基因鲍等方面的研究进展,并提出了今后杂色鲍遗传育种研究的发展思路.

  4. Anti-inflammatory and burn injury wound healing properties of the shell of Haliotis diversicolor.

    Chen, Zhi-Cheng; Wu, Shing-Yi Sean; Su, Wei-Yang; Lin, Yuan-Chuan; Lee, Yi-Hsin; Wu, Wei-Hao; Chen, Chun-Hong; Wen, Zhi-Hong


    The shell of Haliotis diversicolor, or shijueming (SJM), is a type of traditional Chinese medicine. The SJM has appeared in historical records as early as the third and fourth centuries. Historical records have revealed that SJM had mainly been used to treat eye diseases. After the Qing Dynasty (1757), records had emerged, detailing the use of SJM for treating skin injuries, particularly for treating poorly managed ulcers or traumatic wounds. Furthermore, in our anti-inflammation-screening system, SJM significantly inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory proteins. Previous studies have yet to adopt an animal model to verify the phenomenon and described in the historical records regarding the efficacy of SJM in promoting wound healing. Besides, the mechanism of wound healing effect of SJM is also not clear. This study applied in vitro and in vivo models, tissue section analysis, and western blotting to evaluate the effect of SJM on wound healing. The RAW 264.7 cells were used in anti-inflammatory activity assay and phagocytic assay. Male Wistar rats were used to evaluate the effect of SJM on burn injury healing. A copper block (2 × 2 cm, 150 g) preheated to 165 °C in a dry bath was used to contact the skin area for 10 s, thus creating a full-thickness burn injury. The results were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin staining, picrosirius red staining and Western blotting. The results revealed that in the in vitro model, the presence of SJM decreased the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and enhanced the functions of macrophages. The results of the rat burn injury model revealed that SJM decreased neutrophil infiltration, promoted wound healing, thus increasing the collagen I content and promoting the expression of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) protein. We speculate that the effect and mechanism of SJM on promoting wound healing is related to macrophage activation. In the inflammation phase, SJM alleviates inflammation by

  5. Shewanella haliotis BP-1海藻酸裂解酶基因的克隆表达%Gene Cloning and Expression of Alginate Lyase from Shewanella haliotis BP-1

    黄桂媛; 温顺华; 李锋; 卢明倩; 王巧贞; 廖威; 黄庶识


    Objective]Alginate lyase in Shewanella haliotis BP-1 strains was studied illustrate its biological activity of degrading alginate.[Methods]The gene cloning technology and the Escherichia coli heterologous expression technology were applied to overexpress the alginate lyase;And the enzyme activity was analyzed after the crude enzyme was separated and purified by DEAE Sepharose FF chromatogra-phy.[Results]The alginate lyase gene Alg 1 7S , with a size of 2 1 5 7 bp,was cloned from S. haliotis BP-1 strain genomic DNA and encoded an alginate lyase Alg17S,which belonged to pol-ysaccharide lyase(PL)1 7 family and had a size of 79 726 Da protein(including an N-terminal signal peptide of 26 amino acid signal peptide).Alg17S showed high sequence identity of 5 2% with PL-17 protein sequence Alg17C from Saccharophagus degradans 2-40.Both the purified recombi-nase Alg17S and the △snAlg17S(without the N-terminal signal peptide of 26 amino acids)can degrade alginate,but the enzymatic activity of △snAlg17S revealed a specific activity of 9 635 U/mg,which was more efficient than Alg17S.[Conclusion]The recombinant alginate lyase △s-nAlg17S that has both high-level expression and high enzymatic activity could be a potential en-zyme for further researching on the alginate saccharification and the biofuels production.%【目的】了解海洋细菌Shewanella haliotis B P-1中海藻酸裂解酶降解海藻酸钠的生物活性。【方法】应用基因克隆和大肠杆菌异源表达技术,过量表达海藻酸裂解酶,将粗酶液通过 DEAE Sepharose FF柱分离纯化后检测其酶活性。【结果】从S.haliotis BP-1菌株的基因组DNA中克隆得到一个大小为2157 bp的海藻酸裂解酶基因Alg17S ,该基因编码的海藻酸裂解酶 Alg17S属于PL17家族的蛋白,大小为79726 Da,其中包括N端26个氨基酸的信号肽,与Saccharophagus degradans 2-40菌株产生的海藻酸裂解酶 Alg17C 具有高度同源性,相似性为52%。

  6. Identification of a female spawn-associated Kazal-type inhibitor from the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina.

    Wang, Tianfang; Nuurai, Parinyaporn; McDougall, Carmel; York, Patrick S; Bose, Utpal; Degnan, Bernard M; Cummins, Scott F


    Abalone (Haliotis) undergoes a period of reproductive maturation, followed by the synchronous release of gametes, called broadcast spawning. Field and laboratory studies have shown that the tropical species Haliotis asinina undergoes a two-week spawning cycle, thus providing an excellent opportunity to investigate the presence of endogenous spawning-associated peptides. In female H. asinina, we have isolated a peptide (5145 Da) whose relative abundance in hemolymph increases substantially just prior to spawning and is still detected using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography chromatograms up to 1-day post-spawn. We have isolated this peptide from female hemolymph as well as samples prepared from the gravid female gonad, and demonstrated through comparative sequence analysis that it contains features characteristic of Kazal-type proteinase inhibitors (KPIs). Has-KPI is expressed specifically within the gonad of adult females. A recombinant Has-KPI was generated using a yeast expression system. The recombinant Has-KPI does not induce premature spawning of female H. asinina when administered intramuscularly. However it displays homomeric aggregations and interaction with at least one mollusc-type neuropeptide (LRDFVamide), suggesting a role for it in regulating neuropeptide endocrine communication. This research provides new understanding of a peptide that can regulate reproductive processes in female abalone, which has the potential to lead to the development of greater control over abalone spawning. The findings also highlight the need to further explore abalone reproduction to clearly define a role for novel spawning-associated peptide in sexual maturation and spawning. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. 咖啡因加热休克诱导皱纹盘鲍多倍体的研究%Induction of Polyploid in the Pacific Abalone by Caffeine-Heat Shock Treatments

    毛连菊; 王子臣; 刘相全; 李雅娟; 高悦勉


    Polyploid of Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino, was induced by blocking Polar body I with caffeine-heat shock treatments. Fertilized eggs were treated with caffeine concentrations at: 2.5mmol/L, 5mmol/L and 10mmol/L; heat shock temperatures at 24℃, 26℃, 28℃, lasting for 10min to 30min, total 5 periods of time,beginning at 10min post-pertilization. Both fertilizing and incubating at 21℃ sea water.The results of studies showed that the effective procedure for inducing triploid appeared to be 5mmol/L and 10mmol/L Caffeine concentration, heat shock tempera- ture 26℃, duration 10min to 15min, all beginning at 10min after insemination. The percentage of triploid was 64.6%~77.8%, Comprehensive efficiency index of polyploid induction was 0.57~0.61. Under the condition of 5mmol/L caffeine conce- ntration and the temperature 26℃ for 30 min duration at 10min post-fertilization, 2.8%~3.6% tetraploid embryos could be produced.%报道了用咖啡因加热休克抑制受精卵的第一极体的释放诱导皱纹盘鲍(Haliotis discus hannai Ino)多倍体的研究结果。皱纹盘鲍的卵在21℃海水中受精,受精后10分钟开始处理,药物浓度分别为2.5mmol/L、5mmol/L、10mmol/L,热休克温度分别为24℃、26℃、28℃,处理的持续时间为10分钟至30分钟,共分5个时间段。结果表明,药物浓度5mmol/L和10mmol/L,处理温度26℃,处理持续时间10~15分钟,其三倍体诱导率可达66.4%~77.8%,综合评价指数为0.57~0.61。在5mmol/L,26℃条件下,处理持续时间30分钟可以产生2.8%~3.6%的四倍体胚胎。

  8. Biomecánica de la técnica de lanzamiento de disco. Influencia de la trayectoria del disco en la velocidad de liberación. Biomechanics of discus throw technique. The influence of the discus path on the velocity of release.

    Floría Martín, Pablo


    Full Text Available ResumenEl objetivo del estudio fue analizar la influencia de la trayectoria del disco, durante las dos últimas fases del lanzamiento, en su velocidad de liberación. Se analizaron 25 lanzamientos pertenecientes a 8 hombres y 5 mujeres, seleccionados por la Real Federación Española de Atletismo, que participaron en 5 competiciones. Se realizó un análisis cinemático tridimensional utilizando cámaras de cine de alta velocidad (100Hz. Las imágenes y los datos se trataron utilizando Fotogram-IBV y las variables biomecánicas de eficacia de latécnica se obtuvieron mediante la rutina de cálculo Biodisc.Para estudiar las asociaciones entre variables se aplicó el coeficiente de correlación de Pearson. Las variables altura máxima del disco (DISCOmax e incremento de la alturaentre la mínima y la de liberación (∆h_DISCOmin-DISCOlib guardan correlación significativa con la velocidad vertical del disco en el momento de la liberación (VvDISCOlib mientras que la altura mínima del disco (hDISCOmin fue significativa para mujeres y la altura en el instante de liberación(hDISCOlib lo fue para hombres, sugiriendo diferente estrategia para la consecución de la altura del disco necesaria para el vuelo. El ángulo del hombro derecho (Θ_HOMBd se halló relacionado con hDISCO max, hDISCO min y hDISCO lib mientras que el ángulo de la rodilla derecha(Θ_RODd se relacionó con un descenso del disco, necesario en mujeres, para aumentar el recorrido de aceleración. Por otro lado, ciertos aspectos técnicos utilizados por los entrenadores para la enseñanza y corrección de la técnica de sus atletas tienen una evidencia científica, por lo que se aconseja sean observados sistemáticamente.AbstractThe objective of this study was to analyze the influence of discus path on its release velocity during the last two phases of throwing event. It were analyzed 25 throwing belong to 8 men and 5 women selected for Royal Spanish Athletics Federation, in 5

  9. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of GABA(A) receptor-associated protein (GABARAP) from small abalone, Haliotis diversicolor.

    Bai, Rongyao; You, Weiwei; Chen, Jun; Huang, Heqing; Ke, Caihuan


    GABA(A) receptor-associated protein (GABARAP), a multifunctional protein participating in autophagy process, is evolutionarily conserved and involves in innate immunity in eukaryotic cells, but currently there is no research on the relationship between GABARAP and innate immunity in mollusc. In the present study, the GABARAP full-length cDNA and its genomic DNA were firstly cloned from small abalone (Haliotis diversicolor), which was named as saGABARAP. Its full-length cDNA is 963 bp with a 354 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 117 aa, a 276 bp 5'-UTR, and a 333 bp 3'-UTR including a poly(A) tail, two typical polyadenylation signals (AATAA) and two RNA instability motifs (ATTTA). The deduced protein has an estimated molecular weight of 13.9 kDa and a predicted PI of 8.73. Its genomic DNA comprises 4352 bp, containing three exons and two introns. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that saGABARAP was constitutively expressed in all examined tissues, with the highest expression level in hepatopancreas, and was upregulated in hepatopancreas and hemocytes after bacterial challenge. In addition, saGABARAP was ubiquitously expressed at all examined embryonic and larval development stages. These results suggested that saGABARAP could respond to bacteria challenge and may play a vital role in the adult innate immune system against pathogens and the development process of abalone embryo and larvae.

  10. Articulated coralline algae of the genus Amphiroa are highly effective natural inducers of settlement in the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina.

    Williams, Elizabeth A; Craigie, Alina; Yeates, Alice; Degnan, Sandie M


    The initiation of metamorphosis in marine invertebrates is strongly linked to the environment. Planktonic larvae typically are induced to settle and metamorphose by external cues such as coralline algae (Corallinaceae, Rhodophyta). Although coralline algae are globally abundant, invertebrate larvae of many taxa settle in response to a very limited suite of species. This specificity impacts population structure, as only locations with the appropriate coralline species can attract new recruits. Abalone (Gastropoda, Haliotidae) are among those taxa in which closely related species are known to respond to different coralline algae. Here we identify highly inductive natural cues of the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina. In contrast to reports for other abalone, the greatest proportion of H. asinina larvae are induced to settle and metamorphose (92.8% to 100% metamorphosis by 48 h postinduction) by articulated corallines of the genus Amphiroa. Comparison with field distribution data for different corallines suggests larvae are likely to be settling on the seaward side of the reef crest. We then compare the response of six different H. asinina larval families to five different coralline species to demonstrate that induction by the best inductive cue (Amphiroa spp.) effectively extinguishes substantial intraspecific variation in the timing of settlement.

  11. Identification of two carbonic anhydrases in the mantle of the European Abalone Haliotis tuberculata (Gastropoda, Haliotidae): phylogenetic implications.

    LE Roy, Nathalie; Marie, Benjamin; Gaume, Béatrice; Guichard, Nathalie; Delgado, Sidney; Zanella-Cléon, Isabelle; Becchi, Michel; Auzoux-Bordenave, Stéphanie; Sire, Jean-Yves; Marin, Frédéric


    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) represent a diversified family of metalloenzymes that reversibly catalyze the hydration of carbon dioxide. They are involved in a wide range of functions, among which is the formation of CaCO(3) skeletons in metazoans. In the shell-forming mantle tissues of mollusks, the location of the CA catalytic activity is elusive and gives birth to contradicting views. In the present paper, using the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata, a key model gastropod in biomineralization studies, we identified and characterized two CAs (htCA1 and htCA2) that are specific of the shell-forming mantle tissue. We analyzed them in a phylogenetic context. Combining various approaches, including proteomics, activity tests, and in silico analyses, we showed that htCA1 is secreted but is not incorporated in the organic matrix of the abalone shell and that htCA2 is transmembrane. Together with previous studies dealing with molluskan CAs, our findings suggest two possible modes of action for shell mineralization: the first mode applies to, for example, the bivalves Unio pictorum and Pinctada fucata, and involves a true CA activity in their shell matrix; the second mode corresponds to, for example, the European abalone, and does not include CA activity in the shell matrix. Our work provides new insight on the diversity of the extracellular macromolecular tools used for shell biomineralization study in mollusks.

  12. Isolation and identification of lactic acid bacteria from abalone (Haliotis asinina as a potential candidate of probiotic



    Full Text Available Sarkono, Faturrahman, Sofyan Y. 2010. Isolation and identification of lactic acid bacteria from abalone (Haliotis asinina as a potential candidate of probiotic. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 38-42. The purpose of this study was to isolate, select and characterize lactic acid bacteria (LAB from abalone as a potential candidate probiotic in abalone cultivation system. Selective isolation of LAB performed using de Man Rogosa Sharpe medium. LAB isolate that potential as probiotics was screened. Selection was based on its ability to suppress the growth of pathogenic bacteria, bacterial resistance to acidic conditions and bacterial resistance to bile salts (bile. Further characterization and identification conducted to determine the species. The results showed that two of the ten isolates potential to be developed as probiotic bacteria that have the ability to inhibit several pathogenic bacteria such as Eschericia coli, Bacillus cereus dan Staphylococus aureus, able to grow at acidic condition and bile tolerance during the incubation for 24 hour. Based on the API test kit, the both of isolate identified as members of the species Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei.

  13. Ultrastructure and Glycoconjugate Pattern of the Foot Epithelium of the Abalone Haliotis tuberculata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Gastropoda, Haliotidae

    I. Bravo Portela


    Full Text Available The foot epithelium of the gastropod Haliotis tuberculata is studied by light and electron microscopy in order to contribute to the understanding of the anatomy and functional morphology of the mollusks integument. Study of the external surface by scanning electron microscopy reveals that the side foot epithelium is characterized by a microvillus border with a very scant presence of small ciliary tufts, but the sole foot epithelium bears a dense field of long cilia. Ultrastructural examination by transmission electron microscopy of the side epithelial cells shows deeply pigmented cells with high electron-dense granular content which are not observed in the epithelial sole cells. Along the pedal epithelium, seven types of secretory cells are present; furthermore, two types of subepithelial glands are located just in the sole foot. The presence and composition of glycoconjugates in the secretory cells and subepithelial glands are analyzed by conventional and lectin histochemistry. Subepithelial glands contain mainly N-glycoproteins rich in fucose and mannose whereas secretory cells present mostly acidic sulphated glycoconjugates such as glycosaminoglycans and mucins, which are rich in galactose, N-acetyl-galactosamine, and N-acetyl-glucosamine. No sialic acid is present in the foot epithelium.

  14. The DISCUS Hardware System,


    it physically impossible for one processor to access another’s local program or workspace. It should be noted that the system - generator should handle...this gateway would be complex and how it would be used and linked to the system generator would also be difficult. Because of this it worth asking...which is by no means trivial to write, identified several faults in the system generator and operating system that would have otherwise been

  15. Characterisation and expression of the biomineralising gene Lustrin A during shell formation of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata.

    Gaume, B; Denis, F; Van Wormhoudt, A; Huchette, S; Jackson, D J; Avignon, S; Auzoux-Bordenave, S


    The molluscan shell is a remarkable product of a highly coordinated biomineralisation process, and is composed of calcium carbonate most commonly in the form of calcite or aragonite. The exceptional mechanical properties of this biomaterial are imparted by the embedded organic matrix which is secreted by the underlying mantle tissue. While many shell-matrix proteins have already been identified within adult molluscan shell, their presence and role in the early developmental stages of larval shell formation are not well understood. In the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata, the shell first forms in the early trochophore larva and develops into a mineralised protoconch in the veliger. Following metamorphosis, the juvenile shell rapidly changes as it becomes flattened and develops a more complex crystallographic profile including an external granular layer and an internal nacreous layer. Amongst the matrix proteins involved in abalone shell formation, Lustrin A is thought to participate in the formation of the nacreous layer. Here we have identified a partial cDNA coding for the Lustrin A gene in H. tuberculata and have analysed its spatial and temporal expression during abalone development. RT-PCR experiments indicate that Lustrin A is first expressed in juvenile (post-metamorphosis) stages, suggesting that Lustrin A is a component of the juvenile shell, but not of the larval shell. We also detect Lustrin A mRNAs in non-nacre forming cells at the distal-most edge of the juvenile mantle as well as in the nacre-forming region of the mantle. Lustrin A was also expressed in 7-day-old post-larvae, prior to the formation of nacre. These results suggest that Lustrin A plays multiple roles in the shell-forming process and further highlight the dynamic ontogenic nature of molluscan shell formation.

  16. Molecular cloning and characterization of lustrin A, a matrix protein from shell and pearl nacre of Haliotis rufescens.

    Shen, X; Belcher, A M; Hansma, P K; Stucky, G D; Morse, D E


    A specialized extracellular matrix of proteins and polysaccharides controls the morphology and packing of calcium carbonate crystals and becomes occluded within the mineralized composite during formation of the molluscan shell and pearl. We have cloned and characterized the cDNA coding for Lustrin A, a newly described matrix protein from the nacreous layer of the shell and pearl produced by the abalone, Haliotis rufescens, a marine gastropod mollusc. The full-length cDNA is 4,439 base pairs (bp) long and contains an open reading frame coding for 1,428 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence reveals a highly modular structure with a high proportion of Ser (16%), Pro (14%), Gly (13%), and Cys (9%). The protein contains ten highly conserved cysteine-rich domains interspersed by eight proline-rich domains; a glycine- and serine-rich domain lies between the two cysteine-rich domains nearest the C terminus, and these are followed by a basic domain and a C-terminal domain that is highly similar to known protease inhibitors. The glycine- and serine-rich domain and at least one of the proline-rich domains show sequence similarity to proteins of two extracellular matrix superfamilies (one of which also is involved in the mineralized matrixes of bone, dentin, and avian eggshell). The arrangement of alternating cysteine-rich domains and proline-rich domains is strikingly similar to that found in frustulins, the proteins that are integral to the silicified cell wall of diatoms. Its modular structure suggests that Lustrin A is a multifunctional protein, whereas the occurrence of related sequences suggest it is a member of a multiprotein family.

  17. Responses of primary cultured haemocytes from the marine gastropod Haliotis tuberculata under 10-day exposure to cadmium chloride

    Latire, Thomas; Le Pabic, Charles; Mottin, Elmina; Mottier, Antoine; Costil, Katherine; Koueta, Noussithe; Lebel, Jean-Marc [UMR 100 IFREMER ' Physiologie et Ecophysiologie des Mollusques Marins' - IFR 146 ICORE - IBFA - Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Campus 1, Science C, Esplanade de la Paix, 14032 Caen cedex (France); Serpentini, Antoine, E-mail: [UMR 100 IFREMER ' Physiologie et Ecophysiologie des Mollusques Marins' - IFR 146 ICORE - IBFA - Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Campus 1, Science C, Esplanade de la Paix, 14032 Caen cedex (France)


    Among metals, cadmium, a non-essential element, is an important pollutant that is released into aquatic environments. Due to its persistence and bioaccumulation, this metal has been shown to exert immunological effects on organisms. The objective of the present study was to investigate the in vitro effects of cadmium chloride using a haemocyte primary culture from the European abalone, Haliotis tuberculata. Most studies have maintained viable haemocytes in vitro for periods ranging from several hours to several days during acute exposures. Few investigations have reported the effects of metals using longer in vitro exposures, which are more realistic with regard to mimicking environmental conditions. In this study, we exposed abalone haemocytes to concentrations from 0.5 to 50,000 {mu}g L{sup -1} of CdCl{sub 2} for 10 days. The effects of cadmium chloride were reflected in a significant decrease in the number of viable cells and morphological modifications in a concentration-dependent manner beginning at a concentration of 500 {mu}g L{sup -1} as well as in some physiological processes, such as phagocytotic activity and the number of lysosome-positive cells. In contrast, phenoloxidase (PO) activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were increased beginning at a concentration of 5 {mu}g L{sup -1}, which is consistent with environmental concentrations in polluted sites. For PO activity and ROS production, maximally 9-fold and 130% inductions, respectively, were recorded under the highest dose. These results thus indicate that cadmium chloride alters immune parameters of abalone haemocytes and that the long-term (10 days) primary culture system used here represents a suitable, sensitive in vitro model for assessing cytotoxic responses.

  18. Influences of DMP on the fertilization process and subsequent embryogenesis of abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta by gametes exposure.

    Jin Zhou

    Full Text Available Di-methyl phthalate (DMP, a typical endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC, is ubiquitously distributed in aquatic environments; yet studies regarding its impact on gametes and the resulting effects on embryogenesis in marine gastropods are relatively scarce. In this study, the influences of DMP on the gametes and subsequent developmental process of abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta, a representative marine benthic gastropod were assessed. Newborn abalone eggs and sperm were exposed separately to different DMP concentrations (1, 10 or 100 ppb for 60 min. At the end-point of exposure, the DMP-treated eggs and sperm were collected for analysis of their ultra-structures, ATPase activities and total lipid levels, and the fertilized gametes (embryos were collected to monitor related reproductive parameters (fertilization rate, abnormal development rate and hatching success rate. Treatment with DMP did not significantly alter the structure or total lipid content of eggs at any of the doses tested. Hatching failures and morphological abnormalities were only observed with the highest dose of DMP (100 ppb. However, DMP exposure did suppress sperm ATPase activities and affect the morphological character of their mitochondria. DMP-treated sperm exhibited dose-dependent decreases in fertilization efficiency, morphogenesis and hatchability. Relatively obvious toxicological effects were observed when both sperm and eggs were exposed to DMP. Furthermore, RT-PCR results indicate that treatment of gametes with DMP changed the expression patterns of physiologically-regulated genes (cyp3a, 17β-HSD-11 and 17β-HSD-12 in subsequent embryogenesis. Taken together, this study proofed that pre-fertilization exposure of abalone eggs, sperm or both to DMP adversely affects the fertilization process and subsequent embryogenesis.

  19. Chemical-mechanical stability of the hierarchical structure of shell nacre


    The hierarchical structure and mechanical property of shell nacre are experimentally investigated from the new aspects of chemical stability and chemistry-mechanics coupling. Through chemical deproteinization or demineralization methods together with characterization techniques at micro/nano scales,it is found that the nacre of abalone,haliotis discus hannai,contains a hierarchical structure stacked with irregular aragonite platelets and interplatelet organic matrix thin layers. Yet the aragonite platelet itself is a nanocomposite consisting of nanoparticles and intraplatelet organic matrix framework. The mean diameter of the nanoparticles and the distribution of framework are quite different for different platelets. Though the interplatelet and in-traplatelet organic matrix can be both decomposed by sodium hydroxide solution,the chemical stability of individual aragonite platelets is much higher than that of the microstructure stacked with them. Further,macroscopic bending test or nanoindentation experiment is performed on the micro/nanostructure of nacre after sodium hydroxide treatment. It is found that the Young’s modulus of both the stacked microstructure and nanocomposite platelet reduced. The reduction of the microstructure is more remark than that of the platelet. Therefore the chemical-mechanical stability of the nanocomposite platelet itself is much higher than that of the stacked microstructure of nacre.

  20. Kinematics Comparative Analysis of Men's Discus Athletes at Home and Abroad%国内外男子铁饼运动员的运动学比较分析

    牛晓强; 尉丽敏


    This article is a translation for the foreign journal Biomechanical Analysis of the men's discus throw in the Athens 2006 IAAF world cup in the athletics, which references part of valuable data and collects some kinematic parameters of the current domestic elite men discus throwers Li shao-jie, fines out technical differences between current domestic elite men discus throwers and the world's elite athletes through comparative analysis, and provides relevant data and scientific basis for guiding future training and teaching practice.%本文是对国外期刊《Biomechanical Analysis of the men's discus throw in the Athens 2006 IAAF world cup in the athletics》翻译,参考了部分有价值的数据,搜集了国内当前优秀男子铁饼运动李少杰的一些运动学参数,通过对比分析,找出我国目前优秀男子铁饼运动员同世界优秀运动员的技术差异,为指导今后的训练和教学实践提供有关数据和科学依据。

  1. Potential Response to Selection of HSP70 as a Component of Innate Immunity in the Abalone Haliotis rufescens.

    Katherina B Brokordt

    Full Text Available Assessing components of the immune system may reflect disease resistance. In some invertebrates, heat shock proteins (HSPs are immune effectors and have been described as potent activators of the innate immune response. Several diseases have become a threat to abalone farming worldwide; therefore, increasing disease resistance is considered to be a long-term goal for breeding programs. A trait will respond to selection only if it is determined partially by additive genetic variation. The aim of this study was to estimate the heritability (h2 and the additive genetic coefficient of variation (CVA of HSP70 as a component of innate immunity of the abalone Haliotis rufescens, in order to assess its potential response to selection. These genetic components were estimated for the variations in the intracellular (in haemocytes and extracellular (serum protein levels of HSP70 in response to an immunostimulant agent in 60 full-sib families of H. rufescens. Levels of HSP70 were measured twice in the same individuals, first when they were young and again when they were pre-harvest adults, to estimate the repeatability (R, the h2 and the potential response to selection of these traits at these life stages. High HSP70 levels were observed in abalones subjected to immunostimulation in both the intracellular and extracellular haemolymph fractions. This is the first time that changes in serum levels of HSP70 have been reported in response to an immune challenge in molluscs. HSP70 levels in both fractions and at both ages showed low h2 and R, with values that were not significantly different from zero. However, HSP70 induced levels had a CVA of 13.3-16.2% in young adults and of 2.7-8.1% in pre-harvest adults. Thus, despite its low h2, HSP70 synthesis in response to an immune challenge in red abalone has the potential to evolve through selection because of its large phenotypic variation and the presence of additive genetic variance, especially in young animals.

  2. Trophic flows, kelp culture and fisheries in the marine ecosystem of an artificial reef zone in the Yellow Sea

    Wu, Zhongxin; Zhang, Xiumei; Lozano-Montes, Hector M.; Loneragan, Neil R.


    This study evaluates the ecosystem structure and function of the nearshore reefs in the Lidao coastal ecosystem of northern China, a region of intensive kelp aquaculture, and fisheries enhancements, including the deployment of artificial reefs and release of cultured marine species. An Ecopath model, with 20 functional groups representing 81 species, was developed for a representative area in the region and Ecosim was used to explore two scenarios for alternative fishing practices and surrounding aquaculture activities. The mean trophic levels (TLs) of the functional groups ranged from 1.0 for the primary producers (phytoplankton, benthic algae and seagrass) and detritus to 4.14 for Type III fishes (fishes found in the water column above the artificial reefs, e.g., Scomberomorus niphonius). The mean transfer efficiency through the whole system was 11.7%, and the ecosystem had a relative low maturity, stability and disturbance resistance, indicating that it was at a developing stage. Nearly half of the total system biomass (48.9% of 620.20 t km-2 year-1), excluding detritus, was comprised of benthic finfish and invertebrates. The total yield from all fisheries (86.82 t/km2/year) was dominated by low trophic level herbivorous and detritivorous species, such as the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (TL = 2.1, 46.07%), other echinoderms (sea urchins Asterias amurensis and Strongylocentrotus nudus, TL = 2.1, 34.6%) and abalone Haliotis discus hannai (TL = 2.0, 18.4%), and as a consequence, the mean TL of the catch was low (2.1). The results from the Ecosim simulation of closing all fisheries for 20 years predicted an increase of about 100% in the relative biomass of the main exploited species, A. japonicus and H. discus hannai. The simulated removal of all kelp farms over 10 years resulted in a two fold increase in the relative biomass of Type III fishes and a 120% increase in their main prey (i.e. Small pelagic fish), while the relative biomass of A. japonicus and

  3. Morphology and small subunit rDNA-based phylogeny of Ceratomyxa amazonensis n. sp. parasite of Symphysodon discus, an ornamental freshwater fish from Amazon.

    Mathews, Patrick D; Naldoni, Juliana; Maia, Antonio A; Adriano, Edson A


    The specious genus Ceratomyxa Thélodan, 1892, infect mainly gallbladder of marine fishes, with only five species reported infecting species from freshwater environment. This study performed morphological and phylogenetic analyses involving a new Ceratomyxa species (Ceratomyxa amazonensis n. sp.) found in gallbladder of Symphysodon discus Heckel, 1840 (Perciformes: Cichlidae), an important ornamental fish endemic to Amazon basin. Mature spores were strongly arcuate shaped and measured 7.0 ± 0.3 (6.2-7.6) μm in length, 15.8 ± 0.4 (15.0-16.7) μm in thickness, and polar capsules 3.22 ± 0.34 (2.4-3.6) μm in length and 2.63 ± 0.17 (2.4-2.9) μm in width. This was the first small subunit ribosomal DNA (SS rDNA) sequencing performed to Ceratomyxa species parasite of freshwater fish, and the phylogenetic analysis showed C. amazonensis n. sp. clustering in the early diverging subclade of the ceratomyxids, together with species of parasites of amphidromous/estuaries fishes, suggesting some role of the transition of the fishes between marine/freshwater environments in the evolutionary history of these parasites.

  4. Reproductive and population parameters of discus fish Symphysodon aequifasciatus Pellegrin, 1904 (Perciformes: Cichlidae from Piagaçu-Purus Sustainable Development Reserve (RDS-PP, lower Purus River, Amazonas, Brazil

    Felipe Rossoni

    Full Text Available The ornamental discus fish Symphysodon aequifasciatus Pellegrin, 1904, is a popular endemic cichlid species from the Amazon basin, however scientific information concerning biology and ecology in its natural habitat is scarce despite its importance on the international aquarium trade. In this study we evaluated reproductive parameters of S. aequifasciatus in natural habitat in Piagaçu-Purus Sustainable Development Reserve (RDS-PP, lower Purus River, Brazilian Amazon. Males are more frequent in the larger size classes and this might be related to the complex breeding behavior known for S. aequifasciatus. Values of L50 for both sexes corresponded to more than 60% of the maximum attained length which may indicate that energy allocation for somatic growth takes longer in S. aequifasciatus than in other species. Average fecundity for female discus was 1490, ranging from 950 to 1892 oocytes and its correlations with standard length and total weight were very low, probably due to the highly compressed discus' body shape. Egg size distribution showed four types of patterns, indicating one to four modes besides the reserve oocytes group. Our results indicate that S. aequifasciatus shows total spawning, in the beginning of flooding period, with the peculiar capacity of releasing multiple egg batches as a strategy that potentially enhances reproductive success.

  5. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U03408-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available ec... 40 0.095 2 ( EF634883 ) Pristionchus pauli small subunit ribosomal protei... 42 0.25 2 ( EH361767 ) NP...Haliotis discus discus ribosomal p... 46 4e-04 EF634883_1( EF634883 |pid:none) Pristionchus pauli small subu

  6. The feasibility of bomb radiocarbon analysis to support an age-at-length relationship for red abalone, Haliotis rufescens Swainson in northern California

    Leaf, R T; Andrews, A H; Cailliet, G M; Brown, T A


    Analysis of bomb generated radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) changes in a red abalone, Haliotis rufescens Swainson shell was used to investigate age-at-length relationships derived from data from a previous multi-year, multi-site tag-recapture study. Shell carbonate was extracted from four successive growth trajectory locations in a single shell with a length of 251 mm MSL. Extraction locations were based on VBGF predictions and chosen to span the initial rise of the {sup 14}C-bomb pulse that is known to have occurred in surface ocean waters during 1958 {+-} 1 y in the northeast Pacific. The close temporal correspondence of the red abalone sample series to regional {Delta}{sup 14}C records demonstrated the utility of the technique for validating age-at-length relationships for the red abalone. The findings provided support for a mean VBGF derived age of 32 y (range 30 to 33 y) for the specimen; however, the analysis of {sup 14}C data indicated that the specimen could be older.

  7. Contrasting patterns of population connectivity between regions in a commercially important mollusc Haliotis rubra: integrating population genetics, genomics and marine LiDAR data.

    Miller, A D; van Rooyen, A; Rašić, G; Ierodiaconou, D A; Gorfine, H K; Day, R; Wong, C; Hoffmann, A A; Weeks, A R


    Estimating contemporary genetic structure and population connectivity in marine species is challenging, often compromised by genetic markers that lack adequate sensitivity, and unstructured sampling regimes. We show how these limitations can be overcome via the integration of modern genotyping methods and sampling designs guided by LiDAR and SONAR data sets. Here we explore patterns of gene flow and local genetic structure in a commercially harvested abalone species (Haliotis rubra) from southeastern Australia, where the viability of fishing stocks is believed to be dictated by recruitment from local sources. Using a panel of microsatellite and genomewide SNP markers, we compare allele frequencies across a replicated hierarchical sampling area guided by bathymetric LiDAR imagery. Results indicate high levels of gene flow and no significant genetic structure within or between benthic reef habitats across 1400 km of coastline. These findings differ to those reported for other regions of the fishery indicating that larval supply is likely to be spatially variable, with implications for management and long-term recovery from stock depletion. The study highlights the utility of suitably designed genetic markers and spatially informed sampling strategies for gaining insights into recruitment patterns in benthic marine species, assisting in conservation planning and sustainable management of fisheries.

  8. Broad-scale genetic patterns of New Zealand abalone, Haliotis iris, across a distribution spanning 13° latitude and major oceanic water masses.

    Will, Margaret; McCowan, Tom; Gemmell, Neil J


    The New Zealand black-foot abalone, Haliotis iris, or pāua, is endemic to the rocky reefs surrounding New Zealand, whose main land mass spans 13° of latitude and separates the Tasman Sea from the Pacific Ocean. In this study, we examined the population genetic structure of this important commercial, cultural and recreational species by genotyping nine microsatellite loci in 485 pāua from 27 locations distributed across mainland New Zealand and the Chatham Islands. We found low, but significant, levels of genetic differentiation. Key genetic breaks were identified among the Chatham Islands and mainland samples; patterns that are strongly corroborated by prior work employing mtDNA sequences. AMOVAs indicated that samples from the south of the North Island were more similar to the South Island samples than to other North Island samples, however multivariate analysis and Bayesian clustering could not identify a significant pattern. Differentiation between the Chatham Islands and the mainland is most likely due to isolation by distance, while differentiation of North Island samples corresponds with major components of New Zealand's oceanography, Cook Strait and the East Cape. Despite intense fishing pressure, we detected no signature of genetic bottlenecks in any region suggesting that population sizes have remained relatively stable over recent time or that the census size of this species is much larger than its effective population size.

  9. Desarrollo del ensilado del alga Gracilaria chilensis para la alimentación del abalón rojo Haliotis rufescens

    Alfonso Mardones


    Full Text Available En Chile, el principal insumo usado como alimento para abalones son las algas Gracilaria chilensis y Macrocystis pyrifera. Estas algas experimentan una notable baja de disponibilidad en otoño e invierno, lo cual trae consigo un aumento considerable de los precios, al tener que depender del abastecimiento desde áreas cada vez más alejadas de los centros de cultivo de abalones y, eventualmente, generando impactos ecológicos indirectos en sus poblaciones. El objetivo fue elaborar y evaluar un ensilado del alga G. chilensis para la alimentación de abalón rojo (Haliotis rufescens, determinando la cantidad de lixiviados generados durante el proceso, el cambio en la composición proximal del alga, la preferencia y consumo del abalón rojo de ensilado de G. chilensis. Se logró un producto ensilado de buenas características físicas, químicas y de conservación, así como una buena aceptación por parte del abalón.

  10. Molecular characterization of collagen IV evidences early transcription expression related to the immune response against bacterial infection in the red abalone (Haliotis rufescens).

    Chovar-Vera, Ornella; Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian


    Collagen IV has been described as a structural protein of the basement membrane, which as a whole forms a specialized extracellular matrix. Recent studies have indicated a possible relationship between collagen IV and the innate immune response of invertebrate organisms. The present study characterized the alpha-1 chain of collagen IV in the red abalone Haliotis rufescens (Hr-ColIV) and evaluated its association with the innate immune response against Vibrio anguillarum. To further evidence the immune response, the matrix metalloproteinase-1 (Hr-MMP-1) and C-type lectin (Hr-CLEC) genes were also assessed. The complete sequence of Hr-ColIV was composed of 6658 bp, with a 5'UTR of 154 bp, a 3'UTR of 1177 bp, and an ORF of 5327 bp that coded for 1776 amino acids. The innate immune response generated against V. anguillarum resulted in a significant increase in the transcript levels of Hr-ColIV between 3 and 6 hpi, whereas Hr-MMP-1 and Hr-CLEC had the highest transcript activity 6 and 12 hpi, respectively. The results obtained in this study propose a putative biological function for collagen IV involved in the early innate immune response of the red abalone H. rufescens.

  11. Endoscopy of gastropods: A novel view of the mantle cavities and gills of the keyhole limpet Diodora aspera and the abalone Haliotis rufescens.

