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Sample records for haliotis asinina linnaeus

  1. INDUCTION SPAWNING FOR THE TROPICAL ABALONE (Haliotis asinina IN THE LABORATORY

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    D.E. Djoko Setyono

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to test and understand the effectivity of previous successful treatment to induce spawning in temperate abalone, including the use of hydrogen peroxide, vigorous aeration, desiccation, thermal shock, and UV-irradiated seawater, to induce spawning in the tropical abalone (Haliotis asinina from southern Lombok waters, NTB. Approximately 90% of mature animals conditioned in the laboratory could be spawned successfully. Wild freshly mature broodstock collected in the morning during spring low tide failed to spawn under any treatment tried, while in wild freshly mature broodstock collected in the afternoon during spring low tide, approximately 45% of the males and 37% of the females, spawned successfully under all treatments. Mature animals ready to spawn were usually found creeping up the tanks close to the water surface, and were very active but relaxed, and the foot was soft and flabby. In the laboratory, H. asinina from southern Lombok waters released gametes at night between 11:00 pm and 01:00 am. The conditioned broodstock had average batch fecundity ranged from 50,000 to 435,000 eggs and the freshly caught wild broodstock ranged from 50,000 to 105,000 eggs. Approximately 75% of spawned eggs were found to be ripe and the remaining 25% were unripe. In general, no artificial spawning induction is required to spawn tropical abalone (H. asinina in laboratory (hatchery.

  2. Variation in rates of early development in Haliotis asinina generate competent larvae of different ages

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    Jackson Daniel J

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Inter-specific comparisons of metazoan developmental mechanisms have provided a wealth of data concerning the evolution of body form and the generation of morphological novelty. Conversely, studies of intra-specific variation in developmental programs are far fewer. Variation in the rate of development may be an advantage to the many marine invertebrates that posses a biphasic life cycle, where fitness commonly requires the recruitment of planktonically dispersing larvae to patchily distributed benthic environments. Results We have characterised differences in the rate of development between individuals originating from a synchronised fertilisation event in the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina, a broadcast spawning lecithotrophic vetigastropod. We observed significant differences in the time taken to complete early developmental events (time taken to complete third cleavage and to hatch from the vitelline envelope, mid-larval events (variation in larval shell development and late larval events (the acquisition of competence to respond to a metamorphosis inducing cue. We also provide estimates of the variation in maternally provided energy reserves that suggest maternal provisioning is unlikely to explain the majority of the variation in developmental rate we report here. Conclusions Significant differences in the rates of development exist both within and between cohorts of synchronously fertilised H. asinina gametes. These differences can be detected shortly after fertilisation and generate larvae of increasingly divergent development states. We discuss the significance of our results within an ecological context, the adaptive significance of mechanisms that might maintain this variation, and potential sources of this variation.

  3. Feeding preferences and the nutritional value of tropical algae for the abalone Haliotis asinina.

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    Alex R Angell

    Full Text Available Understanding the feeding preferences of abalone (high-value marine herbivores is integral to new species development in aquaculture because of the expected link between preference and performance. Performance relates directly to the nutritional value of algae--or any feedstock--which in turn is driven by the amino acid content and profile, and specifically the content of the limiting essential amino acids. However, the relationship between feeding preferences, consumption and amino acid content of algae have rarely been simultaneously investigated for abalone, and never for the emerging target species Haliotis asinina. Here we found that the tropical H. asinina had strong and consistent preferences for the red alga Hypnea pannosa and the green alga Ulva flexuosa, but no overarching relationship between protein content (sum of amino acids and preference existed. For example, preferred Hypnea and Ulva had distinctly different protein contents (12.64 vs. 2.99 g 100 g(-1 and the protein-rich Asparagopsis taxiformis (>15 g 100 g(-1 of dry weight was one of the least preferred algae. The limiting amino acid in all algae was methionine, followed by histidine or lysine. Furthermore we demonstrated that preferences can largely be removed using carrageenan as a binder for dried alga, most likely acting as a feeding attractant or stimulant. The apparent decoupling between feeding preference and algal nutritive values may be due to a trade off between nutritive values and grazing deterrence associated with physical and chemical properties.

  4. Feeding Preferences and the Nutritional Value of Tropical Algae for the Abalone Haliotis asinina

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    Angell, Alex R.; Pirozzi, Igor; de Nys, Rocky; Paul, Nicholas A.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the feeding preferences of abalone (high-value marine herbivores) is integral to new species development in aquaculture because of the expected link between preference and performance. Performance relates directly to the nutritional value of algae – or any feedstock – which in turn is driven by the amino acid content and profile, and specifically the content of the limiting essential amino acids. However, the relationship between feeding preferences, consumption and amino acid content of algae have rarely been simultaneously investigated for abalone, and never for the emerging target species Haliotis asinina. Here we found that the tropical H. asinina had strong and consistent preferences for the red alga Hypnea pannosa and the green alga Ulva flexuosa, but no overarching relationship between protein content (sum of amino acids) and preference existed. For example, preferred Hypnea and Ulva had distinctly different protein contents (12.64 vs. 2.99 g 100 g−1) and the protein-rich Asparagopsis taxiformis (>15 g 100 g−1 of dry weight) was one of the least preferred algae. The limiting amino acid in all algae was methionine, followed by histidine or lysine. Furthermore we demonstrated that preferences can largely be removed using carrageenan as a binder for dried alga, most likely acting as a feeding attractant or stimulant. The apparent decoupling between feeding preference and algal nutritive values may be due to a trade off between nutritive values and grazing deterrence associated with physical and chemical properties. PMID:22719967

  5. Nitric oxide is not a negative regulator of metamorphic induction in the abalone Haliotis asinina

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    Nobuo eUeda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is a second messenger molecule synthesized by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS that requires the molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (HSP90 for normal enzymatic activity. Past studies have revealed that both NO and HSP90 act as negative regulators (repressors of metamorphosis in a diverse range of marine invertebrates, including several molluscan species. Here, we test the role of NO in the metamorphic induction of a vetigastropod mollusc, the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina. Specifically, we 1 test the effects of NO-manipulating pharmacological agents, 2 measure the temporal expression of NOS and HSP90 genes through metamorphosis, and 3 assess the spatial expression of NOS and HSP90 in larvae. We find that inhibition of NOS reduces rates of metamorphosis, indicating that NO facilitates, rather than represses, induction of metamorphosis in H. asinina. The marked increase in NOS expression in putative sensory cells localized to the anterior foot of competent larvae is consistent with NO as an inductive molecule for metamorphosis. In contrast to NOS, HSP90 transcript abundance decreases at competence and there is no evidence of NOS and HSP90 transcript co-localization. This study provides the first evidence of NO as an inductive facilitator of molluscan metamorphosis. Our experimental data suggest that NO modulates signals derived from live inductive substrates via the larval foot to regulate metamorphosis. Inter-specific comparisons of spatial NOS expression in molluscs suggest that the localized pattern of NOS or its protein product is related to the regulatory action of NO in metamorphosis.

  6. Marked changes in neuropeptide expression accompany broadcast spawnings in the gastropod Haliotis asinina

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    York Patrick S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A huge diversity of marine species reproduce by synchronously spawning their gametes into the water column. Although this species-specific event typically occurs in a particular season, the precise time and day of spawning often can not be predicted. There is little understanding of how the environment (e.g. water temperature, day length, tidal and lunar cycle regulates a population’s reproductive physiology to synchronise a spawning event. The Indo-Pacific tropical abalone, Haliotis asinina, has a highly predictable spawning cycle, where individuals release gametes on the evenings of spring high tides on new and full moons during the warmer half of the year. These calculable spawning events uniquely allow for the analysis of the molecular and cellular processes underlying reproduction. Here we characterise neuropeptides produced in H. asinina ganglia that are known in egg-laying molluscs to control vital aspects of reproduction. Results We demonstrate that genes encoding APGWamide, myomodulin, the putative proctolin homologue whitnin, FMRFamide, a schistosomin-like peptide (SLP, a molluscan insulin-related peptide (MIP and a haliotid growth-associated peptide (HGAP all are differentially expressed in the anterior ganglia during the two week spawning cycle in both male and female abalone. Each gene has a unique and sex-specific expression profile. Despite these differences, expression levels in most of the genes peak at or within 12 h of the spawning event. In contrast, lowest levels of transcript abundance typically occurs 36 h before and 24 h after spawning, with differences in peak and low expression levels being most pronounced in genes orthologous to known molluscan reproduction neuromodulators. Conclusions Exploiting the predictable semi-lunar spawning cycle of the gastropod H. asinina, we have identified a suite of evolutionarily-conserved, mollusc-specific and rapidly-evolving neuropeptides that appear to

  7. Effects of chemical cues on larval survival, settlement and metamorphosis of abalone Haliotis asinina

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    Wang, Xiaobing; Bai, Yang; Huang, Bo

    2010-11-01

    Low larval survival, poor settlement, and abnormal metamorphosis are major problems in seed production of donkey-ear abalone Haliotis asinina. We examined the effects of chemical cues including epinephrine, nor-epinephrine, and serotonin on larval survival, settlement, and metamorphosis in order to determine the possibility of using these chemicals to induce the problems. The results show that epinephrine could enhance metamorphosis rate at 10-6 mol/L only but higher concentrations (10-3-10-4 mol/L); and nor-epinephrine could inhibit the performance significantly, and serotonin could increase significantly the performance at a wide-range concentration (10-3-10-6 mol/L). Treatment with serotonin at 10-5 mol/L for 72 hours resulted in the highest settlement rate (42.2%) and survival rate (49.3%), while at 10-4 mol/L for 72 hours resulted in the highest metamorphosis rate (38.8%). Therefore, serotonin may be used as a fast metamorphosis inducer in abalone culture.

  8. Proteomic analysis of the organic matrix of the abalone Haliotis asinina calcified shell

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    Degnan Bernard M

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The formation of the molluscan shell is regulated to a large extent by a matrix of extracellular macromolecules that are secreted by the shell forming tissue, the mantle. This so called "calcifying matrix" is a complex mixture of proteins and glycoproteins that is assembled and occluded within the mineral phase during the calcification process. While the importance of the calcifying matrix to shell formation has long been appreciated, most of its protein components remain uncharacterised. Results Recent expressed sequence tag (EST investigations of the mantle tissue from the tropical abalone (Haliotis asinina provide an opportunity to further characterise the proteins in the shell by a proteomic approach. In this study, we have identified a total of 14 proteins from distinct calcified layers of the shell. Only two of these proteins have been previously characterised from abalone shells. Among the novel proteins are several glutamine- and methionine-rich motifs and hydrophobic glycine-, alanine- and acidic aspartate-rich domains. In addition, two of the new proteins contained Kunitz-like and WAP (whey acidic protein protease inhibitor domains. Conclusion This is one of the first comprehensive proteomic study of a molluscan shell, and should provide a platform for further characterization of matrix protein functions and interactions.

  9. Identification of a female spawn-associated Kazal-type inhibitor from the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina.

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    Wang, Tianfang; Nuurai, Parinyaporn; McDougall, Carmel; York, Patrick S; Bose, Utpal; Degnan, Bernard M; Cummins, Scott F

    2016-07-01

    Abalone (Haliotis) undergoes a period of reproductive maturation, followed by the synchronous release of gametes, called broadcast spawning. Field and laboratory studies have shown that the tropical species Haliotis asinina undergoes a two-week spawning cycle, thus providing an excellent opportunity to investigate the presence of endogenous spawning-associated peptides. In female H. asinina, we have isolated a peptide (5145 Da) whose relative abundance in hemolymph increases substantially just prior to spawning and is still detected using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography chromatograms up to 1-day post-spawn. We have isolated this peptide from female hemolymph as well as samples prepared from the gravid female gonad, and demonstrated through comparative sequence analysis that it contains features characteristic of Kazal-type proteinase inhibitors (KPIs). Has-KPI is expressed specifically within the gonad of adult females. A recombinant Has-KPI was generated using a yeast expression system. The recombinant Has-KPI does not induce premature spawning of female H. asinina when administered intramuscularly. However it displays homomeric aggregations and interaction with at least one mollusc-type neuropeptide (LRDFVamide), suggesting a role for it in regulating neuropeptide endocrine communication. This research provides new understanding of a peptide that can regulate reproductive processes in female abalone, which has the potential to lead to the development of greater control over abalone spawning. The findings also highlight the need to further explore abalone reproduction to clearly define a role for novel spawning-associated peptide in sexual maturation and spawning. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Isolation and identification of lactic acid bacteria from abalone (Haliotis asinina as a potential candidate of probiotic

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    YAYAN SOFYAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarkono, Faturrahman, Sofyan Y. 2010. Isolation and identification of lactic acid bacteria from abalone (Haliotis asinina as a potential candidate of probiotic. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 38-42. The purpose of this study was to isolate, select and characterize lactic acid bacteria (LAB from abalone as a potential candidate probiotic in abalone cultivation system. Selective isolation of LAB performed using de Man Rogosa Sharpe medium. LAB isolate that potential as probiotics was screened. Selection was based on its ability to suppress the growth of pathogenic bacteria, bacterial resistance to acidic conditions and bacterial resistance to bile salts (bile. Further characterization and identification conducted to determine the species. The results showed that two of the ten isolates potential to be developed as probiotic bacteria that have the ability to inhibit several pathogenic bacteria such as Eschericia coli, Bacillus cereus dan Staphylococus aureus, able to grow at acidic condition and bile tolerance during the incubation for 24 hour. Based on the API test kit, the both of isolate identified as members of the species Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei.

  11. Feeding, growth, and survival of post-larval abalone Haliotis asinina on different benthic diatoms

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    Emmanuel C. Capinpin, Jr.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The feeding behavior, digestive efficiency, growth, and survival of post-larval abalone Haliotis asininafed with 5 species of locally isolated benthic diatom strains (Navicula mollis, N. ramosissima, Stauroneissp., Pleurosigma sp., and Cocconeis sp. were examined in the laboratory. Two 15-day feeding trialsusing 1 mm post-larvae were conducted. No significant differences were observed in sizes of post-larvalabalone after 15 days in all diatom treatments (P>0.05. However, in both trials, Cocconeis sp. resulted inhigh survival rates (88.9±5.6% and 80.0±20.0% for Trials 1 and 2, respectively. Cocconeis sp. wasefficiently digested by post-larval abalone, with most of the cells being ruptured during ingestion and/orpassage through the gut. One diatom strain, Pleurosigma sp., resulted to a high survival but producedthe slowest growth rate (<10 ìm.d-1 SL. It was probably not ingested easily during the experiment due toits large size or mobility. For the other diatom strains, N. mollis and N. ramosissima, most cells passedthrough the gut with the cells left intact. Stauroneis sp. is highly digestible, but did not result to highsurvival, although the remaining live post-larval abalone fed on this diatom as well as on N. mollis grewfaster during the second week of both feeding trials. N. ramosissima resulted to poorest survival rate(<10% due to its poor digestibility. Only Cocconeis sp. showed a fairly high growth rate, digestionefficiency, and survival rate. N. mollis which gave a fairly high survival rate and Stauroneis may be addedtowards the later stages of post-larval rearing as well as other large diatoms. The digestion efficiency ofdiatom strains is considered an important factor determining its dietary value, but other factors may alsobe important such as volume contents, biochemical composition, and other physical characteristics.

  12. AKTIVITAS ENZIM KOMERSIAL, EKSTRAK KASAR ENZIM DARI VISCERA KEONG MAS (Pila polita, ABALON (Haliotis asinina, DAN BEKICOT (Achatina fulica UNTUK LISIS JARINGAN RUMPUT LAUT Kappaphycus alvarezii PADA KULTUR PROTOPLAS

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    Sri Redjeki Hesti Mulyaningrum

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Dalam usaha perbaikan kualitas bibit rumput laut Kappaphycus alvarezii dilakukan kultur protoplas dengan isolasi protoplas menggunakan enzim. Untuk mendapatkan sumber enzim yang ekonomis sebagai alternatif pengganti enzim komersial dan untuk mengetahui perbandingan konsentrasi enzim komersial yang optimum agar menghasilkan jumlah protoplas yang maksimum, dilakukan karakterisasi terhadap enzim dari berbagai sumber. Aktivitas ekstrak kasar enzim dari viscera bekicot (Achatina fulica tidak berbeda nyata dengan enzim komersial (P>0,05 dengan aktivitas sebesar 0,729 unit/mL; enzim komersial 0,354 unit/mL; ekstrak kasar enzim dari viscera keong mas (Pila polita 0,048 unit/mL; dan ekstrak kasar enzim dari viscera abalon (Haliotis asinina 0,014 unit/mL. Perbandingan enzim komersial yang optimum adalah 2:1 menghasilkan protoplas sebanyak 1,26 x 108 sel/mL; kemudian 1:2 dengan jumlah protoplas 1,22 x 108 sel/mL; perbandingan 1:1 menghasilkan protoplas sebanyak 8,36 x 107 sel/mL; perbandingan 0:1 menghasilkan protoplas sebanyak 6,33 x 107 sel/mL; dan perbandingan 1:0 menghasilkan protoplas sebanyak 9,55 x 106 sel/mL. Rumput laut asal Takalar memiliki protoplas dengan kepadatan tertinggi sebesar 3,7 x 108 sel/mL. Effort to improve the quality of seaweed seed Kappaphycus alvarezii has been done by protoplast culture with protoplast isolation using enzyme. To find out economical enzyme sources as alternatives to substitute the expensive commercial enzyme and to determine the optimum concentration ratio of commercial enzyme to produce maximum amount of protoplast, characterization was executed to several potential sources. Activity of crude extract enzyme from viscera of garden snail (Achatina fulica was not significantly different with commercial enzyme (P>0.05 it was 0.729 unit/mL, commercial enzyme 0.354 unit/mL activity; crude extract enzyme from viscera of golden snail (Pila polita 0.048 unit/mL activity and crude extract enzyme from viscera of abalone

  13. Ultrastructure and Glycoconjugate Pattern of the Foot Epithelium of the Abalone Haliotis tuberculata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Gastropoda, Haliotidae

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    I. Bravo Portela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The foot epithelium of the gastropod Haliotis tuberculata is studied by light and electron microscopy in order to contribute to the understanding of the anatomy and functional morphology of the mollusks integument. Study of the external surface by scanning electron microscopy reveals that the side foot epithelium is characterized by a microvillus border with a very scant presence of small ciliary tufts, but the sole foot epithelium bears a dense field of long cilia. Ultrastructural examination by transmission electron microscopy of the side epithelial cells shows deeply pigmented cells with high electron-dense granular content which are not observed in the epithelial sole cells. Along the pedal epithelium, seven types of secretory cells are present; furthermore, two types of subepithelial glands are located just in the sole foot. The presence and composition of glycoconjugates in the secretory cells and subepithelial glands are analyzed by conventional and lectin histochemistry. Subepithelial glands contain mainly N-glycoproteins rich in fucose and mannose whereas secretory cells present mostly acidic sulphated glycoconjugates such as glycosaminoglycans and mucins, which are rich in galactose, N-acetyl-galactosamine, and N-acetyl-glucosamine. No sialic acid is present in the foot epithelium.

  14. The role of MAPK signaling in patterning and establishing axial symmetry in the gastropod Haliotis asinina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koop, Demian; Richards, Gemma S; Wanninger, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    , the embryo begins to gastrulate and assumes a bilateral cleavage pattern. Here we inhibit MAPK activation in 3D with U0126 and examine its effect on the formation and patterning of the trochophore, using a suite of territory-specific markers. The head (pretrochal) region appears to maintain quadri...... (D) quadrant is intimately linked with body plan organization and in equally cleaving gastropods occurs when one of the vegetal macromeres makes contact with overlying micromeres and receives an inductive signal that activates a MAPK signaling cascade. Following the induction of the 3D macromere......-radial symmetry in U0126-treated embryos, supporting a role for MAPK signaling in 3D in establishing dorsoventral polarity in this region. Posterior (posttrochal) structures - larval musculature, shell and foot--fail to develop in MAPK inhibited trochophores. Inhibition of 3D specification by an alternative...

  15. Linnaeus in Uppsala, Sweden.

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    Cohen, Paul; Cohen, Brenda

    1997-01-01

    Presents a brief life history of Carl Linnaeus, a professor of medicine and botany in Uppsala, Sweden. Highlights his work in developing a classification system for plants and animals, and his botanical lectures and demonstrations. (JRH)

  16. Reproductive Patterns in the Non-Breeding Season in Asinina de Miranda Jennies.

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    Quaresma, M; Silva, S R; Payan-Carreira, R

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to characterize the reproductive patterns in Asinina de Miranda jennies during the non-breeding season. Reproductive activity was surveyed in 12 females, aged between 3 and 18 years old, using ultrasound and teasing with a jack. The animals were monitored from September to April, six in each consecutive year. Of these 12 females, nine showed disruption to the normal pattern of ovarian activity during the non-breeding season. Loss of normal cyclicity included anoestrus (41.7%), silent ovulatory oestrus (25%), and persistence of corpus luteum (8.3%). Only three females maintained a regular cyclic pattern with oestrous behaviour during the non-breeding season. Anoestrus began in early November and lasted for an average of 147 ± 28 days (113-191 days), ending near to the spring equinox. Onset of silent oestrous cycles began more erratically, between October and February. In both groups the first behavioural ovulation of the year occurred around the time of the spring equinox. Disrupted reproductive activity was preceded by a shorter oestrous cycle only in females entering anoestrus. The mean follicle size in the first ovulation of the year was larger than in the reproductive season (44.7 ± 2.45 mm vs 39.2 ± 3.60 mm) in anoestrous jennies with protracted oestrus. Though age and body condition score (BCS) were associated, changes in BCS below a threshold of four points (for anoestrus) and five points (for silent oestrus) contributed greatly to disruption of reproductive cycles. BCS in females with regular oestrous cycles during the winter season remained unchanged or exceeded five points prior to the winter solstice. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Carl Linnaeus: pictures and propaganda.

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    Fara, Patricia

    2003-03-01

    How do scientists become famous? Carl Linnaeus was an expert at self-promotion who used portraits to gain patronage and consolidate his reputation. His sexualized classification system was hugely controversial, yet his successors celebrated him as a great hero of botany.

  18. Assessing the ecosystem effects of the abalone Haliotis midae from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing the ecosystem effects of the abalone Haliotis midae from its diet and foraging ... midae is commercially exploited and seriously threatened by overfishing. ... of the ecosystem because of associated changes in community structure. ... of this previously abundant herbivore on the south-west coast of South Africa, we ...

  19. Types and distribution of mucous cells of the abalone Haliotis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-05-08

    May 8, 2012 ... Key words: Haliotis diversicolor; mucous cells, types, distribution. .... Figure 2. The shape of the mucous cells. O (oval or circle-like); c (cup- like); s ... (J) mucous cells at base of gill filaments, small cells, type II and type III; (K) a ...

  20. Types and distribution of mucous cells of the abalone Haliotis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The types and distribution of mucous cells of Haliotis diversicolorwere observed and analyzed using the alcian blue and periodic acid schiffs (AB-PAS) reaction and histological procedures. According to the color of the mucous cells, they were divided into four types: Type I, pure red; type II, pure blue; type III, purple reddish; ...

  1. Growth rates of Haliotis rufescens and Haliotis discus hannai in tank culture systems in southern Chile (41.5°S

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    Alfonso Mardones

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The increased activity of aquaculture in Chile involves cultivation of salmonids, oysters mussels and other species such, and to a lesser extent species such as red abalone (Haliotis rufescens and Japanese abalone (Haliotis discus hannai. The aim of this study was to evaluate the growth rate of Haliotis rufescens and Haliotis discus hannai fed with different pellet based diets with Macrocystis sp. and Ulva sp., grown in ponds for 13 months. The results for both species denoted that there was an increase in length and biomass during experimental period, existing low growth rates during the austral winter (July-September and increase during the austral summer (December-January. Results are consistent with descriptions of literature that there is high rate of growth during the summer and using diet of brown algae. From the economic standpoint abalone farming would be an economically viable activity for local aquaculture, considering the water quality and food requirements.

  2. Bad math in Linnaeus' Philosophia Botanica.

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    Podani, János; Szilágyi, András

    2016-09-01

    In Philosophia Botanica (1751), Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) presented a calculation of the number of plant genera that may be distinguished based on his taxonomic concepts. In order to derive that number, he relied upon the organs of fructification, which represent the flower and the fruit, by selecting over 30 elements from them, and then assuming that each could vary by four dimensions. However, while Linnaeus was good in counting stamens and pistils, he and many of his followers who edited or translated Philosophia Botanica were less careful, basing their calculations of the number of possible genera on flawed assumptions, or even introducing basic arithmetic errors. Furthermore, although mathematics was quite advanced in the eighteenth century, the gap between combinatorial and botanical thinking was too deep, preventing Linnaeus to seek a reasonable solution to the problem he raised. The authors demonstrate this by a historical analysis of 15 editions of Philosophia Botanica, plus many references to it, and conclude that the desired number almost always appeared in error during the past 265 years. The German botanist J. G. Gleditsch (1714-1786) was the most successful with respect to Linnaeus' original intention. Elementary mathematics demonstrates that if Linnaeus' assumptions were taken seriously, then the possible number of genera would be astronomical. The practice he followed in Genera Plantarum (1754) shows, however, that the fructification dimensions served as a universal set for Linnaeus from which he chose only the relevant ones for describing a particular genus empirically. Based on the corrections and modifications implemented in reworked editions, we suggest an evolutionary network for the historical and modern versions or translations of Philosophia Botanica.

  3. Proteomic analysis of muscle between hybrid abalone and parental lines Haliotis gigantea Reeve and Haliotis discus hannai Ino

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    Di, G; Luo, X; You, W; Zhao, J; Kong, X; Ke, C

    2015-01-01

    To understand the potential molecular mechanism of heterosis, protein expression patterns were compared from hybrids of Haliotis gigantea (G) and Haliotis discus hannai (D) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight analyses. Expression differences were observed in muscle samples from the four groups with 673±21.0 stained spots for H. discus hannai ♀ × H. discus hannai ♂ (DD), 692±25.6 for H. gigantea ♀ × H. gigantea ♂ (GG), 679±16.2 for H. discus hannai ♀ × H. gigantea ♂ (DG) (F1 hybrid) and 700±19 for H. gigantea ♀ × H. discus hannai ♂ (GD) (F1 hybrid). Different 2-DE image muscle protein spots had a mirrored relationship between purebreds and the F1 hybrid, suggesting that all stained spots in F1 hybrid muscle were on 2-DEs from parents. DD and DG clustered together first, and then clustered with GD, whereas the distance of DD and GG was maximal according to hierarchical cluster analysis. We identified 136 differentially expressed protein spots involved in major biological processes, including energy metabolism and stress response. Most energy metabolism proteins were additive, and stress-induced proteins displayed additivity or over-dominance. In these 136 identified protein spots, hybrid offspring with additivity or over-dominance accounted for 68.38%. Data show that a proteomic approach can provide functional prediction of abalone interspecific hybridization. PMID:25669609

  4. Uptake of technetium from seawater by red abalone Haliotis rufescens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spies, R.B.

    1975-01-01

    Technetium accumulation from seawater by the abalone Haliotis rufescens was studied with 95 Tc. Concentration factors, uptake rates, steady state concentrations, and biological half-lives were determined experimentally for whole-body uptake. Whole-body concentration factors ranged from 135 to 205; biological half-life was 60 days. Changes in concentration factors were determined for six tissues during the uptake period. The highest activities were in the order of: digestive gland>gill>kidneys>heart>gonad>columnar muscle. Dead shells accumulated little activity compared to shells of living abalone. Gills and digestive system appear to be the routes of entry. Autoradiography shows that of the muscular tissues the outer edge of the foot and epipodium are the most active and the edible columnar muscle the least active. (author)

  5. Bibliographie der Flussperlmuschel Margaritifera Margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758) [Mollusca: Pelecypoda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungbluth, J.H.; Coomans, H.E.; Grohs, H.

    1985-01-01

    Bibliography of the freshwater Pearlmussel Margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758) [Mollusca: Pelecypoda] The freshwater pearlmussel, described by Linnaeus as Mya margaritifera is one of the most important molluscs existing. It belongs with only a few congeneric fossil and recent species to the

  6. Characterization of defensin gene from abalone Haliotis discus hannai and its deduced protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xuguang; Sun, Xiuqin; Zheng, Minggang; Qu, Lingyun; Zan, Jindong; Zhang, Jinxing

    2008-11-01

    Defensin is one of preserved ancient host defensive materials formed in biological evolution. As a regulator and effector molecule, it is very important in animals’ acquired immune system. This paper reports the defensin gene from the mixed liver and kidney cDNA library of abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Sequence analysis shows that the gene sequence of full-length cDNA encodes 42 mature peptides (including six Cys), molecular weight of 4 323 Da, and pI of 8.02. Amino acid sequence homology analysis shows that the peptides are highly similar (70% in common) to other insects defensin. Because of a typical insect-defensin structural character of mature peptide in the secondary structure, the polypeptide named Haliotis discus defensin (hd-def), a novel of antimicrobial peptides, belongs to insects defensin subfamily. The RT-PCR result of Haliotis discus defensin shows that the gene can be expressed only in the hepatopancreas by Gram-negative and positive bacteria stimulation, which is ascribed to inducible expression. Therefore, it is revealed that the Haliotis discus defensin gene expression was related to the antibacterial infection of Haliotis discus hannai Ino.

  7. Abalone R&D at AQD

    OpenAIRE

    Castanos, Milagros T.

    1997-01-01

    Details are given of the results of research conducted at the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department on abalone (Haliotis asinina). The following areas are covered: reproductive biology; induced spawning; raising abalone in the hatchery; and, cage culture trials.

  8. Metabolic responses of Haliotis diversicolor to Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jie; Shi, Yanyan; Cai, Shuhui; Feng, Jianghua

    2017-01-01

    Vibrio parahemolyticus is a devastating bacterial pathogen that often causes outbreak of vibriosis in abalone Haliotis diversicolor. Elucidation of metabolic mechanisms of abalones in responding to V. parahemolyticus infection is essential for controlling the epidemic. In this work, 1 H NMR-based metabolomic techniques along with correlation and network analyses are used to investigate characteristic metabolites, as well as corresponding disturbed pathways in hepatopancreas and gill of H. diversicolor after V. parahemolyticus infection for 48 h. Results indicate that obvious gender- and tissue-specific metabolic responses are induced. Metabolic responses in female abalones are more clearly observed than those in males, which are primarily manifested in the accumulation of branched-chain amino acids and the depletion of organic osmolytes (homarine, betaine and taurine) in the infected gills of female abalones, as well as in the depletion of glutamate, branched-chain and aromatic amino acids in the infected hepatopancreases of female abalones. Moreover, based on major metabolic functions of the characteristic metabolites, we have found that V. parahemolyticus infection not only cause the disturbance in energy metabolism, nucleotide metabolism and osmotic balance, but also induce oxidative stress, immune stress and neurotoxic effect in different tissues with various mechanisms. Our study provides details of metabolic responses of abalones to V. parahemolyticus infection and will shed light on biochemical defence mechanisms of male and female hosts against pathogen infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Preliminary genetic linkage map of the abalone Haliotis diversicolor Reeve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yaohua; Guo, Ximing; Gu, Zhifeng; Wang, Aimin; Wang, Yan

    2010-05-01

    Haliotis diversicolor Reeve is one of the most important mollusks cultured in South China. Preliminary genetic linkage maps were constructed with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. A total of 2 596 AFLP markers were obtained from 28 primer combinations in two parents and 78 offsprings. Among them, 412 markers (15.9%) were polymorphic and segregated in the mapping family. Chi-square tests showed that 151 (84.4%) markers segregated according to the expected 1:1 Mendelian ratio ( P<0.05) in the female parent, and 200 (85.8%) in the male parent. For the female map, 179 markers were used for linkage analysis and 90 markers were assigned to 17 linkage groups with an average interval length of 25.7 cm. For the male map, 233 markers were used and 94 were mapped into 18 linkage groups, with an average interval of 25.0 cm. The estimated genome length was 2 773.0 cm for the female and 2 817.1 cm for the male map. The observed length of the linkage map was 1 875.2 cm and 1 896.5 cm for the female and male maps, respectively. When doublets were considered, the map length increased to 2 152.8 cm for the female and 2 032.7 cm for the male map, corresponding to genome coverage of 77.6% and 72.2%, respectively.

  10. Enhancing Jatropha curcas (Linnaeus) Cultivation and Seed Yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhancing Jatropha curcas (Linnaeus) Cultivation and Seed Yield among ... Journal of Agricultural Research and Development ... Jatropha curcas yields substantial quantity of seed oil and is growing in importance as a source of biodiesel.

  11. Proteomic profiling of eggs from a hybrid abalone and its parental lines: Haliotis discus hannai Ino and Haliotis gigantea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Guilan; Luo, Xuan; Huang, Miaoqin; Chen, Jun; Kong, Xianghui; Miao, Xiulian; Ke, Caihuan

    2015-12-01

    Proteomic analysis was performed on the eggs of hybrid abalone and their corresponding parental lines. A total of 915 ± 19 stained protein spots were detected from Haliotis discus hannai♀ × H. discus hannai♂ (DD), 935 ± 16 from H. gigantea♀ × H. gigantea♂ (GG) and 923 ± 13 from H. gigantea♀ × H. discus hannai♂ (GD). The spots from DD and GD were clustered together. The distance between DD and GG was maximal by hierarchical cluster analysis. A total of 112 protein gel spots were identified; of these, 59 were abalone proteins. The proteins were involved in major biological processes including energy metabolism, proliferation, apoptosis, signal transduction, immunity, lipid metabolism, electron carrier proteins, protein biosynthesis and decomposition, and cytoskeletal structure. Three of 20 differential expression protein spots involved in energy metabolism exhibited as upregulated in GD, 13 spots exhibited additivity, and four spots exhibited as downregulated in the offspring. Eleven protein spots were expressed at the highest level in DD. The proteins involved in stress responses included superoxide dismutase, peroxiredoxin 6, thioredoxin peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase. Two of seven differential expression protein spots involved in response to stress exhibited as upregulated in GD, three exhibited additivity, and two exhibited as downregulated. These results might suggest that proteomic approaches are suitable for the analysis of hybrids and the functional prediction of abalone hybridization. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  12. PEMATANGAN GONAD INDUK ABALON Haliotis squamata MELALUI PENGELOLAAN PAKAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibnu Rusdi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abalon merupakan hewan yang bersifat herbivora di alam memakan berbagai jenis makroalga. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh berbagai makroalga sebagai pakan terhadap perkembangan gonad abalon Haliotis squamata. Dalam penelitian ini diterapkan 4 perlakuan pemberian pakan yaitu: (A Gracilaria sp., (B Ulva sp., (C Sargassum sp., (D Kombinasi Gracilaria sp. + Ulva sp. + Sargassum sp. (rasio 1:1:1. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah rancangan acak lengkap masing-masing dengan 3 ulangan. Induk-induk abalon dipelihara dalam 12 buah kontainer plastik berlubang ukuran 0,58 m x 0,39 m x 0,31 m dan ditempatkan dalam sebuah bak semen ukuran 3 m x 2 m x 1 m. Setiap kontainer berisi abalon sebanyak 10 ekor dengan ukuran awal rata-rata panjang cangkang dan bobot masing-masing 58,9±1,37 mm dan 36,1±4,06 g. Pakan diberikan dengan dosis 15%-20% dari bobot biomassa setiap 2 hari sekali. Pergantian air menggunakan sistem sirkulasi dengan debit 5-6 L/menit. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa rata-rata pertumbuhan bobot mutlak dan laju pertumbuhan bobot harian berbeda nyata (P<0,05 antar perlakuan. Tingkat kematangan gonad (TKG induk abalon pada hari ke-70 diperoleh TKG-III tertinggi dihasilkan pada perlakuan kombinasi Gracilaria + Ulva sp. + Sargassum sp. (P<0,05. Perlakuan pakan kombinasi Gracilaria sp. + Ulva sp. dan Sargassum sp. terlihat lebih sesuai dalam memacu pematangan gonad induk abalon H. squamata.  Abalone is a herbivorous animal which consumes various kinds of macroalgae in the wild. The aim of the study was to study the effects of various kinds of macroalgae on gonadal maturation of abalone, Haliotis squamata. The experiment applied four kinds of macroalgae i.e.: (A Gracilaria sp.; (B Ulva sp.; (C Sargassum sp.; and (D Combination of Gracilaria sp. + Ulva sp. + Sargassum sp. (ratio 1:1:1 as food for abalone broodstock. The experiment was arranged in complete random design with three replications. One cemented tank of 3 m x 2 m x 1 m in

  13. LINNAEUS: A species name identification system for biomedical literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenadic Goran

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The task of recognizing and identifying species names in biomedical literature has recently been regarded as critical for a number of applications in text and data mining, including gene name recognition, species-specific document retrieval, and semantic enrichment of biomedical articles. Results In this paper we describe an open-source species name recognition and normalization software system, LINNAEUS, and evaluate its performance relative to several automatically generated biomedical corpora, as well as a novel corpus of full-text documents manually annotated for species mentions. LINNAEUS uses a dictionary-based approach (implemented as an efficient deterministic finite-state automaton to identify species names and a set of heuristics to resolve ambiguous mentions. When compared against our manually annotated corpus, LINNAEUS performs with 94% recall and 97% precision at the mention level, and 98% recall and 90% precision at the document level. Our system successfully solves the problem of disambiguating uncertain species mentions, with 97% of all mentions in PubMed Central full-text documents resolved to unambiguous NCBI taxonomy identifiers. Conclusions LINNAEUS is an open source, stand-alone software system capable of recognizing and normalizing species name mentions with speed and accuracy, and can therefore be integrated into a range of bioinformatics and text-mining applications. The software and manually annotated corpus can be downloaded freely at http://linnaeus.sourceforge.net/.

  14. Carolus Linnaeus and the Edible Dormouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Violani

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carolus Linnaeus was totally unacquainted with the Edible Dormouse Myoxus glis (L., a species not found in Sweden: while describing Mus Rattus in the 10th Edition of the "Systema Naturae" (1758, the Swedish naturalist confessed his ignorance concerning the "Glis" of the ancients and suggested that it might have been the marmot or the hamster. Thanks to written information received from his correspondent in Slovenia, Giovanni Antonio Scopoli, Linnaeus was able to include the new species Sciurus Glis in his 12th Edition of the "Systema Naturae" (1766, reporting almost verbatim a summary of Scopoli's description of the rodent. Scopoli's letter is still preserved in the Library of the Linnean Society of London. The Linnean type locality "Habitat in Europa australi" for the Edible Dormouse Myoxus glis glis must therefore be restricted to "Southern Carniola, Slovenia", contra "Germany" as stated, for instance, by Miller (1912, Toschi (1965, Corbet (1978 and Storch (1978. A new name is required for the continental European form, for which M. glis germanicus ssp. nov. is here proposed. Some information on the appreciation of Myoxus glis as a delicacy ("carnes avide eduntur" in Linnaeus' words conclude the paper. Riassunto Carlo Linneo ed il Ghiro - Dopo aver descritto Mus Rattus nella decima edizione del "Systema Naturae" (1758 il naturalista svedese Carlo Linneo confessava di non essere a conoscenza del "Glis" degli antichi autori e ne suggeriva l'identificazione con la Marmotta o con il Criceto comune; è infatti noto che Myoxus glis non è diffuso in Svezia. In base ad una lettera ricevuta dal suo corrispondente in Slovenia, Giovanni Antonio Scopoli, Linneo fu in grado di descrivere questa nuova specie come Sciurus Glis nella dodicesima edizione del "Systema

  15. The distribution of heavy metals in the red abalone, haliotis rufescens, on the california coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderlini, V.

    1974-01-01

    The gills, mantle, digestive gland, and foot muscle of 74 specimens of the red abalone, haliotis rufescens, from five localities on the california coast are analyzed for eight heavy metals. The distribution of these elements in the abalones appears to be non-normal. High lead concentrations in the la jolla-long beach area seem to reflect pollutant inputs; elsewhere lead levels appear to derive from natural sources. (1 graph, 1 map, 31 references, 1 table)

  16. Clio pyramidata Linnaeus, 1767 forma convexa (Boas, 1886) (Mollusca, Pteropoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoel, van der S.

    1973-01-01

    The pelagic fauna of the Red Sea shows special variation induced by its isolated character (Van der Spoel, 1971). Clio pyramidata from the Red Sea is usually incorrectly referred to as the tropical forma lanceolata (Lesueur, 1813) or the typical forma pyramidata Linnaeus, 1767. Some large samples

  17. Regulatory effects of Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus on immunological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the results of experiments to test the effect of the larvae of Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus on the immune systems of mice. Mice were given a decoction of T. molitor in water at doses of 1.87, 3.75 and 7.50 g/kg/d for four weeks, after which their immune function was studied. The results indicate that T. molitor ...

  18. [Chile's experience with developing abalone (Haliotis spp.) farming: opportunities and challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enríquez, R; Villagrán, R

    2008-04-01

    Intensive abalone farming--specifically of the red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) and the green (or Japanese) abalone (Haliotis discus hannai)--has expanded rapidly in Chile since the late 1990s, and this article presents an overview of the challenges facing the industry and the factors which favour its development. At present, 100% of Chile's abalone enterprises farm the H. rufescens species, owing to its suitability for full-cycle culture. In the analysis of factors that facilitate the development of abalone farming in Chile, those that stand out include the characteristics of the aquatic ecosystem, existing entrepreneurial and professional skills, decisive government support in co-financing scientific and technological projects, infrastructure and associated services to support these development initiatives and a market where prices have remained stable and demand for abalone products has been steady. The greatest challenges facing intensive abalone farming in Chile are providing a constant supply of macroalgae for abalone feed and developing complementary feed, as well as updating current legislation on intensive abalone farming, strengthening producer associations and establishing health certification. The article discusses examples of the impact that native organisms can have on animals introduced into an aquatic ecosystem and the international transmission of agents such as withering syndrome and sabellid polychaete infestation disease, associated with the movement of abalone seeds and broodstock. The article also emphasises the importance of implementing the recommendations of the World Organisation for Animal Health.

  19. Initial characterization of receptors for molecules that induce the settlement and metamorphosis of Haliotis rufescens larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trapido-Rosenthal, H.G.

    1985-01-01

    Larvae of the marine gastropod mollusc Haliotis refescens are induced to undergo metamorphosis by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and stereochemically related compounds. The most potent of these inducers is (-)-β-(parachlorophenyl)-GABA (baclofen). The inductive response exhibits positive cooperatively, and is subject to both facilitation (up-regulation) and habituation (down-regulation). Facilitation is brought about by diamino acids such as L-diaminopropionic acid (L-DAPA), and is characterized by decreased Hill coefficients (n/sub H/) and concentration requirements (EC 50 ) for inducers. Facilitation does not require the simultaneous presence of facilitating and inducing compounds, and the facilitated state is persistent. Larvae are capable of being up-regulated 2 days before they are capable of undergoing settlement and metamorphosis. Habituation can be brought about by exposure of pre-competent larvae to GABA 4 days prior to the attainment of competence; it is then slowly reversible. Larvae specifically bind tritiated (-)-baclofen in a manner that is saturable with both increasing time of exposure of larvae to, and with increasing concentration of, this compound. Specific binding can be competed for by unlabeled GABA-mimetic inducing molecules; the order of effectiveness of these molecules as competitors for specific binding correlates well with their effectiveness as inducers of metamorphosis. Facilitation of larvae by exposure to diamino acids does not alter their specific binding of tritiated (-)-baclofen. It is concluded from these findings that Haliotis larvae possess receptors for GABA-mimetic compounds

  20. The hydrogen peroxide impact on larval settlement and metamorphosis of abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangjing; Yang, Zhihui; Cai, Zhonghua

    2008-08-01

    Abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta is an important economic mollusk. The settlement and metamorphosis are two critical stages during its development period, which has direct influence on abalone survival and production. The influence of reactive oxygen species (hydrogen peroxide) on abalone embryo and juvenile development were examined in this study. Larvae of Haliotis diversicolor supertexta were induced to settlement and metamorphose by exposure to seawater supplemented with hydrogen peroxide. They had the best performance at 800 μmol/L. The concentration of 1 000 μmol/L or higher was toxic to the larvae, as the larvae could settle down only at benthic diatom plates without complete metamorphosis. In addition, H2O2 adding time was critical to the larval performance. 24h after two-day post-fertilization was proved to be the optimal adding time. In this paper, two action mechanisms of hydrogen peroxide are discussed: (1) hydrogen peroxide has direct toxicity to ciliated cells, thus cause apoptosis; (2) hydrogen peroxide, as a product from catecholamines’ autoxidation process in vivo, can reverse this process to produce neuro-transmitters to induce abalone metamorphosis.

  1. Characterization of genic microsatellite markers derived from expressed sequence tags in Pacific abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Shu, Jing; Zhao, Cui; Liu, Shikai; Kong, Lingfeng; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2010-01-01

    Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed from the expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of Pacific abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai). Repeat motifs were found in 4.95% of the ESTs at a frequency of one repeat every 10.04 kb of EST sequences, after redundancy elimination. Seventeen polymorphic EST-SSRs were developed. The number of alleles per locus varied from 2-17, with an average of 6.8 alleles per locus. The expected and observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.159 to 0.928 and from 0.132 to 0.922, respectively. Twelve of the 17 loci (70.6%) were successfully amplified in H. diversicolor. Seventeen loci segregated in three families, with three showing the presence of null alleles (17.6%). The adequate level of variability and low frequency of null alleles observed in H. discus hannai, together with the high rate of transportability across Haliotis species, make this set of EST-SSR markers an important tool for comparative mapping, marker-assisted selection, and evolutionary studies, not only in the Pacific abalone, but also in related species.

  2. Differentially-Expressed Genes Associated with Faster Growth of the Pacific Abalone, Haliotis discus hannai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Jin; Kim, Gun-Do; Kim, Jong-Myoung; Lim, Han Kyu

    2015-11-18

    The Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai is used for commercial aquaculture in Korea. We examined the transcriptome of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai siblings using NGS technology to identify genes associated with high growth rates. Pacific abalones grown for 200 days post-fertilization were divided into small-, medium-, and large-size groups with mean weights of 0.26 ± 0.09 g, 1.43 ± 0.405 g, and 5.24 ± 1.09 g, respectively. RNA isolated from the soft tissues of each group was subjected to RNA sequencing. Approximately 1%-3% of the transcripts were differentially expressed in abalones, depending on the growth rate. RT-PCR was carried out on thirty four genes selected to confirm the relative differences in expression detected by RNA sequencing. Six differentially-expressed genes were identified as associated with faster growth of the Pacific abalone. These include five up-regulated genes (including one specific to females) encoding transcripts homologous to incilarin A, perlucin, transforming growth factor-beta-induced protein immunoglobulin-heavy chain 3 (ig-h3), vitelline envelope zona pellucida domain 4, and defensin, and one down-regulated gene encoding tomoregulin in large abalones. Most of the transcripts were expressed predominantly in the hepatopancreas. The genes identified in this study will lead to development of markers for identification of high-growth-rate abalones and female abalones.

  3. Differentially-Expressed Genes Associated with Faster Growth of the Pacific Abalone, Haliotis discus hannai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Jin Choi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai is used for commercial aquaculture in Korea. We examined the transcriptome of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai siblings using NGS technology to identify genes associated with high growth rates. Pacific abalones grown for 200 days post-fertilization were divided into small-, medium-, and large-size groups with mean weights of 0.26 ± 0.09 g, 1.43 ± 0.405 g, and 5.24 ± 1.09 g, respectively. RNA isolated from the soft tissues of each group was subjected to RNA sequencing. Approximately 1%–3% of the transcripts were differentially expressed in abalones, depending on the growth rate. RT-PCR was carried out on thirty four genes selected to confirm the relative differences in expression detected by RNA sequencing. Six differentially-expressed genes were identified as associated with faster growth of the Pacific abalone. These include five up-regulated genes (including one specific to females encoding transcripts homologous to incilarin A, perlucin, transforming growth factor-beta-induced protein immunoglobulin-heavy chain 3 (ig-h3, vitelline envelope zona pellucida domain 4, and defensin, and one down-regulated gene encoding tomoregulin in large abalones. Most of the transcripts were expressed predominantly in the hepatopancreas. The genes identified in this study will lead to development of markers for identification of high-growth-rate abalones and female abalones.

  4. Sobre o lectótipo de Papilio bixae Linnaeus e a designação do lectótipo de Papilio proteus Linnaeus (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf H. H. Mielke

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The lectotype of Papilo bixae Linnaeus, designated by Hemming (1964 based on the figure of Merian (1705, was found in the Wiesbaden Museum, and here with considered as such. It corresponds to Pyrrhopyge phidias bixae; Evans (1951. Two syntypes of Papilo proteus Linnaeus, 1758, were also found in the same Museum and one of them was selected as lectotype. These lectotypes are figured for the first time.

  5. Biokinetic behavior of Tc in the red abalone, Haliotis rufescens: a reassessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beasley, T.M.; Lorz, H.V.; Gonor, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    The biokinetic behavior of /sup 95m/Tc in the red abalone, Haliotis rufescens, is reviewed in light of recent experiments on other molluscs. Additional experimentation has confirmed that, when uptake is directly from labeled seawater, abalone exhibit concentration factors in excess of 100. Bivalve molluscs under the same experimental conditions have concentration factors that do not exceed 2. However, uptake and loss kinetics cannot be described by a single compartment model as had been previously advanced. Assimilation of /sup 95m/Tc by the abalone following a single feeding of labeled macroalga, Nereocystis pyrifera, is high (approx. 45%) and loss kinetics are similar to those observed following direct uptake from seawater

  6. Effects of dietary menadione on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jinghua; Xu, Wei; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Feng, Xiuni; Liufu, Zhiguo

    2012-01-01

    A 240-day growth experiment in a re-circulating water system was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary menadione on the growth and antioxidant responses of abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Triplicate groups of juvenile abalone (initial weight: 1.19 ± 0.01 g; shell length: 19.23 ± 0.01 mm) were fed to satiation with 3 semi-purified diets containing 0, 10, and 1 000 mg menadione sodium bisulfite (MSB)/kg, respectively. Results show that there were no significant differences in the rate of weight gain or in the daily increment in shell length of abalone among different treatments. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) in viscera were significantly decreased with dietary menadione. However, activities of these enzymes except for GPX in muscle were increased. Therefore, antioxidant responses of abalone were increased in muscle and decreased in viscera by dietary menadione.

  7. Gene expression profiling in respond to TBT exposure in small abalone Haliotis diversicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiwei; Zou, Zhihua; Wang, Guodong; Wang, Shuhong; Wang, Yilei; Zhang, Ziping

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the gene expression profiling of small abalone, Haliotis diversicolor by tributyltin (TBT) exposure using a cDNA microarray containing 2473 unique transcripts. Totally, 107 up-regulated genes and 41 down-regulated genes were found. For further investigation of candidate genes from microarray data and EST analysis, quantitative real-time PCR was performed at 6 h, 24 h, 48 h, 96 h and 192 h TBT exposure. 26 genes were found to be significantly differentially expressed in different time course, 3 of them were unknown. Some gene homologues like cellulose, endo-beta-1,4-glucanase, ferritin subunit 1 and thiolester containing protein II CG7052-PB might be the good biomarker candidate for TBT monitor. The identification of stress response genes and their expression profiles will permit detailed investigation of the defense responses of small abalone genes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Biokinetic behavior of technetium in the red abalone, Haliotis rufescens: a re-assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beasley, T.M.; Lorz, H.V.; Gonor, J.J. (Oregon State Univ., Newport (USA). Marine Science Center)

    1982-10-01

    The biokinetic behavior of sup(95m)Tc in the red abalone, haliotis rufescens, is reviewed in light of recent experiments with other molluscs. Additional experimentation has confirmed that, when uptake is directly from labeled seawater, abalones exhibit concentration factors in excess of 100. Bivalve molluscs under the same experimental conditions have concentration factors that do not exceed 2. However, uptake and loss kinetics in the abalone cannot be described by a single compartment model as had been previously advanced. Assimilation of sup(95m)Tc by abalones following a single feeding of labeled macroalga, Nereocystis luetkeana, approximately equal to 45% and loss kinetics are similar to those observed following direct uptake from seawater.

  9. Identification and characterization of miRNAs transcriptome in the South African abalone, Haliotis midae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picone, Barbara; Rhode, Clint; Roodt-Wilding, Rouvay

    2017-02-01

    Aquatic animal diseases are one of the most important limitations to the growth of aquaculture. miRNAs represent an important class of small ncRNAs able to modulate host immune and stress responses. In Mollusca, a large phylum of invertebrates, miRNAs have been identified in several species. The current preliminary study identified known miRNAs from the South African abalone, Haliotis midae. The economic and ecological importance of abalone makes this species a suitable model for studying and understanding stress response in marine gastropods. Furthermore, the identification of miRNA, represents an alternative and powerful tool to combat infectious disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Biokinetic behavior of technetium in the red abalone, Haliotis rufescens: a re-assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beasley, T.M.; Lorz, H.V.; Gonor, J.J.

    1982-10-01

    The biokinetic behavior of /sup 95m/Tc in the red abalone, Haliotis rufescens, is reviewed in light of recent experiments with other molluscs. Additional experimentation has confirmed that, when uptake is directly from labelled seawater, abalones exhibit concentration factors in excess of 100. Bivalve molluscs under the same experimental conditions have concentration factors that do not exceed 2. However, uptake and loss kinetics in the abalone cannot be described by a single compartment model as had been previously advanced. Assimilation of /sup 95m/Tc by abalones following a single feeding of labeled macroalga, Nereocystis luetkeana, is approximately 45% and loss kinetics are similar to those observed following direct uptake from seawater.

  11. Biokinetic behavior of technetium in the red abalone, Haliotis rufescens: a re-assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beasley, T.M.; Lorz, H.V.; Gonor, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    The biokinetic behavior of sup(95m)Tc in the red abalone, haliotis rufescens, is reviewed in light of recent experiments with other molluscs. Additional experimentation has confirmed that, when uptake is directly from labeled seawater, abalones exhibit concentration factors in excess of 100. Bivalve molluscs under the same experimental conditions have concentration factors that do not exceed 2. However, uptake and loss kinetics in the abalone cannot be described by a single compartment model as had been previously advanced. Assimilation of sup(95m)Tc by abalones following a single feeding of labeled macroalga, Nereocystis luetkeana, approximately equal to 45% and loss kinetics are similar to those observed following direct uptake from seawater. (author)

  12. Evidence of green fluorescent protein and growth hormone expression in red abalone (Haliotis rufescens larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mancilla-Sánchez Edgar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The red abalone Haliotis rufescens is a highly appreciated mollusk in the national and international markets. Due to its natural over-exploitation and low growth rate, several genetic improvements were made, however special efforts are needed to increase its production. This study presents transgenic abalone’s larvae expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP fused to Cobia (Rachycentron canadum Growth Hormone (GH using sperm media transgenesis technique (SMT, pAcGFP1-N vector under the control of cytomegalovirus (CMV promoter. Sperms were exposed to three voltages (0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 Kv using a micropulser electroporator (Bio-Rad®. The highest GFP-GH expression average (40% was obtained in abalone larvae at 0.75 v. GFP and GH transgenes were positively detected by PCR, western blot and confocal microscope, respectively.

  13. pemeliharaan yuwana abalon (Haliotis squamata TURUNAN F-1 SECARA TERKONTROL DENGAN JENIS pakan BERBEDA

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    Bambang Susanto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abalon (Haliotis squamata merupakan jenis kekerangan yang mulai dikembangkan untuk dapat memenuhi permintaan pasar. Tingkat pertumbuhan abalon sangat lambat sehingga perlu dilakukan penelitian untuk memacu pertumbuhan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui jenis pakan yang cocok dan dapat memacu pertumbuhan yuwana abalon. Biota uji yang digunakan adalah yuwana abalon dengan ukuran panjang cangkang awal 12,51 ± 1,27 mm, yang ditempatkan dalam wadah plastik berukuran 35 cm x 25 cm x13 cm, diisi dengan kepadatan 25 ekor/wadah. Perlakuan jenis pakan berbeda adalah (A pelet, (B pakan rumput laut (Gracilaria spp., dan (C kombinasi rumput laut dan pelet. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian jenis pakan berbeda memberikan pengaruh yang nyata (P<0,05 terhadap tingkat pertumbuhan panjang, lebar cangkang, dan bobot badan yuwana abalon turunan F-1. Abalone (Haliotis squamata is one of shellfish to develop for market demand. The growth of abalone is slow and this experiment was purposed to increase to find out the suitable kinds of feed to promote the growth of abalone juvenile in hatchery. The rearing of abalone juvenile was conducted in plastic boxes size of 35 cm x 25 cm x 13 cm, filled with density of 25 ind./box with initial shell length of 12.51 ± 1.27 mm. The experiment applied different kinds of feed, (A pellet, (B seaweed/Gracilaria spp., and (C combination of seaweed and pellet with three replicates in each treatment. The result of the experiment indicated that different feeding resulted in significant difference (P<0.05 on growth of width and length of shell and body weight abalone juvenile F-1 generation.

  14. Genetic diversity and stock identification of small abalone (Haliotis diversicolor) in Taiwan and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Te-Hua; Gwo, Jin-Chywan

    2017-01-01

    Small abalone (Haliotis diversicolor) is a commercially valuable species for both fisheries and aquaculture. The production of annual farmed small abalone in Taiwan, once the highest in the world, has dramatically decreased in the past 15 years, and currently, the industry is close to collapse. Understanding the genetic diversity of small abalone and developing stock identification methods will be useful for genetic breeding, restoring collapsed stocks, managing stocks, and preventing illegal trade. We investigated 307 cultured and wild individuals from Taiwan, Japan, and Bali Island (Indonesia) by using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. Network analysis of mtDNA COI gene sequences revealed that the individuals collected from Taiwan, Japan, and Indonesia could be identified, and showed significant genetic divergence. In addition, the Indonesian population (Haliotis diversicolor squamata) was significantly different from the other populations and might need to be considered a separate species. We discovered a single nucleotide polymorphism marker in the mtDNA COI gene that can be used to distinguish the Taiwan population from the Japan population. We also developed a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method for rapid detection. Furthermore, we could identify the cultured stocks, wild population, and hybrid stocks by using 6 microsatellites and amplified fragment length polymorphism. This study contributes useful tools for stock identification and the production of high-disease resistant small abalone strains (Japan × Taiwan or Taiwan × Japan). Efforts should be made to avoid unintentional random genetic mixing of the Taiwan population with the Japan population and subsequent breakdown of population differentiation, which impair local adaptation of the Taiwan wild population. Molecular markers revealed a split between the Taiwan and Japan populations, and the existence of a possible barrier to the free

  15. Genome sequence of pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai): the first draft genome in family Haliotidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Bo-Hye; Kwak, Woori; Kim, Young-Ok; Kim, Dong-Gyun; Kong, Hee Jeong; Kim, Woo-Jin; Kang, Jeong-Ha; Park, Jung Youn; An, Cheul Min; Moon, Ji-Young; Park, Choul Ji; Yu, Jae Woong; Yoon, Joon; Seo, Minseok; Kim, Kwondo; Kim, Duk Kyung; Lee, SaetByeol; Sung, Samsun; Lee, Chul; Shin, Younhee; Jung, Myunghee; Kang, Byeong-Chul; Shin, Ga-Hee; Ka, Sojeong; Caetano-Anolles, Kelsey; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal

    2017-05-01

    Abalones are large marine snails in the family Haliotidae and the genus Haliotis belonging to the class Gastropoda of the phylum Mollusca. The family Haliotidae contains only one genus, Haliotis, and this single genus is known to contain several species of abalone. With 18 additional subspecies, the most comprehensive treatment of Haliotidae considers 56 species valid [ 1 ]. Abalone is an economically important fishery and aquaculture animal that is considered a highly prized seafood delicacy. The total global supply of abalone has increased 5-fold since the 1970s and farm production increased explosively from 50 mt to 103 464 mt in the past 40 years. Additionally, researchers have recently focused on abalone given their reported tumor suppression effect. However, despite the valuable features of this marine animal, no genomic information is available for the Haliotidae family and related research is still limited. To construct the H . discus hannai genome, a total of 580-G base pairs using Illumina and Pacbio platforms were generated with 322-fold coverage based on the 1.8-Gb estimated genome size of H . discus hannai using flow cytometry. The final genome assembly consisted of 1.86 Gb with 35 450 scaffolds (>2 kb). GC content level was 40.51%, and the N50 length of assembled scaffolds was 211 kb. We identified 29 449 genes using Evidence Modeler based on the gene information from ab initio prediction, protein homology with known genes, and transcriptome evidence of RNA-seq. Here we present the first Haliotidae genome, H . discus hannai , with sequencing data, assembly, and gene annotation information. This will be helpful for resolving the lack of genomic information in the Haliotidae family as well as providing more opportunities for understanding gastropod evolution. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  16. Transcriptome characterization of the South African abalone Haliotis midae using sequencing-by-synthesis

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    Roodt-Wilding Rouvay

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide, the genus Haliotis is represented by 56 extant species and several of these are commercially cultured. Among the six abalone species found in South Africa, Haliotis midae is the only aquacultured species. Despite its economic importance, genomic sequence resources for H. midae, and for abalone in general, are still scarce. Next generation sequencing technologies provide a fast and efficient tool to generate large sequence collections that can be used to characterize the transcriptome and identify expressed genes associated with economically important traits like growth and disease resistance. Results More than 25 million short reads generated by the Illumina Genome Analyzer were de novo assembled in 22,761 contigs with an average size of 260 bp. With a stringent E-value threshold of 10-10, 3,841 contigs (16.8% had a BLAST homologous match against the Genbank non-redundant (NR protein database. Most of these sequences were annotated using the gene ontology (GO and eukaryotic orthologous groups of proteins (KOG databases and assigned to various functional categories. According to annotation results, many gene families involved in immune response were identified. Thousands of simple sequence repeats (SSR and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP were detected. Setting stringent parameters to ensure a high probability of amplification, 420 primer pairs in 181 contigs containing SSR loci were designed. Conclusion This data represents the most comprehensive genomic resource for the South African abalone H. midae to date. The amount of assembled sequences demonstrated the utility of the Illumina sequencing technology in the transcriptome characterization of a non-model species. It allowed the development of several markers and the identification of promising candidate genes for future studies on population and functional genomics in H. midae and in other abalone species.

  17. Vibrio harveyi Adheres to and Penetrates Tissues of the European Abalone Haliotis tuberculata within the First Hours of Contact

    OpenAIRE

    Cardinaud, Marion; Barbou, Annaïck; Capitaine, Carole; Bidault, Adeline; Dujon, Antoine Marie; Moraga, Dario; Paillard, Christine

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Vibrio harveyi is a marine bacterial pathogen responsible for episodic epidemics generally associated with massive mortalities in many marine organisms, including the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata. The aim of this study was to identify the portal of entry and the dynamics of infection of V. harveyi in the European abalone. The results indicate that the duration of contact be-tween V. harveyi and the European abalone influences the mortality rate and precocity. ...

  18. First record of Molorchus minor minor (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae in Brazil

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    Ubirajara R. Martins

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Molorchus minor minor (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae is recorded for the first time in Brazil (Bahia. It was originally described from Europe and is currently widely distributed in that continent and Asia.

  19. KARAKTERISASI DAN EVALUASI POPULASI ABALON Haliotis squamata SECARA MOLEKULER, MORFOMETRIK, DAN BIOLOGI

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    Gusti Ngurah Permana

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abalon merupakan salah satu komoditas penting gastropoda laut. Tingginya permintaan abalon ini mengakibatkan menipisnya stok di alam. Oleh karena itu, upaya keberhasilan budidaya abalon perlu didukung oleh jenis unggul. Indikasi awal suatu jenis unggul dapat dilakukan dengan menganalisis potensi genetik yang dimiliki. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan analisis gen 16S rRNA, karakter morfolologi, dan biologi dianalisis secara deskriptif dengan metode kajian pustaka. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan keragaman inter populasi Haliotis squamata mendeteksi adanya tujuh haplotipe yang terbagi dalam dua kelompok. Penyertaan H. diversicolor sebagai outgroup dalam pengujian memperlihatkan bahwa populasi H. squamata dari Pulau Bali dan beberapa lokasi di Pulau Jawa berada dalam satu kelompok yang terpisah dengan outgroup. Hasil ini kongruen dengan analisis morfometrik terdapat perkembangan pertumbuhan cangkang yang asimetri pada populasi Banten. Pertumbuhan asimetri merupakan indikasi spesifik untuk populasi Banten atau merupakan gejala abnormalitas yang dapat diakibatkan oleh faktor penurunan kualitas genetik atau lingkungan. Karakter biologi terlihat proporsi daging dan gonad berbeda pada populasi Banten dengan indikasi adanya pertumbuhan asimetri. Rasio gonad dan daging populasi Banyuwangi berbeda nyata (P<0,05 dengan populasi lainnya. Abalone is arguably one of the highly valued and sought-after marine gastropods. However, the over-exploitation of this species has exhausted its wild stock. To overcome this challenge, the culture technique and management of this species must be established and continually improved. One of the ways is through producing superior broodstocks. An initial assessment of a genetically superior broodstock can be done using the potential genetic analysis. This recent research employed the analysis to study the species’ 16S rRNA gene. To complement the study, the morphometric and biological characteristics of the species were

  20. STIMULASI PERTUMBUHAN JUVENIL ABALON, Haliotis squamata DENGAN PEMBERIAN HORMON REKOMBINAN IKAN rElGH

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    Fitriyah Husnul Khotimah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Masalah yang paling utama dalam budidaya abalon tropis adalah pertumbuhan yang lambat. Penggunaan rElGH (recombinant giant grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus growth hormone untuk menstimulasi pertumbuhan beberapa spesies ikan sudah dilakukan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji akselerasi pertumbuhan juvenil abalon tropis, Haliotis squamata setelah diberi perlakuan perendaman hormon rekombinan ikan kerapu kertang, Epinephelus lanceolatus pada frekuensi yang berbeda. Ada empat perlakuan frekuensi perendaman rElGH yaitu 4, 9, 16 kali, dan tanpa perendaman (kontrol. Masing-masing perlakuan diulang tiga kali. Perendaman dilakukan selama tiga jam, dengan interval waktu empat hari. Kepadatan abalon tropis 100 ekor/L air laut yang mengandung 30 mg rElGH. Wadah untuk perendaman berupa beaker glass yang dilengkapi dengan aerasi. Penelitian dilakukan selama tujuh bulan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa abalon tropis yang direndam rElGH dengan frekuensi empat kali menghasilkan pertumbuhan bobot tubuh dan panjang cangkang tertinggi dan berbeda nyata dengan perlakuan lainnya (P<0,05. Sintasan abalon tropis yang diberi perlakuan perendaman hormon rElGH lebih tinggi dibandingkan perlakuan kontrol. The most crucial problem in tropical abalone aquaculture is the slow growth of the species. Studies investigating the use of rElGH (recombinant giant grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus growth hormone for promoting growth have been performed in various species. This research aimed to examine the growth acceleration of tropical abalone, Haliotis squamata juvenile after being treated in different immersion frequencies of recombinant giant grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus growth hormone (rElGH. There were four treatments of rElGH immersion frequency: 4, 9, 16 times and without rElGH immersion (control. Each treatment was performed in triplicates. Immersion was performed for 3 hours, at 4-day intervals and a density of 100 tropical abalones in 1 L seawater containing 30

  1. Attempted eradication of Porphyrio porphyrio Linnaeus in the Florida Everglades

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    Dave EGGEMAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Porphyrio porphyrio (Fulica porphyrio Linnaeus was reported to the South Florida Water Management District in a Water Conservation Area and in constructed wetlands in the Everglades in 2006. A rapid assessment, including casual observations and surveys of land managers, indicated a limited number of P. porphyrio (~300 birds was present, and an eradication attempt was initiated. From 2006 – 2008, more than 3100 P. porphyrio were killed by shotgun from airboats during 73 hunts, suggesting the initial population assessment was severely underestimated. After removing nearly 1500 P. porphyrio in 2008, we concluded that eradication was not possible. Failure of this eradication attempt is attributed to P. porphyrio’s affinity with dense emergent vegetation, which greatly limited shooting effectiveness. Further, the failed eradication underscores the importance of a reporting network to improve early detection and the chance to eliminate naturalized or feral populations of non‐native species.

  2. Helminths of the guinea pig, Cavia porcellus (Linnaeus, in Brazil

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    Roberto Magalhães Pinto

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Worm burdens were evaluated and compared in two groups of the guinea pig, Cavia poreellus (Linnaeus, 1758: animals of the first group were conventionally maintained in an institutional animal house and those of the second group were openly kept in pet shops in Brazil. Animals from both sources were infected only with the nematode Paraspidodera uncinata (Rudolphi, 1819 Travassos, 1914 (10% of prevalence in guinea pigs from lhe institutional facility and 40% in those animals from the pet shop. Other helminth samples recovered from Brazilian guinea pigs during 52 years and that are deposited in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute (CHIOC were also analyzed. Paraspidodera uncinata and the cestode Monoecocestus parcitesticulatus Rêgo, 1960 were identified in these samples.

  3. Hyperparasitism by the bacteriophage (Caudovirales) infecting Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis (Rickettsiales-like prokaryote) parasite of wild abalone Haliotis fulgens and Haliotis corrugata from the Peninsula of Baja California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Flores, Roberto; Cáceres-Martínez, Jorge; Muñoz-Flores, Monserrat; Vásquez-Yeomans, Rebeca; Hernández Rodriguez, Mónica; Ángel Del Río-Portilla, Miguel; Rocha-Olivares, Axayácatl; Castro-Longoria, Ernestina

    2016-10-01

    Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis (CXc) is a Rickettsiales-like prokaryote that is considered the causal agent of Withering Syndrome (WS), a chronic disease of abalone, from the west coast of North America and it is listed by the International Organization for Animal Health (OIE) as a reportable agent due to its pathogenicity. This bacterium in red abalone Haliotis rufescens, black abalone Haliotis cracherodii, and yellow abalone Haliotis corrugata from California, US and Baja California, Mexico has been found to be infected by a bacteriophage. To date, there is no information on the epizootiology of CXc and its bacteriophage in natural populations of abalone; furthermore, it is unknown if the bacteriophage was also present in CXc infecting blue abalone Haliotis fulgens. The objective of this study was to determine the distribution, prevalence and intensity of CXc, as well as to determine the distribution and prevalence of the bacteriophage and to study interactions between host sex and hyperparasitism in blue abalone and yellow abalone. Tissue samples were obtained from seven localities where the commercial capture of wild abalone is carried out. Samplings were conducted throughout the 2012-2013 capture seasons and a total of 182 blue abalone and 170 yellow abalone were obtained. The prevalence and intensity of CXc and the prevalence of the bacteriophage were determined by histology. The identity of CXc was confirmed by PCR, product sequence analysis and in situ hybridization while the identity of the bacteriophage was corroborated by TEM. The prevalence of CXc infected and uninfected by the bacteriophage was 80% in blue abalone and 62% in yellow abalone. Low infection intensities were found in 86% of blue abalone and 82% of yellow abalone. Infection intensity was significantly higher in undifferentiated yellow abalone. The bacteriophage in CXc showed a prevalence of 22% and 31% in blue abalone and yellow abalone respectively. These results show that CXc and

  4. Tributyltin toxicity in abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta) assessed by antioxidant enzyme activity, metabolic response, and histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jin; Zhu, Xiao-shan; Cai, Zhong-hua

    2010-11-15

    A toxicity test was performed to investigate the possible harmful effects of tributyltin (TBT) on abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta). Animals were exposed to TBT in a range of environmentally relevant concentrations (2, 10 and 50 ng/L) for 30 days under laboratory conditions. TBT-free conditions were used as control treatments. The activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD), and malondialdehyde (MDA), along with levels of haemolymph metabolites, and hepatopancreas histopathology were analyzed. The results showed that TBT decreased SOD activity, and increased POD level and MDA production in a dose-dependent way, indicating that oxidative injury was induced by TBT. Haemolymph metabolite measurements showed that TBT increased alanine and glutamate levels, and decreased glucose content, which suggested perturbation of energy metabolism. Elevated levels of acetate and pyruvate in the haemolymph indicated partial alteration of lipid metabolism. A decrease in lactate and an increase in succinate, an intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, indicated disturbance of amino acid metabolism. Hepatopancreas tissues also exhibited inflammatory responses characterized by histopathological changes such as cell swelling, granular degeneration, and inflammation. Taken together, these results demonstrated that TBT was a potential toxin with a variety of deleterious effects on abalone. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. KERAGAAN PERTUMBUHAN DAN VARIASI GENETIK ABALON Haliotis squamata Reeve (1846 HASIL SELEKSI F-1

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    Gusti Ngurah Permana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Produksi benih abalon Haliotis squamata skala massal di hatcheri telah berhasil dilakukan di Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Budidaya Laut Gondol, Bali. Permasalahan utama dalam budidaya abalon adalah pertumbuhan yang lambat. Keadaan tersebut diduga karena pengaruh faktor genetik dan lingkungan. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui keragaan pertumbuhan dan variasi genetik abalon tumbuh cepat hasil seleksi individu. Hasil penelitian ini diketahui bahwa pembentukan populasi F-1 mempunyai pertumbuhan yang lebih baik dengan F-1 kontrol. Peningkatan bobot yang dicapai 22,15 g atau 17,93% lebih baik dibandingkan F-1 kontrol. Keragaman genetik F-1 terseleksi yang ditunjukkan dari nilai heterozigositas adalah (Ho. 0,023 terjadi penurunan 21,7% jika dibandingkan F-0. Hal ini dapat terjadi karena hilangnya beberapa allele dalam proses seleksi. Terdapat hubungan antara jumlah heterozigot pada lokus tertentu dengan pertumbuhan abalon. Hasil ini diharapkan dapat mendukung upaya meningkatkan produksi benih yang mempunyai performa fenotipe dan genotipe unggul sehingga dapat mendukung kegiatan budidaya abalon yang berkelanjutan.

  6. Probabilistic risk assessment of abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta exposed to waterborne zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Chungmin; Ling Minpei

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a risk assessment approach that integrates predicted tissue concentrations of zinc (Zn) with a concentration-response relationship and leads to predictions of survival risk for pond abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta as well as to the uncertainties associated with these predictions. The models implemented include a probabilistic bioaccumulation model, which linking biokinetic and consumer-resource models, accounts for Zn exposure profile and a modified Hill model for reconstructing a dose-response profile for abalone exposed to waterborne Zn. The growth risk is assessed by hazard quotients characterized by measured water level and chronic no-observed effect concentration. Our risk analyses for H. diversicolor supertexta reared near Toucheng, Kouhu, and Anping, respectively, in north, central, and south Taiwan region indicate a relatively low likelihood that survival is being affected by waterborne Zn. Expected risks of mortality for abalone were estimated as 0.46 (Toucheng), 0.36 (Kouhu), and 0.29 (Anping). The predicted 90th-percentiles of hazard quotient for potential growth risk were estimated as 1.94 (Toucheng), 0.47 (Kouhu), and 0.51 (Anping). These findings indicate that waterborne Zn exposure poses no significant risk to pond abalone in Kouhu and Anping, yet a relative high growth risk in Toucheng is alarming. Because of a scarcity of toxicity and exposure data, the probabilistic risk assessment was based on very conservative assumptions. - A novel risk assessment method was developed for abalone

  7. Probabilistic risk assessment of abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta exposed to waterborne zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao Chungmin; Ling Minpei

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a risk assessment approach that integrates predicted tissue concentrations of zinc (Zn) with a concentration-response relationship and leads to predictions of survival risk for pond abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta as well as to the uncertainties associated with these predictions. The models implemented include a probabilistic bioaccumulation model, which linking biokinetic and consumer-resource models, accounts for Zn exposure profile and a modified Hill model for reconstructing a dose-response profile for abalone exposed to waterborne Zn. The growth risk is assessed by hazard quotients characterized by measured water level and chronic no-observed effect concentration. Our risk analyses for H. diversicolor supertexta reared near Toucheng, Kouhu, and Anping, respectively, in north, central, and south Taiwan region indicate a relatively low likelihood that survival is being affected by waterborne Zn. Expected risks of mortality for abalone were estimated as 0.46 (Toucheng), 0.36 (Kouhu), and 0.29 (Anping). The predicted 90th-percentiles of hazard quotient for potential growth risk were estimated as 1.94 (Toucheng), 0.47 (Kouhu), and 0.51 (Anping). These findings indicate that waterborne Zn exposure poses no significant risk to pond abalone in Kouhu and Anping, yet a relative high growth risk in Toucheng is alarming. Because of a scarcity of toxicity and exposure data, the probabilistic risk assessment was based on very conservative assumptions. - A novel risk assessment method was developed for abalone.

