WorldWideScience

Sample records for halide exciton bands

  1. Temperature-dependent excitonic photoluminescence of hybrid organometal halide perovskite films

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Kewei

    2014-01-01

    Organometal halide perovskites have recently attracted tremendous attention due to their potential for photovoltaic applications, and they are also considered as promising materials in light emitting and lasing devices. In this work, we investigated in detail the cryogenic steady state photoluminescence properties of a prototypical hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3-xClx. The evolution of the characteristics of two excitonic peaks coincides with the structural phase transition around 160 K. Our results further revealed an exciton binding energy of 62.3 ± 8.9 meV and an optical phonon energy of 25.3 ± 5.2 meV, along with an abnormal blue-shift of the band gap in the high-temperature tetragonal phase. This journal is

  2. The Role of Excitons on Light Amplification in Lead Halide Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Quan; Wei, Haohan; Sun, Wenzhao; Wang, Kaiyang; Gu, Zhiyuan; Li, Jiankai; Liu, Shuai; Xiao, Shumin; Song, Qinghai

    2016-12-01

    The role of excitons on the amplifications of lead halide perovskites has been explored. Unlike the photoluminescence, the intensity of amplified spontaneous emission is partially suppressed at low temperature. The detailed analysis and experiments show that the inhibition is attributed to the existence of exciton and a quantitative model has been built to explain the experimental observations.

  3. Spectral and Dynamical Properties of Single Excitons, Biexcitons, and Trions in Cesium-Lead-Halide Perovskite Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, Nikolay S; Guo, Shaojun; Isaienko, Oleksandr; Liu, Wenyong; Robel, István; Klimov, Victor I

    2016-04-13

    Organic-inorganic lead-halide perovskites have been the subject of recent intense interest due to their unusually strong photovoltaic performance. A new addition to the perovskite family is all-inorganic Cs-Pb-halide perovskite nanocrystals, or quantum dots, fabricated via a moderate-temperature colloidal synthesis. While being only recently introduced to the research community, these nanomaterials have already shown promise for a range of applications from color-converting phosphors and light-emitting diodes to lasers, and even room-temperature single-photon sources. Knowledge of the optical properties of perovskite quantum dots still remains vastly incomplete. Here we apply various time-resolved spectroscopic techniques to conduct a comprehensive study of spectral and dynamical characteristics of single- and multiexciton states in CsPbX3 nanocrystals with X being either Br, I, or their mixture. Specifically, we measure exciton radiative lifetimes, absorption cross-sections, and derive the degeneracies of the band-edge electron and hole states. We also characterize the rates of intraband cooling and nonradiative Auger recombination and evaluate the strength of exciton-exciton coupling. The overall conclusion of this work is that spectroscopic properties of Cs-Pb-halide quantum dots are largely similar to those of quantum dots of more traditional semiconductors such as CdSe and PbSe. At the same time, we observe some distinctions including, for example, an appreciable effect of the halide identity on radiative lifetimes, considerably shorter biexciton Auger lifetimes, and apparent deviation of their size dependence from the "universal volume scaling" previously observed for many traditional nanocrystal systems. The high efficiency of Auger decay in perovskite quantum dots is detrimental to their prospective applications in light-emitting devices and lasers. This points toward the need for the development of approaches for effective suppression of Auger

  4. Excitons versus free charges in organo-lead tri-halide perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Innocenzo, Valerio; Grancini, Giulia; Alcocer, Marcelo J. P.; Kandada, Ajay Ram Srimath; Stranks, Samuel D.; Lee, Michael M.; Lanzani, Guglielmo; Snaith, Henry J.; Petrozza, Annamaria

    2014-04-01

    Excitonic solar cells, within which bound electron-hole pairs have a central role in energy harvesting, have represented a hot field of research over the last two decades due to the compelling prospect of low-cost solar energy. However, in such cells, exciton dissociation and charge collection occur with significant losses in energy, essentially due to poor charge screening. Organic-inorganic perovskites show promise for overcoming such limitations. Here, we use optical spectroscopy to estimate the exciton binding energy in the mixed-halide crystal to be in the range of 50 meV. We show that such a value is consistent with almost full ionization of the exciton population under photovoltaic cell operating conditions. However, increasing the total photoexcitation density, excitonic species become dominant, widening the perspective of this material for a host of optoelectronic applications.

  5. Enhancement of Exciton Emission in Lead Halide-Based Layered Perovskites by Cation Mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Era, Masanao; Komatsu, Yumeko; Sakamoto, Naotaka

    2016-04-01

    Spin-coated films of a lead halide, PbX: X = I and Br, layered perovskites having cyclohexenylethyl ammonium molecule as an organic layer, which were mixed with other metal halide-based layered perovskites consisting of various divalent metal halides (for example, Ca2, Cdl2, FeI2, SnBr2 and so on), were prepared. The results of X-ray diffraction measurements exhibited that solid solution formation between PbX-based layered perovskite and other divalent metal halide-based layered perovskites was observed up to very high molar concentration of 50 molar% in the mixed film samples when divalent cations having ionic radius close to that of Pb2+ were employed. In the solid solution films, the exciton emission was much enhanced at room temperature. Exciton emission intensity of Pbl-based layered perovskite mixed with Cal-based layered perovskite (20 molar%) is about 5 times large that of the pristine Pbl-based layered perovskite, and that of PbBr-based layered perovskite mixed with SnBr-based layered perovskite (20 molar%) was also about 5 times large that of the pristine PbBr-based layered perovskite at room temperature.

  6. Exciton luminescence in BaFCl crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radzhabov, E

    1998-05-01

    The luminescence spectra and decay characteristics of both 5.45 and 3.4 eV bands in BaFCl oxygen-free crystals were investigated at 5-300 K temperature range using vacuum ultraviolet excitation as well as X-ray excitation. The similarities with excitons in alkali halides allow us to consider both excitons in BaFCl as on-center excitons and strong off-center excitons.

  7. Exciton Binding energies and effective masses in Organo-lead Tri-Halide Perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portugall, Oliver; Miyata, Atsuhiko; Mitioglu, Anatol; Plochocka, Paulina; Wang, Jacob Tse-Wei; Stranks, Samuel; Snaith, Henry; Nicholas, Robin; Lncmi Toulouse Team; Oxford University Team

    2015-03-01

    Solid-state perovskite-based solar cells have made a dramatic impact on emerging PV research with efficiencies of over 17% already achieved. However, to date the basic electronic properties of the perovskites such as the electron and hole effective masses and the exciton binding energy are not well known. We have measured both for methyl ammonium lead tri-iodide using magneto absorption in very high magnetic fields up to 150T showing that the exciton binding energy at low temperatures is only 16 meV, a value three times smaller than previously thought and sufficiently small to completely transform the way in which the devices must operate. Landau level spectroscopy shows that the reduced effective mass of 0.104 me is also smaller than previously thought. In addition by using a fast pulse 150T magnet we measure the band structure change due to the structural phase transition that occurs in this system at around 160K. We also observe Landau levels in the high temperature phase as used for device production, which has a very similar effective mass and the analysis suggests an exciton binding energy which is even smaller than in the low temperature phase.

  8. Systematic analysis of the unique band gap modulation of mixed halide perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongseob; Lee, Sung-Hoon; Chung, Choong-Heui; Hong, Ki-Ha

    2016-02-14

    Solar cells based on organic-inorganic hybrid metal halide perovskites have been proven to be one of the most promising candidates for the next generation thin film photovoltaic cells. Mixing Br or Cl into I-based perovskites has been frequently tried to enhance the cell efficiency and stability. One of the advantages of mixed halides is the modulation of band gap by controlling the composition of the incorporated halides. However, the reported band gap transition behavior has not been resolved yet. Here a theoretical model is presented to understand the electronic structure variation of metal mixed-halide perovskites through hybrid density functional theory. Comparative calculations in this work suggest that the band gap correction including spin-orbit interaction is essential to describe the band gap changes of mixed halides. In our model, both the lattice variation and the orbital interactions between metal and halides play key roles to determine band gap changes and band alignments of mixed halides. It is also presented that the band gap of mixed halide thin films can be significantly affected by the distribution of halide composition.

  9. Determination of Surface Exciton Energies by Velocity Resolved Atomic Desorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, Wayne P.; Joly, Alan G.; Beck, Kenneth M.; Sushko, Petr V.; Shluger, Alexander L.

    2004-08-20

    We have developed a new method for determining surface exciton band energies in alkali halides based on velocity-resolved atomic desorption (VRAD). Using this new method, we predict the surface exciton energies for K1, KBr, KC1, and NaC1 within +0.15 eV. Our data, combined with the available EELS data for alkali fluorides, demonstrate a universal linear correlation with the inverse inter-atomic distance in these materials. The results suggest that surface excitons exist in all alkali halides and their excitation energies can be predicted from the known bulk exciton energies and the obtained correlation plot.

  10. Nature of the narrow optical band in H*-aggregates: Dozy-chaos-exciton coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, Vladimir V.

    2014-07-01

    Dozy chaos emerges as a combined effect of the collective chaotic motion of electrons and nuclei, and their chaotic electromagnetic interactions in the transient state of molecules experiencing quantum transitions. Following earlier discussions of the well-known Brönsted relations for proton-transfer reactions; the temperature-dependent electron transfer in Langmuir-Blodgett films; the shape of the optical bands of polymethine dye monomers, their dimers, and J-aggregates, this paper reports one more application of the dozy-chaos theory of molecular quantum transitions. The qualitative and quantitative explanations for shape of a narrow and blue-shifted optical absorption band in H*-aggregates is given on the basis of the dozy-chaos theory by taking into account the dozy-chaos-exciton coupling effect. It is emphasized that in the H*-aggregate chromophore (dimer of cyclic bis-thiacarbocyanines) there is a competition between two Frenkel exciton transitions through the chaotic reorganization motion of nuclear environment. As a result, the highly organized quantum transition to the upper exciton state becomes an exciton-induced source of dozy chaos for the low organized transition to the lower exciton state. This manifests itself in appearing the narrow peak and broad wing in the optical spectrum pattern of H*-aggregates. A similar enhancement in the H*-effect caused by the strengthening of the exciton coupling in H*-dimers, which could be achieved by synthesizing tertiary and quarternary thiacarbocyanine monomers, is predicted.

  11. Nature of the narrow optical band in H*-aggregates: Dozy-chaos–exciton coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Egorov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dozy chaos emerges as a combined effect of the collective chaotic motion of electrons and nuclei, and their chaotic electromagnetic interactions in the transient state of molecules experiencing quantum transitions. Following earlier discussions of the well-known Brönsted relations for proton-transfer reactions; the temperature-dependent electron transfer in Langmuir–Blodgett films; the shape of the optical bands of polymethine dye monomers, their dimers, and J-aggregates, this paper reports one more application of the dozy-chaos theory of molecular quantum transitions. The qualitative and quantitative explanations for shape of a narrow and blue-shifted optical absorption band in H*-aggregates is given on the basis of the dozy-chaos theory by taking into account the dozy-chaos–exciton coupling effect. It is emphasized that in the H*-aggregate chromophore (dimer of cyclic bis-thiacarbocyanines there is a competition between two Frenkel exciton transitions through the chaotic reorganization motion of nuclear environment. As a result, the highly organized quantum transition to the upper exciton state becomes an exciton-induced source of dozy chaos for the low organized transition to the lower exciton state. This manifests itself in appearing the narrow peak and broad wing in the optical spectrum pattern of H*-aggregates. A similar enhancement in the H*-effect caused by the strengthening of the exciton coupling in H*-dimers, which could be achieved by synthesizing tertiary and quarternary thiacarbocyanine monomers, is predicted.

  12. Solid-State Nanopore Confinement for Band Gap Engineering of Metal-Halide Perovskites

    CERN Document Server

    Demchyshyn, Stepan; Groiss, Heiko; Heilbrunner, Herwig; Ulbricht, Christoph; Apaydin, Dogukan; Rütt, Uta; Bertram, Florian; Hesser, Günter; Scharber, Markus; Nickel, Bert; Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar; Bauer, Siegfried; Głowacki, Eric Daniel; Kaltenbrunner, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Tuning the band gap of semiconductors via quantum size effects launched a technological revolution in optoelectronics, advancing solar cells, quantum dot light-emitting displays, and solid state lasers. Next generation devices seek to employ low-cost, easily processable semiconductors. A promising class of such materials are metal-halide perovskites, currently propelling research on emerging photovoltaics. Their narrow band emission permits very high colour purity in light-emitting devices and vivid life-like displays paired with low-temperature processing through printing-compatible methods. Success of perovskites in light-emitting devices is conditional upon finding reliable strategies to obtain tunability of the band gap. So far, colour can be tuned chemically by mixed halide stoichiometry, or by synthesis of colloidal particles. Here we introduce a general strategy of controlling shape and size of perovskite nanocrystallites (less than 10 nm) in domains that exhibit strong quantum size effects. Without ma...

  13. Band Gap Tuning and Defect Tolerance of Atomically Thin Two- Dimensional Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandey, Mohnish; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2016-01-01

    Organic−inorganic halide perovskites have proven highly successful for photovoltaics but suffer from low stability, which deteriorates their performance over time. Recent experiments have demonstrated that low dimensional phases of the hybrid perovskites may exhibit improved stability. Here we...... report first-principles calculations for isolated monolayers of the organometallic halide perovskites (C4H9NH3)2MX2Y2, where M = Pb, Ge, Sn and X,Y = Cl, Br, I. The band gaps computed using the GLLB-SC functional are found to be in excellent agreement with experimental photoluminescence data...... for the already synthesized perovskites. Finally, we study the effect of different defects on the band structure. We find that the most common defects only introduce shallow or no states in the band gap, indicating that these atomically thin 2D perovskites are likely to be defect tolerant....

  14. Experimental determination of excitonic band structures of single-walled carbon nanotubes using circular dichroism spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaojun; Tanaka, Takeshi; Yomogida, Yohei; Sato, Naomichi; Saito, Riichiro; Kataura, Hiromichi

    2016-10-01

    Experimental band structure analyses of single-walled carbon nanotubes have not yet been reported, to the best of our knowledge, except for a limited number of reports using scanning tunnelling spectroscopy. Here we demonstrate the experimental determination of the excitonic band structures of single-chirality single-walled carbon nanotubes using their circular dichroism spectra. In this analysis, we use gel column chromatography combining overloading selective adsorption with stepwise elution to separate 12 different single-chirality enantiomers. Our samples show higher circular dichroism intensities than the highest values reported in previous works, indicating their high enantiomeric purity. Excitonic band structure analysis is performed by assigning all observed Eii and Eij optical transitions in the circular dichroism spectra. The results reproduce the asymmetric structures of the valence and conduction bands predicted by density functional theory. Finally, we demonstrate that an extended empirical formula can estimate Eij optical transition energies for any (n,m) species.

  15. Steric engineering of metal-halide perovskites with tunable optical band gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filip, Marina R; Eperon, Giles E; Snaith, Henry J; Giustino, Feliciano

    2014-12-15

    Owing to their high energy-conversion efficiency and inexpensive fabrication routes, solar cells based on metal-organic halide perovskites have rapidly gained prominence as a disruptive technology. An attractive feature of perovskite absorbers is the possibility of tailoring their properties by changing the elemental composition through the chemical precursors. In this context, rational in silico design represents a powerful tool for mapping the vast materials landscape and accelerating discovery. Here we show that the optical band gap of metal-halide perovskites, a key design parameter for solar cells, strongly correlates with a simple structural feature, the largest metal-halide-metal bond angle. Using this descriptor we suggest continuous tunability of the optical gap from the mid-infrared to the visible. Precise band gap engineering is achieved by controlling the bond angles through the steric size of the molecular cation. On the basis of these design principles we predict novel low-gap perovskites for optimum photovoltaic efficiency, and we demonstrate the concept of band gap modulation by synthesising and characterising novel mixed-cation perovskites.

  16. Nature of the narrow optical band in H*-aggregates: Dozy-chaos–exciton coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egorov, Vladimir V., E-mail: egorov@photonics.ru [Photochemistry Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119421 (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-15

    Dozy chaos emerges as a combined effect of the collective chaotic motion of electrons and nuclei, and their chaotic electromagnetic interactions in the transient state of molecules experiencing quantum transitions. Following earlier discussions of the well-known Brönsted relations for proton-transfer reactions; the temperature-dependent electron transfer in Langmuir–Blodgett films; the shape of the optical bands of polymethine dye monomers, their dimers, and J-aggregates, this paper reports one more application of the dozy-chaos theory of molecular quantum transitions. The qualitative and quantitative explanations for shape of a narrow and blue-shifted optical absorption band in H{sup *}-aggregates is given on the basis of the dozy-chaos theory by taking into account the dozy-chaos–exciton coupling effect. It is emphasized that in the H{sup *}-aggregate chromophore (dimer of cyclic bis-thiacarbocyanines) there is a competition between two Frenkel exciton transitions through the chaotic reorganization motion of nuclear environment. As a result, the highly organized quantum transition to the upper exciton state becomes an exciton-induced source of dozy chaos for the low organized transition to the lower exciton state. This manifests itself in appearing the narrow peak and broad wing in the optical spectrum pattern of H{sup *}-aggregates. A similar enhancement in the H{sup *}-effect caused by the strengthening of the exciton coupling in H{sup *}-dimers, which could be achieved by synthesizing tertiary and quarternary thiacarbocyanine monomers, is predicted.

  17. Reversible Halide Exchange Reaction of Organometal Trihalide Perovskite Colloidal Nanocrystals for Full-Range Band Gap Tuning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Dong Myung; Park, Kidong; Kim, Duk Hwan; Park, Jeunghee; Shojaei, Fazel; Kang, Hong Seok; Ahn, Jae-Pyung; Lee, Jong Woon; Song, Jae Kyu

    2015-08-12

    In recent years, methylammonium lead halide (MAPbX3, where X = Cl, Br, and I) perovskites have attracted tremendous interest caused by their outstanding photovoltaic performance. Mixed halides have been frequently used as the active layer of solar cells, as a result of their superior physical properties as compared to those of traditionally used pure iodide. Herein, we report a remarkable finding of reversible halide-exchange reactions of MAPbX3, which facilitates the synthesis of a series of mixed halide perovskites. We synthesized MAPbBr3 plate-type nanocrystals (NCs) as a starting material by a novel solution reaction using octylamine as the capping ligand. The synthesis of MAPbBr(3-x)Clx and MAPbBr(3-x)Ix NCs was achieved by the halide exchange reaction of MAPbBr3 with MACl and MAI, respectively, in an isopropyl alcohol solution, demonstrating full-range band gap tuning over a wide range (1.6-3 eV). Moreover, photodetectors were fabricated using these composition-tuned NCs; a strong correlation was observed between the photocurrent and photoluminescence decay time. Among the two mixed halide perovskite series, those with I-rich composition (x = 2), where a sole tetragonal phase exists without the incorporation of a cubic phase, exhibited the highest photoconversion efficiency. To understand the composition-dependent photoconversion efficiency, first-principles density-functional theory calculations were carried out, which predicted many plausible configurations for cubic and tetragonal phase mixed halides.

  18. Quanty for core level spectroscopy - excitons, resonances and band excitations in time and frequency domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkort, Maurits W.

    2016-05-01

    Depending on the material and edge under consideration, core level spectra manifest themselves as local excitons with multiplets, edge singularities, resonances, or the local projected density of states. Both extremes, i.e., local excitons and non-interacting delocalized excitations are theoretically well under control. Describing the intermediate regime, where local many body interactions and band-formation are equally important is a challenge. Here we discuss how Quanty, a versatile quantum many body script language, can be used to calculate a variety of different core level spectroscopy types on solids and molecules, both in the frequency as well as the time domain. The flexible nature of Quanty allows one to choose different approximations for different edges and materials. For example, using a newly developed method merging ideas from density renormalization group and quantum chemistry [1-3], Quanty can calculate excitons, resonances and band-excitations in x-ray absorption, photoemission, x-ray emission, fluorescence yield, non-resonant inelastic x-ray scattering, resonant inelastic x-ray scattering and many more spectroscopy types. Quanty can be obtained from: http://www.quanty.org.

  19. Stability of excitonic complexes in a multi-valley/band semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katow, Hiroki; Usukura, Junko; Akashi, Ryosuke; Varga, Kalman; Tsuneyuki, Shinji

    Whether bound states are present for few-particle quantum systems is far from axiomatic and has been a hot topic for decades. For example, three-positronium and -/hydrogen bound states are not present in the vacuum. On the other hand, it has also been proposed that three excitons can be bound with each other in multi-valley/band semiconductors [J. S. Wang & C. Kittel, Phys. Lett. 42A, No. 3 (1972)]. Indeed, an array of photoluminescence peaks have been recently observed in diamond [J. Omachi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 026402(2013)], which could suggest the existence of possible multi-exciton bound states. We theoretically examine if such bound states are possible by a variational method. For the electron-hole Hamiltonian including the valley and band degrees of freedom, we expressed trial many-body wave function with the correlated Gaussian bases and optimized it with the stochastic variational method [J. Mitroy et al., Rev. of Mod. Phys., 85, 2013]. We have shown bound states for N-exciton systems with N more than two. In the talk, we discuss the dependence of the bound states on the model settings and its relation to the experimental observation.

  20. Band Gap Tuning and Defect Tolerance of Atomically Thin Two-Dimensional Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Mohnish; Jacobsen, Karsten W; Thygesen, Kristian S

    2016-11-03

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskites have proven highly successful for photovoltaics but suffer from low stability, which deteriorates their performance over time. Recent experiments have demonstrated that low dimensional phases of the hybrid perovskites may exhibit improved stability. Here we report first-principles calculations for isolated monolayers of the organometallic halide perovskites (C4H9NH3)2MX2Y2, where M = Pb, Ge, Sn and X,Y = Cl, Br, I. The band gaps computed using the GLLB-SC functional are found to be in excellent agreement with experimental photoluminescence data for the already synthesized perovskites. Finally, we study the effect of different defects on the band structure. We find that the most common defects only introduce shallow or no states in the band gap, indicating that these atomically thin 2D perovskites are likely to be defect tolerant.

  1. Exponential Tails Near the Band Edges of a One-Dimensional Exciton System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgin, I.; Boukahil, A.; Zettili, N.; Huber, D. L.

    2003-03-01

    We report the results of studies of the tails near the band edges of a one-dimensional Frenkel exciton system in the Coherent Potential Approximation (CPA). A Gaussian distribution of the transition frequencies with rms width σ (0.1 <= σ <= 2.0) is used. We found that the tails obey two different exponential power laws depending on the value of σ. In the weak disorder limit 0.1 <= σ <= 0.5, the tails of the density of states and the absorption line shape behave like expk|E|^3/2/σ^2 and in the strong disorder limit 0.5 <= σ <= 2.0 the tails behave like exp|E|^2/2σ^2\\. Our CPA results are in excellent agreement with our simulation data for the density of states over the entire range 0.1 <= σ <= 2.0, and with previous investigations for weak disorder.

  2. Valence and Conduction Band Densities of States of Metal Halide Perovskites: A Combined Experimental–Theoretical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Endres, James; Egger, David A.; Kulbak, Michael; Kerner, Ross A.; Zhao, Lianfeng; Silver, Scott H.; Hodes, Gary; Rand, Barry P.; Cahen, David; Kronik, Leeor; Kahn, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    We report valence and conduction band densities of states measured via ultraviolet and inverse photoemission spectroscopies on three metal halide perovskites, specifically methylammonium lead iodide and bromide and cesium lead bromide (MAPbI3, MAPbBr3, CsPbBr3), grown at two different institutions on different substrates. These are compared with theoretical densities of states (DOS) calculated via density functional theory. The qualitative agreement achieved between experiment and theory lead...

  3. Exciton spectra and energy band structure of Cu{sub 2}ZnSiSe{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guc, M., E-mail: gmax@phys.asm.md [Institute of Applied Physics, Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Academiei Str. 5, Chisinau MD 2028, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Levcenko, S. [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Dermenji, L. [Institute of Applied Physics, Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Academiei Str. 5, Chisinau MD 2028, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Gurieva, G. [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Schorr, S. [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Free University Berlin, Institute of Geological Sciences, Malteserstr. 74-100, Berlin (Germany); Syrbu, N.N. [Technical University of Moldova, Chisinau MD-2004, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Arushanov, E. [Institute of Applied Physics, Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Academiei Str. 5, Chisinau MD 2028, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of)

    2014-02-25

    Highlights: • Reflection spectra of Cu{sub 2}ZnSiSe{sub 4} were studied for E ⊥ c and E || c light polarizations. • Four excitonic series are revealed in the reflection spectra at 10 K. • Model of exciton dispersion and the presence of a dead-layer. • Exciton Rydberg energies and free carriers effective masses were calculated. • Reflectivity for E ⊥ c and E || c were analyzed in the region 3–6 eV at 300 K. -- Abstract: Exciton spectra are studied in Cu{sub 2}ZnSiSe{sub 4} single crystals at 10 and 300 K by means of reflection spectroscopy. The exciton parameters, dielectric constant and free carriers effective masses are deduced from experimental spectra by calculations in the framework of a model taking into account the spatial dispersion and the presence of a dead-layer. The structure found in the reflectivity was analyzed and related to the theoretical electronic band structure of close related Cu{sub 2}ZnSiS{sub 4} semiconductor.

  4. Band-edge optical transitions in a nonpolar-plane GaN substrate: exciton-phonon coupling and temperature effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M. Z.; Xu, S. J.

    2016-09-01

    We present a detailed investigation of the band-edge optical transitions involving the interacting exciton-phonon system, especially first-order longitudinal optical (LO) phonon-assisted luminescence of bound and free excitons in m- and c-plane GaN substrates in a low temperature range from 4 K to 40 K. The main luminescence features of all of the three kinds of excitons can be well described by the theoretical models that take exciton-LO-phonon coupling into account. The effective Bohr radii of the excitons play a key role in determining the Huang-Rhys factor characterizing the exciton-LO-phonon coupling strength in GaN. An interesting oscillatory structure is found to appear in the low-temperature luminescence spectra of the nonpolar-plane GaN substrate, which needs to be clarified by further investigations.

  5. Excitonic spectra and energy band structure of ZnAl2Se4 crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrbu, N. N.; Zalamai, V. V.; Tiron, A. V.; Tiginyanu, I. M.

    2015-11-01

    Absorption, reflection and wavelength modulated reflection spectra were investigated in ZnAl2Se4 crystals. The energy positions of ground and excited states for three excitonic series (A, B and C) were determined. The main parameters of excitons and more precise values of energy intervals V1(Γ7)-C1(Γ6), V2(Γ6)-C1(Γ6), and V3(Γ7)-C1(Γ6) were estimated. Values of splitting due to crystal field and spin-orbital interaction were calculated. Effective masses of electrons (mC1∗) and holes (mV1∗, mV2∗, mV3∗) were estimated. Reflection spectra contours in excitonic region were calculated using dispersion equations. Optical functions for E > Eg from measured reflection spectra were assigned on the base of Kramers-Kronig relations.

  6. Research Update: Physical and electrical characteristics of lead halide perovskites for solar cell applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon A. Bretschneider

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The field of thin-film photovoltaics has been recently enriched by the introduction of lead halide perovskites as absorber materials, which allow low-cost synthesis of solar cells with efficiencies exceeding 16%. The exact impact of the perovskite crystal structure and composition on the optoelectronic properties of the material are not fully understood. Our progress report highlights the knowledge gained about lead halide perovskites with a focus on physical and optoelectronic properties. We discuss the crystal and band structure of perovskite materials currently implemented in solar cells and the impact of the crystal properties on ferroelectricity, ambipolarity, and the properties of excitons.

  7. Temperature-dependent dielectric function of bulk SrTiO3: Urbach tail, band edges, and excitonic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, Pranjal Kumar; Schmidt, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    We report the temperature-dependent complex dielectric function of pristine bulk SrTiO3 between 4.2 and 300 K within the energy range of 0.6-6.5 eV determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry. Fundamental indirect and direct band-gap energies have been extracted and are discussed with regard to existing state-of-the-art theoretical calculations. Furthermore, the dielectric function around the fundamental direct gap is analyzed by considering excitonic states. The excitonic effects, including the Coulomb enhancement of the continuum, are characterized using an extension of the Elliott's formula considering both the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric function. The Urbach tail below the indirect edge shows an unconventional temperature-dependent behavior correlated to the microstructural changes near the structural phase transition around 105 K from the low-temperature tetragonal phase to the cubic phase. The temperature-dependent characterization reveals that the fundamental indirect edge as well as the Urbach tail are affected conspicuously by the structural phase transition while the fundamental direct edge is not. Moreover, the indirect edge follows Varshni's rule only in the cubic phase and the direct edge exhibits an anomalous linear increase with increasing temperature.

  8. Synthesis,Crystal and Band Structures,and Optical Properties of Mercury Pnictide Halide Hg19As10Br18

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Jian-Ping; ZHANG Long-Zhu; ZENG Gui-Sheng; LUO Xu-Biao; PENG Qiang

    2011-01-01

    A mercury pnictide halide semiconductor Hg19As10Br18(1) has been prepared by the solid-state reaction and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis.Compound 1 crystallizes in triclinic,space group P with a = 11.262(4),b = 11.352(4),c = 12.309(5) ,α = 105.724(2),β = 105.788(4),γ = 109.0780(10)° and V = 1314.3(8) 3.The structure of 1 is composed of parallel perovskite-like layers bridged by the linearly coordinated Br atoms to form a three-dimensional framework.The optical properties were investigated in terms of the diffuse reflectance spectrum.The electronic band structure along with density of states(DOS) calculated by DFT method indicates that compound 1 is a semiconductor with an indirect band gap,and that the optical absorption is mainly originated from the charge transitions from Br-4p and As-4p to the Hg-6s states.

  9. Exponential tails near the band edges of a one-dimensional disordered exciton system in the Coherent Potential Approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukahil, Abdelkrim; Zettili, Nouredine; Huber, David

    2012-02-01

    We report the results of studies of the tails near the band edges of a one-dimensional Frenkel exciton system in the Coherent Potential Approximation (CPA). A Gaussian distribution of the transition frequencies with rms width σ (0.1 <=σ<= 2.0) is used. We found that the tails obey two different exponential power laws depending on the value of σ. In the weak disorder limit 0.1 <=σ< 0.5, the tails of the absorption line shape and the density of states behave like exp(-k|E|^3/2 / 2̂), and in the strong disorder limit,0.5 < σ<= 2.0, the tails behave like exp(-|E|^2 / 2̂). In the weak disorder limit, our CPA results are in excellent agreement with previous investigations.

  10. Tuning the light emission properties by band gap engineering in hybrid lead halide perovskite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Innocenzo, Valerio; Srimath Kandada, Ajay Ram; De Bastiani, Michele; Gandini, Marina; Petrozza, Annamaria

    2014-12-24

    We report about the relationship between the morphology and luminescence properties of methylammonium lead trihalide perovskite thin films. By tuning the average crystallite dimension in the film from tens of nanometers to a few micrometers, we are able to tune the optical band gap of the material along with its photoluminescence lifetime. We demonstrate that larger crystallites present smaller band gap and longer lifetime, which correlates to a smaller radiative bimolecular recombination coefficient. We also show that they present a higher optical gain, becoming preferred candidates for the realization of CW lasing devices.

  11. Excitonic spectra and band structure of CdGa{sub 2}Se{sub 4} birefractive crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syrbu, N.N., E-mail: sirbunn@yahoo.com [Technical University of Moldova, 168 Stefan cel Mare Avenue, 2004 Chisinau, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Stamov, I.G. [T.G. Shevchenko State University of Pridnestrovie, 25 Oktyabrya Street 107, 3300 Tiraspol, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Parvan, V.I. [Technical University of Moldova, 168 Stefan cel Mare Avenue, 2004 Chisinau, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Zalamai, V.V. [Institute of Applied Physics, Academy of Sciences of Moldova, 5 Academy Street, 2028 Chisinau, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Tiginyanu, I.M. [Institute of Electronic Engineering and Nanotechnologies, Academy of Sciences of Moldova, 3/3 Academy Street, 2028 Chisinau, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    We report on the intersection of spectral dependences of refractive indices n{sub o} and n{sub e} at the wavelengths 546 nm (λ{sub 0}) and 450 nm (λ{sub 01}) in CdGa{sub 2}Se{sub 4} single crystals. The value of difference Δn=n{sub e}−n{sub o} is equal to zero at the wavelengths involved. When placed between two crossed polarizers, the crystals of CdGa{sub 2}Se{sub 4} exhibit a transmission band at the wavelength of λ{sub 0}=546 nm (300 K). The ground and excited states of three excitonic series (A, B and C) were found out at 13 K in CdGa{sub 2}Se{sub 4} crystals, and other parameters of excitons and bands were determined. In the Γ point of Brillouin zone the effective mass of electrons m{sub c} is equal to 0.14m{sub 0}, and the effective masses of holes m{sub v2} and m{sub v3} are equal to 0.76m{sub 0} and 0.94m{sub 0}, respectively. The hole mass m{sub v1} depends upon the direction of wave vector k: at polarization E∥c, k∥a the mass m{sub v1}=1.15m{sub 0}, and at polarization E∥c, k∥b m{sub v1}=0.84m{sub 0}. The values of valence bands splitting in the center of Brillouin zone by the crystal field (Δ{sub cf}=49 meV) and spin–orbital interaction (Δ{sub so}=351 meV) were determined. The optical functions n, k, ε{sub 1} and ε{sub 2} in polarizations E⊥c and E∥c for the energy diapason from 3 to 6 eV were calculated from the reflectivity spectra by Kramers–Kronig analysis. The evidenced features are discussed on the basis of recent theoretical calculations of the band structure of CdGa{sub 2}Se{sub 4} crystals.

  12. Spectroscopy and dynamics of charge transfer excitons in type-II band aligned quantum confined heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushavah, Dushyant; Mohapatra, P. K.; Rustagi, K. C.; Bahadur, D.; Vasa, P.; Singh, B. P.

    2015-05-01

    We illustrate effect of charge transfer (CT) in type-II quantum confined heterostructure by comparing CdSe quantum dots (QDs), CdSe/CdTe heterostructure quantum dots (HQDs) and CdSe/CdTe/CdSe quantum well-quantum dots (QWQDs) heterostructures. CdSe core QDs were synthesized using a kinetic growth method where QD size depends on reaction time. For shell coating we used modified version of successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR). Size of different QDs ˜5 to 7 nm were measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Strong red shift from ˜597 to ˜746 nm in photoluminescence (PL) spectra from QDs to QWQDs shows high tunability which is not possible with single constituent semiconductor QDs. PL spectra have been recorded at different temperatures (10K-300K). Room temperature time correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) measurements for QDs to QWQDs show three exponential radiative decay. The slowest component decay constant in QWQDs comes around eight fold to ˜51 ns as compared to ˜6.5 ns in HQD suggesting new opportunities to tailor the radiative carrier recombination rate of CT excitons.

  13. Spectroscopy and dynamics of charge transfer excitons in type-II band aligned quantum confined heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushavah, Dushyant [Centre for Research in Nanotechnology and Science, IIT Bombay-400076, Mumbai (India); Mohapatra, P. K.; Vasa, P.; Singh, B. P., E-mail: bhanups@iitb.ac.in [Department of physics, IIT Bombay, Mumbai-400076 (India); Rustagi, K. C. [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Bhopal-462066, Bhopal (India); Bahadur, D. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, IIT Bombay, Mumbai-400076 (India)

    2015-05-15

    We illustrate effect of charge transfer (CT) in type-II quantum confined heterostructure by comparing CdSe quantum dots (QDs), CdSe/CdTe heterostructure quantum dots (HQDs) and CdSe/CdTe/CdSe quantum well-quantum dots (QWQDs) heterostructures. CdSe core QDs were synthesized using a kinetic growth method where QD size depends on reaction time. For shell coating we used modified version of successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR). Size of different QDs ∼5 to 7 nm were measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Strong red shift from ∼597 to ∼746 nm in photoluminescence (PL) spectra from QDs to QWQDs shows high tunability which is not possible with single constituent semiconductor QDs. PL spectra have been recorded at different temperatures (10K-300K). Room temperature time correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) measurements for QDs to QWQDs show three exponential radiative decay. The slowest component decay constant in QWQDs comes around eight fold to ∼51 ns as compared to ∼6.5 ns in HQD suggesting new opportunities to tailor the radiative carrier recombination rate of CT excitons.

  14. Optical Properties of Photovoltaic Organic-Inorganic Lead Halide Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Martin A; Jiang, Yajie; Soufiani, Arman Mahboubi; Ho-Baillie, Anita

    2015-12-03

    Over the last several years, organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites have rapidly emerged as a new photovoltaic contender. Although energy conversion efficiency above 20% has now been certified, improved understanding of the material properties contributing to these high performance levels may allow the progression to even higher efficiency, stable cells. The optical properties of these new materials are important not only to device design but also because of the insight they provide into less directly accessible properties, including energy-band structures, binding energies, and likely impact of excitons, as well as into absorption and inverse radiative recombination processes.

  15. Exciton localization in solution-processed organolead trihalide perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Haiping; Yu, Qianqian; Li, Hui; Li, Jing; Si, Junjie; Jin, Yizheng; Wang, Nana; Wang, Jianpu; He, Jingwen; Wang, Xinke; Zhang, Yan; Ye, Zhizhen

    2016-03-01

    Organolead trihalide perovskites have attracted great attention due to the stunning advances in both photovoltaic and light-emitting devices. However, the photophysical properties, especially the recombination dynamics of photogenerated carriers, of this class of materials are controversial. Here we report that under an excitation level close to the working regime of solar cells, the recombination of photogenerated carriers in solution-processed methylammonium-lead-halide films is dominated by excitons weakly localized in band tail states. This scenario is evidenced by experiments of spectral-dependent luminescence decay, excitation density-dependent luminescence and frequency-dependent terahertz photoconductivity. The exciton localization effect is found to be general for several solution-processed hybrid perovskite films prepared by different methods. Our results provide insights into the charge transport and recombination mechanism in perovskite films and help to unravel their potential for high-performance optoelectronic devices.

  16. Organic Cations Might Not Be Essential to the Remarkable Properties of Band Edge Carriers in Lead Halide Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haiming; Trinh, M Tuan; Wang, Jue; Fu, Yongping; Joshi, Prakriti P; Miyata, Kiyoshi; Jin, Song; Zhu, X-Y

    2017-01-01

    A charge carrier in a lead halide perovskite lattice is protected as a large polaron responsible for the remarkable photophysical properties, irrespective of the cation type. All-inorganic-based APbX3 perovskites may mitigate the stability problem for their applications in solar cells and other optoelectronics.

  17. Spectroscopy and photophysics of self-organized zinc porphyrin nanolayers. 1. Optical spectroscopy of excitonic interactions involving the soret band

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker, H.; Koehorst, R.B.M.; Schaafsma, T.J.

    2005-01-01

    The photophysical properties of excited singlet states of zinc tetra-(p-octylphenyl)-porphyrin in 5-25-nm-thick films spin-coated onto quartz slides have been investigated by optical spectroscopy. Analysis of the polarized absorption spectra using a dipole-dipole exciton model with two mutually perp

  18. Electronic states and the resonant optical non-linearity of exciton in a narrow band InSb quantum dot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayanan, M. [Department of Physics, Yadava College Govindarajan Campus, Thiruppalai, Madurai-625 014 (India); John Peter, A., E-mail: a.john.peter@gmail.com [Center for Environmental Studies/Green Energy Center, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Seocheon-dong 1, Giheung-gu, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do, 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Chang Kyoo [Center for Environmental Studies/Green Energy Center, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Seocheon-dong 1, Giheung-gu, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do, 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-01

    Binding energy, interband emission energy and the non-linear optical properties of exciton in an InSb/InGa{sub x}Sb{sub 1-x} quantum dot are computed as functions of dot radius and the Ga content. Optical properties are obtained using the compact density matrix approach. The dependence of non-linear optical processes on the dot sizes is investigated for different Ga concentrations. The linear, third order non-linear optical absorption coefficients, susceptibility values and the refractive index changes of the exciton are calculated for different concentrations of gallium content. It is found that gallium concentration has great influence on the optical properties of InSb/InGa{sub x}Sb{sub 1-x} dots.

  19. A Thermally Activated Exciton-Exciton Collision Process in ZnO Microrods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Dong-Xu; LIU Yi-Chun; SHEN De-Zhen; LU You-Ming; ZHANG Ji-Ying; FAN Xi-Wu

    2004-01-01

    @@ Room-temperature P-band emission induced by an exciton-exciton collision process was observed in ZnO microrods. Both temperature- and excitation-intensity-dependent photoluminescence (PL) measurements were conducted.

  20. Structural, optical, and electronic studies of wide-bandgap lead halide perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    Comin, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015. We investigate the family of mixed Br/Cl organolead halide perovskites which enable light emission in the blue-violet region of the visible spectrum. We report the structural, optical and electronic properties of this air-stable family of perovskites, demonstrating full bandgap tunability in the 400-550 nm range and enhanced exciton strength upon Cl substitution. We complement this study by tracking the evolution of the band levels across the gap, thereby providing a foundational framework for future optoelectronic applications of these materials.

  1. Single-Layer Halide Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes with Sub-Band Gap Turn-On Voltage and High Brightness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junqiang; Shan, Xin; Bade, Sri Ganesh R; Geske, Thomas; Jiang, Qinglong; Yang, Xin; Yu, Zhibin

    2016-10-03

    Charge-carrier injection into an emissive semiconductor thin film can result in electroluminescence and is generally achieved by using a multilayer device structure, which requires an electron-injection layer (EIL) between the cathode and the emissive layer and a hole-injection layer (HIL) between the anode and the emissive layer. The recent advancement of halide perovskite semiconductors opens up a new path to electroluminescent devices with a greatly simplified device structure. We report cesium lead tribromide light-emitting diodes (LEDs) without the aid of an EIL or HIL. These so-called single-layer LEDs have exhibited a sub-band gap turn-on voltage. The devices obtained a brightness of 591 197 cd m(-2) at 4.8 V, with an external quantum efficiency of 5.7% and a power efficiency of 14.1 lm W(-1). Such an advancement demonstrates that very high efficiency of electron and hole injection can be obtained in perovskite LEDs even without using an EIL or HIL.

  2. Near Band Edge Emission by Free Exciton Decay and Intrinsic Ferromagnetic Ordering of Cu-Doped SnO2 Hollow Nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanapriya, P; Jaya, N Victor

    2015-03-01

    High quality nanocrystalline pristine and Cu-doped SnO2 hollow nanofibers were successfully prepared through simple and effective electrospinning technique. Nanofibers calcined at 600 °C for 3 h were characterized with different analytical techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron Microscope (TEM) and Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Observed TEM images and XRD patterns were corroborate to the formation of tetragonal crystalline SnO2 hollow nanofibers with rutile phase. Excellent optical behaviour was observed for Cu-doped SnO2. Highly intense near band edge emission at 3.58 eV for Cu-doped SnO2 evidences the free exciton decay process in the hollow nanofibers. For the first time we have reported here the near band edge PL emission in Cu-doped SnO2 tubular hollow nanostructure. This study substantiates that material potential for UV-lasing application. In addition to the above, magnetic measurement ascribes that Cu-doped SnO2 exhibit the intrinsic room temperature ferromagnetism within the low field strength. The occurrence of ferromagnetism in Cu-doped SnO2 is directly related to the p-d ferromagnetic exchange coupling between the local magnetic moment of Cu2+ and the polarized valence electrons of surrounding oxygen. Over all this study provides the primary information about tunable multifunctionality of SnO2 hollow nanostructures by adding the non-magnetic Cu ions.

  3. High-Pressure Study of Perovskite-Like Organometal Halide: Band-Gap Narrowing and Structural Evolution of [NH 3 -(CH 2 )4 -NH3 ]CuCl4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qian; Li, Shourui; Wang, Kai; Quan, Zewei; Meng, Yue; Zou, Bo

    2017-01-10

    Searching for nontoxic and stable perovskite-like alternatives to lead-based halide perovskites for photovoltaic application is one urgent issue in photoelectricity science. Such exploration inevitably requires an effective method to accurately control both the crystalline and electronic structures. This work applies high pressure to narrow the band gap of perovskite-like organometal halide, [NH3-(CH2)4-NH3]CuCl4 (DABCuCl4), through the crystalline-structure tuning. The band gap keeps decreasing below ~12 GPa, involving the shrinkage and distortion of CuCl42–. Inorganic distortion determines both band-gap narrowing and phase transition between 6.4 and 10.5 GPa, and organic chains function as the spring cushion, evidenced by the structural transition at ~0.8 GPa. The supporting function of organic chains protects DABCuCl4 from phase transition and amorphization, which also contributes to the sustaining band-gap narrowing. This work combines crystal structure and macroscopic property together and offers new strategies for the further design and synthesis of hybrid perovskite-like alternatives.

  4. Features of exciton dynamics in molecular nanoclusters (J-aggregates): Exciton self-trapping (Review Article)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyukin, Yu. V.; Sorokin, A. V.; Semynozhenko, V. P.

    2016-06-01

    We present thoroughly analyzed experimental results that demonstrate the anomalous manifestation of the exciton self-trapping effect, which is already well-known in bulk crystals, in ordered molecular nanoclusters called J-aggregates. Weakly-coupled one-dimensional (1D) molecular chains are the main structural feature of J-aggregates, wherein the electron excitations are manifested as 1D Frenkel excitons. According to the continuum theory of Rashba-Toyozawa, J-aggregates can have only self-trapped excitons, because 1D excitons must adhere to barrier-free self-trapping at any exciton-phonon coupling constant g = ɛLR/2β, wherein ɛLR is the lattice relaxation energy, and 2β is the half-width of the exciton band. In contrast, very often only the luminescence of free, mobile excitons would manifest in experiments involving J-aggregates. Using the Urbach rule in order to analyze the low-frequency region of the low-temperature exciton absorption spectra has shown that J-aggregates can have both a weak (g 1) exciton-phonon coupling. Moreover, it is experimentally demonstrated that under certain conditions, the J-aggregate excited state can have both free and self-trapped excitons, i.e., we establish the existence of a self-trapping barrier for 1D Frenkel excitons. We demonstrate and analyze the reasons behind the anomalous existence of both free and self-trapped excitons in J-aggregates, and demonstrate how exciton-self trapping efficiency can be managed in J-aggregates by varying the values of g, which is fundamentally impossible in bulk crystals. We discuss how the exciton-self trapping phenomenon can be used as an alternate interpretation of the wide band emission of some J-aggregates, which has thus far been explained by the strongly localized exciton model.

  5. Spatially indirect excitons in coupled quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Chih-Wei Eddy [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2004-03-01

    Microscopic quantum phenomena such as interference or phase coherence between different quantum states are rarely manifest in macroscopic systems due to a lack of significant correlation between different states. An exciton system is one candidate for observation of possible quantum collective effects. In the dilute limit, excitons in semiconductors behave as bosons and are expected to undergo Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) at a temperature several orders of magnitude higher than for atomic BEC because of their light mass. Furthermore, well-developed modern semiconductor technologies offer flexible manipulations of an exciton system. Realization of BEC in solid-state systems can thus provide new opportunities for macroscopic quantum coherence research. In semiconductor coupled quantum wells (CQW) under across-well static electric field, excitons exist as separately confined electron-hole pairs. These spatially indirect excitons exhibit a radiative recombination time much longer than their thermal relaxation time a unique feature in direct band gap semiconductor based structures. Their mutual repulsive dipole interaction further stabilizes the exciton system at low temperature and screens in-plane disorder more effectively. All these features make indirect excitons in CQW a promising system to search for quantum collective effects. Properties of indirect excitons in CQW have been analyzed and investigated extensively. The experimental results based on time-integrated or time-resolved spatially-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and imaging are reported in two categories. (i) Generic indirect exciton systems: general properties of indirect excitons such as the dependence of exciton energy and lifetime on electric fields and densities were examined. (ii) Quasi-two-dimensional confined exciton systems: highly statistically degenerate exciton systems containing more than tens of thousands of excitons within areas as small as (10 micrometer)2 were

  6. Advances and Promises of Layered Halide Hybrid Perovskite Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedesseau, Laurent; Sapori, Daniel; Traore, Boubacar; Robles, Roberto; Fang, Hong-Hua; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Tsai, Hsinhan; Nie, Wanyi; Blancon, Jean-Christophe; Neukirch, Amanda; Tretiak, Sergei; Mohite, Aditya D; Katan, Claudine; Even, Jacky; Kepenekian, Mikaël

    2016-11-22

    Layered halide hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOP) have been the subject of intense investigation before the rise of three-dimensional (3D) HOP and their impressive performance in solar cells. Recently, layered HOP have also been proposed as attractive alternatives for photostable solar cells and revisited for light-emitting devices. In this review, we combine classical solid-state physics concepts with simulation tools based on density functional theory to overview the main features of the optoelectronic properties of layered HOP. A detailed comparison between layered and 3D HOP is performed to highlight differences and similarities. In the same way as the cubic phase was established for 3D HOP, here we introduce the tetragonal phase with D4h symmetry as the reference phase for 2D monolayered HOP. It allows for detailed analysis of the spin-orbit coupling effects and structural transitions with corresponding electronic band folding. We further investigate the effects of octahedral tilting on the band gap, loss of inversion symmetry and possible Rashba effect, quantum confinement, and dielectric confinement related to the organic barrier, up to excitonic properties. Altogether, this paper aims to provide an interpretive and predictive framework for 3D and 2D layered HOP optoelectronic properties.

