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Sample records for haling power depletion

  1. Optimal Sizing of a Photovoltaic-Hydrogen Power System for HALE Aircraft by means of Particle Swarm Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Victor M. Sanchez; Romeli Barbosa; J. C. Cruz; F. Chan; J. Hernandez

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade there has been a growing interest in the research of feasibility to use high altitude long endurance (HALE) aircrafts in order to provide mobile communications. The use of HALEs for telecommunication networks has the potential to deliver a wide range of communication services (from high-quality voice to high-definition videos, as well as high-data-rate wireless channels) cost effectively. One of the main challenges of this technology is to design its power supply system, ...

  2. Optimal Sizing of a Photovoltaic-Hydrogen Power System for HALE Aircraft by means of Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. Sanchez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade there has been a growing interest in the research of feasibility to use high altitude long endurance (HALE aircrafts in order to provide mobile communications. The use of HALEs for telecommunication networks has the potential to deliver a wide range of communication services (from high-quality voice to high-definition videos, as well as high-data-rate wireless channels cost effectively. One of the main challenges of this technology is to design its power supply system, which must provide the enough energy for long time flights in a reliable way. In this paper a photovoltaic/hydrogen system is proposed as power system for a HALE aircraft due its high power density characteristic. In order to obtain the optimal sizing for photovoltaic/hydrogen system a particle swarm optimizer (PSO is used. As a case study, theoretical design of the photovoltaic/hydrogen power system for three different HALE aircrafts located at 18° latitude is presented. At this latitude, the range of solar radiation intensity was from 310 to 450 Wh/sq·m/day. The results obtained show that the photovoltaic/hydrogen systems calculated by PSO can operate during one year with efficacies ranging between 45.82% and 47.81%. The obtained sizing result ensures that the photovoltaic/hydrogen system supplies adequate energy for HALE aircrafts.

  3. The haling principle-true or false?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, S.X.; Kropaczek, D.J.; Turinsky, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Haling principle has long been viewed as an idealized control strategy for maximizing thermal margin over the operating cycle of a nuclear reactor core. In essence, the Haling principle states that the time-dependent power distribution that minimizes power peaking over the cycle is that power distribution which remains invariant throughout cycle. Applicable but not strictly limited to boiling water reactor (BWR) operation, maintaining a constant power Haling distribution through manipulation of control materials should, in theory, yield an optimum beyond which further reductions in thermal margin remain unachievable, given a particular arrangement of fuel inventory

  4. The Hale Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Katti

    2012-01-01

    Ohio State University's (OSU) Frank W. Hale Jr. Black Cultural Center is a rarity in academia, as was its namesake. When OSU named its standout Black cultural center after the civil rights activist, professor and vice provost who championed such a place, it was commemorating what Dr. Frank W. Hale Jr. stood for. He promoted academic rigor, those…

  5. A study on the sensitivity depletion laws for rhodium self-powered neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gil Gon

    1999-02-01

    The rhodium self-powered neutron detectors (SPND) in a reactor core provide the operator with the on-line 3-dimensional nuclear power distribution. The signal produced by rhodium SPND is interpreted into the local neutron flux by using a sensitivity depletion law and the local neutron flux is interpreted into the local power by using a power conversion factor. This work on the sensitivity depletion laws for rhodium self-powered neutron detectors (SPND) is performed to improve the uncertainty of the sensitivity depletion law used in ABB-CE reactors employing a rhodium SPND and to develop a calculational tool for providing the sensitivity depletion laws to interpret the signal of the newly designed rhodium SPND into the local neutron flux. The calculational tools for a time dependent neutron flux distribution in the rhodium emitter during depletion and for a time dependent beta escape probability that a beta generated in the emitter is escaped into the collector were developed. Due to the cost, the exposure to the radiation, and the longer fuel cycle, there is a strong incentive that the loading density of an in-core instrumentation is reduced and the lifetime of the detector is lengthened. These objectives can be achieved by reducing the uncertainty which is amplified as it depletes. The calculational tools above provide the sensitivity depletion law and show the reduction of the uncertainty to about 1 % in interpreting the signal into the local neutron flux compared to the method employed by ABB-CE. The reduction in the uncertainty of 1 % in interpreting the signal into the local neutron flux is equivalent to the reduction in the uncertainty of 1 % or more in interpreting the signal into the local power and to the extension of the lifetime of rhodium SPND to about 10 % as reported by ABB-CE

  6. How leaders self-regulate their task performance: evidence that power promotes diligence, depletion, and disdain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWall, C Nathan; Baumeister, Roy F; Mead, Nicole L; Vohs, Kathleen D

    2011-01-01

    When leaders perform solitary tasks, do they self-regulate to maximize their effort, or do they reduce effort and conserve their resources? Our model suggests that power motivates self-regulation toward effective performance-unless the task is perceived as unworthy of leaders. Our 1st studies showed that power improves self-regulation and performance, even when resources for self-regulation are low (ego depletion). Additional studies showed that leaders sometimes disdain tasks they deem unworthy, by withholding effort (and therefore performing poorly). Ironically, during ego depletion, leaders skip the appraisal and, therefore, work hard regardless of task suitability, so that depleted leaders sometimes outperform nondepleted ones. Our final studies replicated these patterns with different tasks and even with simple manipulation of framing and perception of the same task (Experiment 5). Experiment 4 also showed that the continued high exertion of leaders when depleted takes a heavy toll, resulting in larger impairments later. The judicious expenditure of self-control resources among powerful people may help them prioritize their efforts to pursue their goals effectively. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Power distribution and fuel depletion calculation for a PWR, using LEOPARD and CITATION codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    By modifying LEOPARD a new program, LEOCIT, has been developed in which additional subroutines prepare cross-section libraries in 1, 2 or 4 energy groups and subsequently record these on disc or tape in a format appropriate for direct input to the CITATION code. Use of LEOCIT in conjunction with CITATION is demonstrated by simulating the first depletion cycle of Angra Unit 1. In these calculations two energy groups are used in 1/4, X - Y geometry to give the soluble boron curve, the fuel depletion and the point to point power distribution in Angra 1. Finally relevant results obtained here are compared with those published by Westinghouse, CNEN and Furnas and recommendations are made to improve the system of neutronic calculation developed in this work. (Author) [pt

  8. Power and knowledge in international environmental politics: The case of stratospheric ozone depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litfin, K.T.

    1992-01-01

    Most analyses of science in world politics suffer from the modern misreading of the relationship between knowledge and power. The availability of scientific knowledge to the relevant decision makers was a necessary condition for the negotiation of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, but it was far from being a sufficient one. The power of science was a function of the political context in which it was debated, a context which was defined substantially by the discovery of the Antarctic ozone 'hole.' The prominence of knowledge-based power in at least some situations means that conventional materialist notions of power should be expanded to include a more discursive and productive conception of power. Environmental problems are not merely physical events, but informational phenomena. A case study methodology is used to develop an interactive conception of power and knowledge. A detailed study of the Montreal Protocol is offered, as well as less detailed studies of the international policy processes for acid rain and global climate change

  9. ISO's analysis of Comet Hale-Bopp

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-01

    The European Space Agency's Infrared Space Observatory ISO inspected Comet Hall-Bopp during the spring and autumn of 1996. The need to keep ISO's telescope extremely cold restricts the spacecraft's pointing in relation to the Sun and the Earth and it ruled out observations at other times. The analyses of the 1996 observations are not yet complete, but already they give new insight into the nature of comets. Comet Hale-Bopp is believed to be a large comet with a nucleus up to 40 kilometres wide. It was discovered in July 1995 by two American astronomers working independently, Alan Hale and Thomas Bopp. At that time, the comet was a billion kilometres away from the Sun, but 200 times brighter than Halley's Comet was, when at a comparable distance. Comet Hale-Bopp will make its closest approach to the Earth on 22 March, and its closest approach to the Sun (perihelion) on 1 April 1997. Some scientific results from ISO The discovery of Comet Hale-Bopp occurred before ISO's launch in November 1995. When first observed by ISO in March and April 1996, the comet was still 700 million kilometres from the Sun, and almost as far from the Earth and ISO. With its privileged view of infrared wavebands inaccessible from the Earth's surface, ISO's photometer ISOPHOT discovered that carbon dioxide was an important constituent of the comet's emissions of vapour.ISOPHOT measured the temperature of the dust cloud around Comet Hale-Bopp. In March 1996, when the comet was still more than 700 million kilometres from the Sun, the dust cloud was at minus 120 degrees C. When ISOPHOT made similar observations in October 1996, the comet was 420 million kilometres from the Sun, and the dust cloud had warmed to about minus 50 degrees C. Intensive observations of Comet Hale-Bopp were also made by ISO's Short-Wave Spectrometer SWS, the Long-Wave Spectrometer LWS, and the ISOPHOT spectrometer PHOT-S. Results are due for publication at the end of March. They will give details about the composition

  10. Twisting and Writhing with George Ellery Hale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Richard C.

    2013-06-01

    Early in his productive career in astronomy, George Ellery Hale developed innovative solar instrumentation that allowed him to make narrow-band images. Among the solar phenomena he discovered were sunspot vortices, which he attributed to storms akin to cyclones in our own atmosphere. Using the concept of magnetic helicity, physicists and mathematicians describe the topology of magnetic fields, including twisting and writhing. Our contemporary understanding of Hale's vortices as a consequence of large-scale twist in sunspot magnetic fields hinges on a key property of helicity: conservation. I will describe the critical role that this property plays, when applied to twist and writhe, in a fundamental aspect of global solar magnetism: the hemispheric and solar cycle dependences of active region electric currents with respect to magnetic fields. With the advent of unbroken sequences of high-resolution magnetic images, such as those presently available from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on Solar Dynamics Observatory, the flux of magnetic helicity through the photosphere can be observed quantitatively. As magnetic flux tubes buoy up through the convection zone, buffeted and shredded by turbulence, they break up into fragments by repeated random bifurcation. We track these rising flux fragments in the photosphere, and calculate the flux of energy and magnetic helicity there. Using a quantitative model of coronal currents, we also track connections between these fragments to calculate the energy and magnetic helicity stored at topological interfaces that are in some ways analogous to the storage of stress at faults in the Earth's crust. Comparison of these values to solar flares and interplanetary coronal mass ejections implies that this is the primary storage mechanism for energy and magnetic helicity released in those phenomena, and suggests a useful tool for quantitative prediction of geomagnetic storms.

  11. Modeling Coma Gas Jets in Comet Hale-Bopp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, S. M.; Campins, H.

    2001-01-01

    We present an analysis of OH, CN, and C2 jets observed in Comet Hale-Bopp. The relative contributions from and composition of the coma gas sources, and the parameters describing the active areas responsible for the gas jets will be discussed. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  12. Sarah J. Hale High School-Project SABER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Harold

    Project SABER, which operated in Sarah J. Hale High School in South Brooklyn, New York, consisted of bilingual instructional and supportive services to 9th and 10th grade Spanish language students. Students received bilingual instruction in social studies, science, math, and Spanish. All the SABER students received English as a second language…

  13. Reverse depletion method for PWR core reload design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downar, T.J.; Kim, Y.J.

    1985-01-01

    Low-leakage fuel management is currently practiced in over half of all pressurized water reactor (PWR) cores. Prospects for even greater use of in-board fresh fuel loading are good as utilities seek to reduce core vessel fluence, mitigate pressurized thermal shock concerns, and extend vessel lifetime. Consequently, large numbers of burnable poison (BP) pins are being used to control the power peaking at the in-board fresh fuel positions. This has presented an additional complexity to the core reload design problem. In addition to determining the best location of each assembly in the core, the designer must concurrently determine the distribution of BP pins in the fresh fuel. A procedure was developed that utilizes the well-known Haling depletion to achieve an end-of-cycle (EOC) core state where the assembly pattern is configured in the absence of all control poison. This effectively separates the assembly assignment and BP distribution problems. Once an acceptable pattern at EOC is configured, the burnable and soluble poison required to control the power and core excess reactivity are solved for as unknown variables while depleting the cycle in reverse from the EOC exposure distribution to the beginning of cycle. The methods developed were implemented in an approved light water reactor licensing code to ensure the validity of the results obtained and provide for the maximum utility to PWR core reload design

  14. Depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffer, E.; Nifenecker, H.

    2001-02-01

    This document deals with the physical, chemical and radiological properties of the depleted uranium. What is the depleted uranium? Why do the military use depleted uranium and what are the risk for the health? (A.L.B.)

  15. HALE UAS Concept of Operations. Version 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This document is a system level Concept of Operations (CONOPS) from the perspective of future High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) service providers and National Airspace System (NAS) users. It describes current systems (existing UAS), describes HALE UAS functions and operations to be performed (via sample missions), and offers insight into the user s environment (i.e., the UAS as a system of systems). It is intended to be a source document for NAS UAS operational requirements, and provides a construct for government agencies to use in guiding their regulatory decisions, architecture requirements, and investment strategies. Although it does not describe the technical capabilities of a specific HALE UAS system (which do, and will vary widely), it is intended to aid in requirements capture and to be used as input to the functional requirements and analysis process. The document provides a basis for development of functional requirements and operational guidelines to achieve unrestricted access into the NAS. This document is an FY06 update to the FY05 Access 5 Project-approved Concept of Operations document previously published in the Public Domain on the Access 5 open website. This version is recommended to be approved for public release also. The updates are a reorganization of materials from the previous version with the addition of an updated set of operational requirements, inclusion of sample mission scenarios, and identification of roles and responsibilities of interfaces within flight phases.

  16. Atmospheric Tracer Depletion Testing for Unfiltered Air In-Leakage Determination at the Wolf Creek Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wilke, R. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Roberts, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Vignato, G. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Atmospheric Tracer Depletion tests were conducted at the Wolf Creek Nuclear Power Plant to quantify the unfiltered in-leakage (UI) into the Control Room (CR), Control Building (CB), and Equipment Rooms (ER) at the Wolf Creek Nuclear Power Plant. Wolf Creek has two independent charcoal filter Emergency Ventilation Systems (EVS) that can be used to purify air entering the control building and control room. The Bravo System contains a filtration system in Room 1501 in the Auxiliary Building for the Control Room and another filtration system (FGK02B) on Elevation 2016 for the Control Building. The Alpha system contains a filtration system in Room 1512 in the Auxiliary Building for the Control Room and another filtration system (FGK02A) on Elevation 2016 for the Control Building. The Atmospheric Tracer Depletion (ATD) test is a technique to measure in-leakage using the concentration of perfluorocarbon compounds that have a constant atmospheric background. These levels are present in the Control Room and Control Building under normal operating conditions. When air is supplied by either of the EVS, most of the PFTS are removed by the charcoal filters. If the concentrations of the PFTs measured in protected areas are the same as the levels at the output of the EVS, the in-leakage of outside air into the protected area would be zero. If the concentration is higher in the protected area than at the output of the filter system, there is in-leakage and the in-leakage can be quantified by the difference. Sampling was performed using state-of-the-art Brookhaven Atmospheric Tracer Samplers (BATS) air sampling equipment and analysis performed on Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) dedicated PFT analytical systems. In the Alpha test two tracers PMCH and mcPDCH were used to determine in-leakage into the control building. The analytical system was tuned to maximize sensitivity after initial analysis of the Alpha test. The increased sensitivity permitted accurate quantification of

  17. Atmospheric Tracer Depletion Testing for Unfiltered Air In-Leakage Determination at the Wolf Creek Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wilke, R. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Roberts, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Vignato, G. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric Tracer Depletion tests were conducted at the Wolf Creek Nuclear Power Plant to quantify the unfiltered in-leakage (UI) into the Control Room (CR), Control Building (CB), and Equipment Rooms (ER) at the Wolf Creek Nuclear Power Plant. Wolf Creek has two independent charcoal filter Emergency Ventilation Systems (EVS) that can be used to purify air entering the control building and control room. The Bravo System contains a filtration system in Room 1501 in the Auxiliary Building for the Control Room and another filtration system (FGK02B) on Elevation 2016 for the Control Building. The Alpha system contains a filtration system in Room 1512 in the Auxiliary Building for the Control Room and another filtration system (FGK02A) on Elevation 2016 for the Control Building.The Atmospheric Tracer Depletion (ATD) test is a technique to measure in-leakage using the concentration of perfluorocarbon compounds that have a constant atmospheric background. These levels are present in the Control Room and Control Building under normal operating conditions. When air is supplied by either of the EVS, most of the PFTS are removed by the charcoal filters. If the concentrations of the PFTs measured in protected areas are the same as the levels at the output of the EVS, the in-leakage of outside air into the protected area would be zero. If the concentration is higher in the protected area than at the output of the filter system, there is in-leakage and the in-leakage can be quantified by the difference.Sampling was performed using state-of-the-art Brookhaven Atmospheric Tracer Samplers (BATS) air sampling equipment and analysis performed on Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) dedicated PFT analytical systems. In the Alpha test two tracers PMCH and mcPDCH were used to determine in-leakage into the control building. The analytical system was tuned to maximize sensitivity after initial analysis of the Alpha test. The increased sensitivity permitted accurate quantification of five

  18. Hyakutake, Hale-Bopp and the chemistry of comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachiller, R.; Planesas, P.

    1997-01-01

    Comets can be regarded as messengers from the primitive solar system which can provide precious pieces of information on the composition of the protosolar nebula. Physical and chemical phenomena within comets (shock waves, photodissociation caused by solar radiation, some endothermic chemical reactions, etc) are of the highest interest and cannot be reproduced at terrestrial laboratories in many cases. The passage of Hyakutake in 1996 and that of Hale-Bopp in 1997 are allowing remarkable progress in the understanding of the physico-chemistry of comets. Observations of such comets can be crucial in the study of the origin of life on Earth. (Author)

  19. Rocket Detection of Argon in Comet Hale-Bopp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, S. A.; Festou, M. C.; Parker, J. Wm.; Slater, D. C.; Gladstone, G. R.; A'Hearn, M. F.

    1998-12-01

    The EUVS planetary sounding rocket spectrograph was flown on 30.2 March 1997 (UT) from White Sands, New Mexico to observe comet Hale-Bopp in the bandpass from 830--1120 A. At the time of launch the comet was near perihelion, 0.915 AU from the Sun, 1.340 AU from Earth, and traveling at a heliocentric radial velocity of +0.70 km/s. EUVS obtained its primary spectra of the comet at resolution near 12 A, collecting 9340 counts over approximately 330 seconds of integration time. To our knowledge, the resulting dataset is both the most sensitive and the highest spectral resolution probe of a comet in the UV below 1200 A as yet achieved, and contains signatures of both the 1048.2 A and 1066.7 A Ar I resonance lines. These features represent the first-ever detections of any noble gas in a comet. The spectrum also includes significant detections which we tentatively attribute to due to 834 A 0 II, 972 A Lyman gamma, 989 A O I, the 1026 A H I Lyman beta/O I. We will discuss the Ar features, retrieve the Ar column in the coma, and discuss the implications of the total Ar/O abundance ratio in Hale-Bopp for the comet's origin.

  20. Spectrophotometry of Dust in Comet Hale-Bopp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witteborn, Fred C. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Comets, such as Hale-Bopp (C/1995 O1), are frozen reservoirs of primitive solar nebula dust grains and ices. Analysis of the composition of cometary dust grains from infrared spectroscopic techniques permits an estimation of the types of organic and inorganic materials that constituted the early primitive solar nebula. In addition, the cometary bombardment of the Earth (approximately 3.5 Gy ago) supplied the water for the oceans and brought organic materials to Earth which may have been biogenic. Spectroscopic observations of comet Hale-Bopp suggest the possible presence of organic hydrocarbon species, silicate and olivine dust grains, and water ice. Spectroscopy near 3 microns obtained in Nov 1996 r=2.393 AU, delta=3.034 AU) shows a feature which we attribute to PAH emission. The spatial morphology of the 3.28 microns PAH feature is also presented. Optical and infrared spectrophotometric observations of comets convey valuable information about the spatial distribution and properties of dust and gas within the inner coma. In the optical and NIR shortward of 2 microns, the observed light is primarily scattered sunlight from the dust grains. At longer wavelengths, particularly in the 10 gm window, thermal emission from these grains dominates the radiation allowing an accurate estimate of grain sizes and chemical composition. Here we present an initial analysis of spectra taken with the NASA HIFOGS at 7-14 microns as part of a multiwavelength temporal study of the "comet of the century".

  1. Seismological evidence of the Hales discontinuity in northeast India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Aakash; Bora, Dipok K.; Borah, Kajaljyoti; Madhab Borgohain, Jayanta

    2018-04-01

    The crust and upper mantle shear wave velocity structure beneath the northeast India is estimated by joint inversion of Rayleigh wave group velocity and receiver function, calculated from teleseismic earthquakes data recorded at nine broadband seismic stations. The Assam valley and the Shillong-Mikir plateau are the two important tectonic blocks in the northeast India, which are surrounded by the Himalayan collision zone in the north, Indo-Burma subduction zone in the east and by the Bengal basin in the south. The joint inversion followed by forward modeling reveal crustal thicknesses of 30-34 km beneath the Shillong plateau, 36 km beneath the Mikir hills and 38-40 km beneath the Assam valley with an average shear wave velocity (Vs) of 3.4-3.5 km/s. The estimated low upper mantle shear wave velocity (Vsn) 4.2-4.3 km/s may be due to the rock composition or grain size or increased temperature and partial melt (<1%) in the upper mantle, or an effect of all. Also, we report for the first time, the existence of the Hales discontinuity at depths 56-74 km with Vs ∼4.4-4.6 km/s. Variable depth of the Hales discontinuity may be explained by the geotherm and/or addition of Cr3+ and Fe2+ in the spinel-garnet system.

  2. New Observations of Comet Hale-Bopp from La Silla

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    Methanol and Hydrogen Cyanide Detected at Record Distance Observations of famous Comet Hale-Bopp continue with the 15-m Swedish-ESO Submillimetre Telescope (SEST) at the La Silla Observatory. They show amazingly strong activity of this unusual object, also at the present, very large distance from the Sun. The radio observations document in detail the release of various molecules from the comet's icy nucleus. Of particular interest is the observed emission from methanol ( CH 3 OH ) and hydrogen cyanide ( HCN ) molecules, never before detected in any comet this far away. Comet Hale-Bopp still going strong Just over 18 months after its perihelion passage on April 1, 1997, Comet Hale-Bopp (official designation C/1995 O1 ) is continuing its outward journey through the Solar System. It is now about 1,000 million kilometres (6.7 AU) from the Sun and the Earth, i.e. almost at the same distance as when it was first discovered in July 1995. After having traversed the northern sky in 1996 and 1997, the comet passed the celestial equator in late June 1997 and is now seen in the southern constellation Volans (The Flying Fish), i.e. just east of the Large Magellanic Cloud. It can only be observed from southern latitudes. The comet's brightness has decreased by a factor of more than 10,000 since it was at its brightest in March 1997, just before perihelion. However, the magnitude is still around 9 - 10, or only about 20-40 times fainter than what can be seen with the unaided eye. Hale-Bopp is therefore visible in binoculars to southern observers as a fuzzy object with a diameter of a few arcminutes. New observations from La Silla Several telescopes at La Silla are following the evolution of the activity of Comet Hale-Bopp as it recedes from the Sun. In particular, the comet is observed monthly with SEST , a 15-m diameter submillimetre telescope operated jointly by the Onsala Space Observatory (OSO, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden) and ESO; it is the only

  3. History of Solar Magnetic Fields Since George Ellery Hale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenflo, J. O.

    2017-09-01

    As my own work on the Sun's magnetic field started exactly 50 years ago at Crimea in the USSR, I have been a participant in the field during nearly half the time span since Hale's discovery in 1908 of magnetic fields in sunspots. The present historical account is accompanied by photos from my personal slide collection, which show a number of the leading personalities who advanced the field in different areas: measurement techniques, from photographic to photoelectric and imaging methods in spectro-polarimetry; theoretical foundations of MHD and the origin of cosmic magnetic fields (birth of dynamo theory); the quest for increased angular resolution from national projects to international consortia (for instruments both on ground and in space); introduction of the Hanle effect in astrophysics and the Second Solar Spectrum as its playground; small-scale nature of the field, the fundamental resolution limit, and transcending it by resolution-independent diagnostics.

  4. A reverse depletion method for pressurized water reactor core reload design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downar, T.J.; Kin, Y.J.

    1986-01-01

    Low-leakage fuel management is currently practiced in over half of all pressurized water reactor (PWR) cores. The large numbers of burnable poison pins used to control the power peaking at the in-board fresh fuel positions have introduced an additional complexity to the core reload design problem. In addition to determining the best location of each assembly in the core, the designer must concurrently determine the distribution of burnable poison pins in the fresh fuel. A new method for performing core design more suitable for low-leakage fuel management is reported. A procedure was developed that uses the wellknown ''Haling depletion'' to achieve an end-of-cycle (EOC) core state where the assembly pattern is configured in the absence of all control poison. This effectively separates the assembly assignment and burnable poison distribution problems. Once an acceptable pattern at EOC is configured, the burnable and soluble poison required to control the power and core excess reactivity are solved for as unknown variables while depleting the cycle in reverse from the EOC exposure distribution to the beginning of cycle. The methods developed were implemented in an approved light water reactor licensing code to ensure the validity of the results obtained and provided for the maximum utility to PWR core reload design

  5. A search for PAHs in the ISO spectra of comet Hale-Bopp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovisier, J.; Bockelée-Morvan, D.

    2007-12-01

    From a new analysis of a spectrum of comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) obtained with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), Lisse et al. (2007) claimed the identification of many new dust species. Among them are PAHs, which were not found in our first analysis of the ISO spectra. We present a re-examination of the ISO observations of comet Hale-Bopp, which does not confirm the conclusion of Lisse et al.

  6. Theoretical analysis and simulation study of low-power CMOS electrochemical impedance spectroscopy biosensor in 55 nm deeply depleted channel technology for cell-state monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itakura, Keisuke; Kayano, Keisuke; Nakazato, Kazuo; Niitsu, Kiichi

    2018-01-01

    We present an impedance-detection complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) biosensor circuit for cell-state observation. The proposed biosensor can measure the expected impedance values encountered by a cell-state observation measurement system within a 0.1-200 MHz frequency range. The proposed device is capable of monitoring the intracellular conditions necessary for real-time cell-state observation, and can be fabricated using a 55 nm deeply depleted channel CMOS process. Operation of the biosensor circuit with 0.9 and 1.7 V supply voltages is verified via a simulated program with integrated circuit emphasis (SPICE) simulation. The power consumption is 300 µW. Further, the standby power consumption is 290 µW, indicating that this biosensor is a low-power instrument suitable for use in Internet of Things (IoT) devices.

  7. Dopamine depletion increases the power and coherence of high-voltage spindles in the globus pallidus and motor cortex of freely moving rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shunnan; Yang, Chen; Li, Min; Li, Jiang; Chang, Xiaozan; Fu, Jian; Chen, Lei; Chang, Chongwang; Wang, Xuelian; Zhu, Junling; Gao, Guodong

    2012-07-17

    Studies on patients with Parkinson's disease and in animal models have observed enhanced synchronization of oscillations in several frequency bands within and between the cortical-basal ganglia (BG) structures. Recent research has also shown that synchronization of high-voltage spindles (HVSs) in the cortex, striatum and substantia nigra pars reticulate is increased by dopamine depletion. However, more evidence is needed to determine whether HVS activity in the whole cortex-BG network represents homologous alteration following dopamine depletion. As the globus pallidus (GP) is in a central position to propagate and synchronize oscillations in the cortical-BG circuits, we employed local-field potentials and electrocorticogram to simultaneously record oscillations in the GP and primary (M1) and secondary (M2) motor cortices on freely moving 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesioned and control rats. Results showed that HVS episodes recorded from GP, and M2 and M1 cortex areas were more numerous and longer in 6-OHDA lesioned rats compared to controls. Relative power associated with HVS activity in the GP, and M2 and M1 cortices of 6-OHDA lesioned rats was significantly greater than that for control rats. Coherence values for HVS activity between the GP, and M2 and M1 cortex areas were significantly increased by dopamine depletion. Time lag between the M1 cortex HVS and GP HVS was significantly shorter for dopamine depleted than normal rats. Findings indicate a crucial rule for dopamine in the regulation of HVS activity in the whole cortical-BG circuit, and suggest a close relationship between abnormally synchronized HVS oscillations in the cortex-BG network and Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A rule-based expert system for control rod pattern of boiling water reactors by hovering around haling exposure shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, P.-W.; Lin, L.-S.; Yang, J.-T.

    2004-01-01

    Feasible strategies for automatic BWR control rod pattern generation have been implemented in a rule-based expert system. These strategies are majorly based on a concept for which exposure distributions are hovering around the Haling exposure distribution through a cycle while radial and axial power distributions are dominantly controlled by some abstracted factors indicating the desired distributions. The system can either automatically generate expert-level control rod patterns or search for criteria-satisfied patterns originated from user's input. It has successfully been demonstrated by generating control rod patterns for the the 1775 MWth Chinshan plant in Unit I Cycle 13 alternate loading pattern and Unit 2 Cycle 8 but with longer cycle length. All rod patterns for two cycles result in all-rod-out at EOC and no violation against the four criteria. The demonstrations show that the system is considerably good in choosing initial trial rod patterns and adjusting rod patterns to satisfy the design criteria. (author)

  9. Comparative Study of Wing Lift Distribution Analysis for High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Unmaned Aerial Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silitonga, Faber Y.; Agoes Moelyadi, M.

    2018-04-01

    The development of High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) has been emerged for both civil and military purposes. Its ability of operating in high altitude with long endurance is important in supporting maritime applications.Preliminary analysis of HALE UAV lift distribution of the wing presented to give decisive consideration for its early development. Ensuring that the generated lift is enough to compensate its own weight. Therotical approach using Pradtl’s non-linear lifting line theory will be compared with modern numerical approach using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Results of wing lift distribution calculated from both methods will be compared to study the reliability of it. HALE UAV ITB has high aspect ratio wing and will be analyze at cruise flight condition. The result indicates difference between Non-linear Lifting Line and CFD method.

  10. RE-EXAMINING SUNSPOT TILT ANGLE TO INCLUDE ANTI-HALE STATISTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClintock, B. H.; Norton, A. A.; Li, J.

    2014-01-01

    Sunspot groups and bipolar magnetic regions (BMRs) serve as an observational diagnostic of the solar cycle. We use Debrecen Photohelographic Data (DPD) from 1974-2014 that determined sunspot tilt angles from daily white light observations, and data provided by Li and Ulrich that determined sunspot magnetic tilt angle using Mount Wilson magnetograms from 1974-2012. The magnetograms allowed for BMR tilt angles that were anti-Hale in configuration, so tilt values ranged from 0 to 360° rather than the more common ±90°. We explore the visual representation of magnetic tilt angles on a traditional butterfly diagram by plotting the mean area-weighted latitude of umbral activity in each bipolar sunspot group, including tilt information. The large scatter of tilt angles over the course of a single cycle and hemisphere prevents Joy's law from being visually identified in the tilt-butterfly diagram without further binning. The average latitude of anti-Hale regions does not differ from the average latitude of all regions in both hemispheres. The distribution of anti-Hale sunspot tilt angles are broadly distributed between 0 and 360° with a weak preference for east-west alignment 180° from their expected Joy's law angle. The anti-Hale sunspots display a log-normal size distribution similar to that of all sunspots, indicating no preferred size for anti-Hale sunspots. We report that 8.4% ± 0.8% of all bipolar sunspot regions are misclassified as Hale in traditional catalogs. This percentage is slightly higher for groups within 5° of the equator due to the misalignment of the magnetic and heliographic equators

  11. RE-EXAMINING SUNSPOT TILT ANGLE TO INCLUDE ANTI-HALE STATISTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClintock, B. H. [University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, 4350 (Australia); Norton, A. A. [HEPL, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA 94305 (United States); Li, J., E-mail: u1049686@umail.usq.edu.au, E-mail: aanorton@stanford.edu, E-mail: jli@igpp.ucla.edu [Department of Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2014-12-20

    Sunspot groups and bipolar magnetic regions (BMRs) serve as an observational diagnostic of the solar cycle. We use Debrecen Photohelographic Data (DPD) from 1974-2014 that determined sunspot tilt angles from daily white light observations, and data provided by Li and Ulrich that determined sunspot magnetic tilt angle using Mount Wilson magnetograms from 1974-2012. The magnetograms allowed for BMR tilt angles that were anti-Hale in configuration, so tilt values ranged from 0 to 360° rather than the more common ±90°. We explore the visual representation of magnetic tilt angles on a traditional butterfly diagram by plotting the mean area-weighted latitude of umbral activity in each bipolar sunspot group, including tilt information. The large scatter of tilt angles over the course of a single cycle and hemisphere prevents Joy's law from being visually identified in the tilt-butterfly diagram without further binning. The average latitude of anti-Hale regions does not differ from the average latitude of all regions in both hemispheres. The distribution of anti-Hale sunspot tilt angles are broadly distributed between 0 and 360° with a weak preference for east-west alignment 180° from their expected Joy's law angle. The anti-Hale sunspots display a log-normal size distribution similar to that of all sunspots, indicating no preferred size for anti-Hale sunspots. We report that 8.4% ± 0.8% of all bipolar sunspot regions are misclassified as Hale in traditional catalogs. This percentage is slightly higher for groups within 5° of the equator due to the misalignment of the magnetic and heliographic equators.

  12. Mineral Composition, Total Phenol Content and Antioxidant Activity of a Macrolichen Everniastrum cirrhatum (Fr. Hale (Parmeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Prashith Kekuda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated for the first time mineral composition, total phenol content and antioxidant activity of a foliose macrolichen Everniastrum cirrhatum (Fr. Hale (Parmeliaceae from Bhadra wildlife sanctuary, Karnataka, India. Mineral content of the lichen was estimated by Atomic absorption spectrophotometer after acid digestion. The secondary metabolites were detected by thin layer chromatography (TLC and phytochemical assays. The lichen material was extracted with methanol in soxhlet apparatus. Total phenol content was estimated by folin ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH, Ferric reducing and metal chelating assays. Among the principal elements, calcium was found in high concentration followed by magnesium, potassium and phosphorus. Among trace elements, iron was detected in high amount followed by zinc, manganese and copper. The DPPH radical scavenging activity was found to be dose dependent with an IC50 of 6.73 μg/mL. In ferric reducing assay, the absorbance increased with the concentration of extract suggesting reducing power. The extract exhibited good metal chelating activity with an IC50 value of 29.28 μg/mL. Total phenol content was 101.2 mg tannic acid equivalents per gram of extract. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins and terpenoids. TLC revealed atranorin, salazinic acid and protolichesterinic acid. The lichen can be consumed as a source of minerals required for the body as appreciable amount of minerals has been detected. The marked antioxidant activity may be attributed to the presence of phenol content in the extract. Further studies on isolation of metabolites and their bioactivities are under investigation.

  13. Aaron Douglas and Hale Woodruff: African American Art Education, Gallery Work, and Expanded Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bey, Sharif

    2011-01-01

    This analysis of archival materials discovered at Fisk and Atlanta Universities examines the teaching careers of Aaron Douglas and Hale Woodruff, two African American artists who came to prominence during the New Negro Movement in the 1920s and taught at historically Black universities in the 1930s and 1940s. These artists had a profound influence…

  14. New methods for deriving cometary secular light curves: C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, Maria; Lastra, Nathan; Harrington, Olga; Curtis, Anthony; Wierzchos, Kacper; Ruffini, Nicholas; Charles, Mentzer; Rabson, David; Cox, Timothy; Rivera, Isabel; Micciche, Anthony

    2017-10-01

    We present an algorithm for reducing scatter and increasing precision in a comet light curve. As a demonstration, we processed apparent magnitudes of comet Hale-Bopp from 16 highly experienced observers (archived with the International Comet Quarterly), correcting for distance from Earth and phase angle. Different observers tend to agree on the difference in magnitudes of an object at different distances, but the magnitude reported by observer is shifted relative to that of another for an object at a fixed distance. We estimated the shifts using a self-consistent statistical approach, leading to a sharper light curve and improving the precision of the measured slopes. The final secular lightcurve for comet Hale-Bopp ranges from -7 au (pre-perihelion) to +8 au (post-perihelion) and is the best secular light curve produced to date for this “great” comet. We discuss Hale-Bopp’s lightcurve evolution and possibly related physical implications, and potential usefulness of this light curve for comparisons with other future bright comets. We also assess the appropriateness of using secular lightcurves to characterize dust production rates in Hale-Bopp and other dust-rich comets. M.W. acknowledges support from NSF grant AST-1615917.

  15. Set Matching: An Enhancement of the Hales-Jewett Pairing Strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uiterwijk, JWHM; Winands, Mark; van den Herik, H. Jaap; Kosters, Walter

    2017-01-01

    When solving k-in-a-Row games, the Hales-Jewett pairing strategy [4] is a well-known strategy to prove that specic positions are (at most) a draw. It requires two empty squares per possible winning line (group) to be marked, i.e., with a coverage ratio of 2.0. In this paper we present a new

  16. CBO Testimony: Statement of Robert F. Hale, Assistant Director, National Security Division, Congressional Budget Office

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hale, Robert F

    1991-01-01

    .... This testimony, by Robert F. Hale, Congressional Budget Office, covers the following topics: Socioeconomic Backgrounds of Enlisted Recruits, Racial Mix of Enlisted Recruits, Shifts in Recruiting during the 1980s, Altering the Composition of the Military: Reserve Mobilization and Conscription, and Should the Social Composition of the Military be a Concern?

  17. Electron Beam Welding of a Depleted Uranium Alloy to Niobium Using a Calibrated Electron Beam Power Density Distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmer, J.W.; Teruya, A.T.; Terrill, P.E.

    2000-01-01

    Electron beam test welds were made joining flat plates of commercially pure niobium to a uranium-6wt%Nb (binary) alloy. The welding parameters and joint design were specifically developed to minimize mixing of the niobium with the U-6%Nb alloy. A Modified Faraday Cup (MFC) technique using computer-assisted tomography was employed to determine the precise power distribution of the electron beam so that the welding parameters could be directly transferred to other welding machines and/or to other facilities

  18. Gust load estimation and rejection with application to robust flight control design for HALE aircraft, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) aircraft have garnered increased interest in recent years as they can serve several purposes, including many of the objectives of...

  19. Riddle of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    Depleted Uranium (DU) is the waste product of uranium enrichment from the manufacturing of fuel rods for nuclear reactors in nuclear power plants and nuclear power ships. DU may also results from the reprocessing of spent nuclear reactor fuel. Potentially DU has both chemical and radiological toxicity with two important targets organs being the kidney and the lungs. DU is made into a metal and, due to its availability, low price, high specific weight, density and melting point as well as its pyrophoricity; it has a wide range of civilian and military applications. Due to the use of DU over the recent years, there appeared in some press on health hazards that are alleged to be due to DU. In these paper properties, applications, potential environmental and health effects of DU are briefly reviewed

  20. The 830--1120 A Spectrum of a Bright Comet: First Results on Hale-Bopp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, S. Alan; Festou, Michel C.; Slater, David C.; Parker, Joel Wm.; A'Hearn, Michael F.

    1998-09-01

    The EUVS planetary sounding rocket spectrograph was flown on 29 March 1997 from White Sands, New Mexico to observe comet Hale-Bopp in the bandpass from 830--1120 Angstroms. At the time of launch the comet was near perihelion, 0.92 AU from the Sun, 1.34 AU from Earth, and traveling at a heliocentric radial velocity of +0.70 km/s. EUVS obtained its primary spectra of the comet at resolution near 3 Angstroms, collecting 9340 counts over approximately 330 seconds of integration time. To our knowledge, the resulting dataset is both the most sensitive and the highest spectral resolution probe of a comet in the UV below 1200 Angstroms yet achieved. The spectrum includes significant detections which we tentatively attribute to due to 834 Angstroms 0 II, the 1026 Angstroms H I Lyman beta /O I blend, and 989 Angstroms O I; we will also discuss evidence for Argon signatures, as well as two additional, yet to be identified features. We will describe the EUVS Hale-Bopp experiment and its results, including feature brightnesses, corresponding columns, and species abundance ratios in the inner coma. In addition to its value for providing insight into comets in general, and Hale-Bopp in particular, this spectrum is serving as an excellent input for New Millennium Deep Space 1/MICAS and Rosetta/ALICE UV observation planning below 1200 Angstroms.

  1. Measurements of [C I] 9850 A Emission from Comet Hale-Bopp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliversen, R. J.; Doane, N.; Scherb, F.; Harris, W. M.; Morgenthaler, J. P.

    2002-01-01

    We present quantitative measurements of cometary [C I] 9850 A, emission obtained during observations of comet Hale-Bopp (C/1995 O1) in 1997 March and April. The observations were carried out using a high-resolution (lambda/Delta lambda approx. 40,000) Fabry-Perot/CCD spectrometer at the McMath-Pierce solar telescope on Kitt Peak. This forbidden line, the carbon analog of [O I] 6300 A, is emitted in the radiative decay of C(1D) atoms. In the absence of other sources and sinks, [C I] 9850 A emission may be used as a direct tracer of CO photodissociation in comets. However, in Hale-Bopp's large, dense coma, other processes, such as collisional excitation of ground-state C(3P), dissociative recombination of CO+, and collisional dissociation of CO and CO2 may produce significant amounts of C(1D). The long C(1D) radiative lifetime (approx. 4000 s) makes collisional de-excitation (quenching) the primary loss mechanism in the inner coma. Thus, a detailed, self-consistent global model of collisional and photochemical interactions is necessary to fully account for [C I] 9850 A emission in comet Hale-Bopp.

  2. MOx Depletion Calculation Benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Felice, Laurence; Eschbach, Romain; Dewi Syarifah, Ratna; Maryam, Seif-Eddine; Hesketh, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Under the auspices of the NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC), the Working Party on Scientific Issues of Reactor Systems (WPRS) has been established to study the reactor physics, fuel performance, radiation transport and shielding, and the uncertainties associated with modelling of these phenomena in present and future nuclear power systems. The WPRS has different expert groups to cover a wide range of scientific issues in these fields. The Expert Group on Reactor Physics and Advanced Nuclear Systems (EGRPANS) was created in 2011 to perform specific tasks associated with reactor physics aspects of present and future nuclear power systems. EGRPANS provides expert advice to the WPRS and the nuclear community on the development needs (data and methods, validation experiments, scenario studies) for different reactor systems and also provides specific technical information regarding: core reactivity characteristics, including fuel depletion effects; core power/flux distributions; Core dynamics and reactivity control. In 2013 EGRPANS published a report that investigated fuel depletion effects in a Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR). This was entitled 'International Comparison of a Depletion Calculation Benchmark on Fuel Cycle Issues' NEA/NSC/DOC(2013) that documented a benchmark exercise for UO 2 fuel rods. This report documents a complementary benchmark exercise that focused on PuO 2 /UO 2 Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel rods. The results are especially relevant to the back-end of the fuel cycle, including irradiated fuel transport, reprocessing, interim storage and waste repository. Saint-Laurent B1 (SLB1) was the first French reactor to use MOx assemblies. SLB1 is a 900 MWe PWR, with 30% MOx fuel loading. The standard MOx assemblies, used in Saint-Laurent B1 reactor, include three zones with different plutonium enrichments, high Pu content (5.64%) in the center zone, medium Pu content (4.42%) in the intermediate zone and low Pu content (2.91%) in the peripheral zone

  3. Fiscal 1999 achievement report on regional consortium research and development project. Regional consortium activity in its 2nd year (Development of 6-axis Hale machining system); 1999 nendo 6 jiku koseido hale kako system no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    To enhance precision in the machining of complicated shapes and to save labor during the finishing process, research and development is carried out about a Hale machining system based on machining with a non-rotating tool. A tentatively constructed 6-axis Hale machine is tested, and then the intended level of surface coarseness is attained. In relation with machining technologies, a Hale machining tool is modified and provided with a diamond-like carbon coating, and then it is found that this will prolong the tool life. An instrument is developed which measures and evaluates the 6-axis Hale machine operating locus. In relation with CAD/CAM (computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing), propositions over the draft for the ISO14649 international standard involving CAM/NC (numerical control) are collected and put together. As for 5-axis machining using the conventional ball-posed end mill, it is concluded that it will be feasible. In relation with NC, an NC unit for the tentatively constructed 6-axis Hale machine is completed, and is evaluated in an actual operation test aboard a real machine. (NEDO)

  4. Therapeutic ultrasound as a potential male contraceptive: power, frequency and temperature required to deplete rat testes of meiotic cells and epididymides of sperm determined using a commercially available system

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuruta James K; Dayton Paul A; Gallippi Caterina M; O'Rand Michael G; Streicker Michael A; Gessner Ryan C; Gregory Thomas S; Silva Erick JR; Hamil Katherine G; Moser Glenda J; Sokal David C

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies published in the 1970s by Mostafa S. Fahim and colleagues showed that a short treatment with ultrasound caused the depletion of germ cells and infertility. The goal of the current study was to determine if a commercially available therapeutic ultrasound generator and transducer could be used as the basis for a male contraceptive. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized and their testes were treated with 1 MHz or 3 MHz ultrasound while varying power, duration ...

  5. Statistical implications in Monte Carlo depletions - 051

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhiwen, Xu; Rhodes, J.; Smith, K.

    2010-01-01

    As a result of steady advances of computer power, continuous-energy Monte Carlo depletion analysis is attracting considerable attention for reactor burnup calculations. The typical Monte Carlo analysis is set up as a combination of a Monte Carlo neutron transport solver and a fuel burnup solver. Note that the burnup solver is a deterministic module. The statistical errors in Monte Carlo solutions are introduced into nuclide number densities and propagated along fuel burnup. This paper is towards the understanding of the statistical implications in Monte Carlo depletions, including both statistical bias and statistical variations in depleted fuel number densities. The deterministic Studsvik lattice physics code, CASMO-5, is modified to model the Monte Carlo depletion. The statistical bias in depleted number densities is found to be negligible compared to its statistical variations, which, in turn, demonstrates the correctness of the Monte Carlo depletion method. Meanwhile, the statistical variation in number densities generally increases with burnup. Several possible ways of reducing the statistical errors are discussed: 1) to increase the number of individual Monte Carlo histories; 2) to increase the number of time steps; 3) to run additional independent Monte Carlo depletion cases. Finally, a new Monte Carlo depletion methodology, called the batch depletion method, is proposed, which consists of performing a set of independent Monte Carlo depletions and is thus capable of estimating the overall statistical errors including both the local statistical error and the propagated statistical error. (authors)

  6. Modeling the Dynamics of Comet Hale-Bopp's Dust at Large Heliocentric Distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Emily A.; Fernandez, Y. R.; Kelley, M. S.; Woodney, L. M.; Lisse, C. M.

    2010-10-01

    Comet Hale-Bopp has provided an unprecedented opportunity to observe a bright comet over a wide range of heliocentric distances. We present here Spitzer Space Telescope observations of Hale-Bopp from 2005 and 2008 that show a distinct coma and tail, which is uncommon given its heliocentric distance -- 21.6 AU and 27.2 AU, respectively. These 24 um images (obtained with MIPS, the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer) show thermal emission from the dust, and are being studied using dynamical models [1, 2] to explain the dust morphology and constrain the dust's properties. Preliminary work suggests that the motion of the dust cannot be solely due to the effects of gravity and radiation pressure. We investigate the role of other possible driving forces, including the so-called rocket force [3]. Our initial analysis also shows that: (1) there is no trail lying along the orbit plane, as Spitzer saw for many other comets [4]; (2) the position angle of the tail changed by about 50º between 2005 and 2008; (3) the faintness and shape of the tail in 2008 compared to 2005 cannot solely be due to the change in observing geometry. These points suggest that even though Hale-Bopp is far from the Sun its tail is made of relatively recently-released grains. Our science goals are to understand the comet's activity mechanism, constrain the age of the dust, find the size of the grains, and compare properties of the dust seen now to those of the dust seen in the 1990s. We acknowledge support from the NSF, NASA and the Spitzer Science Center for this work. References: [1] Kelley, M.S., et al.  2008, Icarus 193, 572, [2] Lisse, C.M., et al. 1998, ApJ 496, 971, [3] Reach, W.T., et al. 2009, Icarus 203, 571, [4] Reach, W.T., et al. 2007, Icarus 191, 298.

  7. Li depletion effects on Li2TiO3 reaction with H2 in thermo-chemical environment relevant to breeding blanket for fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvani, Carlo; Casadio, Sergio; Contini, Vittoria; Giorgi, Rossella; Mancini, Maria Rita; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Kawamura, Hiroshi

    2005-07-01

    This is a report of the Working Group in the Subtask on Solid Breeder Blankets under the Implementing Agreement on a Co-operative Programme on Nuclear Technology of Fusion Reactors (International Energy Agency (IEA)). This Working Group (Task F and WG-F) was performed from 2000 to 2004 by a collaboration of European Union (EU) and Japan (JA). In this report, lithium depletion effects on the reaction of lithium titanate (Li 2 TiO 3 ) with hydrogen (H 2 ) in thermo-chemical environment were discussed. The reaction of Li 2 TiO 3 ceramics with H 2 was studied in a thermo-chemical environment simulating (excepting irradiation) that of the hottest pebble-bed zone of breeding-blanket actually designed for fusion power plants. This 'reduction' as performed at 900degC in Ar+0.1%H, purge gas (He+0.1%H 2 being the designed reference') was found to be enhanced by TiO 2 doping of the specimens of simulate 6 Li-burn-up expected to reach 20% at their end-of-life. The reaction rates, however, were so slow to be not significantly extrapolated to the breeder material service time (years). In Ar+3%H 2 , faster reaction rates allowed a better identification of the process evolution (kinetics) by Temperature-Programmed Reduction' (TPR) and 'Oxidation' (TPO), and combined TG-DTA thermal analysis. The reduction of pure Li 4/5 TiO 12/5 spinel phase to Li 4/5 TiO 12/5-y was found to reach in one day the steady state at the O-vacancy concentration y=0.2. Complimentary microscopy (SEM) and spectroscopy (XRD, XPS) techniques were used to characterize the reaction products among which the presence of the orthorhombic Li v TiO 2 (0 ≤ v ≤ 1/2) and Li 2 TiO 3 could be diagnosed. So that the complete spinel reduction to Li 1/2 TiO 2 was obtained according to a scheme involving the Li 1/2 TiO 2 -Li 4/5 TiO 12/5 spinel phase solid solution for which y=3v/(10-5v). The reduction rate of pure meta-titanate to Li 2 TiO 3-x was found much lower (x approx. = 0.01) and even possibly due to the presence

  8. Deuterium-depleted water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Ion; Steflea, Dumitru; Saros-Rogobete, Irina; Titescu, Gheorghe; Tamaian, Radu

    2001-01-01

    Deuterium-depleted water represents water that has an isotopic content smaller than 145 ppm D/(D+H) which is the natural isotopic content of water. Deuterium depleted water is produced by vacuum distillation in columns equipped with structured packing made from phosphor bronze or stainless steel. Deuterium-depleted water, the production technique and structured packing are patents of National Institute of Research - Development for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies at Rm. Valcea. Researches made in the last few years showed the deuterium-depleted water is a biological active product that could have many applications in medicine and agriculture. (authors)

  9. Kinetics of depletion interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, G.A.; Schoot, van der P.P.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Depletion interactions between colloidal particles dispersed in a fluid medium are effective interactions induced by the presence of other types of colloid. They are not instantaneous but built up in time. We show by means of Brownian dynamics simulations that the static (mean-field) depletion force

  10. Comparison of three different dietary scores in relation to 10-year mortality in elderly European subjects: the HALE project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoops, K.T.B.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Fidanza, F.; Alberti-Fidanza, A.; Kromhout, D.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate and compare the associations between dietary patterns and mortality using different European indexes of overall dietary quality. Design, Setting and Participants: The HALE (Healthy Ageing: a Longitudinal study in Europe) population includes 2068 men and 1049 women, aged

  11. Comparison of three different dietary scores in relation to 10-year mortality in elderly European subjects: the HALE project.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoops, K T B; Groot, L C de; Fidanza, F; Alberti-Fidanza, A; Kromhout, Daan; Staveren, W A van

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate and compare the associations between dietary patterns and mortality using different European indexes of overall dietary quality. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The HALE (Healthy Ageing: a Longitudinal study in Europe) population includes 2,068 men and 1,049 women, aged

  12. Management of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Large stocks of depleted uranium have arisen as a result of enrichment operations, especially in the United States and the Russian Federation. Countries with depleted uranium stocks are interested in assessing strategies for the use and management of depleted uranium. The choice of strategy depends on several factors, including government and business policy, alternative uses available, the economic value of the material, regulatory aspects and disposal options, and international market developments in the nuclear fuel cycle. This report presents the results of a depleted uranium study conducted by an expert group organised jointly by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency. It contains information on current inventories of depleted uranium, potential future arisings, long term management alternatives, peaceful use options and country programmes. In addition, it explores ideas for international collaboration and identifies key issues for governments and policy makers to consider. (authors)

  13. Development of a depletion program for the calculation of the 3D-burn-up dependent power distributions in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennewitz, F.; Mueller, A.; Wagner, M.R.

    1977-11-01

    Based on the nodal collision probability method a multi-dimensional reactor burn-up program MEDIUM has been developed, which is written for 2 neutron energy groups. It is characterized by high computing speed, considerable generality and flexibility, a number of useful program options and good accuracy. The three-dimensional flux calculation model is described, the formulation and method of solution of the nuclear depletion equations and further details of the program structure. The results of a number of comparisons with experimental data and with independent computer programs are presented. (orig.) [de

  14. Plasmonic Nanoprobes for Stimulated Emission Depletion Nanoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Emiliano; Huidobro, Paloma A; Sinclair, Hugo G; Guldbrand, Stina; Peveler, William J; Davies, Timothy; Parrinello, Simona; Görlitz, Frederik; Dunsby, Chris; Neil, Mark A A; Sivan, Yonatan; Parkin, Ivan P; French, Paul M W; Maier, Stefan A

    2016-11-22

    Plasmonic nanoparticles influence the absorption and emission processes of nearby emitters due to local enhancements of the illuminating radiation and the photonic density of states. Here, we use the plasmon resonance of metal nanoparticles in order to enhance the stimulated depletion of excited molecules for super-resolved nanoscopy. We demonstrate stimulated emission depletion (STED) nanoscopy with gold nanorods with a long axis of only 26 nm and a width of 8 nm. These particles provide an enhancement of up to 50% of the resolution compared to fluorescent-only probes without plasmonic components irradiated with the same depletion power. The nanoparticle-assisted STED probes reported here represent a ∼2 × 10 3 reduction in probe volume compared to previously used nanoparticles. Finally, we demonstrate their application toward plasmon-assisted STED cellular imaging at low-depletion powers, and we also discuss their current limitations.

  15. HALE UAS Command and Control Communications: Step 1 - Functional Requirements Document. Version 4.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) unmanned aircraft system (UAS) communicates with an off-board pilot-in-command in all flight phases via the C2 data link, making it a critical component for the UA to fly in the NAS safely and routinely. This is a new requirement in current FAA communications planning and monitoring processes. This document provides a set of comprehensive C2 communications functional requirements and performance guidelines to help facilitate the future FAA certification process for civil UAS to operate in the NAS. The objective of the guidelines is to provide the ability to validate the functional requirements and in future be used to develop performance-level requirements.

  16. Functional Requirements Document for HALE UAS Operations in the NAS: Step 1. Version 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this Functional Requirements Document (FRD) is to compile the functional requirements needed to achieve the Access 5 Vision of "operating High Altitude, Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) routinely, safely, and reliably in the national airspace system (NAS)" for Step 1. These functional requirements could support the development of a minimum set of policies, procedures and standards by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and various standards organizations. It is envisioned that this comprehensive body of work will enable the FAA to establish and approve regulations to govern safe operation of UAS in the NAS on a routine or daily "file and fly" basis. The approach used to derive the functional requirements found within this FRD was to decompose the operational requirements and objectives identified within the Access 5 Concept of Operations (CONOPS) into the functions needed to routinely and safely operate a HALE UAS in the NAS. As a result, four major functional areas evolved to enable routine and safe UAS operations for an on-demand basis in the NAS. These four major functions are: Aviate, Navigate, Communicate, and Avoid Hazards. All of the functional requirements within this document can be directly traceable to one of these four major functions. Some functions, however, are traceable to several, or even all, of these four major functions. These cross-cutting functional requirements support the "Command / Control: function as well as the "Manage Contingencies" function. The requirements associated to these high-level functions and all of their supporting low-level functions are addressed in subsequent sections of this document.

  17. Depleted Bulk Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Barkhouse, D. Aaron R.

    2011-05-26

    The first solution-processed depleted bulk heterojunction colloidal quantum dot solar cells are presented. The architecture allows for high absorption with full depletion, thereby breaking the photon absorption/carrier extraction compromise inherent in planar devices. A record power conversion of 5.5% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions is reported. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. ESA's Rosetta mission and the puzzles that Hale-Bopp left behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The scientific payload was confirmed by ESA's Science Programme Committee in February. Now the scientists must perfect the full range of ultra-sensitive yet spaceworthy instruments in good time for Rosetta's despatch by an Ariane 5 launcher in January 2003. And even as most of the world was admiring Comet Hale-Bopp at its brightest, dedicated astronomers were examining the comet that will be Rosetta's target. Although too faint to be seen with the naked eye, Comet Wirtanen made its closest approach to the Sun on 14 March and a fairly close approach to the Earth on 24 March. This comet comes back every 5.5 years. Rosetta will dance attendance on Comet Wirtanen, not at the next return in 2002, nor even in 2008, but in 2013. The project is an ambitious and patient effort to achieve the most thorough investigation of a comet ever attempted. As the successor to ESA's highly successful Giotto mission to Halley's Comet and Comet Grigg-Skjellerup (which took seven years) Rosetta will spend eight years positioning itself. It will manoeuvre around the planets until it is shadowing Comet Wirtanen far beyond Mars, on nearly the same path around the Sun. In 2011 it will rendezvous with the comet and fly near it. In April 2012 Rosetta will go into a near orbit around Comet Wirtanen, and escort it for 17 busy months, as it flies in to make its closest approach to the Sun in September 2013, at the climax of the mission. "The Giotto mission placed us at the forefront of cometary exploration," comments Roger Bonnet, ESA's director of science. "The motivation came from European scientists with a sharp sense of the special importance of comets for understanding the Solar System. The same enthusiasm drives us onward to Rosetta, which will ensure our continued leadership in this important branch of space science." Scientific tasks During its prolonged operations in very close company with the comet's nucleus, Rosetta will map and examine its entire surface from distances of 10 to 50

  19. Halo Star Lithium Depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinsonneault, M. H.; Walker, T. P.; Steigman, G.; Narayanan, Vijay K.

    1999-01-01

    The depletion of lithium during the pre-main-sequence and main-sequence phases of stellar evolution plays a crucial role in the comparison of the predictions of big bang nucleosynthesis with the abundances observed in halo stars. Previous work has indicated a wide range of possible depletion factors, ranging from minimal in standard (nonrotating) stellar models to as much as an order of magnitude in models that include rotational mixing. Recent progress in the study of the angular momentum evolution of low-mass stars permits the construction of theoretical models capable of reproducing the angular momentum evolution of low-mass open cluster stars. The distribution of initial angular momenta can be inferred from stellar rotation data in young open clusters. In this paper we report on the application of these models to the study of lithium depletion in main-sequence halo stars. A range of initial angular momenta produces a range of lithium depletion factors on the main sequence. Using the distribution of initial conditions inferred from young open clusters leads to a well-defined halo lithium plateau with modest scatter and a small population of outliers. The mass-dependent angular momentum loss law inferred from open cluster studies produces a nearly flat plateau, unlike previous models that exhibited a downward curvature for hotter temperatures in the 7Li-Teff plane. The overall depletion factor for the plateau stars is sensitive primarily to the solar initial angular momentum used in the calibration for the mixing diffusion coefficients. Uncertainties remain in the treatment of the internal angular momentum transport in the models, and the potential impact of these uncertainties on our results is discussed. The 6Li/7Li depletion ratio is also examined. We find that the dispersion in the plateau and the 6Li/7Li depletion ratio scale with the absolute 7Li depletion in the plateau, and we use observational data to set bounds on the 7Li depletion in main-sequence halo

  20. Addressing Ozone Layer Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.

  1. Thermal model of water and CO activity of Comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gortsas, N.; Kührt, E.; Motschmann, U.; Keller, H. U.