  8. In vitro Anti-Thrombotic Activity of Extracts from Blacklip Abalone (Haliotis rubra Processing Waste

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    Hafiz Ansar Rasul Suleria

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Waste generated from the processing of marine organisms for food represents an underutilized resource that has the potential to provide bioactive molecules with pharmaceutical applications. Some of these molecules have known anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant activities and are being investigated as alternatives to common anti-thrombotic drugs, like heparin and warfarin that have serious side effects. In the current study, extracts prepared from blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra processing waste, using food grade enzymes papain and bromelain, were found to contain sulphated polysaccharide with anti-thrombotic activity. Extracts were found to be enriched with sulphated polysaccharides and assessed for anti-thrombotic activity in vitro through heparin cofactor-II (HCII-mediated inhibition of thrombin. More than 60% thrombin inhibition was observed in response to 100 μg/mL sulphated polysaccharides. Anti-thrombotic potential was further assessed as anti-coagulant activity in plasma and blood, using prothrombin time (PT, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT, and thromboelastography (TEG. All abalone extracts had significant activity compared with saline control. Anion exchange chromatography was used to separate extracts into fractions with enhanced anti-thrombotic activity, improving HCII-mediated thrombin inhibition, PT and aPTT almost 2-fold. Overall this study identifies an alternative source of anti-thrombotic molecules that can be easily processed offering alternatives to current anti-thrombotic agents like heparin.

  9. Paralytic shellfish toxins, including deoxydecarbamoyl-STX, in wild-caught Tasmanian abalone (Haliotis rubra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, D Tim; Selwood, Andrew I; van Ginkel, Roel; Waugh, Craig; McNabb, Paul S; Munday, Rex; Hay, Brenda; Thomas, Krista; Quilliam, Michael A; Malhi, Navreet; Dowsett, Natalie; McLeod, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    For the first time wild-caught Tasmanian abalone, Haliotis rubra, have been reported to contain paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs). This observation followed blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum. No illnesses were reported, but harvesting restrictions were enforced in commercial areas. Abalone were assayed using HPLC-FLD methodology based on AOAC official method 2005.06. An uncommon congener, deoxydecarbamoyl-STX (doSTX), was observed in addition to regulated PSTs as unassigned chromatographic peaks. A quantitative reference material was prepared from contaminated Tasmanian abalone viscera and ampouled at 54.2 μmol/L. The LD50 of doSTX via intraperitoneal injection was 1069 nmol/kg (95% confidence limits 983-1100 nmol/kg), indicating it is nearly 40 times less toxic than STX. A toxicity equivalence factor of 0.042 was generated using the mouse bioassay. Levels of PSTs varied among individuals from the same site, although the toxin profile remained relatively consistent. In the foot tissue, STX, decarbamoyl-STX and doSTX were identified. On a molar basis doSTX was the dominant congener in both foot and viscera samples. The viscera toxin profile was more complex, with other less toxic PST congeners observed and was similar to mussels from the same site. This finding implicates localised dinoflagellate blooms as the PST source in Tasmanian abalone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Preparation, characterisation and use for antioxidant oligosaccharides of a cellulase from abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) viscera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhi-Peng; Sun, Le-Chang; Qiu, Xu-Jian; Cai, Qiu-Feng; Liu, Guang-Ming; Su, Wen-Jin; Cao, Min-Jie

    2016-07-01

    In China, abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) production is growing annually. During industrial processing, the viscera, which are abundant of cellulase, are usually discarded or processed into low-value feedstuff. Thus, it is of interest to obtain cellulase from abalone viscera and investigate its application for preparation of functional oligosaccharides. A cellulase was purified from the hepatopancreas of abalone by ammonium sulfate precipitation and two-steps column chromatography. The molecular weight of the cellulase was 45 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Peptide mass fingerprinting analysis yielded 103 amino acid residues, which were identical to cellulases from other species of abalone. Substrate specificity analysis indicated that the cellulase is an endo-1,4-β-glucanase. Hydrolysis of seaweed Porphyra haitanensis polysaccharides by the enzyme produced oligosaccharides with degree of polymerisation of two to four, whose monosaccharide composition was 58% galactose, 4% glucose and 38% xylose. The oligosaccharides revealed 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical as well as hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity. It is feasible and meaningful to utilise cellulase from the viscera of abalone for preparation of functional oligosaccharides. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Toxicokinetics and biotransformation of p-nitrophenol in red abalone (Haliotis rufescens)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TenBrook, Patti L.; Kendall, Shellie M.; Viant, Mark R.; Tjeerdema, Ronald S

    2003-02-26

    Red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) were exposed to 3.6 {mu}M (0.5 ppm) {sup 14}C-labelled p-nitrophenol (PNP) for 24 h, then were allowed to depurate in clean seawater for another 24 h. Absorption, conditional uptake clearance and elimination rate constants were 0.12{+-}0.04 h{sup -1}, 3.2{+-}1.1 ml g{sup -1} h{sup -1} and 0.05{+-}0.02 h{sup -1}, respectively. The sigmoidal shape of the PNP uptake curve suggests a biphasic process. A whole-organism total concentration factor (TCF) of 2.37{+-}0.07 was determined from equilibrium tissue and water concentrations, with the highest concentration of PNP plus metabolites found in gill tissue (11.8{+-}0.2 nmol g{sup -1}, wet weight). Digestive gland, foot muscle and remaining body tissues accumulated 8.8{+-}0.9, 7.7{+-}0.6 and 7.5{+-}0.6 nmol g{sup -1} radiolabelled residues, respectively. Abalone depurated 91.6% of absorbed PNP within 24 h, of which 87.5{+-}3.1% was unmetabolized parent compound, 13.1{+-}3.1% was p-nitrophenylsulfate, 0.32{+-}0.09% was p-nitroanisole, and 0.14{+-}0.07% was p-acetamidophenol.

  12. In vitro Anti-Thrombotic Activity of Extracts from Blacklip Abalone (Haliotis rubra) Processing Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul; Hines, Barney M; Addepalli, Rama; Chen, Wei; Masci, Paul; Gobe, Glenda; Osborne, Simone A

    2016-12-31

    Waste generated from the processing of marine organisms for food represents an underutilized resource that has the potential to provide bioactive molecules with pharmaceutical applications. Some of these molecules have known anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant activities and are being investigated as alternatives to common anti-thrombotic drugs, like heparin and warfarin that have serious side effects. In the current study, extracts prepared from blacklip abalone ( Haliotis rubra ) processing waste, using food grade enzymes papain and bromelain, were found to contain sulphated polysaccharide with anti-thrombotic activity. Extracts were found to be enriched with sulphated polysaccharides and assessed for anti-thrombotic activity in vitro through heparin cofactor-II (HCII)-mediated inhibition of thrombin. More than 60% thrombin inhibition was observed in response to 100 μg/mL sulphated polysaccharides. Anti-thrombotic potential was further assessed as anti-coagulant activity in plasma and blood, using prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and thromboelastography (TEG). All abalone extracts had significant activity compared with saline control. Anion exchange chromatography was used to separate extracts into fractions with enhanced anti-thrombotic activity, improving HCII-mediated thrombin inhibition, PT and aPTT almost 2-fold. Overall this study identifies an alternative source of anti-thrombotic molecules that can be easily processed offering alternatives to current anti-thrombotic agents like heparin.

  13. Effects of dietary carbohydrates sources on lipids compositions in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weifang; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Xu, Wei; Ai, Qinghui; Yao, Chunfeng; Li, Huitao

    2009-09-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary carbohydrates on triglyceride, cholesterol and fatty acid concentrations in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Six semi-purified diets with different carbohydrates (dextrin, heat-treated wheat starch, wheat starch, corn starch, tapioca starch and potato starch, respectively), all containing a carbohydrate level of 33.5%, were fed to abalone (initial shell length: 29.98 mm ± 0.09 mm; initial weight: 3.42 g ± 0.02 g) for 24 weeks in a recirculation system. The results indicate that serum triglyceride concentrations were significantly ( P abalone fed with dextrin, heat-treated wheat starch and wheat starch than those fed with corn starch, and serum cholesterol concentrations were significantly ( P abalone fed with dextrin, heat-treated wheat starch than those fed with corn starch. Fatty acid C20:4n-6 in the foot muscles were significantly ( P abalone fed with dextrin than those fed with wheat starch, corn starch, tapioca starch and potato starch. Fatty acid C20:4n-6 in hepatopancreas was significantly ( P abalone fed with heat-treated wheat starch than those fed with corn starch, tapioca starch and potato starch. Fatty acid C22:6n-3 in the foot muscles were significantly ( P abalone fed with dextrin and heat-treated wheat starch than those fed with wheat starch and potato starch.

  14. Acute toxicity of live and decomposing green alga Ulva ( Enteromorpha) prolifera to abalone Haliotis discus hannai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Yu, Rencheng; Zhou, Mingjiang

    2011-05-01

    From 2007 to 2009, large-scale blooms of green algae (the so-called "green tides") occurred every summer in the Yellow Sea, China. In June 2008, huge amounts of floating green algae accumulated along the coast of Qingdao and led to mass mortality of cultured abalone and sea cucumber. However, the mechanism for the mass mortality of cultured animals remains undetermined. This study examined the toxic effects of Ulva ( Enteromorpha) prolifera, the causative species of green tides in the Yellow Sea during the last three years. The acute toxicity of fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent of U. prolifera to the cultured abalone Haliotis discus hannai were tested. It was found that both fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent had toxic effects to abalone, and decomposing algal effluent was more toxic than fresh culture medium. The acute toxicity of decomposing algal effluent could be attributed to the ammonia and sulfide presented in the effluent, as well as the hypoxia caused by the decomposition process.

  15. Diatom diet selectivity by early post-larval abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta under hatchery conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuyu; Gao, Yahui; Liang, Junrong; Chen, Changping; Zhao, Donghai; Li, Xuesong; Li, Yang; Wu, Wenzhong

    2010-11-01

    Benthic diatoms constitute the primary diet of abalone during their early stages of development. To evaluate the dietary preferences of early post-larval abalone, Haliotis diversicolor supertexta, we analyzed the gut contents of post-larvae that settled on diatom films. We compared the abundance and species diversity of diatom assemblages in the gut to those of the epiphytic diatom assemblages on the attachment films, and identified 40 benthic diatom species in the gut contents of post-larvae 12 to 24 d after settlement. The most abundant taxa in the gut contents were Navicula spp., Amphora copulate, and Amphora coffeaeformis. Navicula spp. accounted for 64.0% of the cell density. In the attachment films, we identified 110 diatom species belonging to 38 genera. Pennate diatoms were the dominant members including the species Amphiprora alata, Cocconeis placentula var. euglypta, Cylindrotheca closterium, Navicula sp. 2, and A. coffeaeformis. Nano-diatoms (abalone seed. The difference of the composition and abundance of diatoms between in the guts and on the biofilms suggests that early post-larval grazing was selective. An early post-larval abalone preferred nano-diatoms and the genera Navicula and Amphora during the month after settlement.

  16. Genetic Characterization of Five Hatchery Populations of the Pacific Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Using Microsatellite Markers

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    Jeong-In Myeong

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, is a popular food in Eastern Asia. Aquacultural production of this species has increased because of recent resource declines, the growing consumption, and ongoing government-operated stock release programs. Therefore, the genetic characterization of hatchery populations is necessary to maintain the genetic diversity of this species and to develop more effective aquaculture practices. We analyzed the genetic structures of five cultured populations in Korea using six microsatellite markers. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 15 to 64, with an average of 23.5. The mean observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.797 and 0.904, respectively. The inbreeding coefficient FIS ranged from 0.054 to 0.184 (mean FIS = 0.121 ± 0.056. The genetic differentiation across all populations was low but significant (overall FST = 0.009, P < 0.01. Pairwise multilocus FST tests, estimates of genetic distance, and phylogenetic and principal component analyses did not show a consistent relationship between geographic and genetic distances. These results could reflect extensive aquaculture, the exchange of breeds and eggs between hatcheries and/or genetic drift due to intensive breeding practices. Thus, for optimal resource management, the genetic variation of hatchery stocks should be monitored and inbreeding controlled within the abalone stocks that are being released every year. This genetic information will be useful for the management of both H. discus hannai fisheries and the aquaculture industry.

  17. Toxic effects of several phthalate esters on the embryos and larvae of abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhihui; Zhang, Xiangjing; Cai, Zhonghua

    2009-05-01

    As the most widely used plasticizers in the world, phthalate esters (PAEs) are potential endocrine disruption compounds (EDCs). In the present study, the toxicity of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) on embryogenesis and larvae development of the marine univalve Haliotis diversicolor supertexta was examined in laboratory. The results show that the malformation of embryos appeared during the experiment, such as embryos died or lysed, small transparent flocculent rings studded on the periphery of the embryo, and the larvae could failed to hatch. In embryo toxic test, embryos incubated at the highest concentration of DMP, DEP and DBP solutions showed significantly high abnormal rate compared with the control, while DEHP solutions displayed no significant difference. In larval toxic test, in all concentrations of DMP, DEP and DBP solutions, larval settlement rates were low significantly than that of the control. Similarly, DEHP solutions show nearly no effect on the larval settlement. The order of toxicity on embryos and larvae is DBP>DEP>DMP>DEHP. Being a simple and easy stimulation to indoor spawn, sensitive to environmental factors, and short culture time, the embryos of H. diversicolor supertexta can be used to indicate toxicity of the PAEs.

  18. Construction of the BAC Library of Small Abalone (Haliotis diversicolor) for Gene Screening and Genome Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Likun; You, Weiwei; Zhang, Xiaojun; Xu, Jian; Jiang, Yanliang; Wang, Kai; Zhao, Zixia; Chen, Baohua; Zhao, Yunfeng; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A; Ke, Caihuan; Xu, Peng

    2016-02-01

    The small abalone (Haliotis diversicolor) is one of the most important aquaculture species in East Asia. To facilitate gene cloning and characterization, genome analysis, and genetic breeding of it, we constructed a large-insert bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library, which is an important genetic tool for advanced genetics and genomics research. The small abalone BAC library includes 92,610 clones with an average insert size of 120 Kb, equivalent to approximately 7.6× of the small abalone genome. We set up three-dimensional pools and super pools of 18,432 BAC clones for target gene screening using PCR method. To assess the approach, we screened 12 target genes in these 18,432 BAC clones and identified 16 positive BAC clones. Eight positive BAC clones were then sequenced and assembled with the next generation sequencing platform. The assembled contigs representing these 8 BAC clones spanned 928 Kb of the small abalone genome, providing the first batch of genome sequences for genome evaluation and characterization. The average GC content of small abalone genome was estimated as 40.33%. A total of 21 protein-coding genes, including 7 target genes, were annotated into the 8 BACs, which proved the feasibility of PCR screening approach with three-dimensional pools in small abalone BAC library. One hundred fifty microsatellite loci were also identified from the sequences for marker development in the future. The BAC library and clone pools provided valuable resources and tools for genetic breeding and conservation of H. diversicolor.

  19. Involvement of Antizyme Characterized from the Small Abalone Haliotis diversicolor in Gonadal Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Dong; Huang, Min; Lü, Wen-Gang; Chen, Xiao; Shen, Ming-Hui; Li, Xiang-Min; Wang, Rong-Xia; Ke, Cai-Huan

    2015-01-01

    The small abalone Haliotis diversicolor is an economically important mollusk that is widely cultivated in Southern China. Gonad precocity may affect the aquaculture of small abalone. Polyamines, which are small cationic molecules essential for cellular proliferation, may affect gonadal development. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and antizyme (AZ) are essential elements of a feedback circuit that regulates cellular polyamines. This paper presents the molecular cloning and characterization of AZ from small abalone. Sequence analysis showed that the cDNA sequence of H. diversicolor AZ (HdiODCAZ) consisted of two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) and conformed to the +1 frameshift property of the frame. Thin Layer chromatography (TLC) analysis suggested that the expressed protein encoded by +1 ORF2 was the functional AZ that targets ODC to 26S proteasome degradation. The result demonstrated that the expression level of AZ was higher than that of ODC in the ovary of small abalone. In addition, the expression profiles of ODC and AZ at the different development stages of the ovary indicated that these two genes might be involved in the gonadal development of small abalone.

  20. Toxicokinetics and biotransformation of p-nitrophenol in red abalone (Haliotis rufescens)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TenBrook, Patti L.; Kendall, Shellie M.; Viant, Mark R.; Tjeerdema, Ronald S.

    2003-01-01

    Red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) were exposed to 3.6 μM (0.5 ppm) 14 C-labelled p-nitrophenol (PNP) for 24 h, then were allowed to depurate in clean seawater for another 24 h. Absorption, conditional uptake clearance and elimination rate constants were 0.12±0.04 h -1 , 3.2±1.1 ml g -1 h -1 and 0.05±0.02 h -1 , respectively. The sigmoidal shape of the PNP uptake curve suggests a biphasic process. A whole-organism total concentration factor (TCF) of 2.37±0.07 was determined from equilibrium tissue and water concentrations, with the highest concentration of PNP plus metabolites found in gill tissue (11.8±0.2 nmol g -1 , wet weight). Digestive gland, foot muscle and remaining body tissues accumulated 8.8±0.9, 7.7±0.6 and 7.5±0.6 nmol g -1 radiolabelled residues, respectively. Abalone depurated 91.6% of absorbed PNP within 24 h, of which 87.5±3.1% was unmetabolized parent compound, 13.1±3.1% was p-nitrophenylsulfate, 0.32±0.09% was p-nitroanisole, and 0.14±0.07% was p-acetamidophenol

  1. Pyrosequencing of Haliotis diversicolor transcriptomes: insights into early developmental molluscan gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-Xia Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The abalone Haliotis diversicolor is a good model for study of the settlement and metamorphosis, which are widespread marine ecological phenomena. However, information on the global gene backgrounds and gene expression profiles for the early development of abalones is lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, eight non-normalized and multiplex barcode-labeled transcriptomes were sequenced using a 454 GS system to cover the early developmental stages of the abalone H. diversicolor. The assembly generated 35,415 unigenes, of which 7,566 were assigned GO terms. A global gene expression profile containing 636 scaffolds/contigs was constructed and was proven reliable using qPCR evaluation. It indicated that there may be existing dramatic phase transitions. Bioprocesses were proposed, including the 'lock system' in mature eggs, the collagen shells of the trochophore larvae and the development of chambered extracellular matrix (ECM structures within the earliest postlarvae. CONCLUSION: This study globally details the first 454 sequencing data for larval stages of H. diversicolor. A basic analysis of the larval transcriptomes and cluster of the gene expression profile indicates that each stage possesses a batch of specific genes that are indispensable during embryonic development, especially during the two-cell, trochophore and early postlarval stages. These data will provide a fundamental resource for future physiological works on abalones, revealing the mechanisms of settlement and metamorphosis at the molecular level.

  2. Anticoagulant Activity and Structural Characterization of Polysaccharide from Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino Gonad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed at characterizing the structure and the anticoagulant activity of a polysaccharide fraction (AGP33 isolated from the gonads of Haliotis discus hannai Ino. AGP33 was extracted by enzymatic hydrolysis and purified by ion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. The backbone fraction of AGP33 (BAGP33, which appeared to contain of mannose, glucose and galactose, was prepared by partial acid hydrolysis. According to methylation and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy, the backbone of AGP33 was identified as mainly consisting of 1→3-linked, 1→4-linked, and 1→6-linked monosaccharides. AGP33 is a sulfated polysaccharide with sulfates occur at 3-O- and 4-O-positions. It prolonged thromboplastin time (APTT, thrombin time (TT and prothrombin time (PT compared to a saline control solution in a dosage-dependent manner. AGP33 exhibited an extension (p < 0.01 of APTT compared to the saline group at concentrations higher than 5 μg/mL. AGP33 exhibited higher anticoagulant activity than its desulfated product (AGP33-des and BAGP33. The results showed that polysaccharide with higher molecular weight and sulfate content demonstrated greater anticoagulant activity.

  3. Involvement of Antizyme Characterized from the Small Abalone Haliotis diversicolor in Gonadal Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Dong Li

    Full Text Available The small abalone Haliotis diversicolor is an economically important mollusk that is widely cultivated in Southern China. Gonad precocity may affect the aquaculture of small abalone. Polyamines, which are small cationic molecules essential for cellular proliferation, may affect gonadal development. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC and antizyme (AZ are essential elements of a feedback circuit that regulates cellular polyamines. This paper presents the molecular cloning and characterization of AZ from small abalone. Sequence analysis showed that the cDNA sequence of H. diversicolor AZ (HdiODCAZ consisted of two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs and conformed to the +1 frameshift property of the frame. Thin Layer chromatography (TLC analysis suggested that the expressed protein encoded by +1 ORF2 was the functional AZ that targets ODC to 26S proteasome degradation. The result demonstrated that the expression level of AZ was higher than that of ODC in the ovary of small abalone. In addition, the expression profiles of ODC and AZ at the different development stages of the ovary indicated that these two genes might be involved in the gonadal development of small abalone.

  4. SNP discovery and High Resolution Melting Analysis from massive transcriptome sequencing in the California red abalone Haliotis rufescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Araya-Garay, José Miguel; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2013-06-01

    The California red abalone, Haliotis rufescens that belongs to the Haliotidae family, is the largest species of abalone in the world that has sustained the major fishery and aquaculture production in the USA and Mexico. This native mollusk has not been evaluated or assigned a conservation category even though in the last few decades it was heavily exploited until it disappeared in some areas along the California coast. In Chile, the red abalone was introduced in the 1970s from California wild abalone stocks for the purposes of aquaculture. Considering the number of years that the red abalone has been cultivated in Chile crucial genetic information is scarce and critical issues remain unresolved. This study reports and validates novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) markers for the red abalone H. rufescens using cDNA pyrosequencing. A total of 622 high quality SNPs were identified in 146 sequences with an estimated frequency of 1 SNP each 1000bp. Forty-five SNPs markers with functional information for gene ontology were selected. Of these, 8 were polymorphic among the individuals screened: Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), vitellogenin (VTG), lysin, alginate lyase enzyme (AL), Glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94), fructose-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA), sulfatase 1A precursor (S1AP) and ornithine decarboxylase antizyme (ODC). Two additional sequences were also identified with polymorphisms but no similarities with known proteins were achieved. To validate the putative SNP markers, High Resolution Melting Analysis (HRMA) was conducted in a wild and hatchery-bred population. Additionally, SNP cross-amplifications were tested in two further native abalone species, Haliotis fulgens and Haliotis corrugata. This study provides novel candidate genes that could be used to evaluate loss of genetic diversity due to hatchery selection or inbreeding effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Enzymatic properties and primary structures of two α-amylase isozymes from the Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai

    OpenAIRE

    Kumagai, Yuya; Satoh, Takuya; Inoue, Akira; Ojima, Takao

    2013-01-01

    Two α-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) isozymes, HdAmy58 and HdAmy82, with approximate molecular masses of 58 kDa and 82 kDa, respectively, were isolated from the digestive fluid of the Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai. Optimal temperatures and pHs for HdAmy58 and HdAmy82 were at 30℃ and 6.7, and 30℃ and 6.1, respectively. Both enzymes similarly degraded starch, glycogen, and maltooligosaccharides larger than maltotriose producing maltose and maltotriose as the major degradation products. However, ...

  6. Australian abalone (Haliotis laevigata, H. rubra and H. conicopora) are susceptible to infection by multiple abalone herpesvirus genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbeil, Serge; Williams, Lynette M; McColl, Kenneth A; Crane, Mark St J

    2016-05-03

    From 2006 to 2012, acute mortalities occurred in farmed and wild abalone (Haliotis spp.) along the coast of Victoria, Australia. The disease (abalone viral ganglioneuritis; AVG) is associated with infection by an abalone herpesvirus (AbHV). The relative pathogenicity of 5 known variants of AbHV was evaluated on abalone stocks from different states in Australia. Results indicated that all virus variants (Vic1, Tas1, Tas2, Tas3 and Tas4) cause disease and mortality in all abalone stocks tested (greenlip, blacklip and brownlip). In order to avoid further AVG outbreaks in Australian wild abalone, strict regulations on the transfer of abalone stocks must be implemented.

  7. Whole-genome sequencing reveals that Shewanella haliotis Kim et al. 2007 can be considered a later heterotypic synonym of Shewanella algae Simidu et al. 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeinbaum, Nadia; Kellum, Cailin E; Glass, Jennifer B; Janda, J Michael; DiChristina, Thomas J

    2018-04-01

    Previously, experimental DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) between Shewanellahaliotis JCM 14758 T and Shewanellaalgae JCM 21037 T had suggested that the two strains could be considered different species, despite minimal phenotypic differences. The recent isolation of Shewanella sp. MN-01, with 99 % 16S rRNA gene identity to S. algae and S. haliotis, revealed a potential taxonomic problem between these two species. In this study, we reassessed the nomenclature of S. haliotis and S. algae using available whole-genome sequences. The whole-genome sequence of S. haliotis JCM 14758 T and ten S. algae strains showed ≥97.7 % average nucleotide identity and >78.9 % digital DDH, clearly above the recommended species thresholds. According to the rules of priority and in view of the results obtained, S. haliotis is to be considered a later heterotypic synonym of S. algae. Because the whole-genome sequence of Shewanella sp. strain MN-01 shares >99 % ANI with S. algae JCM 14758 T , it can be confidently identified as S. algae.

  8. PI3K-AKT signaling pathway is involved in hypoxia/thermal-induced immunosuppression of small abalone Haliotis diversicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yulong; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Guodong; Lin, Shi; Zeng, Xinyang; Wang, Yilei; Zhang, Ziping

    2016-12-01

    The PI3K-AKT signal pathway has been found to be involved in many important physiological and pathological processes of the innate immune system of vertebrates and invertebrates. In this study, the AKT (HdAKT) and PI3K (HdPI3K) gene of small abalone Haliotis diversicolor were cloned and characterized for the important status of PI3K and AKT protein in PI3K-AKT signaling pathway. The full length cDNAs of HdAKT and HdPI3K are 2126 bp and 6052 bp respectively, encoding proteins of 479 amino acids and 1097 amino acids, respectively. The mRNA expression level of fourteen genes in the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that all these fourteen genes were ubiquitously expressed in seven selected tissues. Meanwhile, HdAKT was expressed in haemocytes with the highest expression level (p abalone. The mRNA expression of these genes in gills, haemocytes and hepatopancreas was significantly down-regulated after the Vibrio parahaemolyticus stimulation with environment stimulation (thermal, hypoxia and thermal & hypoxia). These results indicate that the dual/multiple stresses defeat the immune system and lead to immunosuppression in abalone. PI3K-AKT signaling pathway may be involved in hypoxia/thermal-induced immunosuppression of small abalone Haliotis diversicolor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. KERAGAAN PERTUMBUHAN DAN REPRODUKSI ABALON Haliotis squamata Reeve (1846 TURUNAN KETIGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Ngurah Permana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pengamatan pertumbuhan dan reproduksi abalon Haliotis squamata dilakukan di hatcheri Balai Besar Riset Budidaya Laut dan Penyuluhan Perikanan (BBRBLPP Gondol, Bali. Tujuan dari penelitian ini untuk memperoleh informasi tentang keragaan pertumbuhan dan performansi reproduksi abalon turunan ketiga. Induk H. squamata turunan kedua hasil seleksi yang digunakan untuk menghasilkan benih turunan ketiga mempunyai ukuran panjang cangkang 6,5-7,0 cm. Benih dipelihara dalam bak beton berukuran 2,5 m x 1,2 m x 1,0 m yang diberikan feeding plate sebagai substrat penempelan dan dilengkapi dengan sistem aerasi dan sistem air mengalir. Pakan yang diberikan pada awal pemeliharaan adalah diatom jenis Nitzschia sp. dan Melosira sp. yang telah ditumbuhkan terlebih dahulu pada feeding plate sebelum penebaran benih. Benih F-3 dipelihara sampai menjadi calon induk untuk diamati perkembangan reproduksinya. Pengambilan sampel pertumbuhan dilakukan setiap 10 hari. Pengamatan reproduksi dilakukan pada saat abalon mulai tumbuh gonad sampai matang gonad stadia-III. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pertumbuhan abalon sangat dipengaruhi ketersediaan pakan pada plate terutama pada hari ke-50. Proporsi jantan-betina abalon F-3 (3,3:1 meningkat dibandingkan dengan F-0 dari alam (2,5:1 menunjukkan ketidakseimbangan jumlah individu yang dapat disebabkan oleh tekanan seleksi. Abalon turunan ketiga pada umur 16 bulan mulai matang gonad dan dapat digunakan sebagai induk untuk pemijahan. Observation on the growth and reproduction development of Haliotis squamata had been undertaken in the hatchery of the Institute for Mariculture Research and Development (IMRAD Gondol, Bali. The research was aimed to study of the growth and reproduction performance of filial-3 abalone in supporting seed production in hatchery. Larvae were obtained from natural spawning of filial-2 abalone broodstock with the length shell of 6.5-7.0 cm in the hatchery. Larvae were reared in 2.5 m x 1.2 m x 1.0 m

  10. Abalone, Haliotis mariae (Wood, 1828, Hatchery and Seed Production Trials in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalfan M. Al-Rashdi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hatchery and seed production trials for the Omani endemic abalone Haliotis mariae were carried out at the land-based Mirbat Abalone Seed Production Station in Oman between 1999 and 2000. The methods developed for broodstock conditioning, induction of spawning and fertilization, larval settlement, and the handling of small juveniles are shown. Abalone collected in the post-monsoon period and held for 2 months matured faster than those collected before the monsoon and held for 6 months. Spawning induction of males and females had 63% and 11% success rates respectively, and the morphology of early larval stages is shown. Survival rates of veliger larvae introduced to settlement plates ranged from 35.9% to 73.7%, but the survival of post-larvae was low at 0.1% to 3.6%. The high mortality rate was attributed to invasions of filamentous green- and coralline algae on settlement plates and occurrence of low quantity of diatoms as food. Juveniles reacted best to 2% ethanol as anaesthetic, dropping off culture plates within 4 min and recovering within 17 min. Cultured abalone reached an average shell length of 52.9 mm over 13 months, which translates to an increment of 4.1 mm.mon-1. The overall conclusion of these preliminary research trials confirms  that H. mariae can be cultured successfully in Oman. Further studies on the standardization of the techniques would help in stock enhancement programmes and commercial farming.

  11. Splice variants of perlucin from Haliotis laevigata modulate the crystallisation of CaCO3.

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    Tanja Dodenhof

    Full Text Available Perlucin is one of the proteins of the organic matrix of nacre (mother of pearl playing an important role in biomineralisation. This nacreous layer can be predominately found in the mollusc lineages and is most intensively studied as a compound of the shell of the marine Australian abalone Haliotis laevigata. A more detailed analysis of Perlucin will elucidate some of the still unknown processes in the complex interplay of the organic/inorganic compounds involved in the formation of nacre as a very interesting composite material not only from a life science-based point of view. Within this study we discovered three unknown Perlucin splice variants of the Australian abalone H. laevigata. The amplified cDNAs vary from 562 to 815 base pairs and the resulting translation products differ predominantly in the absence or presence of a varying number of a 10 mer peptide C-terminal repeat. The splice variants could further be confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF MS analysis as endogenous Perlucin, purified from decalcified abalone shell. Interestingly, we observed that the different variants expressed as maltose-binding protein (MBP fusion proteins in E. coli showed strong differences in their influence on precipitating CaCO3 and that these differences might be due to a splice variant-specific formation of large protein aggregates influenced by the number of the 10 mer peptide repeats. Our results are evidence for a more complex situation with respect to Perlucin functional regulation by demonstrating that Perlucin splice variants modulate the crystallisation of calcium carbonate. The identification of differentially behaving Perlucin variants may open a completely new perspective for the field of nacre biomineralisation.

  12. The cross-tissue metabolic response of abalone (Haliotis midae) to functional hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Leonie; Loots, Du Toit; Mienie, Lodewyk J; Jansen van Rensburg, Peet J; Mason, Shayne; Vosloo, Andre; Lindeque, Jeremie Z

    2018-03-23

    Functional hypoxia is a stress condition caused by the abalone itself as a result of increased muscle activity, which generally necessitates the employment of anaerobic metabolism if the activity is sustained for prolonged periods. With that being said, abalone are highly reliant on anaerobic metabolism to provide partial compensation for energy production during oxygen-deprived episodes. However, current knowledge on the holistic metabolic response for energy metabolism during functional hypoxia, and the contribution of different metabolic pathways and various abalone tissues towards the overall accumulation of anaerobic end-products in abalone are scarce. Metabolomics analysis of adductor muscle, foot muscle, left gill, right gill, haemolymph and epipodial tissue samples indicated that South African abalone ( Haliotis midae) subjected to functional hypoxia utilises predominantly anaerobic metabolism, and depends on all of the main metabolite classes (proteins, carbohydrates and lipids) for energy supply. Functional hypoxia caused increased levels of anaerobic end-products: lactate, alanopine, tauropine, succinate and alanine. Also, elevation in arginine levels was detected, confirming that abalone use phosphoarginine to generate energy during functional hypoxia. Different tissues showed varied metabolic responses to hypoxia, with functional hypoxia showing excessive changes in the adductor muscle and gills. From this metabolomics investigation, it becomes evident that abalone are metabolically able to produce sufficient amounts of energy when functional hypoxia is experienced. Also, tissue interplay enables the adjustment of H. midae energy requirements as their metabolism shifts from aerobic to anaerobic respiration during functional hypoxia.This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Identification and characterization of Vibrio harveyi associated with diseased abalone Haliotis diversicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qingru; Shi, Liuyang; Ke, Caihuan; You, Weiwei; Zhao, Jing

    2013-03-26

    Mass mortality of farmed small abalone Haliotis diversicolor occurred in Fujian, China, from 2009 to 2011. Among isolates obtained from moribund abalones, the dominant species AP37 exhibited the strongest virulence. After immersion challenge with 106 CFU ml-1 of AP37, abalone mortalities of 0, 53 and 67% were induced at water temperatures of 20°C, 24°C, and 28°C, respectively. Following intramuscular injection, AP37 showed a low LD50 (median lethal concentration) value of 2.9 × 102 CFU g-1 (colony forming units per gram abalone wet body weight). The LT50 (median lethal time) values were 5.2 h for 1 × 106 CFU abalone-1, 8.4 h for 1 × 105 CFU abalone-1, and 21.5 h for 1 × 104 CFU abalone-1. For further analysis of virulence, AP37 was screened for the production of extracellular factors. The results showed that various factors including presence of flagella and production of extracellular enzymes, such as lipase, phospholipase and haemolysin, could be responsible for pathogenesis. Based on its 16S rRNA gene sequence, strain AP37 showed >98.8% similarity to Vibrio harveyi, V. campbellii, V. parahaemolyticus, V. alginolyticus, V. natriegens and V. rotiferianus, so it could not be identified by this method. However, multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) of concatenated sequences, including the rpoD, rctB, gyrB, toxR and pyrH genes, identified strain AP37 as V. harveyi. Phenotypic characters of AP37 were identified by API 20E. In antibiotic susceptibility tests, strain AP37 exhibited susceptibility to 7 antibiotics and resistance to 13. This is the first report of a V. harveyi-related species being linked with the mass mortality of adult abalone H. diversicolor in southern China.

  14. Molecular cloning and characterization of prohormone convertase 1 gene in abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jin; Cai, Zhong-hua

    2010-03-01

    Prohormone convertases (PCs) are calcium-dependent serine endoproteases of the subtilisin family that play a key role in the posttranslational processing of precursors for bioactive peptides. In this study, the cDNA of PC1 from abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta) was cloned and sequenced. The PC1 cDNA consisted of 2216 bp with an open reading frame of 2010 bp encoding a 670 amino acid peptide. Comparative structural analysis revealed that abalone PC1 shared high similarity and identity with most PC counterparts. The profile of deduced peptide of PC1 was composed of an N-terminal signal peptide, a prosegment domain, a catalytic domain and a P domain, which were common in many species. Sequence analysis indicated that the abalone PC1 was highly conserved in catalytic domain, including three conserved serine catalytic signatures that comprised a catalytic triad active center. Also conserved were the potential cleavage site for release of the mature peptide, a cognate integrin binding site RGD in P domain, and four cysteine residues involved in forming an intrachain disulfide bridge. To further investigate the functions of PC1 in abalone, real-time quantitative PCR was performed to determine the expression level of this gene at three different reproduction stages (i.e. pre-, during- and post-breeding). Results indicated that PC1 was expressed throughout the three stages but the expression levels varied with the timepoints and different tissues in abalone. The expression levels of PC1 in digestive gland were much higher than those of the gonad. In female abalone, the expression of PC1 was higher at pre-breeding and during-breeding stages (Pabalone reproduction process (e.g. spawning or sperming). PC1 is a potential prohormone processing enzyme and it may play a critical role in abalone physiological processes related to reproduction. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of Multiple Stressors on Red Abalone (Haliotis rufescens) Fertilization Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boch, C. A.; Aalto, E.; De Leo, G.; Litvin, S.; Lovera, C.; Micheli, F.; Woodson, C. B.; Monismith, S. G.; Barry, J. P.

    2016-02-01

    Acidification, hypoxia, and ocean warming are escalating threats in the world's coastal waters, with potentially severe consequences for marine life and ocean-based economies. In particular, eastern boundary current ecosystems, including the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem (CCLME), are experiencing large-scale declines in pH and dissolved oxygen (DO)—with the latter linked to changes in thermal stratification and shoaling of the oxygen minimum zone. To examine the consequences of ocean acidification and other climate-related changes in oceanographic conditions on nearshore marine populations within the CCLME, we are assessing the potential effects of current and future upwelling-type conditions on the population dynamics of the red abalone (Haliotis rufescens), with a focus on sensitive early life history phases (e.g., fertilization, larval development, and juvenile growth and survival) expected to be important determinants of population dynamics. Here, we present the first experimental results on the impacts of combined exposures of low pH and low DO on abalone fertilization success. Our results show that abalone fertilization success is significantly reduced when the gametes are exposed to a decrease in seawater pH from 8.0 to 7.2. Furthermore, low pH in combination with hypoxic exposure—e.g., a decrease in dissolved oxygen from 6 mg/L DO to 1 mg/L DO—does not further decrease fertilization rates, suggesting a lack of synergistic or additive effects of these multiple stressors on the reduction of fertilization success. Although the focus of this study is to characterize the effects of multiple stressors on the early life history of abalone, the implications of these results are expected to be relevant for a variety of marine taxa with similar reproductive modes.

  16. Genomic Characterization of a Novel Phage Found in Black Abalone (Haliotis cracherodii) Infected with Withering Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closek, C. J.; Langevin, S.; Burge, C. A.; Crosson, L.; White, S.; Friedman, C. S.

    2016-02-01

    Withering syndrome (WS), caused by the bacterium Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis, a Rickettsia-like organism (RLO), infects many species of abalone. Black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii), one of two endangered species of abalone, has experienced high population losses along the California coast due to WS. Recently, we observed reduced pathogenicity and mortality events in RLO-infected abalone when a novel bacteriophage (phage) was also present. To better understand phage-bacterium dynamics and develop more informative diagnostic tools, we sequenced the genome of the novel phage associated with the RLO responsible for WS. Metagenomic sequencing libraries were prepared with extracted genomic DNA from two experimentally infected H. cracherodii and phage sequences were enriched using hydroxyapatite chromatography normalization. Normalized libraries were individually barcoded and sequenced with Illumina MiSeq. Raw sequence reads were processed using VIrominer and de novo assembly produced one single phage-like contig (35.7Kb) from the experimentally infected abalone. This highly divergent genome had closest homology with a virus associated with abalone shriveling syndrome (SS). Of the 34 predicted ORFs, overlapping homology with the SS virus ranged from 20-72%, demonstrating the phage sequenced is genetically distinct from any known phage. The phage-like sequences represented a significant portion of the total reads sequenced ( 2 million of the 12 million paired-end reads; 17%) and we obtained 94,000X coverage across the novel phage genome. Beyond characterization of this novel phage, which appears to reduce pathogenicity of the RLO, the genome enabled us to develop quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization assays as diagnostic tools. These tools allow us to detect and quantify this phage in the endangered H. cracherodii.

  17. The cross-tissue metabolic response of abalone (Haliotis midae to functional hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Venter

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Functional hypoxia is a stress condition caused by the abalone itself as a result of increased muscle activity, which generally necessitates the employment of anaerobic metabolism if the activity is sustained for prolonged periods. With that being said, abalone are highly reliant on anaerobic metabolism to provide partial compensation for energy production during oxygen-deprived episodes. However, current knowledge on the holistic metabolic response for energy metabolism during functional hypoxia, and the contribution of different metabolic pathways and various abalone tissues towards the overall accumulation of anaerobic end-products in abalone are scarce. Metabolomics analysis of adductor muscle, foot muscle, left gill, right gill, haemolymph and epipodial tissue samples indicated that South African abalone (Haliotis midae subjected to functional hypoxia utilises predominantly anaerobic metabolism, and depends on all of the main metabolite classes (proteins, carbohydrates and lipids for energy supply. Functional hypoxia caused increased levels of anaerobic end-products: lactate, alanopine, tauropine, succinate and alanine. Also, elevation in arginine levels was detected, confirming that abalone use phosphoarginine to generate energy during functional hypoxia. Different tissues showed varied metabolic responses to hypoxia, with functional hypoxia showing excessive changes in the adductor muscle and gills. From this metabolomics investigation, it becomes evident that abalone are metabolically able to produce sufficient amounts of energy when functional hypoxia is experienced. Also, tissue interplay enables the adjustment of H. midae energy requirements as their metabolism shifts from aerobic to anaerobic respiration during functional hypoxia. This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper.

  18. Topography of the medullar cone in the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas de Assis Ribeiro; Tharlianne Alici M. de Souza; Priscilla Rosa Q. Ribeiro; Lázaro A. dos Santos; Daniela Cristina de O. Silva; Frederico O. Carneiro e Silva; Roseâmely Angélica C. Barros; Renata Graciele Zanon

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Ribeiro L.A., Souza T.A.M., Ribeiro P.R.Q., Santos L.A., Silva D.C.O., Carneiro e Silva F.O., Barros R.A.C. & Zanon R.G. [Topography of the medullar cone in the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758.] Topografia do cone medular do Tamanduá-bandeira (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758). Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(4):353-358, 2015. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Veterinárias e Zootecnia, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Fe...

  19. A Non-Proteinaceious Toxin from the Venomous Spines of the Lionfish Pterois Volitans (Linnaeus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Spines of the Lionfish Pterois Volitans (Linnaeus) 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(a) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(&) Nair, M.S.R. Cheung, P...and Identify by block number) Tinon Lionfish , Non-Proteinaceous Toxin, Ichthyotoxin 20. A9ST’ACT ? ( mt.e ,vmM N , mid ify by block nusmber) "!;The...COMMUNICATIONS A NON-PROTEINACEOUS TOXIN FROM THE VENOMOUS SPINES OF THE LIONFISH PTEROIS VOLITANS (LINNAEUS) 2 20 M. S. R. NAIR,’ PAUL CHEUNG, INA

  20. Histological description of Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 respiratory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marla P. Rocha

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The massive agricultural expansion converted the Cerdocyon thous, a South American native predator, in vulnerable specie. Basic data, such as histological description, are important to raise awareness on animal species, helping on preservation strategies. Considering the difficult in obtain samples, as the euthanasia of wild animals for this purpose is not allowed, data on histology are very scarce or inexistent. The objective of this paper was to provide a detailed histological description of the trachea and bronchial tree of the crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766. The specimens (one adult male and one adult female used were provided by the Federal University of Pelotas (Pelotas, RS, Brazil Rehabilitation Center of Wild Fauna (NURFS. Tissue samples were fixed in 10% formalin and included in paraffin. After slicing, samples were stained with HE (hematoxylin and eosin, PAS (periodic acid-Schiff and resorcin fuchsin. Trachea had an average diameter of 7.87mm, and approximately 57% of the mucosa ciliated pseudo-stratified columnar epithelium was composed of goblet cells, mostly in the dorsal region. Bronchia and bronchioles had a mucosal fold with higher number of goblet cells. Using all these techniques there is no great remarkable differences from C. thous trachea and lung, when compared with the previous described structures for carnivores and most mammals, except for the goblet cells “regionalization”. Described results are important to understand the animal physiological and behavioral habits, allowing the development of preservation and protection strategies.

  1. Homage to Linnaeus: How many parasites? How many hosts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Andy; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand M.; Hechinger, Ryan F.; Jetz, Walter

    2008-01-01

    Estimates of the total number of species that inhabit the Earth have increased significantly since Linnaeus's initial catalog of 20,000 species. The best recent estimates suggest that there are ≈6 million species. More emphasis has been placed on counts of free-living species than on parasitic species. We rectify this by quantifying the numbers and proportion of parasitic species. We estimate that there are between 75,000 and 300,000 helminth species parasitizing the vertebrates. We have no credible way of estimating how many parasitic protozoa, fungi, bacteria, and viruses exist. We estimate that between 3% and 5% of parasitic helminths are threatened with extinction in the next 50 to 100 years. Because patterns of parasite diversity do not clearly map onto patterns of host diversity, we can make very little prediction about geographical patterns of threat to parasites. If the threats reflect those experienced by avian hosts, then we expect climate change to be a major threat to the relatively small proportion of parasite diversity that lives in the polar and temperate regions, whereas habitat destruction will be the major threat to tropical parasite diversity. Recent studies of food webs suggest that ≈75% of the links in food webs involve a parasitic species; these links are vital for regulation of host abundance and potentially for reducing the impact of toxic pollutants. This implies that parasite extinctions may have unforeseen costs that impact the health and abundance of a large number of free-living species.

  2. A New Maximum Length Record of the Bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix Linnaeus, 1766) for Turkey Seas

    OpenAIRE

    Cengiz, Özgür

    2014-01-01

    One specimen of the bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix Linnaeus, 1766) with 76.5 cm in total length and 4800.0 g in total weight was photographed in the Çanakkale Fish Market. The given length is second maximum length record of the bluefish for Turkish waters

  3. In vitro growth of flat aragonite crystals between the layers of the insoluble organic matrix of the abalone Haliotis laevigata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gries, Katharina I.; Heinemann, Fabian; Rosenauer, Andreas; Fritz, Monika

    2012-11-01

    Nacre of abalone shells consists of aragonite platelets and organic material, the so-called organic matrix. During the growth process of the shell the aragonite platelets grow into a scaffold formed by the organic matrix. In this work we tried to mimic this growth process by placing a piece of the insoluble organic matrix (which is a part of the organic matrix) of the abalone Haliotis laevigata in a crystallization device which was flowed through by CaCl2 and NaHCO3 solutions. Using this setup amongst others flat aragonite crystals grow on the insoluble organic matrix. When investigating these crystals in a transmission electron microscope it is possible to recognize similarities to the structure of nacre, like the formation of mineral bridges and growth between layers of the insoluble organic matrix. These similarities are presented in this paper.

  4. Refinement of the karyological aspects of Psidium guineense (Swartz, 1788): a comparison with Psidium guajava (Linnaeus, 1753)

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Anelise Machado; Tuler, Am?lia Carlos; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto; Carrijo, Tatiana Tavares; Ferreira, Marcia Flores da Silva; Clarindo, Wellington Ronildo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Euploidy plays an important role in the evolution and diversification of Psidium Linnaeus, 1753. However, few data about the nuclear DNA content, chromosome characterization (morphometry and class) and molecular markers have been reported for this genus. In this context, the present study aims to shed light on the genome of Psidium guineense Swartz, 1788, comparing it with Psidium guajava Linnaeus, 1753. Using flow cytometry, the nuclear 2C value of Psidium guineense was 2C = 1.85 pi...

  5. Laju Pertumbuhan Kerang Abalon Haliotis squamata Melalui Budidaya IMTA (Integrated Multi Trophic Aquaculture di Pantai Geger, Nusa Dua, Kabupaten Badung, Provinsi Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heny Hayati

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abalone is an important non fishery commodity that has high potential value to be developed. Abalone culture still faces some problems, such as, relatively slow growth rate, low survival rate and causing environmental pollution. One of the efforts to tackle the problems, is applying the culture system that is environmental friendly, such as IMTA (Integrated Multitrophic Aquaculture. This research aims to identify the growth rate and survival rate of the abalone (Haliotis squamata and the suitability of chemical and physical environment parameter supporting the integration culture of abalone and seaweed (Gracilaria sp on different stocking density at Geger beach, Nusa Dua, Bali. This research was performed in 45 days using a complete randomized design method that consist of three treatments and three repetition. The result showed that the highet growth rate was on treat ment T3 which consisted of abalone (Haliotis squamata 40 individu and 10 bunches of seaweed (Gracilaria sp 100 grams weight/each individu (0.76%/day, then It followed by T2 treatment that was integrated with 10 bunches of seaweed 50 grams (0.71%/day. The lowest growth rate observed on treatment T1 (control/monoculture which consisted of 40 individu abalone (Haliotis squamata (0.59%/day. The highest survival rate found on treatment T2 (97.5% and followed by treatment T1 as control (94.5%, while the lowest number was found on treatment T3 (83.3%. Physical chemical water quality parameters showed that It supported the growth of both, abalone (Haliotis squamata and seaweed (Gracilaria sp. at Geger Beach, Nusa Dua, Badung Regency, Bali Province.

  6. Eighteenth century classification of mental illness: Linnaeus, de Sauvages, Vogel, and Cullen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsche, Heather; Whitaker, Harry A

    2012-12-01

    Classification was an important aspect of the 17th and 18th century development of Western science, epitomized by Linnaeus's 1735 Systema Naturae (Nature's System), in which he divided each kingdom of nature into classes, orders, and species. Linnaeus, a physician in addition to being a renowned taxonomist, endeavored to classify all known human diseases, largely on the basis of symptoms, in his 1759 Genera Morborum (Varieties of Diseases). We focus on his classification of mental disorders, a large subset of the Genera Morborum. We compare and contrast the Linnaean system with François Boissier de Sauvages's 1772 Nosologie méthodique (A Systematic Nosology) and Rudolph Augustin Vogel's 1764 Generum Morborum (Varieties of Diseases). We consider the impact of these nosologies on William Cullen's (1769/1800) Nosology, a popular system of disease classification that persisted through much of the 19th century.

  7. An unusual food plant for Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Salinas-Castro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An unusual food plant for Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae in Mexico. Larvae of Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus, 1758 were discovered on floral cones of Magnolia schiedeana (Schltdl, 1864 near the natural reserve of La Martinica, Veracruz, México. Magnolia represents an unusual host for this moth species, which is known throughout the world as the "codling moth", a serious pest of fruits of Rosaceae, especially apples. The larvae were identified using taxonomic keys, and identification was corroborated using molecular markers. Further sampling resulted in no additional larvae, hence, the observation was probably that of an ovipositional error by the female, and M. schiedeana is not at risk of attack by this important moth pest.

  8. The mortality of Oryzaephilus surinamensis Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera: Silvanidae induced by powdered plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kłyś Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether powdered plants of different species namely: peppermint Mentha piperita (L. (Lamiaceae, wormwood Artemisia absinthium (L. (Asteraceae, common sage Salvia officinalis (L. (Lamiaceae, allspice Pimenta dioica (Linnaeus et Merrill (Myrtaceae and common garlic Allium sativum (L. (Amaryllidaceae, added to semolina using concentrations of 1.23, 3.61, and 5.88%, influence the mortality rate in the saw-toothed grain beetle Oryzaephilus surinamensis Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera: Silvanidae. Experiments were conducted in a laboratory at 28°C and relative humidity 60±5%. At the concentration of 1.23%, allspice seeds caused the highest mortality amongst the saw-toothed grain beetle. When concentrations of 3.61 and 5.88% were used, sage, peppermint and wormwood caused the highest statistically significant mortality of O. surinamensis

  9. Linnaeus' restless system: translation as textual engineering in eighteenth-century botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Bettina

    2016-04-01

    In this essay, translations of Linnaeus' Systema naturae into various European languages will be placed into the context of successively expanded editions of Linnaeus' writings. The ambition and intention of most translators was not only to make the Systema naturae accessible for practical botanical use by a wider readership, but also to supplement and correct it, and thus to shape it. By recruiting more users, translations made a significant contribution to keeping the Systema up to date and thus maintaining its practical value for decades. The need to incorporate countless additions and corrections into an existing text, to document their provenance, to identify inconsistencies, and to refer to relevant observations, descriptions, and illustrations in the botanical literature all helped to develop and refine techniques of textual montage. This form of textual engineering, becoming increasingly complex with each translation cycle, shaped the external appearance of new editions of the Systema, and reflected the modular architecture of a botanical system designed for expansion.

  10. Antibiotic resistence of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887) and Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Belém-Costa,Andréa; Cyrino,José Eurico Possebon

    2006-01-01

    One of the most important problems involving treatments with antibiotics against Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fishes is that antibiotic resistance develops readily. The antimicrobial activity of chemotherapeutants in isolates from pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887) and tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) was tested by the Kirby-Bauer disk method, over Mueller-Hinton surface agar previously inoculated with 100 µL of bacterial suspensions. After regular incubation, i...

  11. Identity, biology and bionomics of the Common Mime Chilasa clytia Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Revathy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were made on the identity, biology and bionomics of the Common Mime Chilasa clytia Linnaeus.  Morphological details of the external genitalia were found to be useful in segregating the two forms clytia and dissimilis belonging to this species.  The biology took 32–36 days for completion.  Besides the host plants already recorded, Litsea coriacea was recorded as a new larval host plant of this butterfly.  

  12. Long-term lead accumulation in abalone (Haliotis spp. ) fed on lead-treated brown algae (Egregia laevigata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, J; Schulz-Baldes, M

    1976-01-01

    In this study we assessed the amount of lead accumulated in the body of a grazing mollusc by transfer from its algal food in laboratory experiments, and compared these results with the amounts found in naturally occurring molluscs and seaweed. Near La Jolla, California (USA), where the concentration of lead in seawater is probably less than 0.08 ..mu..g 1/sup -1/, most of the naturally occurring Egregia laevigata contains less than 0.4 ..mu..g Pb g/sup -1/ wet weight. The total body masses, without shells, of juvenile Haliotis rufescens fed on this seaweed for 3 to 6 months showed similar concentrations. When, however, E. laevigata is placed for 1 to 6 days in seawater to which lead has been added (0.1 or 1.0 mg 1/sup -1/) both the seaweed and the abalone subsequently fed with it accumulate proportionally larger amounts of lead. After 6 months, young abalone fed on E. laevigata pretreated with 1.0 mg Pb 1/sup -1/ accumulated up to 21 ..mu..g Pb g/sup -1/ wet weight. This amount of lead had no apparent consequences on the growth or activity of the molluscs. Analyses of 6 different organs from adult abalone showed that the lead was selectively concentrated in the digestive gland. In the foot (muscle tissue), which is the part normally consumed by humans, only negligible amounts were found.

  13. Genetic differentiation between fake abalone and genuine Haliotis species using the forensically informative nucleotide sequencing (FINS) method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Wai Y; Reid, David G; Kam, Wan L; Lau, Yuk Y; Sham, Wing C; Tam, Silvia Y K; Sin, Della W M; Mok, Chuen S

    2011-05-25

    Abalones ( Haliotis species) are a popular delicacy and commonly preserved in dried form either whole or in slices or small pieces for consumption in Asian countries. Driven by the huge profit from trading abalones, dishonest traders may substitute other molluscan species for processed abalone, of which the morphological characteristics are frequently lost in the processed form. For protection of consumer rights and law enforcement against fraud, there is a need for an effective methodology to differentiate between fake and genuine abalone. This paper describes a method (validated according to the international forensic guidelines provided by SWGDAM) for the identification of fake abalone species using forensically informative nucleotide sequence (FINS) analysis. A study of the local market revealed that many claimed "abalone slice" samples on sale are not genuine. The fake abalone samples were found to be either volutids of the genus Cymbium (93%) or the muricid Concholepas concholepas (7%). This is the first report of Cymbium species being used for the preparation and sale as "abalone" in dried sliced form in Hong Kong.

  14. BRICHOS domain-containing leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 1-like cDNA from disk abalone Haliotis discus discus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yucheol; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Lee, Youngdeuk; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jehee

    2010-11-01

    A BRICHOS domain-containing leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 1-like cDNA was cloned from the disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) and designated as AbLECT-1. A full-length (705 bp) of AbLECT-1 cDNA was composed of a 576 bp open reading frame that translates into a putative peptide of 192 amino acids. Deduced amino acid sequence of AbLECT-1 had 15.5- and 27.8% identity and similarity to human LECT-1, respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis results showed that the mRNA of AbLECT-1 was constitutively expressed in abalone hemocytes, gills, mantle, muscle, digestive tract and hepatopancreas in a tissue-specific manner. Moreover, the AbLECT-1 transcription level was induced in hemocytes after challenge with Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahemolyticus, and Listeria monocytogenes suggesting that it may be involved in immune response reactions in abalone. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Structural characterization and expression analysis of a beta-thymosin homologue (Tβ) in disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasthuri, Saranya Revathy; Premachandra, H K A; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jehee

    2013-09-15

    Repertoires of proteins and small peptides play numerous physiological roles as hormones, antimicrobial peptides, and cellular signaling factors. The beta-thymosins are a group of small acidic peptides involved in processes such as actin sequestration, neuronal development, wound healing, tissue repair, and angiogenesis. Recent characterization of the beta thymosins as immunological regulators in invertebrates led to our identification and characterization of a beta-thymosin homologue (Tβ) from Haliotis discus discus. The cDNA possessed an ORF of 132 bp encoding a protein of 44 amino acids with a molecular mass of 4977 Da. The amino acid sequence shows high identity with another molluskan beta-thymosin and has a characteristic actin binding motif (LKKTET) and glutamyl donors. Phylogenetic analysis showed a close relationship with molluskan homologues, as well as its distinct identity and common ancestral origin. Genomic analysis revealed a 3 exon-2 intron structure similar to the other homologues. In silico promoter analysis also revealed significant transcription factor binding sites, providing evidence for the expression of this gene under different cellular conditions, including stress or pathogenic attack. Tissue distribution profiling revealed a ubiquitous presence in all the examined tissues, but with the highest expression in mantle and hemocyte. Immune challenge with lipopolysaccharide, poly I:C and Vibrio parahemolyticus induced beta-thymosin expression in gill and hemocytes, affirming an immune-related role in invertebrates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Transcriptome Analysis Revealed Changes of Multiple Genes Involved in Haliotis discus hannai Innate Immunity during Vibrio parahemolyticus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Bo-Hye; Jung, Myunghee; Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Yoo, Seung-il; Markkandan, Kesavan; Moon, Ji-Young; Kim, Young-Ok; Kim, Dong-Gyun; An, Cheul Min; Shin, Younhee; Jung, Ho-jin; Park, Jun-hyung

    2016-01-01

    Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) is one of the most valuable marine aquatic species in Korea, Japan and China. Tremendous exposure to bacterial infection is common in aquaculture environment, especially by Vibrio sp. infections. It's therefore necessary and urgent to understand the mechanism of H. discus hannai host defense against Vibrio parahemolyticus infection. However studies on its immune system are hindered by the lack of genomic resources. In the present study, we sequenced the transcriptome of control and bacterial challenged H. discus hannai tissues. Totally, 138 MB of reference transcriptome were obtained from de novo assembly of 34 GB clean bases from ten different libraries and annotated with the biological terms (GO and KEGG). A total of 10,575 transcripts exhibiting the differentially expression at least one pair of comparison and the functional annotations highlight genes related to immune response, cell adhesion, immune regulators, redox molecules and mitochondrial coding genes. Mostly, these groups of genes were dominated in hemocytes compared to other tissues. This work is a prerequisite for the identification of those physiological traits controlling H. discus hannai ability to survive against Vibrio infection.

  17. Transcriptome Analysis Revealed Changes of Multiple Genes Involved in Haliotis discus hannai Innate Immunity during Vibrio parahemolyticus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Bo-Hye; Jung, Myunghee; Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Yoo, Seung-il; Markkandan, Kesavan; Moon, Ji-Young; Kim, Young-Ok; Kim, Dong-Gyun; An, Cheul Min; Shin, Younhee; Jung, Ho-jin; Park, Jun-hyung

    2016-01-01

    Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) is one of the most valuable marine aquatic species in Korea, Japan and China. Tremendous exposure to bacterial infection is common in aquaculture environment, especially by Vibrio sp. infections. It’s therefore necessary and urgent to understand the mechanism of H. discus hannai host defense against Vibrio parahemolyticus infection. However studies on its immune system are hindered by the lack of genomic resources. In the present study, we sequenced the transcriptome of control and bacterial challenged H. discus hannai tissues. Totally, 138 MB of reference transcriptome were obtained from de novo assembly of 34 GB clean bases from ten different libraries and annotated with the biological terms (GO and KEGG). A total of 10,575 transcripts exhibiting the differentially expression at least one pair of comparison and the functional annotations highlight genes related to immune response, cell adhesion, immune regulators, redox molecules and mitochondrial coding genes. Mostly, these groups of genes were dominated in hemocytes compared to other tissues. This work is a prerequisite for the identification of those physiological traits controlling H. discus hannai ability to survive against Vibrio infection. PMID:27088873

  18. Transcriptome Analysis Revealed Changes of Multiple Genes Involved in Haliotis discus hannai Innate Immunity during Vibrio parahemolyticus Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Hye Nam

    Full Text Available Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai is one of the most valuable marine aquatic species in Korea, Japan and China. Tremendous exposure to bacterial infection is common in aquaculture environment, especially by Vibrio sp. infections. It's therefore necessary and urgent to understand the mechanism of H. discus hannai host defense against Vibrio parahemolyticus infection. However studies on its immune system are hindered by the lack of genomic resources. In the present study, we sequenced the transcriptome of control and bacterial challenged H. discus hannai tissues. Totally, 138 MB of reference transcriptome were obtained from de novo assembly of 34 GB clean bases from ten different libraries and annotated with the biological terms (GO and KEGG. A total of 10,575 transcripts exhibiting the differentially expression at least one pair of comparison and the functional annotations highlight genes related to immune response, cell adhesion, immune regulators, redox molecules and mitochondrial coding genes. Mostly, these groups of genes were dominated in hemocytes compared to other tissues. This work is a prerequisite for the identification of those physiological traits controlling H. discus hannai ability to survive against Vibrio infection.

  19. Marine environmental impact assessment of abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, cage farm in Wan-do, Republic of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyun-Taik; Jung, Rae-Hong; Cho, Yoon-Sik; Hwang, Dong-Woon; Yi, Yong-Min

    2015-12-01

    To assess the marine environmental impacts of abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, cage farms in Wan-do, we monitored the benthic environment on top of the sediment underneath cage farm stations and reference stations. We applied two methods for this assessment. One was the A- and B-investigation of the MOM system (Modeling-On fish farm-Monitoring) developed in Norway. The other was a general environmental monitoring method which is widely used. In this study, we found benthic animals in all samples that belonged to condition 1 which were based on group 1(presence of macrofauna) of the B-investigation method. The values of redox potential (group 2-pH, redox potential) in all samples were above +65 mV belonging to condition 1. Based on sensory results (group 3-gas, color, odor, thickness of deposits), five out of seven experiment samples showed condition 1 while stations 2 and 7 showed condition 2, which have been cultured for 10 years in semi-closed waters. As group 2 takes precedence over group 3, the level of the conditions for B-investigation results consequently showed condition 1 in all stations. We found that pollutants and trace metals in the sediment underneath cage farms were lower than the pollution standard. This led us to conclude that the environmental impacts of the cage farms in this study were not significant.

  20. Effect of drying process assisted by high-pressure impregnation on protein quality and digestibility in red abalone (Haliotis rufescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepero-Betancourt, Yamira; Oliva-Moresco, Patricio; Pasten-Contreras, Alexis; Tabilo-Munizaga, Gipsy; Pérez-Won, Mario; Moreno-Osorio, Luis; Lemus-Mondaca, Roberto

    2017-10-01

    Abalone (Haliotis spp.) is an exotic seafood product recognized as a protein source of high biological value. Traditional methods used to preserve foods such as drying technology can affect their nutritional quality (protein quality and digestibility). A 28-day rat feeding study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the drying process assisted by high-pressure impregnation (HPI) (350, 450, and 500 MPa × 5 min) on chemical proximate and amino acid compositions and nutritional parameters, such as protein efficiency ratio (PER), true digestibility (TD), net protein ratio, and protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) of dried abalone. The HPI-assisted drying process ensured excellent protein quality based on PER values, regardless of the pressure level. At 350 and 500 MPa, the HPI-assisted drying process had no negative effect on TD and PDCAAS then, based on nutritional parameters analysed, we recommend HPI-assisted drying process at 350 MPa × 5 min as the best process condition to dry abalone. Variations in nutritional parameters compared to casein protein were observed; nevertheless, the high protein quality and digestibility of HPI-assisted dried abalones were maintained to satisfy the metabolic demands of human beings.

  1. Effects of rigor status during high-pressure processing on the physical qualities of farm-raised abalone (Haliotis rufescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Brianna H; Greenberg, Neil J; Yang, Tom C; Skonberg, Denise I

    2015-01-01

    High-pressure processing (HPP) is used to increase meat safety and shelf-life, with conflicting quality effects depending on rigor status during HPP. In the seafood industry, HPP is used to shuck and pasteurize oysters, but its use on abalones has only been minimally evaluated and the effect of rigor status during HPP on abalone quality has not been reported. Farm-raised abalones (Haliotis rufescens) were divided into 12 HPP treatments and 1 unprocessed control treatment. Treatments were processed pre-rigor or post-rigor at 2 pressures (100 and 300 MPa) and 3 processing times (1, 3, and 5 min). The control was analyzed post-rigor. Uniform plugs were cut from adductor and foot meat for texture profile analysis, shear force, and color analysis. Subsamples were used for scanning electron microscopy of muscle ultrastructure. Texture profile analysis revealed that post-rigor processed abalone was significantly (P abalone meat was more tender than pre-rigor processed meat, and post-rigor processed foot meat was lighter in color than pre-rigor processed foot meat, suggesting that waiting for rigor to resolve prior to processing abalones may improve consumer perceptions of quality and market value. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Alternative Splicing Profile and Sex-Preferential Gene Expression in the Female and Male Pacific Abalone Haliotis discus hannai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Ae; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Kim, Tae Ha; Lee, Jung Sick; Choi, Ah-Young; Choi, Beom-Soon; Choi, Ik-Young; Sohn, Young Chang

    2017-03-09

    In order to characterize the female or male transcriptome of the Pacific abalone and further increase genomic resources, we sequenced the mRNA of full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries derived from pooled tissues of female and male Haliotis discus hannai by employing the Iso-Seq protocol of the PacBio RSII platform. We successfully assembled whole full-length cDNA sequences and constructed a transcriptome database that included isoform information. After clustering, a total of 15,110 and 12,145 genes that coded for proteins were identified in female and male abalones, respectively. A total of 13,057 putative orthologs were retained from each transcriptome in abalones. Overall Gene Ontology terms and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways analyzed in each database showed a similar composition between sexes. In addition, a total of 519 and 391 isoforms were genome-widely identified with at least two isoforms from female and male transcriptome databases. We found that the number of isoforms and their alternatively spliced patterns are variable and sex-dependent. This information represents the first significant contribution to sex-preferential genomic resources of the Pacific abalone. The availability of whole female and male transcriptome database and their isoform information will be useful to improve our understanding of molecular responses and also for the analysis of population dynamics in the Pacific abalone.

  3. In vitro anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant properties of blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra) viscera hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul; Masci, Paul P; Addepalli, Rama; Chen, Wei; Gobe, Glenda C; Osborne, Simone A

    2017-07-01

    Abalone viscera contain sulphated polysaccharides with anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant activities. In this study, a hydrolysate was prepared from blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra) viscera using papain and bromelain and fractionated using ion exchange and size exclusion chromatography. Hydrolysates and fractions were investigated for in vitro thrombin inhibition mediated through heparin cofactor II (HCII) as well as anti-coagulant activity in plasma and whole blood. On the basis of sulphated polysaccharide concentration, the hydrolysate inhibited thrombin through HCII with an inhibitor concentration at 50% (IC50) of 16.5 μg/mL compared with 2.1 μg/mL for standard heparin. Fractionation concentrated HCII-mediated thrombin inhibition down to an IC50 of 1.8 μg/mL and improved anti-coagulant activities by significantly delaying clotting time. This study confirmed the presence of anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant molecules in blacklip abalone viscera and demonstrated that these activities can be enriched with a simple chromatography regime. Blacklip abalone viscera warrant further investigation as a source of nutraceutical or functional food ingredients. Graphical abstract Schematic showing preparation of bioactive extracts and fractions from blacklip abalone.

  4. Growth of the European abalone ( Haliotis tuberculata L.) in situ: Seasonality and ageing using stable oxygen isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, Sabine; Huchette, Sylvain; Clavier, Jacques; Chauvaud, Laurent

    2011-02-01

    The ormer, Haliotis tuberculata is the only European abalone species commercially exploited. The determination of growth and age in the wild is an important tool for fisheries and aquaculture management. However, the ageing technique used in the past in the field is unreliable. The stable oxygen isotope composition ( 18O/ 16O) of the shell depends on the temperature and oxygen isotope composition of the ambient sea water. The stable oxygen isotope technique, developed to study paleoclimatological changes in shellfish, was applied to three H. tuberculata specimens collected in north-west Brittany. For the specimens collected, the oxygen isotope ratios of the shell reflected the seasonal cycle in the temperature. From winter-to-winter cycles, estimates of the age and the annual growth increment, ranging from 13 to 55 mm per year were obtained. This study shows that stable oxygen isotopes can be a reliable tool for ageing and growth studies of this abalone species in the wild, and for validating other estimates.

  5. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of By-Products from Haliotis discus hannai in RAW 264.7 Cells

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    Ho-Seok Rho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several reports promoted the potential of shellfish due to their ability to act as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial agents. Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai viscera is, reported to possess bioactivities such as antioxidative stress and anti-inflammatory. In this study, anti-inflammatory potential of mucus-secreting glands from shell-shucking waste of H. discus hannai was evaluated using RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cell model. Results indicated that presence of H. discus hannai mucosubstance by-products (AM significantly lowered the nitric oxide (NO production along the expressional suppression of inflammatory mediators such as cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 and enzymes iNOS and COX-2. Also, AM was shown to increase expression of anti-inflammatory response mediator HO-1. Presence of AM also scavenged the free radicals in vitro. In conclusion, by-products of H. discus hannai are suggested to possess notable anti-inflammatory potential which promotes the possibility of utilization as functional food ingredient.

  6. Habitat Preferences of Juvenile Abalone (Haliotis mariae Wood, 1828 Along the Dhofar Coast of Oman and Implications for Conservation

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    Schalk Willem Petrus de Waal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Surveys were conducted along the eastern Dhofar coast of Oman to investigate densities and habitat preferences of juvenile Haliotis mariae ( 50 cm Ø, respectively. B values were highest for urchins (6 times that for small boulders, and for boulders <50 cm Ø. B values for boulder habitats decreased as boulder size increased. Urchin utilisation by juvenile abalone as shelter ranged between geographic areas from a minimum of 15.5% to a maximum of 47.6%. The proportion of total habitat that is preferred by more than 97% of juvenile abalone found, including urchins and boulders < 50 cm Ø, comprises 29% of surveyed substratum. While the role urchins play on wild juvenile H. mariae has not proved vital, it is definitely significant. Although juvenile densities are low and are not currently limited by the availability of suitable habitat, it is crucial to identify and conserve those microhabitats that support recruitment of H. mariae. The abundance of these areas should be among the criteria used in selecting protected conservation areas.

  7. Heterosis and combining ability: a diallel cross of three geographically isolated populations of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuewen; Liu, Xiao; Zhang, Guofan; Wu, Fucun

    2010-11-01

    We conducted a complete diallel cross among three geographically isolated populations of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino to determine the heterosis and the combining ability of growth traits at the spat stage. The three populations were collected from Qingdao (Q) and Dalian (D) in China, and Miyagi (M) in Japan. We measured the shell length, shell width, and total weight. The magnitude of the general combining ability (GCA) variance was more pronounced than the specific combining ability (SCA) variance, which is evidenced by both the ratio of the genetic component in total variation and the GCA/SCA values. The component variances of GCA and SCA were significant for all three traits ( P<0.05), indicating the importance of additive and non-additive genetic effects in determining the expression of these traits. The reciprocal maternal effects (RE) were also significant for these traits ( P<0.05). Our results suggest that population D was the best general combiner in breeding programs to improve growth traits. The DM cross had the highest heterosis values for all three traits.

  8. Alternative Splicing Profile and Sex-Preferential Gene Expression in the Female and Male Pacific Abalone Haliotis discus hannai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Ae Kim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize the female or male transcriptome of the Pacific abalone and further increase genomic resources, we sequenced the mRNA of full-length complementary DNA (cDNA libraries derived from pooled tissues of female and male Haliotis discus hannai by employing the Iso-Seq protocol of the PacBio RSII platform. We successfully assembled whole full-length cDNA sequences and constructed a transcriptome database that included isoform information. After clustering, a total of 15,110 and 12,145 genes that coded for proteins were identified in female and male abalones, respectively. A total of 13,057 putative orthologs were retained from each transcriptome in abalones. Overall Gene Ontology terms and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways analyzed in each database showed a similar composition between sexes. In addition, a total of 519 and 391 isoforms were genome-widely identified with at least two isoforms from female and male transcriptome databases. We found that the number of isoforms and their alternatively spliced patterns are variable and sex-dependent. This information represents the first significant contribution to sex-preferential genomic resources of the Pacific abalone. The availability of whole female and male transcriptome database and their isoform information will be useful to improve our understanding of molecular responses and also for the analysis of population dynamics in the Pacific abalone.

  9. iTRAQ-Based Identification of Proteins Related to Muscle Growth in the Pacific Abalone, Haliotis discus hannai

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    Jianfang Huang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The abalone Haliotis discus hannai is an important aquaculture species that is grown for human consumption. However, little is known of the genetic mechanisms governing muscle growth in this species, particularly with respect to proteomics. The isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ method allows for sensitive and accurate protein quantification. Our study was the first to use iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics to investigate muscle growth regulation in H. discus hannai. Among the 1904 proteins identified from six samples, 125 proteins were differentially expressed in large specimens of H. discus hannai as compared to small specimens. In the large specimens, 47 proteins were upregulated and 78 were downregulated. Many of the significant Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways, including these differentially expressed proteins, were closely related to muscle growth, including apoptosis, thyroid hormone signaling, regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, and viral myocarditis (p < 0.05. Our quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR analyses suggested that the alterations in expression levels observed in the differentially expressed proteins were consistent with the alterations observed in the encoding mRNAs, indicating the repeatability of our proteomic approach. Our findings contribute to the knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of muscle growth in H. discus hannai.

  10. Epipodial Tentacle Gene Expression and Predetermined Resilience to Summer Mortality in the Commercially Important Greenlip Abalone, Haliotis laevigata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiel, Brett P; Hall, Nathan E; Cooke, Ira R; Robinson, Nicholas A; Strugnell, Jan M

    2017-04-01

    "Summer mortality" is a phenomenon that occurs during warm water temperature spikes that results in the mass mortality of many ecologically and economically important mollusks such as abalone. This study aimed to determine whether the baseline gene expression of abalone before a laboratory-induced summer mortality event was associated with resilience to summer mortality. Tentacle transcriptomes of 35 greenlip abalone (Haliotis laevigata) were sequenced prior to the animals being exposed to an increase in water temperature-simulating conditions which have previously resulted in summer mortality. Abalone derived from three source locations with different environmental conditions were categorized as susceptible or resistant to summer mortality depending on whether they died or survived after the water temperature was increased. We detected two genes showing significantly higher expression in resilient abalone relative to susceptible abalone prior to the laboratory-induced summer mortality event. One of these genes was annotated through the NCBI non-redundant protein database using BLASTX to an anemone (Exaiptasia pallida) Transposon Ty3-G Gag Pol polyprotein. Distinct gene expression signatures were also found between resilient and susceptible abalone depending on the population origin, which may suggest divergence in local adaptation mechanisms for resilience. Many of these genes have been suggested to be involved in antioxidant and immune-related functions. The identification of these genes and their functional roles have enhanced our understanding of processes that may contribute to summer mortality in abalone. Our study supports the hypothesis that prestress gene expression signatures are indicative of the likelihood of summer mortality.