    Voltzow, Janice


    The gills, or ctenidia, of marine gastropods serve as the sites for respiratory gas exchange. Cilia on the surface provide the pump that moves water through the mantle cavity and enhance diffusion. Because the gills are housed inside the shell, it is difficult to view them while they are functioning. Published images of gills show contracted, fragile structures that are distorted by the processes of dissection and preservation. Members of the families Fissurellidae (keyhole limpets) and Haliotidae (abalone) have openings in their shells through which water enters and/or exits. I inserted an endoscope connected to a video camera into the openings of the shells of living, non-anaesthetized individuals of the fissurellid Diodora aspera and the haliotid Haliotis rufescens. In both species, the dorsal afferent branchial vessel of the afferent gill axis appeared large and inflated, as did the leaflets that extended from either side of the axis. In D. aspera, the leaflets appeared to fill the mantle cavity and responded to touch, particles, and dye in the water by contracting quickly and slowly re-extending. In contrast, the gills of H. rufescens did not noticeably respond to disturbance. On the other hand, these gills showed a regular pattern of pleats that had not been described in the extensive anatomical literature of these common and economically significant animals. These results provide a novel view of the gastropod mantle cavity as a dynamic space filled by the gills, which divide the mantle cavity into distinct incurrent and excurrent chambers and produce a laminar flow of water through the cavity.

  12. Collagen study and regulation of the de novo synthesis by IGF-I in hemocytes from the gastropod mollusc, Haliotis tuberculata.

    Serpentini, A; Ghayor, C; Poncet, J M; Hebert, V; Galéra, P; Pujol, J P; Boucaud-Camou, E; Lebel, J M


    To evidence a collagen synthesis and identify which type(s) of collagen is present in hemocytes from the mollusc Haliotis tuberculata, we have performed three separate approaches, namely, de novo synthesis by cultured cells, immunological approaches, and northern blot analysis. We demonstrated first that after 40-hr labeling, the de novo synthesis of collagen in the cell layer of cultured hemocytes represents 9.48 +/- 1.25% with respect to the total [(3)H]proline-labeled protein synthesis. In addition, IGF-I elicited a significant stimulation of collagen synthesis in cultured hemocytes in a dose-dependent manner from 10(-10) to 10(-8) M. The maximal stimulation (10(-9) M) induced an increase of 286 +/- 56% with respect to 100% control. By immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting, we showed that hemocytes present immunoreactive molecules to antibodies directed against the type I fibrillar collagen. In addition, using as a probe Hf 677 corresponding to a human pro alpha1(I) collagen cDNA and which encompasses the (Gly-X-Y) repeated sequence found in all Metazoa, four collagen transcripts of approximately 6.4, 5, 2.2, and 2 kb in length have been detected. These data suggest the presence of fibrillar type I collagen in hemocytes and are compatible with the concept that these cells are involved in the extracellular matrix deposition, a cardinal function in tissue repair as well as in developmental processes. Our model may appear as an excellent system to study the role of growth factors on the regulation of collagen synthesis by molluscan hemocytes. J. Exp. Zool. 287:275-284, 2000.

  13. The Effect of Pleistocene Climate Fluctuations on Distribution of European Abalone (Haliotis tuberculata), Revealed by Combined Mitochondrial and Nuclear Marker Analyses.

    Roussel, Valérie; Van Wormhoudt, Alain


    The genetic differentiation among the populations of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata was investigated using different markers to better understand the evolutionary history and exchanges between populations. Three markers were used: mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI), the sperm lysin nuclear gene, and eight nuclear microsatellites. These markers present different characteristics concerning mutation rate and inheritance, which provided complementary information about abalone history and gene diversity. Genetic diversity and relationships among subspecies were calculated from a sample of approximately 500 individuals, collected from 17 different locations in the north-eastern Atlantic Ocean, Macaronesia, and Mediterranean Sea. COI marker was used to explore the phylogeny of the species with a network analysis and two phylogenetic methods. The analysis revealed 18 major haplotypes grouped into two distinct clades with a pairwise sequence divergence up to 3.5 %. These clades do not correspond to subspecies but revealed many contacts along Atlantic coast during the Pleistocene interglaciations. The sperm lysin gene analysis separated two different subtaxa: one associated to Macaronesian islands, and the other to all other populations. Moreover, a small population of the northern subtaxon was isolated in the Adriatic Sea-probably before the separation of the two lineages-and evolved independently. Microsatellites were analyzed by different genetics methods, including the Bayesian clustering method and migration patterns analysis. It revealed genetically distinct microsatellite patterns among populations from Mediterranean Sea, Brittany and Normandy, Morocco, and Canary and Balearic islands. Gene flow is asymmetric among the regions; the Azores and the Canary Islands are particularly isolated and have low effective population sizes. Our results support the hypothesis that climate changes since the Pleistocene glaciations have played a major role in the

  14. Selection of reference genes as internal controls for gene expression in tissues of red abalone Haliotis rufescens (Mollusca, Vetigastropoda; Swainson, 1822).

    López-Landavery, Edgar A; Portillo-López, Amelia; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Del Río-Portilla, Miguel A


    The red abalone Haliotis rufescens is one of the most important species for aquaculture in Baja California, México, and despite this, few gene expression studies have been done in tissues such as gill, head and gonad. For this purpose, reverse transcription and quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR) is a powerful tool for gene expression evaluation. For a reliable analysis, however, it is necessary to select and validate housekeeping genes that allow proper transcription quantification. Stability of nine housekeeping genes (ACTB, BGLU, TUBB, CY, GAPDH, HPRTI, RPL5, SDHA and UBC) was evaluated in different tissues of red abalone (gill, head and gonad/digestive gland). Four-fold serial dilutions of cDNA (from 25 ngμL(-1) to 0.39 ngμL(-1)) were used to prepare the standard curve, and it showed gene efficiencies between 0.95 and 0.99, with R(2)=0.99. geNorm and NormFinder analysis showed that RPL5 and CY were the most stable genes considering all tissues, whereas in gill HPRTI and BGLU were most stable. In gonad/digestive gland, RPL5 and TUBB were the most stable genes with geNorm, while SDHA and HPRTI were the best using NormFinder. Similarly, in head the best genes were RPL5 and UBC with geNorm, and GAPDH and CY with NormFinder. The technical variability analysis with RPL5 and abalone gonad/digestive gland tissue indicated a high repeatability with a variation coefficient within groups ≤ 0.56% and between groups ≤ 1.89%. These results will help us for further research in reproduction, thermoregulation and endocrinology in red abalone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of Element Chelates Supplementation on Growth and Energy Transformation in Fish and Shellfish%复合螯合微量元素添加剂对鱼、贝生长及能量转化的影响

    赵元凤; 吕景才; 刘靖


    Inorganic salts and amino-acid chelates of some elements were added to Tilapia nilotica、common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino) diets and the effect of the supplementation on growth and energy transformation were investigated. The results indicated that supplementation of element chelates of amino acids significantly increased weight gain of experimental fish compared with inorganic salt supplementation. Average specially designated growth rate of two experiment groups with two levels of supplementation of element chelates of amino acids increased by 89.25% and 79.61% in Tilapia nilotica; by 36.45% and 64.49% in abalone compared with corresponding control groups and increased by 55.00% in common carp when diet was supplemented with element chelates compared with when diet was supplemented with inorganic salts.%在罗非鱼、鲤鱼、皱纹盘鲍饲料中,分别添加氨基酸螯合盐添加剂和无机盐添加剂对罗非鱼、鲤鱼、皱纹盘鲍进行了对比喂养试验。结果表明:氨基酸螯合盐较无机盐具有显著促生长作用。添加螯合盐的2个试验组罗非鱼的平均特定生长率分别比无机盐对照组提高89.25%、79.61%;鲤鱼螯合盐试验组比对照组平均特定生长率提高55.00%;添加螯合盐的2个试验组皱纹盘鲍的平均特定生长率分别比对照组提高36.45%和64.49% 。

  16. Growth of eight Pacific abalone families at three temperatures

    LIU Xiao; DENG Yuewen; ZHANG Guofan


    Growth rates, measured as shell length and body weight daily growth, were studied in the eight families of Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino, reared at 12, 16 and 20 ℃ for 40 d respectively. The results show that J1Rh family grew the best at 12 ℃, with growth rates of (32.88 ±4.66) μm/d and (5.24 ± 1.84) mg/d. C1Jm family had the highest growth rates of (58.00 ±2.00) μm/d and (9.71 ± 1.21) mg/d at 16 ℃. J1Jm family ranked the first at 20 ℃, with growth rates of (66.00 ± 1.76) μm/d and (10.99±0.34) mg/d.RjRh family had the slowest growth rates at all three temperatures. Shell length growth rates were 18.25, 33.00 and 43.13 μm/d respectively, while body weight growth rates were 2.47, 2.56 and 4.75 mg/d respectively. Both temperature and family had significant effect on growth rates (P<0.05). At 16 and 20 ℃, maternal effects on growth rates were not significant (P>0.05), but paternal effects on growth rates were significant (P<0.05). Results of this study indicate genetic difference among the families and importance of selecting male breeders in the commercial hatchery.

  17. Effects of the dietary administration of sodium alginate on the immune responses and disease resistance of Taiwan abalone, Haliotis diversicolor supertexta.

    Cheng, Winton; Yu, Jyun-Sian


    Sodium alginate extracted from brown algae was reported to enhance the immune response and resistance of fish and shrimp. In this study, survival rates of the abalone, Haliotis diversicolor supertexta, against Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and its non-specific immune parameters such as the total haemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, phagocytic activity, and clearance efficiency to V. parahaemolyticus by H. diversicolor supertexta were determined when abalone (4.5 ± 0.4 g) were fed diets containing sodium alginate at 0, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 g kg⁻¹. Abalone fed a diet containing sodium alginate at 2.0 and 3.0 g kg⁻¹ for 14 days and at 1.0 g kg⁻¹ for 21 days had significantly higher survival rates than those fed the control diet after challenge with V. parahaemolyticus. The relative survival percentages of abalone fed the 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 g kg⁻¹ sodium alginate-containing diets for 14 and 21 days were 16.1%, 40.0%, and 48.0%, and 63.6%, 27.3% and 22.6%, respectively. The PO activity, respiratory bursts, SOD activity, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency of V. parahaemolyticus of abalone fed the sodium alginate-containing diets at 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 g kg⁻¹ were significantly higher than those of abalone fed the control diet for 14 days. After 21 days, the PO activity, respiratory bursts, SOD activity, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency of V. parahaemolyticus by abalone fed the sodium alginate-containing diet at 1.0 g kg⁻¹ were significantly higher than those of abalone fed the other diets. It was concluded that sodium alginate can be used as an immunostimulant for abalone through dietary administration to enhance immune responses of abalone and resistance against V. parahaemolyticus, which were related to the dose and timing of administration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Velocity characteristics of the rotation technique of Chinese elite female discus throwers%我国优秀女子铁饼运动员旋转技术的速度特征研究

    袁从万; 王鹏; 刘海国


    采用文献资料法、专家访谈法、三维高速影像解析法和数理统计法,对现阶段我国优秀女子铁饼运动员旋转技术的时空特征进行分析,得出以下结论:重心和铁饼的分速度大小及比例对运动员技术风格的形成有重要影响;在旋转技术完成瞬间,李艳凤和宋爱民的铁饼合速度分别是最大和最小的,不同的是李艳风水平分速度占的比例大,宋爱民垂直分速度占的比例大,孙太凤在左脚单支撑阶段铁饼速度较快,导致腾空和过渡阶段铁饼速度下降;在左脚单支撑阶段,宋爱民右髋的速度最大导致她重心轨迹偏向左,孙太凤最慢的右髋速度和最快的右肩速度使她的重心轨迹偏右;李艳凤在过渡阶段过快的肩关节速度是她获得较快饼速的主要原因之一。在形成最后用力双支撑瞬间,我国运动员的肩轴角速度要大于髋轴,说明我国运动员已经开始最后用力。%This article adopted the methods of literature, expert interview, photography of three dimensional in high speed, and mathematic statistics to analyze the rotation technique of Chinese elite women's discus throwers. It has been shown that size and proportion of component velocity of CG and discus have very important influence to form athlete' s technique style ; Body -discus system at flight and transition stage is very complex and the most difficulty controllable. System changes in the two stages have the decisive effect to form personal optimum technique; the second and third rotation axis of Chinese athletes have steady velocity transfer. Hip and knees velocity of the second axis decide the style of displacement. The shoulder velocity of third has a close relation to the space - time characteristics of discus.

  19. Non-selective in situ grazing of diatoms by juvenile Green Abalone (Haliotis fulgens Philippi, 1945 in the Baja California Peninsula Consumo in situ no selectivo de diatomeas por juveniles de abulón azul (Haliotis fulgens Philippi, 1945 en la Península de Baja California

    Uri Argumedo Hernández


    Full Text Available For experimental or rearing purposes, young abalones are fed benthic diatoms successfully during their early life stages without considering if the diatoms provided are found in the abalone habitat, nor if grazing selectivity exists. Our aim in this study was to gather further evidence that would indicate whether young Haliotis fulgens graze diatoms in situ selectively. Thirty-four specimens of young H. fulgens were collected in a fishing site in BCS, México on two dates. We identified the diatoms in their gut contents (144 species and determined their relative abundances. Fourteen diatoms (80% of the total abundance were considered most important and twelve were among the most important in the diet of young abalone in BCS. The diversity values (H' of the diatoms in their guts ranged from 1.05 to 4.47, depending on dominance, which reflected the structure of diatom assemblages in situ. The above observations and the low similarity measured between samples show that species richness and equitability are similar even if the species composition of diatoms ingested by young abalone differs between specimens. The results lead us to conclude that grazing of diatoms by young H. fulgens is non-selective, and that the structure of diatom assemblages is more important than the particular taxa in their diet.Durante sus etapas tempranas de vida los abulones jóvenes son alimentados exitosamente con diatomeas bentónicas sin considerar si las especies suministradas se hallan en su medio natural, o si existe algún tipo de preferencia o selectividad por ciertas diatomeas. El objetivo de este estudio fue recabar evidencias acerca de si los juveniles de Haliotis fulgens Philippi presentan un consumo selectivo de diatomeas cuando se alimentan in situ. Se recolectaron treinta y cuatro juveniles de H. fulgens en un sitio de pesca de BCS, México en dos fechas. Se disecaron y se examinaron contenidos intestinales. Se identificaron 144 taxa de diatomeas y se

  20. 耳鲍(Haliotis asinina)核糖体小亚基(18S rRNA)编码基因的克隆与序列分析%CLONING AND SEQUENCING OF GENES ENCODING HALIOTIS ASININA 18S rRNAs

    黄勃; 方再光; 刘均玲; 周智; 王小兵


    采用分子生物学的方法, 对南海不同海区的两个地理群体耳鲍(Haliotis asinina) 18S rRNA基因全长进行了克隆和序列分析, 并将耳鲍18S rRNA基因的序列与NCBI数据库中已收录鲍的18S rRNA基因进行了比较.结果发现, 南海耳鲍核糖体18S rRNA基因与耳鲍H. asinina isolate H11核糖体18S rRNA基因序列的相同率高达98%; 同一地理群体内耳鲍核糖体18S rRNA基因序列完全一致; 不同地理群体间耳鲍核糖体18S rRNA基因在碱基组成上的相似率为99%, 仅在某些位点处发生了碱基替换, 即腺嘌呤(T)被鸟嘌呤(G)替换; 同时, 将这两个不同群体中耳鲍的18S rRNA基因与泰国耳鲍18S rRNA基因序列进行比较分析发现, 它们之间也只是发生了碱基替换.

  1. Reproductive and population parameters of discus fish Symphysodon aequifasciatus Pellegrin, 1904 (Perciformes: Cichlidae from Piagaçu-Purus Sustainable Development Reserve (RDS-PP, lower Purus River, Amazonas, Brazil

    Felipe Rossoni


    Full Text Available The ornamental discus fish Symphysodon aequifasciatus Pellegrin, 1904, is a popular endemic cichlid species from the Amazon basin, however scientific information concerning biology and ecology in its natural habitat is scarce despite its importance on the international aquarium trade. In this study we evaluated reproductive parameters of S. aequifasciatus in natural habitat in Piagaçu-Purus Sustainable Development Reserve (RDS-PP, lower Purus River, Brazilian Amazon. Males are more frequent in the larger size classes and this might be related to the complex breeding behavior known for S. aequifasciatus. Values of L50 for both sexes corresponded to more than 60% of the maximum attained length which may indicate that energy allocation for somatic growth takes longer in S. aequifasciatus than in other species. Average fecundity for female discus was 1490, ranging from 950 to 1892 oocytes and its correlations with standard length and total weight were very low, probably due to the highly compressed discus' body shape. Egg size distribution showed four types of patterns, indicating one to four modes besides the reserve oocytes group. Our results indicate that S. aequifasciatus shows total spawning, in the beginning of flooding period, with the peculiar capacity of releasing multiple egg batches as a strategy that potentially enhances reproductive success.O acará-disco (Symphysodon aequifasciatus Pellegrin, 1904 é uma espécie popular de ciclídeo endêmico da bacia amazônica, porém são poucas as informações científicas sobre biologia e ecologia em seu habitat natural, apesar de sua importância no comércio internacional de aquário. Neste estudo avaliamos parâmetros reprodutivos de S. aequifasciatus em vida livre na Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável Piagaçu-Purus (RDS-PP, baixo rio Purus, Amazonas, Brasil. Os machos são mais frequentes em classes de comprimento maiores, o que provavelmente está relacionado com o complexo

  2. 杂交鲍苗种“病毒性萎缩症(AbSV)”病理学研究%Studies on Pathology of “Shriveling Syndrome Associated Virus(AbSV)” in Juvenile Hybrid Abalone



    从福州地区患病杂交鲍苗种组织中分离到一种球形病毒用以感染健康鲍,通过对感染发病的鲍苗进行光镜和电镜观察,发现:病毒主要在消化腺嗜碱性细胞的细胞核中发生;消化腺消化细胞和嗜碱性细胞细胞核异形、染色质固缩,内质网扩张,线粒体嵴断裂、消失;消化腺小叶基膜肌纤维断裂、消失;消化道肠道具微绒毛的柱状细胞和纤毛柱状细胞发生自溶现象;足部肌细胞核浓缩,染色质固缩、边集,肌纤维断裂出现空泡.据此推测,病毒以鲍消化腺嗜碱性细胞为靶细胞,造成消化腺和胃、肠道等消化系统病变,机体因长期营养不良而萎缩,最后因全身性感染出现死亡.%Pathological analysis was done on juvenile hybrid abalone (Haliotisdiscus discus Haliotis discus hannai)artificially infected by a spherical virus isolated from the diseased ones in Fuzhou.Examination of artificially infected juvenile hybrid abalone by optical and electron microscopy showed that the virion mainly developed in nucleus of basophilic cells in digestive gland,and led to nuclear heteromorphosis,chromatin condensation,endoplasmic reticulum expansion,and mitochondria cristae breakage in digestive gland cell and basophilic cell.Meanwhile,broken digestive gland lobule basal lamina muscle fibers,autolysis and pyknosis of microvillus and cilium columnar cell in digestive gland intestinal tract were observed.In foot muscle cells,muscle fibers were broken and vesicles emerged,together with chromatin condensation and margination.These results suggested that the digestive gland basophilic cells maybe the special target cell of this virus,the infection could cause lesion in digestive gland and digestive organs such as stomach,intestines.Atrophy due to long-term malnutrition and systemic infection would finally led to death.

  3. Advances in genetics and breeding in abalone:a review%鲍遗传育种研究进展

    蔡明夷; 柯才焕; 周时强; 王桂忠


    Abalones are important farming species with a high economic value. They have already been farmed for more than 50 years. As problems and new requirements rose continuously in culture industry of abalone, studies on genetic and breeding techniques are needed to improve characteristics and to gain new traits. This review concentrates on advances in genetics and breeding techniques in abalone. As for genetic studies, karyological analyses, allozyme, DNA markers and genetic diversity were reviewed. So far, karyological analyses in abalone have been performed in 12 species that can be divided into three groups according to the chromosome number. In some economically important species, loci of allozymes and. microsatellites have been isolated and applied to investigate the genetic structure of natural and hatchery populations and to identify the result of chromosome set manipulation, but the related reports are only a few yet. The resultsof investigation with DNA markers and allozymes showed that the genetic structure of natural populations presents two characteristics: excessive homozygosity and subdivision. Advances of various breeding techniques, including introduction, selection,hybridization, polyploidy, gynogenesis and gene manipulation, were reviewed in the other part. Although Haliotis discus discus, introduced from Japan, has become one of the most important culture species in China, the economic, social and environmental effects of introduction have been rarely studied. Selection is one of the most important and basic breeding techniques, but the studies on selection are only a few and preliminary, referring to the relations between genetic characteristics and the traits of growth and resistance, genetic diversity and heritability of quantitative traits, and the effect of selection. Interspecific hybridization was the first breeding program carded out in abalone. Experimental hybridization have been carded out for about 20 crosses. Heterosis,such as faster


    Sri Redjeki Hesti Mulyaningrum


    Full Text Available Dalam usaha perbaikan kualitas bibit rumput laut Kappaphycus alvarezii dilakukan kultur protoplas dengan isolasi protoplas menggunakan enzim. Untuk mendapatkan sumber enzim yang ekonomis sebagai alternatif pengganti enzim komersial dan untuk mengetahui perbandingan konsentrasi enzim komersial yang optimum agar menghasilkan jumlah protoplas yang maksimum, dilakukan karakterisasi terhadap enzim dari berbagai sumber. Aktivitas ekstrak kasar enzim dari viscera bekicot (Achatina fulica tidak berbeda nyata dengan enzim komersial (P>0,05 dengan aktivitas sebesar 0,729 unit/mL; enzim komersial 0,354 unit/mL; ekstrak kasar enzim dari viscera keong mas (Pila polita 0,048 unit/mL; dan ekstrak kasar enzim dari viscera abalon (Haliotis asinina 0,014 unit/mL. Perbandingan enzim komersial yang optimum adalah 2:1 menghasilkan protoplas sebanyak 1,26 x 108 sel/mL; kemudian 1:2 dengan jumlah protoplas 1,22 x 108 sel/mL; perbandingan 1:1 menghasilkan protoplas sebanyak 8,36 x 107 sel/mL; perbandingan 0:1 menghasilkan protoplas sebanyak 6,33 x 107 sel/mL; dan perbandingan 1:0 menghasilkan protoplas sebanyak 9,55 x 106 sel/mL. Rumput laut asal Takalar memiliki protoplas dengan kepadatan tertinggi sebesar 3,7 x 108 sel/mL. Effort to improve the quality of seaweed seed Kappaphycus alvarezii has been done by protoplast culture with protoplast isolation using enzyme. To find out economical enzyme sources as alternatives to substitute the expensive commercial enzyme and to determine the optimum concentration ratio of commercial enzyme to produce maximum amount of protoplast, characterization was executed to several potential sources. Activity of crude extract enzyme from viscera of garden snail (Achatina fulica was not significantly different with commercial enzyme (P>0.05 it was 0.729 unit/mL, commercial enzyme 0.354 unit/mL activity; crude extract enzyme from viscera of golden snail (Pila polita 0.048 unit/mL activity and crude extract enzyme from viscera of abalone

  5. Postlarva rearing of abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta with different unicelluar algae species%不同单胞藻饵料培养九孔鲍早期稚贝的研究

    郭峰; 柯才焕; 周时强


    以单种培养的6种底栖硅藻和具有底栖习性的亚心形扁藻(Platymoras sp.)为饵料,培养九孔鲍(Haliotis diversicolor supertexta)受精后12 d的早期稚贝并观察其生长和存活,培养期为28 d, 目的是筛选能维持早期稚贝高存活率和生长率的藻种.实验结果表明,培养稚贝成活率最高的3个藻种由大到小依次是爪哇曲壳藻亚缢变种(Achnanthes javanica var.)、流水双眉藻(Amphora fluninensis)和亚历山大菱形藻(Nitzschia alexandrina),使稚贝生长最快的3个藻种由大到小依次是流水双眉藻、爪哇曲壳藻亚缢变种和亚历山大菱形藻.研究结果揭示了适宜的底栖硅藻种类对鲍早期稚贝阶段生长和存活的重要性.个体小或者胞外产物量大的藻类很可能对九孔鲍早期稚贝的培养是有利的.

  6. Detection and localisation of the abalone probiotic Vibrio midae SY9 and its extracellular protease, VmproA, within the digestive tract of the South African abalone, Haliotis midae.

    Robert J Huddy

    Full Text Available Probiotics have been widely reported to increase the growth rate of commercially important fish and shellfish by enhancing the digestion of ingested feed through the production of extracellular enzymes such as proteases and alginases. In order to investigate this further, the objective of this study was to localise the bacterial probiont Vibrio midae SY9 and one of the extracellular proteases it produces in the digestive tract of the South African abalone Haliotis midae. This was accomplished by inserting a promotorless gfp gene into the chromosome of the bacterium which was incorporated in an artificial, fishmeal-based abalone feed. In situ histological comparison of abalone fed either a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with V. midae SY9::Tn10.52 using a cocktail of DNA probes to the gfp gene localised the probiont to the crop/stomach and intestinal regions of the H. midae digestive tract. Generally, the ingested probiotic bacterium occurred in association with feed and particulate matter within the crop/stomach and intestinal regions, as well as adhered to the wall of the crop/stomach. Histological immunohistochemical examination using polyclonal anti-VmproA antibodies localised an extracellular protease produced by V. midae SY9 to the H. midae crop/stomach and intestine where it appeared to be associated with feed and/or other particulate matter in the abalone gut. Thus the data suggests that V. midae SY9 colonises and/or adheres to the mucous lining of the abalone gut. Furthermore, the close association observed between the bacterium, its extracellular protease and ingested feed particles supports the theory that V. midae SY9 elevates in situ digestive enzyme levels and thus enhances feed digestion in farmed abalone.

  7. 九孔鲍幼鲍生长性状的遗传参数估计%Genetic parameter estimation of growth traits in small abalone, Haliotis diversicolor supertexta

    蒋湘; 刘建勇; 赖志服


    Haliotis diversicolor supertexta is an economically important shellfish species in southern China. However, intensive culture practices have resulted in genetic degradation (e.g., inbreeding depression). In addition, there has been a recent increase in the mass mortality of H. diversicolor supertexta during the post-larval and grow-out stages, resulting in a decrease in production. To address this, genetic improvement is likely to play an important role in the sustainable development of the H. diversicolor supertexta aquaculture industry. Narrow-sense heritability(h2) provides an index of additive genetic variation. The index is a key indicator of the degree of ge-netic improvement in an unknown natural population with putative commercial value. We estimated the heritabil-ity of shell length, shell width, and body weight of H.diversicolor supertexta by means of intra group correlation of full-sibs.Twelve half-sib families and thirty-six full-sib families of H. diversicolor supertexta were obtained by artificial fertilization of three females by single males based on an unbalanced nest design. Each full-sib family was reared separately and all families experienced environmental conditions that were as similar as possible. A random sample of 30 individuals from each family was harvested and the shell length, shell width, and body weight of each individual was measured 40, 120, 180, and 240 days after hatching (dph). The genetic parameters for shell length, shell width, and body weight were estimated with a single trait animal model using the restricted maximum likelihood method. The estimates of narrow-sense heritabilities ranged from 0.13±0.09 to 0.56±0.15 for shell length and 0.13±0.06−0.62±0.13 for shell width. The heritability of body weight was between 0.18±0.15 and 0.26±0.08. We observed a significant positive genetic and phenotypic correlation (correlation coefficient ranges:0.85–0.98 and 0.66–0.94, respectively)among shell length, shell width, and

  8. Application of Novel Polymorphic Microsatellite Loci Identified in the Korean Pacific Abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta (Haliotidae in the Genetic Characterization of Wild and Released Populations

    Seong Wan Hong


    Full Text Available The small abalone, Haliotis diversicolor supertexta, of the family Haliotidae, is one of the most important species of marine shellfish in eastern Asia. Over the past few decades, this species has drastically declined in Korea. Thus, hatchery-bred seeds have been released into natural coastal areas to compensate for the reduced fishery resources. However, information on the genetic background of the small abalone is scarce. In this study, 20 polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers were identified using next-generation sequencing techniques and used to compare allelic variation between wild and released abalone populations in Korea. Using high-throughput genomic sequencing, a total of 1516 (2.26%; average length of 385 bp reads containing simple sequence repeats were obtained from 86,011 raw reads. Among the 99 loci screened, 28 amplified successfully, and 20 were polymorphic. When comparing allelic variation between wild and released abalone populations, a total of 243 different alleles were observed, with 18.7 alleles per locus. High genetic diversity (mean heterozygosity = 0.81; mean allelic number = 15.5 was observed in both populations. A statistical analysis of the fixation index (FST and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA indicated limited genetic differences between the two populations (FST = 0.002, p > 0.05. Although no significant reductions in the genetic diversity were found in the released population compared with the wild population (p > 0.05, the genetic diversity parameters revealed that the seeds released for stock abundance had a different genetic composition. These differences are likely a result of hatchery selection and inbreeding. Additionally, all the primer pair sets were effectively amplified in another congeneric species, H. diversicolor diversicolor, indicating that these primers are useful for both abalone species. These microsatellite loci

  9. Growth and Survival Studies on Hybridization Between Cultured Stock and Wild Stock of Haliotis diversicolor supertexta%九孔鲍养殖群体与野生群体杂交一代生长比较

    蒋湘; 刘建勇; 赖志服


    Haliotis diversicolor supertexta is an economically important shellfish species in southern China. However, genetic degradation, such as inbreeding depression, becomes more and more serious. In addition, massive mortality of the H.diversicolor supertexta occurred at post-larval and grow-out stages and production of H.diversicolor supertexta dramatically reduced in recent year. Genetic improvement plays an important role in sustainable development for H.diversicolor supertexta aquaculture industry. F1 generation of four groups, Shanwei(BD)♀×Shenzheng(YS)♂, YS♀×BD♂, BD♀×BD♂and YS♀×YS♂were obtained from mating and crossing within and between Cultured stock and Wild stock of H. diversicolor supertexta. We comparison of egg size, fertilization rate, larval settlement rate, larval metamorphosis rate, larval survival rate and postlarval growth among four groups in 40-280 days. The results revealed that the egg size of wild populations were 12.14% bigger than cultured populations.(p<0.01). The hybridization groups also bigger than self-fertilized groups on fertilization rate、larval settlement rate、larval metamorphosis rate (p<0.05). The hybridization groups showed heterosis of various degrees on larval settlement rate, larval metamorphosis rate, larval survival rate and postlarval growth compared to self-fertilized groups. Heterosis of the survival rate in juvenile abalone ranged from(14.89 ± 3.60)%to(43.00±2.15)%. Heterosis of shell length in juvenile abalone ranged from (5.18 ± 1.46)%to (18.52±2.12)%, Heterosis of shell width in juvenile abalone ranged from (6.17 ± 1.09)%to (16.72±1.26)%, Heterosis of body weight in juvenile abalone ranged from (9.86 ± 1.25)%to (12.55 ± 1.26)%, It is indicated that the cross between geographically different stocks may be an effective way for genetic improvement of H. diversicolor supertexta.%  利用九孔鲍(Haliotis diversicolor supertexta)汕尾养殖群体(BD)和深圳野生群体(YS)进行群体

  10. Estimates of Heritabilities and Genetic Correlations for Growth in Haliotis diversicolor supertexta%九孔鲍生长性状的遗传力及其相关性分析

    胡志国; 刘建勇; 蒋湘; 包秀凤


    Twelve half-sib families and thirty-six full-sib families were constructed by using methods of nest design and artificial insemination, in which each male mated three females. Thirty 8-month-old Haliotis diversicolor supertexta were measured for three growth traits including the body mass (BM), the shell length (SL), the shell width (BL). According to quantitative genetic theory, the heritability of each growth trait, and the genetic and phenotypic correlation among the traits were statistically studied by utilizing the method of variance and covariance analysis. The results showed that the heritability estimates in the narrow sense from intra-group correlation of paternal half-sib were precise and unbiased, and the heritability values for the above three traits were 0.285, 0.264 and 0.343, respectively. All of them belonged to moderate and high heritability, thus showing a high potential for selective breeding. The estimates of genetic correlation coefficients were 0.947, 0.934 and 0.902, respectively. The estimates of phenotypic correlation coefficients were 0.910, 0.791 and 0.760, respectively. The statistical significance (P<0.01) was detected by t-test among the three growth traits for both genetic and phenotypic correlation coefficients, indicating all the three traits may respond favorably to direct and indirect selection for growth.%采用平衡巢式设计方法和人工授精技术,构建九孔鲍(Haliotis diversicolor supertexta)12个半同胞家系和36个全同胞家系(每个雄鲍配3个雌鲍),分别测定每个母系生长到8月龄的全同胞个体30个后代的壳长、壳宽和体质量,应用数量遗传学的全同胞组内相关分析法,利用SPSS软件的GLM过程计算表型变量的原因方差组分,估算九孔鲍8月龄生长性状的遗传力以及性状间遗传相关和表型相关。结果表明:利用父系半同胞组内相关法估计的遗传力是九孔鲍各生长性状遗传力的无偏估计值,其

  11. 杂色鲍紫色酸性磷酸酯酶基因克隆及应激下的表达%Molecular cloning and expression of purple acid phosphatase in Haliotis diversicolor under stress

    黄贻涛; 蔡秀红; 张子平; 王国栋; 邹志华; 王淑红; 王艺磊


    The small abalone Haliotis diversicolor is one of the most commercially important cultured abalone in southern coastal areas in China. However, the frequent occurrence of infectious disease, especially during hot summers, is a major problem that has threatened the abalone aquaculture industry for a long time. As an inverte-brate, abalone lacks an adaptive immune system and relies exclusively on innate immunity to defend against bac-terial challenge. However, research on gastropod immune responses is limited. Purple acid phosphatase (PAP) belongs to a large family of dinuclear metalloenzymes and is distinguished from other acid phosphatases by its purple color, which is due to a Tyr-to-iron (III) charge transfer transition. PAPs are a group of tartrate resistant, molybdate sensitive, iron containing acid phosphatases with a molecular weight of about 35-40 kD and a high activity towards activated phosphoric acid monoesters and anhydrides. They catalyze the hydrolysis of a wide range of phosphate esters. PAPs play important roles in response to different stresses in plants and mammals. However, to date it has not been investigated in molluscs. In this study, the first molluscan PAP gene, HdPAP from H. diversicolor, was cloned by combining the expressed sequence tag (EST) and rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) methods. Its full length cDNA sequence is 1 215 bp, with a 969 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 322 amino acids (GenBank:KC337074). The 5′and 3′untranslated regions (UTR) of HdPAP contain 28 bp and 218 bp, respectively. Pairwise analysis results revealed that the HdPAP amino acid sequence has the highest iden-tity, 59%, to the invertebrate Saccoglossus kowalevskii PAP. The calculated molecular mass of deduced HdPAP is 36.8 kD with a theoretical isoelectric point (PI) of 5.27. Multiple sequence alignment of the HdPAP amino acid sequence with other known vertebrate PAPs and invertebrate PAP family proteins revealed that it was conserved, while

  12. Chemical interactions and textural characteristics of abalone pleopod muscle protein during heating%热加工过程中鲍鱼腹足蛋白间作用力及其质构特性

    邓丽; 李岩; 董秀萍; 王垚; 辛丘岩; 潘锦锋


    为探究蛋白质形成凝胶过程中其化学作用力的变化规律以及与凝胶特性之间的关系,该文以鲍鱼腹足为原料,采用溶液分级提取方法,并结合扫描电镜和红外光谱法,考察热加工中鲍鱼腹足蛋白间作用力及其质构特性的变化情况。结果表明,随着加热温度升高(60、80、100℃),扫描电镜结果显示,鲍鱼腹足中间部位与边缘和过渡部位形成孔洞较小、排列紧密的网络结构,同时红外结果表明,随温度升高,蛋白二级结构发生明显变化, N-H弯曲和C-N伸缩振动较为明显,α-螺旋变为无规则卷曲结构,肌球蛋白疏水性增加,-S-S-形成。此时,对应离子键、氢键含量均呈下降趋势,疏水键相对含量呈先上升后下降趋势,二硫键、非二硫共价键含量呈上升趋势。进一步研究表明,各化学作用力与蛋白凝胶质构特性具有高度相关性。在较低温度下(60℃)离子键、氢键和疏水键对凝胶稳定性起主要作用,此时形成的凝胶较柔软;在较高温度下(80、100℃)二硫键、非二硫共价键为维持凝胶稳定的主要作用力,此时凝胶特性较佳,富有弹性、较好的凝聚性和回复性。该研究为热加工过程中鲍鱼腹足蛋白质变化的机理提供参考依据。%Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) is an important commercial seafood species. Pleopod muscle is the edible part of abalone, which is rich in protein and mainly composed of myofibril protein and collagen. The change in conformation and aggregation of protein during heating would affect the quality of the product. Chemical interactions including hydrogen bonds, disulfide bonds, non-disulfide bonds, ionic bonds, and hydrophobicity have shown great effect on textural properties of muscle protein. This study used the method of grading extraction solution, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) to

  13. La aplicación de la biomecánica al entrenamiento deportivo mediante los análisis cualitativo y cuantitativo. Una propuesta para el lanzamiento de disco. Biomechanical applications of sport training based on qualitative and quantitative analysis. A purpose of discus throwing.

    Ferro Sánchez, Amelia


    of the outcomes of such studies, the establishment of a link connecting the language and expressions used by trainers to the terminology and the biomechanical principles can be defined as a key point. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate an efficacy indicators chart that classifies and organises the information available to allow an innovative assessment of the techniques applied to sports from a biomechanical approach, using discus throwing as an example. The methodology applied, based on qualitative analysis but associated to quantitative data belonged from bibliography, involved different stages: 1.Collect relevant information with regards to movement. 2.Set a finalobjective. 3.Divide the movement into phases.4.Determine mechanicals purposes of each phase. 5.Identify critical features used by trainers to help athletes improve their technique. 6.Match biomechanical variables to the previous technical points. 7.Point out assessment criteria for each variable. 8.Make note of the results arising from the bibliography for such biomechanicalvariables, including data provided by our discus throwing research group. The research deliveredan Efficacy Indicators Technique-Biomechanics Chart. Main advantages of the design of the chart are a follows: i It enables linking the trainers and biomechanical researchers language ii It enables the interpretation and objective assessment of biomechanical variables iii It facilitates the evaluation of results from new researches versus results shown on previous papers, providing neat solutions to concrete problems.