    2011-04-01

    An investigation of the activity of Comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) with a thermophysical nucleus model that does not rely on the existence of amorphous ice is presented. Our approach incorporates recent observations allowing to constrain important parameters that control cometary activity. The model accounts for heat conduction, heat advection, gas diffusion, sublimation, and condensation in a porous ice-dust matrix with moving boundaries. Erosion due to surface sublimation of water ice leads to a moving boundary. The movement of the boundary is modeled by applying a temperature remapping technique which allows us to account for the loss in the internal energy of the eroded surface material. These kind of problems are commonly referred to as Stefan problems. The model takes into account the diurnal rotation of the nucleus and seasonal effects due to the strong obliquity of Hale-Bopp as reported by Jorda et al. (Jorda, L., Rembor, K., Lecacheux, J., Colom, P., Colas, F., Frappa, E., Lara, L.M. [1997]. Earth Moon Planets 77, 167-180). Only bulk sublimation of water and CO ice are considered without further assumptions such as amorphous ices with certain amount of occluded CO gas. Confined and localized activity patterns are investigated following the reports of Lederer and Campins (Lederer, S.M., Campins, H. [2002]. Earth Moon Planets 90, 381-389) about the chemical heterogeneity of Hale-Bopp and of Bockelée-Morvan et al. (Bockelée-Morvan, D., Henry, F., Biver, N., Boissier, J., Colom, P., Crovisier, J., Despois, D., Moreno, R., Wink, J. [2009]. Astron. Astrophys. 505, 825-843) about a strong CO source at a latitude of 20°. The best fit to the observations of Biver et al. (Biver, N. et al. [2002]. Earth Moon Planets 90, 5-14) is obtained with a low thermal conductivity of 0.01 W m -1 K -1. This is in agreement with recent results of the Deep Impact mission to 9P/Tempel 1 (Groussin, O., A'Hearn, M.F., Li, J.-Y., Thomas, P.C., Sunshine, J.M., Lisse, C.M., Meech, K

  2. Therapeutic ultrasound as a potential male contraceptive: power, frequency and temperature required to deplete rat testes of meiotic cells and epididymides of sperm determined using a commercially available system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuruta James K

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies published in the 1970s by Mostafa S. Fahim and colleagues showed that a short treatment with ultrasound caused the depletion of germ cells and infertility. The goal of the current study was to determine if a commercially available therapeutic ultrasound generator and transducer could be used as the basis for a male contraceptive. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized and their testes were treated with 1 MHz or 3 MHz ultrasound while varying power, duration and temperature of treatment. Results We found that 3 MHz ultrasound delivered with 2.2 Watt per square cm power for fifteen minutes was necessary to deplete spermatocytes and spermatids from the testis and that this treatment significantly reduced epididymal sperm reserves. 3 MHz ultrasound treatment reduced total epididymal sperm count 10-fold lower than the wet-heat control and decreased motile sperm counts 1,000-fold lower than wet-heat alone. The current treatment regimen provided nominally more energy to the treatment chamber than Fahim's originally reported conditions of 1 MHz ultrasound delivered at 1 Watt per square cm for ten minutes. However, the true spatial average intensity, effective radiating area and power output of the transducers used by Fahim were not reported, making a direct comparison impossible. We found that germ cell depletion was most uniform and effective when we rotated the therapeutic transducer to mitigate non-uniformity of the beam field. The lowest sperm count was achieved when the coupling medium (3% saline was held at 37 degrees C and two consecutive 15-minute treatments of 3 MHz ultrasound at 2.2 Watt per square cm were separated by 2 days. Conclusions The non-invasive nature of ultrasound and its efficacy in reducing sperm count make therapeutic ultrasound a promising candidate for a male contraceptive. However, further studies must be conducted to confirm its efficacy in providing a contraceptive effect, to test the

  3. Therapeutic ultrasound as a potential male contraceptive: power, frequency and temperature required to deplete rat testes of meiotic cells and epididymides of sperm determined using a commercially available system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruta, James K; Dayton, Paul A; Gallippi, Caterina M; O'Rand, Michael G; Streicker, Michael A; Gessner, Ryan C; Gregory, Thomas S; Silva, Erick J R; Hamil, Katherine G; Moser, Glenda J; Sokal, David C

    2012-01-30

    Studies published in the 1970s by Mostafa S. Fahim and colleagues showed that a short treatment with ultrasound caused the depletion of germ cells and infertility. The goal of the current study was to determine if a commercially available therapeutic ultrasound generator and transducer could be used as the basis for a male contraceptive. Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized and their testes were treated with 1 MHz or 3 MHz ultrasound while varying power, duration and temperature of treatment. We found that 3 MHz ultrasound delivered with 2.2 Watt per square cm power for fifteen minutes was necessary to deplete spermatocytes and spermatids from the testis and that this treatment significantly reduced epididymal sperm reserves. 3 MHz ultrasound treatment reduced total epididymal sperm count 10-fold lower than the wet-heat control and decreased motile sperm counts 1,000-fold lower than wet-heat alone. The current treatment regimen provided nominally more energy to the treatment chamber than Fahim's originally reported conditions of 1 MHz ultrasound delivered at 1 Watt per square cm for ten minutes. However, the true spatial average intensity, effective radiating area and power output of the transducers used by Fahim were not reported, making a direct comparison impossible. We found that germ cell depletion was most uniform and effective when we rotated the therapeutic transducer to mitigate non-uniformity of the beam field. The lowest sperm count was achieved when the coupling medium (3% saline) was held at 37 degrees C and two consecutive 15-minute treatments of 3 MHz ultrasound at 2.2 Watt per square cm were separated by 2 days. The non-invasive nature of ultrasound and its efficacy in reducing sperm count make therapeutic ultrasound a promising candidate for a male contraceptive. However, further studies must be conducted to confirm its efficacy in providing a contraceptive effect, to test the result of repeated use, to verify that the contraceptive effect is

  4. ‘Imi Hale – The Native Hawaiian Cancer Awareness, Research, and Training Network: Second-Year Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Kathryn L.; Tsark, JoAnn; Ann Santos, Lorrie; Abrigo, Lehua

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe ‘Imi Hale, a program developed and managed by Native Hawaiians to increase cancer awareness and research capacity among Native Hawaiians. This US subgroup of indigenous people of the Hawaiian islands has disproportionately high rates of cancer mortality and low rates of participation in health and research careers. Methods As a community-based research project, ‘Imi Hale spent its first year gathering data from Native Hawaiians about their cancer awareness and research priorities. These findings guide ‘Imi Hale’s community and scientific advisors, a community-based Institutional Review Board, Na Liko Noelo (budding researchers), and staff in developing and carrying out projects that address these priority areas. Emphasis is placed on transferring skills and resources to Native Hawaiians through training, technical assistance, and mentorship. A biennial survey assesses the extent to which community-based participatory research principles are being followed. Principal Findings By the end of the second year, statewide and island-specific awareness plans were produced, and 9 funded awareness projects are supporting the development and dissemination of Hawaiian health education materials. Research accomplishments include the enrollment of 42 Native Hawaiian Na Liko Noelo (budding researchers), 22 of which are involved in 14 funded research projects. The biennial evaluation survey found that 92% of our advisors felt that ‘Imi Hale was promoting scientifically rigorous research that was culturally appropriate and respectful of Native Hawaiian beliefs, and 96% felt that ‘Imi Hale was following its own principles of community-based participatory research. Conclusion ‘Imi Hale’s community-based approach to promoting cancer awareness will result in a sustainable infrastructure for reducing the cancer burden on Native Hawaiians. PMID:15352771

  5. Morfología de la Coma del Cometa Hale - Bopp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Hutton, R.; Caballero, M.; Coldwell, G.; Cañada, M.; Godoy, G.; Trozzo, C.; Gómez, G.

    Para lograr comprender plenamente los procesos físicos que se desarrollan en los núcleos cometarios y obtener un modelo que explique, no sólo su actividad, sino también sus efectos sobre la coma, es necesario obtener información detallada para el mayor número de cometas posible, siendo las características más interesantes para estudiar la ubicación de las regiones activas, la presencia de jets, las tasas de producción de gas y polvo y la interacción de la coma con el viento solar. En la actualidad, con técnicas de procesamiento de imágenes y tecnología CCD se pueden obtener este tipo de datos para cometas que ingresan al sistema solar interior y estudiar, de esta manera, la morfología de sus comas, tratando de correlacionar la actividad detectada con algún modelo teórico. En este trabajo se presenta un estudio parcial de la actividad desarrollada por el cometa Hale-Bopp, y sus efectos sobre la morfología de su coma, desde agosto de 1995 hasta la fecha en base a imágenes adquiridas con el telescopio de 0.76 m. de la Estación Astronómica Dr. Carlos Ulrrico Cesco.

  6. An Early Investigation Of The Striated Tail Of Comet Hale-Bopp (C/1995 O1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittichová, J.; Sekanina, Z.; Birkle, K.; Boehnhardt, H.; Engels, D.; Keller, P.

    1997-07-01

    The Sekanina-Farrell particle fragmentation model for the striated tails of dust comets is successfully applied to two images of comet Hale-Bopp to study the motions of 12 striae in a time span of March 12 15, 1997. There is evidence for recurring outbursts with a periodicity of 11h21m, consistent with results based on analysis of dust jets. The ejecta in all the striae appear to have been released from one source on the nucleus between the end of January and the second half of February 1997, some 60 to 40 days before perihelion. The parent particles were subjected to a radiation pressure acceleration of βp ≃ 0.55 and their fragmentation lifetimes in 11 of the 12 striae were practically constant and equal to 13 15 days, when normalized to 1 AU from the Sun. Brief analysis of Watanabe et al.'s measurements of striae on their images from March 5 9, 1997 shows even shorter fragmentation lifetimes for the parent particles, mostly about 7 11 days at1 AU.

  7. PALM-3000: EXOPLANET ADAPTIVE OPTICS FOR THE 5 m HALE TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dekany, Richard; Bouchez, Antonin; Baranec, Christoph; Hale, David; Zolkower, Jeffry; Henning, John; Croner, Ernest; McKenna, Dan; Hildebrandt, Sergi; Milburn, Jennifer [Caltech Optical Observatories, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 11-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Roberts, Jennifer; Burruss, Rick; Truong, Tuan; Guiwits, Stephen; Angione, John; Trinh, Thang; Shelton, J. Christopher; Palmer, Dean; Troy, Mitchell; Tesch, Jonathan, E-mail: rgd@astro.caltech.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2013-10-20

    We describe and report first results from PALM-3000, the second-generation astronomical adaptive optics (AO) facility for the 5.1 m Hale telescope at Palomar Observatory. PALM-3000 has been engineered for high-contrast imaging and emission spectroscopy of brown dwarfs and large planetary mass bodies at near-infrared wavelengths around bright stars, but also supports general natural guide star use to V ≈ 17. Using its unique 66 × 66 actuator deformable mirror, PALM-3000 has thus far demonstrated residual wavefront errors of 141 nm rms under ∼1'' seeing conditions. PALM-3000 can provide phase conjugation correction over a 6.''4 × 6.''4 working region at λ = 2.2 μm, or full electric field (amplitude and phase) correction over approximately one-half of this field. With optimized back-end instrumentation, PALM-3000 is designed to enable 10{sup –7} contrast at 1'' angular separation, including post-observation speckle suppression processing. While continued optimization of the AO system is ongoing, we have already successfully commissioned five back-end instruments and begun a major exoplanet characterization survey, Project 1640.

  8. An Analysis of the Heroine of North and South---Margaret Hale as an Independent Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mrs. Gaskell is a very important woman writer in the 19th century in Britain, and she is famous for her social novels, in which she highlights complicated social conflicts. North and South is usually considered as the turning point of Mrs. Gaskell’s literary creation, in which she suggests for the first time that there should be a hope of a reconciliation between the working class and the bourgeoisie. Also, the author vividly depicted an independent woman with a sharp mind and a deliberate manner in the book, that is, Margaret Hale. She seems to be very special when compared with the women around her and very attractive to men for her peculiar thoughts as well as her beautiful looks. This thesis mainly analyzes the attractive heroine of the novel in three aspects: her independent character, her independent action and her independent thoughts. What’s more, the thesis aims to shed light on the characteristics a “New Woman” should be endowed with. The heroine, to some extent, is the author Mrs. Gaskell herself, rejecting inferiority to men and defending the rights to express themselves freely. All in all, this thesis tries to enlighten people on woman’s position in today’s society by deriving some inspirations from the literary work.

  9. Revisiting Antarctic Ozone Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grooß, Jens-Uwe; Tritscher, Ines; Müller, Rolf

    2015-04-01

    Antarctic ozone depletion is known for almost three decades and it has been well settled that it is caused by chlorine catalysed ozone depletion inside the polar vortex. However, there are still some details, which need to be clarified. In particular, there is a current debate on the relative importance of liquid aerosol and crystalline NAT and ice particles for chlorine activation. Particles have a threefold impact on polar chlorine chemistry, temporary removal of HNO3 from the gas-phase (uptake), permanent removal of HNO3 from the atmosphere (denitrification), and chlorine activation through heterogeneous reactions. We have performed simulations with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS) employing a recently developed algorithm for saturation-dependent NAT nucleation for the Antarctic winters 2011 and 2012. The simulation results are compared with different satellite observations. With the help of these simulations, we investigate the role of the different processes responsible for chlorine activation and ozone depletion. Especially the sensitivity with respect to the particle type has been investigated. If temperatures are artificially forced to only allow cold binary liquid aerosol, the simulation still shows significant chlorine activation and ozone depletion. The results of the 3-D Chemical Transport Model CLaMS simulations differ from purely Lagrangian longtime trajectory box model simulations which indicates the importance of mixing processes.

  10. Capital expenditure and depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rech, O.; Saniere, A.

    2003-01-01

    In the future, the increase in oil demand will be covered for the most part by non conventional oils, but conventional sources will continue to represent a preponderant share of the world oil supply. Their depletion represents a complex challenge involving technological, economic and political factors. At the same time, there is reason for concern about the decrease in exploration budgets at the major oil companies. (author)

  11. Capital expenditure and depletion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rech, O.; Saniere, A

    2003-07-01

    In the future, the increase in oil demand will be covered for the most part by non conventional oils, but conventional sources will continue to represent a preponderant share of the world oil supply. Their depletion represents a complex challenge involving technological, economic and political factors. At the same time, there is reason for concern about the decrease in exploration budgets at the major oil companies. (author)

  12. Ozone-depleting Substances (ODS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This site includes all of the ozone-depleting substances (ODS) recognized by the Montreal Protocol. The data include ozone depletion potentials (ODP), global warming...

  13. EPRI depletion benchmark calculations using PARAGON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucukboyaci, Vefa N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • PARAGON depletion calculations are benchmarked against the EPRI reactivity decrement experiments. • Benchmarks cover a wide range of enrichments, burnups, cooling times, and burnable absorbers, and different depletion and storage conditions. • Results from PARAGON-SCALE scheme are more conservative relative to the benchmark data. • ENDF/B-VII based data reduces the excess conservatism and brings the predictions closer to benchmark reactivity decrement values. - Abstract: In order to conservatively apply burnup credit in spent fuel pool criticality analyses, code validation for both fresh and used fuel is required. Fresh fuel validation is typically done by modeling experiments from the “International Handbook.” A depletion validation can determine a bias and bias uncertainty for the worth of the isotopes not found in the fresh fuel critical experiments. Westinghouse’s burnup credit methodology uses PARAGON™ (Westinghouse 2-D lattice physics code) and its 70-group cross-section library, which have been benchmarked, qualified, and licensed both as a standalone transport code and as a nuclear data source for core design simulations. A bias and bias uncertainty for the worth of depletion isotopes, however, are not available for PARAGON. Instead, the 5% decrement approach for depletion uncertainty is used, as set forth in the Kopp memo. Recently, EPRI developed a set of benchmarks based on a large set of power distribution measurements to ascertain reactivity biases. The depletion reactivity has been used to create 11 benchmark cases for 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 GWd/MTU and 3 cooling times 100 h, 5 years, and 15 years. These benchmark cases are analyzed with PARAGON and the SCALE package and sensitivity studies are performed using different cross-section libraries based on ENDF/B-VI.3 and ENDF/B-VII data to assess that the 5% decrement approach is conservative for determining depletion uncertainty

  14. An Investigation of Comet Hale-Bopp at 21.6 and 27.2 AU from the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Emily A.; Fernandez, Y. R.; Kelley, M. S.; Woodney, L. M.; Lisse, C. M.

    2010-05-01

    Comet Hale-Bopp offered us an unprecedented opportunity to observe a large, bright comet in great detail. Since its 1997 perihelion, continued observations have let us observe how its activity has changed over time. Here we present 2005 and 2008 Spitzer Space Telescope observations of Hale-Bopp that show coma and tail, which is uncommon given its heliocentric distance -- 21.6 AU in 2005 and 27.2 AU in 2008. We have images at 24 µm (obtained with MIPS, the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer) that show thermal emission from the dust, and we are using dynamical models [1,2] to explain the dust morphology and constrain the dust's properties. Preliminary work suggests that the motion of the dust cannot be solely due to the effects of gravity and radiation pressure, which generally are the dominant forces. We investigate the role of other possible driving forces such as the so-called rocket force [3]. Our science goals are to: understand the comet's activity mechanism, constrain the age of the dust, find the size of the grains, and compare properties of the dust we see now to those of the dust seen in the 1990s. Our overarching goal is to use Hale-Bopp and other distant, active comets to understand cometary activity and the structure of cometary nuclei, which is related to icy planetesimal formation and evolution. We acknowledge support from the NSF, NASA and the Spitzer Science Center for this work. References: [1] Kelley, M.S., et al. 2008, Icarus 193, 572, [2] Lisse, C.M., et al. 1998, ApJ 496, 971, [3] Reach, W.T., et al. 2009, Icarus 203, 571.

  15. The new MCNP6 depletion capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fensin, M. L.; James, M. R.; Hendricks, J. S.; Goorley, J. T.

    2012-01-01

    The first MCNP based in-line Monte Carlo depletion capability was officially released from the Radiation Safety Information and Computational Center as MCNPX 2.6.0. Both the MCNP5 and MCNPX codes have historically provided a successful combinatorial geometry based, continuous energy, Monte Carlo radiation transport solution for advanced reactor modeling and simulation. However, due to separate development pathways, useful simulation capabilities were dispersed between both codes and not unified in a single technology. MCNP6, the next evolution in the MCNP suite of codes, now combines the capability of both simulation tools, as well as providing new advanced technology, in a single radiation transport code. We describe here the new capabilities of the MCNP6 depletion code dating from the official RSICC release MCNPX 2.6.0, reported previously, to the now current state of MCNP6. NEA/OECD benchmark results are also reported. The MCNP6 depletion capability enhancements beyond MCNPX 2.6.0 reported here include: (1) new performance enhancing parallel architecture that implements both shared and distributed memory constructs; (2) enhanced memory management that maximizes calculation fidelity; and (3) improved burnup physics for better nuclide prediction. MCNP6 depletion enables complete, relatively easy-to-use depletion calculations in a single Monte Carlo code. The enhancements described here help provide a powerful capability as well as dictate a path forward for future development to improve the usefulness of the technology. (authors)

  16. The New MCNP6 Depletion Capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fensin, Michael Lorne; James, Michael R.; Hendricks, John S.; Goorley, John T.

    2012-01-01

    The first MCNP based inline Monte Carlo depletion capability was officially released from the Radiation Safety Information and Computational Center as MCNPX 2.6.0. Both the MCNP5 and MCNPX codes have historically provided a successful combinatorial geometry based, continuous energy, Monte Carlo radiation transport solution for advanced reactor modeling and simulation. However, due to separate development pathways, useful simulation capabilities were dispersed between both codes and not unified in a single technology. MCNP6, the next evolution in the MCNP suite of codes, now combines the capability of both simulation tools, as well as providing new advanced technology, in a single radiation transport code. We describe here the new capabilities of the MCNP6 depletion code dating from the official RSICC release MCNPX 2.6.0, reported previously, to the now current state of MCNP6. NEA/OECD benchmark results are also reported. The MCNP6 depletion capability enhancements beyond MCNPX 2.6.0 reported here include: (1) new performance enhancing parallel architecture that implements both shared and distributed memory constructs; (2) enhanced memory management that maximizes calculation fidelity; and (3) improved burnup physics for better nuclide prediction. MCNP6 depletion enables complete, relatively easy-to-use depletion calculations in a single Monte Carlo code. The enhancements described here help provide a powerful capability as well as dictate a path forward for future development to improve the usefulness of the technology.

  17. Depleted uranium management alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.

    1994-08-01

    This report evaluates two management alternatives for Department of Energy depleted uranium: continued storage as uranium hexafluoride, and conversion to uranium metal and fabrication to shielding for spent nuclear fuel containers. The results will be used to compare the costs with other alternatives, such as disposal. Cost estimates for the continued storage alternative are based on a life-cycle of 27 years through the year 2020. Cost estimates for the recycle alternative are based on existing conversion process costs and Capital costs for fabricating the containers. Additionally, the recycle alternative accounts for costs associated with intermediate product resale and secondary waste disposal for materials generated during the conversion process.

  18. Consequences of biome depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvucci, Emiliano

    2013-01-01

    The human microbiome is an integral part of the superorganism together with their host and they have co-evolved since the early days of the existence of the human species. The modification of the microbiome as a result changes in food and social habits of human beings throughout their life history has led to the emergence of many diseases. In contrast with the Darwinian view of nature of selfishness and competence, new holistic approaches are rising. Under these views, the reconstitution of the microbiome comes out as a fundamental therapy for emerging diseases related to biome depletion.

  19. Depleted uranium management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.

    1994-08-01

    This report evaluates two management alternatives for Department of Energy depleted uranium: continued storage as uranium hexafluoride, and conversion to uranium metal and fabrication to shielding for spent nuclear fuel containers. The results will be used to compare the costs with other alternatives, such as disposal. Cost estimates for the continued storage alternative are based on a life-cycle of 27 years through the year 2020. Cost estimates for the recycle alternative are based on existing conversion process costs and Capital costs for fabricating the containers. Additionally, the recycle alternative accounts for costs associated with intermediate product resale and secondary waste disposal for materials generated during the conversion process

  20. OBTAINING A PERMIT-TO-FLY FOR A HALE-UAV IN BELGIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Everaerts

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ever since 2000, VITO has been working on the Pegasus project. This involves a solar High Altitude Long Endurance Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (HALE-UAV as a stratospheric platform for Earth Observation. This aircraft, called Mercator, is designed to fly for prolonged duration at altitudes up to 20 km. The technology has been proven by the aircraft’s manufacturer, QinetiQ (UK by a series of test flights over the past years, culminating in a world record flight in duration of over 14 days duration. All test flights, however, were conducted in test ranges, where other air traffic does not pose a concern. Pegasus aims to demonstrate the viability of stratospheric Earth Observation in Belgium, as a proof of concept for other areas around the world. The Belgian air space is completely different from a test range. More than 1 million aircraft movements take place over Belgium and Luxembourg every year, with routes to Amsterdam, Paris, Frankfurt, and London. Although Pegasus will usually be flying above this dense traffic, it does interfere with it during ascent and landing, and needs to be monitored during the cruise phase for safety reasons. Air traffic management in Belgium is a shared responsibility of Air Navigation Service Providers (ANSPs Belgocontrol (civil, ATCC (military and Eurocontrol MUAC (high altitude. In 2010, VITO applied for a permit-to-fly for a test flight of one day duration. Although the Belgian Civil Aviation Authority (CAA had issued a regulation on UAVs in 2007, it was the first application for a permit to fly in controlled airspace. The Belgian CAA decided to use it as a test for the procedures as well. A prerequisite for flying in controlled airspace was that the aircraft has to carry a mode-S transponder and navigation lights. During first half of 2010, the ANSPs collaborated on a Temporary Operations Instruction and studied the safety impact of this flight on their operations. As an outcome, they decided that the Pegasus

  1. The Toxicity of Depleted Uranium

    OpenAIRE

    Briner, Wayne

    2010-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) is an emerging environmental pollutant that is introduced into the environment primarily by military activity. While depleted uranium is less radioactive than natural uranium, it still retains all the chemical toxicity associated with the original element. In large doses the kidney is the target organ for the acute chemical toxicity of this metal, producing potentially lethal tubular necrosis. In contrast, chronic low dose exposure to depleted uranium may not produce a c...

  2. The Toxicity of Depleted Uranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Briner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Depleted uranium (DU is an emerging environmental pollutant that is introduced into the environment primarily by military activity. While depleted uranium is less radioactive than natural uranium, it still retains all the chemical toxicity associated with the original element. In large doses the kidney is the target organ for the acute chemical toxicity of this metal, producing potentially lethal tubular necrosis. In contrast, chronic low dose exposure to depleted uranium may not produce a clear and defined set of symptoms. Chronic low-dose, or subacute, exposure to depleted uranium alters the appearance of milestones in developing organisms. Adult animals that were exposed to depleted uranium during development display persistent alterations in behavior, even after cessation of depleted uranium exposure. Adult animals exposed to depleted uranium demonstrate altered behaviors and a variety of alterations to brain chemistry. Despite its reduced level of radioactivity evidence continues to accumulate that depleted uranium, if ingested, may pose a radiologic hazard. The current state of knowledge concerning DU is discussed.

  3. Ego depletion impairs implicit learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kelsey R; Sanchez, Daniel J; Wesley, Abigail H; Reber, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Implicit skill learning occurs incidentally and without conscious awareness of what is learned. However, the rate and effectiveness of learning may still be affected by decreased availability of central processing resources. Dual-task experiments have generally found impairments in implicit learning, however, these studies have also shown that certain characteristics of the secondary task (e.g., timing) can complicate the interpretation of these results. To avoid this problem, the current experiments used a novel method to impose resource constraints prior to engaging in skill learning. Ego depletion theory states that humans possess a limited store of cognitive resources that, when depleted, results in deficits in self-regulation and cognitive control. In a first experiment, we used a standard ego depletion manipulation prior to performance of the Serial Interception Sequence Learning (SISL) task. Depleted participants exhibited poorer test performance than did non-depleted controls, indicating that reducing available executive resources may adversely affect implicit sequence learning, expression of sequence knowledge, or both. In a second experiment, depletion was administered either prior to or after training. Participants who reported higher levels of depletion before or after training again showed less sequence-specific knowledge on the post-training assessment. However, the results did not allow for clear separation of ego depletion effects on learning versus subsequent sequence-specific performance. These results indicate that performance on an implicitly learned sequence can be impaired by a reduction in executive resources, in spite of learning taking place outside of awareness and without conscious intent.

  4. Coma Morphology Due to an Extended Active Region and Implications for the Spin State of Comet Hale-Bopp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarasinha, Nalin H.

    2000-01-01

    We show that the circular character of continuum structures observed in the coma of comet Hale-Bopp around the perihelion passage is most likely due to a dust jet from a large extended active region on the surface. Coma morphology due to a wide jet is different from that due to a narrow jet. The latter shows foreshortening effects due to observing geometry, wider jet produces more circular features. This circularization effect provides a self-consistent explanation for the evolution of near-perihelion coma morphology. No changes in the direction of the rotational angular momentum vector are required during this period in contrast to the models of Schleicher et al. This circularization effect also enables us to produce near-circular coma features in the S-E quadrant during 1997 late February and therefore questions the basic premise on which Sekanina bases his morphological arguments for a gravitationally bound satellite nucleus.

  5. NOMAD: a nodal microscopic analysis method for nuclear fuel depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajic, H.L.; Ougouag, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    Recently developed assembly homogenization techniques made possible very efficient global burnup calculations based on modern nodal methods. There are two possible ways of modeling the global depletion process: macroscopic and microscopic depletion models. Using a microscopic global depletion approach NOMAD (NOdal Microscopic Analysis Method for Nuclear Fuel Depletion), a multigroup, two- and three-dimensional, multicycle depletion code was devised. The code uses the ILLICO nodal diffusion model. The formalism of the ILLICO methodology is extended to treat changes in the macroscopic cross sections during a depletion cycle without recomputing the coupling coefficients. This results in a computationally very efficient method. The code was tested against a well-known depletion benchmark problem. In this problem a two-dimensional pressurized water reactor is depleted through two cycles. Both cycles were run with 1 x 1 and 2 x 2 nodes per assembly. It is obvious that the one node per assembly solution gives unacceptable results while the 2 x 2 solution gives relative power errors consistently below 2%

  6. Ego Depletion Does Not Interfere With Working Memory Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ranjit K; Göritz, Anja S

    2018-01-01

    Ego depletion happens if exerting self-control reduces a person's capacity to subsequently control themselves. Previous research has suggested that ego depletion not only interferes with subsequent self-control but also with working memory. However, recent meta-analytical evidence casts doubt onto this. The present study tackles the question if ego depletion does interfere with working memory performance. We induced ego depletion in two ways: using an e-crossing task and using a Stroop task. We then measured working memory performance using the letter-number sequencing task. There was no evidence of ego depletion interfering with working memory performance. Several aspects of our study render this null finding highly robust. We had a large and heterogeneous sample of N = 1,385, which provided sufficient power. We deployed established depletion tasks from two task families (e-crossing task and Stroop), thus making it less likely that the null finding is due to a specific depletion paradigm. We derived several performance scores from the working memory task and ran different analyses to maximize the chances of finding an effect. Lastly, we controlled for two potential moderators, the implicit theories about willpower and dispositional self-control capacity, to ensure that a possible effect on working memory is not obscured by an interaction effect. In sum, this experiment strengthens the position that ego depletion works but does not affect working memory performance.

  7. Stephen Hales: the contributions of an Enlightenment physiologist to the study of the kidney in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eknoyan, Garabed

    2016-02-01

    Stephen Hales (1677-1761) was an English clergyman who made major contributions to a wide range of scientific topics such as botany, chemistry, pneumatics, and physiology. Early in his career he developed a keen interest in medicine through his association with his younger physician friend at Cambridge, William Stukeley (1687-1765), with whom he dissected animals and attended experiments in the laboratory of Isaac Newton. His fame as a scientist grew and by the end of his life he had achieved an international reputation as a major scientist of the Enlightenment. He is best known for his 1733 Statical Essays, in the second part of which he describes his studies in animal physiology. Most famous amongst those are his assessments of the force of the blood, which he measured in horses and dogs. Less well known and often unrecognized are his studies on the kidney in health and disease, which are the focus of this review. Amongst others Hales described the effects of hemorrhagic shock which he observed as he bled his animals while measuring their blood pressure; he then studied the effect of increasing saline perfusion pressures on the renal secretion of urine; and delved into biochemistry in exploring the composition of and solutions to dissolve bladder stones. His 1733 statement in the introduction to his hemodynamic studies that the healthy State of the Animal principally consists, in the maintaining of a due Equilibrium between the body solids and fluids literally predicts the milieu intrieur that would ultimately be formulated in 1854 by Claude Bernard (1813-1878).

  8. Ego Depletion Impairs Implicit Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kelsey R.; Sanchez, Daniel J.; Wesley, Abigail H.; Reber, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Implicit skill learning occurs incidentally and without conscious awareness of what is learned. However, the rate and effectiveness of learning may still be affected by decreased availability of central processing resources. Dual-task experiments have generally found impairments in implicit learning, however, these studies have also shown that certain characteristics of the secondary task (e.g., timing) can complicate the interpretation of these results. To avoid this problem, the current experiments used a novel method to impose resource constraints prior to engaging in skill learning. Ego depletion theory states that humans possess a limited store of cognitive resources that, when depleted, results in deficits in self-regulation and cognitive control. In a first experiment, we used a standard ego depletion manipulation prior to performance of the Serial Interception Sequence Learning (SISL) task. Depleted participants exhibited poorer test performance than did non-depleted controls, indicating that reducing available executive resources may adversely affect implicit sequence learning, expression of sequence knowledge, or both. In a second experiment, depletion was administered either prior to or after training. Participants who reported higher levels of depletion before or after training again showed less sequence-specific knowledge on the post-training assessment. However, the results did not allow for clear separation of ego depletion effects on learning versus subsequent sequence-specific performance. These results indicate that performance on an implicitly learned sequence can be impaired by a reduction in executive resources, in spite of learning taking place outside of awareness and without conscious intent. PMID:25275517

  9. Hsp90 depletion goes wild

    OpenAIRE

    Siegal, Mark L; Masel, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Hsp90 reveals phenotypic variation in the laboratory, but is Hsp90 depletion important in the wild? Recent work from Chen and Wagner in BMC Evolutionary Biology has discovered a naturally occurring Drosophila allele that downregulates Hsp90, creating sensitivity to cryptic genetic variation. Laboratory studies suggest that the exact magnitude of Hsp90 downregulation is important. Extreme Hsp90 depletion might reactivate transposable elements and/or induce aneuploidy, in addition to r...

  10. Ego depletion impairs implicit learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey R Thompson

    Full Text Available Implicit skill learning occurs incidentally and without conscious awareness of what is learned. However, the rate and effectiveness of learning may still be affected by decreased availability of central processing resources. Dual-task experiments have generally found impairments in implicit learning, however, these studies have also shown that certain characteristics of the secondary task (e.g., timing can complicate the interpretation of these results. To avoid this problem, the current experiments used a novel method to impose resource constraints prior to engaging in skill learning. Ego depletion theory states that humans possess a limited store of cognitive resources that, when depleted, results in deficits in self-regulation and cognitive control. In a first experiment, we used a standard ego depletion manipulation prior to performance of the Serial Interception Sequence Learning (SISL task. Depleted participants exhibited poorer test performance than did non-depleted controls, indicating that reducing available executive resources may adversely affect implicit sequence learning, expression of sequence knowledge, or both. In a second experiment, depletion was administered either prior to or after training. Participants who reported higher levels of depletion before or after training again showed less sequence-specific knowledge on the post-training assessment. However, the results did not allow for clear separation of ego depletion effects on learning versus subsequent sequence-specific performance. These results indicate that performance on an implicitly learned sequence can be impaired by a reduction in executive resources, in spite of learning taking place outside of awareness and without conscious intent.

  11. "When the going gets tough, who keeps going?" Depletion sensitivity moderates the ego-depletion effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Stefanie J; Adriaanse, Marieke A; De Vet, Emely; Fennis, Bob M; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2014-01-01

    Self-control relies on a limited resource that can get depleted, a phenomenon that has been labeled ego-depletion. We argue that individuals may differ in their sensitivity to depleting tasks, and that consequently some people deplete their self-control resource at a faster rate than others. In three studies, we assessed individual differences in depletion sensitivity, and demonstrate that depletion sensitivity moderates ego-depletion effects. The Depletion Sensitivity Scale (DSS) was employed to assess depletion sensitivity. Study 1 employs the DSS to demonstrate that individual differences in sensitivity to ego-depletion exist. Study 2 shows moderate correlations of depletion sensitivity with related self-control concepts, indicating that these scales measure conceptually distinct constructs. Study 3 demonstrates that depletion sensitivity moderates the ego-depletion effect. Specifically, participants who are sensitive to depletion performed worse on a second self-control task, indicating a stronger ego-depletion effect, compared to participants less sensitive to depletion.

  12. Health and environmental impact of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furitsu, Katsumi

    2010-01-01

    Depleted Uranium (DU) is 'nuclear waste' produced from the enrichment process and is mostly made up of 238 U and is depleted in the fissionable isotope 235 U compared to natural uranium (NU). Depleted uranium has about 60% of the radioactivity of natural uranium. Depleted uranium and natural uranium are identical in terms of the chemical toxicity. Uranium's high density gives depleted uranium shells increased range and penetrative power. This density, combined with uranium's pyrophoric nature, results in a high-energy kinetic weapon that can punch and burn through armour plating. Striking a hard target, depleted uranium munitions create extremely high temperatures. The uranium immediately burns and vaporizes into an aerosol, which is easily diffused in the environment. People can inhale the micro-particles of uranium oxide in an aerosol and absorb them mainly from lung. Depleted uranium has both aspects of radiological toxicity and chemical toxicity. The possible synergistic effect of both kinds of toxicities is also pointed out. Animal and cellular studies have been reported the carcinogenic, neurotoxic, immuno-toxic and some other effects of depleted uranium including the damage on reproductive system and foetus. In addition, the health effects of micro/ nano-particles, similar in size of depleted uranium aerosols produced by uranium weapons, have been reported. Aerosolized DU dust can easily spread over the battlefield spreading over civilian areas, sometimes even crossing international borders. Therefore, not only the military personnel but also the civilians can be exposed. The contamination continues after the cessation of hostilities. Taking these aspects into account, DU weapon is illegal under international humanitarian laws and is considered as one of the inhumane weapons of 'indiscriminate destruction'. The international society is now discussing the prohibition of DU weapons based on 'precautionary principle'. The 1991 Gulf War is reportedly the first

  13. Development of the point-depletion code DEPTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    She, Ding; Wang, Kan; Yu, Ganglin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The DEPTH code has been developed for the large-scale depletion system. ► DEPTH uses the data library which is convenient to couple with MC codes. ► TTA and matrix exponential methods are implemented and compared. ► DEPTH is able to calculate integral quantities based on the matrix inverse. ► Code-to-code comparisons prove the accuracy and efficiency of DEPTH. -- Abstract: The burnup analysis is an important aspect in reactor physics, which is generally done by coupling of transport calculations and point-depletion calculations. DEPTH is a newly-developed point-depletion code of handling large burnup depletion systems and detailed depletion chains. For better coupling with Monte Carlo transport codes, DEPTH uses data libraries based on the combination of ORIGEN-2 and ORIGEN-S and allows users to assign problem-dependent libraries for each depletion step. DEPTH implements various algorithms of treating the stiff depletion systems, including the Transmutation trajectory analysis (TTA), the Chebyshev Rational Approximation Method (CRAM), the Quadrature-based Rational Approximation Method (QRAM) and the Laguerre Polynomial Approximation Method (LPAM). Three different modes are supported by DEPTH to execute the decay, constant flux and constant power calculations. In addition to obtaining the instantaneous quantities of the radioactivity, decay heats and reaction rates, DEPTH is able to calculate the integral quantities by a time-integrated solver. Through calculations compared with ORIGEN-2, the validity of DEPTH in point-depletion calculations is proved. The accuracy and efficiency of depletion algorithms are also discussed. In addition, an actual pin-cell burnup case is calculated to illustrate the DEPTH code performance in coupling with the RMC Monte Carlo code

  14. Isotopic depletion with Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.R.; Rathkopf, J.A.

    1996-06-01

    This work considers a method to deplete isotopes during a time- dependent Monte Carlo simulation of an evolving system. The method is based on explicitly combining a conventional estimator for the scalar flux with the analytical solutions to the isotopic depletion equations. There are no auxiliary calculations; the method is an integral part of the Monte Carlo calculation. The method eliminates negative densities and reduces the variance in the estimates for the isotope densities, compared to existing methods. Moreover, existing methods are shown to be special cases of the general method described in this work, as they can be derived by combining a high variance estimator for the scalar flux with a low-order approximation to the analytical solution to the depletion equation

  15. Hsp90 depletion goes wild

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegal Mark L

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hsp90 reveals phenotypic variation in the laboratory, but is Hsp90 depletion important in the wild? Recent work from Chen and Wagner in BMC Evolutionary Biology has discovered a naturally occurring Drosophila allele that downregulates Hsp90, creating sensitivity to cryptic genetic variation. Laboratory studies suggest that the exact magnitude of Hsp90 downregulation is important. Extreme Hsp90 depletion might reactivate transposable elements and/or induce aneuploidy, in addition to revealing cryptic genetic variation. See research article http://wwww.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/12/25

  16. Bioindication of heavy metal pollution in the area of Southeastern Serbia by using epiphytic lichen Flavoparmelia caperata (L. Hale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović, T.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The content and distribution of 21 metals in the central and peripheral parts of the foliose epiphytic lichen Flavoparmelia caperata (L. Hale, collected in the area of Southeastern Serbia, were analysed in terms of biological monitoring. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry revealed higher concentrations of As, B, Ba, Cd, Ga, Pb, Se, Cr, Cu, Fe, In, Li and/or Ni in peripheral, younger, parts and Ba, K, Tl, Mg, Na and/or Zn in central, older parts of lichens. Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis were used to identify the relationship among metals in samples and their possible sources. Significant correlations were found among Ni-Cr, Cd-Ga-In-As-Se, Zn-Ba, Cu-Pb-B, suggesting a common source of pollution. Given the location of sampling, these findings probably reflect airborne metal pollution in relation to the main wind directions and vicinity of the roads and industrial complexes. The importance of this study is the evidence that the Special Nature Reserve Jelašnička Gorge is influenced by pollution sources in the area. Flavoparmelia caperata could be effective as an early indicator of environmental changes of the studied area.

  17. Progress in a Study of Striations in the Dust Tail of Comet Hale-Bopp (C/1995 O1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekanina, Z.; Ryan, O.; Boehnhardt, H.; Birkle, K.; Engels, D.; Jaeger, M.; Keller, P.; Raab, H.

    1999-01-01

    We report preliminary results of a massive investigation of the striation patterns observed in the dust tail of comet Hale-Bopp in March and April 1997. Our findings are based on 16 wide-field photographs taken with Schmidt cameras on March 2-20, with six more, from March 31-April 8, still waiting for analysis. Altogether approximately 700 individual striae were examined on the 16 images, which were scanned and computer processed to enhance the morphology. About 5300 stria points, or some 7-8 points per stria per image on the average, were measured and their astrometric positions determined and subsequently converted to a Cartesian coordinate system, aligned with the comet's projected radius vector and centered on the nucleus. The evolution of the striated tail has been studied using the Sekanina-Farrell fragmentation hypothesis (AJ 85, 1538, 1980), previously applied to other comets. This two-step model is characterized by the time of release from the nucleus of a parent object (or objects) whose motion is assumed to have been subjected to a constant repulsive acceleration betap (presumably due to solar radiation pressure) until the time of fragmentation.

  18. Depletion field focusing in semiconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.W.J.; Gelder, Van A.P.

    1996-01-01

    We calculate the three-dimensional depletion field profile in a semiconductor, for a planar semiconductor material with a spatially varying potential upon the surface, and for a tip-shaped semiconductor with a constant surface potential. The nonuniform electric field gives rise to focusing or

  19. Depletion interactions in lyotropic nematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoot, van der P.P.A.M.

    2000-01-01

    A theoretical study of depletion interactions between pairs of small, globular colloids dispersed in a lyotropic nematic of hard, rodlike particles is presented. We find that both the strength and range of the interaction crucially depends on the configuration of the spheres relative to the nematic

  20. Depleted uranium: an explosive dossier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrillot, B.

    2001-01-01

    This book relates the history of depleted uranium, contemporaneous with the nuclear bomb history. Initially used in nuclear weapons and in experiments linked with nuclear weapons development, this material has been used also in civil industry, in particular in aeronautics. However, its properties made it interesting for military applications all along the 'cold war'. (J.S.)

  1. Global depletion of groundwater resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wada, Y.; Beek, L.P.H. van; van Kempen, C.M.; Reckman, J.W.T.M.; Vasak, S.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2010-01-01

    In regions with frequent water stress and large aquifer systems groundwater is often used as an additional water source. If groundwater abstraction exceeds the natural groundwater recharge for extensive areas and long times, overexploitation or persistent groundwater depletion occurs. Here we

  2. Impact of mineral resource depletion

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brent, AC

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In a letter to the editor, the authors comment on BA Steen's article on "Abiotic Resource Depletion: different perceptions of the problem with mineral deposits" published in the special issue of the International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment...

  3. Depleted depletion drives polymer swelling in poor solvent mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherji, Debashish; Marques, Carlos M; Stuehn, Torsten; Kremer, Kurt

    2017-11-09

    Establishing a link between macromolecular conformation and microscopic interaction is a key to understand properties of polymer solutions and for designing technologically relevant "smart" polymers. Here, polymer solvation in solvent mixtures strike as paradoxical phenomena. For example, when adding polymers to a solvent, such that all particle interactions are repulsive, polymer chains can collapse due to increased monomer-solvent repulsion. This depletion induced monomer-monomer attraction is well known from colloidal stability. A typical example is poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) in water or small alcohols. While polymer collapse in a single poor solvent is well understood, the observed polymer swelling in mixtures of two repulsive solvents is surprising. By combining simulations and theoretical concepts known from polymer physics and colloidal science, we unveil the microscopic, generic origin of this collapse-swelling-collapse behavior. We show that this phenomenon naturally emerges at constant pressure when an appropriate balance of entropically driven depletion interactions is achieved.

  4. Physics of fully depleted CCDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, S E; Bebek, C J; Kolbe, W F; Lee, J S

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present simple, physics-based models for two effects that have been noted in the fully depleted CCDs that are presently used in the Dark Energy Survey Camera. The first effect is the observation that the point-spread function increases slightly with the signal level. This is explained by considering the effect on charge-carrier diffusion due to the reduction in the magnitude of the channel potential as collected signal charge acts to partially neutralize the fixed charge in the depleted channel. The resulting reduced voltage drop across the carrier drift region decreases the vertical electric field and increases the carrier transit time. The second effect is the observation of low-level, concentric ring patterns seen in uniformly illuminated images. This effect is shown to be most likely due to lateral deflection of charge during the transit of the photo-generated carriers to the potential wells as a result of lateral electric fields. The lateral fields are a result of space charge in the fully depleted substrates arising from resistivity variations inherent to the growth of the high-resistivity silicon used to fabricate the CCDs

  5. Comparative Analysis of VERA Depletion Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jinsu; Kim, Wonkyeong; Choi, Sooyoung; Lee, Hyunsuk; Lee, Deokjung

    2016-01-01

    Each code has its own solver for depletion, which can produce different depletion calculation results. In order to produce reference solutions for depletion calculation comparison, sensitivity studies should be preceded for each depletion solver. The sensitivity tests for burnup interval, number of depletion zones, and recoverable energy per fission (Q-value) were performed in this paper. For the comparison of depletion calculation results, usually the multiplication factors are compared as a function of burnup. In this study, new comparison methods have been introduced by using the number density of isotope or element, and a cumulative flux instead of burnup. In this paper, optimum depletion calculation options are determined through the sensitivity study of the burnup intervals and the number of depletion intrazones. Because the depletion using CRAM solver performs well for large burnup intervals, smaller number of burnup steps can be used to produce converged solutions. It was noted that the depletion intra-zone sensitivity is only pin-type dependent. The 1 and 10 depletion intra-zones for the normal UO2 pin and gadolinia rod, respectively, are required to obtain the reference solutions. When the optimized depletion calculation options are used, the differences of Q-values are found to be a main cause of the differences of solutions. In this paper, new comparison methods were introduced for consistent code-to-code comparisons even when different kappa libraries were used in the depletion calculations

  6. Molecular dynamics study of lubricant depletion by pulsed laser heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Young Woo; Rosenkranz, Andreas; Talke, Frank E.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, molecular dynamics simulations were performed to numerically investigate the effect of pulsed laser heating on lubricant depletion. The maximum temperature, the lubricant depletion width, the number of evaporated lubricant beads and the number of fragmented lubricant chains were studied as a function of laser peak power, pulse duration and repetition rate. A continuous-wave laser and a square pulse laser were simulated and compared to a Gaussian pulse laser. With increasing repetition rate, pulsed laser heating was found to approach continuous-wave laser heating.

  7. Monte carlo depletion analysis of SMART core by MCNAP code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jong Sung; Sim, Hyung Jin; Kim, Chang Hyo; Lee, Jung Chan; Ji, Sung Kyun

    2001-01-01

    Depletion an analysis of SMART, a small-sized advanced integral PWR under development by KAERI, is conducted using the Monte Carlo (MC) depletion analysis program, MCNAP. The results are compared with those of the CASMO-3/ MASTER nuclear analysis. The difference between MASTER and MCNAP on k eff prediction is observed about 600pcm at BOC, and becomes smaller as the core burnup increases. The maximum difference bet ween two predict ions on fuel assembly (FA) normalized power distribution is about 6.6% radially , and 14.5% axially but the differences are observed to lie within standard deviation of MC estimations

  8. The manufacturing of depleted uranium biological shield components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metelkin, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    The unique combination of the physical and mechanical properties of uranium made it possible to manufacture biological shield components of transport package container (TPC) for transportation nuclear power plant irradiated fuel and radionuclides of radiation diagnostic instruments. Protective properties are substantially dependent on the nature radionuclide composition of uranium, that why I recommended depleted uranium after radiation chemical processing. Depleted uranium biological shield (DUBS) has improved specific mass-size characteristics compared to a shield made of lead, steel or tungsten. Technological achievements in uranium casting and machining made it possible to manufacture DUBS components of TPC up to 3 tons of mass and up to 2 metres of the maximum size. (authors)

  9. Issues in Stratospheric Ozone Depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Steven Andrew

    Following the announcement of the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole in 1985 there have arisen a multitude of questions pertaining to the nature and consequences of polar ozone depletion. This thesis addresses several of these specific questions, using both computer models of chemical kinetics and the Earth's radiation field as well as laboratory kinetic experiments. A coupled chemical kinetic-radiative numerical model was developed to assist in the analysis of in situ field measurements of several radical and neutral species in the polar and mid-latitude lower stratosphere. Modeling was used in the analysis of enhanced polar ClO, mid-latitude diurnal variation of ClO, and simultaneous measurements of OH, HO_2, H_2 O and O_3. Most importantly, such modeling was instrumental in establishing the link between the observed ClO and BrO concentrations in the Antarctic polar vortex and the observed rate of ozone depletion. The principal medical concern of stratospheric ozone depletion is that ozone loss will lead to the enhancement of ground-level UV-B radiation. Global ozone climatology (40^circS to 50^ circN latitude) was incorporated into a radiation field model to calculate the biologically accumulated dosage (BAD) of UV-B radiation, integrated over days, months, and years. The slope of the annual BAD as a function of latitude was found to correspond to epidemiological data for non-melanoma skin cancers for 30^circ -50^circN. Various ozone loss scenarios were investigated. It was found that a small ozone loss in the tropics can provide as much additional biologically effective UV-B as a much larger ozone loss at higher latitudes. Also, for ozone depletions of > 5%, the BAD of UV-B increases exponentially with decreasing ozone levels. An important key player in determining whether polar ozone depletion can propagate into the populated mid-latitudes is chlorine nitrate, ClONO_2 . As yet this molecule is only indirectly accounted for in computer models and field

  10. Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård; Fogsgaard, Morten

    2016-01-01

    and creativity suggests that when managers give people the opportunity to gain power and explicate that there is reason to be more creative, people will show a boost in creative behaviour. Moreover, this process works best in unstable power hierarchies, which implies that power is treated as a negotiable....... It is thus a central point that power is not necessarily something that breaks down and represses. On the contrary, an explicit focus on the dynamics of power in relation to creativity can be productive for the organisation. Our main focus is to elaborate the implications of this for practice and theory...

  11. Electrophoretic analysis of cyanide depletion by Pseudomonas alcaligenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaugg, S E; Davidson, R A; Walker, J C; Walker, E B

    1997-02-01

    Bacterial-facilitated depletion of cyanide is under development for remediation of heap leach operations in the gold mining industry. Capillary electrophoresis was found to be a powerful tool for quantifying cyanide depletion. Changes in cyanide concentration in aqueous suspensions of Pseudomonas alcaligenes bacteria and cyanide at elevated pH were easily monitored by capillary electrophoresis. The resulting data can be used to study rates of cyanide depletion by this strain of bacteria. Concentrations of these bacteria at 10(5) cells/mL were found to reduce cyanide from 100 ppm to less than 8 ppm in four days. In addition, other ions of interest in cyanide metabolism, such as formate, can be simultaneously analyzed. Direct UV detection of cyanide at 192 nm further simplifies the analytical method for these ions.

  12. Exposure to nature counteracts aggression after depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; She, Yihan; Colarelli, Stephen M; Fang, Yuan; Meng, Hui; Chen, Qiuju; Zhang, Xin; Zhu, Hongwei

    2018-01-01

    Acts of self-control are more likely to fail after previous exertion of self-control, known as the ego depletion effect. Research has shown that depleted participants behave more aggressively than non-depleted participants, especially after being provoked. Although exposure to nature (e.g., a walk in the park) has been predicted to replenish resources common to executive functioning and self-control, the extent to which exposure to nature may counteract the depletion effect on aggression has yet to be determined. The present study investigated the effects of exposure to nature on aggression following depletion. Aggression was measured by the intensity of noise blasts participants delivered to an ostensible opponent in a competition reaction-time task. As predicted, an interaction occurred between depletion and environmental manipulations for provoked aggression. Specifically, depleted participants behaved more aggressively in response to provocation than non-depleted participants in the urban condition. However, provoked aggression did not differ between depleted and non-depleted participants in the natural condition. Moreover, within the depletion condition, participants in the natural condition had lower levels of provoked aggression than participants in the urban condition. This study suggests that a brief period of nature exposure may restore self-control and help depleted people regain control over aggressive urges. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Feeling depleted and powerless: the construal-level mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junha; Lee, Sujin; Rua, Tuvana

    2015-04-01

    Individuals exercise self-control daily to achieve desired goals; at the same time, people engage in social interaction daily and influence (feel powerful) or are influenced (feel powerless) by others. Does controlling the self have an unforeseen consequence for people's perception of their capacity to control others? Five studies-one correlational and four experimental-demonstrate that ego depletion from prior self-control determines one's personal sense of power; low-level, concrete mental construals account for this relationship. Our results showed that people with higher trait self-control reported a greater sense of power (Study 1). People who had depleted their self-control-related regulatory resources (vs. those who had not) experienced a lower sense of power (Study 2). The relationship between ego depletion and low sense of power was mediated by construal level (Study 3) and observed only when low-level, concrete construals were present, but not under high-level, abstract construals (Studies 4 and 5). © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  14. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 315 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE), 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard Iburg, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Healthy life expectancy (HALE) and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) provide summary measures of health across geographies and time that can inform assessments of epidemiological patterns and health system performance, help to prioritise investments in research and develop......Summary Background Healthy life expectancy (HALE) and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) provide summary measures of health across geographies and time that can inform assessments of epidemiological patterns and health system performance, help to prioritise investments in research...... birth defects, and skin, oral, and sense organ diseases) either increased or remained unchanged, leading to increases in their relative ranking in many geographies. From 2005 to 2015, HALE at birth increased by an average of 2·9 years (95% uncertainty interval 2·9–3·0) for men and 3·5 years (3...

  15. Achieving high-efficiency emission depletion nanoscopy by employing cross relaxation in upconversion nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Qiuqiang; Liu, Haichun; Wang, Baoju; Wu, Qiusheng; Pu, Rui; Zhou, Chao; Huang, Bingru; Peng, Xingyun; Ågren, Hans; He, Sailing

    2017-10-20

    Stimulated emission depletion microscopy provides a powerful sub-diffraction imaging modality for life science studies. Conventionally, stimulated emission depletion requires a relatively high light intensity to obtain an adequate depletion efficiency through only light-matter interaction. Here we show efficient emission depletion for a class of lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles with the assistance of interionic cross relaxation, which significantly lowers the laser intensity requirements of optical depletion. We demonstrate two-color super-resolution imaging using upconversion nanoparticles (resolution ~ 66 nm) with a single pair of excitation/depletion beams. In addition, we show super-resolution imaging of immunostained cytoskeleton structures of fixed cells (resolution ~ 82 nm) using upconversion nanoparticles. These achievements provide a new perspective for the development of photoswitchable luminescent probes and will broaden the applications of lanthanide-doped nanoparticles for sub-diffraction microscopic imaging.

  16. Uranium, depleted uranium, biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Physicists, chemists and biologists at the CEA are developing scientific programs on the properties and uses of ionizing radiation. Since the CEA was created in 1945, a great deal of research has been carried out on the properties of natural, enriched and depleted uranium in cooperation with university laboratories and CNRS. There is a great deal of available data about uranium; thousands of analyses have been published in international reviews over more than 40 years. This presentation on uranium is a very brief summary of all these studies. (author)

  17. "When the going gets tough, who keeps going?" Depletion sensitivity moderates the ego-depletion effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, Stefanie J.; Adriaanse, Marieke A.; De Vet, Emely; Fennis, Bob M.; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2014-01-01

    Self-control relies on a limited resource that can get depleted, a phenomenon that has been labeled ego-depletion. We argue that individuals may differ in their sensitivity to depleting tasks, and that consequently some people deplete their self-control resource at a faster rate than others. In

  18. "When the going gets tough, who keeps going?" : Depletion sensitivity moderates the ego-depletion effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, Stefanie J.; Adriaanse, Marieke A.; De Vet, Emely; Fennis, Bob M.; De Ridder, Denise T. D.

    2014-01-01

    Self-control relies on a limited resource that can get depleted, a phenomenon that has been labeled ego-depletion. We argue that individuals may differ in their sensitivity to depleting tasks, and that consequently some people deplete their self-control resource at a faster rate than others. In

  19. When the Going Gets Tough, Who Keeps Going? Depletion Sensitivity Moderates the Ego-Depletion Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie J. Salmon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Self-control relies on a limited resource that can get depleted, a phenomenon that has been labeled ego-depletion. We argue that individuals may differ in their sensitivity to depleting tasks, and that consequently some people deplete their self-control resource at a faster rate than others. In three studies, we assessed individual differences in depletion sensitivity, and demonstrate that depletion sensitivity moderates ego-depletion effects. The Depletion Sensitivity Scale (DSS was employed to assess depletion sensitivity. Study 1 employs the DSS to demonstrate that individual differences in sensitivity to ego-depletion exist. Study 2 shows moderate correlations of depletion sensitivity with related self-control concepts, indicating that these scales measure conceptually distinct constructs. Study 3 demonstrates that depletion sensitivity moderates the ego-depletion effect. Specifically, participants who are sensitive to depletion performed worse on a second self-control task, indicating a stronger ego-depletion effect, compared to participants less sensitive to depletion.

  20. CO Depletion: A Microscopic Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazaux, S. [Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Martín-Doménech, R.; Caro, G. M. Muñoz; Díaz, C. González [Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), Ctra. de Ajalvir, km 4, Torrejón de Ardoz, E-28850 Madrid (Spain); Chen, Y. J. [Department of Physics, National Central University, Jhongli City, 32054, Taoyuan County, Taiwan (China)

    2017-11-10

    In regions where stars form, variations in density and temperature can cause gas to freeze out onto dust grains forming ice mantles, which influences the chemical composition of a cloud. The aim of this paper is to understand in detail the depletion (and desorption) of CO on (from) interstellar dust grains. Experimental simulations were performed under two different (astrophysically relevant) conditions. In parallel, Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations were used to mimic the experimental conditions. In our experiments, CO molecules accrete onto water ice at temperatures below 27 K, with a deposition rate that does not depend on the substrate temperature. During the warm-up phase, the desorption processes do exhibit subtle differences, indicating the presence of weakly bound CO molecules, therefore highlighting a low diffusion efficiency. IR measurements following the ice thickness during the TPD confirm that diffusion occurs at temperatures close to the desorption. Applied to astrophysical conditions, in a pre-stellar core, the binding energies of CO molecules, ranging between 300 and 850 K, depend on the conditions at which CO has been deposited. Because of this wide range of binding energies, the depletion of CO as a function of A{sub V} is much less important than initially thought. The weakly bound molecules, easily released into the gas phase through evaporation, change the balance between accretion and desorption, which result in a larger abundance of CO at high extinctions. In addition, weakly bound CO molecules are also more mobile, and this could increase the reactivity within interstellar ices.

  1. Energizing and depletion of neutrals by a collisional plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruchtman, A

    2008-01-01

    Neutral depletion can significantly affect the steady state of low temperature plasmas. Recent theoretical analyses predicted previously unexpected effects of neutral depletion in both collisional and collisionless regimes. In this paper we address the effect of the energy deposited in the neutral gas by a collisional plasma. The fraction of power deposited in the neutrals is shown to be independent of the amount of power. The first case we address is of a thermalized neutral gas. It is shown that a low heat conductivity of the neutral gas is followed by a high neutral temperature that results in a high neutral depletion even if the plasma pressure is small. In the second case neutrals are accelerated through charge exchange with ions leading to what we call neutral pumping, which is equivalent to ion pumping in a collisionless plasma. Neutral depletion is found in the second case for both a closed system (no net mass flow) and an open system (a finite mass flow). A thruster that employs a collisional plasma and pumped neutrals is compared with the thruster analyzed before that employs collisionless plasma.