  11. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis to assess crossover interference and homozygosity in gynogenetic diploid Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, H-T; Li, Q; Kong, L-F

    2014-06-01

    Recombination analysis in gynogenetic diploids is a powerful tool for assessing the degree of inbreeding, investigating crossover events and understanding chiasma interference during meiosis. To estimate the marker-centromere recombination rate, the inheritance pattern of 654 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers was examined in the 72-h veliger larvae of two meiogynogenetic diploid families in the Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai). The second-division segregation frequency (y) of the AFLP loci ranged from 0.00 to 0.96, with 23.9% of loci showing y-values higher than 0.67, evidencing the existence of interference. The average recombination frequency across the 654 AFLP loci was 0.45, allowing estimation of the fixation index of 0.55, indicating that meiotic gynogenesis could provide an effective means of rapid inbreeding in the Pacific abalone. The AFLP loci have a small proportion (4.4%) of y-values greater than 0.90, suggesting that a relatively low or intermediate degree of chiasma interference occurred in the abalone chromosomes. The information obtained in this study will enhance our understanding of the abalone genome and will be useful for genetic studies in the species. © 2014 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  12. Comparison of polysaccharides of Haliotis discus hannai and Volutharpa ampullacea perryi by PMP-HPLC-MS(n) analysis upon acid hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongxu; Zhao, Jun; Li, Dongmei; Wen, Chengrong; Liu, Haiman; Song, Shuang; Zhu, Beiwei

    2015-10-13

    Haliotis discus hannai Ino (Haliotis) is a highly valued marine shellfish, and it is sometimes replaced by another cheaper Gastropoda mollusk, Volutharpa ampullacea perryi (Volutharpa). Polysaccharides from pleopods, viscera and gonads of these two gastropods were compared by analyzing the mono- and di-saccharides in their acid hydrolysates using high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS(n)) after 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) derivatization. Disaccharide analysis revealed the distribution of uronic acid-containing polysaccharides (UACPs) in the biological samples. GlcA-(1 → 2)-Man, GlcA-(1 → 3)-GalN, and another disaccharide consisting of a hexuronic acid linked to a hexose were found in the hydrolysates, which indicated the existence of AGSP (abalone gonad sulfated polysaccharide) with the backbone composed of → 2)-α-Man(1 → 4)-β-GlcA(1 → repeating unit, AAP (abalone glycosaminoglycan-like polysaccharide) with the backbone of → 3)-GalNAc-(1 → 2)-GlcA-(1 → 3)-GalNAc-(1 → 4)-GlcA-(1 → repeating unit, and unidentified DS1P containing a hexuronic acid linked to a hexose unit, respectively. As shown by extracted ion chromatograms (XICs), AAP was the only UACP found in pleopods of the two gastropods; gonads and viscera of Haliotis contained DS1P and AGSP, while those of Volutharpa contained DS1P, AGSP as well as AAP. Monosaccharides in the acid hydrolysates were demonstrated in XICs by extracting their corresponding PMP derivative quasi-molecular ions one by one, and the results indicated the similar conclusion to the disaccharide analysis. Therefore, it could be concluded that polysaccharides from pleopods of the two gastropods are very similar, while those from their viscera and gonads differ greatly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Occurrence of the Leech, Pontobdella muricata Linnaeus, on Elasmobranch Species in the Northern and Central Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognini, Luca; Leoni, Simone; Polidori, Piero; Grati, Fabio; Scarcella, Giuseppe; Pellini, Giulio; Domenichetti, Filippo; Ferrà, Carmen; Fabi, Gianna

    2016-12-01

    This study provides a parasitological analysis of the elasmobranch species caught in the northern and central Adriatic Sea. Sixty-two marine leeches were recorded on 747 individuals of Raja clavata Linnaeus, 1758 (thornback ray), Myliobatis aquila Linnaeus, 1758 (common eagle ray), and Torpedo marmorata Risso, 1810 (marbled torpedo ray) caught in 56 hauls over a 5 yr period. All leeches were identified as Pontobdella muricata, which is a typical ectoparasite of benthic elasmobranchs. The prevalence of infection ranged from 7.11% on R. clavata to 12.00% on M. aquila. The intensity of infection, the preferential sites of attachment to the host, and the periodicity of infection were evaluated.

  14. Biologia reprodutiva da cobra-coral Erythrolamprus aesculapii Linnaeus (Colubridae, no Sudeste do Brasil Reproductive biology of the coral snake Erythrolamprus aesculapii Linnaeus (Colubridae in the Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio A.V. Marques

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Dissection of 286 specimens of the "false" coral snake Erythrolamprus aesculapii Linnaeus, 1766, combined with data on captive individuais, provided information on the reproductive biology of this colubrid snake. Adult females (x snout-vent length = 74.5cm attain larger body size than males (x SVL = 62.6. Clutch size ranged from one to eight eggs and was correlated with maternal body size. Neonates measured 20.2-22.5cm SVL and weighed 5.1-5.8g. Males attain sexual maturity earlier than females. Reproduction seems to be aseasonal, with vitellogenesis occurring throughout the year. Apparently the growth rate of folheies decreases in the dry season, possibly due to lower tempeiatures during this period. Multiple clutches were recorded in captive snakes. Foraging strategies and availability of prey may explain continuous reproduction in E. aesculapii. However, data for other related snakes suggest that continuous reproduction is conservative in the Xenodontini.

  15. Miologia do membro pélvico da paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766)

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo M. Leal; Rafaela M. de Sá; Fabricio S. de Oliveira; Tais H.C. Sasahara; Bruno W. Minto; Marcia R.F. Machado

    2015-01-01

    Resumo: Objetivam-se descrever os músculos do membro pélvico da paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766), mediante dissecção anatômica dessa região. Foram utilizadas dez Cuniculus paca adultas, machos e fêmeas, pesando entre cinco e 10 kg do plantel de pacas do setor de Animais Silvestres da FCAV, Unesp, Jaboticabal/SP. Os animais foram fixados em formaldeído 10% e conservados em solução salina a 30% para dissecação anatômica da musculatura da pelve, coxa e perna, identificando-se a origem e inse...

  16. Loggerhead turtle, Caretta caretta (Linnaeus, 1758 (Testudines, Cheloniidae, as a new host of Monticellius indicum Mehra, 1939 (Digenea: Spirorchiidae and associated lesiond to spirorchiid eggs

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    Werneck M. R.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present note describes the occurrence of Monticellius indicum Mehra, 1939 (Digenea: Spirorchiidae in an adult loggerhead turtle, Caretta caretta (Linnaeus, 1758, found on the coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Pathological changes due to spirorchiid eggs (type 1 and 3 were found in gastrointestinal system, endocrine system, and heart. This parasite has previously been described in the green turtle, Chelonia mydas (Linnaeus, 1758, from Pakistan, Brazil and Costa Rica as well as in the hawksbill sea turtle, Eretmochelys imbricata (Linnaeus, 1766, in Brazil. This note reports the loggerhead turtle as a new host for M. indicum.

  17. De novo characterisation of the greenlip abalone transcriptome (Haliotis laevigata) with a focus on the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiel, Brett P; Hall, Nathan E; Cooke, Ira R; Robinson, Nicholas A; Strugnell, Jan M

    2015-02-01

    Abalone (Haliotis) are economically important molluscs for fisheries and aquaculture industries worldwide. Despite this, genomic resources for abalone and molluscs are still limited. Here we present a description and functional annotation of the greenlip abalone (Haliotis laevigata) transcriptome. We present a focused analysis on the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) family of genes with putative functions affecting temperature stress and immunity. A total of ~38 million paired end Illumina reads were obtained, resulting in a Trinity assembly of 222,172 contigs with minimum length of 200 base pairs and maximum length of 33 kilobases. The 20,702 contigs were annotated with gene descriptions by BLAST. We created a program to maximise the number of functionally annotated genes, and over 10,000 contigs were assigned Gene ontologies (GO terms). By using CateGOrizer, immunity related GO terms for stressors such as heat, hypoxia, oxidative stress and wounding received the highest counts. Twenty-six contigs with homology to the HSP70 family of genes were identified. Ninety-one putative single-nucleotide polymorphisms were observed in the abalone HSP70 contigs. Eleven of these were considered non-synonymous. The annotated transcriptome described in this study will be a useful basis for future work investigating the genetic response of abalone to stress.

  18. Effects of temperature and salinity on survival, growth and DNA methylation of juvenile Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ning; Liu, Xiao; Li, Junyuan; Mu, Wendan; Lian, Jianwu; Xue, Yanjie; Li, Qi

    2017-09-01

    Temperature and salinity are two of the most potent abiotic factors influencing marine mollusks. In this study, we investigated the individual and combined effects of temperature and salinity on the survival and growth of juvenile Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino, and also examined the DNA methylation alteration that may underpin the phenotypic variation of abalone exposed to different rearing conditions. The single-factor data showed that the suitable ranges of temperature and salinity were 16-28°C at a constant salinity of 32, and 24-40 at a constant temperature of 20°C, respectively. The two-factor data indicated that both survival and growth were significantly affected by temperature, salinity and their interaction. The optimal temperature-salinity combination for juveniles was 23-25°C and 30-36. To explore environment-induced DNA methylation alteration, the methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique was used to analyze the genomic methylation profiles of abalone reared in optimal and adverse conditions. Neither temperature nor salinity induced evident changes in the global methylation level, but 67 and 63 differentially methylated loci were identified in temperature and salinity treatments, respectively. The between-group eigen analysis also showed that both temperature and salinity could induce epigenetic differentiation in H. discus hannai Ino. The results of our study provide optimal rearing conditions for juvenile H. discus hannai Ino, and represent the first step toward revealing the epigenetic regulatory mechanism of abalone in response to thermal and salt stresses.

  19. Ferritin from the Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai: Analysis of cDNA sequence, expression, and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Reng; Kan, Yunchao; Li, Dandan

    2016-02-01

    Ferritin plays an important role in iron homeostasis due to its ability to bind and sequester large amounts of iron. In this study, the gene encoding a ferritin (HdhFer2) was cloned from Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai). The full-length cDNA of HdhFer2 contains a 5'-UTR of 121 bp, an ORF of 516 bp, and a 3'-UTR of 252 bp with a polyadenylation signal sequence of AATAAA and a poly(A) tail. It also contains a 31 bp iron-responsive element (IRE) in the 5'-UTR position, which is conserved in many ferritins. HdhFer2 consists of 171 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight (MW) ∼19.8 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point (PI) of 4.84. The deduced amino acid sequence of HdhFer2 contains two ferritin iron-binding region signatures (IBRSs). HdhFer2 mRNA was detected in a wide range of tissues and was dominantly expressed in the gill. Infection with the bacterial pathogen Vibrio anguillarum significantly upregulated HdhFer2 expression in a time-dependent manner. Recombinant HdhFer2 (rHdhFer2) purified from Escherichia coli was able to bind ferrous iron in a concentration-dependent manner. In summary, these results suggest that HdhFer2 is a crucial protein in the iron-withholding defense system, and plays an important role in the innate immune response of abalone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The immune response of Taiwan abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta and its susceptibility to Vibrio parahaemolyticus at different salinity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Winton; Juang, Feng-Ming; Chen, Jiann-Chu

    2004-03-01

    Addition of NaCl at 2.5% to 3.5% to tryptic soy broth (TSB) significantly increased the growth of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Taiwan abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta held in 30 per thousand seawater were injected with V. parahaemolyticus grown in TSB containing NaCl at 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 and 4.5% at a dose of 1.6 x 10(5)colony-forming units (cfu) abalone(-1). After 48 h, the cumulative mortality was significantly higher for the abalone challenged with V. parahaemolyticus grown in 2.5% than those grown in 0.5 and 1.5% NaCl. In other experiments, abalones held in 30 per thousand seawater were injected with TSB-grown V. parahaemolyticus (1.6 x 10(5)cfu abalone(-1)), and then transferred to 20, 25, 30 and 35 per thousand seawater. All abalones held in 20 per thousand were killed in 48 h. The mortality of V. parahaemolyticus-injected abalone held in 30 per thousand was significantly lower over 24-120 h. Abalone held in 30 per thousand seawater and then transferred to 20, 25, 30 and 35 per thousand were examined for THC (total haemocyte count), phenoloxidase activity, respiratory burst, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency of V. parahemolyticus after 24 and 72 h. The THC increased directly related with salinity levels. Phenoloxidase activity, respiratory burst, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency of V. parahaemolyticus decreased significantly for the abalone in 20, 25 and 35 per thousand. It is concluded that the abalone transferred from 30 per thousand to 20, 25 and 35 per thousand had reduced immune ability and decreased resistance against V. parahaemolyticus infection.

  1. Influences of DMP on the fertilization process and subsequent embryogenesis of abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta by gametes exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zhou

    Full Text Available Di-methyl phthalate (DMP, a typical endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC, is ubiquitously distributed in aquatic environments; yet studies regarding its impact on gametes and the resulting effects on embryogenesis in marine gastropods are relatively scarce. In this study, the influences of DMP on the gametes and subsequent developmental process of abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta, a representative marine benthic gastropod were assessed. Newborn abalone eggs and sperm were exposed separately to different DMP concentrations (1, 10 or 100 ppb for 60 min. At the end-point of exposure, the DMP-treated eggs and sperm were collected for analysis of their ultra-structures, ATPase activities and total lipid levels, and the fertilized gametes (embryos were collected to monitor related reproductive parameters (fertilization rate, abnormal development rate and hatching success rate. Treatment with DMP did not significantly alter the structure or total lipid content of eggs at any of the doses tested. Hatching failures and morphological abnormalities were only observed with the highest dose of DMP (100 ppb. However, DMP exposure did suppress sperm ATPase activities and affect the morphological character of their mitochondria. DMP-treated sperm exhibited dose-dependent decreases in fertilization efficiency, morphogenesis and hatchability. Relatively obvious toxicological effects were observed when both sperm and eggs were exposed to DMP. Furthermore, RT-PCR results indicate that treatment of gametes with DMP changed the expression patterns of physiologically-regulated genes (cyp3a, 17β-HSD-11 and 17β-HSD-12 in subsequent embryogenesis. Taken together, this study proofed that pre-fertilization exposure of abalone eggs, sperm or both to DMP adversely affects the fertilization process and subsequent embryogenesis.

  2. Vibrio harveyi adheres to and penetrates tissues of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata within the first hours of contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinaud, Marion; Barbou, Annaïck; Capitaine, Carole; Bidault, Adeline; Dujon, Antoine Marie; Moraga, Dario; Paillard, Christine

    2014-10-01

    Vibrio harveyi is a marine bacterial pathogen responsible for episodic epidemics generally associated with massive mortalities in many marine organisms, including the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata. The aim of this study was to identify the portal of entry and the dynamics of infection of V. harveyi in the European abalone. The results indicate that the duration of contact between V. harveyi and the European abalone influences the mortality rate and precocity. Immediately after contact, the epithelial and mucosal area situated between the gills and the hypobranchial gland was colonized by V. harveyi. Real-time PCR analyses and culture quantification of a green fluorescent protein-tagged strain of V. harveyi in abalone tissues revealed a high density of bacteria adhering to and then penetrating the whole gill-hypobranchial gland tissue after 1 h of contact. V. harveyi was also detected in the hemolymph of a significant number of European abalones after 3 h of contact. In conclusion, this article shows that a TaqMan real-time PCR assay is a powerful and useful technique for the detection of a marine pathogen such as V. harveyi in mollusk tissue and for the study of its infection dynamics. Thus, we have revealed that the adhesion and then the penetration of V. harveyi in European abalone organs begin in the first hours of contact. We also hypothesize that the portal of entry of V. harveyi in the European abalone is the area situated between the gills and the hypobranchial gland. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Effect of antiaggregants on the in vitro viability, cell count and stability of abalone (Haliotis iris) haemocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandiosa, Roffi; Bouwman, Mai-Louise; Young, Tim; Mérien, Fabrice; Alfaro, Andrea C

    2018-07-01

    The ability to successfully prepare and preserve haemocyte cells for microscopy and flow cytometry is critical for the investigation of animal immune systems. In this study, we observed the total cell count, in vitro viability and stability of New Zealand black-footed abalone (Haliotis iris) haemocytes with different antiaggregants and handling protocols. Haemocyte stability was evaluated by direct observation of haemocytes under the microscope and calculating the aggregation index. Haemocyte counts and viability were measured via flow cytometry and tested for the effect of different antiaggregants (Alsever's solution at three concentrations, and specialised blood collection tubes containing lithium heparin and K 2 EDTA) at different temperatures and storage times. Results showed that Alsever's solution is an effective antiaggregant at haemolymph:antiaggregant dilution ratios of 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3. Lithium heparin was ineffective as an antiaggregant, whereas K 2 EDTA was similarly as effective as Alsever's solution. The influence of different mixing techniques (vortex, pipetting and flipping) were subsequently tested using the K 2 EDTA Microtainer ® tubes, revealing that proper mixing should be performed immediately. High cell viability can be achieved by mixing samples by either 10 s of vortexing (1000 rpm), 10 times pipetting or 20 times flipping. The in vitro storage of abalone haemocytes in AS and K 2 EDTA as antiaggregants at ambient room temperature was highly effective for up to 24 h (75-85% viability; 0.05-0.15 aggregation index) and is recommended for haemocyte studies in H. iris. Utilization of K 2 EDTA Microtainer ® tubes were advantageous since they are more cost effective compared to Alsever's solution, and samples can be prepared more efficiently. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Cytogenetic analysis and chromosomal characteristics of the polymorphic 18S rDNA of Haliotis discus hannai from Fujian, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haishan Wang

    Full Text Available We report on novel chromosomal characteristics of Haliotis discus hannai from a breeding population at Fujian, China. The karyotypes of H. discus hannai we obtained from an abalone farm include a common type 2n = 36 = 10M + 8SM (82% and two rare types 2n = 36 = 11M + 7SM (14% and 2n = 36 = 10M + 7SM + 1ST (4%. The results of silver staining showed that the NORs of H. discus hannai were usually located terminally on the long arms of chromosome pairs 14 and 17, NORs were also sometimes located terminally on the short arms of other chromosomes, either metacentric or submetacentric pairs. The number of Ag-nucleoli ranged from 2 to 8, and the mean number was 3.61 ± 0.93. Among the scored interphase cells, 41% had 3 detectable nucleoli and 37% had 4 nucleoli. The 18S rDNA FISH result is the first report of the location of 18S rDNA genes in H. discus hannai. The 18S rDNA locations were highly polymorphic in this species. Copies of the gene were observed in the terminal of long or/and short arms of submetacentric or/and metacentric chromosomes. Using FISH with probe for vertebrate-like telomeric sequences (CCCTAA3 displayed positive green FITC signals at telomere regions of all analyzed chromosome types. We found about 7% of chromosomes had breaks in prophase. A special form of nucleolus not previously described from H. discus hannai was observed in some interphase cells. It consists of many small silver-stained nucleoli gathered together to form a larger nucleolus and may correspond to prenucleolar bodies.

  5. Identification of differentially expressed reproductive and metabolic proteins in the female abalone (Haliotis laevigata) gonad following artificial induction of spawning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Porras, Omar; Botwright, Natasha A; Reverter, Antonio; Cook, Mathew T; Harris, James O; Wijffels, Gene; Colgrave, Michelle L

    2017-12-01

    Inefficient control of temperate abalone spawning prevents pair-wise breeding and production of abalone with highly marketable traits. Traditionally, abalone farmers have used a combination of UV irradiation and application of temperature gradients to the tank water to artificially induce spawning. Proteins are known to regulate crucial processes such as respiration, muscle contraction, feeding, growth and reproduction. Spawning as a pre-requisite of abalone reproduction is likely to be regulated, in part, by endogenous proteins. A first step in elucidating the mechanisms that regulate spawning is to identify which proteins are directly involved during spawning. The present study examined protein expression following traditional spawning induction in the Haliotis laevigata female. Gonads were collected from abalone in the following physiological states: (1) spawning; (2) post-spawning; and (3) failed-to-spawn. Differential protein abundance was initially assessed using two-dimensional difference in-gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry for protein identification. A number of reproductive proteins such as vitellogenin, vitelline envelope zona pellucida domain 29 and prohibitin, and metabolic proteins such as thioredoxin peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and heat shock proteins were identified. Differences in protein abundance levels between physiological states were further assessed using scheduled multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry. Positive associations were observed between the abundance of specific proteins, such as heat shock cognate 70 and peroxiredoxin 6, and the propensity or failure to spawn in abalone. These findings have contributed to better understand both the effects of oxidative and heat stress over abalone physiology and their influence on abalone spawning. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Responses of primary cultured haemocytes from the marine gastropod Haliotis tuberculata under 10-day exposure to cadmium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latire, Thomas; Le Pabic, Charles; Mottin, Elmina; Mottier, Antoine; Costil, Katherine; Koueta, Noussithe; Lebel, Jean-Marc [UMR 100 IFREMER ' Physiologie et Ecophysiologie des Mollusques Marins' - IFR 146 ICORE - IBFA - Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Campus 1, Science C, Esplanade de la Paix, 14032 Caen cedex (France); Serpentini, Antoine, E-mail: antoine.serpentini@unicaen.fr [UMR 100 IFREMER ' Physiologie et Ecophysiologie des Mollusques Marins' - IFR 146 ICORE - IBFA - Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Campus 1, Science C, Esplanade de la Paix, 14032 Caen cedex (France)

    2012-03-15

    Among metals, cadmium, a non-essential element, is an important pollutant that is released into aquatic environments. Due to its persistence and bioaccumulation, this metal has been shown to exert immunological effects on organisms. The objective of the present study was to investigate the in vitro effects of cadmium chloride using a haemocyte primary culture from the European abalone, Haliotis tuberculata. Most studies have maintained viable haemocytes in vitro for periods ranging from several hours to several days during acute exposures. Few investigations have reported the effects of metals using longer in vitro exposures, which are more realistic with regard to mimicking environmental conditions. In this study, we exposed abalone haemocytes to concentrations from 0.5 to 50,000 {mu}g L{sup -1} of CdCl{sub 2} for 10 days. The effects of cadmium chloride were reflected in a significant decrease in the number of viable cells and morphological modifications in a concentration-dependent manner beginning at a concentration of 500 {mu}g L{sup -1} as well as in some physiological processes, such as phagocytotic activity and the number of lysosome-positive cells. In contrast, phenoloxidase (PO) activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were increased beginning at a concentration of 5 {mu}g L{sup -1}, which is consistent with environmental concentrations in polluted sites. For PO activity and ROS production, maximally 9-fold and 130% inductions, respectively, were recorded under the highest dose. These results thus indicate that cadmium chloride alters immune parameters of abalone haemocytes and that the long-term (10 days) primary culture system used here represents a suitable, sensitive in vitro model for assessing cytotoxic responses.

  7. Responses of primary cultured haemocytes from the marine gastropod Haliotis tuberculata under 10-day exposure to cadmium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latire, Thomas; Le Pabic, Charles; Mottin, Elmina; Mottier, Antoine; Costil, Katherine; Koueta, Noussithé; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Serpentini, Antoine

    2012-01-01

    Among metals, cadmium, a non-essential element, is an important pollutant that is released into aquatic environments. Due to its persistence and bioaccumulation, this metal has been shown to exert immunological effects on organisms. The objective of the present study was to investigate the in vitro effects of cadmium chloride using a haemocyte primary culture from the European abalone, Haliotis tuberculata. Most studies have maintained viable haemocytes in vitro for periods ranging from several hours to several days during acute exposures. Few investigations have reported the effects of metals using longer in vitro exposures, which are more realistic with regard to mimicking environmental conditions. In this study, we exposed abalone haemocytes to concentrations from 0.5 to 50,000 μg L −1 of CdCl 2 for 10 days. The effects of cadmium chloride were reflected in a significant decrease in the number of viable cells and morphological modifications in a concentration-dependent manner beginning at a concentration of 500 μg L −1 as well as in some physiological processes, such as phagocytotic activity and the number of lysosome-positive cells. In contrast, phenoloxidase (PO) activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were increased beginning at a concentration of 5 μg L −1 , which is consistent with environmental concentrations in polluted sites. For PO activity and ROS production, maximally 9-fold and 130% inductions, respectively, were recorded under the highest dose. These results thus indicate that cadmium chloride alters immune parameters of abalone haemocytes and that the long-term (10 days) primary culture system used here represents a suitable, sensitive in vitro model for assessing cytotoxic responses.

  8. Uptake, distribution and depuration of paralytic shellfish toxins from Alexandrium minutum in Australian greenlip abalone, Haliotis laevigata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowsett, Natalie; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf; van Ruth, Paul; van Ginkel, Roel; McNabb, Paul; Hay, Brenda; O'Connor, Wayne; Kiermeier, Andreas; Deveney, Marty; McLeod, Catherine

    2011-07-01

    Farmed greenlip abalone Haliotis laevigata were fed commercial seaweed-based food pellets or feed pellets supplemented with 8 × 10⁵ Alexandrium minutum dinoflagellate cells g⁻¹ (containing 12 ± 3.0 μg STX-equivalent 100 g⁻¹, which was mainly GTX-1,4) every second day for 50 days. Exposure of abalone to PST supplemented feed for 50 days did not affect behaviour or survival but saw accumulation of up to 1.6 μg STX-equivalent 100 g⁻¹ in the abalone foot tissue (muscle, mouth without oesophagus and epipodial fringe), which is ∼50 times lower than the maximum permissible limit (80 μg 100 g⁻¹ tissue) for PSTs in molluscan shellfish. The PST levels in the foot were reduced to 0.48 μg STX-equivalent 100 g⁻¹ after scrubbing and removal of the pigment surrounding the epithelium of the epipodial fringe (confirmed by both HPLC and LC-MS/MS). Thus, scrubbing the epipodial fringe, a common procedure during commercial abalone canning, reduced PST levels by ∼70%. Only trace levels of PSTs were detected in the viscera (stomach, gut, heart, gonad, gills and mantle) of the abalone. A toxin reduction of approximately 73% was observed in STX-contaminated abalone held in clean water and fed uncontaminated food over 50 days. The low level of PST uptake when abalone were exposed to high numbers of A. minutum cells over a prolonged period may indicate a low risk of PSP poisoning to humans from the consumption of H. laevigata that has been exposed to a bloom of potentially toxic A. minutum in Australia. Further research is required to establish if non-dietary accumulation can result in significant levels of PSTs in abalone. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of a heat shock protein 90 gene from disk abalone (Haliotis discus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jae-Seong; Lee, Jehee

    2011-06-01

    Heat shock protein 90s (hsp90s) are chaperones that contribute to the proper folding of cellular proteins and help animals cope with the cellular protein damages in stress conditions. In this study, an hsp90 gene was isolated from disc abalone (Haliotis discus). The complete nucleotide sequence of the hsp90 gene contains an open reading frame of 2,184 base pairs, encoding an 84 kDa protein. Disk abalone hsp90 shares high sequence similarity with other hsp90 family proteins. Although the phylogenetic analysis did not classify it into the hsp90α group, the inductivity of this gene was confirmed by heat shock and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge test. Disk abalone hsp90 gene displayed a rapid and reversible induction response to both an exposure of typical heat shock and the LPS challenge. Once given the sublethal heat shock treatment, the transcription of disk abalone hsp90 gene was significantly up-regulated. With a recovery of 12 h, the transcription of disk abalone hsp90 gene gradually attenuated to the control level. These observations reflected the feedback regulation of abalone heat shock responses faithfully. In response to LPS challenge, the transcription of disk abalone hsp90 gene was significantly increased within 2 h and it approached maximum induction at 4 h later and recovered finally the reference level in 24 h. Take all together, the cloning and expression analysis of disk abalone hsp90 gene provided useful molecular information of abalone responses in stress conditions and potential ways to monitor the chronic stressors in abalone culture environments and diagnose the animal health status.

  10. Cathepsin L is an immune-related protein in Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai)--Purification and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jian-Dong; Cai, Qiu-Feng; Yan, Long-Jie; Du, Cui-Hong; Liu, Guang-Ming; Su, Wen-Jin; Ke, Caihuan; Cao, Min-Jie

    2015-12-01

    Cathepsin L, an immune-related protein, was purified from the hepatopancreas of Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) by ammonium sulfate precipitation and column chromatographies of SP-Sepharose and Sephacryl S-200 HR. Purified cathepsin L appeared as two bands with molecular masses of 28.0 and 28.5 kDa (namely cathepsin La and Lb) on SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions, suggesting that it is a glycoprotein. Peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) analysis revealed that peptide fragments of 95 amino acid residues was high similarity to cathepsin L of pearl oyster (Pinctada fucata). The optimal temperature and pH of cathepsin L were 35 °C and pH 5.5. Cathepsin L was particularly inhibited by cysteine proteinase inhibitors of E-64 and leupeptin, while it was activated by metalloproteinase inhibitors EDTA and EGTA. The full-length cathepsin L cDNA was further cloned from the hepatopancreas by rapid PCR amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The open reading frame of the enzyme was 981 bp, encoding 327 amino acid residues, with a conserved catalytic triad (Cys134, His273 and Asn293), a potential N-glycosylation site and conserved ERFNIN, GNYD, and GCGG motifs, which are characteristics of cathepsin L. Western blot and proteinase activity analysis revealed that the expression and enzyme activity of cathepsin L were significantly up-regulated in hepatopancreas at 8 h following Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection, demonstrating that cathepsin L is involved in the innate immune system of abalone. Our present study for the first time reported the purification, characterization, molecular cloning, and tissue expression of cathepsin L in abalone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Kazal-type proteinase inhibitor from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus): molecular characterization and transcriptional response upon immune stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramaarachchi, W D Niroshana; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Whang, Ilson; Wan, Qiang; Lee, Jehee

    2013-09-01

    Proteinases and proteinase inhibitors are involved in several biological and physiological processes in all multicellular organisms. Proteinase inhibitors play a key role in regulating the activity of the respective proteinases. Among serine proteinase inhibitors, kazal-type proteinase inhibitors (KPIs) are widely found in mammals, avians, and a variety of invertebrates. In this study, we describe the identification of a kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor (Ab-KPI) from the disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus, which is presumably involved in innate immunity. The full-length cDNA of Ab-KPI includes 600 bp nucleotides with an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 143 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of Ab-KPI contains a putative 17-amino acid signal peptide and two tandem kazal domains with high similarity to other kazal-type SPIs. Each kazal domain consists of reactive site (P1) residue containing a leucine (L), and a threonine (T) located in the second amino acid position after the second conserved cysteine of each domain. Temporal expression of Ab-KPI was assessed by real time quantitative PCR in hemocytes and mantle tissue following bacterial and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) challenge, and tissue injury. At 6 h post-bacterial and -VHSV challenge, Ab-KPI expression in hemocytes was increased 14-fold and 4-fold, respectively, compared to control samples. The highest up-regulations upon tissue injury were shown at 9 h and 12 h in hemocytes and mantle, respectively. The transcriptional modulation of Ab-KPI following bacterial and viral challenges and tissue injury indicates that it might be involved in immune defense as well as wound healing process in abalone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Resolution of the type material of the Asian elephant, Elephas maximus Linnaeus, 1758 (Proboscidea, Elephantidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellini, Enrico; Gentry, A.; Palkopoulou, E.

    2014-01-01

    .maximus, a complete foetus preserved in ethanol, is actually an African elephant, genus Loxodonta. We further discovered that an additional E.maximus syntype, mentioned in a description by John Ray (1693) cited by Linnaeus, has been preserved as an almost complete skeleton at the Natural History Museum...

  13. Carl Linnaeus, Erasmus Darwin and Anna Seward: Botanical Poetry and Female Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sam

    2014-03-01

    This article will explore the intersection between `literature' and `science' in one key area, the botanical poem with scientific notes. It reveals significant aspects of the way knowledge was gendered in the Enlightenment, which is relevant to the present-day education of girls in science. It aims to illustrate how members of the Lichfield Botanical Society (headed by Erasmus Darwin) became implicated in debates around the education of women in Linnaean botany. The Society's translations from Linnaeus inspired a new genre of women's educational writing, the botanical poem with scientific notes, which emerged at this time. It focuses in particular on a poem by Anna Seward and argues that significant problems regarding the representation of the Linnaean sexual system of botany are found in such works and that women in the culture of botany struggled to give voice to a subject which was judged improper for female education. The story of this unique poem and the surrounding controversies can teach us much about how gender impacted upon women's scientific writing in eighteenth century Britain, and how it shaped the language and terminology of botany in works for female education. In particular, it demonstrates how the sexuality of plants uncovered by Linnaeus is a paradigmatic illustration of how societal forces can simultaneously both constrict and stimulate women's involvement in science. Despite the vast changes to women's access in scientific knowledge of the present day, this `fair sexing' of botany illustrates the struggle that women have undergone to give voice to their botanical knowledge.

  14. First data of Iberian Nematomorpha, with redescription of Gordius aquaticus Linnaeus, G. plicatulus Heinze, Gordionus wolterstorffii (Camerano) and Paragordius tricuspidatus (Dufour)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villalobos, de Leonor Cristina; Ribera, Ignacio; Bilton, David T.

    2001-01-01

    Four species of Nematomorpha are recorded from NE Spain, representing the first reliable data on the group in the Iberian peninsula. Gordius aquations Linnaeus, 1758, G. plicatulus Heinze, 1937, Gordionus wolterstorffii (Camerano, 1888) and Paragordius tricuspidatus (Dufour, 1828) are redescribed

  15. Genomic characterization and expression profiles upon bacterial infection of a novel cystatin B homologue from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premachandra, H K A; Wan, Qiang; Elvitigala, Don Anushka Sandaruwan; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Choi, Cheol Young; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jehee

    2012-12-01

    Cystatins are a large family of cysteine proteinase inhibitors which are involved in diverse biological and pathological processes. In the present study, we identified a gene related to cystatin superfamily, AbCyt B, from disk abalone Haliotis discus discus by expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis and BAC library screening. The complete cDNA sequence of AbCyt B is comprised of 1967 nucleotides with a 306 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding for 101 amino acids. The amino acid sequence consists of a single cystatin-like domain, which has a cysteine proteinase inhibitor signature, a conserved Gly in N-terminal region, QVVAG motif and a variant of PW motif. No signal peptide, disulfide bonds or carbohydrate side chains were identified. Analysis of deduced amino acid sequence revealed that AbCyt B shares up to 44.7% identity and 65.7% similarity with the cystatin B genes from other organisms. The genomic sequence of AbCyt B is approximately 8.4 Kb, consisting of three exons and two introns. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that AbCyt B was closely related to the cystatin B from pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) under the family 1.Functional analysis of recombinant AbCyt B protein exhibited inhibitory activity against the papain, with almost 84% inhibition at a concentration of 3.5 μmol/L. In tissue expression analysis, AbCyt B transcripts were expressed abundantly in the hemocyte, gill, mantle, and digestive tract, while weakly in muscle, testis, and hepatopancreas. After the immune challenge with Vibrio parahemolyticus, the AbCyt B showed significant (P<0.05) up-regulation of relative mRNA expression in gill and hemocytes at 24 and 6 h of post infection, respectively. These results collectively suggest that AbCyst B is a potent inhibitor of cysteine proteinases and is also potentially involved in immune responses against invading bacterial pathogens in abalone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Antibacterial activity and immune responses of a molluscan macrophage expressed gene-1 from disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathige, S D N K; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Whang, Ilson; Lim, Bong-Soo; Won, Seung Hwan; Lee, Jehee

    2014-08-01

    The membrane-attack complex/perforin (MACPF) domain-containing proteins play an important role in the innate immune response against invading microbial pathogens. In the current study, a member of the MACPF domain-containing proteins, macrophage expressed gene-1 (MPEG1) encoding 730 amino acids with the theoretical molecular mass of 79.6 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 6.49 was characterized from disk abalone Haliotis discus discus (AbMPEG1). We found that the characteristic MACPF domain (Val(131)-Tyr(348)) and transmembrane segment (Ala(669)-Ile(691)) of AbMPEG1 are located in the N- and C-terminal ends of the protein, respectively. Ortholog comparison revealed that AbMPEG1 has the highest sequence identity with its pink abalone counterpart, while sequences identities of greater than 90% were observed with MPEG1 members from other abalone species. Likewise, the furin cleavage site KRRRK was highly conserved in all abalone species, but not in other species investigated. We identified an intron-less genomic sequence within disk abalone AbMPEG1, which was similar to other mammalian, avian, and reptilian counterparts. Transcription factor binding sites, which are important for immune responses, were identified in the 5'-flanking region of AbMPEG1. qPCR revealed AbMPEG1 transcripts are present in every tissues examined, with the highest expression level occurring in mantle tissue. Significant up-regulation of AbMPEG1 transcript levels was observed in hemocytes and gill tissues following challenges with pathogens (Vibrio parahemolyticus, Listeria monocytogenes and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus) as well as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs: lipopolysaccharides and poly I:C immunostimulant). Finally, the antibacterial activity of the MACPF domain was characterized against Gram-negative and -positive bacteria using a recombinant peptide. Taken together, these results indicate that the biological significance of the AbMPEG1 gene includes a role in

  17. Potential Response to Selection of HSP70 as a Component of Innate Immunity in the Abalone Haliotis rufescens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokordt, Katherina B.; González, Roxana C.; Farías, William J.; Winkler, Federico M.

    2015-01-01

    Assessing components of the immune system may reflect disease resistance. In some invertebrates, heat shock proteins (HSPs) are immune effectors and have been described as potent activators of the innate immune response. Several diseases have become a threat to abalone farming worldwide; therefore, increasing disease resistance is considered to be a long-term goal for breeding programs. A trait will respond to selection only if it is determined partially by additive genetic variation. The aim of this study was to estimate the heritability (h 2) and the additive genetic coefficient of variation (CV A) of HSP70 as a component of innate immunity of the abalone Haliotis rufescens, in order to assess its potential response to selection. These genetic components were estimated for the variations in the intracellular (in haemocytes) and extracellular (serum) protein levels of HSP70 in response to an immunostimulant agent in 60 full-sib families of H. rufescens. Levels of HSP70 were measured twice in the same individuals, first when they were young and again when they were pre-harvest adults, to estimate the repeatability (R), the h 2 and the potential response to selection of these traits at these life stages. High HSP70 levels were observed in abalones subjected to immunostimulation in both the intracellular and extracellular haemolymph fractions. This is the first time that changes in serum levels of HSP70 have been reported in response to an immune challenge in molluscs. HSP70 levels in both fractions and at both ages showed low h 2 and R, with values that were not significantly different from zero. However, HSP70 induced levels had a CV A of 13.3–16.2% in young adults and of 2.7–8.1% in pre-harvest adults. Thus, despite its low h 2, HSP70 synthesis in response to an immune challenge in red abalone has the potential to evolve through selection because of its large phenotypic variation and the presence of additive genetic variance, especially in young animals. PMID

  18. Evaluation of reference genes for RT-qPCR study in abalone Haliotis discus hannai during heavy metal overload stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Yoon Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evaluation of suitable reference genes as normalization controls is a prerequisite requirement for launching quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-qPCR-based expression study. In order to select the stable reference genes in abalone Haliotis discus hannai tissues (gill and hepatopancreas under heavy metal exposure conditions (Cu, Zn, and Cd, 12 potential candidate housekeeping genes were subjected to expression stability based on the comprehensive ranking while integrating four different statistical algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and ΔCT method. Results Expression stability in the gill subset was determined as RPL7 > RPL8 > ACTB > RPL3 > PPIB > RPL7A > EF1A > RPL4 > GAPDH > RPL5 > UBE2 > B-TU. On the other hand, the ranking in the subset for hepatopancreas was RPL7 > RPL3 > RPL8 > ACTB > RPL4 > EF1A > RPL5 > RPL7A > B-TU > UBE2 > PPIB > GAPDH. The pairwise variation assessed by the geNorm program indicates that two reference genes could be sufficient for accurate normalization in both gill and hepatopancreas subsets. Overall, both gill and hepatopancreas subsets recommended ribosomal protein genes (particularly RPL7 as stable references, whereas traditional housekeepers such as β-tubulin (B-TU and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH genes were ranked as unstable genes. The validation of reference gene selection was confirmed with the quantitative assay of MT transcripts. Conclusions The present analysis showed the importance of validating reference genes with multiple algorithmic approaches to select genes that are truly stable. Our results indicate that expression stability of a given reference gene could not always have consensus across tissue types. The data from this study could be a good guide for the future design of RT-qPCR studies with respect to metal regulation/detoxification and other related

  19. Potential Response to Selection of HSP70 as a Component of Innate Immunity in the Abalone Haliotis rufescens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherina B Brokordt

    Full Text Available Assessing components of the immune system may reflect disease resistance. In some invertebrates, heat shock proteins (HSPs are immune effectors and have been described as potent activators of the innate immune response. Several diseases have become a threat to abalone farming worldwide; therefore, increasing disease resistance is considered to be a long-term goal for breeding programs. A trait will respond to selection only if it is determined partially by additive genetic variation. The aim of this study was to estimate the heritability (h2 and the additive genetic coefficient of variation (CVA of HSP70 as a component of innate immunity of the abalone Haliotis rufescens, in order to assess its potential response to selection. These genetic components were estimated for the variations in the intracellular (in haemocytes and extracellular (serum protein levels of HSP70 in response to an immunostimulant agent in 60 full-sib families of H. rufescens. Levels of HSP70 were measured twice in the same individuals, first when they were young and again when they were pre-harvest adults, to estimate the repeatability (R, the h2 and the potential response to selection of these traits at these life stages. High HSP70 levels were observed in abalones subjected to immunostimulation in both the intracellular and extracellular haemolymph fractions. This is the first time that changes in serum levels of HSP70 have been reported in response to an immune challenge in molluscs. HSP70 levels in both fractions and at both ages showed low h2 and R, with values that were not significantly different from zero. However, HSP70 induced levels had a CVA of 13.3-16.2% in young adults and of 2.7-8.1% in pre-harvest adults. Thus, despite its low h2, HSP70 synthesis in response to an immune challenge in red abalone has the potential to evolve through selection because of its large phenotypic variation and the presence of additive genetic variance, especially in young animals.

  20. Pengelolaan Lingkungan dalam Rangka Mengantisipasi Perkembangan Hama Belalang Nomadacris succincta Linnaeus (Orthoptera: Acrididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Suharni Siwi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Swarming grasshopper Nomadacris succincta (Linnaeus, sinonim: Patanga succincta (L. was one of the dominant species attacked corn and soybean plantations at Jeneponto District, South Sulawesi in early 2005. The species has been identified for a long time occurred in that environment, although has never been reported before as pest of farmer's crops. For a basis of the capability in controlling the swarm grasshopper in the field, changed of increasing population hould be monitored regularly to prevent future outbreak. Information on taxonomic and ecology research of N. succincta are needed for environmental management efforts, such as change in morphology, physiology and behavior, change in host's preferences of gregarious adult, and environmental conditions i.e. climate, cultural techniques, and the death of natural enemies in the field.

  1. Analysis of the blackening of green pepper (Piper nigrum Linnaeus) berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Fenglin; Tan, Lehe; Wu, Huasong; Fang, Yiming; Wang, Qinghuang

    2013-06-01

    This paper investigates polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, reduced weight percentage after sun drying, and the changes in colour and appearance of green pepper (Piper nigrum Linnaeus) berries after blanching and sun drying. The results show that the degree of reduced weight percentage and browning in green pepper berries after blanching for 10 min is greater at 100°C than at 90 and 80°C. Moreover, the samples blanched at 100°C for 10 min had the fastest water loss, but the lowest PPO activity. Thus, the PPO enzymatic oxidation of polyphenols might not be the only reason for the browning of green pepper berries. This result is significantly different from that of Variyar, Pendharkar, Banerjeea, and Bandyopadhyay (1988) and therefore deserves further study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON CERTAIN BIOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES OF A LADYBEETLE COCCINELLA SEPTEMPUNCTA TA LINNAEUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShefaliSrivastava; Dmkar

    2003-01-01

    Influence of temperature on certain biological attributes of an aphidophagous ladybeetle, Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus, feeding on mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach), at five different temperatures, viz. 20, 25, 27, 30 and 35℃ was investigated. Its developmental period was shortest (11.7±0.09days) at 35℃ and longest (20.6±0.35 days) at 20℃. Developmental rate increased with increase in temperature. Hatching percent, larval survival, adult emergence and growth index were maximum at 30℃ and minimumat 20℃. Oviposition period and fecundity were highest at 30℃ and lowest at 20℃. A positive linear relationship exists between temperature and developmental rate and negative correlation between the duration of immature life stages and temperature. The proportion of developmental period allocated to each immature stage was found to be similar at each temperature regime. Thus, 30℃ was found as the most suitable for C. septempunctata amongst the five temperatures tested.

  3. Solid state characterization of α-chitin from Vanessa cardui Linnaeus wings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffman, Jessica D.; Schauer, Caroline L.

    2009-01-01

    Material properties of the painted lady butterfly, Vanessa cardui Linnaeus were investigated using typical material science techniques. The examined butterflies were raised and hatched from the larvae stage and their chemical and crystalline structure evaluated and compared to that of crab shell (α-chitin) and squid pens from Notodarus sloanii and Loligo pealei (β-chitin). Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed that the painted lady butterflies are composed of α-chitin. Additionally, macro- and microstructure characterization of the chitins was conducted utilizing digital photography and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). This work demonstrates that common characterization techniques combined with simple sample preparation of biological materials can yield successful material characterization, which could aide the fabrication of biomimetic materials.

  4. Solid state characterization of {alpha}-chitin from Vanessa cardui Linnaeus wings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffman, Jessica D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Schauer, Caroline L., E-mail: cschauer@coe.drexel.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2009-05-05

    Material properties of the painted lady butterfly, Vanessa cardui Linnaeus were investigated using typical material science techniques. The examined butterflies were raised and hatched from the larvae stage and their chemical and crystalline structure evaluated and compared to that of crab shell ({alpha}-chitin) and squid pens from Notodarus sloanii and Loligo pealei ({beta}-chitin). Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed that the painted lady butterflies are composed of {alpha}-chitin. Additionally, macro- and microstructure characterization of the chitins was conducted utilizing digital photography and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). This work demonstrates that common characterization techniques combined with simple sample preparation of biological materials can yield successful material characterization, which could aide the fabrication of biomimetic materials.

  5. Parasites of the hard clam Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus from Western Johor Straits, Malaysian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Nur Fauzana; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Cob, Zaidi Che

    2014-09-01

    This study describes the apicomplexa as well as other parasites infecting organs/tissues of the hard clam Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus, from Merambong Shoal, Western Johor Straits, Malaysia. Samples were collected randomly by hand picking, in November and December 2013. Histological techniques were performed, stained using Masson's Trichrome protocol and observed under light microscope. The results showed that gonad and gill were the most infected organs followed by digestive gland, intestine and adductor muscle. No pathology condition was observed in the mantle. Histophatological examination showed that the gregarine, Nematopsis, unidentified coccidian and Perkinsus were found in the gill and gonad, and also in the numerous hemocytes. Other pathological conditions such as bacteria-like inclusion and intracellular bacteria were also observed in the same organs. Further investigations are needed particularly on other molluscs present at the study area. Understanding the morphology and pathology of parasites infecting mollusks are very important for management of the resources.

  6. Infestasi Pinjal dan Infeksi Dipylidium Caninum Linnaeus pada Kucing Liar di Lingkungan Kampus Institut Pertanian Bogor, Kecamatan Dramaga

    OpenAIRE

    Bashofi, Aulia Syifak; Soviana, Susi; Ridwan, Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate flea infestation and Dipylidium caninum (Linnaeus 1758) infection on stray cat on Bogor Agricultural University Dramaga. Thirty stray cats were collected from various places around on Bogor Agricultural University Dramaga. The stray cats that showed clinical signs of pruritus and alopecia were collected purposively. The whole body was powdered by gamexan powder, after that the fleas were collected by manual and examined microscopically. The totals of 30...

  7. Perbedaan respon Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae), terhadap paparan anti nyamuk bakar dan bunga keluwih (Artocarpus camansi, Blanco)

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Endah Wahyuningsih; Ramauli Agustina Sihit

    2015-01-01

    The control of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) it is important to control the vector, i.e. Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Ae. albopictus (Skuse). Usually, controls of these vectors are done using chemical insecticides. Research on mosquito resistance has been done, but the impact of mosquitoes that survive after synthetic (chemical) insecticides application has not been studied. The aim of this research was to analyze the differences of fecundity, fertility and vitality rate of mosquitoes that w...

  8. Microsatellite loci discovery from next-generation sequencing data and loci characterization in the epizoic barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Ewers-Saucedo, Christine; Zardus, John D.; Wares, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Microsatellite markers remain an important tool for ecological and evolutionary research, but are unavailable for many non-model organisms. One such organism with rare ecological and evolutionary features is the epizoic barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758). Chelonibia testudinaria appears to be a host generalist, and has an unusual sexual system, androdioecy. Genetic studies on host specificity and mating behavior are impeded by the lack of fine-scale, highly variable markers, su...

  9. Reprodução de Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus no litoral de Santa Catarina, Brasil Reproduction of the Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus in the Santa Catarina's coast, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim O. Branco

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O savacu Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus, 1758 é uma espécie de hábitos crepusculares e noturnos, com ampla distribuição geográfica. Sua biologia reprodutiva tem sido intensivamente estudada nos países de ocorrência, entretanto, no Brasil, é comumente citada nos levantamentos de ornitólogos, mas não existem informações disponíveis sobre seu ciclo de vida. Esse trabalho objetiva contribuir para o conhecimento da biologia reprodutiva dessa espécie no litoral catarinense. As amostragens foram realizadas nos anos de 2000 a 2002 na Ilha dos Pássaros e de 2002 na Ilha dos Lobos, Santa Catarina. As maiores abundâncias de exemplares e ninhos com ovos ocorreram em outubro, sendo que o comprimento médio dos ovos variou entre 5,02 ± 0,23 a 5,07 ± 0,21 cm e o volume 31,71 ± 2,64 a 35,92 ± 3,47 cm³ e as maiores freqüências de filhotes em novembro, culminando o abandono da colônia em meados de janeiro. Foram identificados sete itens nos regurgitos dos filhotes, sendo que os peixes marinhos representaram 44,4% da massa total. O principal predador na colônia foi o urubu-comum, que atuou sobre os ovos no início da temporada e os filhotes no final.The black-crowned night heron N. nycticorax (Linnaeus, 1758 is a aquatic bird with twilight and night habits, with wide geographical distribution. His reproductive biology has been studied intensively at the occurrence countries, however, in Brazil, it is mentioned commonly in the ornithologists' risings, but available information don't exist on his life cycle. This work aims to contribute for the knowledge of the reproductive biology of that species in the Santa Catarina coast. The samplings were accomplished in the years from 2000 to 2002 in the Ilha dos Pássaros and of 2002 in the Ilha dos Lobos, Santa Catarina. The largest abundances of individuals and nests with eggs happened in October, and the medium length of the eggs varied between 5.02 ± 0.23 to 5.07 ± 0.21 cm and the volume 31

  10. Ontogenia do fruto em desenvolvimento de Alternanthera tenella Colla e Amaranthus blitum Linnaeus (Amaranthaceae Ontogeny of fruits of Alternanthera tenella Colla and Amaranthus blitum Linnaeus (Amaranthaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa de Carvalho Harthman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Alternanthera tenella Colla e Amaranthus blitum Linnaeus são espécies invasoras que ocorrem em culturas e terrenos baldios na região de Maringá, Paraná. O trabalho teve por objetivo a análise morfoanatômica dos frutos em desenvolvimento e estruturas não pericárpicas dessas duas espécies, com a finalidade de contribuir com informações estruturais para identificação das espécies, classificação dos frutos e investigações ecológicas. Flores e frutos foram coletados no campus da Universidade Estadual de Maringá, fixados em Glutaraldeído, secionados em micrótomo de rotação e corados com a azul de Toluidina. As bractéolas e perigônio são persistentes nos frutos e têm estrutura diferente nas duas espécies. O aquênio de Alternanthera tenella mantém o mesmo número de estratos celulares que o ovário, que sofrem colapso na fase madura, exceto o mesocarpo interno que se mantém com espessamento parietal em U e cristais. O utrículo de Amaranthus blitum é semelhante ao ovário em número de camadas celulares e apresenta aerênquima quando maduro. As sementes maduras são exotestais, com mesotesta e endotesta colapsadas, e embrião curvo. Nesse estudo, foram registrados alguns caracteres estruturais dos perigônios e dos frutos que são potencialmente significativos para caracterização e separação das espécies, ao contrário das sementes que são muito semelhantes.Alternanthera tenella Colla and Amaranthus blitum Linnaeus are weeds that occur in crops and uncultivated areas in the Maringá region of Paraná. In this study, a morphoanatomical analysis of fruit development and the pericarp of A. tenella and A. blitum was made in order to contribute structural information for species identification, fruit classification, and ecological investigations. Flowers and fruits were collected at the campus of the State University of Maringá, Paraná, fixed in glutaraldehyde, sectioned with a rotary microtome and stained with

  11. Predação oportunista de Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 e Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae por marsupiais e anuro na APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá, Brasil Opportunistic predation of Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 and Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae by marsupials and anuran in the APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isai Jorge de Castro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Durante estudos com morcegos em floresta de várzea na APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá, Brasil, observamos três casos de predações oportunistas de morcegos frugívoros capturados em redes de neblina. Duas destas predações ocorreram por marsupiais e uma por anuro. Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae foi predado por Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 e Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758 (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae foi predado por Leptodactylus pentadactylus (Laurenti, 1768 (Anura, Leptodactylidae. A vocalização dos morcegos provavelmente atraiu os marsupiais para a rede, onde estes os predaram aproveitando que estavam presos. Este tipo de interação pode ocorrer naturalmente, no entanto, com maior dificuldade de registro.We observed three occasional predations of bats captured in mist nets by marsupials and a frog during studies in a várzea forest in the Amapá state. Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae was preyed upon by Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 and Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758 (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae was preyed on by Leptodactylus pentadactylus (Laurenti, 1768 (Anura, Leptodactylidae. The bats vocalizations probably attracted the marsupials and a frog to the mist nets where they preyed. This interaction form can occur naturally, however, are more difficult to observed.

  12. LINNAEUS OIL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Crude jatropha oil; Heterogeneous catalyst; Transesterification ... mmage for alternative fuel ... be designed to give higher activity and lifetimes [13]. So, the need for a cheap catalyst for biodiesel synthesis from no ... methanol (High Performance Liquid Chromatography ... ratio and were then charged into the glass reactor.

  13. Topography of the medullar cone in the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758

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    Lucas de Assis Ribeiro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Ribeiro L.A., Souza T.A.M., Ribeiro P.R.Q., Santos L.A., Silva D.C.O., Carneiro e Silva F.O., Barros R.A.C. & Zanon R.G. [Topography of the medullar cone in the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758.] Topografia do cone medular do Tamanduá-bandeira (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(4:353-358, 2015. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Veterinárias e Zootecnia, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Rua João Naves de Ávila, 2121, Uberlândia, MG 38408-100, Brasil. E-mail: lucasassis83@yahoo.com.br The giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla is a representative of the Order Hairy, belonging to the family Myrmecophagidae. General approaches on the behavior, ecology and physical abilities of this animal are available in the literature. However, information regarding different aspects of the anatomy of the nervous system giant anteater are sparsely found. Therefore, the morphological knowledge of the relationship between the spinal cord and vertebral column is of great importance to the scientific, as in the various species of animals, whether domestic or not, the relations of the caudal spinal differ. This difference comes out to meet the interests of wild animal medicine, especially as support for the practice of epidural anesthesia. Thus, the objective was to describe the topography of the conus M. tridactyla, providing anatomical data as a basis for the practice of epidural anesthesia. For this study we used three specimens of giant anteater, prepared by the usual techniques in Macroscopic Anatomy, which had three sacral vertebrae and 4. Sendo que a base do cone medular foi registrada ao nível da terceira vértebra lombar (L3, com comprimento variando entre 3,5cm e 4,5cm e ápice localizando-se ao nível da segunda vértebra sacral (S2. These anatomical findings may point out as a safe place to perform epidural anesthesia

  14. Haliotis diversicolor supertexta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-03

    Aug 3, 2011 ... production in the world including Australia, China, Japan,. Korea, Mexico ... reverse transcribed to synthesize first strand cDNA at 42°C for 1 h. Then first ... cDNA clones, a SMART cDNA library was constructed. Total RNA with ...

  15. The Mediterranean stony coral Cladocora caespitosa (Linnaeus, 1767) as habitat provider for molluscs: colony size effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitacco, Valentina; Crocetta, Fabio; Orlando-Bonaca, Martina; Mavrič, Borut; Lipej, Lovrenc

    2017-11-01

    The stony coral Cladocora caespitosa (Linnaeus, 1767) is an important Mediterranean habitat builder, whose survival is now being threatened by human activities and possibly natural events such as mass mortality and bleaching. We characterized the mollusc assemblage associated with colonies in the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea) and then tested whether the number of mollusc species increases in relation with colony size, following a Species-Area Relationship (SAR) model. At least 62 taxa were found in association with coral colonies, with bivalves constituting the dominant group. More than half of the 3034 specimens encountered were juveniles. Mollusc taxa richness increased with increasing C. caespitosa colony size according to the power-function model, whilst the analyses of trophic and functional groups supports the hypothesis of at least two factors underlying SAR (area per se and habitat diversity). Our results confirmed the importance of C. caespitosa for benthic communities, indicating that larger colonies support higher biodiversity, and suggesting that C. caespitosa is the most important habit builder among Mediterranean cnidarians, having also an influential function as a natural nursery ground. These results underline the necessity of new investigations aimed at filling gaps in our knowledge and planning new measures to protect the species.

  16. The Aggregation of Boron on the Tissues of Gold Fish (Carassius auratus Linnaeus, 1758

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    Tuncer Okan Genç

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was aimed to determine the water-borne and food-borne boron accumulation in the liver and muscle tissues of Gold Fish (Carassius auratus Linnaeus, 1758. For each treatment, 12 individuals were. The water-borne boron treatments were applied as boron acid concentration of 1 mg/L, 10 mg/L and 20 mg/L in the aquarium water, while the food-borne boron treatments were prepared food contained the defined levels of boron (1 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg as boric acid. The boron levels in the tissues were determined by an ICP-MS procedure. The maximum boron concentration was found in the 20mg/L water borne boron treatment in the liver tissue (1.78±0.02 mg/kg. In the water-borne boron treatments, the maximum Transfer Factor (TF was found in the 20mg/L boron concentration, and TF values were increased when the boron concentrations were decreasing. In the 1 mg/kg food-borne boron treatment, TF was found as 0, and increasing concentration of boron in the food caused an increase in TF reached about 0.06. This study suggested that the target organ for boron accumulation is the liver rather than the muscles and the accumulation of food-borne boron is lower when comparing water-borne boron.

  17. Post-embrionic development of the digestive tube of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus (Diptera, Cuterebridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Vieira

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The digestive tube of 2nd and 3rd instar larvae, pupae and newly emerged adults of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus, 1781 was studied anatomically. The specimens were dissected in buffer saline under a stereomicroscope, and the digestive tubes were placed on slides and fixed in 10% buffered formalin. Each tube was measured using a micrometric eye piece, and drawings were made with camera lucida. The results showed that the midgut, the hindgut and the Malpighian tubules with their ducts grow gradually during the larval development. The oesophagus and the salivary glands with their ducts grow only during the moult from the 2nd to the 3rd instar. In the pupal period, salivary glands grow gradually but disappeared after the 20th day. After metamorphosis the digestive tube regressed. This is expected since adult D. hominis lives about nine days without feeding. This fly, similar to other calyptratae muscoid flies shows no vestige of a crop during all post-embrionic development, and the adult has no salivary glands.

  18. Miologia do membro pélvico da paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo M. Leal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Objetivam-se descrever os músculos do membro pélvico da paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766, mediante dissecção anatômica dessa região. Foram utilizadas dez Cuniculus paca adultas, machos e fêmeas, pesando entre cinco e 10 kg do plantel de pacas do setor de Animais Silvestres da FCAV, Unesp, Jaboticabal/SP. Os animais foram fixados em formaldeído 10% e conservados em solução salina a 30% para dissecação anatômica da musculatura da pelve, coxa e perna, identificando-se a origem e inserção de cada músculo. Os resultados foram fotodocumentados e discutidos com base na literatura sobre animais domésticos, ratos e cobaias. Salvo algumas variâncias na origem e inserção de cada músculo e na fusão dos ventres de alguns grupos musculares, de forma geral, a musculatura da paca assemelha-se a dos animais domésticos e a de outros roedores.

  19. Population size structure indices and growth standards for Salmo (trutta trutta Linnaeus, 1758 in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedicillo G.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to provide reference data on the growth and population structure of brown trout Salmo (trutta trutta Linnaeus, in Central Italy. Standards for growth (percentiles and a standard growth model were developed from the von Bertalanffy growth model by using length-at-age data obtained from 122 sampling sites in the River Tiber basin. Length-frequency indices provide a numeric estimation for deviations of the population structure from a balanced population. We adapted the traditional North American Relative Stock Density (RSD and Proportional Stock Density (PSD indices to brown trout populations in Central Italy by means of two methods. In the first method, the benchmarks of length categories were established by using percentages applied to the largest individual in the dataset. In the second method, asymptotic length and size at maturity were used to define the length categories for index calculation. Both methods were tested on length-frequency data from 263 sampling sites in the River Tiber basin. The results showed that the PSD calculated by the first method provided a better insight into the population structures of brown trout. These results provide tools that will help ichthyologists and fish managers to compare the growth and population structure of brown trout throughout Central Italy.

  20. Molecular studies with Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762), mosquito transmitting the dengue virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Luciana Patrícia Lima Alves; Brito, Maria Cristiane Aranha; Araruna, Felipe Bastos; de Andrade, Marcelo Souza; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho; Borges, Antônio Carlos Romão; do Rêgo Barros Pires Leal, Emygdia Rosa

    2017-08-01

    Dengue is an infectious viral disease, which can present a wide clinical picture, ranging from oligo or asymptomatic forms, to bleeding and shock, and can progress to death. The disease problem has increased in recent years, especially in urban and suburban areas of tropical and subtropical regions. There are five dengue viruses, called serotypes (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, DEN-4, and DEN-5), which belong to the Flaviviridae family and are transmitted to humans through infected mosquito bites, with the main vector the Aedes aegypti mosquito (Linnaeus, 1762). Studies performed with Ae. aegypti, aimed at their identification and analysis of their population structure, are fundamental to improve understanding of the epidemiology of dengue, as well for the definition of strategic actions that reduce the transmission of this disease. Therefore, considering the importance of such research to the development of programs to combat dengue, the present review considers the techniques used for the molecular identification, and evaluation of the genetic variability of Ae. aegypti.

  1. Antimicrobial and Anti-Proliferative Effects of Skin Mucus Derived from Dasyatis pastinaca (Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Fuochi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to chemotherapy occurs in various diseases (i.e., cancer and infection, and for this reason, both are very difficult to treat. Therefore, novel antimicrobial and chemotherapic drugs are needed for effective antibiotic therapy. The aim of the present study was to assess the antimicrobial and anti-proliferative effects of skin mucus derived from Dasyatis pastinaca (Linnaeus, 1758. Our results showed that skin mucus exhibited a significant and specific antibacterial activity against Gram-negative bacteria but not against Gram-positive bacteria. Furthermore, we also observed a significant antifungal activity against some strains of Candida spp. Concerning anti-proliferative activity, we showed that fish mucus was specifically toxic for acute leukemia cells (HL60 with an inhibition of proliferation in a dose dependent manner (about 52% at 1000 μg/mL of fish skin mucous, FSM. Moreover, we did not observe effects in healthy cells, in neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y, and multiple myeloma cell lines (MM1, U266. Finally, it exhibited strong expression and activity of chitinase which may be responsible, at least in part, for the aforementioned results.

  2. Locomotion of Stramonita haemastoma (Linnaeus (Gastropoda, Muricidae on a mixed shore of rocks and sand

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    Marcos G. Papp

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Mixed shores of rocks and sand are appropriate systems for the study of limitations that the isolation of rocks may impose for gastropods that typically inhabit rocky shores. We marked 52 Stramonita haemastoma (Linnaeus, 1767 snails on a mixed shore and found that 34 of them moved between rocks one to four times during 15 surveys in a period of 72 days. In the experiments, the snails moved on rock by continuous, direct, ditaxic, alternate undulations of the foot sole but on submerged sand they used slower arrhythmic discontinuous contractions of the foot sole. They switched between modes of locomotion in response to the type and topography of the substrate and possibly to water dynamics. In nature, snails moved between rocks forming aggregations where they oviposited. This may have masked other causes of movement, such as availability of prey. Most snails burrowed into the sand when the rocks became exposed during low tides. Further experiments are needed to explicitly address the possible causes of movements among rocks and burial.

  3. Mortality of red mullet (Mullus barbatus Linnaeus, 1758 on the Montenegrin shelf (South Adriatic

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    Joksimović A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Red mullet, Mullus barbatus Linnaeus, 1758, is an economically very important species in trawl fisheries in the Adriatic Sea. Material for analysis was collected from October 2002 until May 2004 with a bottom trawl net from commercial trawlers on the Montenegrin shelf. Mortality of this species was analyzed for the first time in this area, sepa­rately for males and females and for both sexes together. Until now, only the spatial distribution and catch per unit of effort (CPUE of Mullus barbatus have been studied in Montenegrin waters. Estimated total mortality rates were Zmales = 0.653 and Zfemales = 0.712. The average mortality rate for both sexes was Z m+f = 0.749, while the natural mortality rate was Mm+f = 0.342. Values of Z in the Montenegrin shelf area are considerably lower than Z values for the Croatian and Italian parts of the Adriatic Sea, indicating that on the Montenegrin shelf fishing of this species is significantly less intensive than in other trawl-fishing areas of the Adriatic Sea.

  4. Toxic effects of essential plant oils in adult Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae

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    Andréa Roveré Franz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxic effects of essential plant oils in adult Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae. Stored grains are subject to losses in quality nutritional value and in sanitation from the time they are stored to the time they are consumed. Botanical insecticides may offer an alternative solution for pest control. The objective was to test the insecticidal properties of the essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus (leaf, Zingiber officinale (root and Mentha sp. (leaf. The efficacy of these oils was tested to control the rice weevil, S. oryzae, using hydrodistillation. Chemical analysis of the essential oils was carried out by gas chromatography. Major components of C. citratus were geranial (48% and neral (31%, of Z. officinale were α-zingibereno (13%, geranial (16%, neral (10% and α-farneseno (5% and of Mentha sp. was menthol (92%. Bioassays were carried out by fumigation and topical application. In topical application assays, the essential oil of C. citratus had greater toxicity (LC50 0.027 µL mL-1 and shorter exposure time than the oils of the other two plants. After 24 h and 48 h, 70% and 100% mortality of S. oryzae occurred, respectively. In fumigation assays, essential oil of Z. officinale had a lower LC50 (1.18 µL cm-2 and 70% mortality after 24 h exposure. Therefore, we recommend the use of essential oils of C. citratus and Z. officinale to control the rice weevil S. oryzae.

  5. A note on captive breeding and reproductive parameters of the Chinese pangolin, Manis pentadactyla Linnaeus, 1758

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    Fuhua Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese pangolin (Manis pentadactyla Linnaeus, 1758 is a critically endangered species, and documents on its captive breeding and reproductive parameters are scarce. MP8, kept in the Pangolin Research Base for Artificial Rescue and Conservation Breeding of South China Normal University (the PRB-SCNU, gave birth to a male offspring (MP86 on 19 October 2011. The baby pangolin was well developed, with a weight of 120 g and a total length of 23.2 cm. The gestation length of MP8 was estimated to be from 182 to 225d. Reproductive parameters of the Chinese pangolin are discussed based on collected data about this species. The Chinese pangolin has an obvious reproductive seasonality and its gestation length is typically six to seven months. In this observation, estrus and mating principally occurred in a one-year period from February to July. Parturition principally took place from September to February of the next year. Chinese pangolins usually give birth to one offspring at a time (n = 27. Sex ratio at birth was 0.71:1 (♀:♂, n = 12. Average weight for the reproducible females was 3.57 ± 1.38 kg (2.14–6.8 kg, n = 15. We estimated that Chinese pangolins could reach sexual maturity before they were one year old.

  6. The feasibility of bomb radiocarbon analysis to support an age-at-length relationship for red abalone, Haliotis rufescens Swainson in northern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leaf, R T; Andrews, A H; Cailliet, G M; Brown, T A

    2009-01-07

    Analysis of bomb generated radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) changes in a red abalone, Haliotis rufescens Swainson shell was used to investigate age-at-length relationships derived from data from a previous multi-year, multi-site tag-recapture study. Shell carbonate was extracted from four successive growth trajectory locations in a single shell with a length of 251 mm MSL. Extraction locations were based on VBGF predictions and chosen to span the initial rise of the {sup 14}C-bomb pulse that is known to have occurred in surface ocean waters during 1958 {+-} 1 y in the northeast Pacific. The close temporal correspondence of the red abalone sample series to regional {Delta}{sup 14}C records demonstrated the utility of the technique for validating age-at-length relationships for the red abalone. The findings provided support for a mean VBGF derived age of 32 y (range 30 to 33 y) for the specimen; however, the analysis of {sup 14}C data indicated that the specimen could be older.

  7. Transcriptome-Wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs for Abalone (Haliotis midae: Validation and Application Using GoldenGate Medium-Throughput Genotyping Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouvay Roodt-Wilding

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Haliotis midae is one of the most valuable commercial abalone species in the world, but is highly vulnerable, due to exploitation, habitat destruction and predation. In order to preserve wild and cultured stocks, genetic management and improvement of the species has become crucial. Fundamental to this is the availability and employment of molecular markers, such as microsatellites and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs . Transcriptome sequences generated through sequencing-by-synthesis technology were utilized for the in vitro and in silico identification of 505 putative SNPs from a total of 316 selected contigs. A subset of 234 SNPs were further validated and characterized in wild and cultured abalone using two Illumina GoldenGate genotyping assays. Combined with VeraCode technology, this genotyping platform yielded a 65%−69% conversion rate (percentage polymorphic markers with a global genotyping success rate of 76%−85% and provided a viable means for validating SNP markers in a non-model species. The utility of 31 of the validated SNPs in population structure analysis was confirmed, while a large number of SNPs (174 were shown to be informative and are, thus, good candidates for linkage map construction. The non-synonymous SNPs (50 located in coding regions of genes that showed similarities with known proteins will also be useful for genetic applications, such as the marker-assisted selection of genes of relevance to abalone aquaculture.

  8. Transcriptome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for abalone (Haliotis midae): validation and application using GoldenGate medium-throughput genotyping assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bester-Van Der Merwe, Aletta; Blaauw, Sonja; Du Plessis, Jana; Roodt-Wilding, Rouvay

    2013-09-23

    Haliotis midae is one of the most valuable commercial abalone species in the world, but is highly vulnerable, due to exploitation, habitat destruction and predation. In order to preserve wild and cultured stocks, genetic management and improvement of the species has become crucial. Fundamental to this is the availability and employment of molecular markers, such as microsatellites and single nucleotide (SNPs). Transcriptome sequences generated through sequencing-by-synthesis technology were utilized for the in vitro and in silico identification of 505 putative SNPs from a total of 316 selected contigs. A subset of 234 SNPs were further validated and characterized in wild and cultured abalone using two Illumina GoldenGate genotyping assays. Combined with VeraCode technology, this genotyping platform yielded a 65%-69% conversion rate (percentage polymorphic markers) with a global genotyping success rate of 76%-85% and provided a viable means for validating SNP markers in a non-model species. The utility of 31 of the validated SNPs in population structure analysis was confirmed, while a large number of SNPs (174) were shown to be informative and are, thus, good candidates for linkage map construction. The non-synonymous SNPs (50) located in coding regions of genes that showed similarities with known proteins will also be useful for genetic applications, such as the marker-assisted selection of genes of relevance to abalone aquaculture.

  9. Desarrollo del ensilado del alga Gracilaria chilensis para la alimentación del abalón rojo Haliotis rufescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Mardones

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available En Chile, el principal insumo usado como alimento para abalones son las algas Gracilaria chilensis y Macrocystis pyrifera. Estas algas experimentan una notable baja de disponibilidad en otoño e invierno, lo cual trae consigo un aumento considerable de los precios, al tener que depender del abastecimiento desde áreas cada vez más alejadas de los centros de cultivo de abalones y, eventualmente, generando impactos ecológicos indirectos en sus poblaciones. El objetivo fue elaborar y evaluar un ensilado del alga G. chilensis para la alimentación de abalón rojo (Haliotis rufescens, determinando la cantidad de lixiviados generados durante el proceso, el cambio en la composición proximal del alga, la preferencia y consumo del abalón rojo de ensilado de G. chilensis. Se logró un producto ensilado de buenas características físicas, químicas y de conservación, así como una buena aceptación por parte del abalón.

  10. Involvement of clip-domain serine protease in the anti-Vibrio immune response of abalone (Haliotis discus hannai)-Molecular cloning, characterization and functional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian-Jian; Chen, Yu-Lei; Duan, Xue-Kun; Jin, Teng-Chuan; Li, Yue; Zhang, Ling-Jing; Liu, Guang-Ming; Cao, Min-Jie

    2018-01-01

    Vibrio parahemolyticus (V. parahemolyticus) is a major pathogen for abalone, an important economical shellfish in coastal area of China. There is little known about the abalone innate immune system against pathogen infection. Clip-domain serine proteases (cSPs) are increasingly recognized to play important roles in host immune defense in invertebrates. In this study, we cloned a cSP (Hdh-cSP) from abalone (Haliotis discus hannai). We found out that Hdh-cSP was widely expressed in multiple tissues of abalone, with highest level in the immune-like organ, hepatopancreas. V. parahemolyticus infection induced significantly elevated expression of Hdh-cSP in addition to better-characterized innate immune component genes including Rel/NF-κB, allograft inflammatory factor (ALInFa), macrophage expressed protein (MEP) and caspase-8. Importantly, the silencing of Hdh-cSP reduced the expression of these genes, suggesting that Hdh-cSP was an upstream regulatory factor in V. parahemolyticus infection. Further analysis showed that apoptosis of hemocytes was inhibited when the transcription of Hdh-cSP was knocked down, suggesting that Hdh-cSP participated in cell apoptosis by regulation of caspase 8 expression in V. parahemolyticus infection. Therefore, our study established an important role of cSP in the innate immunity against V. parahemolyticus infection in abalone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of air-temperature and diet composition on the drying process of pellets for japanese abalone (Haliotis discus hannai feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vega-Gálvez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the effect of air-temperature and diet composition on the mass transfer kinetics during the drying process of pellets used for Japanese Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai feeding. In the experimental design, three temperatures were used for convective drying, as well as three different diet compositions (Diets A, B and C, in which the amount of fishmeal, spirulin, algae, fish oil and cornstarch varied. The water diffusion coefficient of the pellets was determined using the equation of Fick's second law, which resulted in values between 0.84-1.94×10-10 m²/s. The drying kinetics was modeled using Page, Modified Page, Root of time, Exponential, Logarithmic, Two-Terms, Modified Henderson-Pabis and Weibull models. In addition, two new models, referred to as 'Proposed' models 1 and 2, were used to simulate this process. According to the statistical tests applied, the models that best fitted the experimental data were Modified Henderson-Pabis, Weibull and Proposed model 2, respectively. Bifactorial analysis of variance ANOVA showed that Diet A (fishmeal 44%, spirulin 9%, fish oil 1% and cornstarch 36% presented the highest diffusion coefficient values, which were favored by the temperature increase in the drying process.