  7. Long-time Luminescence Kinetics of Localized excitons and conduction Band Edges Smearing in ZnSe(1-c)Tec Solid Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klochikhin, O.; Ogloblin, S. G.; Permogorov, S.

    2000-01-01

    It is shown that the integrated luminescence intensity of localized excitons in solid solutions ZnSe(1 - c)Tec has a component slowly decaying with time. After the excitation above the mobility threshold, the long-time intensity decreases exponentially, with a fractional exponent changing from...

  8. Bright and dark excitons in semiconductor carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tretiak, Sergei [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We report electronic structure calculations of finite-length semiconducting carbon nanotubes using the time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) and the time dependent Hartree Fock (TD-HF) approach coupled with semiempirical AM1 and ZINDO Hamiltonians. We specifically focus on the energy splitting, relative ordering, and localization properties of the optically active (bright) and optically forbidden (dark) states from the lowest excitonic band of the nanotubes. These excitonic states are very important in competing radiative and non-radiative processes in these systems. Our analysis of excitonic transition density matrices demonstrates that pure DFT functionals overdelocalize excitons making an electron-hole pair unbound; consequently, excitonic features are not presented in this method. In contrast, the pure HF and A111 calculations overbind excitons inaccurately predicting the lowest energy state as a bright exciton. Changing AM1 with ZINDO Hamiltonian in TD-HF calculations, predicts the bright exciton as the second state after the dark one. However, in contrast to AM1 calculations, the diameter dependence of the excitation energies obtained by ZINDO does not follow the experimental trends. Finally, the TD-DFT approach incorporating hybrid functions with a moderate portion of the long-range HF exchange, such as B3LYP, has the most generality and predictive capacity providing a sufficiently accurate description of excitonic structure in finite-size nanotubes. These methods characterize four important lower exciton bands. The lowest state is dark, the upper band is bright, and the two other dark and nearly degenerate excitons lie in-between. Although the calculated energy splittings between the lowest dark and the bright excitons are relatively large ({approx}0.1 eV), the dense excitonic manifold below the bright exciton allows for fast non-radiative relaxation leasing to the fast population of the lowest dark exciton. This rationalizes the low

  9. Free-exciton states in crystalline GaTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, J. Z.; Brebner, J. L.; Leonelli, R.

    1995-12-01

    Polarized properties of both the singlet and triplet ground exciton states in the photoluminescence and transmission spectra of crystalline GaTe are explained based on the possible symmetry properties of the energy band edge of GaTe. Some experimental results about excited exciton states in GaTe are presented and discussed. The energy positions of exciton series in GaTe follow the three-dimensional direct allowed Wannier exciton formula just as in the the other III-VI layered compounds of GaSe and InSe. The nonthermalized, ``hot'' nature of excitons inside GaTe under higher optical excitation intensities is also discussed.

  10. Excitonic polaritons of zinc diarsenide single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrbu, N. N.; Stamov, I. G.; Zalamai, V. V.; Dorogan, A.

    2017-02-01

    Excitonic polaritons of ZnAs2 single crystals had been investigated. Parameters of singlet excitons with D2bar(z) symmetry and orthoexcitons 2D1bar(y)+D2bar(x) had been determined. Spectral dependencies of ordinary and extraordinary dispersion of refractive index had been calculated using interferential reflection and transmittance spectra. It was shown, that A excitonic series were due to hole (V1) and electron (C1) bands. The values of effective masses of electrons (mc*=0.10 m0) and holes (mv1*=0.89 m0) had been estimated. It was revealed that the hole mass mv1* changes from 1.03 m0 to 0.55 m0 at temperature increasing from 10 K up to 230 K and that the electron mass mc* does not depend on temperature. The integral absorption A (eV cm-1) of the states n=1, 2 and 3 of D2bar(z) excitons depends on the An≈n-3 equality, which it is characteristic for S-type excitonic functions. Temperature dependences of the integral absorption of ground states for D2bar(z) and D2bar(D) excitons differ. The ground states of B and C excitons formed by V3 - C1 and V4 - C1 bands and its parameters had been determined.

  11. Nature of the band gap of halide perovskites 3 (=CH3NH3, Cs; =Sn, Pb; =Cl, Br, I):First-principles calculations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁野; 徐闰; 徐海涛; 洪峰; 徐飞; 王林军

    2015-01-01

    The electronic structures of cubic structure of ABX3(A=CH3NH3, Cs;B=Sn, Pb;X=Cl, Br, I) are analyzed by den-sity functional theory using the Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhof exchange–correlation functional and using the Heyd–Scuseria–Ernzerhof hybrid functional. The valence band maximum (VBM) is found to be made up by an antibonding hybridization of B s and X p states, whereas bands made up by theπ antibonding of B p and X p states dominates the conduction band minimum (CBM). The changes of VBM, CBM, and band gap with ion B and X are then systematically summarized. The natural band offsets of ABX3 are partly given. We also found for all the ABX3 perovskite materials in this study, the bandgap increases with an increasing lattice parameter. This phenomenon has good consistency with the experimental results.

  12. Quantum confinement of excitons in wurtzite InP nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemasiri, K.; Jackson, H. E.; Smith, L. M.; Wong, B. M.; Paiman, S.; Gao, Q.; Tan, H. H.; Jagadish, C.

    2015-05-01

    Exciton resonances are observed in photocurrent spectra of 80 nm wurtzite InP nanowire devices at low temperatures, which correspond to transitions between the A, B, and C valence bands and the lower conduction band. Photocurrent spectra for 30 nm WZ nanowires exhibit shifts of the exciton resonances to higher energy, which are consistent with finite element calculations of wavefunctions of the confined electrons and holes for the various bands.

  13. Exciton migration and quenching in poly(propylene imine) dendrimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minevičiūtė, I.; Gulbinas, V.; Franckevičius, M.; Vaišnoras, R.; Marcos, M.; Serrano, J. L.

    2009-05-01

    Exciton migration between chromophore groups of the poly(propylene imine) dendrimer in chloroform solution and in solid state has been investigated by means of the time-resolved fluorescence measurements. Fluorescence decay kinetics, dynamic band shift and the depolarization rate have been analyzed. Exciton migration in a single dendrimer was found to be slow in comparison with temperature-dependent chromophore reorientation time of 150-600 ps. In a solid state chromophore groups form collective excitonic states responsible for the dendrimer film fluorescence. Exciton migration and localization to the lowest energy sites within the distributed density of states take place on a subnanosecond-nanosecond time scale.

  14. Phase coherence and spectral functions in the two-dimensional excitonic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apinyan, V., E-mail: V.Apinyan@int.pan.wroc.pl; Kopeć, T.K.

    2015-09-15

    The nonlocal correlation mechanism between excitonic pairs is considered for a two dimensional exciton system. On the base of the unitary decomposition of the usual electron operator, we include the electron phase degrees of freedom into the problem of interacting excitons. Applying the path integral formalism, we treat the excitonic insulator state (EI) and the Bose–Einstein condensation (BEC) of preformed excitonic pairs as two independent problems. For the BEC of excitons the phase field variables play a crucial role. We derive the expression of the local EI order parameter by integrating out the phase variables. Then, considering the zero temperature limit, we obtain the excitonic BEC transition probability function, by integrating out the fermions. We calculate the normal excitonic Green functions for the conduction and valence band electrons and we derive the excitonic spectral functions, both analytically and numerically. Different values of the Coulomb interaction parameter are considered.

  15. Exciton Mapping at Subwavelength Scales in Two-Dimensional Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Tizei, Luiz H. G.

    2015-03-01

    Spatially resolved electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) is performed at diffuse interfaces between MoS2 and MoSe2 single layers. With a monochromated electron source (20 meV) we successfully probe excitons near the interface by obtaining the low loss spectra at the nanometer scale. The exciton maps clearly show variations even with a 10 nm separation between measurements; consequently, the optical band gap can be measured with nanometer-scale resolution, which is 50 times smaller than the wavelength of the emitted photons. By performing core-loss EELS at the same regions, we observe that variations in the excitonic signature follow the chemical composition. The exciton peaks are observed to be broader at interfaces and heterogeneous regions, possibly due to interface roughness and alloying effects. Moreover, we do not observe shifts of the exciton peak across the interface, possibly because the interface width is not much larger than the exciton Bohr radius.

  16. Purcell effect in an organic-inorganic halide perovskite semiconductor microcavity system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Yafeng; Hu, Tao; Wu, Lin; Shen, Xuechu; Chen, Zhanghai, E-mail: lujian@fudan.edu.cn, E-mail: zhanghai@fudan.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics, Key Laboratory of Micro and Nano Photonic Structures (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Cao, Runan; Xu, Fei [Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Da, Peimei; Zheng, Gengfeng [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Lu, Jian, E-mail: lujian@fudan.edu.cn, E-mail: zhanghai@fudan.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics, Key Laboratory of Micro and Nano Photonic Structures (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201210 (China)

    2016-01-11

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskite semiconductors with the attractive physics properties, including strong photoluminescence (PL), huge oscillator strengths, and low nonradiative recombination losses, are ideal candidates for studying the light-matter interaction in nanostructures. Here, we demonstrate the coupling of the exciton state and the cavity mode in the lead halide perovskite microcavity system at room temperature. The Purcell effect in the coupling system is clearly observed by using angle-resolved photoluminescence spectra. Kinetic analysis based on time-resolved PL reveals that the spontaneous emission rate of the halide perovskite semiconductor is significantly enhanced at resonance of the exciton energy and the cavity mode. Our results provide the way for developing electrically driven organic polariton lasers, optical devices, and on-chip coherent quantum light sources.

  17. Purcell effect in an organic-inorganic halide perovskite semiconductor microcavity system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Cao, Runan; Da, Peimei; Wang, Yafeng; Hu, Tao; Wu, Lin; Lu, Jian; Shen, Xuechu; Xu, Fei; Zheng, Gengfeng; Chen, Zhanghai

    2016-01-01

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskite semiconductors with the attractive physics properties, including strong photoluminescence (PL), huge oscillator strengths, and low nonradiative recombination losses, are ideal candidates for studying the light-matter interaction in nanostructures. Here, we demonstrate the coupling of the exciton state and the cavity mode in the lead halide perovskite microcavity system at room temperature. The Purcell effect in the coupling system is clearly observed by using angle-resolved photoluminescence spectra. Kinetic analysis based on time-resolved PL reveals that the spontaneous emission rate of the halide perovskite semiconductor is significantly enhanced at resonance of the exciton energy and the cavity mode. Our results provide the way for developing electrically driven organic polariton lasers, optical devices, and on-chip coherent quantum light sources.

  18. Exciton optical transitions in a hexagonal boron nitride single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Museur, L. [Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers - LPL, CNRS UMR 7538, Institut Galilee, Universite Paris 13, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Brasse, G.; Maine, S.; Ducastelle, F.; Loiseau, A. [ONERA - Laboratoire d' Etude des Microstructures - LEM, ONERA-CNRS, UMR 104, BP 72, 92322 Chatillon Cedex (France); Pierret, A. [ONERA - Laboratoire d' Etude des Microstructures - LEM, ONERA-CNRS, UMR 104, BP 72, 92322 Chatillon Cedex (France); CEA-CNRS, Institut Neel/CNRS, Universite J. Fourier, CEA/INAC/SP2M, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38 054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Attal-Tretout, B. [ONERA - Departement Mesures Physiques - DMPh, 27 Chemin de la Huniere, 91761 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Barjon, J. [GEMaC, Universite de Versailles St Quentin, CNRS Bellevue, 1 Place Aristide Briand, 92195 Meudon Cedex (France); Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T. [National Institute for Materials Science, Namiki 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Kanaev, A. [Laboratoire des Sciences des Procedes et des Materiaux - LSPM, CNRS UPR 3407, Universite Paris 13, 93430 Villetaneuse (France)

    2011-06-15

    Near band gap photoluminescence (PL) of a hexagonal boron nitride single crystal has been studied at cryogenic temperatures with synchrotron radiation excitation. The PL signal is dominated by trapped-exciton optical transitions, while the photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectra show features assigned to free excitons. Complementary photoconductivity and PLE measurements set the band gap transition energy to 6.4 eV and the Frenkel exciton binding energy larger than 380 meV. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Exciton laser rate equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garkavenko A. S.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The rate equations of the exciton laser in the system of interacting excitons have been obtained and the inverted population conditions and generation have been derived. The possibility of creating radically new gamma-ray laser has been shown.

  20. Optical response and excitons in gapped graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Garm; Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Pedersen, K.

    2009-01-01

    Graphene can be rendered semiconducting via energy gaps introduced in a variety of ways, e.g., coupling to substrates, electrical biasing, or nanostructuring. To describe and compare different realizations of gapped graphene we propose a simple two-band model in which a "mass" term is responsible...... for the gap. The optical conductivity predicted for this model is obtained as a simple closed-form expression. In addition, analytical estimates for the binding energy of excitons are derived and the impact of excitons on the optical response is analyzed....

  1. Excitonic dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordstrøm, K.B.; Johnsen, Kristinn; Allen, S.J.

    1998-01-01

    The dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect is exposed by exploring near-band-gap absorption in the presence of intense THz electric fields. It bridges the gap between the de Franz-Keldysh effect and multiphoton absorption and competes with the THz ac Stark effect in shifting the energy of the excitonic...... resonance. A theoretical model which includes the strong THz field nonperturbatively via a nonequilibrium Green functions technique is able to describe the dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect in the presence of excitonic absorption....

  2. Photophysics of Hybrid Lead Halide Perovskites: The Role of Microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srimath Kandada, Ajay Ram; Petrozza, Annamaria

    2016-03-15

    Since the first reports on high efficiency, solution processed solar cells based on hybrid lead halide perovskites, there has been an explosion of activities on these materials. Researchers with interests spanning the full range from conventional inorganic to emerging organic and hybrid optoelectronic technologies have been contributing to the prolific research output. This has led to solar cell power conversion efficiencies now exceeding 20% and the demonstration of proofs of concept for electroluminescent and lasing devices. Hybrid perovskites can be self-assembled by a simple chemical deposition of the constituent units, with the possibility of integrating the useful properties of organic and inorganic compounds at the molecular scale within a single crystalline material, thus enabling a fine-tuning of the electronic properties. Tellingly, the fundamental properties of these materials may make us think of a new, solution processable, GaAs-like semiconductor. While this can be true to a first approximation, hybrid perovskites are intrinsically complex materials, where the presence of various types of interactions and structural disorder may strongly affect their properties. In particular, a clear understanding and control of the relative interactions between the organic and inorganic moieties is of paramount importance to properly disentangle their innate physics. In this Account we review our recent studies which aim to clarify the relationship between structural and electronic properties from a molecular to mesoscopic level. First we identify the markers for local disorder at the molecular level by using Raman spectroscopy as a probe. Then, we exploit such a tool to explore the role of microstructure on the absorption and luminescence properties of the semiconductor. Finally we address the controversy surrounding electron-hole interactions and excitonic effects. We show that in hybrid lead-halide perovskites dielectric screening also depends on the local

  3. Exciton condensation and its influence on the specific heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachter, P., E-mail: wachter@solid.phys.ethz.ch [Laboratorium fuer Festkoerperphysik, ETH Zuerich, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Bucher, B. [HSR Hochschule fuer Technik, 8640 Rapperswil (Switzerland)

    2013-01-01

    In rare earth compounds with localized 4f states the observation of bound 4f-hole-5d-electron states, excitons, is questionable. On the other hand the same compounds exhibit p-d excitons, which are derived from itinerant bands. In rare earth compounds, which exhibit intermediate valence, 4f-5d hybridization produces a narrow, several 10 meV wide 4f band. Now 4f-5d excitons are possible and have been observed in TmSe{sub 0.45}Te{sub 0.55} and similar compositions. The special band structure of these materials permits an enormous amount of excitons ( Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3}), which condense in a first order transition at low temperatures and high pressure. This static and immense concentration of excitons dominates the heat conductivity and the thermal diffusivity and even exhibits the phenomenon of superfluidity in a solid. The measured specific heat shows that phonons couple to these excitons forming exciton polarons.

  4. Quasienergy Spectroscopy of Excitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Kristinn; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    1999-01-01

    We theoretically study nonlinear optics of excitons under intense THz irradiation. In particular, the linear near-infrared absorption and resonantly enhanced nonlinear sideband generation are described. We predict a rich structure in the spectra which an be interpreted in terms of the quasienergy...... spectrum of the exciton, via a remarkably transparent expression for the susceptibility, and show that the effects of strongly avoided quasienergy crossings manifest themselves directly, both in the absorption and transmitted sidebands....

  5. Exciton Transfer in Carbon Nanotube Aggregates for Energy Harvesting Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoody, Amirhossein; Karimi, Farhad; Knezevic, Irena

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising building blocks for organic photovoltaic devices, owing to their tunable band gap, mechanical and chemical stability. We study intertube excitonic energy transfer between pairs of CNTs with different orientations and band gaps. The optically bright and dark excitonic states in CNTs are calculated by solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation. We calculate the exciton transfer rates due to the direct and exchange Coulomb interactions, as well as the second-order phonon-assisted processes. We show the importance of phonons in calculating the transfer rates that match the measurements. In addition, we discuss the contribution of optically inactive excited states in the exciton transfer process, which is difficult to determine experimentally. Furthermore, we study the effects of sample inhomogeneity, impurities, and temperature on the exciton transfer rate. The inhomogeneity in the CNT sample dielectric function can increase the transfer rate by about a factor of two. We show that the exciton confinement by impurities has a detrimental effect on the transfer rate between pairs of similar CNTs. The exciton transfer rate increases monotonically with increasing temperature. Support by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under Award DE-SC0008712.

  6. Excitonic optical nonlinearities and transport in the layered compound semiconductor GaSe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mizeikis, V.; Vadim, Lyssenko; Østergaard, John Erland;

    1995-01-01

    Dephasing and transient grating experiments in the direct excitonic absorption region of GaSe at low temperatures show that a fast relaxation within the one-dimensionally disordered excitonic band results in band filling being the dominant mechanism of the optical nonlinearity. Correspondingly, we...... observe a blueshift of the nonlinear signal with excitation density. The temperature dependence of the exciton diffusion constant measured in directions parallel to the GaSe layer planes indicates that temperature-independent scattering (trapping) and scattering by acoustic phonons determine the exciton...

  7. Interwell excitons in GaAs superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Dan; Sayed, Karim El; Sanders, G.;

    1996-01-01

    The formation of spatially indirect excitons in superlattices with narrow minibands is theoretically and experimentally investigated. We identify the experimental conditions for the observation of interwell excitons and find a distinct excitonic state energetically located between the Is exciton ...

  8. Multiple Exciton Generation in Colloidal Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Smith

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In a conventional solar cell, the energy of an absorbed photon in excess of the band gap is rapidly lost as heat, and this is one of the main reasons that the theoretical efficiency is limited to ~33%. However, an alternative process, multiple exciton generation (MEG, can occur in colloidal quantum dots. Here, some or all of the excess energy is instead used to promote one or more additional electrons to the conduction band, potentially increasing the photocurrent of a solar cell and thereby its output efficiency. This review will describe the development of this field over the decade since the first experimental demonstration of multiple exciton generation, including the controversies over experimental artefacts, comparison with similar effects in bulk materials, and the underlying mechanisms. We will also describe the current state-of-the-art and outline promising directions for further development.

  9. Excitonic insulator transition in the conjugated polymer polyacene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rice, MJ; Gartstein, YN

    2004-01-01

    According to molecular orbital theory, the symmetrically positioned one-dimensional (I-D) conduction and valence bands of polyacene touch at the X point. Clearly, the exciton binding energy of this semimetal exceeds the band gap so that polyacene should be a textbook case of a semimetal undergoing a

  10. Direct X-ray detection with hybrid solar cells based on organolead halide perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Hardeep Singh; Elshahat, Bassem; Sajo, Erno; Kumar, Jayant; Kokil, Akshay; Zygmanski, Piotr; Li, Lian; Mosurkal, Ravi

    2014-03-01

    Organolead halide perovskite materials are attracting considerable interest due to their exceptional opto-electronic properties, such as, high charge carrier mobilities, high exciton diffusion length, high extinction coefficients and broad-band absorption. These interesting properties have enabled their application in high performance hybrid photovoltaic devices. The high Z value of their constituents also makes these materials efficient for absorbing X-rays. Here we will present on the efficient use of hybrid solar cells based on organolead perovskite materials as X-ray detectors. Hybrid solar cells based on CH3NH3PbI3 were fabricated using facile processing techniques on patterned indium tin oxide coated glass substrates. The solar cells typically had a planar configuration of ITO/CH3NH3PbI3/P3HT/Ag. High sensitivity for X-rays due to high Z value, larger carrier mobility and better charge collection was observed. Detecting X-rays with energies relevant to medical oncology applications opens up the potential for diagnostic imaging applications.

  11. Machine Learning Exciton Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Häse, Florian; Pyzer-Knapp, Edward; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2015-01-01

    Obtaining the exciton dynamics of large photosynthetic complexes by using mixed quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) is computationally demanding. We propose a machine learning technique, multi-layer perceptrons, as a tool to reduce the time required to compute excited state energies. With this approach we predict time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) excited state energies of bacteriochlorophylls in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex. Additionally we compute spectral densities and exciton populations from the predictions. Different methods to determine multi-layer perceptron training sets are introduced, leading to several initial data selections. In addition, we compute spectral densities and exciton populations. Once multi-layer perceptrons are trained, predicting excited state energies was found to be significantly faster than the corresponding QM/MM calculations. We showed that multi-layer perceptrons can successfully reproduce the energies of QM/MM calculations to a high degree o...

  12. Multiscale photosynthetic exciton transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Ringsmuth, A K; Stace, T M; 10.1038/nphys2332

    2012-01-01

    Photosynthetic light harvesting provides a natural blueprint for bioengineered and biomimetic solar energy and light detection technologies. Recent evidence suggests some individual light harvesting protein complexes (LHCs) and LHC subunits efficiently transfer excitons towards chemical reaction centers (RCs) via an interplay between excitonic quantum coherence, resonant protein vibrations, and thermal decoherence. The role of coherence in vivo is unclear however, where excitons are transferred through multi-LHC/RC aggregates over distances typically large compared with intra-LHC scales. Here we assess the possibility of long-range coherent transfer in a simple chromophore network with disordered site and transfer coupling energies. Through renormalization we find that, surprisingly, decoherence is diminished at larger scales, and long-range coherence is facilitated by chromophoric clustering. Conversely, static disorder in the site energies grows with length scale, forcing localization. Our results suggest s...

  13. Ghost Fano Resonance of Excitons in Twisted Bilayer Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yufeng

    2014-03-01

    Metallic systems are generally considered to be unable to harbor tightly bound excitons because of the strong screening effect as well as the absence of a finite band gap. Previously, exception has only been found in one-dimensional metallic carbon nanotubes due to the depressed screening effects and the symmetry gap. We explore the exciton spectra of twisted bilayer graphene (tBLG) and predict the existence of even more strongly bound exciton (with binding energy as large as 0.5eV) in this system despite of its higher dimensionality. Based on our results from first-principles simulations and effective model calculations, a mechanism known as the ghost Fano resonance is proposed for the bound exciton formation in metallic systems beyond the dimensonality-related argument. Our results shed light on engineering the e-h excitations in the few-layer van der Waals heterojunction. NSF Grant No. DMR-1207141.

  14. Novel exciton systems in 2D TMD monolayers and heterobilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongyi

    In this talk, two exciton systems in transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) monolayer and heterobilayer will be discussed. In TMD monolayers, the strong e-h Coulomb exchange interaction splits the exciton and trion dispersions into two branches with zero and finite gap, respectively. Each branch is a center-of-mass wave vector dependent coherent superposition of the two valleys, which leads to a valley-orbit coupling and possibly a trion valley Hall effect. The exchange interaction also eliminates the linear polarization of the negative trion PL emission. In TMD heterobilayers with a type-II band alignment, the low energy exciton has an interlayer configuration with the e and h localized in opposite layers. Because of the inevitable twist or/and lattice mismatch between the two layers, the bright interlayer excitons are located at finite center-of-mass velocities with a six-fold degeneracy. The corresponding photon emission is elliptically polarized, with the major axis locked to the direction of exciton velocity, and helicity determined by the valley indices of the e and h. Some experimental results on the interlayer excitons in the WSe2-MoSe2 heterobilayers will also be presented. The interlayer exciton exhibits a long lifetime as well as a long depolarization time, which facilitate the observation of a PL polarization ring pattern due to the valley dependent exciton-exciton interaction induced expansion. The works were supported by the Research Grant Council of Hong Kong (HKU17305914P, HKU705513P), the Croucher Foundation, and the HKU OYRA and ROP.

  15. Thermal effects in exciton harvesting in biased one-dimensional systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaming, S. M.; Malyshev, V.A.; Knoester, J.

    2008-01-01

    The study of energy harvesting in chain-like structures is important due to its relevance to a variety of interesting physical systems. Harvesting is understood as the combination of exciton transport through intra-band exciton relaxation (via scattering on phonon modes) and subsequent quenching by

  16. Iodomethane-Mediated Organometal Halide Perovskite with Record Photoluminescence Lifetime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weidong; McLeod, John A; Yang, Yingguo; Wang, Yimeng; Wu, Zhongwei; Bai, Sai; Yuan, Zhongcheng; Song, Tao; Wang, Yusheng; Si, Junjie; Wang, Rongbin; Gao, Xingyu; Zhang, Xinping; Liu, Lijia; Sun, Baoquan

    2016-09-07

    Organometallic lead halide perovskites are excellent light harvesters for high-efficiency photovoltaic devices. However, as the key component in these devices, a perovskite thin film with good morphology and minimal trap states is still difficult to obtain. Herein we show that by incorporating a low boiling point alkyl halide such as iodomethane (CH3I) into the precursor solution, a perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3-xClx) film with improved grain size and orientation can be easily achieved. More importantly, these films exhibit a significantly reduced amount of trap states. Record photoluminescence lifetimes of more than 4 μs are achieved; these lifetimes are significantly longer than that of pristine CH3NH3PbI3-xClx films. Planar heterojunction solar cells incorporating these CH3I-mediated perovskites have demonstrated a dramatically increased power conversion efficiency compared to the ones using pristine CH3NH3PbI3-xClx. Photoluminescence, transient absorption, and microwave detected photoconductivity measurements all provide consistent evidence that CH3I addition increases the number of excitons generated and their diffusion length, both of which assist efficient carrier transport in the photovoltaic device. The simple incorporation of alkyl halide to enhance perovskite surface passivation introduces an important direction for future progress on high efficiency perovskite optoelectronic devices.

  17. Role of Microstructure in the Electron-Hole Interaction of Hybrid Lead-Halide Perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Jarvist M.; Barker, Alex J.; De Bastiani, Michele; Gandini, Marina; Marras, Sergio; Lanzani, Guglielmo; Walsh, Aron; Petrozza, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    Solar cells based on hybrid inorganic-organic halide perovskites have demonstrated high power conversion efficiencies in a range of architectures. The existence and stability of bound electron-hole pairs in these materials, and their role in the exceptional performance of optoelectronic devices, remains a controversial issue. Here we demonstrate, through a combination of optical spectroscopy and multiscale modeling as a function of the degree of polycrystallinity and temperature, that the electron-hole interaction is sensitive to the microstructure of the material. The long-range order is disrupted by polycrystalline disorder and the variations in electrostatic potential found for smaller crystals suppress exciton formation, while larger crystals of the same composition demonstrate an unambiguous excitonic state. We conclude that fabrication procedures and morphology strongly influence perovskite behaviour, with both free carrier and excitonic regimes possible, with strong implications for optoelectronic devices. PMID:26442125

  18. Role of Microstructure in the Electron-Hole Interaction of Hybrid Lead-Halide Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grancini, Giulia; Srimath Kandada, Ajay Ram; Frost, Jarvist M; Barker, Alex J; De Bastiani, Michele; Gandini, Marina; Marras, Sergio; Lanzani, Guglielmo; Walsh, Aron; Petrozza, Annamaria

    2015-10-01

    Solar cells based on hybrid inorganic-organic halide perovskites have demonstrated high power conversion efficiencies in a range of architectures. The existence and stability of bound electron-hole pairs in these materials, and their role in the exceptional performance of optoelectronic devices, remains a controversial issue. Here we demonstrate, through a combination of optical spectroscopy and multiscale modeling as a function of the degree of polycrystallinity and temperature, that the electron-hole interaction is sensitive to the microstructure of the material. The long-range order is disrupted by polycrystalline disorder and the variations in electrostatic potential found for smaller crystals suppress exciton formation, while larger crystals of the same composition demonstrate an unambiguous excitonic state. We conclude that fabrication procedures and morphology strongly influence perovskite behaviour, with both free carrier and excitonic regimes possible, with strong implications for optoelectronic devices.

  19. Role of microstructure in the electron-hole interaction of hybrid lead halide perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grancini, Giulia; Srimath Kandada, Ajay Ram; Frost, Jarvist M.; Barker, Alex J.; de Bastiani, Michele; Gandini, Marina; Marras, Sergio; Lanzani, Guglielmo; Walsh, Aron; Petrozza, Annamaria

    2015-10-01

    Organic-inorganic metal halide perovskites have demonstrated high power conversion efficiencies in solar cells and promising performance in a wide range of optoelectronic devices. The existence and stability of bound electron-hole pairs in these materials and their role in the operation of devices with different architectures remains a controversial issue. Here we demonstrate, through a combination of optical spectroscopy and multiscale modelling as a function of the degree of polycrystallinity and temperature, that the electron-hole interaction is sensitive to the microstructure of the material. The long-range order is disrupted by polycrystalline disorder and the variations in electrostatic potential found for smaller crystals suppress exciton formation, while larger crystals of the same composition demonstrate an unambiguous excitonic state. We conclude that fabrication procedures and morphology strongly influence perovskite behaviour, with both free carrier and excitonic regimes possible, with strong implications for optoelectronic devices.

  20. Making and Breaking of Lead Halide Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manser, Joseph S; Saidaminov, Makhsud I; Christians, Jeffrey A; Bakr, Osman M; Kamat, Prashant V

    2016-02-16

    kinetics can be tailored to yield improved thin film homogeneity. Because degradation of the as-formed perovskite film is in many ways analogous to its initial formation, the same suite of monitoring techniques reveals the moisture-induced transformation of low band gap methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) to wide band gap hydrate compounds. The rate of degradation is increased upon exposure to light. Interestingly, the hydration process is reversible under certain conditions. This facile formation and subsequent chemical lability raises the question of whether CH3NH3PbI3 and its analogues are thermodynamically stable phases, thus posing a significant challenge to the development of transformative perovskite photovoltaics. Adequately addressing issues of structural and chemical stability under real-world operating conditions is paramount if perovskite solar cells are to make an impact beyond the benchtop. Expanding our fundamental knowledge of lead halide perovskite formation and degradation pathways can facilitate fabrication of stable, high-quality perovskite thin films for the next generation of photovoltaic and light emitting devices.

  1. Making and Breaking of Lead Halide Perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    Manser, Joseph S.

    2016-02-16

    kinetics can be tailored to yield improved thin film homogeneity. Because degradation of the as-formed perovskite film is in many ways analogous to its initial formation, the same suite of monitoring techniques reveals the moisture-induced transformation of low band gap methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) to wide band gap hydrate compounds. The rate of degradation is increased upon exposure to light. Interestingly, the hydration process is reversible under certain conditions. This facile formation and subsequent chemical lability raises the question of whether CH3NH3PbI3 and its analogues are thermodynamically stable phases, thus posing a significant challenge to the development of transformative perovskite photovoltaics. Adequately addressing issues of structural and chemical stability under real-world operating conditions is paramount if perovskite solar cells are to make an impact beyond the benchtop. Expanding our fundamental knowledge of lead halide perovskite formation and degradation pathways can facilitate fabrication of stable, high-quality perovskite thin films for the next generation of photovoltaic and light emitting devices.

  2. The mechanism of long-range exciton diffusion in a nematically organized porphyrin layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijser, Annemarie; Savenije, Tom J; Meskers, Stefan C J; Vermeulen, Martien J W; Siebbeles, Laurens D A

    2008-09-17

    The exciton diffusion length in a nematically organized meso-tetra(4-n-butylphenyl)porphyrin (TnBuPP) layer was found to exceed 40 nm at a temperature of 90 K and to be equal to 22 +/- 3 nm at 300 K. The exciton diffusion coefficient decreases from > or = 3.1 x 10(-6) m(2)/s at 90 K to (2.5 +/- 0.5) x 10(-7) m(2)/s at 300 K. This thermal deactivation is attributed to exciton motion via a band mechanism. The motion of an exciton is not limited by polaronic effects; that is, the deformation of the atomic lattice around the exciton. The absence of polaronic self-trapping implies that the exciton diffusion coefficient can be enhanced by improvement of structural order and rigidity of the material.

  3. Hot exciton cooling and multiple exciton generation in PbSe quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Vezzoli, Stefano; Wang, Zilong; Chaudhary, Varun; Ramanujan, Raju V; Gurzadyan, Gagik G; Bruno, Annalisa; Soci, Cesare

    2016-11-16

    Multiple exciton generation (MEG) is a promising process to improve the power conversion efficiency of solar cells. PbSe quantum dots (QDs) have shown reasonably high MEG quantum yield (QY), although the photon energy threshold for this process is still under debate. One of the reasons for this inconsistency is the complicated competition of MEG and hot exciton cooling, especially at higher excited states. Here, we investigate MEG QY and the origin of the photon energy threshold for MEG in PbSe QDs of three different sizes by studying the transient absorption (TA) spectra, both at the band gap (near infrared, NIR) and far from the band gap energy (visible range). The comparison of visible TA spectra and dynamics for different pump wavelengths, below, around and above the MEG threshold, provides evidence of the role of the Σ transition in slowing down the exciton cooling process that can help MEG to take over the phonon relaxation process. The universality of this behavior is confirmed by studying QDs of three different sizes. Moreover, our results suggest that MEG QY can be determined by pump-probe experiments probed above the band gap.

  4. Excitons in asymmetric quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryev, P. S.; Kurdyubov, A. S.; Kuznetsova, M. S.; Ignatiev, I. V.; Efimov, Yu. P.; Eliseev, S. A.; Petrov, V. V.; Lovtcius, V. A.; Shapochkin, P. Yu.

    2016-09-01

    Resonance dielectric response of excitons is studied for the high-quality InGaAs/GaAs heterostructures with wide asymmetric quantum wells (QWs). To highlight effects of the QW asymmetry, we have grown and studied several heterostructures with nominally square QWs as well as with triangle-like QWs. Several quantum confined exciton states are experimentally observed as narrow exciton resonances. A standard approach for the phenomenological analysis of the profiles is generalized by introducing different phase shifts for the light waves reflected from the QWs at different exciton resonances. Good agreement of the phenomenological fit to the experimentally observed exciton spectra for high-quality structures allowed us to reliably obtain parameters of the exciton resonances: the exciton transition energies, the radiative broadenings, and the phase shifts. A direct numerical solution of the Schrödinger equation for the heavy-hole excitons in asymmetric QWs is used for microscopic modeling of the exciton resonances. Remarkable agreement with the experiment is achieved when the effect of indium segregation is taken into account. The segregation results in a modification of the potential profile, in particular, in an asymmetry of the nominally square QWs.

  5. Study of the point defect creation and of the excitonic luminescence in alkali halides irradiated by swift heavy ions; Etude de la creation de defauts ponctuels et de la luminescence excitonique d`halogenures d`alcalins irradies par les ions lourds de grande vitesse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Protin, L.

    1994-10-05

    The aim of this experimental thesis is to study the excitonic mechanisms and of the defect creation, in NaCl and KBr, under dense electronic excitations induced by swift heavy ion irradiations. In the first part, we present the main features of the interaction of swift heavy ions with solid targets, and after we review the well known radiolytic processes of the defect creation during X-ray irradiation. In the second chapter, we describe our experimental set-up. In the chapter III, we present our results of the in-situ optical absorption measurements. This results show that defect creation is less sensitive to the temperature than during a classical irradiation. Besides, we observe new mechanisms concerning the defect aggregation. In the chapter IV, we present the results of excitonic luminescence induced by swift by swift heavy ions. We observe that the luminescence yields only change with the highest electronic stopping power. In the chapter V, we perform thermal spike and luminescence yields calculations and we compare the numerical results to the experiments presented in the chapter IV. (author). 121 refs., 65 figs., 30 tabs.

  6. Exciton Transport in Organic Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, Stephen Matthew

    Photovoltaic cells based on organic semiconductors are attractive for their use as a renewable energy source owing to their abundant feedstock and compatibility with low-cost coating techniques on flexible substrates. In contrast to photovoltaic cells based traditional inorganic semiconductors, photon absorption in an organic semiconductor results in the formation of a coulombically bound electron-hole pair, or exciton. The transport of excitons, consequently, is of critical importance as excitons mediate the interaction between charge and light in organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs). In this dissertation, a strong connection between the fundamental photophysical parameters that control nanoscopic exciton energy transfer and the mesoscopic exciton transport is established. With this connection in place, strategies for enhancing the typically short length scale for exciton diffusion (L D) can be developed. Dilution of the organic semiconductor boron subphthalocyanine chloride (SubPc) is found to increase the LD for SubPc by 50%. In turn, OPVs based on dilute layers of SubPc exhibit a 30% enhancement in power conversion efficiency. The enhancement in power conversion efficiency is realized via enhancements in LD, optimized optical spacing, and directed exciton transport at an exciton permeable interface. The role of spin, energetic disorder, and thermal activation on L D are also addressed. Organic semiconductors that exhibit thermally activated delayed fluorescence and efficient intersystem and reverse intersystem crossing highlight the balance between singlet and triplet exciton energy transfer and diffusion. Temperature dependent measurements for LD provide insight into the inhomogeneously broadened exciton density of states and the thermal nature of exciton energy transfer. Additional topics include energy-cascade OPV architectures and broadband, spectrally tunable photodetectors based on organic semiconductors.

  7. An optical criterion to obtain miscible mixed crystals in alkali halides

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This work gives a novel criterion to predict the formation of alkali halide solid solutions and discusses some results obtained in the development of ternary and quaternary miscible crystalline dielectric mixtures of alkali halides. These mixtures are miscible in any concentration of their components. The miscibility of these mixed crystals is quite related to the F center through the behavior observed in the spectral position of the optical absorption F band as a function of the lattice cons...

  8. Exciton Formation in Disordered Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klochikhin, A.; Reznitsky, A.; Permogorov, S.

    1999-01-01

    Stationary luminescence spectra of disordered solid solutions can be accounted by the model of localized excitons. Detailed analysis of the long time decay kinetics of luminescence shows that exciton formation in these systems is in great extent due to the bimolecular reaction of separated carrie...

  9. Excitonic signatures in the optical response of single-wall carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voisin, Christophe; Berger, Sebastien; Cassabois, Guillaume; Roussignol, Philippe [Laboratoire Pierre Aigrain, Ecole Normale Superieure, CNRS UMR8551, UPMC, Universite Paris Diderot, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France); Berciaud, Stephane [IPCMS, UMR 7504, CNRS Universite de Strasbourg, 23 rue du Loess, 67034 Strasbourg (France); Yan, Hugen; Hone, James; Heinz, Tony F. [Physics, Mechanical Engineering and Electrical Engineering Departments, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Lauret, Jean-Sebastien [Laboratoire de Photonique Quantique et Moleculaire, Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan, CNRS UMR 8537, Institut Dalembert, 61 Avenue Wilson, Cachan (France)

    2012-05-15

    The optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are dominated by the excitonic character of the transitions even at room temperature. The very peculiar properties of these excitons arise from both the one-dimensional (1D) nature of carbon nanotubes and from the electronic properties of graphene from which nanotubes are made. We first propose a brief qualitative review of the structure of the excitonic manifold and emphasize the role of dark states. We describe recent experimental investigations of this excitonic structure by means of temperature dependent PL measurements. We investigate the case of upper sub-bands and show that high-order optical transitions remain excitonic for large diameter nanotubes. A careful investigation of Rayleigh scattering spectra at the single nanotube level reveals clear exciton-phonon side-bands and Lorentzian line profiles for all semi-conducting nanotubes. In contrast, metallic nanotubes show an ambivalent behavior which is related to the reduced excitonic binding energy. Schematic of the exciton manifold in single-wall carbon nanotubes. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Realization of an all optical exciton-polariton router

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsault, Félix; Nguyen, Hai Son; Tanese, Dimitrii; Lemaître, Aristide; Galopin, Elisabeth; Sagnes, Isabelle; Amo, Alberto [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, LPN/CNRS, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Bloch, Jacqueline, E-mail: jacqueline.bloch@lpn.cnrs.fr [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, LPN/CNRS, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Physics Department, Ecole Polytechnique, F-91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)

    2015-11-16

    We report on the experimental realization of an all optical router for exciton-polaritons. This device is based on the design proposed by Flayac and Savenko [Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 201105 (2013)], in which a zero-dimensional island is connected through tunnel barriers to two periodically modulated wires of different periods. Selective transmission of polaritons injected in the island, into either of the two wires, is achieved by tuning the energy of the island state across the band structure of the modulated wires. We demonstrate routing of ps polariton pulses using an optical control beam which controls the energy of the island quantum states, thanks to polariton-exciton interactions.

  11. Nongeneric dispersion of excitons in the bulk of WSe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, R.; Wan, Y.; Knupfer, M.; Büchner, B.

    2016-08-01

    We combine electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations to study the dispersion and effective mass of excitons in the bulk of WSe2. Our EELS data suggest substantial deviations from the generic quadratic momentum dependence along the Γ K direction. From the DFT-derived Kohn-Sham states we deduce the EELS response without the inclusion of particle-hole attraction to study the possible role of the single-particle band structure on the exciton behavior. Based on this analysis we argue in favor of a strongly momentum dependent particle-hole interaction in WSe2 and other group-VI-transition-metal dichalcogenides.

  12. Symmetry-Based Tight Binding Modeling of Halide Perovskite Semiconductors

    OpenAIRE

    Boyer-Richard, Soline; Katan, Claudine; Traoré, Boubacar; Scholz, Reinhard; Jancu, Jean-Marc; Even, Jacky

    2016-01-01

    International audience; On the basis of a general symmetry analysis, this paper presents an empirical tight-binding (TB) model for the reference Pm-3m perovskite cubic phase of halide perovskites of general formula ABX3. The TB electronic band diagram, with and without spin orbit coupling effect of MAPbI3 has been determined based on state of the art density functional theory results including many body corrections (DFT+GW). It affords access to various properties, including distorted structu...

  13. Influence of halide composition on the structural, electronic, and optical properties of mixed CH3NH3Pb (I1-xBrx) 3 perovskites calculated using the virtual crystal approximation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Un-Gi; Yu, Chol-Jun; Ri, Jin-Song; Kim, Nam-Hyok; Ri, Guk-Chol

    2016-09-01

    Extensive studies have demonstrated the promising capability of the organic-inorganic hybrid halide perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 in solar cells with a high power conversion efficiency exceeding 20%. However, the intrinsic as well as extrinsic instabilities of this material remain the major challenge to the commercialization of perovskite-based solar cells. Mixing halides is expected to resolve this problem. Here, we investigate the effect of chemical substitution in the position of the halogen atom on the structural, electronic, and optical properties of mixed halide perovskites CH3NH3Pb (I1-xBrx) 3 with a pseudocubic phase using the virtual crystal approximation method within density functional theory. With an increase of Br content x from 0.0 to 1.0, the lattice constant decreases in proportion to x with the function of a (x )=6.420 -0.333 x (Å), while the band gap and the exciton binding energy increase with the quadratic function of Eg(x ) =1.542 +0.374 x +0.185 x2 (eV) and the linear function of Eb(x ) =0.045 +0.057 x (eV), respectively. The photoabsorption coefficients are also calculated, showing a blueshift of the absorption onsets for higher Br contents. We calculate the phase decomposition energy of these materials and analyze the electronic charge density difference to estimate the material stability. Based on the calculated results, we suggest that the best match between efficiency and stability can be achieved at x ≈0.2 in CH3NH3Pb (I1-xBrx) 3 perovskites.

  14. Tailoring the exciton fine structure of cadmium selenide nanocrystals with shape anisotropy and magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinito, Chiara; Fernée, Mark J; Goupalov, Serguei V; Mulvaney, Paul; Tamarat, Philippe; Lounis, Brahim

    2014-11-25

    We use nominally spheroidal CdSe nanocrystals with a zinc blende crystal structure to study how shape perturbations lift the energy degeneracies of the band-edge exciton. Nanocrystals with a low degree of symmetry exhibit splitting of both upper and lower bright state degeneracies due to valence band mixing combined with the isotropic exchange interaction, allowing active control of the level splitting with a magnetic field. Asymmetry-induced splitting of the bright states is used to reveal the entire 8-state band-edge fine structure, enabling complete comparison with band-edge exciton models.

  15. Reconfigurable exciton-plasmon interconversion for nanophotonic circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Seok; Luong, Dinh Hoa; Kim, Min Su; Jin, Youngjo; Kim, Hyun; Yun, Seokjoon; Lee, Young Hee

    2016-11-01

    The recent challenges for improving the operation speed of nanoelectronics have motivated research on manipulating light in on-chip integrated circuits. Hybrid plasmonic waveguides with low-dimensional semiconductors, including quantum dots and quantum wells, are a promising platform for realizing sub-diffraction limited optical components. Meanwhile, two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have received broad interest in optoelectronics owing to tightly bound excitons at room temperature, strong light-matter and exciton-plasmon interactions, available top-down wafer-scale integration, and band-gap tunability. Here, we demonstrate principal functionalities for on-chip optical communications via reconfigurable exciton-plasmon interconversions in ~200-nm-diameter Ag-nanowires overlapping onto TMD transistors. By varying device configurations for each operation purpose, three active components for optical communications are realized: field-effect exciton transistors with a channel length of ~32 μm, field-effect exciton multiplexers transmitting multiple signals through a single NW and electrical detectors of propagating plasmons with a high On/Off ratio of~190. Our results illustrate the unique merits of two-dimensional semiconductors for constructing reconfigurable device architectures in integrated nanophotonic circuits.

  16. Simple Screened Hydrogen Model of Excitons in Two-Dimensional Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Thomas; Latini, Simone; Rasmussen, Filip Anselm;

    2016-01-01

    We present a generalized hydrogen model for the binding energies (EB) and radii of excitons in two-dimensional (2D) materials that sheds light on the fundamental differences between excitons in two and three dimensions. In contrast to the well-known hydrogen model of three-dimensional (3D) excitons...... the recently observed linear scaling of exciton binding energies with band gap. It is also shown that the model accurately reproduces the nonhydrogenic Rydberg series in WS2 and can account for screening from the environment....... that only depends on the excitonic mass and the 2D polarizability α. The model is shown to produce accurate results for 51 transition metal dichalcogenides. Remarkably, over a wide range of polarizabilities the binding energy becomes independent of the mass and we obtain E2DB≈3/(4πα), which explains...