  14. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Haliotis ovina 18S rDNA in the Different Geographical Populations of Hainan%海南不同地理群体羊鲍18SrDNA的克隆与序列分析

    杨文杰; 黄勃; 王仁恩; 张钰


    [ Objective ] The aim was to clone and analyze the sequence of 18S rDNA from Haliotis ovina. [ Method ] TV 18S rRNA genes of two different H. ovina geographical populations,which frum different area of Hainan, were cloned by molecular biology method and sequenced.and then aligned with H. asinina 18S rRNA genes of same sea area. [ Result] 18S rRNA genes of individuals from the same group had no differentiation,the similarity in the 18S rRNA genes neared 100% , whereas partial differentiation between the 2 groups was observed with the similarity up to 99.5% ,and basal substitution took place at some sites. A neighbor-joining tree was constructed from sequence divergence of 18S rRNA genes, which all was built up by waled accurately those sequences according to species of abalone. An unweighted pair-group dendrogram method with a-rithmetic mean was constructed from divergence among the individuals from the 2 groups. [Conclusion] It prepared reliable basis for the genetic diversity,hereditary constitution,germplasm identification,the conservation and utilization of germplasm resource and other aspects of the study of Hainan abalone.H. ovina specially.%[目的]对海南不同地理群体羊鲍18S rDNA进行克隆,并对其进行序列分析.[方法]采用分子生物学的方法,对海南不同海区的2个羊鲍地理群体18S rRNA基因全长进行克隆和序列分析,并将得到的羊鲍18S rRNA基因序列与同海域耳鲍的进行比较.[结果]同一地理群体内羊鲍核糖体18S rRNA基因序列完全一致;不同地理群体间羊鲍核糖体18S rRNA基因在碱基组成上的相似率为99.5%,仅在某些位点处发生了碱基替换,即腺嘌呤(T)被鸟嘌呤(G)替换;同时,将这两个不同群体中羊鲍的18S rRNA基因与同一海域耳鲍18S rRNA基因序列进行比较分析发现,它们之间也只是发生了碱基替换.[结论]为海南鲍鱼特别是羊鲍的遗传多样性、遗传结构、种质鉴定及其种质资源的保护和

  15. “东优1号”杂色鲍及其亲本群体肌肉营养成分的比较分析%Analysis on Nutritional Components in New Variety ‘Dongyou No.1’and Its Parental Populations of Small Abalone Haliotis diversicolor

    颜孙安; 姚清华; 林香信; 林虬; 苏德森


    对日本、台湾杂色鲍及其杂交后代(“东优1号”)足肌的营养成分进行比较分析。结果表明,“东优1号”的粗蛋白含量显著低于日本群体但高于台湾群体,粗脂肪含量高于双亲;“东优1号”和日本群体足肌的EAA、总氨基酸及呈味氨基酸的含量均显著高于台湾群体(P <0.05);3种鲍足肌的 SRCAA 均大于80%,且E/T、E/N 均符合 FAO/WHO 的蛋白模式;“东优1号”的饱和脂肪酸(SFA)和必需脂肪酸(EFA)总量均显著低于双亲,不饱和脂肪酸总量显著低于台湾群体而高于日本群体,多不饱和脂肪酸(PUFA)n-6和 n-3的比值低于双亲,ΣPUFA 与ΣSFA 的比值高于双亲。3种鲍足肌均含有种类齐全、比例合理的氨基酸,脂肪酸营养丰富、结构均衡,具有较高的营养价值,是优质的蛋白源。“东优1号”的营养成分较好地综合了双亲的优良性状,部分性状优于双亲,更符合人类健康饮食的要求。%The nutritional components from foot muscle of RITAI Haliotis diversicolor (Japan population and Taiwan population)and their reciprocal hybrids (‘Dongyou 1 ’)were comparatively analyzed according to the national standard method.The protein content in ‘Dongyou 1’was significantly lower than that of Japan population but higher than that of Taiwan population,while the lipid content in ‘Dongyou 1’was higher than its parents.Total amino acids (TAA),essential amino acids (EAA)and delicious amino acids (DAA)in ‘Dongyou 1 ’and Japan population are higher than Taiwan population (P <0.05).SRCAA of all the 3 groups are higher than 80%,and E/T and E/N of them are consistent with the FAO/WHO proteinaceous model.Contents of saturated fatty acid (SFA) and essential fatty acid (EFA)in ‘Dongyou 1 ’were lower than its parents;Content of unsaturated fatty acid (UFA)in ‘Dongyou 1’was between that of Taiwan population and Japan population

  16. 海洋底栖动物浮游幼体附着和变态的研究%Researches on Larval Settlement and Metamorphosis of Marine Benthos

    柯才焕; 冯丹青


    海洋底栖动物浮游幼体附着和变态的研究具重要的理论和应用价值.我校海洋系在国内较早开展该领域的研究,近10年来,取得了系列研究成果,促进了我国在海洋底栖动物幼体附着和变态研究领域的发展.所研究的海洋底栖动物有翡翠贻贝(Perna viridis)、僧帽牡蛎(Saccostrea cucullata)、盘鲍(Haliotis discus discus)、杂色鲍(Haliotis diversicolor)、华贵栉孔扇贝(Chlamys nobilis)、台湾东风螺(Babylonia formosae)、方斑东风螺(B.areolata)、冠瘤海鞘(Styela canopus)和白脊藤壶(Balanus albicostatas).研究内容包括幼体附着和变态过程中的幼体行为学和形态学观察、幼体附着和变态的影响因子、机制及应用研究.

  17. A Corpus-based Study of Discusive Strategies in Chinese Housing News Texts

    Cheng Wenhua; Chen Songsong


    The present study aims to explore the discursive strategies in Chinese housing news texts on the basis of a self-built corpus. A critical discourse analysis methodology is a-dopted to explore the implicit meaning and attitudes in the housing texts. The keyword analy-sis proves to be effective in discovering the lexical features of the texts. The findings show that the news texts remain implicit in their attitudes through the use of professional voice and the direction of readers’ attention.


    黎中宝; Appleyard Sharon A; Elliott Nicholas G



  19. Concentration and retention of Toxoplasma gondii surrogates from seawater by red abalone (Haliotis rufescens)

    Schott, Kristen C; Krusor, Colin; Tinker, M. Tim; Moore, James G.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Shapiro, Karen


    Small marine snails and abalone have been identified as high- and low-risk prey items, respectively, for exposure of threatened southern sea otters to Toxoplasma gondii, a zoonotic parasite that can cause fatal encephalitis in animals and humans. While recent work has characterized snails as paratenic hosts for T. gondii, the ability of abalone to vector the parasite has not been evaluated. To further elucidate why abalone predation may be protective against T. gondii exposure, this study aimed to determine whether: (1) abalone are physiologically capable of acquiring T. gondii; and (2) abalone and snails differ in their ability to concentrate and retain the parasite. Abalone were exposed to T. gondii surrogate microspheres for 24 h, and fecal samples were examined for 2 weeks following exposure. Concentration of surrogates was 2–3 orders of magnitude greater in abalone feces than in the spiked seawater, and excretion of surrogates continued for 14 days post-exposure. These results indicate that, physiologically, abalone and snails can equally vector T. gondii as paratenic hosts. Reduced risk of T. gondii infection in abalone-specializing otters may therefore result from abalone's high nutritional value, which implies otters must consume fewer animals to meet their caloric needs.

  20. Evolution of large body size in abalones (Haliotis): Patterns and implications

    Estes, J.A.; Lindberg, D.R.; Wray, C.


    Kelps and other fleshy macroalgae - dominant reef-inhabiting organisms in cool - seasmay have radiated extensively following late Cenozoic polar cooling, thus triggering a chain of evolutionary change in the trophic ecology of nearshore temperate ecosystems. We explore this hypothesis through an analysis of body size in the abalones (Gastropoda; Haliotidae), a widely distributed group in modern oceans that displays a broad range of body sizes and contains fossil representatives from the late Cretaceous (60-75 Ma). Geographic analysis of maximum shell length in living abalones showed that small-bodied species, while most common in the Tropics, have a cosmopolitan distribution, whereas large-bodied species occur exclusively in cold-water ecosystems dominated by kelps and other macroalgae. The phylogeography of body size evolution in extant abalones was assessed by constructing a molecular phylogeny in a mix of large and small species obtained from different regions of the world. This analysis demonstrates that small body size is the plesiomorphic state and largeness has likely arisen at least twice. Finally, we compiled data on shell length from the fossil record to determine how (slowly or suddenly) and when large body size arose in the abalones. These data indicate that large body size appears suddenly at the Miocene/Pliocene boundary. Our findings support the view that fleshy-algal dominated ecosystems radiated rapidly in the coastal oceans with the onset of the most recent glacial age. We conclude with a discussion of the broader implications of this change. ?? 2005 The Paleontological Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Potential mechanisms of phthalate ester embryotoxicity in the abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta

    Zhou Jin [L-304, Life Sciences Division, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen University Town, Xili, Shenzhen City 518055 (China); Cai Zhonghua, E-mail: [L-304, Life Sciences Division, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen University Town, Xili, Shenzhen City 518055 (China); Key Laboratory of Aquatic-Ecology, Tianjin Agricultural University, Lishui Road 112, Tianjin 300384 (China); Xing Kezhi [Key Laboratory of Aquatic-Ecology, Tianjin Agricultural University, Lishui Road 112, Tianjin 300384 (China)


    The effects and associated toxicological mechanisms of five phthalate esters (PAEs) on abalone embryonic development were investigated by exposing the embryos to a range of PAEs concentrations (0.05, 0.2, 2 and 10 {mu}g/mL). The results showed that PAEs could significantly reduce embryo hatchability, increase developmental malformations, and suppress the metamorphosis of abalone larvae. The possible toxicological mechanisms of PAEs to abalone embryos included, affecting the Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-pump and Ca{sup 2+}-Mg{sup 2+}-pump activities, altering the peroxidase (POD) level and the malondialdehyde (MDA) production, damaging the extraembryonic membranes structure, as well as disrupting endocrine-related genes (gpx, cyp3a, and 17{beta}-hsd 12) expression properties. Taken together, this work showed that PAEs adversely affected the embryonic ontogeny of abalone. The abilities of PAEs affecting the osmoregulation, inducing oxidative stress, damaging embryo envelope structure, and causing physiological homeostasis disorder, are likely to be a part of the common mechanisms responsible for their embryonic toxicity. - Highlights: > PAEs affected abalone hatchability, morphogenesis and metamorphosis behavior. > The toxicity of the five PAEs to embryogenesis was ranked as DBP > DEP > DMP > DOP > DEHP. > The osmoregulation disorder and oxidative damage are the potential mechanisms. - Potential mechanisms of PAEs on abalone embryogenesis are osmoregulation disorder, oxidative damage and physiological dysfunction.

  2. The role of MAPK signaling in patterning and establishing axial symmetry in the gastropod Haliotis asinina

    Koop, Demian; Richards, Gemma S; Wanninger, Andreas


    Gastropods are members of the Spiralia, a diverse group of invertebrates that share a common early developmental program, which includes spiral cleavage and a larval trochophore stage. The spiral cleavage program results in the division of the embryo into four quadrants. Specification of the dors...

  3. cDNA microarray analysis of disk abalone genes in gills and hemocytes after viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) challenge.

    De Zoysa, Mahanama; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Oh, Chulhong; Whang, Ilson; Shin, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Jehee


    A disk abalone Haliotis discus discus 4.2 K cDNA microarray was designed by selecting abalone expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Transcriptional profiles in gills and hemocytes were analyzed upon abalone challenged with viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) in order to select candidates for screening of immune response genes. Among the 4188 genes analyzed, 280 (6.6%) transcripts were changed their expression level in gills and hemocytes against VHSV challenge compared to control animals. Total of 88 and 65 genes were up-regulated in gills and hemocytes, respectively. These genes can be grouped under various immune-functional categories such as transcription factors (Krüppell-like factor; ETS-family transcription factor), inflammatory and apoptosis related genes (TNF superfamily members, Fas ligand), IFN regulatory proteins (IFN-44 like, interferon gamma-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase) and detoxification proteins (glutathione peroxidase). In contrast, 25 and 102 genes were shown down-regulation in gills and hemocytes, respectively. Among the differentially expressed transcripts, considerably higher numbers of ESTs were represented as either hypothetical (unknown) proteins or no GenBank match suggesting those may be novel genes associated with internal defense of abalone.

  4. 75 FR 29316 - Marine Mammals; File No. 13599


    ... sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) and white abalone (Haliotis sorenseni). The permit holder is requesting... oxyrinchus desotoi) sturgeon, totoaba (Totoaba macdonaldi), and black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii)....




    Full Text Available n the process of teaching and learning of physics, are referenced various scenarios in which interaction takes place between actors involved in this process. One of the main sites is the laboratory, this has been vital throughout scientific history. At present, teaching based on a traditional method does not provide the possibility of achieving the many targets proposed in the various strata, in part by the rise of technological innovation and ease for students to access information various electronic media, which leads to a possible lack of interest against the kind of traditional view. That is why this paper presents a discussion about the value of the use of laboratory space and highlights the importance of this in the development of physics classes and still more in the development of physical-mathematical thinking of students. Because the manner in which these spaces are often used in a way limited progress in the development of certain skills such as analysis, argumentation, and the apprehension of the physical concepts involved in experimentation. Finally we will introduce a series of ideas which claim to be a possible solution to the limitations of traditional laboratory sessions.

  6. Los intereses etico-politicos en la investigacion. Elementos para una discusion Political interests and ethical issues in graduate education

    Luis Enrique Orozco Silva


    Full Text Available Para hacer ver las limitaciones que tiene el ateoricismo de los procesos de formación de jóvenes investigadores, el autor muestra el estado de la discusión sobre la presencia de los intereses ético-políticos del investigador en su práctica de investigación. Esto con el fin de brindar elementos de juicio para el análisis crítico de los programas de formación de los jóvenes investigadores. Con base en los textos clásicos, el autor analiza las dos grandes tradiciones en materia de concepción del método científico, con énfasis en las ciencias sociales, y sus implicaciones. De modo específico contrasta el punto de vista del racionalismo crítico de K. Popper y la teoría crítica en las obras de J. Habermas. El autor concluye mostrando la necesidad de asumir los interese etico-políticios de la investigación en un dialogo abierto que haga visibles los procesos ideológicos y los intereses políticos que subyacen a la producción de conocimiento.Theoretical knowledge is essential to graduate education. Its absence in graduate school curricula hinders the development of creative minds and thus limits the education of future researchers in the field. Here, the author reviews the importance of ethical and political interests in research and graduate education, based on the fundamental principles underlying the theory of critical rationalism by K. Popper and the work of J. Habermas. This analysis supports the view that ethical and political interests in research should be incorporated into graduate education curricula.

  7. Structural Changes and Rheological Properties of Dry Abalone Meat (Haliotis diversicolor) During the Process of Water Restoration


    Changes in tissue structure, rheological property and water content of dry abalone meat in the process of water restoration were studied. The weight and volume of dry abalone meat increased with water restoration. When observed under a light microscope, structural change in myofibrils was obvious and a distinct network was found. When water restoration time increased from 24h to 72h, the instantaneous modulus E0 and viscosity η1 increased, whereas the rupture strength and relaxation time (τ1) were reduced. There were no significant changes of rheological parameters (E0, η1, τ1, rupture strength) from 72 h to 96 h of water restoration. Therefore, the dry abalone meat was swollen enough at the time of 72 h. The rheological parameters were obviously influenced by the structural changes.

  8. Purification and characterization of perlucin and perlustrin, two new proteins from the shell of the mollusc Haliotis laevigata.

    Weiss, I M; Kaufmann, S; Mann, K; Fritz, M


    Two new proteins, named perlucin and perlustrin, with M(r) 17,000 and 13,000, respectively, were isolated from the shell of the mollusc Halotis laevigata (abalone) by ion-exchange chromatography and reversed-phase HPLC after demineralization of the shell in 10% acetic acid. The sequence of the first 32 amino acids of perlucin indicated that this protein belonged to a heterogeneous group of proteins consisting of a single C-type lectin domain. Perlucin increased the precipitation of CaCO(3) from a saturated solution, indicating that it may promote the nucleation and/or the growth of CaCO(3) crystals. With pancreatic stone protein (lithostathine) and the eggshell protein ovocleidin 17, this is the third C-type lectin domain protein isolated from CaCO(3) biominerals. This indicates that this type of protein performs an important but at present unrecognized function in biomineralization. Perlustrin was a minor component of the protein mixture and the sequence of the first 33 amino acids indicated a certain similarity to part of the much larger nacre protein lustrin A.

  9. Nutrient uptake efficiency of Gracilaria chilensis and Ulva lactuca in an IMTA system with the red abalone Haliotis rufescens

    Juan Macchiavello


    Full Text Available The current study examined the nutrient uptake efficiency of Ulva lactuca and Gracilaria chilensis cultivated in tanks associated with the wastewater of a land-based abalone culture. The experiments evaluated different seaweed stocking densities (1200, 1900, 2600, and 3200 g m-2 and water exchange rates (60, 80, 125, and 250 L h-1. The results show that both U. lactuca and G. chilensis were efficient in capturing and removing all of the inorganic nutrients originating from the abalone cultivation for all of the tested conditions. Furthermore, an annual experiment was performed with U. lactuca, cultivated at a stocking density of 1900 g m-2 and at a water exchanged rate of 125 L h-1, in order to evaluate seasonal changes in the nutrient uptake efficiency, productivity, and growth rate associated with the wastewater of a land-based abalone culture. The results confirmed high uptake efficiency during the entire year, equivalent to a 100% removal of the NH4, NO3, and PO4 produced by the land-based abalone culture. The growth rate and productivity of U. lactuca presented a marked seasonality, increasing from fall until summer and varying from 0.5 ± 0.2% to 2.6 ± 0.2% d-1 and 10 ± 6.1% to 73.6 ± 8.4% g m-2 d-1 for sustainable growth rate and productivity, respectively. We conclude that there is sufficient evidence that demonstrates the high possibility of changing the traditional monoculture system of abalone in Chile, to a sustainable integrated multi-trophic aquaculture system, generating positive environmental externalities, including the use of U. lactuca as a biofiltration unit.

  10. Marine Lectins DlFBL and HddSBL Fused with Soluble Coxsackie-Adenovirus Receptor Facilitate Adenovirus Infection in Cancer Cells BUT Have Different Effects on Cell Survival

    Wu, Bingbing; Mei, Shengsheng; Cui, Lianzhen; Zhao, Zhenzhen; Chen, Jianhong; Wu, Tao; Li, Gongchu


    Cancer development and progression are usually associated with glycosylation change, providing prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers, as well as therapeutic targets, for various cancers. In this work, Dicentrarchus labrax fucose binding lectin (DlFBL) and Haliotis discus discus sialic acid binding lectin (HddSBL) were genetically fused with soluble coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (sCAR), and produced through a bacterial expression system. Results showed that recombinant sCAR-DlFBL not only facilitated adenovirus Ad-EGFP infection in K562/ADR and U87MG cells, but also enhanced the cytotoxicity of adenovirus harboring gene encoding Pinellia pedatisecta agglutinin (PPA) or DlFBL (Ad-PPA or Ad-DlFBL) on U87MG cells through inducing apoptosis. Recombinant sCAR-HddSBL facilitated Ad-EGFP infection, but dramatically counteracted the cytotoxicity of both Ad-PPA and Ad-DlFBL in U87MG cells. Further analysis revealed that sCAR-HddSBL, but not sCAR-DlFBL, significantly upregulated transcription factor E2F1 levels in U87MG cells, which might be responsible for the adverse effect of sCAR-HddSBL on Ad-PPA and Ad-DlFBL. Taken together, our data suggested that sCAR-DlFBL could be further developed to redirect therapeutic adenoviruses to infect cancer cells such as U87MG, and the sCAR-lectin fusion proteins for adenoviral retargeting should be carefully examined for possible survival signaling induced by lectins, such as HddSBL. PMID:28335432

  11. First molluscan transcription factor activator protein-1 (Ap-1) member from disk abalone and its expression profiling against immune challenge and tissue injury.

    De Zoysa, Mahanama; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Lee, Youngdeuk; Lee, Sukkyoung; Oh, Chulhong; Whang, Ilson; Yeo, Sang-Yeop; Choi, Cheol Young; Lee, Jehee


    The regulation of transcriptional activation is an essential and critical point in gene expression. In this study, we describe a novel transcription factor activator protein-1 (Ap-1) gene from disk abalone Haliotis discus discus (AbAp-1) for the first time in mollusk. It was identified by homology screening of an abalone normalized cDNA library. The cloned AbAp-1 consists of a 945 bp coding region that encodes a putative protein containing 315 amino acids. The AbAp-1 gene is composed of a characteristic Jun transcription factor domain and a highly conserved basic leucine zipper (bZIP) signature similar to known Ap-1 genes. The AbAp-1 shares 46, 43 and, 40% amino acid identities with fish (Takifugu rubripes), human and insect (Ixodes scapularis) Ap-1, respectively. Quantitative real time RT-PCR analysis confirmed that AbAp-1 gene expression is constitutive in all selected tissues. AbAp-1 was upregulated in gills after bacteria (Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahemolyticus and Lysteria monocytogenes) challenge; and, upregulated in hemocytes and gills by viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) challenge. Shell damage and tissue injury also increased the transcriptional level of Ap-1 in mantle together with other transcription factors (NF-kB, LITAF) and pro-inflammatory TNF-α. All results considered, identification and gene expression data demonstrate that abalone Ap-1 is an important regulator in innate immune response against bacteria and virus, as well as in the inflammatory response during tissue injury. In addition, stimulation of Ap-1 under different external stimuli could be useful to understand the Ap-1 biology and its downstream target genes, especially in abalone-like mollusks.

  12. Characterization and expression analysis of EF hand domain-containing calcium-regulatory gene from disk abalone: calcium homeostasis and its role in immunity.

    Nikapitiya, Chamilani; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Whang, Ilson; Kim, Se-Jae; Choi, Cheol Young; Lee, Jae-Seong; Lee, Jehee


    The complete amino acid sequence of a calcium-regulatory gene (denoted as Ab-CaReg I) was identified from the disk abalone Haliotis discus discus cDNA library. The Ab-CaReg I is composed of 176 amino acids and the calculated molecular mass and isoelectric point were 20 and 4.2, respectively. The sequence homology of Ab-CaReg I was 28-30 and 18-27% of known calmodulin and troponin C, respectively. Four characteristic calcium-binding EF hand motifs with some modifications at conserved positions of known homologous calmodulin genes were observed in the sequence. The tissue-specific transcription analysis and variation of mRNA transcription level of Ab-CaReg I in gills and mantle after animals were immersed in seawater containing 2000 ppm CaCl(2) was quantified by SYBR Green real-time PCR analysis. Transcription variation of Ab-CaReg I in hemocytes and gills followed by bacteria challenge (Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Listeria monocytogenes) was used to investigate Ab-CaReg I in immune responses. Transcripts of Ab-CaReg I mRNA were mainly detected in hemocytes, mantle, muscle, gills, digestive tract and hepatopancreas with highest expression in hemocytes. The CaCl(2) immersion significantly altered the Ab-CaReg I mRNA transcription level by 3 h, compared to animals in normal seawater (control). The mRNA expression of Ab-CaReg I in gills and hemocytes was upregulated significantly to 11-fold and 4-fold in 3 h compared to control (uninfected), respectively, in bacteria-challenged abalones. The results suggest that Ab-CaReg I could be effectively induced to maintain internal Ca(2+) homeostasis of the animal due to influx of Ca(2+) in the cells by external stimuli such as a high dose of Ca(2+) and pathogens like bacteria.

  13. Rheological Properties and Structural Changes in Different Sections of Boiled Abalone Meat

    GAO Xin; TANG Zhixu; ZHANG Zhaohui; Ogawa Hiroo


    Changes in tissue structures, rheological properties of cross- and vertical section boiled abalone meat were studied in relation to boiling time. The adductor muscle of abalone Haliotis discus which was removed from the shell, was boiled for 1, 2, and 3 h, respectively. Then it was cut up and separated into cross- and vertical section meat. When observed by a light microscope and a scanning electron microscope, structural changes in the myofibrils were greatest in the cross section meat compared with the vertical section meat. When boiling time was increased from 1 h to 3 h, the instantaneous modulus E0 and rupture strength of both section meat decreased gradually with increased boiling time, and no significant differences were observed between these two section meat for the same boiling time. When boiled for 1 h, the relaxation time of cross section meat was much longer than that of vertical section meat. There were no significant changes in the relaxation time of vertical section for different boiling time, but the relaxation time of cross section meat was reduced gradually with increasing boiling time. These results confirmed that the difference in rheological properties between the cross- and vertical section meat was mainly due to the denaturation level of myofibrils when heated for 1 h, as well as due to the changes in the amount of denatured proteins, and the manner in which the inner denatured protein components weve exchanged after boiling time was increased from 1 h to 3 h.

  14. 牙槽嵴裂植骨失败因素的探讨%Discusion of the influence factors of the failure of alveolar cleft bone graft

    柳新华; 张新华; 侯春林; 侯伟; 马雪芳


    目的:探讨可能的导致牙槽嵴裂植骨失败的有关因素.方法:对217例病例进行临床研究,分析植骨年龄、裂隙类型以及操作方式与植骨手术成功的关系.结果:大龄患者植骨失败率显著高于9~11岁患者,双侧牙槽嵴裂失败率高于单侧,单侧完全性裂失败率高于不完全性裂和隐裂.结论:植骨年龄、裂隙类型以及操作方式是影响植骨手术成功与否的几个关键因素.双侧裂隙软组织严重缺乏者,可考虑先行一侧牙槽嵴裂骨移植术,待植入骨生长稳定后,再行另一侧植骨,手术操作动作须熟练、力度要准确,无张力严密缝合,减少手术创伤、植骨量要适度.%Objective To explore the factors whith influence the results of alveolar clefe bone graft. Methods 217 patients with alveolar cleft were discussed.we analysis the relationship between the patients' age,clinical classification and operation mode. Results Older patients bone graft failure rate was significantly higher than 9 to 11 patients, bilateral alveolar cleft bone graft! failure rate was higher than unilateral,unilateral complete cleft bone graft failure rate was higher than the incomplete and submucosal cleft. Conclusion The patients'age.clinical classification and operation mode are the key factors in the alveolar cleft bone grafting.If the bilateral alveolar cleft patients'soft tissue are lack seriously.we may be operate one side.During operation.surgical operation action must be skilled.the force should be accurate, suture should be not only no tension but also strict.surgical trauma should be reduced, the bone mass should be modest.

  15. Exploration on the Effectiveness of English Class Discus-sion%英语课堂讨论有效性探究



    课堂讨论是指在教师的指导下,学生经过独立思考和教师、学生相互进行知识讨论与交流,以此达到掌握知识,活跃思想,加深理解,提高能力的一种学习方法。课堂讨论是新的课程标准所提倡的一种学习方式,是老师们乐于采用的教学方法之一。然而,在平时的课堂教学中发现,课堂讨论多数流于形式,经常会出现讨论混乱的局面,无法达到既定的讨论效果。因此,课堂讨论的有效性亟待加强。%Class discussion is a learning method in which stu-dents, under the guidance of the teacher and through indepen-dent thinking, discuss and exchange knowledge with the teacher and students, so as to master knowledge, activate thinking, deep-en understanding and improve ability. Class discussion is a way of learning advocated by the new curriculum standard, as well as a teaching method teachers are willing to take. However, it is found in regular classroom teaching that class discussion is gen-erally a mere formality and tends to cause chaos in class, failing to achieve the desired effect. Therefore, it is imperative to im-prove the effectiveness of class discussion.

  16. Core structure of aligned chitin fibers within the interlamellar framework extracted from Haliotis rufescens nacre. Part I: Implications for growth and mechanical response

    Lubarda Vlado A.


    Full Text Available By means of consecutive alkaline and proteolytic treatments of the organic framework’s interlamellar layers extracted from the nacre of H. rufescens, we have exposed a core of aligned parallel chitin fibers. Our findings both verify basic elements of the interlamellar layer structural model of Levi-Kalisman et al. (2001 and extend the more detailed model of Bezares et al. (2008, 2010. We observe via SEM imaging of square millimeter sized samples, which include numerous interlamellar layers and micron sized, yet nanocrystalline, CaCO3 tiles whose native orientation within the shell was first documented, that the chitin fibers in all layers are aligned normal to the growth direction of the shell. Similar alignment has been suggested in the literature for two other classes of mollusks, viz. N. rupertus and P. martensii (Weiner and Traub, 1983; Wada, 1958, suggesting that this may be a more general motif. We find that in order to expose the chitin core it is necessary to first remove protein by an alkaline treatment followed by enzymatic digestion with proteinase-K. We also observe what appear to be the points of traversal of the exposed chitin core by mineral bridges. The implications of these findings touch directly and most specifically upon the expected mechanical properties of organic framework layers such as stiffness and relaxation time constants, viz. they should be planeorthotropic. Single interlamellar layers extracted from nacre should, by implication, also exhibit an orthotropic stiffness. These novel findings provide the structural picture required for a complete anisotropic, time dependent, constitutive description of nacre long thought to be a paradigm of structural optimization. Such a model is briefly described herein and is developed, in full, in Part II of this series.

  17. Impact of post-rigor high pressure processing on the physicochemical and microbial shelf-life of cultured red abalone (Haliotis rufescens).

    Hughes, Brianna H; Perkins, L Brian; Yang, Tom C; Skonberg, Denise I


    High pressure processing (HPP) of post-rigor abalone at 300MPa for 10min extended the refrigerated shelf-life to four times that of unprocessed controls. Shucked abalone meats were processed at 100 or 300MPa for 5 or 10min, and stored at 2°C for 35days. Treatments were analyzed for aerobic plate count (APC), total volatile base nitrogen (TVBN), K-value, biogenic amines, color, and texture. APC did not exceed 10(6) and TVBN levels remained below 35mg/100g for 35days for the 300MPa treatments. No biogenic amines were detected in the 300MPa treatments, but putrescine and cadaverine were detected in the control and 100MPa treatments. Color and texture were not affected by HPP or storage time. These results indicate that post-rigor processing at 300MPa for 10min can significantly increase refrigerated shelf-life of abalone without affecting chemical or physical quality characteristics important to consumers.


    I Nyoman Adiasmara Giri


    Full Text Available Abalone is a herbivore marine animal which feeds on seaweed. Abalone culture has a good prospect in terms of price, market share and simple culture technique. Thus, a study was conducted with the aim of finding out an effective and efficient abalone culture technique in terms of feed use and density. In this study, a 42 cm diameter plastic container with a 22 cm height was used. Three vertically arranged containers were used as the experimental group which were put into a net box and hung onto a raft so that the containers were placed in a 4 m depth below the sea surface. The juvenile of abalones being used came from a hatchery production that has been adapted to cages environment with Gracilaria sp. and Ulva sp. feed. The initial density of abalones was 450 for each container, with the initial weight of 2.6-3.2 g and the 2.5-2.7 cm shell lengths. The abalones were fed with Gracilaria sp. and Ulva sp. seaweeds with different Gracilaria sp./Ulva sp. proportions, i.e. 100/0% (A; 80/20% (B; and 60/40% (C as the treatments. Each treatment consisted of two replications. After three months of rearing period, densities of abalones were reduced to be 190 for each experimental unit. Weight and shell length of abalones were measured every month by measuring 25 abalone samples from each experimental unit. The result of the experiment showed that the increase in the Ulva sp. proportion in the feed increased the growth of abalones and decreased the feed conversion. Feeding with Gracilaria sp./Ulva sp. proportion of 60%/40% allowed the best growth of abalones. The decrease of abalone density in the experimental unit after three months of rearing also produced an increase in their growth.


    黎中宝; Appleyard Sharon A.; Elliott Nicholas G.


    采用基因测序的方法,对我国海南产的羊鲍和耳鲍两个自然种群的CO Ⅰ和CO Ⅱ基因片段进行了PCR扩增和测序.结果表明,羊鲍和耳鲍CO Ⅰ基因片段的核苷酸序列均为193bp,4种碱基组成非常相似,且其A+T的含量也非常相似,分别为45.08%和45.60%.羊鲍和耳鲍CO Ⅰ基因片段的核苷酸序列之间有29bp的差异,其中有8处发生碱基颠换,21处发生碱基转换,差异为15.03%,同源性为84.97%;羊鲍和耳鲍CO Ⅱ基因片段的核苷酸序列均为157bp,羊鲍和耳鲍4种碱基组成差异较大,且其A+T的含量也不同,分别为59.24%和55.41%.羊鲍和耳鲍CO Ⅱ基因片段的核苷酸序列之间有19bp的差异,其中3处发生碱基颠换,16处发生碱基转换,达到12.10%的差异,同源性为87.90%.分子变异分析表明羊鲍和耳鲍物种间的变异组成为0.50,变异百分数为100.00,羊鲍和耳鲍物种间的遗传分化显著(Fsr=1,P<0.001).

  20. Discusion crítica sobre valoración y revelación contable de “los derechos de traspaso” de los jugadores profesionales en las S.A.D. clubes de futbol

    Martín Lozano, Francisco Javier


    Hemos llevado a cabo un trabajo de investigación cualitativa consistente, en primer lugar, en un Estudio de Caso descriptivo y, en segundo lugar, en la realización de unas Entrevistas con profesionales del mundo de la Contabilidad de las S.A.D./clubes de fútbol. Con el estudio de caso, mediante un estudio previo documental y de datos e información obtenidos de Cuentas Anuales públicas y de otros informes privados facilitados por la entidad seleccionada, tratamos de evidenciar en un escenario ...

  1. Vinculos Entre la Capacitacion de Docentes y el Desarrollo de Materiales Educativos Impresos--Anotaciones para Una Discusion (Links between In-service Teacher Training and the Development of Printed Educational Aids).

    Valle, Victor M.

    Textbooks and other printed materials will be ever present, in the foreseeable future, as major aids for teaching and learning processes. New textbooks imply new guidelines for teachers, and the ways to handle such guidelines demand teacher training. This paper explains some links between inservice teacher training programs and the development of…


    Oyague-Passuni, Eduardo; Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (Perú).


    En este documento se discute sobre el número apropiado de Unidades Muestrales y el Tamaño Mínimo de Unidad Muestral (TUM) recomendable, para la estimación más precisa posible de un valor referencial de la densidad de macroinvertebrados bentónicos. El enfoque del análisis está referido a secciones con parámetros homogéneos en cuanto a fisiografía y características generales de hábitat, en ambientes lóticos en selva de montaña. Se analizaron datos provenientes de un muestreo intensivo mediante ...

  3. 颈椎前路手术治疗颈椎间盘突出症%Anterior-way operation cutting off the discus intervertebralis to treat the disk protruion disease of the Vertebrae cervicales

    杨东尉; 赵俊峰; 张开放; 刘凯



  4. Palmeras y aves de paso: !que tipo de relacion deberia existir entre la ciencia y el Estado? Las siguientes paginas abren la discusion analizando modelos que han rendido frutos en otros paises

    Castanos, Heriberta; Lomnitz, Cinna


    ... de muchas academias actuales, sin exceptuar la nuestra, la Royal Society era y sigue siendo subvencionada por el gobierno. La Academie des Sciences de Francia fue fundada en 1666 por Jean-Baptiste Colbert, ministro del rey Luis XIV. Tuvo grandes glorias y las sigue teniendo. La Academia de Ciencias de Berlin (antes de Prusia) fue fundada en 1700 por un ...

  5. 长距离小断面引水隧洞涌水及渗水处理方案探讨%Long Distance and Small Section of Diversion Tunnel in Gushing and Seepage Treatment Discusion

    张健; 刘海真


    DaShanShao tunnel length is 8 641m in length, and the maximum excavation section is 4.2 m ×4.943 m.The whole tunnel is located below the water table , and karst and fissure is developing .Aiming to long axis , and small section of the tunnel , and the emergence of a number of water gushing and multi section water seepage in excavation , a series of systems engineering treat-ment measures have been taken , which effectively solves the influences of gushing water and seepage of excavation on construction of lining concrete quality , as well as provides rich experience for similar project construction.%大山哨隧洞全长8641 m,最大开挖断面仅为4.4 m ×5.243 m,整条隧洞均位于地下水位以下,岩溶和裂隙较发育。针对该隧洞轴线长、断面小特点,以及在开挖中出现多处涌水和多段渗水情况,通过采取一系列系统的工程处理措施,有效解决涌水和渗水对施工开挖和混凝土衬砌质量的影响,为同类工程施工积累了丰富的经验。

  6. 烟台港商品车物流发展趋势探究%A Discusion on the Development Trend of Commodity Car’s Logistics in Yantai Port



    商品车物流是商品车销售的一个重要环节。港口有必要凭借其独特的区位优势和基础设施优势,逐渐向综合汽车物流中心的方向发展。介绍了物流的现状和特点。分析了烟台港商品车物流的现状和发展前景。对烟台港发展商品车滚装运输提出了一些建议。%The commodity car’s logistics is an important link in the commodity car’s sale. It is necessary for port to develop towards comprehensive car’s logistics centre relying on its special regional advantage and infrastructure advantage. This paper introduces the status and characteristics of the commodity car’s logistics, analyzes the status and developing prospect of the commodity car’s logistics in Yantai Port. Then it puts forward a few suggestions for developing roll-in and roll-out transportation of commodity car.

  7. On the Prop Skill of left Foot in the Last Effort While Throwing Discus%试析铁饼最后用力左侧支撑技术

    冀鹏; 梁东旭



  8. Intermediate Access Switch: A Multiprocessor Application,


    package of trans- lator programs, known as the System Generator , a pre-pass program goes through the source file and converts the special use the DISCUS system generator [1] to produce a load- able DISCUS function, the following information must be prepared: (a) The code for the main...together by means of the DISCUS system generator [ ]. No more will be said about the system generator here, but it should be noted that usually the entire

  9. 76 FR 80890 - Endangered Species; File Nos. 13599 and 1614


    ... oxyrinchus desotoi) sturgeon, black (Haliotis cracherodii) and white (Haliotis sorenseni) abalone, chinook... transport 100 dead shortnose sturgeon, or parts thereof, annually. Researchers are also authorized the receipt and transport of up to 350 captive bred, dead shortnose sturgeon annually from any U.S....

  10. Studies on the Antibiotic Susceptibility of Pathogens Caused Massive Death of Post Larvae of Abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta)%南方九孔鲍鲍苗掉板病原菌的药敏测定

    王志; 蔡俊鹏; 杨洪志; 徐丽


    为提高鲍鱼培苗的成活率,对分离自广东汕尾一养殖场鲍苗掉板池中(包括水、藻膜和变白鲍苗)的、经回归感染试验证明为致病菌的菌株进行了鉴定和药物敏感性测定.API鉴定表明,这些致病菌株由Vibrio alginolyticus,Vibrio cholerae,Vibrio parahaemolyticus等组成,其中弧菌17株,约占总分离菌株的50%,而溶藻弧菌则为弧菌的优势菌株,有11株,约占弧菌总数的70%.药敏结果显示,绝大多数菌株对链霉素、红霉素和庆大霉素敏感;相反,四环素和新生霉素则对它们没有作用或不敏感.