  12. Effect of dietary lipid on the growth, fatty acid composition and Δ5 Fads expression of abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai Ino) hepatopancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingzhu; Mai, Kangsen; Ai, Qinghui; He, Gen; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Wenbing; Zhang, Yanjiao; Zhou, Huihui; Liufu, Zhiguo

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of dietary lipid on the growth, fatty acid composition and Δ5 fatty acyl desaturase genes ( Fads) expression of juvenile abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai Ino) hepatopancreas. Six purified diets were formulated to contain tripalmitin (TP), olive oil (OO, 72.87% 18:1n-9), grape seed oil (GO, 68.67% 18:2n-6), linseed oil (LO, 70.48% 18:3n-3), ARA oil (AO, 41.81% ARA) or EPA oil (EO, 44.09% EPA and 23.67% DAH). No significant difference in survival rate was observed among abalone fed with different diets. Weight gain rate ( WGR) and daily growth rate of shell length ( DGR SL) were significantly increased in abalone fed with diets containing OO, AO and EO, but decreased in abalone fed with LO diet ( P abalone fed with GO than those fed with TP, OO, LO and EO ( P abalone fed with LO was significantly higher than those in abalone fed with TP, OO, GO and AO ( P abalone fed with OO. The expression of Δ5 Fads in hepatopancreas of abalone was enhanced by high concentration of 18:3n-3 and suppressed by dietary LC-PUFAs; however it was not affected by dietary high concentration of 18:1n-9 or 18:2n-6. These results provided valuable information for understanding the synthesis of LC-PUFAs and nutritional regulation of Δ5 Fads expression in abalone.

  13. Acclimation-dependent expression of heat shock protein 70 in Pacific abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai Ino) and its acute response to thermal exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiaqi; He, Qingguo; Sun, Hui; Liu, Xiao

    2012-01-01

    Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is one important member of heat shock protein (Hsp) family that is responsible for various stresses, especially thermal stress. Here we examined the response of Hsp70 gene to both chronic and acute thermal exposure in Pacific abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai Ino). For the chronic exposure, abalones were maintained at 8, 12, 20, and 30°C for four months and their mRNA levels were measured. The highest mRNA level of Hsp70 gene relative to actin gene was detected in the 30°C-acclimated group, followed by the 8°C-acclimated group and then the 12°C- and 20°C-acclimated groups. After the long-term acclimation, gills from each of the above acclimation groups were dissected and exposed to different temperatures between 8°C and 38°C for 30 min. Hsp70 expression in gills acclimated to different temperatures responded differentially to the same temperature exposure. The incubation temperature that induced maximum Hsp70 mRNA expression was higher in the higher temperature acclimation groups than lower temperature groups. Pacific abalones could alter the expression pattern of Hsp70 gene according to environmental thermal conditions, through which they deal with the stress of thermal variations.

  14. Evaluation of de novo assembly technique in the South African abalone Haliotis midae transcriptome: A comparison from Illumina and 454 systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Picone

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Next generation sequencing platforms have recently been used to rapidly characterize transcriptome sequences from a number of non-model organisms. The present study compares two of the most frequently used platforms, the Roche 454-pyrosequencing and the Illumina sequencing-by-synthesis (SBS, on the same RNA sample obtained from an intertidal gastropod mollusc species, Haliotis midae. All the sequencing reads were deposited in the Short Read Archive (SRA database are retrievable under the accession number [SRR071314 (Illumina Genome Analyzer II] and [SRR1737738, SRR1737737, SRR1737735, SRR1737734 (454 GS FLX] in the SRA database of NCBI. Three transcriptomes, composed of either pure 454 or Illumina reads or a mixture of read types (Hybrid, were assembled using CLC Genomics Workbench software. Illumina assemblies performed the best de novo transcriptome characterization in terms of contig length, whereas the 454 assemblies tended to improve the complete assembly of gene transcripts. Both the Hybrid and Illumina assemblies produced longer contigs covering more of the transcriptome than 454 assemblies. However, the addition of 454 significantly increased the number of genes annotated.

  15. Growth Parameters and Mortality of Bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix Linnaeus, 1766) from Gallipoli Peninsula and Dardanelles (Northeastern Mediterranean, Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Cengiz, Özgür; Özekinci, Uğur; Öztekin, Alkan; Kumaova, Can Ali

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the growth parameters of the bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus, 1766), were studied in Gallipoli Peninsula and Dardanelles (northeastern Mediterranean, Turkey) between November 2008 and October 2009. The length-weight relationship was calculated as W=0.0082TL3.02 for females, W=0.0081TL3.03 for males and W=0.0081TL3.03 for all samples. Growth parameters of the populations were L∞= 86.8 cm, k=0.15 year-1, t0=-1.40 for females; L∞=89.1 cm, k=0.16 year-1, t0=-1.46 for males...

  16. The discovery of Caligus temnodontis Brian, 1924 (Copepoda: Caligidae) from the bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus) in the eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozak, Argun A; El-Rashidy, Hoda H; Demirkale, Ibrahim; Boxshall, Geoff A

    2010-07-01

    The temnodontis variety of Caligus mauritanicus Brian, 1924 described by Brian (1924) is a valid species known only from a single host species, Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus). New material of this species has been examined from the same host fish caught from Abuqir Bay, Alexandria (Egypt), from Iskenderun Bay (Turkey) and from off the coast of South Africa. Using this material, C. temnodontis Brian, 1924 is redescribed and compared with related species. It is most closely related to the Indo-Pacific species C. pagrosomi Yamaguti, 1939.

  17. Spirorchiids (Digenea: Spirorchiidae infecting a Hawksbill sea turtle Eretmochelys imbricata (Linnaeus 1758 from Brazil Spirorchiids (Digenea: Spirorchiidae infectando uma tartaruga marinha de pente Eretmochelys imbricata (Linnaeus 1758 no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Werneck

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Amphiorchis caborojoensis Fischthal & Acholonu 1976 and Carettacola stunkardi Martin & Bamberger 1952 in a young specimen of Hawksbill sea turtle Eretmochelys imbricata Linnaeus 1758 in Brazil was reported. Five A. caborojoensis trematodes were found in the small intestine (n=2 and liver (n=3, and two adult C. stunkardi specimens were collected from body wash. This is the first report of parasites of E. imbricata in Brazilian waters and Southwestern Atlantic Ocean and the second report of members of the Spirorchiidae family in that region. In addition, E. imbricata is a new host recorded for C. stunkardi.Relata-se a ocorrência de Amphiorchis caborojoensis Fischthal & Acholonu 1976 e Carettacola stunkardi Martin e Bamberger 1952, em um exemplar juvenil de tartaruga marinha de pente Eretmochelys imbricata Linnaeus 1758 no Brasil. Foram coletados cinco trematódeos da espécie A. caborojoensis, dois no intestino delgado e três no fígado e dois exemplares adultos de C. stunkardi no lavado corporal. Destes apenas a espécie A. caborojoensis já tinha sido relatada como parasita dessa espécie de quelônio marinho. Esta é a primeira descrição de parasitas em E. imbricata em águas brasileiras e na área do Atlântico Sul Ocidental, e o segundo relato de membros da família Spirorchiidae na mesma região.

  18. Predation on Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera (Primates, Atelidae by Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus (Carnivora, Felidae Predação em Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera (Primates, Atelidae por Leopardus pordalis (Linnaeus (Carnivora, Felidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João M. D. Miranda

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available There are a few studies about predation on primates. Howler monkeys, being relatively large animals, were believed to be preyed on successfully only by medium to large-sized carnivores and large birds of prey. Our study took place at Chácara Payquerê, which is situated in the municipality of Balsa Nova, State of Paraná, Southern Brazil. Fingers and nails from Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera, 1940 were founded in two faecal samples from Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758. With our documentation large howler monkey remains in faeces, the possibility of ocelot being a potential predator of all Neotropical primates should be taken into consideration.São poucos os estudos sobre a predação de primatas. Sendo os bugios animais relativamente grandes, acredita-se que somente médios e grandes carnívoros e grandes rapineiros possam lograr sucesso em sua predação. O estudo foi realizado na Chácara Payquerê, situada no município de Balsa Nova, Estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil. Dedos e unhas de Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera, 1940 foram encontradas em duas amostras fecais de Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758 que foram coletadas. Com este registro de grande primata em fezes, a possibilidade de a jaguatirica ser um potencial predador de todos os primatas neotropicais pode ser levada em consideração.

  19. Coexistence of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793) and blue mussels Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758 on a sheltered intertidal bivalve bed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, M.W.; Davids, J.K.; Dolmer, Per

    2016-01-01

    The invasive Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas Thunberg, 1793 was introduced in Denmark for aquaculture in the 1970s. Presently, feral populations are found in many parts of the country, with the largest populations established on existing beds of blue mussel, Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758...

  20. EXPLORATORY CELIOTOMY IN GREEN IGUANA (IGUANA IGUANA, LINNAEUS 1758 SHOWING SIGNS OF URINARY OBSTRUCTION IN THE CITY OF CUIABÁ - MATO GROSSO, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Angeli

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the therapeutic and surgical protocols adopted during the clinical management of a wild green iguana (Iguana iguana iguana,Linnaeus 1758 presented for lethargy, anorexy and clinical signs of urinary obstruction. There were also explored general aspects of the species, as well as the main impairments of health and their respective diagnosis and treatment.

  1. The eye-catching cicada Hamza ciliaris (Linnaeus, 1758) comb. n. in Indonesia and the Pacific: taxonomie status, synonymy, and distribution (Homoptera, Cicadoidea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duffels, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    The new combination Hamza ciliaris (Linnaeus) is proposed for a cicada species widely distributed in Maluku ( = Moluccas), Timor, Banda, Kei and Banggai Islands, the Philippines, and the Palau group of the Caroline Islands. The synonymy of five species, treated in the literature as junior synonyms

  2. A new species of Agonopterix feeding on giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum) in the Caucasus, with a discussion of the nomenclature of A. heracliana (Linnaeus) (Depressariidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsholt, Ole; Lvovsky, Alexandr L.; Nielsen, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    in the umbels of Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier & Lévier Apiaceae) giant hogweed), an invasive weed in Europe, which is moreover toxic to human skin. The complicated and controversial nomenclature of the related A. heracliana (Linnaeus) (Phalaena (Tortrix)) is discussed, as is that of Depressaria heracliana...

  3. Microorganismos patógenos en Jatropha curcas Linnaeus. Estrategias potenciales para su manejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Alonso

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas Linnaeus (piñón botija, considerada la gran promesa verde para el biodiesel, es una planta de la que existen considerables incógnitas en el ámbito científico desde el punto de vista agronómico, sobre todo en lo referente a los microorganismos causantes de enfermedades, entre las que sobresale la conocida como damping off (estrangulamiento de las plántulas que es provocada por varias especies de hongos. Por ello, el objetivo de este artículo es compilar la mayor cantidad de información sobre los principales microorganismos fitopatógenos que afectan a J. curcas, así como las posibles estrategias para su manejo, con el fin de obtener rendimientos eficientes y rentables de este cultivo energético en Cuba. Se encontraron 48 agentes causales de enfermedades; los más representativos fueron los hongos, entre los que predominan los que producen la roya y el mildiu polvoso, fundamentalmente. En cuanto al manejo fitosanitario, se citan las medidas culturales preventivas y las químicas, como curativas. De ahí que en Cuba, al igual que en otros países donde se cultiva el piñón botija, sea imprescindible conocer los fitopatógenos que pueden reducir los rendimientos de dicha planta, para después implementar un sistema de manejo fitosanitario que contribuya a evitar pérdidas considerables en la producción de biodiesel como producto final.

  4. Artrópodos asociados a Jatropha curcas Linnaeus. Funciones y estrategia para su manejo

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    O Alonso

    Full Text Available En la actualidad, Jatropha curcas Linnaeus constituye una de las plantas más investigadas a nivel mundial debido a su potencial como productora de aceite, el cual se puede transformar en biodiesel. Sin embargo, aún no se dispone de suficiente información sobre sus interacciones ecológicas con otros vegetales y animales; por lo que el conocimiento referente a los artrópodos asociados al piñón nombre común por el que se le conoce» es un requisito indispensable para el manejo adecuado del cultivo. El objetivo de este artículo es exponer los resultados de una recopilación realizada acerca de dichos organismos (insectos, ácaros y arañas, fundamentalmente, para lograr una mejor explotación de las plantaciones de este cultivo energético en Cuba. Dentro del grupo de los fitófagos se encontraron 151 especies de insectos, entre las que sobresalen las del orden Hemiptera, por ejemplo: Pachycoris klugii Burmeister (Scutelleridae y Leptoglossus zonatus (Dallas; además de cuatro de ácaros. Entre los benéficos se hallaron 90 especies de insectos, cinco de ácaros y 13 de arañas depredadoras. En cuanto a las estrategias de manejo de plagas, se hace un mayor énfasis en las medidas de control químico y en algunas acciones de tipo cultural. Teniendo en cuenta estos antecedentes, en Cuba es imprescindible conocer los principales organismos asociados a dicha planta, con vistas a incorporar con mayor precisión el componente agroecológico en el manejo de las plagas, y con ello contribuir al mantenimiento de las capacidades productivas de los agroecosistemas y a su resiliencia.

  5. Karyotype characterization and comparison of three hexaploid species of Bromus Linnaeus, 1753 (Poaceae

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    Leonardo Luís Artico

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome morphometry and nuclear DNA content are useful data for cytotaxonomy and to understand the evolutionary history of different taxa. For the genus Bromus Linnaeus, 1753, distinct ploidy levels have been reported, occurring from diploid to duodecaploid species. The geographic distribution of Bromus species has been correlated with chromosome number and ploidy level. In this study, the aims were to determine the nuclear genome size and characterize the karyotype of the South American Bromus species: Bromus auleticus Trinius ex Nees, 1829, Bromus brachyanthera Döll, 1878 and Bromus catharticus Vahl, 1791. The mean nuclear 2C value ranged from 2C = 12.64 pg for B. catharticus to 2C = 17.92 pg for B. auleticus, meaning a maximum variation of 2C = 5.28 pg, equivalent to 41.70%. Despite this significant difference in 2C value, the three species exhibit the same chromosome number, 2n = 6x = 42, which confirms their hexaploid origin. Corroborating the genome size, the chromosome morphometry (total, short- and long-arm length and, consequently, the class differed among the karyotypes of the species. Based on the first karyograms for these Bromus species, some morphologically similar and several distinct chromosome pairs were found. Therefore, the karyotype characterization confirmed the hexaploid origin of the studied Bromus species, which differ in relation to the karyogram and the nuclear 2C value. Considering this, cytogenetics and flow cytometry can be used to discriminate Bromus species, contributing to taxonomy and systematic studies and providing information on the evolutionary history of this taxa.

  6. Karyotype characterization and comparison of three hexaploid species of Bromus Linnaeus, 1753 (Poaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artico, Leonardo Luís; Mazzocato, Ana Cristina; Ferreira, Juliano Lino; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto; Clarindo, Wellington Ronildo

    2017-01-01

    Chromosome morphometry and nuclear DNA content are useful data for cytotaxonomy and to understand the evolutionary history of different taxa. For the genus Bromus Linnaeus, 1753, distinct ploidy levels have been reported, occurring from diploid to duodecaploid species. The geographic distribution of Bromus species has been correlated with chromosome number and ploidy level. In this study, the aims were to determine the nuclear genome size and characterize the karyotype of the South American Bromus species: Bromus auleticus Trinius ex Nees, 1829, Bromus brachyanthera Döll, 1878 and Bromus catharticus Vahl, 1791. The mean nuclear 2C value ranged from 2C = 12.64 pg for B. catharticus to 2C = 17.92 pg for B. auleticus , meaning a maximum variation of 2C = 5.28 pg, equivalent to 41.70%. Despite this significant difference in 2C value, the three species exhibit the same chromosome number, 2n = 6x = 42, which confirms their hexaploid origin. Corroborating the genome size, the chromosome morphometry (total, short- and long-arm length) and, consequently, the class differed among the karyotypes of the species. Based on the first karyograms for these Bromus species, some morphologically similar and several distinct chromosome pairs were found. Therefore, the karyotype characterization confirmed the hexaploid origin of the studied Bromus species, which differ in relation to the karyogram and the nuclear 2C value. Considering this, cytogenetics and flow cytometry can be used to discriminate Bromus species, contributing to taxonomy and systematic studies and providing information on the evolutionary history of this taxa.

  7. Hematological importance of pseudoeosinophilic granulocytes in acclimation of common carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758

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    Damir Suljevic

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation mechanisms as response to water content, oxygen level and pollutants are very important and they can be interpreted by hematological analysis. The aim of this study was the analysis of hematological and immune adaptations of common carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 to thermal stress. All specimens were divided into a control and experimental group. The control group of fish was exposed to a constant water temperature of 10°C. We induced thermal stress in experimental fish by gradually heating water to 28°C, held for 30 minutes and then comparing the obtained results with the control fish. Short-term hyperthermia lead to an increase of the number of leukocytes, especially pseudoeosinophilic granulocytes and monocytes, while the number of neutrophils and lymphocytes was reduced. The analysis of the leukocyte number and differential blood count in the control group showed high individual variation of segmented granulocytes, monocytes and pseudoeosinophilic granulocytes. Statistically significant differences (p=0.00 were found for the white blood cells, nonsegmented neutrophils and pseudoeosinophils between the control and experimental group. The experimental group of males had an increased number of white blood cells, monocytes and pseudoeosinophils, where significant differences were found for nonsegmented and total neutrophils and also for pseudoeosinophils (p=0.00, lymphocytes (p=0.01 and monocytes (p=0.03. Females had an increased total number of white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and pseudoeosinophils, while significant differences (p=0.00 were obtained in the number of white blood cells, non segmented and total neutrophils and pseudoeosinophils between the control and experimental group. Adaptation mechanisms in carp after water temperature heating are mostly reflected in the increase of pseudoeosinophils and the decrease of neutrophils.

  8. Uptake, retention and organ/tissue distribution of 137Cs by Japanese catfish (Silurus asotus Linnaeus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malek, M.A.; Nakahara, M.; Nakamura, R.

    2004-01-01

    The work describes the uptake, retention/biological elimination and organ/tissue distribution of 137 Cs by freshwater Japanese catfish (Silurus asotus Linnaeus) under laboratory conditions. The fish were divided into three groups based on their size and age and reared in 137 Cs-spiked water. The concentration of 137 Cs in the whole body of the live fish was measured at regular intervals up to 60 days. A significant accumulation of 137 Cs was found, but a steady state condition was not achieved by the end of the experiment. The bioaccumulation factors at steady state and the required time to reach steady state were estimated to be 1.55 and 255 days, 1.76 and 180 days and 1.99 and 160 days for large, medium and small size fish, respectively. To determine the effective half-life of 137 Cs, the fish were transferred and reared in the non-contaminated host water. The concentration of the remaining 137 Cs in the whole body of the live fish was measured up to 66 days. The average effective half-life of 137 Cs in the fish species was found to be ∼142 days for fish of all sizes. The distribution of 137 Cs in different organs/tissues of the fish was determined. Accumulation of 137 Cs in muscle/flesh of the fish was found to be ∼75% of whole body accumulation. The uptake rate and the retention capability of juvenile fish were found to be higher and therefore, these were more susceptible to 137 Cs than adult and old fish, and could be an important source of 137 Cs in the human food chain

  9. Determination of oral bioavailability of curcuminoid dispersions and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Pei Shan; Inbaraj, Baskaran Stephen; Chen, Bing Huei

    2018-01-01

    Curcuminoid from Curcuma longa Linnaeus has been demonstrated to be effective in anti-cancer and anti-inflammation. The objectives of the present study were to prepare curcuminoid dispersion and nanoemulsion from C. longa and determine their oral bioavailabilities in rats. After curcuminoid extraction using 99.5% ethanol, bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC), demethoxycurcumin (DMC) and curcumin were separated within 10 min by high-performance liquid chromatography using an Eclipse XDB-C18 column (Agilent, Palo Alto, CA, USA) and a gradient mobile phase of 0.1% aqueous formic acid and acetonitrile, with a flow rate of 1 mL min -1 , column temperature of 35 °C and detection wavelength of 425 nm. Curcuminoid nanoemulsion at a particle size of 12.1 nm and encapsulation efficiency 98.8% was prepared using lecithin, Tween 80 and water. A pharmacokinetic study in rats revealed that the parameters including T max , C max , t 1/2 and the area under the curve were higher for curcuminoid nanoemulsions than for curcuminoid dispersion at the same dose employed for gavage administration, whereas, for intravenous injection, an opposite trend was shown. The oral bioavailabilities of BDMC, DMC, curcumin and total curcuminoids in nanoemulsion and dispersion were 34.39 and 4.65%, 39.93 and 5.49%, 47.82 and 9.38%, and 46 and 8.7%, respectively. The results of the present study demonstrate a higher oral bioavailability after incorporation of curcuminoid into nanoemulsion, facilitating its application as a botanic drug. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Refinement of the karyological aspects of Psidium guineense (Swartz, 1788): a comparison with Psidium guajava (Linnaeus, 1753).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Anelise Machado; Tuler, Amélia Carlos; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto; Carrijo, Tatiana Tavares; Ferreira, Marcia Flores da Silva; Clarindo, Wellington Ronildo

    2016-01-01

    Euploidy plays an important role in the evolution and diversification of Psidium Linnaeus, 1753. However, few data about the nuclear DNA content, chromosome characterization (morphometry and class) and molecular markers have been reported for this genus. In this context, the present study aims to shed light on the genome of Psidium guineense Swartz, 1788, comparing it with Psidium guajava Linnaeus, 1753. Using flow cytometry, the nuclear 2C value of Psidium guineense was 2C = 1.85 picograms (pg), and the karyotype showed 2n = 4x = 44 chromosomes. Thus, Psidium guineense has four chromosome sets, in accordance with the basic chromosome number of Psidium (x = 11). In addition, karyomorphometric analysis revealed morphologically identical chromosome groups in the karyotype of Psidium guineense. The high transferability of microsatellites (98.6%) further corroborates with phylogenetic relationship between Psidium guajava and Psidium guineense. Based on the data regarding nuclear genome size, karyotype morphometry and molecular markers of Psidium guineense and Psidium guajava (2C = 0.95 pg, 2n = 2x = 22 chromosomes), Psidium guineense is a tetraploid species. These data reveal the role of euploidy in the diversification of the genus Psidium.

  11. Meiotic behaviour and its implication on species inter-relationship in the genus Curcuma (Linnaeus, 1753 (Zingiberaceae

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    Judith Mary Lamo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, detailed meiotic analysis was investigated in seven species of Curcuma (Linnaeus, 1753 which can contribute significantly to our understanding about species inter-relationship, speciation and evolution. The species were divided into two groups viz., Group I having 2n = 42 (C. comosa Roxburgh, 1810, C. haritha Mangaly & M.Sabu, 1993, C. mangga Valeton & Zijp, 1917, and C. motana Roxburgh, 1800 and Group II with 2n = 63 (C. caesia Roxburgh, 1810, C. longa Linnaeus, 1753 and C. sylvatica Valeton, 1918. Both groups display varying degree of chromosome associations. Group I species showed the prevalence of bivalents, however occasional quadrivalents besides univalents were also encountered. About 48% of the PMCs analyzed in C. mangga showed 21 bivalents (II meiotic configurations, 32% in C. comosa and 16% in C. haritha. Group II species as expected showed the presence of trivalents besides bivalents, univalents and quadrivalents. About 32% of the PMCs analyzed at MI in C. sylvatica showed 21 trivalents (III meiotic configurations, 24% in C. longa and 8% in C. caesia. Overall, low frequency of multivalent associations as compared to bivalents indicates that Curcuma is an allopolyploid complex. Moreover, x = 21 is too high a basic number, therefore, we suggest that the genus Curcuma has evolved by hybridization of species with different chromosome numbers of 2n = 24 and 18, resulting in a dibasic amphidiploid species.

  12. Effects of tributyltin and benzo[a]pyrene on the immune-associated activities of hemocytes and recovery responses in the gastropod abalone, Haliotis diversicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Singaram; Huang, Wei-Bin; Wang, Qiang-Wei; Wu, Man-Li; Liu, Jie; Wang, Ke-Jian

    2011-08-01

    Our previous study reports that short-term exposure to sublethal concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) induces immunomodulation in the gastropod abalone, Haliotis diversicolor. In the present study, it was further observed that long-term chronic exposure to sublethal concentrations of BaP modulated the immunocompetence of abalones in terms of the change in activity of the antioxidant and immune associated parameters tested. In addition, the effect of tributyltin (TBT), another important genotoxicant in the aquatic environment, was investigated. Exposure of abalones to sublethal concentrations of TBT and BaP for 21 days resulted in significant decrease of total hemocyte count, phagocytosis, membrane stability and lysozyme activity. Conversely induction of extra and intra cellular superoxide generation, nitric oxide, nitric oxide synthase and myeloperoxidase activity was present when the abalones were exposed to TBT and BaP. Most of the immune associated parameters tested showed clear time dependent response to both toxicants. Within 14 days after the 21 day exposure to BaP, recovery was observed as evidenced by most of the parameters returning to their normal level. However, no recovery was observed within 14 days after the 21 day exposure to TBT as evidenced by continued elevation of intra cellular superoxide and nitrite production and decrease in THC, membrane stability and lysozyme activity. This suggested a prolonged TBT-induced impact on the immune reaction and possibly more damage than that caused by BaP. Overall the results suggest that chronic exposure to sublethal concentrations of TBT or BaP causes modulations in the immunocompetence of abalones with most of the immune associated parameters tested being stimulated, and this might be harmful to the host. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Identification of normalization factors for quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis of gene expression in Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Reng; Sun, Boguang; Fang, Shasha; Sun, Li; Liu, Xiao

    2013-03-01

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is widely used in studies of gene expression. In most of these studies, housekeeping genes are used as internal references without validation. To identify appropriate reference genes for qRT-PCR in Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai, we examined the transcription stability of six housekeeping genes in abalone tissues in the presence and absence of bacterial infection. For this purpose, abalone were infected with the bacterial pathogen Vibrio anguillarum for 12 h and 48 h. The mRNA levels of the housekeeping genes in five tissues (digestive glands, foot muscle, gill, hemocyte, and mantle) were determined by qRT-PCR. The PCR data was subsequently analyzed with the geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. The results show that in the absence of bacterial infection, elongation factor-1-alpha and beta-actin were the most stably expressed genes in all tissues, and thus are suitable as cross-tissue type normalization factors. However, we did not identify any universal reference genes post infection because the most stable genes varied between tissue types. Furthermore, for most tissues, the optimal reference genes identified by both algorithms at 12 h and 48 h post-infection differed. These results indicate that bacterial infection induced significant changes in the expression of abalone housekeeping genes in a manner that is dependent on tissue type and duration of infection. As a result, different normalization factors must be used for different tissues at different infection points.

  14. Structural and functional characterization of a novel molluskan ortholog of TRAF and TNF receptor-associated protein from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngdeuk; Elvitigala, Don Anushka Sandaruwan; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Sukkyoung; Kim, Hyowon; Zoysa, Mahanama De; Oh, Chulhong; Kang, Do-Hyung; Lee, Jehee

    2014-09-01

    Immune signaling cascades have an indispensable role in the host defense of almost all the organisms. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling is considered as a prominent signaling pathway in vertebrate as well as invertebrate species. Within the signaling cascade, TNF receptor-associated factor (TRAF) and TNF receptor-associated protein (TTRAP) has been shown to have a crucial role in the modulation of immune signaling in animals. Here, we attempted to characterize a novel molluskan ortholog of TTRAP (AbTTRAP) from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) and analyzed its expression levels under pathogenic stress. The complete coding sequence of AbTTRAP consisted of 1071 nucleotides, coding for a 357 amino acid peptide, with a predicted molecular mass of 40 kDa. According to our in-silico analysis, AbTTRAP resembled the typical TTRAP domain architecture, including a 5'-tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase domain. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis revealed its common ancestral invertebrate origin, where AbTTRAP was clustered with molluskan counterparts. Quantitative real time PCR showed universally distributed expression of AbTTRAP in selected tissues of abalone, from which more prominent expression was detected in hemocytes. Upon stimulation with two pathogen-derived mitogens, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), transcript levels of AbTTRAP in hemocytes and gill tissues were differentially modulated with time. In addition, the recombinant protein of AbTTRAP exhibited prominent endonuclease activity against abalone genomic DNA, which was enhanced by the presence of Mg(2+) in the medium. Collectively, these results reinforce the existence of the TNF signaling cascade in mollusks like disk abalone, further implicating the putative regulatory behavior of TTRAP in invertebrate host pathology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Application of novel polymorphic microsatellite loci identified in the Korean Pacific Abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta (Haliotidae)) in the genetic characterization of wild and released populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hye Suck; Lee, Jang Wook; Hong, Seong Wan

    2012-01-01

    The small abalone, Haliotis diversicolor supertexta, of the family Haliotidae, is one of the most important species of marine shellfish in eastern Asia. Over the past few decades, this species has drastically declined in Korea. Thus, hatchery-bred seeds have been released into natural coastal areas to compensate for the reduced fishery resources. However, information on the genetic background of the small abalone is scarce. In this study, 20 polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers were identified using next-generation sequencing techniques and used to compare allelic variation between wild and released abalone populations in Korea. Using high-throughput genomic sequencing, a total of 1516 (2.26%; average length of 385 bp) reads containing simple sequence repeats were obtained from 86,011 raw reads. Among the 99 loci screened, 28 amplified successfully, and 20 were polymorphic. When comparing allelic variation between wild and released abalone populations, a total of 243 different alleles were observed, with 18.7 alleles per locus. High genetic diversity (mean heterozygosity = 0.81; mean allelic number = 15.5) was observed in both populations. A statistical analysis of the fixation index (F(ST)) and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated limited genetic differences between the two populations (F(ST) = 0.002, p > 0.05). Although no significant reductions in the genetic diversity were found in the released population compared with the wild population (p > 0.05), the genetic diversity parameters revealed that the seeds released for stock abundance had a different genetic composition. These differences are likely a result of hatchery selection and inbreeding. Additionally, all the primer pair sets were effectively amplified in another congeneric species, H. diversicolor diversicolor, indicating that these primers are useful for both abalone species. These microsatellite loci may be valuable for future aquaculture and population genetic studies aimed at

  16. The Effect of Pleistocene Climate Fluctuations on Distribution of European Abalone (Haliotis tuberculata), Revealed by Combined Mitochondrial and Nuclear Marker Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, Valérie; Van Wormhoudt, Alain

    2017-04-01

    The genetic differentiation among the populations of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata was investigated using different markers to better understand the evolutionary history and exchanges between populations. Three markers were used: mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI), the sperm lysin nuclear gene, and eight nuclear microsatellites. These markers present different characteristics concerning mutation rate and inheritance, which provided complementary information about abalone history and gene diversity. Genetic diversity and relationships among subspecies were calculated from a sample of approximately 500 individuals, collected from 17 different locations in the north-eastern Atlantic Ocean, Macaronesia, and Mediterranean Sea. COI marker was used to explore the phylogeny of the species with a network analysis and two phylogenetic methods. The analysis revealed 18 major haplotypes grouped into two distinct clades with a pairwise sequence divergence up to 3.5 %. These clades do not correspond to subspecies but revealed many contacts along Atlantic coast during the Pleistocene interglaciations. The sperm lysin gene analysis separated two different subtaxa: one associated to Macaronesian islands, and the other to all other populations. Moreover, a small population of the northern subtaxon was isolated in the Adriatic Sea-probably before the separation of the two lineages-and evolved independently. Microsatellites were analyzed by different genetics methods, including the Bayesian clustering method and migration patterns analysis. It revealed genetically distinct microsatellite patterns among populations from Mediterranean Sea, Brittany and Normandy, Morocco, and Canary and Balearic islands. Gene flow is asymmetric among the regions; the Azores and the Canary Islands are particularly isolated and have low effective population sizes. Our results support the hypothesis that climate changes since the Pleistocene glaciations have played a major role in the

  17. Antimicrobial and Antitumor Activities of Novel Peptides Derived from the Lipopolysaccharide- and β-1,3-Glucan Binding Protein of the Pacific Abalone Haliotis discus hannai

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    Bo-Hye Nam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides are a pivotal component of the invertebrate innate immune system. In this study, we identified a lipopolysaccharide- and β-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP gene from the pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai (HDH, which is involved in the pattern recognition mechanism and plays avital role in the defense mechanism of invertebrates immune system. The HDH-LGBP cDNA consisted of a 1263-bp open reading frame (ORF encoding a polypeptide of 420 amino acids, with a 20-amino-acid signal sequence. The molecular mass of the protein portion was 45.5 kDa, and the predicted isoelectric point of the mature protein was 4.93. Characteristic potential polysaccharide binding motif, glucanase motif, and β-glucan recognition motif were identified in the LGBP of HDH. We used its polysaccharide-binding motif sequence to design two novel antimicrobial peptide analogs (HDH-LGBP-A1 and HDH-LGBP-A2. By substituting a positively charged amino acid and amidation at the C-terminus, the pI and net charge of the HDH-LGBP increased, and the proteins formed an α-helical structure. The HDH-LGBP analogs exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activity, with minimal effective concentrations ranging from 0.008 to 2.2 μg/mL. Additionally, both were toxic against human cervix (HeLa, lung (A549, and colon (HCT 116 carcinoma cell lines but not much on human umbilical vein cell (HUVEC. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS analysis showed that HDH-LGBP analogs disturb the cancer cell membrane and cause apoptotic cell death. These results suggest the use of HDH-LGBP analogs as multifunctional drugs.

  18. Morfologia do estômago e do duodeno da paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766

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    M.R.F. Machado

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Considerando a importância da paca (Cuniculus paca, Linnaeus, 1766, tanto como fonte proteica alternativa para a população quanto pela possibilidade de vir a se tornar um animal de experimentação e pela falta de informações sobre a sua anatomia, objetivou-se descrever a morfologia macroscópica e histológica do estômago e do duodeno desse roedor, reconhecendo as relações, forma e posição que esses órgãos estabelecem entre si e com outros órgãos. O estômago da paca é unicavitário, está no plano médio mais voltado para o antímero esquerdo, transversalmente, na região hipocôndrica em posição ventrocaudal, interposto entre o esôfago e o duodeno. O duodeno da paca se inicia em sequência ao estômago, segue caudalmente até o nível da quinta ou sexta vértebra lombar, na altura das quais se curva e toma direção cranial, dirigindo-se até o nível da transição entre a última vértebra torácica e a primeira vértebra lombar, onde se continua como jejuno. Histologicamente, o estômago e o duodeno da paca possuem o padrão característico da arquitetura dos órgãos ocos, apresentando as seguintes túnicas: mucosa, submucosa, muscular e serosa. Da forma que se conduziu este estudo, conclui-se que o estômago e duodeno da paca, de forma geral, possuem características morfológicas macroscópicas e histológicas semelhantes às dos animais domésticos e de outros roedores selvagens.

  19. Histologia do fígado de avestruz (Struthio camelus, Linnaeus 1758

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    Gisele Saviani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A criação de avestruz (Struthio camelus, Linnaeus 1758 é uma atividade de grande potencial, porém não existem padrões definidos sobre a histologia do seu fígado, que é um órgão de grande importância no metabolismo. O conhecimento de sua histologia pode contribuir para a detecção de doenças e deficiências nutricionais no animal. Para este estudo foram utilizados 24 avestruzes com idades entre 12 e 18 meses (com peso médio em torno de 80 a 100 kg, provenientes do abatedouro Don Pig, em Botucatu no estado de São Paulo. Os animais foram abatidos com pistola pneumática e, após a sangria, as amostras do fígado foram processadas e observadas em microscopia de luz e microscopia eletrônica de transmissão (MET. A hematoxilina e eosina (H.E, picrossírius, Gordon e Sweets, Sudan black e o ácido peródico de Schiff (PAS são colorações usadas respectivamente para observar a morfologia do fígado, colágeno, fibras reticulares, gordura e glicogênio. Foram encontrados os espaços portahepáticos.O glicogênio mostrou média de 5,68%, o conteúdo lipídico, média de 9,83%, o colágeno média de 14,71% e as fibras reticulares média de 5,96%. Quanto à MET notou-se no citoplasma dos hepatócitos, numerosas mitocôndrias, glicogênio, muitas gotas de gordura, alguns lisossomos, retículo endoplasmático granular ao redor das mitocôndrias, algumas células estreladas, célula em degeneração e o canalículo biliar ao centro. Provavelmente o quadro sugestivo de esteatose é resultante do estado nutricional dos animais. Estes resultados demonstraram que os hepatócitos dos avestruzes são muito similares às outras aves, como também muito semelhantes à estrutura e ultraestrutura das células do fígado de mamíferos.

  20. Diet of the fishing bat Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Chiroptera in a mangrove area of southern Brazil Dieta do morcego-pescador Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Chiroptera em uma área de manguezal do sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo O. Bordignon

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available From January to December 1999, the diet of Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758 was determined in a salt-water ecosystem, by analysing the feces of bats captured in mist nets. Of the 61 samples analyzed, most contained remains of fish (90.2%, followed by insects (70.5% and crustaceous (29.5%. The most frequent fishes species were: silversides Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825, anchovies Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier, 1829 and scaly sardines Ophisthonema oglinum (Lesueur, 1818. The most frequent insects were moths (Saturniidae and beetles (Cerambycidae, Scarabaeidae and Coccinellidae, as well as two species of bat ectoparasites (Streblidae. Among the crustaceous the shrimp (Palaemonidae and crabs (Gecarcinidae are was present. The consumption of fish, insects and crustaceans was different for the males and females throughout the year.De janeiro a dezembro de 1999, foi estudada a dieta de Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758 em um ecossistema de manguezal, através da análise das fezes de morcegos capturados com redes-neblina. Das 61 amostras analisadas, a maioria continha fragmentos de peixes (90.2%, seguido de insetos (70.5% e crustáceos (29,5%. As espécies de peixes mais freqüentes foram: peixe-rei Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825, manjuba Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier, 1829 e sardinha Ophisthonema oglinum (Lesueur, 1818. Os insetos mais freqüentes foram mariposas (Saturniidae e besouros (Cerambycidae, Scarabaeidae e Coccinellidae, além de duas espécies de ectoparasitas (Streblidae. Entre os crustáceos, houve a presença apenas de camarões (Palaemonidae e siris (Gecarcinidae. O consumo de peixes, insetos e crustáceos foi diferente para machos e fêmeas ao longo do ano.

  1. Infestasi pinjal dan infeksi Dipylidium caninum Linnaeus pada kucing liar di lingkungan kampus Institut Pertanian Bogor, Kecamatan Dramaga

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    Aulia Syifak Bashofi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate flea infestation and Dipylidium caninum (Linnaeus 1758 infection on stray cat on Bogor Agricultural University Dramaga. Thirty stray cats were collected from various places around on Bogor Agricultural University Dramaga. The stray cats that showed clinical signs of pruritus and alopecia were collected purposively. The whole body was powdered by gamexan powder, after that the fleas were collected by manual and examined microscopically. The totals of 30 fecal stray cat samples collected and examined toward D. caninum used Mcmaster methode, flotation methode, and saw the existence of proglottid. The result of identification showed that there was found one species of flea, namely Ctenocephalides felis (Bouche 1835, while on faeces was not found D. caninum. Twenty one stray cats were infected by the flea with density average of fleas per cat was 3.8 ± 1.9 individual.

  2. Ultrastructure of Ascaridia galli (Schrank, 1788) (Nematoda: Ascaridida) from the endangered green peafowl Pavo muticus Linnaeus (Galliformes: Phasianidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wen-Ting; Guo, Yan-Ning; Zhang, Lu-Ping; Li, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Ascaridia galli (Schrank, 1788) is a common parasite of various galliform birds worldwide. Although A. galli has been extensively studied by many author, knowledge of the morphology of this species in detail is still insufficient. In the present paper, the detailed morphology of A. galli was further studied using light and scanning electron microscopy, based on specimens collected from the endangered green peafowl Pavo muticus Linnaeus (Galliformes: Phasianidae) in China. The results revealed some erroneous and previously unreported morphological features, including the lips lacking real denticles, the lateral alae beginning at some distance posterior to the base of the ventrolateral lips and the caudal papillae with 4 different morphotypes. The present morphological and morphometric data complement previous descriptions and enable us to recognize this species more precisely.

  3. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL LIMITATIVE FACTORS FOR GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT IN STERLET (ACIPENSER RUTHENUS LINNAEUS, 1758 IN EXTENSIVELY SYSTEM

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    R. C. DIMA

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The oldest and most common method of increasing fish is a fish breeding ponds in which the supervision of nutrition and growth of biological material. Sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus ruthenus Linnaeus 1785 is the 4th of sturgeon scale and economic importance as a share of production of these fish .Monitoring of physicochemical parameters of sturgeons ponds has a crucial role to obtain satisfactory yields both in qualitative and quantitative. Chemical characteristics of water were determined in laboratory ecosystems Chemistry of the Institute of Research and Development for Ecology Aquaculture, Fisheries and Aquaculture Galaţi for the samples have been taken of the total water. Determination of the chemical characteristics was performed by standardized methods. Physic-chemical parameters of water were determined according to norm on the classification of surface water quality in order to establish the ecological status of water (Order no. 161/2006, for Class II of quality.

  4. Microsatellite loci discovery from next-generation sequencing data and loci characterization in the epizoic barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758

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    Christine Ewers-Saucedo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellite markers remain an important tool for ecological and evolutionary research, but are unavailable for many non-model organisms. One such organism with rare ecological and evolutionary features is the epizoic barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758. Chelonibia testudinaria appears to be a host generalist, and has an unusual sexual system, androdioecy. Genetic studies on host specificity and mating behavior are impeded by the lack of fine-scale, highly variable markers, such as microsatellite markers. In the present study, we discovered thousands of new microsatellite loci from next-generation sequencing data, and characterized 12 loci thoroughly. We conclude that 11 of these loci will be useful markers in future ecological and evolutionary studies on C. testudinaria.

  5. Microsatellite loci discovery from next-generation sequencing data and loci characterization in the epizoic barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardus, John D.; Wares, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Microsatellite markers remain an important tool for ecological and evolutionary research, but are unavailable for many non-model organisms. One such organism with rare ecological and evolutionary features is the epizoic barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758). Chelonibia testudinaria appears to be a host generalist, and has an unusual sexual system, androdioecy. Genetic studies on host specificity and mating behavior are impeded by the lack of fine-scale, highly variable markers, such as microsatellite markers. In the present study, we discovered thousands of new microsatellite loci from next-generation sequencing data, and characterized 12 loci thoroughly. We conclude that 11 of these loci will be useful markers in future ecological and evolutionary studies on C. testudinaria. PMID:27231653

  6. Nesting and diet of Harpia harpyjaLinnaeus in the Native Community of Infi erno, Made de Dios, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Piana, Renzo P.

    2013-01-01

    El Águila Arpía (Harpia harpyja Linnaeus) es la rapaz de mayor tamaño que habita los bosques amazónicos, sin embargo en el Perú, es muy poco lo que se sabe de esta especie. Desde 1996 a 2001, realizó una investigación en la Comunidad Nativa de Infi erno para obtener información sobre la biología de la especie mediante la localización y observación de nidos activos y abandonados. La investigación permitió encontrar los primeros nidos activos descritos para el Águila Arpía en Perú e indica...

  7. Anidamiento y dieta de Harpia harpyjaLinnaeus en la Comunidad Nativa de Infierno, Madre de Dios, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Piana, Renzo

    2007-01-01

    El Águila Arpía (Harpia harpyja Linnaeus) es la rapaz de mayor tamaño que habita los bosques amazónicos, sin embargo en el Perú, es muy poco lo que se sabe de esta especie. Desde 1996 a 2001, realizó una investigación en la Comunidad Nativa de Infierno para obtener información sobre la biología de la especie mediante la localización y observación de nidos activos y abandonados. La investigación permitió encontrar los primeros nidos activos descritos para el Águila Arpía en Perú e indicarían u...

  8. Impact of elevated levels of atmospheric CO2 and herbivory on flavonoids of soybean (Glycine max Linnaeus).

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    O'Neill, Bridget F; Zangerl, Arthur R; Dermody, Orla; Bilgin, Damla D; Casteel, Clare L; Zavala, Jorge A; DeLucia, Evan H; Berenbaum, May R

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) have been increasing steadily over the last century. Plants grown under elevated CO2 conditions experience physiological changes, particularly in phytochemical content, that can influence their suitability as food for insects. Flavonoids are important plant defense compounds and antioxidants that can have a large effect on leaf palatability and herbivore longevity. In this study, flavonoid content was examined in foliage of soybean (Glycine max Linnaeus) grown under ambient and elevated levels of CO2 and subjected to damage by herbivores in three feeding guilds: leaf skeletonizer (Popillia japonica Newman), leaf chewer (Vanessa cardui Linnaeus), and phloem feeder (Aphis glycines Matsumura). Flavonoid content also was examined in foliage of soybean grown under ambient and elevated levels of O3 and subjected to damage by the leaf skeletonizer P. japonica. The presence of the isoflavones genistein and daidzein and the flavonols quercetin and kaempferol was confirmed in all plants examined, as were their glycosides. All compounds significantly increased in concentration as the growing season progressed. Concentrations of quercetin glycosides were higher in plants grown under elevated levels of CO2. The majority of compounds in foliage were induced in response to leaf skeletonization damage but remained unchanged in response to non-skeletonizing feeding or phloem-feeding. Most compounds increased in concentration in plants grown under elevated levels of O3. Insects feeding on G. max foliage growing under elevated levels of CO2 may derive additional antioxidant benefits from their host plants as a consequence of the change in ratios of flavonoid classes. This nutritional benefit could lead to increased herbivore longevity and increased damage to soybean (and perhaps other crop plants) in the future.

  9. Biomineral repair of abalone shell apertures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Maggie; Guo, Dujiao; Chung, Peter; Kamenos, Nicholas A

    2013-08-01

    The shell of the gastropod mollusc, abalone, is comprised of nacre with an outer prismatic layer that is composed of either calcite or aragonite or both, depending on the species. A striking characteristic of the abalone shell is the row of apertures along the dorsal margin. As the organism and shell grow, new apertures are formed and the preceding ones are filled in. Detailed investigations, using electron backscatter diffraction, of the infill in three species of abalone: Haliotis asinina, Haliotis gigantea and Haliotis rufescens reveals that, like the shell, the infill is composed mainly of nacre with an outer prismatic layer. The infill prismatic layer has identical mineralogy as the original shell prismatic layer. In H. asinina and H. gigantea, the prismatic layer of the shell and infill are made of aragonite while in H. rufescens both are composed of calcite. Abalone builds the infill material with the same high level of biological control, replicating the structure, mineralogy and crystallographic orientation as for the shell. The infill of abalone apertures presents us with insight into what is, effectively, shell repair. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Update on geographic spread of invasive lionfishes (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus, 1758] and P. miles [Bennett, 1828]) in the Western North Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Pamela J.

    2010-01-01

    The Indo-Pacific lionfishes (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus, 1758] and P. miles [Bennett, 1828]: Family Scorpaenidae) are the first nonnative marine fishes to establish in the Western North Atlantic/Caribbean region. The chronology of the invasion was reported last year (Schofield 2009) using records from the US Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species database. This article provides an update of lionfish geographic spread (as of October 2010) and predictions of future range.

  11. Populations and home range relationships of the box turtle, Terrapene c. carolina (Linnaeus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.

    1950-01-01

    SUMMARY: A population study of the box turtle (Terrapene c. carolina Linnaeus) was made during the years 1944 to 1947 at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Maryland. A thirty acre area in well drained bottomland forest on the flood plain of the Patuxent River was selected for intensive study. Similarly forested land extended in all directions from the study plot. Markers were established at eighty-three foot intervals over the study plot for reference in recording locality data. Individuals were marked by filing notches in the marginal scutes according to a code system. There were 2109 collections of study area turtles. Records of collecting sites and turtle behavior showed that in the bottomlands habitat cover is utilized extensively during the day as well as at night. Turtles not actively moving about are almost always found in or around brush piles, heaps of debris, and tangles of vines and briars. Gully banks and woods openings are used for sunning. Turtles are occasionally found in the mud or water of the gullies. The commonest type of night retreat is a cavity constructed by the turtle in leaves, debris, or earth. These cavities, termed 'forms,' may be used only once, but are sometimes used repeatedly, often at intervals of several days or more. Different turtles sometimes use the same form on successive nights. Weather conditions most favorable to turtle activity are high humidity, warm sunny days, and frequent rains. The most unfavorable influences are low temperatures and drought. On most summer days there are some active turtles but individual turtles are not active every day. Periods of activity are alternated with periods of quiet even in favorable weather. This behavior is most pronounced in early spring and late fall when inactive days are often more numerous than active ones. Adult turtles occupy specific home ranges which they maintain from year to year. The turtles living in the study plot retained their ranges even through a flood that completely

  12. Populations and home range relationships of the box turtle, Terrapene carolina (Linnaeus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.

    1949-01-01

    A population study of Terrapene carolina (Linnaeus) was made at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Maryland, from 1944 to 1947. A thirty acre area in bottomland forest was selected for intensive study. Turtles were marked by filing notches in marginal scutes according to a code. Turtles make extensive use of brushy shelter during the day as well.as at night. Gully banks and woods openings are used for sunning. Nights are usually spent in a 'form,' constructed by the turtle in leaves, debris, or earth. A form may be used once or it may be used repeatedly by the same or different turtles. Weather conditions most favorable to turtle activity are high humidity, warm sunny days, and frequent rains. Periods of activity are alternated with periods of quiet, even in favorable weather. There is no evidence for territorialism. Ranges of turtles of all ages and both sexes overlap grossly. Turtles are frequently found near each other but no antagonistic behavior has been observed. Adult turtles occupy specific home ranges which they maintain from year to year. Turtles retained their ranges even though a flood that completely covered the study area. Maximum home range diameters were determined by measurements of the mapped ranges of individual turtles. There was no significant difference between sizes of male and female ranges: males 33O+ 26 feet, females 37O+29 feet. A trail-laying device was used in following travel routes for 456 turtle days. Normal movements within the home range are characterized by (1) turns, doublings, detours, and criss-crossing paths, (2) interspersion of fairly direct traverses of the home range, (3) frequently repeated travels over certain routes. Maximum limits of the home range are ordinarily reached within a few days or weeks, although some turtles cover only one portion of the range at a time. Some turtles have two home ranges. One of these turtles was followed with a trailer for 161 days in 1946 and 1947. Trips outside the home range are made by

  13. THE NUTRITION OF A PIKEPERCH, Stizostedion lucioperca Linnaeus, 1758 in THE RIVER NERETVA

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    Sadbera Trožić-Borovac

    2007-04-01

    ., 1976; T r o ž i ć – B o r o v a c, 2002a, it could be concluded that a pikeperch has no competitor. The other fish species have fed on the invertebrates and plants of benthos, accept a rare lake trout Salmo trutta m. lacustris Linnaeus, 1758 specimens which have shown tendency to the greedy way of the nutrition. This paper is the contribution to the knowledge of a pikeperch nutrition in the river Neretva accumulations that is, beside the reproduction, the important character of population growth control of this greedy animal, and in the aim of the survival of the autochthonous ichthyopopulations in the river Neretva system.

  14. First insight into the heritable variation of the resistance to infection with the bacteria causing the withering syndrome disease in Haliotis rufescens abalone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokordt, Katherina; González, Roxana; Farías, William; Winkler, Federico E; Lohrmann, Karin B

    2017-11-01

    Withering syndrome disease has experienced worldwide spread in the last decade. This fatal disease for abalone is produced by a rickettsia-like organism (WS-RLO), the bacterium "Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis". To evaluate the potential of the red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) to improve its resistance to infection by WS-RLO, the additive genetic component in the variation of this trait was estimated. For this, the variation in infection intensity with WS-RLOs and WS-RLOv (phage-infected RLOs) was analyzed in 56 families of full-sibs maintained for three years in a host-parasite cohabitation aquaculture system. A WS-RLO prevalence of 65% was observed in the analysed population; and from the total WS-RLO inclusions 60% were hyperparasited with the phage (WS-RLOv). The decrease in the food ingestion rate was the sole negative effect associated with increasing WS-RLO intensity of infection, suggesting that the high level of WS-RLOv load may have diminished the symptoms of WS disease in the analyzed abalones. The estimated heritabilities were moderate to mid, but significant, varying from 0.21 to 0.23 and 0.36 for WS-RLO and WS-RLOv infections, respectively. This suggests that variation in resistance to infection with WS-RLO may respond to selection in the evaluated red abalone population. Estimated response to selection (G) for the level of infection by WS-RLO indicated that if the 10% of red abalone with the lowest infection level is selected as broodstock, a 90% reduction in the intensity of infection in the progeny can be expected, even with the lowest estimation of heritability (h 2 =0.21). This strong response would be also due to the large phenotypic variance of this trait. Strong positive correlations, both phenotypic and genotypic, were observed between infection intensities with WS-RLO and WS-RLOv, indicating that selection to increase resistance to one of the types of RLOs will affect resistance in the other in the same direction. This is the first

  15. Two duplicated chicken-type lysozyme genes in disc abalone Haliotis discus discus: molecular aspects in relevance to structure, genomic organization, mRNA expression and bacteriolytic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Bathige, S D N K; Kasthuri, Saranya Revathy; Wan, Qiang; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jehee

    2013-08-01

    Lysozymes are crucial antibacterial proteins that are associated with catalytic cleavage of peptidoglycan and subsequent bacteriolysis. The present study describes the identification of two lysozyme genes from disc abalone Haliotis discus discus and their characterization at sequence-, genomic-, transcriptional- and functional-levels. Two cDNAs and BAC clones bearing lysozyme genes were isolated from abalone transcriptome and BAC genomic libraries, respectively and sequences were determined. Corresponding deduced amino acid sequences harbored a chicken-type lysozyme (LysC) family profile and exhibited conserved characteristics of LysC family members including active residues (Glu and Asp) and GS(S/T)DYGIFQINS motif suggested that they are LysC counterparts in disc abalone and designated as abLysC1 and abLysC2. While abLysC1 represented the homolog recently reported in Ezo abalone [1], abLysC2 shared significant identity with LysC homologs. Unlike other vertebrate LysCs, coding sequence of abLysCs were distributed within five exons interrupted by four introns. Both abLysCs revealed a broader mRNA distribution with highest levels in mantle (abLysC1) and hepatopancreas (abLysC2) suggesting their likely main role in defense and digestion, respectively. Investigation of temporal transcriptional profiles post-LPS and -pathogen challenges revealed induced-responses of abLysCs in gills and hemocytes. The in vitro muramidase activity of purified recombinant (r) abLysCs proteins was evaluated, and findings indicated that they are active in acidic pH range (3.5-6.5) and over a broad temperature range (20-60 °C) and influenced by ionic strength. When the antibacterial spectra of (r)abLysCs were examined, they displayed differential activities against both Gram positive and Gram negative strains providing evidence for their involvement in bacteriolytic function in abalone physiology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dietary ascorbic acid modulates the expression profile of stress protein genes in hepatopancreas of adult Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chenglong; Wang, Jia; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary ascorbic acid (AA) on transcriptional expression patterns of antioxidant proteins, heat shock proteins (HSP) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in the hepatopancreas of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino (initial average length: 84.36 ± 0.24 mm) using real-time quantitative PCR assays. L-ascorbyl-2-molyphosphate (LAMP) was added to the basal diet to formulate four experimental diets containing 0.0, 70.3, 829.8 and 4967.5 mg AA equivalent kg(-1) diets, respectively. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of adult abalone in acrylic tanks (200 L) in a flow-through seawater system. Each tank was stocked with 15 abalone. Animals were fed once daily (17:00) to apparent satiation for 24 weeks. The results showed that the dietary AA (70.3 mg kg(-1)) could significantly up-regulate the expression levels of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), feritin (FT) and heat shock protein 26 (HSP26) in the hepatopancreas of abalone in this treatment compared to the controls. However, the expression levels of Mn-SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx), selenium-binding protein (SEBP), HSP70 and HSP90 were significantly down-regulated. Compared with those in the group with 70.3 mg kg(-1) dietary AA, the expression levels of CAT, GST and HSP26 were decreased in abalone fed with very high dietary AA (4967.5 mg kg(-1)). In addition, significant up-regulations of expression levels of Mn-SOD, GPX, TPx, SEBP, FT, HSP70, HSP90 and NF-κB were observed in abalone fed with apparently excessive dietary AA (829.8 and 4967.5 mg kg(-1)) as compared to those fed 70.3 mg kg(-1) dietary AA. These findings showed that dietary AA influenced the expression levels of antioxidant proteins, heat shock proteins and NF-κB in the hepatopancreas of abalone at transcriptional level. Levels of dietary AA that appeared adequate (70.3 mg kg(-1)) reduced the oxidative stress

  17. Effects of waterborne Cu and Cd on anti-oxidative response, lipid peroxidation and heavy metals accumulation in abalone Haliotis discus hannai ino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yanju; Zhang, Wenbing; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Yanjiao; Zhou, Huihui; Mai, Kangsen

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of waterborne copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) on survival, anti-oxidative response, lipid peroxidation and metal accumulation in abalone Haliotis discus hannai. Experimental animals (initial weight: 7.49 g ± 0.01 g) were exposed to graded concentrations of waterborne Cu (0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 mg L-1) or Cd (0.025, 0.05, 0.25, 0.5 mg L-1) for 28 days, respectively. Activities of the anti-oxidative enzymes (catalase, CAT; superoxide dismutase, SOD; glutathione peroxidases, GPx; glutathione S-transferase, GST), contents of the reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondiadehyde (MDA) in the hepatopancreas, and metal accumulation in hepatopancreas and muscles were analyzed after 0, 1, 3, 6, 10, 15, 21, 28 days of metal exposure, respectively. Results showed that 0.04 mg L-1, 0.06 mg L--1 and 0.08 mg L-1 Cu caused 100% death of abalone on the 21st, 10th and 6th day, respectively. However, no dead abalone was found during the 28-day waterborne Cd exposure at all experimental concentrations. Generally, activities of SOD and GST in hepatopancreas under all Cu concentrations followed a decrease trend as the exposure time prolonged. However, these activities were firstly increased and then decreased to the control level and increased again during Cd exposure. Activities of CAT in all Cu exposure treatments were higher than those in the control. These activities were firstly increased and then decreased to the control level and increased again during Cd exposure. Contents of MDA in hepatopancreas in all Cu treatments significantly increased first and then decreased to the control level. However, the MDA contents in hepatopancreas were not significantly changed during the 28-day Cd exposure. The metals accumulation in both hepatopancreas and muscles of abalone significantly increased with the increase of waterborne metals concentration and exposure time. These results indicated that H. discus hannai has a positive anti-oxidative defense

  18. Effects of ocean acidification with pCO2 diurnal fluctuations on survival and larval shell formation of Ezo abalone, Haliotis discus hannai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onitsuka, Toshihiro; Takami, Hideki; Muraoka, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Yukio; Nakatsubo, Ayumi; Kimura, Ryo; Ono, Tsuneo; Nojiri, Yukihiro

    2018-03-01

    This study assessed the effects of constant and diurnally fluctuating pCO 2 on development and shell formation of larval abalone Haliotis discus hannai. The larvae was exposed to different pCO 2 conditions; constant [450, 800, or 1200 μatm in the first experiment (Exp. I), 450 or 780 μatm in the second experiment (Exp. II)] or diurnally fluctuating pCO 2 (800 ± 400 or 1200 ± 400 μatm in Exp. I, 450 ± 80, 780 ± 200 or 780 ± 400 μatm in Exp. II). Mortality, malformation rates or shell length of larval abalone were not significantly different among the 450, 800, and 800 ± 400 μatm pCO 2 treatments. Meanwhile, significantly higher malformation rates and smaller shells were detected in the 1200 and 1200 ± 400 μatm pCO 2 treatments than in the 450 μatm pCO 2 treatment. The negative impacts were greater in the 1200 ± 400 μatm than in the 1200 μatm. Shell length and malformation rate of larval abalone were related with aragonite saturation state (Ω-aragonite) in experimental seawater, and greatly changed around 1.1 of Ω-aragonite which corresponded to 1000-1300 μatm pCO 2 . These results indicate that there is a pCO 2 threshold associated with Ω-aragonite in the seawater, and that pCO 2 fluctuations produce additional negative impacts on abalone when above the threshold. Clear relationships were detected between abalone fitness and the integrated pCO 2 value over the threshold, indicating that the effects of OA on development and shell formation of larval abalone can be determined by intensity and time of exposure to pCO 2 over the threshold. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecular identification and functional delineation of a glutathione reductase homolog from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus): Insights as a potent player in host antioxidant defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, H M L P B; Wickramasinghe, P D S U; Bathige, S D N K; Jayasooriya, R G P T; Kim, Gi-Young; Park, Myoung Ae; Kim, Chul; Lee, Jehee

    2017-01-01

    Glutathione reductase (GSR) is an enzyme that catalyzes the biochemical conversion of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) into the reduced form (GSH). Since the ratio between the two forms of glutathione (GSH/GSSG) is important for the optimal function of GSH to act as an antioxidant against H 2 O 2 , the contribution of GSR as an enzymatic regulatory agent to maintain the proper ratio is essential. Abalones are marine mollusks that frequently encounter environmental factors that can trigger the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as H 2 O 2 . Therefore, we conducted the current study to reveal the molecular and functional properties of a GSR homolog in the disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus. The identified cDNA sequence (2325 bp) has a 1356 bp long open reading frame (ORF), coding for a 909 bp long amino acid sequence, which harbors a pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase domain (171-246 aa), a pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase dimerization domain, and a NAD(P)(+)-binding Rossmann fold superfamily signature domain. Four functional residues: the FAD binding site, glutathione binding site, NADPH binding motif, and assembly domain were identified to be conserved among the other species. The recombinant abalone GSR (rAbGSR) exhibited detectable activity in a standard glutathione reductase activity assay. The optimum pH and optimal temperature for the reaction were found to be 7.0 and 50 °C, respectively, while the ionic strength of the medium had no effect. The enzymatic reaction was vastly inhibited by Cu +2 and Cd +2 ions. A considerable effect of cellular protection was detected with a disk diffusion assay conducted with rAbGSR. Moreover, an MTT assay and flow cytometry confirmed the significance of the protective role of rAbGSR in cell function. Furthermore, AbGSR was found to be ubiquitously distributed in different types of abalone tissues. AbGSR mRNA expression was significantly upregulated in response to three immune challenges

  20. Effects of the dietary administration of sodium alginate on the immune responses and disease resistance of Taiwan abalone, Haliotis diversicolor supertexta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Winton; Yu, Jyun-Sian

    2013-03-01

    Sodium alginate extracted from brown algae was reported to enhance the immune response and resistance of fish and shrimp. In this study, survival rates of the abalone, Haliotis diversicolor supertexta, against Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and its non-specific immune parameters such as the total haemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, phagocytic activity, and clearance efficiency to V. parahaemolyticus by H. diversicolor supertexta were determined when abalone (4.5 ± 0.4 g) were fed diets containing sodium alginate at 0, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 g kg⁻¹. Abalone fed a diet containing sodium alginate at 2.0 and 3.0 g kg⁻¹ for 14 days and at 1.0 g kg⁻¹ for 21 days had significantly higher survival rates than those fed the control diet after challenge with V. parahaemolyticus. The relative survival percentages of abalone fed the 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 g kg⁻¹ sodium alginate-containing diets for 14 and 21 days were 16.1%, 40.0%, and 48.0%, and 63.6%, 27.3% and 22.6%, respectively. The PO activity, respiratory bursts, SOD activity, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency of V. parahaemolyticus of abalone fed the sodium alginate-containing diets at 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 g kg⁻¹ were significantly higher than those of abalone fed the control diet for 14 days. After 21 days, the PO activity, respiratory bursts, SOD activity, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency of V. parahaemolyticus by abalone fed the sodium alginate-containing diet at 1.0 g kg⁻¹ were significantly higher than those of abalone fed the other diets. It was concluded that sodium alginate can be used as an immunostimulant for abalone through dietary administration to enhance immune responses of abalone and resistance against V. parahaemolyticus, which were related to the dose and timing of administration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular characterization of kappa class glutathione S-transferase from the disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) and changes in expression following immune and stress challenges.

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    Sandamalika, W M Gayashani; Priyathilaka, Thanthrige Thiunuwan; Liyanage, D S; Lee, Sukkyoung; Lim, Han-Kyu; Lee, Jehee

    2018-06-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST; EC 2.5.1.18) isoenzymes represent a complex group of proteins that are involved in phase II detoxification in several organisms. In this study, GST kappa (GSTκ) from the disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus; AbGSTκ) was characterized at both the transcriptional and functional levels to determine its potential capacity to perform as a detoxification agent under conditions of different stress. The predicted AbGSTκ protein consists of 227 amino acids, with a predicted molecular weight of 25.6 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point (pI) of 7.78. In silico analysis reveals that AbGSTκ is a disulfide bond formation protein A (DsbA), consisting of a thioredoxin domain, GSH binding sites (G-sites), and a catalytic residue. In contrast, no hydrophobic ligand binding site (H-site), or signal peptides, were detected. AbGSTκ showed the highest sequence identity with the orthologue from pufferfish (Takifugu obscurus) (60.0%). In a phylogenetic tree, AbGSTκ clustered closely together with other fish GSTκs, and was evolutionarily distanced from other cytosolic GSTs. The predicted three-dimensional structure clearly demonstrates that the dimer adopts a butterfly-like shape. A tissue distribution analysis revealed that GSTκ was highly expressed in the digestive tract, suggesting it has detoxification ability. Depending on the tissue and time, AbGSTκ showed different expression patterns, and levels of expression, following challenge of the abalone with immune stimulants. Enzyme kinetics of the purified recombinant proteins demonstrated its conjugating ability using 1-Chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and glutathione (GSH) as substrates, and suggested it has a low affinity for both substrates. The optimum temperature and pH for the rAbGSTκ GSH: CDNB conjugating activity were found to be 35 °C and pH 8, respectively indicating that the abalone is well adapted to a wide range of environmental conditions. Cibacron blue (100 μM) was

  2. Antibiotic resistence of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 and Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 Resistência de Aeromonas hydrophila isolada de Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 e Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 a antibióticos

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    Andréa Belém-Costa

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important problems involving treatments with antibiotics against Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fishes is that antibiotic resistance develops readily. The antimicrobial activity of chemotherapeutants in isolates from pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 and tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 was tested by the Kirby-Bauer disk method, over Mueller-Hinton surface agar previously inoculated with 100 µL of bacterial suspensions. After regular incubation, isolates from tilapia and pacu were uniformly resistant to amoxicillin, ampicillin, lincomycin, novobiocin, oxacillin, penicillin, and trimetoprim+sulfametoxazole. The A. hydrophila type strain presented resistance to the same antimicrobial substances and also against rifampicin; the bacterial isolate from pacu were the only strain resistant to tetracyclin. Isolates from both pacu and tilapia had intermediate reaction with erytromycin. The use of drugs in commercial fish farms in Brazil can favor the development of resistant bacterial strains in native fish species as already observed for exotic species, commercially produced for longer time.Um dos maiores problemas envolvendo o tratamento com antibióticos contra Aeromonas hydrophila isolada de peixes confinados é a rápida resistência ao antibiótico desenvolvida pela bactéria. A atividade antimicrobiana de quimioterapêuticos em isolados a partir de pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 e tilápia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 foi verificada pelo método de difusão de antibiótico em discos de Kirby-Bauer, sobre uma superfície de Agar Mueller-Hinton previamente inoculada com 100 µL de suspensão bacteriana. Após o período de incubação, os isolados de tilápia e pacu foram uniformemente resistentes a amoxicilina, ampicilina, lincomicina, novobiocina, oxacilina, penicilina e trimetoprim+sulfametoxazol. A cepa tipo para A. hydrophila apresentou resistência às mesmas subst

  3. Fishery biology of the swordfish (Xiphias gladius, Linnaeus 1758 caught by surface longliners based in Itajaí, southern Brazil

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    Ana Lia Campos Quaggio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Xiphias gladius (Linnaeus, 1758 data used in the present study were obtained from commercial fishing cruises of the pelagic longline fleet based in Itajaí, operating in the Southwest Atlantic. For the Covariance models, fishing effort (number of hooks and catches (kg were pooled and categorized into the following groups: (1 year (1997, 1998, 2001, 2002 and 2007; (2 lunar phase; and (3 seasons, fishing effort being the covariate. The highest mean swordfish catch (kg occurred during the waxing crescent moon and during wintertime. The Mantel-Haenszel procedure was applied to compare the efficiency of the two hooks tested, and showed that the "J" hook type (J 9/0 10º offset, traditionally used by the fleet, catches 1.2-fold more Xiphias gladius than the circle hook (18/0 10º offset, used as an optional device to reduce sea turtle bycatch. The conversion of individual dressed weight (kg into total length (cm from 2000 to 2002, showed that sub-adults represented 66% of the total catch.No presente estudo foram analisados os dados obtidos para Xiphias gladius (Linnaeus, 1758 através de observadores, mapas de bordo e fichas de desembarque de carcaças, coletadas pela frota de espinhel-de-superfície sediada em Itajaí (SC. Modelos de análise de covariância (ANCOVA foram aplicados aos dados de captura (peso em kg do espadarte, tendo como efeitos: (1 anos de 1997, 1998, 2001, 2002 e 2007 (2 fases lunares e (3 épocas do ano. A covariável foi o esforço de pesca (n° de anzóis. As maiores médias de captura ocorreram durante as fases de lua crescente e no inverno. O procedimento estatístico de Mantel-Haenszel foi utilizado para comparar as capturas do espadarte no anzol tipo "Jota" (J 9/0 10º offset, comumente utilizado pela frota, com o anzol tipo "circular" (18/0 10º offset, este último oferecido como alternativa mitigadora à captura de tartarugas marinhas. O teste M-H mostrou que o anzol "Jota" apresentou 1,2 mais chances de capturar

  4. Inhibition of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus

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    Chang HB

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hong-Bin Chang,1 Bing-Huei Chen1,21Department of Food Science, 2Graduate Institute of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, Taipei, TaiwanAbstract: The objectives of this study were to explore the inhibition mechanism of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus. In addition, human bronchus epithelial cell line BEAS-2B (normal cell was selected for comparison. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method was developed to separate and quantify the various curcuminoids in C. longa extract, including curcumin (1,714.5 µg/mL, demethoxycurcumin (1,147.4 µg/mL, and bisdemethoxycurcumin (190.2 µg/mL. A high-stability nanoemulsion composed of Tween 80, water, and curcuminoid extract was prepared, with mean particle size being 12.6 nm. The cell cycle was retarded at G2/M for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments; however, the inhibition pathway may be different. H460 cells were more susceptible to apoptosis than A549 cells for both curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments. Growth of BEAS-2B remained unaffected for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments, with a concentration range from 1 to 4 µg/mL. Also, the activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 followed a dose-dependent increase for both A549 and H460 cells for both the treatments, accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in cytochrome C expression and a dose-dependent decrease in CDK1 expression. Interestingly, a dose-dependent increase in cyclin B expression was shown for A549 cells for both the treatments, while a reversed trend was found for H460 cells. Both mitochondria and death receptor pathways may be responsible for apoptosis of both A549 and H460 cells.Keywords: curcuminoid extract, curcuminoid nanoemulsion, Curcuma longa Linnaeus, lung cancer cell, cell cycle, apoptosis mechanism

  5. Extensive fragmentation of the X chromosome in the bed bug Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 (Heteroptera, Cimicidae: a survey across Europe

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    David Sadílek

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Variation in the number of chromosomes was revealed in 61 samples of Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 from the Czech Republic and other European countries, hosted on Myotis Kaup, 1829 (4 and Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 (57. The karyotype of all the specimens of C. lectularius analysed contained 26 autosomes and a varying number of the sex chromosomes. The number of sex chromosomes showed extensive variation, and up to 20 fragments were recorded. Altogether, 12 distinct karyotypes were distinguished. The male karyotypes consisted of 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 40, 42 and 47 chromosomes. The females usually exhibited the number of chromosomes which was complementary to the number established in the males from the same sample. However, 11 polymorphic samples were revealed in which the karyotypes of females and males were not complementary each other. The complement with 2n = 26+X1X2Y was found in 44% of the specimens and 57,4% samples of bed bugs studied. The karyotypes with higher chromosome numbers as well as individuals with chromosomal mosaics were usually found within the samples exhibiting particularly extensive variation between individuals, and such complements were not found within samples contaning a few or single specimen. The occurrence of chromosomal mosaics with the karyotype constitution varying between cells of single individual was observed in five specimens (4.3% from five samples. We assume that polymorphism caused by fragmentation of the X chromosome may result in meiotic problems and non-disjunction can produce unbalanced gametes and result in lowered fitness of individuals carrying higher numbers of the X chromosome fragments. This effect should be apparently enhanced with the increasing number of the fragments and this may be the reason for the observed distribution pattern of individual karyotypes in the studied samples and the rarity of individuals with extremely high chromosome numbers. The assumed lowering of the

  6. Desenvolvimento pós-embrionário do intestino médio de Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr. (Diptera, Cuterebridae Post-embryonic development of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr. (Diptera, Cuterebridae midgut

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    Edy de Lello

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus, 1781 midgut is internally lined by an epithelium of polytenic cells, some low others prismatic with well developed brush border. Their apical portion are enlarged by secretory vesicles, forming button-like structures that are pinched off to the lumen, some accompained by the nucleus characterizing apocrine and holocrine secretions. This epithelium is gradually renewed by small, non polytenic regenerative cells, found scattered at its basal portion. At the end of the third instar the metamorphosis begins. The epithelial cells present signs of degeneration and at the first day of pupation the regenerative cells increase in number. By the 5th day of pupation these regenerative cells, besides being increased in number, differentiate themselves into two layers: one similar to the dense conective tissue that sustainning the larval epithelium is pinched off to the midgut lumen forming the "yellow bodies"; the other, develops right under it as the imaginal epitelium. The disorganized muscles bundles of the midgut wall, are invaded by phagocytes. At the end of pupation the midgut has a low prismatic epithelium with brush-border. In the adult, the torax portion of the midgut has prismatic homogeneously basophilic epithelium while in the abdominal portion the epithelium is made of high prismatic cells full of small vacuoles. The larval midgut epithelium suffers programmed cell death non compatible with apoptose. During the metamorphosis the midgut lenght diminishes from 31mm in the larva to 14mm in the adult.

  7. Desenvolvimento pós-embrionário do intestino anterior de Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr. (Diptera, Cuterebridae Post-embryonic development of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr. (Diptera, Cuterebridae foregut

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    Ana Maria Vieira

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Foregut in D. hominis (Linnaeus Jr., 1781 as the majority of the larval Diptera somatic tissue, is made up of polytenic cells, and grows at the expenses of the polytenization of its nuclei followed by the increase in size of each cell. The oesophagus, of ectodermic origem, is interiorly covered by a chitinous squamous epithelium that rests upon a very thin basal lamina. This sheet is surrounded by thick muscle bundles. The oesophagus intussuscepts the midgut forming the cardia. The cardia, with three epithelial layers: two internal ones, of ectodermal origin and one external of endodermic origin. At the anterior portion of the cardia, between these two types of epithelium, there is a cluster of small, non polytenic cells, forming the imaginal disk of the foregut. Metamoiphosis begins at the end of the larval period with signs of nuclear degeneration of all the polytenic cells, as well as the increase in number of the imaginal disk ones. The oesophagic portion intussuscepted into the cardia, everts; its cells suffer apoptosis and are replaced by the new cells growing from the imaginal disk. The external layer cells also degenerate and are pinched off into the lumen of the very anterior portion of the midgut. The newly formed oesophagus intussuscepts "de novo" to form the two internal layers of the adult cardia. At the same time the midgut regenerative cells grow anteriorly to form the new external layer of the adult cardia.