  2. Monoamine depletion by reuptake inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinz M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Marty Hinz1, Alvin Stein2, Thomas Uncini31Clinical Research, NeuroResearch Clinics Inc, Cape Coral, FL; 2Stein Orthopedic Associates, Plantation, FL; 3DBS Labs Inc, Duluth, MN, USABackground: Disagreement exists regarding the etiology of cessation of the observed clinical results with administration of reuptake inhibitors. Traditionally, when drug effects wane, it is known as tachyphylaxis. With reuptake inhibitors, the placebo effect is significantly greater than the drug effect in the treatment of depression and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, leading some to assert that waning of drug effects is placebo relapse, not tachyphylaxis.Methods: Two groups were retrospectively evaluated. Group 1 was composed of subjects with depression and Group 2 was composed of bariatric subjects treated with reuptake inhibitors for appetite suppression.Results: In Group 1, 200 subjects with depression were treated with citalopram 20 mg per day. A total of 46.5% (n = 93 achieved relief of symptoms (Hamilton-D rating score ≤ 7, of whom 37 (39.8% of whom experienced recurrence of depression symptoms, at which point an amino acid precursor formula was started. Within 1–5 days, 97.3% (n = 36 experienced relief of depression symptoms. In Group 2, 220 subjects were treated with phentermine 30 mg in the morning and citalopram 20 mg at 4 pm. In this group, 90.0% (n = 198 achieved adequate appetite suppression. The appetite suppression ceased in all 198 subjects within 4–48 days. Administration of an amino acid precursor formula restored appetite suppression in 98.5% (n = 195 of subjects within 1–5 days.Conclusion: Reuptake inhibitors do not increase the total number of monoamine molecules in the central nervous system. Their mechanism of action facilitates redistribution of monoamines from one place to another. In the process, conditions are induced that facilitate depletion of monoamines. The "reuptake inhibitor monoamine depletion theory" of this paper

  3. Depleted uranium disposal options evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.; Otis, M.D.

    1994-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, has chartered a study to evaluate alternative management strategies for depleted uranium (DU) currently stored throughout the DOE complex. Historically, DU has been maintained as a strategic resource because of uses for DU metal and potential uses for further enrichment or for uranium oxide as breeder reactor blanket fuel. This study has focused on evaluating the disposal options for DU if it were considered a waste. This report is in no way declaring these DU reserves a ''waste,'' but is intended to provide baseline data for comparison with other management options for use of DU. To PICS considered in this report include: Retrievable disposal; permanent disposal; health hazards; radiation toxicity and chemical toxicity

  4. High order depletion sensitivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naguib, K.; Adib, M.; Morcos, H.N.

    2002-01-01

    A high order depletion sensitivity method was applied to calculate the sensitivities of build-up of actinides in the irradiated fuel due to cross-section uncertainties. An iteration method based on Taylor series expansion was applied to construct stationary principle, from which all orders of perturbations were calculated. The irradiated EK-10 and MTR-20 fuels at their maximum burn-up of 25% and 65% respectively were considered for sensitivity analysis. The results of calculation show that, in case of EK-10 fuel (low burn-up), the first order sensitivity was found to be enough to perform an accuracy of 1%. While in case of MTR-20 (high burn-up) the fifth order was found to provide 3% accuracy. A computer code SENS was developed to provide the required calculations

  5. Uranium under its depleted state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This day organised by the SFRP, with the help of the Army Health service, the service of radiation protection of Army and IPSN is an information day to inform the public about the real toxicity of uranium, and its becoming in man and environment, about the risks during the use of depleted uranium and eventual consequences of its dispersion after a conflict, to give information on how is managed the protection of workers (civil or military ones) and what is really the situation of French military personnel in these conflicts. The news have brought to the shore cases of leukemia it is necessary to bring some information to the origin of this disease. (N.C.)

  6. Pump depletion effects in thermal degenerate four-wave mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guha, S.; Chen, W.

    1987-01-01

    Characteristics such as a large magnitude of nonlinearity, fast response, broadband operation, and easy availability make absorbing liquids attractive candidates for performing phase conjugation of optical beams by degenerate four-wave mixing. The coupled-wave equations describing the interaction of four optical fields in an absorbing medium have been solved previously for the case of no pump depletion and no self-action of any of the beams. When studying phase conjugation oscillation, however, the effect of depletion of the pump beams on the phase conjugate reflectivity must be considered. Moreover, in absorbing media the self-action effects are always present. The coupled-wave equations, including the self-action terms for all four waves involved, are derived here for the first time to the authors' knowledge. For the case of small absorption, these equations are solved analytically, and the effect of pump depletion on phase conjugate reflectivity R is determined. In the absence of the pump depletion, R is proportional to tan 2 (Ql), where Ql is a dimensionless gain parameter characterizing the nonlinear medium and the input pump power. When pump depletion and self-action are included, R does not go to infinity when Ql equals odd multiples of π2. Instead R takes on values dependent on the probe ratio q 1 , which is the ratio of the input probe irradiance to the input pump irradiance. The authors find that the maximum value for R is 1q 1 . They also find that for Ql close to odd multiples of π2, the reflectivity is significantly reduced from the value obtained by ignoring pump depletion, even for probe ratios as small as one-tenth of 1%. Experimental confirmation of this theory, using an argon-ion laser as the pump and carbon tetrachloride mixed with a dye as the absorbing medium, is in progress and is reported

  7. Are relative depletions altered inside diffuse clouds?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    The data of Jenkins, Savage, and Spitzer (1986) were used to analyze interstellar abundances and depletions of Fe, P, Mg, and Mn toward 37 stars, spanning nearly 1.0 (dex) in mean line-of-sight depletion. It was found that the depletions of these elements are linearly correlated and do not show evidence of differences in the rates of depletion or sputtering from one element to another. For a given level of overall depletion, the sightline-to-sightline rms variance in the depletion for each of these elements was less than 0.16 (dex), which is significantly smaller than is the element-to-element variance. The results suggest that, for most diffuse lines of sight, the relative abundances of these elements are set early in the lifetime of the grains and are not altered significantly thereafter. 53 references

  8. Parametric investigations on the saturation intensity of Coumarin 102 for stimulated emission depletion application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, H-Y; Zhao, W-X; Zhao, W; Zhang, C; Feng, X-Q; Liu, S-P; Wang, K-G

    2018-04-23

    Stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy performed using continuous-wave (CW) lasers has been investigated and developed by Willig et al. (Nature Methods, 2007, 4(11):915) for nearly a decade. Kuang et al. (Review of Scientific Instruments, 2010, 81:053709) developed the CW STED microscopy technique with 405 nm excitation and 532 nm depletion beams. In their research, Coumarin 102 dye was adopted and was found to be depletable. In this study, a parametric investigation of the depletion of Coumarin 102 dye is carried out experimentally. The influence of the excitation and depletion beam intensities and dye concentrations on the depletion efficiency are studied in detail. The results indicate the following: (1) The highest depletion occurs for the 100 μM Coumarin 102 solution, with a 1.4 μW excitation beam and a 115.3 mW depletion beam. (2) The minimum saturation intensity (Is) of STED, that is 13 MW cm -2 , is observed when the Coumarin 102 solution concentration is 10 μM. (3) Is values calculated directly from the depletion power derived with the cross-sectional area due to the full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) of the depletion beam show poor accuracy, where Is may be overestimated. Thus, a correction factor for the cross-sectional area is proposed. We also find that Is is not exactly constant for a fixed excitation beam power and dye concentration. This trend indicates that the conventional suppression function η(x)=e- ln (2)ISTED(x)/Is derived from picosecond STED may cause errors in evaluating the depletion process in CW STED microscopy. © 2018 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2018 Royal Microscopical Society.

  9. Is gas in the Orion nebula depleted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiello, S.; Guidi, I.

    1978-01-01

    Depletion of heavy elements has been recognized to be important in the understanding of the chemical composition of the interstellar medium. This problem is also relevant to the study of H II regions. In this paper the gaseous depletion in the physical conditions of the Orion nebula is investigated. The authors reach the conclusion that very probably no depletion of heavy elements, due to sticking on dust grains, took place during the lifetime of the Orion nebula. (Auth.)

  10. Tryptophan depletion affects compulsive behaviour in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merchán, A; Navarro, S V; Klein, A B

    2017-01-01

    investigated whether 5-HT manipulation, through a tryptophan (TRP) depletion by diet in Wistar and Lister Hooded rats, modulates compulsive drinking in schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) and locomotor activity in the open-field test. The levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, serotonin and its metabolite were......-depleted HD Wistar rats, while the LD Wistar and the Lister Hooded rats did not exhibit differences in SIP. In contrast, the TRP-depleted Lister Hooded rats increased locomotor activity compared to the non-depleted rats, while no differences were found in the Wistar rats. Serotonin 2A receptor binding...

  11. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 315 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE), 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassebaum, N.J.; Arora, Megha; Barber, R.M.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Brown, J.; Carter, Austin; Casey, Daniel C.; Charlson, Fiona J.; Coates, M.; Coggeshall, M.S.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background
    Healthy life expectancy (HALE) and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) provide summary measures of health across geographies and time that can inform assessments of epidemiological patterns and health system performance, help to prioritise investments in research and development,

  12. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 315 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE), 1990-2015 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassebaum, Nicholas J.; Arora, Megha; Barber, Ryan M.; Bhutta, Zulfigar A.; Carter, Austin; Casey, Daniel C.; Charlson, Fiona J.; Coates, Matthew M.; Coggeshall, Megan; Cornaby, Leslie; Dandona, Lalit; Dicker, Daniel J.; Erskine, Holly E.; Ferrari, Alize J.; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Foreman, Kyle; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Fullman, Nancy; Gething, Peter W.; Goldberg, Ellen M.; Graetz, Nicholas; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Johnson, Catherine; Kemmer, Laura; Khalil, Ibrahim A.; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kutz, Michael J.; Kyu, Hmwe H.; Leung, Janni; Liang, Xiaofeng; Lim, Stephen S.; Lim, Stephen S.; Lozano, Rafael; Mensah, George A.; Mikesell, Joe; Mokdad, Ali H.; Mooney, Meghan D.; Naghavi, Mohsen; Nguyen, Grant; Nsoesie, Elaine; Pigott, David M.; Pinho, Christine; Rankin, Zane; Reinig, Nikolas; Salomon, Joshua A.; Sandar, Logan; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Hoek, Hans W.; Singh, Abhishek; Tura, Abera Kenay

    2016-01-01

    Background Healthy life expectancy (HALE) and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) provide summary measures of health across geographies and time that can inform assessments of epidemiological patterns and health system performance, help to prioritise investments in research and development, and

  13. Depleted Uranium and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faa, Armando; Gerosa, Clara; Fanni, Daniela; Floris, Giuseppe; Eyken, Peter V; Lachowicz, Joanna I; Nurchi, Valeria M

    2018-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) is generally considered an emerging pollutant, first extensively introduced into environment in the early nineties in Iraq, during the military operation called "Desert Storm". DU has been hypothesized to represent a hazardous element both for soldiers exposed as well as for the inhabitants of the polluted areas in the war zones. In this review, the possible consequences on human health of DU released in the environment are critically analyzed. In the first part, the chemical properties of DU and the principal civil and military uses are summarized. A concise analysis of the mechanisms underlying absorption, blood transport, tissue distribution and excretion of DU in the human body is the subject of the second part of this article. The following sections deal with pathological condition putatively associated with overexposure to DU. Developmental and birth defects, the Persian Gulf syndrome, and kidney diseases that have been associated to DU are the arguments treated in the third section. Finally, data regarding DU exposure and cancer insurgence will be critically analyzed, including leukemia/lymphoma, lung cancer, uterine cervix cancer, breast cancer, bladder cancer and testicular cancer. The aim of the authors is to give a contribution to the debate on DU and its effects on human health and disease. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Ozone depletion potentials of halocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karol, I.L.; Kiselev, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    The concept of ozone depletion potential (ODP) is widely used in the evaluation of numerous halocarbons and of their replacements for effects on ozone, but the methods, model assumptions and conditions of ODP calculation have not been analyzed adequately. In this paper, a model study of effects on ozone after the instantaneous releases of various amounts of CH 3 CCl 3 and of CHF 2 Cl(HCFC-22) in the several conditions of the background atmosphere are presented, aimed to understand the main connections of ODP values with the methods of their calculations. To facilitate the ODP computation in numerous versions for long after the releases, the above rather short-lived gases have been used. The variation of released gas global mass from 1 Mt to 1 Gt leads to ODP value increase atmosphere. The same variations are analyzed for the CFC-free atmosphere of 1960s conditions for the anthropogenically loaded atmosphere in the 21st century according to the known IPCC- A scenario (business as usual). Recommendations of proper ways of ODP calculations are proposed for practically important cases

  15. Plutonium in depleted uranium penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, J.P.; Leon-Vintro, L.; Smith, K.; Mitchell, P.I.; Zunic, Z.S.

    2002-01-01

    Depleted Uranium (DU) penetrators used in the recent Balkan conflicts have been found to be contaminated with trace amounts of transuranic materials such as plutonium. This contamination is usually a consequence of DU fabrication being carried out in facilities also using uranium recycled from spent military and civilian nuclear reactor fuel. Specific activities of 239+240 Plutonium generally in the range 1 to 12 Bq/kg have been found to be present in DU penetrators recovered from the attack sites of the 1999 NATO bombardment of Kosovo. A DU penetrator recovered from a May 1999 attack site at Bratoselce in southern Serbia and analysed by University College Dublin was found to contain 43.7 +/- 1.9 Bq/kg of 239+240 Plutonium. This analysis is described. An account is also given of the general population radiation dose implications arising from both the DU itself and from the presence of plutonium in the penetrators. According to current dosimetric models, in all scenarios considered likely ,the dose from the plutonium is estimated to be much smaller than that due to the uranium isotopes present in the penetrators. (author)

  16. Depletion sensitivity predicts unhealthy snack purchases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, Stefanie J.; Adriaanse, Marieke A.; Fennis, Bob M.; De Vet, Emely; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to examine the relation between depletion sensitivity - a novel construct referring to the speed or ease by which one's self-control resources are drained - and snack purchase behavior. In addition, interactions between depletion sensitivity and the goal to lose

  17. The Chemistry and Toxicology of Depleted Uranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney A. Katz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural uranium is comprised of three radioactive isotopes: 238U, 235U, and 234U. Depleted uranium (DU is a byproduct of the processes for the enrichment of the naturally occurring 235U isotope. The world wide stock pile contains some 1½ million tons of depleted uranium. Some of it has been used to dilute weapons grade uranium (~90% 235U down to reactor grade uranium (~5% 235U, and some of it has been used for heavy tank armor and for the fabrication of armor-piercing bullets and missiles. Such weapons were used by the military in the Persian Gulf, the Balkans and elsewhere. The testing of depleted uranium weapons and their use in combat has resulted in environmental contamination and human exposure. Although the chemical and the toxicological behaviors of depleted uranium are essentially the same as those of natural uranium, the respective chemical forms and isotopic compositions in which they usually occur are different. The chemical and radiological toxicity of depleted uranium can injure biological systems. Normal functioning of the kidney, liver, lung, and heart can be adversely affected by depleted uranium intoxication. The focus of this review is on the chemical and toxicological properties of depleted and natural uranium and some of the possible consequences from long term, low dose exposure to depleted uranium in the environment.

  18. Deuterium - depleted water. Achievements and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titescu, Gh.; Stefanescu, I.; Saros-Rogobete, I.

    2001-01-01

    Deuterium - depleted water represents water that has an isotopic content lower than 145 ppm D/(D+H) which is the natural isotopic content of water. The research conducted at ICSI Ramnicu Valcea, regarding deuterium - depleted water were completed by the following patents: - technique and installation for deuterium - depleted water production; - distilled water with low deuterium content; - technique and installation for the production of distilled water with low deuterium content; - mineralized water with low deuterium content and technique to produce it. The gold and silver medals won at international salons for inventions confirmed the novelty of these inventions. Knowing that deuterium content of water has a big influence on living organisms, beginning with 1996, the ICSI Ramnicu Valcea, deuterium - depleted water producer, co-operated with Romanian specialized institutes for biological effects' evaluation of deuterium - depleted water. The role of natural deuterium in living organisms was examined by using deuterium - depleted water instead of natural water. These investigations led to the following conclusions: 1. deuterium - depleted water caused a tendency towards the increase of the basal tone, accompanied by the intensification of the vasoconstrictor effects of phenylefrine, noradrenaline and angiotensin; the increase of the basal tone and vascular reactivity produced by the deuterium - depleted water persists after the removal of the vascular endothelium; -2. animals treated with deuterium - depleted water showed an increase of the resistance both to sublethal and to lethal gamma radiation doses, suggesting a radioprotective action by the stimulation of non-specific immune defence mechanism; 3, deuterium - depleted water stimulates immune defence reactions, represented by the opsonic, bactericidal and phagocyte capacity of the immune system, together with increase in the numbers of polymorphonuclear neutrophils; 4. investigations regarding artificial

  19. Interstellar depletion anomalies and ionization potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabak, R.G.

    1979-01-01

    Satellite observations indicate that (1) most elements are depleted from the gas phase when compared to cosmic abundances, (2) some elements are several orders of magnitude more depleted than others, and (3) these depletions vary from cloud to cloud. Since the most likely possibility is that the 'missing' atoms are locked into grains, depletions occur either by accretion onto core particles in interstellar clouds or earlier, during the period of primary grain formation. If the latter mechanism is dominant, then the most important depletion parameter is the condensation temperature of the elements and their various compounds. However, this alone is not sufficient to explain all the observed anomalies. It is shown that electrostatic effects - under a wide variety of conditions- can enormously enhance the capture cross-section of the grain. It is suggested that this mechanism can also account for such anomalies as the apparent 'overabundance' of the alkali metals in the gas phase. (orig.)

  20. Specification for the VERA Depletion Benchmark Suite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kang Seog [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-17

    CASL-X-2015-1014-000 iii Consortium for Advanced Simulation of LWRs EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The CASL neutronics simulator MPACT is under development for the neutronics and T-H coupled simulation for the pressurized water reactor. MPACT includes the ORIGEN-API and internal depletion module to perform depletion calculations based upon neutron-material reaction and radioactive decay. It is a challenge to validate the depletion capability because of the insufficient measured data. One of the detoured methods to validate it is to perform a code-to-code comparison for benchmark problems. In this study a depletion benchmark suite has been developed and a detailed guideline has been provided to obtain meaningful computational outcomes which can be used in the validation of the MPACT depletion capability.

  1. Gulf war depleted uranium risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Albert C

    2008-01-01

    US and British forces used depleted uranium (DU) in armor-piercing rounds to disable enemy tanks during the Gulf and Balkan Wars. Uranium particulate is generated by DU shell impact and particulate entrained in air may be inhaled or ingested by troops and nearby civilian populations. As uranium is slightly radioactive and chemically toxic, a number of critics have asserted that DU exposure has resulted in a variety of adverse health effects for exposed veterans and nearby civilian populations. The study described in this paper used mathematical modeling to estimate health risks from exposure to DU during the 1991 Gulf War for both US troops and nearby Iraqi civilians. The analysis found that the risks of DU-induced leukemia or birth defects are far too small to result in an observable increase in these health effects among exposed veterans or Iraqi civilians. The analysis indicated that only a few ( approximately 5) US veterans in vehicles accidentally targeted by US tanks received significant exposure levels, resulting in about a 1.4% lifetime risk of DU radiation-induced fatal cancer (compared with about a 24% risk of a fatal cancer from all other causes). These veterans may have also experienced temporary kidney damage. Iraqi children playing for 500 h in DU-destroyed vehicles are predicted to incur a cancer risk of about 0.4%. In vitro and animal tests suggest the possibility of chemically induced health effects from DU internalization, such as immune system impairment. Further study is needed to determine the applicability of these findings for Gulf War exposure to DU. Veterans and civilians who did not occupy DU-contaminated vehicles are unlikely to have internalized quantities of DU significantly in excess of normal internalization of natural uranium from the environment.

  2. Spatial relationship of 1-meter equatorial spread-F irregularities and depletions in total electron content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunoda, R.T.; Towle, D.M.

    1979-01-01

    An experiment was conducted at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands to investigate the spatial relationship of 1-m equatorial spread-F irregularities to total electron content (TEC) depletions. A high-power radar was operated (1) in a backscatter scan mode to spatially map the distribution of 1-m irregularities, and (2) in a dual-frequency, satellite-track mode to obtain the longitudinal TEC variations. We show that radar backscatter ''plumes'' found in the disturbed, nighttime equatorial ionosphere are longitudinally coincident with TEC depletions. We suggest that the TEC depletions are probably due to the presence of plasma ''bubbles'' in the equatorial F layer

  3. Comparative study of heavy and deuterium-depleted water on platelet aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haulica, I.; Neagu, B.; Boisteanu, C.P.; Bild, W.; Mihaila, C.; Bajenariu, M.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of timed incubation of PRP (Platelet-Rich Plasma) with various concentrations of deuterium-depleted or deuterated water were tested. Aggregation curves were obtained under constant stirring at 20 deg.C and at 37 deg.C, using 5 - 10 μM ADP as aggregation trigger, using a Specord photo colorimeter. Incubation with 10 % deuterated water showed a significant decrease in the aggregation curves, an effect consistent with the data in the literature. Incubation with deuterium depleted water in the same conditions showed a marked increase in the aggregation curves, which suggests a powerful pro-aggregating effect of deuterium depleted water. (authors)

  4. Maximizing percentage depletion in solid minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripp, J.; Grove, H.D.; McGrath, M.

    1982-01-01

    This article develops a strategy for maximizing percentage depletion deductions when extracting uranium or other solid minerals. The goal is to avoid losing percentage depletion deductions by staying below the 50% limitation on taxable income from the property. The article is divided into two major sections. The first section is comprised of depletion calculations that illustrate the problem and corresponding solutions. The last section deals with the feasibility of applying the strategy and complying with the Internal Revenue Code and appropriate regulations. Three separate strategies or appropriate situations are developed and illustrated. 13 references, 3 figures, 7 tables

  5. Fully Depleted Charge-Coupled Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, Stephen E.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed fully depleted, back-illuminated CCDs that build upon earlier research and development efforts directed towards technology development of silicon-strip detectors used in high-energy-physics experiments. The CCDs are fabricated on the same type of high-resistivity, float-zone-refined silicon that is used for strip detectors. The use of high-resistivity substrates allows for thick depletion regions, on the order of 200-300 um, with corresponding high detection efficiency for near-infrared and soft x-ray photons. We compare the fully depleted CCD to the p-i-n diode upon which it is based, and describe the use of fully depleted CCDs in astronomical and x-ray imaging applications

  6. Real depletion in nodal diffusion codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkov, P.T.

    2002-01-01

    The fuel depletion is described by more than one hundred fuel isotopes in the advanced lattice codes like HELIOS, but only a few fuel isotopes are accounted for even in the advanced steady-state diffusion codes. The general assumption that the number densities of the majority of the fuel isotopes depend only on the fuel burnup is seriously in error if high burnup is considered. The real depletion conditions in the reactor core differ from the asymptotic ones at the stage of lattice depletion calculations. This study reveals which fuel isotopes should be explicitly accounted for in the diffusion codes in order to predict adequately the real depletion effects in the core. A somewhat strange conclusion is that if the real number densities of the main fissionable isotopes are not explicitly accounted for in the diffusion code, then Sm-149 should not be accounted for either, because the net error in k-inf is smaller (Authors)

  7. Depleted UF6 programmatic environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has developed a program for long-term management and use of depleted uranium hexafluoride, a product of the uranium enrichment process. As part of this effort, DOE is preparing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) for the depleted UF 6 management program. This report duplicates the information available at the web site (http://www.ead.anl.gov/web/newduf6) set up as a repository for the PEIS. Options for the web site include: reviewing recent additions or changes to the web site; learning more about depleted UF 6 and the PEIS; browsing the PEIS and related documents, or submitting official comments on the PEIS; downloading all or part of the PEIS documents; and adding or deleting one's name from the depleted UF 6 mailing list

  8. Ecological considerations of natural and depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, W.C.

    1980-01-01

    Depleted 238 U is a major by-product of the nuclear fuel cycle for which increasing use is being made in counterweights, radiation shielding, and ordnance applications. This paper (1) summarizes the pertinent literature on natural and depleted uranium in the environment, (2) integrates results of a series of ecological studies conducted at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) in New Mexico where 70,000 kg of depleted and natural uranium has been expended to the environment over the past 34 years, and (3) synthesizes the information into an assessment of the ecological consequences of natural and depleted uranium released to the environment by various means. Results of studies of soil, plant, and animal communities exposed to this radiation and chemical environment over a third of a century provide a means of evaluating the behavior and effects of uranium in many contexts

  9. Stimulated emission depletion following two photon excitation

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, R. J.; Armoogum, D. A.; Bain, A. J.

    2002-01-01

    The technique of stimulated emission depletion of fluorescence (STED) from a two photon excited molecular population is demonstrated in the S, excited state of fluorescein in ethylene glycol and methanol. Two photon excitation (pump) is achieved using the partial output of a regeneratively amplified Ti:Sapphire laser in conjunction with an optical parametric amplifier whose tuneable output provides a synchronous depletion (dump) pulse. Time resolved fluorescence intensity and anisotropy measu...

  10. Depleted uranium: A DOE management guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a management challenge and financial liability in the form of 50,000 cylinders containing 555,000 metric tons of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) that are stored at the gaseous diffusion plants. The annual storage and maintenance cost is approximately $10 million. This report summarizes several studies undertaken by the DOE Office of Technology Development (OTD) to evaluate options for long-term depleted uranium management. Based on studies conducted to date, the most likely use of the depleted uranium is for shielding of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or vitrified high-level waste (HLW) containers. The alternative to finding a use for the depleted uranium is disposal as a radioactive waste. Estimated disposal costs, utilizing existing technologies, range between $3.8 and $11.3 billion, depending on factors such as applicability of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the location of the disposal site. The cost of recycling the depleted uranium in a concrete based shielding in SNF/HLW containers, although substantial, is comparable to or less than the cost of disposal. Consequently, the case can be made that if DOE invests in developing depleted uranium shielded containers instead of disposal, a long-term solution to the UF 6 problem is attained at comparable or lower cost than disposal as a waste. Two concepts for depleted uranium storage casks were considered in these studies. The first is based on standard fabrication concepts previously developed for depleted uranium metal. The second converts the UF 6 to an oxide aggregate that is used in concrete to make dry storage casks

  11. Ocean water temperature from data loggers from the HALE-ALOHA Moorings in the North Pacific Ocean as part of the Joint Global Ocean Flux (JGOFS), the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), and Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) from 24 April 1998 to 03 May 1999 (NODC Accession 9900212)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean water temperature data were collected from data loggers attached to the HALE-ALOHA Moorings in the North Pacific Ocean from 24 April 1998 to 03 May 1999. Data...

  12. ANATOMY OF DEPLETED INTERPLANETARY CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocher, M.; Lepri, S. T.; Landi, E.; Zhao, L.; Manchester, W. B. IV, E-mail: mkocher@umich.edu [Department of Climate and Space Sciences and Engineering, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143 (United States)

    2017-01-10

    We report a subset of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) containing distinct periods of anomalous heavy-ion charge state composition and peculiar ion thermal properties measured by ACE /SWICS from 1998 to 2011. We label them “depleted ICMEs,” identified by the presence of intervals where C{sup 6+}/C{sup 5+} and O{sup 7+}/O{sup 6+} depart from the direct correlation expected after their freeze-in heights. These anomalous intervals within the depleted ICMEs are referred to as “Depletion Regions.” We find that a depleted ICME would be indistinguishable from all other ICMEs in the absence of the Depletion Region, which has the defining property of significantly low abundances of fully charged species of helium, carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen. Similar anomalies in the slow solar wind were discussed by Zhao et al. We explore two possibilities for the source of the Depletion Region associated with magnetic reconnection in the tail of a CME, using CME simulations of the evolution of two Earth-bound CMEs described by Manchester et al.

  13. Depletion region surface effects in electron beam induced current measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haney, Paul M.; Zhitenev, Nikolai B. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Yoon, Heayoung P. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Gaury, Benoit [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Maryland NanoCenter, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2016-09-07

    Electron beam induced current (EBIC) is a powerful characterization technique which offers the high spatial resolution needed to study polycrystalline solar cells. Current models of EBIC assume that excitations in the p-n junction depletion region result in perfect charge collection efficiency. However, we find that in CdTe and Si samples prepared by focused ion beam (FIB) milling, there is a reduced and nonuniform EBIC lineshape for excitations in the depletion region. Motivated by this, we present a model of the EBIC response for excitations in the depletion region which includes the effects of surface recombination from both charge-neutral and charged surfaces. For neutral surfaces, we present a simple analytical formula which describes the numerical data well, while the charged surface response depends qualitatively on the location of the surface Fermi level relative to the bulk Fermi level. We find that the experimental data on FIB-prepared Si solar cells are most consistent with a charged surface and discuss the implications for EBIC experiments on polycrystalline materials.

  14. Temperature dependent simulation of diamond depleted Schottky PIN diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hathwar, Raghuraj; Dutta, Maitreya; Chowdhury, Srabanti; Goodnick, Stephen M.; Koeck, Franz A. M.; Nemanich, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Diamond is considered as an ideal material for high field and high power devices due to its high breakdown field, high lightly doped carrier mobility, and high thermal conductivity. The modeling and simulation of diamond devices are therefore important to predict the performances of diamond based devices. In this context, we use Silvaco ® Atlas, a drift-diffusion based commercial software, to model diamond based power devices. The models used in Atlas were modified to account for both variable range and nearest neighbor hopping transport in the impurity bands associated with high activation energies for boron doped and phosphorus doped diamond. The models were fit to experimentally reported resistivity data over a wide range of doping concentrations and temperatures. We compare to recent data on depleted diamond Schottky PIN diodes demonstrating low turn-on voltages and high reverse breakdown voltages, which could be useful for high power rectifying applications due to the low turn-on voltage enabling high forward current densities. Three dimensional simulations of the depleted Schottky PIN diamond devices were performed and the results are verified with experimental data at different operating temperatures

  15. Temperature dependent simulation of diamond depleted Schottky PIN diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathwar, Raghuraj; Dutta, Maitreya; Koeck, Franz A. M.; Nemanich, Robert J.; Chowdhury, Srabanti; Goodnick, Stephen M.

    2016-06-01

    Diamond is considered as an ideal material for high field and high power devices due to its high breakdown field, high lightly doped carrier mobility, and high thermal conductivity. The modeling and simulation of diamond devices are therefore important to predict the performances of diamond based devices. In this context, we use Silvaco® Atlas, a drift-diffusion based commercial software, to model diamond based power devices. The models used in Atlas were modified to account for both variable range and nearest neighbor hopping transport in the impurity bands associated with high activation energies for boron doped and phosphorus doped diamond. The models were fit to experimentally reported resistivity data over a wide range of doping concentrations and temperatures. We compare to recent data on depleted diamond Schottky PIN diodes demonstrating low turn-on voltages and high reverse breakdown voltages, which could be useful for high power rectifying applications due to the low turn-on voltage enabling high forward current densities. Three dimensional simulations of the depleted Schottky PIN diamond devices were performed and the results are verified with experimental data at different operating temperatures

  16. Temperature dependent simulation of diamond depleted Schottky PIN diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hathwar, Raghuraj; Dutta, Maitreya; Chowdhury, Srabanti; Goodnick, Stephen M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-8806 (United States); Koeck, Franz A. M.; Nemanich, Robert J. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-8806 (United States)

    2016-06-14

    Diamond is considered as an ideal material for high field and high power devices due to its high breakdown field, high lightly doped carrier mobility, and high thermal conductivity. The modeling and simulation of diamond devices are therefore important to predict the performances of diamond based devices. In this context, we use Silvaco{sup ®} Atlas, a drift-diffusion based commercial software, to model diamond based power devices. The models used in Atlas were modified to account for both variable range and nearest neighbor hopping transport in the impurity bands associated with high activation energies for boron doped and phosphorus doped diamond. The models were fit to experimentally reported resistivity data over a wide range of doping concentrations and temperatures. We compare to recent data on depleted diamond Schottky PIN diodes demonstrating low turn-on voltages and high reverse breakdown voltages, which could be useful for high power rectifying applications due to the low turn-on voltage enabling high forward current densities. Three dimensional simulations of the depleted Schottky PIN diamond devices were performed and the results are verified with experimental data at different operating temperatures.

  17. Disability-Adjusted Life-Years (DALYs) for 315 Diseases and Injuries and Healthy Life Expectancy (HALE) in Iran and its Neighboring Countries, 1990-2015: Findings from Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepanlou, Sadaf G; Parsaeian, Mahboubeh; Krohn, Kristopher J; Afshin, Ashkan; Farzadfar, Farshad; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Karimkhani, Chante; Bazargan-Hejazi, Sharzad; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Djalalinia, Shirin; Ebrahimi, Hedyeh; Eshrati, Babak; Esteghamati, Ali Reza; Farvid, Maryam S; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh; Heydarpour, Pouria; Islami, Farhad; Karimi, Seyed M; Katibeh, Marzieh; Khosravi, Ardeshir; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Mahdavi, Mahdi; Pishgar, Farhad; Qorbani, Mostafa; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Safi, Sare; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Shahraz, Saeid; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Mohammadi, Alireza; Mokdad, Ali H; Vos, Theo; Murray, Christopher J L; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Naghavi, Mohsen; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2017-07-01

    Summary measures of health are essential in making estimates of health status that are comparable across time and place. They can be used for assessing the performance of health systems, informing effective policy making, and monitoring the progress of nations toward achievement of sustainable development goals. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015) provides disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and healthy life expectancy (HALE) as main summary measures of health. We assessed the trends of health status in Iran and 15 neighboring countries using these summary measures. We used the results of GBD 2015 to present the levels and trends of DALYs, life expectancy (LE), and HALE in Iran and its 15 neighboring countries from 1990 to 2015. For each country, we assessed the ratio of observed levels of DALYs and HALE to those expected based on socio-demographic index (SDI), an indicator composed of measures of total fertility rate, income per capita, and average years of schooling. All-age numbers of DALYs reached over 19 million years in Iran in 2015. The all-age number of DALYs has remained stable during the past two decades in Iran, despite the decreasing trends in all-age and age-standardized rates. The all-cause DALY rates decreased from 47,200 in 1990 to 28,400 per 100,000 in 2015. The share of non-communicable diseases in DALYs increased in Iran (from 42% to 74%) and all of its neighbors between 1990 and 2015; the pattern of change is similar in almost all 16 countries. The DALY rates for NCDs and injuries in Iran were higher than global rates and the average rate in High Middle SDI countries, while those for communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders were much lower in Iran. Among men, cardiovascular diseases ranked first in all countries of the region except for Bahrain. Among women, they ranked first in 13 countries. Life expectancy and HALE show a consistent increase in all countries. Still, there are

  18. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 333 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 195 countries and territories, 1990–2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard Iburg, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Background Measurement of changes in health across locations is useful to compare and contrast changing epidemiological patterns against health system performance and identify specific needs for resource allocation in research, policy development, and programme decision making. Using the Global...... Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016, we drew from two widely used summary measures to monitor such changes in population health: disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and healthy life expectancy (HALE). We used these measures to track trends and benchmark progress compared...... from expected trends when compared with the SDI: the geometric mean of income per person, educational attainment in the population older than age 15 years, and total fertility rate. Findings The highest globally observed HALE at birth for both women and men was in Singapore, at 75·2 years (95...

  19. Method for depleting BWRs using optimal control rod patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taner, M.S.; Levine, S.H.; Hsiao, M.Y.

    1991-01-01

    Control rod (CR) programming is an essential core management activity for boiling water reactors (BWRs). After establishing a core reload design for a BWR, CR programming is performed to develop a sequence of exposure-dependent CR patterns that assure the safe and effective depletion of the core through a reactor cycle. A time-variant target power distribution approach has been assumed in this study. The authors have developed OCTOPUS to implement a new two-step method for designing semioptimal CR programs for BWRs. The optimization procedure of OCTOPUS is based on the method of approximation programming and uses the SIMULATE-E code for nucleonics calculations

  20. Uncertainty Propagation in Monte Carlo Depletion Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Hyung Jin; Kim, Yeong-il; Park, Ho Jin; Joo, Han Gyu; Kim, Chang Hyo

    2008-01-01

    A new formulation aimed at quantifying uncertainties of Monte Carlo (MC) tallies such as k eff and the microscopic reaction rates of nuclides and nuclide number densities in MC depletion analysis and examining their propagation behaviour as a function of depletion time step (DTS) is presented. It is shown that the variance of a given MC tally used as a measure of its uncertainty in this formulation arises from four sources; the statistical uncertainty of the MC tally, uncertainties of microscopic cross sections and nuclide number densities, and the cross correlations between them and the contribution of the latter three sources can be determined by computing the correlation coefficients between the uncertain variables. It is also shown that the variance of any given nuclide number density at the end of each DTS stems from uncertainties of the nuclide number densities (NND) and microscopic reaction rates (MRR) of nuclides at the beginning of each DTS and they are determined by computing correlation coefficients between these two uncertain variables. To test the viability of the formulation, we conducted MC depletion analysis for two sample depletion problems involving a simplified 7x7 fuel assembly (FA) and a 17x17 PWR FA, determined number densities of uranium and plutonium isotopes and their variances as well as k ∞ and its variance as a function of DTS, and demonstrated the applicability of the new formulation for uncertainty propagation analysis that need be followed in MC depletion computations. (authors)

  1. Groundwater Depletion Embedded in International Food Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Carole; Wada, Yoshihide; Kastner, Thomas; Puma, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Recent hydrological modeling and Earth observations have located and quantified alarming rates of groundwater depletion worldwide. This depletion is primarily due to water withdrawals for irrigation, but its connection with the main driver of irrigation, global food consumption, has not yet been explored. Here we show that approximately eleven per cent of non-renewable groundwater use for irrigation is embedded in international food trade, of which two-thirds are exported by Pakistan, the USA and India alone. Our quantification of groundwater depletion embedded in the world's food trade is based on a combination of global, crop-specific estimates of non-renewable groundwater abstraction and international food trade data. A vast majority of the world's population lives in countries sourcing nearly all their staple crop imports from partners who deplete groundwater to produce these crops, highlighting risks for global food and water security. Some countries, such as the USA, Mexico, Iran and China, are particularly exposed to these risks because they both produce and import food irrigated from rapidly depleting aquifers. Our results could help to improve the sustainability of global food production and groundwater resource management by identifying priority regions and agricultural products at risk as well as the end consumers of these products.

  2. Depletion sensitivity predicts unhealthy snack purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Stefanie J; Adriaanse, Marieke A; Fennis, Bob M; De Vet, Emely; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to examine the relation between depletion sensitivity - a novel construct referring to the speed or ease by which one's self-control resources are drained - and snack purchase behavior. In addition, interactions between depletion sensitivity and the goal to lose weight on snack purchase behavior were explored. Participants included in the study were instructed to report every snack they bought over the course of one week. The dependent variables were the number of healthy and unhealthy snacks purchased. The results of the present study demonstrate that depletion sensitivity predicts the amount of unhealthy (but not healthy) snacks bought. The more sensitive people are to depletion, the more unhealthy snacks they buy. Moreover, there was some tentative evidence that this relation is more pronounced for people with a weak as opposed to a strong goal to lose weight, suggesting that a strong goal to lose weight may function as a motivational buffer against self-control failures. All in all, these findings provide evidence for the external validity of depletion sensitivity and the relevance of this construct in the domain of eating behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Groundwater depletion embedded in international food trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Carole; Wada, Yoshihide; Kastner, Thomas; Puma, Michael J.

    2017-03-01

    Recent hydrological modelling and Earth observations have located and quantified alarming rates of groundwater depletion worldwide. This depletion is primarily due to water withdrawals for irrigation, but its connection with the main driver of irrigation, global food consumption, has not yet been explored. Here we show that approximately eleven per cent of non-renewable groundwater use for irrigation is embedded in international food trade, of which two-thirds are exported by Pakistan, the USA and India alone. Our quantification of groundwater depletion embedded in the world’s food trade is based on a combination of global, crop-specific estimates of non-renewable groundwater abstraction and international food trade data. A vast majority of the world’s population lives in countries sourcing nearly all their staple crop imports from partners who deplete groundwater to produce these crops, highlighting risks for global food and water security. Some countries, such as the USA, Mexico, Iran and China, are particularly exposed to these risks because they both produce and import food irrigated from rapidly depleting aquifers. Our results could help to improve the sustainability of global food production and groundwater resource management by identifying priority regions and agricultural products at risk as well as the end consumers of these products.

  4. Ego depletion in visual perception: Ego-depleted viewers experience less ambiguous figure reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Marina C; Stirk, Steven; Hancock, Peter J B

    2017-10-01

    This study examined the effects of ego depletion on ambiguous figure perception. Adults (N = 315) received an ego depletion task and were subsequently tested on their inhibitory control abilities that were indexed by the Stroop task (Experiment 1) and their ability to perceive both interpretations of ambiguous figures that was indexed by reversal (Experiment 2). Ego depletion had a very small effect on reducing inhibitory control (Cohen's d = .15) (Experiment 1). Ego-depleted participants had a tendency to take longer to respond in Stroop trials. In Experiment 2, ego depletion had small to medium effects on the experience of reversal. Ego-depleted viewers tended to take longer to reverse ambiguous figures (duration to first reversal) when naïve of the ambiguity and experienced less reversal both when naïve and informed of the ambiguity. Together, findings suggest that ego depletion has small effects on inhibitory control and small to medium effects on bottom-up and top-down perceptual processes. The depletion of cognitive resources can reduce our visual perceptual experience.

  5. The modality effect of ego depletion: Auditory task modality reduces ego depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiong; Wang, Zhenhong

    2016-08-01

    An initial act of self-control that impairs subsequent acts of self-control is called ego depletion. The ego depletion phenomenon has been observed consistently. The modality effect refers to the effect of the presentation modality on the processing of stimuli. The modality effect was also robustly found in a large body of research. However, no study to date has examined the modality effects of ego depletion. This issue was addressed in the current study. In Experiment 1, after all participants completed a handgrip task, one group's participants completed a visual attention regulation task and the other group's participants completed an auditory attention regulation task, and then all participants again completed a handgrip task. The ego depletion phenomenon was observed in both the visual and the auditory attention regulation task. Moreover, participants who completed the visual task performed worse on the handgrip task than participants who completed the auditory task, which indicated that there was high ego depletion in the visual task condition. In Experiment 2, participants completed an initial task that either did or did not deplete self-control resources, and then they completed a second visual or auditory attention control task. The results indicated that depleted participants performed better on the auditory attention control task than the visual attention control task. These findings suggest that altering task modality may reduce ego depletion. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Sensibility analysis of fuel depletion using different nuclear fuel depletion codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, F.; Velasquez, C.E.; Castro, V.F.; Pereira, C.; Silva, C. A. Mello da

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, the utilization of different nuclear codes to perform the depletion and criticality calculations has been used to simulated nuclear reactors problems. Therefore, the goal is to analyze the sensibility of the fuel depletion of a PWR assembly using three different nuclear fuel depletion codes. The burnup calculations are performed using the codes MCNP5/ORIGEN2.1 (MONTEBURNS), KENO-VI/ORIGEN-S (TRITONSCALE6.0) and MCNPX (MCNPX/CINDER90). Each nuclear code performs the burnup using different depletion codes. Each depletion code works with collapsed energies from a master library in 1, 3 and 63 groups, respectively. Besides, each code uses different ways to obtain neutron flux that influences the depletions calculation. The results present a comparison of the neutronic parameters and isotopes composition such as criticality and nuclides build-up, the deviation in results are going to be assigned to features of the depletion code in use, such as the different radioactive decay internal libraries and the numerical method involved in solving the coupled differential depletion equations. It is also seen that the longer the period is and the more time steps are chosen, the larger the deviation become. (author)

  7. Sensibility analysis of fuel depletion using different nuclear fuel depletion codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, F.; Velasquez, C.E.; Castro, V.F.; Pereira, C.; Silva, C. A. Mello da, E-mail: felipmartins94@gmail.com, E-mail: carlosvelcab@hotmail.com, E-mail: victorfariascastro@gmail.com, E-mail: claubia@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: clarysson@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    Nowadays, the utilization of different nuclear codes to perform the depletion and criticality calculations has been used to simulated nuclear reactors problems. Therefore, the goal is to analyze the sensibility of the fuel depletion of a PWR assembly using three different nuclear fuel depletion codes. The burnup calculations are performed using the codes MCNP5/ORIGEN2.1 (MONTEBURNS), KENO-VI/ORIGEN-S (TRITONSCALE6.0) and MCNPX (MCNPX/CINDER90). Each nuclear code performs the burnup using different depletion codes. Each depletion code works with collapsed energies from a master library in 1, 3 and 63 groups, respectively. Besides, each code uses different ways to obtain neutron flux that influences the depletions calculation. The results present a comparison of the neutronic parameters and isotopes composition such as criticality and nuclides build-up, the deviation in results are going to be assigned to features of the depletion code in use, such as the different radioactive decay internal libraries and the numerical method involved in solving the coupled differential depletion equations. It is also seen that the longer the period is and the more time steps are chosen, the larger the deviation become. (author)

  8. Depleted-Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Pattantyus-Abraham, Andras G.

    2010-06-22

    Colloidal quantum dot (CQD) photovoltaics combine low-cost solution processability with quantum size-effect tunability to match absorption with the solar spectrum. Rapid recent advances in CQD photovoltaics have led to impressive 3.6% AM1.5 solar power conversion efficiencies. Two distinct device architectures and operating mechanisms have been advanced. The first-the Schottky device-was optimized and explained in terms of a depletion region driving electron-hole pair separation on the semiconductor side of a junction between an opaque low-work-function metal and a p-type CQD film. The second-the excitonic device-employed a CQD layer atop a transparent conductive oxide (TCO) and was explained in terms of diffusive exciton transport via energy transfer followed by exciton separation at the type-II heterointerface between the CQD film and the TCO. Here we fabricate CQD photovoltaic devices on TCOs and show that our devices rely on the establishment of a depletion region for field-driven charge transport and separation, and that they also exploit the large bandgap of the TCO to improve rectification and block undesired hole extraction. The resultant depletedheterojunction solar cells provide a 5.1% AM1.5 power conversion efficiency. The devices employ infrared-bandgap size-effect-tuned PbS CQDs, enabling broadband harvesting of the solar spectrum. We report the highest opencircuit voltages observed in solid-state CQD solar cells to date, as well as fill factors approaching 60%, through the combination of efficient hole blocking (heterojunction) and very small minority carrier density (depletion) in the large-bandgap moiety. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  9. Depleted uranium and the Gulf War syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Some military personnel involved in the 1991Gulf War have complained of continuing stress-like symptoms for which no obvious cause has been found. These symptoms have at times been attributed to the use of depleted uranium (DU) in shell casings which are believed to have caused toxic effects. Depleted uranium is natural uranium which is depleted in the rarer U-235 isotope. It is a heavy metal and in common with other heavy metals is chemically toxic. It is also slightly radioactive and could give rise to a radiological hazard if dispersed in finely divided form so that it was inhaled. In response to concerns, the possible effects of DU have been extensively studied along with other possible contributors to G ulf War sickness . This article looks at the results of some of the research that has been done on DU. (author)

  10. Self-regulation, ego depletion, and inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Roy F

    2014-12-01

    Inhibition is a major form of self-regulation. As such, it depends on self-awareness and comparing oneself to standards and is also susceptible to fluctuations in willpower resources. Ego depletion is the state of reduced willpower caused by prior exertion of self-control. Ego depletion undermines inhibition both because restraints are weaker and because urges are felt more intensely than usual. Conscious inhibition of desires is a pervasive feature of everyday life and may be a requirement of life in civilized, cultural society, and in that sense it goes to the evolved core of human nature. Intentional inhibition not only restrains antisocial impulses but can also facilitate optimal performance, such as during test taking. Self-regulation and ego depletion- may also affect less intentional forms of inhibition, even chronic tendencies to inhibit. Broadly stated, inhibition is necessary for human social life and nearly all societies encourage and enforce it. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Department of Energy depleted uranium recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosinski, F.E.; Butturini, W.G.; Kurtz, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    With its strategic supply of depleted uranium, the Department of Energy is studying reuse of the material in nuclear radiation shields, military hardware, and commercial applications. the study is expected to warrant a more detailed uranium recycle plan which would include consideration of a demonstration program and a program implementation decision. Such a program, if implemented, would become the largest nuclear material recycle program in the history of the Department of Energy. The bulk of the current inventory of depleted uranium is stored in 14-ton cylinders in the form of solid uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ). The radioactive 235 U content has been reduced to a concentration of 0.2% to 0.4%. Present estimates indicate there are about 55,000 UF 6 -filled cylinders in inventory and planned operations will provide another 2,500 cylinders of depleted uranium each year. The United States government, under the auspices of the Department of Energy, considers the depleted uranium a highly-refined strategic resource of significant value. A possible utilization of a large portion of the depleted uranium inventory is as radiation shielding for spent reactor fuels and high-level radioactive waste. To this end, the Department of Energy study to-date has included a preliminary technical review to ascertain DOE chemical forms useful for commercial products. The presentation summarized the information including preliminary cost estimates. The status of commercial uranium processing is discussed. With a shrinking market, the number of chemical conversion and fabrication plants is reduced; however, the commercial capability does exist for chemical conversion of the UF 6 to the metal form and for the fabrication of uranium radiation shields and other uranium products. Department of Energy facilities no longer possess a capability for depleted uranium chemical conversion

  12. Depleted uranium hexafluoride: Waste or resource?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwertz, N.; Zoller, J.; Rosen, R.; Patton, S.; Bradley, C.; Murray, A.

    1995-07-01

    The US Department of Energy is evaluating technologies for the storage, disposal, or re-use of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ). This paper discusses the following options, and provides a technology assessment for each one: (1) conversion to UO 2 for use as mixed oxide duel, (2) conversion to UO 2 to make DUCRETE for a multi-purpose storage container, (3) conversion to depleted uranium metal for use as shielding, (4) conversion to uranium carbide for use as high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel. In addition, conversion to U 3 O 8 as an option for long-term storage is discussed

  13. Depleted uranium processing and fluorine extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laflin, S.T.

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of the nuclear era, there has never been a commercial solution for the large quantities of depleted uranium hexafluoride generated from uranium enrichment. In the United States alone, there is already in excess of 1.6 billion pounds (730 million kilograms) of DUF_6 currently stored. INIS is constructing a commercial uranium processing and fluorine extraction facility. The INIS facility will convert depleted uranium hexafluoride and use it as feed material for the patented Fluorine Extraction Process to produce high purity fluoride gases and anhydrous hydrofluoric acid. The project will provide an environmentally friendly and commercially viable solution for DUF_6 tails management. (author)

  14. The Chemistry and Toxicology of Depleted Uranium

    OpenAIRE

    Sidney A. Katz

    2014-01-01

    Natural uranium is comprised of three radioactive isotopes: 238U, 235U, and 234U. Depleted uranium (DU) is a byproduct of the processes for the enrichment of the naturally occurring 235U isotope. The world wide stock pile contains some 1½ million tons of depleted uranium. Some of it has been used to dilute weapons grade uranium (~90% 235U) down to reactor grade uranium (~5% 235U), and some of it has been used for heavy tank armor and for the fabrication of armor-piercing bullets and missiles....

  15. ISOGEN: Interactive isotope generation and depletion code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkata Subbaiah, Kamatam

    2016-01-01

    ISOGEN is an interactive code for solving first order coupled linear differential equations with constant coefficients for a large number of isotopes, which are produced or depleted by the processes of radioactive decay or through neutron transmutation or fission. These coupled equations can be written in a matrix notation involving radioactive decay constants and transmutation coefficients, and the eigenvalues of thus formed matrix vary widely (several tens of orders), and hence no single method of solution is suitable for obtaining precise estimate of concentrations of isotopes. Therefore, different methods of solutions are followed, namely, matrix exponential method, Bateman series method, and Gauss-Seidel iteration method, as was followed in the ORIGEN-2 code. ISOGEN code is written in a modern computer language, VB.NET version 2013 for Windows operating system version 7, which enables one to provide many interactive features between the user and the program. The output results depend on the input neutron database employed and the time step involved in the calculations. The present program can display the information about the database files, and the user has to select one which suits the current need. The program prints the 'WARNING' information if the time step is too large, which is decided based on the built-in convergence criterion. Other salient interactive features provided are (i) inspection of input data that goes into calculation, (ii) viewing of radioactive decay sequence of isotopes (daughters, precursors, photons emitted) in a graphical format, (iii) solution of parent and daughter products by direct Bateman series solution method, (iv) quick input method and context sensitive prompts for guiding the novice user, (v) view of output tables for any parameter of interest, and (vi) output file can be read to generate new information and can be viewed or printed since the program stores basic nuclide concentration unlike other batch jobs. The sample

  16. International regime formation: Ozone depletion and global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busmann, N.E.

    1994-03-01

    Two theoretical perspectives, neorealism and neoliberal institutionalism, dominate in international relations. An assessment is made of whether these perspectives provide compelling explanations of why a regime with specific targets and timetables was formed for ozone depletion, while a regime with such specificity was not formed for global climate change. In so doing, the assumptions underlying neorealism and neoliberal institutionalism are examined. A preliminary assessment is offered of the policymaking and institutional bargaining process. Patterns of interstate behavior are evolving toward broader forms of cooperation, at least with regard to global environmental issues, although this process is both slow and cautious. State coalitions on specific issues are not yet powerful enough to create a strong community of states in which states are willing to devolve power to international institutions. It is shown that regime analysis is a useful analytic framework, but it should not be mistaken for theory. Regime analysis provides an organizational framework offering a set of questions regarding the principles and norms that govern cooperation and conflict in an issue area, and whether forces independent of states exist which affect the scope of state behavior. An examination of both neorealism and neoliberal institutionalism, embodied by four approaches to regime formation, demonstrates that neither has sufficient scope to account for contextual dynamics in either the ozone depletion or global climate change regime formation processes. 261 refs

  17. “When the going gets tough, who keeps going?” Depletion sensitivity moderates the ego-depletion effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, S.J.; Adriaanse, M.A.; Vet, de E.W.M.L.; Fennis, B.M.; Ridder, de D.T.D.

    2014-01-01

    Self-control relies on a limited resource that can get depleted, a phenomenon that has been labeled ego-depletion. We argue that individuals may differ in their sensitivity to depleting tasks, and that consequently some people deplete their self-control resource at a faster rate than others. In

  18. “When the going gets tough, who keeps going?” Depletion sensitivity moderates the ego-depletion effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Stefanie J.; Adriaanse, Marieke A.; De Vet, Emely; Fennis, Bob M.; De Ridder, Denise T. D.

    2014-01-01

    Self-control relies on a limited resource that can get depleted, a phenomenon that has been labeled ego-depletion. We argue that individuals may differ in their sensitivity to depleting tasks, and that consequently some people deplete their self-control resource at a faster rate than others. In three studies, we assessed individual differences in depletion sensitivity, and demonstrate that depletion sensitivity moderates ego-depletion effects. The Depletion Sensitivity Scale (DSS) was employed to assess depletion sensitivity. Study 1 employs the DSS to demonstrate that individual differences in sensitivity to ego-depletion exist. Study 2 shows moderate correlations of depletion sensitivity with related self-control concepts, indicating that these scales measure conceptually distinct constructs. Study 3 demonstrates that depletion sensitivity moderates the ego-depletion effect. Specifically, participants who are sensitive to depletion performed worse on a second self-control task, indicating a stronger ego-depletion effect, compared to participants less sensitive to depletion. PMID:25009523

  19. Evolution of depleted mantle: The lead perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilton, George R.

    1983-07-01

    Isotopic data have established that, compared to estimated bulk earth abundances, the sources of oceanic basaltic lavas have been depleted in large ion lithophile elements for at least several billions of years. Various data on the Tertiary-Mesozoic Gorgona komatiite and Cretaceous Oka carbonatite show that those rocks also sample depleted mantle sources. This information is used by analogy to compare Pb isotopic data from 2.6 billion year old komatiite and carbonatite from the Suomussalmi belt of eastern Finland and Munro Township, Ontario that are with associated granitic rocks and ores that should contain marked crustal components. Within experimental error no differences are detected in the isotopic composition of initial Pb in either of the rock suites. These observations agree closely with Sr and Nd data from other laboratories showing that depleted mantle could not have originated in those areas more than a few tenths of billions of years before the rocks were emplaced. On a world-wide basis the Pb isotope data are consistent with production of depleted mantle by continuous differentiation processes acting over approximately the past 3 billion years. The data show that Pb evolution is more complex than the simpler models derived from the Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd systems. The nature of the complexity is still poorly understood.

  20. Poroelasticity of high porosity chalk under depletion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Katrine Alling; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2013-01-01

    on mechanical test results is found to be low-er than the pretest dynamic Biot coefficient determined from elastic wave propagation for the loading path and with less deviation under depletion. The calculated lateral stress is lower than the experimentally measured lateral stress depending on loading path...

  1. Nitrogen depletion in field red giants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masseron, T.; Lagarde, N.; Miglio, A.

    2017-01-01

    , the behaviour of nitrogen data along the evolution confirms the existence of non-canonical extramixing on the red giant branch (RGB) for all low-mass stars in the field. But more surprisingly, the data indicate that nitrogen has been depleted between the RGB tip and the red clump. This may suggest that some...

  2. Elephant invasion and escalated depletion of environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For decades, elephants' invasion is known to be associated with severe environmental consequences leading to escalated depletion o environmental resources (plants, water, wildlife and soil). This paper examined the effects of elephants' activity on the environmental resources inHong and Gombi Local Government areas ...

  3. Depletion mode pumping of solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundinger, D.; Solarz, R.; Beach, R.; Albrecht, G.; Krupke, W.

    1990-01-01

    Depletion mode pumping of solid state lasers is a new concept which offers features that are of interest for many practical applications. In this paper the authors discuss the physical properties and mechanisms that set the design requirements, present model calculations for a practical laser design, and discuss the results of recent experiments

  4. Global Warming: Lessons from Ozone Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Art

    2010-01-01

    My teaching and textbook have always covered many physics-related social issues, including stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming. The ozone saga is an inspiring good-news story that's instructive for solving the similar but bigger problem of global warming. Thus, as soon as students in my physics literacy course at the University of…

  5. Ozone depleting substances management inventory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Ivan Romero Rodríguez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: The care of the ozone layer is an activity that contributes to the planet's environmental stability. For this reason, the Montreal Protocol is created to control the emission of substances that deplete the ozone layer and reduce its production from an organizational point of view. However, it is also necessary to have control of those that are already circulating and those present in the equipment that cannot be replaced yet because of the context of the companies that keep it. Generally, the control mechanisms for classifying the type of substances, equipment and companies that own them, are carried in physical files, spreadsheets and text documents, which makes it difficult to control and manage the data stored in them. Method: The objective of this research is to computerize the process of control of substances that deplete the ozone layer. An evaluation and description of all process to manage Ozone-Depleting Substances (ODS, and its alternatives, is done. For computerization, the agile development methodology SCRUM is used, and for the technological solution tools and free open source technologies are used. Result: As a result of the research, a computer tool was developed that automates the process of control and management of substances that exhaust the ozone layer and its alternatives. Conclusions: The developed computer tool allows to control and manage the ozone-depleting substances and the equipment that use them. It also manages the substances that arise as alternatives to be used for the protection of the ozone layer.

  6. Application of backtracking algorithm to depletion calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Mingyu; Wang Shixi; Yang Yong; Zhang Qiang; Yang Jiayin

    2013-01-01

    Based on the theory of linear chain method for analytical depletion calculations, the burnup matrix is decoupled by the divide and conquer strategy and the linear chain with Markov characteristic is formed. The density, activity and decay heat of every nuclide in the chain then can be calculated by analytical solutions. Every possible reaction path of the nuclide must be considered during the linear chain establishment process. To confirm the calculation precision and efficiency, the algorithm which can cover all the reaction paths and search the paths automatically according to the problem description and precision restrictions should be found. Through analysis and comparison of several kinds of searching algorithms, the backtracking algorithm was selected to establish and calculate the linear chains in searching process using depth first search (DFS) method, forming an algorithm which can solve the depletion problem adaptively and with high fidelity. The complexity of the solution space and time was analyzed by taking into account depletion process and the characteristics of the backtracking algorithm. The newly developed depletion program was coupled with Monte Carlo program MCMG-Ⅱ to calculate the benchmark burnup problem of the first core of China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR) and the preliminary verification and validation of the program were performed. (authors)

  7. [Acute tryptophan depletion in eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Marsa, M; Lozano, C; Herranz, A S; Asensio-Vegas, M J; Martín, O; Revert, L; Saiz-Ruiz, J; Carrasco, J L

    2006-01-01

    This work describes the rational bases justifying the use of acute tryptophan depletion technique in eating disorders (ED) and the methods and design used in our studies. Tryptophan depletion technique has been described and used in previous studies safely and makes it possible to evaluate the brain serotonin activity. Therefore it is used in the investigation of hypotheses on serotonergic deficiency in eating disorders. Furthermore, and given the relationship of the dysfunctions of serotonin activity with impulsive symptoms, the technique may be useful in biological differentiation of different subtypes, that is restrictive and bulimic, of ED. 57 female patients with DSM-IV eating disorders and 20 female controls were investigated with the tryptophan depletion test. A tryptophan-free amino acid solution was administered orally after a two-day low tryptophan diet to patients and controls. Free plasma tryptophan was measured at two and five hours following administration of the drink. Eating and emotional responses were measured with specific scales for five hours following the depletion. A study of the basic characteristics of the personality and impulsivity traits was also done. Relationship of the response to the test with the different clinical subtypes and with the temperamental and impulsive characteristics of the patients was studied. The test was effective in considerably reducing plasma tryptophan in five hours from baseline levels (76%) in the global sample. The test was well tolerated and no severe adverse effects were reported. Two patients withdrew from the test due to gastric intolerance. The tryptophan depletion test could be of value to study involvement of serotonin deficits in the symptomatology and pathophysiology of eating disorders.