  11. 九孔鲍养殖水体及消化道细菌学的研究%Bacteriological Studies in a Digestive Tract of Abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta) and in the Waters

    蔡创华; 周毅频; 蔡俊鹏; 杨洪志


    2002年对汕尾健生鲍鱼养殖场养殖水体和鲍消化道中异养细菌及弧菌的数量和类群组成进行了研究.研究结果表明:养殖水体中异养细菌数量的四季变化从2.4×104~1.3×l05 cfu/ml,平均为7.6×104 cfu/ml;消化道中异养细菌数量四季变化则从1.6×107~5.4×107 cfu/g(湿重),平均为3.3×107 cfu/g.水体中弧菌数量四季变化从1.2×104~5.1×104 cfu/ml,平均为2.5×104 cfu/ml;而消化道中弧菌数量四季变化则从2.8×105~3.8×105 cfu/g,平均为3.2×105cfu/g.水体中细菌类群由Sphingomonas, Vibrio, Pasteurella, Moraxella, Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, Flavobacterium, Klebsiella, Weeksella和Alcall组成,消化道中细菌类群由Sphingomonas, Vibrio, Aeromonas, Flavobacterium, Shewanella, Sphingobacterium, Pseudomonas组成,水体和消化道弧菌种类主要为Vibrio fluvialis,Vibrio parahaemolyticus,Vibrio vulnificus,Vibrio cholerae,Vibrio minicus,Vibrio alginolyticus.并对不同养殖场水源弧菌数量也进行了比较.

  12. Vlastní analýza dvouletého tréninkového zatížení v hodu diskem se srovnáním s tréninkovým zatížením diskaře Gejzy Valenta

    Žitný, David


    Own analysis of two-year training load in throwing the discus in comparison with the training load of the discus-thrower Gejza Valent Goal Own analysis of two-year training load and its comparison with the training load of the discus-thrower ofinternationa! standing. Method The analysis of persona! training documentation. Quantitative comparison through the use of sum transfer of general training indices (GTI) and special training indices (STI). Comparison of selected training indices with th...

  13. El papel de la prensa en el debate acerca de la reglamentacion sobre biotecnologia en Brasil: ?seguridad de los transgenicos o de las celulas madre embrionarias?

    de Freitas Castro Fonseca, Paulo


    .... Activistas opositores a la liberacion de los transgenicos argumentaron que la discusion y reglamentacion conjunta de la biotecnologia agricola y terapeutica habia desviado la atencion de la opinion...

  14. Discussion on the parameters and events of interest for the projections (Chapter 5 in 'A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico'); Discusion de los parametros y eventos de interes para las proyecciones (Capitulo 5 en 'Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico')

    Mulas del Pozo, Pablo [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)


    In this chapter it is described how it was decided to analyze the problems to 25 years. Considering that the Secretaria de Energia (SENER) through the Secretaria de Palaeocene y Desarrollo Tecnologico makes an annual exercise of the prospective to ten years for the electrical sector, the natural gas sector and the oil derivatives sector, with the last one publishing the 2004-2013 period, it was decided that the projections for year 2013 were taken as facts and that the exercise to develop a vision be limited to the 2014 - 2030 period. The assumptions used to make the numerical simulations with the LEAP system are detailed in Annex 10, with the information gathered by the approach group on the parameters to be used in this task, as well as in Annex 14, that contains the specific information used together with the results obtained in the period the 2004-2013 and in the second period of 2014-2030. [Spanish] En este capitulo se describe como se decidio analizar la problematica a 25 anos. Considerando que la Secretaria de Energia (SENER) a traves de la Subsecretaria de Planeacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico realiza un ejercicio anual de prospectiva a diez anos para el sector electrico, el sector de gas natural y el sector de petroliferos, siendo el ultimo publicado el 2004-2013, se decidio que las proyecciones al 2013 se tomaran como hechos y que el ejercicio para desarrollar una vision se concretara al periodo del 2014 al 2030. Los supuestos utilizados para realizar las simulaciones numericas con el sistema LEAP se detallan tanto en el anexo 10 con la informacion recabada del grupo de enfoque sobre los parametros a usarse en esta tarea, como en el anexo 14 que contiene la informacion especifica utilizada asi como los resultados obtenidos en los periodos 2004-2013 y el segundo periodo del 2014-2030.

  15. Characteristics of Neuromuscular Coordination Ability in Elite Women Athletes of Discus Throwing Based on Bernstein's Theoretical Perspectives of Motor Coordination%基于Bernstein运动协调观的优秀女子铁饼运动员“神经-肌肉”协调能力特征研究

    林辉杰; 严波涛; 许崇高



  16. Biomechanics Analysis on the Sports Injury of the Knee Joint at Stage of High Rising Transition of Male Discus Athletes%男子铁饼运动员腾空过渡阶段膝关节运动损伤的生物力学分析

    李元敬; 陈军; 徐伟龙



  17. The Future of Urban Ecology

    Elle, Morten


    This article is discusing the basic conditions for a positive development of urban ecology in Denmark. A number of battles has to be won.......This article is discusing the basic conditions for a positive development of urban ecology in Denmark. A number of battles has to be won....

  18. The Future of Urban Ecology

    Elle, Morten


    This article is discusing the basic conditions for a positive development of urban ecology in Denmark. A number of battles has to be won.......This article is discusing the basic conditions for a positive development of urban ecology in Denmark. A number of battles has to be won....

  19. Urban Sources of Air Pollution

    Sorenson, Spencer C.


    A discusion of the relative importance of different mobile sources, effects of driving on emissions, history of emissions standards, and technological methods to reduce emissions.......A discusion of the relative importance of different mobile sources, effects of driving on emissions, history of emissions standards, and technological methods to reduce emissions....

  20. 九孔鲍养殖中的脓疱病病因分析和药物敏感性研究%Analysis of impetigo occurred to small abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta cultured in Fujian and its sensibility to drugs



    在福建沿海养殖的九孔鲍不论是成鲍还是幼鲍均经常发生脓疱病,死亡率可达50%~60%,其症状与皱纹盘鲍脓疱病相似,但对药物的敏感性却不同.研究发现:导致福建省的九孔鲍发生脓疱病的主要致病菌为溶藻弧菌(Vibrio alginolyticus)而非河流弧菌(V.fluvialis).其对多数药物不敏感,在43种抗菌药物中只对呋喃妥因、氯霉素、痢特灵等中度敏感,而对青霉素、复方新诺明和头孢类药物则完全不敏感.由于上述药物已被列为禁用渔药而不宜使用,故生产中应以新研制的无公害防治药物替代.

  1. Igualdad, sustentabilidad y ciudadania ecologica

    Maiz, Ramon


    Frente a la tradicional discusion contemporanea en mesas separadas de la teoria politica verde y las teorias de la igualdad, se propone aqui una lectura igualitarista del principio de sustentabilidad...

  2. Study on the interaction between the food and beverage servicescape and customer waiting experience

    Yang, Chih-Yun


    .... Very few studies conducted in-depth analysis and discus¬sion of how external environmental factors affect the experience of customer waiting, which it was also viewed as a negative factor that decreases customer satisfaction toward service...

  3. Students' classroom emotions: socio-cognitive antecedents and school performance/Emociones de los alumnos en la clase escolar: antecedentes socio-cognitivos y rendimiento escolar

    Stephanou, Georgia


    Discusion y conclusiones. El presente trabajo muestra la importancia del papel de las emociones relacionadas con la vida de los alumnos, la interaccion de estos con el concepto de si mismos, de los docentes y de los...

  4. Sistemas de gestion de la innovacion estandarizados: un estudio de caso sobre la norma espanola UNE 166002:2006

    Mir, Moises; Casadesus, Marti


    .... El documento concluye con una discusion sobre la conveniencia y viabilidad de crear un estandar internacional de gestion de la innovacion y la aparicion de una nueva generacion de procesos de gestion...

  5. Actividad antiinflamatoria de extractos y fracciones de Myrcianthes leucoxila, Calea prunifolia, Curatella americana y Physalis peruviana en los modelos edema auricular por TPA, edema plantar por carragenina y artritis inducida por colageno

    Gonzalez Guevara, Maria Cristina; Ospina Giraldo, Luis Fernando; Rincon Velandia, Javier


    ... de sustancias en modelos in vivo. Discusion. La actividad antiinflamatoria en el modelo de inflamacion aguda edema auricular por TPA para los extractos y fracciones de CP, CA y ML se puede relacionar con la afectacion de mediadores relacionados...

  6. Some Issues on Management Information System Course Teaching

    Chen, Dingquan


    This paper discuses the following issues about Management Information System course for the major of information management & Information System: Teaching Object, the difference between Information System Analysis and Design course, teaching content, and experiment plan.

  7. Marco analitico de la competitividad: fundamentos para el estudio de la competitividad regional

    Lombana, Jahir; Rozas Gutierrez, Silvia


    El proposito de este documento es presentar una discusion teorica de la competitividad como punto de entrada a posteriores estudios empiricos dentro de la Escuela de Negocios de la Universidad del Norte...

  8. Motivational, volitional and metacognitive aspects of self regulated learning/Aspectos motivacionales, volitivos y metacognitivos del aprendizaje autorregulado

    Gaeta, Martha Leticia; Teruel, M. Pilar; Orejudo, Santos


    Discusion y conclusiones. Este estudio mostro la importancia de la percepcion que los estudiantes tienen de la estructura de metas de aula, a fin de involucrarse en su propio aprendizaje y la posibilidad de aumentar el uso...

  9. Un codigo urgente para la arquitectura y la vivienda en Bogota

    Anzellini Fajardo, Stefano


    .... A continuacion se exponen los temas de discusion en cuanto a, por un lado, cual es la pertinencia y la funcion de un codigo "sostenible", como se inserta en el proceso de produccion del entorno...

  10. Effect of indirect teacher influence on dependent-prone students' learning outcomes in secondary school mathematics/ Incidencia de influencias directas e indirectas del profesor en los resultados de aprendizaje en matematicas de secundaria en alumnos con tendencia a la dependencia

    Adegoke, Benson Adesina


    Discusion y Conclusion. Los resultados de este estudio senalan que los resultados de los estudiantes dependientes, propensos a aprender en las materias escolares altamente estructuradas, tales como las matematicas se puede...

  11. Climate Change: Good for Us?

    Oblak, Jackie


    Presents an activity with the objective of encouraging students to think about the effects of climate change. Explains background information on dependence to climate and discuses whether climate change is important. Provides information for the activity, extensions, and evaluation. (YDS)

  12. Direct and Representative Democracy - Supplementing, not Excluding Each Other

    Svensson, Palle


      This paper presents and discuses four main arguments for and against direct democracy, popular initiatives and referendums: (1) higher responsiveness versus lesser quality; (2) higher popular responsibility versus weaker representatives; (3) higher popular participation versus deeper conflicts...

  13. Are demand forecasting techniques applicable to libraries?


    Examines the nature and limitations of demand forecasting, discuses plausible methods of forecasting demand for information, suggests some useful hints for demand forecasting and concludes by emphasizing unified approach to demand forecasting.

  14. Development and Research on All-solid-state Intracavity Sum-frequency laser

    GAOLan-lan; TANHui-ming


    Generation of intracavity multi-wavelength and the basic principle of sum-frequency lasers are discused, and the current research status and development of laser diode pumped lasers are introduced in detail.

  15. WEEE-Cleaners Pvt.Ltd

    Agarwal, Umang


    The business plan presented is based on recycling of electronic waste in India. This work explains the Indian e-waste industry and in details discuses a business plan to set up an e-waste recycling plant in India.

  16. Some Issues on Management Information System Course Teaching

    Chen, Dingquan


    This paper discuses the following issues about Management Information System course for the major of information management & Information System: Teaching Object, the difference between Information System Analysis and Design course, teaching content, and experiment plan.

  17. El Estado en la gestion del conflicto: la reforma del proceso penal en Latinoamerica

    Mercado Maldonado, Asael; Benavente Chorres, Hesbert


    ... facultades al juez, pasa al paradigma del sistema de justicia penal como marco de discusion y gestion de un conflicto de intereses surgido a consecuencia de la comision de un delito, donde las partes, como...

  18. De los conceptos de administracion, gobierno, gerencia, gestion y management: algunos elementos de corte epistemologico y aportes para una mayor comprension

    Sanabria R., Mauricio


    ...), algunos elementos basicos para la mejor comprension de los conceptos de administracion, gerencia, gobierno, gestion y management, y de la discusion existente en el campo administrativo y en nuestro...

  19. Is there a relation between mothers' parenting styles and children's trait emotional intelligence?/?Hay relacion entre los estilos educativos de las madres y la inteligencia emocional de los hijos?

    Alegre, Albert


    Discusion y Conclusion. Estos resultados, unidos a la revision de la literatura, sugieren que la inteligencia emocional de rasgo de los ninos esta mas influenciada por estrategias educativas especificamente relacionadas...


    The generation by combustion processes of airborne species of current health concern such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and soot particles necessitates a detailed understanding of chemical reaction pathways responsible for their formation. The present review discus...

  1. Chinese Culture and Leadership.

    Wong, Kam-Cheung


    Describes essential characteristics of Chinese philosophical tradition; Discusses Western perspectives on value leadership in education, particularly moral leadership. Discuses moral leadership from a Chinese philosophical perspective, especially Confucianism. Draws implications for using Chinese cultural and philosophical traditions to develop…

  2. Activities report in nuclear physics

    Jansen, J. F. W.; Scholten, O.


    Experimental studies of giant resonances, nuclear structure, light mass systems, and heavy mass systems are summarized. Theoretical studies of nuclear structure, and dynamics are described. Electroweak interactions; atomic and surface physics; applied nuclear physics; and nuclear medicine are discus

  3. Are demand forecasting techniques applicable to libraries?

    M S Sridhar


    Examines the nature and limitations of demand forecasting, discuses plausible methods of forecasting demand for information, suggests some useful hints for demand forecasting and concludes by emphasizing unified approach to demand forecasting.

  4. Construccion de conocimiento en Latinoamerica: algunas reflexiones desde la auto-etnografia como estrategia de investigacion

    Scribano, Adrian; De Sena, Angelica


    El objetivo de este articulo es plantear algunos desafios epistemicos para la investigacion social en Latinoamerica desde la discusion de la utilidad de la auto-etnografia como una estrategia metodologica...

  5. A choice experiment application to estimate willingness to pay for ...


    Jan 7, 2013 ... public interest issues are (Morrison et al., 1997). These discus- ..... (iii) domestic water quality, (iv) failure in dry seasons, and. (v) irrigation of a kitchen garden ..... P (2001) Using choice experiments for non-market valuation.

  6. An examination of attachment styles and social skills of university students/Un examen de los estilos de apego y habilidades sociales de los estudiantes universitarios

    Dereli, Esra; Karakus, Ozlem


    Discusion y conclusiones. Como resultado de este estudio, una relacion significativa entre los estilos de apego y las habilidades sociales de los estudiantes de la Facultad de Educacion y se determino que los estilos de apego...

  7. Low-carbon Economy and Eco-design of Commodity Packing

    AN Li-li; XUE Qiu


    Research situation of eco-design is analyzed, and then thoughts and methods of eco-design are discused. The eco-design includes packaging modularization, dematerialization, energy-saving and bio-simulation.

  8. A Rhetorical Analysis of Village

    Andersen, Lars Pynt


    The award-winning TV spot Village is a creative example of NGO advertising using condensed visual stprytelling. The spot is analysed using rhetorical concepts and communication theory, and potential effects are discused in relation to contexts, strategy and communication ethics.......The award-winning TV spot Village is a creative example of NGO advertising using condensed visual stprytelling. The spot is analysed using rhetorical concepts and communication theory, and potential effects are discused in relation to contexts, strategy and communication ethics....

  9. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15936-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available ne) Haliotis rufescens lustrin A mRNA,... 38 1.3 CP000282_3860( CP000282 |pid:none) Saccharophagus Zygosaccharomyces rouxii strain ... 38 1.3 AF023459_1( AF023459 |pid:no

  10. On the occurrence of Haliotes pourtalesii Dall, 1881, off Surinam (South America)

    Nijssen-Meyer, J.


    Haliotis pourtalesii Dall, 1881 has so far only been reported from the Gulf of Mexico. The localities are given in fig. 1. The following material has been reported upon in the literature: The holotype (Dall, 1881: 79) was found in: "bed of the Gulf Stream in 200 fathoms, near the Florida reefs". Thi

  11. Dicty_cDB: VSI551 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available EC... 196 1e-48 ( P10791 ) RecName: Full=Superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn]; EC... 196 1e-48 AY736280_1( AY736280 |pid:none) Trematomus ber...nacchii Cu/Zn supero... 195 2e-48 AY449747_1( AY449747 |pid:none) Haliotis diversic

  12. Late 20th Century benthic foraminiferal distribution in Central San Francisco Bay, California: Influence of the Trochammina hadai invasion

    McGann, Mary L.


    The distribution of foraminifera in most of San Francisco Bay is well documented, but this is not the case for the subembayment known as Central Bay. To resolve this, 55 grab samples obtained in 1998 were analyzed to characterize the foraminiferal fauna in the surface sediments of the area. Thirty-five species were identified, including the invasive Japanese species Trochammina hadai that was introduced into the bay in the early 1980s. A cluster analysis of the samples from Central Bay produced three groups (biofacies) and one outlier. The Shallow Subtidal Biofacies is characterized by a marsh to shallow-subtidal agglutinated fauna, dominated by T. hadai but also including T. inflata, T. macrescens, Haplophragmoides subinvolutum, and Miliammina fusca. The Intermediate Subtidal Biofacies, the Intermediate Subtidal Outlier, and the Deep Subtidal Biofacies are dominated by calcareous taxa, most notably Ammonia tepida, Elphidium excavatum, and Elphidiella hannai. Ammonia tepida is most abundant in the warmer, intermediate depths of eastern Central Bay, abundances of E. excavatum peak in the cooler estuarine water near Alcatraz Island, and E. hannai thrives in the cold water west of Angel Island in a transitional setting between the deep subtidal estuarine and the nearshore marine environments. The recovery of oceanic species as far east as Angel Island indicate that western Central Bay is the most marine-influenced region of San Francisco Bay.

  13. Genomic resource development for shellfish of conservation concern.

    Timmins-Schiffman, Emma B; Friedman, Carolyn S; Metzger, Dave C; White, Samuel J; Roberts, Steven B


    Effective conservation of threatened species depends on the ability to assess organism physiology and population demography. To develop genomic resources to better understand the dynamics of two ecologically vulnerable species in the Pacific Northwest of the United States, larval transcriptomes were sequenced for the pinto abalone, Haliotis kamtschatkana kamtschatkana, and the Olympia oyster, Ostrea lurida. Based on comparative species analysis the Ostrea lurida transcriptome (41 136 contigs) is relatively complete. These transcriptomes represent the first significant contribution to genomic resources for both species. Genes are described based on biological function with particular attention to those associated with temperature change, oxidative stress and immune function. In addition, transcriptome-derived genetic markers are provided. Together, these resources provide valuable tools for future studies aimed at conservation of Haliotis kamtschatkana kamtschatkana, Ostrea lurida and related species.

  14. Association of the stramenopilan protists, the aplanochytrids, with zooplankton of the equatorial Indian Ocean

    Damare, V.; Raghukumar, S.

    (Protozoa: Labyrinthomorpha), a parasite of abalone (Haliotis kamtschatkana) (Mollusca: Gastropoda). J Invertebr Pathol. 53: 401-409. • Brown MR (2002) Nutritional value of microalgae for aquculture. In: Cruz-Suárez LE, Ricque-Marie D, Tapia-Salazar M... pitfalls potentially affecting diagnoses in immunohistochemistry. J Clin Pathol. 61: 1184-1192. • Cembella AD, Antia NJ, Harrison PJ (1984) The utilization of inorganic and organic phosphorus compounds as nutrients by eukaryotic microalgae: A...

  15. Expression of biomineralisation genes in tissues and cultured cells of the abalone Haliotistuberculata

    O’Neill, Matthew; Gaume, Béatrice; Denis, Françoise; Auzoux-Bordenave, Stéphanie


    Mollusc shell biomineralisation involves a variety of organic macromolecules (matrix proteins and enzymes) that control calcium carbonate (CaCO3) deposition, growth of crystals, the selection of polymorph, and the microstructure of the shell. Since the mantle and the hemocytes play an important role in the control of shell formation, primary cell cultures have been developed to study the expression of three biomineralisation genes recently identified in the abalone Haliotis tuberculata: a mat...

  16. Management and Risk Assessment of Sabellid Polychaete Infestations in Abalone Mariculture Facilities

    Kuris, Armand M.


    In October 1993, growers at some commercial abalone mariculture facilities (AMFs) in Southern California brought an interesting sabellid polychaete to our attention. The worm infested shells of cultured red abalone, Haliotis rufescens. Heavily infested abalone ceased growth. Their shells exhibited domed teratology often lacking respiratory holes. The worms appeared to bore into the shell. We discovered that all AMFs in California were infested; several were so heavily infest...

  17. Does abalone nacre form by heteroepitaxial nucleation or by growth through mineral bridges?

    Schäffer, Tilman E.; Ionescu-Zanetti, Cristian; Proksch, Roger; Fritz, Monika; Walters, Deron A.; Almqvist, Nils; Zaremba, Charlotte M.; Belcher, Angela M.; Smith, Bettye L.; Stucky, Galen D.; Morse, Daniel E.; Hansma, Paul K.


    We present experimental support for a model of abalone nacre growth that is based on mineral bridges between successive aragonite tablets rather than on heteroepitaxial nucleation. Interlamellar sheets of organic polymers delineate the aragonite tablets but allow the tablets to grow mineral bridges through pores in the sheets. Atomic force microscope images of interlamellar organic sheets from flat pearls made by Haliotis rufescens (red abalone; marine gastropod mollusk) reveal a fibrous core...

  18. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15363-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available -43 EU436091_1( EU436091 |pid:none) Australosepsis niveipennis voucher... 177 4e-43 EF050359_1( EF050359 | Haliotis kamtschatkana isolate H22... 172 1e-41 EU436098_1( EU436098 |pid:none) Dicranosepsis olfactori... 9e-40 AY125267_1( AY125267 |pid:none) Phobaeticus heusii histone 3 gene,... 166 9e-40 EU436102_1( EU436102 |pid:none) Microsepsis

  19. On how to do construction management communications engineering

    Zhang Zhi


    In the communication construction projects, improving the efectivenes of project management is an important part of the quality asurance program. The efectivenes of the communication and construction project management is afected by many factors. Therefore, the discusion of communication construction project management efectivenes is good for improving the quality of projects of great significance. This paper analyzes the characteristics and problems of communication construction projects, reflecting the importance of project management; then discused the factors afecting the efectivenes of project management; finaly targeted to improve the communication of construction project management efectivenes propose specific methods to ensure communication quality of construction projects.

  20. Motivation and reward systems

    van Eerde, W.; Vodosek, M.; den Hartog, D.N.; McNett, J.M.


    Reward systems are identified as one of the human resource management (HRM) practices that may impact motivation. Reward systems may consist of several components, including financial and nonfinancial rewards, in fixed and variable amounts. Reinforcement, expectancy, and equity principles are discus

  1. 06472 Abstracts Collection - XQuery Implementation Paradigms

    Boncz, P.A.; Grust, T.; Siméon, J.; Keulen, M. van


    From 19.11.2006 to 22.11.2006, the Dagstuhl Seminar 06472 "XQuery Implementation Paradigms" was held in the International Conference and Research Center (IBFI), Schloss Dagstuhl. During the seminar, several participants presented their current research, and ongoing work and open problems were discus

  2. Air Quality and Air Pollution Management in Urban Areas in Less Developed Countries

    Madsen, P. V.


    The working group will address the complexity of air pollution management in the growing urban sphere in the less developed countries, and will discus and evaluate how Danish and Scandinavian research institutions, universities and private companies can initiate a more progressive role...... in development aid and capacity development in relation to air pollution. For further information on the actions objective, activities and dissemination plan...

  3. Ethical issues in deep brain stimulation

    M.H.N. Schermer (Maartje)


    textabstractDeep brain stimulation (DBS) is currently used to treat neurological disorders like Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, and dystonia, and is explored as an experimental treatment for psychiatric disorders like major depression and obsessive compulsive disorder. This mini review discus

  4. Wealth, welfare and sustainable growth and development

    Moe, Thorvald


    This Policy Note discuses, based on modern development theory and wealth accounting, challenges for economic- and fiscal policies in resource-producing countries defined as countries - both developed and developing low income countries - which rely heavily on non-renewable or exhaustible natural wealth.(Author)

  5. A systematic review of the cost-effectiveness of worksite physical activity and/or nutrition programs

    Dongen, J.M. van; Proper, K.I.; Wier, M.F. van; Beek, A.J. van der; Bongers, P.M.; Mechelen, W. van; Tulder, M.W. van


    Objective The aim of this study was to appraise and summarize the evidence on the cost-effectiveness of worksite physical activity and/or nutrition programs. Methods We searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, SportDiscus, PsycInfo, NIOSHTIC-2, NHSEED, HTA, and Econlit for studies published up to 14 January 2011.

  6. Physical Activity and Social Support in Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    Mendonça, Gerfeson; Cheng, Luanna Alexandra; Mélo, Edilânea Nunes; de Farias, José Cazuza, Jr.


    The objective of this review was to systematically synthesize the results of original studies on the association between physical activity and social support in adolescents, published until April 2011. Searches were carried out in Adolec, ERIC, Lilacs, Medline, SciELO, Scopus, SportsDiscus and Web of Science electronic databases and the reference…

  7. Library Education and the Practitioner: The Sierra Leone Experience.

    Kargbo, John Abdul


    Examines the past and current educational trends of librarianship in Sierra Leone. Discuses courses offered in the current library school; economic and political issues affecting higher education; the need for full-time faculty; general versus specialized practitioner needs; attitudes of faculty toward working librarians; and professional…

  8. Influencias del contexto en las preferencias academicas de estudiantes universitarios

    Paoloni, Paola Veronica Rita


    .... La discusion enfatiza en la importancia de las representaciones del rol profesional sustentadas por los alumnos y las valoraciones de la autonomia como aspectos personales y contextuales que permiten una mejor comprension de la motivacion academica. Transfer to practice Transfert a la pratique Transferencia a pratica

  9. Representing real time semantics for distributed application integration

    Poon, P.M.S.; Dillon, T.S.; Chang, E.; Feng, L.


    Traditional real time system design and development are driven by technological requirements. With the ever growing complexity of requirements and the advances in software design, the alignment of focus has gradually been shifted to the perspective of business and industrial needs. This paper discus

  10. Planting the SEED : Towards a Spatial Economic Ecological Database for a shared understanding of the Dutch Wadden area

    Daams, Michiel N.; Sijtsma, Frans J.


    In this paper we address the characteristics of a publicly accessible Spatial Economic Ecological Database (SEED) and its ability to support a shared understanding among planners and experts of the economy and ecology of the Dutch Wadden area. Theoretical building blocks for a Wadden SEED are discus

  11. Shortage of donation despite an adequate number of donors : A professional attitude?

    Ploeg, RJ; Niesing, J; Sieber-Rasch, MH; Willems, L; Kranenburg, K


    Background A major problem in the field of transplantation is the persistent shortage of donor organs and tissues for transplantation. This study was initiated to (1) chart the donor potential for organs and tissue in The Netherlands and (2) to identify factors influencing whether donation is discus

  12. Antecedents to strategic flexibility : Management cognition, firm resources and strategic options

    Combe, I.; Rudd, J.M.; Leeflang, P.S.H.; Greenley, G.E.


    Purpose - Current conceptualisations of strategic flexibility and its antecedents are theory-driven, which has resulted in a lack of consensus. To summarise this domain the paper aims to develop and present an a priori conceptual model of the antecedents and outcomes of strategic flexibility. Discus

  13. Effects of the toxicity of mineral oil and solvent emulsifier upon sea fishes

    Mori, Koichiro; Masuda, Nobuto


    The solvent emulsifier does not solely exist in the sea water but in a state necessarily mixed with spilt oil. In the present experiment, therefore, we are going to discuse the effects of toxicity, respectively with fish and with mineral oil, through the observations of the fishes bred in the sea water containing mineral oils and solvent emulsifier.

  14. Facilitators and barriers in the collaboration between the primary care and the sport sector in order to promote physical activity: A systematic literature review

    Leenaars, K.E.; Smit, E.; Wagemakers, A.; Molleman, G.R.; Koelen, M.A.


    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this review was to identify collaborative initiatives between the primary care and the sport sector in order to promote physical activity (PA), and barriers and facilitators in these initiatives. METHOD: Pubmed, SportDiscus, Web of Science, and SOCindex were systematically s

  15. Facilitators and barriers in the collaboration between the primary care and the sport sector in order to promote physical activity: A systematic literature review

    Leenaars, K.E.F.; Smit, E.; Wagemakers, A.; Molleman, G.R.M.; Koelen, M.A.


    Introduction The aim of this review was to identify collaborative initiatives between the primary care and the sport sector in order to promote physical activity (PA), and barriers and facilitators in these initiatives. Method Pubmed, SportDiscus, Web of Science, and SOCindex were systematically sea

  16. Informatics Observed [and] Agenda: A Tool for Agenda Setting Research [and] Telos Language Partner: Multimedia Language Learning, Authoring and Customisation [and] Towards a Consumer Perspective on Information Behaviour Research [and] The Digital Library as Access Management Facilitator [and] Knowledge and Information Management (KIM'21) [and] Perspectives of ICT in Professional Development and Education.

    Cawkell, Tony; Kok, Yeong Haur; Goh, Angela; Holaday, Duncan; Hoffstaedter, Petra; Kohn, Kurt; Rowley, Jennifer; van Halm, Johan; Pye, Jo


    The following collection of articles reprinted from "CD ROM and Online Review" include "a new way of learning." Discuses research and development funding in educational technology and recommends to offer vast sums to investigate the best way of teaching a particular topic, and through that to fund the use of computers as an incidental part of the…




    The embedding of a quantum mechanically described subsystem by classical representations of its surroundings is reviewed. The choices for a distributed monopole representation and a distributed (group) polarizability representation, as well as the continuum approach to model bulk effects, are discus

  18. The Greying Population: A Wasted Human Capital or Just a Social Liability?

    Spiezia, Vincenzo


    Analyzes labor market effects of the aging population, examines projected population and employment trends in Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development countries; effects on savings and productivity; and projections for 2000-2050 in six countries. Discuses national and international policies to increase employment of older adults and…

  19. Defeating the "Hidden Curriculum": Teaching Political Participation in the Social Studies Classroom.

    Martinson, David L.


    Suggests that by taking a realistic approach to the subject matter, social studies teachers can increase their chances of having a positive effect on students. Discuses how to make the subject matter relevant and considers the role of the mass media. (SG)

  20. Complications of the Carotid Endarterectomy

    Hafize Yaliniz


    Full Text Available Postoperative complications of the carotid endarterectomy; hypertention and hypotention, cervical hematoma, wound infection, and false aneurysm, cranial nerve dysfonctions, carotid thrombosis, recurrent stenosis and operative strok are discused. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(3.000: 166-176

  1. Audience

    Schrøder, Kim Christian; Gulbrandsen, Ib Tunby


    The entry defines audiences in a digital, mediatized society as the people who, in their capacity of social actors, are attending to, negotiating the meaning of, and sometimes participating in the multimodal processes initiated or carried by institutional media. The first part of the entry discus...

  2. Identification of a supplier network through Quality Function Deployment

    Kristensen, Preben Sander; Holmen, Elsebeth


    During 1993-94 the authors followed a product development process in a Danish Butter Cookie company. The process was structured according to the Quality Function Deployment technique House of Quality. Customer attributes were derived from a discus a diabetics end-user focus group. During a series...

  3. Short Cuts: A Model of Using the Shortest Stories To Teach Second Language Reading Skill.

    Goetz, Lily Anne


    Discuses the use of micro stories--shorter short stories--in the Spanish language classroom. Highlights the use of one micro story--Monterrosos'"El dinasauro"--as a point of departure for teaching literary reading skill to intermediate college and secondary level students. (Author/VWL)

  4. Energetic particle instabilities in fusion plasmas

    Sharapov, S. E.; Alper, B.; Berk, H. L.; Borba, D. N.; Breizman, B. N.; Challis, C. D.; Classen, I.G.J.; Edlund, E. M.; Eriksson, J.; Fasoli, A.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Fu, G. Y.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Gassner, T.; Ghantous, K.; Goloborodko, V.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Gryaznevich, M. P.; Hacquin, S.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Hellesen, C.; Kiptily, V. G.; Kramer, G. J.; Lauber, P.; Lilley, M. K.; Lisak, M.; Nabais, F.; Nazikian, R.; Nyqvist, R.; Osakabe, M.; C. Perez von Thun,; Pinches, S. D.; Podesta, M.; Porkolab, M.; Shinohara, K.; Schoepf, K.; Todo, Y.; Toi, K.; VanZeeland, M. A.; Voitsekhovich, I.; White, R. B.; Yavorskij, V.; ITPA EP TG Contributors,; JET-EFDA Contributors,


    Remarkable progress has been made in diagnosing energetic particle instabilities on present-day machines and in establishing a theoretical framework for describing them. This overview describes the much improved diagnostics of Alfvén instabilities and modelling tools developed world-wide, and discus

  5. Fusion reactor materials



    This paper discuses the following topics on fusion reactor materials: irradiation, facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters, and activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; fundamental mechanical behavior; radiation effects; development of structural alloys; solid breeding materials; and ceramics.

  6. Shortage of donation despite an adequate number of donors : A professional attitude?

    Ploeg, RJ; Niesing, J; Sieber-Rasch, MH; Willems, L; Kranenburg, K


    Background A major problem in the field of transplantation is the persistent shortage of donor organs and tissues for transplantation. This study was initiated to (1) chart the donor potential for organs and tissue in The Netherlands and (2) to identify factors influencing whether donation is discus

  7. an understanding of environmental concepts and issues among ...

    issues such as population, ozone layer, green house effect, and acid rain. Another aim of this ... schools in urban areas had better scores than students from schools in rural areas. The results .... assumption is that use of 'don't know' responses would result in ..... teaching strategies, for example, projects and discus- sions on ...

  8. A Better Insight Into IT Contribution by Process Level Structure

    Shahim, Nazli; Møller, Charles


    Creation of IT business value through its impact on value chain processes made the objective of this research to compare and differentiate IT role at both process and firm levels. A discussion about IT’s impact at both levels are made through previous theoretical and empirical studies. The discus...

  9. Input and service provision supply methods in mixed crop-livestock production systems in South-Ethiopia: Improvement options from a dairy perspective

    Terefe, T.; Lee, van der J.


    This study was conducted in the Dale and Shebedino districts of southern Ethiopia during the period October 2014 to January 2015. It investigates dairy-related input and service provision in mixed crop-livestock production systems. Data were collected from 120 dairy producers, six focus group discus

  10. Training of adult education teachers in Denmark

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    The article presents the Danish adult educational system, the extend of adult learning and the objectives of the adult education program. It presents the teacher training institutions and programs and the programs for continuing education in practice. Further on the article presents and discus...... the pedagogical principles and theories behind the training of teachers in adult education....

  11. Information Science, Historical Changes and Social Aspects: A Nordic Outlook.

    Orom, Anders


    Analyzes and discuses some aspects concerning the historical and social context of information science and information institutions. Highlights include views of Jose Ortega y Gasset; changing conceptions of the structure, foci, and content of the discipline; prewar and postwar paradigms; the physical paradigm; and the cognitive view. (Contains 27…

  12. The Use of Chat in EFL/ESL.

    d'Eca, Teresa Almeida


    Presents the case for using chat (synchronous online communication) in the language classroom from the point of view of a teacher with positive experiences and a balanced awareness of the potential of the medium. Discuses how to integrate chat in language learning, examines the advantages and disadvantages of chat to the language learner, and…

  13. Development Stages and Curriculum: A Japanese Perspective.

    Abiko, Tadahiko


    Discusses contemporary psychologists' criticism of Jean Piaget's developmental theory; reviews research in brain science, psychology, history, and the experiences of teachers; proposes a new theory of developmental stages based on children's shifting interests; discuses implications of "shifting interest center theory" for school…

  14. Physical Activity and Social Support in Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    Mendonça, Gerfeson; Cheng, Luanna Alexandra; Mélo, Edilânea Nunes; de Farias, José Cazuza, Jr.


    The objective of this review was to systematically synthesize the results of original studies on the association between physical activity and social support in adolescents, published until April 2011. Searches were carried out in Adolec, ERIC, Lilacs, Medline, SciELO, Scopus, SportsDiscus and Web of Science electronic databases and the reference…

  15. Does physical activity attenuate, or even eliminate, the detrimental association of sitting time with mortality?

    Ekelund, Ulf; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Brown, Wendy J


    of sedentary behaviour and physical activity with all-cause mortality. METHODS: We did a systematic review, searching six databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, Web of Science, Sport Discus, and Scopus) from database inception until October, 2015, for prospective cohort studies that had individual level exposure...

  16. Semiotics and Knowledge Management (KM) : A theoretical and empirical approach

    Sjarbaini, Larissa; Jorna, Rene J.


    Knowledge Management (KM) concerns the study of knowledge in organizations. Knowledge sharing, use, storage, support, and knowledge creation are components of KM. The (short) history of KM shows that the theoretical foundations of KM require completion. In this article, a perspective on KM is discus

  17. Facilitators and barriers in the collaboration between the primary care and the sport sector in order to promote physical activity: A systematic literature review

    Leenaars, K.E.; Smit, E.; Wagemakers, A.; Molleman, G.R.; Koelen, M.A.


    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this review was to identify collaborative initiatives between the primary care and the sport sector in order to promote physical activity (PA), and barriers and facilitators in these initiatives. METHOD: Pubmed, SportDiscus, Web of Science, and SOCindex were systematically

  18. Facilitators and barriers in the collaboration between the primary care and the sport sector in order to promote physical activity: A systematic literature review

    Leenaars, K.E.F.; Smit, E.; Wagemakers, A.; Molleman, G.R.M.; Koelen, M.A.


    Introduction The aim of this review was to identify collaborative initiatives between the primary care and the sport sector in order to promote physical activity (PA), and barriers and facilitators in these initiatives. Method Pubmed, SportDiscus, Web of Science, and SOCindex were systematically

  19. Human resource management engineering companies Ukraine under crisis

    Redkva, Oksana Zinoviyivna


    Full Text Available The features of personal management at engineering enterprises in the crisis are describes and discuses in the article. The problems and causes of inefficient personnel management are identified. Jome recommendations concerming solving of problem in the sphere of personal management and effective management of engineering enterprises are giver.

  20. MODS: The Metadata Object Description Schema.

    Guenther, Rebecca S.