  17. Low-Energy Excitation Spectra in the Excitonic Phase of Cobalt Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Tomoki; Sugimoto, Koudai; Ohta, Yukinori

    2017-04-01

    We study the excitonic phase and low-energy excitation spectra of perovskite cobalt oxides. Constructing the five-orbital Hubbard model defined on the three-dimensional cubic lattice for the 3d bands of Pr0.5Ca0.5CoO3, we calculate the excitonic susceptibility in the normal state in the random-phase approximation (RPA) to show the presence of the instability toward excitonic condensation. On the basis of the excitonic ground state with a magnetic multipole obtained in the mean-field approximation, we calculate the dynamical susceptibility of the excitonic phase in the RPA and find that there appear a gapless collective excitation in the spin-transverse mode (Goldstone mode) and a gapful collective excitation in the spin-longitudinal mode (Higgs mode). The experimental relevance of our results is discussed.

  18. Van der Waals Interactions and Exciton Condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, P. H.; Kittel, C.

    1971-01-01

    It is shown that the van der Waals interaction can lead at low temperatures to a condensed state of excitons with properties in qualitative agreement with the observations of exciton droplets. Our calculation gives a binding energy of the correct sign and magnitude for the exciton condensate. In a diclectric medium, the strong enhancement of the exciton polarizability leads to a giant van der Waals interaction, and this interaction appears to make possible a condensed exciton phase. PMID:16591958

  19. X-ray Scintillation in Lead Halide Perovskite Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birowosuto, M. D.; Cortecchia, D.; Drozdowski, W.; Brylew, K.; Lachmanski, W.; Bruno, A.; Soci, C.

    2016-11-01

    Current technologies for X-ray detection rely on scintillation from expensive inorganic crystals grown at high-temperature, which so far has hindered the development of large-area scintillator arrays. Thanks to the presence of heavy atoms, solution-grown hybrid lead halide perovskite single crystals exhibit short X-ray absorption length and excellent detection efficiency. Here we compare X-ray scintillator characteristics of three-dimensional (3D) MAPbI3 and MAPbBr3 and two-dimensional (2D) (EDBE)PbCl4 hybrid perovskite crystals. X-ray excited thermoluminescence measurements indicate the absence of deep traps and a very small density of shallow trap states, which lessens after-glow effects. All perovskite single crystals exhibit high X-ray excited luminescence yields of >120,000 photons/MeV at low temperature. Although thermal quenching is significant at room temperature, the large exciton binding energy of 2D (EDBE)PbCl4 significantly reduces thermal effects compared to 3D perovskites, and moderate light yield of 9,000 photons/MeV can be achieved even at room temperature. This highlights the potential of 2D metal halide perovskites for large-area and low-cost scintillator devices for medical, security and scientific applications.

  20. Hyperspherical theory of anisotropic exciton

    CERN Document Server

    Muljarov, E A; Tikhodeev, S G; Bulatov, A E; Birman, Joseph L; 10.1063/1.1286772

    2012-01-01

    A new approach to the theory of anisotropic exciton based on Fock transformation, i.e., on a stereographic projection of the momentum to the unit 4-dimensional (4D) sphere, is developed. Hyperspherical functions are used as a basis of the perturbation theory. The binding energies, wave functions and oscillator strengths of elongated as well as flattened excitons are obtained numerically. It is shown that with an increase of the anisotropy degree the oscillator strengths are markedly redistributed between optically active and formerly inactive states, making the latter optically active. An approximate analytical solution of the anisotropic exciton problem taking into account the angular momentum conserving terms is obtained. This solution gives the binding energies of moderately anisotropic exciton with a good accuracy and provides a useful qualitative description of the energy level evolution.

  1. Bayesian Analysis of an Excitonic Absorption Spectrum in a Cu2O Thin Film Sandwiched by Paired MgO Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamitsu, Kazunori; Aihara, Shingo; Okada, Masato; Akai, Ichiro

    2016-09-01

    We analyzed the absorption spectrum of a Cu2O thin film sandwiched by paired MgO plates with the Metropolis algorithm of Bayesian estimation to estimate the energy shift of a yellow excitonic band gap. In the absorption spectrum, discrete excitonic resonant transitions with homogeneous and inhomogeneous widths are superimposed upon the tail parts of excitonic continuum and band-to-band absorption bands. On the basis of the Metropolis samplings with 2.5 million steps after sufficient burn-in steps, the spectral parameters of the excitonic resonant transitions can be estimated satisfactorily with a high degree of accuracy. In particular, we demonstrated that the yellow excitonic band gap in the Cu2O thin film shifts to the lower energy side than that of Cu2O bulk crystals. This result is consistent with the stress relaxation model for such Cu2O thin films, which was reported in Eur. Phys. J. B 86, 194 (2013).

  2. Excitons into one-axis crystals of zinc phosphide (Zn3P2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Stepanchikov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical study of excitons spectra is offered in this report as for Zn3P2 crystals. Spectra are got in the zero approach of the theory of perturbations with consideration of both the anisotropy of the dispersion law and the selection rules. The existence of two exciton series was found, which corresponds to two valence bands (hh, lh and the conductivity band (c. It is noteworthy that anisotropy of the dispersion law plus the existence of crystalline packets (layers normal to the main optical axis, both will permit the consideration of two-dimensional excitons too. The high temperature displaying of these 2D-exciton effects is not eliminated even into bulk crystals. The calculated values of the binding energies as well as the oscillator's strength for the optical transitions are given for a volume (3D and for two-dimensional (2D excitons. The model of energy exciton transitions and four-level scheme of stimulated exciton radiation for receiving laser effect are offered.

  3. Triplet excitons as sensitive spin probes for structure analysis of extended defects in microcrystalline silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Christoph; Teutloff, Christian; Behrends, Jan; Bittl, Robert; Astakhov, Oleksandr; Lips, Klaus

    2016-07-01

    Electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR) spectroscopy is employed to study the influence of triplet excitons on the photocurrent in state-of-the-art microcrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells. These triplet excitons are used as sensitive spin probes for the investigation of their electronic and nuclear environment in this mixed-phase material. According to low-temperature EDMR results obtained from solar cells with different excitons reside at extended defects in the crystallites of microcrystalline silicon that give rise to shallow states in the silicon band gap. The excitons possess a rather delocalized wave function, couple to electron spins in conduction band tail states nearby, and take part in a spin-dependent recombination process. Our study shows that extended defects such as grain boundaries or stacking faults in the crystalline part of the material act as charge carrier traps that can influence the material conductivity.

  4. Large polarization-dependent exciton optical Stark effect in lead iodide perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ye; Yang, Mengjin; Zhu, Kai; Johnson, Justin C.; Berry, Joseph J.; van de Lagemaat, Jao; Beard, Matthew C.

    2016-08-01

    A strong interaction of a semiconductor with a below-bandgap laser pulse causes a blue-shift of the bandgap transition energy, known as the optical Stark effect. The energy shift persists only during the pulse duration with an instantaneous response time. The optical Stark effect has practical relevance for applications, including quantum information processing and communication, and passively mode-locked femtosecond lasers. Here we demonstrate that solution-processable lead-halide perovskites exhibit a large optical Stark effect that is easily resolved at room temperature resulting from the sharp excitonic feature near the bandedge. We also demonstrate that a polarized pump pulse selectively shifts one spin state producing a spin splitting of the degenerate excitonic states. Such selective spin manipulation is an important prerequisite for spintronic applications. Our result implies that such hybrid semiconductors may have great potential for optoelectronic applications beyond photovoltaics.

  5. Analysis of confinement potential fluctuation and band-gap renormalization effects on excitonic transition in GaAs/AlGaAs multiquantum wells grown on (1 0 0) and (3 1 1)A GaAs surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lourenco, S.A., E-mail: sidneylourenco@utfpr.edu.br [Engenharia de Materiais, Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana, Londrina, PR 86036-370 (Brazil); Teodoro, M.D. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Londrina, PR 86051-970 (Brazil); Gonzalez-Borrero, P.P. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste, Guarapuava, PR 85040-080 (Brazil); Dias, I.F.L.; Duarte, J.L. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Londrina, PR 86051-970 (Brazil); Marega, E. [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, SP 13560-970 (Brazil); Salamo, G.J. [Arkansas Institute for Nanoscale Materials Science and Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States)

    2012-06-15

    The competition between confinement potential fluctuations and band-gap renormalization (BGR) in GaAs/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As quantum wells grown on [1 0 0] and [3 1 1]A GaAs substrates is evaluated. The results clearly demonstrate the coexistence of the band-tail states filling related to potential fluctuations and the band-gap renormalization caused by an increase in the density of photogenerated carriers during the photoluminescence (PL) experiments. Both phenomena have strong influence on temperature dependence of the PL-peak energy (E{sub PL}(T)). As the photon density increases, the E{sub PL} can shift to either higher or lower energies, depending on the sample temperature. The temperature at which the displacement changes from a blueshift to a redshift is governed by the magnitude of the potential fluctuations and by the variation of BGR with excitation density. A simple band-tail model with a Gaussian-like distribution of the density of state was used to describe the competition between the band-tail filling and the BGR effects on E{sub PL}(T).

  6. Plasmon-Exciton-Polariton Lasing

    CERN Document Server

    Ramezani, Mohammad; Fernández-Domínguez, Antonio I; Feist, Johannes; Rodriguez, Said Rahimzadeh-Kalaleh; Garcia-Vidal, Francisco J; Gómez-Rivas, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Strong coupling of Frenkel excitons with surface plasmons leads to the formation of bosonic quasi-particles known as plasmon-exciton-polaritons (PEPs).Localized surface plasmons in nanoparticles are lossy due to radiative and nonradiative decays, which has hampered the realization of polariton lasing in a plasmonic system, i.e., PEP lasing. These losses can be reduced in collective plasmonic resonances supported by arrays of nanoparticles. Here we demonstrate PEP lasing in arrays of silver nanoparticles by showing the emergence of a threshold in the photoluminescence accompanied by both a superlinear increase of the emission and spectral narrowing. We also observe a reduction of the threshold by increasing the coupling between the molecular excitons and the resonances supported by the array despite the reduction of the quantum efficiency of the emitters. The coexistence of bright and dark collective modes in this plasmonic system allows for a 90?-change of polarization in the emission beyond the threshold.

  7. Excitonic polaritons in Fibonacci quasicrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, J; Richards, B C; Sweet, J; Khitrova, G; Poddubny, A N; Ivchenko, E L; Wegener, M; Gibbs, H M

    2008-09-29

    The fabrication and characterization of light-emitting one-dimensional photonic quasicrystals based on excitonic resonances is reported. The structures consist of high-quality GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells grown by molecular-beam epitaxy with wavelength-scale spacings satisfying a Fibonacci sequence. The polaritonic (resonant light-matter coupling) effects and light emission originate from the quantum well excitonic resonances. Measured reflectivity spectra as a function of detuning between emission and Bragg wavelength are in good agreement with excitonic polariton theory. Photoluminescence experiments show that active photonic quasicrystals, unlike photonic crystals, can be good light emitters: While their long-range order results in a stopband similar to that of photonic crystals, the lack of periodicity results in strong emission.

  8. Halogen versus halide electronic structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Willem-Jan; van; Zeist; F.Matthias; Bickelhaupt

    2010-01-01

    Halide anions X-are known to show a decreasing proton affinity(PA),as X descends in the periodic table along series F,Cl,Br and I.But it is also well-known that,along this series,the halogen atom X becomes less electronegative(or more electropositive).This corresponds to an increasing energy of the valence np atomic orbital(AO) which,somewhat contradictorily,suggests that the electron donor capability and thus the PA of the halides should increase along the series F,Cl,Br,I.To reconcile these contradictory observations,we have carried out a detailed theoretical analysis of the electronic structure and bonding capability of the halide anions X-as well as the halogen radicals X-,using the molecular orbital(MO) models contained in Kohn-Sham density functional theory(DFT,at SAOP/TZ2P as well as OLYP/TZ2P levels) and ab initio theory(at the HF/TZ2P level).We also resolve an apparent intrinsic contradiction in Hartree-Fock theory between orbital-energy and PA trends.The results of our analyses are of direct relevance for understanding elementary organic reactions such as nucleophilic substitution(SN2) and base-induced elimination(E2) reactions.

  9. Interwell excitons in GaAs superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Dan; Sayed, Karim El; Sanders, G.;

    1997-01-01

    The formation of spatially indirect excitons in superlattices with narrow minibands is investigated experimentally. The interwell exciton is similar to the first Wannier-Stark localized exciton of an electrically biased superlattice. However, in the present case the localization is mediated by th...

  10. Intrinsic homogeneous linewidth and broadening mechanisms of excitons in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides

    KAUST Repository

    Moody, Galan

    2015-09-18

    The band-edge optical response of transition metal dichalcogenides, an emerging class of atomically thin semiconductors, is dominated by tightly bound excitons localized at the corners of the Brillouin zone (valley excitons). A fundamental yet unknown property of valley excitons in these materials is the intrinsic homogeneous linewidth, which reflects irreversible quantum dissipation arising from system (exciton) and bath (vacuum and other quasiparticles) interactions and determines the timescale during which excitons can be coherently manipulated. Here we use optical two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy to measure the exciton homogeneous linewidth in monolayer tungsten diselenide (WSe2). The homogeneous linewidth is found to be nearly two orders of magnitude narrower than the inhomogeneous width at low temperatures. We evaluate quantitatively the role of exciton–exciton and exciton–phonon interactions and population relaxation as linewidth broadening mechanisms. The key insights reported here—strong many-body effects and intrinsically rapid radiative recombination—are expected to be ubiquitous in atomically thin semiconductors.

  11. Strain Gradient Modulated Exciton Evolution and Emission in ZnO Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Bin; Ji, Yuan; Gauvin, Raynald; Zhang, Ze; Zou, Jin; Han, Xiaodong

    2017-01-01

    One-dimensional semiconductor can undergo large deformation including stretching and bending. This homogeneous strain and strain gradient are an easy and effective way to tune the light emission properties and the performance of piezo-phototronic devices. Here, we report that with large strain gradients from 2.1–3.5% μm−1, free-exciton emission was intensified, and the free-exciton interaction (FXI) emission became a prominent FXI-band at the tensile side of the ZnO fiber. These led to an asymmetric variation in energy and intensity along the cross-section as well as a redshift of the total near-band-edge (NBE) emission. This evolution of the exciton emission was directly demonstrated using spatially resolved CL spectrometry combined with an in situ tensile-bending approach at liquid nitrogen temperature for individual fibers and nanowires. A distinctive mechanism of the evolution of exciton emission is proposed: the enhancement of the free-exciton-related emission is attributed to the aggregated free excitons and their interaction in the narrow bandgap in the presence of high bandgap gradients and a transverse piezoelectric field. These results might facilitate new approaches for energy conversion and sensing applications via strained nanowires and fibers. PMID:28084427

  12. Strain Gradient Modulated Exciton Evolution and Emission in ZnO Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Bin; Ji, Yuan; Gauvin, Raynald; Zhang, Ze; Zou, Jin; Han, Xiaodong

    2017-01-01

    One-dimensional semiconductor can undergo large deformation including stretching and bending. This homogeneous strain and strain gradient are an easy and effective way to tune the light emission properties and the performance of piezo-phototronic devices. Here, we report that with large strain gradients from 2.1–3.5% μm‑1, free-exciton emission was intensified, and the free-exciton interaction (FXI) emission became a prominent FXI-band at the tensile side of the ZnO fiber. These led to an asymmetric variation in energy and intensity along the cross-section as well as a redshift of the total near-band-edge (NBE) emission. This evolution of the exciton emission was directly demonstrated using spatially resolved CL spectrometry combined with an in situ tensile-bending approach at liquid nitrogen temperature for individual fibers and nanowires. A distinctive mechanism of the evolution of exciton emission is proposed: the enhancement of the free-exciton-related emission is attributed to the aggregated free excitons and their interaction in the narrow bandgap in the presence of high bandgap gradients and a transverse piezoelectric field. These results might facilitate new approaches for energy conversion and sensing applications via strained nanowires and fibers.

  13. Single-mode tunable laser emission in the single-exciton regime from colloidal nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grivas, Christos; Li, Chunyong; Andreakou, Peristera; Wang, Pengfei; Ding, Ming; Brambilla, Gilberto; Manna, Liberato; Lagoudakis, Pavlos

    2013-01-01

    Whispering-gallery-mode resonators have been extensively used in conjunction with different materials for the development of a variety of photonic devices. Among the latter, hybrid structures, consisting of dielectric microspheres and colloidal core/shell semiconductor nanocrystals as gain media, have attracted interest for the development of microlasers and studies of cavity quantum electrodynamic effects. Here we demonstrate single-exciton, single-mode, spectrally tuned lasing from ensembles of optical antenna-designed, colloidal core/shell CdSe/CdS quantum rods deposited on silica microspheres. We obtain single-exciton emission by capitalizing on the band structure of the specific core/shell architecture that strongly localizes holes in the core, and the two-dimensional quantum confinement of electrons across the elongated shell. This creates a type-II conduction band alignment driven by coulombic repulsion that eliminates non-radiative multi-exciton Auger recombination processes, thereby inducing a large exciton-bi-exciton energy shift. Their ultra-low thresholds and single-mode, single-exciton emission make these hybrid lasers appealing for various applications, including quantum information processing.

  14. Ultrafast exciton formation at the ZnO(1010) surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deinert, J-C; Wegkamp, D; Meyer, M; Richter, C; Wolf, M; Stähler, J

    2014-08-01

    We study the ultrafast quasiparticle dynamics in and below the ZnO conduction band using femtosecond time-resolved two-photon photoelectron spectroscopy. Above band gap excitation causes hot electron relaxation by electron-phonon scattering down to the Fermi level E_{F} followed by ultrafast (200 fs) formation of a surface exciton (SX). Transient screening of the Coulomb interaction reduces the SX formation probability at high excitation densities near the Mott limit. Located just below the surface, the SX are stable with regard to hydrogen-induced work function modifications and thus the ideal prerequisite for resonant energy transfer applications.

  15. Exciton dynamics in molecular aggregates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augulis, R.; Pugžlys, A.; Loosdrecht, P.H.M. van; Pugzlys, A

    2006-01-01

    The fundamental aspects of exciton dynamics in double-wall cylindrical aggregates of cyanine dyes are studied by means of frequency resolved femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. The collective excitations of the aggregates, resulting from intermolecular dipole-dipole interactions have the characteri

  16. Magnetic exciton dispersion in praseodymium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rainford, B. D.; Houmann, Jens Christian Gylden

    1971-01-01

    Measurements of the dispersion of magnetic excitons have been made in a single crystal of praseodymium metal using inelastic neutron scattering. A preliminary analysis of the data yields the first detailed information about the exchange interactions and the crystal field splittings in the light...... rare-earth metals....

  17. Near-infrared exciton-polaritons in strongly coupled single-walled carbon nanotube microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Arko; Tropf, Laura; Zakharko, Yuriy; Zaumseil, Jana; Gather, Malte C.

    2016-10-01

    Exciton-polaritons form upon strong coupling between electronic excitations of a material and photonic states of a surrounding microcavity. In organic semiconductors the special nature of excited states leads to particularly strong coupling and facilitates condensation of exciton-polaritons at room temperature, which may lead to electrically pumped organic polariton lasers. However, charge carrier mobility and photo-stability in currently used materials is limited and exciton-polariton emission so far has been restricted to visible wavelengths. Here, we demonstrate strong light-matter coupling in the near infrared using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in a polymer matrix and a planar metal-clad cavity. By exploiting the exceptional oscillator strength and sharp excitonic transition of (6,5) SWCNTs, we achieve large Rabi splitting (>110 meV), efficient polariton relaxation and narrow band emission (devices operating at telecommunication wavelengths.

  18. Impact of the Crystallite Orientation Distribution on Exciton Transport in Donor-Acceptor Conjugated Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayzner, Alexander L; Mei, Jianguo; Appleton, Anthony; DeLongchamp, Dean; Nardes, Alexandre; Benight, Stephanie; Kopidakis, Nikos; Toney, Michael F; Bao, Zhenan

    2015-12-30

    Conjugated polymers are widely used materials in organic photovoltaic devices. Owing to their extended electronic wave functions, they often form semicrystalline thin films. In this work, we aim to understand whether distribution of crystallographic orientations affects exciton diffusion using a low-band-gap polymer backbone motif that is representative of the donor/acceptor copolymer class. Using the fact that the polymer side chain can tune the dominant crystallographic orientation in the thin film, we have measured the quenching of polymer photoluminescence, and thus the extent of exciton dissociation, as a function of crystal orientation with respect to a quenching substrate. We find that the crystallite orientation distribution has little effect on the average exciton diffusion length. We suggest several possibilities for the lack of correlation between crystallographic texture and exciton transport in semicrystalline conjugated polymer films.

  19. Impact of the Crystallite Orientation Distribution on Exciton Transport in Donor–Acceptor Conjugated Polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Ayzner, Alexander L.

    2015-12-30

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Conjugated polymers are widely used materials in organic photovoltaic devices. Owing to their extended electronic wave functions, they often form semicrystalline thin films. In this work, we aim to understand whether distribution of crystallographic orientations affects exciton diffusion using a low-band-gap polymer backbone motif that is representative of the donor/acceptor copolymer class. Using the fact that the polymer side chain can tune the dominant crystallographic orientation in the thin film, we have measured the quenching of polymer photoluminescence, and thus the extent of exciton dissociation, as a function of crystal orientation with respect to a quenching substrate. We find that the crystallite orientation distribution has little effect on the average exciton diffusion length. We suggest several possibilities for the lack of correlation between crystallographic texture and exciton transport in semicrystalline conjugated polymer films.

  20. Charge carriers and excitons transport in an organic solar cell-theory and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahini, Ali.; Abbasian, Karim.

    2012-08-01

    An organic solar cell model is developed that consists of both excitonic and classical bipolar aspects of solar cells. In order to achieve this goal, the photon recycling term is imported into the equations to connect the Shockley-Queisser theory and the classical diode theory. This model for excitonic and classical bipolar solar cells can describe the combined transport and interaction of electrons, holes and excitons. For high mobilities this model reproduces the Shockley Queisser efficiency limit. We show how varying the respective mobilities of the different species changes the operation mode of the solar cell path between excitonic and bipolar. Then, the effect of conduction band offset on transport will be described in this paper. Finally, validity of reciprocity theorem between quantum efficiency and electroluminescence in this model will be discussed.

  1. Exciton size and quantum transport in nanoplatelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelzer, Kenley M., E-mail: kpelzer@anl.gov; Gray, Stephen K. [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 Cass Ave., Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Darling, Seth B. [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 Cass Ave., Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, 5747 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Schaller, Richard D. [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 Cass Ave., Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Rd., Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

    2015-12-14

    Two-dimensional nanoplatelets (NPLs) are an exciting class of materials with promising optical and energy transport properties. The possibility of efficient energy transport between nanoplatelets raises questions regarding the nature of energy transfer in these thin, laterally extended systems. A challenge in understanding exciton transport is the uncertainty regarding the size of the exciton. Depending on the material and defects in the nanoplatelet, an exciton could plausibly extend over an entire plate or localize to a small region. The variation in possible exciton sizes raises the question how exciton size impacts the efficiency of transport between nanoplatelet structures. Here, we explore this issue using a quantum master equation approach. This method goes beyond the assumptions of Förster theory to allow for quantum mechanical effects that could increase energy transfer efficiency. The model is extremely flexible in describing different systems, allowing us to test the effect of varying the spatial extent of the exciton. We first discuss qualitative aspects of the relationship between exciton size and transport and then conduct simulations of exciton transport between NPLs for a range of exciton sizes and environmental conditions. Our results reveal that exciton size has a strong effect on energy transfer efficiency and suggest that manipulation of exciton size may be useful in designing NPLs for energy transport.

  2. Exciton size and quantum transport in nanoplatelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelzer, Kenley M; Darling, Seth B; Gray, Stephen K; Schaller, Richard D

    2015-12-14

    Two-dimensional nanoplatelets (NPLs) are an exciting class of materials with promising optical and energy transport properties. The possibility of efficient energy transport between nanoplatelets raises questions regarding the nature of energy transfer in these thin, laterally extended systems. A challenge in understanding exciton transport is the uncertainty regarding the size of the exciton. Depending on the material and defects in the nanoplatelet, an exciton could plausibly extend over an entire plate or localize to a small region. The variation in possible exciton sizes raises the question how exciton size impacts the efficiency of transport between nanoplatelet structures. Here, we explore this issue using a quantum master equation approach. This method goes beyond the assumptions of Förster theory to allow for quantum mechanical effects that could increase energy transfer efficiency. The model is extremely flexible in describing different systems, allowing us to test the effect of varying the spatial extent of the exciton. We first discuss qualitative aspects of the relationship between exciton size and transport and then conduct simulations of exciton transport between NPLs for a range of exciton sizes and environmental conditions. Our results reveal that exciton size has a strong effect on energy transfer efficiency and suggest that manipulation of exciton size may be useful in designing NPLs for energy transport.

  3. Study of alkali halide/FHF - systems at 10 - 290 K, 0 - 8 kBAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunnilall, C. J.; Sherman, W. F.; Wilkinson, G. R.

    1984-03-01

    The bifluoride ion FHF -, (and FDF -), has been substitutionally isolated within single crystal samples of several alkali halides. Infrared and Raman spectra of these crystals have been studied at variable temperature and pressure. The infrared absorptions are strong, whereas the Raman is weak. At low temperatures the bands are very sharp with halfwidths less than 1 cm -1. On applying pressure, ν3 increases in frequency whereas ν2 decreases. On reducing temperature, ν3 decreases in frequency whereas ν2 increases. Hence the effect of volume contraction is overridden in the temperature dependent case. The deuterated spectra confirm that the bifluoride ion is well isolated within the alkali halide matrix.

  4. Transcending the slow bimolecular recombination in lead-halide perovskites for electroluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Guichuan; Wu, Bo; Wu, Xiangyang; Li, Mingjie; Du, Bin; Wei, Qi; Guo, Jia; Yeow, Edwin K. L.; Sum, Tze Chien; Huang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The slow bimolecular recombination that drives three-dimensional lead-halide perovskites' outstanding photovoltaic performance is conversely a fundamental limitation for electroluminescence. Under electroluminescence working conditions with typical charge densities lower than 1015 cm−3, defect-states trapping in three-dimensional perovskites competes effectively with the bimolecular radiative recombination. Herein, we overcome this limitation using van-der-Waals-coupled Ruddlesden-Popper perovskite multi-quantum-wells. Injected charge carriers are rapidly localized from adjacent thin few layer (n≤4) multi-quantum-wells to the thick (n≥5) multi-quantum-wells with extremely high efficiency (over 85%) through quantum coupling. Light emission originates from excitonic recombination in the thick multi-quantum-wells at much higher decay rate and efficiency than bimolecular recombination in three-dimensional perovskites. These multi-quantum-wells retain the simple solution processability and high charge carrier mobility of two-dimensional lead-halide perovskites. Importantly, these Ruddlesden-Popper perovskites offer new functionalities unavailable in single phase constituents, permitting the transcendence of the slow bimolecular recombination bottleneck in lead-halide perovskites for efficient electroluminescence. PMID:28239146

  5. Transcending the slow bimolecular recombination in lead-halide perovskites for electroluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Guichuan; Wu, Bo; Wu, Xiangyang; Li, Mingjie; Du, Bin; Wei, Qi; Guo, Jia; Yeow, Edwin K L; Sum, Tze Chien; Huang, Wei

    2017-02-27

    The slow bimolecular recombination that drives three-dimensional lead-halide perovskites' outstanding photovoltaic performance is conversely a fundamental limitation for electroluminescence. Under electroluminescence working conditions with typical charge densities lower than 10(15) cm(-3), defect-states trapping in three-dimensional perovskites competes effectively with the bimolecular radiative recombination. Herein, we overcome this limitation using van-der-Waals-coupled Ruddlesden-Popper perovskite multi-quantum-wells. Injected charge carriers are rapidly localized from adjacent thin few layer (n≤4) multi-quantum-wells to the thick (n≥5) multi-quantum-wells with extremely high efficiency (over 85%) through quantum coupling. Light emission originates from excitonic recombination in the thick multi-quantum-wells at much higher decay rate and efficiency than bimolecular recombination in three-dimensional perovskites. These multi-quantum-wells retain the simple solution processability and high charge carrier mobility of two-dimensional lead-halide perovskites. Importantly, these Ruddlesden-Popper perovskites offer new functionalities unavailable in single phase constituents, permitting the transcendence of the slow bimolecular recombination bottleneck in lead-halide perovskites for efficient electroluminescence.

  6. Interaction of excitons with optical phonons in layer crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsovich, Bohdan M.; Zenkova, C. Y.; Kramar, N. K.

    2002-02-01

    The investigation is concerned with layer crystals of the GaSe, InSe, GaTe, MoS2-type and other inorganic semiconductors, whose phonon spectrum has a great number of peculiarities, among them the availability of low-energy optical phonons. In this case the dispersion of these phonons can be essential and vary in character. The mass operator of the exciton-phonon system and the light absorption coefficient for different dispersion laws of optical phonons have been calculated. The influence of the sign of the phonon 'effective mass' on the exciton absorption band of layer crystals, which causes the opposite in sign dynamics of the absorption maximum shift, and the change of the absorption curve asymmetry have been determined.

  7. A First-Principles Study on the Structural and Electronic Properties of Sn-Based Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zi-Qian; Pan, Hui; Wong, Pak Kin

    2016-11-01

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskites have attracted increasing interest on solar-energy harvesting because of their outstanding electronic properties. In this work, we systematically investigate the structural and electronic properties of Sn-based hybrid perovskites MASnX3 and FASnX3 (X = I, Br) based on density-functional-theory calculations. We find that their electronic properties strongly depend on the organic molecules, halide atoms, and structures. We show that there is a general rule to predict the band gap of the Sn-based hybrid perovskite: its band gap increases as the size of halide atom decreases as well as that of organic molecule increase. The band gap of high temperature phase (cubic structure) is smaller than that of low temperature phase (orthorhombic structure). The band gap of tetragonal structure (medium-temperature phase) may be larger or smaller than that of cubic phase, depending on the orientation of the molecule. Tunable band gap within a range of 0.73-1.53 eV can be achieved by choosing halide atom and organic molecule, and controlling structure. We further show that carrier effective mass also reduces as the size of halide atom increases and that of molecule decreases. By comparing with Pb-based hybrid perovskites, the Sn-based systems show enhanced visible-light absorption and carrier mobility due to narrowed band gap and reduced carrier effective mass. These Sn-based organic-inorganic halide perovskites may find applications in solar energy harvesting with improved performance.

  8. Localized surface plasmon and exciton interaction in silver-coated cadmium sulphide quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, P.; Rustagi, K. C.; Vasa, P.; Singh, B. P., E-mail: bhanuprs@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai- 400076 (India)

    2015-05-15

    Localized surface plasmon and exciton coupling has been investigated on colloidal solutions of silver-coated CdS nanoparticles (NPs), synthesized by gamma irradiation. Two broad photoluminescence (PL) bands (blue/red) corresponding to band to band and defect state transitions have been observed for the bare and coated samples. In case of bare CdS NPs, the intensity of the red PL peak is about ten times higher than the blue PL peak intensity. However, on coating the CdS NPs with silver, the peak intensity of the blue PL band gets enhanced and becomes equal to that of the red PL band. High-resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM) images adequately demonstrate size distribution of these metal/semiconductor nanocomposites. UV-Vis absorption studies show quantum confinement effect in these semiconductor quantum dot (SQD) systems. Absorption spectrum of silver-coated SQDs shows signature of surface plasmon-exciton coupling which has been theoretically verified.

  9. Localized surface plasmon and exciton interaction in silver-coated cadmium sulphide quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, P.; Rustagi, K. C.; Vasa, P.; Singh, B. P.

    2015-05-01

    Localized surface plasmon and exciton coupling has been investigated on colloidal solutions of silver-coated CdS nanoparticles (NPs), synthesized by gamma irradiation. Two broad photoluminescence (PL) bands (blue/red) corresponding to band to band and defect state transitions have been observed for the bare and coated samples. In case of bare CdS NPs, the intensity of the red PL peak is about ten times higher than the blue PL peak intensity. However, on coating the CdS NPs with silver, the peak intensity of the blue PL band gets enhanced and becomes equal to that of the red PL band. High-resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM) images adequately demonstrate size distribution of these metal/semiconductor nanocomposites. UV-Vis absorption studies show quantum confinement effect in these semiconductor quantum dot (SQD) systems. Absorption spectrum of silver-coated SQDs shows signature of surface plasmon-exciton coupling which has been theoretically verified.

  10. g factors and diamagnetic coefficients of electrons, holes, and excitons in InAs/InP quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bree, J.; Silov, A. Yu.; Koenraad, P. M.; Flatté, M. E.; Pryor, C. E.

    2012-04-01

    The electron, hole, and exciton g factors and diamagnetic coefficients have been calculated using envelope-function theory for cylindrical InAs/InP quantum dots in the presence of a magnetic field parallel to the dot symmetry axis. A clear connection is established between the electron g factor and the amplitude of those valence-state envelope functions that possess nonzero orbital momentum associated with the envelope function. The dependence of the exciton diamagnetic coefficients on the quantum dot height is found to correlate with the energy dependence of the effective mass. Calculated exciton g factor and diamagnetic coefficients, constructed from the values associated with the electron and hole constituents of the exciton, match experimental data well, however including the Coulomb interaction between the electron and hole states improves the agreement. Remote-band contributions to the valence-band electronic structure, included perturbatively, reduce the agreement between theory and experiment.

  11. Localized Excitons in Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamska, Lyudmyla; Doorn, Stephen K.; Tretiak, Sergei

    2015-03-01

    It has been historically known that unintentional defects in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) may fully quench the fluorescence. However, some dopants may enhance the fluorescence by one order of magnitude thus turning the CNTs, which are excellent light absorbers, in good emitters. We have correlated the experimentally observed photoluminescence spectra to the electronic structure simulations. Our experiment reveals multiple sharp asymmetric emission peaks at energies 50-300 meV red-shifted from that of the lowest bright exciton peak. Our simulations suggest an association of these peaks with deep trap states tied to different specific chemical adducts. While the wave functions of excitons in undoped CNTs are delocalized, those of the deep-trap states are strongly localized and pinned to the dopants. These findings are consistent with the experimental observation of asymmetric broadening of the deep trap emission peaks, which can result from scattering of acoustic phonons on localized excitons. Our work lays the foundation to utilize doping as a generalized route for wave function engineering and direct control of carrier dynamics in SWCNTs toward enhanced light emission properties for photonic applications.

  12. Exciton Seebeck effect in molecular systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Yun-An, E-mail: yunan@nano.gznc.edu.cn [Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory of Computational Nanomaterial Science, Guizhou Normal College, Guiyang, Guizhou 550018 (China); Cai, Shaohong [Guizhou Key Laboratory of Economic System Simulation, Guizhou University of Finance and Economics, Guiyang 550004 (China)

    2014-08-07

    We investigate the exciton dynamics under temperature difference with the hierarchical equations of motion. Through a nonperturbative simulation of the transient absorption of a heterogeneous trimer model, we show that the temperature difference causes exciton population redistribution and affects the exciton transfer time. It is found that one can reproduce not only the exciton population redistribution but also the change of the exciton transfer time induced by the temperature difference with a proper tuning of the site energies of the aggregate. In this sense, there exists a site energy shift equivalence for any temperature difference in a broad range. This phenomenon is similar to the Seebeck effect as well as spin Seebeck effect and can be named as exciton Seebeck effect.

  13. Exciton Seebeck effect in molecular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yun-An; Cai, Shaohong

    2014-08-07

    We investigate the exciton dynamics under temperature difference with the hierarchical equations of motion. Through a nonperturbative simulation of the transient absorption of a heterogeneous trimer model, we show that the temperature difference causes exciton population redistribution and affects the exciton transfer time. It is found that one can reproduce not only the exciton population redistribution but also the change of the exciton transfer time induced by the temperature difference with a proper tuning of the site energies of the aggregate. In this sense, there exists a site energy shift equivalence for any temperature difference in a broad range. This phenomenon is similar to the Seebeck effect as well as spin Seebeck effect and can be named as exciton Seebeck effect.

  14. Binding Energy and Lifetime of Excitons in InxGa1-xAs/GaAs Quantum Wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orani, D.; Polimeni, A.; Patane, A.;

    1997-01-01

    We report a systematic study of exciton binding energies and lifetimes in InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells. The experimental binding energies have been deduced from photoluminescence excitation measurements taking into account the contribution of the 2s state of the exciton and the line broadening....... The experimental results have been compared with accurate calculations in a four-band model, where exciton energies take into account the polaron correction. The theory accounts for all the experimental observations and provides a good quantitative agreement with the experimental values....

  15. X-ray Scintillation in Lead Halide Perovskite Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Birowosuto, M D; Drozdowski, W; Brylew, K; Lachmanski, W; Bruno, A; Soci, C

    2016-01-01

    Current technologies for X-ray detection rely on scintillation from expensive inorganic crystals grown at high-temperature, which so far has hindered the development of large-area scintillator arrays. Thanks to the presence of heavy atoms, solution-grown hybrid lead halide perovskite single crystals exhibit short X-ray absorption length and excellent detection efficiency. Here we compare X-ray scintillator characteristics of three-dimensional (3D) MAPbI3 and MAPbBr3 and two-dimensional (2D) (EDBE)PbCl4 hybrid perovskite crystals. X-ray excited thermoluminescence measurements indicate the absence of deep traps and a very small density of shallow trap states, which lessens after-glow effects. All perovskite single crystals exhibit high X-ray excited luminescence yields of >120,000 photons/MeV at low temperature. Although thermal quenching is significant at room temperature, the large exciton binding energy of 2D (EDBE)PbCl4 significantly reduces thermal effects compared to 3D perovskites, and moderate light yie...

  16. Distinct exciton dissociation behavior of organolead trihalide perovskite and excitonic semiconductors studied in the same system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Miao; Bi, Cheng; Yuan, Yongbo; Xiao, Zhengguo; Dong, Qingfeng; Shao, Yuchuan; Huang, Jinsong

    2015-05-13

    The nonexcitonic character for organometal trihalide perovskites is demonstrated by examining the field-dependent exciton dissociation behavior. It is found that photogenerated excitons can be effectively dissociated into free charges inside perovskite without the assistance of charge extraction layer or external field, which is a stark contrast to the charge-separation behavior in excitonic materials in the same photovoltaic operation system.

  17. Ballistic spin transport in exciton gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavokin, A. V.; Vladimirova, M.; Jouault, B.; Liew, T. C. H.; Leonard, J. R.; Butov, L. V.

    2013-11-01

    Traditional spintronics relies on spin transport by charge carriers, such as electrons in semiconductor crystals. The challenges for the realization of long-range electron spin transport include rapid spin relaxation due to electron scattering. Scattering and, in turn, spin relaxation can be effectively suppressed in excitonic devices where the spin currents are carried by electrically neutral bosonic quasiparticles: excitons or exciton-polaritons. They can form coherent quantum liquids that carry spins over macroscopic distances. The price to pay is a finite lifetime of the bosonic spin carriers. We present the theory of exciton ballistic spin transport which may be applied to a range of systems supporting bosonic spin transport, in particular to indirect excitons in coupled quantum wells. We describe the effect of spin-orbit interaction for the electron and the hole on the exciton spin, account for the Zeeman effect induced by external magnetic fields and long-range and short-range exchange splittings of the exciton resonances. We also consider exciton transport in the nonlinear regime and discuss the definitions of the exciton spin current, polarization current, and spin conductivity.

  18. Slow cooling and efficient extraction of C-exciton hot carriers in MoS2 monolayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Zhuo; Wang, Hai-Yu; Grinblat, Gustavo; Huang, Yu-Li; Wang, Dan; Ye, Xiao-Hui; Li, Xian-Bin; Bao, Qiaoliang; Wee, Andrewthye-Shen; Maier, Stefan A.; Chen, Qi-Dai; Zhong, Min-Lin; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Sun, Hong-Bo

    2017-01-01

    In emerging optoelectronic applications, such as water photolysis, exciton fission and novel photovoltaics involving low-dimensional nanomaterials, hot-carrier relaxation and extraction mechanisms play an indispensable and intriguing role in their photo-electron conversion processes. Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides have attracted much attention in above fields recently; however, insight into the relaxation mechanism of hot electron-hole pairs in the band nesting region denoted as C-excitons, remains elusive. Using MoS2 monolayers as a model two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide system, here we report a slower hot-carrier cooling for C-excitons, in comparison with band-edge excitons. We deduce that this effect arises from the favourable band alignment and transient excited-state Coulomb environment, rather than solely on quantum confinement in two-dimension systems. We identify the screening-sensitive bandgap renormalization for MoS2 monolayer/graphene heterostructures, and confirm the initial hot-carrier extraction for the C-exciton state with an unprecedented efficiency of 80%, accompanied by a twofold reduction in the exciton binding energy.

  19. The nature of singlet excitons in oligoacene molecular crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Yamagata, H.

    2011-01-01

    A theory for polarized absorption in crystalline oligoacenes is presented, which includes Frenkel exciton coupling, the coupling between Frenkel and charge-transfer (CT) excitons, and the coupling of all neutral and ionic excited states to the dominant ring-breathing vibrational mode. For tetracene, spectra calculated using all Frenkel couplings among the five lowest energy molecular singlet states predict a Davydov splitting (DS) of the lowest energy (0-0) vibronic band of only -32cm-1, far smaller than the measured value of 631cm-1 and of the wrong sign-a negative sign indicating that the polarizations of the lower and upper Davydov components are reversed from experiment. Inclusion of Frenkel-CT coupling dramatically improves the agreement with experiment, yielding a 0-0 DS of 601cm-1 and a nearly quantitative reproduction of the relative spectral intensities of the 0-n vibronic components. Our analysis also shows that CT mixing increases with the size of the oligoacenes. We discuss the implications of these results on exciton dissociation and transport. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

  20. Epitaxial Halide Perovskite Lateral Double Heterostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiping; Chen, Zhizhong; Deschler, Felix; Sun, Xin; Lu, Toh-Ming; Wertz, Esther A; Hu, Jia-Mian; Shi, Jian

    2017-03-28

    Epitaxial III-V semiconductor heterostructures are key components in modern microelectronics, electro-optics, and optoelectronics. With superior semiconducting properties, halide perovskite materials are rising as promising candidates for coherent heterostructure devices. In this report, spinodal decomposition is proposed and experimentally implemented to produce epitaxial double heterostructures in halide perovskite system. Pristine epitaxial mixed halide perovskites rods and films were synthesized via van der Waals epitaxy by chemical vapor deposition method. At room temperature, photon was applied as a knob to regulate the kinetics of spinodal decomposition and classic coarsening. By this approach, halide perovskite double heterostructures were created carrying epitaxial interfaces and outstanding optical properties. Reduced Fröhlich electron-phonon coupling was discovered in coherent halide double heterostructure, which is hypothetically attributed to the classic phonon confinement effect widely existing in III-V double heterostructures. As a proof-of-concept, our results suggest that halide perovskite-based epitaxial heterostructures may be promising for high-performance and low-cost optoelectronics, electro-optics, and microelectronics. Thus, ultimately, for practical device applications, it may be worthy to pursue these heterostructures via conventional vapor phase epitaxy approaches widely practised in III-V field.

  1. Radiative recombination of excitons in amorphous semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Jai [School of Engineering and Logistics, Faculty Technology, B-41, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, NT 0909 (Australia)]. E-mail: jai.singh@cdu.edu.au

    2005-04-15

    A theory for calculating the radiative lifetime of excitons in amorphous semiconductors is presented. Four possibilities of excitonic radiative recombination are considered and the corresponding rates are derived at thermal equilibrium. The radiative lifetime is calculated from the inverse of the maximum rate for all the four possibilities. Results agree very well with experiments.

  2. Absorption and Emission in quantum dots: Fermi surface effects of Anderson excitons

    OpenAIRE

    Helmes, R. W.; Sindel, M.; Borda, L.; von Delft, J.

    2005-01-01

    Recent experiments measuring the emission of exciton recombination in a self-organized single quantum dot (QD) have revealed that novel effects occur when the wetting layer surrounding the QD becomes filled with electrons, because the resulting Fermi sea can hybridize with the local electron levels on the dot. Motivated by these experiments, we study an extended Anderson model, which describes a local conduction band level coupled to a Fermi sea, but also includes a local valence band level. ...

  3. Symmetry-Based Tight Binding Modeling of Halide Perovskite Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer-Richard, Soline; Katan, Claudine; Traoré, Boubacar; Scholz, Reinhard; Jancu, Jean-Marc; Even, Jacky

    2016-10-06

    On the basis of a general symmetry analysis, this paper presents an empirical tight-binding (TB) model for the reference Pm-3m perovskite cubic phase of halide perovskites of general formula ABX3. The TB electronic band diagram, with and without spin orbit coupling effect of MAPbI3 has been determined based on state of the art density functional theory results including many body corrections (DFT+GW). It affords access to various properties, including distorted structures, at a significantly reduced computational cost. This is illustrated with the calculation of the band-to-band absorption spectrum, the variation of the band gap under volumetric strain, as well as the Rashba effect for a uniaxial symmetry breaking. Compared to DFT approaches, this empirical model will help to tackle larger issues, such as the electronic band structure of large nanostructures, including many-body effects, or heterostructures relevant to perovskite device modeling suited to the description of atomic-scale features.

  4. Type II InAs/GaAsSb quantum dots: Highly tunable exciton geometry and topology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llorens, J. M.; Wewior, L.; Cardozo de Oliveira, E. R.; Alén, B., E-mail: benito.alen@csic.es [IMM-Instituto de Microelectrónica de Madrid (CNM-CSIC), Isaac Newton 8, PTM, E-28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); Ulloa, J. M.; Utrilla, A. D.; Guzmán, A.; Hierro, A. [Institute for Systems based on Optoelectronics and Microtechnology (ISOM), Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-11-02

    External control over the electron and hole wavefunctions geometry and topology is investigated in a p-i-n diode embedding a dot-in-a-well InAs/GaAsSb quantum structure with type II band alignment. We find highly tunable exciton dipole moments and largely decoupled exciton recombination and ionization dynamics. We also predicted a bias regime where the hole wavefunction topology changes continuously from quantum dot-like to quantum ring-like as a function of the external bias. All these properties have great potential in advanced electro-optical applications and in the investigation of fundamental spin-orbit phenomena.

  5. Synthesis of cadmium chalcogenide based quantum dots for enhanced multiple exciton generation

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) have the potential to produce more than one exciton per incident photon, if the photon energy is greater than twice the band gap energy. This process of multiple exciton generation (MEG) has the potential to lead to a step change in the efficiency of solar panels, by utilising energy commonly wasted as heat in conventional solar cells. A wide range of CdSe/CdTe and CdTe/CdSe quantum dots with and without a CdS shell were synthesised with varying core sizes and shell thickne...

  6. Ground state of excitons in quantum-dot quantum-well nanoparticles:stochastic variational method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Heng; Shi Jun-Jie

    2004-01-01

    Within the framework of effective mass approximation, the ground state of excitons confined in spherical core-shell quantum-dot quantum-well (QDQW) nanoparticles is solved by using the stochastic variational method, in which the finite band offset and the heavy (light) hole exciton states are considered. The calculated lse-lsh transition energies for the chosen CdS/HgS/CdS QDQW samples are in good agreement with the experimental measurements. Moreover,some previous theoretical results are improved.

  7. Auger recombination of dark excitons in WS2 and WSe2 monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danovich, Mark; Zólyomi, Viktor; Fal'ko, Vladimir I.; Aleiner, Igor L.