  8. Depletion-of-Battery Attack: Specificity, Modelling and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakhov, Vladimir; Koo, Insoo

    2018-06-06

    The emerging Internet of Things (IoT) has great potential; however, the societal costs of the IoT can outweigh its benefits. To unlock IoT potential, there needs to be improvement in the security of IoT applications. There are several standardization initiatives for sensor networks, which eventually converge with the Internet of Things. As sensor-based applications are deployed, security emerges as an essential requirement. One of the critical issues of wireless sensor technology is limited sensor resources, including sensor batteries. This creates a vulnerability to battery-exhausting attacks. Rapid exhaustion of sensor battery power is not only explained by intrusions, but can also be due to random failure of embedded sensor protocols. Thus, most wireless sensor applications, without tools to defend against rash battery exhausting, would be unable to function during prescribed times. In this paper, we consider a special type of threat, in which the harm is malicious depletion of sensor battery power. In contrast to the traditional denial-of-service attack, quality of service under the considered attack is not necessarily degraded. Moreover, the quality of service can increase up to the moment of the sensor set crashes. We argue that this is a distinguishing type of attack. Hence, the application of a traditional defense mechanism against this threat is not always possible. Therefore, effective methods should be developed to counter the threat. We first discuss the feasibility of rash depletion of battery power. Next, we propose a model for evaluation of energy consumption when under attack. Finally, a technique to counter the attack is discussed.

  9. Depletion-of-Battery Attack: Specificity, Modelling and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Shakhov

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The emerging Internet of Things (IoT has great potential; however, the societal costs of the IoT can outweigh its benefits. To unlock IoT potential, there needs to be improvement in the security of IoT applications. There are several standardization initiatives for sensor networks, which eventually converge with the Internet of Things. As sensor-based applications are deployed, security emerges as an essential requirement. One of the critical issues of wireless sensor technology is limited sensor resources, including sensor batteries. This creates a vulnerability to battery-exhausting attacks. Rapid exhaustion of sensor battery power is not only explained by intrusions, but can also be due to random failure of embedded sensor protocols. Thus, most wireless sensor applications, without tools to defend against rash battery exhausting, would be unable to function during prescribed times. In this paper, we consider a special type of threat, in which the harm is malicious depletion of sensor battery power. In contrast to the traditional denial-of-service attack, quality of service under the considered attack is not necessarily degraded. Moreover, the quality of service can increase up to the moment of the sensor set crashes. We argue that this is a distinguishing type of attack. Hence, the application of a traditional defense mechanism against this threat is not always possible. Therefore, effective methods should be developed to counter the threat. We first discuss the feasibility of rash depletion of battery power. Next, we propose a model for evaluation of energy consumption when under attack. Finally, a technique to counter the attack is discussed.

  10. Analysis of total visual and ccd v-broadband observation of comet c/1995 o1 (hale-bopp): 1995-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, A. A.; Boczko, R.; Lopes, A. R.; Sanzovo, G. C.

    The wealth of available information on total visual magnitudes and broadband-V CCD observations of the exceptionally bright Comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) proved to be an excellent opportunity to test the Semi-Empirical Method of Visual Magnitudes (de Almeida, Singh & Huebner, 1997) for very bright comets. The main objective is to extend the method to include total visual magnitude observations obtained with CCD detector and V filter in our analysis of total visual magnitudes and obtain a single light curve. We compare the CCD V-broadband careful observations of Liller (1997) by plotting then together with the total visual magnitude observations from experienced visual observers found in the International Comet Quarterly (ICQ) archive. We find a nice agreement despite of the fact that CCDs and V filter passbands detect systematically more coma than visual observers, since they have different responses to C2, which is the main emission from the coma, and consequently they should be used with larger apperture diameters. A data set of ˜400 CCD selected observations covering about the same 5 years time span of the ˜12,000 ICQ total visual magnitude observations were used in the analysis. A least-squares fit to the values yielded a relation for water production rates vs heliocentric distances for the pre- and post-perihelion phases and are converted into gas production rates (in g/s) released by the nucleus. The dimension of the nucleus as well as its effective active area is determined and compared to other works.

  11. Recurrence formulas for evaluating expansion series of depletion functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukadin, Z.

    1991-01-01

    A high-accuracy analytical method for solving the depletion equations for chains of radioactive nuclides is based on the formulation of depletion functions. When all the arguments of the depletion function are too close to each other, series expansions of the depletion function have to be used. However, the high-accuracy series expressions for the depletion functions of high index become too complicated. Recursion relations are derived which enable an efficient high-accuracy evaluation of the depletion functions with high indices. (orig.) [de

  12. Depleted uranium plasma reduction system study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekemeyer, P.; Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.; Brown, B.W.

    1994-12-01

    A system life-cycle cost study was conducted of a preliminary design concept for a plasma reduction process for converting depleted uranium to uranium metal and anhydrous HF. The plasma-based process is expected to offer significant economic and environmental advantages over present technology. Depleted Uranium is currently stored in the form of solid UF 6 , of which approximately 575,000 metric tons is stored at three locations in the U.S. The proposed system is preconceptual in nature, but includes all necessary processing equipment and facilities to perform the process. The study has identified total processing cost of approximately $3.00/kg of UF 6 processed. Based on the results of this study, the development of a laboratory-scale system (1 kg/h throughput of UF6) is warranted. Further scaling of the process to pilot scale will be determined after laboratory testing is complete

  13. Depleted uranium hexafluoride: Waste or resource?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwertz, N.; Zoller, J.; Rosen, R.; Patton, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Bradley, C. [USDOE Office of Nuclear Energy, Science, Technology, Washington, DC (United States); Murray, A. [SAIC (United States)

    1995-07-01

    the US Department of Energy is evaluating technologies for the storage, disposal, or re-use of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}). This paper discusses the following options, and provides a technology assessment for each one: (1) conversion to UO{sub 2} for use as mixed oxide duel, (2) conversion to UO{sub 2} to make DUCRETE for a multi-purpose storage container, (3) conversion to depleted uranium metal for use as shielding, (4) conversion to uranium carbide for use as high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel. In addition, conversion to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} as an option for long-term storage is discussed.

  14. Improvements in EBR-2 core depletion calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finck, P.J.; Hill, R.N.; Sakamoto, S.

    1991-01-01

    The need for accurate core depletion calculations in Experimental Breeder Reactor No. 2 (EBR-2) is discussed. Because of the unique physics characteristics of EBR-2, it is difficult to obtain accurate and computationally efficient multigroup flux predictions. This paper describes the effect of various conventional and higher order schemes for group constant generation and for flux computations; results indicate that higher-order methods are required, particularly in the outer regions (i.e. the radial blanket). A methodology based on Nodal Equivalence Theory (N.E.T.) is developed which allows retention of the accuracy of a higher order solution with the computational efficiency of a few group nodal diffusion solution. The application of this methodology to three-dimensional EBR-2 flux predictions is demonstrated; this improved methodology allows accurate core depletion calculations at reasonable cost. 13 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  15. The depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabogal Nelson

    2000-01-01

    The protection of the Earth's ozone layer is of the highest importance to mankind. The dangers of its destruction are by now well known. The depletion of that layer has reached record levels. The Antarctic ozone hole covered this year a record area. The ozone layer is predicted to begin recovery in the next one or two decades and should be restored to pre-1980 levels by 2050. This is the achievement of the regime established by the 1985 Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and the 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. The regime established by these two agreements has been revised, and made more effective in London (1990), Copenhagen (1992), Vienna (1995), and Beijing (1999)

  16. Reactor fuel depletion benchmark of TINDER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.J.; Oliveira, C.R.E. de; Hecht, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A reactor burnup benchmark of TINDER, coupling MCNP6 to CINDER2008, was performed. • TINDER is a poor candidate for fuel depletion calculations using its current libraries. • Data library modification is necessary if fuel depletion is desired from TINDER. - Abstract: Accurate burnup calculations are key to proper nuclear reactor design, fuel cycle modeling, and disposal estimations. The TINDER code, originally designed for activation analyses, has been modified to handle full burnup calculations, including the widely used predictor–corrector feature. In order to properly characterize the performance of TINDER for this application, a benchmark calculation was performed. Although the results followed the trends of past benchmarked codes for a UO 2 PWR fuel sample from the Takahama-3 reactor, there were obvious deficiencies in the final result, likely in the nuclear data library that was used. Isotopic comparisons versus experiment and past code benchmarks are given, as well as hypothesized areas of deficiency and future work

  17. Optical assessment of phytoplankton nutrient depletion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heath, M.R.; Richardson, Katherine; Kiørboe, Thomas

    1990-01-01

    The ratio of light absorption at 480 and 665 nm by 90% acetone extracts of marine phytoplankton pigments has been examined as a potential indicator of phytoplankton nutritional status in both laboratory and field studies. The laboratory studies demonstrated a clear relationship between nutritiona......-replete and nutrient-depleted cells. The field data suggest that the absorption ratio may be a useful indicator of nutritional status of natural phytoplankton populations, and can be used to augment the interpretation of other data....

  18. The ultimate disposition of depleted uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    Significant amounts of the depleted uranium (DU) created by past uranium enrichment activities have been sold, disposed of commercially, or utilized by defense programs. In recent years, however, the demand for DU has become quite small compared to quantities available, and within the US Department of Energy (DOE) there is concern for any risks and/or cost liabilities that might be associated with the ever-growing inventory of this material. As a result, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), was asked to review options and to develop a comprehensive plan for inventory management and the ultimate disposition of DU accumulated at the gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs). An Energy Systems task team, under the chairmanship of T. R. Lemons, was formed in late 1989 to provide advice and guidance for this task. This report reviews options and recommends actions and objectives in the management of working inventories of partially depleted feed (PDF) materials and for the ultimate disposition of fully depleted uranium (FDU). Actions that should be considered are as follows. (1) Inspect UF{sub 6} cylinders on a semiannual basis. (2) Upgrade cylinder maintenance and storage yards. (3) Convert FDU to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} for long-term storage or disposal. This will include provisions for partial recovery of costs to offset those associated with DU inventory management and the ultimate disposal of FDU. Another recommendation is to drop the term tails'' in favor of depleted uranium'' or DU'' because the tails'' label implies that it is waste.'' 13 refs.

  19. Nuclear Fuel Depletion Analysis Using Matlab Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, F.; Nematollahi, M. R.

    Coupled first order IVPs are frequently used in many parts of engineering and sciences. In this article, we presented a code including three computer programs which are joint with the Matlab software to solve and plot the solutions of the first order coupled stiff or non-stiff IVPs. Some engineering and scientific problems related to IVPs are given and fuel depletion (production of the 239Pu isotope) in a Pressurized Water Nuclear Reactor (PWR) are computed by the present code.

  20. Ozone depletion, greenhouse effect and atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adzersen, K.H.

    1991-01-01

    After describing the causes and effects of ozone depletion and the greenhouse effect, the author discusses the alternative offered by the nuclear industry. In his opinion, a worldwide energy strategy of risk minimisation will not be possible unless efficient energy use is introduced immediately, efficiently and on a reliable basis. Atomic energy is not viewed as an acceptable means of preventing the threatening climate change. (DG) [de

  1. The ultimate disposition of depleted uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemons, T.R. [Uranium Enrichment Organization, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Depleted uranium (DU) is produced as a by-product of the uranium enrichment process. Over 340,000 MTU of DU in the form of UF{sub 6} have been accumulated at the US government gaseous diffusion plants and the stockpile continues to grow. An overview of issues and objectives associated with the inventory management and the ultimate disposition of this material is presented.

  2. Carbon sequestration in depleted oil shale deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Alan K; Carroll, Susan A

    2014-12-02

    A method and apparatus are described for sequestering carbon dioxide underground by mineralizing the carbon dioxide with coinjected fluids and minerals remaining from the extraction shale oil. In one embodiment, the oil shale of an illite-rich oil shale is heated to pyrolyze the shale underground, and carbon dioxide is provided to the remaining depleted oil shale while at an elevated temperature. Conditions are sufficient to mineralize the carbon dioxide.

  3. Barium depletion in hollow cathode emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polk, James E.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Capece, Angela M.

    2016-01-01

    Dispenser hollow cathodes rely on a consumable supply of Ba released by BaO-CaO-Al 2 O 3 source material in the pores of a tungsten matrix to maintain a low work function surface. The examination of cathode emitters from long duration tests shows deposits of tungsten at the downstream end that appear to block the flow of Ba from the interior. In addition, a numerical model of Ba transport in the cathode plasma indicates that the Ba partial pressure in the insert may exceed the equilibrium vapor pressure of the dominant Ba-producing reaction, and it was postulated previously that this would suppress Ba loss in the upstream part of the emitter. New measurements of the Ba depletion depth from a cathode insert operated for 8200 h reveal that Ba loss is confined to a narrow region near the downstream end, confirming this hypothesis. The Ba transport model was modified to predict the depletion depth with time. A comparison of the calculated and measured depletion depths gives excellent qualitative agreement, and quantitative agreement was obtained assuming an insert temperature 70 °C lower than measured beginning-of-life values

  4. A Preliminary Assessment of the Adjuster Rod Depletion Effect in the CANDU Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yonghee; Roh, Gyuhong; Kim, Won Young; Kim, Hak Sung; Park, Joo Hwan

    2008-01-01

    Lifetime of the Wolsong-1 CANDU reactor, which will be shutdown in April, 2009. Major reactor components such as the pressure tube are to be replaced and it is expected that the CANDU reactor can be operated for additional 25-30 years. Meanwhile, all the reactivity devices including the adjuster rods (ADJ) are supposed to be continuously used without any change. In the CANDU reactor, 21 stainless steel (SS) ADJs are used to control the core power distribution and compensate for some reactivity loss during several abnormal cases. The ADJs are normally fully inserted and the SS absorber should undergo a slow depletion through neutron irradiation for a long time. In April, 2009, the accumulated FPY (Full Power Day) of Wolsong-1 is about 23 years. Depletion of ADJs should result in a smaller ADJ worth and a higher fuel burnup and the core power distribution should also be affected by the ADJ depletion. In this work, the effects of the ADJ depletion have been assessed in terms of ADJ worth, time-average core characteristics

  5. Dynamic radio bursts associated with important flare activity in Hale region 16923 and the problem of the relative locations of type II 'slow drift' bursts and coronal transients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mckenna-Lawlor, S.M.P.

    1983-03-01

    Seven type-II radio bursts associated with solar flares in the Hale region 16923 on June 27-29, 1980, are characterized on the basis of data from dynamic radio spectra, white-light observations, radioheliograms, SMM-C/P observations, and Helios I magnetic-field and solar-wind measurements. The data are summarized in tables and graphs and discussed in terms of transient events occurring in the same region. The magnetic shock waves recorded during the period by Helios are described, and channeling effects which may have prevented the detection of type-II burst shocks are examined.

  6. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 315 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE), 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-08

    Healthy life expectancy (HALE) and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) provide summary measures of health across geographies and time that can inform assessments of epidemiological patterns and health system performance, help to prioritise investments in research and development, and monitor progress toward the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We aimed to provide updated HALE and DALYs for geographies worldwide and evaluate how disease burden changes with development. We used results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015) for all-cause mortality, cause-specific mortality, and non-fatal disease burden to derive HALE and DALYs by sex for 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2015. We calculated DALYs by summing years of life lost (YLLs) and years of life lived with disability (YLDs) for each geography, age group, sex, and year. We estimated HALE using the Sullivan method, which draws from age-specific death rates and YLDs per capita. We then assessed how observed levels of DALYs and HALE differed from expected trends calculated with the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a composite indicator constructed from measures of income per capita, average years of schooling, and total fertility rate. Total global DALYs remained largely unchanged from 1990 to 2015, with decreases in communicable, neonatal, maternal, and nutritional (Group 1) disease DALYs offset by increased DALYs due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Much of this epidemiological transition was caused by changes in population growth and ageing, but it was accelerated by widespread improvements in SDI that also correlated strongly with the increasing importance of NCDs. Both total DALYs and age-standardised DALY rates due to most Group 1 causes significantly decreased by 2015, and although total burden climbed for the majority of NCDs, age-standardised DALY rates due to NCDs declined. Nonetheless, age-standardised DALY rates due to several high

  7. Depletion interaction measured by colloidal probe atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijting, W.K.; Knoben, W.; Besseling, N.A.M.; Leermakers, F.A.M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the depletion interaction between stearylated silica surfaces in cyclohexane in the presence of dissolved polydimethylsiloxane by means of colloidal probe atomic force microscopy. We found that the range of the depletion interaction decreases with increasing concentration.

  8. Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves observed in the plasma depletion layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Murr, D.

    1991-01-01

    Observations from AMPTE/CCE in the earth's magnetosheath on October 5, 1984 are presented to illustrate 0.1 - 4.0 Hz magnetic field pulsations in the subsolar plasma depletion layer (PDL) for northward sheath field during a magnetospheric compression. The PDL is unambiguously identified by comparing CCE data with data from IRM in the upstream solar wind. Pulsations in the PDL are dominated by transverse waves with F/F(H+) 1.0 or less and a slot in spectral power at F/F(H+) = 0.5. The upper branch is left hand polarized while the lower branch is linearly polarized. In the sheath the proton temperature anisotropy is about 0.6 but it is about 1.7 in the PDL during wave occurrence. The properties and correlation of waves with increased anisotropy indicate that they are electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves.

  9. Special Issue: Planar Fully-Depleted SOI technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allibert, F.; Hiramoto, T.; Nguyen, B. Y.

    2016-03-01

    We are in the era of mobile computing with smart handheld devices and remote data storage "in the cloud," with devices that are almost always on and driven by needs of high data transmission rate, instant access/connection and long battery life. With all the ambitious requirements for better performance with lower power consumption, the SoC solution must also be cost-effective in order to capture the large, highly-competitive consumer mobile and wearable markets. The Fully-Depleted SOI device/circuit is a unique option that can satisfy all these requirements and has made tremendous progress in development for various applications and adoption by foundries, integrated device manufacturers (IDM), and fabless companies in the last 3 years.

  10. Acid Dissolution of Depleted Uranium from Catalyst using Microwave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Jin Hyun; Jeong, Seong Gi; Park, Kwang Heon [Kyunghee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    The separation process of uranium is one of the most important fields in nuclear industry because uranium is used primary in nuclear power plants. Uranium ores are treated by either acid or alkaline reagents. Uranium can be dissolved by acid or alkaline solutions. There are two oxidation states in which the hexavalent form, the oxide of which is UO{sub 3}, and the tetravalent form, the oxide of which is UO{sub 2}. However, depleted uranium(DU) has also been used as a catalyst in specialized chemical reaction such as ammoxidation. The preferred catalyst for propylene oxidation with ammonia was a uranium oxide-antimony oxide composition. The active phase of catalyst was known as USbO{sub 5} and USb{sub 3}O{sub 10}. There is pentavalent form. Waste catalyst containing DU was generated and stored in chemical industry. In this work, we removed DU from catalyst by acid dissolution

  11. Evaluation 2 of B10 depletion in the WH PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Won; Woo, Hae Suk; Kim, Sun Doo; Chae, Hee Dong; Myung, Sun Yup; Jang, Ju Kyung

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology to evaluate the B 10 depletion behavior in the pressurized water reactor. And B 10 depletion evaluation is performed based on the prediction program and the measured data of B 10 . The result shows that B 10 depletion during normal operation is not negligible. Therefore, adjustments for this depletion effect should be made to calculate the estimated critical postion(ECP) and determine the boron concentration required to maintain the specified shutdown margin

  12. Lubricant depletion under various laser heating conditions in Heat Assisted Magnetic Recording (HAMR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shaomin; Wu, Haoyu; Bogy, David

    2014-09-01

    Heat assisted magnetic recording (HAMR) is expected to increase the storage areal density to more than 1 Tb/in2 in hard disk drives (HDDs). In this technology, a laser is used to heat the magnetic media to the Curie point (~400-600 °C) during the writing process. The lubricant on the top of a magnetic disk could evaporate and be depleted under the laser heating. The change of the lubricant can lead to instability of the flying slider and failure of the head-disk interface (HDI). In this study, a HAMR test stage is developed to study the lubricant thermal behavior. Various heating conditions are controlled for the study of the lubricant thermal depletion. The effects of laser heating repetitions and power levels on the lubricant depletion are investigated experimentally. The lubricant reflow behavior is discussed as well.

  13. Altered neuronal activity in the primary motor cortex and globus pallidus after dopamine depletion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Li, Min; Geng, Xiwen; Song, Zhimin; Albers, H Elliott; Yang, Maoquan; Zhang, Xiao; Xie, Jinlu; Qu, Qingyang; He, Tingting

    2015-01-15

    The involvement of dopamine (DA) neuron loss in the etiology of Parkinson's disease has been well documented. The neural mechanisms underlying the effects of DA loss and the resultant motor dysfunction remain unknown. To gain insights into how loss of DA disrupts the electrical processes in the cortico-subcortical network, the present study explores the effects of DA neuron depletion on electrical activity in the primary motor cortex (M1), on the external and the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPe and GPi respectively), and on their temporal relationships. Comparison of local field potentials (LFPs) in these brain regions from unilateral hemispheric DA neuron depleted rats and neurologically intact rats revealed that the spectrum power of LFPs in 12-70Hz (for M1, and GPe) and in 25-40Hz (for GPi) was significantly greater in the DA depleted rats than that in the control group. These changes were associated with a shortening of latency in LFP activities between M1 and GPe, from several hundred milliseconds in the intact animals to close to zero in the DA depleted animals. LFP oscillations in M1 were significantly more synchronized with those in GPe in the DA depleted rats compared with those in the control rats. By contrast, the synchronization of oscillation in LFP activities between M1 and GPi did not differ between the DA depleted and intact rats. Not surprisingly, rats that had DA neuron depletion spent more time along the ladder compared with the control rats. These data suggest that enhanced oscillatory activity and increased synchronization of LFPs may contribute to movement impairment in the rat model of Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The depletion potential in one, two and three dimensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We study the behavior of the depletion potential in binary mixtures of hard particles in one, two, and three dimensions within the framework of a general theory for depletion potential using density functional theory. By doing so we extend earlier studies of the depletion potential in three dimensions to the cases of d ...

  15. 26 CFR 1.642(e)-1 - Depreciation and depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Depreciation and depletion. 1.642(e)-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.642(e)-1 Depreciation and depletion. An estate or trust is allowed the deductions for depreciation and depletion, but only to the extent the...

  16. 26 CFR 1.613-1 - Percentage depletion; general rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Percentage depletion; general rule. 1.613-1... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.613-1 Percentage depletion; general rule. (a) In general. In the case of a taxpayer computing the deduction for depletion under section 611...

  17. Standardization of formulations for the acute amino acid depletion and loading tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Abdulla A-B; Dougherty, Donald M

    2015-04-01

    The acute tryptophan depletion and loading and the acute tyrosine plus phenylalanine depletion tests are powerful tools for studying the roles of cerebral monoamines in behaviour and symptoms related to various disorders. The tests use either amino acid mixtures or proteins. Current amino acid mixtures lack specificity in humans, but not in rodents, because of the faster disposal of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) by the latter. The high content of BCAA (30-60%) is responsible for the poor specificity in humans and we recommend, in a 50g dose, a control formulation with a lowered BCAA content (18%) as a common control for the above tests. With protein-based formulations, α-lactalbumin is specific for acute tryptophan loading, whereas gelatine is only partially effective for acute tryptophan depletion. We recommend the use of the whey protein fraction glycomacropeptide as an alternative protein. Its BCAA content is ideal for specificity and the absence of tryptophan, tyrosine and phenylalanine render it suitable as a template for seven formulations (separate and combined depletion or loading and a truly balanced control). We invite the research community to participate in standardization of the depletion and loading methodologies by using our recommended amino acid formulation and developing those based on glycomacropeptide. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Uranium and the War: The effects of depleted uranium weapons in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jon williams

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Army revealed in March 2003 that it dropped between 320 and 390 tons of depleted uranium during the Gulf War-the first time the material was ever used in combat-and it is estimated that more still has been dropped during the current invasion, though there have been no official counts as yet. Nuclear weapons and nuclear power plants require highly radioactive uranium, so the uranium 238 is removed from the naturally occurring uranium by a process known as enrichment. Depleted uranium is the by-product of the uranium enrichment process. Depleted uranium was a major topic of discussion during a Feb. 24 forum at Santa Cruz with speakers from the Iraq Veterans Against War (IVAW). The panel consisted of five members of the IVAW chapter in Olympia, Washington who visited Santa Cruz as part of a speaking tour of the west coast. These members of the IVAW believe that their experiences in the Gulf War were the beginnings of what will be a long-term health problem in the region. A study conducted by the Pentagon in 2002 predicted that every future battlefield will be contaminated with depleted uranium. Up-to-date health information from Iraq is difficult to come by. But a November report from Al-jazeera concluded that the cancer rate in Iraq has increased tenfold, and the number of birth defects has multiplied fivefold times since the 1991 war. The increase is believed to be caused by depleted uranium.

  19. Potential For Stratospheric Ozone Depletion During Carboniferous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill, M.; Goldstein, A. H.

    Methyl bromide (CH3Br) constitutes the largest source of bromine atoms to the strato- sphere whereas methyl chloride (CH3Cl) is the most abundant halocarbon in the tro- posphere. Both gases play an important role in stratospheric ozone depletion. For in- stance, Br coupled reactions are responsible for 30 to 50 % of total ozone loss in the polar vortex. Currently, the largest natural sources of CH3Br and CH3Cl appear to be biological production in the oceans, inorganic production during biomass burning and plant production in salt marsh ecosystems. Variations of paleofluxes of CH3Br and CH3Cl can be estimated by analyses of oceanic paleoproductivity, stratigraphic analyses of frequency and distribution of fossil charcoal indicating the occurrence of wildfires, and/or by paleoreconstruction indicating the extent of salt marshes. Dur- ing the lower Carboniferous time (Tournaisian-Visean), the southern margin of the Laurasian continent was characterized by charcoal deposits. Estimation on frequency of charcoal layers indicates that wildfires occur in a range of 3-35 years (Falcon-Lang 2000). This suggests that biomass burning could be an important source of CH3Br and CH3Cl during Tournaisian-Viesan time. During Tounaisian and until Merame- cian carbon and oxygen isotope records have short term oscillations (Bruckschen et al. 1999, Mii et al. 1999). Chesterian time (mid- Carboniferous) is marked by an in- crease in delta18O values ( ~ 2 permil) and an increase of glacial deposit frequency suggesting lower temperatures. The occurrence of glacial deposits over the paleopole suggests polar conditions and the associated special features of polar mete- orology such as strong circumpolar wind in the stratosphere (polar vortex) and polar stratospheric clouds. Thus, conditions leading to polar statospheric ozone depletion can be found. Simultaneously an increase in delta13C values is documented. We interpret the positive shift in delta13C as a result of higher bioproductivity

  20. Energy management strategy for solar-powered high-altitude long-endurance aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Xian-Zhong; Hou, Zhong-Xi; Guo, Zheng; Liu, Jian-Xia; Chen, Xiao-Qian

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new Energy Management Strategy (EMS) for high-altitude solar-powered aircraft is purposed. ► The simulations show that the aircraft can always keep the altitude above 16 km with the proposed EMS. ► The proposed EMS is capable to alleviate the power consumed for aircraft during night. ► The main technologies to improve the flight performance of aircraft are analyzed. - Abstract: Development of solar-powered High-Altitude Long-Endurance (HALE) aircraft has a great impact on both military and civil aviation industries since its features in high-altitude and energy source can be considered inexhaustible. Owing to the development constraints of rechargeable batteries, the solar-powered HALE aircraft must take amount of rechargeable batteries to fulfill the energy requirement in night, which greatly limits the operation altitude of aircraft. In order to solve this problem, a new Energy Management Strategy (EMS) is proposed based on the idea that the solar energy can be partly stored in gravitational potential in daytime. The flight path of HALE aircraft is divided into three stages. During the stage 1, the solar energy is stored in both lithium–sulfur battery and gravitational potential. The gravitational potential is released in stage 2 by gravitational gliding and the required power in stage 3 is supplied by lithium–sulfur battery. Correspondingly, the EMS is designed for each stage. The simulation results show that the aircraft can always keep the altitude above 16 km with the proposed EMS, and the power consumed during night can be also alleviated. Comparing with the current EMS, about 23.5% energy is remained in batteries with the proposed EMS during one day–night cycle. The sensitivities of the improvement of crucial technologies to the performance of aircraft are also analyzed. The results show that the enhancement of control and structural system, lithium–sulfur battery, and solar cell are ranked in descending order for the

  1. A modern depleted uranium manufacturing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagula, T.A.

    1995-07-01

    The Specific Manufacturing Capabilities (SMC) Project located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and operated by Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co. (LMIT) for the Department of Energy (DOE) manufactures depleted uranium for use in the U.S. Army MIA2 Abrams Heavy Tank Armor Program. Since 1986, SMC has fabricated more than 12 million pounds of depleted uranium (DU) products in a multitude of shapes and sizes with varying metallurgical properties while maintaining security, environmental, health and safety requirements. During initial facility design in the early 1980's, emphasis on employee safety, radiation control and environmental consciousness was gaining momentum throughout the DOE complex. This fact coupled with security and production requirements forced design efforts to focus on incorporating automation, local containment and computerized material accountability at all work stations. The result was a fully automated production facility engineered to manufacture DU armor packages with virtually no human contact while maintaining security, traceability and quality requirements. This hands off approach to handling depleted uranium resulted in minimal radiation exposures and employee injuries. Construction of the manufacturing facility was complete in early 1986 with the first armor package certified in October 1986. Rolling facility construction was completed in 1987 with the first certified plate produced in the fall of 1988. Since 1988 the rolling and manufacturing facilities have delivered more than 2600 armor packages on schedule with 100% final product quality acceptance. During this period there was an annual average of only 2.2 lost time incidents and a single individual maximum radiation exposure of 150 mrem. SMC is an example of designing and operating a facility that meets regulatory requirements with respect to national security, radiation control and personnel safety while achieving production schedules and product quality

  2. Depleted uranium concrete container feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haelsig, R.T.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to consider the feasibility of using containers constructed of depleted uranium aggregate concrete (DUCRETE) to store and transport radioactive materials. The method for this study was to review the advantages and disadvantages of DUCRETE containers considering design requirements for potential applications. The author found that DUCRETE is a promising material for onsite storage containers, provided DUCRETE vessels can be certified for one-way transport to disposal sites. The author also found that DUCRETE multipurpose spent nuclear fuel storage/transport packages are technically viable, provided altered temperature acceptance limits can be developed for DUCRETE

  3. Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosols: Generation and Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Szrom, Fran; Guilmette, Ray; Holmes, Tom; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Kenoyer, Judson L.; Collins, John W.; Sanderson, T. Ellory; Fliszar, Richard W.; Gold, Kenneth; Beckman, John C.; Long, Julie

    2004-10-19

    In a study designed to provide an improved scientific basis for assessing possible health effects from inhaling depleted uranium (DU) aerosols, a series of DU penetrators was fired at an Abrams tank and a Bradley fighting vehicle. A robust sampling system was designed to collect aerosols in this difficult environment and continuously monitor the sampler flow rates. Aerosols collected were analyzed for uranium concentration and particle size distribution as a function of time. They were also analyzed for uranium oxide phases, particle morphology, and dissolution in vitro. The resulting data provide input useful in human health risk assessments.

  4. Depletion of elements in shock-driven gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondhalekar, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    The depletion of elements in shocked gas in supernova remnants and in interstellar bubbles is examined. It is shown that elements are depleted in varying degrees in gas filaments shocked to velocities up to 200 km s -1 and that large differences in depletions are observed in gas filaments shocked to similar velocities. In the shocked gas the depletion of an element appears to be correlated with the electron density (or the neutral gas density) in the filaments. This correlation, if confirmed, is similar to the correlation between depletion and mean density of gas in the clouds in interstellar space. (author)

  5. Microscopic to macroscopic depletion model development for FORMOSA-P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, J.M.; Turinsky, P.J.; Sarsour, H.N.

    1996-01-01

    Microscopic depletion has been gaining popularity with regard to employment in reactor core nodal calculations, mainly attributed to the superiority of microscopic depletion in treating spectral history effects during depletion. Another trend is the employment of loading pattern optimization computer codes in support of reload core design. Use of such optimization codes has significantly reduced design efforts to optimize reload core loading patterns associated with increasingly complicated lattice designs. A microscopic depletion model has been developed for the FORMOSA-P pressurized water reactor (PWR) loading pattern optimization code. This was done for both fidelity improvements and to make FORMOSA-P compatible with microscopic-based nuclear design methods. Needless to say, microscopic depletion requires more computational effort compared with macroscopic depletion. This implies that microscopic depletion may be computationally restrictive if employed during the loading pattern optimization calculation because many loading patterns are examined during the course of an optimization search. Therefore, the microscopic depletion model developed here uses combined models of microscopic and macroscopic depletion. This is done by first performing microscopic depletions for a subset of possible loading patterns from which 'collapsed' macroscopic cross sections are obtained. The collapsed macroscopic cross sections inherently incorporate spectral history effects. Subsequently, the optimization calculations are done using the collapsed macroscopic cross sections. Using this approach allows maintenance of microscopic depletion level accuracy without substantial additional computing resources

  6. Deoxyribonucleoside kinases in mitochondrial DNA depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saada-Reisch, Ann

    2004-10-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of mitochondrial disorders, manifested by a decreased mtDNA copy number and respiratory chain dysfunction. Primary MDS are inherited autosomally and may affect a single organ or multiple tissues. Mutated mitochondrial deoxyribonucleoside kinases; deoxyguanosine kinase (dGK) and thymidine kinase 2 (TK2), were associated with the hepatocerebral and myopathic forms of MDS respectively. dGK and TK2 are key enzymes in the mitochondrial nucleotide salvage pathway, providing the mitochondria with deoxyribonucleotides (dNP) essential for mtDNA synthesis. Although the mitochondrial dNP pool is physically separated from the cytosolic one, dNP's may still be imported through specific transport. Non-replicating tissues, where cytosolic dNP supply is down regulated, are thus particularly vulnerable to dGK and TK2 deficiency. The overlapping substrate specificity of deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) may explain the relative sparing of muscle in dGK deficiency, while low basal TK2 activity render this tissue susceptible to TK2 deficiency. The precise pathophysiological mechanisms of mtDNA depletion due to dGK and TK2 deficiencies remain to be determined, though recent findings confirm that it is attributed to imbalanced dNTP pools.

  7. Bone marrow scintigraphy in hemopoietic depletion states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortynova, J.; Bakos, K.; Pradacova, J.

    1981-01-01

    Bone marrow scintigraphy was performed in 29 patients with hemopoietic depletion states of various etiology. Two tracers were used for visualization, viz., sup(99m)Tc-sulfur-colloid and 111 InCl 3 ;some patients were examined using both indicators. 111 InCl 3 is bound to transferrin and is adsorbed on the surface of reticulocytes and erythroblasts. A scintillation camera PHO GAMMA SEARLE IV fitted with a moving table and computer CLINCOM were used to obtain whole-body images. The comparison of all scans and marrow puncture smears was done. In patients with aplastic anemia with both hyperplastic or hypoplastic marrow good correlation of bone marrow scans and sternal puncture smears was found. In several cases the scintigraphic examination helped to establish the diagnosis of marrow depletion. A peculiar disadvantage of the imaging method with either sup(99m)Tc-sulfur-colloid or 111 InCl 3 is that it shows the disorders in erythropoietic and reticuloendothelial cells whereas the defects in myelopoietic cell series and platelet precursors are not provable. According to literature data, great attention is paid to the prognostic value of scintigraphic examination in aplastic anemia. (author)

  8. Bone marrow scintigraphy in hemopoietic depletion states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortynova, J. (Ustav Hematologie a Krevni Transfuze, Prague (Czechoslovakia)); Bakos, K.; Pradacova, J. (Karlova Univ., Prague (Czechoslovakia). Biofyzikalni Ustav)

    1981-01-01

    Bone marrow scintigraphy was performed in 29 patients with hemopoietic depletion states of various etiology. Two tracers were used for visualization, viz., sup(99m)Tc-sulfur-colloid and /sup 111/InCl/sub 3/; some patients were examined using both indicators. /sup 111/InCl/sub 3/ is bound to transferrin and is adsorbed on the surface of reticulocytes and erythroblasts. A scintillation camera PHO GAMMA SEARLE IV fitted with a moving table and computer CLINCOM were used to obtain whole-body images. The comparison of all scans and marrow puncture smears was done. In patients with aplastic anemia with both hyperplastic or hypoplastic marrow good correlation of bone marrow scans and sternal puncture smears was found. In several cases the scintigraphic examination helped to establish the diagnosis of marrow depletion. A peculiar disadvantage of the imaging method with either sup(99m)Tc-sulfur-colloid or /sup 111/InCl/sub 3/ is that it shows the disorders in erythropoietic and reticuloendothelial cells whereas the defects in myelopoietic cell series and platelet precursors are not provable. According to literature data, great attention is paid to the prognostic value of scintigraphic examination in aplastic anemia.

  9. Mantle depletion and metasomatism recorded in orthopyroxene in highly depleted peridotites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, James; Liu, Jingao; Pearson, D. Graham

    2016-01-01

    Although trace element concentrations in clinopyroxene serve as a useful tool for assessing the depletion and enrichment history of mantle peridotites, this is not applicable for peridotites in which the clinopyroxene component has been consumed (~ 25% partial melting). Orthopyroxene persists in ...

  10. Improved radiation tolerance of MAPS using a depleted epitaxial layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorokhov, A., E-mail: Andrei.Dorokhov@IReS.in2p3.f [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien (IPHC), 23 rue du loess, BP 28, 67037 Strasbourg (France); Bertolone, G.; Baudot, J.; Brogna, A.S.; Colledani, C.; Claus, G.; De Masi, R. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien (IPHC), 23 rue du loess, BP 28, 67037 Strasbourg (France); Deveaux, M. [Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Senckenberganlage 31, 60325 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Doziere, G.; Dulinski, W. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien (IPHC), 23 rue du loess, BP 28, 67037 Strasbourg (France); Fontaine, J.-C. [Groupe de Recherche en Physique des Hautes Energies (GRPHE), Universite de Haute Alsace, 61, rue Albert Camus, 68093 Mulhouse (France); Goffe, M.; Himmi, A.; Hu-Guo, Ch.; Jaaskelainen, K.; Koziel, M.; Morel, F.; Santos, C.; Specht, M.; Valin, I. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien (IPHC), 23 rue du loess, BP 28, 67037 Strasbourg (France)

    2010-12-11

    Tracking performance of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) developed at IPHC (Turchetta, et al., 2001) have been extensively studied (Winter, et al., 2001; Gornushkin, et al., 2002) . Numerous sensor prototypes, called MIMOSA, were fabricated and tested since 1999 in order to optimise the charge collection efficiency and power dissipation, to minimise the noise and to increase the readout speed. The radiation tolerance was also investigated. The highest fluence tolerable for a 10{mu}m pitch device was found to be {approx}10{sup 13}n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}, while it was only 2x10{sup 12}n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2} for a 20{mu}m pitch device. The purpose of this paper is to show that the tolerance to non-ionising radiation may be extended up to O(10{sup 14}) n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. This goal relies on a fabrication process featuring a 15{mu}m thin, high resistivity ({approx}1k{Omega}cm) epitaxial layer. A sensor prototype (MIMOSA-25) was fabricated in this process to explore its detection performance. The depletion depth of the epitaxial layer at standard CMOS voltages (<5V) is similar to the layer thickness. Measurements with m.i.p.s show that the charge collected in the seed pixel is at least twice larger for the depleted epitaxial layer than for the undepleted one, translating into a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of {approx}50. Tests after irradiation have shown that this excellent performance is maintained up to the highest fluence considered (3x10{sup 13}n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}), making evidence of a significant extension of the radiation tolerance limits of MAPS.

  11. Precious Metals in Automotive Technology: An Unsolvable Depletion Problem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Bardi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the second half of the 20th century, various devices have been developed in order to reduce the emissions of harmful substances at the exhaust pipe of combustion engines. In the automotive field, the most diffuse and best known device of this kind is the “three way” catalytic converter for engines using the Otto cycle designed to abate the emissions of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and unburnt hydrocarbons. These catalytic converters can function only by means of precious metals (mainly platinum, rhodium and palladium which exist in a limited supply in economically exploitable ores. The recent increase in prices of all mineral commodities is already making these converters significantly expensive and it is not impossible that the progressive depletion of precious metals will make them too expensive for the market of private cars. The present paper examines how this potential scarcity could affect the technology of road transportation worldwide. We argue that the supply of precious metals for automotive converters is not at risk in the short term, but that in the future it will not be possible to continue using this technology as a result of increasing prices generated by progressive depletion. Mitigation methods such as reducing the amounts of precious metals in catalysts, or recycling them can help but cannot be considered as a definitive solution. We argue that precious metal scarcity is a critical factor that may determine the future development of road transportation in the world. As the problem is basically unsolvable in the long run, we must explore new technologies for road transportation and we conclude that it is likely that the clean engine of the future will be electric and powered by batteries.

  12. Deuterium-depleted water. Romanian achievements and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Ion; Saros-Rogobete, Irina; Titescu, Gheorghe

    2001-01-01

    Deuterium-depleted water has an isotopic content smaller than 145 ppm D/(D+H) which is the natural isotopic content of water. Beginning with 1996 ICSI Rm. Valcea, deuterium-depleted water producer, co-operated with Romanian specialized institutes for biological effect's evaluation of deuterium-depleted water. These investigations lead to the following conclusions: - Deuterium-depleted water caused a tendency towards the increase of the basal tonus, accompanied by the intensification of the vasoconstrictor effects of phenylefrine, noradrenaline and angiotensin; the increase of the basal tonus and vascular reactivity produced by the deuterium-depleted water persist after the removal of the vascular endothelium; - Animals treated with deuterium-depleted water showed an increase of the resistance both to sublethal and to lethal gamma radiation doses, suggesting a radioprotective action; - Deuterium-depleted water stimulates immune defence reactions and increases the numbers of polymorphonuclear neutrophils; - Investigations regarding artificial reproduction of fish with deuterium-depleted water fecundated solutions confirmed favourable influence in embryo growth stage and resistance in subsequent growth stages; - It was studied germination, growth and quantitative character's variability in plants; one can remark the favourable influence of deuterium-depleted water on biological process in plants in various ontogenetic stages; - The deuterium depletion in seawater produces the diminution of the water spectral energy related to an increased metabolism of Tetraselmis Suecica. (authors)

  13. TURTLE 24.0 diffusion depletion code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altomare, S.; Barry, R.F.

    1971-09-01

    TURTLE is a two-group, two-dimensional (x-y, x-z, r-z) neutron diffusion code featuring a direct treatment of the nonlinear effects of xenon, enthalpy, and Doppler. Fuel depletion is allowed. TURTLE was written for the study of azimuthal xenon oscillations, but the code is useful for general analysis. The input is simple, fuel management is handled directly, and a boron criticality search is allowed. Ten thousand space points are allowed (over 20,000 with diagonal symmetry). TURTLE is written in FORTRAN IV and is tailored for the present CDC-6600. The program is core-contained. Provision is made to save data on tape for future reference. (auth)

  14. Tylosin depletion from edible pig tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prats, C; El Korchi, G; Francesch, R; Arboix, M; Pérez, B

    2002-12-01

    The depletion of tylosin from edible pig tissues was studied following 5 days of intramuscular (i.m.) administration of 10 mg/kg of tylosin to 16 crossbreed pigs. Animals were slaughtered at intervals after treatment and samples of muscle, kidney, liver, skin+fat, and injection site were collected and analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Seven days after the completion of treatment, the concentration of tylosin in kidney, skin+fat, and at the injection site was higher than the European Union maximal residue limit (MRL) of 100 microg/kg. Tylosin residues in all tissues were below the quantification limit (50 microg/kg) at 10 and 14 days post-treatment.

  15. Ozone depletion following future volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric Klobas, J.; Wilmouth, David M.; Weisenstein, Debra K.; Anderson, James G.; Salawitch, Ross J.

    2017-07-01

    While explosive volcanic eruptions cause ozone loss in the current atmosphere due to an enhancement in the availability of reactive chlorine following the stratospheric injection of sulfur, future eruptions are expected to increase total column ozone as halogen loading approaches preindustrial levels. The timing of this shift in the impact of major volcanic eruptions on the thickness of the ozone layer is poorly known. Modeling four possible climate futures, we show that scenarios with the smallest increase in greenhouse gas concentrations lead to the greatest risk to ozone from heterogeneous chemical processing following future eruptions. We also show that the presence in the stratosphere of bromine from natural, very short-lived biogenic compounds is critically important for determining whether future eruptions will lead to ozone depletion. If volcanic eruptions inject hydrogen halides into the stratosphere, an effect not considered in current ozone assessments, potentially profound reductions in column ozone would result.

  16. Depleted Reactor Analysis With MCNP-4B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caner, M.; Silverman, L.; Bettan, M.

    2004-01-01

    Monte Carlo neutronics calculations are mostly done for fresh reactor cores. There is today an ongoing activity in the development of Monte Carlo plus burnup code systems made possible by the fast gains in computer processor speeds. In this work we investigate the use of MCNP-4B for the calculation of a depleted core of the Soreq reactor (IRR-1). The number densities as function of burnup were taken from the WIMS-D/4 cell code calculations. This particular code coupling has been implemented before. The Monte Carlo code MCNP-4B calculates the coupled transport of neutrons and photons for complicated geometries. We have done neutronics calculations of the IRR-1 core with the WIMS and CITATION codes in the past Also, we have developed an MCNP model of the IRR-1 standard fuel for a criticality safety calculation of a spent fuel storage pool

  17. Kinetic depletion model for pellet ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuteev, Boris V.

    2001-11-01

    A kinetic model for depletion effect, which determines pellet ablation when the pellet passes a rational magnetic surface, is formulated. The model predicts a moderate decrease of the ablation rate compared with the earlier considered monoenergy versions [1, 2]. For typical T-10 conditions the ablation rate reduces by a reactor of 2.5 when the 1-mm pellet penetrates through the plasma center. A substantial deceleration of pellets -about 15% per centimeter of low shire rational q region; is predicted. Penetration for Low Field Side and High Field Side injections is considered taking into account modification of the electron distribution function by toroidal magnetic field. It is shown that Shafranov shift and toroidal effects yield the penetration length for HFS injection higher by a factor of 1.5. This fact should be taken into account when plasma-shielding effects on penetration are considered. (author)

  18. Streamflow depletion by wells--Understanding and managing the effects of groundwater pumping on streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Paul M.; Leake, Stanley A.

    2012-11-02

    Groundwater is an important source of water for many human needs, including public supply, agriculture, and industry. With the development of any natural resource, however, adverse consequences may be associated with its use. One of the primary concerns related to the development of groundwater resources is the effect of groundwater pumping on streamflow. Groundwater and surface-water systems are connected, and groundwater discharge is often a substantial component of the total flow of a stream. Groundwater pumping reduces the amount of groundwater that flows to streams and, in some cases, can draw streamflow into the underlying groundwater system. Streamflow reductions (or depletions) caused by pumping have become an important water-resource management issue because of the negative impacts that reduced flows can have on aquatic ecosystems, the availability of surface water, and the quality and aesthetic value of streams and rivers. Scientific research over the past seven decades has made important contributions to the basic understanding of the processes and factors that affect streamflow depletion by wells. Moreover, advances in methods for simulating groundwater systems with computer models provide powerful tools for estimating the rates, locations, and timing of streamflow depletion in response to groundwater pumping and for evaluating alternative approaches for managing streamflow depletion. The primary objective of this report is to summarize these scientific insights and to describe the various field methods and modeling approaches that can be used to understand and manage streamflow depletion. A secondary objective is to highlight several misconceptions concerning streamflow depletion and to explain why these misconceptions are incorrect.

  19. Pathogenic lysosomal depletion in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehay, Benjamin; Bové, Jordi; Rodríguez-Muela, Natalia; Perier, Celine; Recasens, Ariadna; Boya, Patricia; Vila, Miquel

    2010-09-15

    Mounting evidence suggests a role for autophagy dysregulation in Parkinson's disease (PD). The bulk degradation of cytoplasmic proteins (including α-synuclein) and organelles (such as mitochondria) is mediated by macroautophagy, which involves the sequestration of cytosolic components into autophagosomes (AP) and its delivery to lysosomes. Accumulation of AP occurs in postmortem brain samples from PD patients, which has been widely attributed to an induction of autophagy. However, the cause and pathogenic significance of these changes remain unknown. Here we found in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine mouse model of PD that AP accumulation and dopaminergic cell death are preceded by a marked decrease in the amount of lysosomes within dopaminergic neurons. Lysosomal depletion was secondary to the abnormal permeabilization of lysosomal membranes induced by increased mitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen species. Lysosomal permeabilization resulted in a defective clearance and subsequent accumulation of undegraded AP and contributed directly to neurodegeneration by the ectopic release of lysosomal proteases into the cytosol. Lysosomal breakdown and AP accumulation also occurred in PD brain samples, where Lewy bodies were strongly immunoreactive for AP markers. Induction of lysosomal biogenesis by genetic or pharmacological activation of lysosomal transcription factor EB restored lysosomal levels, increased AP clearance and attenuated 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-induced cell death. Similarly, the autophagy-enhancer compound rapamycin attenuated PD-related dopaminergic neurodegeneration, both in vitro and in vivo, by restoring lysosomal levels. Our results indicate that AP accumulation in PD results from defective lysosomal-mediated AP clearance secondary to lysosomal depletion. Restoration of lysosomal levels and function may thus represent a novel neuroprotective strategy in PD.

  20. RETRACTED: Advances in colloidal quantum dot solar cells: The depleted-heterojunction device

    KAUST Repository

    Kramer, Illan J.; Pattantyus-Abraham, Andras G.; Barkhouse, Aaron R.; Wang, Xihua; Konstantatos, Gerasimos; Debnath, Ratan; Levina, Larissa; Raabe, Ines; Nazeeruddin, Md. K.; Grä tzel, Michael; Sargent, Edward H.

    2011-01-01

    Colloidal quantum dot (CQD) photovoltaics combine low-cost solution processibility with quantum size-effect tunability to match absorption with the solar spectrum. Recent advances in CQD photovoltaics have led to 3.6% AM1.5 solar power conversion efficiencies. Here we report CQD photovoltaic devices on transparent conductive oxides and show that our devices rely on the establishment of a depletion region for field-driven charge transport and separation. The resultant depleted-heterojunction solar cells provide a 5.1% AM1.5 power conversion efficiency. The devices employ infrared-bandgap size-effect-tuned PbS colloidal quantum dots, enabling broadband harvesting of the solar spectrum. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Advances in colloidal quantum dot solar cells: The depleted-heterojunction device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, Illan J.; Pattantyus-Abraham, Andras G.; Barkhouse, Aaron R.; Wang, Xihua; Konstantatos, Gerasimos; Debnath, Ratan; Levina, Larissa; Raabe, Ines; Nazeeruddin, Md. K.; Graetzel, Michael; Sargent, Edward H.

    2011-01-01

    Colloidal quantum dot (CQD) photovoltaics combine low-cost solution processibility with quantum size-effect tunability to match absorption with the solar spectrum. Recent advances in CQD photovoltaics have led to 3.6% AM1.5 solar power conversion efficiencies. Here we report CQD photovoltaic devices on transparent conductive oxides and show that our devices rely on the establishment of a depletion region for field-driven charge transport and separation. The resultant depleted-heterojunction solar cells provide a 5.1% AM1.5 power conversion efficiency. The devices employ infrared-bandgap size-effect-tuned PbS colloidal quantum dots, enabling broadband harvesting of the solar spectrum.

  2. Neutral-depletion-induced axially asymmetric density in a helicon source and imparted thrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazunori; Takao, Yoshinori; Ando, Akira

    2016-02-01

    The high plasma density downstream of the source is observed to be sustained only for a few hundreds of microsecond at the initial phase of the discharge, when pulsing the radiofrequency power of a helicon plasma thruster. Measured relative density of argon neutrals inside the source implies that the neutrals are significantly depleted there. A position giving a maximum plasma density temporally moves to the upstream side of the source due to the neutral depletion and then the exhausted plasma density significantly decreases. The direct thrust measurement demonstrates that the higher thrust-to-power ratio is obtained by using only the initial phase of the high density plasma, compared with the steady-state operation.

  3. RETRACTED: Advances in colloidal quantum dot solar cells: The depleted-heterojunction device

    KAUST Repository

    Kramer, Illan J.

    2011-08-01

    Colloidal quantum dot (CQD) photovoltaics combine low-cost solution processibility with quantum size-effect tunability to match absorption with the solar spectrum. Recent advances in CQD photovoltaics have led to 3.6% AM1.5 solar power conversion efficiencies. Here we report CQD photovoltaic devices on transparent conductive oxides and show that our devices rely on the establishment of a depletion region for field-driven charge transport and separation. The resultant depleted-heterojunction solar cells provide a 5.1% AM1.5 power conversion efficiency. The devices employ infrared-bandgap size-effect-tuned PbS colloidal quantum dots, enabling broadband harvesting of the solar spectrum. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  4. Ordered Nanopillar Structured Electrodes for Depleted Bulk Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kramer, Illan J.; Zhitomirsky, David; Bass, John D.; Rice, Philip M.; Topuria, Teya; Krupp, Leslie; Thon, Susanna M.; Ip, Alexander H.; Debnath, Ratan; Kim, Ho-Cheol; Sargent, Edward H.

    2012-01-01

    A bulk heterojunction of ordered titania nanopillars and PbS colloidal quantum dots is developed. By using a pre-patterned template, an ordered titania nanopillar matrix with nearest neighbours 275 nm apart and height of 300 nm is fabricated and subsequently filled in with PbS colloidal quantum dots to form an ordered depleted bulk heterojunction exhibiting power conversion efficiency of 5.6%. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Ordered Nanopillar Structured Electrodes for Depleted Bulk Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kramer, Illan J.

    2012-03-30

    A bulk heterojunction of ordered titania nanopillars and PbS colloidal quantum dots is developed. By using a pre-patterned template, an ordered titania nanopillar matrix with nearest neighbours 275 nm apart and height of 300 nm is fabricated and subsequently filled in with PbS colloidal quantum dots to form an ordered depleted bulk heterojunction exhibiting power conversion efficiency of 5.6%. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Is Ego Depletion Real? An Analysis of Arguments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, Malte; Loschelder, David D; Gieseler, Karolin; Frankenbach, Julius; Inzlicht, Michael

    2018-03-01

    An influential line of research suggests that initial bouts of self-control increase the susceptibility to self-control failure (ego depletion effect). Despite seemingly abundant evidence, some researchers have suggested that evidence for ego depletion was the sole result of publication bias and p-hacking, with the true effect being indistinguishable from zero. Here, we examine (a) whether the evidence brought forward against ego depletion will convince a proponent that ego depletion does not exist and (b) whether arguments that could be brought forward in defense of ego depletion will convince a skeptic that ego depletion does exist. We conclude that despite several hundred published studies, the available evidence is inconclusive. Both additional empirical and theoretical works are needed to make a compelling case for either side of the debate. We discuss necessary steps for future work toward this aim.

  7. Depletion-induced biaxial nematic states of boardlike particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belli, S; Van Roij, R; Dijkstra, M

    2012-01-01

    With the aim of investigating the stability conditions of biaxial nematic liquid crystals, we study the effect of adding a non-adsorbing ideal depletant on the phase behavior of colloidal hard boardlike particles. We take into account the presence of the depletant by introducing an effective depletion attraction between a pair of boardlike particles. At fixed depletant fugacity, the stable liquid-crystal phase is determined through a mean-field theory with restricted orientations. Interestingly, we predict that for slightly elongated boardlike particles a critical depletant density exists, where the system undergoes a direct transition from an isotropic liquid to a biaxial nematic phase. As a consequence, by tuning the depletant density, an easy experimental control parameter, one can stabilize states of high biaxial nematic order even when these states are unstable for pure systems of boardlike particles. (paper)

  8. The equivalence of gravitational potential and rechargeable battery for high-altitude long-endurance solar-powered aircraft on energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Xian-Zhong; Hou, Zhong-Xi; Guo, Zheng; Fan, Rong-Fei; Chen, Xiao-Qian

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The scope of this paper is to apply solar energy to achieve the high-altitude long-endurance flight. • The equivalence of gravitational potential and rechargeable battery is discussed. • Four kinds of factors have been discussed to compare the two method of energy storage. • This work can provide some governing principles for the application of solar-powered aircraft. - Abstract: Applying solar energy is one of the most promising methods to achieve the aim of High-altitude Long-endurance (HALE) flight, and solar-powered aircraft is usually taken by the research groups to develop HALE aircraft. However, the crucial factor which constrains the solar-powered aircraft to achieve the aim of HALE is the problem how to fulfill the power requirement under weight constraint of rechargeable batteries. Motivated by the birds store energy from thermal by gaining height, the method of energy stored by gravitational potential for solar-powered aircraft have attracted great attentions in recent years. In order to make the method of energy stored in gravitational potential more practical in solar-powered aircraft, the equivalence of gravitational potential and rechargeable battery for aircraft on energy storage has been analyzed, and four kinds of factors are discussed in this paper: the duration of solar irradiation, the charging rate, the energy density of rechargeable battery and the initial altitude of aircraft. This work can provide some governing principles for the solar-powered aircraft to achieve the unlimited endurance flight, and the endurance performance of solar-powered aircraft may be greatly improved by the application of energy storage using gravitational potential

  9. Control of Single Molecule Fluorescence Dynamics by Stimulated Emission Depletion

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, R. J.; Osborne, M. A.; Bain, A. J.

    2003-01-01

    The feasibility of manipulating the single molecule absorption-emission cycle using picosecond stimulated emission depletion (STED) is investigated using a stochastic computer simulation. In the simulation the molecule is subjected to repeated excitation and depletion events using time delayed pairs of excitation (PUMP) and depletion (DUMP) pulses derived from a high repetition rate pulsed laser system. The model is used to demonstrate that a significant and even substantial reduction in the ...

  10. Glutathione depletion in tissues after administration of buthionine sulphoximine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minchinton, A.I.; Rojas, A.; Smith, A.; Soranson, J.A.; Shrieve, D.C.; Jones, N.R.; Bremner, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Buthionine sulphoximine (BSO) an inhibitor of glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis, was administered to mice in single and repeated doses. The resultant pattern of GSH depletion was studied in liver, kidney, skeletal muscle and three types of murine tumor. Liver and kidney exhibited a rapid depletion of GSH. Muscle was depleted to a similar level, but at a slower rate after a single dose. All three tumors required repeated administration of BSO over several days to obtain a similar degree of depletion to that shown in the other tissues

  11. Research on using depleted uranium as nuclear fuel for HWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiahua; Chen Zhicheng; Bao Borong

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of our work is to find a way for application of depleted uranium in CANDU reactor by using MOX nuclear fuel of depleted U and Pu instead of natural uranium. From preliminary evaluation and calculation, it was shown that MOX nuclear fuel consisting of depleted uranium enrichment tailings (0.25% 235 U) and plutonium (their ratio 99.5%:0.5%) could replace natural uranium in CANDU reactor to sustain chain reaction. The prospects of application of depleted uranium in nuclear energy field are also discussed

  12. Producing, Importing, and Exporting Ozone-Depleting Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overview page provides links to information on producing, importing, and exporting ozone-depleting substances, including information about the HCFC allowance system, importing, labeling, recordkeeping and reporting.