    Focuses on the Metadata Object Description Schema (MODS) developed by the Library of Congress' Network Development and MARC Standards Office. Discuses reasons for MODS development; advantages of MODS; features of MODS; prospective uses for MODS; relationship with MARC and MARCXML; comparison with Dublin Core element set; and experimentation with…

  1. Rotas de síntese e a homogeneidade dos precursores de mulita e cordierita Routes of synthesis and the homogeneity of mullite and cordierite precursors

    Patrícia Tavares de Lima


    Full Text Available Multicomponent ceramics are mainly synthesized by conventional solid-state reaction route and sol-gel routes. In the sol-gel route, colloidal or polymeric gel are envolved. In this work, some principles of the chemistry of theses routes are discused and it is ilustrated a variety of strategies for obtaining a homogeneous multicomponent precursors.

  2. Defining Command, Leadership, and Management Success Factors Within Stability Operations


    expanded upon as the paper progresses. LEADERSHIP CONSIDERATIONS—LEADING CHANGE? Leadership is a blend of persuasion, compulsion , and example, a...the buyer beware): The discus- sions and study on leadership are vast in number and can lead along many paths; in this monograph, a simple set of

  3. Interactive Rooms

    Krogh, Peter Gall


    This paper will discus aspects of applying augmented reality technologies in architecture through experiments conducted in full-scale, and seen through the concept of atmosphere in architecture. Working with augmented reality in an architectural perspective brings a set of new artistic effects...

  4. Context and the Choice of Word meaning



    The analysis of context is the base of correc understanding and translation of words.The word meaning varie with its position in the whole passage.And this thesis will discus the determined effect of context from two aspects: linguistic context,situational context.

  5. Autoethnography: A Method of Research and Teaching for Transformative Education

    Belbase, Shashidhar; Luitel, Bal Chandra; Taylor, Peter Charles


    This paper discuses the thesis that autoethnography as tool in research provides the researcher to examine his or her pedagogical and research practices from his or lived evocative experiences that helps him or her in envisioning future research and instructional practices. The essence of this paper is to seek the possibilities of linking…

  6. P.Q.-Modelling

    Dalby, Arne Brejning; Andersen, Hans-Kurt; Bang, Jørn Winge


    In the power grid, on power lines, noise and signals of different kinds are transmitted. Some of the siganls are wanted, others are not. For all the signal types it is important to know how they propagate on the power grid. In this report different mathematical or computational methods are discus...

  7. Publication Index and Retrieval System.


    behavior of ADPIC , and (3) Stanford Research Institute’s modeling effort dredged material after open-water disposal and (2) a discus- for disposal in San...odor abatement, 150 construction, and demolition processes, 277 ADPIC Agricultural value of dredged material, 282 Transport studies relevant to estuarine

  8. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate in tropical intraerythrocytic blood infection

    Viroj Wiwanitkit


    Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)determination is a classical hematological test.Although it is a non spe-cific laboratory parameter it is still widely used in present medicine.The author hereby briefly reviews and dis-cuses on clinical importance of ESR test for important tropical intraerythrocytic blood infection (malaria,leish-maniasis and babesiosis).

  9. El Tribunal Constitucional y las exhortaciones al legislador: el caso peruano

    Castro Cruzatt, Karin


    ... y reparadora" (4), asi como la participacion de los jueces constitucionales en la creacion de derecho a traves de la interpretacion de la Constitucion y de la ley son hechos cada vez menos discutidos, aunque los limites de dicha capacidad creadora no han dejado de generar polemica a proposito de la discusion de asuntos politicamente se...

  10. El sistema de lo disperso. Jose Marti y el sujeto de la filosofia moderna

    Monder, Samuel


    ... cualquier sistema que construyamos para encapsular sus productos. Finalmente, senalo algunas maneras en que la discusion precedente puede usarse para dar cuenta de algunas conexiones entre los proyectos poeticos y politicos de Marti. Palabras claves: Filosofia, modernidad, naturaleza, sujeto cartesiano. ABSTRACT This paper is devo...

  11. Scientific Description of Summer Semiconductor Program


    microscopic profiles. Second, we discus radio -frequency (RF) sheaths, where a boundary value of the system (the cathode poten- tial) is a periodic...Jul 24-Aug 9 Pidatells, Rosa Maria Citta’ Universitaria , Italy Jul 13-Aug 10 Pillage, Larry University of Texas Aug 3-Aug 9 Please, Cohn Southhampton

  12. Elastofibroma dorsi

    Juan Pablo Ghisi


    Full Text Available Paciente de sexo femenino de 68 años que se palpa una tumoración subescapular derecha asociado a dolor regional y resalto de la escápula durante los movimientos.  Se presentan imagenes para su discusion

  13. Mean particle diameters: from statistical definition to physical understanding

    Alderliesten, M.


    Mean particle diameters are important for the science of particulate systems. This thesis deals with a definition system for these mean diameters, called Moment-Ratio (M-R) definition system, and provides a general statistical and physical basis. Also, the current DIN/ISO definition system is discus

  14. Deciphering China-U.S. Economic Relations


    During the Annual Conference 2007 of the Boao Forum for Asia held on April 21-22, Beijing Review reporter Liu Yunyun had a chance to sit down with Dr. John Rutledge, former financial advisor to U.S. presidents onald Reagan and George H.W. Bush, to discus

  15. Embedding human rights within a multinational company: The case of the international energy company Royal Dutch Shell

    E.M.J. Schouten (Esther)


    textabstractThe first chapter of this dissertation introduces the context, relevance and focus of this research. In sections 1.1 to 1.3, the importance of multinational corporations (MNCs) in globalisation, the universality of human rights and the impact of business on human rights issues are discus

  16. A Self-Deploying, Depth-Adaptive Coastal Oceanographic Mooring


    rate. An umbilical interface connection is also supplied to allow communications between the Tattletale system controller and an external computer. A...and barometric pressure from an offshore National Data Buoy Center 3-m discus buoy and water temperature values from a few hand-deployed CTD casts. The

  17. Strong Similarity Measures for Ordered Sets of Documents in Information Retrieval.

    Egghe, L.; Michel, Christine


    Presents a general method to construct ordered similarity measures in information retrieval based on classical similarity measures for ordinary sets. Describes a test of some of these measures in an information retrieval system that extracted ranked document sets and discuses the practical usability of the ordered similarity measures. (Author/LRW)

  18. Physical Activity of Youth with Intellectual Disability: Review and Research Agenda

    Frey, Georgia C.; Stanish, Heidi I.; Temple, Viviene A.


    This review characterizes physical activity behavior in youth with intellectual disability (ID) and identifies limitations in the published research. Keyword searches were used to identify articles from MEDLINE, EBSCOhost Research Databases, Psych Articles, Health Source, and SPORT Discus, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses up to June 2007.…

  19. The Evolution of Parody from Miss Wyoming to Andrea Dworkin.

    Ludlum, M. P.

    This paper discuses whether outrageous parodies are and should be protected under the First Amendment. After presenting a definition and a brief history of parody humor, the paper then presents a brief description of the parties to this line of legal controversies. The paper describes the rationale of a line of separate parody cases involving Miss…

  20. Information Science, Historical Changes and Social Aspects: A Nordic Outlook.

    Orom, Anders


    Analyzes and discuses some aspects concerning the historical and social context of information science and information institutions. Highlights include views of Jose Ortega y Gasset; changing conceptions of the structure, foci, and content of the discipline; prewar and postwar paradigms; the physical paradigm; and the cognitive view. (Contains 27…

  1. Promoting household energy conservation

    Steg, Linda


    It is commonly assumed that households must change their behaviour to reduce the problems caused by increasing levels of fossil energy use. Strategies for behaviour change will be more effective if they target the most important causes of the behaviour in question. Therefore, this paper first discus

  2. EOS Aqua: Mission Status at Earth Science Constellation

    Guit, Bill


    This is an EOS Aqua Mission Status presentation to be given at the MOWG meeting in Albuquerque NM. The topics to discus are: mission summary, spacecraft subsystems summary, recent and planned activities, inclination adjust maneuvers, propellant usage and lifetime estimate, and mission summary.

  3. Physical Activity of Youth with Intellectual Disability: Review and Research Agenda

    Frey, Georgia C.; Stanish, Heidi I.; Temple, Viviene A.


    This review characterizes physical activity behavior in youth with intellectual disability (ID) and identifies limitations in the published research. Keyword searches were used to identify articles from MEDLINE, EBSCOhost Research Databases, Psych Articles, Health Source, and SPORT Discus, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses up to June 2007.…

  4. Barriers to Physical Activity for People with Long-Term Neurological Conditions: A Review Study

    Mulligan, Hilda F.; Hale, Leigh A.; Whitehead, Lisa; Baxter, G. David


    People with disability are insufficiently physically active for health. This study identified the volume, quality, and findings of research that exposes environmental and personal barriers of physical activity participation for people with neurological conditions. CINAHL, Sport Discus, EMBASE, Medline, and AMED were systematically searched between…

  5. How to Improve the Speaking Ability of College Students in China



    With the advent of economic globalization, the increasingly fierce competition of the world has put forward a higher demand on people’s English competence. recently, the speaking ability of Chinese college students has become a heated discus-sion which is well worth our attention.

  6. Measuring effects: roads to success in rehabilitation : how to measure re-employment policies in The Netherlands? : proceedings of the conference, September 13, 2004

    Vos, E.L. de


    The goal of this conference was to present an overview of research and evaluation of effects of labour market policy in different western countries and discus the importance of this research. The conference is also meant to stimulate more international, high quality research on active labour market

  7. Metaphor and Economics: The Case of Growth.

    White, Michael


    Discuses the use of metaphor in business and economics, both in the subject itself and in language for specific purposes instruction. Investigates how variation in economic aggregates is put across in discourse and concludes that the concept of growth plays a key role in this respect. (Author/VWL)

  8. Accretion disks before (?) the main planet formation phase

    Dominik, C.


    Protoplanetary disks are the sites of planet formation and therefore one of the foremost targets of future facilities in astronomy. In this review, I will discuss the main options for using JWST and concurrent facilities to study the early, gas-rich, massive phases of protoplanetary disks. We discus

  9. Development Stages and Curriculum: A Japanese Perspective.

    Abiko, Tadahiko


    Discusses contemporary psychologists' criticism of Jean Piaget's developmental theory; reviews research in brain science, psychology, history, and the experiences of teachers; proposes a new theory of developmental stages based on children's shifting interests; discuses implications of "shifting interest center theory" for school…

  10. Study on Short-term Variability of Ship Responses in Waves

    Iseki, Toshio; Nielsen, Ulrik Dam


    Short-term variability of ship responses is investigated from the view point of cross-spectrum analysis. In a steady state condition, it is well known that a certain length of sampled data are required for stable spectral analysis. However, the phase angle of the cross-spectra has not been discus...

  11. Informatics Observed [and] Agenda: A Tool for Agenda Setting Research [and] Telos Language Partner: Multimedia Language Learning, Authoring and Customisation [and] Towards a Consumer Perspective on Information Behaviour Research [and] The Digital Library as Access Management Facilitator [and] Knowledge and Information Management (KIM'21) [and] Perspectives of ICT in Professional Development and Education.

    Cawkell, Tony; Kok, Yeong Haur; Goh, Angela; Holaday, Duncan; Hoffstaedter, Petra; Kohn, Kurt; Rowley, Jennifer; van Halm, Johan; Pye, Jo


    The following collection of articles reprinted from "CD ROM and Online Review" include "a new way of learning." Discuses research and development funding in educational technology and recommends to offer vast sums to investigate the best way of teaching a particular topic, and through that to fund the use of computers as an incidental part of the…

  12. Krashen's SLA theory and English Teaching in China



    The paper mainly focuses on describing Krashen and his Second Language Acquisition Theory, which consist of five hypotheses. Then the paper analyzes the flaws in Krashen's SLA theory. Finally, it discuses the application of Krashen's SLA theory and English teaching in China.

  13. Les Cricetidae (Mammalia, Rodentia) du Néogène Moyen de Vieux-Collonges. Partie 2 : Cricetodontinae incertae sedis, Melissiodontinae, Platacanthomyinae, et Anomalomyinae = Cricetidae (Mammalia, Rodentia) of the middle Neogene of Vieux Collonges. France. Part 2 : Cricetodontinae incertae sedis, Melissiodontinae, Platacanthomyinae, et Anomalomyinae

    Mein, P.; Freudenthal, M.


    Apart from the common cricetid fauna, the site of Vieux-Collonges contains a number of rare forms: Lartetomys, Melissiodon, Neocometes, and Anomalomys. This scarce material is described and compared with material from other European localities. The stratigraphie position of Vieux-Collonges is discus

  14. Validity, Reliability And Responsiveness Of Patient-Reported Outcome Questionnaires When Assessing Hip And Groin Disability: A Systematic Review

    Thorborg, Kristian; Roos, Ewa; Bartels, Else Marie;


    disability based on a systematic review of evidence of validity, reliability and responsiveness of these instruments. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PsycINFO, SportsDiscus and Web of Science were all searched up to January 2009. Two reviewers independently...

  15. Permanent Genetic Resources added to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 February 2010-31 March 2010.

    Aurelle, D; Baker, A J; Bottin, L; Brouat, C; Caccone, A; Chaix, A; Dhakal, P; Ding, Y; Duplantier, J M; Fiedler, W; Fietz, J; Fong, Y; Forcioli, D; Freitas, T R O; Gunnarsson, G H; Haddrath, O; Hadziabdic, D; Hauksdottir, S; Havill, N P; Heinrich, M; Heinz, T; Hjorleifsdottir, S; Hong, Y; Hreggvidsson, G O; Huchette, S; Hurst, J; Kane, M; Kane, N C; Kawakami, T; Ke, W; Keith, R A; Klauke, N; Klein, J L; Kun, J F J; Li, C; Li, G-Q; Li, J-J; Loiseau, A; Lu, L-Z; Lucas, M; Martins-Ferreira, C; Mokhtar-Jamaï, K; Olafsson, K; Pampoulie, C; Pan, L; Pooler, M R; Ren, J-D; Rinehart, T A; Roussel, V; Santos, M O; Schaefer, H M; Scheffler, B E; Schmidt, A; Segelbacher, G; Shen, J-D; Skirnisdottir, S; Sommer, S; Tao, Z-R; Taubert, R; Tian, Y; Tomiuk, J; Trigiano, R N; Ungerer, M C; Van Wormhoudt, A; Wadl, P A; Wang, D-Q; Weis-Dootz, T; Xia, Q; Yuan, Q-Y


    This article documents the addition of 228 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Anser cygnoides, Apodemus flavicollis, Athene noctua, Cercis canadensis, Glis glis, Gubernatrix cristata, Haliotis tuberculata, Helianthus maximiliani, Laricobius nigrinus, Laricobius rubidus, Neoheligmonella granjoni, Nephrops norvegicus, Oenanthe javanica, Paramuricea clavata, Pyrrhura orcesi and Samanea saman. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Apodemus sylvaticus, Laricobius laticollis and Laricobius osakensis (a proposed new species currently being described). © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Structural distortion of biogenic aragonite in strongly textured mollusc shell layers

    Chateigner, D., E-mail: daniel.chateigner@ensicaen.f [CRISMAT-ENSICAEN, Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, 6 Bd. M. Juin, 14050 Caen (France); Ouhenia, S. [CRISMAT-ENSICAEN, Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, 6 Bd. M. Juin, 14050 Caen (France); Lab. De Physique, Faculte des Sciences Exactes, Bejaia 06000 (Algeria); Krauss, C. [CRISMAT-ENSICAEN, Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, 6 Bd. M. Juin, 14050 Caen (France); Belkhir, M. [Lab. De Physique, Faculte des Sciences Exactes, Bejaia 06000 (Algeria); Morales, M. [CIMAP-ENSICAEN, Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, 6 Bd. M. Juin, 14050 Caen (France)


    The stabilisation of strong textures in mollusc shells has for long been a strong drawback towards precise structural determinations of these natural biocomposites. We demonstrate here on several crossed lamellar and nacre layers from two gastropods (Charonia lampas lampas and Haliotis tuberculata tuberculata) and one bivalve (Pinctada maxima), that on real specimens (without grinding or specific preparation), the textural information can be used efficiently for precise structural determination of the biogenic aragonite. This is done through the combination of orientation distribution function and cyclic Rietveld refinements on several hundreds to thousands of diffractions diagrams.

  17. La malacofaune marine d''un site neolithique de l''Ile d''Oleron (Charente-Maritime): Questions posees au biologiste

    Gruet, Y; Laporte, L


    The species which have been identified in this Neolithic site are still living along the Bay of Biscay coasts. One of them, Haliotis , has recently disappeared from the Oleron Island. Some of them, as the very fruitful Patella and Monodonta lineata , have certainly been gathered and devoted to food. Others, as Nucella lapillus , have only been used to make pearls. And some others, Cardium for instance, could have been devoted at the same time to food and pearls. The study of the current biota...

  18. Does the diagnosis influence the outcome in multimodal outpatient pain management program for low back pain and sciatica? a comparative study

    Artner J


    Full Text Available Juraj Artner, Stephan Kurz, Balkan Cakir, Heiko Reichel, Friederike LattigDepartment of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Ulm, GermanyAbstract: The literature describes multimodal pain-management programs as successful therapy options in the conservative treatment of chronic low back pain. Yet, the intensity and inclusion criteria of such programs remain debatable. In many studies, the pain originating from spinal structures is described as nonspecific low back pain – a diffuse diagnosis without serious implications. The purpose of this study is to compare the short-term outcomes between patients suffering from sciatica due to a discus intervertebralis herniation and those suffering from low back pain caused by facet joint disease after 3 weeks of treatment in an intense multimodal outpatient program in the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at the university hospital.Keywords: chronic low back pain, sciatica, interdisciplinary management, discus herniation, spondylarthritis

  19. Chronic visceral pain secondary to ventral disc herniation: Development of visceral complex regional pain syndrome.

    Lauretti, Gabriela Rocha; de Oliveira, Raquel


    When an organ disease is ruled out as the origin of pelvic pain, the superior hypogastric plexus (SHP) injury and consequent dysfunction could be the mechanism of visceral chronic pain perpetuation. As much as a dorsal discus herniation may harm the dorsal or ventral roots, a ventral discus herniation at L4-L5 or L5-S1 may result in direct physical trauma to the SHP, maintaining chronic visceral pain mediated by sympathetic dysfunction, conceivably also afferent fibers dysfunction. We propose that similarly to nociceptive somatic dysfunction named complex regional pain syndrome, the maintained sympathetic pelvic pain secondary to straight physical damage to the SHP characterize in fact the same disease, but in nociceptive visceral tissue, named visceral complex regional pain syndrome, a concept constructed based on the International Association for the Study of Pain criteria (1994).

  20. Colombian and Peruvian Primate Censusing Studies,


    34PG ’AMR 0719) from the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and funds from the Instituto de Desarrollo de los Recursos Naturales Renovables...04 FEB. 7?5 En Iia. " Discusion de la cirta convenio para el Desorrolla do un Proyocto do investi-&iciones Piologicas solbre Primates no humanos onl...adecuadas para garantizar la utilizacion y la pe.-petuidad de especies de primates no humanos . 2- Realizar investigaciones de campo para determinar: el estado

  1. Challenging Minimum Deterrence: Articulating the Contemporary Relevance of Nuclear Weapons


    actually mean to interstate relations .4 Here, the arguments of modern advocates for minimum deterrence come into play. In a 2010 article advocating...recapitalization expenditures over the next couple of decades. This emphasis on the ICBM and SLBM legs as a constant existential deterrent does not mean ...elements of the US nuclear force gives this debate added meaning and urgency. One alternative currently under discus- sion is minimum deterrence. This

  2. 开尔文四线测试方式在PCB测试机中的应用%The Application of the Kelvin Four-Wire Testing Method in PCB Testing Machine



    分析了PCB测试机中的普通二线式测试原理、开尔文(Kelvin)四线测量方法原理,介绍了开尔文四线测量方法的优点。%This report aimed to analyze the two-wire and four-wire kelvin measurement principle in PCB testing machine , discused the advantage of Kelvin Four-Wire Testing method in PCB testing.

  3. The role of spin-orbit coupling in topologically protected interface states in Dirac materials

    Abergel, D. S. L.; Edge, Jonathan M.; Balatsky, Alexander V.


    We highlight the fact that two-dimensional materials with Dirac-like low energy band structures and spin-orbit coupling will produce linearly dispersing topologically protected Jackiw-Rebbi modes at interfaces where the Dirac mass changes sign. These modes may support persistent spin or valley currents parallel to the interface, and the exact arrangement of such topologically protected currents depends crucially on the details of the spin-orbit coupling in the material. As examples, we discus...

  4. Literature Review of “Voice” in Writing



    Voice has been a key concept in the writing classes and it also has been an integral part of the various rubrics used for the evaluation of students’ writing in many Western countries, but in China it is still an unfamiliar concept. There are many studies on voice whose conclusions are inconsistent abroad, yet few studies in china. This paper, therefore, provides an overall literature review on voice, furthermore, discuses the implications of voices studies for china’s EFL writing instruction.

  5. Development of a Caregiver Burden Questionnaire for the Patients with Dementia in Iran


    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to design a valid questionnaire suitable to the Iranian culture to measure the stress mounted on dementia caregivers. Methods: In order to design a valid and reliable tool, the stages of content validation were performed as follows: 1- Development: search of relevant electronic databanks and use of experts and caregivers′ opinions to prepare appropriate content, review and correction of the content through consecutive focus group discus-sions with ...

  6. Polifenoles en Myristicaceae americanas II. Distribución en especies colombianas Polifenoles en Myristicaceae americanas II. Distribución en especies colombianas

    Aguirre Gálviz Luis Enrique


    The distribution of phenolic acids and flavonoid aglycones in 65 samples of 11 species of Colombian Myristicaceae was studied in order to complete the data obtained from other samples of American Myristicaceae. The occurrence and distribution of these compounds could be used for chemotaxonomic discusions of the family.

    Se estudió la distribución de polifenoles en 65 muestras de material de herbario de II especies de Myristicaceae coleccionadas en Colombia, con el ob...

  7. Energy Planning in Selected European Regions - Methods for Evaluating the Potential of Renewable Energy Sources

    Sliz-Szkliniarz, Beata


    Given their potentially positive impact on climate protection and the preservation of fossil resources, alternative energy sources have become increasingly important for the energy supply over the past years. However, the questions arises what economic and ecological impacts and potential conflicts over land use resources are associated with the promotion of renewable energy production. Using the examples of three selected European Regions in Poland, France and German, the dissertation discus...

  8. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement – pros and cons of keyhole aortic surgery

    Kaczmarczyk, Marcin; Szałański, Przemysław; Zembala, Michał; Filipiak, Krzysztof; Karolak, Wojciech; Wojarski, Jacek; Garbacz, Marcin; Kaczmarczyk, Aleksandra; Kwiecień, Anna; Zembala, Marian


    Over the last twenty years, minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MIAVR) has evolved into a safe, well-tolerated and efficient surgical treatment option for aortic valve disease. It has been shown to reduce postoperative morbidity, providing faster recovery and rehabilitation, shorter hospital stay and better cosmetic results compared with conventional surgery. A variety of minimally invasive accesses have been developed and utilized to date. This concise review demonstrates and discus...

  9. Baixa Estatura e haploinsuficiência do gene SHOX

    Mariana Costa


    Discusão/conclusões: A prevalência de baixa estatura por mutações do gene SHOX parece ser semelhante ao défice de hormona de crescimento e Sindroma de Turner. O objectivo dos autores foi chamar a atenção sobre esta entidade clínica não muito conhecida, que pode ter implicações terapêuticas com um diagnóstico atempado.

  10. Considerations and Algorithms for Compression of Sets

    Larsson, Jesper

    compression algorithm that allows transparent incorporation of various estimates for probability distribution. Our experimental results allow the conclusion that set compression can benefit from incorporat- ing statistics, using our method or variants of previously known techniques.......We consider compression of unordered sets of distinct elements. After a discus- sion of the general problem, we focus on compressing sets of fixed-length bitstrings in the presence of statistical information. We survey techniques from previous work, suggesting some adjustments, and propose a novel...

  11. [The pathology of temporomandibular joint luxations--anatomical studies on temporomandibular joint preparations].

    Pinkert, R


    After a description of the published hypothesis of luxation and subluxation in the temporomandibular joint the preparations of five temporomandibular joints is described. The results refer to the movement of the discus and the capitulum mandibulae and to the effects of the musculus temporalis and of the facies articularis ossis temporalis. In addition a hypothesis is established according to which the temporomandibular-joint-luxation may be considered to occur in the menisco-condylar part of the joint.

  12. Parallel processing for artificial intelligence 1

    Kanal, LN; Kumar, V; Suttner, CB


    Parallel processing for AI problems is of great current interest because of its potential for alleviating the computational demands of AI procedures. The articles in this book consider parallel processing for problems in several areas of artificial intelligence: image processing, knowledge representation in semantic networks, production rules, mechanization of logic, constraint satisfaction, parsing of natural language, data filtering and data mining. The publication is divided into six sections. The first addresses parallel computing for processing and understanding images. The second discus

  13. Strategies for measuring machine consciousness


    The accurate measurement of the level of consciousness of a creature remains a major scientific challenge, nevertheless a number of new accounts that attempt to address this problem have been proposed recently. In this paper we analyze the principles of these new measures of consciousness along with other classical approaches focusing on their applicability to Machine Consciousness (MC). Furthermore, we propose a set of requirements of what we think a suitable measure for MC should be, discus...

  14. Prajurit Profesional-Patriot: Menuju TNI Profesional pada Era Reformasi

    Syamsul Ma’arif


    This article discuses about The Indonesian National Defense Forces (Tentara Nasional Indonesia/TNI) who has been experiencing a shift from praetorian military to professional military because of fundamental change within Indonesian society after the end of the Soeharto’s regime in 1998 which is followed by a transition of power from New Order to reformed government. That shift can be seen through some issues related to territorial institutions, military business, and relation between TNI and ...

  15. H7N9 Influenza: The Emerging Infectious Disease

    Viroj Wiwanitkit


    Influenza virus infection is a common respiratory pathogen. Emerging of new atypical influenza is usually a big public health threat. H7N9 bird flu is the newest atypical influenza virus infection that has just been reported since early 2013. The emerging of this new disease occurred in China and becomes the present focus for possible worldwide pandemic. In this specific article, the author will discus and describe on epidemiology, symptomatology, pathology, diagnosis, treatment, and preventi...

  16. Using Frustration in the Design of Adaptive Videogames

    Gilleade, Kiel; Dix, Alan


    In efforts to attract a wider audience, videogames are beginning to incorporate adaptive gameplay mechanics. Unlike the more traditional videogame, adaptive games can cater the gaming experience to the individual user and not just a particular group of users as with the former. Affective videogames, games that respond to the user's emotional state, may hold the key to creating such gameplay mechanics. In this paper we discus how the emotion frustration may be used in the design of adaptive vi...


    Luciano, Caglioti; Csongor, Hajdu; Orsolya, Holczknecht; Laszlo, Zekany; Claudia, Zucchi; Karoly, Micskei; Gyula, Palyi; Department of Chemistry Technology of Biologically Active Compounds, University "La Sapienza" Roma; Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Debrecen:Department of Chemistry, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia; Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Debrecen; Department of Chemistry, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia


    The traditional concept of racemates means an exactly 1:1 mixture of two enantiomeric molecules. Modern analytical and catalytic/preparative discoveries, first of all the Soai-reaction, make necessary a re-evaluation of this concept. The most important aspect of such a revision is the definition of the amount of an excess of one or of the other enantiomer, originating from statistical fluctuation, which can still be "tolerated" when a substance is defined as racemate. The present paper discus...

  18. Studying social aspects of vegetarianism: a research proposal on the basis of a survey among adult population of two Slovenian biggest cities.

    Crnic, Ales


    The article discuses the fundamental characteristics of vegetarianism as a heterogeneous and controversial practice, and tries to asses its scope in contemporary Western world. In the central part it presents the main results of the empirical study of vegetarianism and its perceptions on a representative sample of adult residents of the two largest cities in Slovenia, Ljubljana and Maribor. On this basis, the author proposes a more comprehensive design of quantitative and qualitative research on social aspects of vegetarianism and responses to it.

  19. Hamstring injuries: Prevention and rehabilitation



    A review was conducted to present current views and effectiveness of prevention and rehabilitation methods of hamstring injuries. Methods: a review searching on the electronic data bases, including Proquest, Medline, Sport Discus, Cinahl plus, Health source Nursing / Academic edition, Academic search complete, Pub med and Scholar Google. Only randomized control studies (RCT'S were included) which contained the intervention and control groups concerning either the prevention or rehabilitation ...

  20. Thinking by figures. An outline of mixed semiotics in ancient Mexico

    Chaparro, Adolfo


    From the standpoint of the regime of signs, proposed by Deleuze and Guattart. semiotics is understood as general pragmatics where the set of the systems of signs is articulated. From that perspective. this paper attempts to discus show the heart sacrifice and the anthropophagic pulsion, identified in the great pre-Hispanic cultures of Central America. can be projected as a plane of contents in a mixed semiotics to imperial scale. A number of scholars and academics have tried to postulate, fro...

  1. Hamstring injuries: Prevention and rehabilitation



    A review was conducted to present current views and effectiveness of prevention and rehabilitation methods of hamstring injuries. Methods: a review searching on the electronic data bases, including Proquest, Medline, Sport Discus, Cinahl plus, Health source Nursing / Academic edition, Academic search complete, Pub med and Scholar Google. Only randomized control studies (RCT'S were included) which contained the intervention and control groups concerning either the prevention or rehabilitation ...

  2. Conceptual model of an application and its use for application documentation

    Martin Vonka


    Full Text Available Following article proposes methodology for conceptual design of a software application. This form of design is suitable for dynamic development environment and agile principles of software development. Article discus the required scope and style used for description of the application. Unification of a documentation significantly reduces the time required for communication within the development team. Some part of the documentation are obtained using the method of reverse engineering, for example by analysis of the application structure or its source code.

  3. Strategies to prevent injury in adolescent sport: a systematic review

    Abernethy, Liz; Bleakley, Chris


    This systematic review set out to identify randomised controlled trials and controlled intervention studies that evaluated the effectiveness of preventive strategies in adolescent sport and to draw conclusions on the strength of the evidence. A literature search in seven databases (Medline, SportDiscus, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro, Cochrane Review and DARE) was carried out using four keywords: adolescent, sport, injury and prevention (expanded to capture any relevant literature). Assessment of 154 ...

  4. Psychosocial factors associated with talent development in football: A systematic review

    Gledhill, A; Harwood, C; Forsdyke, D


    Objectives: To provide a critical systematic review of recent research into psychosocial factors associated with talent development in football. Design: Systematic review informed by the PRISMA guidelines. Method: Literature was sourced from Science Direct, Sport Discus, Psycharticles and Psychinfo. This was followed by a detailed screening and sifting process to identify literature. Identified literature was independently appraised by multiple reviewers using the mixed-methods Appraisal Tool...

  5. Identifying Limits Of Scalability In Distributed, Heterogeneous, Layer Based Monitoring Concepts Like Slate

    Marcus Hilbrich


    Full Text Available In this paper we present the concept of a scalable job centric monitoring infrastructure.The overall performance of this distributed, layer based architecturecalled SLAte can be increased by installing additional servers to adapt to thedemands of the monitored resources and users. Another important aspect is tooffer a uniform global view on all data which are stored distributed to providean easy access for users or visualisation tools. Additionally we discus the impactof these uniform access layer on scalability.

  6. A Triservice Comparison of Dental Scaling Devices: Sonic and Ultrasonic


    literature and contains a short history of the development of power scalers. It also contains a discus- sion of the relationship between dental scalers and...phenomenon caused by ultrasound. High intensity, alternating pressure waves passing through water at the tip of the scaler force air bub- bles in the...devices such as microwave ovens, electric shavers, electro- cautery, diathermy , vitalometers, and even electric toothbrushes have the potential to

  7. E-learning challenges faced by academics in higher education

    Islam, Nurul; Beer, Martin; Slack, Frances


    E-learning has become a necessity in higher education institutions and is being deployed in educational establishments throughout the world. Researchers have made much emphasis on its benefits but not much is discussed on the disadvantages of e-learning technology. This paper references some of the research work on the limitations of e-learning technology, categorises it in five challenges that teachers are faced with and suggestions for a successful e-learning outcome. This paper also discus...

  8. “Respect Human Needs”,Face To Market ——Planning of Dandong Europe Garden and the designing concept of two moderate high-rises%“以人为本”,面向市场——丹东欧洲花园规划设计及两栋小高层住宅设计方案构思

    王石; 张险峰


    The article intro-duces the plan of Dandong Europe Garden, and discuses the method of 揜espect environment敚瑩Respect human needs?in architecture designing.%通过对丹东欧洲花园设计方案的介绍,论述了建筑设计尊重环境,“以人为本”的设计手法。

  9. Projecting Policy Effects with Statistical Models Projecting Policy Effects with Statistical Models

    Christopher Sims


    Full Text Available This paper attempts to briefly discus the current frontiers in quantitative modeling for forecastina and policy analvsis. It does so by summarizing some recent developmenrs in three areas: reduced form forecasting models; theoretical models including elements of stochastic optimization; and identification. In the process, the paper tries to provide some remarks on the direction we seem to be headed. Projecting Policy Effects with Statistical Models

  10. Pozitivní a negativní vlivy globalizace na produktový design

    Kubíčková, Jana Ada


    The thesis discuses the effects of globalization on product design. The aim of the thesis is to describe the changes of factors that affect product design and the impact of these changes on product design. The first part of the thesis is devoted to the definition of terms employed, particularly the terms globalization and product design. In the second part, the concept of glocalization is described and demonstrated, which is closely related to globalization. Changes brought about by globaliza...

  11. Requirement Analysis on IPTV Bearing Network%IPTV业务承载需求分析与改进措施



    This paper mainly analyzes the construct of IPTV service system. , discuses IPTV service bearing network technology requirments and corresponding improvement approach.%本文主要分析了IPTV业务网络结构和IPTV业务网络部署方案,针对IPTV业务对承载网主要技术要求,对承载网提出了具体改进措施。

  12. Health and the right to information: the problem of pesticide presence in food

    Teixeira T. M.


    Full Text Available This article analyses the current problem of pesticide presence in food from a perspective of a lack of information about products used in food production. The article establishes the assumptions of a directly proportional relationship between health and healthy eating, and the basic right of being informed about the food quality. It concludes with hypothesis and discus-sion on the reasons for this lack of information on the preparation of in natura food products.

  13. On the Physics of Alonso De La Veracruz

    Barranon Cedillo, Armando


    Some aspects regarding the natural philosophy at the virreinal period in the XVI century Mexico are discused. Mainly on the social impact of the Lectures of this scholar at the first University of Mexico and his inquisitorial process. The structure and significance of his course on aristotelic physics is explained in regard to the Logic perspectives. (FR. ALONSO DE LA VERACRUZ. Dialectica Resolutio. Mexico: U:N:A:M.)

  14. Aligning Reference Frames Using Quantum States

    Bagán, E; Muñoz-Tàpia, R


    We analyze the problem of sending, in a single transmission, the information required to specify an orthogonal trihedron or reference frame through a quantum channel made out of N elementary spins. We analytically obtain the optimal strategy, i.e., the best encoding state and the best measurement. For large N, we show that the average error goes to zero linearly in 1/N. Finally, we discus the construction of finite optimal measurements.

  15. Driving the atom by atomic fluorescence: Analytic results for the power and noise spectra


    We study how the spectral properties of resonance fluorescence propagate through a two-atom system. Within the weak-driving-field approximation we find that, as we go from one atom to the next, the power spectrum exhibits both subnatural linewidth narrowing and large asymmetries while the noise spectrum of the squeezed quadrature narrows but remains otherwise unchanged. Analytical results for the observed spectral features of the fluorescence are provided and their origin is thoroughly discus...

  16. An Exploration of the Design of Vocational English Innovative Teaching%职教英语创新课教学设计探索



    本文探讨中职学校英语创新教学的尝试,从备课思路、授课环节、教学方法等方面进行了初步探讨。%This paper attempts to explore innovation of vocational school English teaching, conducted a preliminary discus sion from lesson planning ideas, aspects of instruction, teaching methods and other aspects.

  17. On the development trend of computer application technology

    Zhang Zhi


    The development of computer application technology for people living and working has a very important significance. Dependent on computers are increasingly high. It put forward the development of computer application technology higher requirements. Only constant reform and renewal can meet the needs of social development. It is the only way to meet the development of the concept of sustainable development, and provide ongoing tech driving force for China's development. Based on this, the development trend of computer technology is discused.

  18. Energy availability, menstrual dysfunction and bone health in sports: an overwiew of the female athlete triad

    Sara Márquez; Olga Molinero


    Introduction: The female athlete triad (FAT) is a serious health-related problem that threatens women who exercise. This condition is an interrelated multifactorial syndrome which includes low energy availability, menstrual cycle disturbances and decreased bone mineral density. Objective: To review the major components of the FAT and their relationships, as well as strategies for diagnosis and treatment. Methods: Articles related to the topic were reviewed through PubMed and SportDiscus datab...

  19. Searches for sterile neutrinos and other BSM physics with the IceCube detector

    CERN. Geneva


    In this talk I will show the potential of IceCube to explore new physics in the context of neutrino oscillations. In the first part I will discus the recent analysis on the O(eV) light sterile neutrino that, up to date, gives the most stringent bounds in the region motivated by the short baseline neutrino anomalies. In the second part I will present other new physics scenarios which might be tested at neutrino telescopes.

  20. Echinacea Supplementation: Does it Really Improve Aerobic Fitness?

    Baumann, Cory W.; Kwak, Dongmin


    [Purpose] Echinacea is an herbal supplement used by endurance athletes for its performance boosting properties. It is thought that Echinacea improves the blood’s oxygen carrying capacity by increasing production of erythropoietin (EPO), a glycoprotein that regulates red blood cell formation. Subsequently, these changes would lead to an overall improvement in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and running economy (RE), two markers of aerobic fitness. The purpose of this review is to briefly discus...

  1. Application of Silicon Nitride (Si3N4) Ceramics in Ball Bearing


    This paper is discus about silicon nitride ceramics in application to ball bearing. Silicon nitride (Si3N4) have advance properties such as consistent at temperature operation up to 1000°C, greater thermal shock resistance, lower density and low thermal expansion. This properties gives some benefit for ball bearing material such as higher running speed, reduce vibration of the shaft, will improve the life time and maintenance cost, lower heat generated, less energy consumption, lower wear ...