    2016-09-01

    We propose a novel phonon assisted Auger process unique to the electronic band structure of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), which dominates the radiative recombination of ground state excitons in tungsten based TMDCs. Using experimental and density functional theory computed values for the exciton energies, spin-orbit splittings, optical matrix element, and the Auger matrix elements, we find that the Auger process begins to dominate at carrier densities as low as {10}9-10 {{cm}}-2, thus providing a plausible explanation for the low quantum efficiencies reported for these materials.

  8. Visualization of molecular excitons diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamatova, Evgeniia; Kozlov, Oleg V.; Luponosov, Yuriy N.; Solodukhin, Alexander N.; Toropynina, Viktoria Y.; Ponomarenko, Sergei A.; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.

    2016-09-01

    Small organic molecules of the push-pull architecture are rapidly gaining their status in the organic electronics applications. In densely packed molecular films, both intra- and intermolecular interactions play an essential role for the device performance. Here we study two different molecules, a highly symmetric star-shaped one and its newly synthesized single arm analogue, for their photophysical properties. Both chromophores were dissolved in a solid matrix at different concentrations to vary their separation and therefore intermolecular coupling. We show that in both molecules the population relaxation accelerates by more than a factor of 10 at shorter intermolecular distances due to self-quenching thereby reducing the exciton survival time. The transient anisotropy dynamics are also quite similar, with their substantial acceleration at shorter interchromophore distances due to exciton diffusion caused by the Förster-like resonance energy transfer. However, the anisotropy values are noticeably lower for the star-shaped molecule because of intramolecular mixing of different polarization states. Finally, a model is presented that accounts for the observed results.

  9. The influence of halides in polyoxotitanate cages; dipole moment, splitting and expansion of d-orbitals and electron-electron repulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanf, Schirin; Matthews, Peter D; Li, Ning; Luo, He-Kuan; Wright, Dominic S

    2017-01-03

    Metal-doped polyoxotitanate (M-POT) cages have been shown to be efficient single-source precursors to metal-doped titania [TiO2(M)] (state-of-the-art photocatalytic materials) as well as molecular models for the behaviour of dopant metal ions in bulk titania. Here we report the influence halide ions have on the optical and electronic properties of a series of halide-only, and cobalt halide-'doped' POT cages. In this combined experimental and computational study we show that halide ions can have several effects on the band gaps of halide-containing POT cages, influencing the dipole moment (hole-electron separation) and the structure of the valance band edge. Overall, the band gap behaviour stems from the effects of increasing orbital energy moving from F to I down Group 17, as well as crystal-field splitting of the d-orbitals, the potential effects of the Nephelauxetic influence of the halides and electron-electron repulsion.

  10. Coherent excitons at different orientation arrangements of local transition dipole moments in circular light-harvesting complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The coherent exciton plays an important role in the photosynthetic primary process, and its functions are deeply dependent on the orientation arrangements of local transition dipole moments (TDMs). We theoretically and systematically study the physical property of the coherent exciton at different orientation arrangements of the local TDMs in circular light-harvesting (LH) complexes. Especially, if the orientation arrangements are different, the delocalized TDMs of the coherent excitons and the energy locations of the optically active coherent excitons (OACEs) can be obviously different, and then there are more manners to capture, store and transfer light energy in and between LH complexes.Similarly, if the orientation arrangements are altered, light absorption and radiative intensities can be converted fully between the OACEs in the upper and lower coherent exciton bands, and then the blue and red shifts of the absorption and radiative bands of the pigment molecules can occur simultaneously at some orientation arrangements. If the systems are in the vicinities of the critical orientation arrangements, the weak static disorder or small thermal excitation can destroy the coherent electronic excitations, and then the coherent exciton cannot exist any more.

  11. Exciton spectra in GaAs/Ga1-xAlxAs quantum wells in an externally applied electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bangfen

    1988-12-01

    A theory on the exciton spectra in quantum wells in the presence of an external electric field is presented. The theory emphasizes the usually ignored aspect, namely, that the different exciton spinor components correspond to different in-plane angular momenta and only a single spinor component contributes to the optical transition, which in conjunction with the hybridization of the heavy and light holes will affect the exciton binding energies and oscillator strengths drastically. Numerical calculations based on the theory explain the contradictory behavior of the h12a peak observed by Collins et al., which is actually the 2p state of the light-hole-conduction-band (LH1-CB1) exciton.

  12. Multiple exciton generation in nano-crystals revisited: Consistent calculation of the yield based on pump-probe spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Karki, Khadga J; Zheng, Kaibo; Zidek, Karel; Mousa, Abdelrazek; Abdellah, Mohamed A; Messing, Maria; Wallenberg, L Reine; Yartsev, Arkadi; Pullerits, Tonu

    2013-01-01

    Multiple exciton generation (MEG) is a process in which more than one exciton is generated upon the absorption of a high energy photon, typically higher than two times the band gap, in semiconductor nanocrystals. It can be observed experimentally using time resolved spectroscopy such as the transient absorption measurements. Quantification of the MEG yield is usu- ally done by assuming that the bi-exciton signal is twice the signal from a single exciton. Herein we show that this assumption is not always justified and may lead to significant errors in the estimated MEG yields. We develop a methodology to determine proper scaling factors to the signals from the transient absorption experiments. Using the methodology we find modest MEG yields in lead chalcogenide nanocrystals including the nanorods.

  13. Excitonic luminescence of SiGe/Si quantum wells δ-doped with boron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagaev, V. S.; Nikolaev, S. N.; Onishchenko, E. E.; Pruchkina, A. A. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Krivobok, V. S., E-mail: krivobok@lebedev.ru [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Novikov, A. V. [Institute for Physics of Microstructures Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-14

    Low-temperature photoluminescence of undoped and moderately δ-doped Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x}/Si (x < 0.1) quantum wells has been studied. The influence of boron δ-layer on the excitonic luminescence and the luminescence caused by a dense electron plasma was demonstrated. The conditions under which the luminescence spectra of quantum wells are dominated by impurity-bound excitons (BE) have been established. Some unusual properties of these BE are explained in terms of type II band-offset in Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x}/Si (x < 0.1) quantum wells, which favors a spatial separation of electrons and holes. It is shown that the temperature dependence of an excitonic emission in the quantum wells allows to calculate the BE-related density of states and, thus, can be used for contactless estimation of the impurity concentration in quantum wells.

  14. Relaxation dynamics and exciton energy transfer in the low-temperature phase of MEH-PPV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Consani, Cristina; Koch, Federico [Institut für Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg (Germany); Panzer, Fabian; Unger, Thomas; Köhler, Anna [Lehrstuhl Experimentalphysik II, Universität Bayreuth, Universitätsstraße 30, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Brixner, Tobias, E-mail: brixner@phys-chemie.uni-wuerzburg.de [Institut für Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg (Germany); Center for Nanosystems Chemistry (CNC), Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg (Germany)

    2015-06-07

    Understanding the effects of aggregation on exciton relaxation and energy transfer is relevant to control photoinduced function in organic electronics and photovoltaics. Here, we explore the photoinduced dynamics in the low-temperature aggregated phase of a conjugated polymer by transient absorption and coherent electronic two-dimensional (2D) spectroscopy. Coherent 2D spectroscopy allows observing couplings among photoexcited states and discriminating band shifts from homogeneous broadening, additionally accessing the ultrafast dynamics at various excitation energies simultaneously with high spectral resolution. By combining the results of the two techniques, we differentiate between an initial exciton relaxation, which is not characterized by significant exciton mobility, and energy transport between different chromophores in the aggregate.

  15. Instantaneous Rayleigh scattering from excitons localized in monolayer islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langbein, Wolfgang; Leosson, Kristjan; Jensen, Jacob Riis;

    2000-01-01

    We show that the initial dynamics of Rayleigh scattering from excitons in quantum wells can be either instantaneous or delayed, depending on the exciton ensemble studied. For excitation of the entire exciton resonance, a finite rise time given by the inverse inhomogeneous broadening: of the exciton...... resonance is observed. Instead, when exciting only a subsystem of the exciton resonance, in our case excitons localized in quantum well regions of a specific monolayer thickness, the rise has an instantaneous component. This is due to the spatial nonuniformity of the initially excited exciton polarization...

  16. Tailoring Mixed-Halide, Wide-Gap Perovskites via Multistep Conversion Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bae, D.; Palmstrom, A.; Roelofs, K.; Mei, B.T.; Chorkendorf, I.; Bent, S.F.; Vesborg, P.C.

    2016-01-01

    Wide-band-gap mixed-halide CH3NH3PbI3–XBrX-based solar cells have been prepared by means of a sequential spin-coating process. The spin-rate for PbI2 as well as its repetitive deposition are important in determining the cross-sectional shape and surface morphology of perovskite, and, consequently, J

  17. Bright Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Organometal Halide Perovskite Nanoplatelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yichuan; Yuan, Zhao; Tian, Yu; Wang, Xi; Wang, Jamie C; Xin, Yan; Hanson, Kenneth; Ma, Biwu; Gao, Hanwei

    2016-01-13

    Bright light-emitting diodes based on solution-processable organometal halide perovskite nanoplatelets are demonstrated. The nanoplatelets created using a facile one-pot synthesis exhibit narrow-band emissions at 529 nm and quantum yield up to 85%. Using these nanoparticles as emitters, efficient electroluminescence is achieved with a brightness of 10 590 cd m(-2) . These ligand-capped nanoplatelets appear to be quite stable in moisture, allowing out-of-glovebox device fabrication.

  18. The effective excitonic g factors of Mn-doped InAs nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wen

    2017-04-01

    Based on the derived eight-band k · p Hamiltonian, the electronic structures of Mn-doped InAs nanowires in the magnetic field are calculated. We find the lowest optical transition will be split to four individual transitions when the magnetic field is applied along z axis, and two of them are σ polarized light. Furthermore, the Zeeman splitting energy at the Γ point of two σ polarized light will increase nonlinearly as the increase of the magnetic field. Additionally, an effective excitonic g factor at the Γ point is defined, and the effective excitonic g factors will decrease greatly with the increase of the radius of nanowires and the decrease of the concentration of manganese ions, while the effective excitonic g factors decrease slightly when the magnetic field increases. Interestingly, the effective excitonic g factors can experience a substantial decrease when the temperature increases from 10 K to 100 K and is almost not affected when the temperature varies from 100 K to 300 K. Therefore, we can infer that large effective excitonic g factors can be obtained when small radius of nanowires, high concentration of manganese ions and low temperature are satisfied.

  19. Near-infrared exciton-polaritons in strongly coupled single-walled carbon nanotube microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Arko; Tropf, Laura; Zakharko, Yuriy; Zaumseil, Jana; Gather, Malte C.

    2016-01-01

    Exciton-polaritons form upon strong coupling between electronic excitations of a material and photonic states of a surrounding microcavity. In organic semiconductors the special nature of excited states leads to particularly strong coupling and facilitates condensation of exciton-polaritons at room temperature, which may lead to electrically pumped organic polariton lasers. However, charge carrier mobility and photo-stability in currently used materials is limited and exciton-polariton emission so far has been restricted to visible wavelengths. Here, we demonstrate strong light-matter coupling in the near infrared using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in a polymer matrix and a planar metal-clad cavity. By exploiting the exceptional oscillator strength and sharp excitonic transition of (6,5) SWCNTs, we achieve large Rabi splitting (>110 meV), efficient polariton relaxation and narrow band emission (<15 meV). Given their high charge carrier mobility and excellent photostability, SWCNTs represent a promising new avenue towards practical exciton-polariton devices operating at telecommunication wavelengths. PMID:27721454

  20. Excitons in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, R. B.

    1984-09-01

    Quasiparticles of charge 1/m in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect form excitons, which are collective excitations physically similar to the transverse magnetoplasma oscillations of a Wigner crystal. A variational exciton wavefunction which shows explicitly that the magnetic length is effectively longer for quasiparticles than for electrons is proposed. This wavefunction is used to estimate the dispersion relation of these excitons and the matrix elements to generate them optically out of the ground state. These quantities are then used to describe a type of nonlinear conductivity which may occur in these systems when they are relatively clean.

  1. Atomic Resolution Imaging of Halide Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi; Zhang, Dandan; Kisielowski, Christian; Dou, Letian; Kornienko, Nikolay; Bekenstein, Yehonadav; Wong, Andrew B; Alivisatos, A Paul; Yang, Peidong

    2016-12-14

    The radiation-sensitive nature of halide perovskites has hindered structural studies at the atomic scale. We overcome this obstacle by applying low dose-rate in-line holography, which combines aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy with exit-wave reconstruction. This technique successfully yields the genuine atomic structure of ultrathin two-dimensional CsPbBr3 halide perovskites, and a quantitative structure determination was achieved atom column by atom column using the phase information of the reconstructed exit-wave function without causing electron beam-induced sample alterations. An extraordinarily high image quality enables an unambiguous structural analysis of coexisting high-temperature and low-temperature phases of CsPbBr3 in single particles. On a broader level, our approach offers unprecedented opportunities to better understand halide perovskites at the atomic level as well as other radiation-sensitive materials.

  2. Harmonic dynamical behaviour of thallous halides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sarvesh K Tiwari; L J Shukla; K S Upadhyaya

    2010-05-01

    Harmonic dynamical behaviour of thallous halides (TlCl and TlBr) have been studied using the new van der Waals three-body force shell model (VTSM), which incorporates the effects of the van der Waals interaction along with long-range Coulomb interactions, three-body interactions and short-range second neighbour interactions in the framework of rigid shell model (RSM). Phonon dispersion curves (PDC), variations of Debye temperature with absolute temperature and phonon density of state (PDS) curves have been reported for thallous halides using VTSM. Comparison of experimental values with those of VTSM and TSM are also reported in the paper and a good agreement between experimental and VTSM values has been found, from which it may be inferred that the incorporation of van der Waals interactions is essential for the complete harmonic dynamical behaviour of thallous halides.

  3. Recent advances in technetium halide chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poineau, Frederic; Johnstone, Erik V; Czerwinski, Kenneth R; Sattelberger, Alfred P

    2014-02-18

    Transition metal binary halides are fundamental compounds, and the study of their structure, bonding, and other properties gives chemists a better understanding of physicochemical trends across the periodic table. One transition metal whose halide chemistry is underdeveloped is technetium, the lightest radioelement. For half a century, the halide chemistry of technetium has been defined by three compounds: TcF6, TcF5, and TcCl4. The absence of Tc binary bromides and iodides in the literature was surprising considering the existence of such compounds for all of the elements surrounding technetium. The common synthetic routes that scientists use to obtain binary halides of the neighboring elements, such as sealed tube reactions between elements and flowing gas reactions between a molecular complex and HX gas (X = Cl, Br, or I), had not been reported for technetium. In this Account, we discuss how we used these routes to revisit the halide chemistry of technetium. We report seven new phases: TcBr4, TcBr3, α/β-TcCl3, α/β-TcCl2, and TcI3. Technetium tetrachloride and tetrabromide are isostructural to PtX4 (X = Cl or Br) and consist of infinite chains of edge-sharing TcX6 octahedra. Trivalent technetium halides are isostructural to ruthenium and molybdenum (β-TcCl3, TcBr3, and TcI3) and to rhenium (α-TcCl3). Technetium tribromide and triiodide exhibit the TiI3 structure-type and consist of infinite chains of face-sharing TcX6 (X = Br or I) octahedra. Concerning the trichlorides, β-TcCl3 crystallizes with the AlCl3 structure-type and consists of infinite layers of edge-sharing TcCl6 octahedra, while α-TcCl3 consists of infinite layers of Tc3Cl9 units. Both phases of technetium dichloride exhibit new structure-types that consist of infinite chains of [Tc2Cl8] units. For the technetium binary halides, we studied the metal-metal interaction by theoretical methods and magnetic measurements. The change of the electronic configuration of the metal atom from d(3) (Tc

  4. Optical nutation in the exciton range of spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khadzhi, P. I. [Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Institute of Applied Physics (Moldova, Republic of); Vasiliev, V. V., E-mail: vasscorp@mail.ru [Taras Shevchenko Transnistria State University (Moldova, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    Optical nutation in the exciton range of spectrum is studied in the mean field approximation taking into account exciton-photon and elastic exciton-exciton interactions. It is shown that the features of nutation development are determined by the initial exciton and photon densities, the resonance detuning, the nonlinearity parameter, and the initial phase difference. For nonzero initial exciton and photon concentrations, three regimes of temporal evolution of excitons and photons exist: periodic conversion of excitons to photons and vice versa, aperiodic conversion of photons to excitons, and the rest regime. In the rest regime, the initial exciton and photon densities are nonzero and do not change with time. The oscillation amplitudes and periods of particle densities determined by the system parameters are found. The exciton self-trapping and photon trapping appearing in the system at threshold values of the nonlinearity parameter were predicted. As this parameter increases, the oscillation amplitudes of the exciton and photon densities sharply change at the critical value of the nonlinearity parameter. These two phenomena are shown to be caused by the elastic exciton-exciton interaction, resulting in the dynamic concentration shift of the exciton level.

  5. Enhanced Quantum Efficiency From Hybrid Cesium Halide/Copper Photocathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Lingmei; Joly, Alan G.; Droubay, Timothy C.; Gong, Yu; Hess, Wayne P.

    2014-04-28

    The quantum efficiency of Cu is found to increase dramatically when coated by a CsI film and then irradiated by a UV laser. Over three orders of magnitude quantum efficiency enhancement at 266 nm is observed in CsI/Cu(100), indicating potential application in future photocathode devices. Upon laser irradiation, a large work function reduction to a value less than 2 eV is also observed, significantly greater than for similarly treated CsBr/Cu(100). The initial QE enhancement, prior to laser irradiation, is attributed to interface interaction, surface cleanliness and the intrinsic properties of the Cs halide film. Further QE enhancement following activation is attributed to formation of inter-band states and Cs metal accumulation at the interface induced by laser irradiation.

  6. Charged-Exciton Complexes in Quantum Dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Wen-Fang

    2001-01-01

    It is known experimentally that stable charged-exciton complexes can exist in low-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures. Much less is known about the properties of such charged-exciton complexes since three-body problems are very difficult to be solved, even numerically. Here we introduce the correlated hyperspherical harmonics as basis functions to solve the hyperangular equation for negatively and positively charged excitons (trions) in a harmonic quantum dot. By using this method, we have calculated the energy spectra of the low-lying states of a charged exciton as a function of the radius of quantum dot. Based on symmetry analysis, the level crossover as the dot radius increases can be fully explained as the results of symmetry constraint.``

  7. Exciton absorption in narrow armchair graphene nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monozon, B. S.; Schmelcher, P.

    2016-11-01

    We develop an analytical approach to the exciton optical absorption for narrow gap armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNR). We focus on the regime of dominant size quantization in combination with the attractive electron-hole interaction. An adiabatic separation of slow and fast motions leads via the two-body Dirac equation to the isolated and coupled subband approximations. Discrete and continuous exciton states are in general coupled and form quasi-Rydberg series of purely discrete and resonance type character. The corresponding oscillator strengths and widths are derived. We show that the exciton peaks are blue-shifted, become broader and increase in magnitude upon narrowing the ribbon. At the edge of a subband the singularity related to the 1D density of states is transformed into finite absorption via the presence of the exciton. Our analytical results are in good agreement with those obtained by other methods including numerical approaches. Estimates of the expected experimental values are provided for realistic AGNR.

  8. Highly Tunable Colloidal Perovskite Nanoplatelets through Variable Cation, Metal, and Halide Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidman, Mark C; Seitz, Michael; Stranks, Samuel D; Tisdale, William A

    2016-08-23

    Colloidal perovskite nanoplatelets are a promising class of semiconductor nanomaterials-exhibiting bright luminescence, tunable and spectrally narrow absorption and emission features, strongly confined excitonic states, and facile colloidal synthesis. Here, we demonstrate the high degree of spectral tunability achievable through variation of the cation, metal, and halide composition as well as nanoplatelet thickness. We synthesize nanoplatelets of the form L2[ABX3]n-1BX4, where L is an organic ligand (octylammonium, butylammonium), A is a monovalent metal or organic molecular cation (cesium, methylammonium, formamidinium), B is a divalent metal cation (lead, tin), X is a halide anion (chloride, bromide, iodide), and n-1 is the number of unit cells in thickness. We show that variation of n, B, and X leads to large changes in the absorption and emission energy, while variation of the A cation leads to only subtle changes but can significantly impact the nanoplatelet stability and photoluminescence quantum yield (with values over 20%). Furthermore, mixed halide nanoplatelets exhibit continuous spectral tunability over a 1.5 eV spectral range, from 2.2 to 3.7 eV. The nanoplatelets have relatively large lateral dimensions (100 nm to 1 μm), which promote self-assembly into stacked superlattice structures-the periodicity of which can be adjusted based on the nanoplatelet surface ligand length. These results demonstrate the versatility of colloidal perovskite nanoplatelets as a material platform, with tunability extending from the deep-UV, across the visible, into the near-IR. In particular, the tin-containing nanoplatelets represent a significant addition to the small but increasingly important family of lead- and cadmium-free colloidal semiconductors.

  9. Exciton in type-II quantum dot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra-Ortega, J; Escorcia, R A [Universidad del Magdalena, A. A. 731, Santa Marta (Colombia); Mikhailov, I D, E-mail: jsierraortega@gmail.co [Universidad Industrial de Santander, A. A. 678, Bucaramanga (Colombia)

    2009-05-01

    We study the quantum-size effect and the influence of the external magnetic field on the exciton ground state energy in the type-II InP quantum disk, lens and pyramid deposited on a wetting layer and embedded in a GaInP matrix. We show that the charge distribution over and below quantum dot and wetting layer induced by trapped exciton strongly depends on the quantum dot morphology and the strength of the magnetic field.

  10. Quantum-dot excitons in nanostructured environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Stobbe, Søren; Lodahl, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The interaction between light and quantum-dot (QD) excitons is strongly influenced by the environment in which the QD is placed. We have investigated the interaction by measuring the time-resolved spontaneous-emission rate of QD excitons in different nanostructured environments. Thereby, we have...... is demonstrated and the influence of disorder is discussed. The findings have a strong bearing on future nanophotonic devices....

  11. Quantum-dot excitons in nanostructured environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Stobbe, Søren; Lodahl, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between light and quantum-dot (QD) excitons is strongly influenced by the environment in which the QD is placed. We have investigated the interaction by measuring the time-resolved spontaneous-emission rate of QD excitons in different nanostructured environments. Thereby, we have...... is demonstrated and the influence of disorder is discussed. The findings have a strong bearing on future nanophotonic devices....

  12. Femtosecond spectroscopy study of the exciton relaxation dynamics in silicon quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryschi, Carola; Kuntermann, Volker; Cimpean, Carla [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie I, FAU, Erlangen (Germany); Haarer, Dietrich [BIMF, Universitaet Bayreuth (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    This contribution is targeted to the development of surface-modified silicon quantum dots (Siqdots) with tailored luminescence properties. The surface modification of Siqdots with sizes between 1 and 5 nm has been successfully achieved via two different synthesis routes, first, by controlled oxidation followed from silanization and second, by thermal hydrosilylation with chromophores. The luminescence properties of ethanolic Siqdots dispersions were characterized using stationary and time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy techniques, whereas the ultrashort exciton relaxation dynamics were examined using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. Silanized Siqdots were observed to exhibit two species of photoluminescence (PL): the blue emission at 380 nm is assigned to localized surface states, whereas radiative recombination of quantum confined excitons gives rise to a broad PL band around 800 nm. Whereas the latter is ascribed to Siqdots with sizes larger than 3 nm, for Siqdots smaller than 1.5 nm exciton relaxation dynamics is understood to occur predominantly by trapping due to lower-lying surface states which may radiatively decay. Siqdots terminated with suited chromophores were observed to exhibit only one PL band in the visible that is ascribed to exciton states involving resonant couplings to the conjugated electron system of the chromophores.

  13. Resonance Raman scattering and excitonic spectra in TlInS{sub 2} crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalamai, V.V. [Institute of Applied Physics, Academy of Sciences of Moldova, 5 Academy Street, 2028 Chisinau, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Stamov, I.G. [T.G. Shevchenko State University of Pridnestrovie, 25 Oktyabrya Street 107, 3300 Tiraspol, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Syrbu, N.N., E-mail: sirbunn@yahoo.com [Technical University of Moldova, 168 Stefan cel Mare Avenue, 2004 Chisinau, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Ursaki, V.V. [Institute of Applied Physics, Academy of Sciences of Moldova, 5 Academy Street, 2028 Chisinau, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Dorogan, V. [Technical University of Moldova, 168 Stefan cel Mare Avenue, 2004 Chisinau, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    The excitons ground and excited states for E∥a and E∥b polarizations in absorption and reflection spectra of TlInS{sub 2} crystals were detected. The fundamental parameters of excitons and bands were determined at k=0. The resonance Raman spectra were investigated in the region of excitons transitions. The resonance Raman scattering spectra with participation of optical phonons that are active at the center of Brillouin zone were identified. The Raman scattering in Y(YX)Z and Y(ZX)Z geometries at 10 K with excitation by He–Ne laser was researched. Energies of phonons with A{sub g} and B{sub g} symmetries were determined. It was shown that the number of modes at 10 K was two times lower than expected according to theoretical calculations. - Highlights: • The resonance Raman scattering in geometry Y(YX)Z and Y(ZX)Z at 10 K was investigated. • Energies of phonons with A{sub g} and B{sub g} symmetries were determined. • The experimental and theoretical calculations completely conform if crystals are described by symmetry group D{sub 4h}{sup 15}. • The main parameters of excitons and bands were determined. • The model of electron transitions in k=0 was suggested.

  14. Understanding of the formation of shallow level defects from the intrinsic defects of lead tri-halide perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongseob; Chung, Choong-Heui; Hong, Ki-Ha

    2016-10-05

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have unique electronic properties in which deep level defects are rarely formed. This unique defect characteristic is the source of the long carrier diffusion length. This theoretical study shows what causes this characteristic formation of shallow level defects in lead tri-halide perovskites. Comparative studies between iodides and other halides showed that deep level defect states were generated for Cl based perovskites. Longer Pb-halide bond lengths and narrower band gaps are beneficial for preventing deep level defect states. Additionally, our study shows that the formation of shallow level defects does not change even when the lattice structures of the perovskites do not reach their equilibrium structures.

  15. Excitonic nonlinearities in single-wall carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, D.T.; Voisin, C.; Roussignol, P. [Laboratoire Pierre Aigrain, Ecole Normale Superieure, UPMC, Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS UMR8551, Paris (France); Roquelet, C.; Lauret, J.S. [Laboratoire de Photonique Quantique et Moleculaire de l' Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan (France); Cassabois, G. [Laboratoire Pierre Aigrain, Ecole Normale Superieure, UPMC, Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS UMR8551, Paris (France); Laboratoire Charles Coulomb, UMR5221, Universite Montpellier 2, Montpellier (France); CNRS, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb, UMR5221, Montpellier (France)

    2012-05-15

    Excitons are composite bosons that allow a fair description of the optical properties in solid state systems. The quantum confinement in nanostructures enhances the excitonic effects and impacts the exciton-exciton interactions, which tailor the performances of classical and quantum optoelectronic devices, such as lasers or single-photon emitters. The excitonic nonlinearities exhibit significant differences between organic and inorganic compounds. Tightly bound Frenkel excitons in molecular crystals are for instance affected by an efficient exciton-exciton annihilation (EEA). This Auger process also governs the population relaxation dynamics in carbon nanotubes that share many physical properties with organic materials. Here, we show that this similarity breaks down for the excitonic decoherence in carbon nanotubes. Original nonlinear spectral-hole burning experiments bring evidence of pure dephasing induced by exciton-exciton scattering (EES) in the k-space. This mechanism controls the exciton collision-induced broadening, as for Wannier excitons in inorganic semiconductors. We demonstrate that this singular behavior originates from the intrinsic one-dimensionality of excitons in carbon nanotubes, which display unique hybrid features of organic and inorganic systems. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. On the interplay between chirality and exciton coupling: a DFT calculation of the circular dichroism in π-stacked ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Patrick; Linares, Mathieu

    2014-09-01

    The chirality of stacked weakly interacting π-systems was interpreted in terms of Frenkel exciton states and the formation of excitonic circular dichroism (CD) bands was monitored for ethylene stacks of varying sizes. Convergence of CD bands with respect to the system size was observed for stacks involving around 10 molecules. By means of rotation around the C-C double bond in ethylene, chirality was induced in the monomeric system and which was shown to dominate the spectral responses, even for polymer aggregates. In helical assemblies of chiral entities, there will always be a mix of excitonic and monomeric contributions to the CD signal and it is demonstrated that the complex polarization propagator approach in combination with Density Functional Theory is a suitable method to address this situation.

  17. Exciton-polariton trapping and potential landscape engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, C.; Winkler, K.; Fraser, M. D.; Kamp, M.; Yamamoto, Y.; Ostrovskaya, E. A.; Höfling, S.

    2017-01-01

    Exciton-polaritons in semiconductor microcavities have become a model system for the studies of dynamical Bose-Einstein condensation, macroscopic coherence, many-body effects, nonclassical states of light and matter, and possibly quantum phase transitions in a solid state. These low-mass bosonic quasiparticles can condense at comparatively high temperatures up to 300 K, and preserve the fundamental properties of the condensate, such as coherence in space and time domain, even when they are out of equilibrium with the environment. Although the presence of a confining potential is not strictly necessary in order to observe Bose-Einstein condensation, engineering of the polariton confinement is a key to controlling, shaping, and directing the flow of polaritons. Prototype polariton-based optoelectronic devices rely on ultrafast photon-like velocities and strong nonlinearities exhibited by polaritons, as well as on their tailored confinement. Nanotechnology provides several pathways to achieving polariton confinement, and the specific features and advantages of different methods are discussed in this review. Being hybrid exciton-photon quasiparticles, polaritons can be trapped via their excitonic as well as photonic component, which leads to a wide choice of highly complementary trapping techniques. Here, we highlight the almost free choice of the confinement strengths and trapping geometries that provide powerful means for control and manipulation of the polariton systems both in the semi-classical and quantum regimes. Furthermore, the possibilities to observe effects of the polariton blockade, Mott insulator physics, and population of higher-order energy bands in sophisticated lattice potentials are discussed. Observation of such effects could lead to realization of novel polaritonic non-classical light sources and quantum simulators.

  18. Robust quantum anomalous Hall effect in ferromagnetic transition metal halides

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Chengxi; Wu, Haiping; Deng, Kaiming; Jena, Puru; Kan, Erjun

    2016-01-01

    The quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect is a novel topological spintronic phenomenon arising from inherent magnetization and spin-orbit coupling. Various theoretical and experimental efforts have been devoted in search of robust intrinsic QAH insulators. However, up to now, it has only been observed in Cr or V doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3 film in experiments with very low working temperature. Based on the successful synthesis of transition metal halides, we use first-principles calculations to predict that RuI3 monolayer is an intrinsic ferromagnetic QAH insulator with a topologically nontrivial global band gap of 11 meV. This topologically nontrivial band gap at the Fermi level is due to its crystal symmetry, thus the QAH effect is robust. Its Curie temperature, estimated to be ~360 K using Monte-Carlo simulation, is above room temperature and higher than most of two-dimensional ferromagnetic thin films. We also discuss the manipulation of its exchange energy and nontrivial band gap by applying in-plane strain. Our wor...

  19. Quantum anomalous Hall effect in ferromagnetic transition metal halides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chengxi; Zhou, Jian; Wu, Haiping; Deng, Kaiming; Jena, Puru; Kan, Erjun

    2017-01-01

    The quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect is a novel topological spintronic phenomenon arising from inherent magnetization and spin-orbit coupling. Various theoretical and experimental efforts have been devoted in search of intrinsic QAH insulators. However, up to now, it has only been observed in Cr or V doped (Bi,Sb ) 2T e3 film in experiments with very low working temperature. Based on the successful synthesis of transition metal halides, we use first-principles calculations to predict that the Ru I3 monolayer is an intrinsic ferromagnetic QAH insulator with a topologically nontrivial global band gap of 11 meV. This topologically nontrivial band gap at the Fermi level is due to its crystal symmetry, thus the QAH effect is robust. Its Curie temperature, estimated to be ˜360 K using Monte Carlo simulation, is above room temperature and higher than most two-dimensional ferromagnetic thin films. The inclusion of Hubbard U in the Ru-d electrons does not affect this result. We also discuss the manipulation of its exchange energy and nontrivial band gap by applying in-plane strain. Our work adds an experimentally feasible member to the QAH insulator family, which is expected to have broad applications in nanoelectronics and spintronics.

  20. Effects of Alloying on the Optical Properties of Organic-Inorganic Lead Halide Perovskite Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ndione, Paul F.; Li, Zhen; Zhu, Kai

    2016-09-07

    Complex refractive index and dielectric function spectra of organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite alloy thin films are presented, together with the critical-point parameter analysis (energy and broadening) of the respective composition. Thin films of methylammonium lead halide alloys (MAPbI3, MAPbBr3, MAPbBr2I, and MAPbBrI2), formamidinium lead halide alloys (FAPbI3, FAPbBr3, and FAPbBr2I), and formamidinium cesium lead halide alloys [FA0.85Cs0.15PbI3, FA0.85Cs0.15PbBrI2, and FA0.85Cs0.15Pb(Br0.4I0.6)3] were studied. The complex refractive index and dielectric functions were determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) in the photon energy range of 0.7-6.5 eV. Critical point energies and optical transitions were obtained by lineshape fitting to the second-derivative of the complex dielectric function data of these thin films as a function of alloy composition. Absorption onset in the vicinity of the bandgap, as well as critical point energies and optical band transition shift toward higher energies as the concentration of Br in the films increases. Cation alloying (Cs+) has less effect on the optical properties of the thin films compared to halide mixed alloys. The reported optical properties can help to understand the fundamental properties of the perovskite materials and also be used for optimizing or designing new devices.

  1. Generation of multiple excitons in Ag2S quantum dots: Single high-energy versus multiple-photon excitation

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jingya

    2014-02-20

    We explored biexciton generation via carrier multiplication (or multiple-exciton generation) by high-energy photons and by multiple-photon absorption in Ag2S quantum dots (QDs) using femtosecond broad-band transient absorption spectroscopy. Irrespective of the size of the QDs and how the multiple excitons are generated in the Ag2S QDs, two distinct characteristic time constants of 9.6-10.2 and 135-175 ps are obtained for the nonradiative Auger recombination of the multiple excitons, indicating the existence of two binding excitons, namely, tightly bound and weakly bound excitons. More importantly, the lifetimes of multiple excitons in Ag 2S QDs were about 1 and 2 orders of magnitude longer than those of comparable size PbS QDs and single-walled carbon nanotubes, respectively. This result is significant because it suggests that by utilizing an appropriate electron acceptor, there is a higher possibility to extract multiple electron-hole pairs in Ag2S QDs, which should improve the performance of QD-based solar cell devices. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  2. Exciton interference revealed by energy dependent exciton transfer rate for ring-structured molecular systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Yun-An, E-mail: yunan@gznc.edu.cn [Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory of Computational Nanomaterial Science, Guizhou Education University, Guiyang, Guizhou 550018 (China)

    2016-01-14

    The quantum interference is an intrinsic phenomenon in quantum physics for photon and massive quantum particles. In principle, the quantum interference may also occur with quasi-particles, such as the exciton. In this study, we show how the exciton quantum interference can be significant in aggregates through theoretical simulations with hierarchical equations of motion. The systems under investigation are generalized donor-bridge-acceptor model aggregates with the donor consisting of six homogeneous sites assuming the nearest neighbor coupling. For the models with single-path bridge, the exciton transfer time only shows a weak excitation energy dependence. But models with double-path bridge have a new short transfer time scale and the excitation energy dependence of the exciton transfer time assumes clear peak structure which is detectable with today’s nonlinear spectroscopy. This abnormality is attributed to the exciton quantum interference and the condition for a clear observation in experiment is also explored.

  3. Electric field-modulated amplified spontaneous emission in organo-lead halide perovskite CH3NH3PbI3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fang; Wu, Zhaoxin; Dong, Hua; Xia, Bin; Xi, Jun; Ning, Shuya; Ma, Lin; Hou, Xun

    2015-12-01

    The electric field-modulation of the spontaneous emission (SE) and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) in organo-lead halide perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 (aliased as MAPbI3) layer has been investigated. With the increase of the external applied electric field, the electric field-induced quenching of the SE and ASE intensity was observed, accompanying with a blue-shift of the ASE emission peaks, which can be attributed to field-induced ionization of photogenerated excitons in the MAPbI3 layer. Based on the analysis of quenching factor and the dielectric constant, we estimated an exciton binding energy ˜36 meV at room temperature, which will provide useful insights into the optical-electrical characteristics of MAPbI3 and pave the way for the future optoelectronic applications.

  4. Exciton polarizability in semiconductor nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Shan, Jie; Islam, Mohammad A; Herman, Irving P; Bonn, Mischa; Heinz, Tony F

    2006-11-01

    The response of charge to externally applied electric fields is an important basic property of any material system, as well as one critical for many applications. Here, we examine the behaviour and dynamics of charges fully confined on the nanometre length scale. This is accomplished using CdSe nanocrystals of controlled radius (1-2.5 nm) as prototype quantum systems. Individual electron-hole pairs are created at room temperature within these structures by photoexcitation and are probed by terahertz (THz) electromagnetic pulses. The electronic response is found to be instantaneous even for THz frequencies, in contrast to the behaviour reported in related measurements for larger nanocrystals and nanocrystal assemblies. The measured polarizability of an electron-hole pair (exciton) amounts to approximately 10(4) A(3) and scales approximately as the fourth power of the nanocrystal radius. This size dependence and the instantaneous response reflect the presence of well-separated electronic energy levels induced in the system by strong quantum-confinement effects.

  5. Alternative approaches to electronic damage by ion-beam irradiation: Exciton models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agullo-Lopez, F.; Munoz-Martin, A.; Zucchiatti, A. [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Climent-Font, A. [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-11-15

    The paper briefly describes the main features of the damage produced by swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation. After a short revision of the widely used thermal spike concept, it focuses on cumulative mechanisms of track formation which are alternative to those based on lattice melting (thermal spike models). These cumulative mechanisms rely on the production of point defects around the ion trajectory, and their accumulation up to a final lattice collapse or amorphization. As to the formation of point defects, the paper considers those mechanisms relying on direct local conversion of the excitation energy into atomic displacements (exciton models). A particular attention is given to processes based on the non-radiative recombination of excitons that have become self-trapped as a consequence of a strong electron-phonon interaction (STEs). These mechanisms, although operative under purely ionizing radiation in some dielectric materials, have been rarely invoked, so far, to discuss SHI damage. They are discussed in this paper together with relevant examples to materials such as Cu{sub 3}N, alkali halides, SiO{sub 2}, and LiNbO{sub 3}. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Direct measurement of exciton valley coherence in monolayer WSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Hao, Kai

    2016-02-29

    In crystals, energy band extrema in momentum space can be identified by a valley index. The internal quantum degree of freedom associated with valley pseudospin indices can act as a useful information carrier, analogous to electronic charge or spin. Interest in valleytronics has been revived in recent years following the discovery of atomically thin materials such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides. However, the valley coherence time—a crucial quantity for valley pseudospin manipulation—is difficult to directly probe. In this work, we use two-dimensional coherent spectroscopy to resonantly generate and detect valley coherence of excitons (Coulomb-bound electron–hole pairs) in monolayer WSe2 (refs ,). The imposed valley coherence persists for approximately one hundred femtoseconds. We propose that the electron–hole exchange interaction provides an important decoherence mechanism in addition to exciton population recombination. This work provides critical insight into the requirements and strategies for optical manipulation of the valley pseudospin for future valleytronics applications.

  7. Exciton binding energies and absorption in intermixed GaAs-AlGaAs quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meney, Alistair T.

    1992-12-01

    The optical properties of excitons in layer-intermixed GaAs-AlGaAs quantum wells are studied theoretically. The electronic dispersion is obtained using the 6×6 Luttinger-Kohn Hamiltonian for the valence bands, and an accurate expression for the conduction band dispersion which includes the effects of nonparabolicity and warping to fourth order in k. The HH1-CB1 (1s) and LH1-CB1(1s) exciton binding energies are calculated as a function of diffusion time. The absorption for both TE and TM polarization is obtained at several wavelengths, and is seen to decrease significantly with increased intermixing. The decrease in absorption is larger for narrow wells, where the effects of intermixing are more pronounced for a given diffusion time.

  8. Intermediate type excitons in Schottky barriers of A3B6 layer semiconductors and UV photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekperov, O. Z.; Guseinov, N. M.; Nadjafov, A. I.

    2006-09-01

    Photoelectric and photovoltaic spectra of Schottky barrier (SB) structures of InSe, GaSe and GaS layered semiconductors (LS) are investigated at quantum energies from the band edge excitons of corresponding materials up to 6.5eV. Spectral dependences of photoconductivity (PC) of photo resistors and barrier structures are strongly different at the quantum energies corresponding to the intermediate type excitons (ITE) observed in these semiconductors. It was suggested that high UV photoconductivity of A3B6 LS is due to existence of high mobility light carriers in the depth of the band structure. It is shown that SB of semitransparent Au-InSe is high sensitive photo detector in UV region of spectra.

  9. Crystal and electronic structures of substituted halide perovskites based on density functional calculation and molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaba, Hiromitsu; Kimura, Shou; Alam, Md. Khorshed

    2017-03-01

    Durability of organo-lead halide perovskite are important issue for its practical application in a solar cells. In this study, using density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics, we theoretically investigated a crystal structure, electronic structure, and ionic diffusivity of the partially substituted cubic MA0.5X0.5PbI3 (MA = CH3NH3+, X = NH4+ or (NH2)2CH+ or Cs+). Our calculation results indicate that a partial substitution of MA induces a lattice distortion, resulting in preventing MA or X from the diffusion between A sites in the perovskite. DFT calculations show that electronic structures of the investigated partially substituted perovskites were similar with that of MAPbI3, while their bandgaps slightly decrease compared to that of MAPbI3. Our results mean that partial substitution in halide perovskite is effective technique to suppress diffusion of intrinsic ions and tune the band gap.

  10. Energetics and dynamics in organic-inorganic halide perovskite photovoltaics and light emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien Sum, Tze; Chen, Shi; Xing, Guichuan; Liu, Xinfeng; Wu, Bo

    2015-08-01

    The rapid transcendence of organic-inorganic metal halide perovskite solar cells to above the 20% efficiency mark has captivated the broad photovoltaic community. As the efficiency race continues unabated, it is essential that fundamental studies keep pace with these developments. Further gains in device efficiencies are expected to be increasingly arduous and harder to come by. The key to driving the perovskite solar cell efficiencies towards their Shockley-Queisser limit is through a clear understanding of the interfacial energetics and dynamics between perovskites and other functional materials in nanostructured- and heterojunction-type devices. In this review, we focus on the current progress in basic characterization studies to elucidate the interfacial energetics (energy-level alignment and band bending) and dynamical processes (from the ultrafast to the ultraslow) in organic-inorganic metal halide perovskite photovoltaics and light emitters. Major findings from these studies will be distilled. Open questions and scientific challenges will also be highlighted.

  11. Exciton Dynamics in LH1 and LH2 of Rhodopseudomonas Acidophila and Rhodobium Marinum Probed with Accumulated Photon Echo and Pump-Probe Measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lampoura, Stefania S.; Grondelle, Rienk van; Stokkum, Ivo H.M. van; Cogdell, Richard J.; Wiersma, Douwe A.; Duppen, Koos; van Stokkum, I.H.N.

    2000-01-01

    Exciton dynamics in the B850 and B875 bands of isolated complexes of Rhodopseudomonas acidophila (strain 10050 and 7050) and in the B875 band of isolated complexes of Rhodobium marinum were investigated by means of accumulated photon echo and pump-probe techniques at different temperatures and wavel

  12. Impurity modes in Frenkel exciton systems with dipolar interactions and cubic symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgin, I; Huber, D L

    2013-04-28

    We introduce a continuum model for impurity modes of Frenkel excitons in fully occupied face-centered and body-centered cubic lattices with dipole-dipole interactions and parallel moments. In the absence of impurities, the model reproduces the small-k behavior found in numerical calculations of dipolar lattice sums. The exciton densities of states near the upper and lower band edges are calculated and compared with the corresponding results for a random array of dipoles. The Green function obtained with the continuum model, together with a spherical approximation to the Brillouin zone, is used to determine the conditions for the formation of a localized exciton mode associated with a shift in the transition energy of a single chromophore. The dependence of the local mode energy on the magnitude of the shift is ascertained. The formation of impurity bands at high concentrations of perturbed sites is investigated using the coherent potential approximation. The contribution of the impurity bands to the optical absorption is calculated in the coherent potential approximation. The locations of the optical absorption peaks of the dipolar system are shown to depend on the direction of propagation of the light relative to the dipolar axis, a property that is maintained in the presence of short-range interactions.

  13. Electron transport mechanism of bathocuproine exciton blocking layer in organic photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeihyun; Park, Soohyung; Lee, Younjoo; Kim, Hyein; Shin, Dongguen; Jeong, Junkyeong; Jeong, Kwangho; Cho, Sang Wan; Lee, Hyunbok; Yi, Yeonjin

    2016-02-21

    Efficient exciton management is a key issue to improve the power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaics (OPVs). It is well known that the insertion of an exciton blocking layer (ExBL) having a large band gap promotes the efficient dissociation of photogenerated excitons at the donor-acceptor interface. However, the large band gap induces an energy barrier which disrupts the charge transport. Therefore, building an adequate strategy based on the knowledge of the true charge transport mechanism is necessary. In this study, the true electron transport mechanism of a bathocuproine (BCP) ExBL in OPVs is comprehensively investigated by in situ ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy, inverse photoemission spectroscopy, density functional theory calculation, and impedance spectroscopy. The chemical interaction between deposited Al and BCP induces new states within the band gap of BCP, so that electrons can transport through these new energy levels. Localized trap states are also formed upon the Al-BCP interaction. The activation energy of these traps is estimated with temperature-dependent conductance measurements to be 0.20 eV. The Al-BCP interaction induces both transport and trap levels in the energy gap of BCP and their interplay results in the electron transport observed.

  14. Ultrafast exciton transfers in DNA and its nonlinear optical spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyeon-Deuk; Tanimura, Yoshitaka; Cho, Minhaeng

    2008-01-01

    We have calculated the nonlinear response function of a DNA duplex helix including the contributions from the exciton population and coherence transfers by developing an appropriate exciton theory as well as by utilizing a projector operator technique. As a representative example of DNA double helices, the B-form (dA)10-(dT)10 is considered in detail. The Green functions of the exciton population and coherence transfer processes were obtained by developing the DNA exciton Hamiltonian. This en...

  15. Resonant Transfer of Excitons and Quantum Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Lovett, B; Nazir, A; Kothari, B; Briggs, A; Lovett, Brendon; Reina, John H.; Nazir, Ahsan; Kothari, Beeneet; Briggs, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    The excitation-energy transfer--the so-called Forster resonant energy transfer--plays a key role in light harvesting processes in photosynthetic organisms in nature. Here we give two methods for performing quantum logic operations by tailoring this interaction. The first implementation uses a coupled quantum dot molecule where the exciton-exciton interaction and the Forster coupling are controlled by means of the dot size, interdot separation, material composition, confinement potential and applied electric field to obtain high fidelity logic. The second proposes the use of biological systems for embodying qubits where, as a result of a stronger Forster interaction, extended exciton states are expected. These states are likely to be more immune to decoherence.