  13. Gas generation matrix depletion quality assurance project plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is to provide the necessary expertise, experience, equipment and instrumentation, and management structure to: Conduct the matrix depletion experiments using simulated waste for quantifying matrix depletion effects; and Conduct experiments on 60 cylinders containing simulated TRU waste to determine the effects of matrix depletion on gas generation for transportation. All work for the Gas Generation Matrix Depletion (GGMD) experiment is performed according to the quality objectives established in the test plan and under this Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP)

  14. Framework for the analysis of reactive power dispatch in energy pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgado, R.S.; Irving, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework for the simulation and analysis of the reactive power distribution in electric energy markets of the pool type. Firstly, the analytical formulation of the OPF problem, with three optional performance indexes for the reactive power dispatch, is discussed. These OPF objectives are used to determine the reactive power distribution for a given active power dispatch (obtained through merit-order strategy, for instance). An allocation strategy is used to assess the participation of each power system agent in the loss/reactive power distribution. This strategy uses the premise of co-operative game theory. Numerical results obtained with the Ward-Hale 6-bus test system illustrate the main aspects of the proposed methodology. (author)

  15. Regret causes ego-depletion and finding benefits in the regrettable events alleviates ego-depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongmei; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Fang; Xu, Yan; Hong, Ying-Yi; Jiang, Jiang

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that experiencing regret would result in ego-depletion, while finding benefits (i.e., "silver linings") in the regret-eliciting events counteracted the ego-depletion effect. Using a modified gambling paradigm (Experiments 1, 2, and 4) and a retrospective method (Experiments 3 and 5), five experiments were conducted to induce regret. Results revealed that experiencing regret undermined performance on subsequent tasks, including a paper-and-pencil calculation task (Experiment 1), a Stroop task (Experiment 2), and a mental arithmetic task (Experiment 3). Furthermore, finding benefits in the regret-eliciting events improved subsequent performance (Experiments 4 and 5), and this improvement was mediated by participants' perceived vitality (Experiment 4). This study extended the depletion model of self-regulation by considering emotions with self-conscious components (in our case, regret). Moreover, it provided a comprehensive understanding of how people felt and performed after experiencing regret and after finding benefits in the events that caused the regret.

  16. How Ego Depletion Affects Sexual Self-Regulation: Is It More Than Resource Depletion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolet, Kevin; Rouleau, Joanne-Lucine; Benbouriche, Massil; Carrier Emond, Fannie; Renaud, Patrice

    2015-12-21

    Rational thinking and decision making are impacted when in a state of sexual arousal. The inability to self-regulate arousal can be linked to numerous problems, like sexual risk taking, infidelity, and sexual coercion. Studies have shown that most men are able to exert voluntary control over their sexual excitation with various levels of success. Both situational and dispositional factors can influence self-regulation achievement. The goal of this research was to investigate how ego depletion, a state of low self-control capacity, interacts with personality traits-propensities for sexual excitation and inhibition-and cognitive absorption, to cause sexual self-regulation failure. The sexual responses of 36 heterosexual males were assessed using penile plethysmography. They were asked to control their sexual arousal in two conditions, with and without ego depletion. Results suggest that ego depletion has opposite effects based on the trait sexual inhibition, as individuals moderately inhibited showed an increase in performance while highly inhibited ones showed a decrease. These results challenge the limited resource model of self-regulation and point to the importance of considering how people adapt to acute and high challenging conditions.

  17. Metallographic Characterization of Wrought Depleted Uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, Robert Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hill, Mary Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-02-14

    Metallographic characterization was performed on wrought depleted uranium (DU) samples taken from the longitudinal and transverse orientations from specific locations on two specimens. Characterization of the samples included general microstructure, inclusion analysis, grain size analysis, and microhardness testing. Comparisons of the characterization results were made to determine any differences based on specimen, sample orientation, or sample location. In addition, the characterization results for the wrought DU samples were also compared with data obtained from the metallographic characterization of cast DU samples previously characterized. No differences were observed in microstructure, inclusion size, morphology, and distribution, or grain size in regard to specimen, location, or orientation for the wrought depleted uranium samples. However, a small difference was observed in average hardness with regard to orientation at the same locations within the same specimen. The longitudinal samples were slightly harder than the transverse samples from the same location of the same specimen. This was true for both wrought DU specimens. Comparing the wrought DU sample data with the previously characterized cast DU sample data, distinct differences in microstructure, inclusion size, morphology and distribution, grain size, and microhardness were observed. As expected, the microstructure of the wrought DU samples consisted of small recrystallized grains which were uniform, randomly oriented, and equiaxed with minimal twinning observed in only a few grains. In contrast, the cast DU microstructure consisted of large irregularly shaped grains with extensive twinning observed in most grains. Inclusions in the wrought DU samples were elongated, broken and cracked and light and dark phases were observed in some inclusions. The mean inclusion area percentage for the wrought DU samples ranged from 0.08% to 0.34% and the average density from all wrought DU samples was 1.62E+04/cm

  18. Simulations and observations of plasma depletion, ion composition, and airglow emissions in two auroral ionospheric depletion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yau, A.W.; Whalen, B.A.; Harris, F.R.; Gattinger, R.L.; Pongratz, M.B.; Bernhardt, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    In an ionospheric depletion experiment where chemically reactive vapors such as H 2 O and CO 2 are injected into the O + dominant F region to accelerate the plasma recombination rate and to reduce the plasma density, the ion composition in the depleted region is modified, and photometric emissions are produced. We compare in situ ion composition, density, and photometric measurements from two ionospheric depletion experiments with predictions from chemical modeling. The two injections, Waterhole I and III, were part of an auroral perturbation experiment and occurred in different ambient conditions. In both injections a core region of greater than fivefold plasma depletion was observed over roughly-equal5-km diameter within seconds of the injection, surrounded by an outer region of less drastic and slower depletion. In Waterhole I the plasma density was depleted tenfold over a 30-km diamter region after 2 min. The ambient O + density was drastically reduced, and the molecular O + 2 abundance was enhanced fivehold in the depletion region. OH airglow emission associated with the depletion was observed with a peak emission intensity of roughly-equal1 kR. In Waterhole III the ambient density was a decade lower, and the plasma depletion was less drastic, being twofold over 30 km after 2 min. The airglow emissions were also much less intense and below measurement sensitivity (30 R for the OH 306.4-nm emission; 50 R for the 630.0-nm emission)

  19. Too Depleted to Try? Testing the Process Model of Ego Depletion in the Context of Unhealthy Snack Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Ashleigh; Kemps, Eva; Moffitt, Robyn

    2016-11-01

    The process model proposes that the ego depletion effect is due to (a) an increase in motivation toward indulgence, and (b) a decrease in motivation to control behaviour following an initial act of self-control. In contrast, the reflective-impulsive model predicts that ego depletion results in behaviour that is more consistent with desires, and less consistent with motivations, rather than influencing the strength of desires and motivations. The current study sought to test these alternative accounts of the relationships between ego depletion, motivation, desire, and self-control. One hundred and fifty-six undergraduate women were randomised to complete a depleting e-crossing task or a non-depleting task, followed by a lab-based measure of snack intake, and self-report measures of motivation and desire strength. In partial support of the process model, ego depletion was related to higher intake, but only indirectly via the influence of lowered motivation. Motivation was more strongly predictive of intake for those in the non-depletion condition, providing partial support for the reflective-impulsive model. Ego depletion did not affect desire, nor did depletion moderate the effect of desire on intake, indicating that desire may be an appropriate target for reducing unhealthy behaviour across situations where self-control resources vary. © 2016 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  20. Transient Treg depletion enhances therapeutic anti‐cancer vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston, Wayne J.; Chee, Jonathan; Khong, Andrea; Cleaver, Amanda L.; Solin, Jessica N.; Ma, Shaokang; Lesterhuis, W. Joost; Dick, Ian; Holt, Robert A.; Creaney, Jenette; Boon, Louis; Robinson, Bruce; Lake, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Regulatory T cells (Treg) play an important role in suppressing anti‐ immunity and their depletion has been linked to improved outcomes. To better understand the role of Treg in limiting the efficacy of anti‐cancer immunity, we used a Diphtheria toxin (DTX) transgenic mouse model to specifically target and deplete Treg. Methods Tumor bearing BALB/c FoxP3.dtr transgenic mice were subjected to different treatment protocols, with or without Treg depletion and tumor growth and survival monitored. Results DTX specifically depleted Treg in a transient, dose‐dependent manner. Treg depletion correlated with delayed tumor growth, increased effector T cell (Teff) activation, and enhanced survival in a range of solid tumors. Tumor regression was dependent on Teffs as depletion of both CD4 and CD8 T cells completely abrogated any survival benefit. Severe morbidity following Treg depletion was only observed, when consecutive doses of DTX were given during peak CD8 T cell activation, demonstrating that Treg can be depleted on multiple occasions, but only when CD8 T cell activation has returned to base line levels. Finally, we show that even minimal Treg depletion is sufficient to significantly improve the efficacy of tumor‐peptide vaccination. Conclusions BALB/c.FoxP3.dtr mice are an ideal model to investigate the full therapeutic potential of Treg depletion to boost anti‐tumor immunity. DTX‐mediated Treg depletion is transient, dose‐dependent, and leads to strong anti‐tumor immunity and complete tumor regression at high doses, while enhancing the efficacy of tumor‐specific vaccination at low doses. Together this data highlight the importance of Treg manipulation as a useful strategy for enhancing current and future cancer immunotherapies. PMID:28250921

  1. Tylosin depletion in edible tissues of turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesissa, C; De Liguoro, M; Santi, A; Capolongo, F; Biancotto, G

    1999-10-01

    The depletion of tylosin residues in edible turkey tissues was followed after 3 days of administration of tylosin tartrate at 500 mg l-1 in drinking water, to 30 turkeys. Immediately after the end of the treatment (day 0) and at day 1, 3, 5 and 10 of withdrawal, six turkeys (three males and three females) per time were sacrificed and samples of edible tissues were collected. Tissue homogenates were extracted, purified and analysed by HPLC according to a method previously published for the analysis of tylosin residues in pig tissues. In all tissues, tylosin residues were already below the detection limits of 50 micrograms kg-1 at time zero. However, in several samples of tissues (skin + fat, liver, kidney, muscle), from the six turkeys sacrificed at that time, one peak corresponding to an unknown tylosin equivalent was detected at measurable concentrations. The identification of this unknown compound was performed by LC-MS/MS analysis of the extracts from incurred samples. The mass fragmentation of the compound was consistent with the structure of tylosin D (the alcoholic derivative of tylosin A), the major metabolite of tylosin previously recovered and identified in tissues and/or excreta from treated chickens, cattle and pigs.

  2. Recirculating cooling water solute depletion models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, W.T.

    1990-01-01

    Chromates have been used for years to inhibit copper corrosion in the plant Recirculating Cooling Water (RCW) system. However, chromates have become an environmental problem in recent years both in the chromate removal plant (X-616) operation and from cooling tower drift. In response to this concern, PORTS is replacing chromates with Betz Dianodic II, a combination of phosphates, BZT, and a dispersant. This changeover started with the X-326 system in 1989. In order to control chemical concentrations in X-326 and in systems linked to it, we needed to be able to predict solute concentrations in advance of the changeover. Failure to predict and control these concentrations can result in wasted chemicals, equipment fouling, or increased corrosion. Consequently, Systems Analysis developed two solute concentration models. The first simulation represents the X-326 RCW system by itself; and models the depletion of a solute once the feed has stopped. The second simulation represents the X-326, X-330, and the X-333 systems linked together by blowdown. This second simulation represents the concentration of a solute in all three systems simultaneously. 4 figs

  3. Decommissioning plan depleted uranium manufacturing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhardt, D.E.; Pittman, J.D.; Prewett, S.V.

    1987-01-01

    Aerojet Ordnance Tennessee, Inc. (Aerojet) is decommissioning its California depleted uranium (DU) manufacturing facility. Aerojet has conducted manufacturing and research and development activities at the facility since 1977 under a State of California Source Materials License. The decontamination is being performed by a contractor selector for technical competence through competitive bid. Since the facility will be released for uncontrolled use it will be decontaminated to levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). In order to fully apply the principles of ALARA, and ensure the decontamination is in full compliance with appropriate guides, Aerojet has retained Rogers and Associaties Engineering Corporation (RAE) to assist in the decommissioning. RAE has assisted in characterizing the facility and preparing contract bid documents and technical specifications to obtain a qualified decontamination contractor. RAE will monitor the decontamination work effort to assure the contractor's performance complies with the contract specifications and the decontamination plan. The specifications require a thorough cleaning and decontamination of the facility, not just sufficient cleaning to meet the numeric cleanup criteria

  4. Optimal Allocation of Sampling Effort in Depletion Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    We consider the problem of designing a depletion or removal survey as part of estimating animal abundance for populations with imperfect capture or detection rates. In a depletion survey, animals are captured from a given area, counted, and withheld from the population. This proc...

  5. Podocyte Depletion in Thin GBM and Alport Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickman, Larysa; Hodgin, Jeffrey B; Wang, Su Q; Afshinnia, Farsad; Kershaw, David; Wiggins, Roger C

    2016-01-01

    The proximate genetic cause of both Thin GBM and Alport Syndrome (AS) is abnormal α3, 4 and 5 collagen IV chains resulting in abnormal glomerular basement membrane (GBM) structure/function. We previously reported that podocyte detachment rate measured in urine is increased in AS, suggesting that podocyte depletion could play a role in causing progressive loss of kidney function. To test this hypothesis podometric parameters were measured in 26 kidney biopsies from 21 patients aged 2-17 years with a clinic-pathologic diagnosis including both classic Alport Syndrome with thin and thick GBM segments and lamellated lamina densa [n = 15] and Thin GBM cases [n = 6]. Protocol biopsies from deceased donor kidneys were used as age-matched controls. Podocyte depletion was present in AS biopsies prior to detectable histologic abnormalities. No abnormality was detected by light microscopy at 70% podocyte depletion. Low level proteinuria was an early event at about 25% podocyte depletion and increased in proportion to podocyte depletion. These quantitative data parallel those from model systems where podocyte depletion is the causative event. This result supports a hypothesis that in AS podocyte adherence to the GBM is defective resulting in accelerated podocyte detachment causing progressive podocyte depletion leading to FSGS-like pathologic changes and eventual End Stage Kidney Disease. Early intervention to reduce podocyte depletion is projected to prolong kidney survival in AS.

  6. Effect of greenhouse gas emissions on stratospheric ozone depletion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velders GJM; LLO

    1997-01-01

    The depletion of the ozone layer is caused mainly by the increase in emissions of chlorine- and bromine-containing compounds like CFCs, halons, carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform and methyl bromide. Emissions of greenhouse gases can affect the depletion of the ozone layer through atmospheric

  7. Improved radiation tolerance of MAPS using a depleted epitaxial layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorokhov, A.; Bertolone, G.; Baudot, J.; Brogna, A.S.; Colledani, C.; Claus, G.; De Masi, R.; Deveaux, M.; Doziere, G.; Dulinski, W.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Goffe, M.; Himmi, A.; Hu-Guo, Ch.; Jaaskelainen, K.; Koziel, M.; Morel, F.; Santos, C.; Specht, M.; Valin, I.

    2010-01-01

    Tracking performance of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) developed at IPHC (Turchetta, et al., 2001) have been extensively studied (Winter, et al., 2001; Gornushkin, et al., 2002) . Numerous sensor prototypes, called MIMOSA, were fabricated and tested since 1999 in order to optimise the charge collection efficiency and power dissipation, to minimise the noise and to increase the readout speed. The radiation tolerance was also investigated. The highest fluence tolerable for a 10μm pitch device was found to be ∼10 13 n eq /cm 2 , while it was only 2x10 12 n eq /cm 2 for a 20μm pitch device. The purpose of this paper is to show that the tolerance to non-ionising radiation may be extended up to O(10 14 ) n eq /cm 2 . This goal relies on a fabrication process featuring a 15μm thin, high resistivity (∼1kΩcm) epitaxial layer. A sensor prototype (MIMOSA-25) was fabricated in this process to explore its detection performance. The depletion depth of the epitaxial layer at standard CMOS voltages ( 13 n eq /cm 2 ), making evidence of a significant extension of the radiation tolerance limits of MAPS.

  8. Depleted uranium (DU) mobility in the natural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragnarsdottir, K.V.

    2002-01-01

    In 1999 the Balkan's conflict lead NATO war planes to leave 10x10 3 kg of depleted uranium (DU) in the environment of Kosovo and neighbouring states (UNEP, 2001). DU behaves in the same manner in the environment as natural uranium and it can be traced with isotopic analysis due to the fact that DU has the isotopic composition of 0.2% 235 U and 99.8% 2 38 U as opposed to natural uranium which has 0.7% 2 35 U and 99.3% 2 38 U. DU is a waste product of the nuclear industry which enrich nuclear fuel by 2 35 U. Large stock piles of DU therefore exist in countries that produce nuclear energy and/or nuclear weapons. The DU is given to the weapons industry for free (or cheap) and has been a popular choice for armour penetrating arsenal due to the high density of uranium (19 g cm -3 ) and therefore its high penetrating power. Indeed the arsenal used in Kosovo consisted of DU penetrators that were shot from A-10 aeroplanes. They weigh roughly 300 g and have the shape of a fat 9 cm long pencil. (author)

  9. Analysis and Application of Whey Protein Depleted Skim Milk Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hanne

    homogenisation (UHPH). The microfiltration will result in a milk fraction more or less depleted from whey protein, and could probably in combination with UHPH treatment contribute to milk fractions and cheeses with novel micro and macrostructures. These novel fractions could be used as new ingredients to improve......-destructive methods for this purpose. A significant changed structure was observed in skim milk depleted or partly depleted for whey protein, acidified and UHPH treated. Some of the properties of the UHPH treated skim milk depleted from whey protein observed in this study support the idea, that UHPH treatment has...... this. LF-NMR relaxation were utilised to obtain information about the water mobility (relaxation time), in diluted skim milk systems depleted from whey protein. Obtained results indicate that measuring relaxation times with LF-NMR could be difficult to utilize, since no clear relationship between...

  10. Barium depletion study on impregnated cathodes and lifetime prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roquais, J.M.; Poret, F.; Doze, R. le; Ricaud, J.L.; Monterrin, A.; Steinbrunn, A.

    2003-01-01

    In the thermionic cathodes used in cathode ray-tubes (CRTs), barium is the key element for the electronic emission. In the case of the dispenser cathodes made of a porous tungsten pellet impregnated with Ba, Ca aluminates, the evaporation of Ba determines the cathode lifetime with respect to emission performance in the CRT. The Ba evaporation results in progressive depletion of the impregnating material inside the pellet. In the present work, the Ba depletion with time has been extensively characterized over a large range of cathode temperature. Calculations using the depletion data allowed modeling of the depletion as a function of key parameters. The link between measured depletion and emission in tubes has been established, from which an end-of-life criterion was deduced. Taking modeling into account, predicting accelerated life-tests were performed using high-density maximum emission current (MIK)

  11. The Abiotic Depletion Potential: Background, Updates, and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauran van Oers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Depletion of abiotic resources is a much disputed impact category in life cycle assessment (LCA. The reason is that the problem can be defined in different ways. Furthermore, within a specified problem definition, many choices can still be made regarding which parameters to include in the characterization model and which data to use. This article gives an overview of the problem definition and the choices that have been made when defining the abiotic depletion potentials (ADPs for a characterization model for abiotic resource depletion in LCA. Updates of the ADPs since 2002 are also briefly discussed. Finally, some possible new developments of the impact category of abiotic resource depletion are suggested, such as redefining the depletion problem as a dilution problem. This means taking the reserves in the environment and the economy into account in the reserve parameter and using leakage from the economy, instead of extraction rate, as a dilution parameter.

  12. Human podocyte depletion in association with older age and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puelles, Victor G; Cullen-McEwen, Luise A; Taylor, Georgina E; Li, Jinhua; Hughson, Michael D; Kerr, Peter G; Hoy, Wendy E; Bertram, John F

    2016-04-01

    Podocyte depletion plays a major role in the development and progression of glomerulosclerosis. Many kidney diseases are more common in older age and often coexist with hypertension. We hypothesized that podocyte depletion develops in association with older age and is exacerbated by hypertension. Kidneys from 19 adult Caucasian American males without overt renal disease were collected at autopsy in Mississippi. Demographic data were obtained from medical and autopsy records. Subjects were categorized by age and hypertension as potential independent and additive contributors to podocyte depletion. Design-based stereology was used to estimate individual glomerular volume and total podocyte number per glomerulus, which allowed the calculation of podocyte density (number per volume). Podocyte depletion was defined as a reduction in podocyte number (absolute depletion) or podocyte density (relative depletion). The cortical location of glomeruli (outer or inner cortex) and presence of parietal podocytes were also recorded. Older age was an independent contributor to both absolute and relative podocyte depletion, featuring glomerular hypertrophy, podocyte loss, and thus reduced podocyte density. Hypertension was an independent contributor to relative podocyte depletion by exacerbating glomerular hypertrophy, mostly in glomeruli from the inner cortex. However, hypertension was not associated with podocyte loss. Absolute and relative podocyte depletion were exacerbated by the combination of older age and hypertension. The proportion of glomeruli with parietal podocytes increased with age but not with hypertension alone. These findings demonstrate that older age and hypertension are independent and additive contributors to podocyte depletion in white American men without kidney disease. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Barium Depletion in Hollow Cathode Emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, James E.; Capece, Angela M.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira

    2009-01-01

    The effect of tungsten erosion, transport and redeposition on the operation of dispenser hollow cathodes was investigated in detailed examinations of the discharge cathode inserts from an 8200 hour and a 30,352 hour ion engine wear test. Erosion and subsequent re-deposition of tungsten in the electron emission zone at the downstream end of the insert reduces the porosity of the tungsten matrix, preventing the ow of barium from the interior. This inhibits the interfacial reactions of the barium-calcium-aluminate impregnant with the tungsten in the pores. A numerical model of barium transport in the internal xenon discharge plasma shows that the barium required to reduce the work function in the emission zone can be supplied from upstream through the gas phase. Barium that flows out of the pores of the tungsten insert is rapidly ionized in the xenon discharge and pushed back to the emitter surface by the electric field and drag from the xenon ion flow. This barium ion flux is sufficient to maintain a barium surface coverage at the downstream end greater than 0.6, even if local barium production at that point is inhibited by tungsten deposits. The model also shows that the neutral barium pressure exceeds the equilibrium vapor pressure of the impregnant decomposition reaction over much of the insert length, so the reactions are suppressed. Only a small region upstream of the zone blocked by tungsten deposits is active and supplies the required barium. These results indicate that hollow cathode failure models based on barium depletion rates in vacuum dispenser cathodes are very conservative.

  14. Biological effects of deuterium - depleted water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, I.; Titescu, Gh.; Croitoru, Cornelia; Saros-Rogobete, Irina

    2000-01-01

    Deuterium-depleted water (DDW) is represented by water that has an isotopic content smaller than 145 ppm D/(D + H). DDW production technique consists in the separation of deuterium from water by a continuous distillation process under pressure of about 133.3 mbar. The water used as raw material has a isotopic content of 145 ppm D/(D + H) and can be demineralized water, distillated water or condensed-steam. DDW results as a distillate with an isotopic deuterium content of 15-80 ppm, depending on the level we want to achieve. Beginning with 1996 the Institute of Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies, DDW producer, co-operated with Romanian specialized institutes for studying the biological effects of DDW. The role of naturally occurring D in living organisms was examined by using DDW instead of natural water. These investigations led to the following conclusions: - DDW caused a tendency towards the increase of the basal tone, accompanied by the intensification of the vasoconstrictor effects of phenylefrine, noradrenaline and angiotensin; the increase of the basal tone and vascular reactivity produced by the DDW persists after the removal of the vascular endothelium; - Animals treated with DDW showed an increase of the resistance both to sublethal and lethal gamma radiation doses, suggesting a radioprotective action by the stimulation of non-specific immune defense mechanisms; - DDW stimulates immuno-defense reactions represented by the opsonic, bactericidal and phagocyte capacity of the immune system together with an increase in the number of poly-morphonuclear neutrophils; - Investigations regarding artificial reproduction of fish with DDW fecundated solutions confirmed favorable influence in embryo growth stage and resistance and following growth stages; - It was studied germination, growth and quantitative character variability in plants; one can remark the favorable influence of DDW on biological processes in plants in various ontogenetic stages. (authors)

  15. Interstellar Silicon Depletion and the Ultraviolet Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ajay; Li, Aigen

    2018-01-01

    Spinning small silicate grains were recently invoked to account for the Galactic foreground anomalous microwave emission. These grains, if present, will absorb starlight in the far ultraviolet (UV). There is also renewed interest in attributing the enigmatic 2175 Å interstellar extinction bump to small silicates. To probe the role of silicon in the UV extinction, we explore the relations between the amount of silicon required to be locked up in silicates [Si/H]dust and the 2175 Å bump or the far-UV extinction rise, based on an analysis of the extinction curves along 46 Galactic sightlines for which the gas-phase silicon abundance [Si/H]gas is known. We derive [Si/H]dust either from [Si/H]ISM - [Si/H]gas or from the Kramers- Kronig relation which relates the wavelength-integrated extinction to the total dust volume, where [Si/H]ISM is the interstellar silicon reference abundance and taken to be that of proto-Sun or B stars. We also derive [Si/H]dust from fi�tting the observed extinction curves with a mixture of amorphous silicates and graphitic grains. We fi�nd that in all three cases [Si/H]dust shows no correlation with the 2175 Å bump, while the carbon depletion [C/H]dust tends to correlate with the 2175 Å bump. This supports carbon grains instead of silicates as the possible carrier of the 2175 Å bump. We also �find that neither [Si/H]dust nor [C/H]dust alone correlates with the far-UV extinction, suggesting that the far-UV extinction is a combined effect of small carbon grains and silicates.

  16. Deuterium depleted water. Romanian achievements and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Ioan; Steflea, Dumitru; Titescu, Gheorghe; Tamaian, Radu

    2002-01-01

    The deuterium depleted water (DDW) is microbiologically pure distilled water with a deuterium content lower than that of natural waters which amounts to 140 - 150 ppm D/(D+H); variations depend on geographical zone and altitude. The procedure of obtaining DDW is based on isotopic separation of natural water by vacuum distillation. Isotope concentration can be chosen within 20 to 120 ppm D/(D+H). The ICSI at Rm. Valcea has patented the procedure and equipment for the production of DDW. According to the document SF-01-2002/INC-DTCI - ICSI Rm. Valcea, the product has a D/(D+H) isotope concentration of 25 ± 5. Studies and research for finding the effects and methods of application in different fields were initiated and developed in collaboration with different institutes in Romania. The following important results obtained so far could be mentioned: - absence of toxicity upon organisms; - activation of vascular reactivity; - enhancement of defence capacity of the organism through non-specific immunity activation; - increase of salmonid reproduction capacity and enhancement of the adaptability of alevins to the environmental conditions; - radioprotective effect to ionizing radiation; - maintaining meat freshness through osmotic shock; - stimulation of growth of aquatic macrophytes; - enhancement of culture plant development in certain ontogenetic stages. Mostly, the results and practical applications of the research were patented and awarded with gold medals at international invention fairs. At present, research-development programmes are undergoing to find active biological features of DDW in fighting cancer, on one hand, and its applicability as food additive of pets or performing animals, on the other hand

  17. Clinical case of Mitochondrial DNA Depletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Degtyareva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reports clinical case of early neonatal manifestation of a rare genetic disease – mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome, confirmed in laboratory in Russia. Mutations of FBXL4, which encodes an orphan mitochondrial F-box protein, involved in the maintenance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA, ultimately leading to disruption of mtDNA replication and decreased activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes. It’s a reason of abnormalities in clinically affected tissues, most of all the muscular system and the brain. In our case hydronephrosis on the right, subependimal cysts of the brain, partial intestinal obstruction accompanied by polyhydramnios were diagnosed antenatal. Baby’s condition at birth was satisfactory and worsened dramatically towards the end of the first day of life. Clinical presentation includes sepsis-like symptom complex, neonatal depression, muscular hypotonia, persistent decompensated lactic acidosis, increase in the concentration of mitochondrial markers in blood plasma and urine, and changes in the basal ganglia of the brain. Imaging of the brain by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI demonstrated global volume loss particularly the subcortical and periventricular white matter with significant abnormal signal in bilateral basal ganglia and brainstem with associated delayed myelination. Differential diagnosis was carried out with hereditary diseases that occur as a «sepsis-like» symptom complex, accompanied by lactic acidosis: a group of metabolic disorders of amino acids, organic acids, β-oxidation defects of fatty acids, respiratory mitochondrial chain disorders and glycogen storage disease. The diagnosis was confirmed after sequencing analysis of 62 mytochondrial genes by NGS (Next Generation Sequencing. Reported disease has an unfavorable prognosis, however, accurate diagnosis is very important for genetic counseling and helps prevent the re-birth of a sick child in the family.

  18. Synthetic liquid fuels development: assessment of critical factors. Volume III. Coal resource depletion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, E.M.; Yabroff, I.W.; Kroll, C.A.; White, R.K.; Walton, B.L.; Ivory, M.E.; Fullen, R.E.; Weisbecker, L.W.; Hays, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    While US coal resources are known to be vast, their rate of depletion in a future based predominantly on coal has not been examined analytically heretofore. The Coal Depletion Model inventories the coal resource on a regional basis and calculates the cost of coal extraction by three technologies - strip and underground mining and in-situ combustion. A plausible coal demand scenario extending from 1975 to the year 2050 is used as a basis in applying the model. In the year 2050, plants in operation include 285 syncrude plants, each producing 100,000 B/D; 312 SNG plants, each producing 250 million SCF/D and 722 coal-fired electric power plants, each of 1000 MW capacity. In addition, there is 890 million tons per year of industrial coal consumption. Such a high level of coal use would deplete US coal resources much more rapidly than most people appreciate. Of course, the actual amount of US coal is unknown, and if the coal in the hypothetical reliability category is included, depletion is delayed. Coal in this category, however, has not been mapped; it is only presumed to exist on the basis of geological theory. The coal resource depletion model shows that unilateral imposition of a severance tax by a state tends to shift production to other coal producing regions. Boom and bust cycles are both delayed and reduced in their magnitude. When several states simultaneously impose severance taxes, the effect of each is weakened.Key policy issues that emerge from this analysis concern the need to reduce the uncertainty of the magnitude and geographic distribution of the US coal resource and the need to stimulate interaction among the parties at interest to work out equitable and acceptable coal conversion plant location strategies capable of coping with the challenges of a high-coal future.

  19. Preliminary formation analysis for compressed air energy storage in depleted natural gas reservoirs :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, William Payton

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an engineering and operational understanding of CAES performance for a depleted natural gas reservoir by evaluation of relative permeability effects of air, water and natural gas in depleted natural gas reservoirs as a reservoir is initially depleted, an air bubble is created, and as air is initially cycled. The composition of produced gases will be evaluated as the three phase flow of methane, nitrogen and brine are modeled. The effects of a methane gas phase on the relative permeability of air in a formation are investigated and the composition of the produced fluid, which consists primarily of the amount of natural gas in the produced air are determined. Simulations of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in depleted natural gas reservoirs were carried out to assess the effect of formation permeability on the design of a simple CAES system. The injection of N2 (as a proxy to air), and the extraction of the resulting gas mixture in a depleted natural gas reservoir were modeled using the TOUGH2 reservoir simulator with the EOS7c equation of state. The optimal borehole spacing was determined as a function of the formation scale intrinsic permeability. Natural gas reservoir results are similar to those for an aquifer. Borehole spacing is dependent upon the intrinsic permeability of the formation. Higher permeability allows increased injection and extraction rates which is equivalent to more power per borehole for a given screen length. The number of boreholes per 100 MW for a given intrinsic permeability in a depleted natural gas reservoir is essentially identical to that determined for a simple aquifer of identical properties. During bubble formation methane is displaced and a sharp N2methane boundary is formed with an almost pure N2 gas phase in the bubble near the borehole. During cycling mixing of methane and air occurs along the boundary as the air bubble boundary moves. The extracted gas mixture changes as a

  20. A SAS2H/KENO-V Methodology for 3D Full Core depletion analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milosevic, M.; Greenspan, E.; Vujic, J.; Petrovic, B.

    2003-04-01

    This paper describes the use of a SAS2H/KENO-V methodology for 3D full core depletion analysis and illustrates its capabilities by applying it to burnup analysis of the IRIS core benchmarks. This new SAS2H/KENO-V sequence combines a 3D Monte Carlo full core calculation of node power distribution and a 1D Wigner-Seitz equivalent cell transport method for independent depletion calculation of each of the nodes. This approach reduces by more than an order of magnitude the time required for getting comparable results using the MOCUP code system. The SAS2H/KENO-V results for the asymmetric IRIS core benchmark are in good agreement with the results of the ALPHA/PHOENIX/ANC code system. (author)

  1. Gadolinium depletion event in a CANDU® moderator - causes and recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, D.W.; Price, J.; Swami, D.; Fracalanza, E.; Brett, M.E.; Puzzuoli, F.V.; Garg, A. [Ontario Power Generation, Pickering, Ontario (Canada); Herrmann, O.; Rudolph, A. [Kinectrics Inc., Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Stuart, C.; Glowa, G. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Smee, J. [Niagara Technical Consultants, St. Catharines, Ontario (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Gadolinium nitrate is added to the moderator of CANDU units to maintain the reactor in a guaranteed shutdown state (GSS). In April 2008, after being in stable GSS for over 30 hours, one of Ontario Power Generation's Pickering-B units showed a gradual depletion of the dissolved gadolinium, despite purification being isolated. Further additions of gadolinium stabilized the moderator gadolinium concentration, however, since the root cause of the depletion was not immediately identified, the unit was placed in the drained shutdown state, per established procedures. The cumulative gadolinium depletion amounted to about 3200 grams, the equivalent of about 12 ppm. Analysis showed the presence of oxalate in the moderator water. It is well-known that gadolinium forms a very insoluble oxalate (log K{sub sp} = -29.1). Although sub-micron filtration of water samples did not show the presence of gadolinium particulate, the measured levels of oxalate, 1.2 to 2 ppm, were sufficient to react with 1.4 to 2.4 ppm of gadolinium. The source of oxalate was traced to radiolysis of dissolved CO{sub 2} species. This unit had been experiencing chronic low-level ingress of CO{sub 2} from the Annulus Gas System. Free oxalate ion is normally susceptible to radiolytic breakdown back to CO{sub 2}, but Gd{sup 3+} provides a stable sink for radiogenic oxalate, 2 Gd{sup 3+} + 3 C{sub 2}O{sub 4}{sup 2-} → Gd{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}. Subsequent testing confirmed that gadolinium oxalate is quite stable with respect to gamma irradiation. Inspections showed well-crystallized gadolinium oxalate deposited on moderator system surfaces. Estimates indicated that about 1200 grams of gadolinium could have deposited on in-core surfaces, including the outside of the calandria tubes. That amount of negative reactivity was a concern, since it would prevent re-start of the unit. OPG, with support from AECL-Chalk River and Kinectrics, embarked on a two-pronged chemistry recovery program aimed at 1

  2. Contribution to fuel depletion study in PWR type reactors, reactor core with three and four regions of enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, M.C.C.

    1977-03-01

    The main methods for calculation of fuel depletion are studied and some approaches to do it are mentioned; the LEOPARD Code is described and full details are given for each subroutine, flow charts are included; the method given by the code for calculation of fuel depletion is described; some imperfections from the IPR's version are listed, and corrected, for instance: the method for burn-up calculation of heavy isotopes; the results of calculations for a reference reactor based on data of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) for Angra I Nuclear Power Plant are presented and discussed. (author)

  3. Long-term groundwater depletion in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konikow, Leonard F.

    2015-01-01

    The volume of groundwater stored in the subsurface in the United States decreased by almost 1000 km3 during 1900–2008. The aquifer systems with the three largest volumes of storage depletion include the High Plains aquifer, the Mississippi Embayment section of the Gulf Coastal Plain aquifer system, and the Central Valley of California. Depletion rates accelerated during 1945–1960, averaging 13.6 km3/year during the last half of the century, and after 2000 increased again to about 24 km3/year. Depletion intensity is a new parameter, introduced here, to provide a more consistent basis for comparing storage depletion problems among various aquifers by factoring in time and areal extent of the aquifer. During 2001–2008, the Central Valley of California had the largest depletion intensity. Groundwater depletion in the United States can explain 1.4% of observed sea-level rise during the 108-year study period and 2.1% during 2001–2008. Groundwater depletion must be confronted on local and regional scales to help reduce demand (primarily in irrigated agriculture) and/or increase supply.

  4. Associative Interactions in Crowded Solutions of Biopolymers Counteract Depletion Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Joost; Foschepoth, David; te Brinke, Esra; Boersma, Arnold J; Imamura, Hiromi; Rivas, Germán; Heus, Hans A; Huck, Wilhelm T S

    2015-10-14

    The cytosol of Escherichia coli is an extremely crowded environment, containing high concentrations of biopolymers which occupy 20-30% of the available volume. Such conditions are expected to yield depletion forces, which strongly promote macromolecular complexation. However, crowded macromolecule solutions, like the cytosol, are very prone to nonspecific associative interactions that can potentially counteract depletion. It remains unclear how the cytosol balances these opposing interactions. We used a FRET-based probe to systematically study depletion in vitro in different crowded environments, including a cytosolic mimic, E. coli lysate. We also studied bundle formation of FtsZ protofilaments under identical crowded conditions as a probe for depletion interactions at much larger overlap volumes of the probe molecule. The FRET probe showed a more compact conformation in synthetic crowding agents, suggesting strong depletion interactions. However, depletion was completely negated in cell lysate and other protein crowding agents, where the FRET probe even occupied slightly more volume. In contrast, bundle formation of FtsZ protofilaments proceeded as readily in E. coli lysate and other protein solutions as in synthetic crowding agents. Our experimental results and model suggest that, in crowded biopolymer solutions, associative interactions counterbalance depletion forces for small macromolecules. Furthermore, the net effects of macromolecular crowding will be dependent on both the size of the macromolecule and its associative interactions with the crowded background.

  5. The enhancements and testing for the MCNPX depletion capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fensin, M. L.; Hendricks, J. S.; Anghaie, S.

    2008-01-01

    Monte Carlo-linked depletion methods have gained recent interest due to the ability to more accurately model true system physics and better track the evolution of temporal nuclide inventory by simulating the actual physical process. The integration of INDER90 into the MCNPX Monte Carlo radiation transport code provides a completely self-contained Monte- Carlo-linked depletion capability in a single Monte Carlo code that is compatible with most nuclear criticality (KCODE) particle tracking features in MCNPX. MCNPX depletion tracks all necessary reaction rates and follows as many isotopes as cross section data permits in order to achieve a highly accurate temporal nuclide inventory solution. We describe here the depletion methodology dating from the original linking of MONTEBURNS and MCNP to the first public release of the integrated capability (MCNPX 2. 6.B, June, 2006) that has been reported previously. Then we further detail the many new depletion capability enhancements since then leading to the present capability. The H.B. Robinson benchmark calculation results are also reported. The new MCNPX depletion capability enhancements include: (1) allowing the modeling of as large a system as computer memory capacity permits; (2) tracking every fission product available in ENDF/B VII. 0; (3) enabling depletion in repeated structures geometries such as repeated arrays of fuel pins; (4) including metastable isotopes in burnup; and (5) manually changing the concentrations of key isotopes during different time steps to simulate changing reactor control conditions such as dilution of poisons to maintain criticality during burnup. These enhancements allow better detail to model the true system physics and also improve the robustness of the capability. The H.B. Robinson benchmark calculation was completed in order to determine the accuracy of the depletion solution. Temporal nuclide computations of key actinide and fission products are compared to the results of other

  6. Challenges dealing with depleted uranium in Germany - Reuse or disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, Kai D.

    2007-01-01

    During enrichment large amounts of depleted Uranium are produced. In Germany every year 2.800 tons of depleted uranium are generated. In Germany depleted uranium is not classified as radioactive waste but a resource for further enrichment. Therefore since 1996 depleted Uranium is sent to ROSATOM in Russia. However it still has to be dealt with the second generation of depleted Uranium. To evaluate the alternative actions in case a solution has to be found in Germany, several studies have been initiated by the Federal Ministry of the Environment. The work that has been carried out evaluated various possibilities to deal with depleted uranium. The international studies on this field and the situation in Germany have been analyzed. In case no further enrichment is planned the depleted uranium has to be stored. In the enrichment process UF 6 is generated. It is an international consensus that for storage it should be converted to U 3 O 8 . The necessary technique is well established. If the depleted Uranium would have to be characterized as radioactive waste, a final disposal would become necessary. For the planned Konrad repository - a repository for non heat generating radioactive waste - the amount of Uranium is limited by the licensing authority. The existing license would not allow the final disposal of large amounts of depleted Uranium in the Konrad repository. The potential effect on the safety case has not been roughly analyzed. As a result it may be necessary to think about alternatives. Several possibilities for the use of depleted uranium in the industry have been identified. Studies indicate that the properties of Uranium would make it useful in some industrial fields. Nevertheless many practical and legal questions are open. One further option may be the use as shielding e.g. in casks for transport or disposal. Possible techniques for using depleted Uranium as shielding are the use of the metallic Uranium as well as the inclusion in concrete. Another

  7. Depletion interaction of casein micelles and an exocellular polysaccharide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuinier, R.; Ten Grotenhuis, E.; Holt, C.; Timmins, P. A.; de Kruif, C. G.

    1999-07-01

    Casein micelles become mutually attractive when an exocellular polysaccharide produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris NIZO B40 (hereafter called EPS) is added to skim milk. The attraction can be explained as a depletion interaction between the casein micelles induced by the nonadsorbing EPS. We used three scattering techniques (small-angle neutron scattering, turbidity measurements, and dynamic light scattering) to measure the attraction. In order to connect the theory of depletion interaction with experiment, we calculated structure factors of hard spheres interacting by a depletion pair potential. Theoretical predictions and all the experiments showed that casein micelles became more attractive upon increasing the EPS concentration.

  8. Azcatl-CRP: An ant colony-based system for searching full power control rod patterns in BWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Juan Jose [Dpto. Sistemas Nucleares, ININ, Carr. Mexico-Toluca Km. 36.5, Salazar, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: jjortiz@nuclear.inin.mx; Requena, Ignacio [Dpto. Ciencias Computacion e I.A. ETSII Informatica, University of Granada, C. Daniel Saucedo Aranda s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain)]. E-mail: requena@decsai.ugr.es

    2006-01-15

    We show a new system named AZCATL-CRP to design full power control rod patterns in BWRs. Azcatl-CRP uses an ant colony system and a reactor core simulator for this purpose. Transition and equilibrium cycles of Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant (LVNPP) reactor core in Mexico were used to test Azcatl-CRP. LVNPP has 109 control rods grouped in four sequences and currently uses control cell core (CCC) strategy in its fuel reload design. With CCC method only one sequence is employed for reactivity control at full power operation. Several operation scenarios are considered, including core water flow variation throughout the cycle, target different axial power distributions and Haling conditions. Azcatl-CRP designs control rod patterns (CRP) taking into account safety aspects such as k {sub eff} core value and thermal limits. Axial power distributions are also adjusted to a predetermined power shape.

  9. CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE NON-RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 4 AND 5 OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth D. Wright

    1997-07-30

    The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain non-rodded fuel assemblies from batches 4 and 5 of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A non-rodded assembly is one which never contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H generated isotopic compositions for each fuel assembly's depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison materials. These SAS2H generated isotopic compositions are acceptable for use in CRC benchmark reactivity calculations containing the various fuel assemblies.

  10. CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 1, 2, 3, AND 1X OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth D. Wright

    1997-09-03

    The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain rodded fuel assemblies from batches 1, 2, 3, and 1X of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for Commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A rodded assembly is one that contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) for some period of time during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H calculated isotopic compositions of depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison for each fuel assembly to be used in subsequent CRC reactivity calculations containing the fuel assemblies.

  11. CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 1, 2, 3, AND 1X OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Kenneth D.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain rodded fuel assemblies from batches 1, 2, 3, and 1X of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for Commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A rodded assembly is one that contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) for some period of time during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H calculated isotopic compositions of depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison for each fuel assembly to be used in subsequent CRC reactivity calculations containing the fuel assemblies

  12. CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE NON-RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 8 AND 9 CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Michael L.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain non-rodded fuel assemblies from batches 8 and 9 of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for Commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A non-rodded assembly is one which never contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H generated isotopic compositions for each fuel assembly's depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison materials. These SAS2H generated isotopic compositions are acceptable for use in CRC benchmark reactivity calculations containing the various fuel assemblies

  13. CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE NON-RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 4 AND 5 OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Kenneth D.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain non-rodded fuel assemblies from batches 4 and 5 of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A non-rodded assembly is one which never contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H generated isotopic compositions for each fuel assembly's depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison materials. These SAS2H generated isotopic compositions are acceptable for use in CRC benchmark reactivity calculations containing the various fuel assemblies

  14. CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE NON-RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 1, 2, AND 3 OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Kenneth D.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain non-rodded fuel assemblies from batches 1, 2, and 3 of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for Commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support development of the disposal criticality methodology. A non-rodded assembly is one which never contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H generated isotopic compositions for each fuel assembly's depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison materials. These SAS2H generated isotopic compositions are acceptable for use in CRC benchmark reactivity calculations containing the various fuel assemblies

  15. Federal income taxation of the U. S. petroleum industry and the depletion of domestic reserves. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaim, S. J.; Mount, T. D.

    1978-10-01

    This paper models in a dynamic framework the production activities of the United States petroleum industry in an attempt to measure the effects of the federal income tax on reserve depletion. This model incorporates general corporate taxes, including the capital subsidies, excess depreciation and the investment tax credit, and taxes unique to the industry: drilling subsidies and percentage depletion. Because corporate response to tax incentives depends on market power and behavior, three behavioral assumptions are tested for consistency with the 1960 to 1974 data period before the tax policies are simulated. These assumptions are perfect competition, profit monopoly, and sales monopoly. The tax policies simulated at the end of this paper present six possible alternatives for future petroleum industry taxation. Sales monopoly is selected as the behavioral assumption that best describes petroleum industry behavior. Tax simulations under sales monopoly reveal that historical income tax policies have kept oil prices artificially low, stimulating (subsidizing) reserve depletion.

  16. Time-on-task effects in children with and without ADHD: depletion of executive resources or depletion of motivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekkers, Tycho J; Agelink van Rentergem, Joost A; Koole, Alette; van den Wildenberg, Wery P M; Popma, Arne; Bexkens, Anika; Stoffelsen, Reino; Diekmann, Anouk; Huizenga, Hilde M

    2017-12-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterized by deficits in their executive functioning and motivation. In addition, these children are characterized by a decline in performance as time-on-task increases (i.e., time-on-task effects). However, it is unknown whether these time-on-task effects should be attributed to deficits in executive functioning or to deficits in motivation. Some studies in typically developing (TD) adults indicated that time-on-task effects should be interpreted as depletion of executive resources, but other studies suggested that they represent depletion of motivation. We, therefore, investigated, in children with and without ADHD, whether there were time-on-task effects on executive functions, such as inhibition and (in)attention, and whether these were best explained by depletion of executive resources or depletion of motivation. The stop-signal task (SST), which generates both indices of inhibition (stop-signal reaction time) and attention (reaction time variability and errors), was administered in 96 children (42 ADHD, 54 TD controls; aged 9-13). To differentiate between depletion of resources and depletion of motivation, the SST was administered twice. Half of the participants was reinforced during second task performance, potentially counteracting depletion of motivation. Multilevel analyses indicated that children with ADHD were more affected by time-on-task than controls on two measures of inattention, but not on inhibition. In the ADHD group, reinforcement only improved performance on one index of attention (i.e., reaction time variability). The current findings suggest that time-on-task effects in children with ADHD occur specifically in the attentional domain, and seem to originate in both depletion of executive resources and depletion of motivation. Clinical implications for diagnostics, psycho-education, and intervention are discussed.

  17. Utilization of Alternate Propellants to Reduce Stratospheric Ozone Depletion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, David

    1994-01-01

    There is continuing concern about the depletion of the ozone layer. Recently it has been determined that effluents from rockets exhausts contain chemical species that can be classified as Potentially Ozone Reactive Chemicals (PORCs...

  18. Mycobacterial antigens stimulate rheumatoid mononuclear cells to cartilage proteoglycan depletion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilbrink, B.; Bijlsma, J. W.; Huber-Bruning, O.; van Roy, J. L.; den Otter, W.; van Eden, W.

    1990-01-01

    In a coculture with porcine articular cartilage explants unstimulated blood mononuclear cells (BMC) from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but not from healthy controls, induced proteoglycan depletion of dead cartilage. Specific stimulation of the RA BMC with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT),

  19. Hyperspectral stimulated emission depletion microscopy and methods of use thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timlin, Jerilyn A; Aaron, Jesse S

    2014-04-01

    A hyperspectral stimulated emission depletion ("STED") microscope system for high-resolution imaging of samples labeled with multiple fluorophores (e.g., two to ten fluorophores). The hyperspectral STED microscope includes a light source, optical systems configured for generating an excitation light beam and a depletion light beam, optical systems configured for focusing the excitation and depletion light beams on a sample, and systems for collecting and processing data generated by interaction of the excitation and depletion light beams with the sample. Hyperspectral STED data may be analyzed using multivariate curve resolution analysis techniques to deconvolute emission from the multiple fluorophores. The hyperspectral STED microscope described herein can be used for multi-color, subdiffraction imaging of samples (e.g., materials and biological materials) and for analyzing a tissue by Forster Resonance Energy Transfer ("FRET").

  20. Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome presenting with ataxia and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laila Selim

    2012-07-24

    Jul 24, 2012 ... Sequencing analysis of the TK2 gene revealed no sequence variation. ... the pathogenesis of the myopathic form of mitochondrial depletion syndrome should be ..... [39,40]. However, the biochemical evidence of deficiency of.

  1. Importance of energetic solar protons in ozone depletion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, J A.E.; Scourfield, M W.J. [Natal Univ., Durban (South Africa). Space Physics Research Inst.

    1991-07-11

    CHLORINE-catalysed depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer has commanded considerable attention since 1985, when Farman et al. observed a decrease of 50% in the total column ozone over Antarctica in the austral spring. Here we examine the depletion of stratospheric ozone caused by the reaction of ozone with nitric oxide generated by energetic solar protons, associated with solar flares. During large solar flares in March 1989, satellite observations indicated that total column ozone was depleted by {approx} 9% over {approx} 20% of the total area between the South Pole and latitude 70{sup o}S. Chlorine-catalysed ozone depletion takes place over a much larger area, but our results indicate that the influence of solar protons on atmospheric ozone concentrations should not be ignored. (author).

  2. Lagopedo: two F-region ionospheric depletion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pongratz, M.B.; Smith, G.M.; Sutherland, C.D.; Zinn, J.

    1977-01-01

    A significant depletion of ionospheric plasma was produced by a chemical release experiment in the F-layer ionosphere over Hawaii. The results of measurements of the hole produced in the ionospheric plasma are reported

  3. Importance of energetic solar protons in ozone depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, J.A.E.; Scourfield, M.W.J.

    1991-01-01

    CHLORINE-catalysed depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer has commanded considerable attention since 1985, when Farman et al. observed a decrease of 50% in the total column ozone over Antarctica in the austral spring. Here we examine the depletion of stratospheric ozone caused by the reaction of ozone with nitric oxide generated by energetic solar protons, associated with solar flares. During large solar flares in March 1989, satellite observations indicated that total column ozone was depleted by ∼ 9% over ∼ 20% of the total area between the South Pole and latitude 70 o S. Chlorine-catalysed ozone depletion takes place over a much larger area, but our results indicate that the influence of solar protons on atmospheric ozone concentrations should not be ignored. (author)

  4. Adding trend data to Depletion-Based Stock Reduction Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Bayesian model of Depletion-Based Stock Reduction Analysis (DB-SRA), informed by a time series of abundance indexes, was developed, using the Sampling Importance...

  5. AFSC/REFM: Pacific cod Localized Depletion Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Localized Depletion study for Pacific cod 2001-2005. Study was conducted using cod pot gear to measure localized abundance of Pacific cod inside and...

  6. Radioactive reconnaissance in area of utilization ammunition of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortuna, D.; Dimitrijevic, D.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper are presented methods of radioactive reconnaissance and taking of samples in area of utilization ammunition of depleted uranium during the armed aggression of NATO to Yugoslavia (author)

  7. Trace Element Abundances in Eucrite Basalts: Enrichment or Depletion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, N. R.

    2018-05-01

    It is not clear how incompatible trace element (ITE) variation in eucrite basalts originated. Here, mechanisms for relative ITE enrichment or depletion are experimentally evaluated in an attempt to reconcile the Stannern and main group eucrites.

  8. Depleted uranium in the food chain at south of Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kiani, A. T.

    2006-01-01

    Depleted Uranium (D U) is uranium with low content of 2351) produced as a result of uranium enrichment. Du has high density (19.05 g/c m 3 ), which is 2.54 more than Iron, so it's high penetrating power makes it preferable as emanations with high penetration power. It was used in second Gulf ware in 1991 for first time. The radioactivity of soil, plants, fruit, meat, milk and water is measured using gamma ray spectroscopy. Materials and Methods: One hundred samples of soil, plants and tomato fruit were selected from the tomato farms near Basra city south of Iraq and 6 control samples from other farms not contaminated with depleted uranium (Du). Also samples of meats, milk and water were collected in January 2003. Radioactivity of these samples was measured using Gamma-ray spectrograph system with high purity Germanium detector with resolution of 2.2 keV at the energy of 1332.3 keV of Co-60. The system is connected to P C Pentium 111 with PCA program. Results: The measurements show that radiation equilibrium between 2 34T h and 2 26R existed with the range between (0.86-1.16) in uncontaminated soil samples. For contaminated soil samples radiation equilibrium between 2 34T h and Pa-234m existed with the range between (0.928- 0.956). The mathematical equations of Kosovo team were used. Results show that the soils of two farms were contaminated with (D U). The radioactivity of 2 26R for plants ranging from 5.97 to 7.26 and for tomato fruits samples between 9.16 to 12.4 Bq/kg. Comparing these values with the control radioactivity which range between 6.25 to 7.34 for fruits and 13.3 to 13.9 Bq/kg for plants indicate that these samples were not contaminated with D U. Conclusion: The soil samples of two farms were contaminated with D U but the fruit of these farms was not contaminated with D U may be due to its high molecular weight and not being water soluble. The radioactivity of 2 26R for different kinds of meat and milk for animal grazing near destroyed tanks

  9. Metabolite Depletion Affects Flux Profiling of Cell Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, A.; Haanstra, J. R.; Teusink, B.

    2018-01-01

    Quantifying the rate of consumption and release of metabolites (i.e., flux profiling) has become integral to the study of cancer. The fluxes as well as the growth of the cells may be affected by metabolite depletion during cultivation.......Quantifying the rate of consumption and release of metabolites (i.e., flux profiling) has become integral to the study of cancer. The fluxes as well as the growth of the cells may be affected by metabolite depletion during cultivation....

  10. Cholinergic depletion and basal forebrain volume in primary progressive aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolien Schaeverbeke

    2017-01-01

    In the PPA group, only LV cases showed decreases in AChE activity levels compared to controls. Surprisingly, a substantial number of SV cases showed significant AChE activity increases compared to controls. BF volume did not correlate with AChE activity levels in PPA. To conclude, in our sample of PPA patients, LV but not SV was associated with cholinergic depletion. BF atrophy in PPA does not imply cholinergic depletion.

  11. Enhanced J/psi suppression due to gluon depletion

    OpenAIRE

    Hwa, R. C.; Pisut, J.; Pisutova, N.

    1997-01-01

    The nonlinear effect of gluon depletion in the collision of large nuclei can be large. It is due to multiple scatterings among comoving partons initiated by primary scattering of partons in the colliding nuclei. The effect can give rise to substantial suppression of $J/\\psi$ production in very large nuclei, even if the linear depletion effect is insignificant for the collisions of nuclei of smaller sizes. This mechanism offers a natural explanation of the enhanced suppression in the Pb-Pb dat...

  12. Phenomenological Evidence for Gluon Depletion in pA Collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Hwa, R. C.; Pisut, J.; Pisutova, N.

    2000-01-01

    The data of J/psi suppression at large x_F in pA collisions are used to infer the existence of gluon depletion as the projectile proton traverses the nucleus. The modification of the gluon distribution is studied by use of a convolution equation whose non-perturbative splitting function is determined phenomenologically. The depletion factor at x_1=0.8 is found to be about 25% at A=100.

  13. Retrieval of buried depleted uranium from the T-1 trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burmeister, M.; Castaneda, N.; Hull, C.; Barbour, D.; Quapp, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Trench 1 remediation project will be conducted this year to retrieve depleted uranium and other associated materials from a trench at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. The excavated materials will be segregated and stabilized for shipment. The depleted uranium will be treated at an offsite facility which utilizes a novel approach for waste minimization and disposal through utilization of a combination of uranium recycling and volume efficient uranium stabilization

  14. Depletion optimization of lumped burnable poisons in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodah, Z.H.

    1982-01-01

    Techniques were developed to construct a set of basic poison depletion curves which deplete in a monotonical manner. These curves were combined to match a required optimized depletion profile by utilizing either linear or non-linear programming methods. Three computer codes, LEOPARD, XSDRN, and EXTERMINATOR-2 were used in the analyses. A depletion routine was developed and incorporated into the XSDRN code to allow the depletion of fuel, fission products, and burnable poisons. The Three Mile Island Unit-1 reactor core was used in this work as a typical PWR core. Two fundamental burnable poison rod designs were studied. They are a solid cylindrical poison rod and an annular cylindrical poison rod with water filling the central region.These two designs have either a uniform mixture of burnable poisons or lumped spheroids of burnable poisons in the poison region. Boron and gadolinium are the two burnable poisons which were investigated in this project. Thermal self-shielding factor calculations for solid and annular poison rods were conducted. Also expressions for overall thermal self-shielding factors for one or more than one size group of poison spheroids inside solid and annular poison rods were derived and studied. Poison spheroids deplete at a slower rate than the poison mixture because each spheroid exhibits some self-shielding effects of its own. The larger the spheroid, the higher the self-shielding effects due to the increase in poison concentration

  15. Assessment Of Depleted Uranium Contamination In Selective IRAQI Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, A.A.; Hussien, A.Sh.M.; Tawfiq, N.F.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research was to measure the radiation exposure rates in three selected Locations in southren part of Iraq (two in Nassireya, and one in Amara) resulted from the existence of depleted uranium in soil and metal pieces have been taken from destroyed tank and study mathmatically the concentration of Depleted Uranium by its dispersion from soil surface by winds and rains from 2003 to 2007. The exposure rates were measured using inspector device, while depleted uranium concentration in soil samples and tank's matal pieces were detected with Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors(SSNTDs). The wind and rain effects were considered in the calculation of dispersion effect on depleted uranium concentration in soil, where the wind effect were calculated with respect to the sites nature and soil conditions, and rain effect with respect to dispersive-convective equation for radionuclide in soil. The results obtained for the exposure rates were high near the penetrated surfac, moderate and low in soil and metal pices. The Depleted Uranium concentration in soil and metal pieces have the highest value in Nassireya. The results from dispersion calculation (wind & rain) showed that the depleted uranium concentration in 2008 will be less than the danger level and in allowable contamination range

  16. NKT cell depletion in humans during early HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Caroline S; Kelleher, Anthony D; Finlayson, Robert; Godfrey, Dale I; Kent, Stephen J

    2014-08-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells bridge across innate and adaptive immune responses and have an important role in chronic viral infections such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). NKT cells are depleted during chronic HIV infection, but the timing, drivers and implications of this NKT cell depletion are poorly understood. We studied human peripheral blood NKT cell levels, phenotype and function in 31 HIV-infected subjects not on antiretroviral treatment from a mean of 4 months to 2 years after HIV infection. We found that peripheral CD4(+) NKT cells were substantially depleted and dysfunctional by 4 months after HIV infection. The depletion of CD4(+) NKT cells was more marked than the depletion of total CD4(+) T cells. Further, the early depletion of NKT cells correlated with CD4(+) T-cell decline, but not HIV viral levels. Levels of activated CD4(+) T cells correlated with the loss of NKT cells. Our studies suggest that the early loss of NKT cells is associated with subsequent immune destruction during HIV infection.

  17. Yield, utilization, storage and ultimate storage of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumueller, L.; Hermann, J.