  2. Atmospheric Physics and Sound Propagation


    8217 £^^mnQt fchs average level dropsj^adualjly to about &$ db at 5>Q fee assd thsa rises- toabout-SS -ab -£t .10 fee© Höi;jsvsr:? in comparison...might be expected, was f«s53 to have sxial syaset^y assd feerefore the following discus^ sion will be confined to one plan« passing thycwghi the axis

  3. Study of the alcoholic fermentation of sugars diluted solutions through flow microcalorimetry.

    Volpe, PLO


    The present study shows that with liquid nitrogen stored inocula of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and standardized experimental procedure, flow microcalorimetry can be a valuable tool for monitoring in real time the alcoholic fermentation processes on line, The avaliation of cultural conditions contained different carbon sources far alcohol fermentation (sucrose, glucose, fructose, manose, maltose, galactose, molasses, honey and sugar cane) and their effects on the heat output recording is discus...

  4. Conference on Receptor-Based Biosensors (3rd) Held in Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, September 1987


    teolmological and soimatifio issues which you will be discusing are not trivial. In foot, they define the very cutting edge of mrging biotachnologies . W...enviroument. We’ve had suocess using structures from such organism as the blue crab from the Chesapeake Bay. The crab wves its antennae about in the water...wide range of response. Data taken from the blue crab show approximately eight orders of magnitude of response to the stimulant. We have not

  5. International movements, post-apartheid dispensations and illegal immigration into South Africa

    Wotela, K; Letsiri, C


    Arising from the supposed negative impact of illegal immigration, including security threats as well as recent xenophobic violence, the South African Government would like to counter illegal immigration. To do this, it needs to understand the root causes of illegal immigration into the country. This article, therefore, seeks to explain and interpret why illegal immigrants make South Africa their ideal choice of destination. To provide a context, the article begins with a discus...


    Chaminda Chiran Jayasundara


    Full Text Available This paper discuses the user perceptions and expectations of postgraduate students of the University of Colombo towards the e-information literacy skills development programme conducted by the library. Data was collected from 21 individuals through semi-structured questionnaire using gap theory. Overall, students satisfy with the quality of the programme and found three impediments to develop the service such as staff attitude, lack of mentoring and high customer demand.

  7. Following celebrities’ medical advice: meta-narrative analysis

    Steven J. Hoffman; Tan, Charlie


    Objective To synthesise what is known about how celebrities influence people’s decisions on health. Design Meta-narrative analysis of economics, marketing, psychology, and sociology literatures. Data sources Systematic searches of electronic databases: BusinessSource Complete (1886-), Communication & Mass Media Complete (1915-), Humanities Abstracts (1984-), ProQuest Political Science (1985-), PsycINFO (1806-), PubMed (1966-), and Sociology Abstracts (1952-). Inclusion criteria Studies discus...

  8. 东江—深圳供水工程太圆泵站计算机监控系统%The computer monitoring and controlling system of Taiyuan pumping station of Dongjiang—Shenzhen Water supply project

    徐叶琴; 张宇; 粟海; 郭华


    结合开发太园泵站计算机监控系统工程实例,系统地研究了泵站计算机监控系统的网络结构\\,功能及主要特征.%The network structure, function and main feature of the computer monitoring and controlling system of Taiyuan Pumping Station are discused and has been applyed to the project successfully.


    Opincane, Marite


    The development of discussion skills is one of the most essential aims in the acquisition of foreign languages. Discussion skills are essential both for students in study process and for teachers in their professional work. The objective of the research is to investigate the improvement and perfection of discussion skills as well as motivate students to participate in discussions using the structured discussions, perfecting the discussions skills and acquiring the ESP vocabulary. Every discus...

  10. Recent approaches in studying leadership in organizations

    Mojić Dušan


    Most influential recent approaches in studying organizational leadership were discussed in this article. Special attention is given to theories of transactional/transformational and charismatic leadership, having in mind their importance and wide presence in contemporary study of leadership in organizations. Other recent approaches such as visionary leadership, empowerment, team leadership etc. were also presented. Finally, an interesting view that leadership is sometimes irrelevant is discus...

  11. Chirurgia della valvulopatia mitralica mediante Port Access. Esperienza di due centri.

    Iorio, Francesco


    La chirurgia mininvasiva della mitrale mediante Port Access, risulta una delle maggiori innovazioni in cardiochirurgia in grado di migliorare gli outcome a breve medio e lungo termine se paragonata alla chirurgia convenzionale. In questo studio sono sono prese in esame le esperienze di due centri di eccellenza che hanno condotto tali interventi mediante approcci tecnici intraoperatori diversi per il clampaggio aortico: l'Endoclamp ed il clampaggio aortico transtoracico. Vengono altresì discus...

  12. Thinking by figures. An outline of mixed semiotics in ancient Mexico


    From the standpoint of the regime of signs, proposed by Deleuze and Guattart. semiotics is understood as general pragmatics where the set of the systems of signs is articulated. From that perspective. this paper attempts to discus show the heart sacrifice and the anthropophagic pulsion, identified in the great pre-Hispanic cultures of Central America. can be projected as a plane of contents in a mixed semiotics to imperial scale. A number of scholars and academics have tried to postulate, fro...

  13. Mollusk shell nacre ultrastructure correlates with environmental temperature and pressure.

    Olson, Ian C; Kozdon, Reinhard; Valley, John W; Gilbert, Pupa U P A


    Nacre, or mother-of-pearl, the tough, iridescent biomineral lining the inner side of some mollusk shells, has alternating biogenic aragonite (calcium carbonate, CaCO(3)) tablet layers and organic sheets. Nacre has been common in the shells of mollusks since the Ordovician (450 million years ago) and is abundant and well-preserved in the fossil record, e.g., in ammonites. Therefore, if any measurable physical aspect of the nacre structure was correlated with environmental temperatures, one could obtain a structural paleothermometer of ancient climates. Using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, Photoelectron emission spectromicroscopy (PEEM), and X-ray linear dichroism we acquired polarization-dependent imaging contrast (PIC) maps of pristine nacre in cross-section. The new PIC-map data reveal that the nacre ultrastructure (nacre tablet width, thickness, and angle spread) is species-specific in at least eight mollusk species from completely different environments: Nautilus pompilius, Haliotis iris, Haliotis rufescens, Bathymodiolus azoricus, Atrina rigida, Lasmigona complanata, Pinctada margaritifera, and Mytilus californianus. Nacre species-specificity is interpreted as a result of adaptation to diverging environments. We found strong correlation between nacre crystal misorientations and environmental temperature, further supported by secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements of in situ δ(18)O in the nacre of one shell. This has far-reaching implications: nacre texture may be used as a paleothermometer of ancient climate, spanning 450 million years of Earth's history. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  14. Layer-by-layer assembly surface modified microbial biomass for enhancing biorecovery of secondary gold.

    Zhou, Ying; Zhu, Nengwu; Kang, Naixin; Cao, Yanlan; Shi, Chaohong; Wu, Pingxiao; Dang, Zhi; Zhang, Xiaoping; Qin, Benqian


    Enhancement of the biosorption capacity for gold is highly desirable for the biorecovery of secondary gold resources. In this study, polyethylenimine (PEI) was grafted on Shewanella haliotis surface through layer-by-layer assembly approach so as to improve the biosorption capacity of Au(III). Results showed that the relative contribution of amino group to the biosorption of Au(III) was the largest one (about 44%). After successful grafting 1, 2 and 3-layer PEI on the surface of biomass, the biosorption capacity significantly enhanced from 143.8mg/g to 597.1, 559.1, and 536.8mg/g, respectively. Interestingly, the biomass modified with 1-layer PEI exhibited 4.2 times higher biosorption capacity than the untreated control. When 1-layer modified biomass was subjected to optimizing the various conditions by response surface methodology, the theoretical maximum adsorption capacity could reach up to 727.3mg/g. All findings demonstrated that PEI modified S. haliotis was effective for enhancing gold biorecovery.

  15. Benthic foraminifers on the continental shelf and upper slope, Russian River area, northern California ( USA).

    Quinterno, P.J.; Gardner, J.V.


    We analyzed benthic foraminifers from 71 surface samples collected from the sea floor of the continental margin. One hundred and six different taxa were identified, and Q-mode factor analysis was used to identify assemblages. Six foraminiferal assemblage factors explain 94% of the variation in the data matrix. The Inner Shelf Assemblage is characterized by Trichohyalus ornatissima, Rotalia columbiensis, Cassidulina limbata, Cibicides fletcheri, Elphidiella hannai and Elphidium sp. 1 and occupies water depths less than 50 m. The Middle Shelf Assemblage is characterized by Nonionella basispinata, Elphidium excavatum and Florilus labradoricus and occupies water depths between 50 and 90 m. A Middle Shelf to Upper Bathyal Assemblage is characterized by Uvigerina juncea, Globobulimina spp. and Nonionella basispinata and occupies depths between about 90 and 450 m. Two overlapping assemblages make up the Upper Middle Bathyal Assemblage and are most abundant between water depths of 500 and 1300 m. They are associated with low- oxygen conditions. The Mid-Bathyal Assemblage is dominated by Uvigerina proboscidea and occurs on the slope at water depths ranging from 1200 to 2500 m. -from Authors

  16. Microstructure, chemistry, and electronic structure of natural hybrid composites in abalone shell.

    Srot, Vesna; Wegst, Ulrike G K; Salzberger, Ute; Koch, Christoph T; Hahn, Kersten; Kopold, Peter; van Aken, Peter A


    The crystal structure and chemical composition at the inorganic/inorganic and inorganic/organic interfaces in abalone shell (genus Haliotis) were investigated using advanced analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods. Electron energy-loss near-edge structures (ELNES) of Ca-M2,3, C-K, Ca-L2,3, O-K and low-loss EEL spectra acquired from aragonite and calcite are distinctly different. When comparing biogenic with inorganic material for aragonite, only minor differences in C-K fine structures could be detected. The crystal structure of the mineral bridges was confirmed by ELNES experiments. ELNES and energy-filtered TEM (EFTEM) experiments of regular and self-healed interfaces between nacreous aragonite and prismatic calcite reveal relatively rough transitions. In this work, the importance of TEM specimen preparation and specimen damage on structural features is discussed.

  17. Potential biocontrol agents for biofouling on artificial structures.

    Atalah, Javier; Newcombe, Emma M; Hopkins, Grant A; Forrest, Barrie M


    The accumulation of biofouling on coastal structures can lead to operational impacts and may harbour problematic organisms, including non-indigenous species. Benthic predators and grazers that can supress biofouling, and which are able to be artificially enhanced, have potential value as augmentative biocontrol agents. The ability of New Zealand native invertebrates to control biofouling on marina pontoons and wharf piles was tested. Caging experiments evaluated the ability of biocontrol to mitigate established biofouling, and to prevent fouling accumulation on defouled surfaces. On pontoons, the gastropods Haliotis iris and Cookia sulcata reduced established biofouling cover by >55% and largely prevented the accumulation of new biofouling over three months. On wharf piles C. sulcata removed 65% of biofouling biomass and reduced its cover by 73%. C. sulcata also had better retention and survival rates than other agents. Augmentative biocontrol has the potential to be an effective method to mitigate biofouling on marine structures.

  18. Preparation of hemocyanin polyclonal antibody and the identification of 35 kDa hemocyanin fragment in HaHotis diversicolor Reeve%杂色鲍血蓝蛋白多克隆抗体的制备与血蓝蛋白35kDa片段鉴定

    姜敬哲; 韩焘; 王江勇; 杨慧英; 刘金叶


    以杂色鲍(Haliotis diversicolor Reeve)为研究对象,通过密度梯度离心方法纯化得到高纯度血蓝蛋白,以其作为抗原皮下注射免疫新西兰大白兔,从而获得高效价的兔源多克隆抗血清。进一步通过ProteinA抗原亲和纯化的方法对该抗血清纯化,最终获得效价更高、检测特异性更好的血蓝蛋白多克隆抗体。应用该抗体进行Western检测发现,鲍血淋巴中存在着多样的血蓝蛋白衍生产物;进一步结合质谱技术对其中35kDa条带进行鉴定发现,其来源于血蓝蛋白I型亚基的H结构域。%Haliotis diversicolor Reeve, was taken as research material. High purity hemocyanin proteins were puri- fied from the hemolymph of abalone using CsC1 density gradient centrifugation method. By injection of the purified antigen to a rabbit, high titer polyclonal anti-serum was acquired. The anti-serum was further processed with the protein A affinity purification to produce purified antibodies. Finally, the purified polyclonal antibodies with higher titer and specificity were acquired. Further Western blotting with these antibodies, plenty of hemocyanin was found as derivates of various molecular weights in abalone hemolymph.

  19. Reliability and Robustness Evaluation of Timber Structures

    Cizmar, Dean; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    In the last few decades there have been intensely research concerning reliability of timber structures. This is primarily because there is an increased focus on society on sustainability and environmental aspects. Modern timber as a building material is also being competitive compared to concrete...... parameters is given. System models (series and parallel) are discused and methods for reliability calculation are given. Special attention is drawn upon brittle/ductile modelling of timber and connections. In chapter 2 robustness requirements implemended in codes are presented. State of the art definitions...

  20. Metabolic responses to strength training: an emphasis on energy expenditure. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n2p150

    Ronei Silveira Pinto


    Full Text Available The present study reviews the results reported in the literature regarding energy expenditure in strength training (ST. For this purpose, a search was conducted in the Medline and Sport Discus databases using the following key words: strength training, energy expenditure, and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC. The studies analyzed report that ST protocols involving exercises for the major muscle groups characterized by high-intensity and high-volume training and low resting intervals between sets and exercises have a greater metabolic impact on ST. These variables also interfere with the magnitude and duration of EPOC

  1. Basics of interferometry

    Hariharan, P


    This book is for those who have some knowledge of optics, but little or no previous experience in interferometry. Accordingly, the carefully designed presentation helps readers easily find and assimilate the interferometric techniques they need for precision measurements. Mathematics is held to a minimum, and the topics covered are also summarized in capsule overviews at the beginning and end of each chapter. Each chapter also contains a set of worked problems that give a feel for numbers.The first five chapters present a clear tutorial review of fundamentals. Chapters six and seven discus

  2. Molduras e enquadramentos: reflexões metodológicas para uma análise interacionista

    Matheus Mazzilli Pereira


    Full Text Available This article aims to discus and connect the main methodological proposals developed by the interactionist perspective on framing applied to social movement studies. It is argued that two models were developed from distinct theoretical and conceptual assumptions: one focused on the analysis of internal mental cognitive structures and the other on the analysis of the meaning negotiation processes. The article proposed an alternative methodological model that connects these approaches. This model draws on theoretical insights developed by pragmatic sociological theories and by content and discourse analysis. The methodological proposal is illustrated with a research on the interactions between the animal rights movement and the mass media in Porto Alegre.

  3. Observations on bucket foundations under cyclic loading in dense saturated sand

    Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Nicolai, Giulio


    for each test. The discus¬sion of the results focuses on three aspects: a critical cyclic loading configuration isfound and compared with a previous study, a limit value of cyclic moment for which no degenerative rotation occurs is obtained and the effect of the loading frequency on the plastic......-term cyclic response of this foundation is not fully understood. In this article, a single gravity physical model is described, an experimental campaign is presented and the observed results are discussed. The aim of the study is to explore the general pattern of response of the foundation under cyclic...

  4. Comparison between numerical models for the simulation of moving contact lines

    LEGENDRE, Dominique; Maglio, Marco


    International audience; The aim of this study is to discus different numerically models for the simulation of moving contact lines in the context of a Volume of Fluid–Continuum Surface Force (VoF–CSF) method. We focus on the particular situation of spreading drops. We first present the numerical methods used for the simulation of moving contact line i.e. static contact angle versus dynamic contact angle, no slip condition versus slip condition. A grid and time convergence is performed for the...

  5. Atividade física e sintomas neuropsiquiátricos em pacientes com demência de Alzheimer

    Hernandez,Salma Stéphany Soleman; Vital, Thays Martins [UNESP; Gobbi, Sebastião; Costa,José Luiz Riani; Stella, Florindo


    Na demência de Alzheimer (DA) é comum a presença de sintomas neuropsiquiátricos resultantes de mudanças anatômicas e bioquímicas no cérebro. O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar uma revisão sistemática dos estudos que investigaram a relação entre atividade física e sintomas neuropsiquiátricos na DA. Efetuou-se uma pesquisa nas bases de dados: Academic Search Premier, Biological Abstracts, Medline, PsycINFO, Pubmed, Scielo, Science Direct, Sport Discus e Web of Science, utilizando-se as seguin...

  6. Improved staggered quark actions with reduced flavour symmetry violations for lattice QCD

    Lagaë, J F


    We introduce a new class of actions for staggered quarks in lattice QCD which significantly reduce flavour symmetry violations in the pion mass spectrum. An action introduced by the MILC collaboration for the same purpose is seen to be a special case. We discus how such actions arise from a systematic attempt to reduce flavour symmetry violations in the weak coupling limit. It is shown that for quenched lattice QCD at 6/g^2=5.7, representative actions of this class give a considerable reduction in flavour symmetry violation over the standard staggered action, and a significant reduction over what is achieved by the MILC action.

  7. Design and Fabrication of High Sensitive Piezoresistive MEMS Accelerometer



    Full Text Available This paper addresses the design and fabrication of high sensitive single axis piezoresistive micro-accelerometer for 50 g application. MEMS based accelerometer structure comprise of flexure fixed at one end and having attached proof mass at other end. This structure is designed and simulated using Coventorware. The simulation results show the sensitivity of 4mV/g. The structure is fabricated in N type silicon (100 substrate using Silicon bulk micromachining. This paper also discuses the use of PECVD Si3N4 layer as a masking material for silicon micromachining and process flow for accelerometer.

  8. Reformas administrativas y cambio organizacional: hacia el "efecto neto" Administrative Reforms and Organizational Change: Towards the "Net effect"

    David Arellano Gault


    En este artículo se discute la idea deque las reformas administrativas sean capaces de transformar y dirigir el comportamiento organizacional directa y linealmente. A partir de ideas clásicas de la sociología y de la sociología las organizaciones se construyen las bases para introducir el concepto del "efecto neto" organizacional. La idea del "efecto neto" es construir reformas administrativas capaces de abarcar y hacerse responsables de los efectos finales de las reformas.This article discus...

  9. It's Not a Minsky Moment, It's a Minsky Era, Or: Inevitable Instability

    M. June Flanders


    The paper aims to expose economists at large to the work of Hyman Minsky. The popular term ‘Minsky Moment’ is somewhat misleading, for he perceived not a moment but an era of instability and governmental management at the brink of crisis. His model incorporates explicitly money and the behavior of banks and other financial institutions. He died while still working, and the papers in his archives contain drafts of further work, including sketches for a book; some of his draft papers are discus...

  10. Abordaje fisioterapéutico en el Síndrome del Corredor (Banda Ilitibial). Revisión bibliográfica

    Caraballo Viña, Javier


    [ES]Introducción: El running es una práctica deportiva muy extendida. Los beneficios asociados al running son innumerables, pero pueden acarrear la aparición de una serie de patologías. El propósito de esta revisión fue recopilar los abordajes fisioterapéuticos que son atribuidos a la patología del SBIT y el estudio de su evidencia científica. Método: Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica desde 2005 en ScienceDirect, SportsDiscus with Full text (EBSCO), Scopus, Cochcrane Database of Systemati...

  11. [Renal angiomyolipoma complicated by retroperitoneal hematoma].

    Rabii, R; Fekak, H; Moufid, K; Joual, A; Benjelloun, S; Khaleq, K; Idali, B; Harti, A; Barrou, L


    Renal angiomyolipoma (AML) is a benign tumor, they are generally asymptomatic or can manifested by abdominal pain, palpable mass or hematuria. We report an uncommoun case of 65 years old women who consulted for retroperitoneal hemorrhage by spontaneous rupture of renal AML with palpable mass. The ultrasound and CT abdominopelvic scan were performed in the preoperative diagnosis and showed a typical right renal AML with retroperitoneal hematoma. The right nephrectomy by transperitoneal approach was performed with a good follow-up. The histological examination confirmed the diagnosis for renal AML. About this case, the authors discuses the diagnosis and the management for AML with retroperitoneal hemorrhage.

  12. Is "Spike" a Reliable Feature in Porb Distribution of AM HER Stars?

    Golovin, Alex; Pavlenko, Elena


    Orbital periods in AM Her stars (polars) are synchronized with spin periods of white dwarf by its high magnetic field. Since the last study of Porb distribution of these systems, the number of known objects of such type has more than doubled. This challenged us to compile a new updated catalogue of cataclysmic variables with highly magnetic white dwarfs (polars) and to study their Porb distribution. In this paper we also discus if "spike" is reliable feature in the distribution. ("Spike" is a concentration of polars in the distribution of their orbital periods near Porb = 114 min and was previously discussed by Ritter & Kolb (1992) and Shahbaz & Wood (1996).)

  13. Economic implications of the new legislation on environmental responsibility; Implicaciones economicas de la nueva legislacion en responsabilidad ambiental

    Borrego Gomez, A.; Riera, P.


    The European Environmental Liability Directive borrows from the US legislation the equivalency analysis tool. It is a tool to calculate the necessary remediation to return the environment to its baseline situation, as if it had not suffered the damage. The equivalence between damage and remediation can be estimated in terms of services (hectares of wetlands, for instance) or resources (trout, cork oaks), but under some circumstances the law also provides for welfare equivalency (generally expressed in monetary units). This articles introduces the equivalency tools, analyzes them in a cost-benefit analysis framework, and discuses some related issues, like the time treatment or the organization of a habitat banking system. (Author) 8 refs.

  14. Evaluation of a direct contact heat exchanger; Evaluacion de un intercambiador de calor de contacto directo

    Siqueiros, J.; Bonilla, O. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)


    In this paper the application areas of the direct contact heat exchangers is discussed, as well as its main characteristics. A description is made of the experimental equipment designed and built at pilot scale including the instrumentation employed. The methodology employed as well as the analysis and the discussion of the results are also presented. [Espanol] Se mencionan las areas de aplicacion de los intercambiadores de calor de contacto directo, asi como sus caracteristicas principales. Se describe el equipo experimental a nivel piloto disenado y construido incluyendo la instrumentacion utilizada. Se presenta la metodologia empleada asi como el analisis y discusion de los resultados.

  15. Fatalities and catastrophic injuries in high school and college sports, 1982-1997 lessons for improving safety.

    Cantu, R C; Mueller, F O


    The prohibition of 'spearing' in football and the rules regarding water depth and the racing dive in swimming are examples of how data on deaths and catastrophic injuries can be used to help promote the safety of young athletes. Other preventive measures supported by research include anchoring movable soccer goals to prevent tipping, improved training for high school wrestling coaches, increased awareness of pathogenic weight control in wrestling and gymnastics, rules against pushing or checking from behind in ice hockey, protective helmets for batting-practice pitchers in baseball, and barriers around the discus circle in track and field.

  16. Deficits neuropsicológicos asociados a lesión en el lóbulo frontal. Un estudio con pacientes supervivientes a un traumatismo craneoencefálico

    Barroso y Martín, Juan Manuel


    El trabajo se divide en dos grandes partes. La primera es una aproximación teórico-experimental a los conceptos que van a ser tratados en la investigación como son, entre otros, el concepto de lóbulo frontal, el de traumatismo craneoencefálico, etc. En la segunda se presentará la investigación propiamente dicha, análisis de resultados, discus ión y conclusiones del mismo.

  17. The effects of physical activity and exercise on brain-derived neurotrophic factor in healthy humans

    Huang, T; Larsen, K T; Ried-Larsen, M


    The purpose of this study was to summarize the effects of physical activity and exercise on peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in healthy humans. Experimental and observational studies were identified from PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Scopus, and SPORT Discus. A total of 32 articles...... met the inclusion criteria. Evidence from experimental studies suggested that peripheral BDNF concentrations were elevated by acute and chronic aerobic exercise. The majority of the studies suggested that strength training had no influence on peripheral BDNF. The results from most observational...

  18. Application of the Kelly Criterion to Ornstein-Uhlenbeck Processes

    Lv, Yingdong; Meister, Bernhard K.

    In this paper, we study the Kelly criterion in the continuous time framework building on the work of E.O. Thorp and others. The existence of an optimal strategy is proven in a general setting and the corresponding optimal wealth process is found. A simple formula is provided for calculating the optimal portfolio for a set of price processes satisfying some simple conditions. Properties of the optimal investment strategy for assets governed by multiple Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes are studied. The paper ends with a short discus-sion of the implications of these ideas for financial markets.

  19. A Framework to Manage the Complex Organisation of Collaborating: Its Application to Autonomous Systems

    Johnson, Peter; Carrigan, Neil; Forbes, Nick; 10.4204/EPTCS.16.5


    In this paper we present an analysis of the complexities of large group collaboration and its application to develop detailed requirements for collaboration schema for Autonomous Systems (AS). These requirements flow from our development of a framework for collaboration that provides a basis for designing, supporting and managing complex collaborative systems that can be applied and tested in various real world settings. We present the concepts of "collaborative flow" and "working as one" as descriptive expressions of what good collaborative teamwork can be in such scenarios. The paper considers the application of the framework within different scenarios and discuses the utility of the framework in modelling and supporting collaboration in complex organisational structures.

  20. Memory maps: two rural judges listing the inhabitants of their district and his economics activities (Pago de los Arroyos, Santa Fe del Río de la Plata, 1738

    Darío Gabriel Barriera


    Full Text Available The Christmas eve of 1734, a fire devastated the Royal Alcazar of Madrid, headquarters of the Royal family and of the Court. Felipe V ordered build in its place a Palace. To cover the costs, demanded a contribution to the cities of the monarchy. This text examines one of the consequences of this exigeance: listing the population of the south of Santa Fe, the rural judges made a padrón de pobladores. The author discuses hipothesys about the population of this territory and propose contributions about two others fields: the study of the minor judges and the study of the governamental technics at 18 century

  1. Daily Report, Supplement, East Europe.


    am assuming that I shall find support among the broad circles of railroadmen. We must react to the down- sizing of the CD as well as to its economic...recognized young athlete, and achieved nationally recog- nized scores in the shot put and in discus. I was forced to tolerate these punks punching me...of small and medium- sized businesses. The number of enter- prises with less than 100 employees grew from 129 (9.6 percent) in 1987 to 1,524 (41.6

  2. Gold—depleted Zone and Its Metallogenic Significance,Yinshan Ore Field,Jiangxi Proveince,China

    华仁民; 陈克荣; 等


    Based on gold analyses of 213 samples of the Shuangqiaoshan Group in an area of 225km2 with the Yinshan polymetallic ore district as the center, a depleted zone of gold is recognized around the ore district, suggesting that the Shuangqiaoshan Group may be a source bed for gold .Discus-sions were given concerning the alteration-mineralization features of the Yinshan deposit, the ore-controlling mechanism of the NE-trending fault zone and promising targets for further ore pros-pecting.

  3. [Nature of tryptophan photooxidation products in lysozyme in the presence of methylene blue].

    Churakova, N I; Kravchenko, N A; Serebriakov, E P; Kaverzneva, E D


    One out of six trytophan residues in two lysozyme modification, obtained under lysozyme photooxidation in the presence of methylene blue, is found to be oxidized to N'-formylkinurenine (in one modification) and to kinurenine (in the other modification). The transition of one modification into another via detaching of N'-formyl group by soft acid hydrolysis has shown that one and the same tryptophan residue is oxidized in both products, Possible mechanism of tryptophan oxidation to the products mentioned is discu-sed on the basis of the hypothesis on signlet mechanism of lysozyme photooxidation in the presence of methylene blue.

  4. Connections between microtubules and endoplasmic reticulum in mitotic spindle

    J. A. Tarkowska


    Full Text Available Dividing endosperm cells of Haemanthus katherinae Bak. were treated with an 0.025 per cent aqueous solution of an oleander glycosides mixture which produces severe disturtaances in the mitotic spindle and high hypertrophy of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER in the whole cells. There appear between the kinetochore microtubules (MTs numerous elongated and narrow ER cisterns, particularly well visible when the number of kinetochore MTs is reduced. Both these structures (MTs and ER are frequently connected by cross-bridges. The presumable role of these connections is discused.

  5. Outplacement dla firm - bariery, potrzeby, czynniki rozwoju (Outplacement for Companies - Barriers, Needs, Growth Factors)

    Klimczuk, Andrzej; Klimczuk-Kochańska, Magdalena


    Polish Abstract: Raport omawia następujące zagadnienia: - Pojęcie i istota outplacementu - Zarys historii outplacementu - Zwolnienia monitorowane w kontekście procesów derekrutacyjnych - Outplacement w warunkach wzrostu ryzyka i elastyczności organizacji - Outplacement narzędziem społecznej odpowiedzialności biznesu i ekonomii społecznej - Praktyka stosowania outplacementu w Polsce - Korzyści i bariery stosowania outplacementu z perspektywy przedsiębiorstw English Abstract: This report discus...

  6. Berengeria Gil-Santana & Coletto-Silva, a junior synonym of Ectrichodiella Fracker & Bruner, with new records and taxonomic notes on Ectrichodiinae from Brazil, and with keys to Ectrichodiinae and Reduviinae genera of the New World (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae).

    Gil-Santana, Hélcio R; Baena, Manuel; Grillo, Horacio


    Berengeria Gil-Santana & Coletto-Silva, 2005 is considered a junior synonym of Ectrichodiella Fracker & Bruner, 1924. Ectrichodiella minima (Valdés, 1910) and E. rafaeli (Gil-Santana & Coletto-Silva, 2005), new. comb. are redescribed. Taxonomic notes on Brontostoma alboannulatum (Stål, 1860), B. discus (Burmeister, 1835), B. nanus Carpintero, 1980, B. rubrovenosum (Stål, 1860), and B. trux (Stål, 1859) are given. Brontostoma diringshofeni Gil-Santana & Baena, 2009, B. nanus, and Racelda robusta Bérenger & Gil-Santana, 2005 are recorded from Brazil for the first time. Keys to Ectrichodiinae and Reduviinae genera of the New World are presented.

  7. Re-exploring Challenges and Strategies of English Learning for Chinese English-Learners



    Chinese English-learners always face many challenges when they try to acquire English language, not only in mainland China, but in Chinese communities overseas. Despite the prevalent challenge, such as cultural differences, the present paper tries to re-explore and refine these challenges and strategies, analyze the specific factors, such as age, accent, and thinking difference by using cognitive perspective and sociocultural perspective. To enhance English teaching and learning, it also makes deep discus-sions and provides some suggestions for future use.

  8. On the Application-oriented Personnel Training Mode%应用型人才培养模式研究



    The paper discuses the application-oriented personnel training mode,provides suggestions on the mode of school-running of higher education and gives reference for reforming the mode of school-running.%本文对构建应用型人才模式进行了探析,对高等教育培养应用型人才的办学模式提出建议,以期为改革办学模式提供借鉴。


    Martin Tomanek


    Full Text Available There is a lack of formal risk management techniques in agile software development methods Scrum. The need to manage risks in agile project management is also identified by various authors. Authors conducted a survey to find out the current practices in agile project management. Furthermore authors discus the new integration framework of Scrum and PRINCE2 with focus on risk management. Enrichment of Scrum with selected practices from the heavy-weight project management methodology PRINCE2 promises better results in delivering software products especially in global development projects.

  10. Bio-inspired nourishing relationship between human and systems

    Kawakami, Hiroshi


    This paper discuses on the adaptive systems in the near future from the viewpoint of nourishing relationship. Based on the assumption that the social system is so-called "system of systems," managing adaptive systems within the social system puts emphasis rather on relationship among systems than on each element of systems with the help of ecological approach to systems science. Inspired by natural biological systems, the relationship between adaptive systems and users are formalized as a mutual nurturing, then this paper discusses on principle of designing such relationship.

  11. Implementing The Automated Phases Of The Partially-Automated Digital Triage Process Model

    Gary D Cantrell


    Full Text Available Digital triage is a pre-digital-forensic phase that sometimes takes place as a way of gathering quick intelligence. Although effort has been undertaken to model the digital forensics process, little has been done to date to model digital triage. This work discuses the further development of a model that does attempt to address digital triage the Partially-automated Crime Specific Digital Triage Process model. The model itself will be presented along with a description of how its automated functionality was implemented to facilitate model testing.

  12. [Human origin and evolution. A review of advances in paleoanthropology, comparative genetics, and evolutionary psychology].

    Markov, A V


    In his main work, "On the origin of species", Darwin has refrained from discusion of the origin of man; be only mentioned that his theory would "throw light" on this problem. This famous Darwin's phrase turned out to be one of the most succesful scientific predictions. In the present paper some of the most important recent adavnces in paleoanthroplogy, comparative genetics and evolutionary psychology are reviewed. These three disciplines currently contribute most to our knowledge of anthropogenesis. The review demonstrates that Darwin's ideas not only "threw light" on human origin and evolution; they provided a comprehensive framework for a great variety of studies concerning different aspects of anthropogenesis.



    CROSS-CULTURAL TALK BOOK LAUNCHED IN U.S. A book entitled A Friendly Dialogue Between An Atheist and A Christian,co-authored by Zhao Qizhen,former Minister of China’s State Council Information Office and Luis Palau,American Christian evangelist,was released in New York on February 20. The book is a collection of wide-ranging and in-depth discus- sions between the two authors on religion,culture,history and science in the past.In the book,

  14. Discussions about high performance liquid chromatography upgrading to ion chromatography%液相色谱升级改造为离子色谱问题探讨

    施超欧; 马浩; 姚宝龙; 黄彩勇


    离子色谱作为色谱的一个分支,在原理和仪器结构上与液相色谱密切相关。本文总结了液相色谱升级为离子改造色谱的经验。%As a part of chromatography ,the functions and structures of instruments between high per-formance liquid chromatography and ion chromatography are closely related .In this paper ,HPLC upgra-ded to IC was discused .

  15. Efectos agudos del trabajo resistido mediante trineo: Una revisión sistemática

    María Asunción Martínez-Valencia; José María González-Ravé; Fernando Navarro Valdivielso; Pedro E. Alcaraz


    El objetivo de esta revisión es analizar la literatura científica en relación a los efectos que el trabajo con sobrecarga tiene sobre el rendimiento en velocidad, potencia y producción de fuerza así como la situación actual en relación a la carga adecuada de entrenamiento. Se emplearon las bases de datos internacionales MEDLINE/PubMed y SportDiscus entre 1985 y 2012 utilizándose las siguientes palabras clave: “Sprint Running”, “Resisted Training”, “Sled Towing”, “Resisted Sprint”, “Resisted S...

  16. Can More Information Be Shared in China?


    It's a complicated China I find, like all westerners, that most Chinese communication is 'complicated'. I think this comes from the strong Chi- nese preference for indirect communica- tion. Often in business, the real picture would only become clear after many hours of around-the-houses discus- sion, which doesn't even stop when the contract is agreed and signed. Patience and cross-checking are vital, but labori- ous. No requirement is either straight- forward or direct, even if the customer is in a hurry. They want to explore all the.

  17. Public Space and the Coevolution of Digital and Digitized Media

    Niels Ole Finneman


    Full Text Available In the first section it is argued that digital media are characterized by a variable functional architecture. In the second section, it is argued that theories af replacement and convergence ought to be replaced by a theory of coevolution in order to understand how the internet and mo- bile media are integrated in different societies. The third section discus- ses whether the influence of the old media in this coevolutionary pro- cess also implies that differences in the existing media systems will lead to different developments in the internet.

  18. Fostering Learner Autonomy by Strengthening Learners’Motivation



    This paper aims to discus some practical ways to develop the learners’autonomous English learning abilities. After ana-lyzed the motivation problems, the author strengthened learners’motivation through classroom teaching successfully by building good social relations, promoting negotiation, promoting interaction in the classroom and setting up adequate evaluation systems, etc. The author finds that using the content of regular college classroom teaching as a meaningful context for the development of responsibility can enhance the learning effect. The teacher’s guiding role in autonomous learning should never be ignored. Devel-oping autonomous English learning in vocational colleges in China is our long-term pedagogical goal.

  19. Precautionary motivation and consumption Insurance: Empirical analysis of household consumption behavior in rural China

    LUO Chuliang


    Based on a bousehold survey in rural China,this paper discuses parameters such as precautionary motive,excess sensitivity,contraption insurance,and inter-temporal substitution in the household consumption function in rural China.The conclusions of the paper indicate that there is a significant precautionary motive in household consumption in rural China,but the function of consumption insurance is very limited,and the consumption is also excessively sensitive to the income change.Such parameters are different among consumers within different groups.

  20. Outplacement for Companies - Barriers, Needs, Growth Factors

    Klimczuk, Andrzej; Klimczuk-Kochańska, Magdalena


    Polish Abstract: Raport omawia następujące zagadnienia: - Pojęcie i istota outplacementu - Zarys historii outplacementu - Zwolnienia monitorowane w kontekście procesów derekrutacyjnych - Outplacement w warunkach wzrostu ryzyka i elastyczności organizacji - Outplacement narzędziem społecznej odpowiedzialności biznesu i ekonomii społecznej - Praktyka stosowania outplacementu w Polsce - Korzyści i bariery stosowania outplacementu z perspektywy przedsiębiorstw English Abstract: This report discus...

  1. From PA(X) to RPAM(X)

    Markvorsen, Steen


    How can we use the well-established Public Awareness of some phenomenon X, i.e. PA(X), to Raise the Public Awareness of the Mathematics of—or within—this X, i.e. RPAM(X)? There are several examples illustrating particular assets for mathematics in this way within such phenomena X. Here we...... will discus only one phenomenon, which, however, contains a particularly dramatic momentum for arousing awareness among all of us, namely X = wildfires. The mathematics of this and of similar phenomena range—among several other topics—from elementary K–12 studies of ellipses to deep research questions...

  2. H7N9 influenza: The emerging infectious disease

    Viroj Wiwanitkit


    Full Text Available Influenza virus infection is a common respiratory pathogen. Emerging of new atypical influenza is usually a big public health threat. H7N9 bird flu is the newest atypical influenza virus infection that has just been reported since early 2013. The emerging of this new disease occurred in China and becomes the present focus for possible worldwide pandemic. In this specific article, the author will discus and describe on epidemiology, symptomatology, pathology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of this new bird flu. The literature researching by PubMed and Google is used for data gathering in this collective review.

  3. 论因特网与公安网条件下公安院校教育信息资源共享%Discussion on Internet and Education Information Resources Sharing in Public Security Colleges



    Realizing the public security education information resources sharing is a formidable task .On how public security education uses the advanced Internet and public security network to realize public security education information resource sharing issues ,this paper has made preliminary discus-sions .%实现公安教育信息资源共享是一项艰巨的任务。文章就公安教育如何利用发达的互联网和公安网,实现公安教育信息资源共享问题,进行了初步探讨。

  4. [Bone and Men's Health. Bone selective androgen receptor modulators].

    Furuya, Kazuyuki


    Androgen, one of the sex steroid hormones shows various biological activities on the corresponding various tissues. Many efforts to produce novel drug materials maintaining a desired biological activity with an adequate tissue selectivity, which is so-called selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) , are being performed. As one of such efforts, studies on SARMs against bone tissues which possess a significant potential to stimulate a bone formation with reducing undesirable androgenic virilizing activities are in progress all over the world. This review focuses on the research and development activities of such SARMs and discuses their usefulness for the treatment of osteoporosis.