  16. Light-hole exciton in a nanowire quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeannin, Mathieu; Artioli, Alberto; Rueda-Fonseca, Pamela; Bellet-Amalric, Edith; Kheng, Kuntheak; André, Régis; Tatarenko, Serge; Cibert, Joël; Ferrand, David; Nogues, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    Quantum dots inserted inside semiconductor nanowires are extremely promising candidates as building blocks for solid-state-based quantum computation and communication. They provide very high crystalline and optical properties and offer a convenient geometry for electrical contacting. Having a complete determination and full control of their emission properties is one of the key goals of nanoscience researchers. Here we use strain as a tool to create in a single magnetic nanowire quantum dot a light-hole exciton, an optically active quasiparticle formed from a single electron bound to a single light hole. In this frame, we provide a general description of the mixing within the hole quadruplet induced by strain or confinement. A multi-instrumental combination of cathodoluminescence, polarization-resolved Fourier imaging, and magneto-optical spectroscopy, allows us to fully characterize the hole ground state, including its valence band mixing with heavy-hole states.

  17. Lanthanide-halide based humidity indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitz, James V.; Williams, Clayton W.

    2008-01-01

    The present invention discloses a lanthanide-halide based humidity indicator and method of producing such indicator. The color of the present invention indicates the humidity of an atmosphere to which it is exposed. For example, impregnating an adsorbent support such as silica gel with an aqueous solution of the europium-containing reagent solution described herein, and dehydrating the support to dryness forms a substance with a yellow color. When this substance is exposed to a humid atmosphere the water vapor from the air is adsorbed into the coating on the pore surface of the silica gel. As the water content of the coating increases, the visual color of the coated silica gel changes from yellow to white. The color change is due to the water combining with the lanthanide-halide complex on the pores of the gel.

  18. Chiral Alkyl Halides: Underexplored Motifs in Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bálint Gál

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available While alkyl halides are valuable intermediates in synthetic organic chemistry, their use as bioactive motifs in drug discovery and medicinal chemistry is rare in comparison. This is likely attributable to the common misconception that these compounds are merely non-specific alkylators in biological systems. A number of chlorinated compounds in the pharmaceutical and food industries, as well as a growing number of halogenated marine natural products showing unique bioactivity, illustrate the role that chiral alkyl halides can play in drug discovery. Through a series of case studies, we demonstrate in this review that these motifs can indeed be stable under physiological conditions, and that halogenation can enhance bioactivity through both steric and electronic effects. Our hope is that, by placing such compounds in the minds of the chemical community, they may gain more traction in drug discovery and inspire more synthetic chemists to develop methods for selective halogenation.

  19. Infrared spectra of FHF - in alkali halides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunnilall, C. J.; Sherman, W. F.

    1982-03-01

    The bifluoride ion, FHF -, has been substitutionally isolated within single crystal samples of several different alkali halides. Infrared spectra of these crystals have been studied for sample temperatures down to 8K when half-bandwidths of less than 1 cm -1 have been observed. (Note that at room temperature ν 3 is observed to have a half-bandwidth of about 40 cm -1). The frequency shifts and half-bandwidth changes caused by cooling are considered together with the frequency shifts caused by pressures up to 10 k bar. The low temperature spectra clearly indicate that FHF - is a linear symmetrical ion when substitutionally isolated within alkali halides of either the NaCl or CsCl structure.

  20. Resonance effects of excitons and electrons. Basics and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geru, Ion [Moldovan Academy of Sciences, Chisinau (Moldova, Republic of). Inst. of Chemistry; Suter, Dieter [Technische Univ. Dortmund (Germany). Fakultaet Physik

    2013-08-01

    Represents the first book on non-traditional resonance effects of excitons in semiconductors. Explains resonance phenomena of excitons and electrons in solids. Presents the Knight shift at the Bose-Einstein condensation of excitons. This book presents the various types of resonance effects on excitons, biexcitons and the local electronic centers (LEC) in solids, such as paramagnetic and paraelectric resonances on excitons, exciton acoustic resonance at intra- and interband transitions, radio-optical double resonance on excitons, hole-nuclear double resonance on localized biexcitons, ENDOR and acoustic ENDOR on LEC. The criteria for the generation of coherent photons, phonons and magnons by excitons are explained. The interactions of excitons and biexcitons with paramagnetic centers and nuclear spins, the indirect interaction between the PC through a field of excitons as well as the quasienergy spectrum of excitons and spin systems are discussed. It is proved that the interaction of paramagnetic centers with excitons increases the spin relaxation rate of paramagnetic centers in comparison with the case of their interaction with free carriers. The giant magneto-optical effects in semi-magnetic semiconductors are theoretically interpreted. In recent years, a new perspective has been added to these systems and their interactions: they can be used for storing and processing information in the form of quantum bits (qubits), the building blocks of quantum computers. The basics of this emerging technology are explained and examples of demonstration-type quantum computers based on localized spins in solids are discussed.

  1. Excitonic recombinations in h-BN: From bulk to exfoliated layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierret, A.; Loayza, J.; Berini, B.; Betz, A.; Plaçais, B.; Ducastelle, F.; Barjon, J.; Loiseau, A.

    2014-01-01

    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and graphite are structurally similar but with very different properties. Their combination in graphene-based devices is now of intense research focus, and it becomes particularly important to evaluate the role played by crystalline defects on their properties. In this paper, the cathodoluminescence (CL) properties of hexagonal boron nitride crystallites are reported and compared to those of nanosheets mechanically exfoliated from them. First, the link between the presence of structural defects and the recombination intensity of trapped excitons, the so-called D series, is confirmed. Low defective h-BN regions are further evidenced by CL spectral mapping (hyperspectral imaging), allowing us to observe new features in the near-band-edge region, tentatively attributed to phonon replicas of exciton recombinations. Second, the h-BN thickness was reduced down to six atomic layers, using mechanical exfoliation, as evidenced by atomic force microscopy. Even at these low thicknesses, the luminescence remains intense and exciton recombination energies are not strongly modified with respect to the bulk, as expected from theoretical calculations, indicating extremely compact excitons in h-BN.

  2. Excitonic emission of CuInS{sub 2} crystals using confocal microscopy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horikawa, Yusuke; Matsuo, Shingo; Wakita, Kazuki [Department of Electrical, Electronics and Computer Engineering, Chiba Institute of Technology, 2-17-1, Tsudanuma, Narashino, Chiba 275-0016 (Japan); Shim, YongGu [Department of Physics and Electronics, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuencho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    Photoluminescence (PL) spectra in the band-edge region on bulk single-crystals of CuInS{sub 2} grown by the traveling heater method have been investigated using a confocal microscopy system. The observed PL spectra are separated into two Lorentzian peaks which are assigned to be A and B free excitons, by the analysis of the excitation intensity dependence of the emissions. Consequently, we present the behaviour of B free exciton within a wide range of temperatures. The time-resolved emissions of A free exciton have also been examined. The decay of the emissions is analyzed using a double exponential curve. Fast and slow components are attributed to nonradiative relaxation and radiative recombination, respectively. The decay-time constant of the slow component corresponds to the radiative lifetime of A free exciton and is obtained over the wide temperature region until 300 K. (copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Anharmonic properties of potassium halide crystals

    OpenAIRE

    RAJU, Krishna Murti

    2011-01-01

    An effort has been made to obtain the anharmonic properties of potassium halides starting from primary physical parameters viz. nearest neighbor distance and hardness parameters assuming long- and short- range potentials at elevated temperatures. The elastic energy density for a deformed crystal can be expanded as power series of strains for obtaining coefficients of quadratic, cubic and quartic terms which are known as the second, third and fourth order elastic constants respectively...

  4. Arsenic-bound excitons in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barjon, J.; Jomard, F.; Morata, S.

    2014-01-01

    A set of new excitonic recombinations is observed in arsenic-implanted diamond. It is composed of two groups of emissions at 5.355/5.361 eV and at 5.215/5.220/5.227 eV. They are respectively attributed to the no-phonon and transverse-optical phonon-assisted recombinations of excitons bound to neutral arsenic donors. From the Haynes rule, an ionization energy of 0.41 eV is deduced for arsenic in diamond, which shows that arsenic is a shallower donor than phosphorus (0.6 eV), in agreement with theory.

  5. Heat pumping with optically driven excitons

    CERN Document Server

    Gauger, Erik M

    2010-01-01

    We present a theoretical study showing that an optically driven excitonic two-level system in a solid state environment acts as a heat pump by means of repeated phonon emission or absorption events. We derive a master equation for the combined phonon bath and two-level system dynamics and analyze the direction and rate of energy transfer as a function of the externally accessible driving parameters. We discover that if the driving laser is detuned from the exciton transition, cooling the phonon environment becomes possible.

  6. Switching exciton pulses through conical intersections

    CERN Document Server

    Leonhardt, K; Rost, J -M

    2013-01-01

    Exciton pulses transport excitation and entanglement adiabatically through Rydberg aggregates, assemblies of highly excited light atoms, which are set into directed motion by resonant dipole-dipole interaction. Here, we demonstrate the coherent splitting of such pulses as well as the spatial segregation of electronic excitation and atomic motion. Both mechanisms exploit local non-adiabatic effects at a conical intersection, turning them from a decoherence source into an asset. The intersection provides a sensitive knob controlling the propagation direction and coherence properties of exciton pulses.

  7. Lanthanide doped strontium-barium cesium halide scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizarri, Gregory; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Derenzo, Stephen E.; Borade, Ramesh B.; Gundiah, Gautam; Yan, Zewu; Hanrahan, Stephen M.; Chaudhry, Anurag; Canning, Andrew

    2015-06-09

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising an inorganic scintillator comprising an optionally lanthanide-doped strontium-barium, optionally cesium, halide, useful for detecting nuclear material.

  8. Directional Control of Plasmon-Exciton interaction with Plexcitonic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Sinan; Karademir, Ertugrul; Kocabas, Coskun; Aydinli, Atilla

    2015-03-01

    Plexcitons are strongly coupled plasmon excitons modes. In this work, we developed a platform, consisting of one and two dimensional corrugated surface patterns coated with a thin metal film and a dye solution. This system shows a controlled coupling action based on the excitation direction of SPP modes. Our scheme is based on the control of wavelengths of the forbidden SPP modes. Three kinds of patterns have been tested; a one dimensional uniform, a triangular, and a square lattice type crystals. For all three cases, lowest wavelength of the band gap is observed in Γ to M direction. For triangular and square lattice cases, band gap center oscillates between two finite values for every 60° and 90°s, respectively. We utilized this behavior to control SPP and J-aggregate coupling. We observe directional dependence of Rabi splitting energy varying between 0 meV and 60 meV . Square lattice gives the ability to tune a larger band gap, whereas triangular lattice gives higher number of symmetry points. Simulations show that, an 80 nm deep triangular lattice with 280 nm periodicity can result in omnidirectional decoupling of plexcitons. TUBITAK, Grants 110T790, 110T589, and 112T091.

  9. Temperature dependence of the lowest excitonic transition for an InAs ultrathin quantum well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. D.; Porwal, S.; Sharma, T. K.; Rustagi, K. C.

    2006-03-01

    Temperature dependent photoluminescence and photoreflectance techniques are used to investigate the lowest excitonic transition of InAs ultrathin quantum well. It is shown that the temperature dependence of the lowest energy transition follows the band gap variation of GaAs barrier, which is well reproduced by calculated results based on the envelope function approximation with significant corrections due to strain and temperature dependences of the confinement potential. A redshift in photoluminescence peak energy compared to photoreflectance is observed at low temperatures. This is interpreted to show that the photoluminescence signal originates from the recombination of carriers occupying the band-tail states below the lowest critical point.

  10. Exciton Transfer Integrals Between Polymer Chains

    CERN Document Server

    Barford, W

    2007-01-01

    The line-dipole approximation for the evaluation of the exciton transfer integral, $J$, between conjugated polymer chains is rigorously justified. Using this approximation, as well as the plane-wave approximation for the exciton center-of-mass wavefunction, it is shown analytically that $J \\sim L$ when the chain lengths are smaller than the separation between them, or $J\\sim L^{-1}$ when the chain lengths are larger than their separation, where $L$ is the polymer length. Scaling relations are also obtained numerically for the more realistic standing-wave approximation for the exciton center-of-mass wavefunction, where it is found that for chain lengths larger than their separation $J \\sim L^{-1.8}$ or $J \\sim L^{-2}$, for parallel or collinear chains, respectively. These results have important implications for the photo-physics of conjugated polymers and self-assembled molecular systems, as the Davydov splitting in aggregates and the F\\"orster transfer rate for exciton migration decreases with chain lengths l...

  11. Effective models for excitons in carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Duclos, Pierre; Ricaud, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the low lying spectrum of a model of excitons in carbon nanotubes. Consider two particles with opposite charges and a Coulomb self-interaction, placed on an infinitely long cylinder. If the cylinder radius becomes small, the low lying spectrum of their relative motion is well described...

  12. Effective models for excitons in carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Duclos, Pierre; Ricaud, Benjamin

    We analyse the low lying spectrum of a model of excitons in carbon nanotubes. Consider two particles with a Coulomb self-interaction, placed on an infinitely long cylinder. If the cylinder radius becomes small, the low lying spectrum is well described by a one-dimensional effective Hamiltonian...

  13. Excitons in van der Waals heterostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Latini, Simone; Olsen, Thomas; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2015-01-01

    The existence of strongly bound excitons is one of the hallmarks of the newly discovered atomically thin semiconductors. While it is understood that the large binding energy is mainly due to the weak dielectric screening in two dimensions, a systematic investigation of the role of screening on tw...

  14. Properties of Excitons Bound to Ionized Donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skettrup, Torben; Suffczynski, M.; Gorzkowski, W.

    1971-01-01

    Binding energies, interparticle distances, oscillator strengths, and exchange corrections are calculated for the three-particle complex corresponding to an exciton bound to an ionized donor. The results are given as functions of the mass ratio of the electron and hole. Binding of the complex is o...

  15. Electrical Control of Excitons in Semiconductor Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirsanské, Gabija

    The scope of this thesis covers investigation of the exciton Mott transition in coupled quantum wells, fabrication of photonic-crystal structures with embedded self-assembled quantum dots, and tuning of their properties by means of an external electric field. In the first part of the thesis the f...

  16. Defects in perovskite-halides and their effects in solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, James M.; Petrozza, Annamaria

    2016-11-01

    Solar cells based on perovskite-halide light absorbers have a unique set of characteristics that could help alleviate the global dependence on fossil fuels for energy generation. They efficiently convert sunlight into electricity using Earth-abundant raw materials processed from solution at low temperature. Thus, they offer potential for cost reductions compared with or in combination with other photovoltaic technologies. Nevertheless, to fully exploit the potential of perovskite-halides, several important challenges must be overcome. Given the nature of the materials — relatively soft ionic solids — one of these challenges is the understanding and control of their defect structures. Currently, such understanding is limited, restricting the power conversion efficiencies of these solar cells from reaching their thermodynamic limit. This Review describes the state of the art in the understanding of the origin and nature of defects in perovskite-halides and their impact on carrier recombination, charge-transport, band alignment, and electrical instability, and provides a perspective on how to make further progress.

  17. Lead-Free Halide Double Perovskites via Heterovalent Substitution of Noble Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volonakis, George; Filip, Marina R; Haghighirad, Amir Abbas; Sakai, Nobuya; Wenger, Bernard; Snaith, Henry J; Giustino, Feliciano

    2016-04-07

    Lead-based halide perovskites are emerging as the most promising class of materials for next-generation optoelectronics; however, despite the enormous success of lead-halide perovskite solar cells, the issues of stability and toxicity are yet to be resolved. Here we report on the computational design and the experimental synthesis of a new family of Pb-free inorganic halide double perovskites based on bismuth or antimony and noble metals. Using first-principles calculations we show that this hitherto unknown family of perovskites exhibits very promising optoelectronic properties, such as tunable band gaps in the visible range and low carrier effective masses. Furthermore, we successfully synthesize the double perovskite Cs2BiAgCl6, perform structural refinement using single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and characterize its optical properties via optical absorption and photoluminescence measurements. This new perovskite belongs to the Fm3̅m space group and consists of BiCl6 and AgCl6 octahedra alternating in a rock-salt face-centered cubic structure. From UV-vis and photoluminescence measurements we obtain an indirect gap of 2.2 eV.

  18. Coherent quantum dynamics of excitons in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides

    KAUST Repository

    Moody, Galan

    2016-03-14

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have garnered considerable interest in recent years owing to their layer thickness-dependent optoelectronic properties. In monolayer TMDs, the large carrier effective masses, strong quantum confinement, and reduced dielectric screening lead to pronounced exciton resonances with remarkably large binding energies and coupled spin and valley degrees of freedom (valley excitons). Coherent control of valley excitons for atomically thin optoelectronics and valleytronics requires understanding and quantifying sources of exciton decoherence. In this work, we reveal how exciton-exciton and exciton-phonon scattering influence the coherent quantum dynamics of valley excitons in monolayer TMDs, specifically tungsten diselenide (WSe2), using two-dimensional coherent spectroscopy. Excitation-density and temperature dependent measurements of the homogeneous linewidth (inversely proportional to the optical coherence time) reveal that exciton-exciton and exciton-phonon interactions are significantly stronger compared to quasi-2D quantum wells and 3D bulk materials. The residual homogeneous linewidth extrapolated to zero excitation density and temperature is ~1:6 meV (equivalent to a coherence time of 0.4 ps), which is limited only by the population recombination lifetime in this sample. © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  19. Polaronic Effects of an Exciton in a Cylindrical Quantum Wire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Rui-Qiang; XIE Hong-Jing; GUO Kang-Xian; YU You-Bin; DENG Yong-Qing

    2005-01-01

    The effects of exciton-optical phonon interaction on the binding energy and the total and reduced effective masses of an exciton in a cylindrical quantum wire have been investigated. We adopt a perturbative-PLL [T.D. Lee,F. Low, and D. Pines, Phys. Rev. B90 (1953) 297] technique to construct an effective Hamiltonian and then use a variational solution to deal with the exciton-phonon system. The interactions of exciton with the longitudinal-optical phonon and the surface-optical phonon have been taken into consideration. The numerical calculations for GaAs show that the influences of phonon modes on the exciton in a quasi-one-dimensional quantum wire are considerable and should not be neglected. Moreover the numerical results for heavy- and light-hole exciton are obtained, which show that the polaronic effects on two types of excitons are very different but both depend heavily on the sizes of the wire.

  20. Resonance-Light-Scattering Study and Line-Shape Simulation of the J Band

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fidder, Henk; Wiersma, Douwe A.

    1991-01-01

    Line-shape simulations and resonance-light-scattering experiments of the J band in aggregates of pseudoisocyanine are reported. It is concluded that the J band can be described as a disordered Frenkel-exciton band with states that are pseudolocalized on segments of the aggregate chain. The resonance

  1. Room temperature synthesis of ultra-small, near-unity single-sized lead halide perovskite quantum dots with wide color emission tunability, high color purity and high brightness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lucheng; Geng, Jing; Ai, Lisha; Zhang, Ying; Xie, Renguo; Yang, Wensheng

    2016-08-01

    Phosphor with extremely narrow emission line widths, high brightness, and wide color emission tunability in visible regions is required for display and lighting applications, yet none has been reported in the literature so far. In the present study, single-sized lead halide perovskite (APbX 3; A = CH3NH3 and Cs; X = Cl, Br, and I) nanocrystalline (NC) phosphors were achieved for the first time in a one-pot reaction at room temperature (25 °C). The size-dependent samples, which included four families of CsPbBr3 NCs and exhibited sharp excitonic absorption peaks and pure band gap emission, were directly obtained by simply varying the concentration of ligands. The continuity of the optical spectrum can be successively tuned over the entire UV-visible spectral region (360-610 nm) by preparing CsPbCl3, CsPbI3, and CsPb(Y/Br)3 (Y = Cl and I) NCs with the use of CsPbBr3 NCs as templates by anion exchange while maintaining the size of NCs and high quantum yields of up to 80%. Notably, an emission line width of 10-24 nm, which is completely consistent with that of their single particles, indicates the formation of single-sized NCs. The versatility of the synthetic strategy was validated by extending it to the synthesis of single-sized CH3NH3PbX 3 NCs by simply replacing the cesium precursor by the CH3NH3 X precursor.

  2. Room temperature synthesis of ultra-small, near-unity single-sized lead halide perovskite quantum dots with wide color emission tunability, high color purity and high brightness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lucheng; Geng, Jing; Ai, Lisha; Zhang, Ying; Xie, Renguo; Yang, Wensheng

    2016-08-19

    Phosphor with extremely narrow emission line widths, high brightness, and wide color emission tunability in visible regions is required for display and lighting applications, yet none has been reported in the literature so far. In the present study, single-sized lead halide perovskite (APbX 3; A = CH3NH3 and Cs; X = Cl, Br, and I) nanocrystalline (NC) phosphors were achieved for the first time in a one-pot reaction at room temperature (25 °C). The size-dependent samples, which included four families of CsPbBr3 NCs and exhibited sharp excitonic absorption peaks and pure band gap emission, were directly obtained by simply varying the concentration of ligands. The continuity of the optical spectrum can be successively tuned over the entire UV-visible spectral region (360-610 nm) by preparing CsPbCl3, CsPbI3, and CsPb(Y/Br)3 (Y = Cl and I) NCs with the use of CsPbBr3 NCs as templates by anion exchange while maintaining the size of NCs and high quantum yields of up to 80%. Notably, an emission line width of 10-24 nm, which is completely consistent with that of their single particles, indicates the formation of single-sized NCs. The versatility of the synthetic strategy was validated by extending it to the synthesis of single-sized CH3NH3PbX 3 NCs by simply replacing the cesium precursor by the CH3NH3 X precursor.

  3. Double-Diffusive Convection During Growth of Halides and Selenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N. B.; Su, Ching-Hua; Duval, Walter M. B.

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metal halides and selenides have unique properties which make them excellent materials for chemical, biological and radiological sensors. Recently it has been shown that selenohalides are even better materials than halides or selenides for gamma-ray detection. These materials also meet the strong needs of a wide band imaging technology to cover ultra-violet (UV), midwave infrared wavelength (MWIR) to very long wavelength infrared (VLWIR) region for hyperspectral imager components such as etalon filters and acousto-optic tunable filters (AO). In fact AOTF based imagers based on these materials have some superiority than imagers based on liquid crystals, FTIR, Fabry-Perot, grating, etalon, electro-optic modulation, piezoelectric and several other concepts. For example, broadband spectral and imagers have problems of processing large amount of information during real-time observation. Acousto-Optic Tunable Filter (AOTF) imagers are being developed to fill the need of reducing processing time of data, low cost operation and key to achieving the goal of covering long-wave infrared (LWIR). At the present time spectral imaging systems are based on the use of diffraction gratings are typically used in a pushbroom or whiskbroom mode. They are mostly used in systems and acquire large amounts of hyperspectral data that is processed off-line later. In contrast, acousto-optic tunable filter spectral imagers require very little image processing, providing new strategies for object recognition and tracking. They are ideally suited for tactical situations requiring immediate real-time image processing. But the performance of these imagers depends on the quality and homogeneity of acousto-optic materials. In addition for many systems requirements are so demanding that crystals up to sizes of 10 cm length are desired. We have studied several selenides and halide crystals for laser and AO imagers for MWIR and LWIR wavelength regions. We have grown and fabricated crystals of

  4. How specific halide adsorption varies hydrophobic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Philipp; Müller, Melanie; Utzig, Thomas; Valtiner, Markus

    2016-03-11

    Hydrophobic interactions (HI) are driven by the water structure around hydrophobes in aqueous electrolytes. How water structures at hydrophobic interfaces and how this influences the HI was subject to numerous studies. However, the effect of specific ion adsorption on HI and hydrophobic interfaces remains largely unexplored or controversial. Here, the authors utilized atomic force microscopy force spectroscopy at well-defined nanoscopic hydrophobic interfaces to experimentally address how specific ion adsorption of halide ions as well as NH4 (+), Cs(+), and Na(+) cations alters interaction forces across hydrophobic interfaces. Our data demonstrate that iodide adsorption at hydrophobic interfaces profoundly varies the hydrophobic interaction potential. A long-range and strong hydration repulsion at distances D > 3 nm, is followed by an instability which could be explained by a subsequent rapid ejection of adsorbed iodides from approaching hydrophobic interfaces. In addition, the authors find only a weakly pronounced influence of bromide, and as expected no influence of chloride. Also, all tested cations do not have any significant influence on HI. Complementary, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and quartz-crystal-microbalance with dissipation monitoring showed a clear adsorption of large halide ions (Br(-)/I(-)) onto hydrophobic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). Interestingly, iodide can even lead to a full disintegration of SAMs due to specific and strong interactions of iodide with gold. Our data suggest that hydrophobic surfaces are not intrinsically charged negatively by hydroxide adsorption, as it was generally believed. Hydrophobic surfaces rather interact strongly with negatively charged large halide ions, leading to a surface charging and significant variation of interaction forces.

  5. Strain-induced spatially indirect exciton recombination in zinc-blende/wurtzite CdS heterostructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dehui Li[1; Yang Liu[1; Maria de la Mata[2; Cesar Magen[3; Jordi Arbiol[2,4,5; Yuanping Feng[6; Qihua Xiong[1,7

    2015-01-01

    Strain engineering provides an effective mean of tuning the fundamental properties of semiconductors for electric and optoelectronic applications. Here we report on how the applied strain changes the emission properties of hetero- structures consisting of different crystalline phases in the same CdS nanobelts. The strained portion was found to produce an additional emission peak on the low-energy side that was blueshifted with increasing strain. Furthermore, the additional emission peak obeyed the Varshni equation with temperature and exhibited the band-filling effect at high excitation power. This new emission peak may be attributed to spatially indirect exciton recombination between different crystalline phases of CdS. First-principles calculations were performed based on the spatially indirect exciton recombination, and the calculated and experimental results agreed with one another. Strain proved to be capable of enhancing the anti-Stokes emission, suggesting that the efficiency of laser cooling may be improved by strain engineering.

  6. Research Update: Luminescence in lead halide perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srimath Kandada, Ajay Ram; Petrozza, Annamaria

    2016-09-01

    Efficiency and dynamics of radiative recombination of carriers are crucial figures of merit for optoelectronic materials. Following the recent success of lead halide perovskites in efficient photovoltaic and light emitting technologies, here we review some of the noted literature on the luminescence of this emerging class of materials. After outlining the theoretical formalism that is currently used to explain the carrier recombination dynamics, we review a few significant works which use photoluminescence as a tool to understand and optimize the operation of perovskite based optoelectronic devices.

  7. Research Update: Luminescence in lead halide perovskites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Ram Srimath Kandada

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency and dynamics of radiative recombination of carriers are crucial figures of merit for optoelectronic materials. Following the recent success of lead halide perovskites in efficient photovoltaic and light emitting technologies, here we review some of the noted literature on the luminescence of this emerging class of materials. After outlining the theoretical formalism that is currently used to explain the carrier recombination dynamics, we review a few significant works which use photoluminescence as a tool to understand and optimize the operation of perovskite based optoelectronic devices.

  8. Nanoscale investigation of organic - inorganic halide perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacovich, S.; Divitini, G.; Vrućinić, M.; Sadhanala, A.; Friend, R. H.; Sirringhaus, H.; Deschler, F.; Ducati, C.

    2015-10-01

    Over the last few years organic - inorganic halide perovskite-based solar cells have exhibited a rapid evolution, reaching certified power conversion efficiencies now surpassing 20%. Nevertheless the understanding of the optical and electronic properties of such systems on the nanoscale is still an open problem. In this work we investigate two model perovskite systems (based on iodine - CH3NH3PbI3 and bromine - CH3NH3PbBr3), analysing the local elemental composition and crystallinity and identifying chemical inhomogeneities.

  9. Free exciton emission and vibrations in pentacene monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Rui

    2011-03-01

    Pentacene is a benchmark organic semiconductor material because of its potential applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices. Recently we demonstrated that optical and vibrational characterizations of pentacene films can be carried out down to the sub-monolayer limit. These milestones were achieved in highly uniform pentacene films that were grown on a compliant polymeric substrate. Films with thickness ranging from sub- monolayer to tens of monolayers were studied at low temperatures. The intensity of the free exciton (FE) luminescence band increases quadratically with the number of layers N when N is small. This quadratic dependence is explained as arising from the linear dependence of the intensity of absorption and the probability of emission on the number of layers N. Large enhancements of Raman scattering intensities at the FE resonance enable the first observations of low-lying lattice modes in the monolayers. The measured low- lying modes (in the 20 to 100 cm-1 range) display characteristic changes when going from a single monolayer to two layers. The Raman intensities by high frequency intra-molecular vibrations display resonance enhancement double-peaks when incident or scattered photon energies overlap the FE optical emission. The double resonances are about the same strength which suggests that Franck-Condon overlap integrals for the respective vibronic transitions have the same magnitude. The interference between scattering amplitudes in the Raman resonance reveals quantum coherence of the symmetry-split states (Davydov doublet) of the lowest intrinsic singlet exciton. These results demonstrate novel venues for ultra-thin film characterization and studies of fundamental physics in organic semiconductor structures. In collaboration with Nancy G. Tassi (Dupont), Graciela B. Blanchet (Nanoterra, Cambridge, MA), and Aron Pinczuk (Columbia University).

  10. Fine structure of the exciton electroabsorption in semiconductor superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monozon, B. S.; Schmelcher, P.

    2017-02-01

    Wannier-Mott excitons in a semiconductor layered superlattice (SL) are investigated analytically for the case that the period of the superlattice is much smaller than the 2D exciton Bohr radius. Additionally we assume the presence of a longitudinal external static electric field directed parallel to the SL axis. The exciton states and the optical absorption coefficient are derived in the tight-binding and adiabatic approximations. Strong and weak electric fields providing spatially localized and extended electron and hole states, respectively, are studied. The dependencies of the exciton states and the exciton absorption spectrum on the SL parameters and the electric field strength are presented in an explicit form. We focus on the fine structure of the ground quasi-2D exciton level formed by the series of closely spaced energy levels adjacent from the high frequencies. These levels are related to the adiabatically slow relative exciton longitudinal motion governed by the potential formed by the in-plane exciton state. It is shown that the external electric fields compress the fine structure energy levels, decrease the intensities of the corresponding optical peaks and increase the exciton binding energy. A possible experimental study of the fine structure of the exciton electroabsorption is discussed.

  11. Role of delocalized exciton states of light-harvesting pigments in excitation energy transfer in natural photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetisova, Zoya; Mauring, Koit; Taisova, Alexandra

    1995-02-01

    Photosynthesis is an extremely efficient converter of light into chemical energy, with an observed quantum yield for primary photochemistry approximately 90%. To achieve this the photosynthetic apparatus must be highly optimized, and some of the design principles that may be involved have been suggested. The role of delocalized exciton states of light-harvesting pigments in the energy transfer process has been considered by mathematical simulation of the light-harvesting process in model systems. Namely, it has been shown that aggregation of antenna pigments (allowing to consider each aggregate as a supermolecule) is biologically expedient, as an efficient strategy for light harvesting in photosynthesis. The question of whether this design principle is realized in a natural antenna has been examined for the 3D chlorosomal superantenna of green bacteria with the hole-burning spectroscopy. Spectral hole burning studies of intact cells of green bacteria Chlorobium phaeovibriodes. Chloroflexus aurantiacus and Chlorobium limicola have proven that the Qy- absorption system of antenna bacteriochlorophylls e or c (BChl e or BChl c) should be interpreted in terms of the delocalized exciton level structure of an aggregate. For the first time the 0-0 transition band of the lowest exciton state of BChl e and BChl c aggregates has been directly detected as the lowest energy inhomogeneously broadened band of the 1.8 K near-infrared excitation spectrum. These lowest energy bands have different spectral position of their maximums: approximately 739 nm in C.phaeovibriodes (BChl e band), approximately 752 nm in C.aurantiacus (BChl c band) and approximately 774 nm in C.limicola (BChl c band) cells. However, these bands display a number of fundamentally similar spectral features: (1) The magnitude of inhomogeneous broadening of these bands is 90 - 100 cm-1; (2) The width of each band is 2 - 3 times less than that of the monomeric BChl c (or BChl e) in vitro at 5 K; (3) Each band

  12. Relaxation of nonthermal hh and lh excitons in ZnSe quantum wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalt, H.; Hoffmann, J.; Umlauff, M.;

    1998-01-01

    The strong exciton-LO phonon coupling in ZnSe QWs gives a direct access to the relaxation dynamics of nonthermal, free heavy-hole and light-hole excitons. Narrow hot-exciton distributions can be generated by LO-phonon assisted exciton formation. The thermalization of these excitons is monitored b...

  13. Electron-phonon coupling in hybrid lead halide perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Adam D; Verdi, Carla; Milot, Rebecca L; Eperon, Giles E; Pérez-Osorio, Miguel A; Snaith, Henry J; Giustino, Feliciano; Johnston, Michael B; Herz, Laura M

    2016-05-26

    Phonon scattering limits charge-carrier mobilities and governs emission line broadening in hybrid metal halide perovskites. Establishing how charge carriers interact with phonons in these materials is therefore essential for the development of high-efficiency perovskite photovoltaics and low-cost lasers. Here we investigate the temperature dependence of emission line broadening in the four commonly studied formamidinium and methylammonium perovskites, HC(NH2)2PbI3, HC(NH2)2PbBr3, CH3NH3PbI3 and CH3NH3PbBr3, and discover that scattering from longitudinal optical phonons via the Fröhlich interaction is the dominant source of electron-phonon coupling near room temperature, with scattering off acoustic phonons negligible. We determine energies for the interacting longitudinal optical phonon modes to be 11.5 and 15.3 meV, and Fröhlich coupling constants of ∼40 and 60 meV for the lead iodide and bromide perovskites, respectively. Our findings correlate well with first-principles calculations based on many-body perturbation theory, which underlines the suitability of an electronic band-structure picture for describing charge carriers in hybrid perovskites.

  14. Electron-phonon coupling in hybrid lead halide perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Adam D.; Verdi, Carla; Milot, Rebecca L.; Eperon, Giles E.; Pérez-Osorio, Miguel A.; Snaith, Henry J.; Giustino, Feliciano; Johnston, Michael B.; Herz, Laura M.

    2016-05-01

    Phonon scattering limits charge-carrier mobilities and governs emission line broadening in hybrid metal halide perovskites. Establishing how charge carriers interact with phonons in these materials is therefore essential for the development of high-efficiency perovskite photovoltaics and low-cost lasers. Here we investigate the temperature dependence of emission line broadening in the four commonly studied formamidinium and methylammonium perovskites, HC(NH2)2PbI3, HC(NH2)2PbBr3, CH3NH3PbI3 and CH3NH3PbBr3, and discover that scattering from longitudinal optical phonons via the Fröhlich interaction is the dominant source of electron-phonon coupling near room temperature, with scattering off acoustic phonons negligible. We determine energies for the interacting longitudinal optical phonon modes to be 11.5 and 15.3 meV, and Fröhlich coupling constants of ~40 and 60 meV for the lead iodide and bromide perovskites, respectively. Our findings correlate well with first-principles calculations based on many-body perturbation theory, which underlines the suitability of an electronic band-structure picture for describing charge carriers in hybrid perovskites.

  15. Elusive Presence of Chloride in Mixed Halide Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colella, Silvia; Mosconi, Edoardo; Pellegrino, Giovanna; Alberti, Alessandra; Guerra, Valentino L P; Masi, Sofia; Listorti, Andrea; Rizzo, Aurora; Condorelli, Guglielmo Guido; De Angelis, Filippo; Gigli, Giuseppe

    2014-10-16

    The role of chloride in the MAPbI3-xClx perovskite is still limitedly understood, albeit subjected of much debate. Here, we present a combined angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AR-XPS) and first-principles DFT modeling to investigate the MAPbI3-xClx/TiO2 interface. AR-XPS analyses carried out on ad hoc designed bilayers of MAPbI3-xClx perovskite deposited onto a flat TiO2 substrate reveal that the chloride is preferentially located in close proximity to the perovskite/TiO2 interface. DFT calculations indicate the preferential location of chloride at the TiO2 interface compared to the bulk perovskite due to an increased chloride-TiO2 surface affinity. Furthermore, our calculations clearly demonstrate an interfacial chloride-induced band bending, creating a directional "electron funnel" that may improve the charge collection efficiency of the device and possibly affecting also recombination pathways. Our findings represent a step forward to the rationalization of the peculiar properties of mixed halide perovskite, allowing one to further address material and device design issues.

  16. Excitons, polarons, and laser action in poly(p-phenylene vinylene) films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österbacka, R.; Wohlgenannt, M.; Shkunov, M.; Chinn, D.; Vardeny, Z. V.

    2003-05-01

    We have used a multitude of linear and nonlinear cw optical spectroscopies to study the optical properties of water precursor poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) thin films. These spectroscopies include absorption, photoluminescence, photoinduced absorption and their respective optically detected magnetic resonance, and electroabsorption spectroscopy. We have studied singlet and triplet excitons, polarons, and laser action in PPV films. We found that the lowest-lying absorption band is excitonic in origin. It consists of two absorption components due to a bimodal distribution of the polymer chain conjugation lengths. Electroabsorption spectroscopy unambiguously shows the positions of the lowest-lying odd parity exciton 1Bu at 2.59 eV and two of the higher-lying even-parity excitons, namely, mAg at 3.4 eV and kAg at 3.7 eV. From these exciton energies we obtained a lower bound for the exciton binding energy in PPV, Eb(min)=E(mAg)-E(1Bu)=0.8 eV. The quantum efficiency spectrum for triplet exciton photogeneration consists of two contributions; the intersystem crossing and, at higher energies, singlet fission. From the onset of the singlet fission process at ESF=2ET, we could estimate the energy of the lowest-lying triplet exciton, 1 3Bu, at 1.55 eV, with a singlet-triplet splitting as large as 0.9 eV. From photoinduced absorption spectroscopy we measured the triplet-triplet transition, T→T*, to be 1.45 eV. The quantum efficiency spectrum for polaron photogeneration also consists of two contributions: one extrinsic and the other intrinsic. The latter shows a monotonically increasing function of energy with an energy onset at 3.3 eV. The intrinsic photogeneration process is analyzed with a model of free-electron-hole pair photogeneration, which separate more effectively at higher energy. The carrier generation quantum yield at 3.65 eV is estimated to be 0.5%. The quantum efficiency for photoluminescence, on the other hand, shows one single step-function process, with an

  17. Finding New Perovskite Halides via Machine learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanshyam ePilania

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Advanced materials with improved properties have the potential to fuel future technological advancements. However, identification and discovery of these optimal materials for a specific application is a non-trivial task, because of the vastness of the chemical search space with enormous compositional and configurational degrees of freedom. Materials informatics provides an efficient approach towards rational design of new materials, via learning from known data to make decisions on new and previously unexplored compounds in an accelerated manner. Here, we demonstrate the power and utility of such statistical learning (or machine learning via building a support vector machine (SVM based classifier that uses elemental features (or descriptors to predict the formability of a given ABX3 halide composition (where A and B represent monovalent and divalent cations, respectively, and X is F, Cl, Br or I anion in the perovskite crystal structure. The classification model is built by learning from a dataset of 181 experimentally known ABX3 compounds. After exploring a wide range of features, we identify ionic radii, tolerance factor and octahedral factor to be the most important factors for the classification, suggesting that steric and geometric packing effects govern the stability of these halides. The trained and validated models then predict, with a high degree of confidence, several novel ABX3 compositions with perovskite crystal structure.

  18. Intriguing Optoelectronic Properties of Metal Halide Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manser, Joseph S; Christians, Jeffrey A; Kamat, Prashant V

    2016-11-09

    A new chapter in the long and distinguished history of perovskites is being written with the breakthrough success of metal halide perovskites (MHPs) as solution-processed photovoltaic (PV) absorbers. The current surge in MHP research has largely arisen out of their rapid progress in PV devices; however, these materials are potentially suitable for a diverse array of optoelectronic applications. Like oxide perovskites, MHPs have ABX3 stoichiometry, where A and B are cations and X is a halide anion. Here, the underlying physical and photophysical properties of inorganic (A = inorganic) and hybrid organic-inorganic (A = organic) MHPs are reviewed with an eye toward their potential application in emerging optoelectronic technologies. Significant attention is given to the prototypical compound methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) due to the preponderance of experimental and theoretical studies surrounding this material. We also discuss other salient MHP systems, including 2-dimensional compounds, where relevant. More specifically, this review is a critical account of the interrelation between MHP electronic structure, absorption, emission, carrier dynamics and transport, and other relevant photophysical processes that have propelled these materials to the forefront of modern optoelectronics research.

  19. Finding New Perovskite Halides via Machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilania, Ghanshyam; Balachandran, Prasanna V.; Kim, Chiho; Lookman, Turab

    2016-04-01

    Advanced materials with improved properties have the potential to fuel future technological advancements. However, identification and discovery of these optimal materials for a specific application is a non-trivial task, because of the vastness of the chemical search space with enormous compositional and configurational degrees of freedom. Materials informatics provides an efficient approach towards rational design of new materials, via learning from known data to make decisions on new and previously unexplored compounds in an accelerated manner. Here, we demonstrate the power and utility of such statistical learning (or machine learning) via building a support vector machine (SVM) based classifier that uses elemental features (or descriptors) to predict the formability of a given ABX3 halide composition (where A and B represent monovalent and divalent cations, respectively, and X is F, Cl, Br or I anion) in the perovskite crystal structure. The classification model is built by learning from a dataset of 181 experimentally known ABX3 compounds. After exploring a wide range of features, we identify ionic radii, tolerance factor and octahedral factor to be the most important factors for the classification, suggesting that steric and geometric packing effects govern the stability of these halides. The trained and validated models then predict, with a high degree of confidence, several novel ABX3 compositions with perovskite crystal structure.

  20. Can Natural Sunlight Induce Coherent Exciton Dynamics?

    CERN Document Server

    Olšina, Jan; Wang, Chen; Cao, Jianshu

    2014-01-01

    Excitation of a model photosynthetic molecular aggregate by incoherent sunlight is systematically examined. For a closed system, the excited state coherence induced by the sunlight oscillates with an average amplitude that is inversely proportional to the excitonic gap, and reaches a stationary amplitude that depends on the temperature and coherence time of the radiation field. For an open system, the light-induced dynamical coherence relaxes to a static coherence determined by the non-canonical thermal distribution resulting from the entanglement with the phonon bath. The decay of the excited state population to the common ground state establishes a non-equilibrium steady-state flux driven by the sunlight, and it defines a time window to observe the transition from dynamical to static coherence. For the parameters relevant to photosynthetic systems, the exciton dynamics initiated by the sunlight exhibits a non-negligible amount of dynamical coherence (quantum beats) on the sub-picosecond timescale; however, ...

  1. Exciton Polaritons in Microcavities New Frontiers

    CERN Document Server

    Sanvitto, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade, there has been a burst of new and fascinating physics associated to the unique properties of two-dimensional exciton polaritons, their recent demonstration of condensation under non-equilibrium conditions and all the related quantum phenomena, which have stimulated extensive research work. This monograph summarizes the current state of the art of research on exciton polaritons in microcavities: their interactions, fast dynamics, spin-dependent phenomena, temporal and spatial coherence, condensation under non-equilibrium conditions, related collective quantum phenomena and most advanced applications. The monograph is written by the most active authors who have strongly contributed to the advances in this area. It is of great interests to both physicists approaching this subject for the first time, as well as a wide audience of experts in other disciplines who want to be updated on this fast moving field.

  2. Microcavity controlled coupling of excitonic qubits

    CERN Document Server

    Albert, F; Kasprzak, J; Strauß, M; Schneider, C; Höfling, S; Kamp, M; Forchel, A; Reitzenstein, S; Muljarov, E A; Langbein, W

    2012-01-01

    Controlled non-local energy and coherence transfer enables light harvesting in photosynthesis and non-local logical operations in quantum computing. The most relevant mechanism of coherent coupling of distant qubits is coupling via the electromagnetic field. Here, we demonstrate the controlled coherent coupling of spatially separated excitonic qubits via the photon mode of a solid state microresonator. This is revealed by two-dimensional spectroscopy of the sample's coherent response, a sensitive and selective probe of the coherent coupling. The experimental results are quantitatively described by a rigorous theory of the cavity mediated coupling within a cluster of quantum dots excitons. Having demonstrated this mechanism, it can be used in extended coupling channels - sculptured, for instance, in photonic crystal cavities - to enable a long-range, non-local wiring up of individual emitters in solids.

  3. Excitonic and photonic processes in materials

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This book is expected to present state-of-the-art understanding of a selection of excitonic and photonic processes in useful materials from semiconductors to insulators to metal/insulator nanocomposites, both inorganic and organic.  Among the featured applications are components of solar cells, detectors, light-emitting devices, scintillators, and materials with novel optical properties.  Excitonic properties are particularly important in organic photovoltaics and light emitting devices, as also in questions of the ultimate resolution and efficiency of new-generation scintillators for medical diagnostics,  border security, and nuclear nonproliferation.  Novel photonic and optoelectronic applications benefit from new material combinations and structures to be discussed.

  4. Ultracold Gas of Excitons in Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    Thomas,, G. Grosso,, M. Remeika,, A. T. Hammack,, A. D. Meyertholen,, M. M. Fogler ,, L.V. Butov,, M. Hanson,, A. C. Gossard. Trapping Indirect...M. Fogler , L. V. Butov, A. V. Kavokin, K. L. Campman, A. A. High, A. C. Gossard. Spontaneous coherence in a cold exciton gas, Nature, (03 2012...56:19 7 A. High, A. Thomas, G. Grosso, M. Remeika, A. Hammack, A. Meyertholen, M. Fogler , L. Butov, M. Hanson, A. Gossard. Trapping Indirect

  5. Transport Theory for Metals with Excitonic Instabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Breitkreiz, Maxim

    2015-01-01

    Metals with excitonic instabilities are multiband systems with significant electron-electron interaction. The electronic transport in such systems is affected by collective fluctuations of the electrons, leading to anomalous features in the measured transport coefficients. Many of these anomalies have not been well understood because the transport mechanisms in these systems tend to be rather complex. The complexity arises, on the one hand, from the multiband nature and, on the other, fro...

  6. Exciton transfer dynamics in a trimer system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tan Qing-Shou; Xu Lan; Kuang Le-Man

    2013-01-01

    We study exciton transfer dynamics in a trimer system by investigating excitation transfer probability (ETP).We calculate ETP in the zero-temperature limit and theoretically predict the environment-assisted quantum critical effect,in which ETP exhibits a sudden change at the critical point of quantum phase transition for the trimer.In particular,we find that the steady-state ETP can be observed in the presence of the environment interaction.

  7. Microcavity controlled coupling of excitonic qubits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, F; Sivalertporn, K; Kasprzak, J; Strauß, M; Schneider, C; Höfling, S; Kamp, M; Forchel, A; Reitzenstein, S; Muljarov, E A; Langbein, W

    2013-01-01

    Controlled non-local energy and coherence transfer enables light harvesting in photosynthesis and non-local logical operations in quantum computing. This process is intuitively pictured by a pair of mechanical oscillators, coupled by a spring, allowing for a reversible exchange of excitation. On a microscopic level, the most relevant mechanism of coherent coupling of distant quantum bits--like trapped ions, superconducting qubits or excitons confined in semiconductor quantum dots--is coupling via the electromagnetic field. Here we demonstrate the controlled coherent coupling of spatially separated quantum dots via the photon mode of a solid state microresonator using the strong exciton-photon coupling regime. This is enabled by two-dimensional spectroscopy of the sample's coherent response, a sensitive probe of the coherent coupling. The results are quantitatively understood in a rigorous description of the cavity-mediated coupling of the quantum dot excitons. This mechanism can be used, for instance in photonic crystal cavity networks, to enable a long-range, non-local coherent coupling.

  8. Chiral topological excitons in the monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Z. R.; Luo, W. Z.; Jiang, Z. F.; Fu, H. C.

    2017-02-01

    We theoretically investigate the chiral topological excitons emerging in the monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides, where a bulk energy gap of valley excitons is opened up by a position dependent external magnetic field. We find two emerging chiral topological nontrivial excitons states, which exactly connects to the bulk topological properties, i.e., Chern number = 2. The dependence of the spectrum of the chiral topological excitons on the width of the magnetic field domain wall as well as the magnetic filed strength is numerically revealed. The chiral topological valley excitons are not only important to the excitonic transport due to prevention of the backscattering, but also give rise to the quantum coherent control in the optoelectronic applications.