  8. Molecular identification and functional analysis of two variants of myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyathilaka, Thanthrige Thiunuwan; Bathige, S D N K; Lee, Seongdo; Lee, Jehee

    2018-02-01

    Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is a crucial adaptor protein of the Toll-like receptor (TLR)- and interleukin 1 receptor-mediated signaling pathways and is involved in a diverse array of inflammatory responses via NF-κB activation. In the present study, two MyD88 variants were identified from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) and designated AbMyD88-2 and AbMyD88-X. The deduced AbMyD88-2 and AbMyD88-X comprised 433 and 354 amino acids with predicted molecular masses of 48.85 kDa and 40.17 kDa, respectively. AbMyD88-2 and AbMyD88-X possessed typical MyD88 domain structural features including an N-terminal death domain (DD) and C-terminal toll interleukin 1 receptor (TIR) domain similar to those in mammals. Expression analysis of AbMyD88-2 and AbMyD88-X mRNA at different early embryonic developmental stages of abalone by qPCR revealed that their constitutive expression at all developmental stages analyzed with the considerably higher values at the 16-cell (AbMyD88-2) and morula stages (AbMyD88-X). In unchallenged disk abalones, AbMyD88-2 was highly expressed in muscles, while AbMyD88-X mRNA was predominantly transcribed in hemocytes. Moreover, AbMyD88-2 and AbMyD88-X mRNA were differentially modulated in abalone hemocytes after a challenge with live bacteria (Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Listeria monocytogenes), virus (viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus), and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (lipopolysaccharides and Poly I:C). Overexpression of AbMyD88-2 and AbMyD88-X in HEK293T cells induced the activation of the NF-κB promoter. AbMyD88-2 and AbMyD88-X involvement in inflammatory responses was characterized by their overexpression in RAW264.7 murine macrophage cells. These results revealed comparatively higher NO (Nitric oxide) production, induction of inflammatory mediator genes (iNOS and COX2), and proinflammatory genes (IL1β, IL6 and TNFα) expression in abalone MyD88s-overexpressing cells than in mock control in the presence or absence of LPS

  9. Ecosystem engineering potential of the gastropod Terebralia palustris (Linnaeus, 1767) in mangrove wastewater wetlands - A controlled mesocosm experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penha-Lopes, Gil, E-mail: gil.penha-lopes@biology-research.co [Centro de Oceanografia - Laboratorio Maritimo da Guia, Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Na, Senhora do Cabo 939, 2750-374 Cascais (Portugal); Department of Analytical and Environmental Chemistry, Vrije Universiteit Brussels, Brussels (Belgium); Bartolini, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via Romana 17, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Limbu, Samwel [University of Dar es Salaam, Department of Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries, P.O. Box 35064, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of); Cannicci, Stefano [Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via Romana 17, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Mgaya, Yunus [University of Dar es Salaam, Department of Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries, P.O. Box 35064, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of); Kristensen, Erik [Institute of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Paula, Jose [Centro de Oceanografia - Laboratorio Maritimo da Guia, Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Na, Senhora do Cabo 939, 2750-374 Cascais (Portugal)

    2010-01-15

    The effect of different sewage concentrations (0, 20, 60 and 100%), vegetation (Bare, Avicennia marina or Rhizophora mucronata) and immersion periods (immersion/emersion period of 12/12 h or 3/3 days just for 100%) conditions were studied for 6 months on survival and growth rates of Terebralia palustris (Linnaeus, 1767). Gastropods' activity and ecosystem engineering preformed at bare and A. marina planted cells and 3 sewage conditions (0, 20 and 60%) were determined. Survival rates were higher than 70% in all treatments. Growth rate decreased significantly with increasing sewage concentrations (mainly at unplanted conditions) and longer immersion periods. A complete shift (from immersion to emersion periods) and a significant decrease in mobility and consequently its engineer potential, due to sewage contamination, lead to a 3-4 fold decrease in the amount of sediment disturbed. Sewage contamination, primary producers' abundance and environmental conditions may have influenced the gastropods survival, growth and its ecosystem engineering potential. - Terebralia palustris high ecosystem engineering potential in constructed mangrove wetlands.

  10. Perbedaan respon Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae, terhadap paparan anti nyamuk bakar dan bunga keluwih (Artocarpus camansi, Blanco

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    Nur Endah Wahyuningsih

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The control of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF it is important to control the vector, i.e. Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus and Ae. albopictus (Skuse. Usually, controls of these vectors are done using chemical insecticides. Research on mosquito resistance has been done, but the impact of mosquitoes that survive after synthetic (chemical insecticides application has not been studied. The aim of this research was to analyze the differences of fecundity, fertility and vitality rate of mosquitoes that were exposed to natural insecticides i.e with burned breadnut flowers and mosquito coils containing transflutrin and d-aletrin. Mosquito samples were taken from field eggs which were exposed with synthetic and natural insecticides. Mosquitoes that remainder alive after 24 hours exposure were mated and each group were put in 2 cages, each repetition were repeated 3 times. The mosquito eggs were observed until adult mosquitoes die. Then, the fecundity, fertility and vitality rate were compared. Based on our analysis, there were no differences on fecundity rate, between control and mosquitoes that were exposed to natural insecticides, but there were significant differences between the control and the synthetic insecticides. Natural insecticides do not increase the rate of fecundity but synthetic insecticides may increase the rate of fecundity and number of mosquitoes and causes the mosquito lifespan longer than the control and natural insecticide treatment.

  11. GRAMÍNEAS TROPICALES EN EL ENGORDE DE CUYES MEJORADOS SEXADOS (Cavia porcellus Linnaeus EN LA ZONA DE LA MANÁ

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    Adolfo Sánchez Laiño

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La investigación de gramíneas tropicales en el engorde de cuyes en la zona de La Maná. La misma que persiguió los siguientes objetivos: Incrementar los índices productivos en cuyes (Cavia porcellus Linnaeus peruanos mejorados bajo el efecto del consumo del pasto saboya (Panicum maximun Jack, hojas de maíz (Zea mays y caña de azúcar (Saccharum officinarum L en la zona de La Maná, y determinar la rentabilidad de los tratamientos. Se utilizaron 48 cuyes peruanos mejorados sexados de 35 días de edad con un peso promedio de 305 g. Se aplicó un arreglo factorial 2 (sexo x 3 (gramíneas con cuatro repeticiones, dentro de un (DBCA. Para las comparaciones entre medidas se utilizó la prueba de Tukey al 0.05% de probabilidad. Para obtener la rentabilidad de los tratamientos se utilizó la Relación Beneficio–Costo. Se evaluó el: consumo de gramíneas (g, consumo de alimento (g, ganancia de peso (g, conversión alimenticia, peso vivo (g y rendimiento a la canal (%. Los cuyes machos presentaron el mayor (P0.05 no se vio afectado por el efecto del consumo de gramíneas. La mayor rentabilidad la registraron los cuyes machos alimentados con hoja de maíz + balanceado (52.4%.

  12. Insecticidal activity of garlic essential oil and their constituents against the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Martínez, Luis Carlos; Santos, Marcelo Henrique Dos; Fernandes, Flávio Lemes; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Soares, Marcus Alvarenga; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the insecticidal activity of garlic, Allium sativum Linnaeus (Amaryllidaceae) essential oil and their principal constituents on Tenebrio molitor. Garlic essential oil, diallyl disulfide, and diallyl sulfide oil were used to compare the lethal and repellent effects on larvae, pupae and adults of T. molitor. Six concentrations of garlic essential oil and their principal constituents were topically applied onto larvae, pupae and adults of this insect. Repellent effect and respiration rate of each constituent was evaluated. The chemical composition of garlic essential oil was also determined and primary compounds were dimethyl trisulfide (19.86%), diallyl disulfide (18.62%), diallyl sulfide (12.67%), diallyl tetrasulfide (11.34%), and 3-vinyl-[4H]-1,2-dithiin (10.11%). Garlic essential oil was toxic to T. molitor larva, followed by pupa and adult. In toxic compounds, diallyl disulfide was the most toxic than diallyl sulfide for pupa > larva > adult respectively and showing lethal effects at different time points. Garlic essential oil, diallyl disulfide and diallyl sulfide induced symptoms of intoxication and necrosis in larva, pupa, and adult of T. molitor between 20–40 h after exposure. Garlic essential oil and their compounds caused lethal and sublethal effects on T. molitor and, therefore, have the potential for pest control. PMID:28425475

  13. First isolation and RFLP genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii from crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous-Linnaeus, 1766).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Jonatas Campos; de Melo, Renata Pimentel Bandeira; de Morais Pedrosa, Camila; da Silva Santos, Marcelo; de Barros, Luiz Daniel; Garcia, João Luis; Porto, Wagnner José Nascimento; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido

    2017-05-01

    Wild animals may play an important role in the transmission and maintenance of Toxoplasma gondii in the environment. The purpose of the present study was to isolate and genotype T. gondii from a free-ranging crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous-Linnaeus, 1766). A crab-eating fox in critical health condition was attended in a veterinary hospital in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil. The animal died despite emergency treatment. The brain was collected aseptically and destined for mouse bioassay. One isolate of T. gondii was obtained, and Polymerase Chain Reaction - Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used to assess genetic variability at 11 markers (SAG1, SAG2, altSAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c228, c292, L358, PK1 and APICO). A murine model was used to assess the virulence of the isolate. Using the PCR-RFLP, genotype ToxoDB #13 was identified, which is considered an atypical strain. The isolate was classified as avirulent in the murine model. This is the first study to report T. gondii infection in the crab-eating fox. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of culture conditions on the growth and reproduction of Gut Weed, Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus (Ulvales, Chlorophyta

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    Rapeeporn Ruangchuay

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In vitro cultivation of Gut Weed, Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus, was experimentally studied to support its near optimalfarming, with potential impact in Thailand on its direct use as human food or its co-cultures in shrimp farming.Germling clusters (2 weeks old and 7.50±2.98 mm long were seeded into 500 mL flasks and biomass growth rateoptimized with respect to the main controllable factors; seedling density, salinity, light intensity, and temperature. These factorswere assumed to each have an optimal value independent of the others, and the factors were optimized one at a time. Themaximum growth at three to four weeks of cultivation was obtained at the factor levels of 0.05 gL-1, 20 ppt, 80 mol photonm-2s-1 and 25°C. Early zoosporangia were obtained from 2nd to 4th weeks. The relative growth rate ranged from 9.47 to 22.18 %day-1, and only asexual reproduction of U. intestinalis was observed under these culture conditions.

  15. Spatial distribution and esterase activity in populations of Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae resistant to temephos

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    Wanessa Porto Tito Gambarra

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The need for studies that describe the resistance patterns in populations of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus in function of their region of origin justified this research, which aimed to characterize the resistance to temephos and to obtain information on esterase activity in populations of Aedes aegypti collected in municipalities of the State of Paraíba. METHODS: Resistance to temephos was evaluated and characterized from the diagnostic dose of 0.352mg i.a./L and multiple concentrations that caused mortalities between 5% and 99%. Electrophoresis of isoenzymes was used to verify the patterns of esterase activity among populations of the vector. RESULTS: All populations of Aedes aegypti were resistant to temephos, presenting a resistance rate (RR greater than 20. The greatest lethal dose 50% of the sample (CL50 was found for the municipality of Lagoa Seca, approximately forty-one times the value of CL50 for the Rockefeller population. The populations characterized as resistant showed two to six regions of α and β-esterase, called EST-1 to EST-6, while the susceptible population was only seen in one region of activity. CONCLUSIONS: Aedes aegypti is widely distributed and shows a high degree of resistance to temephos in all municipalities studied. In all cases, esterases are involved in the metabolism and, consequently, in the resistance to temephos.

  16. Anidamientoydieta de Harpia harpyja Linnaeus en la Comunidad Nativa de Infierno, Madre de Dios, Perú

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    Renzo P. Piana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El Águila Arpía (Harpia harpyja Linnaeus es la rapaz de mayor tamaño que habita los bosques amazónicos, sin embargo en el Perú, es muy poco lo que se sabe de esta especie. Desde 1996 a 2001, realizó una investigación en la Comunidad Nativa de Infi erno para obtener información sobre la biología de la especie mediante la localización y observación de nidos activos y abandonados. La investigación permitió encontrar los primeros nidos activos descritos para el Águila Arpía en Perú e indicarían una cierta preferencia para anidar en castañales. Así mismo, la información recogida ha permitido establecer que el área de anidamiento de una pareja de Águilas Arpía en la zona de estudio es de aproximadamente 4300 hectáreas. El análisis de los restos de las presas consumidas y de las egagrópilas recolectadas dentro y alrededor de la base de los nidos nos han permitido hacer una primera descripción de la dieta de la especie, la cual está compuesta principalmente por mamíferos arbóreos.

  17. Insecticidal activity of garlic essential oil and their constituents against the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Martínez, Luis Carlos; Santos, Marcelo Henrique Dos; Fernandes, Flávio Lemes; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Soares, Marcus Alvarenga; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2017-04-20

    This study evaluated the insecticidal activity of garlic, Allium sativum Linnaeus (Amaryllidaceae) essential oil and their principal constituents on Tenebrio molitor. Garlic essential oil, diallyl disulfide, and diallyl sulfide oil were used to compare the lethal and repellent effects on larvae, pupae and adults of T. molitor. Six concentrations of garlic essential oil and their principal constituents were topically applied onto larvae, pupae and adults of this insect. Repellent effect and respiration rate of each constituent was evaluated. The chemical composition of garlic essential oil was also determined and primary compounds were dimethyl trisulfide (19.86%), diallyl disulfide (18.62%), diallyl sulfide (12.67%), diallyl tetrasulfide (11.34%), and 3-vinyl-[4H]-1,2-dithiin (10.11%). Garlic essential oil was toxic to T. molitor larva, followed by pupa and adult. In toxic compounds, diallyl disulfide was the most toxic than diallyl sulfide for pupa > larva > adult respectively and showing lethal effects at different time points. Garlic essential oil, diallyl disulfide and diallyl sulfide induced symptoms of intoxication and necrosis in larva, pupa, and adult of T. molitor between 20-40 h after exposure. Garlic essential oil and their compounds caused lethal and sublethal effects on T. molitor and, therefore, have the potential for pest control.

  18. Susceptibility of larvae of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae to entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae

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    María L. PESCHIUTTA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae es vector de los agentes etiológicos de la fiebre amarilla y del dengue. Una alternativa al control químico de este vector es el uso de agentes biológicos. Los nematodos entomopatógenos son efectivos en el control de plagas. La infectividad y el ciclo de vida de un aislado argentino de Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae en larvas de A. aegypti se registró por primera vez bajo condiciones de laborato - rio. Para cada unidad experimental, 30 larvas de mosquito de segundo estadio fueron expuestas a 8 dosis del nematodo (0:1, 1:1, 5:1, 15:1, 100:1, 500:1, 750:1, 1500:1. Los juveniles infectivos (JIs utilizados fueron multiplicados sobre Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. La continuidad infectiva de los JIs obtenidos de A. aegypti fue probada aplicándolos en una dosis de 100:1 sobre larvas del mosquito . Las tasas de mortalidad fueron de 0% a 84%. El número de nematodos desarrollados dentro de la larva de mosquito, la mortalidad larval y los nuevos JIs se incrementaron con el aumento de la dosis de nematodos. Los resultados indican que H. bacteriophora es capaz de infectar larvas de A. aegypti , se desarrolla y produce nuevos JIs, permitiendo la continuidad de su ciclo de vida.

  19. Inhibition of Various Cancer Cells Proliferation of Bornyl Acetate and Essential Oil from Inula graveolens (Linnaeus Desf

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    Tunay Karan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Inula species are medicinal and aromatic plants used for folk medicine extensively. In this work, hydrodistilled essential oil of Inula graveolens (Linnaeus Desf. analyzed by GC-MS which revealed that bornyl acetate was the major product (69.15%. Camphene was the second major compound (11.11%. Antiproliferative activity of the essential oil and bornyl acetate was investigated on HeLa (human cervix carcinoma, HT29 (human colon carcinoma , A549 (human lung carcinoma, MCF7 ( human breast adenocarcinoma cancer cells and FL (human amnion cells normal cells. The cytotoxicity was executed by a Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH Cytotoxicity Detection Kit. Essential oil and bornyl acetate displayed the outstanding activities on HeLa (IC 50, 64.1, 72.0 µg/mL, HT29 (IC 50, 24.6, 60.5 µg/mL, A549 (IC 50, 28.3, 44.1 µg/mL, MCF-7 (IC 50, 66.5, 85.6 µg/mL, and FL (IC 50, 42.1, 50.6 µg/mL cell lines respectively.

  20. The gold tegu, Tupinambis teguixin (Linnaeus, 1758) sensu lato (Squamata: Teiidae): evidence for an established population in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jake R.; Ketterlin, Jennifer K.; Rochford, Michael R.; Irwin, Rodney; Krysko, Kenneth L.; Duquesnel, James G.; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Reed, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Gold tegus, Tupinambis teguixin (Linnaeus, 1758), are generalist predators from South America and are ecologically similar to Argentine black and white tegus (Salvator merianae), a successful invader in Florida. We trapped gold tegus in Broward and Miami-Dade counties, Florida, USA. In Miami-Dade County, collection occurred from 2008 through 2016. We combined new trapping records with previous literature records. Ten gold tegus of both sexes and multiple size classes over a nine year period indicate a reproducing population in Miami-Dade County. Tupinambis teguixin is the sixth established non-native teiid species in Florida. Additionally, we report Tupinambis teguixin from Sarasota and Lee counties, Florida, USA. Determining population status in those counties requires further study. It is critical to differentiate this species fromSalvator merianae during removal efforts. The possibility of eradicating Tupinambis teguixin exists if proper identification enables reliable monitoring of the populations.

  1. Modeling suitable habitat of invasive red lionfish Pterois volitans (Linnaeus, 1758) in North and South America’s coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Paul H.; Young, Nicholas E.; Schofield, Pamela J.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.

    2016-01-01

    We used two common correlative species-distribution models to predict suitable habitat of invasive red lionfish Pterois volitans (Linnaeus, 1758) in the western Atlantic and eastern Pacific Oceans. The Generalized Linear Model (GLM) and the Maximum Entropy (Maxent) model were applied using the Software for Assisted Habitat Modeling. We compared models developed using native occurrences, using non-native occurrences, and using both native and non-native occurrences. Models were trained using occurrence data collected before 2010 and evaluated with occurrence data collected from the invaded range during or after 2010. We considered a total of 22 marine environmental variables. Models built with non-native only or both native and non-native occurrence data outperformed those that used only native occurrences. Evaluation metrics based on the independent test data were highest for models that used both native and non-native occurrences. Bathymetry was the strongest environmental predictor for all models and showed increasing suitability as ocean floor depth decreased, with salinity ranking the second strongest predictor for models that used native and both native and non-native occurrences, indicating low habitat suitability for salinities lionfish could continue to invade southern latitudes in the western Atlantic Ocean and may establish localized populations in the eastern Pacific Ocean. We reiterate the importance in the choice of the training data source (native, non-native, or native/non-native) used to develop correlative species distribution models for invasive species.

  2. Temperature induced variation in oxygen consumption of juvenile and adult stage of the dog conch Laevistrombus canarium (Linnaeus 1758)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Wan Nurul Husna Wan; Amin, S. M. Nurul; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd; Cob, Zaidi Che

    2015-09-01

    Laevistrombus canarium Linnaeus, 1758 is one of the important edible sea snail within the western Johor Straits, Malaysia. In this study, the impact of temperature on oxygen consumption (MO2) of L. canarium based on their ontogenetic changes (juvenile and adult) was measured in the laboratory condition at 22.0, 26.0, 30.0 and 34.0°C. Measurement of MO2 were taken every 1 s for 60 min on 4.20 - 34.00 g dog conch using respirometry chamber. All experiments were carried out in static conditions in five replicates with one snail per chambers. The results of oxygen consumption showed that juvenile dog conch respired at the rate of 0.163 ml h-1 and adult respired at the rate of 0.119 ml h-1. Consequently, the oxygen consumption in juvenile and adult dog conch was expressed as a total energy spends. The results indicates that total energy spend for oxygen consumed (ml h-1) of L. canarium at different temperature regimes (22.0 to 34.0°C) slightly increased over time period (0.63 ± 0.12 to 3.24 ± 0.05 J h-1) respectively. This finding of the present study suggested L. canarium is well adapted for life in high temperature environment.

  3. Size differences in the Dufour gland of Apis mellifera Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Apidae between and within the female castes

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    Fábio Camargo Abdalla

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The Dufour gland is found closely associated with the sting apparatus of all hymenopteran females, playing multiple roles among bees. In Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 the gland is connected to the dorsal vaginal wall and, in queens, it produces egg-marking pheromones. In workers the function of this gland is unknown, except by its capacity to mimic the queen secretion in egg-laying workers. In an attempt to understand the development and to substantiate the present knowledge about the Dufour gland in A. mellifera, a morphometric study of the gland between and within the female castes was made. Glands of workers and queens with different ages and life stages were dissected and measured with an ocular micrometer adapted to a stereoscope. The results showed that the Dufour gland is larger in queens than in workers, and that among workers, the gland is larger in egg-laying and foragers than it is in newly emerged and nurse workers. The larger size of the gland in egg-laying queens and workers is in accordance with its role in reproduction. In forager workers the larger size of the gland suggest that, as happens in some species of bees, the gland may participate in pheromone production for nest-mate or nest-entrance recognition.

  4. INVAZIA GHIDRINULUI – GASTEROSTEUS ACULEATUS LINNAEUS, 1758 ÎN FLUVIUL NISTRU (LIMITELE REPUBLICII MOLDOVA ŞI FACTORII DETERMINANŢI

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    Dumitru BULAT

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available În condiţiile intensificării presingului antropic în ecosistemele acvatice din Republica Moldova majoritatea speciilor stenobionte au devenit ameninţate cu dispariţia, însă unele, cu potenţial adaptiv înalt, dimpotrivă, pe fonul eliberării nişe­lor spaţiale, pot prolifera în exces şi chiar provoca efect invaziv. Pentru fluviul Nistru (limitele Republicii Moldova un exemplu elocvent este ghidrinul Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus, 1758 care, după construcţia hidrocentralei dela Novodnestrovsk (1981 a devenit o specie multidominantă, formând până la or. Soroca o populaţie locală deosebit de numeroasă.În lucrare sunt analizate particularităţile bioecologice ale ghidrinului şi sunt evidenţiaţi factorii de mediu ce au con­tribuit la invazia taxonului în fl. Nistru (limitele Republicii Moldova.THE INVASION OF THREE-SPINED STICKLEBACK – GASTEROSTEUS ACULEATUS LINNAEUS, 1758 IN DNIESTER RIVER (LIMITS OF REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA AND ITS DETERINANT FACTORS Under the intensification of anthropogenic pressure in aquatic ecosystems of Republic of Moldova, most of stenobionte species became threatened with extinction, but some species, potentially high adaptive, contrast, in present demonstrates an evident biological progression, in some hydrobiotops causing a stressed invasive effect. For Dniester River (limits of Republic of Moldova three-spined stickleback – Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus, 1758 is a good example, after the construction of Novodnestrovsk hydropower (1981 became a multidominate species forming to Soroca city a particularly large local population.In this paper are analyzed bio- ecological peculiarities of three-spined stickleback and are highlighted environmental factors that contributed to taxon invasion in Dniester River (limits of Republic of Moldova.

  5. Effects of Feeding Frequency on Growth, Feed Consumption, and Body Composition in Juvenile Turbot (Psetta maxima Linnaeus, 1758) at Low Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    TÜRKER, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile turbot Psetta maxima (Linnaeus, 1758) (15.23 ± 2.99 g) were fed to satiation with a commercial extruded feed over a 60-day period. Feeding regimens were twice a day (TD), every other day (EOD), and 2-day intervals (TDI). Fish were kept in seawater (18 ppt) at 5-7.5 °C from January 21 to March 23, 2004. Feed conversion rate (FCR) and the protein efficiency ratios (PER) were within the ranges of 1.12-1.14 and 2.26-2.29, respectively. While the maximum relative growth rate (RGR), weight...

  6. Report of Enodiotrema megachondrus (Looss, 1899 Looss, 1901 (Digenea: Plagiorchiidae in a green turtle Chelonia mydas Linnaeus, 1758 (Testudines, Cheloniidae from Brazil

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    Werneck M. R.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the occurrence of Enodiotrema megachondrus (Looss, 1899 Looss, 1901 in a juvenile green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas Linnaeus, 1758 found on the coast of Brazil. This parasite has been described in Caretta caretta from Egypt, France, the Mediterranean Sea, the Madeira Archipelago, the Adriatic Sea and the USA, in C. mydas from Egypt and the USA, in Eretmochelys imbricata from Cuba, in Lepidochelys olivacea from Mexico and Costa Rica and in Lepidochelys kempii from USA. This note represents the first report of E. megachondus in a green sea turtle in the South-West Atlantic Ocean.

  7. Confirmation of the presence of Heniochus acuminatus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chaetodontidae and Pomacanthus maculosus (Forsskål, 1775 (Pomacanthidae in Iraqi marine waters, Arabian Gulf

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    Jawad, L. A

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Two specimens (116,119 mm TL of Heniochus acuminatus (Linnaeus, 1758 and four specimens (171–190 mm TL of Pomacanthus maculosus (Forsskål, 1775 were collected from Iraqi marine waters of the Arabian Gulf. These findings confirm the presence of H. acuminatus and establish the first record of P. maculosus from Iraqi waters. The samples were captured by hook and line off the coasts of Al–Fao City Peninsula, southern Iraq. Arabian Gulf. morphometric and meristic data are provided and compared with data from other parts of the world.

  8. Dieta de graxaim-do-mato, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus) (Carnivora, Canidae), em uma região suburbana do sul do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Pedó, Ezequiel; Tomazzoni, Ana C.; Hartz, Sandra M.; Christoff, Alexandre U.

    2006-01-01

    The crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766), is a small canid with twilight and nocturnal habits from savannas and forests of South America. In this study, we seasonally determined and quantified the diet of C. thous in Lami Biological Reserve, a conservation unit with 179.78ha situated in a suburban area in the municipality of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil. During the year 2000, we collected 80 fecal samples - 20 for each season - in two or three week sampling intervals, along trai...

  9. Diet of crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus (Carnivora, Canidae, in a suburban area of southern Brazil Dieta de graxaim-do-mato, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus (Carnivora, Canidae, em uma região suburbana do sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Pedó

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766, is a small canid with twilight and nocturnal habits from savannas and forests of South America. In this study, we seasonally determined and quantified the diet of C. thous in Lami Biological Reserve, a conservation unit with 179.78ha situated in a suburban area in the municipality of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil. During the year 2000, we collected 80 fecal samples - 20 for each season - in two or three week sampling intervals, along trails inside the Reserve. Samples were dried in an oven for 24h at 60ºC, immersed in 70% alcohol, and prey items were identified using a stereomicroscope. The diet of the crab-eating fox was essentially carnivorous (87.62% composed by vertebrates, with seasonal variation (p = 0.0009 and absence of fruits. Small non-flying mammals and birds were the most frequent prey, being proportionally more preyed in autumn and summer, respectively. Arthropods were more preyed in winter and spring and bird/reptile eggs only in summer and spring, in the reproduction period of these groups.O graxaim-do-mato, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766, é um canídeo de pequeno porte de hábito crepuscular e noturno que ocorre nas savanas e florestas da América do Sul. Neste estudo foi avaliada a sazonalidade e a dieta de C. thous na Reserva Biológica do Lami, uma unidade de conservação com 179,78ha, situada na região suburbana do município de Porto Alegre, no sul do Brasil. Durante o ano de 2000 foram coletadas 80 amostras fecais - 20 por estação do ano - em coletas realizadas a cada duas ou três semanas, percorrendo as trilhas existentes na Reserva. As amostras foram desidratadas em estufa por 24h a 60ºC, imersas em álcool a 70%, e as presas foram identificadas com auxílio de estereomicroscópio. A dieta do graxaim-do-mato apresentou-se essencialmente carnívora (87,62% composta por vertebrados, com variação sazonal (p = 0,0009 e ausência de frutos. Pequenos mamíferos n

  10. Behavioural responses of captive-born greater rheas Rhea americana Linnaeus (Rheiformes, Rheidae submitted to antipredator training Respostas comportamentais de emas cativas Rhea americana Linnaeus (Rheiformes, Rheidae submetidas a treinamentoanti-predação

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    Cristiano S. de Azevedo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Human activities have been diminishing greater rhea Rhea americana (Linnaeus, 1758 populations throughout their natural distribution. The reintroductions of captive-born greater rheas have been tried but without success; since the individuals reintroduced were killed by predators. Captive-born animals that have been isolated from predators for many generations can lose their predator recognition abilities. To enhance the survival rates of the reintroduced animals, researchers are now using antipredator training techniques. We studied the response of 15 zoo-borne greater rheas to antipredator training. The animals were divided into three groups: two test groups and one control group. We ran 15 antipredator tests and four control testes with each group. Antipredator tests consisted of pairing a taxidermized predator model or a real predator (domestic dog with a simulation of a capture procedure. Control tests consisted of presenting the predator model (jaguar to the birds, after training but not associating it with an aversive event and recording behavioural responses. All tests were video-recorded and analysed a posteriori. Results showed that the trained rheas responded appropriately to the predators, becoming more vigilant and that there was considerable individual differences in response to antipredator training. The results demonstrated that antipredator training is effective and therefore an invaluable tool for reintroduction projects involving greater rheas. Furthermore, the methods employed in this research project should be applicable to other species of flightless birds.As atividades humanas têm diminuído as populações de emas Rhea americana (Linnaeus, 1758 por toda sua área de distribuição. Reintroduções de emas nascidas em cativeiro têm sido tentadas, mas sem sucesso, uma vez que os indivíduos reintroduzidos são mortos por predadores. Animais nascidos em cativeiro que foram isolados de seus predadores por várias gera

  11. Viabilidade econômica do cultivo de carpa comum (cyprinus carpio linnaeus, 1758 em monocultivo em densidades diferentes Economical viability of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 cultivation in monocultivations in different densities

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    Álvaro Graeff

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com esta pesquisa estudar o efeito econômico do povoamento de alevinos I de carpa comum (Cyprinus carpio LINNAEUS, 1758 com densidade diferenciada e com alimentação artificial e adubação química. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos (1; 0,5 e 0,33 peixes/m² avaliados ao longo do tempo e três repetições. Os peixes foram estocados com peso e comprimento médios de 2,40 g e 5,35; 5,40 e 5,39 cm, respectivamente, nos tratamentos, e com 45 dias de idade. As dietas foram formuladas com 27% de PB e 2925 Kcal/Kg de ração, sendo fornecidas diariamente na quantidade de 3% do peso vivo. Os resultados para o comprimento e peso dos peixes foram 25,68; 28,66 e 31,21 cm e 255,00; 424,00 e 519,66 g, respectivamente. A analise econômica foi estudada por meio de planilha de custo. Na produção total, os resultados foram 1882; 1513 e 1367 kg/hectare em um ciclo. Em condições similares, pode-se recomendar zootecnicamente todas as densidades estudadas e, economicamente, a lucratividade da atividade é crescente com o aumento da densidade, havendo diminuição do custo médio ou unitário.This research aimed at studying the economical effect of common carp (Cyprinus carpio LINNAEUS, 1758 settling of fingerlings with differenciated density and with artificial feeding and chemical fertilization. The design was entirely randomized with three treatments (1; 0.5 and 0.33 fishes/m² evaluated along the time and 3 repetitions. The fish were stocked with medium weight and mediun length of 2.40 g and 5.35; 5.40 and 5.39 cm, respectively, in the treatments, and 45 days old. The diets were formulated with 27% PB and 2.925 kcal/kg of ration, being given daily in the quantities of 3% of living weight. The results for the length and weight of the fishes were 25.68; 28.66 and 31.21 cm and 255.00; 424.00 and 519.66 g, respectively. The economical analisys was studied through cost planning. In the total production, the results

  12. Fertilidade do caranguejo de mangue Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus (Crustacea, Brachyura, Ocypodidae, em Iguape (São Paulo, Brasil Fertility of the mangrove crab Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus (Crustacea, Brachyura, Ocypodidae, at Iguape (São Paulo, Brazil

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    Gustavo Yomar Hattori

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 58 Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus, 1763 ovigerous females in final embryonic stage were collected in mangrove forest at Iguape (São Paulo. Each female were kept in laboratory until the larvae hatching and had their carapace width (CW measured with caliper (0.05 mm and the larval number (LN calculated by volumetric method. The hatching rates (HR were calculated for each animal's size class (5 mm. The values of LN and CW obtained were subjected to regression analyses and the best fitting model was chosen by comparing the obtained determination coefficients (R². The fertility varied from 71,200 to 220,800 larvae (147,169 ± 32,070 larvae, corresponding to 41.7 to 76.8 mm CW (63.7±7.9 mm, respectively. The relationship LNxCW was expressed by the equation LN = 284.1CW1.5º¹ (N = 58; R² = 0.74; p < 0.01, that showed a positive correlation between the variables. Most part of ovigerous females (89.7% showed their hatching during the nightly period. A negative correlation between HR and CW was observed in these animals (p < 0.05, probably due to reduction of spermatophores in the seminal receptacle (multiparous females or due to senility in the females with large size. The biological studies of U. cordatus are very important for practices adoption that preserve and make the rational use of this recourse in Brazilian's mangrove forests.

  13. Primera cita y confirmación de reproducción de Gomphus vulgatissimus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Odonata: Gomphidae en Gipuzkoa (País Vasco, España.

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    Leire Paz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Con la detección en 2016 de una larva de Gomphus vulgatisimus (Linnaeus, 1758 en el río Araxes se cita la especie por primera vez en el Territorio Histórico de Gipuzkoa (N Península Ibérica, confirmándose asimismo su reproducción en este enclave.

  14. Evaluation of architectural and histopathological biomarkers in the intestine of brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1758) challenged with environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barišić, Josip; Filipović Marijić, Vlatka; Mijošek, Tatjana; Čož-Rakovac, Rozelindra; Dragun, Zrinka; Krasnići, Nesrete; Ivanković, Dušica; Kružlicová, Dáša; Erk, Marijana

    2018-06-14

    In the present study novel histopathological approach, using fish intestine as a sensitive bioindicator organ of pollution impact in the freshwater ecosystem, was proposed. Histopathological alterations were compared between native brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1758) from the reference (Krka River spring) and pollution impacted location (influence of technological/municipal wastewaters and agricultural runoff near the Town of Knin) of the karst Krka River in Croatia. In brown trout from both locations, severe parasitic infestation with acanthocephalan species Dentitruncus trutae was found, enabling evaluation of acanthocephalan infestation histopathology, which indicated parasite tissue reaction in a form of inflammatory, necrotic and hyperplastic response that extended throughout lamina epithelialis mucosae, lamina propria, and lamina muscularis mucosae. New semi-quantitative histological approach was proposed in order to foresee alterations classified in three reaction patterns: control tissue appearance, moderate (progressive) tissue impairment and severe (regressive and inflammatory) tissue damage. The most frequent progressive alteration was hyperplasia of epithelium on the reference site, whereas the most frequent regressive alterations were atrophy and necrosis seen on the polluted site. Furthermore, histopathological approach was combined with micromorphological and macromorphological assessment as an additional indicator of pollution impact. Among 15 observed intestinal measures, two biomarkers of intestinal tissue damage were indicated as significant, height of supranuclear space (hSN) and number of mucous cells over 100 μm fold distance of intestinal mucosa (nM), which measures were significantly lower in fish from polluted area compared to the reference site. Obtained results indicated that combined histological and morphological approach on fish intestinal tissue might be used as a valuable biological tool for assessing pollution impact on

  15. Variation in Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera, Culicidae infestation in artificial containers in Caxias, state of Maranhão, Brazil

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    Joelma Soares-da-Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dengue is a serious public health problem worldwide, with cases reported annually in tropical and subtropical regions. Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762, the main vector of dengue, is a domiciliary species with high dispersal and survival capacities and can use various artificial containers as breeding sites. We assessed potential container breeding sites of A. aegypti in the municipality of Caxias, Maranhão, Brazil. METHODS: In the initial phase, we analyzed 900 properties in 3 neighborhoods during the dry and rainy seasons (August-October 2005 and February-April 2006, respectively. During the second sampling period, September 2006-August 2007, we used 5 assessment cycles for 300 properties in a single neighborhood. RESULTS: During the dry and rainy seasons, water-storage containers comprised 55.7% (n = 1,970 and 48.5% (n = 1,836 of the total containers inspected, and showed the highest productivity of immature A. aegypti; we found 23.7 and 106.1 individuals/container, respectively, in peridomicile sites. In intradomicile sites, water-storage containers were also the most important breeding sites with 86.4% (n = 973 and 85.6% (n = 900 of all containers and a mean of 7.9 and 108.3 individuals/container in the dry and rainy seaso-October 2006 (1,342. The highest number of positives (70 was recorded in May, mostly (94% in storage containers. CONCLUSIONS: Storage containers are the principal and most productive A. aegypti breeding sites and are a major contributing factor to the maintenance of this vector in Caxias.

  16. Variation in Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera, Culicidae) infestation in artificial containers in Caxias, state of Maranhão, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-da-Silva, Joelma; Ibiapina, Sebastiana Silva; Bezerra, Juliana Maria Trindade; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro; Pinheiro, Valéria Cristina Soares

    2012-01-01

    Dengue is a serious public health problem worldwide, with cases reported annually in tropical and subtropical regions. Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762), the main vector of dengue, is a domiciliary species with high dispersal and survival capacities and can use various artificial containers as breeding sites. We assessed potential container breeding sites of A. aegypti in the municipality of Caxias, Maranhão, Brazil. In the initial phase, we analyzed 900 properties in 3 neighborhoods during the dry and rainy seasons (August-October 2005 and February-April 2006, respectively). During the second sampling period, September 2006-August 2007, we used 5 assessment cycles for 300 properties in a single neighborhood. During the dry and rainy seasons, water-storage containers comprised 55.7% (n = 1,970) and 48.5% (n = 1,836) of the total containers inspected, and showed the highest productivity of immature A. aegypti; we found 23.7 and 106.1 individuals/container, respectively, in peridomicile sites. In intradomicile sites, water-storage containers were also the most important breeding sites with 86.4% (n = 973) and 85.6% (n = 900) of all containers and a mean of 7.9 and 108.3 individuals/container in the dry and rainy seaso-October 2006 (1,342). The highest number of positives (70) was recorded in May, mostly (94%) in storage containers. Storage containers are the principal and most productive A. aegypti breeding sites and are a major contributing factor to the maintenance of this vector in Caxias.

  17. DYNAMICS OF PIKE (ESOX LUCIUS LINNAEUS, 1758 AGE STRUCTURE IN THE DNIEPER LOWER REACHES IN CONNECTION WITH FISHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Geina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze the dynamics of pike (Esox luceus Linnaeus, 1758 age structure of the Dnieper lower reaches in conditions of the modification of fishing pressure. Methodology. An analysis of fishing situation has been performed based on data of official fishery statistics. Fish sampling was done at control-observation posts of the Institute of Fisheries of the NAAS of Ukraine and directly in the fishery. Juvenile fish yield was determined using a complex of fry fishing gears using a stationary net-station. Field and cameral processing of the material was performed using generally accepted methods. Findings. A retrospective analysis of the situation in the Dnieper-Bug lower reach system clearly indicates on the presence of continuous tendency of catch decline of representative of native fish fauna – pike. With relatively uniform indices of the “yield” of its juveniles before Dnieper flow impoundment and in conditions of present time, its commercial catches significantly dropped. The dynamics of pike current age structure indicates on an increase of relative density of age groups, which form the recruitment of the commercial portion of the population (1-1+ and a decrease of importance of the component of the right side of age series. A discrepancy between the observed changes of the age group and commercial harvest quantities indicates on increased human pressure on this species. Originality. For the first, we analyzed the dynamics of fish juvenile “yield” and age structure of pike commercial stock of the Dnieper lower reaches in the river flow transformation process. Practical value. A decrease of the ichthyomass of piscivorous fishes in the Dnieper lower reaches results in changes of fish populations of littoral biotopes towards the prevalence of the dominance of coarse species that lead to a deterioration of forage availability for a number of valuable commercial species. An increase of the number of pike can regulate the strain

  18. Esterase-D and chromosome patterns in Central Amazon piranha (Serrasalmus rhombeus Linnaeus, 1766 from Lake Catalão

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    Aylton Saturnino Teixeira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents additional genetic data on piranha (Serrasalmus rhombeus Linnaeus, 1766 complex previously diagnosed due to the presence of distinct cytotypes 2n = 58 and 2n = 60. Three esterase-D enzyme loci (Est-D1, Est-D2 and Est-D3 were examined and complemented with chromosomal data from 66 piranha specimens collected from Lake Catalão. For all specimens the Est-D1 and Est-D2 loci were monomorphic. In contrast, the Est-D3 locus was polymorphic with genotypes and alleles being differentially distributed in the previously described cytotypes and served as the basis for detecting a new cytotype (2n = 60 B. In cytotype 2n = 58 the Est-D3 locus was also polymorphic and presented Mendelian allelic segregation with four genotypes (Est-D3(11, Est-D3(12, Est-D3(22 and Est-D3(33 out of six theoretically possible genotypes, presumably encoded by alleles Est-D3¹ (frequency = 0.237, EsT-D3² (0.710 and Est-D3³ (0.053. A Chi-squared (chi2 test for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was applied to the Est-D3 locus and revealed a genetic unbalance in cytotype 2n = 58, indicating the probable existence in the surveyed area of different stocks for that karyotypic structure. A silent null allele (Est-D3(0 with a high frequency (0.959 occurred exclusively in the 2n = 60 cytotype. On the other hand, the new cytotype 2n = 60 B described here for the first time was monomorphic for the presumably fixed Est-D3³ allele. The data as a whole should contribute to the better understanding the rhombeus complex taxonomic status definition in the Central Amazon.

  19. The genome structure of Arachis hypogaea (Linnaeus, 1753 and an induced Arachis allotetraploid revealed by molecular cytogenetics

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    Eliza F. de M. B. do Nascimento

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Peanut, Arachis hypogaea (Linnaeus, 1753 is an allotetraploid cultivated plant with two subgenomes derived from the hybridization between two diploid wild species, A. duranensis (Krapovickas & W. C. Gregory, 1994 and A. ipaensis (Krapovickas & W. C. Gregory, 1994, followed by spontaneous chromosomal duplication. To understand genome changes following polyploidy, the chromosomes of A. hypogaea, IpaDur1, an induced allotetraploid (A. ipaensis × A. duranensis4x and the diploid progenitor species were cytogenetically compared. The karyotypes of the allotetraploids share the number and general morphology of chromosomes; DAPI+ bands pattern and number of 5S rDNA loci. However, one 5S rDNA locus presents a heteromorphic FISH signal in both allotetraploids, relative to corresponding progenitor. Whilst for A. hypogaea the number of 45S rDNA loci was equivalent to the sum of those present in the diploid species, in IpaDur1, two loci have not been detected. Overall distribution of repetitive DNA sequences was similar in both allotetraploids, although A. hypogaea had additional CMA3+ bands and few slight differences in the LTR-retrotransposons distribution compared to IpaDur1. GISH showed that the chromosomes of both allotetraploids had preferential hybridization to their corresponding diploid genomes. Nevertheless, at least one pair of IpaDur1 chromosomes had a clear mosaic hybridization pattern indicating recombination between the subgenomes, clear evidence that the genome of IpaDur1 shows some instability comparing to the genome of A. hypogaea that shows no mosaic of subgenomes, although both allotetraploids derive from the same progenitor species. For some reasons, the chromosome structure of A. hypogaea is inherently more stable, or, it has been at least, partially stabilized through genetic changes and selection.

  20. Environmental influences on the Indo-Pacific octocoral Isis hippuris Linnaeus 1758 (Alcyonacea: Isididae): genetic fixation or phenotypic plasticity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Sonia J; Pochon, Xavier; Watling, Les

    2015-01-01

    As conspicuous modular components of benthic marine habitats, gorgonian (sea fan) octocorals have perplexed taxonomists for centuries through their shear diversity, particularly throughout the Indo-Pacific. Phenotypic incongruence within and between seemingly unitary lineages across contrasting environments can provide the raw material to investigate processes of disruptive selection. Two distinct phenotypes of the Isidid Isis hippurisLinnaeus, 1758 partition between differing reef environments: long-branched bushy colonies on degraded reefs, and short-branched multi/planar colonies on healthy reefs within the Wakatobi Marine National Park (WMNP), Indonesia. Multivariate analyses reveal phenotypic traits between morphotypes were likely integrated primarily at the colony level with increased polyp density and consistently smaller sclerite dimensions at the degraded site. Sediment load and turbidity, hence light availability, primarily influenced phenotypic differences between the two sites. This distinct morphological dissimilarity between the two sites is a reliable indicator of reef health; selection primarily acting on colony morphology, porosity through branching structure, as well as sclerite diversity and size. ITS2 sequence and predicted RNA secondary structure further revealed intraspecific variation between I. hippuris morphotypes relative to such environments (ΦST = 0.7683, P < 0.001). This evidence suggests-but does not confirm-that I. hippuris morphotypes within the WMNP are two separate species; however, to what extent and taxonomic assignment requires further investigation across its full geographic distribution. Incongruence between colonies present in the WMNP with tenuously described Isis alternatives (Isis reticulataNutting, 1910, Isis minorbrachyblastaZou, Huang & Wang, 1991), questions the validity of such assignments. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses confirm early taxonomic suggestion that the characteristic jointed axis of the Isididae is in

  1. Induction of gynogenetic and androgenetic haploid and doubled haploid development in the brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalik, O; Dobosz, S; Zalewski, T; Sapota, M; Ocalewicz, K

    2015-04-01

    Gynogenetic and androgenetic brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus 1758) haploids (Hs) and doubled haploids (DHs) were produced in the present research. Haploid development was induced by radiation-induced genetic inactivation of spermatozoa (gynogenesis) or eggs (androgenesis) before insemination. To provide DHs, gynogenetic and androgenetic haploid zygotes were subjected to the high pressure shock to suppress the first mitotic cleavage. Among haploids, gynogenetic embryos were showing lower mortality when compared to the androgenetic embryos; however, most of them die before the first feeding stage. Gynogenetic doubled haploids provided in the course of the brown trout eggs activation performed by homologous and heterologous sperm (rainbow trout) were developing equally showing hatching rates of 14.76 ± 2.4% and 16.14 ± 2.90% and the survival rates at the first feeding stage of 10.48 ± 3.48% and 12.78 ± 2.18%, respectively. Significantly, lower survival rate was observed among androgenetic progenies from the diploid groups with only few specimens that survived to the first feeding stage. Cytogenetic survey showed that among embryos from the diploid variants of the research, only gynogenetic individuals possessed doubled sets of chromosomes. Thus, it is reasonable to assume that radiation employed for the genetic inactivation of the brown trout eggs misaligned mechanism responsible for the cell divisions and might have delayed or even arrested the first mitotic cleavage in the androgenetic brown trout zygotes. Moreover, protocol for the radiation-induced inactivation of the paternal and maternal genome should be adjusted as some of the cytogenetically surveyed gynogenetic and androgenetic embryos exhibited fragments of the irradiated chromosomes. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Cs-134 transfer from water or food to the Ciprinid Tinca tinca Linnaeus: uptake and loss kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corisco, J.A.G.; Carreiro, M.C.V.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments with 134 Cs and the fish Tinca tinca Linnaeus (fam. Cyprinidae), as a part of a more extensive work, concerning a simplified freshwater trophic chain using water from Fratel dam, (at Tejo River), were undertaken. Direct uptake from water, during a period of about 30 days, leads to a kinetics expressed by the power function: CF (t) = 0.58 t 0.781 (t in days), the concentration factor (CF) referred to wet weight. Retention study, showed the existence of two biological half-lives, Tb 1 = 7 days and Tb 2 = 87 days, which might concern respectively, the 134 Cs desorption from the transit organs and the loss of the assimilated isotope from the storage organs. In the accumulation through the food chain, using planktonic crustacean Daphnia magna Straus (Cladocera) as prey, a transfer factor (TF) related to wet weight of both fish and prey, is estimated through the power function: TF (t) = 0.022 t 0.578 (t in days). Finally, the retention study following the food pathway contamination, stresses the existence of one long term component, with half-life Tb = 61 days. The transfer factor kinetics seems to point out to a rather slow process, leading to lower 134 Cs concentration values, than the contamination through the water. The loss of the assimilated 134 Cs, uptaken through both pathways, water or food, is a slow process. The longer biological half-life is very important in Radiological Protection, once it may be attributed to the radionuclide loss from the muscular mass. (author)

  3. Environmental influences on the Indo–Pacific octocoral Isis hippuris Linnaeus 1758 (Alcyonacea: Isididae): genetic fixation or phenotypic plasticity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochon, Xavier; Watling, Les

    2015-01-01

    As conspicuous modular components of benthic marine habitats, gorgonian (sea fan) octocorals have perplexed taxonomists for centuries through their shear diversity, particularly throughout the Indo–Pacific. Phenotypic incongruence within and between seemingly unitary lineages across contrasting environments can provide the raw material to investigate processes of disruptive selection. Two distinct phenotypes of the Isidid Isis hippuris Linnaeus, 1758 partition between differing reef environments: long-branched bushy colonies on degraded reefs, and short-branched multi/planar colonies on healthy reefs within the Wakatobi Marine National Park (WMNP), Indonesia. Multivariate analyses reveal phenotypic traits between morphotypes were likely integrated primarily at the colony level with increased polyp density and consistently smaller sclerite dimensions at the degraded site. Sediment load and turbidity, hence light availability, primarily influenced phenotypic differences between the two sites. This distinct morphological dissimilarity between the two sites is a reliable indicator of reef health; selection primarily acting on colony morphology, porosity through branching structure, as well as sclerite diversity and size. ITS2 sequence and predicted RNA secondary structure further revealed intraspecific variation between I. hippuris morphotypes relative to such environments (ΦST = 0.7683, P < 0.001). This evidence suggests—but does not confirm—that I. hippuris morphotypes within the WMNP are two separate species; however, to what extent and taxonomic assignment requires further investigation across its full geographic distribution. Incongruence between colonies present in the WMNP with tenuously described Isis alternatives (Isis reticulata Nutting, 1910, Isis minorbrachyblasta Zou, Huang & Wang, 1991), questions the validity of such assignments. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses confirm early taxonomic suggestion that the characteristic jointed axis of the

  4. Environmental influences on the Indo–Pacific octocoral Isis hippuris Linnaeus 1758 (Alcyonacea: Isididae: genetic fixation or phenotypic plasticity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia J. Rowley

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As conspicuous modular components of benthic marine habitats, gorgonian (sea fan octocorals have perplexed taxonomists for centuries through their shear diversity, particularly throughout the Indo–Pacific. Phenotypic incongruence within and between seemingly unitary lineages across contrasting environments can provide the raw material to investigate processes of disruptive selection. Two distinct phenotypes of the Isidid Isis hippuris Linnaeus, 1758 partition between differing reef environments: long-branched bushy colonies on degraded reefs, and short-branched multi/planar colonies on healthy reefs within the Wakatobi Marine National Park (WMNP, Indonesia. Multivariate analyses reveal phenotypic traits between morphotypes were likely integrated primarily at the colony level with increased polyp density and consistently smaller sclerite dimensions at the degraded site. Sediment load and turbidity, hence light availability, primarily influenced phenotypic differences between the two sites. This distinct morphological dissimilarity between the two sites is a reliable indicator of reef health; selection primarily acting on colony morphology, porosity through branching structure, as well as sclerite diversity and size. ITS2 sequence and predicted RNA secondary structure further revealed intraspecific variation between I. hippuris morphotypes relative to such environments (ΦST = 0.7683, P < 0.001. This evidence suggests—but does not confirm—that I. hippuris morphotypes within the WMNP are two separate species; however, to what extent and taxonomic assignment requires further investigation across its full geographic distribution. Incongruence between colonies present in the WMNP with tenuously described Isis alternatives (Isis reticulata Nutting, 1910, Isis minorbrachyblasta Zou, Huang & Wang, 1991, questions the validity of such assignments. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses confirm early taxonomic suggestion that the characteristic jointed

  5. The formulation of the essential oil of Piper aduncum Linnaeus (Piperales: Piperaceae) increases its efficacy as an insect repellent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamood, S N H; Hidayatulfathi, O; Budin, S B; Ahmad Rohi, G; Zulfakar, M H

    2017-02-01

    The essential oil (EO) of Piper aduncum Linnaeus, known as 'sireh lada' to locals Malaysian, has the potential to be used as an alternative to synthetic insect repellents such as N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide. However, the EO's efficacy as a repellent decreases after application due to the high volatility of its active ingredients. A number of studies have showed that optimizing the formulation of plant-based EOs can improve their efficacy as repellents. The present study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of 10% P. aduncum EO in ethanol and in three different semisolid formulations: ointment, cream and gel. These formulations were tested on Aedes aegypti under laboratory conditions. Each formulation was applied to the subject's hands, which were then inserted into a cage containing 25 nulliparous A. aegypti. The number of mosquitoes landing on or biting each subject's hand was recorded, and the repellency percentage, landing/biting percentage and protection time for each of the formulations were compared. There were no statistically significant differences between the semisolid EO formulations with regards to the repellency percentage and the landing/biting percentage at 4 h post-application. All three semisolid EO formulations were able to repel >65% of the A. aegypti at 4 h post-application. The EO ointment formulation provided a protection time (182.5 ± 16.01 min) that was statistically significantly longer than that associated with the EO gel formulation (97.5 ± 14.93 min). Meanwhile, the EO cream formulation provided a protection time of 162.5 ± 6.29 min. As the EO cream and ointment formulations displayed better repellent properties than the EO gel formulation, they appear to be the most promising P. aduncum EO formulations to be developed and commercialized as alternatives to synthetic repellents.

  6. Spatially explicit genetic structure in the freshwater sponge Ephydatia fluviatilis (Linnaeus, 1759 within the framework of the monopolisation hypothesis

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    Livia Lucentini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An apparent paradox is known for crustaceans, rotifers and bryozoans living in inland small water bodies: a potential for wide distribution due to the presence of resting stages is coupled with marked genetic differences between nearby water bodies, with enclave distributions masking clear phylogeographic patterns. According to the monopolisation hypothesis, this is due to the accumulation of resting stages, monopolising each water body. Freshwater sponges could represent a useful system to assess the generality of the mo- nopolisation hypothesis: these organisms i live in the same habitats as crustaceans, rotifers and bryozoans, ii produce resting stages that can accumulate, and iii have indeed a wide distribution. Currently, no studies on spatially explicit genetic differentiation on fresh- water sponges are available. The aim of the present study is to provide additional empirical evidence in support of the generality of the scenario for small aquatic animals with resting stages by analysing genetic diversity at different spatial scales for an additional model system, the freshwater sponge ephydatia fluviatilis (Linnaeus, 1759. We expected that system genetic variability would follow enclave distributions, no clear phylogeographical patterns would be present, and nearby unconnected water bodies would show markedly different populations for this new model too. We analysed the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer regions 5.8S-ITS2-28S, the D3 domain of 28S subunit, the mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase I (COI and ten specific microsatellite markers of nine Italian and one Hungarian populations. Mitochondrial and nuclear sequences showed no or very low genetic polymorphism, whereas high levels of differentiation among populations and a significant polymorphism were observed using microsatellites. Microsatellite loci also showed a high proportion of private alleles for each population and an overall correlation between geographic and genetic

  7. Inhibition of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hong-Bin; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the inhibition mechanism of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus. In addition, human bronchus epithelial cell line BEAS-2B (normal cell) was selected for comparison. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to separate and quantify the various curcuminoids in C. longa extract, including curcumin (1,714.5 μg/mL), demethoxycurcumin (1,147.4 μg/mL), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (190.2 μg/mL). A high-stability nanoemulsion composed of Tween 80, water, and curcuminoid extract was prepared, with mean particle size being 12.6 nm. The cell cycle was retarded at G2/M for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments; however, the inhibition pathway may be different. H460 cells were more susceptible to apoptosis than A549 cells for both curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments. Growth of BEAS-2B remained unaffected for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments, with a concentration range from 1 to 4 μg/mL. Also, the activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 followed a dose-dependent increase for both A549 and H460 cells for both the treatments, accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in cytochrome C expression and a dose-dependent decrease in CDK1 expression. Interestingly, a dose-dependent increase in cyclin B expression was shown for A549 cells for both the treatments, while a reversed trend was found for H460 cells. Both mitochondria and death receptor pathways may be responsible for apoptosis of both A549 and H460 cells.

  8. Size and quality of wood used by Rosalia alpina (Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae in beech woodlands of Gipuzkoa (northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CASTRO, A., MARTINEZ DE MURGUIA, L., FERNANDEZ, J., CASIS, A., MOLINO-OLMEDO, F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La conservación de la especie saproxilófaga legalmente protegida Rosalia alpina (Linnaeus, 1758 en los hayedos de Europa conlleva una gestión adecuada de los árboles muertos y moribundos. Sin embargo, los parámetros de los árboles preferidos (tamaño y calidad de la madera permanecen aún poco conocidos. En esta contribución se analizan los datos de distribución procedentes de seis años de trabajo en cuatro Lugares de Interés Comunitario de la provincia de Gipuzkoa (norte de España. Los individuos vivos de R. alpina y sus orificios de emergencia fueron registrados exclusivamente en hayas. 72 individuos vivos y 520 orificios fueron registrados en 77 árboles. Las evidencias de ocupación (presencia de individuos vivos o de orificios o de ambos fueron más frecuentes en troncos Ø > 25 cm de hayas en pie (tanto aún vivas como muertas que en ramas y árboles caídos y más delgados. Sin embargo, el número de orificios no mostró diferencias entre las clases de tamaño y la calidad de la madera de los troncos principales. Las ramas más gruesas (Ø > 15 cm registraron mayores tasas de presencia y número de orificios que las más finas. Conociendo los tipos de árboles más seleccionados, se sugiere la elaboración de un mapa regional de disponibilidad de hábitat como herramienta práctica para planificar estrategias de conservación.

  9. Beta-1,3-1,6-glucan modulate the non-specific immune response to enhance the survival in the Vibrio alginolyticus infection of Taiwan abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Sheng; Tseng, Tzu-Yu; Nan, Fan-Hua

    2016-07-01

    This research aims to investigate the non-specific immune response of Taiwan abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta) which was treated with the beta-1,3-1,6-glucan to be observed in the survival impact after the Vibrio alginolyticus infection. The non-specific immune and physiological response of superoxide anion radical (O2(-)), phenoloxidase (PO), phagocytic index (PI), phagocytic rate (PR) and lucigenin-chemiluminescence for reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) were enhanced via in-vitro experiment. In the in-vivo experiment, the observed data presented that the haemolymph lysate supernatant (HLS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutamate oxalacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) were not significant enhanced, but the total haemocyte count (THC), O2(-), PO, phagocytic index (PI), phagocytic ratio (PR) and other parameters of immune were significantly promoted after treated with beta-1,3-1,6-glucan. In the challenge experiment, the survival rates of abalone in the 40 and 80 μl/ml groups of beta-1,3-1,6-glucan were observed from 6.67% up to 33.33% and 36.67% after injection with Vibrio alginolyticus, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Anti-allergic effects of a nonameric peptide isolated from the intestine gastrointestinal digests of abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) in activated HMC-1 human mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Seok-Chun; Lee, Dae-Sung; Park, Won Sun; Yoo, Jong Su; Yim, Mi-Jin; Qian, Zhong-Ji; Lee, Chang-Min; Oh, Junghwan; Jung, Won-Kyo; Choi, Il-Whan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether the intestine gastrointestinal (GI) digests of abalone [Haliotis discus hannai (H. discus hannai)] modulate inflammatory responses and to elucidate the mechanisms involved. The GI digests of the abalone intestines were fractionated into fractions I (>10 kDa), II (5-10 kDa) and Ⅲ (abalone intestine GI digests (AIGIDs), fraction Ⅲ inhibited the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction in mice. Subsequently, a bioactive peptide [abalone intestine GI digest peptide (AIGIDP)] isolated from fraction Ⅲ was determined to be 1175.2 Da, and the amino acid sequence was found to be PFNQGTFAS. We noted that the purified nonameric peptide (AIGIDP) attenuated the phorbol‑12‑myristate 13-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI)-induced histamine release and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in human mast cells (HMC-1 cells). In addition, we also noted that AIGIDP inhibited the PMACI‑induced activation of nuclear factor‑κB (NF-κB) by suppressing IκBα phosphorylation and that it suppressed the production of cytokines by decreasing the phosphorylation of JNK. The findings of our study indicate that AIGIDP exerts a modulatory, anti-allergic effect on mast cell-mediated inflammatory diseases.

  11. 皱纹盘鲍(Haliotis discus hannai)肠道潜在益生菌的筛选及对幼鲍生长的影响*%SELECTION OF POTENTIAL PROBIOTICS FROM ABALONE INTESTIONAL AND THEIR EFFECTS ON GROWTH OF JUVENILE SMALL ABALONE HALIOTIS DISCUS HANNAI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜海峰; 刘小林; 常亚青; 冷晓飞; 李丹; 王高学

    2013-01-01

      采用体外实验筛选益生菌结合16S rDNA序列分析法,从124株不具有溶血作用的皱纹盘鲍(Haliotis discus hannai)肠道细菌中筛选得到5株潜在益生菌并进行了分子鉴定,进一步对5株潜在益生菌进行了安全性实验及体内饲喂实验。结果表明,2株具有拮抗哈维弧菌和灿烂弧菌能力的潜在益生菌分别被鉴定为Shewanella sp.(WA64)和Shewanella sp.(WA65),一株产海藻酸酶和淀粉酶的潜在益生菌被鉴定为Vibrio sp.(WA51),产蛋白酶潜在益生菌被鉴定为 Bacillus sp.(FA12),产琼脂酶潜在益生菌被鉴定为Tamlana sp.(FA86);安全性实验表明5株潜在益生菌在107cfu/ml下对皱纹盘鲍没有明显的毒害作用;通过体内饲喂实验发现,潜在益生菌 WA64、WA65的复合作用能够显著提高幼鲍增重率和存活率(P<0.05),并在生产条件下能够明显降低幼鲍的死亡量。经抗生素敏感性实验, WA64菌株对15种抗生素均敏感或中度敏感, WA65菌株仅对庆大霉素和链霉素2种抗生素产生耐药。%Five strains of potential probiotics isolated from 124 non-hemolysis strains of the GI of abalone in vitro were identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. In addition, pathogenicity and feeding experiment were conducted. Results show that Strain WA64 and WA65 which exhibit inhibitory effects against Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio splendidus are identified as Shewanella;WA51 produced amylase and alginase is identified as Vibrio;FA123 produced protease is identified as Ba-cillus; FA86 produced agarase is identified as Tamlana. Potential probiotics are safe to abalone under 107cfu/ml. Feeding experiment showed the weight gain ratio and survival rate were significantly increased in treatment supplemented with WA64 and WA65 (P<0.05). Furthermore, the effects of WA64 and WA65 in pilot scale trials show the mortality of juvenile small abalone decreases obviously. Antibiotic sensitivity assays revealed that strain WA64 was sensitive or

  12. Um caso de albinismo em Tayassu tajacu Linnaeus (Artiodactyla, Tayassuidae na Serra do Mar, São José dos Pinhais, Paraná A case of albinism in Tayassu tajacu Linnaeus (Artiodactyla, Tayassuidae in Serra do Mar, São José dos Pinhais, Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Veiga

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Described herein is a case of alhinism in lhe Peccary Tayassu tajacu Linnaeus. 1758 (Artiodaclyla. Tayassuidae. which was observed in Colônia Castelhanos. São José dos Pinhais. Paraná, in lhe Southern Bra/il. The specimen was caplured when very young. The normal peccary (Tayassu tajacu is a dark-gray animal wilh a while hand across the ehest from shoulder Io shoulder. This animal have while skin. hlued eyes bul has pigmented feet.

  13. Activities of tabanids (Diptera, Tabanidae attacking domestic duck-Cairina moschata (Linnaeus (Aves, Anatidae, introduced in a forest area in the Central Amazon, Manaus, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth L. M. Ferreira

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Presented here are the feeding habits, attack behavior, daily and annual activity of adult of Phorcotabanus cinereus (Wiedeman, 1821, Chrysops laetus (Fabricius, 1805 and Phaeotabanus cajennensis (Fabricius, 1787, while biting a domestic duck, Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758. The last two species were recorded for the first time attacking birds. This study comprehended monthly observations of two consecutive days from April/97 to March/98 between 5:30 a.m. and 6:30 p.m. at the Army Instructional Base ((BI-2/CIGS near Manaus. Annual occurrence of P. cinereus was from July to September, with a daily occurrence between 9:00 a.m. and 5:00 p.m. and highest activity at 12:00 a.m. and 2:00 p.m. C. laetus ocurred from June to October; with a daily occurrence between 8:00 a.m. and 3 p.m. and highest activity at 11:00 and 12:00 a.m. Occurrence of P. cajennensis with one specimen only, was in July between 10:00 and 11:00 a.m.Atividades de tabanídeos (Diptera, Tabanidae atacando pato doméstico Cairina moschata Linnaeus (Aves, Anatidae, introduzido em área de floresta na Amazônia Central, Manaus, Brasil. São apresentados o hábito alimentar, comportamento de ataque, atividade diária e anual de adultos de Phorcotabanus cinereus (Wiedemann, 1821, Chrysops laetus (Fabricius, 1805 e Phaeotabanus cajennensis (Fabricius, 1787 atacando pato doméstico - Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758. As últimas duas últimas espécies são registradas pela primeira vez atacando aves. O estudo compreendeu observações mensais durante dois dias consecutivos de Abril/97 a Março/98, entre 5:30 e 18:30 h, na base de instrução 2 do Centro de Instrução de Guerra na Selva (BI-2/CIGS, Manaus. A ocorrência anual de P. cinereus, foi de julho a setembro, com atividade diária entre 9:00 e 17:00 horas, com maior abundância entre 12:00 e 14:00 horas. C. laetus, ocorreu de junho a outubro, com atividade diária entre 8:00 e 15:00 horas, e maior abundância entre 11:00 e 12

  14. Water ferns Azolla spp. (Azollaceae as new host plants for the small China-mark moth, Cataclysta lemnata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Lepidoptera, Crambidae, Acentropinae

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    Atousa Farahpour-Haghani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Water ferns (Azolla spp., Azollaceae are reported for the first time as host plants for the larvae of the small China-mark moth Cataclysta lemnata (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Crambidae: Acentropinae in rice fields and waterways of northern Iran. Cataclysta lemnata is a semi-aquatic species that has been recorded to feed on Lemnaceae and a few other aquatic plants. However, it has not been reported before on Azolla spp. Larvae use water fern as food source and shelter and, at high population density in the laboratory, they completely wiped water fern from the water surface. Feeding was confirmed after rearing more than eight continual generations of C. lemnata on water fern in the laboratory. Adults obtained this way are darker and have darker fuscous markings in both sexes compared with specimens previously reported and the pattern remains unchanged after several generations.

  15. The availability of Piperaceae and the search for this resource by Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae, Carolliinae in Parque Municipal Arthur Thomas, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil

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    Isaac Passos de Lima

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A study about the species of Piperaceae that are consumed by a colony of Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 in Parque Municipal Arthur Thomas (82,72 ha was carried out. Five available species of Piperaceae were found in the park: Piper aduncum Linnaeus, Piper amalago (Jacq. Yuncker, Piper crassinervium H.B.K., Piper gaudichaudianum Kunth and Piper sp. C. perspicillata fed on all of these species. During the spring, the most abundant item was P. amalago, but the consumption of P. aduncum was the highest. At the beginning of the summer, P. crassinervium was the most abundant and most consumed item. At the end of the summer and during the fall, P. gaudichaudianum was the most abundant and consumed item, even in May, when P. amalago was the most abundant item. During the winter, the most highly available items were P. aduncum, Piper sp. and P. amalago, and the ones that were consumed the most were Piper sp., P. gaudichaudianum and P. aduncum. The results have shown that the preferences of C. perspicillata in the park are related to the greater abundance or the higher energetic value of the available Piperaceae. The greater search for the most energetic and least abundant species, which happened in the spring and winter, is related to the energy gain, that is, the species searches for food that will provide a greater quantity of energy per unit of consumption; and the greater search for the most abundant item, which occurred in the summer and fall, is related to saving the energy used in the search for food.Estudou-se quais espécies de piperáceas são consumidas por uma colônia de Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 localizada do Parque Municipal Arthur Thomas (82,72ha. Foram encontradas no parque: Piper aduncum Linnaeus, Piper amalago (Jacq. Yuncker, Piper crassinervium H.B.K., Piper gaudichaudianum Kunth e Piper sp. C. perspicillata alimentou-se de todas essas espécies. Durante a primavera, o item mais abundante foi P. amalago, porém o

  16. Bioekologi vektor demam berdarah dengue (DBD serta deteksi virus dengue pada Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus dan Ae. albopictus (Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae di kelurahan endemik DBD Bantarjati, Kota Bogor

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    Zahara Fadilla

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF is a viral disease that threatened community health in Indonesia. As part of an eradication program, it is important to learn the behavioral aspect of the disease vector. The aims of this study were to detect the presence of dengue virus in Aedes spp., at Bantarjati Village, Bogor City and to learn to bioecology of. Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus. Detection of dengue virus in Aedes spp. were done by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR technique that consist of two phase were synthesis phase and cDNA amplification and dengue virus serotipe characterization. The Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus (Skuse mosquitoes were collected using the landing and resting moquito collection technique booth indoors and outdoors. The highest density of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were found in April and the peak activity was occurred at 10:00-11:00 am. Dengue virus was not detected in female mosquitoes Aedes spp.

  17. Chemical Modification of Oryza sativa Linnaeus Husk with Urea for Removal of Brilliant Vital Red and Murexide Dyes from Water by Adsorption in Environmentally Benign Way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, R.; Mahmud, T.; Kanwal, F.; Aslam, M.N.; Nisar, H.

    2013-01-01

    Oryza sativa Linnaeus is an important food item all around the world. Due to its huge consumption, a large amount of rice husk is generated as agrowaste which can be used for water treatment by adsorption. Its adsorption capacity further can be enhanced by chemical medication. In the present study, urea modified rice husk has been used for removing Brilliant Vital Red and Murexide form water in an efficient way. After optimizing operating conditions, isothermal and thermodynamical studies were carried out, which showed that maximum adsorption capacity of urea modified rice husk for removing Brilliant Vital Red and Murexide dyes were 28.93 and 30.74 mg.g/sup -1/. Adsorbent characterization was carried out by recording its FT-IR spectra. (author)

  18. Infestação de Aetalion reticulatum (Linnaeus (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Aethalionidae em Plantas de Euterpe oleracea Martius (Arecaceae no Estado do Acre

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    Rodrigo Santos

    2015-04-01

    Abstract. The açai palm (Euterpe oleracea Martius is a native palm tree from the Amazon region floodplains and may be indicated as the most economically profitable species of this genus. Its fruit pulp is extracted and widely consumed by the population of northern Brazil in several ways. With the expansion of the planted area many factors may affect the production and limit the cultivation, highlighting the occurrence of insect pests that cause losses in production. This report presents the first occurrence of the leafhopper Aetalion reticulatum (Linnaeus (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Aethalionidae in E. oleracea plants. The occurrence of this insect associated with açai palms in Rio Branco, Acre, increases the list of hosts for this leafhopper in Brazil and reinforces the need for studies of population dynamics, survey of natural enemies, levels of damage and control methods in order to anticipate population outbreaks of this pest in commercial plantations of açai palms in the State.

  19. Agonistic and reproductive behaviors in males of red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852 (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae

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    APT Medeiros

    Full Text Available The red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852 is a fertile hybrid used in the semi-intensive level of fish culture in the Northeast of Brazil. It is a territorial cichlid and is highly aggressive towards conspecifics during the breeding season. The purpose of this study was to investigate and describe the aggressive behaviour displayed by the males of this hybrid in non-reproductive and reproductive contexts. Behavioural observations revealed that aggression displayed by the reproductive males of red hybrid tilapia included threatening, undulation, parallel, lateral and frontal attacks, chasing, escape and submission. Possession of a territory influenced male aggressiveness, which was more intense in their own territory than that observed in a neutral situation. The males built nests, irrespective of female presence. All the behavioural patterns were in accordance with those previously described for one parental species, the Nile tilapia, O. niloticus.

  20. SEROLOGIC RESPONSE TO CANINE DISTEMPER VACCINATION IN CAPTIVE LINNAEUS'S TWO-TOED SLOTHS ( CHOLOEPUS DIDACTYLUS) AFTER A FATAL CANINE DISTEMPER VIRUS OUTBREAK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Julie D; Cushing, Andrew C; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Anis, Eman; Dubovi, Edward J

    2017-12-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) affects many wild and captive, nondomestic species worldwide but has not been previously reported in Xenarthra. Paucity of information on vaccination safety and efficacy presents challenges for disease prevention in captive collections. CDV infections and subsequent mortalities in five captive Linnaeus's two-toed sloths ( Choloepus didactylus) in eastern Tennessee are reported. Clinical signs included oculonasal discharge, oral ulcerations, and diarrhea, and the diagnosis was confirmed by necropsy, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, virus isolation, and polymerase chain reaction. Viral sequencing identified the strain to be consistent with a new CDV lineage currently affecting domestic dogs and wildlife in Tennessee. Seven sloths were examined and vaccinated using a recombinant CDV vaccine on days 0 and 21. Subsequent blood samples showed increased titers in 3/4 sloths. Based on the outbreak and serologic findings postvaccination without adverse effects, the authors recommend recombinant CDV vaccination in sloths exposed to known carriers of CDV.

  1. Castosyringophilus meropis sp. n. (Acariformes: Syringophilidae) - a new quill mite species parasitising the world population of Merops apiaster Linnaeus (Coraciiformes: Meropidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoracki, Maciej; Hromada, Martin; Sikora, Bozena

    2017-07-26

    A new species, Castosyringophilus meropis sp. n., found in quills of feathers of the European bee-eater Merops apiaster Linnaeus (Coraciiformes: Meropidae) is described. This new species is close to C. claravis Skoracki et Glowska, 2008 and differs, in females, by the presence apunctate coxal fields (vs sparsely punctate in C. claravis) and by the lengths of setae d1 145-180 µm, f2 170-185 µm and ag3 190-215 µm (vs d1 200-220 µm, f2 230-250 µm and ag3 150-170 µm). We present a vast mite material collected from bee-eaters originated from different localities in Europe, Asia and Africa, both breeding and wintering grounds of this bird. It indicates that the whole world population of the European bee-eater is parasitised by this quill mite species.

  2. The morphology and histology of the male reproductive system in Dolycoris baccarum Linnaeus 1758 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)--light and scanning electron micoscope studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyurt, Nurcan; Candan, Selami; Suludere, Zekiye

    2013-01-01

    The male reproductive system of Dolycoris baccarum (Linnaeus 1758) is studied morphologically and histologically using both light and scanning electron microscopes (SEM). The reproductive system of the male D. baccarum consists of a pair of testis, a pair of vas deferens, a pair of seminal vesicles, accessory glands (mesadenia, ectadenia), a bulbus ejaculatorius, a pair of ectodermal sacs, and a ductus ejaculatorius. The number of testicular follicles varies from four to six. The testicular follicles have three different development zones (growth zone, maturation zone, differentiation zone). The testes are connected to the seminal vesicles by the vas deferens. Vas deferens and seminal vesicles, which are fine-long and cylindrical. The seminal vesicle is connected with bulbus ejaculatorius which is balloon-shaped and surrounded with accessory glands. The bulbus ejaculatorius is continuous with ductus ejaculatorius which connected to the aedeagus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Novel Aldo-Keto Reductase, HdRed, from the Pacific Abalone Haliotis discus hannai, Which Reduces Alginate-derived 4-Deoxy-L-erythro-5-hexoseulose Uronic Acid to 2-Keto-3-deoxy-D-gluconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Shogo; Nishiyama, Ryuji; Inoue, Akira; Ojima, Takao

    2015-12-25

    Abalone feeds on brown seaweeds and digests seaweeds' alginate with alginate lyases (EC 4.2.2.3). However, it has been unclear whether the end product of alginate lyases (i.e. unsaturated monouronate-derived 4-deoxy-L-erythro-5-hexoseulose uronic acid (DEH)) is assimilated by abalone itself, because DEH cannot be metabolized via the Embden-Meyerhof pathway of animals. Under these circumstances, we recently noticed the occurrence of an NADPH-dependent reductase, which reduced DEH to 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-gluconate, in hepatopancreas extract of the pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai. In the present study, we characterized this enzyme to some extent. The DEH reductase, named HdRed in the present study, could be purified from the acetone-dried powder of hepatopancreas by ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by conventional column chromatographies. HdRed showed a single band of ∼ 40 kDa on SDS-PAGE and reduced DEH to 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-gluconate with an optimal temperature and pH at around 50 °C and 7.0, respectively. HdRed exhibited no appreciable activity toward 28 authentic compounds, including aldehyde, aldose, ketose, α-keto-acid, uronic acid, deoxy sugar, sugar alcohol, carboxylic acid, ketone, and ester. The amino acid sequence of 371 residues of HdRed deduced from the cDNA showed 18-60% identities to those of aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily enzymes, such as human aldose reductase, halophilic bacterium reductase, and sea hare norsolorinic acid (a polyketide derivative) reductase-like protein. Catalytic residues and cofactor binding residues known in AKR superfamily enzymes were fairly well conserved in HdRed. Phylogenetic analysis for HdRed and AKR superfamily enzymes indicated that HdRed is an AKR belonging to a novel family. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Detection and localisation of the abalone probiotic Vibrio midae SY9 and its extracellular protease, VmproA, within the digestive tract of the South African abalone, Haliotis midae.