  5. Ultra-capacitors in power conversion systems analysis, modeling and design in theory and practice

    Grbovic, Petar J


    Divided into five parts, this book is focused on ultra-capacitors and their applications in power conversion systems. It discusses ultra-capacitor analysis, modelling and module design from a macroscopic (application) perspective. It also describes power conversion applications, interface dc-dc converter design and entire conversion system design. Part One covers the background of energy storage technologies, with particular attention on state-of-the-art ultra-capacitor energy storage technologies. In Chapter four of this part, power conversion systems with integrated energy storage is discus

  6. Summer Workshop on Particle Physics

    Chamseddine, A H; Nath, Pran


    These lectures give an elementary introduction to the important recent developments of the applications of N=1 supergravity to the construction of unified models of elementary particle interactions. Topics covered include couplings of supergravity with matter, spontaneous symmetry breaking and the super-higgs effect, construction of supergravity unified models, and the phenomenon of SU(2) x U(1) electroweak-symmetry breaking by supergravity. Experimental consequences of N-1 supergravity unified theory, in particular, the possible supersymmetric decays of the W ± and Z 0 bosons, are also discus

  7. Wheelchair propulsion biomechanics and wheelers' quality of life: an exploratory review.

    Chow, John W; Levy, Charles E


    PURPOSE. To provide an overview of associations between wheelchair propulsion biomechanics for both everyday and racing wheelchairs, wheeling-related upper limb injuries, and quality of life of manual wheelchair users through a synthesis of the available information. METHODS. A search of publications was carried out in PubMed and SportsDiscus databases. Studies on wheelchair propulsion biomechanics, upper limb injuries associated with wheelchair propulsion and quality of life of wheelchair users were identified. Relevant articles cited in identified articles but not cited in PubMed or SportsDiscus were also included. RESULTS. Wheelchair sports participation has positive impact on quality of life and research in racing wheelchair biomechanics can indirectly promote the visibility of wheelchair sports. The impact of pushrim-activated power-assisted wheelchairs (a hybrid between manual and battery-powered wheelchairs) and geared manual wheels on wheelers' everyday life were discussed. CONCLUSIONS. The study of wheelchair propulsion biomechanics focuses on how a wheelchair user imparts power to the wheels to achieve mobility and the accumulated knowledge can help to improve wheelchair users' mobility, reduce physical stress associated with wheelchair propulsion, and as a result, enhance quality of life.

  8. Holocene palaeoecological changes recorded in mollusc-bearing cave sediments, the Cave above the Słupska Gate (southern Poland)

    Szymanek, M.; Krajcarz, M; Krajcarz, M.T.; Alexandrowicz, W.P.


    The Cave above the Słupska Gate (southern Poland) contains about 2m depth of mollusc-bearing deposits. Radiocarbon and archaeological dating indicate that these deposits accumulated during the Holocene (Preboreal to Subatlantic), although the earliest layers may date from the end of the Pleistocene. Eight layers of silts, sands and loess-like deposits were distinguished at the site. Seven of them contained identifiable snail shells, sometimes n large numbers, and sparse remains of vertebrates and archaeological artefacts. The molluscan assemblages retrieved from the cave contain over 40 taxa and 1,200 specimens. The balance of species distributed among 11 oogeographical groups enabled us to identify four assemblages which differ in their ecological structure and in the composition of the fauna. The oldest fauna (Late Glacial/Preboreal and/or Preboreal) with many shade-loving species is typical of a cool climate. Episodes of drying are evidenced by the loess-like deposits and the occurrence of open-country snails such as the glacial relic Vallonia tenuilabris. This species disappeared in the younger part of the Early Holocene, which is the most distinctive feature of the Słupsko Hill sequence. The Middle Holocene climatic optimum is characterised by abundantand diverse fauna which is typical of mixed and deciduous forests with distinct oceanic influences. The critical Discus ruderatus and Discus rotundatus succession reflects the general trends in European malacofaunas. The Late Holocene record may bear some hiatuses, but the shift away from a complete forest fauna is evident. (Author)

  9. Chromosomal distribution of microsatellite repeats in Amazon cichlids genome (Pisces, Cichlidae)

    Schneider, Carlos Henrique; Gross, Maria Claudia; Terencio, Maria Leandra; de Tavares, Édika Sabrina Girão Mitozo; Martins, Cesar; Feldberg, Eliana


    Abstract Fish of the family Cichlidae are recognized as an excellent model for evolutionary studies because of their morphological and behavioral adaptations to a wide diversity of explored ecological niches. In addition, the family has a dynamic genome with variable structure, composition and karyotype organization. Microsatellites represent the most dynamic genomic component and a better understanding of their organization may help clarify the role of repetitive DNA elements in the mechanisms of chromosomal evolution. Thus, in this study, microsatellite sequences were mapped in the chromosomes of Cichla monoculus Agassiz, 1831, Pterophyllum scalare Schultze, 1823, and Symphysodon discus Heckel, 1840. Four microsatellites demonstrated positive results in the genome of Cichla monoculus and Symphysodon discus, and five demonstrated positive results in the genome of Pterophyllum scalare. In most cases, the microsatellite was dispersed in the chromosome with conspicuous markings in the centromeric or telomeric regions, which suggests that sequences contribute to chromosome structure and may have played a role in the evolution of this fish family. The comparative genome mapping data presented here provide novel information on the structure and organization of the repetitive DNA region of the cichlid genome and contribute to a better understanding of this fish family’s genome. PMID:26753076

  10. Chromosomal distribution of microsatellite repeats in Amazon cichlids genome (Pisces, Cichlidae).

    Schneider, Carlos Henrique; Gross, Maria Claudia; Terencio, Maria Leandra; de Tavares, Édika Sabrina Girão Mitozo; Martins, Cesar; Feldberg, Eliana


    Fish of the family Cichlidae are recognized as an excellent model for evolutionary studies because of their morphological and behavioral adaptations to a wide diversity of explored ecological niches. In addition, the family has a dynamic genome with variable structure, composition and karyotype organization. Microsatellites represent the most dynamic genomic component and a better understanding of their organization may help clarify the role of repetitive DNA elements in the mechanisms of chromosomal evolution. Thus, in this study, microsatellite sequences were mapped in the chromosomes of Cichla monoculus Agassiz, 1831, Pterophyllum scalare Schultze, 1823, and Symphysodon discus Heckel, 1840. Four microsatellites demonstrated positive results in the genome of Cichla monoculus and Symphysodon discus, and five demonstrated positive results in the genome of Pterophyllum scalare. In most cases, the microsatellite was dispersed in the chromosome with conspicuous markings in the centromeric or telomeric regions, which suggests that sequences contribute to chromosome structure and may have played a role in the evolution of this fish family. The comparative genome mapping data presented here provide novel information on the structure and organization of the repetitive DNA region of the cichlid genome and contribute to a better understanding of this fish family's genome.

  11. Diseno de una Actividad de Aprendizaje Basada en la Argumentacion Dialogica en un curso Virtual de Biotecnologia y su Incidencia en el Desarrollo de Competencias Cientificas

    Ortiz Benavides, Fedra Lorena

    El proposito de la investigacion fue evaluar la efectividad de una actividad de aprendizaje basado en la argumentacion dialogica en linea y su incidencia en el desarrollo de competencias cientificas. Se fundamenta en la teoria del aprendizaje socio cultural de Vigotsky (1984), los principios del diseno instruccional de la cognicion situada por Hung y Der-Thang (2001) y como estrategia se aplico la argumentacion dialogica utilizando el Modelo Argumentativo de Toulmin MAT (1984). El diseno experimental comparo dos grupos de estudiantes A y B en el curso virtual de Biotecnologia. El grupo A (experimental) desarrollo la discusion a partir de la estrategia disenada para este estudio y el grupo B (control) realizo la discusion desde las actividades tradicionales. El desarrollo de la competencia argumentativa se valoro con el instrumento de evaluacion para argumentacion dialogica en linea propuesta por Clark y Sampson (2008). La evaluacion de las competencias cientificas se realizo a partir de una postprueba. Los datos fueron analizados con pruebas estadisticas no parametricas. Los resultados de la investigacion, indicaron diferencias significativas en el nivel de la competencia argumental en el grupo experimental en comparacion al grupo control. Igualmente se demostro que existe una relacion positiva entre el nivel de desarrollo de la competencia argumentativa y el nivel de desarrollo de las competencias cientificas.

  12. Wave-current interaction near the Gulf Stream during the surface wave dynamics experiment

    Wang, David W.; Liu, Antony K.; Peng, Chih Y.; Meindl, Eric A.


    This paper presents a case study on the wave-current interaction near the local curvature of a Gulf Stream meander. The wave data were obtained from in situ measurements by a pitch-roll discus buoy during the Surface Wave Dynamics Experiment (SWADE) conducted off Wallops Island, Virginia, from October 1990 to March 1991. Owing to the advection of the Gulf Stream by the semidiurnal tide, the discus buoy was alternately located outside and inside the Gulf Stream. The directional wave measurements from the buoy show the changes in wave direction, wave energy, and directional spreading when waves encountered the current in the Gulf Stream meanders. A wave refraction model, using the ray-tracing method with an estimated Gulf Stream velocity field and meandering condition, was used to simulate wave refraction patterns and to estimate wave parameters at relative locations corresponding to buoy measurements. The numerical simulation shows that a focusing zone of wave rays was formed near the boundary and behind the crest of a simulated Gulf Stream meander. The focusing of wave rays causes changes in wave direction, increases in wave energy, and decreases in wave directional spreading, which are in good agreement with the results from the buoy measurements.

  13. Měkkýši PR Velké Doly u Českého Těšína (Slezsko, Česká republika

    Jiří Kupka


    Full Text Available The molluscan fauna of the Velké Doly Natural Reserve was surveyed in 1999 and 2006. In total, 27 snail species were found (26 terrestrial gastropods and 1 bivalve. The Natural Reserve is only 1.5 km far from ironworks “Třinecké železárny”. In the 18th century, there was a limestone quarry and beech plantation (as a fuel for ironworks in the reserve. At the present time the reserve represents the secondary forests society Tilio cordatae-Carpinetum with protected and regional notable plants in undergrowth (Cephalanthera damasonium, Lilium martagon, Arum alpinum, Hacquetia epipactis, etc. The present character of the Velké Doly Natural Reserve is a result of human activities, nevertheless it is preserved and favourable site for molluscs, since many stenotopic and endangered woodland species occur there (e.g. Discus perspectivus, Petasina unidentata, Oxychilus glaber. The presence of the vulnerable snail Discus perspectivus is notable as first locality in Poland part of Těšín region (the Natural Reserve Velké Doly is located on the Poland border. Occurrence of euryecious species Arion distinctus, Arion lusitanicus and Limax maximus could relate with some human impact (e.g. presence of allotted gardens colony.

  14. Holocene evolution of coastal chalk cliffs in Normandy (NW France) as evidenced by onshore-offshore high resolution geomorphology

    Duguet, Timothée; Duperret, Anne; Costa, Stéphane; Regard, Vincent; Maillet, Grégoire


    take into account detailed rock lithology and rock resistance, large and small-scale structural deformation and fractures occurrences versus the sea level variations during the Holocene. A numeric watersheds analysis has been performed inland to highlight the morphometric properties and the maturity status of each quaternary valley. They appear to be immature, even if their downstream areas demonstrate slopes varying between 0.5 and 2°. Paleo-rivers stopped to incise the chalk before reaching their equilibrium level base. We thus consider that the equilibrium point where the paleo-rivers and the past sea level were connected is located on the shore platform i.e. today located offshore. Therefore we project offshore the V-shaped valley base level, using Hack's law to estimate the paleo-coastline location. It will be correlated to the sea level fluctuations from the last interglacial period and to the Holocene shoreline recession rates known from the 10Be cosmogenic dating. References DUPERRET Anne (2013) CROCOLIT_LEG1 cruise, RV Haliotis, DUPERRET Anne (2013) CROCOLIT_LEG3 cruise, RV Haliotis, MAILLET Grégoire (2014) SPLASHALIOT-2 cruise, RV Haliotis,

  15. Caring for and Keeping the Elderly in Their Homes

    Hong Tao; Susan McRoy


    Population aging is a global issue. The problem is especially critical in societies, such as China and India, where there has been both rapid aging of the population and a tradition that children are the primary caregivers for their elderly parents who are no longer independent. This article discus-ses a variety of options for various types of professional and non-professional caregivers and serv-ices for the elderly in their homes used in the U. S. and how technology has been used to support this heterogeneous model of caregiving. Efforts have been made to coordinate among caregivers and outside services and track changes in health conditions effectively over time through the greater use of technology. These ideas offer a possible path for other societies, such as China and India, facing growing health needs and limited resources to care for the elderly.

  16. The influence of fuel type on the cooling system heat exchanger parameters in heavy-duty engines

    Worsztynowicz, B.


    The paper discuses the problem of selection of cooling systems for heavy-duty engines fitted in city buses. Aside from diesel engines, engine manufacturers also have in their portfolio engines fueled with natural gas, whose design is based on that of a conventional diesel engine. Based on the parameters of the engines from this type-series (the same displacement and rated power) an analysis has been performed of the influence of the applied fuel on the heat flows directed to the radiators and charge air coolers, hence, their size and space necessary for their proper installation. A replacement of a diesel engine with a natural gas fueled engine of the same operating parameters results in an increased amount of heat released to the coolant and a reduced heat from the engine charging system. This forces a selection of different heat exchangers that require more space for installation. A universal cooling module for different engines is not an optimal solution.

  17. 创建节约型施工技术的探讨%Discussion on Creating a Conservation-minded Construction Technology


    This paper makes an in-depth research and discus-sion on the conservation-oriented construction site managem-ent system, recycling of water resources, ef icient use of build-ing materials, new material and new technology application from the innovation of management and technology.%  本文从管理和科技创新的角度对节约型工地建设的管理制度、水资源的循环利用、建筑材料的高效利用、新材料新工艺的应用等进行了深入的研究和探讨。

  18. A numerical study of Penrose-like inequalities in a family of axially symmetric initial data

    Jaramillo, J L; Ansorg, M


    Our current picture of black hole gravitational collapse relies on two assumptions: i) the resulting singularity is hidden behind an event horizon -- weak cosmic censorship conjecture -- and ii) spacetime eventually settles down to a stationarity state. In this setting, it follows that the minimal area containing an apparent horizon is bound by the square of the total ADM mass (Penrose inequality conjecture). Following Dain et al. 2002, we construct numerically a family of axisymmetric initial data with one or several marginally trapped surfaces. Penrose and related geometric inequalities are discused for these data. As a by-product, it is shown how Penrose inequality can be used as a diagnosis for an apparent horizon finder numerical routine.

  19. From (before) Bhopal to (after) BP: trade secrets and the right to know.

    Levenstein, Charles; Tuminaro, Dom


    This paper discuses the tensions between, on the one hand, workers' and communities' right to know about occupational and environmental hazards, and on the other hand, trade secrets and the rights of their corporate owners. We first discuss the role of trade secrets in economic development in the context of the benefits claimed for free markets. We then describe the ongoing struggles of workers and communities in the United States for access to information about hazards. The third section of the paper is a discussion of the reformulation of labor and occupational health and safety regulation as matters of human rights, again focusing on the situation in the United States. The final section is a discussion of the implications of the human rights approach for the occupational and environmental health practitioner. Although the paper focuses primarily on the U.S. experience, we believe that the lessons learned may be broadly applicable.

  20. Crítica de Libros.

    Fernando Colina Pérez


    Full Text Available

    PRESENTACION y ENSEÑANZAS DE SCHREBER, Daniel Paul Schreber -«Memorias de un Neurópata» -Ediciones Petrel. Buenos Aires -1978

    LA TEORIA COMO FICCION, Maud Mannoni -Editorial Crítica -1980


    LA SEXUALIDAD -Jean Laplanche

    EL ORDEN PSIQUIATRICO -Robert Castel -Ediciones La Piqueta. Madrid, 1980 -Colección «La Genealogía del Poder», dirigida por Julia Varela y Fernando Alvarez Uría

  1. Spectroscopy of lensing galaxies in the GTC era

    Shalyapin, Vyacheslav N


    We are using OSIRIS at the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio CANARIAS (GTC) to obtain spectra of faint galaxies close to multiply imaged quasars. We initially focused on the fields of HE 1413+117 (Cloverleaf quasar) and SDSS 1116+4118. In this contribution, we present long-slit spectroscopy of two galaxies in the southwest of the Cloverleaf, and show that one of them makes a negligible contribution to the external shear of the gravitational lens system. Spectra of the main lensing galaxy candidate in SDSS 1116+4118 are also analysed and discused. If gravitational lensing is causing the quasar image splitting, our spectra reveal that the main lens can not consist of only one dominant galaxy.

  2. Semantic Gaps Are Dangerous

    Ejstrup, Michael; le Fevre Jakobsen, Bjarne

    Semantic gaps are dangerous Language adapts to the environment where it serves as a tool to communication. Language is a social agreement, and we all have to stick to both grammaticalized and non-grammaticalized rules in order to pass information about the world around us. As such language develops...... unpolite language and tend to create dangerous relations where specialy language creates problems and trouble that could be avoided if we had better language tools at hand. But we have not these tools of communication, and we are in a situation today where media and specially digital and social media......, supported by new possibilities of migration, create dangerous situations. How can we avoid these accidental gaps in language and specially the gaps in semantic and metaphoric tools. Do we have to keep silent and stop discusing certain isues, or do we have other ways to get acces to sufficient language tools...

  3. Media attention and the market for "green" consumer products

    Thøgersen, John

    Environmental protection has been an issue with remarkable staying power on the public agenda in Europe and North America in the past two to three decades (Dunlap, 2002) and many companies have prospered by seizing the opportunities offered by the growing "green" market. However, now...... there are signs of a general "counter attack" being or-chestrated against the "greens." In this paper I survey the evidence regarding an "issue-attention" cycle (Downs, 1972) in environmental concern in Western Europe and North America and discus the role of the news media in creating the cycle. It is well...... means that "green" businesses eventually loose the current of a rising issue attention cycle. Its mere success means that stories that frame "green" businesses in a negative light have become newsworthy while positive stories have lost its newsworthiness. "Green" product failures involve a sense...

  4. Les dispositions éthiques dans la conduite de l’enquête et la livraison publique de ses résultats

    Genard, Jean-Louis; Roca i Escoda, Marta


    Nous nous proposons, dans ce texte, de réfléchir aux liens, souvent sous-estimés quand ce n’est pas tus, entre épistémologie, méthode et éthique. N’est-il pas patent qu’épistémologie et méthodologie ne sont pas sans liens avec des enjeux politiques et éthiques ? Comment toutefois, dans une contribution aux ambitions modestes, penser ces liens ? Telle sera la question qui sera au centre de nos réflexions. Pour ce faire, nous partirons de trois assertions que nous souhaiterions mettre en discus...

  5. Oral English Teaching under the Guidance of Constructivism%建构主义指导下的大学英语口语教学



    建构主义教学强调以学生为中心,肯定学生在学习活动中的主体性,重视教学过程中的情境创设,符合输出型的口语学习.本文在讨论建构主义应用于口语教学中优势的基础上,阐释此理论在大学英语口语教学中的具体实践.%Constructivism emphasizes student-centered teaching, students learning activities certainly subjectivity, atten-tion to the teaching process of situational creation, in line with output type of verbal learning. In this paper, the discus-sion applies to oral constructivist teaching based on the advantages, illustrates this theory practice in college spoken English teaching.

  6. A Framework to Manage the Complex Organisation of Collaborating: Its Application to Autonomous Systems

    Peter Johnson


    Full Text Available In this paper we present an analysis of the complexities of large group collaboration and its application to develop detailed requirements for collaboration schema for Autonomous Systems (AS. These requirements flow from our development of a framework for collaboration that provides a basis for designing, supporting and managing complex collaborative systems that can be applied and tested in various real world settings. We present the concepts of "collaborative flow" and "working as one" as descriptive expressions of what good collaborative teamwork can be in such scenarios. The paper considers the application of the framework within different scenarios and discuses the utility of the framework in modelling and supporting collaboration in complex organisational structures.

  7. Sustainability Analysis for Gayo Coffee Supply Chain

    Rachman Jaya


    Full Text Available Sustainable supply chain is a development of the conventional supply chains that discuses trade-off among economic, social and environmental dimensions in order to achieve better responsiveness in terms of quality, quantity and time-delivery in the supply chain structure. The objective of this research was to determine the Gayo coffee supply chain sustainability. The research was conducted at Bener Meriah and Aceh Tengah Districts, Aceh Province, Indonesia. Key actors in the supply chain considered were farmers, collectors, agro-industry and exporter. Sustainability dimensions considered in this research were the economic, social, environmental and material resources. The performance of each aspect was analyzed by using Multi-dimensional scaling and leverage analysis. The result of the research showed that the composite of Gayo coffee supply chain sustainability index was 33.53 which mean less sustainable level. Therefore it is recommended to reengineering the Gayo coffee supply chain by considering all of the four sustainability dimensions above.

  8. Application of an acoustoelectronic technique to study ordered microstructured disperse systems with biological objects in a hydrogel

    Anisimkin, V. I.; Pokusaev, B. G.; Skladnev, D. A.; Sorokin, V. V.; Tyupa, D. V.


    Using acoustoelectronic sensors not containing sensitive coatings, we studied a series of microbiological preparations: yeast cells and bacteria, as well as virus particles, immobilized in hydrogels of different concentration. The obtained measurement data on the acoustic characteristics make it possible to (1) reveal the presence of biological objects in both fluid media and agarose-based hydrogels of various concentration; (2) establish the physical mechanism that results in acoustoelectronic detection; (3) evaluate changes in the concentration of biological objects and their electric conductivity. The data confirm the possibility of applying the acoustoelectronic technique to detect microbiological objects and observe their growth in hydrogel media. We discus the limitations and drawbacks of the acoustoelectronic technique.

  9. The Initial Discussion on Vertical Shaft Sinking Method in Longdong Region%陇东地区立井凿井法问题初探

    雷风; 杨乃忠


    本文通过调研和现场施工实际资料,分析探讨了甘肃陇东地区煤矿立井施工面临的问题,提出了个人的意见和建议,可供本地区煤矿建设工程参考和借鉴。%T he paper through research and site construction of real data ,introduced the initial discus-sion of vertical shaft sinking method at Longdong region for coal mine and put forward the personal o-pinions and suggestions ,it could be used for the analogous shaft construction.

  10. Physical and chemical structure of planet-forming disks probed by millimeter observations and modeling

    Dutrey, Anne; Chapillon, Edwige; Gorti, Uma; Guilloteau, Stéphane; Hersant, Franck; Hogerheijde, Michiel; Hughes, Meredith; Meeus, Gwendolyn; Nomura, Hideko; Piétu, Vincent; Qi, Chunhua; Wakelam, Valentine


    Protoplanetary disks composed of dust and gas are ubiquitous around young stars and are commonly recognized as nurseries of planetary systems. Their lifetime, appearance, and structure are determined by an interplay between stellar radiation, gravity, thermal pressure, magnetic field, gas viscosity, turbulence, and rotation. Molecules and dust serve as major heating and cooling agents in disks. Dust grains dominate the disk opacities, reprocess most of the stellar radiation, and shield molecules from ionizing UV/X-ray photons. Disks also dynamically evolve by building up planetary systems which drastically change their gas and dust density structures. Over the past decade significant progress has been achieved in our understanding of disk chemical composition thanks to the upgrade or advent of new millimeter/Infrared facilities (SMA, PdBI, CARMA, Herschel, e-VLA, ALMA). Some major breakthroughs in our comprehension of the disk physics and chemistry have been done since PPV. This review will present and discus...



    Zheng Min(Maggie):Initiation of the discus-sion topicDear Mr.Ma,I’m very sorry for this late initia-tion of discussion topics.Just come from one countyof Inner Mongolia near the city of Chi Feng.There isreally a lack of competent teachers of English in ruralareas,and in astonishment I saw many who barelyspeak English teaches English in middle schools.Asfor the topic of discussion,I’d like to focus on learn-er’s motivation,which is a vital factor in successfullearning.It is well known that motivation is classi-fied by Gardner & Lambert(1972)into"integrative"and"instrumental"ones.Other categorization in-

  12. Polifenoles en Myristicaceae americanas II. Distribución en especies colombianas Polifenoles en Myristicaceae americanas II. Distribución en especies colombianas

    Aguirre Gálviz Luis Enrique


    Full Text Available

    The distribution of phenolic acids and flavonoid aglycones in 65 samples of 11 species of Colombian Myristicaceae was studied in order to complete the data obtained from other samples of American Myristicaceae. The occurrence and distribution of these compounds could be used for chemotaxonomic discusions of the family.

    Se estudió la distribución de polifenoles en 65 muestras de material de herbario de II especies de Myristicaceae coleccionadas en Colombia, con el objeto de complementar los datos obtenidos en otras muestras de Myristicaceae americanas. El patrón de distribución de estos compuestos podría servir para una discusión quimiotaxonómica de la familia.

  13. A General Framework for Sequential and Adaptive Methods in Survival Studies

    Luo, Xiaolong; Ying, Zhiliang


    Adaptive treatment allocation schemes based on interim responses have generated a great deal of recent interest in clinical trials and other follow-up studies. An important application of such schemes is in survival studies, where the response variable of interest is time to the occurrence of a certain event. Due to possible dependency structures inherited from the enrollment and allocation schemes, existing approaches to survival models, including those that handle staggered entry, cannot be applied directly. This paper develops a new general framework with its theoretical foundation for handling such adaptive designs. The new approach is based on marked point processes and differs from existing approaches in that it considers entry and calender times rather than survival and calender times. Large sample properties, which are essential for statistical inference, are established. Special attention is given to the Cox model and related score processes. Applications to adaptive and sequential designs are discus...

  14. 170th International School of Physics "Enrico Fermi" : Measurements of Neutrino Mass

    Vissani, F; Brofferio, C; MNM-08; Measurements of Neutrino Mass; MNM 2008


    This volume offers a valuable insight into various aspects of the ongoing work directed at measuring neutrino mass. It took twenty years to refute the assertions of Bethe and Peierls that neutrinos were not observable, but it has since been realised that much can be learnt from these particles. The moral is, as Fiorini argues here, that the study of neutrinos was and remains demanding but rewarding. Subjects addressed in this volume include; clarifying the meaning of the Klapdor-Kleingrothaus results, probing the Majorana nature of neutrinos, observing lepton number violating effects for the first time, studying the end point of the spectrum in the search for neutrino masses and speculating whether it is possible to measure neutrino masses in cosmology. Lectures are enriched with rich historical overviews and valuable introductory material. Attention is also given to theoretical topics such as the evolution of the concept of mass in particle physics, a status report on neutrino oscillations and current discus...

  15. Amoebological study of the atmosphere of San Luis Potosi, SLP, Mexico.

    Rodriguez-Zaragoza, S; Rivera, F; Bonilla, P; Ramirez, E; Gallegos, E; Calderon, A; Ortiz, R; Hernandez, D


    A one year round survey was conducted for isolation of free living amoebae (FLA) in the city of San Luis Potosi, (SLP), Mexico, which is placed in a desert environment. Samples were taken by modified impinger method and cultivated in laboratory conditions for FLA isolation following a week period of rehidration. 57 strains were isolated, 39% belonged to Acanthamoeba genus (which is important because it bears opportunistic pathogens that produce amoebic keratitis and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis in humans), 16% to Hartmannella, 9% to Vahlkampfia and the other proportion was divided among 6 other genera. The isolations were more abundant during dry season and the main genera were present in all four stands. The difference among them was the species variety which is discused as connected with abundance of organic wastes and lack of urbanization near the stations.

  16. Uquantchem: A versatile and easy to use Quantum Chemistry Computational Software

    Souvatzis, Petros


    In this paper we present the Uppsala Quantum Chemistry package (UQUANTCHEM), a new and versatile computational platform with capabilities ranging from simple Hartree-Fock calculations to state of the art First principles Extended Lagrangian Born Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics (XL- BOMD) and diffusion quantum Monte Carlo (DMC). The UQUANTCHEM package is distributed under the general public license and can be directly downloaded from the code web-site. Together with a presentation of the different capabilities of the uquantchem code and a more technical discus- sion on how these capabilities have been implemented, a presentation of the user-friendly aspect of the package on the basis of the large number of default settings will also be presented. Furthermore, since the code has been parallelized within the framework of the message passing interface (MPI), the timing of some benchmark calculations are reported to illustrate how the code scales with the number of computational nodes for different levels of chemic...

  17. Project communication in a strategic internal perspective

    Ramsing, Line B.


    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to discus the concept of project communication. What is currently understood by project communication? How and to what degree is it being discussed within the field of corporate communication and project management? And finally, what is the potential...... of interpersonal project communication? Design/methodology/approach - Based on a literature review of the two above mentioned fields of research the discussion of the potential of interpersonal project communication is put in relation to concepts of power relations in an organisation, use of networks...... communication there is no mentioning of project communication. Despite the acknowledged need to focus on communication as a whole in projects there is no indication in the literature that any collaboration exists between the field of corporate communication and the field of project management - creating a gap...

  18. How Unique and Traceable are Usernames?

    Perito, Daniele; Kaafar, Mohamed Ali; Manils, Pere


    Suppose you find the same username on different online services, what is the probability that these usernames refer to the same physical person? This work addresses what appears to be a fairly simple question, which has many implications for anonymity and privacy on the Internet. One possible way of estimating this probability would be to look at the public information associated to the two accounts and try to match them. However, for most services, these information are chosen by the users themselves and are often very heterogeneous, possibly false and difficult to collect. Furthermore, several websites do not disclose any additional public information about users apart from their usernames (e.g., discus- sion forums or Blog comments), nonetheless, they might contain sensitive information about users. This paper explores the possibility of linking users profiles only by looking at their usernames. The intuition is that the probability that two usernames refer to the same physical person strongly depends on t...

  19. The use of triangle diagram in the detection of explosive and illicit drugs

    Sudac, Davorin; Baricevic, Martina; Obhodas, Jasmina; Franulovic, Andrej; Valkovic, Vladivoj


    A tagged neutron inspection system has been used for the detection of explosive and illicite drugs. Simulant of the RDX explosive was measured in different environments and its gamma ray spectra were compared with the gamma ray spectra of benign materials like paper, sugar and rise. "Fingerprint" of the RDX simulant was found by detecting the nitrogen as well as by making the triangle plot which coordinates show the carbon and oxygen content and density. Density was obtained by measuring the intensity of the transmited tagged neutrons. Hence, the presence of the simulant can be confirmed by using two different methods. The possibility of using the triangle plot for detection of illicit drugs like heroin, cocain and marihuana is also discused.

  20. Revisión sistemática de las características e incidencia del pádel en España

    Manuel Villena-Serrano; Rosario Castro-López; Amador Lara-Sánchez; Javier Cachón-Zagalaz


    Por la importancia social del pádel en España, una revisión sistemática de la literatura que recoge sus características y evolución reforzará su conocimiento y sentará las bases teóricas de un deporte en plena expansión. El objetivo de este trabajo es explorar los orígenes, desarrollo, características e incidencia social del pádel. Para ello se han revisado las bases de datos: Web of Science (colección principal), SportDiscus, Scopus, Dialnet, Google Académico y TESEO del MECD, utilizando las...

  1. The effects of physical activity and exercise on brain-derived neurotrophic factor in healthy humans: A review.

    Huang, T; Larsen, K T; Ried-Larsen, M; Møller, N C; Andersen, L B


    The purpose of this study was to summarize the effects of physical activity and exercise on peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in healthy humans. Experimental and observational studies were identified from PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Scopus, and SPORT Discus. A total of 32 articles met the inclusion criteria. Evidence from experimental studies suggested that peripheral BDNF concentrations were elevated by acute and chronic aerobic exercise. The majority of the studies suggested that strength training had no influence on peripheral BDNF. The results from most observational studies suggested an inverse relationship between the peripheral BDNF level and habitual physical activity or cardiorespiratory fitness. More research is needed to confirm the findings from the observational studies.

  2. Renishaw测头与TIMAX数控钻铣床上的联机应用%Application of Renishaw Probes to TIMAX NC Milling and Drilling Machine

    马骊溟; 王青泉; 刘坤; 席晓哲


    论述加装Renishaw OMP40测头在TIMAX数控钻铣床的应用原理及可行性,提出了将Renishaw测头用于TIMAX数控钻铣床上的测量方法.开发了TIMAX数控钻铣床的测量功能,实现了测量自动化.%It discuses the applied theory and feasibility of the Renishaw OMP40 probe to TIMAX NC Milling and Drilling Machine,and presents a new method for the application of the said probe to the TIMAX NC Milling and Drilling Machine,thus developing the measuring function of the machine and realizing the measurement automatization.

  3. Ballgame teaching - the Scandinavian way

    Halling, Anders; Engell, Christian; Hansen, Torben


    Since the introduction of Teaching Games for Understanding in the 1980ies lots of effort has been directed towards answering the fundamental question: How can the teaching and learning approach in ballgames be renewed so an environment that allows all students to take active part in ballgames...... and introduce the new framework TEAMBALL (TB) and discus some of its basic premises. The TB approach consists of four elements. At first the learning process must take place in a dynamic and well-defined team. All players need to be an integrated part of the game and be committed to this. Secondly all players....... Thirdly the learning process must start by setting goals for the players and the team. Fourthly the learning process consists primarily of practice in ballgames and lots of matches and competitions. The teamball practice is build upon a broad theoretical foundation taking a constructivist approach...

  4. Interpreting the theology of Barth in light of Nietzsche’s dictum “God is dead”

    André J. Groenewald


    Full Text Available Karl Barth responded with his theology to Nietzsche’s dictum “God is dead” by stating that God is the living God. God does not need the human race to exist. God reveals God self to humankind whenever God wills. Barth agreed with Nietzsche that the god of the nineteenth century was a “Nicht-Gott”. The article aims to discus Karl Barth’s respons to Nietzsche’s impulse towards the development of a concept of God that would lead to neither atheism nor theism. The article argues that Barth paved the way for talking about God by defining God as the “communicative God”.


    Gembong Baskoro


    Full Text Available This paper discuses the concept of managing high-end, high-volume innovative products. High-end, high-volume consumer products are products that have considerable influence to the way of life. Characteristic of High-end, high-volume consumer products are (1 short cycle time, (2 quick obsolete time, and (3 rapid price erosion. Beside the disadvantages that they are high risk for manufacturers, if manufacturers are able to understand precisely the consumer needs then they have the potential benefit or success to be the market leader. High innovation implies to high utilization of the user, therefore these products can influence indirectly to the way of people life. The objective of managing them is to achieve sustainability of the products development and innovation. This paper observes the behavior of these products in companies operated in high-end, high-volume consumer product.

  6. Graphene Nanoelectronics From Materials to Circuits


    The rapid growth of the electronics industry can be attributed in large part to the scalability of the transistor. Continued scaling of transistor dimensions has enabled increased functionality with each new generation of integrated circuits. Historically, this scaling has followed Moore’s Law – which became a self-fulfilling prophecy – wherein the number of transistors on a chip is doubled every 18-24 months. However, a number of bottlenecks arise beyond c. 2020 that will impede this progress and this will lead to high heat dissipation in ICs, large power consumption, and low chip yield. Thus, beyond c. 2020, the electronics industry needs novel technologies that enable continued increases in chip functionality. Considering that the transition from research to manufacturing can take 10 years or more for novel technologies, there is considerable effort world-wide to identify next-generation enablers for electronics. Graphene is one of the most promising materials to replace Silicon, and this book discus...

  7. Quantum Space-Time and Reference Frames in Gravity and Flat Space-Time

    Mayburov, S


    The quantum space-time model which accounts material Reference Frames (RF) quantum effects considered for flat space-time and ADM canonical gravity. As was shown by Aharonov for RF - free material object its c.m. nonrelativistic motion in vacuum described by Schrodinger wave packet evolution which modify space coordinate operator of test particle in this RF and changes its Heisenberg uncertainty relations. In the relativistic case we show that Lorentz transformations between two RFs include the quantum corrections for RFs momentum uncertainty and in general can be formulated as the quantum space-time transformations. As the result for moving RF its Lorentz time boost acquires quantum fluctuations which calculated solving relativistic Heisenberg equations for the quantum clocks models. It permits to calculate RF proper time for the arbitrary RF quantum motion including quantum gravity metrics fluctuations. Space-time structure of canonical Quantum Gravity and its observables evolution for RF proper time discus...

  8. Simulation of variation characteristics at thermostabilization of 27 GHz biperiodical accelerating structure

    Kluchevskaya, Y. D.; Polozov, S. M.


    It was proposed to develop the biperiodical accelerating structure with operating frequency of 27 GHz to assess the possibility of design a compact accelerating structure for medical application. It is necessary to do the more careful simulation of variation characteristics this case because of decrease of wavelength 3-10 times in comparison with conventional structures 10 and 3 cm ranges. Results of such study are presented in the article. Also a combination of high electromagnetic fields and long pulses at a high operating frequency leads to the temperature increase in the structure, thermal deformation and significant change of the resonator characteristics, including the frequency of the RF pulse. Development results of three versions of system of temperature stabilization also discuses.

  9. Learning from each other

    Uggerhøj, Lars

    Learning from each other - experiences from practice research in social work Category: Oral paper presentation Keywords: Practice research Partnership between practice and research Top-down and bottom-up knowledge production New research positions and roles Abstract: The paper is connected...... knowledge and experience from two collaborating partners appears to be both necessary and relatively easy. But it is not. On the contrary experience from both social work and from research shows that is difficult and some times even impossible to establish practice research. Why is that? Little experience...... a comparative study among service users in Norway and Denmark. The study has been carried through in a partnership between two universities and three different municipalities in the two countries. The presentation will also discus and present concepts, dilemmas, models and central issues connected to both...




    Full Text Available BA CKGROUND : Medical students are frequently described as stressed in comp arison with general population . 1, 2 Particularly examinations are a major cause of stress . 3 High level of stress may have adverse effect on academic achievement. However there is a deficit of information regarding the interrelationship of stress and academic performance in medical students. The present study adds to the literature of the level of stress during examination and its impact on performance in a cohort of first year medical students. The study also discus ses the areas where medical students are more stressful , effects of stress , student’s adaptation styles , and intervention measures to deal with stress , as it is believed that healthy medical students are likely to become healthy doctors who can the n be model and promote healthy li festyles with their patients .