  9. Bose-Einstein condensation of dipolar excitons in quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timofeev, V B; Gorbunov, A V, E-mail: timofeev@issp.ac.r [Institute of Solid State Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 142432, Chernogolovka, Moscow region (Russian Federation)

    2009-02-01

    The experiments on Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of dipolar (spatially-indirect) excitons in the lateral traps in GaAs/AlGaAs Schottky-diode heterostructures with double and single quantum wells are presented. The condensed part of dipolar excitons under detection in the far zone is placed in k-space in the range which is almost two orders of magnitude less than thermal exciton wave vector. BEC occurs spontaneously in a reservoir of thermalized excitons. Luminescence images of Bose-condensate of dipolar excitons exhibit along perimeter of circular trap axially symmetrical spatial structures of equidistant bright spots which strongly depend on excitation power and temperature. By means of two-beam interference experiments with the use of cw and pulsed photoexcitation it was found that the state of dipolar exciton Bose-condensate is spatially coherent and the whole patterned luminescence configuration in real space is described by a common wave function.

  10. Excitonic Stark effect in MoS2 monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Benedikt; Frank, Tobias; Gmitra, Martin; Fabian, Jaroslav; Žutić, Igor; Perebeinos, Vasili

    2016-12-01

    We theoretically investigate excitons in MoS2 monolayers in an applied in-plane electric field. Tight-binding and Bethe-Salpeter equation calculations predict a quadratic Stark shift, of the order of a few meV for fields of 10 V/μ m , in the linear absorption spectra. The spectral weight of the main exciton peaks decreases by a few percent with an increasing electric field due to the exciton field ionization into free carriers as reflected in the exciton wave functions. Subpicosecond exciton decay lifetimes at fields of a few tens of V/μ m could be utilized in solar energy harvesting and photodetection. We find simple scaling relations of the exciton binding, radius, and oscillator strength with the dielectric environment and an electric field, which provides a path to engineering the MoS2 electro-optical response.

  11. Singlet exciton fission in nanostructured organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Priya J; Mohanty, Aseema; Sussman, Jason; Lee, Jiye; Baldo, Marc A

    2011-04-13

    Singlet exciton fission is an efficient multiexciton generation process in organic molecules. But two concerns must be satisfied before it can be exploited in low-cost solution-processed organic solar cells. Fission must be combined with longer wavelength absorption in a structure that can potentially surpass the single junction limit, and its efficiency must be demonstrated in nanoscale domains within blended devices. Here, we report organic solar cells comprised of tetracene, copper phthalocyanine, and the buckyball C(60). Short wavelength light generates singlet excitons in tetracene. These are subsequently split into two triplet excitons and transported through the phthalocyanine. In addition, the phthalocyanine absorbs photons below the singlet exciton energy of tetracene. To test tetracene in nanostructured blends, we fabricate coevaporated bulk heterojunctions and multilayer heterojunctions of tetracene and C(60). We measure a singlet fission efficiency of (71 ± 18)%, demonstrating that exciton fission can efficiently compete with exciton dissociation on the nanoscale.

  12. Laser pulse induced multiple exciton kinetics in molecular ring structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiao; Wang, Luxia

    2016-11-01

    Multiple excitons can be formed upon strong optical excitation of molecular aggregates and complexes. Based on a theoretical approach on exciton-exciton annihilation dynamics in supramolecular systems (May et al., 2014), exciton interaction kinetics in ring aggregates of two-level molecules are investigated. Excited by the sub-picosecond laser pulse, multiple excitons keep stable in the molecular ring shaped as a regular polygon. If the symmetry is destroyed by changing the dipole of a single molecule, the excitation of different molecules becomes not identical, and the changed dipole-dipole interaction initiates subsequent energy redistribution. Depending on the molecular distance and the dipole configuration, the kinetics undergo different types of processes, but all get stable within some hundreds of femtoseconds. The study of exciton kinetics will be helpful for further investigations of the efficiency of optical devices based on molecular aggregates.

  13. Formation of reactive halide species by myeloperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalteholz, Holger; Panasenko, Oleg M; Arnhold, Juergen

    2006-01-15

    The formation of chloro- and bromohydrins from 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine following incubation with myeloperoxidase or eosinophil peroxidase in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, chloride and/or bromide was analysed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry. These products were only formed below a certain pH threshold value, that increased with increasing halide concentration. Thermodynamic considerations on halide and pH dependencies of reduction potentials of all redox couples showed that the formation of a given reactive halide species in halide oxidation coupled with the reduction of compound I of heme peroxidases is only possible below a certain pH threshold that depends on halide concentration. The comparison of experimentally derived and calculated data revealed that Cl(2), Br(2), or BrCl will primarily be formed by the myeloperoxidase-H(2)O(2)-halide system. However, the eosinophil peroxidase-H(2)O(2)-halide system forms directly HOCl and HOBr.

  14. Multiparticle Exciton Ionization in Shallow Doped Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sau, Jay D; Crochet, Jared J; Doorn, Stephen K; Cohen, Marvin L

    2013-03-21

    Shallow hole doping in small-diameter semiconducting carbon nanotubes with a valley degeneracy is predicted to result in the resonant ionization of excitons into free electron-hole pairs. This mechanism, which relies on the chirality of the electronic states, causes excitons to decay with high efficiencies where the rate scales as the square of the dopant density. Moreover, multiparticle exciton ionization can account for delocalized fluorescence quenching when a few holes per micrometer of tube length are present.

  15. Compensation of Dipolar-Exciton Spin Splitting in Magnetic Field

    OpenAIRE

    Gorbunov, A. V.; Timofeev, V. B.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetoluminescence of spatially indirect dipolar excitons collected in 25 nm GaAs/AlGaAs single quantum well within a lateral potential trap has been studied in perpendicular magnetic field in Faraday geometry. The paramagnetic spin splitting of the luminescence line of the heavy-hole excitons in the trap centre is completely compensated at magnetic fields below critical value, around 2 Tesla. The effect of spin-splitting compensation is caused by the exchange interaction in dense exciton Bo...

  16. Exciton ionization in multilayer transition-metal dichalcogenides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Garm; Latini, Simone; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer;

    2016-01-01

    Photodetectors and solar cells based on materials with strongly bound excitons rely crucially on field-assisted exciton ionization. We study the ionization process in multilayer transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) within the Mott-Wannier model incorporating fully the pronounced anisotropy......-principles material parameters, an analysis of several important TMDs reveals WSe2 and MoSe2 to be superior for applications relying on ionization of direct and indirect excitons, respectively....

  17. Halide impact on emission of mononuclear copper(I) complexes with pyrazolylpyrimidine and triphenylphosphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, Katerina A; Plyusnin, Victor F; Kupryakov, Arkady S; Rakhmanova, Marianna I; Pervukhina, Natalia V; Naumov, Dmitrii Yu; Sheludyakova, Lilia A; Nikolaenkova, Elena B; Krivopalov, Viktor P; Bushuev, Mark B

    2014-02-21

    A series of mononuclear heteroleptic copper(I) halide complexes, [CuL(PPh3)X] (X = Cl, Br, I), based on 4-(3,5-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-6-(piperidin-1-yl)pyrimidine (L) and triphenylphosphine, have been synthesized by reaction between CuX (X = Cl, Br, I), L and PPh3 in a molar ratio of 1/1/1 in MeCN solutions. The copper atom, showing the distorted tetrahedral environment, is bound by the N,N-chelating ligand L, triphenylphosphine and a halide ion. The complexes [CuL(PPh3)Cl] and [CuL(PPh3)Br] are isostructural. In CH2Cl2 solutions, L and the complexes [CuL(PPh3)X] (X = Cl, Br, I) display a luminescence band with λ(max) = 377 nm and a lifetime of 1.9 ns (ligand-based luminescence (LL*)). However, the complex [CuL(PPh3)I] has an additional weak luminescence band with λ(max) = 681 nm and a lifetime of 96 ns of (3)MLCT origin. In the solid state, L shows the splitting of the luminescence band to λ(max) = 365 and 384 nm and a slight increase of the lifetime to 2.66 ns. Solid samples of the complexes [CuL(PPh3)X] demonstrate (3)MLCT luminescence bands at 620 nm (X = Cl), 605 nm (X = Br) and 559 nm (X = I) with lifetimes in the range 3.6-11.2 μs, whereas the LL* band (377 nm) is absent. Quantum yields and rate constants of radiative and nonradiative processes were determined in CH2Cl2 solutions and in the solid state for all complexes. The luminescence quantum yield and lifetimes for the solid samples increase in the order [CuL(PPh3)Cl] lifetime of 11.2 μs.

  18. Revealing and Characterizing Dark Excitons Through Coherent Multidimensional Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Tollerud, Jonathan O; Davis, Jeffrey A

    2016-01-01

    Dark excitons are of fundamental importance in a broad range of contexts, but are difficult to study using conventional optical spectroscopy due to their weak interaction with light. We show how coherent multidimensional spectroscopy can reveal and characterize dark states. Using this approach, we identify different types of dark excitons in InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells and determine details regarding lifetimes, homogeneous and inhomogeneous linewidths, broadening mechanisms and coupling strengths. The observations of coherent coupling between bright and dark excitons hint at a role for a multi-step process by which excitons in the barrier can relax into the quantum wells.

  19. Alkali metal and alkali earth metal gadolinium halide scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Derenzo, Stephen E.; Parms, Shameka; Porter-Chapman, Yetta D.; Wiggins, Latoria K.

    2016-08-02

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising an inorganic scintillator comprising a gadolinium halide, optionally cerium-doped, having the formula A.sub.nGdX.sub.m:Ce; wherein A is nothing, an alkali metal, such as Li or Na, or an alkali earth metal, such as Ba; X is F, Br, Cl, or I; n is an integer from 1 to 2; m is an integer from 4 to 7; and the molar percent of cerium is 0% to 100%. The gadolinium halides or alkali earth metal gadolinium halides are scintillators and produce a bright luminescence upon irradiation by a suitable radiation.

  20. Temperature Sensitive Optical Phenomena in Heavy Metal Halide Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-08

    Heavy - metal halides such as Pb!2 and HgI2 exhibit a strongly tempera- ture dependent absorption edge at visible frequencies. The shift in the absorption...AOb9 537 ROCKWELL INTERNATIONAL ANAHEIM CA ELECTRONICS RESEAR—— ETC FIG L u G TEMPERATURE SENSITIVE OPTICAL PHENOMENA IN HEAVY METAL HALIDE F—— ETC (U...PHENOMENA IN HEAVY METAL HALIDE F — ET C( U) ,JAN 79 J D MC*LLEN, D M HEINZ. F S STEARNS DAAK7O— 77—C—01 6 5 UNCLASSIFIED C79 1501 _ _ U SB

  1. Internal field induced exciton binding energy and the optical transition in a strained Mg based II–VI quantum well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elangovan, P. [Department of Physics, Maamallan Institute of Technology, Chennai 602105 (India); John Peter, A., E-mail: a.john.peter@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Government Arts College, Melur 625 106. Madurai (India); Kyoo Yoo, Chang [Center for Environmental Studies/Green Energy Center, Deptartment of Environmental Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Seocheon-dong 1, Giheung-gu, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do, 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Binding energy of an exciton in a wurtzite ZnO/Zn{sub 1−x}Mg{sub x}O strained quantum well is investigated theoretically in which the strong built-in electric field due to the spontaneous and piezoelectric polarizations is included. Numerical calculations are performed using variational procedure within the single band effective mass approximation by varying the Mg composition in the barrier. The exciton oscillator strength and the exciton lifetime for radiative recombination as functions of well width and Mg content have been computed. The internal field induced interband emission energy of strained ZnO/Zn{sub 1−x}Mg{sub x}O well is investigated with the various structural parameters. The total optical absorption coefficients and the changes of refractive index as a function of normalized photon energy in the presence of built-in internal field are analyzed. The result shows that the strong built-in electric field has influence on the oscillator strength and the recombination life time of the exciton. The optical absorption coefficients and the refractive index changes strongly depend on Mg composition. The occurred blue shift of the resonant peak due to the incorporation of Mg ions will give the information about the variation of two energy levels in the quantum well. -- Highlights: • Binding energy of an exciton in a wurtzite ZnO/Zn{sub 1−x}Mg{sub x}O strained quantum well is investigated. • The built-in internal fields due to the spontaneous and piezoelectric polarizations are included. • The oscillator strength and the exciton lifetime for radiative recombination are computed. • The internal field induced transition energy of strained ZnO/Zn{sub 1−x}Mg{sub x}O well is investigated. • The results show that the nonlinear optical properties strongly depend on Mg composition.

  2. One-dimensional organic lead halide perovskites with efficient bluish white-light emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhao; Zhou, Chenkun; Tian, Yu; Shu, Yu; Messier, Joshua; Wang, Jamie C.; van de Burgt, Lambertus J.; Kountouriotis, Konstantinos; Xin, Yan; Holt, Ethan; Schanze, Kirk; Clark, Ronald; Siegrist, Theo; Ma, Biwu

    2017-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid metal halide perovskites, an emerging class of solution processable photoactive materials, welcome a new member with a one-dimensional structure. Herein we report the synthesis, crystal structure and photophysical properties of one-dimensional organic lead bromide perovskites, C4N2H14PbBr4, in which the edge sharing octahedral lead bromide chains [PbBr4 2-]∞ are surrounded by the organic cations C4N2H14 2+ to form the bulk assembly of core-shell quantum wires. This unique one-dimensional structure enables strong quantum confinement with the formation of self-trapped excited states that give efficient bluish white-light emissions with photoluminescence quantum efficiencies of approximately 20% for the bulk single crystals and 12% for the microscale crystals. This work verifies once again that one-dimensional systems are favourable for exciton self-trapping to produce highly efficient below-gap broadband luminescence, and opens up a new route towards superior light emitters based on bulk quantum materials.

  3. One-dimensional organic lead halide perovskites with efficient bluish white-light emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhao; Zhou, Chenkun; Tian, Yu; Shu, Yu; Messier, Joshua; Wang, Jamie C.; van de Burgt, Lambertus J.; Kountouriotis, Konstantinos; Xin, Yan; Holt, Ethan; Schanze, Kirk; Clark, Ronald; Siegrist, Theo; Ma, Biwu

    2017-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid metal halide perovskites, an emerging class of solution processable photoactive materials, welcome a new member with a one-dimensional structure. Herein we report the synthesis, crystal structure and photophysical properties of one-dimensional organic lead bromide perovskites, C4N2H14PbBr4, in which the edge sharing octahedral lead bromide chains [PbBr4 2−]∞ are surrounded by the organic cations C4N2H14 2+ to form the bulk assembly of core-shell quantum wires. This unique one-dimensional structure enables strong quantum confinement with the formation of self-trapped excited states that give efficient bluish white-light emissions with photoluminescence quantum efficiencies of approximately 20% for the bulk single crystals and 12% for the microscale crystals. This work verifies once again that one-dimensional systems are favourable for exciton self-trapping to produce highly efficient below-gap broadband luminescence, and opens up a new route towards superior light emitters based on bulk quantum materials. PMID:28051092

  4. A mixed-cation lead mixed-halide perovskite absorber for tandem solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMeekin, David P; Sadoughi, Golnaz; Rehman, Waqaas; Eperon, Giles E; Saliba, Michael; Hörantner, Maximilian T; Haghighirad, Amir; Sakai, Nobuya; Korte, Lars; Rech, Bernd; Johnston, Michael B; Herz, Laura M; Snaith, Henry J

    2016-01-08

    Metal halide perovskite photovoltaic cells could potentially boost the efficiency of commercial silicon photovoltaic modules from ∼20 toward 30% when used in tandem architectures. An optimum perovskite cell optical band gap of ~1.75 electron volts (eV) can be achieved by varying halide composition, but to date, such materials have had poor photostability and thermal stability. Here we present a highly crystalline and compositionally photostable material, [HC(NH2)2](0.83)Cs(0.17)Pb(I(0.6)Br(0.4))3, with an optical band gap of ~1.74 eV, and we fabricated perovskite cells that reached open-circuit voltages of 1.2 volts and power conversion efficiency of over 17% on small areas and 14.7% on 0.715 cm(2) cells. By combining these perovskite cells with a 19%-efficient silicon cell, we demonstrated the feasibility of achieving >25%-efficient four-terminal tandem cells.

  5. Unraveling the Role of Monovalent Halides in Mixed-Halide Organic-Inorganic Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepa, Melepurath; Ramos, F Javier; Shivaprasad, S M; Ahmad, Shahzada

    2016-03-16

    The performance of perovskite solar cells is strongly influenced by the composition and microstructure of the perovskite. A recent approach to improve the power conversion efficiencies utilized mixed-halide perovskites, but the halide ions and their roles were not directly studied. Unraveling their precise location in the perovskite layer is of paramount importance. Here, we investigated four different perovskites by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and found that among the three studied mixed-halide perovskites, CH3 NH3 Pb(I0.74 Br0.26 )3 and CH3 NH3 PbBr3-x Clx show peaks that unambiguously demonstrate the presence of iodide and bromide in the former, and bromide and chloride in the latter. The CH3 NH3 PbI3-x Clx perovskite shows anomalous behavior, the iodide content far outweighs that of the chloride; a small proportion of chloride, in all likelihood, resides deep within the TiO2 /absorber layer. Our study reveals that there are many distinguishable structural differences between these perovskites, and that these directly impact the photovoltaic performances.

  6. Controlling the exciton emission of gold coated GaAs-AlGaAs core-shell nanowires with an organic spacer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaveh, M.; Gao, Q.; Jagadish, C.; Ge, J.; Duscher, G.; Wagner, H. P.

    2016-12-01

    Excitons are the most prominent optical excitations and controlling their emission is an important step towards new optical devices. We have investigated the exciton emission from uncoated and gold/aluminum quinoline (Alq3) coated GaAs-AlGaAs-GaAs core-shell nanowires (NWs) using temperature-, intensity- and polarization dependent photoluminescence (PL). Plasmonic GaAs-AlGaAs-GaAs NWs with a ˜10 nm thick Au coating but without an Alq3 spacer layer reveal a significant reduction of the PL intensity of the exciton emission compared with the uncoated NW sample. Plasmonic NW samples with the same nominal Au coverage and an additional Alq3 interlayer of 3 or 6 nm thickness show a clearly stronger PL intensity which increases with rising Alq3 spacer thickness. Time-resolved (TR) PL measurements reveal an increase of the exciton decay rate by a factor of up to two with decreasing Alq3 spacer thickness suggesting the presence of Förster energy transfer from NW excitons to plasmon oscillations in the gold film. The weak change of the decay time, however, indicates that Förster energy-transfer is only partially responsible for the PL quenching in the gold coated NWs. The main reason for the reduction of the PL emission is attributed to a gold induced band-bending in the GaAs NW core which causes exciton dissociation. With increasing Alq3 spacer thickness the band-bending decreases leading to a reduction of the exciton dissociation and PL quenching. Our interpretation is supported by electron energy loss spectroscopy measurements which show a signal reduction and blue shift of defect (possibly EL2) transitions when gold particles are deposited on NWs compared with bare or Alq3 coated NWs.

  7. Intermediate type excitons in Schottky barriers of A{sup 3}B{sup 6} layer semiconductors and UV photodetectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekperov, O.Z.; Guseinov, N.M.; Nadjafov, A.I. [Insitute of Physics of National Academy of Sinces of Azerbaijan, H. Javid av. 33, 1133 Baku (Azerbaijan)

    2006-09-15

    Photoelectric and photovoltaic spectra of Schottky barrier (SB) structures of InSe, GaSe and GaS layered semiconductors (LS) are investigated at quantum energies from the band edge excitons of corresponding materials up to 6.5eV. Spectral dependences of photoconductivity (PC) of photo resistors and barrier structures are strongly different at the quantum energies corresponding to the intermediate type excitons (ITE) observed in these semiconductors. It was suggested that high UV photoconductivity of A{sup 3}B{sup 6} LS is due to existence of high mobility light carriers in the depth of the band structure. It is shown that SB of semitransparent Au-InSe is high sensitive photo detector in UV region of spectra. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Optical limiting of niobic tellurite glass induced by self-trapped exciton absorption of the AgCl nanocrystal dopant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO ZhenYu; LIN Jian; JIA TianQin; SUN ZhenRong; WANG ZuGeng

    2009-01-01

    Nioblc tellurite glass doped by silver chloride nanocrystal was prepared with the melting-quenching and heat treatment method, and the self-trapped exciton absorption band of the silver chloride nanocrystal was observed at 532 nm in the UV-visible absorption spectrum. The glass structure chara-cteristics were investigated by Raman spectroscopy, and the mechanism of self-trapped exciton was analyzed by Jahn-Teller model. Its optical limiting was measured with 532 nm picosecond laser pulses, and the corresponding nonlinear absorption coefficient was measured with open-aperture Z-scan. The experimental results showed that optical limiting at 532 nm was attributed to free carrier absorption between the self-trapped state and the continuum band.

  9. Electrostatic control of many-body interactions in graphene: Observation of the effects of doping on the saddle-point exciton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Kin Fai; He, Keliang; Petrone, Nick; Hone, Jim; Shan, Jie; Heinz, Tony

    2012-02-01

    Significant excitonic effects were recently identified in the optical response of graphene through the asymmetric resonance feature at 4.62 eV in the optical conductivity. The peak, which is red-shifted by nearly 600 meV from the predicted band-to-band transition energy,ootnotetextMak et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 046401, (2011). can be considered as a saddle-point exciton. Here we report a systematic study of this excitonic feature as a function of the doping density, for densities extending up to the metallic regimeootnotetextEfetov & Kim, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 256805, (2010). (˜ 10^14 cm-2). With increasing density of either electrons or holes, the excitonic resonance is found to shift to the red and to become more symmetric in form. These experimental features agree very well with a recent ab-initio GW-Bethe-Salpeter calculationootnotetextFelipe H. da Jornada, J. D., Steven G. Louie. Private communications. (2011). and can be understood as a consequence of enhanced ``metallic'' screening of the graphene dielectric function.ootnotetextHwang, E. H. & Das Sarma, S. Phys. Rev. B 75, 205418 In addition, analysis of the width of the excitonic peak provides information on the quasiparticle lifetime. Mechanisms for the inferred rapid quasiparticle decoherence will be discussed.

  10. Tellurium halide IR fibers for remote spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xhang H.; Ma, Hong Li; Blanchetiere, Chantal; Le Foulgoc, Karine; Lucas, Jacques; Heuze, Jean; Colardelle, P.; Froissard, P.; Picque, D.; Corrieu, G.

    1994-07-01

    The new family of IR transmitting glasses, the TeX glasses, based on the association of tellurium and halide (Cl, Br, or I) are characterized by a wide optical window extending from 2 to 18 micrometers and a strong stability towards devitrification. Optical fibers drawn from these glasses exhibit low losses in the 7 - 10 micrometers range (less than 1 dB/m for single index fibers, 1 - 2 dB/m for fibers having a core-clad structure). The TeX glass fibers have been used in a remote analysis set-up which is mainly composed of a FTIR spectrometer coupled with a HgCdTe detector. This prototype system permits qualitative and quantitative analysis in a wide wavelength region lying from 3 to 13 micrometers , covering the fundamental absorption of more organic species. The evolution of a lactic and an alcoholic fermentation has been monitored by means of this set-up.

  11. Metal halide perovskites for energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Eperon, Giles E.; Snaith, Henry J.

    2016-06-01

    Exploring prospective materials for energy production and storage is one of the biggest challenges of this century. Solar energy is one of the most important renewable energy resources, due to its wide availability and low environmental impact. Metal halide perovskites have emerged as a class of semiconductor materials with unique properties, including tunable bandgap, high absorption coefficient, broad absorption spectrum, high charge carrier mobility and long charge diffusion lengths, which enable a broad range of photovoltaic and optoelectronic applications. Since the first embodiment of perovskite solar cells showing a power conversion efficiency of 3.8%, the device performance has been boosted up to a certified 22.1% within a few years. In this Perspective, we discuss differing forms of perovskite materials produced via various deposition procedures. We focus on their energy-related applications and discuss current challenges and possible solutions, with the aim of stimulating potential new applications.

  12. Thermoluminescence of alkali halides and its implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gartia, R.K., E-mail: rkgartia02@yahoo.in [Physics Department, Manipur University, Imphal 795003 (India); Rey, L. [Aerial-CRT-parc d' Innovation, B.P. 40443, F-67412 Illkirch Cedex (France); Tejkumar Singh, Th. [Physics Department, Manipur University, Imphal 795003 (India); Basanta Singh, Th. [Luminescence Dating Laboratory, Manipur University, Imphal 795003 (India)

    2012-03-01

    Trapping levels present in some alkali halides namely NaCl, KCl, KBr, and KI are determined by deconvolution of the thermoluminescence (TL) curves. Unlike most of the studies undertaken over the last few decades, we have presented a comprehensive picture of the phenomenon of TL as an analytical technique capable of revealing the position of the trapping levels present in the materials. We show that for all practical purposes, TL can be described involving only the three key trapping parameters, namely, the activation energy (E), the frequency factor (s), and the order of kinetics (b) even for complex glow curves having a number of TL peaks. Finally, based on these, we logically infer the importance of TL in development and characterization of materials used in dosimetry, dating and scintillation.

  13. Relaxation Process of Excitonic Molecules in CuCl under the Two-Photon Resonant Excitation. II. Transverse Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Tadashi; Katohno, Takashi; Kirihara, Toshio; Ueta, Masayasu

    1984-02-01

    Under the off-resonant excitation at the slightly higher energy side of the giant two-photon absorption band (GTA) for the direct generation of excitonic molecules (EM) in CuCl, new narrow emission bands designated as XT and XL have been found in the energy region of the MT and ML broad bands, respectively. Their photon energies increase with the decrease of the pump photon energy from the higher-energy side of the resonance and finally, at the on-resonant excitation, their bands merge into MT0 and ML0 bands, respectively, previously reported by Mita et al. Based on the detailed studies on these bands, it is found that there exists a certain kind of transverse relaxation process which acts on the EM just after their generation by the GTA and brings about the X emission as a hot luminescence.

  14. Mott transition of excitons in ZnSe studied by phase resolved reflection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzke, Guenter; Henneberger, Klaus; Seemann, Matthias; Stolz, Heinrich [University Rostock (Germany). Institute of Physics

    2009-02-15

    The Mott transition of excitons in a semiconductor with increasing carrier density is in principle well understood as a consequence of screening of the Coulomb interaction between carriers. While the position of the exciton stays widely unchanged the exciton peak disappears due to band gap shrinkage. However, a more quantitative check of applied theoretical models for the screening and of the role of quantum kinetic effects in this process is still open.We demonstrate that the phase-resolved reflection in shallow-confined ZnSSe heterostructures opens the possibility of a detailed study of the Mott transition due to the appearance of pronounced interferences effects of propagating polariton modes. Our theoretical approach for the investigation of the influence of excited carriers on the dielectric susceptibility is based (i) on a quasi-particle approximation for the carrier energies and damping, and (ii) on the semiconductor Bloch equations including dynamical screening and a quantum kinetic treatment of scattering. These manybody effects lead to drastic changes of both amplitude and phase of the reflected light: Jumps of the phase are steepened, show abrupt changes from +{pi} to -{pi} and are smoothed out, and interference peaks in the amplitude decrease and disappear completely with increasing excitation. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Blue-Green Color Tunable Solution Processable Organolead Chloride–Bromide Mixed Halide Perovskites for Optoelectronic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Solution-processed organo-lead halide perovskites are produced with sharp, color-pure electroluminescence that can be tuned from blue to green region of visible spectrum (425–570 nm). This was accomplished by controlling the halide composition of CH3NH3Pb(BrxCl1–x)3 [0 ≤ x ≤ 1] perovskites. The bandgap and lattice parameters change monotonically with composition. The films possess remarkably sharp band edges and a clean bandgap, with a single optically active phase. These chloride–bromide perovskites can potentially be used in optoelectronic devices like solar cells and light emitting diodes (LEDs). Here we demonstrate high color-purity, tunable LEDs with narrow emission full width at half maxima (FWHM) and low turn on voltages using thin-films of these perovskite materials, including a blue CH3NH3PbCl3 perovskite LED with a narrow emission FWHM of 5 nm. PMID:26236949

  16. Blue-Green Color Tunable Solution Processable Organolead Chloride-Bromide Mixed Halide Perovskites for Optoelectronic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhanala, Aditya; Ahmad, Shahab; Zhao, Baodan; Giesbrecht, Nadja; Pearce, Phoebe M; Deschler, Felix; Hoye, Robert L Z; Gödel, Karl C; Bein, Thomas; Docampo, Pablo; Dutton, Siân E; De Volder, Michael F L; Friend, Richard H

    2015-09-09

    Solution-processed organo-lead halide perovskites are produced with sharp, color-pure electroluminescence that can be tuned from blue to green region of visible spectrum (425-570 nm). This was accomplished by controlling the halide composition of CH3NH3Pb(BrxCl1-x)3 [0 ≤ x ≤ 1] perovskites. The bandgap and lattice parameters change monotonically with composition. The films possess remarkably sharp band edges and a clean bandgap, with a single optically active phase. These chloride-bromide perovskites can potentially be used in optoelectronic devices like solar cells and light emitting diodes (LEDs). Here we demonstrate high color-purity, tunable LEDs with narrow emission full width at half maxima (FWHM) and low turn on voltages using thin-films of these perovskite materials, including a blue CH3NH3PbCl3 perovskite LED with a narrow emission FWHM of 5 nm.

  17. Lithium halide monolayers: Structural, electronic and optical properties by first principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Mandana; Maskaneh, Pegah; Moghadam, Atousa Dashti; Jalilian, Jaafar

    2016-09-01

    Using first principle study, we investigate the structural, electronic and optical properties of lithium halide monolayers (LiF, LiCl, LiBr). In contrast to graphene and other graphene-like structures that form hexagonal rings in plane, these compounds can form and stabilize in cubic shape interestingly. The type of band structure in these insulators is identified as indirect type and ionic nature of their bonds are illustrated as well. The optical properties demonstrate extremely transparent feature for them as a result of wide band gap in the visible range; also their electron transitions are indicated for achieving a better vision on the absorption mechanism in these kinds of monolayers.

  18. Novel Silver Cobaltacarborane Complexes with a Linearly Bridging Halide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Seo; Bae, Hye Jin; Do, Youngkyu [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Youngwhan [LG Chem/Research Park, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Go, Min Jeong; Lee, Junseong [Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The structural versatility of halides mainly originates from their coordinating abilities of adopting a bridging bond between two or more metal atoms, as well as a terminal bond. Moreover, a halide bridging bond angle is so flexible that thermodynamic stability can be endowed with proper geometry, which conceptually varies from acute to right, obtuse, and linear. In spite of innumerable reports on molecular metal halides, examples of the linearly bridging fashion are very scarce. The reason for the rarity of the linear M. X. M arrangement can be easily explained by the VSEPR (Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion) concept. The linear M. X. M formation has only been achieved by adopting a macrocyclic chelate ligand, which is structurally demanding, so that the VSEPR repulsions among lone-pair electrons on the halide atom could be overcome.

  19. Electronic and Ionic Transport Dynamics in Organolead Halide Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dehui; Wu, Hao; Cheng, Hung-Chieh; Wang, Gongming; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2016-07-26

    Ion migration has been postulated as the underlying mechanism responsible for the hysteresis in organolead halide perovskite devices. However, the electronic and ionic transport dynamics and how they impact each other in organolead halide perovskites remain elusive to date. Here we report a systematic investigation of the electronic and ionic transport dynamics in organolead halide perovskite microplate crystals and thin films using temperature-dependent transient response measurements. Our study reveals that thermally activated ionic and electronic conduction coexist in perovskite devices. The extracted activation energies suggest that the electronic transport is easier, but ions migrate harder in microplates than in thin films, demonstrating that the crystalline quality and grain boundaries can fundamentally modify electronic and ionic transport in perovskites. These findings offer valuable insight on the electronic and ionic transport dynamics in organolead halide perovskites, which is critical for optimizing perovskite devices with reduced hysteresis and improved stability and efficiency.

  20. International Symposium on Halide Glasses (2nd) (Extended Abstracts).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-05

    method in which Pyrex 7740 is the standard material. These results will be compared with our earlier results on a fluorozirconate glass ( ZBLAN glass ...AliS 215 INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON HALIDE GLASSES 12ND) 1/1 (EXTENDED ABSTRACTS) (U) RENSSELAER POLY’TECHNIC INST TROY NY DEPT OF MATERIALS ENGINEE...Classification) Second International Symposium on Halide Glasses (Extended Abstracts) (U) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Cornelius T. Moynihan Chairman 13a

  1. Weakly disordered two-dimensional Frenkel excitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukahil, A.; Zettili, Nouredine

    2004-03-01

    We report the results of studies of the optical properties of weakly disordered two- dimensional Frenkel excitons in the Coherent Potential Approximation (CPA). An approximate complex Green's function for a square lattice with nearest neighbor interactions is used in the self-consistent equation to determine the coherent potential. It is shown that the Density of States is very much affected by the logarithmic singularities in the Green's function. Our CPA results are in excellent agreement with previous investigations by Schreiber and Toyozawa using the Monte Carlo simulation.

  2. Molecular weight dependence of exciton diffusion in poly(3-hexylthiophene)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masri, Zarifi; Ruseckas, Arvydas; Emelianova, Evguenia V.

    2013-01-01

    A joint experimental and theoretical study of singlet exciton diffusion in spin-coated poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) films and its dependence on molecular weight is presented. The results show that exciton diffusion is fast along the co-facial π–π aggregates of polymer chromophores and about 100...

  3. Optical properties of localized excitons in semiconductor nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leosson, Kristjan; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner;

    2002-01-01

    Denne afhandling beskriver optiske undersøgelser af lokaliserede excitoner i III-V halvleder nanostrukturer. Det drejer sig især om tredimensional lokalisering af excitoner i to typer af selvorganiserede systemer, nemlig kvantebrønde med fluktuerende lagtykkelse og såkaldte selv-dannede kvantepun...

  4. Coherent excitonic nonlinearity versus inhomogeneous broadening in single quantum wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Borri, Paola; Hvam, Jørn Märcher;

    1998-01-01

    The coherent response of excitons in semiconductor nanostructures, as measured in four wave mixing (FWM) experiments, depends strongly on the inhomogeneous broadening of the exciton transition. We investigate GaAs-AlGaAs single quantum wells (SQW) of 4 nm to 25 nm well width. Two main mechanisms...

  5. Bose Condensation of Interwell Excitons in Double Quantum Wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larionov, A. V.; Timofeev, V. B.; Ni, P. A.

    2002-01-01

    The luminescence of interwell excitons in double quantum wells GaAs/AlGaAs (n–i–n heterostructures) with large-scale fluctuations of random potential in the heteroboundary planes was studied. The properties of excitons whose photoexcited electron and hole are spatially separated in the neighboring...

  6. Magnetic excitons in singlet-ground-state ferromagnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birgeneau, R.J.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Bucher, E.

    1971-01-01

    The authors report measurements of the dispersion of singlet-triplet magnetic excitons as a function of temperature in the singlet-ground-state ferromagnets fcc Pr and Pr3Tl. Well-defined excitons are observed in both the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic regions, but with energies which are nearly...

  7. Synthesis of methyl halides from biomass using engineered microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Travis S; Widmaier, Daniel M; Temme, Karsten; Mirsky, Ethan A; Santi, Daniel V; Voigt, Christopher A

    2009-05-13

    Methyl halides are used as agricultural fumigants and are precursor molecules that can be catalytically converted to chemicals and fuels. Plants and microorganisms naturally produce methyl halides, but these organisms produce very low yields or are not amenable to industrial production. A single methyl halide transferase (MHT) enzyme transfers the methyl group from the ubiquitous metabolite S-adenoyl methionine (SAM) to a halide ion. Using a synthetic metagenomic approach, we chemically synthesized all 89 putative MHT genes from plants, fungi, bacteria, and unidentified organisms present in the NCBI sequence database. The set was screened in Escherichia coli to identify the rates of CH(3)Cl, CH(3)Br, and CH(3)I production, with 56% of the library active on chloride, 85% on bromide, and 69% on iodide. Expression of the highest activity MHT and subsequent engineering in Saccharomyces cerevisiae results in productivity of 190 mg/L-h from glucose and sucrose. Using a symbiotic co-culture of the engineered yeast and the cellulolytic bacterium Actinotalea fermentans, we are able to achieve methyl halide production from unprocessed switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), corn stover, sugar cane bagasse, and poplar (Populus sp.). These results demonstrate the potential of producing methyl halides from non-food agricultural resources.

  8. Directing energy transport in organic photovoltaic cells using interfacial exciton gates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, S Matthew; Mullenbach, Tyler K; Holmes, Russell J

    2015-04-28

    Exciton transport in organic semiconductors is a critical, mediating process in many optoelectronic devices. Often, the diffusive and subdiffusive nature of excitons in these systems can limit device performance, motivating the development of strategies to direct exciton transport. In this work, directed exciton transport is achieved with the incorporation of exciton permeable interfaces. These interfaces introduce a symmetry-breaking imbalance in exciton energy transfer, leading to directed motion. Despite their obvious utility for enhanced exciton harvesting in organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs), the emergent properties of these interfaces are as yet uncharacterized. Here, directed exciton transport is conclusively demonstrated in both dilute donor and energy-cascade OPVs where judicious optimization of the interface allows exciton transport to the donor-acceptor heterojunction to occur considerably faster than when relying on simple diffusion. Generalized systems incorporating multiple exciton permeable interfaces are also explored, demonstrating the ability to further harness this phenomenon and expeditiously direct exciton motion, overcoming the diffusive limit.

  9. Relation between the electroforming voltage in alkali halide-polymer diodes and the bandgap of the alkali halide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bory, Benjamin F.; Wang, Jingxin; Janssen, René A. J.; Meskers, Stefan C. J., E-mail: s.c.j.meskers@tue.nl [Molecular Materials and Nanosystems and Institute for Complex Molecular Systems, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Gomes, Henrique L. [Instituto de Telecomunicações, Av. Rovisco, Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal and Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); De Leeuw, Dago M. [Max-Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz, Germany and King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-12-08

    Electroforming of indium-tin-oxide/alkali halide/poly(spirofluorene)/Ba/Al diodes has been investigated by bias dependent reflectivity measurements. The threshold voltages for electrocoloration and electroforming are independent of layer thickness and correlate with the bandgap of the alkali halide. We argue that the origin is voltage induced defect formation. Frenkel defect pairs are formed by electron–hole recombination in the alkali halide. This self-accelerating process mitigates injection barriers. The dynamic junction formation is compared to that of a light emitting electrochemical cell. A critical defect density for electroforming is 10{sup 25}/m{sup 3}. The electroformed alkali halide layer can be considered as a highly doped semiconductor with metallic transport characteristics.

  10. Excitons in quantum-dot quantum-well nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史俊杰

    2002-01-01

    A variational calculation is presented for the ground-state properties of excitons confined in spherical core-shell quantum-dot quantum-well (QDQW) nanoparticles. The relationship between the exciton states and structure parameters of QDQW nanoparticles is investigated, in which both the heavy-hole and the light-hole exciton states are considered. The results show that the confinement energies of the electron and hole states and the exciton binding energies depend sensitively on the well width and core radius of the QDQW structure. A detailed comparison between the heavy-hole and light-hole exciton states is given. Excellent agreement is found between experimental results and our calculated 1se-1sh transition energies.

  11. Excitons in conjugated polymers: wavefunctions, symmetries, and quantum numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barford, William; Paiboonvorachat, Nattapong

    2008-10-28

    We introduce a mapping from configuration interaction singles wavefunctions, expressed as linear combinations of particle-hole excitations between Hartree-Fock molecular orbitals, to real-space exciton wavefunctions, expressed as linear combinations of particle-hole excitations between localized Wannier functions. The exciton wavefunction is a two-dimensional amplitude for the exciton center-of-mass coordinate, R, and the electron-hole separation (or relative coordinate), r, having an exact analogy to one-dimensional hydrogenlike wavefunctions. We describe the excitons by their appropriate quantum numbers, namely, the principle quantum number, n, associated with r and the center-of-mass pseudomomentum quantum number, j, associated with R. In addition, for models with particle-hole symmetry, such as the Pariser-Parr-Pople model, we emphasize the connection between particle-hole symmetry and particle-hole parity. The method is applied to the study of excitons in trans-polyacetylene and poly(para-phenylene).

  12. Exciton-Phonon Dynamics with Long-Range Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Laskin, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Exciton-phonon dynamics on a 1D lattice with long-range exciton-exciton interaction have been introduced and elaborated. Long-range interaction leads to a nonlocal integral term in the motion equation of the exciton subsystem if we go from discrete to continuous space. In some particular cases for power-law interaction, the integral term can be expressed through a fractional order spatial derivative. A system of two coupled equations has been obtained, one is a fractional differential equation for the exciton subsystem, the other is a standard differential equation for the phonon subsystem. These two equations present a new fundamental framework to study nonlinear dynamics with long-range interaction. New approaches to model the impact of long-range interaction on nonlinear dynamics are: fractional generalization of Zakharov system, Hilbert-Zakharov system, Hilbert-Ginzburg-Landau equation and nonlinear Hilbert-Schrodinger equation. Nonlinear fractional Schrodinger equation and fractional Ginzburg-Landau equa...

  13. How to Draw Energy Level Diagrams in Excitonic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X-Y

    2014-07-03

    Emerging photovoltaic devices based on molecular and nanomaterials are mostly excitonic in nature. The initial absorption of a photon in these materials creates an exciton that can subsequently dissociate in each material or at their interfaces to give charge carriers. Any attempt at mechanistic understanding of excitonic solar cells must start with drawing energy level diagrams. This seemingly elementary exercise, which is described in textbooks for inorganic solar cells, has turned out to be a difficult subject in the literature. The problem stems from conceptual confusion of single-particle energy with quasi-particle energy and the misleading practice of mixing the two on the same energy level diagram. Here, I discuss how to draw physically accurate energy diagrams in excitonic solar cells using only single-particle energies (ionization potentials and electron affinities) of both ground and optically excited states. I will briefly discuss current understanding on the electronic energy landscape responsible for efficient charge separation in excitonic solar cells.

  14. Optically induced rotation of a quantum dot exciton spin

    CERN Document Server

    Poem, E; Kodriano, Y; Benny, Y; Khatsevich, S; Avron, J E; Gershoni, D

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate control over the spin state of a semiconductor quantum dot exciton using a polarized picosecond laser pulse slightly detuned from a biexciton resonance. The control pulse follows an earlier pulse, which generates an exciton and initializes its spin state as a coherent superposition of its two non-degenerate eigenstates. The control pulse preferentially couples one component of the exciton state to the biexciton state, thereby rotating the exciton's spin direction. We detect the rotation by measuring the polarization of the exciton spectral line as a function of the time-difference between the two pulses. We show experimentally and theoretically how the angle of rotation depends on the detuning of the second pulse from the biexciton resonance.

  15. Exciton Dynamics in Semiconducting Carbon Nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Matt [University of California, Berkeley; Chmeliov, Javgenij [Vilnius University, Lithuania; Ma, Yingzhong [ORNL; Shinohara, Nori [Nagoya University, Japan; Green, Alexander A. [Northwestern University, Evanston; Hersam, Mark C. [Northwestern University, Evanston; Valkunas, Leonas [Vilnius University, Lithuania; Fleming, Graham [University of California, Berkeley

    2010-01-01

    We report femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopic study on the (6, 5) single-walled carbon nanotubes and the (7, 5) inner tubes of a dominant double-walled carbon nanotube species. We found that the dynamics of exciton relaxation probed at the first transition-allowed state (E11) of a given tube type exhibits a markedly slower decay when the second transition-allowed state (E22) is excited than that measured by exciting its first transition-allowed state (E11). A linear intensity dependence of the maximal amplitude of the transient absorption signal is found for the E22 excitation, whereas the corresponding amplitude scales linearly with the square root of the E11 excitation intensity. Theoretical modeling of these experimental findings was performed by developing a continuum model and a stochastic model with explicit consideration of the annihilation of coherent excitons. Our detailed numerical simulations show that both models can reproduce reasonably well the initial portion of decay kinetics measured upon the E22 and E11 excitation of the chosen tube species, but the stochastic model gives qualitatively better agreement with the intensity dependence observed experimentally than those obtained with the continuum model.

  16. Exciton Correlations in Intramolecular Singlet Fission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Samuel N; Kumarasamy, Elango; Pun, Andrew B; Appavoo, Kannatassen; Steigerwald, Michael L; Campos, Luis M; Sfeir, Matthew Y

    2016-06-15

    We have synthesized a series of asymmetric pentacene-tetracene heterodimers with a variable-length conjugated bridge that undergo fast and efficient intramolecular singlet fission (iSF). These compounds have distinct singlet and triplet energies, which allow us to study the spatial dynamics of excitons during the iSF process, including the significant role of exciton correlations in promoting triplet pair generation and recombination. We demonstrate that the primary photoexcitations in conjugated dimers are delocalized singlets that enable fast and efficient iSF. However, in these asymmetric dimers, the singlet becomes more localized on the lower energy unit as the length of the bridge is increased, slowing down iSF relative to analogous symmetric dimers. We resolve the recombination kinetics of the inequivalent triplets produced via iSF, and find that they primarily decay via concerted processes. By identifying different decay channels, including delayed fluorescence via triplet-triplet annihilation, we can separate transient species corresponding to both correlated triplet pairs and uncorrelated triplets. Recombination of the triplet pair proceeds rapidly despite our experimental and theoretical demonstration that individual triplets are highly localized and unable to be transported across the conjugated linker. In this class of compounds, the rate of formation and yield of uncorrelated triplets increases with bridge length. Overall, these constrained, asymmetric systems provide a unique platform to isolate and study transient species essential for singlet fission, which are otherwise difficult to observe in symmetric dimers or condensed phases.

  17. PbSe Nanocrystal Excitonic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Joshua J.

    2009-11-11

    We report the design, fabrication, and characterization of colloidal PbSe nanocrystal (NC)-based photovoltaic test structures that exhibit an excitonic solar cell mechanism. Charge extraction from the NC active layer is driven by a photoinduced chemical potential energy gradient at the nanostructured heterojunction. By minimizing perturbation to PbSe NC energy levels and thereby gaining insight into the "intrinsic" photovoltaic properties and charge transfer mechanism of PbSe NC, we show a direct correlation between interfacial energy level offsets and photovoltaic device performance. Size dependent PbSe NC energy levels were determined by cyclic voltammetry and optical spectroscopy and correlated to photovoltaic measurements. Photovoltaic test structures were fabricated from PbSe NC films sandwiched between layers of ZnO nanoparticles and PEDOT:PSS as electron and hole transporting elements, respectively. The device current-voltage characteristics suggest a charge separation mechanism that Is distinct from previously reported Schottky devices and consistent with signatures of excitonic solar cells. Remarkably, despite the limitation of planar junction structure, and without film thickness optimization, the best performing device shows a 1-sun power conversion efficiency of 3.4%, ranking among the highest performing NC-based solar cells reported to date. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  18. Exciton mechanisms and modeling of the ionoluminescence in silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachiller-Perea, D.; Jiménez-Rey, D.; Muñoz-Martín, A.; Agulló-López, F.

    2016-03-01

    A theoretical model is presented in order to discuss detailed kinetic data describing the evolution of the two main ionoluminescence bands at 650 nm (1.9 eV) and 460 nm (2.7 eV) in silica as a function of the irradiation fluence at room temperature. The model is based on the generation of self-trapped excitons (STEs), their hopping migration through the silica network and their recombination at non-bridging oxygen hole and Type II oxygen-deficient centers to produce the red and blue emission bands, respectively. For heavy ions, which have a high electronic stopping power, the two emission yields experience a fast initial growth with fluence up to a maximum value and then decrease at a fairly comparable rate. The fluence for such a maximum strongly increases on decreasing ion mass and stopping power and, finally, for H and He it is not observed for any of the investigated energy and fluence range. This kinetic behavior is explained in terms of the strong structural distortions (compaction) induced by the heavy-ion irradiations. In particular, it is proposed that these strong structural distortions cause a significant decrease in the STE migration length and, consequently, in the recombination rates at the two active recombination centers. The model offers a good quantitative accordance with detailed infrared spectroscopy reporting on the changes in the frequency ω 4 of a first-order vibrational mode in the SiO2 network as a function of irradiation fluence.