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    Robert J Huddy

    Full Text Available Probiotics have been widely reported to increase the growth rate of commercially important fish and shellfish by enhancing the digestion of ingested feed through the production of extracellular enzymes such as proteases and alginases. In order to investigate this further, the objective of this study was to localise the bacterial probiont Vibrio midae SY9 and one of the extracellular proteases it produces in the digestive tract of the South African abalone Haliotis midae. This was accomplished by inserting a promotorless gfp gene into the chromosome of the bacterium which was incorporated in an artificial, fishmeal-based abalone feed. In situ histological comparison of abalone fed either a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with V. midae SY9::Tn10.52 using a cocktail of DNA probes to the gfp gene localised the probiont to the crop/stomach and intestinal regions of the H. midae digestive tract. Generally, the ingested probiotic bacterium occurred in association with feed and particulate matter within the crop/stomach and intestinal regions, as well as adhered to the wall of the crop/stomach. Histological immunohistochemical examination using polyclonal anti-VmproA antibodies localised an extracellular protease produced by V. midae SY9 to the H. midae crop/stomach and intestine where it appeared to be associated with feed and/or other particulate matter in the abalone gut. Thus the data suggests that V. midae SY9 colonises and/or adheres to the mucous lining of the abalone gut. Furthermore, the close association observed between the bacterium, its extracellular protease and ingested feed particles supports the theory that V. midae SY9 elevates in situ digestive enzyme levels and thus enhances feed digestion in farmed abalone.

  5. Detection and localisation of the abalone probiotic Vibrio midae SY9 and its extracellular protease, VmproA, within the digestive tract of the South African abalone, Haliotis midae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddy, Robert J; Coyne, Vernon E

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics have been widely reported to increase the growth rate of commercially important fish and shellfish by enhancing the digestion of ingested feed through the production of extracellular enzymes such as proteases and alginases. In order to investigate this further, the objective of this study was to localise the bacterial probiont Vibrio midae SY9 and one of the extracellular proteases it produces in the digestive tract of the South African abalone Haliotis midae. This was accomplished by inserting a promotorless gfp gene into the chromosome of the bacterium which was incorporated in an artificial, fishmeal-based abalone feed. In situ histological comparison of abalone fed either a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with V. midae SY9::Tn10.52 using a cocktail of DNA probes to the gfp gene localised the probiont to the crop/stomach and intestinal regions of the H. midae digestive tract. Generally, the ingested probiotic bacterium occurred in association with feed and particulate matter within the crop/stomach and intestinal regions, as well as adhered to the wall of the crop/stomach. Histological immunohistochemical examination using polyclonal anti-VmproA antibodies localised an extracellular protease produced by V. midae SY9 to the H. midae crop/stomach and intestine where it appeared to be associated with feed and/or other particulate matter in the abalone gut. Thus the data suggests that V. midae SY9 colonises and/or adheres to the mucous lining of the abalone gut. Furthermore, the close association observed between the bacterium, its extracellular protease and ingested feed particles supports the theory that V. midae SY9 elevates in situ digestive enzyme levels and thus enhances feed digestion in farmed abalone.

  6. A Novel Aldo-Keto Reductase, HdRed, from the Pacific Abalone Haliotis discus hannai, Which Reduces Alginate-derived 4-Deoxy-l-erythro-5-hexoseulose Uronic Acid to 2-Keto-3-deoxy-d-gluconate*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Shogo; Nishiyama, Ryuji; Inoue, Akira; Ojima, Takao

    2015-01-01

    Abalone feeds on brown seaweeds and digests seaweeds' alginate with alginate lyases (EC 4.2.2.3). However, it has been unclear whether the end product of alginate lyases (i.e. unsaturated monouronate-derived 4-deoxy-l-erythro-5-hexoseulose uronic acid (DEH)) is assimilated by abalone itself, because DEH cannot be metabolized via the Embden-Meyerhof pathway of animals. Under these circumstances, we recently noticed the occurrence of an NADPH-dependent reductase, which reduced DEH to 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-gluconate, in hepatopancreas extract of the pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai. In the present study, we characterized this enzyme to some extent. The DEH reductase, named HdRed in the present study, could be purified from the acetone-dried powder of hepatopancreas by ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by conventional column chromatographies. HdRed showed a single band of ∼40 kDa on SDS-PAGE and reduced DEH to 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-gluconate with an optimal temperature and pH at around 50 °C and 7.0, respectively. HdRed exhibited no appreciable activity toward 28 authentic compounds, including aldehyde, aldose, ketose, α-keto-acid, uronic acid, deoxy sugar, sugar alcohol, carboxylic acid, ketone, and ester. The amino acid sequence of 371 residues of HdRed deduced from the cDNA showed 18–60% identities to those of aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily enzymes, such as human aldose reductase, halophilic bacterium reductase, and sea hare norsolorinic acid (a polyketide derivative) reductase-like protein. Catalytic residues and cofactor binding residues known in AKR superfamily enzymes were fairly well conserved in HdRed. Phylogenetic analysis for HdRed and AKR superfamily enzymes indicated that HdRed is an AKR belonging to a novel family. PMID:26555267

  7. Infracommunities of intestinal helminths of the Red Fox Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus, 1758 from Italian Alps

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    Anna Rita Di Cerbo

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus, 1758 is one of the most common carnivore in Italy and its spread includes almost the whole national territory. The species shows an high ecological plasticity and a variable diet composition connected in part to human sources. This high adaptability permits the red foxes to colonize different habitats like the suburbs of large cities as well as the small villages located in mountain areas. On the other hand, the tourism pressure seems to assume a great importance in the Alps, also in those areas where the foxes live. So, indirect interactions could take place between these animals and the humans. The role of V. vulpes in the zoonoses has not to be understated since this carnivore could transmit parasitic diseases that are able to cause serious pathologies in humans. This study aims just to investigate on intestinal communities of helmiths of V. vulpes in order to make progress in current knowledge on epidemiological situation in Italian Alps. During 1998-2003, we have examined 450 foxes from Trentino Alto Adige, Veneto, Lombardia and Valle d'Aosta. The specimens collected were found dead or have been hunted (according to national law n. 157/92 in localities situated between 170 and 2200 m a.s.l. The carcasses were carried to the provincial sections of Zooprofilattici Institutes, where the intestine was drawn by each sample and all the material was sent to the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Milan. Parasitological examination of the small intestines was performed by the analysis of the whole sediment and counting technique (SCT. Parasites were preserved in alcohol 70° before to be clarified or stained and identified by microscope (Zeiss Axioscop. Mean abundance, mean intensity and prevalence were calculated for each taxon of helminth. Dates of sampling were grouped within the four seasons. Statistic tests were performed with software package SPSS rel. 11.5 and spatial analysis with the

  8. Application of Novel Polymorphic Microsatellite Loci Identified in the Korean Pacific Abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta (Haliotidae in the Genetic Characterization of Wild and Released Populations

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    Seong Wan Hong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The small abalone, Haliotis diversicolor supertexta, of the family Haliotidae, is one of the most important species of marine shellfish in eastern Asia. Over the past few decades, this species has drastically declined in Korea. Thus, hatchery-bred seeds have been released into natural coastal areas to compensate for the reduced fishery resources. However, information on the genetic background of the small abalone is scarce. In this study, 20 polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers were identified using next-generation sequencing techniques and used to compare allelic variation between wild and released abalone populations in Korea. Using high-throughput genomic sequencing, a total of 1516 (2.26%; average length of 385 bp reads containing simple sequence repeats were obtained from 86,011 raw reads. Among the 99 loci screened, 28 amplified successfully, and 20 were polymorphic. When comparing allelic variation between wild and released abalone populations, a total of 243 different alleles were observed, with 18.7 alleles per locus. High genetic diversity (mean heterozygosity = 0.81; mean allelic number = 15.5 was observed in both populations. A statistical analysis of the fixation index (FST and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA indicated limited genetic differences between the two populations (FST = 0.002, p > 0.05. Although no significant reductions in the genetic diversity were found in the released population compared with the wild population (p > 0.05, the genetic diversity parameters revealed that the seeds released for stock abundance had a different genetic composition. These differences are likely a result of hatchery selection and inbreeding. Additionally, all the primer pair sets were effectively amplified in another congeneric species, H. diversicolor diversicolor, indicating that these primers are useful for both abalone species. These microsatellite loci

  9. Antibacterial activity of GUAVA, Psidium guajava Linnaeus, leaf extracts on diarrhea-causing enteric bacteria isolated from Seabob shrimp, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Flávia A; Andrade Neto, Manoel; Bezerra, José N S; Macrae, Andrew; Sousa, Oscarina Viana de; Fonteles-Filho, Antonio A; Vieira, Regine H S F

    2008-01-01

    Guava leaf tea of Psidium guajava Linnaeus is commonly used as a medicine against gastroenteritis and child diarrhea by those who cannot afford or do not have access to antibiotics. This study screened the antimicrobial effect of essential oils and methanol, hexane, ethyl acetate extracts from guava leaves. The extracts were tested against diarrhea-causing bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli. Strains that were screened included isolates from seabob shrimp, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller) and laboratory-type strains. Of the bacteria tested, Staphylococcus aureus strains were most inhibited by the extracts. The methanol extract showed greatest bacterial inhibition. No statistically significant differences were observed between the tested extract concentrations and their effect. The essential oil extract showed inhibitory activity against S. aureus and Salmonella spp. The strains isolated from the shrimp showed some resistance to commercially available antibiotics. These data support the use of guava leaf-made medicines in diarrhea cases where access to commercial antibiotics is restricted. In conclusion, guava leaf extracts and essential oil are very active against S. aureus, thus making up important potential sources of new antimicrobial compounds.

  10. Descripción osteológica del rorcual común (Balaenoptera physalus, Linnaeus, 1758 del Museo de Ciencias Naturales de Barcelona

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    Carrillo, M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Description of the skeleton of the fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus, Linnaeus, 1758 at the Natural History Museum of Barcelona We describe the osteology of the fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus, L., registration code MZB 83-308 at the Natural History Museum of Barcelona. The specimen was stranded and died on a beach in Llançà (Girona, Spain in 1862. The skeleton weighed 1,161.59 kg and measured 14. 6 m, although the live animal would have been longer because the invertebral tissue was not included in the length originally stated. The newly reconstructed skeleton includes the invertebral discs and is 17.5 m long. The skull weighs 484 kg and the condilobasal length is 431 cm ( 24. 84% of the total length, corresponding to the mean length of specimens in the Mediterranean. The vertebral column has 58 vertebra structured following the formula: C7 T14 L14 Cd23. It is 10.29 m long and weighs 470.95 kg. All the cervical vertebra are free and show dorsoventral compression, differing from the thoracic, lumbar and first caudal vertebra that are relatively uniform, and rounded. From Cd14 se onwards, the vertebra vary in shape and the relationship between width and height is greater than 1, indicating lateral compression. The lack of suture lines in the epiphysis of the ulna and radius indicates the specimen is an adult that has reached ossification maturation.

  11. Vessel noise pollution as a human threat to fish: assessment of the stress response in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, Linnaeus 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celi, Monica; Filiciotto, Francesco; Maricchiolo, Giulia; Genovese, Lucrezia; Quinci, Enza Maria; Maccarrone, Vincenzo; Mazzola, Salvatore; Vazzana, Mirella; Buscaino, Giuseppa

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the effects of boat noise pollution on the stress indices of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, Linnaeus 1758). To assess the stress response in these fish, biometric values and plasma parameters such as ACTH, cortisol, glucose, lactate, haematocrit, Hsp70, total protein, cholesterol, triglycerides and osmolarity were analysed. After acclimatization of the animals, the experiment was carried out in a tank fitted with underwater speakers where the fish were exposed to sound treatments (in duplicate) consisting of: 10 days of no sound (control treatment; the animals were only exposed to the experimental tank's background noise) and 10 days of noise derived from original recordings of motor boats, including recreational boats, hydrofoil, fishing boat and ferry boat (vessel noise treatment). The exposure to noise produced significant variations in almost all the plasma parameters assessed, but no differences were observed in weights and fork lengths. A PERMANOVA analysis highlighted significantly increased values (p < 0.05) of ACTH, cortisol, glucose, lactate, haematocrit, Hsp70, cholesterol, triglycerides and osmolarity in the fish exposed to vessel noise for 10 days. This study clearly highlights that anthropogenic noise negatively affects fish, and they are valuable targets for detailed investigations into the effects of this global pollutant. Finally, these experimental studies could represent part of the science that is able to improve the quality of the policies related to management plans for maritime spaces (Marine Strategy Framework Directive 56/2008 CE) that are aimed at stemming this pollutant phenomenon.

  12. Effects of 200 Gy 60Co-γ Radiation on the Regulation of Antioxidant Enzymes, Hsp70 Genes, and Serum Molecules of Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxue; Luo, Lingyan; Karthi, Sengodan; Zhang, Ke; Luo, Jianjun; Hu, Qiongbo; Weng, Qunfang

    2018-04-26

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), is one of the notorious pests causing substantial loses to many cruciferous vegetables across the nations. The effects of 60 Co-γ radiation on physiology of P. xylostella were investigated and the results displayed that 200 Gy irradiation significantly alters the antioxidant enzyme regulation in six-day-old male pupae of P. xylostella . First, in our research, we detected Oxidase system and stress response mechanism of irradiated pupae, the results displayed that 200 Gy irradiation significantly alters the antioxidant enzyme regulation in six-day-old male pupae of P. xylostella . The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were increased significantly in contrast the level of peroxidase (POD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were decreased in 12⁻24 h post-treatment. The heat shock proteins (Hsps) gene expression level was significant increasing, maximum > 2-folds upregulation of genes were observed in peak. However, they also had a trend of gradual recovery with development. Second, we detected the testis lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and acid phosphatase (ACP) activity found that in male adults testis they increased significantly than control during its development. Thus the present research investigation highlights that the 60 Co-γ radiation treatments alters the physiological development of diamondback moth. The results showed that 200 Gy dosage resulted in stress damage to the body and reproductive system of the diamondback moth.

  13. Effects of 200 Gy 60Co-γ Radiation on the Regulation of Antioxidant Enzymes, Hsp70 Genes, and Serum Molecules of Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxue Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus, is one of the notorious pests causing substantial loses to many cruciferous vegetables across the nations. The effects of 60Co-γ radiation on physiology of P. xylostella were investigated and the results displayed that 200 Gy irradiation significantly alters the antioxidant enzyme regulation in six-day-old male pupae of P. xylostella. First, in our research, we detected Oxidase system and stress response mechanism of irradiated pupae, the results displayed that 200 Gy irradiation significantly alters the antioxidant enzyme regulation in six-day-old male pupae of P. xylostella. The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT were increased significantly in contrast the level of peroxidase (POD and glutathione S-transferase (GST were decreased in 12–24 h post-treatment. The heat shock proteins (Hsps gene expression level was significant increasing, maximum > 2-folds upregulation of genes were observed in peak. However, they also had a trend of gradual recovery with development. Second, we detected the testis lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and acid phosphatase (ACP activity found that in male adults testis they increased significantly than control during its development. Thus the present research investigation highlights that the 60Co-γ radiation treatments alters the physiological development of diamondback moth. The results showed that 200 Gy dosage resulted in stress damage to the body and reproductive system of the diamondback moth.

  14. Study on trace element determination in liver samples of great-white-egret Ardea alba Linnaeus, 1758 (Ardeidae, Aves) for environmental contamination biomionitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Rita de Cassia A.; Saiki, Mitiko

    2009-01-01

    Predatory birds such as herons have been used as bioindicators of pollution since they are at the top of their food webs. The tissues of these animals are analyzed for assessing environmental pollution caused by toxic elements. In the present study, adequate experimental conditions were established for determination of trace elements concentrations in the liver samples of Great-white-egret (Ardea alba Linnaeus, 1758) for further application of this specimens as a bioindicator of environmental contamination. Four liver samples were collected from Greatwhite- egrets found in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo and were they analyzed by the method of neutron activation analysis (NAA). Concentrations of the elements Br, Co, Cs, Fe, Na, Rb, Se and Zn were measured in these liver tissues. The findings of this present study demonstrated that the established procedure for liver sample treatment was appropriate to obtain a homogeneous sample. The method of neutron activation analysis (NAA) was very promising for liver sample analysis for evaluation of environmental contamination. (author)

  15. Gastrintestinal helminths Of Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 -Smith, 1839 from the caatinga area of the Paraíba State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto César Lima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The crab eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 – Smith, 1839, is a medium sized canid which is found in almost every region of Brazil. It is the only registered native canid specie to be found in the semi-arid Northeastern region of the country. This study had as its objectives: the identification of the helminth fauna common to Cerdocyon thous found in the Caatinga of the state of Paraíba; and the determination of the ecological indications of helminthic infection, hoping to make a favourable addition to the understanding of this little known biome. In this study, 58 animals that were found as ‘roadkill’ on the highways in the municipality of Patos were used. The gastrointestinal helminths from these animals were colected. All the animals in this study were infected with helminths. 16 species of helminths were identified, two being trematodes, one being a cestode, one being an acanthocephalus, and the remaining twelve being nematodes. In this study a new specie, named Pterygodermatites pluripectinata n. sp. Was discovered and its host and location described.

  16. Some aspects on the reproductive cycle of European conger eel, Conger conger (Linnaeus, 1758 (Osteichthyes, Anguilliformes, Congridae captured from Western Algerian coasts: a histological description of spermatogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abi-ayad Sidi-Mohammed El-Amine

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the annual reproductive cycle of European conger eel (Conger conger,Linnaeus, 1758 through analysis and description of spermatogenesis. A sample of 168 males was capturedbetween September 2008 and August 2009 from the Western coast of Algeria, from Béni Saf. Fish length andweight varied between 26.20-112 cm and 0.45-3.44 kg, respectively.Condition factors (K, gonadosomatic index (G.S.I. and hepatosomatic index (H.S.I. were calculatedmonthly. Factor K reached the minimum in August/September (0.10% corresponding to reproductive periodand a maximum in January (0.18%. Although G.S.I. values revealed to be statistically not significant, therewere two peaks for G.S.I., the first in March, denoting the beginning of spermatogenesis, and the second inAugust/September, indicating the reproduction period. H.S.I. reached a peak in December (1.90%, then thevalue decreased to a minimum in April.Histological analysis of testis allowed us to distinguish 5 stages summarized as follows: Stage 1:Spermatogonia A; Stage 2: Spermatogonia B; Stage 3: Spermatocytes and spermatids; Stage 4: Spermatocytes,spermatids and spermatozoa (cytodifferentiation of spermatids into spermatozoa; Stage 5: Spermatozoa(spermiogenesis or cytodifferentiation of spermatids into spermatozoa.

  17. Effects of supplemental coated or crystalline methionine in low-fishmeal diet on the growth performance and body composition of juvenile cobia Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Shuyan; Tan, Beiping; Dong, Xiaohui; Yang, Qihui; Liu, Hongyu

    2014-11-01

    We evaluated the effects of supplemental coated and crystalline methionine (Met) on the growth performance and feed utilization of juvenile cobia ( Rachycentron canadum Linnaeus) in a 60-d feeding trial. Fish groups were fed one of six isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets: 1) fishmeal control; 2) un-supplemented experimental (low-fish-meal diet deficient in Met); or 3) one of four Met diets supplemented with crystalline L-Met, cellulose-acetate-phthalate coated L-Met, acrylic-resin coated L-Met, or tripalmitin-polyvinyl alcohol coated L-Met. The test diets were fed to triplicate groups of cobia (initial body weight 5.40±0.07 g) twice a day. The weight gain and specific growth rate of the fish fed the RES diet were highest among the Met-supplemented groups and were 23.64% and 7.99%, respectively, higher than those of the fish fed with the un-supplemented experimental diet ( Pcobia.

  18. Absorbed Dose Rate Due to Intake of Natural Radionuclides by Tilapia Fish (Tilapia nilotica,Linnaeus, 1758) Estimated Near Uranium Mining at Caetité, Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Wagner de S.; Kelecom, Alphonse; Py Júnior, Delcy de Azevedo

    2008-08-01

    The uranium mining at Caetité (Uranium Concentrate Unit—URA) is in its operational phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the URA, a monitoring program is underway. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to act in a pro-active way as expected from a licensing body, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected target organism was the Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). As, in Brazil there are no radiation exposure limits adopted for biota the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5×103 μGy y-1 has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for Tilapia was 2.51×100 μGy y-1, that is less than 0.1% of the dose limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was Ra-226, with 56% of the absorbed dose rate, followed by U-238 with 34% and Th-232 with 9%. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that, in the operational conditions analyzed, natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to biota.

  19. Anthelmintic efficacy of pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo Linnaeus, 1753) on ostrich gastrointestinal nematodes in a semiarid region of Paraíba State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Thais Ferreira; Vilela, Vinícius Longo Ribeiro; Athayde, Ana Célia Rodrigues; Braga, Fábio Ribeiro; Dantas, Elaine Silva; Vieira, Vanessa Diniz; de Melo, Lídio Ricardo Bezerra

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the in vivo effectiveness of pumpkin seed (Curcubita pepo Linnaeus, 1753) in naturally infected ostriches in the Cariri zone, semiarid region of Paraíba State, Brazil. Forty-eight ostriches were used, African Black breed, of 14 to 36 months old, naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes. These animals were divided into four groups of 12 ostriches. Group 1 consists of animals treated with 0.5 g/kg live weight (l. w.) of pumpkin seed meal; group 2 received 1 g/kg l. w. of pumpkin seed meal; group 3 was treated with Albendazole 5 %, at the dosage of 1 mL/10 kg l. w.; and Group 4 was the control group and do not received treatment. Groups 1 and 2 received the treatment for three consecutive days, orally, at intervals of 7 days, totaling nine administrations. The Albendazole 5 % was administered one time, at the beginning of the experiment, according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The groups treated with pumpkin seed showed a significant decrease in egg counts per gram of feces (EPG), wherein group 2 (1 g/kg l. w.) was the most effective. The control and drug groups showed no reduction in EPG. The results of the present study demonstrate that the administration of pumpkin seed was effective in controlling gastrointestinal helminths in naturally infected ostriches.

  20. Study on trace element determination in liver samples of great-white-egret Ardea alba Linnaeus, 1758 (Ardeidae, Aves) for environmental contamination biomionitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Rita de Cassia A.; Saiki, Mitiko, E-mail: rcsilva@ipen.b, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Predatory birds such as herons have been used as bioindicators of pollution since they are at the top of their food webs. The tissues of these animals are analyzed for assessing environmental pollution caused by toxic elements. In the present study, adequate experimental conditions were established for determination of trace elements concentrations in the liver samples of Great-white-egret (Ardea alba Linnaeus, 1758) for further application of this specimens as a bioindicator of environmental contamination. Four liver samples were collected from Greatwhite- egrets found in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo and were they analyzed by the method of neutron activation analysis (NAA). Concentrations of the elements Br, Co, Cs, Fe, Na, Rb, Se and Zn were measured in these liver tissues. The findings of this present study demonstrated that the established procedure for liver sample treatment was appropriate to obtain a homogeneous sample. The method of neutron activation analysis (NAA) was very promising for liver sample analysis for evaluation of environmental contamination. (author)

  1. Larvicidal Potential of the Halogenated Sesquiterpene (+)-Obtusol, Isolated from the Alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh (Ceramiales: Rhodomelaceae), against the Dengue Vector Mosquito Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Neto, Orlando; Gomes, Simone Azevedo; Soares, Angélica Ribeiro; Machado, Fernanda Lacerda da Silva; Samuels, Richard Ian; Nunes da Fonseca, Rodrigo; Souza-Menezes, Jackson; Moraes, Jorge Luiz da Cunha; Campos, Eldo; Mury, Flávia Borges; Silva, José Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is considered a serious public health problem in many tropical regions of the world including Brazil. At the moment, there is no viable alternative to reduce dengue infections other than controlling the insect vector, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus. In the continuing search for new sources of chemicals targeted at vector control, natural products are a promising alternative to synthetic pesticides. In our work, we investigated the toxicity of a bioactive compound extracted from the red alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh. The initial results demonstrated that crude extracts, at a concentration of 5 ppm, caused pronounced mortality of second instar A. aegypti larvae. Two molecules, identified as (−)-elatol and (+)-obtusol were subsequently isolated from crude extract and further evaluated. Assays with (−)-elatol showed moderate larvicidal activity, whereas (+)-obtusol presented higher toxic activity than (−)-elatol, with a LC50 value of 3.5 ppm. Histological analysis of the larvae exposed to (+)-obtusol revealed damage to the intestinal epithelium. Moreover, (+)-obtusol-treated larvae incubated with 2 µM CM-H2DCFDA showed the presence of reactive oxygen species, leading us to suggest that epithelial damage might be related to redox imbalance. These results demonstrate the potential of (+)-obtusol as a larvicide for use against A. aegypti and the possible mode of action of this compound. PMID:26821032

  2. Absorbed dose rate due to intake of natural radionuclides by Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) estimated near uranium anomaly at Santa Quiteria, Ceara, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Wagner de; Kelecom, Alphonse; Py Junior, Delcy de Azevedo

    2007-01-01

    The uranium mining at Santa Quiteria (Santa Quiteria Unit - USQ) is in its environmental licensing phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the USQ, a monitoring program is underway. However, radioprotection of biota is not explicitly mentioned in Brazilian norms. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to behave in a pro-active way as expected by licensing organs, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology, based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected biomarker was the fish tilapia (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). Since there are no exposition limits for biota, in Brazil, the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5 x 10 3 μGy/y has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for tilapia was 2.76 x 10 0 μGy/y, that is less than 0.1 % of the limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was U-238, with 99% of the absorbed dose rate. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that in pre-operational conditions analyzed natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to the biota. (author)

  3. Absorbed dose rate due to intake of natural radionuclides by Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) estimated near uranium anomaly at Santa Quiteria, Ceara, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Wagner de [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A. (INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Coordenacao de Protecao Radiologica. Unidade de Tratamento de Minerios], E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.br; Kelecom, Alphonse [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencia Ambiental; Py Junior, Delcy de Azevedo [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A. (INB), Caetite, BA (Brazil). Coordenacao de Protecao Radiologica. Unidade de Concentrado de Uranio], E-mail: Delcy@inb.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    The uranium mining at Santa Quiteria (Santa Quiteria Unit - USQ) is in its environmental licensing phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the USQ, a monitoring program is underway. However, radioprotection of biota is not explicitly mentioned in Brazilian norms. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to behave in a pro-active way as expected by licensing organs, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology, based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected biomarker was the fish tilapia (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). Since there are no exposition limits for biota, in Brazil, the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5 x 10{sup 3} {mu}Gy/y has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for tilapia was 2.76 x 10{sup 0} {mu}Gy/y, that is less than 0.1 % of the limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was U-238, with 99% of the absorbed dose rate. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that in pre-operational conditions analyzed natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to the biota. (author)

  4. Circulating Hemocytes from Larvae of the Japanese Rhinoceros Beetle Allomyrina dichotoma (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) and the Cellular Immune Response to Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sejung; Bang, Kyeongrin; Lee, Jiae; Cho, Saeyoull

    2015-01-01

    Hemocytes of the last larva of the Japanese rhinoceros beetle A. dichotoma (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) were classified as granulocytes, plasmatocytes, oenocytoids, spherulocytes, prohemocytes, and adipohemocytes. Among these cell types, only the granulocytes became immunologically activated with obvious morphological changes, displaying large amoeba-like, lobopodia-like, and fan-like structures. In addition, their cytoplasmic granules became larger and greatly increased in number. To explore whether these granules could be immunologically generated as phagosomes, total hemocytes were stained with LysoTracker. Greater than 90% of the granulocytes retained the LysoTracker dye at 4 h post-bacterial infection. In flow cytometry analysis, the red fluorescent signal was highly increased at 4 h post-bacterial infection (60.36%) compared to controls (5.08%), as was confirmed by fluorescent microscopy. After 12 h post-infection, these signals returned to basal levels. The uptake of pathogens by granulocytes rapidly triggered the translocation of the microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 alpha (LC3) to the phagosome, which may result in enhanced pathogen killing.

  5. Circulating Hemocytes from Larvae of the Japanese Rhinoceros Beetle Allomyrina dichotoma (Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae and the Cellular Immune Response to Microorganisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sejung Hwang

    Full Text Available Hemocytes of the last larva of the Japanese rhinoceros beetle A. dichotoma (Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae were classified as granulocytes, plasmatocytes, oenocytoids, spherulocytes, prohemocytes, and adipohemocytes. Among these cell types, only the granulocytes became immunologically activated with obvious morphological changes, displaying large amoeba-like, lobopodia-like, and fan-like structures. In addition, their cytoplasmic granules became larger and greatly increased in number. To explore whether these granules could be immunologically generated as phagosomes, total hemocytes were stained with LysoTracker. Greater than 90% of the granulocytes retained the LysoTracker dye at 4 h post-bacterial infection. In flow cytometry analysis, the red fluorescent signal was highly increased at 4 h post-bacterial infection (60.36% compared to controls (5.08%, as was confirmed by fluorescent microscopy. After 12 h post-infection, these signals returned to basal levels. The uptake of pathogens by granulocytes rapidly triggered the translocation of the microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 alpha (LC3 to the phagosome, which may result in enhanced pathogen killing.

  6. Absorbed Dose Rate Due to Intake of Natural Radionuclides by Tilapia Fish (Tilapia nilotica,Linnaeus, 1758) Estimated Near Uranium Mining at Caetite, Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Wagner de S; Kelecom, Alphonse; Azevedo Py Junior, Delcy de

    2008-01-01

    The uranium mining at Caetite (Uranium Concentrate Unit--URA) is in its operational phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the URA, a monitoring program is underway. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to act in a pro-active way as expected from a licensing body, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected target organism was the Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). As, in Brazil there are no radiation exposure limits adopted for biota the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5x10 3 μGy y -1 has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for Tilapia was 2.51x10 0 μGy y -1 , that is less than 0.1% of the dose limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was Ra-226, with 56% of the absorbed dose rate, followed by U-238 with 34% and Th-232 with 9%. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that, in the operational conditions analyzed, natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to biota

  7. Estudio genético de la estructura poblacional y conectividad de dos corales endémicos del Mediterráneo: Astroides calycularis (Pallas, 1766) y Cladocora caespitosa (Linnaeus, 1767)

    OpenAIRE

    Casado-Amezúa, P.

    2012-01-01

    [ES] El objetivo general de la presente tesis es determinar la estructura genética y el alcance de la conectividad de las poblaciones de dos corales escleractinios del Mediterráneo, Astroides calycularis (Pallas, 1766) y Cladocora caespitosa (Linnaeus, 1767). Estos procesos están generalmente ligados a diferentes características biológicas de las especies, tales como la densidad y distribución de las poblaciones, la fecundidad, el éxito reproductor, el tipo de desarrollo larvario, la capacida...

  8. Ultraestrutura do espermatozóide de Ucides cordatus Linnaeus (Crustacea, Ocypodidae do litoral norte do Brasil Ultrastructure of spermatozoon of the crab Ucides cordatus Linaeus (Crustacea, Decapoda of the northern littoral of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilson Matos

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Ultrastructure of spermatozoa of the crab Ucides cordatus Linnaeus, 1763 is described and illustrated. Three parts can be distinguished: 1. the elongate-ovoid acrosome located anteriorly; 2. the cytoplasmic region; and 3. the nuclear region. The acrosome is composed of a thick electron-dense wall and a less electron-dense subacrosomal space. The cytoplasm region connects the acrosome with the nucleus, and three arms filled with microtubules arise from this region. The nucleus is polymorphous. The spermatozoon of Ucides cordatus follows the general pattern described for other Decapods.

  9. On mysterious occurrence of butterflies in the genus Delias at Jinmen Islands, with clarification on the nomenclature of D. pasithoe (Linnaeus, 1767) and D. acalis (Godart, 1819) in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yu-Feng; Huang, Hang-Chi; Lu, Chen-Chih

    2017-06-11

    In recent years, a considerable number of pierid butterflies of the genus Delias have been found from Jinmen Islands, where no available hostplants grow, rendering a proof of cross sea water migration of these butterflies. It is suggested here that these butterflies come from nearby continent of eastern China, visiting the islands for nectar acquisition in seasons when nectar is in short supply because they mostly show up in autumn months. Samples obtained during the survey contained two species, namely Delias pasithoe (Linnaeus, 1767) and Delias acalis (Godart, 1819). Subspecific names applied to both species in eastern China appear to involve nomenclatural problems, with erroneous usage in recent literature.

  10. Comparison of the digestibility of abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) produced by four different processing treatments%四种加工方式对皱纹盘鲍制品消化特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万楚君; 游银川; 翁凌; 张凌晶; 刘光明; 曹敏杰

    2017-01-01

    为了探讨不同加工方式对皱纹盘鲍制品消化特性的影响,分析了生鲜、煮制、罐制和干制4种方式对鲍鱼肌肉蛋白在消化酶作用下的分解情况.利用模拟胃肠液消化及SDS-PAGE比较分析不同加工方式对鲍鱼肌肉消化特性的影响,并通过扫描电镜观察4种加工方式下鲍鱼肌肉组织微观结构的差异.结果显示,与生鲜鲍鱼相比,经煮制的鲍鱼较易被消化,罐制加工产品最易被消化,而干制鲍鱼最难被消化.不同加工方式对鲍鱼肌肉的组织结构有较大影响.进一步对不同皱纹盘鲍制品模拟胃肠液消化终产物的生物活性进行研究,发现它们对血管紧张素转换酶(ACE)的抑制活性(IC50)依次为罐制(464.2μg/mL)<干制(665.4μg/mL)<煮制(775.7μg/mL)<生鲜(803.9μg/mL).研究表明,不同加工方式对鲍鱼制品在机体内的消化特性及产物对ACE抑制活性存在差异,为优化鲍鱼制品生产加工提供了一定的参考.%In order to know the effect of different processing methods on protein digestion of abalone (Haliotis discus hannai), the effects of four processing methods including raw, boiling, canning, and drying on the digestibility of abalone muscular proteins were investigated. Simulated gastric fluid (SGF) as well as simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) was used to study the effects ofin vitro digestion. The products were evaluated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the differences in the fiber of the four products. The results showed that the digestibility of proteins in canned abalone was the highest among the four processing methods. Proteins from dried abalone were most resistant to digestion both in SGF and SIF. The four processing methods revealed different fiber structures under SEM. Furthermore, the angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of the digested products exhibited the

  11. Haliotis tuberculata hemocyanin (HtH): analysis of oligomeric stability of HtH1 and HtH2, and comparison with keyhole limpet hemocyanin KLH1 and KLH2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J R; Scheffler, D; Gebauer, W; Lehnert, R; Markl, J

    2000-12-01

    The multimeric/higher oligomeric states of the two isoforms of Haliotis tuberculata hemocyanin (HtH1 and HtH2) have been assessed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of negatively stained specimens, for comparison with previously published structural data from keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH1 and KLH2) [see Harris, J.R., Gebauer, W., Guderian, F.U., Markl, J., 1997a. Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), I: Reassociation from Immucothel followed by separation of KLH1 and KLH2. Micron, 28, 31-41; Harris, J.R., Gebauer, W., Söhngen, S.M., Nermut, M.V., Markl, J., 1997b. Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). II: Characteristic reassociation properties of purified KLH1 and KLH2. Micron, 28, 43-56; Harris, J.R., Gebauer, W., Adrian, M., Markl, J., 1998. Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH): Slow in vitro reassociation of KLH1 and KLH2 from Immucothel. Micron, 29, 329-339]. In purified samples of both HtH isoforms, the hollow cylindrical ca 8MDa didecamer predominates together with a small number of decamers, but tri- and longer multidecamers are detectable only in the HtH2. The stability of the two HtH isoforms under varying ionic conditions have been monitored, thereby enabling conditions for the production of stable decamers to be established. The ability of these decamers to reform multimers in the presence of 10 and 100mM concentrations of calcium and magnesium ions in Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.4), and also of individual HtH1 and HtH2 subunits (produced by pH 9.6 dissociation in glycine-NaOH buffer), to reassociate in the presence of calcium and magnesium ions, has been assessed. For the HtH1 decamers, the predominant multimeric product is the didecamer at 10 and 100mM calcium and magnesium concentrations, whereas for the HtH2 decamers, large numbers of multidecamers are produced, with the reaction proceeding more completely at the higher calcium and magnesium concentration. With the HtH1 subunit, reassociation in the presence of 10 and 100mM calcium and magnesium ions yielded

  12. Una nueva especie de Meloe Linnaeus, 1758 del suroeste de Marruecos incluida en el grupo de M. (Eurymeloe rugosus Marsham, 1802 (Coleoptera: Meloidae

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    Ruiz, José L.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The scientific collections of the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (MNCN-CSIC, Madrid hold an extense set of entomological materials collected in Morocco along the first decades of the XXth century by the preeminent naturalist M. Martínez de la Escalera. Morphological studies of the specimens of the genus Meloe Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera: Meloidae reveals the existence of populations morphologically differentiated along the coastal regions of Essaouira and Ifni. These populations are included within the Meloe rugosus Marsham, 1802 species group in the subgenus Eurymeloe Reitter, 1911. Their differential traits with respect to all other North African and European species of the Meloe rugosus species group are constant, and permit considering these populations as a taxonomic independent unit described herein, Meloe baamarani n. sp. This new species is characterized by having a black, opaque, general coloration all over the body and appendages; black short vestiture; broad head with broadly rounded temples, without median longitudinal groove; long antennae, with segments III to VIII subcylindrical and longer than wide; pronotum transverse, with convergent sides toward the base, without median groove; head and pronotum punctuation dense; aedeagus narrow, median lobe wide and strong, dorsally sinuous, with ventral hooks close to the apex. Meloe baamarani can be only confused on the western regions of northern Africa with Meloe mediterraneus Müller, 1925. This species shares a general appearance with M. baamarani, but differs in many morphological traits. Among those, tegument micro-reticulation, absence of median groove along the head, pronotum morphology and macrosculpture, and configuration of the male genitalia, are included.Las colecciones científicas del Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (MNCN-CSIC, Madrid albergan un extenso material entomológico recogido en Marruecos a principios del siglo XX por el insigne naturalista M. Mart

  13. Teknik budi daya larva Hermetia illucens (Linnaeus (Diptera: Stratiomyidae sebagai sumber protein pakan ternak melalui biokonversi limbah loading ramp dari pabrik CPO

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    Agustin Zarkani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Larvae of Hermetia illucens fly (Linnaeus is an important source of alternative protein and can be used as pellets for feeds. Currently the production of H. illucens larvae is still limited because its rearing depends on palm kernel meal. The objective of the research is to explore alternative media for rearing, i.e. using loading ramp waste from crude palm oil factory. The study was conducted using physical-chemical analysis of the media. Evaluation of potential rearing media of loading ramp was done by studying the suitability of loading ramp fermented by EM4®, rumen microbes, and organic liquid fertilizer and without fermentation. Treatment media was develop with an enrichment ratio of 1 : 0.25, 1 : 05, and 1 : 1 (v/v for bran and husk, and 1.25, 2.5, and 5% (w/w for coconut sugar. Each experiment was arranged in complete randomized design using 20 larva of the 2nd instar. Larvas were incubated in plastic with tube with diameter of 10 cm and 20 cm in height containing of media 300 g. Response differences in growth and mortality were analyzed by ANOVA and least significant differences test at 0.05 levels. Preference and analysis suitability of the media were conducted using material enrichment. Results show that the loading ramp waste contain 9.80% protein and 10.32% fat. Although the media are could support growth and development of the larvae at different degree, media from waste fermentation POC loading ramp with bran enrichment 1 : 0.5 (v/v is the best media for rearing larva.

  14. Total and cytosolic concentrations of twenty metals/metalloids in the liver of brown trout Salmo trutta (Linnaeus, 1758) from the karstic Croatian river Krka.

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    Dragun, Zrinka; Filipović Marijić, Vlatka; Krasnići, Nesrete; Ivanković, Dušica; Valić, Damir; Žunić, Jakov; Kapetanović, Damir; Smrzlić, Irena Vardić; Redžović, Zuzana; Grgić, Ivana; Erk, Marijana

    2018-01-01

    Total and cytosolic concentrations of twenty metals/metalloids in the liver of brown trout Salmo trutta (Linnaeus, 1758) were studied in the period from April 2015 to May 2016 at two sampling sites on Croatian river Krka, to establish if river water contamination with metals/metalloids downstream of Knin town has influenced metal bioaccumulation in S. trutta liver. Differences were observed between two sites, with higher concentrations of several elements (Ag, As, Ca, Co, Na, Se, Sr, V) found downstream of Knin town, whereas few others (Cd, Cs, Mo, Tl) were, unexpectedly, increased at the Krka River spring. However, total metal/metalloid concentrations in the liver of S. trutta from both sites of the Krka River were still mainly below previously reported levels for pristine freshwaters worldwide. The analysis of seasonal changes of metal/metalloid concentrations in S. trutta liver and their association with fish sex and size mostly indicated their independence of fish physiology, making them good indicators of water contamination and exposure level. Metal/metalloid concentrations in the metabolically available hepatic cytosolic fractions reported in this study are the first data of that kind for S. trutta liver, and the majority of analyzed elements were present in the cytosol in the quantity higher than 50% of their total concentrations, thus indicating their possible availability for toxic effects. However, the special attention should be directed to As, Cd, Cs, and Tl, which under the conditions of increased exposure tended to accumulate more within the cytosol. Although metal/metalloid concentrations in S. trutta liver were still rather low, monitoring of the Krka River water quality and of the health status of its biota is essential due to a trend of higher metal/metalloid bioaccumulation downstream of Knin town, especially taking into consideration the proximity of National Park Krka and the need for its conservation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All

  15. Detection of carboxylesterase and esterase activity in culturable gut bacterial flora isolated from diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), from India and its possible role in indoxacarb degradation.

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    Ramya, Shanivarsanthe Leelesh; Venkatesan, Thiruvengadam; Srinivasa Murthy, Kottilingam; Jalali, Sushil Kumar; Verghese, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), is a notorious pest of brassica crops worldwide and is resistant to all groups of insecticides. The insect system harbors diverse groups of microbiota, which in turn helps in enzymatic degradation of xenobiotic-like insecticides. The present study aimed to determine the diversity of gut microflora in DBM, quantify esterase activity and elucidate their possible role in degradation of indoxacarb. We screened 11 geographic populations of DBM in India and analyzed them for bacterial diversity. The culturable gut bacterial flora underwent molecular characterization with 16S rRNA. We obtained 25 bacterial isolates from larvae (n=13) and adults (n=12) of DBM. In larval gut isolates, gammaproteobacteria was the most abundant (76%), followed by bacilli (15.4%). Molecular characterization placed adult gut bacterial strains into three major classes based on abundance: gammaproteobacteria (66%), bacilli (16.7%) and flavobacteria (16.7%). Esterase activity from 19 gut bacterial isolates ranged from 0.072 to 2.32μmol/min/mg protein. Esterase bands were observed in 15 bacterial strains and the banding pattern differed in Bacillus cereus - KC985225 and Pantoea agglomerans - KC985229. The bands were characterized as carboxylesterase with profenofos used as an inhibitor. Minimal media study showed that B. cereus degraded indoxacarb up to 20%, so it could use indoxacarb for metabolism and growth. Furthermore, esterase activity was greater with minimal media than control media: 1.87 versus 0.26μmol/min/mg protein. Apart from the insect esterases, bacterial carboxylesterase may aid in the degradation of insecticides in DBM. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Detection of carboxylesterase and esterase activity in culturable gut bacterial flora isolated from diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus, from India and its possible role in indoxacarb degradation

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    Shanivarsanthe Leelesh Ramya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Diamondback moth (DBM, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus, is a notorious pest of brassica crops worldwide and is resistant to all groups of insecticides. The insect system harbors diverse groups of microbiota, which in turn helps in enzymatic degradation of xenobiotic-like insecticides. The present study aimed to determine the diversity of gut microflora in DBM, quantify esterase activity and elucidate their possible role in degradation of indoxacarb. We screened 11 geographic populations of DBM in India and analyzed them for bacterial diversity. The culturable gut bacterial flora underwent molecular characterization with 16S rRNA. We obtained 25 bacterial isolates from larvae (n = 13 and adults (n = 12 of DBM. In larval gut isolates, gammaproteobacteria was the most abundant (76%, followed by bacilli (15.4%. Molecular characterization placed adult gut bacterial strains into three major classes based on abundance: gammaproteobacteria (66%, bacilli (16.7% and flavobacteria (16.7%. Esterase activity from 19 gut bacterial isolates ranged from 0.072 to 2.32 µmol/min/mg protein. Esterase bands were observed in 15 bacterial strains and the banding pattern differed in Bacillus cereus – KC985225 and Pantoea agglomerans – KC985229. The bands were characterized as carboxylesterase with profenofos used as an inhibitor. Minimal media study showed that B. cereus degraded indoxacarb up to 20%, so it could use indoxacarb for metabolism and growth. Furthermore, esterase activity was greater with minimal media than control media: 1.87 versus 0.26 µmol/min/mg protein. Apart from the insect esterases, bacterial carboxylesterase may aid in the degradation of insecticides in DBM.

  17. A morphohistological and histochemical study of hatchery-reared European hake, Merluccius merluccius (Linnaeus, 1758, during the lecitho-exotrophic larval phase

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    Juan B. Ortiz-Delgado

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The larval development of reared European hake, Merluccius merluccius (Linnaeus, 1758, during the lecithotrophic phase, from hatching until 5 days post-hatching (dph, and throughout the endo-exotrophic feeding phase (6-10 dph was studied by histology and histochemistry. Many crucial morphological, cellular and tissular changes were observed during both feeding phases, mostly those related to digestive and visual ontogenetic events, such as differentiation of buccopharyngeal cavity and eye development (at hatching; pigmentation and differentiation of cone-photoreceptors (4 dph; opening of the mouth and anus, appearance of intestinal valves (5-6 dph; presence of buccopharyngo-esophageal (5-6 dph and intestinal (9 dph mucous cells; folding of intestinal mucosa (6 dph; development of regional specific digestive musculature (6 dph; typical structure and functionality of the liver (sinusoids, biliary and pancreatic ducts, glycogen, protein and lipid reserves (4-6 dph; and characteristic acinar distribution pattern of eosinophilic zymogen granules of the exocrine pancreas (6 dph. Between 9 and 10 dph, the hake larvae showed evident signs of lipid absorption within enterocytes of the anterior intestinal region and a remarkable process of pynocitosis and intracellular digestion was detected in the posterior intestine (supranuclear inclusions or acidophilic protein vesicles. In hake larvae at 10 dph, a proliferation of renal tubules, spleen differentiation and gill development, as well as the presence of the first thyroid follicle, were clearly distinguished. At this time, stomach gastric gland differentiation was not detected and endocrine pancreas and gill lamellae were not evidenced. However, and interestingly, swim bladder and eyes (developing rods were well differentiated in larval development from 9 dph onwards. In summary, in European hake larval development during the endo-exogenous feeding phase and especially at 9 to 10 dph, most systems, organs

  18. Anatomia do fígado de fetos de Guinea pig em final de gestação (Cavia porcellus [Linnaeus, 1758

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    Mariangela Toledo Barbino

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2011v24n3p97 Desenvolveu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de descrever a anatomia do fígado de fetos de Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus [Linnaeus, 1758] em final de gestação e obter caracterizações anatômicas que possam fundamentar e auxiliar na compreensão da fisiologia da circulação fetal. Coletou-se os fetos de 3 fêmeas em final de gestação, os quais foram dissecados e retirado o fígado. Estes foram analisados, descritos e fotodocumentados macroscopicamente, por microscopia de luz em coloração HE e por microscopia eletrônica de varredura. O fígado dos fetos apresenta coloração castanho avermelhada e sua divisão em lobos é nitidamente observada, assim como a presença da vesícula biliar.  O fígado divide-se em lobo lateral esquerdo, lobo medial esquerdo, lobo lateral direito, lobo medial direito, lobo quadrado e lobo caudado com processos papilar e caudado Através da microscopia de luz, observa-se o tecido intensamente vascularizado sendo que, a porção esquerda do fígado recebe o sangue oriundo da placenta pela veia umbilical, e a porção direita é irrigada pela veia porta. Através desses resultados pode-se concluir que os fetos de Guinea pig possuem estruturas semelhantes anatomicamente aos de outras espécies de mamíferos.

  19. Cestodes of the blue shark, Prionace glauca (Linnaeus 1758), (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae), off the west coast of Baja California Sur, Mexico.

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    Méndez, Oscar; Galván-Magaña, Felipe

    2016-03-03

    The cestode species recovered from the spiral intestines of 27 blue sharks (Prionace glauca) (Linnaeus, 1758) are reported from the western coast of Baja California Sur (BCS). The sampling was undertaken on a monthly basis from January 2003 to January 2004. The helminthological examination indicated the presence of four species of cestodes: Platybothrium auriculatum Yamaguti, 1952; Prosobothrium japonicum Yamaguti, 1934; Anthobothrium caseyi (Yamaguti, 1934) Ruhnke & Caira, 2009; and Paraorygmatobothrium prionacis (Yamaguti, 1934) Ruhnke, 1994. Of all the 27 sharks examined, 88.8% were infected with at least one cestode species. The most frequent species was P. auriculatum infecting 85% of the spiral intestines examined. In contrast the species with the highest mean intensity was P. prionacis (80.4 200). The species richness of cestodes in P. glauca is very similar in other regions of the world despite its wide distribution; however, this richness is low compared with other species of sharks within the same family. The feeding and host-specific are important factors that influence the parameters of infection of cestodes in this shark. On the west coast of BCS, Prionace glauca feeds mainly on red crab Pleuroncodes planipes Stimpson, 1860; squids Gonatus californiensis Young, 1972, Ancistrocheirus lesueurii (D'Orbigny, 1842), Haliphron atlanticus Steenstrup, 1861, and low proportion of fish teleosts as Merluccius productus (Ayres, 1855), Sardinops sp. Hubbs, 1929 and Scomber japonicus Houttuyn, 1872. We speculate that these prey could be involved as the second intermediate hosts of these cestodes, as in other members of these genera, although the life cycles of none are known.

  20. O mexilhão Perna perna (Linnaeus (Bivalvia, Mytilidae em cultivo na Armação do Itapocoroy, Santa Catarina, Brasil The mussel Perna perna (Linnaeus (Bivalvia, Mytilidae in culture at the Armação of the Itapocoroy, Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Adriano W. C. Marenzi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Para verificar a viabilidade do cultivo do mexilhão, P. perna (Linnaeus, 1758 no sul do Brasil, duas experiências foram executadas na Armação de Itapocoroy. Das variáveis físicas e químicas foram analisadas a salinidade, temperatura e o oxigênio, que se mostraram ideais para esta espécie e, os macronutrientes também dentro dos níveis esperados para a região, não indicando poluição orgânica no local. O crescimento médio foi de 0,58 cm/mês e o aumento do peso foi de 2,57 g/mês. Curvas de crescimento e engordas foram elaboradas tendo como base a produção biológica após 6,7 meses de cultivo. A sobrevivência após oito meses foi de 79,2% e os valores os mais elevados do índice gônodo-somático foram detectados na primavera.To verify the viability of the culture of the mussel, P. perna (Linnaeus, 1758, in the south of Brazil, two experiences had been executed in the Armação do Itapocoroy. The averages of the salinity, temperature and the oxygen had shown ideals for this species and the macronutrients are inside of the natural levels for coast areas, not indicate organic pollution in the place. The average growth was of 0,58 cm/month and the increase of the weight was of 2.57 g/month. Curves of growth and fattening had been elaborated having for result the greater biological production after 6.7 months of culture. The survival after eight months was 79.2% and the most raised values of the gonad-somatic index were detected in the spring.

  1. Padrão de atividade e comportamento de forrageamento do morcego-pescador Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus (Chiroptera, Noctilionidae na Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná, Brasil Activity pattern and foraging behavior of bulldog-bat Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, (Chiroptera, Noctilionidae in Guaratuba Bay, Paraná State, Brazil

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    Marcelo O. Bordignon

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Entre 18 de janeiro a 16 de dezembro de 1999 foi estudado o comportamento de forrageamento e o padrão de atividade do morcego-pescador Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758, em uma área de manguezal na Baía de Guaratuba, Sul do Brasil. Os grupos de N. leporinus observados permaneceram em atividade ao longo de todo o período noturno, mas com um aparente padrão bimodal. Durante os meses de abril a setembro, N. leporinus inicia a sua atividade geralmente às 18:00 h, uma hora mais cedo do que durante os meses de outubro a março, quando inicia sua atividade geralmente às 19:00 h. O comportamento de predação sobre os cardumes de peixes mostrou variações quanto ao local de forrageamento ao longo do período de atividade. Em baixos níveis de maré, os grupos de morcegos pescaram longe da margem em águas mais profundas, mas nos níveis de maré alta os grupos de morcegos permaneceram pescando sempre junto à margem, em águas mais rasas. Este padrão de comportamento em N. leporinus parece ser determinado pelo padrão de deslocamento dos cardumes de peixes na área de estudo.From January 18 to December 16 of 1999 the foraging behavior and activity pattern of fishing bat Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758 were studied in mangrove ecosystem of Guaratuba Bay, southern Brazil. The groups of N. leporinus observed remained active during all nightly period but showed an apparent bimodal pattern. During April and September N. leporinus generally begin their activity at 18:00h, one hour earlier than October to March months, when their activity started at 19:00 h. The foraging behavior on fish shoal varied spatially along all the activity period. During low tide level the bat groups remained fishing distant from margin on deeper water, but during high tide level the bats were always observed fishing close to the margin on flat water. This pattern in foraging behavior of N. leporinus appears to be determined by the fish shoal displacement pattern in

  2. Moluscos; anélidos y crustáceos asociados a las raíces de Rhizophora mangle linnaeus, en la región de Santa Marta, caribe colombiano Moluscos; anélidos y crustáceos asociados a las raíces de Rhizophora mangle Linnaeus, en la región de Santa Marta, caribe colombiano

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    Reyes Rosalba

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available A qualitative and quantitative study of the community of macro invertebrates associated to the submerged stilt roots of the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle Linnaeus, 1753, was carried out trimonthly between December 1988 and September 1989, in three stations at the Cienaga Grande de Santa Marta (CGSM and three at the Parque Nacional Natural Tayrona (PNNT, Bahia de Chengue, Bahia de Nenguange, Colombian Caribbean. 181 species were determined: 99 crustaceans, 50 molluscs and 32 annellids. Most of the 26.729 individuals counted were crustaceans (12.213 moluscs (11.635 and annellids (2.881. The lowest diversity and evenness values, and the highest dominance values were found at the CGSM, while the opposite occurred at the PNNT. Moreover, cluster analysis showed that at the CGSM temporal variations in community composition were greater than spatial ones, while at the PNNT spatial differences were stronger. Other factors that could be importantin determinig community structure were detected, such as vecinity to other ecosystems and/or species- specific biological aspects as adaptations to fluctuating conditions, reproductive acti vities, feeding habits and migration to protected and shaded habitats. Se realizó un estudio trimestral cualitativo y cuantitativo de la comunidad de moluscos, anélidos y crustáceos asociados a las raíces sumergidas del mangle rojo, Rhizophora mangle Linnaeus, entre diciembre de 1988 y septiembre de 1989, en tres estaciones en la Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta (CGSM y tres en el Parque Nacional Natural Tayrona (PNNT, Bahía de Chengue y Bahía de Nenguange, Caribe colombiano. Se determinaron 181 especies: 99 crustáceos, 50 moluscos y 32 anélidos. En total se contaron 26.729 individuos: 12.213 crustáceos, 11.635 moluscos y 2.881 anélidos. Los valores más bajos de diversidad y equitatividad, y los mayores valores de dominancia, se encontraron en la CGSM, mientras que lo opuesto ocurrió en el PNNT. El análisis de

  3. Temporal variation in the reproductive success of Cacicus haemorrhous (Linnaeus (Aves, Icterinae in an Atlantic Forest reserve in Southeast Brazil Variação temporal no sucesso reprodutivo de Cacicus haemorrhous (Linnaeus (Aves, Icterinae em uma reserva de Floresta Atlântica no sudeste do Brasil

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    Charles Duca

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available For colonial bird species, egg hatching synchrony has been considered an important factor in their reproductive success. The Red-rumped Cacique, Cacicus haemorrhous (Linnaeus, 1766, is a Passeriformes species (Icterinae that reproduces in colonies in which groups of females lay their eggs at different periods during the reproductive season. The objective of this study was to evaluate if there was a variation in the reproductive success among C. haemorrhous females groups that lay eggs in different periods along the reproductive season. A total of 192 nests from four colonies were monitored at Parque Estadual do Rio Doce, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, and used to calculate the nest survival probability in different periods (early and late of the 2001 reproductive season. The results showed that females that reproduced at the beginning of the reproductive period had higher reproductive success than those that reproduced later. Predation was the main cause of nests loss (48,4%, and an increase in predation rate was observed as the reproductive period advanced.Para espécies de aves coloniais a sincronia de eclosão dos ovos tem sido considerada um fator que influencia o sucesso reprodutivo. O Guaxe, Cacicus haemorrhous (Linnaeus, 1766, é uma espécie de Passeriformes (Icterinae que se reproduz em colônias com grupos de fêmeas fazendo a postura em diferentes períodos ao longo da estação reprodutiva. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar se há uma variação no sucesso reprodutivo de C. haemorrhous entre esses grupos de fêmeas que fazem a postura em diferentes períodos ao longo da estação reprodutiva. Quatro colônias totalizando 192 ninhos foram monitoradas no Parque Estadual do Rio Doce, Minas Gerais, Brasil, calculando-se a probabilidade de sobrevivência dos ninhos em relação a diferentes períodos (cedo e tardio ao longo da estação reprodutiva de 2001. Constatou-se que fêmeas que reproduziram mais cedo na estação reprodutiva

  4. Synthèses enzymatiques de néoglucoconjugués catalysées par l'alpha-glucosidase purifiée de la blatte Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus

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    Kamenan A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic synthesis of neoglucoconjugates by purified α-glucosidase from cockroach Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus. Cockroach Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus contains in his digestive tract an acid (pH 5,0 and mesophile (50°C α-glucosidase. This enzyme, purified to homogeneity, hydrolyses highly maltose, sucrose and p-nitrophenyl-α-Dglucopyranoside. The ability of α-glucosidase from cockroach purified to homogeneity to catalyse transglucosylation reactions was tested using maltose and saccharose as glucosyl donors and 2-phenylethanol and phenol as acceptors. The experimental conditions were optimized in relation to the time course of the reaction, pH and concentrations of glucosyl donors and acceptors. The yields in transglucosylation reactions at 37 °C were very high and could attain 67% and 48% with 2-phenylethanol and phenol respectively as glucosyl acceptors. This α-glucosidase hydrolyzed the products formed. It seems that the products formed were the phenylethyl-α-D-glucoside and phenyl-α-D-glucoside. These results suggest that α- glucosidase from cockroach is an exoglucosidase which catalyse the splitting of the α-glucosyl residue from the non reducing terminal of the substrate to liberate α-glucose. This comportment indicates that this enzyme operated by a mechanism involving the retention of the anomeric configuration. On the basis of this work, α-glucosidase from P. americana appears to be a valuable tool for the preparation of α-neoglucoconjugates.

  5. Attenuation of UV-B exposure-induced inflammation by abalone hypobranchial gland and gill extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuanpradit, Chitraporn; Jaisin, Yamaratee; Jungudomjaroen, Sumon; Akter Mitu, Shahida; Puttikamonkul, Srisombat; Sobhon, Prasert; Cummins, Scott F

    2017-05-01

    Exposure to solar ultraviolet B (UV-B) is a known causative factor for many skin complications such as wrinkles, black spots, shedding and inflammation. Within the wavelengths 280‑320 nm, UV-B can penetrate to the epidermal level. This investigation aimed to test whether extracts from the tropical abalone [Haliotis asinina (H. asinina)] mucus-secreting tissues, the hypobranchial gland (HBG) and gills, were able to attenuate the inflammatory process, using the human keratinocyte HaCaT cell line. Cytotoxicity of abalone tissue extracts was determined using an AlamarBlue viability assay. Results showed that HaCaT cells could survive when incubated in crude HBG and gill extracts at concentrations between abalone extract from both the HBG and gill (0, 0.1, 2.5, 5 µg/ml). A significant increase in cell viability was observed (P2.5 µg/ml extract showed a significant decrease in intensity for COX‑2, phospho‑p38 and phospho‑SPK/JNK. The present study demonstrated that abalone extracts from the HGB and gill can attenuate inflammatory proteins triggered by UV-B. Hence, the contents of abalone extract, including cellmetabolites and peptides, may provide new agents for skin anti‑inflammation, preventing damage due to UV-B.

  6. Karyotypic diversity in four species of the genus Gymnotus Linnaeus, 1758 (Teleostei, Gymnotiformes, Gymnotidae): physical mapping of ribosomal genes and telomeric sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scacchetti, Priscilla Cardim; Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; Utsunomia, Ricardo; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Conventional (Giemsa, C-Banding, Ag-NORs, CMA3) and molecular (5S rDNA, 18S rDNA, telomeric sequences) cytogenetic studies were carried out in specimens of ten distinct fish populations of the genus Gymnotus (Gymnotus sylvius Albert and Fernandes-Matioli, 1999, Gymnotus inaequilabiatus Valenciennes, 1839, Gymnotus pantherinus Steindachner, 1908, and G. cf. carapo Linnaeus, 1758) from different Brazilian hydrographic basins. Gymnotus sylvius presented a diploid number of 40 chromosomes (22m+12sm+6st), Gymnotus pantherinus presented 52 chromosomes (32m+18sm+2st), while Gymnotus inaequilabiatus (42m+10sm+2a)and Gymnotus cf. carapo (38m+12sm+4st) presented 54 chromosomes. The C-banding technique revealed centromeric marks in all chromosomes of all species. Besides that, conspicuous blocks of heterochromatin were found interstitially on the chromosomes of Gymnotus inaequilabiatus, Gymnotus cf. carapo,and Gymnotus pantherinus. All four species showed single nucleolus organizing regions confirmed by results obtained through Ag-NORs and FISH experiments using 18S rDNA probes, which showed the NORs localized on the first chromosome pair in Gymnotus inaequilabiatus, Gymnotus cf. carapo,and Gymnotus pantherinus, and on pair 2 in Gymnotus sylvius. CMA3 staining revealed additional unrelated NORs marks in Gymnotus sylvius and Gymnotus pantherinus. The 5S rDNA probes revealed signals on one pair in Gymnotus sylvius and two pairs in Gymnotus pantherinus; Gymnotus inaequilabiatus had about seventeen pairs marked, and Gymnotus cf. carapo had about fifteen pairs marked. It is considered that the high amount of heterochromatin identified in the chromosomes of Gymnotus inaequilabiatus and Gymnotus cf. carapo could have facilitated the dispersion of 5S rDNA in these species. Interstitial signals were detected on the first metacentric pair of Gymnotus sylvius by telomeric probes (TTAGGG)n indicating the possible occurrence of chromosomal fusions in this species. The present

  7. Karyotypic diversity in four species of the genus Gymnotus Linnaeus, 1758 (Teleostei, Gymnotiformes, Gymnotidae: physical mapping of ribosomal genes and telomeric sequences

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    Priscilla Scacchetti

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Conventional (Giemsa, C-Banding, Ag-NORs, CMA3 and molecular (5S rDNA, 18S rDNA, telomeric sequences cytogenetic studies were carried out in specimens of ten distinct fish populations of the genus Gymnotus (G. sylvius Albert and Fernandes-Matioli, 1999, G. inaequilabiatus Valenciennes, 1839, G. pantherinus Steindachner, 1908, and G. cf. carapo Linnaeus, 1758 from different Brazilian hydrographic basins. G. sylvius presented a diploid number of 40 chromosomes (22m+12sm+6st, G. pantherinus presented 52 chromosomes (32m+18sm+2st, while G. inaequilabiatus (42m+10sm+2a and G. cf. carapo (38m+12sm+4st presented 54 chromosomes. The C-banding technique revealed centromeric marks in all chromosomes of all species. Besides that, conspicuous blocks of heterochromatin were found interstitially on the chromosomes of G. inaequilabiatus, G. cf. carapo, and G. pantherinus. All four species showed single nucleolus organizing regions confirmed by results obtained through Ag-NORs and FISH experiments using 18S rDNA probes, which showed the NORs localized on the first chromosome pair in G. inaequilabiatus, G. cf. carapo, and G. pantherinus, and on pair 2 in G. sylvius. CMA3 staining revealed additional unrelated NORs marks in G. sylvius and G. pantherinus. The 5S rDNA probes revealed signals on one pair in G. sylvius and two pairs in G. pantherinus; G. inaequilabiatus had about seventeen pairs marked, and G. cf. carapo had about fifteen pairs marked. It is considered that the high amount of heterochromatin identified in the chromosomes of G. inaequilabiatus and G. cf. carapo could have facilitated the dispersion of 5S rDNA in these species. Interstitial signals were detected on the first metacentric pair of G. sylvius by telomeric probes (TTAGGGn indicating the possible occurrence of chromosomal fusions in this species. The present study reveals valuable cytotaxonomic markers for this group and allows a more precise evaluation of the processes involved in the

  8. Quadro citológico vaginal, concentração plasmática de progesterona durante a gestação e medidas fetais em paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766 Vaginal citology, serum progesterone concentration during pregnancy and fetal measurements in paca (Cuniculus paca, Linnaeus 1766

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    Vânia Maria França Ribeiro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Em 27 pacas (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766 objetivou-se descrever aos 30, 60 e 90 dias (D de prenhez diagnosticada por ultrassonografia (US, os tipos celulares do epitélio vaginal em esfregaços vaginais, relatar as condições de abertura da vulva e as características do muco vaginal, determinar a concentração plasmática de progesterona (P4 por radioimunoensaio, e ainda, mensurar por ultrassonografia (US o diâmetro biparietal (DBP fetal aos 60 e 90 dias de prenhez. No D30, 40% das amostras exibiram células (com características estrogênicas superficiais e presença de núcleos nus. Nos D60 e D90, células parabasais, intermediárias, superficiais e naviculares estavam presentes nas mesmas proporções, mas células endocervicais foram descritas em apenas 73,9% e 69% das amostras daqueles dias, respectivamente. No D30 a maior proporção de células naviculares e superficiais diferiu (p The objective of this work was to describe in 27 pacas (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766 at 30, 60 and 90 days (D of pregnancy diagnosed by ultrasonography (U.S. the cell types of the vaginal epithelium by vaginal smears, to report the vulva opening condition and the characteristics of vaginal mucus, to determine the progesterone (P4 serum concentration by radioimmunoassay, and also measure by ultrasound (U.S. the fetuses biparietal diameter (BPD at 60 and 90 days of pregnancy. At D30, 40% of the smears exhibited surface cells (with estrogenic characteristics and of naked nuclei. At D60 and D90, parabasal, intermediate, superficial, and navicular cells were present in the same proportions, but endocervical cells were described in only 73.9% and 69% of those day's smears, respectively. At D30 the highest proportion of navicular and surface cells differed (p < 0.05 compared with other cell types. The vaginal mucus was crystalline and fluid in 100% and 70% of females at D30 and D60, respectively. It was observed the vaginal vestibule open in around 50% of

  9. Antibacterial activity of GUAVA, Psidium guajava Linnaeus, leaf extracts on diarrhea-causing enteric bacteria isolated from Seabob shrimp, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller Avaliação da atividade antibacteriana de extrato de folhas de goiabeira, Psidium guajava Linnaeus, sobre bactérias entéricas diarreiogênicas, isoladas de camarão sete-barbas, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller

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    Flávia A. Gonçalves

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Guava leaf tea of Psidium guajava Linnaeus is commonly used as a medicine against gastroenteritis and child diarrhea by those who cannot afford or do not have access to antibiotics. This study screened the antimicrobial effect of essential oils and methanol, hexane, ethyl acetate extracts from guava leaves. The extracts were tested against diarrhea-causing bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli. Strains that were screened included isolates from seabob shrimp, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller and laboratory-type strains. Of the bacteria tested, Staphylococcus aureus strains were most inhibited by the extracts. The methanol extract showed greatest bacterial inhibition. No statistically significant differences were observed between the tested extract concentrations and their effect. The essential oil extract showed inhibitory activity against S. aureus and Salmonella spp. The strains isolated from the shrimp showed some resistance to commercially available antibiotics. These data support the use of guava leaf-made medicines in diarrhea cases where access to commercial antibiotics is restricted. In conclusion, guava leaf extracts and essential oil are very active against S. aureus, thus making up important potential sources of new antimicrobial compounds.O chá de folhas de goiaba Psidium guajava Linnaeus é comumente usado como remédio nas gastrenterites e diarréias infantis por aqueles que não têm acesso a antibióticos. Esta pesquisa estudou o efeito antibacteriano sobre bactérias causadoras de diarréias, do óleo essencial e do extrato de folhas de goiabeira usando como diluente: metanol, hexano e acetato de etila. Os extratos foram testados sobre Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp. e Escherichia coli. As bactérias testadas foram isoladas de camarão sete-barbas Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller usando-se como controle cepas padrão, de cada espécie. Das bactérias testadas, o melhor efeito inibitório foi

  10. Preferência alimentar de adultos de Metriona elatior Klug (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae por diferentes híbridos de Solanum melogena Linnaeus (Solanaceae = Feeding preference of adults of Metriona elatior Klug (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae for different hybrids of Solanum melogena Linnaeus (Solanaceae

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    Daniel Gandolfo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Metriona elatior Klug é potencial candidato para o controle biológico de Solanum viarum Dunal (joá-bravo, pois as larvas e adultos se alimentam de suas folhas e têm baixa taxa de dispersão. A especificidade é um forte requisito para a adequabilidade de umorganismo como agente de controle biológico, especialmente pela estratégia inundativa. Desse modo, a preferência alimentar do adulto desse inseto em laboratório foi avaliada em 14 híbridos de Solanum melogena Linnaeus (berinjela. A criação estoque foi mantida emlaboratório, com os indivíduos se alimentando de folhas do joá-bravo. O estudo foi realizado utilizando-se testes de dupla e múltipla escolha, em períodos de alimentação de 24 e 48h, oferecendo-se discos de tecido foliar, em condições de placas de Petri. As avaliaçõesda sobrevivência e consumo foliar dos insetos adultos recém-emergidos foram realizadas em folhas de joá-bravo e dos híbridos de berinjela, mantidas túrgidas pela imersão do pecíolo em água. A área foliar foi medida antes e após quatro dias de exposição ao inseto. M. elatiorapresentou preferência para alimentação, sobrevivência e consumo na planta daninha. A preferência do crisomelídeo foi maior para o híbrido ‘Minikuro Kowishiki’ de berinjela.Metriona elatior Klug is a potential biocontrol agent for Solanum viarum Dunal (tropical soda apple, because larvae and adults feed on its leaves and this species shows a low dispersion rate. Specificity plays a major role in the feasibility of an organism as abiological control agent, especially in the inundative strategy. The feeding preference of M. elatior adults was evaluated to 14 eggplant (Solanum melogena Linnaeus hybrids. Mass rearing was carried out under lab conditions, with the insect feeding directly on S. viarum leaves. The study started with dual and multiple choice tests in 24 and 48 hour feeding times, by offering leaf disks in Petri dish conditions. Survival and leaf

  11. Feeding associations between capybaras Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Hydrochaeridae and birds in the Lami Biological Reserve, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Associações alimentares entre capivaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Hydrochaeridae e aves na Reserva Biológica do Lami, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

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    Ana C. Tomazzoni

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Feeding associations between capybaras Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766 and some bird species were registered in the Lami Biological Reserve, southern Brazil, through observations in a set of transects established in the five major vegetation types of the study area: shrubby and herbaceous swamps, wet grasslands, sandy grasslands and forests. Data included: date and time, vegetation type, bird species, number of individuals (birds and capybaras, type of prey consumed, foraging strategy of the birds and the behavior of the capybaras in relation to the presence of birds. Five species of birds were registered: Caracara plancus (Miller, 1777, Furnarius rufus (Gmelin, 1788, Machetornis rixosus (Vieillot, 1819, Milvago chimachima (Vieillot, 1816 and Molothrus bonariensis (Gmelin, 1789. The interactions were observed in the shrubby swamp (M. bonariensis, forest (C. plancus and wet grassland (F. rufus, M. rixosus, M. chimachima. The foraging strategies were: (1 use of the capybara as a perch, hunting from its back (M. rixosus, M. bonariensis; (2 use of the capybara as a beater, hunting in the ground (F. rufus, M. rixosus, M. bonariensis; (3 foraging in the skin of the capybara, by picking the ectoparasites (C. plancus, F. rufus, M. chimachima. Strategies (1 and (2 were employed to catch arthropods flushed from the vegetation. Sometimes, capybaras lay down and exposed the abdomen and lateral areas of their bodies to facilitate cleaning by M. chimachima, but the presence of other bird species seemed to be neutral to capybaras.Foram registradas associações alimentares entre capivaras Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766 e aves na Reserva Biológica do Lami, sul do Brasil, por meio de observações em um conjunto de transecções estabelecidas nos cinco principais tipos de vegetação existentes na área: banhado arbustivo, banhado herbáceo, campo úmido, campo arenoso e mata. As informações coletadas foram: data, horário, tipo de vegeta

  12. Eficiência do Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Berliner, 1915 no controle da traça da cera Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus, 1758 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae Efficiency of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Berliner, 1915 for control of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus, 1758 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

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    Deodoro Magno Brighenti

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a eficiência do Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Berliner no controle de Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus. Os experimentos foram realizados no Laboratório de Biologia de Insetos do Departamento de Entomologia da Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA, Lavras, MG, a 28±2ºC, UR 70±10% e fotofase de 12 horas. Aplicou-se formulação comercial de B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki por meio de pulverização, imersão dos favos e também foi incorporada à dieta artificial fornecida às lagartas de terceiro ínstar da traça da cera. A aplicação do produto fitossanitário por meio da pulverização dos favos mostrou-se eficiente no controle de lagartas, atingindo níveis iguais ou superiores a 85% de mortalidade quando foram utilizados 5 g/100 mL de água. Na aplicação por imersão dos favos, todas as dosagens testadas foram eficientes atingindo até 100% de mortalidade. Adicionada à dieta artificial, a concentração com maior porcentagem de mortalidade foi de 10g/60g de dieta. Sintomas de infecção pelo B. thuringiensis foram identificados nas lagartas e o isolamento da bactéria, por meio de uma cultura de Bacillus, comprovou a causa da morte desses insetos em todas as dosagens da formulação comercial do B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki utilizadas.This research aim at evaluating the efficiency of Bacillus thruringiensis var. kurstaki (Berliner in the control of Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus.The experiments were conducted in the Insect Biology Laboratory of the Entomology Department of the Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA, Lavras, MG, Brazil, at 28±2ºC, RH 70±10% and 12-hour photophase. Commercial formulation of B. thuringiensis. var. kurstaki was applied through spraying, comb soaking and also incorporated into the artificial diet fed to third instar caterpillars of the greater wax moth. Application of B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki through the spraying of the combs was efficient for control, reaching levels

  13. Dieta e dispersão de sementes por Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus (Carnívora, Canidae, em um fragmento florestal no Paraná, Brasil Diet and seed dispersal by Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus in a forest fragment in Paraná (Carnivora, Canidae

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    Vlamir J. Rocha

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Embora o cachorro-do-mato, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1706, seja um Canidae relativamente comum, não há muita informação sobre sua dieta e seu papel como dispersor de sementes nos diferentes habitats onde ocorre. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de reportar a dieta de C. thous e sua importância como dispersor e/ou predador de sementes, e ainda testar a taxa de germinação de sementes após passar pelo trato digestório do animal. O estudo foi realizado em um fragmento (680 ha de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual, o Parque Estadual Mata dos Godoy, localizado na cidade de Londrina, Paraná, sul do Brasil. A metodologia consistiu de coletas de fezes de C. thous, as quais foram analisadas em laboratório para identificar os itens consumidos. Nos testes de germinação, as sementes foram dispostas para germinar em placas de Petri com algodão umedecido em água. Noventa e três amostras fecais com 219 itens de origem vegetal e animal foram registradas, sendo 36,52% contendo restos de pequenos roedores, 24,19% de gramíneas, 13,24% de aves, 10,47% de insetos, 6,39% de Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham. Glassm., 4,6% de outros itens de origem animal e 4,54% de outros itens de origem vegetal. Ainda, C. thous dispersou nove espécies de plantas, com relevante importância para a germinação de algumas sementes que passaram pelo trato digestório do animal, exceto para S. romanzoffiana, cujas sementes não germinaram nas condições de laboratório. Conclui-se que, C. thous apresentou uma dieta generalista e oportunista, sobrevivendo em áreas degradadas e antrópicas, e agindo como dispersor de sementes nestes locais.Although the crab eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1706, is a relatively common Canidae, there isn't much information about its diet and its role as a seed disperser in the different habitats where it occurs. The aim of this work was to report the diet of the C. thous and its importance as a seed disperser and / or a seed predator and

  14. Recent record of harpy eagle, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus) (Aves, Accipitridae), in Atlantic forest of Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve, Linhares, Espírito Santo, Brazil and implications for the regional conservation of the species

    OpenAIRE

    Srbek-Araujo, Ana C.; Chiarello, Adriano G.