  11. Stability and Determination of Metamizole Sodium by Capillary Electrophoresis Analysis Combined with Infra-red Spectroscopy

    XIANG Qian; NIU Gang; WU Xian-hua; CHEN Gang


    Metamizole sodium was chosen as a representative of unstable analytes for investigation by discusing the effects of oxygen and solvent on its degradation reaction using the capillary electrophoresis technique. A possible degradation mechanism was deduced from the observed behavior and was confirmed by infra-red spectroscopic study. The degradation reaction could be inhibited obviously by methanol instead of water as the solvent of analyte. Under the optimized conditions: separation voltage of 20 kV, and 5 mmol/L disodium hydrogen phosphate and 5 mmol/L borax with 10% methanol(pH 9. 12) as the running buffer, the standard curve of metamizole sodium was linear in a range of 3.77-74.07 mg/L. A satisfactory result was achieved when the technique was used to detect metamizole sodium in tablet.

  12. On the Self-Similar Appearance of Galaxy Clusters in X-rays

    Boehringer, Hans; Chon, Gayoung


    The largest uncertainty for cosmological studies using clusters of galaxies is introduced by our limited knowledge of the statistics of galaxy cluster structure, and of the scaling relations between observables and cluster mass. A large effort is therefore undertaken to compile global galaxy cluster properties in particular obtained through X-ray observations and to study their scaling relations. However, the scaling schemes used in the literature differ. The present paper aims to clarify this situation by providing a thorough review of the scaling laws within the standard model of large-scale structure growth and to discus various steps of practical approximations. We derive the scaling laws for X-ray observables and cluster mass within the pure gravitational structure growth scenario. Using N-body simulations we test the recent formation approximation used in earlier analytic approaches which involves a redshift dependent overdensity parameter.We find this approximation less precise than the use of a fiduci...

  13. 关于玻璃遮阳系数检测的若干问题研究



    在围护结构之中门窗幕墙是其中最为薄弱的环节,而热工性能也是建筑节能设计以及工程验收十分重要的指标。基于此,本文主要简要论述了玻璃遮阳系数检测之中的相关问题。%in the envelope of fenestration is one of the weakest link, and thermal performance of building energy-saving design and works acceptance is very important indicator. For this reason, this paper discus es the shading coef icient testing of glas-related is ues.

  14. Practice of Propaganda on Korean Peninsula (1945-1960

    Zhyvora Olexii


    Full Text Available The topic of propaganda, which was thought to be a part of the Cold War past, was recently revived by modern and rather successful application in Georgian, Syrian and Ukrainian conflicts. In this regard Korean Peninsula is a perfect example of prolonged use of mutual practice of indoctrination to study its origins. This article discuses the evolution of propaganda use by both Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and Republic of Korea (1945-1960 in cultural, economic and political dimensions. Qualitative text analysis and case study in conjunction with theoretical framework of A. E. Cassirer, S. Langer, E. Barneys and W. Lippmann are used to establish techniques used, and to explain its overall success.

  15. Developing E-learning Courses for Mobile Devices

    R. Szabados


    Full Text Available The recent and rapid development of mobile devices and the increasing popularity of e learning have created a demand for mobile learning packages and environments. We have analyzed the possibilities of adapting the existing content for mobile devices, and have implemented two fundamentally different systems to satisfy the demand that has arisen. One of the systems creates e learning courses from existing materials and adapts them to the specified platform (this system realizes the functionalities of the Content Management System. The other system is a modified version of the Moodle Learning Management System, which can adapt existing courses right before displaying them. This paper discuses the fundamentals of e learning, the design considerations and investigates various methods of scalable video coding. Finally the realization details of the two systems are presented. 

  16. Razdelnorechie and Polyphonic Singing in the Teaching of Russian Old Believers

    Daniel Sawicki


    Full Text Available This article discuses two very important problems concerning liturgical singing in Ruthenia. The first part of the article contains an analysis of the musical and linguistic phenomenon of razdelnorechie (also known as homonia. The author, presenting the issue from the Old Believers’ point of view, tries to prove that elements of homonia in liturgical texts, contained in Old Believers songbooks, have not only been treated as a fillers of melisma (similar to latin tropus. Supporters of ‘the old tradition’ treated homonia and polyphonic services as sacred signs. The author in the second part of the article tries to find out the reasons of the Old Believers’ negative attitude to polyphonic singing.

  17. 加强山石与园林建筑结合施工的探讨%Strengthening the Combination Construction of Rocks and Landscape Architecture

    邢乐平; 傅小坚; 沈小燕


      园林建设中,山石点缀园林建筑很是普遍,但要达到那种别致的园林风景,要在山石与建筑结合施工的工艺上多多思考、分析。本文就园林建筑与山石施工技法进行探讨。%In the gardens, the rocks dot ed landscape architec-ture is very common, but to achieve that kind of chic garden landscape, in the stone and building considering construction process needs more thoughts and analysis. This paper discus-ses the architecture and rockery construction techniques.

  18. Labour flexibilization: A research about its social effects for the colombian case

    Jairo Guillermo Isaza Castro


    Full Text Available This paper discuses some of the adverse effects that could be generated in terms of poverty and income distribution from the labour flexibilization in Colombia. Based on a partial equilibrium analysis for the urban labour market, it argues that successive reductions in the real wage may decrease unemployment but, at the expense of increases in poverty and inequality of income distribution. The author concludes that the number of jobs to be generated through the Colombian labour reform of 2002 will not mean a substantial reduction of the unemployment rote; contrary to the government forecasts on this matter, the labour reform has the potential not only of extending the recessive phase of the business cycle, but also of deteriorating urban poverty and inequality indicators.

  19. 2nd International Conference on Education and Educational Technology (EET 2011)

    Education Management, Education Theory and Education Application


    This volume includes extended and revised versions of a set of selected papers from the 2011 2nd International Conference on Education and Educational Technology (EET 2011) held in Chengdu, China, October 1-2, 2011. The mission of EET 2011 Volume 2 is to provide a forum for researchers, educators, engineers, and government officials involved in the general areas of education management, education theory and education application to disseminate their latest research results and exchange views on the future research directions of these fields. 133 related topic papers were selected into this volume. All the papers were reviewed by 2 program committee members and selected by the volume editor Prof. Yuanzhi Wang, from Intelligent Information Technology Application Research Association, Hong Kong. The conference will bring together leading researchers, engineers and scientists in the domain of interest. We hope every participant can have a good opportunity to exchange their research ideas and results and to discus...

  20. A nonlinear truss finite element with varying stiffness

    Ďuriš R.


    Full Text Available This contribution deals with a new truss element with varying stiffness intended to geometric and physically nonlinear analysis of composite structures. We present a two-node straight composite truss finite element derived by new nonincremental full geometric nonlinear approach. Stiffness matrix of this composite truss contains transfer constants, which accurately describe the polynomial longitudinal variation of cross-section area and material properties. These variations could be caused by nonhomogenous temperature field or by varying components volume fractions of the composite or/and functionally graded materials (FGM´s. Numerical examples were solved to verify the established relations. The accuracy of the new proposed finite truss element are compared and discused.

  1. Knee extensor muscle strength in middle-aged and older individuals undergoing arthroscopic partial meniscectomy

    Hall, Michelle; Juhl, Carsten B; Lund, Hans


    for a meniscal tear and used either a healthy control group or the contralateral leg to compare knee extensor muscle strength were included. Methodological quality was assessed using guidelines from the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. RESULTS: Eleven studies, including predominately males were included (n......OBJECTIVE: People with meniscal tears are at high risk to develop or progress knee osteoarthritis. Knee extensor weakness is considered a risk factor for osteoarthritis and is often reported in these individuals. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate knee...... extensor strength in people undergoing an arthroscopic partial meniscectomy (APM). METHODS: Six databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, SportDISCUS, EMBASE, PEDro and AMED) were searched up to June 22(nd) , 2014. Studies that measured knee extensor muscle strength in people aged 30 years and older undergoing APM...

  2. Micro-Spec: A High Performance Compact Spectrometer for Submillimeter Astronomy

    Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Moseley, Harvey; Stevenson, Thomas; Brown, Ari; Patel, Amil; U-Yen, Kongpop; Ehsan, Negar; Caltado, Giuseppe; Wollock, Edward


    We describe the micro-Spec, an extremely compact high performance spectrometer for the submillimeter and millimeter spectral ranges. We have designed a fully integrated submillimeter spectrometer based on superconducting microstrip technology and fabricated its critical elements. Using low loss transmission lines, we can produce a fully integrated high resolution submillimeter spectrometer on a single four inch Si wafer. A resolution of 500 can readily be achieved with standard fabrication tolerance, higher with phase trimming. All functions of the spectrometer are integrated - light is coupled to the micro strip circuit with a planar antenna, the spectra discrimination is achieved using a synthetic grating, orders are separated using a built-in planar filter, and the light is detected using photon counting Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKID). We will discus the design principle of the instrument, describe its technical advantages, and report the progress on the development of the instrument.

  3. Mu-Spec: A High Performance Compact Spectrometer for Submillimeter Astronomy

    Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Moseley, Harvey; Stevenson, Thomas; Brown, Ari; Patel, Amil; U-yen, Kongpop; Ehsan, Negar; Cataldo, Giuseppe; Wollack, Ed


    We describe the Mu-Spec, an extremely compact high performance spectrometer for the submillimeter and millimeter spectral ranges. We have designed a fully integrated submillimeter spectrometer based on superconducting microstrip technology and fabricated its critical elements. Using low loss transmission lines, we can produce a fully integrated high resolution submillimeter spectrometer on a single four inch Si wafer. A resolution of 500 can readily be achieved with standard fabrication tolerance, higher with phase trimming. All functions of the spectrometer are integrated - light is coupled to the microstrip circuit with a planar antenna, the spectra discrimination is achieved using a synthetic grating, orders are separated using a built-in planar filter, and the light is detected using photon counting Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKID). We will discus the design principle of the instrument, describe its technical advantages, and report the progress on the development of the instrument.

  4. Brief Analysis of Directly Buried Fiber Optic Cable Anti-lightning%直埋光缆线路防雷问题探讨

    段玉圃; 肖秀琴; 魏弿


    雷电具有寻找阻抗最小路径泄放接雷云正电荷与地下负电荷中和的趋势,当雷电直接或间接击中光缆线路及其设施,其强大的电流对光缆造成损伤.本文将从光缆接头盒及其他设施、光缆在通信机房内接地等方面,论述提高直埋光缆线路抵抗雷击能力.%This article from fiber optical splice closure attachment and facility, optical cable in telecommunication room electrical GND aspects, discused enhance buries the fiber optic cable line resistance thunderstroke ability.


    Stefania Lucia BODOSCA


    Full Text Available The last years have proven to be particular problematic for member states of UE because of the financial crisis. When we discus about tourism businesses and the measures undertaken by managers to mitigate the effects of the crisis some of them were to reduce the part allocated for expenditures regarding innovation, technologic improvements and went for different types of approaches. An increased attention has been given to sustainable development, sustainable marketing and development in environmental accounting techniques and in our research we explore how they changed the course of the core of the business and how these initiatives are realistic. The overall finding is that sustainable actions exist and they are present in many strategies but they are poorly translated in real actions.



    On the Relationship Between the Life Experience and Novel Creation --the Comparative Analysis of the Backgrounds of Yu Dafu's Novels and Xuan Zhenjian's Abstract:The themes of Yu Dafu's novels are mostly concerning the themes of "the depression of sex" or the sadness of life, which are due to the background of the Chinese overseas students as the citizens of powerless country,to a larger extend associated with Yu's life experi- ence and his special characters sensitive but affectionate, self-esteemed but aloof and proud. On the contrast, Xuan Zhenjian is born with superior status and gentleman's virtues,so he cherishes his traditional marriage life,concerns more about the social problems on fami- lies and jobs which are closely associated with people's livings,and especially discuses the sadness of life of the intellectual in that particular Korea.

  7. Bladder urotoxicity pathophysiology induced by the oxazaphosphorine alkylating agents and its chemoprevention 

    Łukasz Dobrek


    Full Text Available The use of oxazaphosphorines (cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide in the treatment of numerous neoplastic disorders is associated with their essential adverse effect in the form of hemorrhagic cystitis, which considerably limits the safety and efficacy of their pharmacotherapy. HC is a complex inflammatory response, induced by toxic oxazaphosphorines metabolite – acrolein with subsequent immunocompetetive cells activation and release of many proinflammatory agents. However, there are some chemoprotectant agents which help reduce the HC exacerbation.The article briefly discuses the mechanism of action of oxazaphosphorines, the pathophysiology of the hemorrhagic cystitis development and currently accepted chemopreventive agents, applied to the objective of urotoxicity amelioration. Moreover, the rationale for some phytopharmaceuticals administration as novel bladder protective compounds accompanying cyclophosphamide or ifosfamide therapy was also mentioned. 

  8. The Technology Steps of Saving Electricity of the lighting System in Intelligent Buildings%智能大厦照明系统的节能技术措施

    戴瑜兴; 汪鲁才


    Based on the requirements of the lighting system in theintelligent building, this paper discuses the technology steps ofsaving electricity of the lighting system in the intelligent buildingfrom the aspects such as: electricity、 light、 lamp、 the selection ofthe lighting control equipments、 illuminance standard、 the decisionof lighting mode and the arrangement of lighting circuit.%针对智能大厦照明系统的基本要求,结合电光源、灯具、照明控制设备的选择,照度标准、照明方式的确定,以及照明线路的布置和照明控制系统,论述智能大厦的节能技术措施。

  9. A critical review of modern and emerging absorbent dressings used to treat exuding wounds.

    Sweeney, India R; Miraftab, Mohsen; Collyer, Graham


    Wound management has progressed significantly over the last five decades. This emanates from a greater understanding of wound healing, technological progression and improved clinical and scientific research. There are currently a plethora of absorbent dressings on the wound care market which claim to have the ability to manage exudates whilst encouraging healing. However, it is becoming clear, from analysing randomised controlled trials, that some of these absorbent dressings are not meeting their expectations when applied in a clinical setting. Many clinicians now feel that there should be more focus, not only on a dressing's ability to manage exudate efficiently, but on a dressing's ability to proactively encourage healing and thus exudate reduction will ensue. This paper proposes to critically review modern and emerging absorbent wound care dressings used to manage exuding wounds and discuses some advances in this area.

  10. 学生母语对汉语教学的负面影响(上)%Negative Effect on Chinese Teaching from Students' Mother Language



    In this article the author discused the difference between language acquisition and language learning,and pointed out that the Chinese teaching to students of ethnic minorities is a study of linguistic. So some characteristics of students' mother language will bring about negative effect on Chinese teaching. Then the author analyzed the negative effect from three aspects:phonology,grammar and vocabulary.%本文首先讨论语言习得和语言学习的区别,指出对少数民族学生的汉语教学属于语言学习,因此学生母语的某些特点会对汉语教学产生影响,接着分语音、语法、词汇三方面分析了这种负面影响。



    This paper discuses the inseparability of culture and language,presents three new metaphors regardingculture and language,and explores cultural content in specific language items through a survey ofword associations.The survey has been designed for both Chinese English speakers(CES)and nativeEnglish speakers(NES)(See Appendix).The associated words and expressions are language forms:the free,natural associations involve thinking.Both the language forms and the thinking process con-vey culture.The words and expressions associated by CES and NES are partly similar and partly dif-ferent,because people are by nature alike an d CES and NES have different cultures.

  12. Probing the charged Higgs quantum numbers through the decay H^+ -> W^+ h^0

    Cruz, J L D; Hernández-Sánchez, J; Barradas-Guevara, E


    The vertex H^+_\\alpha W^-h^0_\\beta, involving the gauge boson W^+- and the charged (H^+-_\\alpha) and neutral Higgs bosons (h^0_\\beta), arises within the context of many extensions of the SM, and it can be used to probe the quantum numbers of the Higgs multiplet. After presenting a general discusion for the expected form of this vertex with arbitrary Higgs representations, we discuss its strength for several specific models, which include: i) the Two-Higgs Doublet Model (THDM), both the generic and the SUSY case, and ii) models with additional Higgs triplets, including both SUSY and non-SUSY cases. We find that in these models, there are regions of parameters where the decay H^+_\\alpha -> W^+ h^0_\\beta, is kinematically allowed, and reaches Branching Ratios (BR) that may be detectable, thus allowing to test the properties of the Higgs sector.

  13. Geometry of n-state systems, pure and mixed

    Byrd, M S [Physics Department, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois 62901-4401 (United States); Boya, L J [Departamento de Fiica Teorica, Facultad de Ciencias, Univeridad de Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Mims, M [Center for Particle Physics, Univesity of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 787121081 (United States); Sudarshan, E C G [Center for Particle Physics, Univesity of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 787121081 (United States)


    We discuss the geometry of states of quantum systems in an n-dimensional Hilbert space in terms of an explicit parameterization of all such systems. The geometry of the space of pure as well as mixed states for n-state systems is discussed. The parameterization is particularly useful since it allows for the simple construction and isolation of various physically meaningful subspaces of the space of all density matrices. This is used to describe possible geometric phases, their calculation, and analyze entropy and purity (or linear entropy) functions. In particular we provide conditions under which nontrivial abelian and/or nonabelian geometric phases aris in these subspaces in terms of the given parameterization, an explicit example is given, and multidimensional ientopic surfaces are discused.

  14. Innovative Role of Educational Psychology to Literature Retrieval Teaching%教育心理学对文献检索教学的创新作用

    赵晔; 石建


    针对文献检索课的教学实际,从创新能力、激励机制、人格培养几个方面提出实施文献检索创新教学不能忽略的若干心理学因素,指出教育心理学对文献检索教学创新具有重要作用。%According to the teaching practices of literature retrieval course,the paper discuses several psychology factors that shouldn't be neglected in literature retrieval innovative teaching,including Innovation ability,excitation mechanism,personality cultivation, etc.It points out that educational psychology has important role in literature retrieval teaching innovation.

  15. Redes de acción pública en la gestión local: tendencias actuales

    Suzana MOURA


    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Este artículo discute los cambios que están ocurriendo en la gestión local en Brasil, en las dos últimas décadas, tanto en términos de ideas como en la práctica. Se empieza identificando los movimientos que aparecen como propulsores de la innovación y algunas de las tendencias presentes en los años 90 de interacción gobierno sociedad.ABSTRACT: This anide discuses the changes which are happening in the local administration in Brazil, in the last two decades, both in the ideological and practical terms. It begins identifying the movements which appear as propellers of change and some of the present tendencies in the nineties of interrelation govemment-society.

  16. Antenna-coupled TES bolometers for the Keck Array, Spider, and Polar-1

    O'Brient, R; Ahmed, Z; Aikin, R W; Amiri, M; Benton, S; Bischoff, C; Bock, J J; Bonetti, J A; Brevik, J A; Burger, B; Davis, G; Day, P; Dowell, C D; Duband, L; Filippini, J P; Fliescher, S; Golwala, S R; Grayson, J; Halpern, M; Hasselfield, M; Hilton, G; Hristov, V V; Hui, H; Irwin, K; Kernasovskiy, S; Kovac, J M; Kuo, C L; Leitch, E; Lueker, M; Megerian, K; Moncelsi, L; Netterfield, C B; Nguyen, H T; Ogburn, R W; Pryke, C L; Reintsema, C; Ruhl, J E; Runyan, M C; Schwarz, R; Sheehy, C D; Staniszewski, Z; Sudiwala, R; Teply, G; Tolan, J E; Turner, A D; Tucker, R S; Vieregg, A; Wiebe, D V; Wilson, P; Wong, C L; Wu, W L K; Yoon, K W


    Between the BICEP2 and Keck Array experiments, we have deployed over 1500 dual polarized antenna coupled bolometers to map the Cosmic Microwave Background's polarization. We have been able to rapidly deploy these detectors because they are completely planar with an integrated phased-array antenna. Through our experience in these experiments, we have learned of several challenges with this technology- specifically the beam synthesis in the antenna- and in this paper we report on how we have modified our designs to mitigate these challenges. In particular, we discus differential steering errors between the polarization pairs' beam centroids due to microstrip cross talk and gradients of penetration depth in the niobium thin films of our millimeter wave circuits. We also discuss how we have suppressed side lobe response with a Gaussian taper of our antenna illumination pattern. These improvements will be used in Spider, Polar-1, and this season's retrofit of Keck Array.

  17. Smart grid and renewable energy systems

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Guerrero, Josep M.


    The electrical energy consumption continues growing and more applications relay on electricity. We can expect that more 60 % of all energy consumption will be converted and used as electricity. Therefore, it is a demand that production, distribution and use of electrical energy are done as effici...... sources, wind energy and photovoltaics. Then main focus is on the power electronics and control technology for wind turbines as they are the largest renewable power contributor, allowing their penetration into a SmartGrid to be even higher in the future....... conventional, fossil based energy sources to renewable energy sources. Another is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discus trends of the future grid infrastructure as well as the most emerging renewable energy...

  18. 180例幼女小阴唇粘连的治疗体会

    梁秀丽; 汪韬


    Objective:To discuses the clinical effect of blunt dissection of baby adhesion of labial minora. Methods:180cases with baby adhesion of labial minora were underwent blunt dissection ..Result :180cases with baby adhesion of labial minora were curated. Conclusion:blunt dissection can be an option and simple in trentment of baby adhesion of labial minora .%目的:探索钝性分离婴幼儿小阴唇粘连临床效果。方法:对180例婴幼儿小阴唇粘连患儿采用钝性分离方法进行治疗。结果:180例婴幼儿小阴唇粘连均治愈。结论:钝性分离方法治疗婴幼儿小阴唇粘连简单有效。

  19. Energy Dissipation Analysis of Bended SMA Bar in Isothermal State

    PENG Gang; LI Li; TAN Jia-xiang


    The theory calculation formula is deduced about stress distribution in cross section and changes in Martensite percentages with the section height of random section shape bar under the action of the bending moment according to the Brinson's Constitutive Relation.The bar's energy dissipation capability under circulation of bending moment was analyzed and the calculation theory was set up. By using MATLAB program and the numerical calculation for uniform rectangle cross section bar, the relationships among the maximal stress and strain on cross section edge with bend load, the stress and Martensite percent's with cross section height, the energy dissipation capability with cross section height, and the energy dissipation capability with maximal strain on cross section edge are gained, also those curves are discused. It is put forward that the SMA material can be used for passive structure vibration control to dissipate energy of bend load.

  20. Planning and Design of Landscaping Irrigation System:with Middle and Northern Ningxia as a Case%园林绿化灌溉系统的规划设计--以宁夏中北部地区为例

    沙玉霞; 黄成才; 张建平


    By summarizing the experiences and lessons in the green area irrigation system design and management, a discus-sion is conducted on the watering-saving irrigation technology application and planning in landscape irrigation management to provide suggestions for landscaping with complex terrains.%经过对园林绿化工程施工过程绿化区灌溉系统规划设计与管理的实践总结,就节水灌溉技术在园林灌溉管理中的应用与规划设计进行了探讨,为复杂地形的园林绿化创造必要的条件。

  1. Prologue to History of School Introito a la Historia de la Escuela



    Full Text Available In this introduction is presented, a legislative and educational-literary approach of the Spanish school in the 19th century and the first half of the 20th. The material, personal and formal apects are discused. Several works and reseaches are refered in order to ilústrate the present monographic issue about the school history.En este Introito se presenta, desde la perspectiva legislativa-escolar y pedagógico- literaria, la escuela del siglo XIX y mediados del XX en sus aspectos materiales, personales y formales; hay referencia y presentación, asimismo, de los artículos o investigaciones diversas que configuran el presente monográfico en torno a la Historia de la Escuela.

  2. Analysis of scientific publications on artistic gymnastics

    Thais Emanuelli da Silva de Barros


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the scientific literature on the Artistic Gymnastics (AG, published in January 2000 to December 2014, in national and international journals. The searches were conducted from systematic review procedures in the following databases: Google Scholar, EBSCO Host, LILACS, MEDLINE, SciELO, Scopus, Sport Discus, Science Direct and ISI (Web of Science. We selected 382 articles, classified into seven categories of thematic focuses: Sports Training, Biological, Pedagogical, Psychological, Social and Anthropology, Philosophical and Administrative. The results showed higher incidence of international studies, subject to quantitative approach, focused on the analysis of sport techniques in different apparatus. The artistic gymnastics is configured as a research object in the field of Sports Science, based in the Natural Sciences.

  3. 谈施工项目成本控制%Discussion on cost control of construction project



    阐述了项目成本控制的原则与意义,分析了项目成本控制目前存在的问题,探讨了如何加强项目成本控制的对策,提出应重视事先控制及图纸会审工作,加强现场管理,并做好施工中的成本检查和完工后的成本考核。%This thesis illustrates principles and meanings of project cost control,analyzes problems existing in current project cost control,and discuses countermeasures for strengthening project cost control.And then,it advises to notice previous control and charting auditing,to strengthen field management,and to do well in cost check in construction and cost check after the completion as well.

  4. Why was the writer cremated? Thanato - anthropological aspects of death and funeral of Yugoslav literate Ivo Andrić

    Pavićević Aleksandra


    Full Text Available The author discuses the funeral of Yugoslav writer, Ivo Andrić, with a particular focus on his wish to be incinerated. This wish is analyzed from several aspects: through the concept of celebrating great people in the time of socialism and from the standpoint of Andrić’s delicate political position and his consistent attempts to avoid alignment inside offered ideological, intellectual and national frames. On the other hand, his will to be cremated was analyzed from the aspect of Andrić’s attitude towards religion and death, which are visible in his works. Additional light on Andrić’s, already well researched biography, sheds his mason dossier and defining his religiosity and philosophical attitudes as theosophical. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177028

  5. Developing BACE-1 inhibitors for FXS

    Cara J Westmark


    Full Text Available Fragile X syndrome (FXS is a debilitating genetic disorder with no cure and few therapeutic options. Excessive signaling through metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5 in FXS leads to increased translation of numerous synaptic proteins and exaggerated long-term depression (LTD. Two of the overexpressed proteins are amyloid-beta protein precursor (APP and its metabolite amyloid-beta (Aβ, which have been well-studied in Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Here we discus the possibility that pharmaceuticals under study for the modulation of these proteins in AD might be viable therapeutic strategies for FXS. Specifically, a recently identified acetyltransferase (ATase inhibitor that reduces the levels and activity of β-site APP cleaving enzyme (BACE-1 has strong potential to attenuate BACE-1 activity and maintain homeostatic levels APP catabolites in FXS.

  6. Citizen Science practices for Computational Social Sciences research: The conceptualization of Pop-Up Experiments

    Sagarra, Oleguer; Bonhoure, Isabelle; Perelló, Josep


    Under the name of Citizen Science, many innovative practices in which volunteers partner with scientist to pose and answer real-world questions are quickly growing worldwide. Citizen Science can furnish ready made solutions with the active role of citizens. However, this framework is still far from being well stablished to become a standard tool for Computational Social Sciences research. We present our experience in bridging Computational Social Sciences with Citizen Science philosophy, which in our case has taken the form of what we call Pop-Up Experiments: Non-permanent, highly participatory collective experiments which blend features developed by Big Data methodologies and Behavioural Experiments protocols with ideals of Citizen Science. The main issues to take into account whenever planning experiments of this type are classified and discused grouped in three categories: public engagement, light infrastructure and knowledge return to citizens. We explain the solutions implemented providing practical exam...

  7. 《诗经·关雎》篇梦的解析%Freudian Interpretation of Crying Ospreys in The Book of Song



    尝试运用心理学梦的解析方法,对《诗经·关雎》篇的文本及艺术形象进行再认识,得出新的推断:《关雎》是一篇梦诗,是描述男子对女子的思慕而形成的一个“焦虑的梦”,而《关雎》篇诗中主人公应为平民。%Using the analytical method of Freudian psychology to interpret dreams,the paper re-discus-ses the text and artistic image of Crying Ospreys in The Book of Song with the results that this piece of writing is a poem about dream which describes a man yearning for a woman,his anxiety dreams,and the he-ro of the poem should be a civilian.

  8. Designing Problems Organizing Discussion Bettering Teaching%设计问题组织讨论教好数学



    The success and failure of classroom discussion are directly connected with the effectiveness of classroom teaching. This paper throws light on how to effectively design problems to organize classroom discussion according to the design of classroom discus%课堂讨论组织实施的好坏,直接影响着课堂教学的有效性。本文就自己针对课堂讨论的问题设计、组织展开及课后反思方面,结合教学的实际谈谈如何有效设计问题,组织课堂讨论,提高学生学习的积极性。

  9. Riccati equation and the problem of decoherence II: Symmetry and the solution of the Riccati equation

    Gardas, Bartlomiej


    The problem of decoherence viewed from a block operator matrix perspective is revisited. We study an algebraic Riccati equation associate with the Hamiltonian modeling the process of decoherence. We proof that if the environment responsible for decoherence process is an invariant under transformation of an antilinear involution, then this operator (a symmetry of the system) is a solution of the Riccati equation in question. We also argue the later solution leads to neither linear not antilinear similarity operator matrix and therefore cause the problem with the standard procedure of solving linear differential equation, like for instance Schrodinger one. Finally, we give an explicit formula for the solution of the Riccati equation in the case when the operators defining the environment commute with each other. We also discuses a connection between our results and the standard Kraus representation approach of the completely positive map. We show that reduced dynamics we obtained dose not posses the Kraus repre...

  10. Few-body physics

    Briceño, Raúl A


    Few-body hadronic observables play an essential role in a wide number of processes relevant for both particle and nuclear physics. In order for Lattice QCD to offer insight into the interpretation of few-body states, a theoretical infrastructure must be developed to map Euclidean-time correlation functions to the desired Minkowski-time few-body observables. In this talk, I review the formal challenges associated with the studies of such systems via Lattice QCD, as first introduced by Maiani and Testa, and I also review the methodology to circumvent said limitations. The first main example of the latter is the formalism by Luscher to analyze elastic scattering and a second is the method by Lellouch and Luscher to analyze weak decays. I discus recent theoretical generalizations of these frameworks that allow for the determination of scattering amplitudes, resonances, nonlocal contribution to matrix elements, and form factors below and above inelastic thresholds. Finally, I outline outstanding problems, includin...

  11. Designing a 100-unit Residential Complex with Public and Mental Health Approach

    Mohsen Gholizadeh Maktoo


    Full Text Available The present study first discuses different climate conditions in Iran and traditional methods of architecture in these places as well as importance of identification and evaluation of these methods. Then, designing methods of residential complexes on the basis of components and conditions of the favorite climate will be closely taken into consideration. Finally, the impact of different methods and techniques of designing on society’s mental and public health will be examined. Accordingly, designing a 100-unit residential complex with open and local green spaces, dense neighborhoods with mixed land uses, physical and visual access to the nature, creation of cultural-social-business and entertainment opportunities adjacent to the residential complex, reducing car dependency in combination with walking, strategies of improving public health in designing residential complexes and architecture in Yazd city are used. Consequently, a few strategies are provided for enhancement of citizens’ health and development of this type of architecture.

  12. 国际海事组织(IMO)对安全水平法(SLA)的讨论进展%Progress of the deliberation in IMO on SLA

    韩佳霖; 姜斌; 张爽


    介绍了国际海事组织对安全水平法(SLA)的审议背景和讨论进展,基于SLA的概念、地位和作用,分析了SLA与GBS等议题之间的关系,提出了审议中存在问题,并对发展趋势做作出了展望。%This paper provides the background and progress made in IMO on deliberation of SLA. Based on the concept, status and functions of SLA, this paper analyses the relationship between SLA and GBS, comments on some issues relating to the deliberation and discuses its prospect.

  13. Modeling the Anomalous Microwave Emission with Spinning Nanoparticles: No PAHs Required

    Hensley, Brandon S


    In light of recent observational results indicating an apparent lack of correlation between the Anomalous Microwave Emission (AME) and mid-infrared emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), we assess whether rotational emission from spinning silicate and/or iron nanoparticles could account for the observed AME without violating observational constraints on interstellar abundances, ultraviolet extinction, and infrared emission. By modifying the SpDust code to compute the rotational emission from these grains, we find that nanosilicate grains could account for the entirety of the observed AME, whereas iron grains could be responsible for only a fraction, even for extreme assumptions on the amount of interstellar iron concentrated in ultrasmall iron nanoparticles. Given the added complexity of contributions from multiple grain populations to the total spinning dust emission, as well as existing uncertainties due to the poorly-constrained grain size, charge, and dipole moment distributions, we discus...

  14. Propagation dynamics of finite-energy Airy beams in nonlocal nonlinear media

    Wu, Zhen-Kun; Li, Peng; Gu, Yu-Zong


    We investigate periodic inversion and phase transition of normal and displaced finite-energy Airy beams propagating in nonlocal nonlinear media with the split-step Fourier method. Numerical simulation results show that parameters such as the degree of nonlocality and amplitude have profound effects on the intensity distribution of the period of an Airy beam. Nonlocal nonlinear media will reduce into a harmonic potential if the nonlocality is strong enough, which results in the beam fluctuating in an approximately cosine mode. The beam profile changes from an Airy profile to a Gaussian one at a critical point, and during propagation the process repeats to form an unusual oscillation. We also briefly discus the two-dimensional case, being equivalent to a product of two one-dimensional cases.

  15. Performance based regulation: a strategy to increase breastfeeding rates

    Fernanda Cobo-Armijo


    Full Text Available The decreasing breastfeeding rate in México is of public health concern. In this paper we discus an innovative regulatory ap­proach -Performance Based Regulation- and its application to improve breastfeeding rates. This approach, forces industry to take responsibility for the lack of breastfeeding and its consequences. Failure to comply with this targets results in financial penalties. Applying performance based regulation as a strategy to improve breastfeeding is feasible because: the breastmilk substitutes market is an oligopoly, hence it is easy to identify the contribution of each market participant; the regulation’s target population is clearly defined; it has a clear regulatory standard which can be easily evaluated, and sanctions to infringement can be defined under objective parameters. Recommendations: modify public policy, celebrate concertation agreements with the industry, create persuasive sanctions, strengthen enforcement activities and coordinate every action with the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes.

  16. New Business Models In-the-making in Extant MNCs

    Dasi, Angels; Elter, Frank; Gooderham, Paul N.


    In recent years, we can observe the emergence of firms, born both digital and global, that have disrupted existing industries. Deploying digital technologies, they have developed innovative value chains and business models that threaten established multinational companies (MNCs). In this chapter......, we examine how MNCs can and do respond to the challenge digital technologies represent. We describe the main facets of digital technologies and discus the potential these have to undermine the value chains and business models of established MNCs. In order to illustrate this, we employ longitudinal...... data from Telenor, a leading multinational mobile telecom company. Telenor perceives digitalization as a critical threat that in turn is causing a radical rethink about the viability of its decentralized, locally responsive value chain and business model. Our data provides insights into business models...

  17. VERA 3.6 - CTF User's Manual

    Avramova, Maria [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Toptan, Aysenur [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Porter, Nathan [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Blyth, Taylor S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Dances, Christopher A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Gomez, Ana [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Salko, Robert K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wysocki, Aaron J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jernigan, Caleb [Holtec International, Marlton, NJ (United States); Kelly, Joeseph [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Rockville, MD (United States)


    This document describes how to make a CTF input deck. A CTF input deck is organized into Card Groups and Cards. A Card Group is a collection of Cards. A Card is de ned as a line of input. Each Card may contain multiple data. A Card is terminated by making a new line. This document has been organized so that each Card Group is discussed in its own dedicated chapter. Each card is discused in its own dedicated section. Each data in the card is discussed in its own block. The block gives information about the data, including the number of the input, the title, a description of the meaning of the data, units, data type, and so on. An example block is shown below to discuss the meaning of each entry in the block.

  18. Study of DNA damage induced by dental bleaching agents in vitro Estudo de danos no DNA induzidos por agentes clareadores dentais in vitro

    Daniel Araki Ribeiro


    Full Text Available Dental bleaching is a simple and conservative procedure for aesthetic restoration of vital and non-vital discolored teeth. Nevertheless, a number of studies have demonstrated the risk of tissue damage from the contact of these agents with the oral mucosa. In the current study, the genotoxic potential associated with exposure to dental bleaching agents was assessed by the single cell gel (comet assay in vitro. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells in vitro were exposed to six commercial dental bleaching agents (Clarigel Gold - Dentsply; Whitespeed - Discus Dental; Nite White - Discus Dental; Magic Bleaching - Vigodent; Whiteness HP - FGM and Lase Peroxide - DMC. The results pointed out that all dental bleaching agents tested contributed to DNA damage as depicted by the mean tail moment, being the strongest effect observed with the highest dose of hydrogen peroxide (Whiteness HP and Lase Peroxide, at a 35% concentration. On the other hand, Magic Bleaching (Vigodent induced the lowest level of DNA breakage. Negative and positive controls displayed absence and presence of DNA-damaging, respectively. Taken together, these results suggest that dental bleaching agents may be a factor that increases the level of DNA damage. A higher concentration of hydrogen peroxide produced higher noxious activities in the genome as detected by single cell gel (comet assay.Clareamento dental é um procedimento simples e conservador para restaurar esteticamente a cor de dentes vitais e não-vitais. Entretanto, alguns estudos têm demonstrado o risco de dano tecidual a partir do contato desses agentes com a mucosa bucal. Neste presente estudo, o potencial genotóxico associado à exposição aos agentes clareadores dentais foi avaliado pelo teste de células individualizadas em gel (teste do cometa in vitro. Células de ovário de hamster chinês (CHO in vitro foram expostas a seis agentes clareadores dentais comercialmente disponíveis (Clarigel Gold - Dentsply; Whitespeed

  19. Attacks on Bluetooth Security Architecture and Its Countermeasures

    Iqbal, Mian Muhammad Waseem; Kausar, Firdous; Wahla, Muhammad Arif

    WPANs compliment the traditional IEEE 802.11 wireless networks by facilitating the clients with flexibility in network topologies, higher mobility and relaxed configuration/hardware requirements. Bluetooth, a WPAN technology, is an open standard for short-range radio frequency (RF) communication. However, it is also susceptible to typical security threats found in wireless LANs. This paper discuses some of the attack scenarios against the bluetooth network such as hostile intrusion, active Man-in-the-Middle (MITM) attack using unit key and various forms of denial of service (DoS) attacks. These threats and attacks compromise the confidentiality and availability of bluetooth data and services. This paper proposes an improved security architecture for bluetooth device which provides protection against the above mentioned attacks.

  20. Design based Object-Oriented Metrics to Measure Coupling and Cohesion



    Full Text Available The object oriented design and object oriented development environment are currently popular in software organizations due to the object oriented programming languages. As the object oriented technology enters into software organizations, it has created new challenges for the companies which used only product metrics as atool for monitoring, controlling and maintaining the software product. This paper presents the new object oriented metrics namely for coupling of class by counting the number of associated classes within a class & total associated class and cohesion at the method and function level for cohesion to estimates object oriented software. In order to this, we discuss in this paper object oriented issues and measures with analysis of object oriented metrics through coupling and cohesion to check the complexity with weight count method. We also discuses the estimation process after analysis of proposed object oriented metrics to measures and check the better performance of object oriented metrics in comparison to other object oriented metrics.