  19. Photophysics of quasi-one-dimensional excitons in pi-conjugated polymers and semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Chuanxiang

    In this work we studied the ultrafast dynamics of photoexcitations in pi-conjugated organic semiconductors and semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (S-NTs), using a low-intensity high-repetition rate laser system in the spectral range from 0.13 to 1.05 eV, and high-intensity low-repletion rate laser system in the spectral range from 1.2 to 2.5 eV, in the time domain from 100 fs to 1 ns. We also measured cw photomodulation (PM) spectroscopy of pi-conjugated polymers and photoluminescence (PL) spectra of both polymers and isolated nanotubes. In polymers, we found that excitons are the primary photoexcitations in single polymer chains. However, polarons and polaron pairs may also be photogenerated at early time in films. We consider this process to be extrinsic in nature, namely, dependent on materials properties, temperatures, excitation photon energies, as well as the quality of films. Both annealed and unannealed thin NT films and D2O solutions of isolated NTs were investigated. Various transient photoinduced bleaching (PB) and photoinduced absorption (PA) bands were observed, which also showed photoinduced dichroism and decay together after taking into account the PB spectral shift. The PL emission shows polarization degree. We therefore conclude that the primary photoexcitations in S-NT are excitons that are confined along the NTs. Prom the average PL polarization degree and the transient polarization memory decay, we estimate the PL lifetime in isolated NTs in solution to be of the order of 500 ps, coupling with the minute PL emission quantum efficiency, which indicates weak radiative transition strength. In S-NTs and pi-polymers, the emission spectra relative to the absorption bands are very similar, as well as transient photoinduced absorption bands (PA) with a low-energy PA1 and a higher-energy PA2 in all cases. Theoretical calculations of excited state absorptions within a correlated pi-electron Hamiltonian show the same excitonic energy spectrum

  20. Theory of exciton transfer and diffusion in conjugated polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barford, William, E-mail: william.barford@chem.ox.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QZ (United Kingdom); Tozer, Oliver Robert [Department of Chemistry, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QZ (United Kingdom); University College, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 4BH (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-28

    We describe a theory of Förster-type exciton transfer between conjugated polymers. The theory is built on three assumptions. First, we assume that the low-lying excited states of conjugated polymers are Frenkel excitons coupled to local normal modes, and described by the Frenkel-Holstein model. Second, we assume that the relevant parameter regime is ℏω < J, i.e., the adiabatic regime, and thus the Born-Oppenheimer factorization of the electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom is generally applicable. Finally, we assume that the Condon approximation is valid, i.e., the exciton-polaron wavefunction is essentially independent of the normal modes. The resulting expression for the exciton transfer rate has a familiar form, being a function of the exciton transfer integral and the effective Franck-Condon factors. The effective Franck-Condon factors are functions of the effective Huang-Rhys parameters, which are inversely proportional to the chromophore size. The Born-Oppenheimer expressions were checked against DMRG calculations, and are found to be within 10% of the exact value for a tiny fraction of the computational cost. This theory of exciton transfer is then applied to model exciton migration in conformationally disordered poly(p-phenylene vinylene). Key to this modeling is the assumption that the donor and acceptor chromophores are defined by local exciton ground states (LEGSs). Since LEGSs are readily determined by the exciton center-of-mass wavefunction, this theory provides a quantitative link between polymer conformation and exciton migration. Our Monte Carlo simulations indicate that the exciton diffusion length depends weakly on the conformation of the polymer, with the diffusion length increasing slightly as the chromophores became straighter and longer. This is largely a geometrical effect: longer and straighter chromophores extend over larger distances. The calculated diffusion lengths of ∼10 nm are in good agreement with experiment. The spectral

  1. Femtosecond time-resolved photodissociation dynamics of methyl halide molecules on ultrathin gold films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai E. Vaida

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The photodissociation of small organic molecules, namely methyl iodide, methyl bromide, and methyl chloride, adsorbed on a metal surface was investigated in real time by means of femtosecond-laser pump–probe mass spectrometry. A weakly interacting gold surface was employed as substrate because the intact adsorption of the methyl halide molecules was desired prior to photoexcitation. The gold surface was prepared as an ultrathin film on Mo(100. The molecular adsorption behavior was characterized by coverage dependent temperature programmed desorption spectroscopy. Submonolayer preparations were irradiated with UV light of 266 nm wavelength and the subsequently emerging methyl fragments were probed by photoionization and mass spectrometric detection. A strong dependence of the excitation mechanism and the light-induced dynamics on the type of molecule was observed. Possible photoexcitation mechanisms included direct photoexcitation to the dissociative A-band of the methyl halide molecules as well as the attachment of surface-emitted electrons with transient negative ion formation and subsequent molecular fragmentation. Both reaction pathways were energetically possible in the case of methyl iodide, yet, no methyl fragments were observed. As a likely explanation, the rapid quenching of the excited states prior to fragmentation is proposed. This quenching mechanism could be prevented by modification of the gold surface through pre-adsorption of iodine atoms. In contrast, the A-band of methyl bromide was not energetically directly accessible through 266 nm excitation. Nevertheless, the one-photon-induced dissociation was observed in the case of methyl bromide. This was interpreted as being due to a considerable energetic down-shift of the electronic A-band states of methyl bromide by about 1.5 eV through interaction with the gold substrate. Finally, for methyl chloride no photofragmentation could be detected at all.

  2. Influences of strong exciton-phonon interaction on two coupled quantum dots within cavity QED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan Xiaozhong [Department of Physics, Institute of Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)]. E-mail: yxz@sjtu.edu.cn; Zhu Kadi [Department of Physics, Institute of Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Li Waisang [Department of Electronic and Information Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China)

    2004-08-30

    For two coupled quantum dots within cavity QED, we show that the exciton-phonon interaction reduces the Rabi frequency and Foerster interaction even at absolute zero temperature. The exciton-phonon interaction also makes an additional contribution to the static exciton-exciton dipole interaction energy.

  3. Influences of strong exciton-phonon interaction on two coupled quantum dots within cavity QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiao-Zhong; Zhu, Ka-Di; Li, Wai-Sang

    2004-08-01

    For two coupled quantum dots within cavity QED, we show that the exciton-phonon interaction reduces the Rabi frequency and Förster interaction even at absolute zero temperature. The exciton-phonon interaction also makes an additional contribution to the static exciton-exciton dipole interaction energy.

  4. Coherent dynamics of mixed Frenkel and Charge Transfer Excitons in Dinaphtho[2,3-b:2'3'-f]thieno[3,2-b]-thiophene Thin Films: The Importance of Hole Delocalization

    CERN Document Server

    Fujita, Takatoshi; Sawaya, Nicolas P D; Aspuru-Guzik, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Charge transfer states in organic semiconductors play crucial roles in processes such as singlet fission and exciton dissociation at donor/acceptor interfaces. Recently, a time-resolved spectroscopy study of dinaphtho[2,3-b:2'3'-f]thieno[3,2-b]-thiophene (DNTT) thin films provided evidence for the formation of mixed Frenkel and charge-transfer excitons after the photoexcitation. Here we investigate optical properties and excitation dynamics of the DNTT thin films by combining ab initio calculations and a stochastic Schrodinger equation. Our theory predicts that the low-energy Frenkel exciton band consists of 8 to 47% CT character. The quantum dynamics simulations show coherent dynamics of Frenkel and CT states in 50 fs after the optical excitation. We demonstrate the role of charge delocalization and localization in the mixing of CT states with Frenkel excitons as well as the role of their decoherence.

  5. Perspectives on organolead halide perovskite photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariz, Alex

    2016-07-01

    A number of photovoltaic technologies have been developed for large-scale solar-power production. The single-crystal first-generation photovoltaic devices were followed by thin-film semiconductor absorber layers layered between two charge-selective contacts, and more recently, by nanostructured or mesostructured solar cells that utilize a distributed heterojunction to generate charge carriers and to transport holes and electrons in spatially separated conduits. Even though a number of materials have been trialed in nanostructured devices, the aim of achieving high-efficiency thin-film solar cells in such a manner as to rival the silicon technology has yet to be attained. Organolead halide perovskites have recently emerged as a promising material for high-efficiency nanoinfiltrated devices. An examination of the efficiency evolution curve reveals that interfaces play a paramount role in emerging organic electronic applications. To optimize and control the performance in these devices, a comprehensive understanding of the contacts is essential. However, despite the apparent advances made, a fundamental theoretical analysis of the physical processes taking place at the contacts is still lacking. However, experimental ideas, such as the use of interlayer films, are forging marked improvements in efficiencies of perovskite-based solar cells. Furthermore, issues of long-term stability and large-area manufacturing have some way to go before full commercialization is possible.

  6. Dielectric confinement on exciton binding energy and nonlinear optical properties in a strained Zn1-xinMgxinSe/Zn1-xoutMgxoutSe quantum well

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Abraham Hudson Mark; A. John Peter

    2012-01-01

    The band offsets for a Zn1-xinMgxin Se/Zn1-xoutMgxout Se quantum well heterostructure are determined using the model solid theory.The heavy hole exciton binding energies are investigated with various Mg alloy contents.The effect of mismatch between the dielectric constants between the well and the barrier is taken into account.The dependence of the excitonic transition energies on the geometrical confinement and the Mg alloy is discussed.Non-linear optical properties are determined using the compact density matrix approach.The linear,third order non-linear optical absorption coefficient values and the refractive index changes of the exciton are calculated for different concentrations of magnesium.The results show that the occurred blue shifts of the resonant peak due to the Mg incorporation give the information about the variation of two energy levels in the quantum well width.

  7. Exciton-related nonlinear optical absorption and refractive index change in GaAs-Ga{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}As double quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Guillermo L. [Fisica Teorica y Aplicada, Escuela de Ingenieria de Antioquia, A.A. 7516 Medellin (Colombia); Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226 Medellin (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, Miguel E., E-mail: memora@uaem.mx [Fisica Teorica y Aplicada, Escuela de Ingenieria de Antioquia, A.A. 7516 Medellin (Colombia); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, C.P. 62209 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226 Medellin (Colombia); Duque, Carlos A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226 Medellin (Colombia)

    2013-01-15

    In this work the variations of the exciton-related optical absorption and the change of the refractive index in a GaAs-(Ga,Al)As double quantum well as functions of the geometric parameters of the heterostructure are investigated. The variational method is applied within the framework of the parabolic band and effective mass approximations, in order to obtain the 1s-like exciton energy spectrum. The outcome for the related optical coefficients shows a quenched and redshifted light absorption as a result of the increment in the inner barrier and right-hand well widths, with the possibility of an enhancement of the excitonic contribution to the relative change in the refractive index.

  8. Synthesis and Exciton Dynamics of Triplet Sensitized Conjugated Polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Andernach, Rolf

    2015-07-22

    We report the synthesis of a novel polythiophene-based host-guest copolymer incorporating a Pt-porphyrin complex (TTP-Pt) into the backbone for efficient singlet to triplet polymer exciton sensitization. We elucidated the exciton dynamics in thin films of the material by means of Transient Absorption Spectrosopcy (TAS) on multiple timescales and investigated the mechanism of triplet exciton formation. During sensitization, single exciton diffusion is followed by exciton transfer from the polymer backbone to the complex where it undergoes intersystem crossing to the triplet state of the complex. We directly monitored the triplet exciton back transfer from the Pt-porphyrin to the polymer and find that 60% of the complex triplet excitons are transferred with a time constant of 1087 ps. We propose an equilibrium between polymer and porphyrin triplet states as a result of the low triplet diffusion length in the polymer backbone and hence an increased local triplet population resulting in increased triplet-triplet annihilation. This novel system has significant implications for the design of novel materials for triplet sensitized solar cells and up-conversion layers.

  9. Enhancing the carrier thermalization time in organometallic perovskites by halide mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjet, Mohamed El-Amine; Akimov, Alexey V; El-Mellouhi, Fadwa; Berdiyorov, Golibjon R; Ashhab, Sahel; Tabet, Nouar; Kais, Sabre

    2016-02-21

    Hybrid metal-organic halide perovskites have recently attracted a great deal of attention because of their interesting electronic, optical and transport properties, which make them promising materials for high-performance, low-cost solar cells. Fundamental understanding of the formation mechanisms and dynamics of photoinduced charge carriers is essential for improving the performance of perovskite solar cell devices. For example, a significant amount of absorbed solar energy is lost as a result of carrier thermalization. This energy could be harnessed by extracting hot carriers before they cool down to the band edges. Although such hot carrier collection is experimentally challenging, theoretical investigations based on time-dependent methods can guide future experimental research by providing insights into the thermalization process. Here, we perform ab initio nonadiabatic molecular dynamics simulations to study non-radiative relaxation dynamics of charge carriers in hybrid halide perovskites. We find that the carrier relaxation time can be considerably increased by mixing halogen atoms in the perovskite materials. These findings show that simple approaches could be adopted to slow down the thermalization process of hot carriers in perovskite materials.

  10. Energy Transfer of Excitons Between Quantum Wells Separated by a Wide Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LYO,SUNGKWUN K.

    1999-12-06

    We present a microscopic theory of the excitonic Stokes and anti-Stokes energy transfer mechanisms between two widely separated unequal quantum wells with a large energy mismatch ({Delta}) at low temperatures (T). Exciton transfer through dipolar coupling, photon-exchange coupling and over-barrier ionization of the excitons through exciton-exciton Auger processes are examined. The energy transfer rate is calculated as a function of T and the center-to-center distance d between the two wells. The rates depend sensitively on T for plane-wave excitons. For located excitons, the rates depend on T only through the T-dependence of the localization radius.

  11. Absorption and emission in quantum dots: Fermi surface effects of Anderson excitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmes, R. W.; Sindel, M.; Borda, L.; von Delft, J.

    2005-09-01

    Recent experiments measuring the emission of exciton recombination in a self-organized single quantum dot (QD) have revealed that different effects occur when the wetting layer surrounding the QD becomes filled with electrons because the resulting Fermi sea can hybridize with the local electron levels on the dot. Motivated by these experiments, we study an extended Anderson model, which describes a local conduction band level coupled to a Fermi sea, but also includes a local valence band level. We are interested, in particular, in how many-body correlations resulting from the presence of the Fermi sea affect the absorption and emission spectra. Using Wilson’s numerical renormalization group method, we calculate the zero-temperature absorption (emission) spectrum of a QD, which starts from (ends up in) a strongly correlated Kondo ground state. We predict two features: First, we find that the spectrum shows a power-law divergence close to the threshold, with an exponent that can be understood by analogy to the well-known x-ray edge absorption problem. Second, the threshold energy ω0 —below which no photon is absorbed (above which no photon is emitted)—shows a marked, monotonic shift as a function of the exciton binding energy Uexc .

  12. Optical Investigations of Rare-Earth Orthochromites. III. GdCrO3 and Summary of the R' Band in RCrO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Norimichi; Tsujikawa, Ikuji; Tsushima, Kuniro

    1985-12-01

    Optical absorption spectrum corresponding to the 4A2g→2Eg transition of Cr3+ in GdCrO3 was studied. The R' band was observed in the lower energy side of the R exciton band. The temperature and magnetic field dependences of the R' band imply that the R' band is the combined excitation of a Cr3+ exciton and a Gd3+ spin flip induced by the isotropic part of the Cr3+-Gd3+ exchange interaction. As the summary of the successive papers, the classification of the R' band in RCrO3(R=Yb, Tm, Er, No, Dy, Tb and Gd) was undertaken.

  13. Theoretical study of excitonic complexes in semiconductors quantum wells; Estudo teorico de complexos excitonicos em pocos quanticos de semicondutores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dacal, Luis Carlos Ogando

    2001-08-01

    A physical system where indistinguishable particles interact with each other creates the possibility of studying correlation and exchange effect. The simplest system is that one with only two indistinguishable particles. In condensed matter physics, these complexes are represented by charged excitons, donors and acceptors. In quantum wells, the valence band is not parabolic, therefore, the negatively charged excitons and donors are theoretically described in a simpler way. Despite the fact that the stability of charged excitons (trions) is known since the late 50s, the first experimental observation occurred only at the early 90s in quantum well samples, where their binding energies are one order of magnitude larger due to the one dimensional carriers confinement. After this, these complexes became the subject of an intense research because the intrinsic screening of electrical interactions in semiconductor materials allows that magnetic fields that are usual in laboratories have strong effects on the trion binding energy. Another rich possibility is the study of trions as an intermediate state between the neutral exciton and the Fermi edge singularity when the excess of doping carriers is increased. In this thesis, we present a theoretical study of charged excitons and negatively charged donors in GaAs/Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As quantum wells considering the effects of external electric and magnetic fields. We use a simple, accurate and physically clear method to describe these systems in contrast with the few and complex treatments s available in the literature. Our results show that the QW interface defects have an important role in the trion dynamics. This is in agreement with some experimental works, but it disagrees with other ones. (author)

  14. Excitonic fine structure and binding energies of excitonic complexes in single InAs quantum dashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrowiński, P.; Zieliński, M.; Świderski, M.; Misiewicz, J.; Somers, A.; Reithmaier, J. P.; Höfling, S.; Sek, G.

    2016-09-01

    The fundamental electronic and optical properties of elongated InAs nanostructures embedded in quaternary InGaAlAs barrier are investigated by means of high-resolution optical spectroscopy and many-body atomistic tight-binding theory. These wire-like shaped, self-assembled nanostructures are known as quantum dashes and are typically formed during the molecular beam epitaxial growth on InP substrates. In this paper, we study properties of excitonic complexes confined in quantum dashes emitting in a broad spectral range from below 1.2 to 1.55 μm. We find peculiar trends for the biexciton and negative trion binding energies, with pronounced trion binding in smaller size quantum dashes. These experimental findings are then compared and qualitatively explained by atomistic theory. The theoretical analysis shows a fundamental role of correlation effects for the absolute values of excitonic binding energies. Eventually, we determine the bright exciton fine structure splitting (FSS), where both the experiment and theory predict a broad distribution of the splitting varying from below 50 to almost 180 μeV. We identify several key factors determining the FSS values in such nanostructures, including quantum dash size variation and composition fluctuations.

  15. Limits of Exciton-Exciton Annihilation for Light Emission in Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Monolayers

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Yiling; Xu, Chao; Barrette, Andy; Gundogdu, Kenan; Cao, Linyou

    2015-01-01

    We quantitatively evaluate the exciton-exciton annihilation (EEA) and its effect on light emission properties in monolayer TMDC materials, including WS2, MoS2, and WSe2. The EEA rate is found to be 0.3 cm2/s and 0.1 cm2/s for suspended WS2 and MoS2 monolayers, respectively, and subject to the influence from substrates, being 0.1 cm2/s and 0.05 cm2/s for the supported WS2 and MoS2 on sapphire substrates. It can substantially affect the luminescence efficiency of suspended monolayers even at an exciton concentration as low as 109 cm-2, but plays a milder role for supported monolayers due to the effect of the substrate. However, regardless the presence of substrates or not, the lasing threshold of the monolayer is always predominantly determined by the EEA, which is estimated to be 12-18 MW/cm2 if using 532 nm as the pumping wavelength.

  16. Two Dimensional Organometal Halide Perovskite Nanorods with Tunable Optical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharon, Sigalit; Etgar, Lioz

    2016-05-11

    Organo-metal halide perovskite is an efficient light harvester in photovoltaic solar cells. Organometal halide perovskite is used mainly in its "bulk" form in the solar cell. Confined perovskite nanostructures could be a promising candidate for efficient optoelectronic devices, taking advantage of the superior bulk properties of organo-metal halide perovskite, as well as the nanoscale properties. In this paper, we present facile low-temperature synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) lead halide perovskite nanorods (NRs). These NRs show a shift to higher energies in the absorbance and in the photoluminescence compared to the bulk material, which supports their 2D structure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the NRs demonstrates their 2D nature combined with the tetragonal 3D perovskite structure. In addition, by alternating the halide composition, we were able to tune the optical properties of the NRs. Fast Fourier transform, and electron diffraction show the tetragonal structure of these NRs. By varying the ligands ratio (e.g., octylammonium to oleic acid) in the synthesis, we were able to provide the formation mechanism of these novel 2D perovskite NRs. The 2D perovskite NRs are promising candidates for a variety of optoelectronic applications, such as light-emitting diodes, lasing, solar cells, and sensors.

  17. Halide Perovskites: Poor Man's High-Performance Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoumpos, Constantinos C; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2016-07-01

    Halide perovskites are a rapidly developing class of medium-bandgap semiconductors which, to date, have been popularized on account of their remarkable success in solid-state heterojunction solar cells raising the photovoltaic efficiency to 20% within the last 5 years. As the physical properties of the materials are being explored, it is becoming apparent that the photovoltaic performance of the halide perovskites is just but one aspect of the wealth of opportunities that these compounds offer as high-performance semiconductors. From unique optical and electrical properties stemming from their characteristic electronic structure to highly efficient real-life technological applications, halide perovskites constitute a brand new class of materials with exotic properties awaiting discovery. The nature of halide perovskites from the materials' viewpoint is discussed here, enlisting the most important classes of the compounds and describing their most exciting properties. The topics covered focus on the optical and electrical properties highlighting some of the milestone achievements reported to date but also addressing controversies in the vastly expanding halide perovskite literature.

  18. Ubiquity of Exciton Localization in Cryogenic Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Matthias S; Noé, Jonathan; Kneer, Alexander; Crochet, Jared J; Högele, Alexander

    2016-05-11

    We present photoluminescence studies of individual semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes at room and cryogenic temperatures. From the analysis of spatial and spectral features of nanotube photoluminescence, we identify characteristic signatures of unintentional exciton localization. Moreover, we quantify the energy scale of exciton localization potentials as ranging from a few to a few tens of millielectronvolts and stemming from both environmental disorder and shallow covalent side-wall defects. Our results establish disorder-induced crossover from the diffusive to the localized regime of nanotube excitons at cryogenic temperatures as a ubiquitous phenomenon in micelle-encapsulated and as-grown carbon nanotubes.

  19. Generalized master equation for modular exciton density transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Jang, Seogjoo; Fleming, Graham; Whaley, K Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    A generalized master equation (GME) governing quantum evolution of modular exciton density (MED) is derived for large scale light harvesting systems composed of weakly interacting modules of multiple chromophores. The GME-MED offers a practical framework to incorporate real time coherent quantum dynamics calculations at small length scales into dynamics over large length scales, without assumptions of time scale separation or specific forms of intra-module quantum dynamics. A test of the GME-MED for four sites of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex demonstrates how coherent dynamics of excitonic populations over many coupled chromophores can be accurately described by transitions between subgroups (modules) of delocalized excitons.

  20. Evidence of Excitonic Optical Tamm States using Molecular Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Núñez-Sánchez, S; Murshidy, M M; Abdel-Hady, A G; Serry, M Y; Adawi, A M; Rarity, J G; Oulton, R; Barnes, W L

    2015-01-01

    We report the first experimental observation of an Excitonic Optical Tamm State supported at the interface between a periodic multilayer dielectric structure and an organic dye-doped polymer layer. The existence of such states is enabled by the metal-like optical properties of the excitonic layer based on aggregated dye molecules. Experimentally determined dispersion curves, together with simulated data, including field profiles, allow us to identify the nature of these new modes. Our results demonstrate the potential of organic excitonic materials as a powerful means to control light at the nanoscale, offering the prospect of a new alternative type of nanophotonics based on molecular materials.

  1. Excitation of exciton states on a curved surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silotia, Poonam; Prasad, Vinod

    2016-05-01

    Excitonic transitions on the surface of a sphere have been studied in he presence of external static electric and laser fields. The spectrum and the various coupling matrix elements, (for n = 1 , 2 , 3), between few states of exciton have been evaluated in the absence and presence of excitonic Coulombic interaction with different values of dielectric constant. Variation of various physical quantities: energy eigenvalues, transition probability, orientational and alignment parameter, has been shown to have strong dependence on the laser field and static electric field.

  2. Photogenerated Exciton Dissociation in Highly Coupled Lead Salt Nanocrystal Assemblies

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Joshua J.

    2010-05-12

    Internanocrystal coupling induced excitons dissociation in lead salt nanocrystal assemblies is investigated. By combining transient photoluminescence spectroscopy, grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering, and time-resolved electric force microscopy, we show that excitons can dissociate, without the aid of an external bias or chemical potential gradient, via tunneling through a potential barrier when the coupling energy is comparable to the exciton binding energy. Our results have important implications for the design of nanocrystal-based optoelectronic devices. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  3. Ordered Dissipative Structures in Exciton Systems in Semiconductor Quantum Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey A. Chernyuk

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A phenomenological theory of exciton condensation in conditions of inhomogeneous excitation is proposed. The theory is applied to the study of the development of an exciton luminescence ring and the ring fragmentation at macroscopical distances from the central excitation spot in coupled quantum wells. The transition between the fragmented and the continuous ring is considered. With assumption of a defect in the structure, a possibility of a localized island of the condensed phase in a fixed position is shown. Exciton density distribution is also analyzed in the case of two spatially separated spots of the laser excitation.

  4. Optical Absorption Spectra and Excitons of Dye-Substrate Interfaces: Catechol on TiO2(110).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowbray, Duncan John; Migani, Annapaola

    2016-06-14

    Optimizing the photovoltaic efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) based on staggered gap heterojunctions requires a detailed understanding of sub-band gap transitions in the visible from the dye directly to the substrate's conduction band (CB) (type-II DSSCs). Here, we calculate the optical absorption spectra and spatial distribution of bright excitons in the visible region for a prototypical DSSC, catechol on rutile TiO2(110), as a function of coverage and deprotonation of the OH anchoring groups. This is accomplished by solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE) based on hybrid range-separated exchange and correlation functional (HSE06) density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Such a treatment is necessary to accurately describe the interfacial level alignment and the weakly bound charge transfer transitions that are the dominant absorption mechanism in type-II DSSCs. Our HSE06 BSE spectra agree semiquantitatively with spectra measured for catechol on anatase TiO2 nanoparticles. Our results suggest deprotonation of catechol's OH anchoring groups, while being nearly isoenergetic at high coverages, shifts the onset of the absorption spectra to lower energies, with a concomitant increase in photovoltaic efficiency. Further, the most relevant bright excitons in the visible region are rather intense charge transfer transitions with the electron and hole spatially separated in both the [110] and [001] directions. Such detailed information on the absorption spectra and excitons is only accessible via periodic models of the combined dye-substrate interface.

  5. Theory and it ab initio calculation of radiative lifetime of excitons in semiconducting carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Spataru, Catalin D.; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab; Capaz, Rodrigo B.; Louie, Steven G.

    2005-01-01

    We present theoretical analysis and first-principles calculation of the radiative lifetime of excitons in semiconducting carbon nanotubes. An intrinsic lifetime of the order of 10 ps is computed for the lowest optically active bright excitons. The intrinsic lifetime is however a rapid increasing function of the exciton momentum. Moreover, the electronic structure of the nanotubes dictates the existence of dark excitons nearby in energy to each bright exciton. Both effects strongly influence m...

  6. Exciton-dominant Electroluminescence from a Diode of Monolayer MoS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-14

    Auger recombination may lead to rapid exciton- exciton annihilation when extra or multiple excitations are present.16–21 At a low electron-hole pair ...sufficiently efficient, it will quickly deplete the population of electron-hole pairs . The annihilation of the electron-hole pairs comes to a stop when only a...of the exciton-exciton annihilation of bound exciton emission is observed under a high electron-hole pair injection rate at room temperature. At a high

  7. Benchmarking calculations of excitonic couplings between bacteriochlorophylls

    CERN Document Server

    Kenny, Elise P

    2015-01-01

    Excitonic couplings between (bacterio)chlorophyll molecules are necessary for simulating energy transport in photosynthetic complexes. Many techniques for calculating the couplings are in use, from the simple (but inaccurate) point-dipole approximation to fully quantum-chemical methods. We compared several approximations to determine their range of applicability, noting that the propagation of experimental uncertainties poses a fundamental limit on the achievable accuracy. In particular, the uncertainty in crystallographic coordinates yields an uncertainty of about 20% in the calculated couplings. Because quantum-chemical corrections are smaller than 20% in most biologically relevant cases, their considerable computational cost is rarely justified. We therefore recommend the electrostatic TrEsp method across the entire range of molecular separations and orientations because its cost is minimal and it generally agrees with quantum-chemical calculations to better than the geometric uncertainty. We also caution ...

  8. Exciton and multi-exciton dynamics in CdSe/Cd1-xZnxS quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righetto, Marcello; Minotto, Alessandro; Bozio, Renato

    2016-04-01

    The outstanding optical properties of Semiconductor Quantum Dots (QDs) have attracted much interest for over two decades. The development of synthetic methods for the production of core-shell QDs has opened the way to attaining almost ideal emitting properties. Their implementation in opto-electronic devices, such as light emitting diodes (LEDs) and lasers, requires a full understanding of the fine details of their photophysics. The exciton dynamics of core and coreshell QDs was extensively studied by means of pump and probe (P and P) and transient photoluminescence (TRPL) spectroscopies. Nevertheless, the wealth of possible exciton and multi-exciton decay mechanisms, operating on comparable time-scales, results in complex signals. In this work, the exciton dynamics of a complete CdSe/Cd1-xZnxS series is investigated, with a focus on exciton trapping processes. Insights into the energy distribution of exciton traps are unveiled by wavelength resolve QY measurements. Multicolor P and P measurements give a deeper insight into the dynamics of exciton trapping and Auger recombinations. An inversion method is proposed as a powerful tool for separating different contribution in complex P and P transients. The outcomes of this work clarify the role of core/shell interfaces and surfaces in modulating the optical properties and suggest possible routes for their improvement.

  9. Control of Exciton Photon Coupling in Nano-structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoze

    In this thesis, we study the interaction of excitons with photons and plasmons and methods to control and enhance this interaction. This study is categorized in three parts: light-matter interaction in microcavity structures, direct dipole-dipole interactions, and plasmon-exciton interaction in metal-semiconductor systems. In the microcavity structures, the light-matter interactions become significant when the excitonic energy is in resonance with microcavity photons. New hybrid quantum states named polariton states will be formed if the strong coupling regime is achieved, where the interaction rate is faster than the average decay rate of the excitons and photons. Polaritons have been investigated in zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles based microcavity at room temperature and stimulated emission of the polaritons has also been observed with a low optical pump threshold. Exictons in organic semiconductors (modeled as Frenkel excitons) are tightly bound to molecular sites, and differ considerably from loosely bound hydrogen atom-like inorganic excitons (modeled as Wannier-Mott excitons). This fundamental difference results in distinct optoelectronic properties. Not only strongly coupled to Wannier-Mott excitons in ZnO, the microcavity photons have also been observed to be simultaneously coupled to Frenkel excitons in 3,4,7,8-naphthalene tetracarboxylic dianhydride (NTCDA). The photons here act like a glue combining Wannier-Mott and Frenkel excitons into new hybrid polaritons taking the best from both constituents. Two-dimensional (2D) excitons in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have emerged as a new and fascinating type of Wannier-Mott-like excitons due to direct bandgap transition, huge oscillator strength and large binding energy. Monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has been incorporated into the microcavity structure and 2D exciton-polaritons have been observed for the first time with directional emission in the strong coupling regime. Valley

  10. Exciton photoluminescence from ZnO layers produced by laser-induced gas breakdown processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabashin, A.V.; Trudeau, A.; Meunier, M. [Laser Processing Laboratory, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Departement de Genie Physique, Case Postale 6079, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Marine, W. [CRMCN UPR CNRS 7251, Departement de Physique, Case 901, Faculte des Sciences de Luminy, Marseille Cedex 9 (France)

    2008-06-15

    The plasma of optically-excited gas breakdown has been used to treat a Zn target in atmospheric pressure gases (air, O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, Ar). The breakdown is produced near the target by a pulsed CO{sub 2} laser radiation, yielding to a local erosion of the target under the irradiation spot and the formation of a porous nanostructured layer, consisting of ZnO nanoscale spheres. We show that the produced nanostructured layers exhibit an intense exciton emission band in the ultraviolet range (380-385 nm), while defect-related photoluminescent bands were weak and could be completely removed by varying the fabrication parameters. Properties of the produced layers were found to be very promising for the development of optoelectronic devices. (orig.)

  11. Charge carrier recombination channels in the low-temperature phase of organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Wehrenfennig

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The optoelectronic properties of the mixed hybrid lead halide perovskite CH3NH3PbI3−xClx have been subject to numerous recent studies related to its extraordinary capabilities as an absorber material in thin film solar cells. While the greatest part of the current research concentrates on the behavior of the perovskite at room temperature, the observed influence of phonon-coupling and excitonic effects on charge carrier dynamics suggests that low-temperature phenomena can give valuable additional insights into the underlying physics. Here, we present a temperature-dependent study of optical absorption and photoluminescence (PL emission of vapor-deposited CH3NH3PbI3−xClx exploring the nature of recombination channels in the room- and the low-temperature phase of the material. On cooling, we identify an up-shift of the absorption onset by about 0.1 eV at about 100 K, which is likely to correspond to the known tetragonal-to-orthorhombic transition of the pure halide CH3NH3PbI3. With further decreasing temperature, a second PL emission peak emerges in addition to the peak from the room-temperature phase. The transition on heating is found to occur at about 140 K, i.e., revealing significant hysteresis in the system. While PL decay lifetimes are found to be independent of temperature above the transition, significantly accelerated recombination is observed in the low-temperature phase. Our data suggest that small inclusions of domains adopting the room-temperature phase are responsible for this behavior rather than a spontaneous increase in the intrinsic rate constants. These observations show that even sparse lower-energy sites can have a strong impact on material performance, acting as charge recombination centres that may detrimentally affect photovoltaic performance but that may also prove useful for optoelectronic applications such as lasing by enhancing population inversion.

  12. Unconventional superconductivity in electron-doped layered metal nitride halides MNX (M = Ti, Zr, Hf; X = Cl, Br, I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasahara, Yuichi, E-mail: ykasahara@scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kuroki, Kazuhiko, E-mail: kuroki@phys.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Yamanaka, Shoji, E-mail: syamana@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Taguchi, Yasujiro, E-mail: y-taguchi@riken.jp [RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), Wako 351-0198 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    In this review, we present a comprehensive overview of superconductivity in electron-doped metal nitride halides MNX (M = Ti, Zr, Hf; X = Cl, Br, I) with layered crystal structure and two-dimensional electronic states. The parent compounds are band insulators with no discernible long-range ordered state. Upon doping tiny amount of electrons, superconductivity emerges with several anomalous features beyond the conventional electron–phonon mechanism, which stimulate theoretical investigations. We will discuss experimental and theoretical results reported thus far and compare the electron-doped layered nitride superconductors with other superconductors.

  13. Localized excitons in In sub x Ga sub 1 sub - sub x N/GaN quantum well structure

    CERN Document Server

    Ryu, M Y; Park, S W; Yu, P W; Oh, E S; Park, Y J; Park, H S; Kim, T I

    1998-01-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) photoreflectance (PR) have been employed to study the optical transitions of In sub x Ga sub 1 sub - sub x N/GaN quantum well (QW) structures grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The main Pl peak at 2.895 eV is attributed to the excitons localized at trap centers, which originate from the In-rich region within the well. Several emission bands on both sides of the main peak are attributed to the interference fringe effects and the recombination of excitons localized at several levels in the In sub 0 sub . sub 1 sub 8 sub 3 Ga sub 0 sub . sub 8 sub 1 sub 7 N well. The PL peak at 3.040 eV is ascribed to the lowest n=1 quantized transition which agrees well the calculated result.

  14. Electrochemical Doping of Halide Perovskites with Ion Intercalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qinglong; Chen, Mingming; Li, Junqiang; Wang, Mingchao; Zeng, Xiaoqiao; Besara, Tiglet; Lu, Jun; Xin, Yan; Shan, Xin; Pan, Bicai; Wang, Changchun; Lin, Shangchao; Siegrist, Theo; Xiao, Qiangfeng; Yu, Zhibin

    2017-01-24

    Halide perovskites have recently been investigated for various solution-processed optoelectronic devices. The majority of studies have focused on using intrinsic halide perovskites, and the intentional incoporation of dopants has not been well explored. In this work, we discovered that small alkali ions, including lithium and sodium ions, could be electrochemically intercalated into a variety of halide and pseudohalide perovskites. The ion intercalation caused a lattice expansion of the perovskite crystals and resulted in an n-type doping of the perovskites. Such electrochemical doping improved the conductivity and changed the color of the perovskites, leading to an electrochromism with more than 40% reduction of transmittance in the 450-850 nm wavelength range. The doped perovskites exhibited improved electron injection efficiency into the pristine perovskite crystals, resulting in bright light-emitting diodes with a low turn-on voltage.

  15. Halide-Dependent Electronic Structure of Organolead Perovskite Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Buin, Andrei

    2015-06-23

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Organometal halide perovskites have recently attracted tremendous attention both at the experimental and theoretical levels. These materials, in particular methylammonium triiodide, are still limited by poor chemical and structural stability under ambient conditions. Today this represents one of the major challenges for polycrystalline perovskite-based photovoltaic technology. In addition to this, the performance of perovskite-based devices is degraded by deep localized states, or traps. To achieve better-performing devices, it is necessary to understand the nature of these states and the mechanisms that lead to their formation. Here we show that the major sources of deep traps in the different halide systems have different origin and character. Halide vacancies are shallow donors in I-based perovskites, whereas they evolve into a major source of traps in Cl-based perovskites. Lead interstitials, which can form lead dimers, are the dominant source of defects in Br-based perovskites, in line with recent experimental data. As a result, the optimal growth conditions are also different for the distinct halide perovskites: growth should be halide-rich for Br and Cl, and halide-poor for I-based perovskites. We discuss stability in relation to the reaction enthalpies of mixtures of bulk precursors with respect to final perovskite product. Methylammonium lead triiodide is characterized by the lowest reaction enthalpy, explaining its low stability. At the opposite end, the highest stability was found for the methylammonium lead trichloride, also consistent with our experimental findings which show no observable structural variations over an extended period of time.

  16. Vibrational exciton-mediated quantum state transfert: a simple model

    CERN Document Server

    Pouthier, Vincent J C

    2012-01-01

    A communication protocol is proposed in which quantum state transfer is mediated by a vibrational exciton. We consider two distant molecular groups grafted on the sides of a lattice. These groups behave as two quantum computers where the information in encoded and received. The lattice plays the role of a communication channel along which the exciton propagates and interacts with a phonon bath. Special attention is paid for describing the system involving an exciton dressed by a single phonon mode. The Hamiltonian is thus solved exactly so that the relevance of the perturbation theory is checked. Within the nonadiabatic weak-coupling limit, it is shown that the system supports three quasi-degenerate states that define the relevant paths followed by the exciton to tunnel between the computers. When the model parameters are judiciously chosen, constructive interferences take place between these paths. Phonon-induced decoherence is minimized and a high-fidelity quantum state transfer occurs over a broad temperat...

  17. Neutral and positively charged excitons in narrow quantum ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porras Monroy, L. C.; Rodríguez-Prada, F. A.; Mikhailov, I. D. [Escuela de Física, Universidad Industrial de Santander, A. A. 678, Bucaramanga (Colombia)

    2014-05-15

    We study theoretically quantized states of a neutral and a positively charged exciton (trion X{sup +}) confined in a heterostructure with the ring-like geometry. In order to assess the experimentally relevant domain of parameters, we adopt a simple model of a narrow ring when 3D wave equations for the neutral and positively charged excitons can be separated. By using the Fourier series method, we have calculated the energy spectra of excitons complexes in a quantum ring as a function of the electron-to-hole mass ratio, the ring radius, and the magnetic field strength. The quantum-size effect and the size-dependent magnetic oscillations of energy levels of excitons' complexes spectra have been revealed.

  18. Influence of small dozes ultra-violet radiation on motion of dislocation in alkali-halide crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this work was research into influence of ultra-violet radiation on size of run of regional and screw dislocations in beams of dislocation sockets, formed at indentation surface of alkali-halide crystals. In experiments it was used crystals NaCl, with the quantitative maintenance of impurity 10-2 -10-3weight%, the wave length of UV-radiation λ=250 nanometers, the sizes of samples 10mm× 20mm× 2mm,temperature of samples was constant T=290 K.It is established that indentation and the simultaneous irradiation of samples a ultraviolet is increases size of run of head dispositions in dislocation sockets..It is marked, that influence UV-radiation nonequivalence for various times of an exposition. At small times (till 5 minutes) the size of run grows. The length of beams increases on ~ 50 %. At the further increase in time of influence of a ultraviolet the length of beams is reduced till the sizes corresponding stressing without an irradiation (Figs. 1, 2, 3). The effect is observed on dislocation beams of regional and screw orientations and most expressed at small loadings (in our experiments-10 grams) (Fig. 3).Observable effects are explained from positions dislocation-exciton interactions. At UV-radiation exciton cooperates with the charged step on a disposition, causing movement of a step along a disposition on one internuclear distance. Due to this interaction overcoming by a disposition of a grid of stoppers is facilitated.Big times of endurance cause a relaxation of pressure directly in a print that provides convertible movement of dispositions in area of a print and as consequence, reduction of length of beams of dislocation sockets.

  19. Tailoring Mixed-Halide, Wide-Gap Perovskites via Multistep Conversion Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bae, Dowon; Palmstrom, Axel; Roelofs, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Wide-band-gap mixed-halide CH3NH3PbI3–XBrX-based solar cells have been prepared by means of a sequential spin-coating process. The spin-rate for PbI2 as well as its repetitive deposition are important in determining the cross-sectional shape and surface morphology of perovskite, and, consequently......, J–V performance. A perovskite solar cell converted from PbI2 with a dense bottom layer and porous top layer achieved higher device performance than those of analogue cells with a dense PbI2 top layer. This work demonstrates a facile way to control PbI2 film configuration and morphology simply...

  20. Electrical field profile and doping in planar lead halide perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Antonio; Juarez-Perez, Emilio J.; Bisquert, Juan; Mora-Sero, Ivan; Garcia-Belmonte, Germà

    2014-09-01

    Hybrid lead halide perovskites (PVKs) have emerged as novel materials for photovoltaics and have rapidly reached very large solar to electricity power conversion efficiencies. As occurring with other kind of solar technologies establishing the working energy-band diagram constitutes a primary goal for device physics analysis. Here, the macroscopic electrical field distribution is experimentally determined using capacitance-voltage and Kelvin probe techniques. Planar structures comprising CH3NH3PbI3-xClx PVK exhibit p-doping character and form a p-n heterojunction with n-doped TiO2 compact layers. Depletion width at equilibrium within the PVK bulk has an extent about 300 nm (approximately half of the layer thickness), leaving as a consequence a significant neutral zone towards the anode contact. Charge collection properties are then accessible relying on the relative weight that diffusion and drift have as carrier transport driven forces.

  1. Thermodynamic reactivity, growth and characterization of mercurous halide crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N. B.; Gottlieb, M.; Henningsen, T.; Hopkins, R. H.; Mazelsky, R.; Singh, M.; Glicksman, M. E.; Paradies, C.

    1992-01-01

    Thermodynamic calculations were carried out for the Hg-X-O system (X = Cl, Br, I) to identify the potential sources of contamination and relative stability of oxides and oxy-halide phases. The effect of excess mercury vapor pressure on the optical quality of mercurous halide crystal was studied by growing several mercurous chloride crystals from mercury-rich composition. The optical quality of crystals was examined by birefringence interferometry and laser scattering studies. Crystals grown in slightly mercury-rich composition showed improved optical quality relative to stoichiometric crystals.

  2. Coherence and Optical Emission from Bilayer Exciton Condensates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. W. Snoke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments aimed at demonstrating Bose-Einstein condensation of excitons in two types of experiments with bilayer structures (coupled quantum wells are reviewed, with an emphasis on the basic effects. Bose-Einstein condensation implies the existence of a macroscopic coherence, also known as off-diagonal long-range order, and proposed tests and past claims for coherence in these excitonic systems are discussed.

  3. Control of Exciton Dynamics in Nanodots for Quantum Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pochung; Piermarocchi, C.; Sham, L. J.

    2001-08-01

    We present a theory to further a new perspective of proactive control of exciton dynamics in the quantum limit. Circularly polarized optical pulses in a semiconductor nanodot are used to control the dynamics of two interacting excitons of opposite polarizations. Shaping of femtosecond laser pulses keeps the quantum operation within the decoherence time. Computation of the fidelity of the operations and application to the complete solution of a minimal quantum computing algorithm demonstrate in theory the feasibility of quantum control.

  4. One dimensional models of excitons in carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia Decebal; Duclos, P.; Pedersen, Thomas Garm

    Excitons in carbon nanotubes may be modeled by two oppositely charged particles living on the surface of a cylinder. We derive three one dimensional effective Hamiltonians which become exact as the radius of the cylinder vanishes. Two of them are solvable.......Excitons in carbon nanotubes may be modeled by two oppositely charged particles living on the surface of a cylinder. We derive three one dimensional effective Hamiltonians which become exact as the radius of the cylinder vanishes. Two of them are solvable....

  5. Exciton-Dependent Pre-formation Probability of Composite Particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing-Shang; WANG Ji-Min; DUAN Jun-Feng

    2007-01-01

    In Iwamoto-Harada model the whole phase space is full of fermions. When the momentum distributions of the exciton states are taken into account, the pre-formation probability of light composite particles could be improved,and the exciton state-dependent pre-formation probability has been proposed. The calculated results indicate that the consideration of the momentum distribution enhances the pre-formation probability of [1,m] configuration, and suppresses that of [l > 1, m] configurations seriously.

  6. Tuning of Exciton States in a Magnetic Quantum Ring

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazaryan, Areg; Manaselyan, Aram; Chakraborty, Tapash

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the exciton states in a CdTe quantum ring in an external magnetic field containing a single magnetic impurity. We have used the multiband approximation which includes the heavy hole - light hole coupling effects. The electron-hole spin interactions and the s, p-d interactions between the electron, hole and the magnetic impurity are also included. The exciton energy levels and optical transitions are evaluated using the exact diagonalization scheme. We show that due to the spin...

  7. Exciton Dynamics and Many Body Interactions in Layered Semiconducting Materials Revealed with Non-linear Coherent Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Prasenjit

    Atomically thin, semiconducting transition metal dichalogenides (TMDs), a special class of layered semiconductors, that can be shaped as a perfect two dimensional material, have garnered a lot of attention owing to their fascinating electronic properties which are achievable at the extreme nanoscale. In contrast to graphene, the most celebrated two-dimensional (2D) material thus far; TMDs exhibit a direct band gap in the monolayer regime. The presence of a non-zero bandgap along with the broken inversion symmetry in the monolayer limit brands semiconducting TMDs as the perfect candidate for future optoelectronic and valleytronics-based device application. These remarkable discoveries demand exploration of different materials that possess similar properties alike TMDs. Recently, III-VI layered semiconducting materials (example: InSe, GaSe etc.) have also emerged as potential materials for optical device based applications as, similar to TMDs, they can be shaped into a perfect two-dimensional form as well as possess a sizable band gap in their nano-regime. The perfect 2D character in layered materials cause enhancement of strong Coulomb interaction. As a result, excitons, a coulomb bound quasiparticle made of electron-hole pair, dominate the optical properties near the bandgap. The basis of development for future optoelectronic-based devices requires accurate characterization of the essential properties of excitons. Two fundamental parameters that characterize the quantum dynamics of excitons are: a) the dephasing rate, gamma, which represents the coherence loss due to the interaction of the excitons with their environment (for example- phonons, impurities, other excitons, etc.) and b) excited state population decay rate arising from radiative and non-radiative relaxation processes. The dephasing rate is representative of the time scale over which excitons can be coherently manipulated, therefore accurately probing the source of exciton decoherence is crucial for

  8. Bose condensation of interwell excitons in double quantum wells

    CERN Document Server

    Larionov, A V; Ni, P A; Dubonos, S V; Hvam, I; Soerensen, K

    2002-01-01

    The luminescence of the interwell excitons in the GaAs/AlGaAs double quantum wells, containing large-scale fluctuations of the random potential in the heteroboundary planes, is studied. The properties of the excitons, wherein the excited electron and hole are spatially separated between the neighboring quantum wells by the density and temperature variation within the domain limits of the scale below one micron, are investigated. The interwell excitons by low pumping (below 50 mW) are strongly localized due to the small-scale fluctuations of the random potential. The localized excitons line grows by increase in the resonance excitation capacity through the threshold method. With the temperature growth this line disappears in the spectrum (T sub c <= 3.4 K). The above phenomenon is related to the Bose-Einstein condensation in the quasi-two-dimensional system of the interwell excitons. The critical values of the exciton density and temperature in the studied temperature range (1.5-3.4 K) grow according to the...