    2006-01-01

    A presente comunicação reporta o registro de um macho adulto de harpia, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus, 1758), na Reserva Natural da Vale do Rio Doce (RNVRD), região norte do Espírito Santo, em agosto de 2005. A análise deste e de registros históricos da espécie nesta reserva indica a presença de uma população residente na região compreendida pela RNVRD e pela Reserva Biológica de Sooretama. Estas duas reservas, contíguas entre si, compreendem cerca de 46250 ha de Floresta Atlântica de baixada (Mat...

  15. Ovitrampas para Avaliação da Presença de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus e Aedes albopictus (Skuse no Município de Vassouras, Estado do Rio de Janeiro

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    Alexandre Oliveira

    2014-04-01

    Abstract. Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus and Aedes albopictus (Skuse are vectors of many arboviruses including urban yellow fever and dengue, the latter being one of the biggest problems in the world in cities that have hot and humid climate. Having the consecutive cases of dengue in Vassouras, RJ it was important to ascertain the presence and behavior of the vector in different seasons of year and their predominance in the city. In this study we observed the presence of 10.44% Ae. aegypti and 89.56% Ae. albopictus of the 364 viable eggs and being the Matadouro neighborhood (point 4, the local with the largest presence of these culicids. These data showed that Ae. albopictus is ever more present in urban areas.

  16. Estimación de los principales parámetros reproductivos y productivos del Pecari tajacu, Linnaeus, 1758 pecari de collar o sajino en cautiverio (Loreto, Perú)

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    Rengifo Pinedo, Martha Estela

    2009-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Producción Animal El presente estudio estimación de los parámetros reproductivos y productivos de Pecari tajacu, Linnaeus, 1758 “pecari de collar” o “sajino” en cautiverio (Loreto, Perú), se llevó a cabo en el Centro Piloto de Zoocria para la Amazonía – UNAP, ubicado en la Región Loreto, Provincia de Maynas, Perú. La investigación es básica descriptiva ex post facto, que consistió en obtener información de los registr...

  17. Geographic extent and chronology of the invasion of non-native lionfish (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus 1758] and P. miles [Bennett 1828]) in the Western North Atlantic and Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Pamela J.

    2009-01-01

    The Indo-Pacific lionfishes (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus 1758] and P. miles [Bennett 1828]: Family Scorpaenidae) are the first non-native marine fishes to establish in the Western North Atlantic. The chronology of the invasion is reported here using records from the US Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species database. Currently, lionfish are established off the Atlantic coast of the USA from the Florida Keys to Cape Hatteras (North Carolina), the Great Antilles, Bermuda, Bahamas, Cayman Islands and Turks and Caicos. The species have been reported from only one island in the Lesser Antilles (St. Croix), but it is not yet established there. Lionfish are established in Mexico, Honduras and Costa Rica. Reports have come from the Gulf of Mexico (Florida), Belize, Panama and Colombia; although lionfish are not considered established in these localities at this time (August 2009), invasion is likely imminent.

  18. Ecologia da comunidade de metazoários parasitos da anchova Pomatomus saltator (Linnaeus (Osteichthyes, Pomatomidae do litoral do estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Community ecology of metazoan parasites of bluefish Pomatomus saltator (Linnaeus (Osteichthyes, Pomatomidae from the littoral of State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    José Luis Luque

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-five specimens of bluefish, Pomatomus saltator (Linnaeus, 1766, collected at Cabo Frio (23ºS, 42ºW, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between March 1995 and November 1995, were necropsied to study their infracommunities of metazoan parasites. Sixteen species of metazoan parasites were collected. All fish were parasitized by one or more metazoan. The digeneans were the majority of the parasite specimens collected, with 44.2%, followed by the helminth larval stages (cestodes, acanthocephalans, and nematodes with 40.6%. The Simpson index for all parasite species was 0.097, indicating lack of dominance by any species in the parasite community. Microcotyle pomatomi Goto, 1899 showed the higher frequency of dominance and mean relative dominance. The parasite species of P. saltator showed the typical overdispersed pattern of distribution. The majority of parasite species showed positive correlation between the host's total body length and prevalence or parasite abundance. Two species, Brachyphallus parvus (Manter, 1947 and Phocanema sp. have differences in their prevalences and abundances in relation to sex of the hosts. The mean diversity in the infracommunities of P. saltator was H'=1.243±0.521, with correlation with the host's total length and without difference between male and female fish. The components of the parasite community of P. saltator showed overall positive association. All pairs confonned by ectoparasites and adult endoparasites species showed signiticant positive association or covariation between their abundances. Five pairs of endoparasites larval species showed positive association or covariation, and two pairs, showed negative association and covariation. The parasite community of P. saltator was dominated by species with high prevalence values, that composed a high number of associations, thus, is considered closer to the interactive type.

  19. Registro recente de harpia, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus (Aves, Accipitridae, na Mata Atlântica da Reserva Natural Vale do Rio Doce, Linhares, Espírito Santo e implicações para a conservação regional da espécie Recent record of harpy eagle, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus (Aves, Accipitridae, in Atlantic forest of Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve, Linhares, Espírito Santo, Brazil and implications for the regional conservation of the species

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    Ana C. Srbek-Araujo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A presente comunicação reporta o registro de um macho adulto de harpia, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus, 1758, na Reserva Natural da Vale do Rio Doce (RNVRD, região norte do Espírito Santo, em agosto de 2005. A análise deste e de registros históricos da espécie nesta reserva indica a presença de uma população residente na região compreendida pela RNVRD e pela Reserva Biológica de Sooretama. Estas duas reservas, contíguas entre si, compreendem cerca de 46250 ha de Floresta Atlântica de baixada (Mata de Tabuleiro, na sua maior parte bem conservada. Além da grande extensão de floresta, a rica e densa fauna de mamíferos presente nestas reservas contribuem para a permanência das harpias na região.The present communication reports an observation occurred in August 2005 of the harpy eagle, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus, 1758, in the Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve (VRDNR, located in northern Espírito Santo state, southeastern Brazil. The analysis of this and past records of the species in this reserve indicates the presence of a resident population in the region encompassed by the VRDNR and the Sooretama Biological Reserve. These two reserves total circa 46,250 ha of lowland Atlantic forest (Tabuleiros forest, which are mostly well preserved. Besides the great extension of forests, the rich and abundant mammal fauna present in these two reserves contribute to the regional permanence of the harpy eagle.

  20. The dynamicity of the mesonephros microstructure in bream (Abramis brama Linnaeus, 1758 of the Dnieper-Bug estuary system in relation to spawning migration

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    K. Heina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze the mesonephros structure in the bream (Abramis brama Linnaeus, 1758 during its spawning migration, to determine the perspective of the use of microanatomical monitoring data in fisheries practice for assessing the functional status of fish. Methodology. Collection of ichthyological material was carried out using permit documents of the Institute of Fisheries NAAS of Ukraine, while their processing was done at the Department of Aquatic Bioresources and Aquaculture of the Kherson State Agricultural University. Ichthyological material was collected using gill nets, fyke nets, beach seines. Monitoring stations were located along the spawning migration run of the bream from the Dnieper lagoon to the plavni system of the Dnieper River. Field and laboratory processing of the material was done using author’s equipment and original methods specially designed for histological diagnostics of tissues of aquatic animals. Findings. The basis of the adaptation of bream kidneys to waters of different salinities us structural irregularity of nephrons expressed in the size and structure of renal corpuscles and convoluted tubules. Significant fluctuations of osmolarity parameters within the lower Dnieper area have significant effects on changes in the structure and function of nephrogenic tissue in form of the reduction in the diameter of Boumen-Shumliansky capsule by 9.0 µm. Changes of the Boumen-Shumliansky capsule diameter in fish with moderate mineralization is the range of 6.0 and 4.0 µm. The reduction in the height of epitheliocytes of proximal convoluted tubules by 3.0; 2.0 and 4.0 µm also indicate on the reduction of the functional activity of the convolute. The fluctuations of nephrogenic and homeopathic tissue ratio have a balance nature that can be related to the redistribution of these components due to the appearance of an adaptation under the effect of chloride-ions. The dislocation of ion-transporting cells near the blood

  1. Avaliação da integridade cromatínica de espermatozóides de galos (Gallus gallus, Linnaeus, 1758 de linhagem pesada em duas idades

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    Jaqueline Melo Soares

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Na avicultura, a avaliação de fertilidade em machos é de extrema importância, para garantir uma melhor produção de ovos férteis. As técnicas para avaliação de fertilidade em galos são pouco exploradas, sendo que na maioria das vezes, a avaliação é feita por amostragem e levando em consideração, apenas fatores morfofisiológicos, diretamente relacionados com o espermatozóide. Mas é sabido que, em outras espécies, além dos fatores morfofisiológicos, existem problemas intrínsecos ao espermatozóide, como a baixa compactação da cromatina, que pode levar a disturbios de fertilidade, que na maioria das vezes não são diagnosticados. O objetivo desse trabalho foi a adaptação de técnicas de avaliação da cromatina, já descritas em outras espécies, para aves de linhagem pesada (Gallus gallus, Linnaeus, 1758, correlacionando as alterações cromatínicas com as alterações morfológicas e com a fertilidade. Para tanto, sêmen de galo com diferentes níveis de fertilidade, foram utilizados em diferentes métodos para identificação de alterações na cromatina, utilizando os corantes azul de toluidina e alaranjado de acridina. As avaliações demonstraram que esfregaços de sêmen fresco de galo com posterior fixação geram artefatos que levam a alterações na forma da cabeça e na integridade da cromatina, não sendo indicados em métodos de avaliação de fertilidade. Apesar de todos os métodos testados apresentarem falhas metodológicas e um certo grau de subjetividade, o método que gerou melhores resultados foi a mistura de uma gota de sêmen conservado em formol salina e uma gota do alaranjado de acridina sobre lâmina de microscopia, com posterior secagem e observação em microscopia de fluorescência com filtro de excitação azul. Pelo método verificou-se que alterações na compactação da cromatina de espermatozóides de galo geralmente não são acompanhadas por alterações morfológicas e que geralmente

  2. Phenology of Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae in pupae of Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera, Muscidae under laboratory conditions Fenologia de Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae em pupas de Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera, Muscidae em condições de laboratório

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    Dani Furtado de Araújo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the phenology of Spalangia endius Walker in pupae of Musca domestica Linnaeus under laboratory conditions. In order to understand the developmental cycle of Spalangia endius under laboratory conditions, 360 Musca domestica pupae aged from 24 to 48 hours were exposed to 15 S. endius pairs for a period of 24 hours at 26 ± 2ºC. These pupae were kept in a BOD incubator at the same temperature, with a relative humidity of Objetivando conhecer o ciclo de desenvolvimento de Spalangia endius sob condições de laboratório, 360 pupas de Musca domestica com idade de 24 a 48 horas foram expostas a 15 casais de S. endius por um período de 48 horas a 26 ± 2ºC. Estas pupas foram mantidas em BOD. Com mesma temperatura, umidade relativa <70% e com fotofase de 12 horas, onde diariamente dissecava-se 15 espécimes para avaliar o estágio e tempo de desenvolvimento do himenóptero. A fenologia permite concluir que S. endius apresenta um ciclo de desenvolvimento de 19 dias, cujo período de incubação foi de 24 horas, o desenvolvimento de larvas de S. endius ocorreu nos oito dias subsequentes nos quais uma série de alterações morfológicas foi observada. O estágio de pré-pupa deu-se no décimo dia onde cessa a movimentação e inicia a eliminação de mecônio. O estágio pupal ocorreu do décimo primeiro dia ao décimo nono, momento da emergência dos primeiros machos, já as fêmeas iniciaram a emergência aproximadamente 24 horas após. Estes resultados permitem avaliar aspectos da bionomia pormenorizada do desenvolvimento de S. endius para armazenar e programar a produção deste parasitóide, otimizando sua utilização como agente de controle biológico.

  3. Avaliação de inseticidas no controle de Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae e Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae em trigo armazenado Efficacy of insecticides to control Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae and Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae in stored wheat

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    Rui S. Furiatti

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of insecticides against Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus, 1763 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae and Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius, 1792 (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae was determined exposing them to treated wheat in laboratory. Each plot, which was composed by 1.2 kg of wheat grain, was treated with 5 ml of the concentration/kg of wheat using a propelling air atomizer. Fifteen days after treatment 50 g samples of the grain were taken, from each plot, placed in plastic jars into which 10 adult insects of each species were released. This was repeated every 30 days until 165 days after treatment. The number of dead insects was counted 15 days after each infestation thus the evaluations were made at 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days after the insecticide application. Esfenvalerate+fenitrothion+pyperonil butoxide (0,375+7,5+3,0 and 0,5+10,0+4,0 g a.i./t, fenitrothion+esfen-valerate (7,5+0,375 and 10,0+0,375 g a.i./t, fenitrothion+synergised deltamethrin (7,5+0,375 g a.i./t and fenitrothion (7,5 g a.i./t were effective against Sitophilus oryzae until 180 days after treatment. Esfenvalerate+fenitrothion+pyperonil butoxide (0,5+10,0+4,0 g a.i./t, fenitrothion+esfenvalerate (7,5+0,375 and 10,0+0,375 g a.i./t, fenitrothion+synergised deltamethrin (7,5+0,375 g a.i./t were effective against R. dominica until 180 days after treatment. Synergised deltamethrin (0,375 g a.i./t was effective against S. oryzae until 150 days and against R. dominica until 120 days after treatment. Esfenvalerate (0,5 g a.i./t was ineffective against S. oryzae and effective until 60 days after treatment against R. dominica. Fenitrothion (7,5 g a.i./t was ineffective against R. dominica. The use of mixtures of organophosphorus plus pyrethroids were more effective against S. oryzae and R. dominica when compared with these insecticides used alone.

  4. Immunological changes in response to herpesvirus infection in abalone Haliotis laevigata and Haliotis rubra hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Vinh T; Benkendorff, Kirsten; Corbeil, Serge; Williams, Lynette M; Hoad, John; Crane, Mark St J; Speck, Peter

    2013-02-01

    Australian abalone production has been affected by outbreaks of abalone viral ganglioneuritis (AVG) caused by a herpesvirus (AbHV). In this study, we undertook experimental transmission trials by immersion to study the abalone immune response to infection with AbHV. Representative cellular and humoural immune parameters of abalone, including total haemocyte count (THC), superoxide anion (SO) and antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), were examined in apparently healthy (sub-clinical) and moribund abalone after challenge. In the early infection, sub-clinical stage (days 1-3), THC was found to increase significantly in infected abalone. TaqMan qPCR confirmed 20.5% higher viral load in moribund abalone compared to apparently healthy abalone, indicating that the abundance of AbHV within abalone is linked to their clinical signs. At the clinical stage of infection, THC was significantly lower in moribund abalone, but increased in AbHV-exposed but apparently healthy abalone, in comparison to non-infected controls. SO was reduced in all abalone that were PCR-positive for AbHV. THC and SO level were found to be negatively correlated with the presence of AbHV in abalone, but no effect of AbVH exposure was observed on the haemolymph antiviral activity. These results suggest that abalone mount an initial cellular immune response to AbHV infection, but this response cannot be sustained under high viral loads, leading to mortality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Efeitos do endosulfano em concentrações subletais em carpas (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus, 1758: Análises morfométricas, histológicas e ultraestrutural e avaliação da atividade da colinesterase

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    Lígia Maria Salvo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Endosulfan, an organochlorine pesticide, has been banned by most developed countries, although it is still produced, sold and used in developing countries. Used for control in crops, as well as for insect control in public health programs in some countries, its effects on the environment and its toxicity are still in discussion. For some researchers, its bioaccumulation in terrestrial organisms is considered irrelevant but for aquatic life it should be considered carefully. The present research work was to carry out an study on the effects of sublethal concentrations of endosulfan on the fresh water fish carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus, 1758. The fishes were exposed during 15 days to 0.001 mg/L of endosulfan using dimethylsulfoxide 0.1% (DMSO as solvent. The acetylcholinesterase activity on the brain and axial muscle, as well as liver morphometric, histopathologic and ultrastructural analysis were studied. The hepatic somatic index and the livers weight showed smaller values when compared with the control groups, besides being also observed histopathological and ultrastructural alterations. It has not been observed significant alterations in the cholinesterase activity of both brain and striated muscle. These results suggest that the organochloride endosulfan caused toxic effects in the hepatic metabolism of the fish exposed to it in sub lethal doses.

  6. Mersin Bölgesinde Yetiştiriciliği Yapılan Bazı Akvaryum Balıkları (POECİLİDAE'nda Rastlanılan Lernea cyprinaceae (Linnaeus, 1758 Enfeksiyonu.

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    C. Erkin Koyuncu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu araştırma Nisan - Ağustos 2002 tarihleri arasında Mersin Bölgesi’nde bir akvaryum işletmesinde Poecilidae familyasına ait balıklarda görülen ani ölümlerin nedenini ortaya koymak amacıyla yapılmıştır. Balıkların deri, yüzgeç ve solungaç dokularından alınan parazitler laboratuvarda incelenmesi sonucunda ölümlere neden olan etmenin Lernaea cyprinacea (Linnaeus, 1758 olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Araştırmada 110 adet balık incelenmiş olup, bunlardan 49 adetinin parazit ile enfeste olduğu saptanmıştır. Ayrıca parazitin morfolojik özellikleri ve balıklarda oluşturduğu semptomlar incelenmiştir. Balıklar Kloramin T (10 ppm / 1 saat / 3 gün kullanılarak tedavi edilmiştir

  7. Distribución y estado de conservación de los galápagos autóctonos, Emys orbicularis (Linnaeus, 1758 y Mauremys leprosa (Schweigger, 1812, en Castilla y León.

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    ALARCOS, G., FLECHOSO, F., LIZANA, M., MADRIGAL, J., ALVAREZ, F.

    2013-01-01

    (Schweigger, 1812 como de Emys orbicularis (Linnaeus, 1758. A pesar del aparente buen estado de alguna de estas poblaciones, se ha observado el declive en las zonas limítrofes de sus áreas de distribución. En otras provincias la presencia es anecdótica y casi residual. Cuando valoramos el estado de conservación regional obtuvimos que el galápago europeo se presenta como Vulnerable VUA3ceE y el galápago leproso como Casi Amenazado NT. Como principales factores del declive se señalan la desaparición de numerosos medios acuáticos, los cambios en el uso agrícola y la captura en nasas cangrejeras. Finalmente, se sugiere la realización de estudios específicos sobre poblaciones aisladas para determinar la necesidad de reproducción en cautividad para reforzarlas y conectarlas, y realizar estudios genéticos con el fin de valorar su origen como poblaciones introducidas o autóctonas. En obras o actuaciones sobre medios de presencia potencial realizar estudios específicos para minimizar los impactos negativos. También es importante realizar campañas de concienciación y buenas prácticas a determinados sectores, como el de los pescadores de cangrejos de río, que pueden afectar de forma directa y muy negativamente a las poblaciones.

  8. Avaliação hematológica e dosagem bioquímica de ALT, AST e creatinina em elefante-marinho-do-sul, Mirounga leonina (linnaeus, 1758, encontrado no litoral de Salvador, Bahia

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    Bruno Lopes Bastos

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Since 1999 the Aquatic Mammals Rescue Center - AMRC has been working in the rescue and rehabilitation of stranded cetaceans and pinnipeds on the coast of Bahia, Brazil. This paper presents and analyses the blood cells count and clinical chemistry of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and creatinine of a southern elephant seal, Mirounga leonina (LINNAEUS, 1758, found on February the 11th at Barra Beach, Salvador, BA. The specimen was an orphan male calf, with 137cm of length and estimated weight of 49kg. It presented bad nutritional conditions and a shark bite on the right shoulder area. Clinical management was performed for 56 days, anthelmintic Febendazole was utilized, and the bite was treated with iodined alcohol, Nitrofurazone solution and Kethanserin, simultaneously with Enrofloxacin 10%, Potenay®, Vitamin B Complex and Benerva®. On the 16th the animal presented a right unilateral conjuntivitis, treated with Cloranphenicol oftalmic pomade until the end of its stay in the captive. During this period a total of six blood samples were collected, three for total blood counts and the others for the biochemistry determination of ALT, AST and creatinine. According to the haematological analysis the seal developed an anaemia which was classified as microcytic and normochromic. Lymphopenia, eosinopenia and monocytopenia were also observed, possibly due to its handling and stress conditions. The clinical chemistry presented low values for AST and creatinine, although this did not represent the existence of any pathologic context or disease with clinical significance.

  9. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) collected in the coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Avaliacao dos teores de Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn e V em mexilhoes Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) coletados no litoral do estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Daniele

    2012-07-01

    The coastal environment has been heavily altered by multiple environmental impacts of human activities, such as disposal of sewage from urban areas, the release of numerous chemical industries, agriculture and the flow of vessels, which can lead to accidental spills of oil and oil products, fuels and other products transported by sea. In this context, a means of determining concentrations of these potentially toxic substances in the sea water is the biomonitoring by means of different types of bivalves, which have been used by various researchers, in Brazil and other countries. With regard to bivalve mollusks, particularly mussels, their use in monitoring the marine contamination is mainly due to their wide geographic distribution, sessile habit and ability to concentrate toxic metals to 102-105 times in relation to the concentrations detected in water. In the present study, we employed the passive biomonitoring using the Perna perna bivalve mollusk with respect to the elements Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V. These elements were chosen since they can be determined by INAA method (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis), by means of short irradiation which provides faster analyzes and also due to their importance from the standpoint of environmental or nutritional studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in samples of Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coastal regions of Sao Paulo subject to anthropogenic contamination (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos), comparing the values obtained in sites potentially impacted with the values of the control site in Praia da Cocanha, in Caraguatatuba. The collection points located in Sao Paulo coast are located in the geographical areas 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 37'S - 45 Degree-Sign 24' W (Caraguatatuba) and 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 57'S - 46 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 20' W (Santos). The collection of organisms

  10. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) collected in the coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Avaliacao dos teores de Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn e V em mexilhoes Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) coletados no litoral do estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Daniele

    2012-07-01

    The coastal environment has been heavily altered by multiple environmental impacts of human activities, such as disposal of sewage from urban areas, the release of numerous chemical industries, agriculture and the flow of vessels, which can lead to accidental spills of oil and oil products, fuels and other products transported by sea. In this context, a means of determining concentrations of these potentially toxic substances in the sea water is the biomonitoring by means of different types of bivalves, which have been used by various researchers, in Brazil and other countries. With regard to bivalve mollusks, particularly mussels, their use in monitoring the marine contamination is mainly due to their wide geographic distribution, sessile habit and ability to concentrate toxic metals to 102-105 times in relation to the concentrations detected in water. In the present study, we employed the passive biomonitoring using the Perna perna bivalve mollusk with respect to the elements Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V. These elements were chosen since they can be determined by INAA method (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis), by means of short irradiation which provides faster analyzes and also due to their importance from the standpoint of environmental or nutritional studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in samples of Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coastal regions of Sao Paulo subject to anthropogenic contamination (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos), comparing the values obtained in sites potentially impacted with the values of the control site in Praia da Cocanha, in Caraguatatuba. The collection points located in Sao Paulo coast are located in the geographical areas 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 37'S - 45 Degree-Sign 24' W (Caraguatatuba) and 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 57'S - 46 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 20' W (Santos). The collection of organisms was performed in all

  11. Aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e laboratoriais da leishmaniose visceral em cães (Canis familiaris) (Linnaeus, 1758) provenientes da zona urbana do município de Bom Jesus- PI e região metropolitana do Recife- PE, Brasil.

    OpenAIRE

    Jamile Prado dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    A Leishmaniose Visceral Canina (LVC) no Brasil é causada por Leishmania infantum a qual é relatada em várias regiões. O objetivo desta pesquisafoi verificar aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e laboratoriais da leishmaniose visceral em cães (Canis familiaris) (Linnaeus, 1758) provenientes da zona urbana do município de Bom Jesus PI e Região Metropolitana de Recife - PE, Brasil. Cães do município de Bom Jesus, Piauí, e do bairro de Muribeca, município de Jaboatão dos Guararapes, Pernambuco...

  12. Mode d'exploitation et durabilité de la pêche de Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 et Gymnarchus niloticus (Cuvier, 1829 dans le lac de barrage du Sourou (Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dialla, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mode of Operation and Sustainability of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 and Gymnarchus niloticus (Cuvier, 1829 Fisheries in the Sourou Dam Lake (Burkina Faso. This research on fishery exploitation in the Sourou dam raises the issue of sustainable management of common property. The central hypothesis is that the effectiveness of co-management for sustainable fishing practices is related to the level of ownership of that management and actors' games by fishing communities. In analysing co-management induced effects on fishing practices and exploitation of C. gariepinus, O. niloticus and G. niloticus species, related to its implementation in Sourou fishery, a research methodology that combines qualitative and quantitative methods is used. Socio-economic surveys were conducted with 30 fishermen in three villages bordering the fishery. Biological surveys were also conducted with catches of C. gariepinus, O. niloticus and G. niloticus of these fishermen,. The results indicate a weak ownership of the co-management model by fishermen and the strategies of actors that consist to minimize the costs of the sustainable management of fisheries resources at individual level. Indeed, even when informed of fisheries regulations, fishermen use prohibited fishing equipment (54.1% of the catches of studied species, and fishi illegally (43.3% of the fishermen. Furthermore, significant proportions of each studied species are captured before their first maturity sizes (52.2% of C. gariepinus, 15.8% of G. niloticus and 14.3% of O. niloticus. So, the central hypothesis is verified because the weak ownership of co-management by fishing communities and the actors' strategies do not encourage them to develop a responsible behavior for sustainable fishing.

  13. How nest translocation-time, clutch size and presence of yolkless eggs affected hatching success in Dermochelys coriacea (Linnaeus, 1766 (Testudines: Dermochelyidae, at Projeto Tamar-Ibama, Espirito Santo, Brazil

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    Dal Pont Morisso, Eduardo

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se analizó el manejo de los nidos de la especie Dermochelys coriacea, utilizados por el Proyecto Tamar-Ibama entre las temporadas reproductivas de 1989/1990 a 1998/1999, para verificación del éxito de la eclosión en relación a los tiempos de traslación. El estudio se realizó en el litoral norte del Estado de Espírito Santo. Existió tendencia a que el tiempo de traslación influencie el éxito de eclosión de los nidos. Los nidos trasladados entre 6 y más de 24 horas presentaron mayor cantidad de huevos sin desarrollo embrionario. No se encontró relación entre el número de huevos inviables trasladados y el tamaño de la postura, con el porcentual de eclosión. Se sugiere que la traslación sea realizada hasta las 6 horas, o 15 días después de la oviposición. The results of managing Dermochelys coriacea (Linnaeus, 1766 nests by Projeto TAMAR - IBAMA, in Northern Espírito Santo, Brazil, during the nesting seasons from 1989/90 to 1998/99 are analyzed. The influence of the translocation time on hatching success of the studied nests is discussed. The time translocation, in relation to natural oviposition, seems to increase the number of non-developed eggs found in each nest if translocated between 6 hours and 15 days post egg-laying. There was no relationship established between either the number of yolkless eggs in a translocated nest or the clutch size, with hatching success. The translocation of Dermochelys nests either within 6 hours or after 15 days from natural oviposition is recommended.

  14. Influência do período de quiescência dos ovos sobre o ciclo de vida de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera, Culicidae em condições de laboratório

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    Silva Heloisa Helena Garcia da

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a influência do período de quiescência dos ovos no ciclo de vida de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera, Culicidae em condições de laboratório, na busca de informações que possam melhorar o direcionamento das ações de controle, pois sabe-se que o ovo é a forma mais resistente do ciclo biológico, possibilitando ao mosquito ampla sobrevida, devido à resistência às adversidades climáticas. Os experimentos foram realizados numa câmara biológica, mantida à temperatura de 28 ± 1oC, com umidade relativa de 80 ± 5% e fotofase de 12 horas. Apresentam-se os dados da influência de diferentes períodos de quiescência sobre a eclosão das larvas, desenvolvimento larval e pupal, ciclo evolutivo. Verificou-se o efeito altamente significativo do período de quiescência na eclosão das larvas. O período de quiescência não influenciou nas durações dos períodos de incubação, larval e pupal. Constatou-se que ovos de um mesmo período de quiescência apresentaram períodos de incubação estatisticamente diferentes entre si. As larvas eclodiam em grupos, definidos pela incubação, e este efeito de grupo foi significativo na duração do ciclo. Pode-se afirmar que, em 99,8% dos ciclos, a variação foi determinada pela incubação.

  15. Preferência alimentar de adultos de Metriona elatior Klug (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae por diferentes híbridos de Solanum melogena Linnaeus (Solanaceae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i4.5874 Feeding preference of adults of Metriona elatior Klug (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae for different hybrids of Solanum melogena Linnaeus (Solanaceae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i4.5874

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    Robinson Antonio Pitelli

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Metriona elatior Klug é potencial candidato para o controle biológico de Solanum viarum Dunal (joá-bravo, pois as larvas e adultos se alimentam de suas folhas e têm baixa taxa de dispersão. A especificidade é um forte requisito para a adequabilidade de um organismo como agente de controle biológico, especialmente pela estratégia inundativa. Desse modo, a preferência alimentar do adulto desse inseto em laboratório foi avaliada em 14 híbridos de Solanum melogena Linnaeus (berinjela. A criação estoque foi mantida em laboratório, com os indivíduos se alimentando de folhas do joá-bravo. O estudo foi realizado utilizando-se testes de dupla e múltipla escolha, em períodos de alimentação de 24 e 48h, oferecendo-se discos de tecido foliar, em condições de placas de Petri. As avaliações da sobrevivência e consumo foliar dos insetos adultos recém-emergidos foram realizadas em folhas de joá-bravo e dos híbridos de berinjela, mantidas túrgidas pela imersão do pecíolo em água. A área foliar foi medida antes e após quatro dias de exposição ao inseto. M. elatior apresentou preferência para alimentação, sobrevivência e consumo na planta daninha. A preferência do crisomelídeo foi maior para o híbrido Minikuro Kowishiki de berinjela.Metriona elatior Klug is a potential biocontrol agent for Solanum viarum Dunal (tropical soda apple, because larvae and adults feed on its leaves and this species shows a low dispersion rate. Specificity plays a major role in the feasibility of an organism as a biological control agent, especially in the inundative strategy. The feeding preference of M. elatior adults was evaluated to 14 eggplant (Solanum melogena Linnaeus hybrids. Mass rearing was carried out under lab conditions, with the insect feeding directly on S. viarum leaves. The study started with dual and multiple choice tests in 24 and 48 hour feeding times, by offering leaf disks in Petri dish conditions. Survival and leaf

  16. Bark consumption by the spiny rat Euryzygomatomys spinosus (G. Fischer (Echimyidae on a Pinus taeda Linnaeus (Pinaceae plantation in South Brazil Consumo de Pinus taeda (Pinaceae pelo rato-de-espinho Euryzygomatomys spinosus (G. Fischer (Echimyidae em plantações no Sul do Brasil

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    Gislene L. Gonçalves

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Feeding damage caused by Euryzygomatomys spinosus (G. Fischer, 1814 (Echimyidae is documented for a Pinus taeda Linnaeus (Pinaceae plantation located in Cambará do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Under laboratory conditions, feeding acceptance of P. taeda trunk sections was tested with positive results for E. spinosus, but not for other three co-occurring sigmodontine rodents: Akodon montensis Thomas, 1913, Oligoryzomys nigripes (Olfers, 1818 and Delomys dorsalis (Hensel, 1872.Esse estudo documenta os danos causados por Euryzygomatomys spinosus (G. Fischer, 1814 em plantações de Pinus taeda Linnaeus (Pinaceae localizadas em Cambará do Sul, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Em laboratório foi testada positivamente a utilização de troncos de Pinus como recurso por E. spinosus, mas não para os outros roedores sigmodontíneos ocorrentes na área: Akodon montensis Thomas, 1913, Oligoryzomys nigripes (Olfers, 1818 e Delomys dorsalis (Hensel, 1872.

  17. Karamık Gölü (Afyonkarahisar'deki Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 (Sazan'nun Metazoon Parazitleri Üzerinde Anatomik, Morfolojik ve Ekolojik Bir Araştırma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Levent Kutlu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available 13 Mart 2004 ile 28 Mayıs 2005 tarihleri arasında yapılan bu araştırmada, Karamık Gölü (Afyonkarahisar’nden yakalanan 71 Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 (sazan’nun metazoon parazitleri üzerinde incelemeler yapılmıştır. Konak balıkta üç parazit türü tanımlanmıştır: Gyrodactylus elegans, Nordmann, 1832; Dactylogyrus extensus Mueller ve Van Cleave, 1932 (Monogenoidea, Plathelmintes; Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, Yamaguti, 1934 (Cestoidea, Plathelmintes. Bu türlerden G. elegans 16 balığın yüzgeçlerinde (% 22,5; 7,6 parazit/balık ve 2 balığın solungaçlarında (% 2,8; 5,0 parazit/balık, D. extensus 65 balığın solungaçlarında (% 91,5; 22,1 parazit/balık, B. acheilognathi ise 10 balığın bağırsaklarında (% 14,0; 10,8 parazit/balık görülmüştür. Konak balıktaki dominant parazit türü D. extensus’tur. İlgili parazite ait en yüksek enfeksiyon oranına ve parazit sayısına kış aylarında, en düşük değerlere ise ilkbahar ve yaz aylarında rastlanılmıştır. D. extensus ile enfekte olma oranı küçük boylu sazanlarda büyüklere göre daha fazladır. G. elegans, orta boylu sazanların yüzgeçlerinde ilkbaharda, solungaçlarında ise kış aylarında kaydedilmiştir. Küçük ve orta boylu sazanlarda görülen B. acheilognathi enfeksiyonu kış aylarında yüksek, ilkbahar ve yaz aylarında ise düşük bulunmuştur

  18. The steadily increasing demand for South African abalone Haliotis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    The usual harvesting method is for a diver to cut all. Ecklonia plants ... This study estimates the biomass of E. maxima available for harvesting, investi- gates the effects of ..... The processes that shape kelp bed structure and dynamics are of ...

  19. The South African commercial abalone Haliotis midae fishery began ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    and 20 m deep, and virtually no abalone occur at ... factories were granted processing rights to a fixed percentage of an overall .... behaviour and temporal change in individual and aggre- ... series, is to gain further information through carefully.

  20. Abalone Haliotis spp. are in considerable demand worldwide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    AND D-LACTATE, BE USED AS METABOLIC STRESS INDICATORS DURING ... tauropine, is present in high activities (54 U g wet weight-1) in the shell adductor muscle, but ..... BRITZ, P. J. 1996 — Effect of the dietary protein level on growth.

  1. First attempts to cryopreserve red abalone (Haliotis rufescens oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez Torrez, A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Overall, few advances in the cryopreservation of complex cells such as oocytes, embryo or tissue have been registered and in less quantity have been reported for aquatic species. Abalone has high economic interest worldwide and the conservation of abalone germplasm may help to enhance its culture and develop repopulation programs. In this work, we reported the cytotoxic effect of two concentration of trehalose (0.2 and 0.4 M on red abalone oocytes incubated for 10, 15 and 20 min. Also, we reported the cryopreservation of red abalone oocytes using a 3-steps cryopreservation protocol and 5 thawing protocols. Significant differences on cytotoxic effect were found (p<0.01. However, none of the cryoprotectant was optimum to cryopreserve red abalone oocyte. In conclusion, it is necessary to find an appropriate method to dehydrate or make the cryoprotectant penetrate on the abalone oocyte before proceeding to cryopreservation.

  2. ABALONE (HALIOTIS SQUAMATA ANESTHESIA WITH ETHANOL ON GRADING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanni N.A.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available An abalone is a group of marine molluscs that have high economic value. To increase abalone production, such cultivation needs to be done considering that abalone production still dominating. However, there are still obstacles in the cultivation which is the high mortality rates on the grading process of juvenile abalone. The fatality occurs due to the traditional grading process by gouging abalone to separate abalone that is attached to the substrate. The use of ethanol as an anesthetic material is expected to minimize the mortality and increase the survival rate of abalone. In this study, the use of ethanol by 30 ml/L as an anesthetic material can separate the abalone from its substrate 447.67 seconds faster than the dose of 10 ml/L. However, the 30 ml/L dose also showed the lowest survival rate of 86.67%. The best recovery test is at 10 ml/L with the fastest recovery time of 143.33 seconds which has a high survival rate of 98.33%. The success of anesthesia by using ethanol in this study can also be done in the grading process of abalone seed and can minimize death due to the traditional grading process.

  3. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) collected in the coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    The coastal environment has been heavily altered by multiple environmental impacts of human activities, such as disposal of sewage from urban areas, the release of numerous chemical industries, agriculture and the flow of vessels, which can lead to accidental spills of oil and oil products, fuels and other products transported by sea. In this context, a means of determining concentrations of these potentially toxic substances in the sea water is the biomonitoring by means of different types of bivalves, which have been used by various researchers, in Brazil and other countries. With regard to bivalve mollusks, particularly mussels, their use in monitoring the marine contamination is mainly due to their wide geographic distribution, sessile habit and ability to concentrate toxic metals to 102-105 times in relation to the concentrations detected in water. In the present study, we employed the passive biomonitoring using the Perna perna bivalve mollusk with respect to the elements Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V. These elements were chosen since they can be determined by INAA method (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis), by means of short irradiation which provides faster analyzes and also due to their importance from the standpoint of environmental or nutritional studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in samples of Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coastal regions of São Paulo subject to anthropogenic contamination (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos), comparing the values obtained in sites potentially impacted with the values of the control site in Praia da Cocanha, in Caraguatatuba. The collection points located in São Paulo coast are located in the geographical areas 23º 37'S - 45° 24' W (Caraguatatuba) and 23º 57'S - 46º 20' W (Santos). The collection of organisms was performed in all seasons of the year, beginning in spring 2008 and ending in winter 2009. The samples

  4. C. Linnaeus' ideas concerning retribution and fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rob. V. Wikman

    1967-02-01

    Full Text Available Linnæus' Nemesis divina has been interpreted in different ways. Crucial is its central problem: the ideas of fate and retribution, but these are, in turn, dependent on Linnæus' conception of God and nature and not least on his opinions concerning the unity and coherence of the natural and ethical order of the world. From whatever sources Linnæus may have derived his religious ideas and whatever changes they may have undergone, his religious attitude in face of the works of nature remained unshaken. But Linnæus' religion, as we find it fragmentarily in these literary sources, was entirely undogmatic, untheological and, from a Christian point of view, even heterodox. Partly, this was in accord with his belief in the necessary immanent coherence in the processes of nature and the concomitant idea of the righteous divine order of the world.

  5. Iguana iguana (Linnaeus 1758 (Squamata: Iguanidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilar-Kirigin, Alvaro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Tres ejemplares fueron colectados en la República de Bolivia, y depositados en la Colección Boliviana de Fauna (CBF, La Paz, Bolivia. Los registros se realizaron en el Departamento de La Paz, Provincia Abel Iturralde, Sección Primera, Municipio Ixiamas. Localidad El Tigre, 11º58'15.7"S, 68º00'22.5"W; 162 msnm. Fecha de colecta: 11 julio 2010. Hora: 9:27 AM. Colectores: Alvaro J. Aguilar Kirigin y Wilson Bani Rivero. Colectado en bajíos herbáceos inundables, a orillas del río Madre de Dios.

  6. Соматические клетки мужской половой системы Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Игнатьев, Г.; Рахимов, И.; Салахов, Н.

    2014-01-01

    Введение. Изучено развитие органа движения хвоста церкарии Fasciolahepatica Linnaeus,1758 на эмбриональной стадииразвития, последующих трех днях активной части жизни и четвертого-пятого дня малоподвижного и неподвижного периода жизни. У печеночной фасциолы на стадии церкарии первыми появляются зачатки органа движения и выделительной системы....

  7. Distribución, ecología y origen de las poblaciones de Vitrina pellucida (O. F. Müller, 1774 y Cepaea nemoralis (Linnaeus, 1758 (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora en las Cordilleras Béticas Orientales (Andalucía, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arrebola, J. R.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of the chorology and ecology of the andalusian terrestrial malacofauna (South of the Iberian Peninsula, has showed the presence of a group of climatic relicts characteristics from the Eurosiberian region, in the Eastern Betics Mountains Chains. The ecology and distribution of two of these species (Vitrina pellucida O. F. Millier, 1774: and Cepaea nemoralis Linnaeus, 1758 is exposed, being the main limiting factor the typical mediterranean summer drought. The adaptative response of these species against the scarcity of water depends on its different ecophysiologies. Vitrina pellucida (eurithermic lives in low-lands where the availability of water along the year is constant, as well as in dry soils of high mountains because of the cold weather. Cepaea nemoralis (stenothermic lives only in habitats with wet soils and heavy vegetal cover placed below 1500 m. The absence of similar vegetation over this altitude and the extreme climate conditions of the High Mediterranean Mountains prevents its appearance, contrarily to the High Eurosiberian Mountains.

    [fr]
    L'étude de la chorologie et de l'écologie de la malacofaune terrestre d'Andalousie (sud de la Péninsule Ibérique, a permis de déterminer la présence, dans les cordillères Bétiques Orientales, d'un groupe de reliques climatiques propres à la région Euro-sibérienne. L'écologie et la distribution de deux de ces espèces (Vitrina pellucida O. F. Müller, 1774 et Cepaea nemoralis Linnaeux, 1758 sont exposées ici, et on montre que le principal facteur limitant est la sécheresse estivale caractéristique du climat méditerranéen. La réponse adaptative de dex deux espèces face à la rareté de l'eau durant l'été est déterminée par leurs écophysiologies différentes, Vitrina pellucida (eurytherme utilise aussi bien les écosystèmes des terres basses là où la disponibilité en eau est constante tout au long de l

  8. Dynamic expression of ancient and novel molluscan shell genes during ecological transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wörheide Gert

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mollusca constitute one of the most morphologically and ecologically diverse metazoan phyla, occupying a wide range of marine, terrestrial and freshwater habitats. The evolutionary success of the molluscs can in part be attributed to the evolvability of the external shell. Typically, the shell first forms during embryonic and larval development, changing dramatically in shape, colour and mineralogical composition as development and maturation proceeds. Major developmental transitions in shell morphology often correlate with ecological transitions (e.g. from a planktonic to benthic existence at metamorphosis. While the genes involved in molluscan biomineralisation are beginning to be identified, there is little understanding of how these are developmentally regulated, or if the same genes are operational at different stages of the mollusc's life. Results Here we relate the developmental expression of nine genes in the tissue responsible for shell production – the mantle – to ecological transitions that occur during the lifetime of the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina (Vetigastropoda. Four of these genes encode evolutionarily ancient proteins, while four others encode secreted proteins with little or no identity to known proteins. Another gene has been previously described from the mantle of another haliotid vetigastropod. All nine genes display dynamic spatial and temporal expression profiles within the larval shell field and juvenile mantle. Conclusion These expression data reflect the regulatory complexity that underlies molluscan shell construction from larval stages to adulthood, and serves to highlight the different ecological demands placed on each stage. The use of both ancient and novel genes in all stages of shell construction also suggest that a core set of shell-making genes was provided by a shared metazoan ancestor, which has been elaborated upon to produce the range of molluscan shell types we see today.

  9. The feeding ecology of Mugil cephalus (Linnaeus) from a high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diet of the grey mullet (Mugil cephalus L.) was investigated in the Lagos Lagoon (high brackish) habitat in Nigeria from February 2004 – January 2006. The highest number of empty stomachs was recorded in October 2004, while the lowest was in December 2005. The highest number of empty stomachs was recorded ...

  10. Age and growth of Mugil cephalus (Linnaeus, 1958) (Perciformes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    apra.v3i3.36389 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES.

  11. Topografia vertebromedular de irara (Eira barbara Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Adami

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Um cadáver macho, adulto de irara (Eira barbara foi cedido pelo Centro de Triagem de Animais Silvestres (Cetas, localizado em Salvador/Bahia, ao Setor de Anatomia Veterinária da Escola de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia da Universidade Federal da Bahia. Trata-se de um mamífero carnívoro que pertence à Família Mustelidae e Subfamília Mustelinae que contém o Gênero Eira, representado apenas pela Espécie Eira barbara. Objetivamos a investigação da topografia vertebromedular do espécime e assim verificar a relação da medula espinal com o canal vertebral; a identificação, origem, emergência e quantificação dos nervos espinhais relacionados com a medula espinal. Pesquisa número 43245-1 autorizada pelo Sistema de Autorização e Informação em Biodiversidade (Sisbio-ICMBio/IBAMA. O exemplar foi fixado em solução de formaldeído a 10% e posteriormente dissecado e radiografado. Foram identificados oito pares de nervos espinhais cervicais, quatorze torácicos e na porção lombossacral da medula espinhal seis nervos espinais lombares, três sacrais e mais de três nervos espinhais caudais. O término da medula espinal ocorreu no nível quinta vértebra lombar. Os oito segmentos medulares cervicais localizaram-se entre a primeira e sétima vértebras cervicais. Os quatorze nervos espinais torácicos originaram-se na porção cranial das vértebras respectivas. Os segmentos medulares lombares, sacrais e caudais restringiram-se à região lombar da coluna vertebral. O deslocamento cranial dos segmentos medulares foi observado no oitavo cervical, terceiro, quarto e quinto lombares e todos os segmentos sacrais e caudais. As informações obtidas poderão ser utilizadas para análises comparativas com as demais espécies e com a adoção de medidas que visem proporcionar o bem-estar animal e a preservação da espécie.

  12. THE ECOLOGY OF PATELLA LINNAEUS FROM THE CAPE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    all species of Patella,. and its colour varies according to the colour of the limpet. ...... A comparable situation exists on the Pacific coast of North America, where .... freshwater and positively to sea water, so that rainwater pools will be avoided. R.

  13. Simulated migration of European eel (Anguilla anguilla, Linnaeus 1758)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginneken, van V.J.T.

    2006-01-01

    The European eel ( Anguillaanguilla L.) is a catadromic fish species with its spawning grounds thousands of kilometers away in the ocean, possibly theSargasso Sea. The objective of this study was to elucidate this oceanic phase of migration

  14. Topografia do cone medular da paca (Agouti paca, Linnaeus - 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Regina Freixo Scavone

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivamos neste trabalho determinar a esqueletopia da terminação do cone medular da paca relacionando com as vértebras lombares e sacrais, visando assim estabelecer parâmetros morfométricos e topográficos do cone medular nesta espécie. Para tanto, procedemos à dissecação, mediante incisão, rebatimento da pele, da tela subcutânea e da musculatura da região dorsal à coluna vertebral, com posterior secção e remoção dos arcos vertebrais para melhor visualização da medula espinhal. Após a individualização do cone medular, registramos os aspectos anatômicos de interesse, enfatizando seu início (base e seu término (ápice em relação às vértebras, e a partir de então efetuamos suas medidas com o auxílio de paquímetro; visando documentar nossos achados, realizamos fotografias e esquemas dos espécimes estudados.

  15. Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758): bioindicator of marine radioactive pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Gouvea, R. de C. dos; Santos, P.L. dos; Azevedo Gouvea, V. de

    The kinetic of uptake and loss of radionuclides in Perna perna in laboratory conditions were studied aiming to use this eatables pelecipoda as a bioindicator of radioactive pollution in marine environment. The radionuclides 137 Cs, 131 I, 133 Ba, 51 Cr, 60 Co and 65 Zn were used from 3,7 to 37,0 kBq/aquarium concentrations. The tests 'in acquaria' were made with the following parameters: the concentration velocity, concentration factor and biological half-life. (M.A.C.) [pt

  16. Acanthocephala Larvae parasitizing Ameiva ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758) (Squamata: Teiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Lilian Cristina Macedo; Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos Melo; Teresa Cristina Sauer Ávila-Pires; Elane Guerreiro Giese; Jeannie Nascimento dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Knowledge concerning the taxonomy and biology of species of Acanthocephala, helminth parasites of the helminth species of the phylum Acanthocephala, parasites of lizards in Brazilian Amazonia, is still insufficient, but reports of Acanthocephala in reptiles are becoming increasingly common in the literature. Cystacanth-stage Acanthocephalan larvae have been found in the visceral peritoneum during necropsy of Ameiva ameiva ameivalizards from the “Osvaldo Rodrigues da Cunha” Herpetolog...

  17. Acanthocephala Larvae parasitizing Ameiva ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758 (Squamata: Teiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Cristina Macedo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Knowledge concerning the taxonomy and biology of species of Acanthocephala, helminth parasites of the helminth species of the phylum Acanthocephala, parasites of lizards in Brazilian Amazonia, is still insufficient, but reports of Acanthocephala in reptiles are becoming increasingly common in the literature. Cystacanth-stage Acanthocephalan larvae have been found in the visceral peritoneum during necropsy of Ameiva ameiva ameivalizards from the “Osvaldo Rodrigues da Cunha” Herpetology Collection of the Emílio Goeldi Museum, Belém, Pará, Brazil. The aim of this study was to present the morphological study of the Acanthocephala larvae found in A. ameiva ameiva lizard.

  18. Threatened fishes of the world: Misgurnus fossilis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Cobitidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartvich, P.; Lusk, Stanislav; Rutkayová, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 1 (2010), s. 39-40 ISSN 0378-1909 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : threatened fishes * Europe * Cobitidae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.792, year: 2010

  19. The coronary arteries of the agouti (Agouti paca, Linnaeus, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Singaretti de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to describe the coronary arteries in the agouti. Twelve hearts set, in a 10% formaldehyde aqueous solution, were used. The presence of left and right coronary arteries was observed in all hearts. The fi rst arose from the aorta, between the left auricle and the pulmonary trunk, and gave off into a circumfl ex branch, whichever was directed to the right surface of this viscerae, and an interventricular paraconal branch that went through the cardiac apex, on the left atrioventricular sulcus. In 91.6% of the cases, at its origin, the paraconal branch gave off a thick side branch to the left ventricle wall, and in 100% of the cases, went deep, characterizing a large myocardial bridge. In 8.4% of the cases, this thick side branch to the left ventricle wall originated directly from the left coronary artery and not from the paraconal branch, and alterations such those to the circumfl ex branch did not occur. Regarding the right coronary artery, the origin of this vessel was from the aorta, on the atrial surface, in the direction of the right ventricular border, going through the subsinuous interventricular sulcus as an interventricular subsinuous branch.

  20. Acanthocephala Larvae parasitizing Ameiva ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758) (Squamata: Teiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Lilian Cristina; Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; Ávila-Pires, Teresa Cristina Sauer; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; dos Santos, Jeannie Nascimento

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge concerning the taxonomy and biology of species of Acanthocephala, helminth parasites of the helminth species of the phylum Acanthocephala, parasites of lizards in Brazilian Amazonia, is still insufficient, but reports of Acanthocephala in reptiles are becoming increasingly common in the literature. Cystacanth-stage Acanthocephalan larvae have been found in the visceral peritoneum during necropsy of Ameiva ameiva ameivalizards from the "Osvaldo Rodrigues da Cunha" Herpetology Collection of the Emílio Goeldi Museum, Belém, Pará, Brazil. The aim of this study was to present the morphological study of the Acanthocephala larvae found in A. ameiva ameiva lizard.

  1. Morfologia do figado da paca (Cuniculus Paca, Linnaeus 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Luis Martins

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2012v25n2p109 Foram observados os elementos referentes à morfologia do fígado da paca (Cuniculus paca, segundo maior roedor da fauna brasileira que apresenta alto potencial zootécnico. Utilizaram-se oito animais provenientes do setor de Animais Silvestres da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias - Campus de Jaboticabal - UNESP, devidamente credenciado pelo IBAMA como criatório experimental. Mediante procedimento de dissecação verificou-se que o fígado da paca localiza-se na porção cranial do abdome, imediatamente depois do diafragma, ao qual se prende pelos ligamentos triangulares, coronários e falciforme, com sua maior parte localizada à direita do plano médio. O fígado desse roedor apresenta a seguinte lobação: lobo lateral direito, lobo medial direito, lobo quadrado, lobo medial esquerdo e lobo lateral esquerdo, além do lobo caudado formado pelo processo papilar do lobo caudado e processo caudado do lobo caudado. A vesícula biliar encontra-se entre os lobos quadrado e medial direito. Fragmentos desse órgão foram colhidos, fixados e preparadas histologicamente, sendo as amostras analisadas à microscopia de luz. Microscopicamente observou-se que o tecido conjuntivo intralobular é escasso,sua constituição básica de hepatócitos poliédricos organizados em cordões se interpõem por sinusóides e na periferia do lóbulo encontram-se as tríades portais, constituídas pela veia porta, arteria hepática e ducto biliar.

  2. Morphology of the paca liver (Cuniculus paca, Linnaeus 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Laura Esper Gomes de Figueiredo Carvalho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The elements related to the morphology of the liver of paca (Cuniculus paca, the second largest rodent of the Brazilian fauna, were observed; this species present zootechnical potential. Eight animals from the animals sector of Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias – Campus of Jaboticabal – UNESP, which is duly certified by IBAMA as an experimental breeding institute, were used. Through a dissection procedure, it was found that the liver of the paca is located in the cranial portion of the abdomen, immediately after the diaphragm, to which it is connected by the triangular, coronary, and falciform ligaments, having its bigger part located right to the medium plan. The liver of this rodent presents the following lobation: right lateral lobe, right medial lobe, quadrate lobe, left medial lobe, and left lateral lobe, besides the caudate lobe formed by the papillary process of caudate lobe and the caudate process of caudate lobe. Gallbladder is located between the quadrate and right medial lobes. Fragments of this organ were collected, fixed, and histologically prepared, being the samples analyzed through light microscopy. It was microscopically observed that intralobular connective tissue is scarce, basically it consists polyhedral hepatocytes organized into cords interposed between sinusoids and the portal triads are found in the lobe, consisting of the portal vein, hepatic artery, and biliary duct.

  3. Regulatory effects of Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus on immunological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-04-24

    Apr 24, 2012 ... Abbreviations: SRBC, sheep red blood cells; HC50, half of hemolysis ... housed, five per cage, and maintained on 12 h day and night cycle. .... therapy, useful in cancer treatment, were found to deteriorate the immunity. The yellow mealworm, as an important food supplement, contains abundant active.

  4. Performance of Solanum incunum Linnaeus as natural coagulant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2- concentrations for the treated water conforms to the Tanzanian Standards and WHO guidelines for drinking ... that S. incunum is promising as coagulant and disinfectant product for water purification. Key words: .... light greenish blue-grey.

  5. The feeding ecology of Mugil cephalus (Linnaeus) from a high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... ... Olufemi Olukolajo. Department of Marine Sciences, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria. ... algae and microscopic invertebrates which they filter from mud and sand through ... freshwater lagoons and rivers (K. Kusemiju and B.E.. Emmanuel ..... disgorged their food following capture. Consequently, the.

  6. The Habitat of Yellow Mouth Turban Turbo Chrysostomus, Linnaeus, 1758

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soekendarsi, E.

    2018-03-01

    In general, yellow mouth turban snail Turbo chrysostomus L. 1758 was found in intertidal and coral reef area. This animal is active at night (nocturnal) and settles the coral reef-flats area to do its activity as substrate. In doing its activity, yellow mouth turban snail can be found in the depth of 50 cm until 4 m of tidal area. The adult yellow mouth turban snails are found in great number at intertidal area’s border and at coastal area of coral reef-flats. Methodology that was used in this study is visual analysis (descriptive method), and divided into two parameters which were observed, i.e. abiotic and biotic. Abiotic components that were measured are; Oxygen (ppm), pH, Water Temperature (°C), Salinity (ppm), Ammonia (mg/L), Nitrate (mg/L), Nitrite (mg/L), and Calsium Carbonat (mg/L).Whereas, biotic components that were measured are; substrates, seaweeds, other organisms, and epilithon. The observation’s result of yellow mouth turban snail’s environmental condition showed: abiotic condition of the waters consists of oxygen 3-5 ppm, seawater pH 7-8, seawater temperature 23-26°C, and the salinity of 32-33 ppm. The Habitat of yellow mouth turban snail settled the reef-flats area that is overgrown covered by seaweed Sargassum sp. as the place to do its activity.

  7. Food preferences of the common tern, sterna hirundo (Linnaeus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seabirds are important in the dynamics of marine ecosystems because they recycle important biomass of lower trophic level organisms. Their faeces and carcasses provide important food sources for terrestrial and benthic scavengers. As a result of the abundance of food resources along the coast of Ghana, common terns ...

  8. Status of windowpane oyster Placuna placenta (Linnaeus) population in Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Clemente, S.

    from the vari- laysia, the major producing country is the Philippines, ety ofcurios available in the local market (PL.65). Even which exported US$36 million worth of Kapis prod- though the meat content is very less. it is of superior ucts during 1986... to the lack of knowledge about its edibility as ies Profile 1991). Major markets include U.S.A. Ja- well as non- availability in the local markets. pan, Germany and the most of Europe. Kapis shells are gathered from the wild by hand, diving and dredg...

  9. Histologia do intestino do avestruz (Struthio camelus, Linnaeus 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Saviani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A despeito de o avestruz (Struthio camelus compartilhar muitas adaptações evolucionárias presentes em outras aves, estes animais apresentam algumas características anatômicas peculiares, como é o caso do seu tubo digestivo em que o cólon é maior que o ceco. Há algum tempo, essa ave tem sido explorada econômicamente e principalmente como fonte alternativa de proteína animal na alimentação humana. O presente trabalho analisou os aspectos histológicos do intestino de avestruzes produzidos em boas condições de manejo ambiental e nutricional. Foram utilizados 13 avestruzes, com 18 a 30 meses de idade, provenientes da empresa Brasil Ostrich, e encaminhados para o abate no Abatedouro Escola da Universidade de São Paulo, Campus Administrativo de Pirassununga. Os animais foram abatidos com pistola pneumática e, após a sangria e evisceração, foram colhidas amostras de diferentes segmentos do intestino: duodeno, jejuno, íleo e ceco duplo. Os materiais foram processados, corados pela técnica de hematoxilina-eosina (H-E e examinados em microscopia de campo claro. Os resultados obtidos revelaram que as vilosidades estão presentes no duodeno, porém, não existem no ceco. Dos quatro segmentos intestinais examinados, o ceco foi o que apresentou maior número de células caliciformes. Os nódulos linfáticos e os linfócitos foram observados em todos os segmentos examinados. No ceco, os nódulos linfáticos se agregam para constituir a placa de Peyer. O plano histológico dos segmentos intestinais examinados seguiu o padrão observado nos mamíferos domésticos e em outras aves. O conhecimento da histologia dos intestinos desses animais pode oferecer subsídios para a avaliação comparativa de procedimentos de manejo ambiental e nutricional que possam aumentar os níveis de produção e produtividade dessa atividade pecuária.

  10. Food preferences of the common tern, sterna hirundo (Linnaeus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While earlier studies of food habits of seabirds worldwide used examination of ... birds included marine and fresh or brackish water fish, crustaceans and worms. ... showed that S. hirundo utilized the Panbros lagoon fish resource in feeding, ...

  11. Ultrastructure of spermatozoa in cobia, Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus, 1766).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanasekar, Krishnamoorthy; Selvakumar, Narasimman; Munuswamy, Natesan

    2018-02-01

    Ultrastructure and development of spermatozoa in cobia, Rachycentron canadum are described. Sections through the testis show different developmental stages viz, Spermatocytes, spermatids and sperm. Spermatozoa of R. canadum exhibit the configuration of uniflagellated, anacrosomal Type I aquasperm, typical for externally fertilizing fish. Mature spermatozoon is seen with a prominent head and long cylindrical flagellum. Ultrastructure of sperm shows invaginated 'U' shaped nucleus and other organelles. The mitochondrial matrix is electron-dense with irregular arrangement of the cristae. The nucleus reveals a deep invagination (nuclear fossa) in which the centriolar complex is located. The centriolar complex lies inside the nuclear fossa and is composed of a proximal and a distal centriole. The two centrioles are placed perpendicular to each other. The flagellum has a typical eukaryotic organization (microtubule doublets 9 + 2 pattern) and measures around 36.21 ± 0.42 μm in length. This study for the first time provides a comprehensive detail on the ultrastructure and developmental process of sperm in cobia, R. canadum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. THE ECOLOGY OF PATELLA LINNAEUS FROM THE CAPE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genus Patella comprises intertidal and infratidal animals, which- are important not only because of their relative abundance on most shores, but because of the marked effect they may have on the ecology of these shores. Despite this, little is known about their detailed ecology in South Africa. The present paper is an ...

  13. Identification of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isoelectric focusing methodology using LKB 2117 Multiphor 11 electrofocusing apparatus was used for electofocusing and identification of Oreochromis niloticus and Tilapia zilli. The electrographs of the two species suggest clear protein differences producing species specific patterns. There were variations in the protein ...

  14. NILOTICUS (LINNAEUS, 1758) EFFETS DE L'HORMONE : 17-A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effets de l'hormone sur les performances zootechniques des souches ... et de Biologie Aquatique (LEBA), UFR des Sciences et Gestion de .... Des pêches de contrôle hebdomadaire de croissance ... chaque happa ont fait l'objet de mesure de.

  15. [Digenea of Haliaeetus albicilla (Linnaeus, 1758) and Pandion haliaetus (Linnaeus, 1758) from middle and north-western Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisińska, Elzbieta; Rzad, Izabella; Sitko, Jilji; Kavetska, Katarzyna M; Królaczyk, Katarzyna; Budis, Halina

    2008-01-01

    In 2003-2008 eight white-tailed eagles and two ospreys from middle and north-western Poland were examined for the presence of parasites. Nine birds were infected with 5 digenean species: Conodiplostomum perlatum, Paracoenogonimus ovatus, Strigeafalconis, Metorchis crassiusculus and Nematostrigea serpens. M. crassiusculus was found for the first time in an eagle from Poland.

  16. Contributions to the knowledge of the Biology of the Arabian Abalone Haliotis mariae Wood, 1828

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Stirn

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The Arabian abalone occur in the Arabian Sea’s rocky coastal zone in association with conspicuous macrolgal communities in which it represents the dominant herbivorous component. Despite such ecological importance and although the commercial exploitation of abalone presents a considerable contribution to Omani fisheries, almost nothing is known about the biology of this species. This report presents results of research carried out in the field and with laboratory cultures, and draws general conclusions related also to the fisheries management of these possibly overexploited abalone populations, Cobort observations in the field and measured increments of cultured specimens showed a growth rate significantly higher than in other abalone species, i.e. greater than 3 mm shell-increment per month. The very early sexual maturity demonstrated by captivity spawnings of approximately one year old animals is also quite unusual. The ejected eggs formed mucous mono layers attached to the substratum whereas other abalone species produce pelagic eggs. Jvenile coborts in nature and the periodic spawning of cultured animals indicate the major spawning in spring and postmonsoon one in autumn. The models previously applied in fisheries management of abalone in Oman assumed only one spawning per year, the first being at age 2+, and a slower growth-rate. These models should be reconsidered using the new data, which may partially explain why abalone are less overexploited than one would expect looking at heavy harvesting. In view of a projected commercial abalone cultivation our laboratory rearing experiments showed that both natural and/or artificial food may be used, provided this contains-apart from standard ingredients, the seaweed-borne components (probably phycobillins required for a normal parasite , resistant shell formation. With regard to artificial reproduction,  our preliminary trials showed that spawning , fertilization ,and initial larval rearing present no problems. The steps from the pediveliger to larval settlement, however ,seem to be fatally exposed to eilitate attacks. Further research is needed in order to eliminate this critical problem.

  17. Transcriptional analysis of disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) antioxidant enzymes against marine bacteria and virus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zoysa, Mahanama; Whang, Ilson; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Oh, Chulhong; Choi, Cheol Young; Lee, Jehee

    2011-07-01

    Diverse antioxidant enzymes are essential for marine organisms to overcome oxidative stress as well as for the fine-tuning of immune reactions through activating different signal transduction pathways. This study describes the transcriptional analysis of antioxidant enzymes of disk abalone by challenging with bacteria (Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahemolyticus, and Listeria monocytogenes) and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). Upon bacteria and VHSV challenge, Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), Copper, Zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), catalase, thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx), Selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (SeGPx), and thioredoxin-2 (TRx-2) expression levels were altered in gills, and hemocytes at different magnitudes. In gills, only MnSOD, catalase, and SeGPx genes were completely upregulated by post-challenge of bacterial and VHSV. Among them, SeGPx demonstrated strong upregulation by 16-fold (bacteria) and 2-fold (VHSV) in gills, and 5-fold (bacteria) and 3.0-fold (VHSV) in hemocytes. None of the genes examined were downregulated (in gills and hemocytes) by bacteria challenge even though CuZnSOD and TPx showed downregulation (completely) in hemocytes by VHSV. In general, abalone hemocytes had lower potential to induce antioxidant enzyme transcripts upon bacteria and VHSV challenge than gills. Based upon these results, we suggest that abalones induce oxidative stress in tissues during the bacteria and VHSV challenge, and the identified response of antioxidant enzymes could be supported for maintaining a low-level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that may serve as a signal for activating immune reactions against pathogenic conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Concentration and retention of Toxoplasma gondii surrogates from seawater by red abalone (Haliotis rufescens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Kristen C; Krusor, Colin; Tinker, M. Tim; Moore, James G.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Shapiro, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Small marine snails and abalone have been identified as high- and low-risk prey items, respectively, for exposure of threatened southern sea otters to Toxoplasma gondii, a zoonotic parasite that can cause fatal encephalitis in animals and humans. While recent work has characterized snails as paratenic hosts for T. gondii, the ability of abalone to vector the parasite has not been evaluated. To further elucidate why abalone predation may be protective against T. gondii exposure, this study aimed to determine whether: (1) abalone are physiologically capable of acquiring T. gondii; and (2) abalone and snails differ in their ability to concentrate and retain the parasite. Abalone were exposed to T. gondii surrogate microspheres for 24 h, and fecal samples were examined for 2 weeks following exposure. Concentration of surrogates was 2–3 orders of magnitude greater in abalone feces than in the spiked seawater, and excretion of surrogates continued for 14 days post-exposure. These results indicate that, physiologically, abalone and snails can equally vector T. gondii as paratenic hosts. Reduced risk of T. gondii infection in abalone-specializing otters may therefore result from abalone's high nutritional value, which implies otters must consume fewer animals to meet their caloric needs.

  19. Design of an optimum computer vision-based automatic abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) grading algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donggil; Lee, Kyounghoon; Kim, Seonghun; Yang, Yongsu

    2015-04-01

    An automatic abalone grading algorithm that estimates abalone weights on the basis of computer vision using 2D images is developed and tested. The algorithm overcomes the problems experienced by conventional abalone grading methods that utilize manual sorting and mechanical automatic grading. To design an optimal algorithm, a regression formula and R(2) value were investigated by performing a regression analysis for each of total length, body width, thickness, view area, and actual volume against abalone weights. The R(2) value between the actual volume and abalone weight was 0.999, showing a relatively high correlation. As a result, to easily estimate the actual volumes of abalones based on computer vision, the volumes were calculated under the assumption that abalone shapes are half-oblate ellipsoids, and a regression formula was derived to estimate the volumes of abalones through linear regression analysis between the calculated and actual volumes. The final automatic abalone grading algorithm is designed using the abalone volume estimation regression formula derived from test results, and the actual volumes and abalone weights regression formula. In the range of abalones weighting from 16.51 to 128.01 g, the results of evaluation of the performance of algorithm via cross-validation indicate root mean square and worst-case prediction errors of are 2.8 and ±8 g, respectively. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Analysis of microbiota on abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) in South Korea for improved product management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Jung; Lee, Jin-Jae; Chung, Han Young; Choi, Sang Ho; Kim, Bong-Soo

    2016-10-03

    Abalone is a popular seafood in South Korea; however, because it contains various microorganisms, its ingestion can cause food poisoning. Therefore, analysis of the microbiota on abalone can improve understanding of outbreaks and causes of food poisoning and help to better manage seafood products. In this study, we collected a total of 40 abalones from four different regions in March and July, which are known as the maximum abalone production areas in Korea. The microbiota were analyzed using high-throughput sequencing, and bacterial loads on abalone were quantified by real-time PCR. Over 2700 species were detected in the samples, and Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria were the predominant classes. The differences in microbiota among regions and at each sampling time were also investigated. Although Psychrobacter was the dominant genus detected on abalone in both March and July, the species compositions were different between the two sampling times. Five potential pathogens (Lactococcus garvieae, Yersinia kristensenii, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus warneri, and Staphylococcus epidermidis) were detected among the abalone microbiota. In addition, we analyzed the influence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection on shifts in abalone microbiota during storage at different temperatures. Although the proportion of Vibrio increased over time in infected and non-infected abalone, the shifts of microbiota were more dynamic in infected abalone. These results can be used to better understand the potential of food poisoning caused by abalone consumption and manage abalone products according to the microbiota composition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Potential mechanisms of phthalate ester embryotoxicity in the abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Jin [L-304, Life Sciences Division, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen University Town, Xili, Shenzhen City 518055 (China); Cai Zhonghua, E-mail: caizh@sz.tsinghua.edu.cn [L-304, Life Sciences Division, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen University Town, Xili, Shenzhen City 518055 (China); Key Laboratory of Aquatic-Ecology, Tianjin Agricultural University, Lishui Road 112, Tianjin 300384 (China); Xing Kezhi [Key Laboratory of Aquatic-Ecology, Tianjin Agricultural University, Lishui Road 112, Tianjin 300384 (China)

    2011-05-15

    The effects and associated toxicological mechanisms of five phthalate esters (PAEs) on abalone embryonic development were investigated by exposing the embryos to a range of PAEs concentrations (0.05, 0.2, 2 and 10 {mu}g/mL). The results showed that PAEs could significantly reduce embryo hatchability, increase developmental malformations, and suppress the metamorphosis of abalone larvae. The possible toxicological mechanisms of PAEs to abalone embryos included, affecting the Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-pump and Ca{sup 2+}-Mg{sup 2+}-pump activities, altering the peroxidase (POD) level and the malondialdehyde (MDA) production, damaging the extraembryonic membranes structure, as well as disrupting endocrine-related genes (gpx, cyp3a, and 17{beta}-hsd 12) expression properties. Taken together, this work showed that PAEs adversely affected the embryonic ontogeny of abalone. The abilities of PAEs affecting the osmoregulation, inducing oxidative stress, damaging embryo envelope structure, and causing physiological homeostasis disorder, are likely to be a part of the common mechanisms responsible for their embryonic toxicity. - Highlights: > PAEs affected abalone hatchability, morphogenesis and metamorphosis behavior. > The toxicity of the five PAEs to embryogenesis was ranked as DBP > DEP > DMP > DOP > DEHP. > The osmoregulation disorder and oxidative damage are the potential mechanisms. - Potential mechanisms of PAEs on abalone embryogenesis are osmoregulation disorder, oxidative damage and physiological dysfunction.

  2. Concentration and retention of Toxoplasma gondii surrogates from seawater by red abalone (Haliotis rufescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Kristen C; Krusor, Colin; Tinker, M Tim; Moore, James; Conrad, Patricia A; Shapiro, Karen

    2016-11-01

    Small marine snails and abalone have been identified as high- and low-risk prey items, respectively, for exposure of threatened southern sea otters to Toxoplasma gondii, a zoonotic parasite that can cause fatal encephalitis in animals and humans. While recent work has characterized snails as paratenic hosts for T. gondii, the ability of abalone to vector the parasite has not been evaluated. To further elucidate why abalone predation may be protective against T. gondii exposure, this study aimed to determine whether: (1) abalone are physiologically capable of acquiring T. gondii; and (2) abalone and snails differ in their ability to concentrate and retain the parasite. Abalone were exposed to T. gondii surrogate microspheres for 24 h, and fecal samples were examined for 2 weeks following exposure. Concentration of surrogates was 2-3 orders of magnitude greater in abalone feces than in the spiked seawater, and excretion of surrogates continued for 14 days post-exposure. These results indicate that, physiologically, abalone and snails can equally vector T. gondii as paratenic hosts. Reduced risk of T. gondii infection in abalone-specializing otters may therefore result from abalone's high nutritional value, which implies otters must consume fewer animals to meet their caloric needs.

  3. Convective Drying of Osmo-Treated Abalone (Haliotis rufescens Slices: Diffusion, Modeling, and Quality Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Lemus-Mondaca

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this research was based on the application of an osmotic pretreatment (15% NaCl for drying abalone slices, and it evaluates the influence of hot-air drying temperature (40–80°C on the product quality. In addition, the mass transfer kinetics of salt and water was also studied. The optimal time of the osmotic treatment was established until reaching a pseudo equilibrium state of the water and salt content (290 min. The water effective diffusivity values during drying ranged from 3.76 to 4.75 × 10−9 m2/s for three selected temperatures (40, 60, and 80°C. In addition, experimental data were fitted by Weibull distribution model. The modified Weibull model provided good fitting of experimental data according to applied statistical tests. Regarding the evaluated quality parameters, the color of the surface showed a change more significant at high temperature (80°C, whereas the nonenzymatic browning and texture showed a decrease during drying process mainly due to changes in protein matrix and rehydration rates, respectively. In particular, working at 60°C resulted in dried samples with the highest quality parameters.

  4. Antibiotic resistance monitoring in Vibrio spp. isolated from rearing environment and intestines of abalone Haliotis diversicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R X; Wang, J Y; Sun, Y C; B L Yang; A L Wang

    2015-12-30

    546 Vibrio isolates from rearing seawater (292 strains) and intestines of abalone (254 strains) were tested to ten antibiotics using Kirby-Bauer diffusion method. Resistant rates of abalone-derived Vibrio isolates to chloramphenicol (C), enrofloxacin (ENX) and norfloxacin (NOR) were 40%) to kanamycin (KNA), furazolidone (F), tetracycline (TE), gentamicin (GM) and rifampin (RA). 332 isolates from seawater (n=258) and abalone (n=74) were resistant to more than three antibiotics. Peaked resistant rates of seawater-derived isolates to multiple antibiotics were overlapped in May and August. Statistical analysis showed that pH had an important effect on resistant rates of abalone-derived Vibrio isolates to RA, NOR, and ENX. Salinity and dissolved oxygen were negatively correlated with resistant rates of seawater-derived Vibrio isolates to KNA, RA, and PG. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Potential mechanisms of phthalate ester embryotoxicity in the abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jin; Cai Zhonghua; Xing Kezhi

    2011-01-01

    The effects and associated toxicological mechanisms of five phthalate esters (PAEs) on abalone embryonic development were investigated by exposing the embryos to a range of PAEs concentrations (0.05, 0.2, 2 and 10 μg/mL). The results showed that PAEs could significantly reduce embryo hatchability, increase developmental malformations, and suppress the metamorphosis of abalone larvae. The possible toxicological mechanisms of PAEs to abalone embryos included, affecting the Na + -K + -pump and Ca 2+ -Mg 2+ -pump activities, altering the peroxidase (POD) level and the malondialdehyde (MDA) production, damaging the extraembryonic membranes structure, as well as disrupting endocrine-related genes (gpx, cyp3a, and 17β-hsd 12) expression properties. Taken together, this work showed that PAEs adversely affected the embryonic ontogeny of abalone. The abilities of PAEs affecting the osmoregulation, inducing oxidative stress, damaging embryo envelope structure, and causing physiological homeostasis disorder, are likely to be a part of the common mechanisms responsible for their embryonic toxicity. - Highlights: → PAEs affected abalone hatchability, morphogenesis and metamorphosis behavior. → The toxicity of the five PAEs to embryogenesis was ranked as DBP > DEP > DMP > DOP > DEHP. → The osmoregulation disorder and oxidative damage are the potential mechanisms. - Potential mechanisms of PAEs on abalone embryogenesis are osmoregulation disorder, oxidative damage and physiological dysfunction.