    1977-11-01

    More than 80% of the uranium leaving uranium enrichment plants is depleted to a residual content of about 0,25% U 235. Due to the present ineconomical further depletion to the technically possible residual content of 0,1% U 235, the so-called 'tails' are first of all stored. The quantity of stored depleted uranium in the FRG should be about 100.000 t by the year 2000. It represents a strategic reserve for future energy supply regardless of profitableness. The study analysis the conceivable possible uses for the tails quantity considered. These are, besides further depletion whose profitableness is considered, also the use as breeder material in breeder reactors and the use in the non-nuclear field. The main part of the study deals with the various storage possibilities of the depleted uranium in oxidic or fluoride form. A comparison of costs of alternative storage concepts showed a clear advantage for the storage of UF 6 in 48 inch containers already in use. The conceivable accidents in storing are analyzed and measures to reduce the consequences are discussed. Finally, the problems of ultimate storage for the remaining waste after further depletion or use are investigated and the costs arising here are also estimated. (RB) [de

  18. Muscle glycogen depletion patterns during draught work in Standardbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, M

    1989-03-01

    Muscle fibre recruitment was investigated during draught loaded exercise by studying glycogen depletion patterns from histochemical stains of muscle biopsies from the gluteus and semitendinosus muscles. Three Standardbred trotters performed several intervals of draught loaded exercise on a treadmill with 34 kp at a trot (7 m/sec) and with 34 and 80 kp, respectively at a walk (2m/sec). Exercise was continued until the horses were unwilling to continue. Glycogen depletion was seen in all three fibre types when trotting with 34 kp for 5 or 10 mins. When an equal weight resistance was pulled at a walk, glycogen depletion was first seen in type I fibres only, then followed by a small percentage of type IIA fibres after at least 1 h. When 80 kp was pulled at a walk both type I and IIA fibres showed glycogen depletion, and after at least 30 mins exercise a small percentage of type IIB fibres was also depleted. These results indicate that the muscle fibres are depleted, in order, from type I through IIA to IIB as the intensity or duration of draught work increases.

  19. Lithium depletion and rotation in main-sequence stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balachandran, S.

    1990-01-01

    Lithium abundances were measured in nearly 200 old disk-population F stars to examine the effects of rotational braking on the depletion of Li. The sample was selected to be slightly evolved off the main sequence so that the stars have completed all the Li depletion they will undergo on the main sequence. A large scatter in Li abundances in the late F stars is found, indicating that the Li depletion is not related to age and spectral type alone. Conventional depletion mechanisms like convective overshoot and microscopic diffusion are unable to explain Li depletion in F stars with thin convective envelopes and are doubly taxed to explain such a scatter. No correlation is found between Li abundance and the present projected rotational velocity and some of the most rapid rotators are undepleted, ruling out meridional circulation as the cause of Li depletion. There is a somewhat larger spread in Li abundances in the spun-down late F stars compared to the early F stars which should remain rotationally unaltered on the main sequence. 85 refs

  20. Genetics Home Reference: MPV17-related hepatocerebral mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DNA depletion syndrome MPV17-related hepatocerebral mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... collapse boxes. Description MPV17 -related hepatocerebral mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome is an inherited disorder that can cause ...

  1. Rebuttal to “Comment on the paper “Comparison of the composition of the Tempel 1 ejecta to the dust in Comet C/Hale Bopp 1995 O1 and YSO HD 100546” by C.M. Lisse, K.E. Kraemer, J.A. Nuth III, A. Li, and D. Joswiak"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisse, C. M.

    2008-06-01

    This response is to address the comments made by Drs. J. Crovisier and D. Bockelee-Morvan concerning the spectral analysis of Lisse et al. [Lisse, C.M., Kraemer, K.E., Nuth, J.A., Li, A., Joswiak, D., 2007. Icarus 187, 69-86] of the mid-IR ISO SWS spectrum of Comet Hale-Bopp 1995 O1 taken on October 6, 1996, and to support the conclusions made in Lisse et al. concerning the positive detection of PAHs in this comet. We also present some additional information determined from the Deep Impact and STARDUST missions, demonstrating the presence of PAHs in other comets, to support the plausibility of the Hale-Bopp PAH detection.

  2. Comment on “Comparison of the composition of the Tempel 1 ejecta to the dust in Comet C/Hale Bopp 1995 O1 and YSO HD 100546” by C.M. Lisse, K.E. Kraemer, J.A. Nuth III, A. Li, D. Joswiak [2007. Icarus 187, 69 86

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovisier, Jacques; Bockelée-Morvan, Dominique

    2008-06-01

    Lisse et al. [Lisse, C.M., Kraemer, K.E., Nuth III, J.A., Li, A., Joswiak, D., 2007. Icarus 187, 69-86] recently presented a new analysis of an ISO spectrum of Comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp), from which they claimed the identification of many new dust species. Among them are PAHs, which were not found in our first analysis of the ISO spectra. We present here a re-examination of the ISO observations of Comet Hale-Bopp. From the absence of PAHs features in the 5.25-8.5 μm region, we infer that PAHs are at least twice less abundant than derived by Lisse et al. The carbonate feature at 7.00 μm is marginally present, but lower by a factor 2 to 3 than predicted by the model of Lisse et al.

  3. LePix—A high resistivity, fully depleted monolithic pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giubilato, P.; Bisello, D.; Chalmet, P.; Denes, P.; Kloukinas, K.; Mattiazzo, S.; Marchioro, A.; Mugnier, H.; Pantano, D.; Potenza, A.; Rivetti, A.; Rousset, J.; Snoeys, W.; Tindall, C.

    2013-01-01

    The LePix project explores monolithic pixel sensors fabricated in a 90 nm CMOS technology built over a lightly doped substrate. This approach keeps the advantages usually offered by Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS), like a low input capacitance, having a single piece detector and using a standard CMOS production line, and adds the benefit of charge collection by drift from a depleted region several tens of microns deep into the substrate, therefore providing an excellent signal to noise ratio and a radiation tolerance superior to conventional un-depleted MAPS. Such sensors are expected to offer significant cost savings and reduction of power consumption for the same performance, leading to the use of much less material in the detector (less cooling and less copper), addressing one of the main limitations of present day particle tracking systems. The latest evolution of the project uses detectors thinned down to 50 μm to obtain back illuminated sensors operated in full depletion mode. By back-processing the chip and collecting the charge from the full substrate it is hence possible to efficiently detect soft X-rays up to 10 keV. Test results from first successfully processed detectors will be presented and discussed

  4. First tests of a novel radiation hard CMOS sensor process for Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernegger, H.; Bates, R.; Buttar, C.; Dalla, M.; van Hoorne, J. W.; Kugathasan, T.; Maneuski, D.; Musa, L.; Riedler, P.; Riegel, C.; Sbarra, C.; Schaefer, D.; Schioppa, E. J.; Snoeys, W.

    2017-06-01

    The upgrade of the ATLAS [1] tracking detector for the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN requires novel radiation hard silicon sensor technologies. Significant effort has been put into the development of monolithic CMOS sensors but it has been a challenge to combine a low capacitance of the sensing node with full depletion of the sensitive layer. Low capacitance brings low analog power. Depletion of the sensitive layer causes the signal charge to be collected by drift sufficiently fast to separate hits from consecutive bunch crossings (25 ns at the LHC) and to avoid losing the charge by trapping. This paper focuses on the characterization of charge collection properties and detection efficiency of prototype sensors originally designed in the framework of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS) upgrade [2]. The prototypes are fabricated both in the standard TowerJazz 180nm CMOS imager process [3] and in an innovative modification of this process developed in collaboration with the foundry, aimed to fully deplete the sensitive epitaxial layer and enhance the tolerance to non-ionizing energy loss. Sensors fabricated in standard and modified process variants were characterized using radioactive sources, focused X-ray beam and test beams before and after irradiation. Contrary to sensors manufactured in the standard process, sensors from the modified process remain fully functional even after a dose of 1015neq/cm2, which is the the expected NIEL radiation fluence for the outer pixel layers in the future ATLAS Inner Tracker (ITk) [4].

  5. Sensitivity Analysis of Depletion Parameters for Heat Load Evaluation of PWR Spent Fuel Storage Pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Young; Lee, Un Chul

    2011-01-01

    As necessity of safety re-evaluation for spent fuel storage facility has emphasized after the Fukushima accident, accuracy improvement of heat load evaluation has become more important to acquire reliable thermal-hydraulic evaluation results. As groundwork, parametric and sensitivity analyses of various storage conditions for Kori Unit 4 spent fuel storage pool and spent fuel depletion parameters such as axial burnup effect, operation history, and specific heat are conducted using ORIGEN2 code. According to heat load evaluation and parametric sensitivity analyses, decay heat of last discharged fuel comprises maximum 80.42% of total heat load of storage facility and there is a negative correlation between effect of depletion parameters and cooling period. It is determined that specific heat is most influential parameter and operation history is secondly influential parameter. And decay heat of just discharged fuel is varied from 0.34 to 1.66 times of average value and decay heat of 1 year cooled fuel is varied from 0.55 to 1.37 times of average value in accordance with change of specific power. Namely depletion parameters can cause large variation in decay heat calculation of short-term cooled fuel. Therefore application of real operation data instead of user selection value is needed to improve evaluation accuracy. It is expected that these results could be used to improve accuracy of heat load assessment and evaluate uncertainty of calculated heat load.

  6. SCALE Continuous-Energy Monte Carlo Depletion with Parallel KENO in TRITON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goluoglu, Sedat; Bekar, Kursat B.; Wiarda, Dorothea

    2012-01-01

    The TRITON sequence of the SCALE code system is a powerful and robust tool for performing multigroup (MG) reactor physics analysis using either the 2-D deterministic solver NEWT or the 3-D Monte Carlo transport code KENO. However, as with all MG codes, the accuracy of the results depends on the accuracy of the MG cross sections that are generated and/or used. While SCALE resonance self-shielding modules provide rigorous resonance self-shielding, they are based on 1-D models and therefore 2-D or 3-D effects such as heterogeneity of the lattice structures may render final MG cross sections inaccurate. Another potential drawback to MG Monte Carlo depletion is the need to perform resonance self-shielding calculations at each depletion step for each fuel segment that is being depleted. The CPU time and memory required for self-shielding calculations can often eclipse the resources needed for the Monte Carlo transport. This summary presents the results of the new continuous-energy (CE) calculation mode in TRITON. With the new capability, accurate reactor physics analyses can be performed for all types of systems using the SCALE Monte Carlo code KENO as the CE transport solver. In addition, transport calculations can be performed in parallel mode on multiple processors.

  7. LePix-A high resistivity, fully depleted monolithic pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Giubilato, P; Mugnier, H; Bisello, D; Marchioro, A; Snoeys, W; Denes, P; Pantano, D; Rousset, J; Mattiazzo, S; Kloukinas, K; Potenza, A; Rivetti, A; Chalmet, P

    2013-01-01

    The LePix project explores monolithic pixel sensors fabricated in a 90 nm CMOS technology built over a lightly doped substrate. This approach keeps the advantages usually offered by Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS), like a low input capacitance, having a single piece detector and using a standard CMOS production line, and adds the benefit of charge collection by drift from a depleted region several tens of microns deep into the substrate, therefore providing an excellent signal to noise ratio and a radiation tolerance superior to conventional un-depleted MAPS. Such sensors are expected to offer significant cost savings and reduction of power consumption for the same performance, leading to the use of much less material in the detector (less cooling and less copper), addressing one of the main limitations of present day particle tracking systems. The latest evolution of the project uses detectors thinned down to 50 mu m to obtain back illuminated sensors operated in full depletion mode. By back processin...

  8. Depleted-heterojunction colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics employing low-cost electrical contacts

    KAUST Repository

    Debnath, Ratan

    2010-01-01

    With an aim to reduce the cost of depleted-heterojunction colloidal quantum dot solar cells, we describe herein a strategy that replaces costly Au with a low-cost Ni-based Ohmic contact. The resultant devices achieve 3.5% Air Mass 1.5 power conversion efficiency. Only by incorporating a 1.2-nm-thick LiF layer between the PbS quantum dot film and Ni, we were able to prevent undesired reactions and degradation at the metal-semiconductor interface. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.

  9. Cortical stimulation evokes abnormal responses in the dopamine-depleted rat basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Hitoshi; Kita, Takako

    2011-07-13

    The motor cortex (MC) sends massive projections to the basal ganglia. Motor disabilities in patients and animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD) may be caused by dopamine (DA)-depleted basal ganglia that abnormally process the information originating from MC. To study how DA depletion alters signal transfer in the basal ganglia, MC stimulation-induced (MC-induced) unitary responses were recorded from the basal ganglia of control and 6-hydroxydopamine-treated hemi-parkinsonian rats anesthetized with isoflurane. This report describes new findings about how DA depletion alters MC-induced responses. MC stimulation evokes an excitation in normally quiescent striatal (Str) neurons projecting to the globus pallidus external segment (GPe). After DA-depletion, the spontaneous firing of Str-GPe neurons increases, and MC stimulation evokes a shorter latency excitation followed by a long-lasting inhibition that was invisible under normal conditions. The increased firing activity and the newly exposed long inhibition generate tonic inhibition and a disfacilitation in GPe. The disfacilitation in GPe is then amplified in basal ganglia circuitry and generates a powerful long inhibition in the basal ganglia output nucleus, the globus pallidus internal segment. Intra-Str injections of a behaviorally effective dose of DA precursor l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine effectively reversed these changes. These newly observed mechanisms also support the generation of pauses and burst activity commonly observed in the basal ganglia of parkinsonian subjects. These results suggest that the generation of abnormal response sequences in the basal ganglia contributes to the development of motor disabilities in PD and that intra-Str DA supplements effectively suppress abnormal signal transfer.

  10. Coordinated airborne and satellite measurements of equatorial plasma depletions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, E.J.; Brinton, H.C.; Buchau, J.; Moore, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    A series of experiments was conducted in December 1979 to investigate the structure of plasma depletions in the low latitude, nightime ionosphere. The measurements included all sky imaging photometer (ASIP), ionosonde and amplitude scintillation observations from the AFGL Airborne Ionospheric Observatory (AIO), and in situ ion density measurements from the Atmosphere Explorer (AE-E) Bennett Ion Mass Spectrometer (BIMS). The AIO performed two flights along the Ascension Island (-18 0 MLAT) magnetic meridian: one in the southern hemisphere and one near the Ascension conjugate point in the northern hemisphere. During these flights, measurements from the AE-E satellite at 434 km altitude are compared with simultaneous remote ionospheric measurements from the AIO. Density biteouts of approximately one order of magnitude in the dominant ion O + , were mapped to lower altitudes along magnetic field lines for comparison with 6300-A and 7774-A O I airglow depletions. Because of the different airglow production mechanisms (dissociative recombination of O +2 for 6300 A and radiative recombination of O + for 7774 A) the 6300-A depletions reflect plasma depletions near the bottomside of the F layer, while those at 7774 A are located near the peak of the layer. The O + biteouts map directly into the 7774-A airglow depletions in the same hemisphere and also when traced into the opposite hemisphere, which indicates magnetic flux tube alignment over north-south distances of approx.2220 km. The 6300-A (bottomside) depletions are wider in longitude than the 7774-A (F-peak) depletions near the equatorward edge of the Appleton anomaly. This difference in topside and bottomside structure is used to infer large-scale structure near the anomaly and to relate this to structure, commonly observed near the magnetic equator by the ALTAIR radar

  11. Ego depletion decreases trust in economic decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, Sarah E.; Baumeister, Roy F.; Vohs, Kathleen D.; Ariely, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments tested the effects of ego depletion on economic decision making. Participants completed a task either requiring self-control or not. Then participants learned about the trust game, in which senders are given an initial allocation of $10 to split between themselves and another person, the receiver. The receiver receives triple the amount given and can send any, all, or none of the tripled money back to the sender. Participants were assigned the role of the sender and decided how to split the initial allocation. Giving less money, and therefore not trusting the receiver, is the safe, less risky response. Participants who had exerted self-control and were depleted gave the receiver less money than those in the non-depletion condition (Experiment 1). This effect was replicated and moderated in two additional experiments. Depletion again led to lower amounts given (less trust), but primarily among participants who were told they would never meet the receiver (Experiment 2) or who were given no information about how similar they were to the receiver (Experiment 3). Amounts given did not differ for depleted and non-depleted participants who either expected to meet the receiver (Experiment 2) or were led to believe that they were very similar to the receiver (Experiment 3). Decreased trust among depleted participants was strongest among neurotics. These results imply that self-control facilitates behavioral trust, especially when no other cues signal decreased social risk in trusting, such as if an actual or possible relationship with the receiver were suggested. PMID:25013237

  12. Neutron irradiation test of depleted CMOS pixel detector prototypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandić, I.; Cindro, V.; Gorišek, A.; Hiti, B.; Kramberger, G.; Mikuž, M.; Zavrtanik, M.; Hemperek, T.; Daas, M.; Hügging, F.; Krüger, H.; Pohl, D.-L.; Wermes, N.; Gonella, L.

    2017-01-01

    Charge collection properties of depleted CMOS pixel detector prototypes produced on p-type substrate of 2 kΩ cm initial resistivity (by LFoundry 150 nm process) were studied using Edge-TCT method before and after neutron irradiation. The test structures were produced for investigation of CMOS technology in tracking detectors for experiments at HL-LHC upgrade. Measurements were made with passive detector structures in which current pulses induced on charge collecting electrodes could be directly observed. Thickness of depleted layer was estimated and studied as function of neutron irradiation fluence. An increase of depletion thickness was observed after first two irradiation steps to 1 · 10 13 n/cm 2 and 5 · 10 13 n/cm 2 and attributed to initial acceptor removal. At higher fluences the depletion thickness at given voltage decreases with increasing fluence because of radiation induced defects contributing to the effective space charge concentration. The behaviour is consistent with that of high resistivity silicon used for standard particle detectors. The measured thickness of the depleted layer after irradiation with 1 · 10 15 n/cm 2 is more than 50 μm at 100 V bias. This is sufficient to guarantee satisfactory signal/noise performance on outer layers of pixel trackers in HL-LHC experiments.

  13. OZONE DEPLETING SUBSTANCES ELIMINATION MANAGEMENT: THE SUCCESS STORY OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Matlievska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Man, with its activities, produces and uses substances that have negative impact on the environment and the human health, and can cause an economic damage. Consequently, they have a great impact on quality of life. Among the most harmful chemicals are Ozone Depleting Substances that are subject of regulation with international conventions. This Paper supports the fact that each country has to undertake national efforts for ozone depleting substances reduction and elimination. In that respect, the general objective of the Paper is to present the Macedonian unique experience regarding its efforts to reduce or eliminate these substances. The following two aspects were subject to the research: national legislation which regulates the Ozone Depleting Substances import and export as well as the implementation of the projects that resulted with the elimination of Ozone Depleting Substances quantities in the period 1995 – 2010. The research outcomes confirm the starting research hypothesis i.e. that with adequately created and implemented national action, the amount of Ozone Depleting Substances consumption can dramatically fall.

  14. Examining depletion theories under conditions of within-task transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Gene A; Lau, Kevin K H; Wingert, Kimberly M; Ball, B Hunter; Blais, Chris

    2017-07-01

    In everyday life, mental fatigue can be detrimental across many domains including driving, learning, and working. Given the importance of understanding and accounting for the deleterious effects of mental fatigue on behavior, a growing body of literature has studied the role of motivational and executive control processes in mental fatigue. In typical laboratory paradigms, participants complete a task that places demand on these self-control processes and are later given a subsequent task. Generally speaking, decrements to subsequent task performance are taken as evidence that the initial task created mental fatigue through the continued engagement of motivational and executive functions. Several models have been developed to account for negative transfer resulting from this "ego depletion." In the current study, we provide a brief literature review, specify current theoretical approaches to ego-depletion, and report an empirical test of current models of depletion. Across 4 experiments we found minimal evidence for executive control depletion along with strong evidence for motivation mediated ego depletion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. The Physical Origin of Long Gas Depletion Times in Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenov, Vadim A.; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.

    2017-08-18

    We present a model that elucidates why gas depletion times in galaxies are long compared to the time scales of the processes driving the evolution of the interstellar medium. We show that global depletion times are not set by any "bottleneck" in the process of gas evolution towards the star-forming state. Instead, depletion times are long because star-forming gas converts only a small fraction of its mass into stars before it is dispersed by dynamical and feedback processes. Thus, complete depletion requires that gas transitions between star-forming and non-star-forming states multiple times. Our model does not rely on the assumption of equilibrium and can be used to interpret trends of depletion times with the properties of observed galaxies and the parameters of star formation and feedback recipes in galaxy simulations. In particular, the model explains the mechanism by which feedback self-regulates star formation rate in simulations and makes it insensitive to the local star formation efficiency. We illustrate our model using the results of an isolated $L_*$-sized disk galaxy simulation that reproduces the observed Kennicutt-Schmidt relation for both molecular and atomic gas. Interestingly, the relation for molecular gas is close to linear on kiloparsec scales, even though a non-linear relation is adopted in simulation cells. This difference is due to stellar feedback, which breaks the self-similar scaling of the gas density PDF with the average gas surface density.

  16. Bond rupture between colloidal particles with a depletion interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitaker, Kathryn A.; Furst, Eric M., E-mail: furst@udel.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering and Center for Molecular and Engineering Thermodynamics, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    The force required to break the bonds of a depletion gel is measured by dynamically loading pairs of colloidal particles suspended in a solution of a nonadsorbing polymer. Sterically stabilized poly(methyl methacrylate) colloids that are 2.7 μm diameter are brought into contact in a solvent mixture of cyclohexane-cyclohexyl bromide and polystyrene polymer depletant. The particle pairs are subject to a tensile load at a constant loading rate over many approach-retraction cycles. The stochastic nature of the thermal rupture events results in a distribution of bond rupture forces with an average magnitude and variance that increases with increasing depletant concentration. The measured force distribution is described by the flux of particle pairs sampling the energy barrier of the bond interaction potential based on the Asakura–Oosawa depletion model. A transition state model demonstrates the significance of lubrication hydrodynamic interactions and the effect of the applied loading rate on the rupture force of bonds in a depletion gel.

  17. Resource depletion promotes automatic processing: implications for distribution of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Matthew H

    2010-12-01

    Recent models of cognition include two processing systems: an automatic system that relies on associative learning, intuition, and heuristics, and a controlled system that relies on deliberate consideration. Automatic processing requires fewer resources and is more likely when resources are depleted. This study showed that prolonged practice on a resource-depleting mental arithmetic task promoted automatic processing on a subsequent problem-solving task, as evidenced by faster responding and more errors. Distribution of practice effects (0, 60, 120, or 180 sec. between problems) on rigidity also disappeared when groups had equal time on resource-depleting tasks. These results suggest that distribution of practice effects is reducible to resource availability. The discussion includes implications for interpreting discrepancies in the traditional distribution of practice effect.

  18. Local condensate depletion at trap center under strong interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalov, V. I.; Yukalova, E. P.

    2018-04-01

    Cold trapped Bose-condensed atoms, interacting via hard-sphere repulsive potentials are considered. Simple mean-field approximations show that the condensate distribution inside a harmonic trap always has the shape of a hump with the maximum condensate density occurring at the trap center. However, Monte Carlo simulations at high density and strong interactions display the condensate depletion at the trap center. The explanation of this effect of local condensate depletion at trap center is suggested in the frame of self-consistent theory of Bose-condensed systems. The depletion is shown to be due to the existence of the anomalous average that takes into account pair correlations and appears in systems with broken gauge symmetry.

  19. Emittance increase caused by core depletion in collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, R

    2009-01-01

    A new effect is presented, which changes the emittance during colliding-beam operation in circular colliders. If the initial transverse distribution is Gaussian, the collision probability is much higher for particles in the core of the beam than in the tails. When small-amplitude particles are removed, the remaining ones therefore have a larger transverse emittance. This effect, called core depletion, may cause a decrease in luminosity. An approximate analytic model is developed to study the effect and benchmarked against a multiparticle tracking simulation. Finally, the time evolution of the intensity and emittances of a Pb bunch in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is calculated, taking into account also other processes than collisions. The results show that integrated luminosity drops by 3--4% if core depletion is taken into account. It is also found that core depletion causes the transverse emittance to be larger when more experiments are active. This observation could be checked against experimenta...

  20. International aspects of restrictions of ozone-depleting substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, S.C.

    1989-10-01

    This report summarizes international efforts to protect stratospheric ozone. Also included in this report is a discussion of activities in other countries to meet restrictions in the production and use of ozone-depleting substances. Finally, there is a brief presentation of trade and international competitiveness issues relating to the transition to alternatives for the regulated chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons. The stratosphere knows no international borders. Just as the impact of reduced stratospheric ozone will be felt internationally, so protection of the ozone layer is properly an international effort. Unilateral action, even by a country that produces and used large quantities of ozone-depleting substances, will not remedy the problem of ozone depletion if other countries do not follow suit. 32 refs., 7 tabs.

  1. Erythrocyte depletion from bone marrow: performance evaluation after 50 clinical-scale depletions with Spectra Optia BMC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Wanner, Soo-Zin; Bug, Gesine; Steinmann, Juliane; Ajib, Salem; Sorg, Nadine; Poppe, Carolin; Bunos, Milica; Wingenfeld, Eva; Hümmer, Christiane; Luxembourg, Beate; Seifried, Erhard; Bonig, Halvard

    2017-08-11

    Red blood cell (RBC) depletion is a standard graft manipulation technique for ABO-incompatible bone marrow (BM) transplants. The BM processing module for Spectra Optia, "BMC", was previously introduced. We here report the largest series to date of routine quality data after performing 50 clinical-scale RBC-depletions. Fifty successive RBC-depletions from autologous (n = 5) and allogeneic (n = 45) BM transplants were performed with the Spectra Optia BMC apheresis suite. Product quality was assessed before and after processing for volume, RBC and leukocyte content; RBC-depletion and stem cell (CD34+ cells) recovery was calculated there from. Clinical engraftment data were collected from 26/45 allogeneic recipients. Median RBC removal was 98.2% (range 90.8-99.1%), median CD34+ cell recovery was 93.6%, minimum recovery being 72%, total product volume was reduced to 7.5% (range 4.7-23.0%). Products engrafted with expected probability and kinetics. Performance indicators were stable over time. Spectra Optia BMC is a robust and efficient technology for RBC-depletion and volume reduction of BM, providing near-complete RBC removal and excellent CD34+ cell recovery.

  2. Choice and ego-depletion: the moderating role of autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Arlen C; Deci, Edward L; Ryan, Richard M

    2006-08-01

    The self-regulatory strength model maintains that all acts of self-regulation, self-control, and choice result in a state of fatigue called ego-depletion. Self-determination theory differentiates between autonomous regulation and controlled regulation. Because making decisions represents one instance of self-regulation, the authors also differentiate between autonomous choice and controlled choice. Three experiments support the hypothesis that whereas conditions representing controlled choice would be egodepleting, conditions that represented autonomous choice would not. In Experiment 3, the authors found significant mediation by perceived self-determination of the relation between the choice condition (autonomous vs. controlled) and ego-depletion as measured by performance.

  3. Depleted uranium determination at the Novi Sad low level facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bikit, I.; Slivka, J.; Krmar, M.; Veskovic, M.; Conkic, Lj.; Varga, E.

    2002-01-01

    Natural uranium determination in environmental samples at the low-level gamma-spectroscopy laboratory of the Faculty of Science in Novi Sad has more than 20 years long tradition. When the issue of depleted uranium emerged the experimental advantages of the measuring equipment (GMX type of HPGe detector with enhanced efficiency below 100 keV, and iron low level shielding) where fully exploited. A detection technique selective for depleted uranium was developed. The details of this method together with the results for about 100 samples (soil, plants, water, food) are presented, and discussed. (author)

  4. Nuclear data for actinide production and depletion calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    The status of nuclear cross section data required for actinide depletion calculations in thermal reactors is summarized, and recommendations are made for future work. The primary fertile and fissile nuclides ( 232 Th, 233 U, 235 U, 238 U, and 239 Pu) are not reviewed. Nuclear data for the transactinium mass region are, with few exceptions, reasonably complete and adequate for current thermal-reactor depletion calculations. There is a real need, however, for well-documented reactor production studies to use as benchmarks for data testing. 3 figures, 6 tables

  5. Impact and mitigation of stratospheric ozone depletion by chemical rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcdonald, A.J.

    1992-03-01

    The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) conducted a workshop in conjunction with the 1991 AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference in Sacramento, California, to assess the impact of chemical rocket propulsion on the environment. The workshop included recognized experts from the fields of atmospheric physics and chemistry, solid rocket propulsion, liquid rocket propulsion, government, and environmental agencies, and representatives from several responsible environmental organizations. The conclusion from this workshop relative to stratospheric ozone depletion was that neither solid nor liquid rocket launchers have a significant impact on stratospheric ozone depletion, and that there is no real significant difference between the two

  6. ROLE OF NUCLEONIC FERMI SURFACE DEPLETION IN NEUTRON STAR COOLING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, J. M.; Zuo, W. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Lombardo, U. [Universita di Catania and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (INFN), Catania I-95123 (Italy); Zhang, H. F. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2016-01-20

    The Fermi surface depletion of beta-stable nuclear matter is calculated to study its effects on several physical properties that determine the neutron star (NS) thermal evolution. The neutron and proton Z factors measuring the corresponding Fermi surface depletions are calculated within the Brueckner–Hartree–Fock approach, employing the AV18 two-body force supplemented by a microscopic three-body force. Neutrino emissivity, heat capacity, and in particular neutron {sup 3}PF{sub 2} superfluidity, turn out to be reduced, especially at high baryonic density, to such an extent that the cooling rates of young NSs are significantly slowed.

  7. The depletion of aqueous nitrous acid in packed towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Counce, R.M.; Crawford, D.B.

    1987-01-01

    The depletion of aqueous nitrous acid was studied at 298 0 K and at slightly greater than atmospheric pressure. Solutions containing nitrous and nitric acids were contacted with nitrogen in towers packed with 6- and 13-mm Intalox saddles. The results indicate the existence of two depletion mechanisms for the conditions studied - liquid-phase decomposition and direct desorption of nitrous acid. Models based on mass-transfer and chemical-kinetic information are presented to explain the experimental results. 24 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Long-term management and use of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Max, A.

    2001-01-01

    The products resulting from the process of enrichment of natural uranium, or reprocessed uranium, are enriched uranium products as the light fraction and depleted uranium (uranium tails) as the heavy fraction. If the source material is natural uranium, the mass ratios of uranium products and uranium tails can be derived relatively easily from the required enrichment level of the uranium product (product assay (% of U-235)) and the selected depletion level of the uranium tails (tails assay (% of U-235)). The paper discusses among other aspects the dependence of the tails mass on the required enrichment level of the relevant uranium product, for various tails assays. (orig./CB) [de

  9. Risks associated to the depleted uranium in the piercing shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Following the complaints lodged by military personnel against the consequences of the utilization of depleted uranium in weapons during the Balkans war (1995-1999), the governments of six concerned countries asked information to the NATO. In this paper the IPSN gives its own opinion on this problem: the characteristics of the uranium and the depleted uranium, the impacts of the shell fires on the human and the environment. To establish the risks in terms of leukemia and the liabilities the IPSN advises more biological tests and more information on the shells utilization. (A.L.B.)

  10. A new memory effect (MSD) in fully depleted SOI MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawedin, M.; Cristoloveanu, S.; Yun, J. G.; Flandre, D.

    2005-09-01

    We demonstrate that the transconductance and drain current of fully depleted MOSFETs can display an interesting time-dependent hysteresis. This new memory effect, called meta-stable dip (MSD), is mainly due to the long carrier generation lifetime in the silicon film. Our parametric analysis shows that the memory window can be adjusted in view of practical applications. Various measurement conditions and devices with different doping, front oxide and silicon film thicknesses are systematically explored. The MSD effect can be generalized to several fully depleted CMOS technologies. The MSD mechanism is discussed and validated by two-dimensional simulations results.

  11. Depletion policies for oil-exporting developing economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stournaras, Y A

    1984-01-01

    The fact that most oil-exporting countries are developing economies has important implications for oil supply which have not been properly taken into account in the literature on exhaustible resource depletion. The way in which depletion policies are affected by trade uncertainty, given the high degree of the major oil exporters' 'dependence' on crude oil revenues, by investment time lags which delay the exploitation of (some of) these countries' comparative advantage in a petroleum based development, and by ideological objections to the ideal of a rentier society and to foreign capital are examined.

  12. 26 CFR 1.611-1 - Allowance of deduction for depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Allowance of deduction for depletion. 1.611-1... depletion. (a) Depletion of mines, oil and gas wells, other natural deposits, and timber—(1) In general... mines, oil and gas wells, other natural deposits, and timber, a reasonable allowance for depletion. In...

  13. CINDER, Depletion and Decay Chain Calculation for Fission Products in Thermal Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England, T.R.; Gorrell, T.C.; Hightower, J.H.

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: CINDER is a four-group, one- point depletion and fission product program based on the evaluation of a general analytical solution of nuclides coupled in any linear sequence of radioactive decays and neutron absorptions in a specified neutron flux spectrum. The desired depletion and fission product chains and all physical data are specified by the problem originator. The program computes individual nuclide number densities, activities, nine energy-group disintegration rates, and macroscopic and barns/fission poisons at each time-step as well as selected summaries of these data. 2 - Method of solution: Time-dependent variations in nuclide cross sections and neutron fluxes are approximated by a user-specified sequential set of values which are considered constant during the duration of the user-specified associated time-increments. When a nuclide concentration is independent of the concentration of any of its progeny, it is possible to resolve the couplings so as to obtain nuclides fed by a single parent. These chains are referred to as linear. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The program is limited to 500 total nuclides formed in up to 240 chains of 20 or fewer nuclides each. Up to 10 nuclides may act as fission product sources, contributing to power, and as many as 99 time-steps of arbitrary length are permitted. All stable nuclides must have a cross section if zero power time-increments are anticipated

  14. Depletion Calculations for MTR Core Using MCNPX and Multi-Group Nodal Diffusion Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaradata, Mustafa K.; Park, Chang Je; Lee, Byungchul

    2013-01-01

    In order to maintain a self-sustaining steady-state chain reaction, more fuel than is necessary in order to maintain a steady state chain reaction must be loaded. The introduction of this excess fuel increases the net multiplication capability of the system. In this paper MCNPX and multi-group nodal diffusion theory will be used for depletion calculations for MTR core. The eigenvalue and power distribution in the core will be compared for different burnup. Multi-group nodal diffusion theory with combination of NEWT-TRITON system was used to perform depletion calculations for 3Χ3 MTR core. 2G and 6G approximations were used and compared with MCNPX results for 2G approximation the maximum difference from MCNPX was 40 mk and for 6G approximation was 6 mk which is comparable to the MCNPX results. The calculated power using nodal code was almost the same MCNPX results. Finally the results of the multi-group nodal theory were acceptable and comparable to the calculated using MCNPX

  15. Can SCSA and TUNEL forecast apoptosis-related motility depletion in Asthenozoospermia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradian Fard, Z; Naghdi, M; Salehi, P; Ajami, A; Deemeh, M R; Meshkibaf, M H

    2018-05-21

    This study is an attempt to determine the power of SCSA and TUNEL for the evaluation of apoptosis status and apoptosis-related motility depletion in Asthenozoospermia. Fifty-one semen samples from Asthenozoospermic and 20 samples from fertile men participated in this study. SCSA and TUNEL were applied for the assessment of DNA integrity by flow cytometry. Annexin V conjugated with FITC labelling and FLICA method were used for the assessment of externalisation of phosphatidylserine and spermatozoon with active Caspase 3 respectively. SCSA results were shown to have a significant correlation with EPS in live spermatozoon (r = .85, p value = .00) and spermatozoon with active Caspase 3 (r = .633, p value = .00). TUNEL result was revealed to have a nonsignificant positive correlation with them. Then, Asthenozoospermic individuals were divided into two groups, SCSA higher and SCSA lower than 27%. Results interestingly indicated that the two groups significantly differed from each other in terms of TUNEL, EPS in live spermatozoon, spermatozoon with active Caspase 3 and sperm vitality (p value = .00). Both SCSA and TUNEL were correlated with apoptosis-related motility depletion in Asthenozoospermia. However, SCSA might be more powerful than TUNEL and could provide reliable information about DNA, chromatin integrity and apoptosis status in Asthenozoospermia. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Depletion of energy or depletion of knowledge alternative use of energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslan, M.

    2011-01-01

    This research paper is about the depletion of Energy resources being a huge problem facing the world at this time. As available energy sources are coming to a shortage and measures are be taken in order to conserve the irreplaceable energy resources that leads to sustainability and fair use of energy sources for future generations. Alternative energy sources are being sought; however no other energy source is able to provide even a fraction of energy as that of fossil fuels. Use of the alternative energy resources like wind corridors (Sindh and Baluchistan), fair use of Hydro energy (past monsoon flooding can produce enough energy that may available for next century). Uranium Resources which are enough for centuries energy production in Pakistan (Dhok Pathan Formation) lying in Siwalick series from Pliocene to Pleistocene. Among all of these, my focus is about energy from mineral fuels like Uranium from Sandstone hosted deposits in Pakistan (Siwalik Series in Pakistan). A number of uranium bearing mineralized horizons are present in the upper part of the Dhok Pathan Formation. These horizons have secondary uranium mineral carnotite and other ores. Uranium mineralization is widely distributed throughout the Siwaliks The purpose of this paper was to introduce the use of alternative energy sources in Pakistan which are present in enough amounts by nature. Pakistan is blessed with wealth of natural resources. Unfortunately, Pakistan is totally depending on non renewable energy resource. There are three main types of fossil fuels: coal, oil and natural gas. After food, fossil fuel is humanity's most important source of energy. Pakistan is among the most gas dependent economies of the world. Use of fossil fuel for energy will not only increase the demand of more fossils but it has also extreme effects on climate as well as direct and indirect effects to humans. These entire remedial thinking can only be possible if you try to use alternative energy resources rather than

  17. Planar Fully-Depleted-Silicon-On-Insulator technologies: Toward the 28 nm node and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doris, B.; DeSalvo, B.; Cheng, K.; Morin, P.; Vinet, M.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive overview of the research done in the last decade on planar Fully-Depleted-Silicon-On-Insulator (FDSOI) technologies in the frame of the joint development program between IBM, ST Microelectronics and CEA-LETI. In particular, we review the technological developments ranging from substrate engineering to process modules that enable functionality and improve FDSOI performance over several generations. Various multi Vt integration schemes to maximize the benefits of the thin BOX FDSOI platform are discussed. Manufacturability as well as scalability concerns are highlighted and addressed. In addition, this work provides understanding of the performance/power trade-offs for FDSOI circuits and device variability. Finally, clear directions for future application-specific products are given, demonstrating that FDSOI is an attractive CMOS option for next generation high performance and low-power applications.

  18. The Influence of Agreeableness and Ego Depletion on Emotional Responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Anna J; Crowell, Adrienne L; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Schmeichel, Brandon J

    2017-10-01

    Agreeable individuals report more intense withdrawal-oriented negative emotions across aversive situations. Two studies tested the hypothesis that self-regulatory depletion (i.e., ego depletion) moderates the relationship between trait Agreeableness and negative emotional responding. Ego depletion was manipulated using a writing task. Emotional responding was measured with startle eye-blink responses (Study 1, N = 71) and self-reported valence, arousal, and empathic concern (Study 2, N = 256) during emotional picture viewing. Trait Agreeableness was measured using a questionnaire. In Study 1, Agreeableness predicted especially large startle responses during aversive images and especially small startles during appetitive images. After exercising self-control, the relationship between startle magnitudes and Agreeableness decreased. In Study 2, Agreeableness predicted more empathic concern for aversive images, which in turn predicted heightened self-reported negative emotions. After exercising self-control, the relationship between Agreeableness and empathic concern decreased. Agreeable individuals exhibit heightened negative emotional responding. Ego depletion reduced the link between Agreeableness and negative emotional responding in Study 1 and moderated the indirect effect of Agreeableness on negative emotional responding via empathic concern in Study 2. Empathic concern appears to be a resource-intensive process underlying heightened responding to aversive stimuli among agreeable persons. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Monte Carlo simulation in UWB1 depletion code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovecky, M.; Prehradny, J.; Jirickova, J.; Skoda, R.

    2015-01-01

    U W B 1 depletion code is being developed as a fast computational tool for the study of burnable absorbers in the University of West Bohemia in Pilsen, Czech Republic. In order to achieve higher precision, the newly developed code was extended by adding a Monte Carlo solver. Research of fuel depletion aims at development and introduction of advanced types of burnable absorbers in nuclear fuel. Burnable absorbers (BA) allow the compensation of the initial reactivity excess of nuclear fuel and result in an increase of fuel cycles lengths with higher enriched fuels. The paper describes the depletion calculations of VVER nuclear fuel doped with rare earth oxides as burnable absorber based on performed depletion calculations, rare earth oxides are divided into two equally numerous groups, suitable burnable absorbers and poisoning absorbers. According to residual poisoning and BA reactivity worth, rare earth oxides marked as suitable burnable absorbers are Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho and Er, while poisoning absorbers include Sc, La, Lu, Y, Ce, Pr and Tb. The presentation slides have been added to the article

  20. Depletion and the dynamics in colloid-polymer mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinier, R.; Fan, T.H.; Taniguchi, T.

    2015-01-01

    The status of work on the influence of nonadsorbing polymers on depletion dynamics in colloidal dispersions is reviewed. In the past focus has been paid to equilibrium properties of colloid-polymer mixtures. In practice the dynamical behaviour is equally important. Dynamic properties including

  1. Depletion of heterogeneous source species pools predicts future invasion rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew M. Liebhold; Eckehard G. Brockerhoff; Mark Kimberley; Jacqueline Beggs

    2017-01-01

    Predicting how increasing rates of global trade will result in new establishments of potentially damaging invasive species is a question of critical importance to the development of national and international policies aimed at minimizing future invasions. Centuries of historical movement and establishment of invading species may have depleted the supply of species...

  2. ISODEP, A Fuel Depletion Analysis Code for Predicting Isotopic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The trend of results was found to be consistent with those obtained by analytical and other numerical methods. Discovery and Innovation Vol. 13 no. 3/4 December (2001) pp. 184-195. KEY WORDS: depletion analysis, code, research reactor, simultaneous equations, decay of nuclides, radionuclitides, isotope. Résumé

  3. Efficient characterization of fuel depletion in boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.H.

    1980-01-01

    An efficient fuel depletion method for boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies has been developed for fuel cycle analysis. A computer program HISTORY based on this method was designed to carry out accurate and rapid fuel burnup calculation for the fuel assembly. It has been usefully employed to study the depletion characteristics of the fuel assemblies for the preparation of nodal code input data and the fuel management study. The adequacy and the effectiveness of the assessment of this method used in HISTORY were demonstrated by comparing HISTORY results with more detailed CASMO results. The computing cost of HISTORY typically has been less than one dollar for the fuel assembly-level depletion calculations over the full life of the assembly, in contrast to more than $1000 for CASMO. By combining CASMO and HISTORY, a large number of expensive CASMO calculations can be replaced by inexpensive HISTORY. For the depletion calculations via CASMO/HISTORY, CASMO calculations are required only for the reference conditions and just at the beginning of life for other cases such as changes in void fraction, control rod condition and temperature. The simple and inexpensive HISTORY is sufficienty accurate and fast to be used in conjunction with CASMO for fuel cycle analysis and some BWR design calculations

  4. Ozone Layer Depletion: A Review | Eze | Nigerian Journal of Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the future behaviour of Ozone will also be affected by the changing atmospheric abundances of methane, nitrous oxide, water vapour, sulphate aerosol, and changing climate. KEY WORDS: Ozone Layer Depletion, Bioeffects, Protection. Nigerian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences Vol.4(1) 2005: 67-71 ...

  5. Vitamin D depletion aggravates hypertension and target-organ damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Bjørkholt; Przybyl, Lukasz; Haase, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We tested the controversial hypothesis that vitamin D depletion aggravates hypertension and target-organ damage by influencing renin. METHODS AND RESULTS: Four-week-old double-transgenic rats (dTGR) with excess angiotensin (Ang) II production due to overexpression of the human renin (h......REN) and angiotensinogen (hAGT) genes received vitamin D-depleted (n=18) or standard chow (n=15) for 3 weeks. The depleted group had very low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (mean±SEM; 3.8±0.29 versus 40.6±1.19 nmol/L) and had higher mean systolic BP at week 5 (158±3.5 versus 134.6±3.7 mm Hg, P....6±3.3 versus 162.3±3.8 mm Hg, PVitamin D depletion led to increased relative heart weights and increased serum creatinine concentrations. Furthermore, the mRNAs of natriuretic peptides, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, hREN, and r...

  6. Arterial diameter during central volume depletion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Helle Klingenberg; Madsen, P; Matzen, S

    1995-01-01

    The luminal diameter of the radial artery was followed by high frequency ultrasound during 50 degrees head-up tilt-induced central volume depletion in ten healthy subjects of whom six were tilted twice and pretreated with the serotonin receptor antagonist methysergide or placebo following a double...

  7. Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the case of Beryx splendens from the Sierra Leone Rise (Gulf of Guinea) ... A spectral analysis and red-noise spectra procedure (REDFIT) algorithm was used to identify the red-noise spectrum from the gaps in the observed time-series of catch per unit effort by ...

  8. Energetic magnetospheric protons in the plasma depletion layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuselier, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    Interplanetary magnetic field draping against the Earth's dayside subsolar magnetopause creates a region of reduced plasma density and increased magnetic field called the plasma depletion layer. In this region, leakage of energetic ions from the Earth's magnetosphere onto magnetic field lines in the plasma depletion layer can be studied without interference from ions accelerated at the Earth's quasi-parallel bow shock. Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Experiment/Charge Composition Explorer (AMPTE/CCE) observations for 13 plasma depletion layer events are used to determine the characteristics of energetic protons between a few keV/e and ∼100keV/e leaked from the magnetosphere. Results indicate that the leaked proton distributions resemble those in the magnetosphere except that they have lower densities and temperatures and much higher velocities parallel (or antiparallel) and perpendicular to the magnetic field. Compared to the low-energy magnetosheath proton distributions present in the depletion layer, the leaked energetic proton distributions typically have substantially higher flow velocities along the magnetic field indicate that the leaked energetic proton distributions to contribute to the energetic proton population seen upstream and downstream from the quasi-parallel bow shock. However, their contribution is small compared to the contribution from acceleration of protons at the bow shock because the leaked proton densities are on the order of 10 times smaller than the energetic proton densities typically observed in the vicinity of the quasi-parallel bow shock

  9. Apoptosis and T cell depletion during feline infectious peritonitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horzinek, M.C.; Haagmans, B.L.; Egberink, H.F.

    1996-01-01

    Cats that have succumbed to feline infectious peritonitis, an immune- mediated disease caused by variants of feline coronaviruses, show apoptosis and T-cell depletion in their lymphoid organs. The ascitic fluid that develops in the course of the condition causes apoptosis in vitro but only in

  10. American big dirty secret. About the depleted uranium weapons reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    From International organizations point of view, as the WHO, the hazard of the depleted uranium weapons use, is more and more obvious for the environment and the people health. The author shows how the USA military Government seems not really ''clean'' on this situation and denounces the danger of such a policy. (A.L.B.)

  11. Avoidance goal pursuit depletes self-regulatory resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oertig, D.; Schüler, J.; Schnelle, J.; Brandstätter, V.; Roskes, M.; Elliot, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Research on the strength model of self-regulation is burgeoning, but little empirical work has focused on the link between distinct types of daily goal pursuit and the depletion of self-regulatory resources. Here we conducted two studies on the link between avoidance goals and resource

  12. Avoidance goal pursuit depletes self-regulatory resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oertig, Daniela; Schüler, Julia; Schnelle, Jessica; Brandstätter, Veronika; Roskes, Marieke; Elliot, Andrew J.

    Objective: Research on the strength model of self-regulation is burgeoning, but little empirical work has focused on the link between distinct types of daily goal pursuit and the depletion of self-regulatory resources. The authors conducted two studies on the link between avoidance goals and

  13. Optimal reload and depletion method for pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    A new method has been developed to automatically reload and deplete a PWR so that both the enriched inventory requirements during the reactor cycle and the cost of reloading the core are minimized. This is achieved through four stepwise optimization calculations: 1) determination of the minimum fuel requirement for an equivalent three-region core model, 2) optimal selection and allocation of fuel requirement for an equivalent three-region core model, 2) optimal selection and allocation of fuel assemblies for each of the three regions to minimize the cost of the fresh reload fuel, 3) optimal placement of fuel assemblies to conserve regionwise optimal conditions and 4) optimal control through poison management to deplete individual fuel assemblies to maximize EOC k/sub eff/. Optimizing the fuel cost of reloading and depleting a PWR reactor cycle requires solutions to two separate optimization calculations. One of these minimizes the enriched fuel inventory in the core by optimizing the EOC k/sub eff/. The other minimizes the cost of the fresh reload cost. Both of these optimization calculations have now been combined to provide a new method for performing an automatic optimal reload of PWR's. The new method differs from previous methods in that the optimization process performs all tasks required to reload and deplete a PWR

  14. Specific depletion of mature T lymphocytes from human bone marrow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, C; Møller, J; Plesner, T

    1989-01-01

    An effective method for specific depletion of mature T lymphocytes from human bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMC) with preservation of prethymic T cells and natural killer (NK) cells is presented. The BMMC were incubated with F101.01, a monoclonal antibody recognizing an epitope of the T...

  15. Enhanced Monte-Carlo-Linked Depletion Capabilities in MCNPX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fensin, Michael L.; Hendricks, John S.; Anghaie, Samim

    2006-01-01

    As advanced reactor concepts challenge the accuracy of current modeling technologies, a higher-fidelity depletion calculation is necessary to model time-dependent core reactivity properly for accurate cycle length and safety margin determinations. The recent integration of CINDER90 into the MCNPX Monte Carlo radiation transport code provides a completely self-contained Monte-Carlo-linked depletion capability. Two advances have been made in the latest MCNPX capability based on problems observed in pre-released versions: continuous energy collision density tracking and proper fission yield selection. Pre-released versions of the MCNPX depletion code calculated the reaction rates for (n,2n), (n,3n), (n,p), (n,a), and (n,?) by matching the MCNPX steady-state 63-group flux with 63-group cross sections inherent in the CINDER90 library and then collapsing to one-group collision densities for the depletion calculation. This procedure led to inaccuracies due to the miscalculation of the reaction rates resulting from the collapsed multi-group approach. The current version of MCNPX eliminates this problem by using collapsed one-group collision densities generated from continuous energy reaction rates determined during the MCNPX steady-state calculation. MCNPX also now explicitly determines the proper fission yield to be used by the CINDER90 code for the depletion calculation. The CINDER90 code offers a thermal, fast, and high-energy fission yield for each fissile isotope contained in the CINDER90 data file. MCNPX determines which fission yield to use for a specified problem by calculating the integral fission rate for the defined energy boundaries (thermal, fast, and high energy), determining which energy range contains the majority of fissions, and then selecting the appropriate fission yield for the energy range containing the majority of fissions. The MCNPX depletion capability enables complete, relatively easy-to-use depletion calculations in a single Monte Carlo code

  16. Ozone depletion, related UVB changes and increased skin cancer incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, R. P.

    1998-03-01

    Stratospheric ozone at middle latitudes shows a seasonal variation of about +/-20%, a quasi-biennial oscillation of 1-10% range and a long-term variation in which the level was almost steady up to about 1979 and declined thereafter to the present day by about 10%. These variations are expected to be reflected in solar UVB observed at the ground, but in an opposite direction. Thus UVB should have had a long-term increase of about 10-20%, which should cause an increase in skin cancer incidence of about 20-40%. Skin cancer incidence has increased all over the world, e.g. about 90% in USA during 1974-1990. It is popularly believed that this increase in skin cancer incidence is related to the recent ozone depletion. This seems to be incorrect, for two reasons. Firstly, the observed skin cancer increase is too large (90%) compared with the expected value (40%) from ozone depletion. Secondly, cancer does not develop immediately after exposure to solar UVB. The sunburns may occur within hours; but cancer development and detection may take years, even decades. Hence the observed skin cancer increase since 1974 (no data available for earlier periods) must have occurred due to exposure to solar UVB in the 1950s and 1960s, when there was no ozone depletion. Thus, the skin cancer increase must be attributed to harmful solar UVB levels existing even in the 1960s, accentuated later not by ozone depletion (which started only much later, by 1979) but by other causes, such as a longer human life span, better screening, increasing tendencies of sunbathing at beaches, etc., in affluent societies. On the other hand, the recent ozone depletion and the associated UVB increases will certainly take their toll; only that the effects will not be noticed now but years or decades from now. The concern for the future expressed in the Montreal Protocol for reducing ozone depletion by controlling CFC production is certainly justified, especially because increased UVB is harmful to animal and

  17. MCOR - Monte Carlo depletion code for reference LWR calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puente Espel, Federico, E-mail: fup104@psu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University (United States); Tippayakul, Chanatip, E-mail: cut110@psu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University (United States); Ivanov, Kostadin, E-mail: kni1@psu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University (United States); Misu, Stefan, E-mail: Stefan.Misu@areva.com [AREVA, AREVA NP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: > Introduction of a reference Monte Carlo based depletion code with extended capabilities. > Verification and validation results for MCOR. > Utilization of MCOR for benchmarking deterministic lattice physics (spectral) codes. - Abstract: The MCOR (MCnp-kORigen) code system is a Monte Carlo based depletion system for reference fuel assembly and core calculations. The MCOR code is designed as an interfacing code that provides depletion capability to the LANL Monte Carlo code by coupling two codes: MCNP5 with the AREVA NP depletion code, KORIGEN. The physical quality of both codes is unchanged. The MCOR code system has been maintained and continuously enhanced since it was initially developed and validated. The verification of the coupling was made by evaluating the MCOR code against similar sophisticated code systems like MONTEBURNS, OCTOPUS and TRIPOLI-PEPIN. After its validation, the MCOR code has been further improved with important features. The MCOR code presents several valuable capabilities such as: (a) a predictor-corrector depletion algorithm, (b) utilization of KORIGEN as the depletion module, (c) individual depletion calculation of each burnup zone (no burnup zone grouping is required, which is particularly important for the modeling of gadolinium rings), and (d) on-line burnup cross-section generation by the Monte Carlo calculation for 88 isotopes and usage of the KORIGEN libraries for PWR and BWR typical spectra for the remaining isotopes. Besides the just mentioned capabilities, the MCOR code newest enhancements focus on the possibility of executing the MCNP5 calculation in sequential or parallel mode, a user-friendly automatic re-start capability, a modification of the burnup step size evaluation, and a post-processor and test-matrix, just to name the most important. The article describes the capabilities of the MCOR code system; from its design and development to its latest improvements and further ameliorations. Additionally

  18. MCOR - Monte Carlo depletion code for reference LWR calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puente Espel, Federico; Tippayakul, Chanatip; Ivanov, Kostadin; Misu, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Introduction of a reference Monte Carlo based depletion code with extended capabilities. → Verification and validation results for MCOR. → Utilization of MCOR for benchmarking deterministic lattice physics (spectral) codes. - Abstract: The MCOR (MCnp-kORigen) code system is a Monte Carlo based depletion system for reference fuel assembly and core calculations. The MCOR code is designed as an interfacing code that provides depletion capability to the LANL Monte Carlo code by coupling two codes: MCNP5 with the AREVA NP depletion code, KORIGEN. The physical quality of both codes is unchanged. The MCOR code system has been maintained and continuously enhanced since it was initially developed and validated. The verification of the coupling was made by evaluating the MCOR code against similar sophisticated code systems like MONTEBURNS, OCTOPUS and TRIPOLI-PEPIN. After its validation, the MCOR code has been further improved with important features. The MCOR code presents several valuable capabilities such as: (a) a predictor-corrector depletion algorithm, (b) utilization of KORIGEN as the depletion module, (c) individual depletion calculation of each burnup zone (no burnup zone grouping is required, which is particularly important for the modeling of gadolinium rings), and (d) on-line burnup cross-section generation by the Monte Carlo calculation for 88 isotopes and usage of the KORIGEN libraries for PWR and BWR typical spectra for the remaining isotopes. Besides the just mentioned capabilities, the MCOR code newest enhancements focus on the possibility of executing the MCNP5 calculation in sequential or parallel mode, a user-friendly automatic re-start capability, a modification of the burnup step size evaluation, and a post-processor and test-matrix, just to name the most important. The article describes the capabilities of the MCOR code system; from its design and development to its latest improvements and further ameliorations

  19. Radiosensitization of mouse skin by oxygen and depletion of glutathione

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, Graham; Joiner, Michael; Joiner, Barbara; Johns, Helen; Denekamp, Juliana

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) and shape of the oxygen sensitization curve of mouse foot skin, the extent to which glutathione (GSH) depletion radiosensitized skin, and the dependence of such sensitization on the ambient oxygen tension. Methods and Materials: The feet of WHT mice were irradiated with single doses of 240 kVp x-rays while mice were exposed to carbogen or gases with oxygen/nitrogen mixtures containing 8-100% O 2 . The anoxic response was obtained by occluding the blood supply to the leg of anesthetized mice with a tourniquet, surrounding the foot with nitrogen, and allowing the mice to breathe 10% O 2 . Further experiments were performed to assess the efficacy of this method to obtain an anoxic response. Radiosensitivity of skin was assessed using the acute skin-reaction assay. Glutathione levels were modified using two schedules of dl-buthionine sulphoximine (BSO) and diethylmaleate (DEM), which were considered to produce extensive and intermediate levels of GSH depletion in the skin of the foot during irradiation. Results: Carbogen caused the greatest radiosensitization of skin, with a reproducible enhancement of 2.2 relative to the anoxic response. The OER of 2.2 is lower than other reports for mouse skin. This may indicate that the extremes of oxygenation were not produced, although there was no direct evidence for this. When skin radiosensitivity was plotted against the logarithm of the oxygen tension in the ambient gas, a sigmoid curve with a K value of 17-21% O 2 in the ambient gas was obtained. Depletion of GSH caused minimal radiosensitization when skin was irradiated under anoxic or well-oxygenated conditions. Radiosensitization by GSH depletion was maximal at intermediate oxygen tensions of 10-21% O 2 in the ambient gas. Increasing the extent of GSH depletion led to increasing radiosensitization, with sensitization enhancement ratios of 1.2 and 1.1, respectively, for extensive and intermediate levels of GSH

  20. Development of an Application Programming Interface for Depletion Analysis (APIDA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lago, Daniel; Rahnema, Farzad

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • APIDA an Application Programming Interface tool for Depletion Analysis. • APIDA employs a matrix exponential method and a linear chain method. • A burnup solver to couple to neutron transport solvers in lattice depletion or reactor core analysis codes. - Abstract: A new utility has been developed with extensive capabilities in identifying nuclide decay and transmutation characteristics, allowing for accurate and efficient tracking of the change in isotopic concentrations in nuclear reactor fuel over time when coupled with a transport solution method. This tool, named the Application Programming Interface for Depletion Analysis (APIDA), employs both a matrix exponential method and a linear chain method to solve for the end-of-time-step nuclide concentrations for all isotopes relevant to nuclear reactors. The Chebyshev Rational Approximation Method (CRAM) was utilized to deal with the ill-conditioned matrices generated during lattice depletion calculations, and a complex linear chain solver was developed to handle isotopes reduced from the burnup matrix due to either radioactive stability or a sufficiently low neutron-induced reaction cross section. The entire tool is housed in a robust but simple application programming interface (API). The development of this API allows other codes, particularly numerical neutron transport solvers, to incorporate APIDA as the burnup solver in a lattice depletion code or reactor core analysis code in memory, without the need to write or read from the hard disk. The APIDA code was benchmarked using several decay and transmutation chains. Burnup solutions produced by APIDA were shown to provide material concentrations comparable to the analytically solved Bateman equations – well below 0.01% relative error for even the most extreme cases using isotopes with vastly different decay constants. As a first order demonstration of the API, APIDA was coupled with the transport solver in the SERPENT code for a fuel pin

  1. Compared studies of natural and artificial deuterium depleted water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butnaru, Gallia; Mihacea, Sorina; Sirbovan, Alina; Butnariu, H.; Titescu, Gh.

    2001-01-01

    The biological influence of the deuterium on animals was studied insensitively in the last years. When animal cell cultures were analyzed it turned out an inhibition of the development, due to the reduced deuterium concentration. In the in vivo experiments a decreasing of the number of tumoral cells was pointed out when performing the depleted water treatment. It is obvious that the presence of deuterium in water is necessary for the development, especially for the tumoral cell proliferation. The aim of this work was to establish influence of the natural and artificial deuterium depleted water on the vegetal organisms development. For this purpose, the developmental stages of Lactuca sativa L. growth were followed. The experimental data were compared with the data obtained with distilled water. The birch, wine sap and some fruit juices are considered 'natural depleted' water sources because their deuterium content is smaller in comparison to natural water (D 2 =150 ppm). The effect of artificial deuterium depleted water (29 ppm D 2 ) was analyzed in comparison to three types of wine saps, which also have a reduced deuterium concentration (125-130 ppm D 2 ). If the deuterium depleted water was used, the germination percent and the root and shoot length were higher compared to control in the first stages. In wine sap it had a negative effect on germination and development. After three days the plants were transferred to soil and their development was followed. The foliage area was larger for all of the experimental variants compared to control. The differences were without significance when deuterium depleted water was tested but they were high and very significant in case of wine sap. The experiment pointed out a stimulative effect of the artificial deuterium depleted water. In case of wine sap the effect was negative when the contact was direct, but the growth was stimulated after the stress cessation. The first ontogenetic stages were represented by direct action

  2. Depletion of compounds from thin oil films in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brakstad, O.G.; Faksness, L.G.; Melbye, A.G.