  6. Transcriptional responses of metallothionein gene to different stress factors in Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Yoon; Nam, Yoon Kwon

    2016-11-01

    A novel metallothionein (MT) gene from the Pacific abalone H. discus hannai was characterized and its mRNA expression patterns (tissue distribution, developmental expression and differential expression in responsive to various in vivo stimulatory treatments) were examined. Abalone MT shares conserved structural features with previously known gastropod orthologs at both genomic (i.e., tripartite organization) and amino acid (conserved Cys motifs) levels. The 5'-flanking regulatory region of abalone MT gene displayed various transcription factor binding motifs particularly including ones related with metal regulation and stress/immune responses. Tissue distribution and basal expression patterns of MT mRNAs indicated a potential association between ovarian MT expression and sexual maturation. Developmental expression pattern suggested the maternal contribution of MT mRNAs to embryonic and early larval developments. Abalone MT mRNAs could be significantly induced by various heavy metals in different tissues (gill, hepatopancreas, muscle and hemocyte) in a tissue- and/or metal-dependent fashion. In addition, the abalone MT gene was highly modulated in responsive to other non-metal, stimulatory treatments such as immune challenge (LPS, polyI:C and bacterial injections), hypoxia (decrease from normoxia 8 ppm-2 ppm), thermal elevation (increase from 20 °C to 30 °C), and xenobiotic exposure (250 ppb of 17α-ethynylestradiol and 0.25 ppb of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin) where differential expression patterns were toward either up- or down-regulation depending on types of stimulations and tissues examined. Taken together, our results highlight that MT is a multifunctional effector playing in wide criteria of cellular pathways especially associated with development and stress responses in this abalone species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. РЕПРОДУКТИВНАЯ СПОСОБНОСТЬ САМОК GASTEROSTEUS ACULEATUS LINNAEUS, 1758 СРЕДНЕГО ДНЕСТРА

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Нина ФУЛГА

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available В условиях Среднего Днестра самки трехиглой колюшки выметывают три порции икры. Овуляция четвертой генерации яйцеклеток текущего сезона размножения не происходит из-за отсутствия условий для завершения накопления в них трофических веществ. Перед выметом очередной генерации яйцеклеток величина гонадо­соматического индекса достоверно уменьшается (Р≥0,95, что свидетельствует об уменьшении относительной массы яичников и количества желтковых ооцитов, формирующих вторую и третью генерации яйцеклеток дан­ного сезона размножения. Величина абсолютной плодовитости самок достоверно возрастает при увеличении длины и массы тела рыбы (Р≥0,95, тогда как значения относительной плодовитости достоверно уменьшаются с увеличением возраста производителей (Р≥0,99.REPRODUCTIVE CAPACITE OF GASTEROSTEUS ACULEATUS LINNAEUS, 1758 FEMALES FROM MIDDLE NISTRU In the context of middleDniesterthe three-spined stickleback female spawn three portions of eggs. The ovulation of the fourth generation of eggs in the current breeding season does not occur due to the lack of conditions for the completion of trophic substances accumulation. Before sweeping the next generation oocytes the value of gonadosomatic index is significantly decreasing (P≥0.95, which indicates a decrease in the relative weight of the ovaries and in the number of yolk oocytes

  8. Aquaculture-oriented genetic researches in abalone: Current status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taghwo

    2013-06-26

    Jun 26, 2013 ... Basic genetic and cytogenetic information including polymorphic DNA markers, chromosomes and genome size was ..... Stepto and Cook(1998). H. asinina ... quantity of fertilized eggs and very expensive “French. Press” is ...

  9. A rapidly evolving secretome builds and patterns a sea shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green Kathryn

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Instructions to fabricate mineralized structures with distinct nanoscale architectures, such as seashells and coral and vertebrate skeletons, are encoded in the genomes of a wide variety of animals. In mollusks, the mantle is responsible for the extracellular production of the shell, directing the ordered biomineralization of CaCO3 and the deposition of architectural and color patterns. The evolutionary origins of the ability to synthesize calcified structures across various metazoan taxa remain obscure, with only a small number of protein families identified from molluskan shells. The recent sequencing of a wide range of metazoan genomes coupled with the analysis of gene expression in non-model animals has allowed us to investigate the evolution and process of biomineralization in gastropod mollusks. Results Here we show that over 25% of the genes expressed in the mantle of the vetigastropod Haliotis asinina encode secreted proteins, indicating that hundreds of proteins are likely to be contributing to shell fabrication and patterning. Almost 85% of the secretome encodes novel proteins; remarkably, only 19% of these have identifiable homologues in the full genome of the patellogastropod Lottia scutum. The spatial expression profiles of mantle genes that belong to the secretome is restricted to discrete mantle zones, with each zone responsible for the fabrication of one of the structural layers of the shell. Patterned expression of a subset of genes along the length of the mantle is indicative of roles in shell ornamentation. For example, Has-sometsuke maps precisely to pigmentation patterns in the shell, providing the first case of a gene product to be involved in molluskan shell pigmentation. We also describe the expression of two novel genes involved in nacre (mother of pearl deposition. Conclusion The unexpected complexity and evolvability of this secretome and the modular design of the molluskan mantle enables

  10. Development of an integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA system for tropical marine species in southern cebu, Central Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo B. Largo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the establishment of an integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA system in the tropical open waters of southern Cebu, Philippines using a combination of locally available species, namely donkey’s ear abalone (Haliotis asinina as fed species and seaweeds (Gracilaria heteroclada and Eucheuma denticulatum as inorganic extractive species. The culture of Caulerpa lentillifera as a biofilter did not work in the open sea cultivation system using baskets. Monthly measurements of shell length, width and body weight of the cultured abalones, together with in situ measurements of physicochemical parameters to assess any changes in water quality, mainly nitrate, nitrite, ammonia and phosphate, were conducted over a year period from February 2013 to January 2014 in three designated stations (Abalone, Seaweed and Control Stations at three different depths (surface, middle and bottom.Cage culture of abalone side by side with seaweeds in the open sea did not result in any significant water quality disturbance in the area—at least not in the current volume of caged abalones being used. Of the four inorganic compounds monitored in the field, nitrate and ammonia in the Seaweed Station were shown to have relatively lower year-round average values when compared with the Abalone Station, although in the case of nitrate, it was higher in the Control Station compared with the abalone and Seaweed Stations. Although this difference was not significant, it shows the red seaweeds, G. heteroclada and E. denticulatum, to be functioning as a natural filter for these two nutrients. In contrast, nitrite, and phosphate concentrations were not reduced indicating that the seaweeds were not effective biofilter for these two nutrients.The two-month old hatchery-bred donkey’s ear abalones can grow to a size of 53.8 × 28.2 mm (L × W and body weight of 37.8 g after a period of 12 months. Any expansion of the farm into a much larger commercial

  11. Effects of waterborne nickel on the physiological and immunological parameters of the Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai during thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Eun Young; Cha, Yong-Joo; Kang, Ju-Chan

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the 96-h LC50 at 22 and 26 °C values was 28.591 and 11.761 mg/L, respectively, for NiCl2 exposure in the abalone. The alteration of physiological and immune-toxicological parameters such as the total hemocyte count (THC), lysozyme, phenoloxidase (PO), and phagocytosis activity was measured in the abalone exposed to nickel (200 and 400 μg/L) under thermal stress for 96 h. In this study, Mg and THC decreased, while Ca, lysozyme, PO, and phagocytosis activity increased in the hemolymph of Pacific abalone exposed to NiCl2 when compared to a control at both 22 and 26 °C. However, these parameters were not affected by a rise in temperature from 22 to 26 °C in non-exposed groups. Our results showed that NiCl2 below 400 μg/L was able to stimulate immune responses in abalone. However, complex stressors, thermal changes, or NiCl2 can modify the immunological response and lead to changes in the physiology of host-pollutant interactions in the abalone.

  12. Anti-Coagulant and Anti-Thrombotic Properties of Blacklip Abalone (Haliotis rubra): In Vitro and Animal Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul; Masci, Paul P; Zhao, Kong-Nan; Addepalli, Rama; Chen, Wei; Osborne, Simone A; Gobe, Glenda C

    2017-08-04

    Sulphated polysaccharides with anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant activities have been found in various marine biota. In this study, a previously characterised anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant extract from blacklip abalone was fractionated by anion exchange chromatography (AEC), pooled (on a sulphated polysaccharide basis) and administered to Wistar rats via oral gavage (N = 8) for assessment as an oral therapeutic. To ensure that the preparation had anti-coagulant activity prior to oral administration, it was assessed in rat blood by thromboelastography (TEG) significantly increasing reaction (R) time (or time until clot formation). Following in vitro confirmation of anti-coagulant activity, 40 mg of the preparation was orally administered to rats with blood samples collected at 2, 4, and 6 h post-gavage. Assessment of all blood samples by TEG showed some prolongation of R time from 355 to 380 s after 4 h. Dosing of the post-gavage blood samples with the abalone preparation to confirm anti-thrombotic activity in vitro revealed residual anti-coagulant activity, further suggesting that oral administration did increase anti-coagulant potential in the collected blood but that bioavailability was low. Assessment of tissues and haematological parameters showed no obvious harmful effects of the abalone preparation in animals. In summary, even though oral administration of fractionated and pooled blacklip abalone extract to rats delayed clotting after 4 h, bioavailability of the preparation appeared to be low and may be more appropriate for intravenous administration as an anti-thrombotic or anti-coagulant therapeutic.

  13. Radio- and stable-manganese distributions in female and male of Haliotis discus at the pre-spawning stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Kunio; Nakahara, Motokazu.

    1986-01-01

    Distribution of 54 Mn in female and male tissues of black abalones was examined at the prespawning stage, and compared with that of stable-Mn. The ripeness of gonads was somewhat lower than fully developed condition, but a number of matured ovum and spermatozoon existed in the gonads. Distribution rates of 54 Mn to conch were much less than those of stable-Mn and equal to both sexes; whereas in stable-Mn, the rate of the male is significantly higher than that of the female. It is inferred that two or more inner layer with organic matrices of conch were inactive to receive 54 Mn, and that the radioactivity of conch resulted from the adsorption of 54 Mn on its outermost rough surface mainly composed of conchiolin. The difference of the absolute amount percents for conchs between 54 Mn and stable-Mn could be reasonably explained as the difference between exposure durations to the nuclides. When exposed to 54 Mn, only in gonad, the intersexual difference was recognized with higher level in the ovary than in the spermary. (author)

  14. A cysteine protease (cathepsin Z) from disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus: Genomic characterization and transcriptional profiling during bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godahewa, G I; Perera, N C N; Lee, Sukkyoung; Kim, Myoung-Jin; Lee, Jehee

    2017-09-05

    Cathepsin Z (CTSZ) is lysosomal cysteine protease of the papain superfamily. It participates in the host immune defense via phagocytosis, signal transduction, cell-cell communication, proliferation, and migration of immune cells such as monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. Hence, CTSZ is also acknowledged as an acute-phase protein in host immunity. In this study, we sought to identify the CTSZ homolog from disk abalone (AbCTSZ) and characterize it at the molecular, genomic, and transcriptional levels. AbCTSZ encodes a protein with 318 amino acids and a molecular mass of 36kDa. The structure of AbCTSZ reveals amino acid sequences that are characteristic of the signal sequence, pro-peptide, peptidase-C1 papain family cysteine protease domain, mini-loop, HIP motif, N-linked glycosylation sites, active sites, and conserved Cys residues. A pairwise comparison revealed that AbCTSZ shared the highest amino acid homology with its molluscan counterpart from Crassostrea gigas. A multiple alignment analysis revealed the conservation of functionally crucial elements of AbCTSZ, and a phylogenetic study further confirmed a proximal evolutionary relationship with its invertebrate counterparts. Further, an analysis of AbCTSZ genomic structure revealed seven exons separated by six introns, which differs from that of its vertebrate counterparts. Quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) detected the transcripts of AbCTSZ in early developmental stages and in eight different tissues. Higher levels of AbCTSZ transcripts were found in trochophore, gill, and hemocytes, highlighting its importance in the early development and immunity of disk abalone. In addition, we found that viable bacteria (Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Listeria monocytogenes) and bacterial lipopolysaccharides significantly modulated AbCTSZ transcription. Collectively, these lines of evidences suggest that AbCTSZ plays an indispensable role in the innate immunity of disk abalone. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Nutrient uptake efficiency of Gracilaria chilensis and Ulva lactuca in an IMTA system with the red abalone Haliotis rufescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Macchiavello

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined the nutrient uptake efficiency of Ulva lactuca and Gracilaria chilensis cultivated in tanks associated with the wastewater of a land-based abalone culture. The experiments evaluated different seaweed stocking densities (1200, 1900, 2600, and 3200 g m-2 and water exchange rates (60, 80, 125, and 250 L h-1. The results show that both U. lactuca and G. chilensis were efficient in capturing and removing all of the inorganic nutrients originating from the abalone cultivation for all of the tested conditions. Furthermore, an annual experiment was performed with U. lactuca, cultivated at a stocking density of 1900 g m-2 and at a water exchanged rate of 125 L h-1, in order to evaluate seasonal changes in the nutrient uptake efficiency, productivity, and growth rate associated with the wastewater of a land-based abalone culture. The results confirmed high uptake efficiency during the entire year, equivalent to a 100% removal of the NH4, NO3, and PO4 produced by the land-based abalone culture. The growth rate and productivity of U. lactuca presented a marked seasonality, increasing from fall until summer and varying from 0.5 ± 0.2% to 2.6 ± 0.2% d-1 and 10 ± 6.1% to 73.6 ± 8.4% g m-2 d-1 for sustainable growth rate and productivity, respectively. We conclude that there is sufficient evidence that demonstrates the high possibility of changing the traditional monoculture system of abalone in Chile, to a sustainable integrated multi-trophic aquaculture system, generating positive environmental externalities, including the use of U. lactuca as a biofiltration unit.

  16. The early stages of the immune response of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata to a Vibrio harveyi infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinaud, Marion; Dheilly, Nolwenn M; Huchette, Sylvain; Moraga, Dario; Paillard, Christine

    2015-08-01

    Vibrio harveyi is a marine bacterial pathogen responsible for episodic abalone mortalities in France, Japan and Australia. In the European abalone, V. harveyi invades the circulatory system in a few hours after exposure and is lethal after 2 days of infection. In this study, we investigated the responses of European abalone immune cells over the first 24 h of infection. Results revealed an initial induction of immune gene expression including Rel/NF-kB, Mpeg and Clathrin. It is rapidly followed by a significant immuno-suppression characterized by reduced cellular hemocyte parameters, immune response gene expressions and enzymatic activities. Interestingly, Ferritin was overexpressed after 24 h of infection suggesting that abalone attempt to counter V. harveyi infection using soluble effectors. Immune function alteration was positively correlated with V. harveyi concentration. This study provides the evidence that V. harveyi has a hemolytic activity and an immuno-suppressive effect in the European abalone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Protective Efficacy of a Pseudoalteromonas Strain in European Abalone, Haliotis tuberculata, Infected with Vibrio harveyi ORM4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offret, Clément; Rochard, Vincent; Laguerre, Hélène; Mounier, Jérôme; Huchette, Sylvain; Brillet, Benjamin; Le Chevalier, Patrick; Fleury, Yannick

    2018-02-06

    The hemolymph of healthy marine invertebrates is known to harbor antibiotic-producing bacteria belonging to the genus Pseudoalteromonas. Such strains are potential probiotics to control infectious diseases in aquaculture. In the present study, we screened a collection of Pseudoalteromonas strains isolated from the hemolymph of oyster and mussel for antimicrobial activity against Vibrio harveyi, a pathogenic species responsible for high mortality in abalone. Subsequently, the protective efficacy of the most active strain named hCg-6 was investigated in abalone culture faced with a Vibrio harveyi ORM4 infection. First, we have controlled the Pseudoalteromonas hCg-6 safety for abalone health. To that end, animals were immersed for 4 h in Pseudoalteromonas hCg-6 suspensions in seawater. The abalone viability was monitored and Pseudoalteromonas hCg-6 was tracked by quantitative-PCR in abalone hemolymph. After immersion, no abalone death occurred while the strain hCg-6 was significantly detected in hemolymph. Therefore, the strain hCg-6 was considered safe for abalone and evaluated for its ability to protect abalone against V. harveyi (injection of 1 × 10 3 Vibrio per animal). A 4-h long immersion of abalone in a seawater suspension of Pseudoalteromonas hCg-6 (1 × 10 6  CFU mL -1 ) prior to infection with Vibrio harveyi significantly improved the abalone viability. Indeed, 15 days post infection, the hCg-6 treatment used increased the abalone survival rate from 16% in untreated animals to 40% in treated abalone. We hypothesized that Pseudoalteromonas hCg-6 antibacterial activity increased the hemomicrobiota shielding effect. In conclusion, Pseudoalteromonas hCg-6 is a promising anti-Vibrio strain for abalone culture.

  18. COMPARISON OF CHITIN STRUCTURES DERIVED FROM THREE COMMON WASP SPECIES (Vespa crabro LINNAEUS, 1758, Vespa orientalis LINNAEUS, 1771 and Vespula germanica (FABRICIUS, 1793)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Murat; Bağrıaçık, Nil; Seyyar, Osman; Baran, Talat

    2015-08-01

    There has been no study on the chitin structure of wasp species. Here, we selected the three most common wasp species belonging to the family Vespidae for chitin extraction and characterization. Chitin was isolated from each wasp species and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), elemental analysis (EA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The chitin contents of Vespa crabro, Vespa orientalis, and Vespula germanica were 8.3, 6.4, and 11.9%, respectively. The crystalline index (CrI) values for the chitin extracted from each species were 69.88, 53.92, and 50%, respectively. The most important finding of the study is that although the same method was used to extract chitin from each of the three wasp species, the degree of acetylation was different: for V. crabro and V. orientalis it was 96.85 and 99.82% (the chitin was extremely pure), respectively, whereas that for V. germanica the chitin was 79.83%. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Identification of bester hybrid and its parental species (♀ Huso huso Linnaeus, 1758 and ♂ Acipenser ruthenus Linnaeus, 1758 by nuclear markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Dudu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, sturgeon farming is gaining advance, different species being raised for commercial purposes and for restocking activities. A correct identification of individuals is imposed since severe ecological damages might occur if non-native species or hybrids are used for restocking. Such identification is required also for commercial reasons, the meat and caviar from different species having different prices. The aim of our study was to analyze two sturgeon species, Huso huso and Acipenser ruthenus and their interspecific hybrid - bester, using nuclear markers, in order to set up a molecular method for their accurate identification. The genetic pattern of the species was inferred from the analysis of nine microsatellite loci (LS19, LS34, LS39, LS54, AoxD234, AnacC11, LS68, Aox45 and Aox27 amplified by multiplex PCR reactions. The genotype data were analyzed with GENETIX v4.05 and STRUCTURE. The FCA analysis grouped the individuals in three distinct clusters corresponding to each of the pure species and to the interspecific hybrids. The admixture analysis performed in STRUCTURE also assigned three groups, confirming the results highlighted by FCA. We can conclude that the selected microsatellite markers allow the unambiguously identification of the bester hybrid and its genitor species from Romanian farms.

  20. Evidence for an autumn downstream migration of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar (Linnaeus) and brown trout Salmo trutta (Linnaeus) parr to the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taal, Imre; Kesler, Martin; Saks, Lauri; Rohtla, Mehis; Verliin, Aare; Svirgsden, Roland; Jürgens, Kristiina; Vetemaa, Markus; Saat, Toomas

    2014-06-01

    In the eastern Baltic rivers, anadromous salmonid parr are known to smoltify and migrate to the sea from March until June, depending on latitude, climate and hydrological conditions. In this study, we present the first records of autumn descent of brown trout Salmo trutta and Atlantic salmon Salmo salar from the Baltic Sea Basin. Otolith microchemistry analyses revealed that these individuals hatched in freshwater and had migrated to the brackish water shortly prior to capture. The fish were collected in 2006, 2008, 2009 and 2013 from Eru Bay (surface salinity 4.5-6.5 ‰), Gulf of Finland. This relatively wide temporal range of observations indicates that the autumn descent of anadromous salmonids is not a random event. These results imply that autumn descent needs more consideration in the context of the effective stock management, assessment and restoration of Baltic salmonid populations and their habitats.

  1. BIOMETRY OF PACA NEWBORNS BRED IN CAPTIVITY(AGOUTI PACA, LINNAEUS, 1766 NOTA CIENTÍFICA: BIOMETRIA DOS NEONATOS DE PACA CRIADOS EM CATIVEIRO (AGOUTI PACA, LINNAEUS, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Carlos Canola

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Biometry provides important data on weight and length of wild animal newborns. After ultrasound pregnancy detection, 22 female pacas were separated in individual bails and kept until weaning of newborns. Newborns were measured with a metric tape (between the tips of the muzzle rostrally and the tail distally and weighted in a digital weight scale. Considering males and females, the average newborn length (average length ± standard deviation was 33.37 ± 0.57cm. Among males, the average weight was 33.30 ± 0.52 cm and among females 33.45 ± 0.62cm. Considering males and females, newborns weighted (average weight ± standard deviation 741.14 ± 51.23g. Among males, average weight was 717.75 ± 49.06g and among females 764.53 ± 53.40g. Female newborns are higher and heavier than males, but averages of weight and length of males and females did not differ themselves by the Tukey test (P<0.05.

    Key-words: Agouti paca, biometry, newborns.

    A biometria proporciona dados importantes no peso e comprimento de neonatos de animais selvagens. Após detecção ultra-sonográfica da prenhez, 22 pacas fêmeas foram separadas em baias individuais e mantidas até o desmame dos filhotes. Os neonatos eram medidos com uma fita métrica flexível (entre as extremidades do focinho e da caudal e então pesados em balança digital de precisão. Considerando-se machos e fêmeas, o comprimento dos neonatos (comprimento ± desvio padrão foi 33,37 ± 0,57 cm. Entre os machos, o comprimento médio foi 33,30 ± 0,52 cm e entre as fêmeas foi de 33,45 ± 0,62 cm. Em relação ao peso e considerando-se machos e fêmeas, os neonatos pesavam (peso ± desvio padrão 741,14 ± 51,23g. Entre os machos, o peso médio foi 717,75 ± 49,06g e entre as fêmeas 764,53 ± 53,40g. Os neonatos fêmeas são maiores e mais pesados que os neonatos machos de paca, mas as médias de peso e de comprimento de machos e fêmeas não diferiram entre si, pelo teste de Tukey (P<0.05.

    Palavras-chaves: Biometria, neonatos, agouti paca.

  2. Evaluación larvicida de suspensiones acuosas de Annona muricata Linnaeus «guanábana» sobre Aedes aegypti Linnaeus (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Bobadilla

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available EL presente trabajo evaluó la toxicidad larvicida de suspensiones acuosas provenientes de extractos etanólicos de las semillas, flores, hojas, corteza de ramas y corteza de raíces de Annona muricata L. «guanábana» sobre larvas del IV estadio de Aedes aegypti para determinar de esta manera los niveles de susceptibilidad. El mayor efecto tóxico correspondió a la suspensión de las semillas con un 100% de mortalidad a las 24 horas a 0,5 mg/mL, seguidos por las flores a las 48 horas a 10 mg/mL y hojas a las 36 horas a 100 mg/mL. En semillas, las concentraciones letales al 50% (CL50 y 90% (CL90 a las 48 horas de exposición fueron 0,02 mg/mL y 0,11 mg/mL, en flores 3,33 y 12,16 mg/mL, en hojas 8,25 y 26,87 mg/mL y en corteza de ramas 19,21 y 97,23 mg/mL, respectivamente. Los resultados de las rectas probit-logarítmicas indicaron susceptibilidad de los individuos a cada suspensión, gracias a la acción de diversos principios activos distribuidos en todo el árbol.

  3. Mammalia, Myrmecophagidae, Myrmecophaga tridactyla (Linnaeus, 1758) and Cervidae, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus, 1758): contribution to the knowledge of the historical distribution in Santa Catarina, southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Tortato, Fernando; Althoff, Sérgio

    2011-01-01

    The present study reports historical records of Myrmecophaga tridactyla and Ozotoceros bezoarticus from the north plateau of Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil, thus contributing to the knowledge about the distribution of these species. The possible causes of the extinction of Ozotoceros bezoarticus are also discussed as well as management tactics to conserve these species in southern Brazil.

  4. Descriptive macroscopic anatomy of the central nervous system six-banded armadillo (Euphractus sexcintus, Linnaeus, 1758 and nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus, Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Victor Silva Araújo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Armadillos of the species Dasypus novemcinctus and Euphractus sexcintus are xenarthrico is a mammal that inhabits fields and has several eating habits. This study proposes to analise the macroscopic anatomy of the nervous system of the armadillo peba, enabling comparisons with other mammals. Three animals of each species were to donated ICMBio - Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity, the Serra da Capivara National Park, authorized by SISBIO 22826-01, victims of poaching and they had died. The animals were stored in Histology and Embryology Laboratory of the Morphology Department of Health Sciences Center of the Federal University of Piauí. Initially, they were fixed with 10% buffered formalin for 24 hours and then dissected for observation of the organs forming the central nervous system. The central nervous system Armadillo consists of the brain and spinal cord. The macroscopic morphology, the central nervous system Armadillo resembles those of other mammals, however, anatomical features found in the brain and spinal cord suggest a higher olfactory expression and motor skills.

  5. Topografia do cone medular do cachorro-do-mato (Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus, 1766): relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro, Luane Lopes; Lima, Ana Rita de; Souza, Ana Carla Barros de; Pereira, Luiza Corrêa; Branco, Érika Renata

    2011-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2011v24n4p129 O cachorro-do-mato é o canídeo mais comum do continente sul-americano. De modo geral, tem sua dieta variada conforme a época do ano e a região habitada, o que permite a este uma ampla distribuição geográfica. Junto ao interesse na anatomia comparativa objetivou-se descrever a topografia do cone medular do cachorro-do-mato com intuito de oferecer informações que possam dar subsídios para a prática de anestesia epidural, cuja eficiência depe...

  6. Topografia do cone medular do cachorro-do-mato (Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus, 1766: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luane Lopes Pinheiro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2011v24n4p129 O cachorro-do-mato é o canídeo mais comum do continente sul-americano. De modo geral, tem sua dieta variada conforme a época do ano e a região habitada, o que permite a este uma ampla distribuição geográfica. Junto ao interesse na anatomia comparativa objetivou-se descrever a topografia do cone medular do cachorro-do-mato com intuito de oferecer informações que possam dar subsídios para a prática de anestesia epidural, cuja eficiência depende do conhecimento da anatomia desta região. Foi utilizado um exemplar, macho, adulto, proveniente da Mina de Bauxita - Paragominas-PA, o qual foi dissecado na região lombo-sacral. O cone medular do cachorro-do-mato apresentou base ao nível de L6 e ápice em S3, apresentando comprimento de 10,13cm. Concluímos que a região sacrococcígea é a mais indicada para a anestesia epidural, considerando que o exemplar em estudo apresentou nove vértebras lombares e quatro vértebras sacrais.

  7. Giant Anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758 of the brazilian cerrado: hematology and storage effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Giant Anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla is a vulnerable species because of progressive habitat destruction, mostly affected by wildfires and car accidents. The increasing number of animals that are attended by wildlife rescue centres reinforces the need of knowledge about haematological parameters, especially for those that inhabit Brazilian cerrado biome. For this purpose and in order to establish reference values for this species and also to compare them with previous studies, haematological analysis of captive giant anteaters from Brazilian cerrado were performed. Moreover, the alterations of blood samples after 24 and 48 hours of storage at refrigeration temperatures (4oC and preserved with two different EDTA concentrations (5% and 10% were studied. Means and standard deviations of haematological parameters analysed immediately after collection were: RBC: 2,07 x106/μL ± 0,40; hematocrit: 38,08%± 5,93; haemoglobin: 11.33g/dL±2.15; MCV:186.52 fL±21.72; MCHC: 29.68g/dL±2.56; MCH: 55.08pcg±5,94; total leucocytes: 8.142/μL±2.441; neutrophils: 5.913/μL±2.168; lymphocytes: 1.460/μL±740; eosinophil: 522/μL±385; monocytes: 247/μL±176; thrombocytes: 123.458/μL±31.362 and total plasma protein: 6.23g/dL±0.49. This data shows evidence of the existence of important differences between these values and others from other areas, either from Brazil or from other South American countries. Those variations might be connected to environment, genetic, nutritional and/or management factors. Regarding the storage effect analysis, it can be concluded that in giant anteaters, haematological analysis can be performed until 24h after collection without any significant alterations on the haematological parameters, except for thrombocytes. Concerning the different EDTA concentrations, it can be concluded that there are no quantitative differences in haematological variables. Nevertheless, relevant morphologic alterations in blood cells can be observed after a 24h storage period, being most noticeable in the leucocytes. Those alterations can lead to misinterpretation of the results, interfering diagnosis, prognosis and treatment.

  8. Trophic discrimination factor and the significance of mangrove litter to benthic detritivorous gastropod, Ellobium aurisjudae (Linnaeus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Hong Wooi; Sasekumar, A.; Ismail, Mohamad Hanif; Chong, Ving Ching

    2018-01-01

    In stable isotope analysis, the estimation of proportional contribution of carbon and nitrogen from mangrove to benthic invertebrates requires knowledge of the food-consumer trophic discrimination factor (Δ δ13C and Δ δ15N). This study tested the hypothesis that the mangrove gastropod Ellobium aurisjudae can assimilate low quality refractory mangrove litter and aimed to determine the trophic discrimination values (TDV) of C and N isotopes between gastropod and the mangrove producer. The mean Δ δ13C for gastropods fed senescent leaves of the mangrove Bruguiera parviflora (Roxb) Wight & Arn and decomposing mangrove (unknown species from the same site) wood were estimated at 5.3 ± 0.3‰ and 3.2 ± 0.5‰ respectively, whereas for Δ δ15N, these values were 4.2 ± 0.2‰ and 6.0 ± 0.2‰ respectively. The gastropod assimilated refractory carbon from mangrove leaf and wood litter with 49% and 18% efficiency respectively. Rearing experiment of gastropods (n = 25) fed only mangrove wood litter over 5months in the laboratory, showed mean weight increments of 14.8-74.4% depending on the initial animal weight. Significant deviation of the TDVs for E. aurisjudae from the generalized discrimination values for herbivory underscores the need to use specific TDV for the detritivory link.

  9. Physiological responses of reared sea bream (Sparus aurata Linnaeus, 1758) to an Amyloodinium ocellatum outbreak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreira, M.; Schrama, D.; Soares, F.

    2017-01-01

    mortalities are usually attributed to anoxia, associated with serious gill hyperplasia, inflammation, haemorrhage and necrosis in heavy infestations; or with osmoregulatory impairment and secondary microbial infections due to severe epithelial damage in mild infestation. However, physiological information...

  10. Revising the phylogenetic position of the extinct Mascarene Parrot Mascarinus mascarin (Linnaeus 1771) (Aves: Psittaciformes: Psittacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsiadlowski, Lars; Gamauf, Anita; Töpfer, Till

    2017-02-01

    The phylogenetic position of the extinct Mascarene Parrot Mascarinus mascarin from La Réunion has been unresolved for centuries. A recent molecular study unexpectedly placed M. mascarin within the clade of phenotypically very different Vasa parrots Coracopsis. Based on DNA extracted from the only other preserved Mascarinus specimen, we show that the previously obtained cytb sequence is probably an artificial composite of partial sequences from two other parrot species and that M. mascarin is indeed a part of the Psittacula diversification, placed close to P. eupatria and P. wardi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Carl Linnaeus, Erasmus Darwin and Anna Seward: Botanical Poetry and Female Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sam

    2014-01-01

    This article will explore the intersection between "literature" and "science" in one key area, the botanical poem with scientific notes. It reveals significant aspects of the way knowledge was gendered in the Enlightenment, which is relevant to the present-day education of girls in science. It aims to illustrate how members of…

  12. Seminal plasma and sperm proteome of ring-tailed coatis (Nasua nasua, Linnaeus, 1766).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Herlon Victor Rodrigues; Rodriguez-Villamil, Paula; Magalhães, Francisco Felipe de; Nunes, Thalles Gothardo Pereira; Freitas, Luana Azevedo de; Ribeiro, Leandro Rodrigues; Silva, Alexandre Rodrigues; Moura, Arlindo A; Silva, Lúcia Daniel Machado da

    2018-04-15

    Ring-tailed coati is listed as a species of least concern in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List, however, there has been a sharp decline in their population. The present study was conducted to evaluate the major proteins of both seminal plasma and sperm in ring-tailed coatis. Semen sample was collected from three adult coatis and evaluated for their morphological characteristics. Further, the sample was centrifuged to separate spermatozoa from seminal plasma, and then stored in liquid nitrogen. The seminal plasma and sperm proteins were subjected to one-dimensional (1-D) sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and identified by mass spectrometry. Gene ontology and protein networks were analyzed using bioinformatics tools. Based on sperm concentration and average protein content of the semen, the concentration of protein/spermatozoon was found to be 104.69 ± 44.43 μg. The analysis of SDS-PAGE gels showed 20.3 ± 3.1 and 17 ± 2 protein bands/lane for seminal plasma and sperm, respectively. In-gel protein digestion and peptide analysis by mass spectrometry revealed 238 and 246 proteins in the seminal plasma and sperm, respectively. The gene ontology analysis revealed that the proteins of seminal plasma mainly participated in cellular (35%) and regulatory (21%) processes. According to their cellular localization, seminal plasma proteins were categorized as structural (18%), extracellular (17%), and nuclear (14%) proteins with molecular functions, such as catalytic activity (43%) and binding (43%). The sperm proteins were also involved in cellular (38%) and regulatory (23%) processes, and mainly categorized as extracellular (17%), nuclear (13%), and cytoplasmic (10%) proteins. The major molecular functions of the sperm proteins were catalytic activity (44%) and binding (42%). These results indicated that the seminal plasma of ring-tailed coati has an array of proteins that can potentially modulate several sperm functions, from sperm protection to oocyte binding. However, further studies are necessary to interpret the roles of these major seminal plasma proteins in coatis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The lumbosacral plexus of the red-rumped agouti (Dasyprocta leporina Linnaeus, 1758 (Rodentia: Caviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleidson Benevides de Oliveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The red-rumped agouti is a small-sized wild rodent, belonging to the Dasyproctidae family, with great zootechnical potential, and it adapts well to captivity. In order to contribute to the species biology, this study describes the origin of the nerves forming the lumbosacral plexus. Twelve animals (six males and six females were used, from previous experiments. The animals were fixed in a 10% formaldehyde aqueous solution and eviscerated after 72 hours. Then, the major and minor psoas muscles were retracted, exposing the nerves forming the plexus. Cotton soaked with 20-volume hydrogen peroxide was placed on these nerves, remaining for 12 hours straight for bleaching and subsequent dissection. The topographical relations of the lumbosacral plexus were grouped into tables and arranged in terms of simple percentage. In 7 cases (58.34%, the lumbosacral plexus in the red-rumped agouti stemmed from the ventral roots of the last 4 lumbar nerves and the first 3 sacral nerves (Type I – L4-S3, in 4 animals (33.33% it stemmed from L5-S3 (Type II, and in 1 case (8.33% it stemmed from L5-S4 (Type III. The nerves participating of the lumbosacral plexus in the red-rumped agouti were: lateral femoral cutaneous, genitofemoral, femoral, obturator, sciatic, cranial gluteal, caudal gluteal, and pudendal nerve. The origin of the lumbosacral plexus and the spinal nerves making up this plexus in red-rumped agoutis were similar to that described in other rodents, such as rock cavy, lowland paca and spix's yellow-toothed cavy.

  14. Morphological variations and sexual dimorphism in Chelonoidis carbonaria (Spix, 1824 and Chelonoidis denticulata (Linnaeus, 1766 (Testudinidae

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    MS Barros

    Full Text Available Chelonoidis Dcarbonaria and C. denticulata are two tortoises which are widely distributed Brazil. Although they occur sympatrically in different areas, C. carbonaria prefers open areas, while C. denticulata chooses forest areas. Significant morphological variations can be observed in these species due to the fact that they occupy a vast and environmentally diverse area. Data on shell shape of captive individuals reveal important differences between the two species, mainly in the plastron scutes, carapace width, and head length. Variation in shape is greater in C. carbonaria than in C. denticulata, which may be associated to a more elaborate and complex mating ritual. The shell shape in C. denticulata is more elongated than in C. carbonaria due to ecological habits. These aspects lead to a greater restriction in shape, limiting variation and dimorphism. In C. carbonaria, the shell opening is larger than in C. denticulata, which affords greater variation in shape. A more elongated shell facilitates movements of C. denticulata in densely forested areas. Yet, this characteristic reduces shell opening, lessening the possibilities of variation in form.

  15. Duplicación de miembro anterior en Iguana iguana (Linnaeus, 1758: registro de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Germán Cupul-Magaña

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Esta nota registra el caso de polimelia en una hembra juvenil de iguana verde o Iguana iguana (Squamata: Iguanidae de entre cinco y seis meses de edad (camada del 2012, con talla de 43 cm y peso de 60 g.

  16. Histology and ultrastructure of the integumental chromatophores in tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) (Linnaeus, 1758) skin

    OpenAIRE

    Szyd?owski, Pawe?; Madej, Jan Pawe?; Mazurkiewicz-Kania, Marta

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the relationship between the arrangement of dermal chromatophores in tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) skin and the formation of wild-type colouration, with emphasis on the ultrastructure of chromatophores. The samples of the tokay gecko skin were collected from wild-type colouration adult specimens. Morphology and distribution of chromatophores was determined by using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The present study revealed that orange/red coloured skin ...

  17. Histology and ultrastructure of the integumental chromatophores in tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) (Linnaeus, 1758) skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szydłowski, Paweł; Madej, Jan Paweł; Mazurkiewicz-Kania, Marta

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the relationship between the arrangement of dermal chromatophores in tokay gecko ( Gekko gecko ) skin and the formation of wild-type colouration, with emphasis on the ultrastructure of chromatophores. The samples of the tokay gecko skin were collected from wild-type colouration adult specimens. Morphology and distribution of chromatophores was determined by using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The present study revealed that orange/red coloured skin of G. gecko contained erythrophores, which were located under basement membrane, and usually comprised deeper situated iridophores and melanophores which were form single layer with iridophores or were occupying the deepest region of dermis. In orange/red coloured skin, erythrophores were the predominant chromatophores. However in blue areas these cells occurred in small numbers or were not noticed at all. In blue pigmented areas predominated iridophores and melanophores. Iridophores were found just under basement membrane, but this superficial location of iridophores occured only in areas without erythrophores. Distribution of erythrophores, melanophores, and iridophores determines the characteristic blue colour of the tokay gecko skin with orange/red dots on the whole body.

  18. Oocyte adhesiveness and embryonic development of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Pisces: Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, André Alberto; Arantes, Fábio Pereira; Sato, Yoshimi; Rizzo, Elizete; Bazzoli, Nilo

    2013-05-01

    This study shows for the first time the presence of a jelly coat on oocytes of neotropical Characiformes fish. This structure could be responsible for the adhesiveness of Astyanax bimaculatus oocytes, a species widely distributed in South America including in the São Francisco River basin in Brazil. Adult specimens of A. bimaculatus were submitted to artificial reproduction in order to analyse the egg morphology and embryonic development. The eggs were fertilised and kept in incubators with a water temperature of 24°C so that embryogenesis could be monitored. Ovulated and unfertilised oocytes were also collected and submitted to routine histological techniques. Astyanax bimaculatus oocytes were found to be spherical, yellowish, and covered by a thin jelly coat with a slightly adhesive surface. The mean oocyte diameter was 1.03 ± 0.03 mm, the perivitelline space was 0.21 ± 0.02 mm and the jelly coat's thickness was 0.04 ± 0.01 mm. Positive periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stain and Alcian blue stain pH 2.5 indicated the presence of neutral glycoproteins, and carboxylated acid glycoconjugates on the jelly coat that formed mucosubstances that may be associated with egg adhesiveness. At a water temperature of 24°C, blastopore closure and hatching occurred at 5 h and 17 h after fertilisation, respectively. The results of this study provide essential information for phylogenetic studies and for a better understanding of the reproductive strategy of A. bimaculatus, currently included in the incertae sedis group of the Characidae family due to the lack of monophyly among the families of the group.

  19. Red fox (Vulpes vulpes Linnaeus, 1758) as biological indicator for environmental pollution in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heltai, Miklós; Markov, Georgi

    2012-10-01

    Our aim were to establish the metal (Cu, Ni, Zn, Co, Cd, and Pb) levels of red fox liver and the kidney samples (n = 10) deriving from central part of Hungary and compare the results with other countries' data. According to our results the concentrations of residues of the targeted elements (mg/kg dry weight) in liver and kidney samples were, respectively in liver: Cu: 21.418, Zn: 156.928, Ni: 2.079, Co: 1.611, Pb: 1.678 and Cd: 0.499; and kidney samples: Cu: 9.236; Zn: 87.159; Ni: 2.514; Co: 2.455; Pb: 2.63 and Cd: 0.818. Pb levels of Hungarian red fox liver samples significantly exceed the values of Italian specimens' samples, whilst the same element's concentrations of Hungarian red fox kidney samples were higher than the results published in Germany.

  20. Perna perna (LINNAEUS, 1758) mussels irradiated by 60CO gamma rays cytotoxicity evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martini, Gisela A.; Pusceddu, Fabio H.; Rogero, Sizue O.; Rogero, Jose Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work was the study of ionizing radiation effects on aquatic biota regarding the location of nuclear facilities nearby coastal areas assuming the risk of leaks and nuclear accidents. Bivalve mollusks have been widely used in the monitoring of aquatic environment studies mainly for their sessile habit and pollutants bioconcentration ability. So marine mussel Perna perna (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) was used as organism test in this study. The study of radioactive toxicity was performed by cytotoxicity test exposing the organisms to 11Gy gamma radiation dose. After radiation the neutral red retention assay evaluated the lysosomal membrane integrity in the mussel hemocytes. 50% lethal dose assay (LD50) of gamma radiation on Perna perna mussels was carried out by exposure the organisms to 60 Co gamma rays at doses ranging from 0 to 3000 Gy. The result of gamma radiation LD50 for these mussels was 1068 Gy and the neutral red retention time of irradiated organisms was about 47% lower than the control, non irradiated organisms. With the obtained results is expected to contribute in the study to identify the range of ionizing radiation doses which can cause toxic effects in marine invertebrates. (author)

  1. Adulticidal activity of some Malaysian plant extracts against Aedes aegypti Linnaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayatulfathi, O; Sallehuddin, S; Ibrahim, J

    2004-12-01

    The adulticidal activity of methanol extracts from three Malaysian plants namely Acorus calamus Linn., Litsea elliptica Blume and Piper aduncum Linn. against adult of Aedes aegypti (L.) were studied. Standard WHO bioassay tests were used to evaluate the effectiveness of these plant extracts. The hexane fraction from methanol extract of Acorus calamus rhizome was the most effective, exhibiting LC50 and LC90 values of 0.04 mgcm(-2) and 0.09 mgcm(-2) respectively. For L. elliptica, the methanol fraction also displayed good adulticidal property with the LC50 and LC90 values of 0.11 mgcm(-2) and 6.08 mgcm(-2) respectively. It is found that hexane fraction of the P. aduncum crude extract was the least effective among the three plants showing LC50 and LC90 values of 0.20 mgcm(-2) and 5.32 mgcm(-2), respectively. However, although A. calamus showed lowest LC values, the LT50 results indicated that the methanol fraction of L. elliptica was most potent extract among the extracts tested.

  2. Sertoli cell index and spermatic reserves in adult captive African lions (Panthera leo, Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, João Bosco Gonçalves; de Paula, Tarcízio Antônio Rego; da Matta, Sérgio Luis Pinto; Fonseca, Cláudio César; Leite, Flaviana Lima Guião; Rossi, João Luiz; de Oliveira, Priscila Carvalho; da Costa, Eduardo Paulino

    2007-12-01

    The intrinsic yield of spermatogenesis and the supporting indexes of the Sertoli cells are the best indicators for the spermatic production capacity in a species. The aim of the present study was to quantify the intrinsic yield of the spermatogenetic process, as well as the Sertoli cell index and spermatic reserves. Testicular fragments of five adult African lions was fixed in 4% glutaric aldehyde, dehydrated at increasing alcohol concentrations, included into hydroxyethyl methacrylate, and were cut into 4 microm thickness. In the seminiferous epithelium of the African lions, 10.3 primary spermatocytes at pre-leptotene phase are produced by the type-A spermatogonia. During meiotic divisions, only 2.7 spermatids were produced from the primary spermatocytes. The general spermatogenesis production in the African lions was approximately 22.1 cells, and each Sertoli cell was able to sustain and maintain approximately 14.9 cells of the germinative line, from which 7.9 are round spermatids. A total of 103x10(6) spermatozoa are produced by each testis gram at each cycle of the seminiferous epithelium. The spermatic reserve of lion is below the amplitude observed in mammals.

  3. Octocorallia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) from the Scotia Arc, South Atlantic Ocean. I. The genus Alcyonium Linnaeus, 1758

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casas, C.; Ramil, F.; Ofwegen, van L.P.

    1997-01-01

    Three new species of Alcyonium collected by the Spanish Antarctic Expeditions "Antártida 8611" and "Bentart 95" are described and figured: Alcyonium paucilobulatum, A. grandis and A. southgeorgiensis. Another two species, A. antarcticum Wright & Studer, 1889, and Alcyonium sollasi Wright & Studer,

  4. Sub-lethal toxicity of chlorpyrifos on Common carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758: Biochemical response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Banaee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorpyrifos, an organophosphate pesticide, is widely used to control pests in agriculture farms and orchards of fruit trees. In this study, the fish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos which were determined based on numerical value of 96 h LC50. Blood was sampled after 10, 20 and 30 days and biochemical parameters including glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, triglyceride and cholesterol levels, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, creatine kinase (CK, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and acetylcholinsetrase (AChE activities were measured. Behavioral changes in the fish were also recorded during the experiment. Unbalanced swimming, swimming in the surface water and hyperglycemia, increased blood triglyceride, and increased levels of AST, LDH and CK activities as well as decreased levels of AChE activity were important changes that were observed in the specimens exposed to chlorpyrifos during experimental periods. The most important alterations in the blood biochemical parameters were measured in the specimens exposed to 40 µg/L chlorpyrifos on the 20th and 30th day of the trial. In conclusion, results of the present study indicated that exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos as low as 40 µg/L may cause biochemical and behavioral changes in Cyprinus carpio.

  5. Mating behaviour and gamete release in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata, Linnaeus 1758) held in captivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibarra-Zatarain, Z.; Duncan, N.

    2015-07-01

    The present study aimed to describe the reproductive behaviour of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) in captivity. Twenty-four mature gilthead seabream, divided in two tanks, were utilized for the present study. Reproductive behaviour was recorded using submersibles cameras. A total of 67 spawning events were analysed. The mean duration time that gilthead seabream spent spawning was 54 ± 4 min/day, during which mean number of individual spawning events was 5.6 ± 0.2. The mean volume of eggs produced by both broodstocks was 405 ± 13.4 mL with a fertilization rate of 91.6 ± 0.4%. The reproductive behaviour began with a schooling behaviour and then forming light aggregations. From an aggregation or an encounter while swimming freely a female initiated a spawning rush followed by one or more males to gametes liberation. The spawning rush was brief, 1.6 ± 0.5 sec, over an approximately 1.7 ± 0.2 m distance from the tank bottom to the water surface. Pair spawning, between a single female and male, was the most common (71.6%). Group spawning was less common and involved a single female spawning with two males (22.5%) or three males (4.9%). Spawning rushes involving more than one female were not observed. Gilthead seabream in the present study presented a tendency to pair spawn and eggs collected as a “spawn” were actually the sum of many separate spawning events over a short time period. This is the first description of gilthead seabream spawning and the findings help to understand microsatellite based observations of spawning kinetics. (Author)

  6. Effects of glyphosate herbicide on the gastrointestinal microflora of Hawaiian green turtles (Chelonia mydas) Linnaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittle, Ronald P; McDermid, Karla J; Muehlstein, Lisa; Balazs, George H

    2018-02-01

    In Hawaii, glyphosate-based herbicides frequently sprayed near shorelines may be affecting non-target marine species. Glyphosate inhibits aromatic amino acid biosynthesis (shikimate pathway), and is toxic to beneficial gut bacteria in cattle and chickens. Effects of glyphosate on gut bacteria in marine herbivorous turtles were assessed in vitro. When cultures of mixed bacterial communities from gastrointestinal tracts of freshly euthanized green turtles (Chelonia mydas), were exposed for 24h to six glyphosate concentrations (plus deionized water control), bacterial density was significantly lower at glyphosate concentrations≥2.2×10 -4 gL -1 (absorbance measured at 600nm wavelength). Using a modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion assay, the growth of four bacterial isolates (Pantoea, Proteus, Shigella, and Staphylococcus) was significantly inhibited by glyphosate concentrations≥1.76×10 -3 gL -1 . Reduced growth or lower survival of gut bacteria in green turtles exposed to glyphosate could have adverse effects on turtle digestion and overall health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Does myxomatosis still regulate numbers of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus Linnaeus, 1758) in the United Kingdom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, R C; Ross, J; Fox, A P

    1993-03-01

    Myxomatosis now kills a much smaller proportion of rabbit populations than in the past, while remaining an important regulatory factor, as shown experimentally. On two separate occasions, experimental reduction of the prevalence of the disease (by reducing infestations of the main vector, the rabbit flea) led to significant increases in numbers of rabbits surviving the winter.

  8. Myxomatosis: population dynamics of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus Linnaeus, 1758) and ecological effects in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowerdew, J R; Trout, R C; Ross, J

    1992-12-01

    In 1953-1955, myxomatosis spread among rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in the United Kingdom, causing 99% mortality. Subsequently, there was a gradual increase in rabbit numbers. By 1955, the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) had already found attenuated strains of myxoma virus. By 1970, genetic resistance had appeared. In the 1970s, mortality declined to 47-69% with only approximately 25% of rabbits infected, giving a field mortality of 12-19%. However, myxomatosis is persistent, generally showing a major prevalence peak in autumn and often a minor peak in spring. An eight-year MAFF experiment in which prevalence of the disease was artificially reduced indicates that myxomatosis remains a significant factor in population regulation. After rabbit numbers fell in the 1950s, important ecological changes took place: vegetation altered due to reduced grazing pressure, predators were affected by the reduction of a major prey species and these changes also affected many other animals. Currently, rabbit numbers have returned to approximately one-third of pre-myxomatosis levels and this is causing damage to farm and conservation habitats.

  9. Otoliths of the wolf-fishes (genus Anarrhichas Linnaeus, 1758) from the Northern Atlantic (Pisces, Perciformes)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, H.

    1964-01-01

    While working at the Rijksinstituut voor Visserijonderzoek (R.V.I.O.) at IJmuiden, I received through the courtesy of Mr. C. van Delft some specimens of the three northern Atlantic species of wolf-fishes. At IJmuiden they are brought in by commercial trawlers. The only data in the literature known

  10. Sexual dimorphisms in the dermal denticles of the lesser-spotted catshark, Scyliorhinus canicula (Linnaeus, 1758.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Crooks

    Full Text Available The dermal layers of several elasmobranch species have been shown to be sexually dimorphic. Generally, when this occurs the females have thicker dermal layers compared to those of males. This sexual dimorphism has been suggested to occur as a response to male biting during mating. Although male biting as a copulatory behaviour in Scyliorhinus canicula has been widely speculated to occur, only relatively recently has this behaviour been observed. Male S. canicula use their mouths to bite the female's pectoral and caudal fins as part of their pre-copulatory behaviour and to grasp females during copulation. Previous work has shown that female S. canicula have a thicker epidermis compared to that of males. The structure of the dermal denticles in females may also differ from that of males in order to protect against male biting or to provide a greater degree of friction in order to allow the male more purchase. This study reveals that the length, width and density of the dermal denticles of mature male and female S. canicula are sexually dimorphic across the integument in areas where males have been observed to bite and wrap themselves around females (pectoral fin, area posterior to the pectoral fin, caudal fin, and pelvic girdle. No significant differences in the dermal denticle dimensions were found in other body areas examined (head, dorsal skin and caudal peduncle. Sexually dimorphic dermal denticles in mature S. canicula could be a response to male biting/wrapping as part of the copulatory process.

  11. On the Status of Threespine Stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758 in Lake Bracciano, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakshi Sharda

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available For many species, the Mediterranean region harbors distinct lineages that are of conservation concerns. However, many of these are threatened by habitat degradation and by the introduction of non-native species. Here, we assess the status of the native threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus in the Lake Bracciano region in Italy, where stickleback have been historically present. During a dedicated sampling campaign in summer 2015, surveying the potential habitats that sticklebacks commonly occupy, we could not confirm the presence of this species but found introduced species to be often most abundant. Stickleback are thus likely to either have become extinct over the last decades or be on the verge to extinction in the Lake Bracciano region.

  12. Bioactivity of Sweet Flag (Acorus calamus Linnaeus Essential Oils against Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Melani

    2016-05-01

    The study aims to determine the chemical compounds, toxicity, and antifeedant activity of sweet flag (Acorus calamus essential oils against third instar larvae of Spodoptera litura. The study was conducted using a completely randomized design (CRD using various concentration of the essential oils (103, 2 × 103, 3 × 103, 4 × 103, 5 × 103 ppm. Mortality and antifeedant activity was observed 24 hours after treatment.  Toxicity and antifeedant activity values were 92.5% and 79.3%, respectively, with an LC50 value 586.96 ppm. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that essential oil of A. calamus consists of five chemical compounds: methyl isoeugenol, 3.9-decadien-ol-1,3-methyl-6-(1-methylethenyl, 4-pentyl-1-(4propylcyclohexyl1cyclohexene, γ-asarone and β asarone.

  13. Monogenean parasites of Lepomis gibbosus Linnaeus introduced into the River Durance, France

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havlátová, Lucie; Ondračková, Markéta; Přikrylová, I.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 4 (2015), s. 323-330 ISSN 0440-6605 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : non-native fish * invasive species * parasites * sunfish * Monogenea * host introductions Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.602, year: 2015

  14. Gross morphology and anatomy of the large intestine of the paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Paes Bürger

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Exploring the potential of using the paca as livestock involves understanding the morphophysiology of its digestive tract so its nutrition can be properly managed. The morphological and anatomical aspects of the large intestine of this species were investigated by inspecting material that was fresh and fixed in an aqueous solution of 10% formaldehyde. The material was provided by the Setor de Animais Selvagens do Departamento de Zootecnia da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias de Jaboticabal – UNESP (FCAV – UNESP. The large intestine of the paca is formed by cecum, colon and rectum, and is located in the abdominal and pelvic cavity near the third or fourth lumbar vertebrae. It was found, in the 10 samples analyzed, that there was no change in the pattern of this arrangement and that this pattern resembles that of mammals in general.

  15. Origem e distribuição do plexo lombossacral da paca (Cuniculus paca, Linnaeus 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriela de Oliveira Tonini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2014v27n2p157 Considerando a importância da paca como fonte proteica alternativa à população e, em especial, por apresentar características adequadas à pesquisa como modelo experimental, objetiva-se descrever a origem e a distribuição do plexo lombossacral da paca, visando colaborar com o melhor conhecimento de sua morfologia, cuja descrição é escassa na literatura. Foram utilizadas oito pacas adultas (Cuniculus paca de ambos os sexos, provenientes do criatório do Setor de Animais Silvestres da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias da Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp em Jaboticabal; após o óbito, os animais foram fixadas em paraformaldeído 10% e dissecadas para identificação do plexo lombossacral. Este, em 7 pacas analisadas (87,5%, originou-se dos ramos ventrais dos nervos espinhais lombares L4, L5, L6 e L7 e dos nervos espinhais sacrais S1, S2 e S3; e em 1 espécime (12,5% o plexo lombossacral originou-se de L5, L6, L7, S1, S2 e S3, sem a participação de ramo proveniente de L4. Conclui-se que os nervos que contribuem para formação desse plexo são: nervo genitofemoral, nervo cutâneo femoral lateral, nervo femoral, nervo glúteo cranial, nervo obturatório, nervo isquiático, nervo glúteo caudal, nervo pudendo e nervo cutâneo femoral caudal.

  16. Morfologia e topografia do baço da paca ( Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella F. Ribeiro

    Full Text Available RESUMO: A paca é um grande roedor, presente em parte do território brasileiro e na América Latina, cuja importância está na crescente produção comercial de carne exótica e na pesquisa científica como um promissor modelo experimental. Assim, este trabalho objetivou-se descrever a morfologia e a topografia do baço da paca (Cuniculus paca. Foram utilizadas cinco pacas adultas, machos e fêmeas, fixadas em formaldeído a 10% e armazenados em solução salina a 30% para sua conservação. Na paca, o baço tem sua localização relacionada ao estômago, ao fígado, ao rim esquerdo, ao pâncreas e ao omento maior. Possui forma irregular, sendo mais longo do que largo, possui coloração avermelhada-escura e textura lisa. Quanto à descrição histológica, apresenta cápsula de tecido conjuntivo denso que emitiu trabéculas que se projetam no parênquima. A cápsula e as trabéculas apresentam fibras musculares lisas. O parênquima è composto pela polpa branca e polpa vermelha, esta última formada por seios e cordões esplênicos.

  17. Anatomia microscópica e ultraestrutura do joelho da paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Silva

    Full Text Available RESUMO: A paca (Cuniculus paca, um dos maiores roedores da fauna brasileira, possui características inerentes à sua espécie que podem contribuir como uma nova opção de animal experimental; assim, considerando-se que há crescente busca por modelos experimentais apropriados para ortopedia e pesquisas cirúrgicas, foram analisados e descritos em detalhes a anatomia microscópica e ultraestrutural do joelho desse roedor. Os ligamentos colaterais são constituídos por feixes de fibras colágenas arranjadas paralelamente e com trajeto ondulado. Os fibroblastos formavam fileiras paralelas às fibras colágenas; quanto aos ligamentos colaterais, estes apresentaram citoplasma imperceptível à avaliação por microscopia de luz, entretanto, em análise ultraestrutural verificou-se vários prolongamentos citoplasmáticos. Microscopicamente, as estruturas presentes no joelho da paca assemelham-se às dos animais domésticos, roedores e lagomorfos.

  18. Morphology and topography of the external male genital organs of spotted paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766

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    Márcia Rita Fernandes Machado

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Spotted paca (Cuniculus paca is a rodent species from the family Cuniculidae, found in South America, from the Orinoco River Basin to Paraguay. Although widely studied with regard to its morphological and reproductive aspects, still there’re no records on the morphology of the male reproductive system in this species. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate not only the macro and microscopic anatomy of the external genital organs in this species, but also their topography. We studied the external genital organs of 10 adult spotted pacas; 5 specimens, fixed in a 10% aqueous formaldehyde solution, were macroscopically studied and from 5 specimens we collected fragments from the reproductive system, for microscopic analysis. The testicles showed a parenchyma structured in seminiferous tubules and the germinal epithelium rested on its basal membrane. These organs were located in the abdominal cavity, the inguinal path, or within the scrotum. Penis, fibroelastic, was located in the pubic region, in caudal direction. Its glans, coated by keratinized epithelium, were covered by the prepuce and, below this, we identified a slender cartilaginous structure with serrated edges. A couple of bone spurs was located into a bag ventral to the urethra, whose mucosa was lined by transitional epithelium. The epididymal duct was balled up in the head, had a body and tail, and its head was lined by pseudo-stratified stereociliated epithelium, and the tail by simple cubic epithelium; from this, the deferent duct stemmed, lined by columnar stratified epithelium.

  19. Estrutura, ultraestrutura e morfometria da veia cava de paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766 criada em cativeiro

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    Sérgio Pinter Garcia Filho

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A paca (Cuniculus paca é o segundo maior roedor da fauna brasileira. Apresenta carne de excelente qualidade, o que incentiva a criação comercial. Além disso, este animal pode tornar-se uma opção válida em experimentação embora poucas sejam as informações detalhadas sobre sua morfologia. Assim, objetivou-se descrever a morfologia, morfometria e ultraestrutura de segmentos das porções cranial e caudal da veia cava de quatro pacas (Cuniculus paca adultas excedentes do plantel do Setor de Animais Silvestres do Departamento de Zootecnia da FCAV-Unesp. Os segmentos venosos foram analisados à microscopia de luz e à microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Foram mensuradas as espessuras do complexo formado pelas túnicas íntima e média, além da túnica adventícia e analisou-se os resultados pela estatística descritiva, teste "T" pareado (p<0,05. Em relação à espessura das túnicas estudadas, comprovou-se que os valores da espessura das túnicas íntima, média e adventícia, para todos os animais, foram significativamente maiores no segmento cranial. As camadas das paredes dos vasos apresentaram variações entre si quanto à estrutura e espessura, supostamente devido a uma adaptação à exigência funcional.

  20. Macroscopic description of thoracic member musculature in Cuniculus paca (Linnaeus, 1766 (Rodentia, Cuniculidae

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    Rodrigo Gomes de Souza

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cuniculus paca (Mammalia: Cuniculidae, or ‘paca’ is a rodent species in great demand for its meat, which has led to domestication and development of paca farms in the Brazilian Amazon region, as well as in other states. Despite the growing consumption of paca meat, knowledge on muscle anatomy is still scarce. An anatomical description of paca forelimbs will form the basis for future zootechnical and veterinary studies, enabling the development of sustainable production in the Amazon region, as well as the preservation of the species. We studied forelimb anatomy in four (04 adult pacas from the Caboclinho Project of Catuaba Experimental Farm (UFAC under IBAMA authorization n°509309. Specimens were fixed in 10% formalin and thoracic limbs were dissected, after which anatomical descriptions and photographic records were generated. We found that paca forelimb musculature is similar to that of other groups of domestic animals with regard to the origin and muscle insertion.

  1. Estrutura, ultraestrutura e morfometria da veia cava de paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766) criada em cativeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Sérgio Pinter Garcia Filho; Leandro Luís Martins; Ana Carolina Gonçalves dos Reis; Maria Rita Pacheco; Márcia Rita Fernandes Machado

    2013-01-01

    A paca (Cuniculus paca) é o segundo maior roedor da fauna brasileira. Apresenta carne de excelente qualidade, o que incentiva a criação comercial. Além disso, este animal pode tornar-se uma opção válida em experimentação embora poucas sejam as informações detalhadas sobre sua morfologia. Assim, objetivou-se descrever a morfologia, morfometria e ultraestrutura de segmentos das porções cranial e caudal da veia cava de quatro pacas (Cuniculus paca) adultas excedentes do plantel do Setor de Anima...

  2. Morfologia, ultraestrutura e morfometria do tegumento da paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766 criada em cativeiro

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    José G.M.P. Isola

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Considerando-se a falta de informações detalhadas sobre a morfologia da paca, sendo o segundo maior roedor da fauna brasileira, de excelente qualidade de carne e, dada a importância do tegumento comum, inclusive para o bom manejo em cativeiro, e até mesmo estudos como uma opção de animal de experimentação, descreveu-se a morfologia, morfometria e a ultraestrutura da pele de oito pacas (Cuniculus paca machos e fêmeas, mediante a análise comparativa de segmentos cutâneos das regiões cervical, dorsal e medial do carpo. Observaram-se macroscopicamente as características da pelagem. Parte dos segmentos das regiões cutâneas foi analisada à microscopia de luz e parte, à microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Mensuraram-se as espessuras da derme, epiderme, camada córnea, perfis das fibras de colágeno da derme reticular e a área dos perfis das células das glândulas sebáceas repletas. Analisaram-se os resultados pela estatística descritiva e teste "T" (p<0,001. A coloração da pelagem da paca é castanho avermelhado com cerdas organizadas em grupos. A arquitetura da cútis e os anexos cutâneos se assemelham aos dos mamíferos em geral, embora haja ausência de glândulas sudoríparas. De acordo com a analise morfométrica, pôde-se inferir que a arquitetura da cútis de pacas machos e fêmeas apresenta diferenças quando comparada entre os sexos e também em um mesmo animal, diferenciando-se entre diversas regiões corpóreas.

  3. Macroscopic description of thoracic member musculature in Cuniculus paca (Linnaeus, 1766 (Rodentia, Cuniculidae

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    Rodrigo Gomes de Souza

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2017v30n2p43 Cuniculus paca (Mammalia: Cuniculidae, or ‘paca’ is a rodent species in great demand for its meat, which has led to domestication and development of paca farms in the Brazilian Amazon region, as well as in other states. Despite the growing consumption of paca meat, knowledge on muscle anatomy is still scarce. An anatomical description of paca forelimbs will form the basis for future zootechnical and veterinary studies, enabling the development of sustainable production in the Amazon region, as well as the preservation of the species. We studied forelimb anatomy in four (04 adult pacas from the Caboclinho Project of Catuaba Experimental Farm (UFAC under IBAMA authorization n°509309. Specimens were fixed in 10% formalin and thoracic limbs were dissected, after which anatomical descriptions and photographic records were generated. We found that paca forelimb musculature is similar to that of other groups of domestic animals with regard to the origin and muscle insertion.

  4. Estrutura, ultraestrutura e morfometria da aorta de paca (Cuniculus paca, Linnaeus, 1766) criada em cativeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Filho,S.P.; Martins,L.L.; Reis,A.C.G.; Pacheco,M.R.; Machado,M.R.F.

    2012-01-01

    Descreveram-se a morfologia, morfometria e ultraestrutura de segmentos das porções torácica e abdominal da aorta de quatro pacas (Cuniculus paca) adultas. Os segmentos aórticos foram analisados à microscopia de luz e à microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Mensuraram-se as espessuras do complexo formado pelas túnicas íntima e média, além da túnica adventícia. Os valores referentes à espessura do complexo formado pelas túnicas íntima e média da aorta torácica cranial foram significativamente ma...

  5. Macroscopic description of the external and middle ear of paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766

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    Leandro L. Martins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Paca (Cuniculus paca, one of the largest rodents of the Brazilian fauna, has inherent characteristics of its species which can conribute as a new option for animal experimantation. As there is a growing demand for suitable experimental models in audiologic and otologic surgical research, the gross anatomy and ultrastructural ear of this rodent have been analyzed and described in detail. Fifteen adult pacas from the Wild Animals Sector herd of Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Unesp-Jaboticabal, were used in this study. After anesthesia and euthanasia, we evaluated the entire composition of the external ear, registering and ddescribing the details; the temporal region was often dissected for a better view and detailing of the tympanic bulla which was removed and opened to expose the ear structures analyzed mascroscopically and ultrastructurally. The ear pinna has a triangular and concave shape with irregular ridges and sharp apex. The external auditory canal is winding in its path to the tympanic mebrane. The tympanic bulla is is on the back-bottom of the skull. The middle ear is formed by a cavity region filled with bone and membranous structures bounded by the tympanic membrane and the oval and round windows. The tympanic membrane is flat and seals the ear canal. The anatomy of the paca ear is similar to the guinea pig and from the viewpoint of experimental model has major advantages compared with the mouse ear.

  6. The Hindlimb Arterial Vessels in Lowland paca (Cuniculus paca, Linnaeus 1766).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, L M; de Freitas, H M G; Sasahara, T H C; Machado, M R F

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to describe the origin and distribution of the hindlimb arterial vessels. Five adult lowland pacas (Cuniculus paca) were used. Stained and diluted latex was injected, caudally to the aorta. After fixation in 10% paraformaldehyde for 72 h, we dissected to visualize and identify the vessels. It was found out that the vascularization of the hindlimb in lowland paca derives from the terminal branch of the abdominal aorta. The common iliac artery divides into external iliac and internal iliac. The external iliac artery emits the deep iliac circumflex artery, the pudendal epigastric trunk, the deep femoral artery; the femoral artery originates the saphenous artery, it bifurcates into cranial and caudal saphenous arteries. Immediately after the knee joint, the femoral artery is called popliteal artery, which divides into tibial cranial and tibial caudal arteries at the level of the crural inter-osseous space. The origin and distribution of arteries in the hindlimb of lowland paca resembles that in other wild rodents, as well as in the domestic mammals. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Estrutura, ultraestrutura e morfometria da aorta de paca (Cuniculus paca, Linnaeus, 1766 criada em cativeiro

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    S.P. Garcia Filho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Descreveram-se a morfologia, morfometria e ultraestrutura de segmentos das porções torácica e abdominal da aorta de quatro pacas (Cuniculus paca adultas. Os segmentos aórticos foram analisados à microscopia de luz e à microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Mensuraram-se as espessuras do complexo formado pelas túnicas íntima e média, além da túnica adventícia. Os valores referentes à espessura do complexo formado pelas túnicas íntima e média da aorta torácica cranial foram significativamente maiores (média: 702,19µm que os valores de outros segmentos aórticos analisados (médias: 354,18µm; 243,55µm. As camadas das paredes do vaso apresentaram variações entre si quanto à estrutura e espessura, supostamente em razão de adaptação à exigência funcional.

  8. Ground temperatures in ice-cemented ground at Linnaeus Terrace, Dry Valleys, Antarctica, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Soil temperatures were measured with Campbell 107 soil thermistors. Thermistors were placed at 0, 17, 23 (just above the ice-cemented permafrost) and 40 cm depth. To...

  9. Gross morphology and morphometry of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus Linnaeus, 1758 female genital organs

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    Erika Branco

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The gross anatomy of the genital organs of four specimens of young female of Saimiri sciureus was investigated. The animals were bred in captivity at the Centro Nacional de Primatas and had died from natural causes. The vulva was limited by the labium minus and presented a well-developed clitoris which seemed to represent a rudimentary penis. The vaginal vestibule was the first cavity and was very short, presenting a thick muscular wall which extended from the vulva comissure to the vaginal ostium. The vagina was constituted by an elongated and dorsally flattened muscular tube with a thin wall between the vaginal vestibule and cervix. The cervix was short with well-developed musculature. The uterus was simple, presenting a global fundus located in the caudal portion of the abdominal cavity. The uterine tubes were elongated and rectilinear, connected to the ovaries which were large, ellipsoid in shape, and presented a smooth surface.

  10. High exposure to Tunga penetrans (Linnaeus, 1758 correlates with intensity of infestation

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    Hermann Feldmeier

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Tungiasis is a parasitic skin disease widespread in resource-poor urban and rural communities in Brazil. Inhabitants of an urban slum in Northeast Brazil were examined for the presence of tungiasis lesions and followed-up twice a week for a period of three weeks. Each time the number, stages, and topographic localization of lesions were recorded on a documentation sheet. The infestation rate (number of newly embedded sand fleas per individual and day remained stable during the observation period. The infestation rate was significantly related to the intensity of infestation (total number of lesions present (rho = 0.70, p < 0.0001 and the proportion of viable lesions (rho = 0.28, p < 0.0001. The results indicate that in an endemic area the infestation intensity and the proportion of viable lesions can be used as a proxy to assess the exposure of individuals at risk for tungiasis. Persistently high infestation rates during the transmission season favour the use of prevention measures against invading sand fleas (such as a repellent rather than a drug to kill already embedded parasites.

  11. Intracapsular development and dispersal polymorphism in the predatory gastropod Ocenebra erinaceus (Linnaeus 1758)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathryn E.; Reed, Adam J.; Thatje, Sven

    2015-09-01

    Intraspecific polymorphism during development, such as poecilogony or dispersal polymorphism, has rarely been observed in the marine environment. The ecological advantages of this bet-hedging strategy, whereby the offspring from one species exhibit multiple developmental modes, include the potential for rapid colonization of new habitats while simultaneously achieving a degree of gene flow between populations. The muricid gastropod, Ocenebra erinaceus, is a common, shallow-water marine predator found across England and France. Historically, O. erinaceus caused significant damage to shellfisheries, but more recently it has been impacted by TBT-induced imposex. Despite the previous attention given to this species, little is known about its encapsulated development. Studying O. erinaceus egg capsules from the Solent, UK, we describe intracapsular development at 15 °C, the in situ temperature at time of oviposition. Within each capsule, all embryos developed; no nurse eggs were present. Development was categorized into eight ontogenetic stages, although not all individuals displayed every stage; embryos hatched as either swimming late-pediveliger larvae or crawling juveniles after 59-69 days, indicating dispersal polymorphism to occur in this species. Swimming late-pediveliger larvae completed metamorphosis within 72 h of hatching. As O. erinaceus continues to recover from TBT pollution, dispersal polymorphism may facilitate a rapid expansion in both population size and range. If this occurs, O. erinaceus has the potential to, once again, become a serious problem for shellfisheries around Europe.

  12. Age, growth, reproduction, and food of the burbot, Lota lota (Linnaeus), in southwestern Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Merryll M.

    1972-01-01

    This study was based on 1,285 burbot (Lota lota) collected in three areas in southwestern Lake Superior in 1966-69. Age was determined from otoliths, the marginal zones of which were opaque from December to May and translucent from June to November. Average lengths of the age groups and annual increments were measured from a curve fitted by inspection to point estimates of lengths at capture. Burbot grew 5.7 inches during the first year of life and 4.3 inches during the second. Later annual increments through the twelfth year ranged from 1.2 to 2.6 inches. Average total lengths and calculated weights were 16.1 inches and 1.1 pounds at age V and 23.4 inches and 3.2 pounds at age X. First maturity was at age I, at a total length of 9.7 inches for males and 10.7 inches for females; all fish were mature at age V and at lengths greater than 16.4 inches (males) and 15.9 inches (females). Most burbot collected near shore in the Apostle Islands area in late January and February were spent, but none collected in offshore areas during January and March had spawned. The estimated number of eggs in the ovaries of eight burbot 14.7-21.3 inches long ranged from about 268,800 to 1,154,000 and averaged about 812,300. Burbot of all sizes fed on fish and crustaceans. Fish heavily predominated in the food of large burbot taken during the winter (99.6% of the volume) but crustaceans (Mysis and Pontoporeia) became increasingly important during the summer and fall (when they contributed more than 73% of the volume). Due to the wide variety and large volume of food consumed, the burbot is probably a significant competitor of many other species.

  13. Chemical identification of Tagetes minuta Linnaeus (Asteraceae) essential oil and its acaricidal effect on ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Marcos Valério; Matias, Jaqueline; Barros, Jacqueline Cavalcante; de Lima, Dênis Pires; Lopes, Rosângela da Silva; Andreotti, Renato

    2012-01-01

    The control of tick species that affect animal production is vital for the economic welfare of the cattle industry. This study focused on testing the acaricidal activity of the essential oil from the leaves and stems of Tagetes minuta against several Brazilian tick species, including Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma cajennense and Argas miniatus. The chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by chromatography and spectroscopy analyses, which revealed the presence of monoterpenes. The adult immersion test (AIT) and the larval packet test (LPT) were used to evaluate the efficacy of T. minuta essential oil in tick management at concentrations of 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40%. The results demonstrated that the T. minuta essential oil had over 95% efficacy against four species of ticks at a concentration of 20%. These results suggest that the essential oil of T. minuta could be used as an environmentally friendly acaricide.

  14. Arterial anatomosurgical segments of the mammary glands in dogs (Canis familiaris