    2002-01-01

    When oil is spilled on water, the oil compounds distribute between droplets and water-soluble phases in the water column. Some small organic acids, phenols, BTEX, and aromatic compounds will dissolve completely, but larger polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and alkanes will remain in the droplet fraction. The biodegradation of droplets occurs at the oil-water interface. A method for immobilizing the oil films onto hydrophobic surfaces was developed in order to obtain a stable oil surface during the biodegradation period. A test system was also established to determine the depletion of oil compounds from the oil phase, including both abiotic and biotic processes. Three North Sea oils were used in the study. Two were paraffinic oils rich in n-alkanes and aromatic compounds, and one was asphalthenic which was richer in branched alkanes and PAH. The biodegradation period was 2 months at 13 degrees C. Samples from the water and thin film on the fabric was analyzed for carbon 10 and carbon 36 by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. Semi-volatile organic compounds were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results indicated that the depletion process for alkanes was completely caused by biodegradation, while aromatic compounds were depleted by abiotic dissolution as well as by biodegradation. The system has potential for determining oil depletion processes under controlled surface-to-volume conditions, such as thin oil films and dispersed oil droplets. In addition, the system can be used to determine the depletion process in flow-through systems. 13 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs

  3. The health hazards of depleted uranium munitions. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Depleted uranium is a toxic and weakly radioactive metal used for a variety of purposes. Perhaps its most controversial use is in battlefield munitions, where it can be widely dispersed in the form of fine particles and shrapnel that may enter the bodies of combatants and others through inhalation, ingestion or wounding. It is a matter of legitimate public concern whether the use of this material in this way could create unacceptable health hazards or damage to the environment. The objective of our study has been to provide the best scientific understanding of the ways in which the material may be distributed, how it may be taken up by humans, and the potential implications for health. For politicians, any hazards to health have to be balanced against the military advantages that the use of these munitions confers. We have not tried to reach a judgment on these political issues, but we believe that a better scientific understanding of the extent of the hazards will make it easier for these wider questions to be addressed in a more objective way. This report is the first of two, and addresses the likely levels of exposure to depleted uranium, the resulting radiological risks, and the lessons to be learned from epidemiological studies. Our second report will address toxicological risks and environmental issues. So far, we conclude that risks from radiation are low for most soldiers on the battlefield, and for civilians who later return to the area. However, there are uncertainties about the maximal levels of exposure to depleted uranium on the battlefield, and there may be circumstances in which a few soldiers are exposed to levels of depleted uranium that result in a significant risk to health. Further studies are needed to determine the levels of exposure to depleted uranium that might occur on the battlefield and to judge whether such higher risks are likely to occur in practice

  4. Hybrid microscopic depletion model in nodal code DYN3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilodid, Y.; Kotlyar, D.; Shwageraus, E.; Fridman, E.; Kliem, S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new hybrid method of accounting for spectral history effects is proposed. • Local concentrations of over 1000 nuclides are calculated using micro depletion. • The new method is implemented in nodal code DYN3D and verified. - Abstract: The paper presents a general hybrid method that combines the micro-depletion technique with correction of micro- and macro-diffusion parameters to account for the spectral history effects. The fuel in a core is subjected to time- and space-dependent operational conditions (e.g. coolant density), which cannot be predicted in advance. However, lattice codes assume some average conditions to generate cross sections (XS) for nodal diffusion codes such as DYN3D. Deviation of local operational history from average conditions leads to accumulation of errors in XS, which is referred as spectral history effects. Various methods to account for the spectral history effects, such as spectral index, burnup-averaged operational parameters and micro-depletion, were implemented in some nodal codes. Recently, an alternative method, which characterizes fuel depletion state by burnup and 239 Pu concentration (denoted as Pu-correction) was proposed, implemented in nodal code DYN3D and verified for a wide range of history effects. The method is computationally efficient, however, it has applicability limitations. The current study seeks to improve the accuracy and applicability range of Pu-correction method. The proposed hybrid method combines the micro-depletion method with a XS characterization technique similar to the Pu-correction method. The method was implemented in DYN3D and verified on multiple test cases. The results obtained with DYN3D were compared to those obtained with Monte Carlo code Serpent, which was also used to generate the XS. The observed differences are within the statistical uncertainties.

  5. Aqueous Colloid + Polymer Depletion System for Confocal Microscopy and Rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nayoung; Umanzor, Esmeralda J.; Conrad, Jacinta C.

    2018-05-01

    We developed a model depletion system with colloidal particles that were refractive index- and density-matched to 80 (w/w)% glycerol in water, and characterized the effect of interparticle interactions on the structure and dynamics of non-equilibrium phases. 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl methacrylate-co-tert-butyl methacrylate copolymer particles were synthesized following Kodger et al. (Sci. Rep. 5, 14635 (2015)). Particles were dispersed in glycerol/water solutions to generate colloidal suspensions with good control over electrostatic interactions and a moderately high background viscosity of 55 mPa-s. To probe the effects of charge screening and depletion attractions on the suspension phase behavior, we added NaCl and polyacrylamide (M_w = 186 kDa) at various concentrations to particle suspensions formulated at volume fractions of phi = 0.05 and 0.3 and imaged the suspensions using confocal microscopy. The particles were nearly hard spheres at a NaCl concentration of 20 mM, but aggregated when the concentration of NaCl was further increased. Changes in the particle structure and dynamics with increasing concentration of the depletant polyacrylamide followed the trends expected from earlier experiments on depletion-driven gelation. Additionally, we measured the viscosity and corrected first normal stress difference of suspensions formulated at phi = 0.4 with and without added polymer. The solvent viscosity was suitable for rheology measurements without the onset of instabilities such as secondary flows or edge fracture. These results validate this system as an alternative to one common model system, suspensions of poly(methyl methacrylate) particles and polystyrene depletants in organic solvents, for investigating phase behavior and flow properties in attractive colloidal suspensions.

  6. Creatine pretreatment protects cortical axons from energy depletion in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hua; Goldberg, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Creatine is a natural nitrogenous guanidino compound involved in bioenergy metabolism. Although creatine has been shown to protect neurons of the central nervous system (CNS) from experimental hypoxia/ischemia, it remains unclear if creatine may also protect CNS axons, and if the potential axonal protection depends on glial cells. To evaluate the direct impact of creatine on CNS axons, cortical axons were cultured in a separate compartment from their somas and proximal neurites using a modified two-compartment culture device. Axons in the axon compartment were subjected to acute energy depletion, an in vitro model of white matter ischemia, by exposure to 6 mM sodium azide for 30 min in the absence of glucose and pyruvate. Energy depletion reduced axonal ATP by 65%, depolarized axonal resting potential, and damaged 75% of axons. Application of creatine (10 mM) to both compartments of the culture at 24 h prior to energy depletion significantly reduced axonal damage by 50%. In line with the role of creatine in the bioenergy metabolism, this application also alleviated the axonal ATP loss and depolarization. Inhibition of axonal depolarization by blocking sodium influx with tetrodotoxin also effectively reduced the axonal damage caused by energy depletion. Further study revealed that the creatine effect was independent of glial cells, as axonal protection was sustained even when creatine was applied only to the axon compartment (free from somas and glial cells) for as little as 2 h. In contrast, application of creatine after energy depletion did not protect axons. The data provide the first evidence that creatine pretreatment may directly protect CNS axons from energy deficiency. PMID:22521466

  7. Depleted uranium hexafluoride: The source material for advanced shielding systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quapp, W.J.; Lessing, P.A. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cooley, C.R. [Department of Technology, Germantown, MD (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a management challenge and financial liability problem in the form of 50,000 cylinders containing 555,000 metric tons of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) that are stored at the gaseous diffusion plants. DOE is evaluating several options for the disposition of this UF{sub 6}, including continued storage, disposal, and recycle into a product. Based on studies conducted to date, the most feasible recycle option for the depleted uranium is shielding in low-level waste, spent nuclear fuel, or vitrified high-level waste containers. Estimates for the cost of disposal, using existing technologies, range between $3.8 and $11.3 billion depending on factors such as the disposal site and the applicability of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Advanced technologies can reduce these costs, but UF{sub 6} disposal still represents large future costs. This paper describes an application for depleted uranium in which depleted uranium hexafluoride is converted into an oxide and then into a heavy aggregate. The heavy uranium aggregate is combined with conventional concrete materials to form an ultra high density concrete, DUCRETE, weighing more than 400 lb/ft{sup 3}. DUCRETE can be used as shielding in spent nuclear fuel/high-level waste casks at a cost comparable to the lower of the disposal cost estimates. Consequently, the case can be made that DUCRETE shielded casks are an alternative to disposal. In this case, a beneficial long term solution is attained for much less than the combined cost of independently providing shielded casks and disposing of the depleted uranium. Furthermore, if disposal is avoided, the political problems associated with selection of a disposal location are also avoided. Other studies have also shown cost benefits for low level waste shielded disposal containers.

  8. Effectiveness of pulmonary rehabilitation in exercise capacity and quality of life in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with and without global fat-free mass depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berton, Danilo C; Silveira, Leonardo; Da Costa, Cassia C; De Souza, Rafael Machado; Winter, Claudia D; Zimermann Teixeira, Paulo José

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in exercise capacity and quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with and without global fat-free mass (FFM) depletion. Retrospective case-control. Outpatient clinic, university center. COPD patients (N=102) that completed PR were initially evaluated. PR including whole-body and weight training for 12 weeks, 3 times per week. St. George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), and FFM evaluation applied before and after PR. Patients were stratified according to their FFM status measured by bioelectric impedance. They were considered depleted if the FFM index was ≤ 15 kg/m(2) in women and ≤ 16 kg/m(2) in men. From the initial sample, all depleted patients (n=31) composed the FFM depleted group. It was composed predominantly by women (68%) with a mean age ± SD of 64.4 ± 7.3 years and a forced expiratory volume in 1 second of 33.6%=-13.2% predicted. Paired for sex and age, 31 nondepleted patients were selected from the initial sample to compose the nondepleted group. Improvement in the 6MWD was similar in these 2 groups after PR. Both groups improved SGRQ scores, although the observed power was small and did not allow adequate comparison between depleted and nondepleted patients. There was no difference between groups in weight change, whereas FFM tended to be greater in depleted patients. This increase had no correlation with the 6MWD or the SGRQ. Benefits of PR to exercise capacity were similar comparing FFM depleted and nondepleted COPD patients. Although FFM change tended to be greater in depleted patients, this increase had no definite relation with clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of acute tryptophan depletion and sham depletion with a gelatin-based collagen peptide protein mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbæk, Dea Siggaard; Einarsdottir, H S; Goregliad-Fjaellingsdal, T

    2016-01-01

    Acute Tryptophan Depletion (ATD) is a dietary method used to modulate central 5-HT to study the effects of temporarily reduced 5-HT synthesis. The aim of this study is to evaluate a novel method of ATD using a gelatin-based collagen peptide (CP) mixture. We administered CP-Trp or CP+Trp mixtures...

  10. The influence of fog parameters on aerosol depletion measured in the KAEVER experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poss, G.; Weber, D.; Fritsche, B.

    1995-01-01

    The release of radioactive aerosols in the environment is one of the most serious hazards in case of an accident in nuclear power plant. Many efforts have been made in the past in numerous experimental programs like NSPP, DEMONA, VANAM, LACE, MARVIKEN, others are still underway to improve the knowledge of the aerosol behavior and depletion in a reactor containment in order to estimate the possible source term and to validate computer codes. In the German single compartment KAEVER facility the influence of size distribution, morphology, composition and solubility on the aerosol behavior is investigated. One of the more specific items is to learn about open-quotes wet depletionclose quotes means, the aerosol depletion behavior in condensing atmospheres. There are no experiments known where the fog parameters like droplet size distribution, volume concentration, respectively airborne liquid water content have been measured in- and on-line explicitly. To the authors knowledge the use of the Battelle FASP photometer, which was developed especially for this reason, for the first time gives insight in condensation behavior under accident typical thermal hydraulic conditions. It delivers a basis for code validation in terms of a real comparison of measurements and calculations. The paper presents results from open-quotes wet depletionclose quotes aerosol experiments demonstrating how depletion velocity depends on the fog parameters and where obviously critical fog parameter seem to change the regime from a open-quotes pseudo dry depletionclose quotes at a relative humidity of 100% but quasi no or very low airborne liquid water content to a real open-quotes wet depletionclose quotes under the presence of fogs with varying densities. Characteristics are outlined how soluble and insoluble particles as well as aerosol mixtures behave under condensing conditions

  11. First tests of a novel radiation hard CMOS sensor process for Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernegger, H.; Hoorne, J.W. van; Kugathasan, T.; Musa, L.; Riedler, P.; Riegel, C.; Schaefer, D.; Schioppa, E.J.; Snoeys, W.; Bates, R.; Buttar, C.; Maneuski, D.; Dalla, M.; Sbarra, C.

    2017-01-01

    The upgrade of the ATLAS [1] tracking detector for the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN requires novel radiation hard silicon sensor technologies. Significant effort has been put into the development of monolithic CMOS sensors but it has been a challenge to combine a low capacitance of the sensing node with full depletion of the sensitive layer. Low capacitance brings low analog power. Depletion of the sensitive layer causes the signal charge to be collected by drift sufficiently fast to separate hits from consecutive bunch crossings (25 ns at the LHC) and to avoid losing the charge by trapping. This paper focuses on the characterization of charge collection properties and detection efficiency of prototype sensors originally designed in the framework of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS) upgrade [2]. The prototypes are fabricated both in the standard TowerJazz 180nm CMOS imager process [3] and in an innovative modification of this process developed in collaboration with the foundry, aimed to fully deplete the sensitive epitaxial layer and enhance the tolerance to non-ionizing energy loss. Sensors fabricated in standard and modified process variants were characterized using radioactive sources, focused X-ray beam and test beams before and after irradiation. Contrary to sensors manufactured in the standard process, sensors from the modified process remain fully functional even after a dose of 10"1"5 n _e_q/cm"2, which is the the expected NIEL radiation fluence for the outer pixel layers in the future ATLAS Inner Tracker (ITk) [4].

  12. The influence of ego depletion on sprint start performance in athletes without track and field experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Chris; Persaud, Brittany N; Oudejans, Raôul R D; Bertrams, Alex

    2015-01-01

    We tested the assumption that ego depletion would affect the sprint start in a sample of N = 38 athletes without track and field experience in an experiment by applying a mixed between- (depletion vs. non-depletion) within- (T1: before manipulation of ego depletion vs. T2: after manipulation of ego depletion) subjects design. We assumed that ego depletion would increase the possibility for a false start, as regulating the impulse to initiate the sprinting movement too soon before the starting signal requires self-control. In line with our assumption, we found a significant interaction as there was only a significant increase in the number of false starts from T1 to T2 for the depletion group while this was not the case for the non-depletion group. We conclude that ego depletion has a detrimental influence on the sprint start in athletes without track and field experience.

  13. CRDIAC: Coupled Reactor Depletion Instrument with Automated Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, Steven K.

    2012-01-01

    When modeling the behavior of a nuclear reactor over time, it is important to understand how the isotopes in the reactor will change, or transmute, over that time. This is especially important in the reactor fuel itself. Many nuclear physics modeling codes model how particles interact in the system, but do not model this over time. Thus, another code is used in conjunction with the nuclear physics code to accomplish this. In our code, Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) codes and the Multi Reactor Transmutation Analysis Utility (MRTAU) were chosen as the codes to use. In this way, MCNP would produce the reaction rates in the different isotopes present and MRTAU would use cross sections generated from these reaction rates to determine how the mass of each isotope is lost or gained. Between these two codes, the information must be altered and edited for use. For this, a Python 2.7 script was developed to aid the user in getting the information in the correct forms. This newly developed methodology was called the Coupled Reactor Depletion Instrument with Automated Controls (CRDIAC). As is the case in any newly developed methodology for modeling of physical phenomena, CRDIAC needed to be verified against similar methodology and validated against data taken from an experiment, in our case AFIP-3. AFIP-3 was a reduced enrichment plate type fuel tested in the ATR. We verified our methodology against the MCNP Coupled with ORIGEN2 (MCWO) method and validated our work against the Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) data. When compared to MCWO, the difference in concentration of U-235 throughout Cycle 144A was about 1%. When compared to the PIE data, the average bias for end of life U-235 concentration was about 2%. These results from CRDIAC therefore agree with the MCWO and PIE data, validating and verifying CRDIAC. CRDIAC provides an alternative to using ORIGEN-based methodology, which is useful because CRDIAC's depletion code, MRTAU, uses every available isotope in its depletion

  14. Power Factor Improvement Using Automatic Power Factor Compensation (APFC) Device for Medical Industries in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Zaidi Maryam Nabihah; Ali Adlan

    2018-01-01

    This paper present the project designed to correcting power factor for medical industries in Malaysia automatically. Which with hope to make the cost and energy usage efficient, because the energy source are depleting due to increase in population. Power factor is the ratio of real power and apparent power. This definition is mathematically represented as kW/kVA where kW is active power and kVA is apparent power (active + reactive). Reactive power is the non-working power generated by the mag...

  15. Investigation of veritcal graded channel doping in nanoscale fully-depleted SOI-MOSFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Zeinab; Orouji, Ali A.

    2016-10-01

    For achieving reliable transistor, we investigate an amended channel doping (ACD) engineering which improves the electrical and thermal performances of fully-depleted silicon-on-insulator (SOI) MOSFET. We have called the proposed structure with the amended channel doping engineering as ACD-SOI structure and compared it with a conventional fully-depleted SOI MOSFET (C-SOI) with uniform doping distribution using 2-D ATLAS simulator. The amended channel doping is a vertical graded doping that is distributed from the surface of structure with high doping density to the bottom of channel, near the buried oxide, with low doping density. Short channel effects (SCEs) and leakage current suppress due to high barrier height near the source region and electric field modification in the ACD-SOI in comparison with the C-SOI structure. Furthermore, by lower electric field and electron temperature near the drain region that is the place of hot carrier generation, we except the improvement of reliability and gate induced drain lowering (GIDL) in the proposed structure. Undesirable Self heating effect (SHE) that become a critical challenge for SOI MOSFETs is alleviated in the ACD-SOI structure because of utilizing low doping density near the buried oxide. Thus, refer to accessible results, the ACD-SOI structure with graded distribution in vertical direction is a reliable device especially in low power and high temperature applications.

  16. Depletion velocities for atmospheric pollutants oriented To improve the simplified regional dispersion modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Gacita, Madeleine; Turtos Carbonell, Leonor; Rivero Oliva, Jose de Jesus

    2005-01-01

    The present work is aimed to improve externalities assessment using Simplified Methodologies, through the obtaining of depletion velocities for primary pollutants SO 2 , NO X and TSP (Total Suspended Particles) and for sulfate and nitrate aerosols, the secondary pollutants created from the first ones. The main goal proposed was to estimate these values for different cases, in order to have an ensemble of values for the geographic area, among which the most representative could be selected for using it in future studies that appeal to a simplified methodology for the regional dispersion assessment, taking into account the requirements of data, qualified manpower and time for a detailed approach. The results where obtained using detailed studies of the regional dispersion that were conduced for six power facilities, three from Cuba (at the localities of Mariel, Santa Cruz and Tallapiedra) and three from Mexico (at the localities of Tuxpan, Tula and Manzanillo). The depletion velocity for SO 2 was similar for all cases. Results obtained for Tallapiedra, Santa Cruz, Mariel and Manzanillo were similar. For Tula and Tuxpan a high uncertainty was found

  17. Dietary phosphorus depletion in sheep: Longterm effects on bone structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breves, G.; Prokop, M.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments were performed on 6 sheep from 8 months old to study effects of dietary phosphorus depletion on bone structure. Sheep were given a semisynthetic diet of chopped straw and pellets for 38 weeks. Mean daily P in the diet was 0.97 g and 3 sheep were given additional NaH2PO4.H2O, increasing daily P supply to 4.5 g (controls). Bone density was estimated photometrically within the laterodistal metaphysis of the foreleg and standardized by a copper step wedge. Metacarpal cortical thickness was also measured. Cortical thickness and bone density started to decrease about 4 weeks after start of P depletion. The trabecular structure of the distal radius was coarser and less dense with reduced cross-linking between trabeculae

  18. Is depleted uranium a threat to health and the environment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This issue has come to the fore in recent years now that Norwegian military personnel have been sent to regions of the world where ammunition made of depleted uranium has been used. A number of surveys have been conducted in the Balkans, so far indicating no health hazards to people present in these areas. However, the latest international surveys show that contamination may be long-lasting. Tonje Sekse represented the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority at the United Nations Environment Programme's (UNEP) inspection tour to Serbia and Montenegro in the autumn of 2001. The report, entitled ''Depleted uranium in Serbia and Montenegro - Post-Conflict Environmental Assessment in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia'' was published by UNEP in March 2002.(author)

  19. Performance Analysis of Depleted Oil Reservoirs for Underground Gas Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. C.I.C. Anyadiegwu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The performance of underground gas storage in depleted oil reservoir was analysed with reservoir Y-19, a depleted oil reservoir in Southern region of the Niger Delta. Information on the geologic and production history of the reservoir were obtained from the available field data of the reservoir. The verification of inventory was done to establish the storage capacity of the reservoir. The plot of the well flowing pressure (Pwf against the flow rate (Q, gives the deliverability of the reservoir at various pressures. Results of the estimated properties signified that reservoir Y-19 is a good candidate due to its storage capacity and its flow rate (Q of 287.61 MMscf/d at a flowing pressure of 3900 psig

  20. Muscle glycogen depletion and lactate concentration during downhill skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesch, P; Larsson, L; Eriksson, A; Karlsson, J

    1978-01-01

    Skilled and unskilled skiers were studied during downhill skiing. Muscle glycogen and muscle lactate concentrations in the vastus lateralis muscle were determined following different skiing conditions. Heavy glycogen utilization was found in the groups studied during a day of skiing. The skilled and unskilled skiers differed with respect to selective glycogen depletion pattern and the skilled subjects demonstrated greater depletion of slow twitch fibers than the unskilled subjects. Lactate concentrations ranged from approximately 5-26 mmoles x kg-1 wet muscle after approximately one minute of maximal skiing. This wide range was not found to be related to the level of skiing proficiency. However, skiing with varyingly angled boots, resulting in different knee angles, did affect lactate concentration. Lactate concentration was positively correlated to individual muscle fiber composition expressed as a percent of fast twitch fibers. The results suggest more pronounced involvement of aerobic energy metabolism in skilled skiers than in unskilled skiers.

  1. Contamination by depleted uranium (Du) in South Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovic, L.; Todorovic, J.; Bozic, P.; Stevanovic, Z.

    2006-01-01

    The paper present the results of the study on D.U. (depleted uranium) contamination in the environment and possible effects on animal healths in the region o f Bujanovac. Samples of soil, feed, leaves, grass, lichen, moss, honey and water were collected randomly in 2003/2004 in the vicinity of the target area (500-1000 m) and 5 km from the target area. Activity of the radionuclides ( 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K, 210 Pb, 238 U, 235 U, 137 Cs, 7 Be) in soils, grass, lichen, moss and honey was determined on Hp Ge detector (Canberra, relative efficiency 23%) by standard gamma spectrometry. Total alpha and beta activity in water was determined on proportional alpha/beta counter (Canberra 2400, efficiency for alpha emitters 11%, efficiency for beta emitters 30%). Non significantly higher values of concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th, 238 U and 235 U were measured in the immediate vicinity of the targeted site, but 235 U/ 238 U activity ratio in soils indicated the natural origin of uranium. On both sites the contents of radionuclides in soils were in the range of values measured in soils in Belgrade (2002-2005), at the mountain Stara Planina (1999) and in the region. The soil was found to be poor in potassium. In mosses and lichen, high concentrations of 137 Cs, 7 Be, 226 Ra and 210 Pb were found, while in leaves and grass there were lower concentrations of K, due to soil poor in K. As for uranium, there were no significant variations due to the sites, and 235 U/ 238 U activity ratios were close to values measured in vegetation in the vicinity of power plants 0.07-0.08. In honey, both 238 U and 235 U were below the minimal detectable concentrations. Total alpha and total beta activities measured in water showed no significant differences between the sites, and the obtained values were in range of the permissible values for drinking water in S.M.N. (total alpha activity <0.1 Bq/L, total beta activity <1 Bq/L) Samples of blood of cows and sheep bred in the area were collected

  2. Fully depleted back-illuminated p-channel CCD development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bebek, Chris J.; Bercovitz, John H.; Groom, Donald E.; Holland, Stephen E.; Kadel, Richard W.; Karcher, Armin; Kolbe, William F.; Oluseyi, Hakeem M.; Palaio, Nicholas P.; Prasad, Val; Turko, Bojan T.; Wang, Guobin

    2003-07-08

    An overview of CCD development efforts at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is presented. Operation of fully-depleted, back-illuminated CCD's fabricated on high resistivity silicon is described, along with results on the use of such CCD's at ground-based observatories. Radiation damage and point-spread function measurements are described, as well as discussion of CCD fabrication technologies.

  3. Uranium and the use of depleted uranium in weaponry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussel, R.

    2000-01-01

    In this brief report the author shows that the use of shells involving a load of depleted uranium might lead to lasting hazards to civil population and environment. These hazards come from the part of the shell that has been dispersed as contaminating radioactive dusts. The author describes some features of radioactivity and highlights the role of Uranium-238 as a provider of energy to the planet. (A.C.)

  4. Effects of deuterium depleted water on reproduction of Rainbow fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Ion; Saros-Rogobete, Irina; Titescu, Gheorghe; Caraus, Ion; Pricop, Ferdinand

    2001-01-01

    The paper refers to an isotopic composition used to prepare fecundating solutions for artificial reproduction of fish. The solution is constituted as a mixture of deuterium depleted water and natural water (whose isotopic concentration is of 85-90 ppm D/(D+H)) in which we can add activating and energizing substances. This fecundating solution ensures an improved fecundating level of fish roe, increase life index in the next growth up stages and increase fish resistance at special medium conditions. (authors)

  5. Effective fiber hypertrophy in satellite cell-depleted skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, John J.; Mula, Jyothi; Miyazaki, Mitsunori; Erfani, Rod; Garrison, Kelcye; Farooqui, Amreen B.; Srikuea, Ratchakrit; Lawson, Benjamin A.; Grimes, Barry; Keller, Charles; Van Zant, Gary; Campbell, Kenneth S.; Esser, Karyn A.; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E.; Peterson, Charlotte A.

    2011-01-01

    An important unresolved question in skeletal muscle plasticity is whether satellite cells are necessary for muscle fiber hypertrophy. To address this issue, a novel mouse strain (Pax7-DTA) was created which enabled the conditional ablation of >90% of satellite cells in mature skeletal muscle following tamoxifen administration. To test the hypothesis that satellite cells are necessary for skeletal muscle hypertrophy, the plantaris muscle of adult Pax7-DTA mice was subjected to mechanical overload by surgical removal of the synergist muscle. Following two weeks of overload, satellite cell-depleted muscle showed the same increases in muscle mass (approximately twofold) and fiber cross-sectional area with hypertrophy as observed in the vehicle-treated group. The typical increase in myonuclei with hypertrophy was absent in satellite cell-depleted fibers, resulting in expansion of the myonuclear domain. Consistent with lack of nuclear addition to enlarged fibers, long-term BrdU labeling showed a significant reduction in the number of BrdU-positive myonuclei in satellite cell-depleted muscle compared with vehicle-treated muscle. Single fiber functional analyses showed no difference in specific force, Ca2+ sensitivity, rate of cross-bridge cycling and cooperativity between hypertrophied fibers from vehicle and tamoxifen-treated groups. Although a small component of the hypertrophic response, both fiber hyperplasia and regeneration were significantly blunted following satellite cell depletion, indicating a distinct requirement for satellite cells during these processes. These results provide convincing evidence that skeletal muscle fibers are capable of mounting a robust hypertrophic response to mechanical overload that is not dependent on satellite cells. PMID:21828094

  6. Gamma-ray line intensities for depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of the gamma-ray line intensities from depleted uranium allowed us to determine which of two conflicting previous experiments was correct. For the 1001-keV line we obtain a branching ratio of 0.834 +- 0.007, in good agreement with one of the previous experiments. A table compares our intensities for several lines with those obtained in previous experiments. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  7. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) depleted uranium waste boxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, W.A.

    1997-08-27

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) allows the one-time shipment of ten metal boxes and one wooden box containing depleted uranium material from the Fast Flux Test Facility to the burial grounds in the 200 West Area for disposal. This SEP provides the analyses and operational controls necessary to demonstrate that the shipment will be safe for the onsite worker and the public.

  8. Assessment of the Risks from Imbedded Fragments of Depleted Uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    for chronic kidney toxicity; the impact of fibrotic encapsulation , if it occurs; and the chemical form of the imbedded fragment. The potential for...Effects of Depleted Uranium Imbedded in Tissue Reference: Brigadier General Ronald R. Blanck (SGPS-PSP) letter of 26 February 1992 In response to your...the muscle and fatty tissue will probably occur and will occur in all other tissue types that elicit similar cellular responses to foreign bodies. It

  9. Bromine measurements in ozone depleted air over the Arctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Neuman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In situ measurements of ozone, photochemically active bromine compounds, and other trace gases over the Arctic Ocean in April 2008 are used to examine the chemistry and geographical extent of ozone depletion in the arctic marine boundary layer (MBL. Data were obtained from the NOAA WP-3D aircraft during the Aerosol, Radiation, and Cloud Processes affecting Arctic Climate (ARCPAC study and the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS study. Fast (1 s and sensitive (detection limits at the low pptv level measurements of BrCl and BrO were obtained from three different chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS instruments, and soluble bromide was measured with a mist chamber. The CIMS instruments also detected Br2. Subsequent laboratory studies showed that HOBr rapidly converts to Br2 on the Teflon instrument inlets. This detected Br2 is identified as active bromine and represents a lower limit of the sum HOBr + Br2. The measured active bromine is shown to likely be HOBr during daytime flights in the arctic. In the MBL over the Arctic Ocean, soluble bromide and active bromine were consistently elevated and ozone was depleted. Ozone depletion and active bromine enhancement were confined to the MBL that was capped by a temperature inversion at 200–500 m altitude. In ozone-depleted air, BrO rarely exceeded 10 pptv and was always substantially lower than soluble bromide that was as high as 40 pptv. BrCl was rarely enhanced above the 2 pptv detection limit, either in the MBL, over Alaska, or in the arctic free troposphere.

  10. Health and environmental problems of using depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matousek, J.

    2006-01-01

    In the 1970's, a core of depleted uranium (DU) began to be introduced into the break through anti-tank munitions to enhance their effectiveness. The health and environmental threats of DU stem from the pyrophoric character of the core, burnt when penetrating armour to an aerosol of uranium oxides deposited in tissues after inhalation or ingestion. Their delayed effects are due to internal alpha irradiation by daughter products and toxicity of uranium. (authors)

  11. Radiation survey and decontamination of cape Arza from depleted uranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukotić Perko

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the action of NATO A-10 airplanes in 1999, the cape Arza, Serbia and Montenegro was contaminated by depleted uranium. The clean-up operations were undertaken at the site, and 242 uranium projectiles and their 49 larger fragments were removed from the cape. That is about 85% of the total number of projectiles by which Arza was contaminated. Here are described details of the applied procedures and results of the soil radioactivity measurements after decontamination.

  12. Application of depletion perturbation theory to fuel cycle burnup analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    Over the past several years static perturbation theory methods have been increasingly used for reactor analysis in lieu of more detailed and costly direct computations. Recently, perturbation methods incorporating time dependence have also received attention, and several authors have demonstrated their applicability to fuel burnup analysis. The objective of the work described here is to demonstrate that a time-dependent perturbation method can be easily and accurately applied to realistic depletion problems

  13. Future emission scenarios for chemicals that may deplete stratospheric ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammitt, J.K; Camm, Frank; Mooz, W.E.; Wolf, K.A.; Bamezai, Anil; Connel, P.S.; Wuebbles, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    Scenarios are developed for long-term future emissions of seven of the most important manmade chemicals that may deplete ozone and the corresponding effect on stratospheric ozone concentrations is calculated using a one-dimensional atmospheric model. The scenarios are based on detailed analysis of the markets for products that use these chemicals and span a central 90% probability interval for the chemicals joint effect on calculated ozone abundance, assuming no additional regulations. (author). 22 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  14. Apoptosis and T cell depletion during feline infectious peritonitis

    OpenAIRE

    Horzinek, M.C.; Haagmans, B.L.; Egberink, H.F.

    1996-01-01

    Cats that have succumbed to feline infectious peritonitis, an immune- mediated disease caused by variants of feline coronaviruses, show apoptosis and T-cell depletion in their lymphoid organs. The ascitic fluid that develops in the course of the condition causes apoptosis in vitro but only in activated T cells. Since feline infectious peritonitis virus does not infect T cells, and viral proteins did not inhibit T-cell proliferation, we postulate that soluble mediators released during the infe...

  15. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) depleted uranium waste boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, W.A.

    1997-01-01

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) allows the one-time shipment of ten metal boxes and one wooden box containing depleted uranium material from the Fast Flux Test Facility to the burial grounds in the 200 West Area for disposal. This SEP provides the analyses and operational controls necessary to demonstrate that the shipment will be safe for the onsite worker and the public

  16. Terrestrial ozone depletion due to a Milky Way gamma-ray burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Brian C.

    Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are short, incredibly powerful astrophysical events which produce a flux of radiation detectable across the observable universe. A GRB within our own galaxy could cause major damage to the Earth's biosphere. Rate estimates suggest that at least one GRB has occurred within a dangerous range (about 2 kpc) in the last billion years. The gamma radiation from such a burst would quickly deplete much of the Earth's protective ozone layer, allowing an increase in solar UVB radiation reaching the surface. This radiation is harmful to life, causing sunburn and damaging DNA. In addition, NO 2 produced in the atmosphere would cause a decrease in visible sunlight reaching the surface and could cause global cooling. Nitric acid rain could stress portions of the biosphere, but the increased nitrate deposition could be helpful to land plants. We have used a two-dimensional atmospheric model to investigate the effects on the Earth's atmosphere of a GRB. We have simulated bursts delivering a range of fluences, at various latitudes, at the equinoxes and solstices, and at different times of day. We have computed DNA damage caused by increased solar UVB radiation, reduction in solar visible light due to NO 2 opacity; and deposition of nitrates through rainout of HNO 3 . For a "typical" burst in the last billion years, we find globally averaged ozone depletion up to 38%. Localized depletion reaches as much as 74%. Significant global depletion (at least 10%) persists up to about 7 years after the burst. Our results depend strongly on time of year and latitude over which the burst occurs. We find DNA damage of up to 16 times the normal annual global average, with greatest damage occurring at low to mid latitudes. We find reductions in visible sunlight of a few percent, primarily in the polar regions. Nitrate deposition similar to or slightly greater than that currently caused by lightning is also observed. We find support in our results for the hypothesis that the

  17. Frost Induces Respiration and Accelerates Carbon Depletion in Trees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Or Sperling

    Full Text Available Cellular respiration depletes stored carbohydrates during extended periods of limited photosynthesis, e.g. winter dormancy or drought. As respiration rate is largely a function of temperature, the thermal conditions during such periods may affect non-structural carbohydrate (NSC availability and, ultimately, recovery. Here, we surveyed stem responses to temperature changes in 15 woody species. For two species with divergent respirational response to frost, P. integerrima and P. trichocarpa, we also examined corresponding changes in NSC levels. Finally, we simulated respiration-induced NSC depletion using historical temperature data for the western US. We report a novel finding that tree stems significantly increase respiration in response to near freezing temperatures. We observed this excess respiration in 13 of 15 species, deviating 10% to 170% over values predicted by the Arrhenius equation. Excess respiration persisted at temperatures above 0 °C during warming and reoccurred over multiple frost-warming cycles. A large adjustment of NSCs accompanied excess respiration in P. integerrima, whereas P. trichocarpa neither excessively respired nor adjusted NSCs. Over the course of the years included in our model, frost-induced respiration accelerated stem NSC consumption by 8.4 mg (glucose eq. cm(-3 yr(-1 on average in the western US, a level of depletion that may continue to significantly affect spring NSC availability. This novel finding revises the current paradigm of low temperature respiration kinetics.

  18. Frost Induces Respiration and Accelerates Carbon Depletion in Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Or; Earles, J Mason; Secchi, Francesca; Godfrey, Jessie; Zwieniecki, Maciej A

    2015-01-01

    Cellular respiration depletes stored carbohydrates during extended periods of limited photosynthesis, e.g. winter dormancy or drought. As respiration rate is largely a function of temperature, the thermal conditions during such periods may affect non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) availability and, ultimately, recovery. Here, we surveyed stem responses to temperature changes in 15 woody species. For two species with divergent respirational response to frost, P. integerrima and P. trichocarpa, we also examined corresponding changes in NSC levels. Finally, we simulated respiration-induced NSC depletion using historical temperature data for the western US. We report a novel finding that tree stems significantly increase respiration in response to near freezing temperatures. We observed this excess respiration in 13 of 15 species, deviating 10% to 170% over values predicted by the Arrhenius equation. Excess respiration persisted at temperatures above 0 °C during warming and reoccurred over multiple frost-warming cycles. A large adjustment of NSCs accompanied excess respiration in P. integerrima, whereas P. trichocarpa neither excessively respired nor adjusted NSCs. Over the course of the years included in our model, frost-induced respiration accelerated stem NSC consumption by 8.4 mg (glucose eq.) cm(-3) yr(-1) on average in the western US, a level of depletion that may continue to significantly affect spring NSC availability. This novel finding revises the current paradigm of low temperature respiration kinetics.

  19. Regional strategies for the accelerating global problem of groundwater depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeschbach-Hertig, Werner; Gleeson, Tom

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater--the world's largest freshwater resource--is critically important for irrigated agriculture and hence for global food security. Yet depletion is widespread in large groundwater systems in both semi-arid and humid regions of the world. Excessive extraction for irrigation where groundwater is slowly renewed is the main cause of the depletion, and climate change has the potential to exacerbate the problem in some regions. Globally aggregated groundwater depletion contributes to sea-level rise, and has accelerated markedly since the mid-twentieth century. But its impacts on water resources are more obvious at the regional scale, for example in agriculturally important parts of India, China and the United States. Food production in such regions can only be made sustainable in the long term if groundwater levels are stabilized. To this end, a transformation is required in how we value, manage and characterize groundwater systems. Technical approaches--such as water diversion, artificial groundwater recharge and efficient irrigation--have failed to balance regional groundwater budgets. They need to be complemented by more comprehensive strategies that are adapted to the specific social, economic, political and environmental settings of each region.

  20. Selection of a management strategy for depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, S.; Hanrahan, E.; Bradley, C. Jnr.

    1995-01-01

    A consequence of the uranium enrichment process is the accumulation of a significant amount of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ). Currently, in the United States approximately 560 000 tonnes of the material are stored at three different sites. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recently initiated a programme to consider alternative strategies for the cost-effective and environmentally safe long-term management of this inventory of depleted UF 6 . The programme involves a technology and engineering assessment of proposed management options (which are: use/reuse, conversion, storage, or disposal) and an analysis of the potential environmental impacts and life-cycle costs of alternative management strategies. The information obtained from the studies will be used by the DOE to select a preferred long-term management strategy. Because of its provisions for considering a wide range of relevant issues and involving the public, this programme has become a model for future DOE materials disposition programmes. This paper presents an overview of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Programme. Technical findings of the programme to date are presented, and major issues involved in selecting and implementing a management strategy are discussed. (author)

  1. MEASURING Be DEPLETION IN COOL STARS WITH EXOPLANETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado Mena, E.; Israelian, G.; Gonzalez Hernandez, J. I.; Rebolo, R.; Santos, N. C.

    2011-01-01

    We present new UVES spectra of a sample of 14 mostly cool unevolved stars with planetary companions with the aim of studying possible differences in Be abundance with respect to stars without detected planets. We determine Be abundances for these stars that show an increase in Be depletion as we move to lower temperatures. We carry out a differential analysis of spectra of analog stars with and without planets to establish a possible difference in Be content. While for hot stars no measurable difference is found in Be, for the only cool (T eff ∼ 5000 K) planet-host star with several analogs in the sample we find enhanced Be depletion by 0.25 dex. This is a first indication that the extra-depletion of Li in solar-type stars with planets may also happen for Be, but shifted toward lower temperatures (T eff < 5500 K) due to the depth of the convective envelopes. The processes that take place in the formation of planetary systems may affect the mixing of material inside their host stars and hence the abundances of light elements.

  2. Accounting for Depletion of Oil and Gas Resources in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, Jamal, E-mail: jortman@ukm.my; Jafari, Yaghoob, E-mail: yaghoob.jafari@gmail.com [Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Faculty of Economics and Management (Malaysia)

    2012-12-15

    Since oil and gas are non-renewable resources, it is important to identify the extent to which they have been depleted. Such information will contribute to the formulation and evaluation of appropriate sustainable development policies. This paper provides an assessment of the changes in the availability of oil and gas resources in Malaysia by first compiling the physical balance sheet for the period 2000-2007, and then assessing the monetary balance sheets for the said resource by using the Net Present Value method. Our findings show serious reduction in the value of oil reserves from 2001 to 2005, due to changes in crude oil prices, and thereafter the depletion rates decreased. In the context of sustainable development planning, albeit in the weak sustainability sense, it will be important to ascertain if sufficient reinvestments of the estimated resource rents in related or alternative capitals are being attempted by Malaysia. For the study period, the cumulative resource rents were to the tune of RM61 billion. Through a depletion or resource rents policy, the estimated quantum may guide the identification of a reinvestment threshold (after considering needed capital investment for future development of the industry) in light of ensuring the future productive capacity of the economy at the time when the resource is exhausted.

  3. Depletion of solar wind plasma near a planetary boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwan, B.J.; Wolf, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented that describes the squeezing of solar wind plasma out along interplanetary magnetic field lines in the region between the bow shock and the effective planetary boundary (in the case of the earth, the magnetopause). In the absence of local magnetic merging the squeezing process should create a 'depletion layer,' a region of very low plasma density just outside the magnetopause. Numerical solutions are obtained for the dimensionless magnetohydrodynamic equations describing this depletion process for the case where the solar wind magnetic field is perpendicular to the solar wind flow direction. For the case of the earth with a magnetopause standoff distance of 10 R/subE/, the theory predicts that the density should be reduced by a factor > or =2 in a layer about 700--1300 km thick if M/subA/, the Alfven Mach number in the solar wind, is equal to 8. The layer thickness should vary as M/subA/ -2 and should be approximately uniform for a large area of the magnetopause around the subsolar point. Computed layer thicknesses are somewhat smaller than those derived from Lees' axisymmetric model. Depletion layers should develop fully only where magnetic merging is locally unimportant. Scaling of the model calculations to Venus and Mars suggest layer thicknesses about 1/10 and 1/15 those of the earth, respectively, neglecting diffusion and ionospheric effects

  4. Accounting for Depletion of Oil and Gas Resources in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Jamal; Jafari, Yaghoob

    2012-01-01

    Since oil and gas are non-renewable resources, it is important to identify the extent to which they have been depleted. Such information will contribute to the formulation and evaluation of appropriate sustainable development policies. This paper provides an assessment of the changes in the availability of oil and gas resources in Malaysia by first compiling the physical balance sheet for the period 2000–2007, and then assessing the monetary balance sheets for the said resource by using the Net Present Value method. Our findings show serious reduction in the value of oil reserves from 2001 to 2005, due to changes in crude oil prices, and thereafter the depletion rates decreased. In the context of sustainable development planning, albeit in the weak sustainability sense, it will be important to ascertain if sufficient reinvestments of the estimated resource rents in related or alternative capitals are being attempted by Malaysia. For the study period, the cumulative resource rents were to the tune of RM61 billion. Through a depletion or resource rents policy, the estimated quantum may guide the identification of a reinvestment threshold (after considering needed capital investment for future development of the industry) in light of ensuring the future productive capacity of the economy at the time when the resource is exhausted.

  5. Decontamination of Cape Arza (Montenegro) from depleted Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukotich, P.; Kovachevich, M.; Vasich, V.; Ristich, N.

    2002-01-01

    On May 30, 1999, NATO A-10 aircrafts attacked Cape Arza, a very attractive touring area on peninsula Lustica, at the entrance of Boka Kotorska Bay, in Montenegro. They fired anti-armour rounds with penetrators made of depleted uranium. Such an armour-penetrating round has a length of 173 mm and a diameter of 30 mm. The bullet has an aluminium case (jacket) and inside it a conical DU penetrator. The length of the penetrator itself is 95 mm, and the diameter of its base is 16 mm. The penetrator weight is 292 g. According to the data reported by NATO (NATO, 2001), the total number of rounds fired against Cape Arza was 480. As to the data on combat mix of the A-10 aircraft gun, 300 (UNEP, 2001) or 400 (UNEP, 2001; FAS) of these rounds where with DU penetrators, and the rest with a classical charge. This means that Cape Arza was contaminated with 90 or 120 kg of DU, or with a radioactivity of (3.5 - 4.7) · 10 9 Bq. Depleted uranium is a waste product of the process of uranium enrichment in 2 35U isotope, for use in nuclear reactors or in nuclear weapons. The isotopic composition of depleted uranium is (Harley et al., 1999): (99.7 - 99.8) % of 2 38U , (0.2 - 0.3) % of 2 35U , 0.001 % of 2 34U , and only traces of 2 34T h, 2 34P a and 2 31T h. If traces of the isotopes 2 36U , 2 39P u and 2 40P u are also present, as it is the case with DU from Cape Arza (UNEP, 2002), the depleted uranium is obtained by reprocessing of spent nuclear reactor fuel. The activity concentration of depleted uranium is 39.42 · 10 6 Bq/kg. Most of it comes from 2 38U and its decay products 2 34T h and 2 34P a which are in radioactive equilibrium (12.27 · 10 6 Bq/kg per each of them), and the less part from 2 35U and 2 31T h (0.16 · 10 6 Bq/kg per each) (UNEP, 1999), while the activity concentration of 2 36U , 2 39P u and 2 40P u is below 100 Bq/kg (UNEP, 2001)

  6. Optimal burnable poison utilization in PWR core reload design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downar, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    A method was developed for determining the optimal distribution and depletion of burnable poisons in a Pressurized Water Reactor core. The well-known Haling depletion technique is used to achieve the end-of-cycle core state where the fuel assembly arrangement is configured in the absence of all control poison. The soluble and burnable poison required to control the core reactivity and power distribution are solved for as unknown variables while step depleting the cycle in reverse with a target power distribution. The method was implemented in the NRC approved licensing code SIMULATE

  7. Leukocyte depletion results in improved lung function and reduced inflammatory response after cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, YJ; Boonstra, PW; vanOeveren, W

    Leukocyte depletion during cardiopulmonary bypass has been demonstrated in animal experiments to improve pulmonary function, Conflicting results have been reported, however, with clinical depletion by arterial line filter of leukocytes at the beginning of cardiopulmonary bypass. In this study, we

  8. The study of necessity of verification-methods for Depleted Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. B.; Ahn, S. H.; Ahn, G. H.; Chung, S. T.; Shin, J. S.

    2006-01-01

    ROK has tried to establish management system for depleted uranium from 2004, and ROK achieved some results in this field including management software, management skill, and the list of company using the nuclear material. But, the studies for the depleted uranium are insufficient exclude the studies of KAERI. In terms of SSAC, we have to study more about whether the depleted uranium is really dangerous material or not and how is the depleted uranium diverted to the nuclear weapon. The depleted uranium was controlled by the item counting in the national system for the small quantity nuclear material. We don't have unique technical methods to clarify the depleted uranium on-the-spot inspection not laboratory scale. Therefore, I would like to suggest of the necessity of the verification methods for depleted uranium. Furthermore, I would like to show you the methods of the verification of the depleted uranium in national system up to now

  9. Ly6G-mediated depletion of neutrophils is dependent on macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Kevin W; Dekitani, Ken; Nielsen, Travis B; Pantapalangkoor, Paul; Spellberg, Brad

    2016-01-01

    Antibody-mediated depletion of neutrophils is commonly used to study neutropenia. However, the mechanisms by which antibodies deplete neutrophils have not been well defined. We noticed that mice deficient in complement and macrophages had blunted neutrophil depletion in response to anti-Ly6G monoclonal antibody (MAb) treatment. In vitro, exposure of murine neutrophils to anti-Ly6G MAb in the presence of plasma did not result in significant depletion of cells, either in the presence or absence of complement. In vivo, anti-Ly6G-mediated neutrophil depletion was abrogated following macrophage depletion, but not complement depletion, indicating a requirement for macrophages to induce neutropenia by this method. These results inform the use and limitations of anti-Ly6G antibody as an experimental tool for depleting neutrophils in various immunological settings.

  10. Nature gives us strength: exposure to nature counteracts ego-depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Jason T; Lau, Shun

    2015-01-01

    Previous research rarely investigated the role of physical environment in counteracting ego-depletion. In the present research, we hypothesized that exposure to natural environment counteracts ego-depletion. Three experiments were conducted to test this hypothesis. In Experiment 1, initially depleted participants who viewed pictures of nature scenes showed greater persistence on a subsequent anagram task than those who were given a rest period. Experiment 2 expanded upon this finding by showing that natural environment enhanced logical reasoning performance after ego-depleting task. Experiment 3 adopted a two- (depletion vs. no-depletion) -by-two (nature exposure vs. urban exposure) factorial design. We found that nature exposure moderated the effect of depletion on anagram task performance. Taken together, the present studies offer a viable and novel strategy to mitigate the negative impacts of ego-depletion.

  11. Depletion-Mode GaN HEMT Q-Spoil Switches for MRI Coils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jonathan Y; Grafendorfer, Thomas; Zhang, Tao; Vasanawala, Shreyas; Robb, Fraser; Pauly, John M; Scott, Greig C

    2016-12-01

    Q-spoiling is the process of decoupling an MRI receive coil to protect the equipment and patient. Conventionally, Q-spoiling is performed using a PIN diode switch that draws significant current. In this work, a Q-spoiling technique using a depletion-mode Gallium Nitride HEMT device was developed for coil detuning at both 1.5 T and 3 T MRI. The circuits with conventional PIN diode Q-spoiling and the GaN HEMT device were implemented on surface coils. SNR was measured and compared for all surfaces coils. At both 1.5 T and 3 T, comparable SNR was achieved for all coils with the proposed technique and conventional Q-spoiling. The GaN HEMT device has significantly reduced the required power for Q-spoiling. The GaN HEMT device also provides useful safety features by detuning the coil when unpowered.

  12. ZPR-3 Assembly 11: A cylindrical sssembly of highly enriched uranium and depleted uranium with an average 235U enrichment of 12 atom % and a depleted uranium reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lell, R.M.; McKnight, R.D.; Tsiboulia, A.; Rozhikhin, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Over a period of 30 years, more than a hundred Zero Power Reactor (ZPR) critical assemblies were constructed at Argonne National Laboratory. The ZPR facilities, ZPR-3, ZPR-6, ZPR-9 and ZPPR, were all fast critical assembly facilities. The ZPR critical assemblies were constructed to support fast reactor development, but data from some of these assemblies are also well suited for nuclear data validation and to form the basis for criticality safety benchmarks. A number of the Argonne ZPR/ZPPR critical assemblies have been evaluated as ICSBEP and IRPhEP benchmarks. Of the three classes of ZPR assemblies, engineering mockups, engineering benchmarks and physics benchmarks, the last group tends to be most useful for criticality safety. Because physics benchmarks were designed to test fast reactor physics data and methods, they were as simple as possible in geometry and composition. The principal fissile species was 235 U or 239 Pu. Fuel enrichments ranged from 9% to 95%. Often there were only one or two main core diluent materials, such as aluminum, graphite, iron, sodium or stainless steel. The cores were reflected (and insulated from room return effects) by one or two layers of materials such as depleted uranium, lead or stainless steel. Despite their more complex nature, a small number of assemblies from the other two classes would make useful criticality safety benchmarks because they have features related to criticality safety issues, such as reflection by soil-like material. ZPR-3 Assembly 11 (ZPR-3/11) was designed as a fast reactor physics benchmark experiment with an average core 235 U enrichment of approximately 12 at.% and a depleted uranium reflector. Approximately 79.7% of the total fissions in this assembly occur above 100 keV, approximately 20.3% occur below 100 keV, and essentially none below 0.625 eV - thus the classification as a 'fast' assembly. This assembly is Fast Reactor Benchmark No. 8 in the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) Benchmark

  13. Proof-of-principle of high-fidelity coupled CRUD deposition and cycle depletion simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, Daniel J.; Kendrick, Brian K.; Petrov, Victor; Manera, Annalisa; Collins, Benjamin; Downar, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A multiphysics framework for the high-fidelity simulation of CRUD deposition is developed to better understand the coupled physics and their respective feedback mechanisms. This framework includes the primary physics of lattice depletion, computational fluid dynamics, and CRUD chemistry. The three physics are coupled together via the operator-splitting technique, where predictor–corrector and fixed-point iteration schemes are utilized to converge the nonlinear solution. High-fidelity simulations may provide a means to predict and assess potential operating issues, including CRUD induced power shift and CRUD induced localized corrosion, known as CIPS and CILC, respectively. As a proof-of-principle, a coupled 500-day cycle depletion simulation of a pressurized water reactor fuel pin cell was performed using the coupled code suite; a burnup of 31 MWd/kgHM was reached. The simulation recreated the classic striped CRUD pattern often seen on pulled fuel rods containing CRUD. It is concluded that the striping is caused by the flow swirl induced by spacer grid mixing vanes. Two anti-correlated effects contribute to the striping: (1) the flow swirl yields significant azimuthal temperature variations, which impact the locations where CRUD deposits, and (2) the flow swirl is correlated to increased shear stress along the cladding surface and subsequent erosion of the CRUD layer. The CIPS condition of the core is concluded to be primarily controlled by lithium tetraborate precipitation, referred to as boron hideout, which occurs in regions experiencing subcooled nucleate boiling as soluble boron and lithium species reach their solubility limit within the CRUD layer. Subsequently, a localized reduction in power occurs due to the high neutron absorption cross section of boron-10

  14. 26 CFR 1.1502-44 - Percentage depletion for independent producers and royalty owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Percentage depletion for independent producers...-44 Percentage depletion for independent producers and royalty owners. (a) In general. The sum of the percentage depletion deductions for the taxable year for all oil or gas property owned by all members, plus...

  15. Comparative evaluation of seven commercial products for human serum enrichment/depletion by shotgun proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanu, Salvatore; Biosa, Grazia; Carcangiu, Laura; Uzzau, Sergio; Pagnozzi, Daniela

    2018-08-01

    Seven commercial products for human serum depletion/enrichment were tested and compared by shotgun proteomics. Methods were based on four different capturing agents: antibodies (Qproteome Albumin/IgG Depletion kit, ProteoPrep Immunoaffinity Albumin and IgG Depletion Kit, Top 2 Abundant Protein Depletion Spin Columns, and Top 12 Abundant Protein Depletion Spin Columns), specific ligands (Albumin/IgG Removal), mixture of antibodies and ligands (Albumin and IgG Depletion SpinTrap), and combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (ProteoMiner beads), respectively. All procedures, to a greater or lesser extent, allowed an increase of identified proteins. ProteoMiner beads provided the highest number of proteins; Albumin and IgG Depletion SpinTrap and ProteoPrep Immunoaffinity Albumin and IgG Depletion Kit resulted the most efficient in albumin removal; Top 2 and Top 12 Abundant Protein Depletion Spin Columns decreased the overall immunoglobulin levels more than other procedures, whereas specifically gamma immunoglobulins were mostly removed by Albumin and IgG Depletion SpinTrap, ProteoPrep Immunoaffinity Albumin and IgG Depletion Kit, and Top 2 Abundant Protein Depletion Spin Columns. Albumin/IgG Removal, a resin bound to a mixture of protein A and Cibacron Blue, behaved less efficiently than the other products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. 26 CFR 1.612-3 - Depletion; treatment of bonus and advanced royalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Depletion; treatment of bonus and advanced... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.612-3 Depletion; treatment... the payee as a cost depletion deduction in respect of the bonus an amount equal to that proportion of...

  17. Depleted Nanocrystal-Oxide Heterojunctions for High-Sensitivity Infrared Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-28

    Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: 4.3 Electronic Sensing - Depleted Nanocrystal- Oxide Heterojunctions for High...reviewed journals: Final Report: 4.3 Electronic Sensing - Depleted Nanocrystal- Oxide Heterojunctions for High-Sensitivity Infrared Detection Report Title...PERCENT_SUPPORTEDNAME FTE Equivalent: Total Number: 1 1 Final Progress Report Project title: Depleted Nanocrystal- Oxide Heterojunctions for High

  18. The consequences and hazards of depleted uranium weapons used by US army since gulf war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Yongze

    1999-01-01

    Military equipment and development of depleted uranium weapon in USA, the depleted uranium weapon used in gulf war by USA army, personnel irradiation in the gulf war, and the protection in the gulf war are introduced. The radioactivity, radioactive characteristics, chemical toxicity and hazard of the depleted uranium are also introduced

  19. Implantation of a new calculation method of fuel depletion in the CITHAM code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarenga, M.A.B.

    1985-01-01

    It is evaluated the accuracy of the linear aproximation method used in the CITHAN code to obtain the solution of depletion equations. Results are compared with the Benchmark problem. The convenience of depletion chain before criticality calculations is analysed. The depletion calculation was modified using linear combination technic of linear chains. (M.C.K.) [pt

  20. Nuclear Power Plants (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell III, Walter [Southern Nuclear Engineering, Inc.

    1973-01-01

    Projected energy requirements for the future suggest that we must employ atomic energy to generate electric power or face depletion of our fossil-fuel resources—coal, oil, and gas. In short, both conservation and economic considerations will require us to use nuclear energy to generate the electricity that supports our civilization. Until we reach the time when nuclear power plants are as common as fossil-fueled or hydroelectric plants, many people will wonder how the nuclear plants work, how much they cost, where they are located, and what kinds of reactors they use. The purpose of this booklet is to answer these questions. In doing so, it will consider only central station plants, which are those that provide electric power for established utility systems.

  1. Selection of a management strategy for depleted uranium hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, S.E.; Hanrahan, E.J.; Bradley, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    A consequence of the uranium enrichment process used in the United States (US) is the accumulation of a significant amount of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ). Currently, approximately 560,000 metric tons of the material are stored at three different sites. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recently initiated a program to consider alternative strategies for the cost-effective and environmentally safe long-term management of this inventory of depleted UF 6 . The program involves a technology and engineering assessment of proposed management options (use/reuse, conversion, storage, or disposal) and an analysis of the potential environmental impacts and life-cycle costs of alternative management strategies. The information obtained from the studies will be used by the DOE to select a preferred long-term management strategy. The selection and implementation of a management strategy will involve consideration of a number of important issues such as environmental, health, and safety effects; the balancing of risks versus costs in a context of reduced government spending; socioeconomic implications, including effects on the domestic and international uranium industry; the technical status of proposed uses or technologies; and public involvement in the decision making process. Because of its provisions for considering a wide range of relevant issues and involving the public, this program has become a model for future DOE materials disposition programs. This paper presents an overview of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program. Technical findings of the program to date are presented, and major issues involved in selecting and implementing a management strategy are discussed

  2. L-Tryptophan depletion bioreactor, a possible cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Bambauer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The cancer therapeutic strategies knownto date are not adequate for all cancer patients. Most of them are followed by a high rate of side effects and complications. The L-tryptophan depletion bioreactor is described as a possible new method of cancer therapy. L-tryptophan is an essential amino acid which has been recognized as an important cancer nutrient and its removal can lead to destruction of the tumour. Normal human cells or tumor cells cannot synthesize L-tryptophan and therefore tumor resistance is unlikely to develop. L-tryptophan is also a constituent for different bio-molecules such as Serotonin, Melatonin, and is needed for other synthesis processes in the cell growth. L-tryptophan degrading enzymes with 3 iso-enzymes called tryptophan side chain oxydase (TSO I, II, III were isolated. The 3 iso-enzymes can be differentiated by tryptic digestion. They have different molecular weights with different effectivenesses. All the TSO enzymes have heme that can catalyze essentially similar reactions involving L-tryptophan as a substrate. The most effective TSO is the type TSO III. A column which contained TSO as a bioreactor was integrated in a plasmapheresis unit and tested it in different animals. In sheep and rabbits L-tryptophan depletion in plasma was shown at 95% and 100% rates respectively by a single pass through the bioreactor. The results in immune supprimized rats with tumors were impressive, too. In 20 different tumor cell lines there were different efficacies. Brest cancer and medulloblastoma showed the greatest efficacy of L-tryptophan degrading. The gene technology of TSO production from Pseudomonas is associated with formation of endotoxins. This disadvantage can be prevented by different washing procedures or by using fungal sources for the TSO production. TSO III is developed to treat cancer diseases successfully, and has low side effects. A combination of L-tryptophan depletion with all available cancer therapies is

  3. Depletion mapping and constrained optimization to support managing groundwater extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fienen, Michael N.; Bradbury, Kenneth R.; Kniffin, Maribeth; Barlow, Paul M.

    2018-01-01

    Groundwater models often serve as management tools to evaluate competing water uses including ecosystems, irrigated agriculture, industry, municipal supply, and others. Depletion potential mapping—showing the model-calculated potential impacts that wells have on stream baseflow—can form the basis for multiple potential management approaches in an oversubscribed basin. Specific management approaches can include scenarios proposed by stakeholders, systematic changes in well pumping based on depletion potential, and formal constrained optimization, which can be used to quantify the tradeoff between water use and stream baseflow. Variables such as the maximum amount of reduction allowed in each well and various groupings of wells using, for example, K-means clustering considering spatial proximity and depletion potential are considered. These approaches provide a potential starting point and guidance for resource managers and stakeholders to make decisions about groundwater management in a basin, spreading responsibility in different ways. We illustrate these approaches in the Little Plover River basin in central Wisconsin, United States—home to a rich agricultural tradition, with farmland and urban areas both in close proximity to a groundwater-dependent trout stream. Groundwater withdrawals have reduced baseflow supplying the Little Plover River below a legally established minimum. The techniques in this work were developed in response to engaged stakeholders with various interests and goals for the basin. They sought to develop a collaborative management plan at a watershed scale that restores the flow rate in the river in a manner that incorporates principles of shared governance and results in effective and minimally disruptive changes in groundwater extraction practices.

  4. Self-Regulatory Capacities Are Depleted in a Domain-Specific Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Rzepus, Anneka; Beste, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Performing an act of self-regulation such as making decisions has been suggested to deplete a common limited resource, which impairs all subsequent self-regulatory actions (ego depletion theory). It has however remained unclear whether self-referred decisions truly impair behavioral control even in seemingly unrelated cognitive domains, and which neurophysiological mechanisms are affected by these potential depletion effects. In the current study, we therefore used an inter-individual design to compare two kinds of depletion, namely a self-referred choice-based depletion and a categorization-based switching depletion, to a non-depleted control group. We used a backward inhibition (BI) paradigm to assess the effects of depletion on task switching and associated inhibition processes. It was combined with EEG and source localization techniques to assess both behavioral and neurophysiological depletion effects. The results challenge the ego depletion theory in its current form: Opposing the theory's prediction of a general limited resource, which should have yielded comparable effects in both depletion groups, or maybe even a larger depletion in the self-referred choice group, there were stronger performance impairments following a task domain-specific depletion (i.e., the switching-based depletion) than following a depletion based on self-referred choices. This suggests at least partly separate and independent resources for various cognitive control processes rather than just one joint resource for all self-regulation activities. The implications are crucial to consider for people making frequent far-reaching decisions e.g., in law or economy.

  5. Effect of acrolein and glutathione depleting agents on thioredoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xianmei; Wu Xuli; Choi, Young Eun; Kern, Julie C.; Kehrer, James P.

    2004-01-01

    Acrolein is a widespread environmental pollutant that reacts rapidly with nucleophiles, especially cellular thiols. In addition to glutathione (GSH), thioredoxin (Trx) and thioredoxin reductase (TR) contain thiol groups and may react with electrophiles. In the present study, A549 cells treated with 5-25 μM acrolein for 30 min lost cellular Trx activity in a dose-dependent fashion. Over 90% of Trx activity was lost at concentrations of 25 μM or greater. In contrast, Trx protein content, as assessed by western blotting, was not altered immediately after the 30 min acrolein treatment. Both Trx activity and protein levels increased 4 h after the acrolein treatment. However, Trx activity remained below control levels at 24 h. A similar dose-response relationship was seen with TR in A549 cells exposed to acrolein. There was, however, a rapid recovery of TR activity such that it attained normal levels by 4 h after doses ≤75 μM acrolein. Diethyl maleate (DEM), a common but not highly specific, agent used to deplete GSH, also inactivated Trx. A 2 h exposure of A549 cells to 1 mM DEM depleted cellular GSH by ∼50% and diminished Trx activity by over 67%. Lower DEM doses (0.125 mM and 0.25 mM) for 1 h had no significant effect on GSH but significantly decreased Trx activity 12 and 23%, respectively. Similar to immediately after acrolein exposure, DEM did not affect Trx protein levels. A Trx-1-GFP fusion protein was transfected into A549 cells. While the fusion protein was expressed, the Trx component was inactive by the insulin reducing assay. In summary, Trx and TR are inactivated by acrolein. In addition, the GSH depleting agent DEM inactivates Trx somewhat more effectively than it depletes GSH. The Trx-1-GFP fusion protein, while readily expressed, appears to have little or no activity, perhaps because the small size of Trx-1 (12 kDa) is affected by the larger GFP

  6. Numerical Simulation of Ionospheric Electron Concentration Depletion by Rocket Exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yong; Shi Jiaming; Yuan Zhongcai

    2011-01-01

    In terms of the diffusive process of the gases injected from rocket exhaust into the ionosphere and the relevant chemical reactions between the gases and the composition of ionosphere, the modifications in ionosphere caused by the injected hydrogen and carbon dioxide gas from the rocket exhaust are investigated. The results show that the diffusive process of the injected gases at the ionospheric height is very fast, and the injected gases can lead to a local depletion of electron concentration in the F-region. Furthermore, the plasma 'hole' caused by carbon dioxide is larger, deeper and more durable than that by the hydrogen. (astrophysics and space plasma)

  7. [Cystinosis : Diagnosis, cystine-depleting therapy, and transition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufeld, Jessica; Weber, Lutz T; Kurschat, Christine; Canaan-Kuehl, Sima; Brand, Eva; Oh, Jun; Pape, Lars

    2018-04-18

    This article presents a case of cystinosis in a young man. Diagnosis of the disease and the problem of transition to adult care are described. Cystinosis is a rare lysosomal storage disease with first manifestation in early childhood presenting as renal Fanconi syndrome. Without treatment, the disease leads to severe health impairment. Due to the rarity of the disease, a correct diagnosis is often delayed. Without treatment, cystinosis often leads to end-stage renal failure, blindness, hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, and rickets. Cystine-depleting therapy with cysteamine significantly improves mortality and quality of life.

  8. Processing and Applications of Depleted Uranium Alloy Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-09-01

    ammunition, weapons, gyrorotors, and ballast. Depleted uranium used in fly- wheel devices, nuclear fuel casks, and ammunition could consume a significant...from straight in the range of 0,002 to 0.060-inch TIR (total indicated runout ) with an average of 0.025-inch TIR.* Solution heat treatment of the as-cast...an envelope thickness of 0.050 inch to allow for runout and to clean up surface imperfections. The runout resulting from heat treatment was in the

  9. Relativistic nuclear physics: symmetry and the correlation depletion principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldin, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    The author's view on the role of symmetry in fundamental physics is presented. The concept of the 'symmetry of solutions' is analyzed. It is stressed that it is impossible to deduce the basic laws of relativistic nuclear physics from the QCD Lagrangians without recourse to additional hypotheses about the symmetry of solutions (Green functions). The test of these hypotheses is the major prospect of the study of hadron and nuclear collisions. Special importance is given to the Correlation Depletions Principle that makes it possible to construct mathematical models of relativistic nuclear physics, and analyze, by using simple terms, topologically complicated events of nucleus-nucleus collisions. 15 refs., 4 figs

  10. Uranium, depleted uranium, biological effects; Uranium, uranium appauvri, effets biologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Physicists, chemists and biologists at the CEA are developing scientific programs on the properties and uses of ionizing radiation. Since the CEA was created in 1945, a great deal of research has been carried out on the properties of natural, enriched and depleted uranium in cooperation with university laboratories and CNRS. There is a great deal of available data about uranium; thousands of analyses have been published in international reviews over more than 40 years. This presentation on uranium is a very brief summary of all these studies. (author)

  11. Microstructure of depleted uranium under uniaxial strain conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurek, A.K.; Embury, J.D.; Kelly, A.; Thissell, W.R.; Gustavsen, R.L.; Vorthman, J.E.; Hixson, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    Uranium samples of two different purities were used for spall strength measurements. Samples of depleted uranium were taken from very high purity material (38 ppM carbon) and from material containing 280 ppM C. Experimental conditions were chosen to effectively arrest the microstructural damage at two places in the development to full spall separation. Samples were soft recovered and characterized with respect to the microstructure and the form of damage. This allowed determination of the dependence of spall mechanisms on stress level, stress state, and sample purity. This information is used in developing a model to predict the mode of fracture

  12. Depleted uranium storage and disposal trade study: Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hightower, J.R.; Trabalka, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to: identify the most desirable forms for conversion of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) for extended storage, identify the most desirable forms for conversion of DUF6 for disposal, evaluate the comparative costs for extended storage or disposal of the various forms, review benefits of the proposed plasma conversion process, estimate simplified life-cycle costs (LCCs) for five scenarios that entail either disposal or beneficial reuse, and determine whether an overall optimal form for conversion of DUF6 can be selected given current uncertainty about the endpoints (specific disposal site/technology or reuse options)

  13. Tungsten versus depleted uranium for armour-piercing penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.K.

    1983-01-01

    Tungsten alloys have been widely used in the production of armour-piercing (AP) penetrators for defense purposes for the past 40 years. In recent years, however, depleted uranium (DU) has also been utilised for this application. Both materials exhibit high density and strength, two properties necessary for kinetic-energy projectiles to penetrate armour on tanks and other vehicles. The facts, however, support the view that tungsten can and should be utilised as the primary material for most armour-defeating ordnance applications. (author)

  14. Depleted uranium storage and disposal trade study: Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hightower, J.R.; Trabalka, J.R.

    2000-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to: identify the most desirable forms for conversion of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) for extended storage, identify the most desirable forms for conversion of DUF6 for disposal, evaluate the comparative costs for extended storage or disposal of the various forms, review benefits of the proposed plasma conversion process, estimate simplified life-cycle costs (LCCs) for five scenarios that entail either disposal or beneficial reuse, and determine whether an overall optimal form for conversion of DUF6 can be selected given current uncertainty about the endpoints (specific disposal site/technology or reuse options).

  15. The pseudo-harmonics method applied to depletion calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, F.C. da; Amaral, J.A.C.; Thome, Z.D.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, a new method for performing depletion calculations, based on the use of the Pseudo-Harmonics perturbation method, was developed. The fuel burnup was considered as a global perturbation and the multigroup difusion equations were rewriten in such a way as to treat the soluble boron concentration as the eigenvalue. By doing this, the critical boron concentration can be obtained by a perturbation method. A test of the new method was performed for a H 2 O-colled, D 2 O-moderated reactor. Comparison with direct calculation showed that this method is very accurate and efficient. (author) [pt

  16. Storage and uses alternatives of depleted UF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, S.; Dotto, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    The U-enrichment of the Angra-1 pellets (Brazil) have generated about 792 ton of depleted-U, which is nowadays beeing stored by URENCO. The possible sending of this compound to Brazil, added to the fact that in the future, NUCLEI (Nuclebras Enriquecimento Isotopico) itself will generate it, reopens the discussion of the destination of this compound. In this context, the necessity, interest and viability aspects of a reconvertion plant of UF 6 in Brazil are getting important and are, in what follows, breafly discussed. (author) [pt

  17. Depleted-Uranium Weapons: the Whys and Wherefores

    OpenAIRE

    Gsponer, Andre

    2003-01-01

    The only military application in which depleted-uranium (DU) alloys out-perform present-day tungsten alloys is long-rod penetration into a main battle-tank's armor. However, this advantage is only on the order of 10%, and it disappears when the comparison is made in terms of actual lethality of complete anti-tank systems instead of laboratory-type steel penetration capability. Therefore, new micro- and nano-engineered tungsten alloys may soon out-perform DU alloys, enabling the production of ...

  18. Optimization of reload core design for PWR and application to Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Wei; Zhongsheng Xie; Banghua Yin

    1995-01-01

    A direct efficient optimization technique has been effected for automatically optimizing the reload of PWR. The objective functions include: maximization of end-of-cycle (EOC) reactivity and maximization of average discharge burnup. The fuel loading optimization and burnable poison (BP) optimization are separated into two stages by using Haling principle. In the first stage, the optimum fuel reloading pattern without BP is determined by the Linear Programming method using enrichments as control variable. In the second stage the optimum BP allocation is determined by the Flexible Tolerance Method using the number of BP rods as control variable. A practical and efficient PWR reloading optimization program based on above theory has been encoded and successfully applied to Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant(QNP)cycle 2 reloading design

  19. Study and application of microscopic depletion model in core simulator of COSINE project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xiaoyu; Wang Su; Yan Yuhang; Liu Zhanquan; Chen Yixue; Huang Kai

    2013-01-01

    Microscopic depletion correction is one of the commonly used techniques that could improve the historical effect and attain higher precision of diffusion calculation and alleviate the inaccuracy caused by historical effect. Core simulator of COSINE project (core and system integrated engine for design and analysis) has developed a hybrid macroscopic-microscopic depletion model to track important isotopes during each depletion history and correct the macro cross sections. The basic theory was discussed in this paper. The effect and results of microscopic depletion correction were also analyzed. The preliminary test results demonstrate that the microscopic depletion model is effective and practicable for improving the precision of core calculation. (authors)

  20. The Influence of Chronic Ego Depletion on Goal Adherence: An Experience Sampling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ligang; Tao, Ting; Fan, Chunlei; Gao, Wenbin; Wei, Chuguang

    2015-01-01

    Although ego depletion effects have been widely observed in experiments in which participants perform consecutive self-control tasks, the process of ego depletion remains poorly understood. Using the strength model of self-control, we hypothesized that chronic ego depletion adversely affects goal adherence and that mental effort and motivation are involved in the process of ego depletion. In this study, 203 students reported their daily performance, mental effort, and motivation with respect to goal directed behavior across a 3-week time period. People with high levels of chronic ego depletion were less successful in goal adherence than those with less chronic ego depletion. Although daily effort devoted to goal adherence increased with chronic ego depletion, motivation to adhere to goals was not affected. Participants with high levels of chronic ego depletion showed a stronger positive association between mental effort and performance, but chronic ego depletion did not play a regulatory role in the effect of motivation on performance. Chronic ego depletion increased the likelihood of behavior regulation failure, suggesting that it is difficult for people in an ego-depletion state to adhere to goals. We integrate our results with the findings of previous studies and discuss possible theoretical implications.

  1. Modeling and analysis of surface potential of single gate fully depleted SOI MOSFET using 2D-Poisson's equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Prashant; Tyagi, Chandra Shekhar; Srivastav, Nishant

    2016-03-01

    In this paper the analytical solution of the 2D Poisson's equation for single gate Fully Depleted SOI (FDSOI) MOSFET's is derived by using a Green's function solution technique. The surface potential is calculated and the threshold voltage of the device is minimized for the low power consumption. Due to minimization of threshold voltage the short channel effect of device is suppressed and after observation we obtain the device is kink free. The structure and characteristics of SingleGate FDSOI MOSFET were matched by using MathCAD and silvaco respectively.

  2. Gamma spectrometric determination of depleted Uranium in Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantelic, G.; Eremic Savkovic, M.; Javorina, L.; Tanaskovic, I.; Vuletic, V.; Milacic, S.

    2002-01-01

    The radiation protection is very important interdisciplinary research field due to the presence of the radiation in daily life. The systematic examination of radioactive contamination of various environmental samples was established forty years ago in the Institute of Occupational and Radiological Health Dr Dragomir Karajovic for the sake of preventive protection of population and environment from the harmful effect of ionizing radiation. The global sources of radionuclide contamination in our country are the fallout due to previous nuclear testing and the deposition of radionuclides from the region of Chernobyl accident. The contents of radionuclides were determined in aerosol, soil, fallout (wet and dry deposition), rivers, lakes, drinking water, human and animal food. The samples were collected in several locations of the Republic of Serbia and in regular time intervals, according to methods determined by the regulation. The regulations and the monitoring programs were updated after the Chernobyl accident. In the recent time, after the NATO aggression, we analyzed depleted uranium content in the environmental samples. We used high-resolution gamma spectrometry measurements, because of their simplicity and accuracy. Aims of the control were to asses the increase of radioactivity above the natural levels in the immediate and near vicinity of the bomb craters, to asses the corresponding effect of changed natural radioactivity on the health of the population living in these places and finding unexploded depleted uranium bullets

  3. Experimental depletion of different renal interstitial cell populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohman, S.O.; Sundelin, B.; Forsum, U.; Tribukait, B.

    1988-01-01

    To define different populations of renal interstitial cells and investigate some aspects of their function, we studied the kidneys of normal rats and rats with hereditary diabetes insipidus (DI, Brattleboro) after experimental manipulations expected to alter the number of interstitial cells. DI rats showed an almost complete loss of interstitial cells in their renal papillae after treatment with a high dose of vasopressin. In spite of the lack of interstitial cells, the animals concentrated their urine to the same extent as vasopressin-treated normal rats, indicating that the renomedullary interstitial cells do not have an important function in concentrating the urine. The interstitial cells returned nearly to normal within 1 week off vasopressin treatment, suggesting a rapid turnover rate of these cells. To further distinguish different populations of interstitial cells, we studied the distribution of class II MHC antigen expression in the kidneys of normal and bone-marrow depleted Wistar rats. Normal rats had abundant class II antigen-positive interstitial cells in the renal cortex and outer medulla, but not in the inner medulla (papilla). Six days after 1000 rad whole body irradiation, the stainable cells were almost completely lost, but electron microscopic morphometry showed a virtually unchanged volume density of interstitial cells in the cortex and outer medulla, as well as the inner medulla. Thus, irradiation abolished the expression of the class II antigen but caused no significant depletion of interstitial cells

  4. Ozone-depleting-substance control and phase-out plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickels, J.M.; Brown, M.J.

    1994-07-01

    Title VI of the Federal Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 requires regulation of the use and disposal of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) (e.g., Halon, Freon). Several important federal regulations have been promulgated that affect the use of such substances at the Hanford Site. On April 23, 1993, Executive Order (EO) 12843, Procurement Requirements and Policies for Federal Agencies for Ozone-Depleting Substances (EPA 1993) was issued for Federal facilities to conform to the new US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations implementing the Clean Air Act of 1963 (CAA), Section 613, as amended. To implement the requirements of Title VI the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL), issued a directive to the Hanford Site contractors on May 25, 1994 (Wisness 1994). The directive assigns Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) the lead in coordinating the development of a sitewide comprehensive implementation plan to be drafted by July 29, 1994 and completed by September 30, 1994. The implementation plan will address several areas where immediate compliance action is required. It will identify all current uses of ODSs and inventories, document the remaining useful life of equipment that contains ODS chemicals, provide a phase-out schedule, and provide a strategy that will be implemented consistently by all the Hanford Site contractors. This plan also addresses the critical and required elements of Federal regulations, the EO, and US Department of Energy (DOE) guidance. This plan is intended to establish a sitewide management system to address the clean air requirements

  5. Separation and recovery method for depleted uranium from spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imoto, Yoshie; Fujita, Reiko.

    1993-01-01

    Spent oxide fuels are reduced in a molten salt of CaCl 2 -CaF 2 to convert them into metals, then melted in an Fe-U bath disposed in an electrolytic refining vessel and brought into contact with molten Mg, to extract transuranium elements and rare earth elements contained in the Fe-U bath as metals in the molten Mg. Then molten Mg is removed and the residue is brought into contact with KCl-LiCl molten salt and electrolyzed using the Fe-U as an anode. Then, uranium is recovered by deposition on an iron cathode disposed in chloride electrolytes of the electrolytic refining vessel. Uranium and transuranium elements can be thus separated and, for example, depleted uranium for use in blanket fuels can be recovered easily. This can greatly reduce the temporary storage amount of depleted uranium, to eliminate requirement for a large-scaled facility used exclusively for storing uranium and long time management for uranium. (T.M.)

  6. Acute serotonin depletion releases motivated inhibition of response vigour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Ouden, Hanneke E M; Swart, Jennifer C; Schmidt, Kristin; Fekkes, Durk; Geurts, Dirk E M; Cools, Roshan

    2015-04-01

    The neurotransmitter serotonin has long been implicated in the motivational control of behaviour. Recent theories propose that the role of serotonin can be understood in terms of an interaction between a motivational and a behavioural activation axis. Experimental support for these ideas, however, has been mixed. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the role of serotonin (5HT) in behavioural vigour as a function of incentive motivation. We employed dietary acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) to lower the 5HT precursor tryptophan during the performance of a speeded visual discrimination task. Feedback valence and feedback probability were manipulated independently and cued prior to target onset. On feedback trials, fast correct responses led to either reward or avoidance of punishment, while slow or incorrect responses led to reward omission or punishment. We show that behavioural responding is inhibited under high incentive motivation (i.e. high-feedback probability) at baseline 5HT levels and that lowering these leads to behavioural disinhibition, while leaving accuracy unaffected. Surprisingly, there were no differential effects of motivational valence, with 5HT depletion releasing behavioural inhibition under both appetitive and aversive motivation. Our findings extend current theories on the role of 5HT in behavioural inhibition by showing that reductions in serotonin lead to increased behavioural vigour only if there is a motivational drive to inhibit behaviour at baseline.

  7. Depletion GPT-free sensitivity analysis for reactor eigenvalue problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, C.; Abdel-Khalik, H.

    2013-01-01

    This manuscript introduces a novel approach to solving depletion perturbation theory problems without the need to set up or solve the generalized perturbation theory (GPT) equations. The approach, hereinafter denoted generalized perturbation theory free (GPT-Free), constructs a reduced order model (ROM) using methods based in perturbation theory and computes response sensitivity profiles in a manner that is independent of the number or type of responses, allowing for an efficient computation of sensitivities when many responses are required. Moreover, the reduction error from using the ROM is quantified in the GPT-Free approach by means of a Wilks' order statistics error metric denoted the K-metric. Traditional GPT has been recognized as the most computationally efficient approach for performing sensitivity analyses of models with many input parameters, e.g. when forward sensitivity analyses are computationally intractable. However, most neutronics codes that can solve the fundamental (homogenous) adjoint eigenvalue problem do not have GPT capabilities unless envisioned during code development. The GPT-Free approach addresses this limitation by requiring only the ability to compute the fundamental adjoint. This manuscript demonstrates the GPT-Free approach for depletion reactor calculations performed in SCALE6 using the 7x7 UAM assembly model. A ROM is developed for the assembly over a time horizon of 990 days. The approach both calculates the reduction error over the lifetime of the simulation using the K-metric and benchmarks the obtained sensitivities using sample calculations. (authors)

  8. Adult mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome with mild manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Finsterer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome (MDS is usually a severe disorder of infancy or childhood, due to a reduced copy number of mtDNA molecules. MDS with only mild, non-specific clinical manifestations and onset in adulthood has not been reported. A 47-year-old Caucasian female with short stature and a history of migraine, endometriosis, Crohn’s disease, C-cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland, and a family history positive for mitochondrial disorder (2 sisters, aunt, niece, developed day-time sleepiness, exercise intolerance, and myalgias in the lower-limb muscles since age 46y. She slept 9-10 hours during the night and 2 hours after lunch daily. Clinical exam revealed sore neck muscles, bilateral ptosis, and reduced Achilles tendon reflexes exclusively. Blood tests revealed hyperlipidemia exclusively. Nerve conduction studies, needle electromyography, and cerebral and spinal magnetic resonance imaging were non-informative. Muscle biopsy revealed detached lobulated fibers with subsarcolemmal accentuation of the NADH and SDH staining. Real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed depletion of the mtDNA down to 9% of normal. MDS may be associated with a mild phenotype in adults and may not significantly progress during the first year after onset. In an adult with hypersomnia, severe tiredness, exercise intolerance, and a family history positive for mitochondrial disorder, a MDS should be considered.

  9. Characterization of Prochlorococcus clades from iron-depleted oceanic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusch, Douglas B; Martiny, Adam C; Dupont, Christopher L; Halpern, Aaron L; Venter, J Craig

    2010-09-14

    Prochlorococcus describes a diverse and abundant genus of marine photosynthetic microbes. It is primarily found in oligotrophic waters across the globe and plays a crucial role in energy and nutrient cycling in the ocean ecosystem. The abundance, global distribution, and availability of isolates make Prochlorococcus a model system for understanding marine microbial diversity and biogeochemical cycling. Analysis of 73 metagenomic samples from the Global Ocean Sampling expedition acquired in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans revealed the presence of two uncharacterized Prochlorococcus clades. A phylogenetic analysis using six different genetic markers places the clades close to known lineages adapted to high-light environments. The two uncharacterized clades consistently cooccur and dominate the surface waters of high-temperature, macronutrient-replete, and low-iron regions of the Eastern Equatorial Pacific upwelling and the tropical Indian Ocean. They are genetically distinct from each other and other high-light Prochlorococcus isolates and likely define a previously unrecognized ecotype. Our detailed genomic analysis indicates that these clades comprise organisms that are adapted to iron-depleted environments by reducing their iron quota through the loss of several iron-containing proteins that likely function as electron sinks in the photosynthetic pathway in other Prochlorococcus clades from high-light environments. The presence and inferred physiology of these clades may explain why Prochlorococcus populations from iron-depleted regions do not respond to iron fertilization experiments and further expand our understanding of how phytoplankton adapt to variations in nutrient availability in the ocean.

  10. Use of 60 ppm deuterium depleted water in companionship animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balint, Emilia; Manolescu, N.; Cranganu, D.; Militaru, Manuela; Pop, Aneta; Codreanu, M.; Panait, Marieta; Lastofka, D.

    2004-01-01

    There are presented the results of studies on the effects of deuterium depleted water in companionship animals. Based on these results, a new product was realized, 'Aqua Forte' that is a deuterium depleted potable water (60 ppm deuterium) with beneficial effects in animal's health maintaining. Aqua forte has prophylactic properties (in preventing diseases related to immune system) and therapeutic properties, as adjuvant in various therapeutic programs. The mechanism of action takes place at the cellular metabolism level by replacing the constitutional and free water of 150 ppm deuterium, this resulting in the stimulation of the immune cellular system and also of resistance at the onset of some pathological states. The non-specific stimulation implies performing both the humoral mediated immune reactions and of those cellularly mediated. Aqua forte is recommended in: - the feeding of the young weaned animals, the action being of growth stimulation, and increasing of the resistance against some diseases specific to the age; - as an adjuvant in some chronic diseases (hepatitis, pancreatitis, dermatological diseases, osteoarthropaties, hepato-renal syndrome, renal insufficiency, after surgical interventions, in antitumoral therapy); - in the feeding of the old animals for the quality of life improvement. (authors)

  11. Hormetic effect induced by depleted uranium in zebrafish embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, C.Y.P.; Cheng, S.H.; Yu, K.N.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Studied hormetic effect induced by uranium (U) in embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio). • Hormesis observed at 24 hpf for exposures to 10 μg/l of depleted U (DU). • Hormesis not observed before 30 hpf for exposures to 100 μg/l of DU. • Hormetic effect induced in zebrafish embryos in a dose-and time-dependent manner. - Abstract: The present work studied the hormetic effect induced by uranium (U) in embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) using apoptosis as the biological endpoint. Hormetic effect is characterized by biphasic dose-response relationships showing a low-dose stimulation and a high-dose inhibition. Embryos were dechorionated at 4 h post fertilization (hpf), and were then exposed to 10 or 100 μg/l depleted uranium (DU) in uranyl acetate solutions from 5 to 6 hpf. For exposures to 10 μg/l DU, the amounts of apoptotic signals in the embryos were significantly increased at 20 hpf but were significantly decreased at 24 hpf, which demonstrated the presence of U-induced hormesis. For exposures to 100 μg/l DU, the amounts of apoptotic signals in the embryos were significantly increased at 20, 24 and 30 hpf. Hormetic effect was not shown but its occurrence between 30 and 48 hpf could not be ruled out. In conclusion, hormetic effect could be induced in zebrafish embryos in a concentration- and time-dependent manner.

  12. Hormetic effect induced by depleted uranium in zebrafish embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, C.Y.P. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Cheng, S.H., E-mail: bhcheng@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Biomedical Sciences, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Yu, K.N., E-mail: peter.yu@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Studied hormetic effect induced by uranium (U) in embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio). • Hormesis observed at 24 hpf for exposures to 10 μg/l of depleted U (DU). • Hormesis not observed before 30 hpf for exposures to 100 μg/l of DU. • Hormetic effect induced in zebrafish embryos in a dose-and time-dependent manner. - Abstract: The present work studied the hormetic effect induced by uranium (U) in embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) using apoptosis as the biological endpoint. Hormetic effect is characterized by biphasic dose-response relationships showing a low-dose stimulation and a high-dose inhibition. Embryos were dechorionated at 4 h post fertilization (hpf), and were then exposed to 10 or 100 μg/l depleted uranium (DU) in uranyl acetate solutions from 5 to 6 hpf. For exposures to 10 μg/l DU, the amounts of apoptotic signals in the embryos were significantly increased at 20 hpf but were significantly decreased at 24 hpf, which demonstrated the presence of U-induced hormesis. For exposures to 100 μg/l DU, the amounts of apoptotic signals in the embryos were significantly increased at 20, 24 and 30 hpf. Hormetic effect was not shown but its occurrence between 30 and 48 hpf could not be ruled out. In conclusion, hormetic effect could be induced in zebrafish embryos in a concentration- and time-dependent manner.

  13. Including environmental concerns in management strategies for depleted uranium hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, M.; Avci, H.I.; Bradley, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    One of the major programs within the Office of Nuclear Energy, Science, and Technology of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF 6 ) management program. The program is intended to find a long-term management strategy for the DUF 6 that is currently stored in approximately 46,400 cylinders at Paducah, KY; Portsmouth, OH; and Oak Ridge, TN, USA. The program has four major components: technology assessment, engineering analysis, cost analysis, and the environmental impact statement (EIS). From the beginning of the program, the DOE has incorporated the environmental considerations into the process of strategy selection. Currently, the DOE has no preferred alternative. The results of the environmental impacts assessment from the EIS, as well as the results from the other components of the program, will be factored into the strategy selection process. In addition to the DOE's current management plan, other alternatives continued storage, reuse, or disposal of depleted uranium, will be considered in the EIS. The EIS is expected to be completed and issued in its final form in the fall of 1997

  14. Evidence and Mechanisms of Fat Depletion in Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadi, Maryam; Mazurak, Vera C.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of cancer patients experience wasting characterized by muscle loss with or without fat loss. In human and animal models of cancer, body composition assessment and morphological analysis reveals adipose atrophy and presence of smaller adipocytes. Fat loss is associated with reduced quality of life in cancer patients and shorter survival independent of body mass index. Fat loss occurs in both visceral and subcutaneous depots; however, the pattern of loss has been incompletely characterized. Increased lipolysis and fat oxidation, decreased lipogenesis, impaired lipid depositionand adipogenesis, as well as browning of white adipose tissue may underlie adipose atrophy in cancer. Inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) produced by the tumor or adipose tissue may also contribute to adipose depletion. Identifying the mechanisms and time course of fat mass changes in cancer may help identify individuals at risk of adipose depletion and define interventions to circumvent wasting. This review outlines current knowledge of fat mass in cancer and illustrates the need for further studies to assess alterations in visceral and subcutaneous adipose depots and possible mechanisms for loss of fat during cancer progression. PMID:25415607

  15. Using molybdenum depleted in 95Mo in UMo fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, K.; Wijtsma, F.; Bos, A.; Mol, C.; Rakhorst, H.; Bretscher, M.; Hofman, G.; Snelgrove, J.

    2002-01-01

    In recent years significant interest was gained in UMo fuel to be used in Material Test Reactors. This interest was induced by the fact that UMo fuel is mechanically stable, even at high uranium concentrations and high U-burnup. These properties are required in order to use Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) and still be able to achieve high flux and burnup values and, thus, to facilitate the conversion from High Enriched Uranium (HEU) to LEU. Neutronics computations have shown that, although the Mo concentration in UMo fuel is not very high (about 5 - 10w%), the neutron absorption cross sections of natural Mo are sufficiently high to have a considerable negative impact on the reactivity of this UMo fuel. In the present research the neutron absorption cross sections of natural Mo are discussed and the option to reduce the cross section of molybdenum by depleting the Mo in 95 Mo is described. Finally the economic consequences of using Mo depleted in 95 Mo are briefly discussed

  16. Depleted uranium instead of lead in munitions: the lesser evil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jargin, Sergei V

    2014-03-01

    Uranium has many similarities to lead in its exposure mechanisms, metabolism and target organs. However, lead is more toxic, which is reflected in the threshold limit values. The main potential hazard associated with depleted uranium is inhalation of the aerosols created when a projectile hits an armoured target. A person can be exposed to lead in similar ways. Accidental dangerous exposures can result from contact with both substances. Encountering uranium fragments is of minor significance because of the low penetration depth of alpha particles emitted by uranium: they are unable to penetrate even the superficial keratin layer of human skin. An additional cancer risk attributable to the uranium exposure might be significant only in case of prolonged contact of the contaminant with susceptible tissues. Lead intoxication can be observed in the wounded, in workers manufacturing munitions etc; moreover, lead has been documented to have a negative impact on the intellectual function of children at very low blood concentrations. It is concluded on the basis of the literature overview that replacement of lead by depleted uranium in munitions would be environmentally beneficial or largely insignificant because both lead and uranium are present in the environment.

  17. Depleted uranium instead of lead in munitions: the lesser evil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jargin, Sergei V

    2014-01-01

    Uranium has many similarities to lead in its exposure mechanisms, metabolism and target organs. However, lead is more toxic, which is reflected in the threshold limit values. The main potential hazard associated with depleted uranium is inhalation of the aerosols created when a projectile hits an armoured target. A person can be exposed to lead in similar ways. Accidental dangerous exposures can result from contact with both substances. Encountering uranium fragments is of minor significance because of the low penetration depth of alpha particles emitted by uranium: they are unable to penetrate even the superficial keratin layer of human skin. An additional cancer risk attributable to the uranium exposure might be significant only in case of prolonged contact of the contaminant with susceptible tissues. Lead intoxication can be observed in the wounded, in workers manufacturing munitions etc; moreover, lead has been documented to have a negative impact on the intellectual function of children at very low blood concentrations. It is concluded on the basis of the literature overview that replacement of lead by depleted uranium in munitions would be environmentally beneficial or largely insignificant because both lead and uranium are present in the environment. (opinion)

  18. Role of depletion on the dynamics of a diffusing forager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bénichou, O; Chupeau, M; Redner, S

    2016-01-01

    We study the dynamics of a starving random walk in general spatial dimension d . This model represents an idealized description for the fate of an unaware forager whose motion is not affected by the presence or absence of resources. The forager depletes its environment by consuming resources and dies if it wanders too long without finding food. In the exactly solvable case of one dimension, we explicitly derive the average lifetime of the walk and the distribution for the number of distinct sites visited by the walk at the instant of starvation. We also give a heuristic derivation for the averages of these two quantities. We tackle the complex but ecologically relevant case of two dimensions by an approximation in which the depleted zone is assumed to always be circular and which grows incrementally each time the walk reaches the edge of this zone. Within this framework, we derive a lower bound for the scaling of the average lifetime and number of distinct sites visited at starvation. We also determine the asymptotic distribution of the number of distinct sites visited at starvation. Finally, we solve the case of high spatial dimensions within a mean-field approach. (paper)

  19. The scale analysis sequence for LWR fuel depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, O.W.; Parks, C.V.

    1991-01-01

    The SCALE (Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation) code system is used extensively to perform away-from-reactor safety analysis (particularly criticality safety, shielding, heat transfer analyses) for spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel. Spent fuel characteristics such as radiation sources, heat generation sources, and isotopic concentrations can be computed within SCALE using the SAS2 control module. A significantly enhanced version of the SAS2 control module, which is denoted as SAS2H, has been made available with the release of SCALE-4. For each time-dependent fuel composition, SAS2H performs one-dimensional (1-D) neutron transport analyses (via XSDRNPM-S) of the reactor fuel assembly using a two-part procedure with two separate unit-cell-lattice models. The cross sections derived from a transport analysis at each time step are used in a point-depletion computation (via ORIGEN-S) that produces the burnup-dependent fuel composition to be used in the next spectral calculation. A final ORIGEN-S case is used to perform the complete depletion/decay analysis using the burnup-dependent cross sections. The techniques used by SAS2H and two recent applications of the code are reviewed in this paper. 17 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  20. Antisickling effects of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poillon, W N; Kim, B C; Labotka, R J; Hicks, C U; Kark, J A

    1995-06-01

    Elevation of 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) in sickle erthrocytes (SS RBCs) and concomitant acidification of the cell interior promote polymerization by decreasing the solubility (csat) of deoxyhemoglobin S. The antisickling effect of 2,3-DPG depletion was evaluated after activation of the 2,3-DPG phosphatase activity of bisphosphoglycerate mutase by glycolate-2-phosphate, leading to rapid loss of intracellular 2,3-DPG. To ensure its maximal reduction in a physiologic medium, isosmotic CO2/bicarbonate-buffered saline, pH 7.0, was used. Substitution of K+ for Na+ as the major extracellular cation suppressed K:Cl cotransport, prevented cell shrinkage, and allowed demonstration of the full antisickling effect of 2,3-DPG depletion. The modest effect on solubility per se of removing intraerythrocytic 2,3-DPG (delta Csat = 1.6 g/dL) was amplified into a much larger antisickling effect by interaction with three other cellular variables affecting solubility and polymer content (intracellular pH, O2 saturation, and mean cell hemoglobin concentration). Acting in concert, these four antisickling effects (three solubilizing, one osmotic) reduced polymer fraction of glycolate-treated SS RBCs by 32% to 63%, with a concomitant decrease in sickling of 46% to 95% at the nominal pO2 of the microcirculation (20 mm Hg). A decrement in sickling of this magnitude should significantly ameliorate the vasoocclusive severity of sickle cell disease.

  1. B-cell-depleting Therapy in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Casals, Manuel; Sanz, Iñaki; Bosch, Xavier; Stone, John H.; Khamashta, Munther A.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of a new class of agents (B-cell-depleting therapies) has opened a new era in the therapeutic approach to systemic lupus erythematosus, with belimumab being the first drug licensed for use in systemic lupus erythematosus in more than 50 years. Four agents deserve specific mention: rituximab, ocrelizumab, epratuzumab, and belimumab. Controlled trials have shown negative results for rituximab, promising results for epratuzumab, and positive results for belimumab. Despite these negative results, rituximab is the most-used agent in patients who do not respond or are intolerant to standard therapy and those with life-threatening presentations. B-cell-depleting agents should not be used in patients with mild disease and should be tailored according to individual patient characteristics, including ethnicity, organ involvement, and the immunological profile. Forthcoming studies of B-cell-directed strategies, particularly data from investigations of off-label rituximab use and postmarketing studies of belimumab, will provide new insights into the utility of these treatments in the routine management of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. PMID:22444096

  2. Radiological air quality in a depleted uranium (DU) storage vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, T.; Cucchiara, A.L.

    1999-01-01

    The radiological air quality of two storage vaults, one with depleted uranium (DU) and one without, was evaluated and compared. The intent of the study was to determine if the presence of stored DU would significantly contribute to the gaseous/airborne radiation level compared to natural background. Both vaults are constructed out of concrete and are dimensionally similar. The vaults are located on the first floor of the same building. Neither vault has air supply or air exhaust. The doors to both vaults remained closed during the evaluation period, except for brief and infrequent access by the operational group. One vault contained 700 KG of depleted uranium, and the other vault contained documents inside of file cabinets. Radon detectors and giraffe air samplers were used to gather data on the quantity of gaseous/airborne radionuclides in both vaults. The results of this study indicated that there was no significant difference in the quantity of gaseous/airborne radionuclides in the two vaults. This paper gives a discussion of the effects of the stored DU on the air quality, and poses several theories supporting the results

  3. Depleted and natural uranium: chemistry and toxicological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Elena; Abu-Qare, Aquel; Flaherty, Meghan; Garofolo, Melissa; Rincavage, Heather; Abou-Donia, Mohamed

    2004-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) is a by-product from the chemical enrichment of naturally occurring uranium. Natural uranium is comprised of three radioactive isotopes: (238)U, (235)U, and (234)U. This enrichment process reduces the radioactivity of DU to roughly 30% of that of natural uranium. Nonmilitary uses of DU include counterweights in airplanes, shields against radiation in medical radiotherapy units and transport of radioactive isotopes. DU has also been used during wartime in heavy tank armor, armor-piercing bullets, and missiles, due to its desirable chemical properties coupled with its decreased radioactivity. DU weapons are used unreservedly by the armed forces. Chemically and toxicologically, DU behaves similarly to natural uranium metal. Although the effects of DU on human health are not easily discerned, they may be produced by both its chemical and radiological properties. DU can be toxic to many bodily systems, as presented in this review. Most importantly, normal functioning of the kidney, brain, liver, and heart can be affected by DU exposure. Numerous other systems can also be affected by DU exposure, and these are also reviewed. Despite the prevalence of DU usage in many applications, limited data exist regarding the toxicological consequences on human health. This review focuses on the chemistry, pharmacokinetics, and toxicological effects of depleted and natural uranium on several systems in the mammalian body. A section on risk assessment concludes the review.

  4. Radiosensitization of CHO cells by the combination of glutathione depletion and low concentrations of oxygen: The effect of different levels of GSH depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, E.P.; Epp, E.R.; Zachgo, E.A.; Biaglow, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Recently, the authors have examined the effect of GSH depletion by BSO on CHO cells equilibrated with oxygen at various concentrations (0.05-4.0%) and irradiated with 50 kVp x-rays. This is of interest because of the uncertain radiosensitizing effect GSH depletion may have on cells equilibrated with low oxygen concentrations. GSH depletion (0.1 mM BSO/24 hrs reduced [GSH] ≅ 10% of control) enhanced the radiosensitizing action of moderate (0.4-4.0%) concentrations of oxygen, i.e., GSH depletion reduced the [O/sub 2/] necessary to achieve an equivalent ER by ≅ 2-3 fold. However, GSH depletion was much more effective as a rediosensitizer when cells were equilibrated with low (<0.4%) concentrations of oxygen, i.e., GSH depletion reduced the [O/sub 2/] necessary to achieve an equivalent ER by 8-10 fold. Furthermore, while the addition of exogenous 5 mM GSH restored the ER to that observed when GSH was not depleted, the intracellular [GSH] was not increased. The results of these studies carried out at different levels of GSH depletion are presented

  5. Fully depleted CMOS pixel sensor development and potential applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudot, J.; Kachel, M. [Universite de Strasbourg, IPHC, 23 rue du Loess 67037 Strasbourg (France); CNRS, UMR7178, 67037 Strasbourg (France)

    2015-07-01

    CMOS pixel sensors are often opposed to hybrid pixel sensors due to their very different sensitive layer. In standard CMOS imaging processes, a thin (about 20 μm) low resistivity epitaxial layer acts as the sensitive volume and charge collection is mostly driven by thermal agitation. In contrast, the so-called hybrid pixel technology exploits a thick (typically 300 μm) silicon sensor with high resistivity allowing for the depletion of this volume, hence charges drift toward collecting electrodes. But this difference is fading away with the recent availability of some CMOS imaging processes based on a relatively thick (about 50 μm) high resistivity epitaxial layer which allows for full depletion. This evolution extents the range of applications for CMOS pixel sensors where their known assets, high sensitivity and granularity combined with embedded signal treatment, could potentially foster breakthrough in detection performances for specific scientific instruments. One such domain is the Xray detection for soft energies, typically below 10 keV, where the thin sensitive layer was previously severely impeding CMOS sensor usage. Another application becoming realistic for CMOS sensors, is the detection in environment with a high fluence of non-ionizing radiation, such as hadron colliders. However, when considering highly demanding applications, it is still to be proven that micro-circuits required to uniformly deplete the sensor at the pixel level, do not mitigate the sensitivity and efficiency required. Prototype sensors in two different technologies with resistivity higher than 1 kΩ, sensitive layer between 40 and 50 μm and featuring pixel pitch in the range 25 to 50 μm, have been designed and fabricated. Various biasing architectures were adopted to reach full depletion with only a few volts. Laboratory investigations with three types of sources (X-rays, β-rays and infrared light) demonstrated the validity of the approach with respect to depletion, keeping a

  6. Depletion of the vibrational ground state of CH4 in absorption spectroscopy at 3.4 μm in N2 and air in the 1-100 Torr range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmaninger, Thomas; Zhao, Gang; Ma, Weiguang; Axner, Ove

    2018-01-01

    A model presented in an accompanying work predicts that mid-IR absorption signals from methane in trace concentrations in various buffer gases detected at pressures in the 1-100 Torr range can be reduced and distorted due to depletion of the vibrational ground state if the molecules are exposed to laser powers in the tens of mW range or above. This work provides experimental evidence of such depletion in a resonant cavity under a variety of conditions, e.g. for intracavity laser powers up to 2 W and for buffer gases of N2 or dry air, and verifies the applicability of the model. It was found that the degree of depletion is significantly larger in N2 than dry air, and that it increases with pressure for pressures up to around 10 Torr (attributed to a decreased diffusion rate) but decreases with pressure for pressures above 20 Torr (caused by an increased collisional vibrational decay rate). The maximum degree of depletion (∼80%) was obtained for methane in N2 at around 15 Torr. This implies that absorption spectrometry of methane can experience significant non-linear dependencies on laser power, pressure, as well as buffer gas composition. It is shown that depletion takes place also in 13CH4, which verifies the applicability of the model also for this isotopologue, and that NICE-OHMS signals detected in absorption phase are less affected by depletion than in dispersion. It was concluded that the absorption mode of detection can provide concentration assessments that are virtually free of influence of depletion for intracavity powers below 0.8 W.

  7. CESAR5.3: Isotopic depletion for Research and Testing Reactor decommissioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Guillaume; Eschbach, Romain; Girieud, Richard; Soulard, Maxime

    2018-05-01

    CESAR stands in French for "simplified depletion applied to reprocessing". The current version is now number 5.3 as it started 30 years ago from a long lasting cooperation with ORANO, co-owner of the code with CEA. This computer code can characterize several types of nuclear fuel assemblies, from the most regular PWR power plants to the most unexpected gas cooled and graphite moderated old timer research facility. Each type of fuel can also include numerous ranges of compositions like UOX, MOX, LEU or HEU. Such versatility comes from a broad catalog of cross section libraries, each corresponding to a specific reactor and fuel matrix design. CESAR goes beyond fuel characterization and can also provide an evaluation of structural materials activation. The cross-sections libraries are generated using the most refined assembly or core level transport code calculation schemes (CEA APOLLO2 or ERANOS), based on the European JEFF3.1.1 nuclear data base. Each new CESAR self shielded cross section library benefits all most recent CEA recommendations as for deterministic physics options. Resulting cross sections are organized as a function of burn up and initial fuel enrichment which allows to condensate this costly process into a series of Legendre polynomials. The final outcome is a fast, accurate and compact CESAR cross section library. Each library is fully validated, against a stochastic transport code (CEA TRIPOLI 4) if needed and against a reference depletion code (CEA DARWIN). Using CESAR does not require any of the neutron physics expertise implemented into cross section libraries generation. It is based on top quality nuclear data (JEFF3.1.1 for ˜400 isotopes) and includes up to date Bateman equation solving algorithms. However, defining a CESAR computation case can be very straightforward. Most results are only 3 steps away from any beginner's ambition: Initial composition, in core depletion and pool decay scenario. On top of a simple utilization architecture

  8. Rhodium self-powered neutron detector's lifetime for korean standard nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Choon Sung; Kim, Byoung Chul; Park, Jong Ho; Fero, Arnold H.; Anderson, S. L.

    2005-01-01

    A method to estimate the relative sensitivity of a self-powered rhodium detector for an upcoming cycle is developed by combining the rhodium depletion data from a nuclear design with the site measurement data. This method can be used both by nuclear power plant designers and by site staffs of Korean standard nuclear power plants for determining which rhodium detectors should be replaced during overhauls

  9. Operating experience in processing of differently sourced deeply depleted uranium oxide and production of deeply depleted uranium metal ingots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manna, S.; Ladola, Y.S.; Sharma, S.; Chowdhury, S.; Satpati, S.K.; Roy, S.B.

    2009-01-01

    Uranium Metal Plant (UMP) of BARC had first time experience on production of three Depleted Uranium Metal (DUM) ingots of 76kg, 152kg and 163kg during March 1991. These ingots were produced by processing depleted uranyl nitrate solution produced at Plutonium Plant (PP), Trombay. In recent past Uranium Metal Plant (UMP), Uranium Extraction Division (UED), has been assigned to produce tonnage quantity of Deeply DUM (DDUM) from its oxide obtained from PP, PREFRE and RMP, BARC. This is required for shielding the high radioactive source of BHABHATRON Tele-cobalt machine, which is used for cancer therapy. The experience obtained in processing of various DDU oxides is being utilized for design of large scale DDU-metal plant under XIth plan project. The physico- chemical characteristics like morphology, density, flowability, reactivity, particle size distribution, which are having direct effect on reactivity of the powders of the DDU oxide powder, were studied and the shop-floor operational experience in processing of different oxide powder were obtained and recorded. During campaign trials utmost care was taken to standardized all operating conditions using the same equipment which are in use for natural uranium materials processing including safety aspects both with respect to radiological safety and industrial safety. Necessary attention and close monitoring were specially arranged and maintained for the safety aspects during the trial period. In-house developed pneumatic transport system was used for powder transfer and suitable dust arresting system was used for reduction of powder carry over

  10. The corrosion of depleted uranium in terrestrial and marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toque, C.; Milodowski, A.E.; Baker, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Depleted Uranium alloyed with titanium is used in armour penetrating munitions that have been fired in a number of conflict zones and testing ranges including the UK ranges at Kirkcudbright and Eskmeals. The study presented here evaluates the corrosion of DU alloy cylinders in soil on these two UK ranges and in the adjacent marine environment of the Solway Firth. The estimated mean initial corrosion rates and times for complete corrosion range from 0.13 to 1.9 g cm −2 y −1 and 2.5–48 years respectively depending on the particular physical and geochemical environment. The marine environment at the experimental site was very turbulent. This may have caused the scouring of corrosion products and given rise to a different geochemical environment from that which could be easily duplicated in laboratory experiments. The rate of mass loss was found to vary through time in one soil environment and this is hypothesised to be due to pitting increasing the surface area, followed by a build up of corrosion products inhibiting further corrosion. This indicates that early time measurements of mass loss or corrosion rate may be poor indicators of late time corrosion behaviour, potentially giving rise to incorrect estimates of time to complete corrosion. The DU alloy placed in apparently the same geochemical environment, for the same period of time, can experience very different amounts of corrosion and mass loss, indicating that even small variations in the corrosion environment can have a significant effect. These effects are more significant than other experimental errors and variations in initial surface area. -- Highlights: ► In-situ experiments were conducted to evaluate corrosion rates of depleted uranium. ► Samples were corroded in marine sediments, open sea water and two terrestrial soils. ► The depleted uranium titanium alloy corroded fastest in the marine environments. ► Rates of mass loss can vary through time if corrosion products are not removed.

  11. Benchmark Evaluation of Dounreay Prototype Fast Reactor Minor Actinide Depletion Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, J. D.; Gauld, I. C.; Gulliford, J.; Hill, I.; Okajima, S.

    2017-01-01

    Historic measurements of actinide samples in the Dounreay Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) are of interest for modern nuclear data and simulation validation. Samples of various higher-actinide isotopes were irradiated for 492 effective full-power days and radiochemically assayed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). Limited data were available regarding the PFR irradiation; a six-group neutron spectra was available with some power history data to support a burnup depletion analysis validation study. Under the guidance of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD NEA), the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) and Spent Fuel Isotopic Composition (SFCOMPO) Project are collaborating to recover all measurement data pertaining to these measurements, including collaboration with the United Kingdom to obtain pertinent reactor physics design and operational history data. These activities will produce internationally peer-reviewed benchmark data to support validation of minor actinide cross section data and modern neutronic simulation of fast reactors with accompanying fuel cycle activities such as transportation, recycling, storage, and criticality safety.

  12. Implications of stratospheric ozone depletion upon plant production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teramura, A.H.

    1990-01-01

    An increase in the amount of UV-B radiation reaching the earth's surface is identified as the major factor of concern to result from stratospheric ozone depletion. UV radiation is believed to have wide ranging effects on plant physiology and biochemistry. In screening studies of > 300 species and cultivars, > 50% have shown sensitivity to UV radiation. The most sensitive plant families appear to be Leguminosae, Cucurbitaceae and Cruciferae. The need for a better understanding of the effects of UV radiation on crop plant physiology and particularly of the repair and protective mechanisms developed by some species is stressed. This paper was presented at a colloquium on Implications of global climate changes on horticultural cropping practices and production in developing countries held at the 86th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Horticultural Science at Tulsa, Oklahoma, on 2 Aug. 1989

  13. First tests with fully depleted PN-CCD's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strueder, L.; Lutz, G.; Sterzik, M.; Holl, P.; Kemmer, J.; Prechtel, U.; Ziemann, T.; Rehak, P.

    1987-01-01

    We have fabricated 280 μm thick fully depletable pn CCD's on high resistivity silicon (/rho/ ∼ 2.5 kΩcm). Its operation is based on the semiconductor drift chamber principle proposed by Gatti and Rheak. They are designed as energy and position sensitive radiation detector for (minimum) ionizing particles and X-ray imaging. Two dimensional semiconductor device modeling demonstrates the basic charge transer mechanisms. Prototypes of the detectors have been tested in static and dynamic conditions. A preliminary charge transfer inefficiency was determined to 6 x 10/sup/minus/3/. The charge loss during the transfer is discussed and as a consequence we have developed an improved design for a second fabrication iteration which is now being produced. 4 refs., 15 figs

  14. Depleting adult dentate gyrus neurogenesis increases cocaine-seeking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deroche-Gamonet, Véronique; Revest, Jean-Michel; Fiancette, Jean-François; Balado, Eric; Koehl, Muriel; Grosjean, Noëlle; Abrous, Djoher Nora; Piazza, Pier-Vincenzo

    2018-03-05

    The hippocampus is the main locus for adult dentate gyrus (DG) neurogenesis. A number of studies have shown that aberrant DG neurogenesis correlates with many neuropsychiatric disorders, including drug addiction. Although clear causal relationships have been established between DG neurogenesis and memory dysfunction or mood-related disorders, evidence of the causal role of DG neurogenesis in drug-seeking behaviors has not been established. Here we assessed the role of new DG neurons in cocaine self-administration using an inducible transgenic approach that selectively depletes adult DG neurogenesis. Our results show that transgenic mice with decreased adult DG neurogenesis exhibit increased motivation to self-administer cocaine and a higher seeking response to cocaine-related cues. These results identify adult hippocampal neurogenesis as a key factor in vulnerability to cocaine addiction.

  15. Deoxynucleoside salvage enzymes and tissue specific mitochondrial DNA depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L

    2010-06-01

    Adequate mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copies are required for normal mitochondria function and reductions in mtDNA copy number due to genetic alterations cause tissue-specific mtDNA depletion syndrome (MDS). There are eight nuclear genes, directly or indirectly involved in mtDNA replication and mtDNA precursor synthesis, which have been identified as the cause of MDS. However, the tissue specific pathology of these nuclear gene mutations is not well understood. Here, mtDNA synthesis, mtDNA copy number control, and mtDNA turnover, as well as the synthesis of mtDNA precursors in relation to the levels of salvage enzymes are discussed. The question why MDS caused by TK2 and p53R2 mutations are predominantly muscle specific while dGK deficiency affected mainly liver will be addressed.

  16. Depleted uranium: Metabolic disruptor?; Uranium appauvri: perturbateur metabolique?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souidi, Maamar; Dublineau, Isabelle; Lestaevel, Philippe [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN, Direction de la radioprotection de l' homme, Laboratoire de radiotoxicologie experimentale, Service de radiobiologie et d' epidemiologie, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses cedex (France)

    2011-11-15

    The presence of uranium in the environment can lead to long-term contamination of the food chain and of water intended for human consumption and thus raises many questions about the scientific and societal consequences of this exposure on population health. Although the biological effects of chronic low-level exposure are poorly understood, results of various recent studies show that contamination by depleted uranium (DU) induces subtle but significant biological effects at the molecular level in organs including the brain, liver, kidneys and testicles. For the first time, it has been demonstrated that DU induces effects on several metabolic pathways, including those metabolizing vitamin D, cholesterol, steroid hormones, acetylcholine and xenobiotics. This evidence strongly suggests that DU might well interfere with many metabolic pathways. It might thus contribute, together with other man-made substances in the environment, to increased health risks in some regions. (authors)

  17. Electrolyte depletion in white-nose syndrome bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, Paul M; Meteyer, Carol Uphoff; Blehert, David S; Lorch, Jeffrey M; Reeder, DeeAnn M; Turner, Gregory G; Webb, Julie; Behr, Melissa; Verant, Michelle; Russell, Robin E; Castle, Kevin T

    2013-04-01

    The emerging wildlife disease white-nose syndrome is causing widespread mortality in hibernating North American bats. White-nose syndrome occurs when the fungus Geomyces destructans infects the living skin of bats during hibernation, but links between infection and mortality are underexplored. We analyzed blood from hibernating bats and compared blood electrolyte levels to wing damage caused by the fungus. Sodium and chloride tended to decrease as wing damage increased in severity. Depletion of these electrolytes suggests that infected bats may become hypotonically dehydrated during winter. Although bats regularly arouse from hibernation to drink during winter, water available in hibernacula may not contain sufficient electrolytes to offset winter losses caused by disease. Damage to bat wings from G. destructans may cause life-threatening electrolyte imbalances.

  18. Deuterium-depleted water. Short history and news

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Ioan; Tamaian, Radu; Titescu, Gheorghe

    2002-01-01

    Deuterium-depleted water represents water that has an isotopic content lower than 144 ppm D/(D+H) which is the natural isotopic content of water. DDW is a non-toxic product. Knowing that deuterium content of water has a significant influence on living organisms, since 1996 NIR-DCIT ICSTI at Rm. Valcea cooperated with Romanian specialized instititutes for biological effects' evaluation of DDW. The investigations lead to the conclusion that DDW caused a tendency towards the increase of the basal tone, accompanied by the intensification of the vasoconstrictor effects. Animals teated with DDW showed an increase of the resistance both to sub lethal and to lethal gamma radiation doses. DDW stimulates immune defense reactions. Investigations regarding artificial reproduction of fish with DDW fecundated solutions confirmed favorable influence in embryo growth stage and resistance in next growth stages. One can remark the favourable influence of DDW on biological process in plants in various ontogenetic stages. (authors)

  19. Radon depletion in xenon boil-off gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruenner, S.; Cichon, D.; Lindemann, S.; Undagoitia, T.M.; Simgen, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    An important background in detectors using liquid xenon for rare event searches arises from the decays of radon and its daughters. We report for the first time a reduction of {sup 222}Rn in the gas phase above a liquid xenon reservoir. We show a reduction factor of >or similar 4 for the {sup 222}Rn concentration in boil-off xenon gas compared to the radon enriched liquid phase. A semiconductor-based α-detector and miniaturized proportional counters are used to detect the radon. As the radon depletion in the boil-off gas is understood as a single-stage distillation process, this result establishes the suitability of cryogenic distillation to separate radon from xenon down to the 10{sup -15} mol/mol level. (orig.)

  20. Active volume studies with depleted and enriched BEGe detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturm, Katharina von [Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Universita degli Studi di Padova, Padua (Italy); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The Gerda experiment is currently taking data for the search of the 0νββ decay in {sup 76}Ge. In 2013, 30 newly manufactured Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) diodes will be deployed which will double the active mass within Gerda. These detectors were fabricated from high-purity germanium enriched in {sup 76}Ge and tested in the HADES underground laboratory, owned by SCK.CEN, in Mol, Belgium. As the BEGes are source and detector at the same time, one crucial parameter is their active volume which directly enters into the evaluation of the half-life. This talk illustrates the dead layer and active volume determination of prototype detectors from depleted germanium as well as the newly produced detectors from enriched material, using gamma spectroscopy methods and comparing experimental results to Monte-Carlo simulations. Recent measurements and their results are presented, and systematic effects are discussed.