  9. The effects of halide anions on the dielectric response of potassium halide solutions in visible, UV and far UV region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shagieva, F M; Boinovich, L B

    2013-06-07

    Based on the experimentally measured dispersion of refractive indices, we studied the effects of halide anions on the dielectric response of potassium halide solutions in the visible, UV and far UV regions. It was shown that a specific ion effect according to the Hofmeister series is clearly demonstrated for the visible range of spectra. For the near-, mid-, and far UV ranges of spectra, the specific ion effect essentially depends on solution concentration and temperature. The influence of ions on the behavior of dynamic dielectric permittivity of a solution is discussed on the basis of ion/water and ion/ion electrostatic and electrodynamic interactions and hydration shell structure.

  10. Synthesis of zinc oxide microrods and nano-fibers with dominant exciton emission at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos-Brito, F., E-mail: fro_brito@yahoo.com.m [Laboratorio de Materiales Optoelectronicos del Centro de Ciencias de Sinaloa, Ave. de las Americas 2771 Col. Villa Universidad 80010, Culiacan, Sinaloa (Mexico); Alejo-Armenta, C. [Laboratorio de Materiales Optoelectronicos del Centro de Ciencias de Sinaloa, Ave. de las Americas 2771 Col. Villa Universidad 80010, Culiacan, Sinaloa (Mexico); Garcia-Hipolito, M. [Departamento de Materiales Metalicos y Ceramicos, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-360, Coyoacan 04510, DF (Mexico); Camarillo, E.; Hernandez A, J. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, Alvaro Obregon 01000, DF (Mexico); Falcony, C. [Departamento de Fisica, CINVESTAV-IPN, AP 14-740, 07000, DF (Mexico); Murrieta S, H. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, Alvaro Obregon 01000, DF (Mexico)

    2011-05-15

    Employing a simple chemical synthesis method, hexagonal-shaped zinc oxide microrods and zinc oxide nano-fibers were deposited on pyrex-glass and aluminum substrates, respectively. Both kinds of deposits showed zincite crystalline phase with lattice parameters: a=3.2498 A and c=5.2066 A. Microrods showed very uniform wide and large sizes of around 1 and 10 {mu}m, respectively. Both deposits were homogeneous over all substrate surfaces. Microrods and nano-fibers resulted with good optical quality and with preferential crystalline growth in [1 0 1 0]and [0 0 0 1]directions. The principal optical characteristics for both microrods and nano-fibers were: a) room-temperature photo and cathodo-luminescent spectra with strong exciton emission centered around 390 nm and with FWHMs around 125 and 160 meV, respectively, b) poor photo and cathode-luminescent emissions in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum, c) energy band gap of 3.32 eV, d) good emission efficiency supported by the not-required high energy densities to obtain strong exciton emission and e) good ZnO stoichiometry endorsed by photoluminescent results. These characteristics make of these microrods and nano-fibers good for potential photonic applications. - Research highlights: {yields} Microrods and nano-fibers resulted with good optical quality and with preferential crystalline growth in [1 0 1 0]and [0 0 0 1]directions. {yields} Microrods and nano-fibers resulted with good emission efficiency supported by the not-required high energy densities to obtain strong exciton emission. {yields} The wet chemical method is appropriated for deposition of microrods and nano-fibers with the desired optical properties for its possible application in photonics.

  11. Negative activation energy and dielectric signatures of excitons and excitonic Mott transitions in quantum confined laser structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhunia, Amit; Bansal, Kanika; Henini, Mohamed; Alshammari, Marzook S.; Datta, Shouvik

    2016-10-01

    Mostly, optical spectroscopies are used to investigate the physics of excitons, whereas their electrical evidences are hardly explored. Here, we examined a forward bias activated differential capacitance response of GaInP/AlGaInP based multi-quantum well laser diodes to trace the presence of excitons using electrical measurements. Occurrence of "negative activation energy" after light emission is understood as thermodynamical signature of steady state excitonic population under intermediate range of carrier injections. Similar corroborative results are also observed in an InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot laser structure grown by molecular beam epitaxy. With increasing biases, the measured differential capacitance response slowly vanishes. This represents gradual Mott transition of an excitonic phase into an electron-hole plasma in a GaInP/AlGaInP laser diode. This is further substantiated by more and more exponentially looking shapes of high energy tails in electroluminescence spectra with increasing forward bias, which originates from a growing non-degenerate population of free electrons and holes. Such an experimental correlation between electrical and optical properties of excitons can be used to advance the next generation excitonic devices.

  12. Kinetic Studies of the Solvolysis of Two Organic Halides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, J. A.; Pasto, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory experiment which utilizes the solvolysis of organic halides to demonstrate first and second order reaction kinetics. The experiment also investigates the effect of a change of solvent polarity on reaction rate, common-ion and noncommon-ion salt effects, and the activation parameters of a…

  13. Methyl halide emissions from savanna fires in southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreae, M. O.; Atlas, E.; Harris, G. W.; Helas, G.; de Kock, A.; Koppmann, R.; Maenhaut, W.; Manø, S.; Pollock, W. H.; Rudolph, J.; Scharffe, D.; Schebeske, G.; Welling, M.

    1996-10-01

    The methyl halides, methyl chloride (CH3Cl), methyl bromide (CH3Br), and methyl iodide (CH3I), were measured in regional air samples and smoke from savanna fires in southern Africa during the Southern Africa Fire-Atmosphere Research Initiative-92 (SAFARI-92) experiment (August-October 1992). All three species were significantly enhanced in the smoke plumes relative to the regional background. Good correlations were found between the methyl halides and carbon monoxide, suggesting that emission was predominantly associated with the smoldering phase of the fires. About 90% of the halogen content of the fuel burned was released to the atmosphere, mostly as halide species, but a significant fraction (3-38%) was emitted in methylated form. On the basis of comparison with the composition of the regional background atmosphere, emission ratios to carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide were determined for the methyl halide species. The emission ratios decreased in the sequence CH3Cl > CH3Br > CH3I. Extrapolation of these results in combination with data from other types of biomass burning, e.g. forest fires, suggests that vegetation fires make a significant contribution to the atmospheric budget of CH3Cl and CH3Br. For tropospheric CH3I, on the other hand, fires appear to be a minor source. Our results suggest that pyrogenic emissions of CH3Cl and CH3Br need to be considered as significant contributors to stratospheric ozone destruction.

  14. Advances and Promises of Layered Halide Hybrid Perovskite Semiconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedesseau, Laurent; Sapori, Daniel; Traore, Boubacar; Robles, Roberto; Fang, Hong-Hua; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Tsai, Hsinhan; Nie, Wanyi; Blancon, Jean-Christophe; Neukirch, Amanda; Tretiak, Sergei; Mohite, Aditya D.; Katan, Claudine; Even, Jacky; Kepenekian, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Layered halide hybrid organic inorganic perovskites (HOP) have been the subject of intense investigation before the rise of three-dimensional (3D) HOP and their impressive performance in solar cells. Recently, layered HOP have also been proposed as attractive alternatives for photostable solar cells

  15. A new mechanism for radiation damage processes in alkali halides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubinko, V.I.; Turkin, A.A.; Vainshtein, D.I.; Hartog, H.W. den

    1999-01-01

    We present a theory of radiation damage formation in alkali halides based on a new mechanism of dislocation climb, which involves the production of VF centers (self-trapped hole neighboring a cation vacancy) as a result of the absorption of H centers of dislocation lines. We consider the evolution o

  16. Students' Understanding of Alkyl Halide Reactions in Undergraduate Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Ramirez de Arellano, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Organic chemistry is an essential subject for many undergraduate students completing degrees in science, engineering, and pre-professional programs. However, students often struggle with the concepts and skills required to successfully solve organic chemistry exercises. Since alkyl halides are traditionally the first functional group that is…

  17. Semiempirical and DFT Investigations of the Dissociation of Alkyl Halides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waas, Jack R.

    2006-01-01

    Enthalpy changes corresponding to the gas phase heats of dissociation of 12 organic halides were calculated using two semiempirical methods, the Hartree-Fock method, and two DFT methods. These calculated values were compared to experimental values where possible. All five methods agreed generally with the expected empirically known trends in the…

  18. On the Boiling Points of the Alkyl Halides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, John

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the variety of explanations in organic chemistry textbooks of a physical property of organic compounds. Focuses on those concepts explaining attractive forces between molecules. Concludes that induction interactions play a major role in alkyl halides and other polar organic molecules and should be given wider exposure in chemistry texts.…

  19. Iron-catalysed Negishi coupling of benzyl halides and phosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, Robin B; Huwe, Michael; Wilkinson, Mark C

    2009-02-01

    Iron-based catalysts containing either 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)benzene or 1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane give excellent activity and good selectivity in the Negishi coupling of aryl zinc reagents with a range of benzyl halides and phosphates.

  20. Impurity trapped excitons under high hydrostatic pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinberg, Marek

    2013-09-01

    Paper summarizes the results on pressure effect on energies of the 4fn → 4fn and 4fn-15d1 → 4fn transitions as well as influence of pressure on anomalous luminescence in Lnα+ doped oxides and fluorides. A model of impurity trapped exciton (ITE) was developed. Two types of ITE were considered. The first where a hole is localized at the Lnα+ ion (creation of Ln(α+1)+) and an electron is attracted by Coulomb potential at Rydberg-like states and the second where an electron captured at the Lnα+ ion (creation of Ln(α-1)+) and a hole is attracted by Coulomb potential at Rydberg-like states. Paper presents detailed analysis of nonlinear changes of energy of anomalous luminescence of BaxSr1-xF2:Eu2+ (x > 0.3) and LiBaF3:Eu2+, and relate them to ITE-4f65d1 states mixing.

  1. Correlated Pair States Formed by Singlet Fission and Exciton-Exciton Annihilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes, Gregory D

    2015-12-24

    Singlet fission to form a pair of triplet excitations on two neighboring molecules and the reverse process, triplet-triplet annihilation to upconvert excitation, have been extensively studied. Comparatively little work has sought to examine the properties of the intermediate state in both of these processes-the bimolecular pair state. Here, the eigenstates constituting the manifold of 16 bimolecular pair excitations and their relative energies in the weak-coupling regime are reported. The lowest-energy states obtained from the branching diagram method are the triplet pairs with overall singlet spin |X1⟩ ≈ (1)[TT] and quintet spin |Q⟩ ≈ (5)[TT]. It is shown that triplet pair states can be separated by a triplet-triplet energy-transfer mechanism to give a separated, yet entangled triplet pair (1)[T···T]. Independent triplets are produced by decoherence of the separated triplet pair. Recombination of independent triplets by exciton-exciton annihilation to form the correlated triplet pair (i.e., nongeminate recombination) happens with 1/3 of the rate of either triplet migration or recombination of the separated correlated triplet pair (geminate recombination).

  2. Electronic and optical properties of single excitons and biexcitons in type-II quantum dot nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koc, Fatih, E-mail: fatih.koc@msn.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Selcuk University, 42075 Konya (Turkey); Sahin, Mehmet, E-mail: mehmet.sahin@agu.edu.tr, E-mail: mehsahin@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Selcuk University, 42075 Konya (Turkey); Department of Material Science and Nanotechnology Engineering, Abdullah Gül University, Kayseri (Turkey)

    2014-05-21

    In this study, a detailed investigation of the electronic and optical properties (i.e., binding energies, absorption wavelength, overlap of the electron-hole wave functions, recombination oscillator strength, etc.) of an exciton and a biexciton in CdTe/CdSe core/shell type-II quantum dot heterostructures has been carried out in the frame of the single band effective mass approximation. In order to determine the electronic properties, we have self-consistently solved the Poisson-Schrödinger equations in the Hartree approximation. We have considered all probable Coulomb interaction effects on both energy levels and also on the corresponding wave functions for both single exciton and biexciton. In addition, we have taken into account the quantum mechanical exchange-correlation effects in the local density approximation between same kinds of particles for biexciton. Also, we have examined the effect of the ligands and dielectric mismatch on the electronic and optical properties. We have used a different approximation proposed by Sahin and Koc [Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 183103 (2013)] for the recombination oscillator strength of the biexciton for bound and unbound cases. The results obtained have been presented comparatively as a function of the shell thicknesses and probable physical reasons in behind of the results have been discussed in a detail.

  3. Complete study of excitonic fine-structure splitting in GaN/AlN quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoenig, Gerald; Winkelnkemper, Momme; Schliwa, Andrei; Hoffmann, Axel; Bimberg, Dieter [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Technische Universitaet Berlin (Germany); Kindel, Christian [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Technische Universitaet Berlin (Germany); Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Tokyo (Japan); Kako, Satoshi [Institute for Nano Quantum Information Electronics, University of Tokyo (Japan); Kawano, Takeshi; Oishi, Hiroaki [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Tokyo (Japan); Arakawa, Yasuhiko [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Tokyo (Japan); Institute for Nano Quantum Information Electronics, University of Tokyo (Japan); Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    A detailed understanding of the excitonic fine structure in quantum dots (QDs) is indispensable for their use in quantum cryptography devices. While the fine structure in As-based QDs has been studied extensively, there is a lack of such investigations for N-based QDs, which might operate at room temperature. We present the first complete study of excitonic fine-structure splitting (FSS) in GaN/AlN QDs. Our experimental studies reveal a huge FSS of up to 7 meV with a strong dependence on the emission energy inverse to that in As-based QDs. Our theoretical studies, performed with a configuration-interaction method based on realistic 8-band-k.p Hartree-Fock states, confirm the experimental results and identify the origin of FSS as lattice strain induced. Based on our results it is possible to induce a strain gradient (by micro mechanic techniques or structuring methods), which will reduce the FSS to zero for the emission of entangled photon pairs.

  4. Renormalization group study of excitonic and superconducting order in doped honeycomb bilayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, James; Vafek, Oskar

    2014-03-01

    We explore the competition between spin-charge order and unconventional superconductivity in the context of the AB stacked bilayer honeycomb lattice, realized experimentally as bilayer graphene, which features approximately parabolically touching electron bands. Using a weak-coupling renormalization group theory, we show that unconventional superconductivity arises generically for repulsively interacting fermions as excitonic order is suppressed by adding charge carriers to the system. We investigate the effects of finite temperature and further-neighbor hopping, the latter of which leads to so-called ``trigonal warping'' and destroys the perfect circular symmetry of the Fermi surfaces. We show that superconductivity survives for a finite range of trigonal warping, and that the nature of the superconducting phase may change as a function of further neighbor hopping. Depending on the range of interactions and the degree of trigonal warping, we find that the most likely superconducting instabilities are to f-wave, chiral d-wave, and pair density wave phases. It is shown that unconventional superconductivity is significantly enhanced by fluctuations in particle-hole channels, with the critical temperature reaching a maximum near the excitonic phase. Supported by the NSF CAREER award under Grant No. DMR-0955561, NSF Cooperative Agreement No. DMR-0654118, and the State of Florida, as well as by ICAM-I2CAM (NSF grant DMR-0844115) and by DoE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences (Award DE-FG02-08ER46544).

  5. Hydrogen-related excitons and their excited-state transitions in ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinhold, R.; Neiman, A.; Kennedy, J. V.; Markwitz, A.; Reeves, R. J.; Allen, M. W.

    2017-02-01

    The role of hydrogen in the photoluminescence (PL) of ZnO was investigated using four different types of bulk ZnO single crystal, with varying concentrations of unintentional hydrogen donor and Group I acceptor impurities. Photoluminescence spectra were measured at 3 K, with emission energies determined to ±50 μeV, before and after separate annealing in O2, N2, and H2 atmospheres. Using this approach, several new hydrogen-related neutral-donor-bound excitons, and their corresponding B exciton, ionized donor, and two electron satellite (TES) excited state transitions were identified and their properties further investigated using hydrogen and deuterium ion implantation. The commonly observed I4 (3.36272 eV) emission due to excitons bound to multicoordinated hydrogen inside an oxygen vacancy (HO), that is present in most ZnO material, was noticeably absent in hydrothermally grown (HT) ZnO and instead was replaced by a doublet of two closely lying recombination lines I4 b ,c (3.36219, 3.36237 eV) due to a hydrogen-related donor with a binding energy (ED) of 47.7 meV. A new and usually dominant recombination line I6 -H (3.36085 eV) due to a different hydrogen-related defect complex with an ED of 49.5 meV was also identified in HT ZnO. Here, I4 b ,c and I6 -H were stable up to approximately 400 and 600 °C, respectively, indicating that they are likely to contribute to the unintentional n -type conductivity of ZnO. Another doublet I5 (3.36137, 3.36148 eV) was identified in hydrogenated HT ZnO single crystals with low Li concentrations, and this was associated with a defect complex with an ED of 49.1 meV. A broad near band edge (NBE) emission centered at 3.366 eV was associated with excitons bound to subsurface hydrogen. We further demonstrate that hydrogen incorporates on different lattice sites for different annealing conditions and show that the new features I4 b ,c, I6 -H, and I5 most likely originate from the lithium-hydrogen defect complexes L iZn-HO , A l

  6. Relaxation of Exciton Confinement in CdSe Quantum Dots by Modification with a Conjugated Dithiocarbamate Ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, Matthew T. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Weiss, Emily A. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Coordination of phenyldithiocarbamate (PTC) ligands to solution-phase colloidal CdSe quantum dots (QDs) decreases the optical band gap, Eg, of the QDs by up to 220 meV. These values of ΔEg are the largest shifts achieved by chemical modification of the surfaces of solution-phase CdSe QDs and are—by more than an order of magnitude in energy—the largest bathochromic shifts achieved for QDs in either the solution or solid phases. Measured values of ΔEg upon coordination to PTC correspond to an apparent increase in the excitonic radius of 0.26 ± 0.03 nm; this excitonic delocalization is independent of the size of the QD for radii, R = 1.1-1.9 nm. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the highest occupied molecular orbital of PTC is near resonant with that of the QD, and that the two have correct symmetry to exchange electron density (PTC is a π-donor, and the photoexcited QD is a π-acceptor). We therefore propose that the relaxation of exciton confinement occurs through delocalization of the photoexcited hole of the QD into the ligand shell.

  7. How two-dimensional brick layer J-aggregates differ from linear ones: excitonic properties and line broadening mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Dijkstra, Arend G; Knoester, Jasper; Nelson, Keith A; Cao, Jianshu

    2016-01-01

    We study the excitonic coupling and homogeneous spectral line width of brick layer J-aggregate films. We begin by analysing the structural information revealed by the two-exciton states probed in two-dimensional spectra. Our first main result is that the relation between the excitonic couplings and the spectral shift in a two-dimensional structure is different (larger shift for the same nearest neighbour coupling) from that in a one-dimensional structure, which leads to an estimation of dipolar coupling in two-dimensional lattices. We next investigate the mechanisms of homogeneous broadening - population relaxation and pure dephasing - and evaluate their relative importance in linear and two-dimensional aggregates. Our second main result is that pure dephasing dominates the line width in two-dimensional systems up to a crossover temperature, which explains the linear temperature dependence of the homogeneous line width. This is directly related to the decreased density of states at the band edge when compared...

  8. Anisotropy of BN and Be x-ray-emission bands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansour, A.; Schnatterly, S.E.

    1987-12-15

    We present measurements of the K emission spectra of hexagonal Be and BN (h-Be and h-BN). The anisotropy of the emission allows us to separate the bands into their sigma and ..pi.. components, enabling us to demonstrate the unambiguous ..pi.. character of the B core exciton. We find that the exciton presents a double-peaked structure which we attribute to phonon ringing. For the first time we are able to separate into ..pi.. and sigma components the doubly ionized K emission bands of B and N in h-BN and of Be in h-Be, revealing the effect of the spectator core hole on the shape of the density of states. Such an effect is in qualitative agreement with the final-state rule, although the local p density of states is distorted more than has previously been reported.

  9. Thermodynamic Origin of Photoinstability in the CH3NH3Pb(I1–xBrx)3 Hybrid Halide Perovskite Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The formation of solid-solutions of iodide, bromide, and chloride provides the means to control the structure, band gap, and stability of hybrid halide perovskite semiconductors for photovoltaic applications. We report a computational investigation of the CH3NH3PbI3/CH3NH3PbBr3 alloy from density functional theory with a thermodynamic analysis performed within the generalized quasi-chemical approximation. We construct the phase diagram and identify a large miscibility gap, with a critical temperature of 343 K. The observed photoinstability in some mixed-halide solar cells is explained by the thermodynamics of alloy formation, where an initially homogeneous solution is subject to spinodal decomposition with I and Br-rich phases, which is further complicated by a wide metastable region defined by the binodal line. PMID:26952337

  10. Recombination dynamics of a localized exciton bound at basal stacking faults within the m-plane ZnO film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, S.; Liu, W.-R. [Scientific Research Division, National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Hsu, H. C., E-mail: hsuhc@mail.ncku.edu.tw, E-mail: wfhsieh@mail.nctu.edu.tw [Department of Photonics and Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, 701 Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lin, B. H.; Hsu, C.-H. [Scientific Research Division, National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Department of Photonics and Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China); Kuo, C. C.; Hsieh, W. F., E-mail: hsuhc@mail.ncku.edu.tw, E-mail: wfhsieh@mail.nctu.edu.tw [Department of Photonics and Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China); Eriksson, M. O.; Holtz, P. O. [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, Linköping (Sweden)

    2014-07-07

    We investigated the carrier dynamics near basal stacking faults (BSFs) in m-plane ZnO epitaxial film. The behaviors of the type-II quantum wells related to the BSFs are verified through time-resolved and time-integrated photoluminescence. The decay time of the emission of BSFs is observed to have a higher power law value and longer decay time than the emission of the donor-bound excitons. The spectral-dependent decay times reveal a phenomenon of carriers migrating among band tail states, which are related to the spatial distribution of the type-II quantum wells formed by the BSFs. A high density of excited carriers leads to a band bending effect, which in turn causes a blue-shift of the emission peak of BSFs with a broadened distribution of band tail states.

  11. Single Molecule Photobleaching Probes the Exciton Wavefunction in a Multichromophoric System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernando, J.; Hoogenboom, J.P.; Dijk, van E.M.H.P.; Garcia-Lopez, J.J.; Crego Calama, M.; Reinhoudt, D.N.; Hulst, van N.F.; Garcia-Parajo, M.F.

    2004-01-01

    The exciton wave function of a trichromophoric system is investigated by means of single molecule spectroscopy at room temperature. Individual trimers exhibit superradiance and loss of vibronic structure in emission spectrum, features proving exciton delocalization. We identify two distinct photodeg

  12. Exciton effective mass enhancement in coupled quantum wells in electric and magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, J.; Muljarov, E. A.

    2016-02-01

    We present a calculation of exciton states in semiconductor coupled quantum wells in the presence of electric and magnetic fields applied perpendicular to the QW plane. The exciton Schrödinger equation is solved in real space in three-dimensions to obtain the Landau levels of both direct and indirect excitons. Calculation of the exciton energy levels and oscillator strengths enables mapping of the electric and magnetic field dependence of the exciton absorption spectrum. For the ground state of the system, we evaluate the Bohr radius, optical lifetime, binding energy and dipole moment. The exciton mass renormalization due to the magnetic field is calculated using a perturbative approach. We predict a non-monotonous dependence of the exciton ground state effective mass on magnetic field. Such a trend is explained in a classical picture, in terms of the ground state tending from an indirect to a direct exciton with increasing magnetic field.

  13. Anomalous effect of phonon wind on lateral migration of excitons in ultrathin quantum CdTe/ZnTe well

    CERN Document Server

    Onishchenko, E E; Zajtsev, V V

    2001-01-01

    The effect of the acoustic phonons nonequilibrium flux on the photoluminescence of the CdTe/ZnTe thin quantum well, excited quasi-resonantly by the He-Ne-laser is studied. It is established that the phonon flux leads to the change in the form of the quantum well luminescence band even by low generation capacities. It is assumed that the nonequilibrium phonons flux stimulates the excitons migration in the quantum well plane, conditioned by the tunnel transitions between the potential local minima, which are accompanied by the phonons induced emission

  14. Atomistic tight-binding theory of excitonic splitting energies in CdX(X = Se, S and Te)/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukkabot, Worasak; Pinsook, Udomsilp

    2017-01-01

    Using the atomistic tight-binding theory (TB) and a configuration interaction description (CI), we numerically compute the excitonic splitting of CdX(X = Se, S and Te)/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals with the objective to explain how types of the core materials and growth shell thickness can provide the detailed manipulation of the dark-dark (DD), dark-bright (DB) and bright-bright (BB) excitonic splitting, beneficial for the active application of quantum information. To analyze the splitting of the excitonic states, the optical band gaps, ground-state wave function overlaps and atomistic electron-hole interactions tend to be numerically demonstrated. Based on the atomistic computations, the single-particle and excitonic gaps are mainly reduced with the increasing ZnS shell thickness owing to the quantum confinement. In the range of the higher to lower energies, the order of the single-particle gaps is CdSe/ZnS, CdS/ZnS and CdTe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals, while one of the excitonic gaps is CdS/ZnS, CdSe/ZnS and CdTe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals because of the atomistic electron-hole interaction. The strongest electron-hole interactions are mainly observed in CdSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals. In addition, the computational results underline that the energies of the dark-dark (DD), dark-bright (DB) and bright-bright (BB) excitonic splitting are generally reduced with the increasing ZnS growth shell thickness as described by the trend of the electron-hole exchange interaction. The high-to-low splitting of the excitonic states is demonstrated in CdSe/ZnS, CdTe/ZnS and CdS/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals because of the fashion in the electron-hole exchange interaction and overlaps of the electron-hole wave functions. As the resulting calculations, it is expected that CdS/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals are the best candidates to be the source of entangled photons. Finally, the comprehensive information on the excitonic splitting can enable the use of suitable core

  15. Charge-carrier dynamics in hybrid metal halide perovskites (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milot, Rebecca L.; Rehman, Waqaas; Eperon, Giles E.; Snaith, Henry J.; Johnston, Michael B.; Herz, Laura M.

    2016-09-01

    Hybrid metal halide perovskites are attractive components for many optoelectronic applications due to a combination of their superior charge transport properties and relative ease of fabrication. A complete understanding of the nature of charge transport in these materials is therefore essential for current and future device development. We have evaluated two systems - the standard perovskite methylammonium lead triiodide (CH3NH3PbI3) and a series of mixed-iodide/bromide formamidinium lead perovskites - in an effort to determine what effect structural and chemical composition have on optoelectronic properties including mobility, charge-carrier recombination dynamics, and charge-carrier diffusion length. The photoconductivity in thin films of CH3NH3PbI3was investigated from 8 K to 370 K across three structural phases [1]. While the monomolecular charge-carrier recombination rate was found to increase with rising temperature indicating a mechanism dominated by ionized impurity mediated recombination, the bimolecular rate constant decreased with rising temperature as charge-carrier mobility declined. The Auger rate constant was highly phase specific, suggesting a strong dependence on electronic band structure. For the mixed-halide formamidinuim lead bromide-iodide perovskites, HC(NH2)2Pb(BryI1-y)3, bimolecular and Auger charge-carrier recombination rate constants strongly correlated with bromide content, which indicated a link with electronic structure [2]. Although HC(NH2)2PbBr3 and HC(NH2)2PbI3 exhibited high charge-carrier mobilities and diffusion lengths exceeding 1 μm, mobilities for mixed Br/I perovskites were all lower as a result of crystalline phase disorder.

  16. Electrodynamic and excitonic intertube interactions in semiconducting carbon nanotube aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crochet, Jared J; Sau, Jay D; Duque, Juan G; Doorn, Stephen K; Cohen, Marvin L

    2011-04-26

    The optical properties of selectively aggregated, nearly single chirality single-wall carbon nanotubes were investigated by both continuous-wave and time-resolved spectroscopies. With reduced sample heterogeneities, we have resolved aggregation-dependent reductions of the excitation energy of the S(1) exciton and enhanced electron-hole pair absorption. Photoluminescence spectra revealed a spectral splitting of S(1) and simultaneous reductions of the emission efficiencies and nonradiative decay rates. The observed strong deviations from isolated tube behavior are accounted for by enhanced screening of the intratube Coulomb interactions, intertube exciton tunneling, and diffusion-driven exciton quenching. We also provide evidence that density gradient ultracentrifugation can be used to structurally sort single-wall carbon nanotubes by aggregate size as evident by a monotonic dependence of the aforementioned optical properties on buoyant density.

  17. Non-Markovian Quantum Jumps in Excitonic Energy Transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Rebentrost, Patrick; Aspuru-Guzik, Alan

    2009-01-01

    We utilize the novel non-Markovian quantum jump (NMQJ) approach to stochastically simulate exciton dynamics derived from a time-convolutionless master equation. For relevant parameters and time scales, the time-dependent, oscillatory decoherence rates can have negative regions, a signature of non-Markovian behavior and of the revival of coherences. This can lead to non-Markovian population beatings for a dimer system at room temperature. We show that strong exciton-phonon coupling to low frequency modes can considerably modify transport properties. We observe increased exciton transport, which can be seen as an extension of recent environment-assisted quantum transport (ENAQT) concepts to the non-Markovian regime. Within the NMQJ method, the Fenna-Matthew-Olson protein is investigated as a prototype for larger photosynthetic complexes.

  18. Large Range Manipulation of Exciton Species in Monolayer WS2

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Ke; Yang, Hang; Cheng, Xiangai; Jiang, Tian

    2016-01-01

    Unconventional emissions from exciton and trion in monolayer WS2 are studied by photoexcitation. Excited by 532nm laser beam, the carrier species in the monolayer WS2 are affected by the excess electrons escaping from photoionization of donor impurity, the concentration of which varies with different locations of the sample. Simply increasing the excitation power at room temperature, the excess electron and thus the intensity ratio of excited trion and exciton can be continuously tuned over a large range from 0.1 to 7.7. Furthermore, this intensity ratio can also be manipulated by varying temperature. However, in this way the resonance energy of the exciton and trion show red-shifts with increasing temperature due to electron-phonon coupling. The binding energy of the trion is determined to be ~23meV and independent to temperature, indicating strong Coulomb interaction of carriers in such 2D materials.

  19. Exciton transport, charge extraction, and loss mechanisms in organic photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Shawn Ryan

    Organic photovoltaics have attracted significant interest over the last decade due to their promise as clean low-cost alternatives to large-scale electric power generation such as coal-fired power, natural gas, and nuclear power. Many believe power conversion efficiency targets of 10-15% must be reached before commercialization is possible. Consequently, understanding the loss mechanisms which currently limit efficiencies to 4-5% is crucial to identify paths to reach higher efficiencies. In this work, we investigate the dominant loss mechanisms in some of the leading organic photovoltaic architectures. In the first class of architectures, which include planar heterojunctions and bulk heterojunctions with large domains, efficiencies are primarily limited by the distance photogenerated excitations (excitons) can be transported (termed the exciton diffusion length) to a heterojunction where the excitons may dissociate. We will discuss how to properly measure the exciton diffusion length focusing on the effects of optical interference and of energy transfer when using fullerenes as quenching layers and show how this explains the variety of diffusion lengths reported for the same material. After understanding that disorder and defects limit exciton diffusion lengths, we suggest some approaches to overcome this. We then extensively investigate the use of long-range resonant energy transfer to increase exciton harvesting. Using simulations and experiments as support, we discuss how energy transfer can be engineered into architectures to increase the distance excitons can be harvested. In an experimental model system, DOW Red/PTPTB, we will show how the distance excitons are harvested can be increased by almost an order of magnitude up to 27 nm from a heterojunction and give design rules and extensions of this concept for future architectures. After understanding exciton harvesting limitations we will look at other losses that are present in planar heterojunctions. One of

  20. Controlled Spin Transport in Planar Systems Through Topological Exciton

    CERN Document Server

    Abhinav, Kumar

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that a charge-neutral spin-1 exciton, possibly realizable only in planar systems like graphene and topological insulators, can be effectively used for controlled spin transport in such media. The effect of quantum and thermal fluctuations yield a parametric excitation threshold for its realization. This planar exciton differs from the conventional ones, as it owes its existence to the topological Chern-Simons (CS) term. The parity and time-reversal violating CS term can arise from quantum effects in systems with parity-breaking mass-gap. The spinning exciton naturally couples to magnetic field, leading to the possibility of controlled spin transport. Being neutral, it is immune to a host of effect, which afflicts spin transport through charged fermions.

  1. Ab initio study of the optical properties of crystalline phenanthrene, including the excitonic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadsetani, Mehrdad; Nejatipour, Hajar; Ebrahimian, Ali

    2015-05-01

    Using the ab initio methods for solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation on the basis of the FPLAPW method, optical properties of crystalline phenanthrene were calculated, in a comparison to its isomer, anthracene. It was found that despite the similarity of the structural, electronic, and the overall optical properties in a 40 eV energy range, phenanthrene and anthracene show significant differences in their optical spectra in the energy range below band gaps. Phenanthrene has two spin singlet excitonic features whereas anthracene shows one. The singlet and the lowest triplet binding energies of phenanthrene were found to be larger than anthracene. In this study, in addition, a comparison has been made between the optical spectra in RPA and the existing experimental data.

  2. Type-II excitons in ZnTe/ZnSe quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre, Regis; Najjar, Rita; Besombes, Lucien; Bougerol, Catherine; Tatarenko, Serge; Mariette, Henri [CEA-CNRS group ' ' Nanophysique et Semiconducteurs' ' , Institut Neel-CNRS, Grenoble (France)

    2009-04-15

    We present the photoluminescence and time resolved photoluminescence properties of an ensemble of ZnTe quantum dots embedded in a ZnSe matrix. Those heterostructures exhibit a type-II band alignment with holes confined within the dots and electrons kept in the close vicinity of the dots by coulomb attraction. We show that the structural and optical features of the samples, grown by molecular beam epitaxy, are highly sensitive to the growth conditions. Depending on the Se to Zn flux ratio, the ZnTe islands can disappear and lead to a thin 2D quantum well, or be preserved and localize excitons, as evidenced by photoluminescence experiments. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Exciton dephasing and biexciton binding in CdSe/ZnSe islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Hans Peter; Tranitz, H.-P.; Preis, H;

    1999-01-01

    The dephasing of excitons and the formation of biexcitons in self-organized CdSe/ZnSe islands grown by molecular-beam epitaxy is investigated using spectrally resolved four-wave mixing. A distribution of exciton-exciton scattering efficiencies and dephasing times in the range of 0.5-10 ps...

  4. Temperature-dependent excitonic photoluminescence Excited by Two-Photon Absorption in Perovskite CsPbBr3 Quantum Dots

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Ke; Xu, Zhongjie; Shen, Chao; Cheng, Xiangai; Jiang, Tian

    2016-01-01

    Recently lead halide nanocrystals (quantum dots) have been reported with potential for photovoltaic and optoelectronic applications due to their excellent luminescent properties. Herein excitonic photoluminescence (PL) excited by two-photon absorption in perovskite CsPbBr3 quantum dots (QDs) have been studied across a broad temperature range from 80K to 380K. Two-photon absorption has been investigated with absorption coefficient up to 0.085 cm/GW at room temperature. Moreover, the photoluminescence excited by two-photon absorption shows a linear blue-shift (0.25meV/K) below temperature of ~220K and turned steady with fluctuation below 1nm (4.4meV) for higher temperature up to 380K. These phenomena are distinctly different from general red-shift of semiconductor and can be explained by the competition between lattice expansion and electron-phonon couplling.Our results reveal the strong nonlinear absorption and temperature-independent chromaticity in a large temperature range from 220K to 380K in the CsPbX3 QD...

  5. The Increase of Radiative Lifetime of Free Excitons in Selectively Si-doped GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs Heterostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgis KUNDROTAS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The time resolved photoluminescence spectra of selectively Si-doped GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs heterostructures have been investigated over a wide temperature range from 3.6 K to 300 K in order to identify possible mechanisms behind the observed increase in radiative lifetime of free excitons. Possible mechanisms of carrier recombination are discussed with emphasis on the unique traits of excitonic photoluminescence. The intensive lines found in the spectra of the heterostructures are associated with the formation and enhancement of free exciton emission in the flat band region of an active i-GaAs layer. We have established that the free exciton radiative lifetime in the heterostructures increases about two times, up to 1.44 ns in comparison with lifetime 0.6 ns of i-GaAs layer without a heterostructure for first sample and up to 0.92 ns from 0.4 ns for second sample at 3.6 K temperature. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.2.6329

  6. Enhanced energy transport in genetically engineered excitonic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Heechul; Heldman, Nimrod; Rebentrost, Patrick; Abbondanza, Luigi; Iagatti, Alessandro; Alessi, Andrea; Patrizi, Barbara; Salvalaggio, Mario; Bussotti, Laura; Mohseni, Masoud; Caruso, Filippo; Johnsen, Hannah C.; Fusco, Roberto; Foggi, Paolo; Scudo, Petra F.; Lloyd, Seth; Belcher, Angela M.

    2016-02-01

    One of the challenges for achieving efficient exciton transport in solar energy conversion systems is precise structural control of the light-harvesting building blocks. Here, we create a tunable material consisting of a connected chromophore network on an ordered biological virus template. Using genetic engineering, we establish a link between the inter-chromophoric distances and emerging transport properties. The combination of spectroscopy measurements and dynamic modelling enables us to elucidate quantum coherent and classical incoherent energy transport at room temperature. Through genetic modifications, we obtain a significant enhancement of exciton diffusion length of about 68% in an intermediate quantum-classical regime.

  7. Environment-assisted quantum walks in excitonic energy transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni, Masoud; Rebentrost, Patrick; Lloyd, Seth; Aspuru-Guzik, Alan

    2010-03-01

    Long-lived quantum coherence has recently been observed experimentally via ultrafast nonlinear spectroscopy in excitonic energy transfer within light-harvesting photosynthetic complexes, conjugated polymers, and marine alga even at room temperature. Here, we demonstrate that directed quantum walks lead to an enhancement of energy transfer efficiency in such systems. We introduce two complementary theoretical approaches, based on a Green's function method and energy transfer susceptibilities, to partition open quantum dynamics. We quantify the role of fundamental physical processes involved in energy transport. In particular, we examine the contributions of classical hopping, coherent excitonic Hamiltonian, and phonon-induced decoherence effects for pure dephasing, Markovian, and non-Markovian limits.

  8. One-dimensional models of excitons in carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia Decebal; Duclos, Pierre; Pedersen, Thomas Garm

    2004-01-01

    Excitons in carbon nanotubes may be modeled by two oppositely charged particles living on the surface of a cylinder. We derive three one-dimensional effective Hamiltonians which become exact as the radius of the cylinder vanishes. Two of them are solvable.......Excitons in carbon nanotubes may be modeled by two oppositely charged particles living on the surface of a cylinder. We derive three one-dimensional effective Hamiltonians which become exact as the radius of the cylinder vanishes. Two of them are solvable....

  9. Dynamics of Photogenerated Polaron-Excitons in Organic Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junior, Luiz A. Ribeiro; Neto, Pedro H. Oliveira; da Cunha, Wiliam F.; Silva, Geraldo M. e.

    In this work we performed numerical simulations of one π-conjugated polymer chain subjected to photogeneration. Within the SSH model modified to include the Brazoviskii-Kirova symmetry breaking term, we investigate the dynamics of photoexcitations to address the generation mechanism of polaron-excitons using the unrestricted Hartree-Fock approximation. It was obtained that after the photoexcitation the system relaxes spontaneously into a polaron-exciton in a transient state in a range of 200 fs. Our results also show that charged polarons are generated directly after this transient state.

  10. Coherent secondary emission from resonantly excited two-exciton states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Dan

    2000-01-01

    The coherent interaction of light and the electronic states of semiconductors near the fundamental bandgap has been a very active topic of research since the advent of ultrafast lasers. While many of the ultrafast nonlinear properties of semiconductors have been well explained within mean field...... theories as e.g. the semiconductor Bloch equations, recent experimental and theoretical developments have demonstrated contributions to the third order nonlinear susceptibility from exciton-exciton correlations beyond the mean field approximation. Ultrafast transient four-wave mixing (TFWM)has been...

  11. Bimolecular Recombination Kinetics of an Exciton-Trion Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The second and third reactions are catalytic agents for the loss of excitons. This implies that the constants R and S will appear only in the exciton...change the electron density. 3 Note that Reaction 3 in Table 2 is catalytic as defined above, because it changes the electron and e−trion...from the PL laser, which is fixed. Table 2 Reactions that change νe Reaction Rate Constant 1. νe + νh → ϕ A 2. νe + τh → Ex P 3

  12. Hybridized exciton-polariton resonances in core-shell nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Gentile, Martin J

    2016-01-01

    The goal of nanophotonics is to control and manipulate light at length scales below the diffraction limit. Typically nanostructured metals are used for this purpose, light being confined by exploiting the surface plasmon-polaritons such structures support. Recently excitonic (molecular) materials have been identified as an alternative candidate material for nanophotonics. Here we use theoretical modelling to explore how hybridisation of surface exciton-polaritons can be achieved through appropriate nanostructuring. We focus on the extent to which the frequency of the hybridised modes can be shifted with respect to the underlying material resonances.

  13. Singlet exciton fission in polycrystalline pentacene: from photophysics toward devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark W B; Rao, Akshay; Ehrler, Bruno; Friend, Richard H

    2013-06-18

    Singlet exciton fission is the process in conjugated organic molecules bywhich a photogenerated singlet exciton couples to a nearby chromophore in the ground state, creating a pair of triplet excitons. Researchers first reported this phenomenon in the 1960s, an event that sparked further studies in the following decade. These investigations used fluorescence spectroscopy to establish that exciton fission occurred in single crystals of several acenes. However, research interest has been recently rekindled by the possibility that singlet fission could be used as a carrier multiplication technique to enhance the efficiency of photovoltaic cells. The most successful architecture to-date involves sensitizing a red-absorbing photoactive layer with a blue-absorbing material that undergoes fission, thereby generating additional photocurrent from higher-energy photons. The quest for improved solar cells has spurred a drive to better understand the fission process, which has received timely aid from modern techniques for time-resolved spectroscopy, quantum chemistry, and small-molecule device fabrication. However, the consensus interpretation of the initial studies using ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy was that exciton fission was suppressed in polycrystalline thin films of pentacene, a material that would be otherwise expected to be an ideal model system, as well as a viable candidate for fission-sensitized photovoltaic devices. In this Account, we review the results of our recent transient absorption and device-based studies of polycrystalline pentacene. We address the controversy surrounding the assignment of spectroscopic features in transient absorption data, and illustrate how a consistent interpretation is possible. This work underpins our conclusion that singlet fission in pentacene is extraordinarily rapid (∼80 fs) and is thus the dominant decay channel for the photoexcited singlet exciton. Further, we discuss our demonstration that triplet excitons

  14. Strong-field terahertz-optical mixing in excitons

    CERN Document Server

    Su, M Y; Sherwin, M S; Huntington, A S; Coldren, L A

    2002-01-01

    Driving a double-quantum-well excitonic intersubband resonance with a terahertz (THz) electric field of frequency \\omega_{THz} generated terahertz optical sidebands \\omega=\\omega_{THz}+\\omega_{NIR} on a weak NIR probe. At high THz intensities, the intersubband dipole energy which coupled two excitons was comparable to the THz photon energy. In this strong-field regime the sideband intensity displayed a non-monotonic dependence on the THz field strength. The oscillating refractive index which gives rise to the sidebands may be understood by the formation of Floquet states, which oscillate with the same periodicity as the driving THz field.

  15. Incomplete Exciton Harvesting from Fullerenes in Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Burkhard, George F.

    2009-12-09

    We investigate the internal quantum efficiencies (IQEs) of high efficiency poly-3-hexylthiophene:[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) solar cells and find them to be lower at wavelengths where the PCBM absorbs. Because the exciton diffusion length in PCBM is too small, excitons generated in PCBM decay before reaching the donor-acceptor interface. This result has implications for most state of the art organic solar cells, since all of the most efficient devices use fullerenes as electron acceptors. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  16. Binding Energy of Excitons in a Quantum Ring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Wen-Fang

    2008-01-01

    The binding energy of excitons confined to a quantum ring under the influence of perpendicular homogeneous magnetic field is calculated as a function of the ring radius. Calculations are made by using the method of exact diagonalization within the effective-mass approximation. The feature of binding energy of the ground state as a function of the ring radius for several values of the magnetic field has been revealed. The interesting feature of our study is that, in a quantum ring, the geometric structure of excitons may reveal transition.

  17. Electrolytic systems and methods for making metal halides and refining metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, Justin M.; Cecala, David M.

    2015-05-26

    Disclosed are electrochemical cells and methods for producing a halide of a non-alkali metal and for electrorefining the halide. The systems typically involve an electrochemical cell having a cathode structure configured for dissolving a hydrogen halide that forms the halide into a molten salt of the halogen and an alkali metal. Typically a direct current voltage is applied across the cathode and an anode that is fabricated with the non-alkali metal such that the halide of the non-alkali metal is formed adjacent the anode. Electrorefining cells and methods involve applying a direct current voltage across the anode where the halide of the non-alkali metal is formed and the cathode where the non-alkali metal is electro-deposited. In a representative embodiment the halogen is chlorine, the alkali metal is lithium and the non-alkali metal is uranium.

  18. Chemical Reactivity Perspective into the Group 2B Metals Halides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özen, Alimet Sema; Akdeniz, Zehra

    2016-06-30

    Chemical reactivity descriptors within the conceptual density functional theory can be used to understand the nature of the interactions between two monomers of the Group 2B metal halides. This information might be valuable in the development of adequate force law parameters for simulations in the liquid state. In this study, MX2 monomers and dimers, where M = Zn, Cd, Hg and X = F, Cl, Br, I, were investigated in terms of chemical reactivity descriptors. Relativistic effects were taken into account using the effective core potential (ECP) approach. Correlations were produced between global and local reactivity descriptors and dimerization energies. Results presented in this work represent the first systematic investigation of Group 2B metal halides in the literature from a combined point of view of both relativistic effects and chemical reactivity descriptors. Steric effects were found to be responsible for the deviation from the chemical reactivity principles. They were introduced into the chemical reactivity descriptors such as local softness.

  19. Facile Preparation of Silver Halide Nanoparticles as Visible Light Photocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linfan Cui

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, highly efficient silver halide (AgX-based photocatalysts were successfully fabricated using a facile and template-free direct-precipitation method. AgX nanoparticles, which included silver chloride (AgCl, silver bromide (AgBr and silver iodide (AgI, were synthesized using different potassium halides and silver acetate as reactive sources. The size distribution of the AgX nanopar‐ ticles was determined by the reaction time and ratio of the reagents, which were monitored by UV-vis spectra. The as- prepared AgX nanoparticles exhibited different photoca‐ talytic properties. This shows the differences for the photodegradation of methyl orange and Congo red dyes. In addition, the AgCl nanoparticle-based photocatalyst exhibited the best photocatalytic property among all three types of AgX nanoparticles that are discussed in this study. Therefore, it is a good candidate for removing organic pollutants.

  20. Alkali halide microstructured optical fiber for X-ray detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeHaven, S. L., E-mail: stanton.l.dehaven@nasa.gov, E-mail: russel.a.wincheski@nasa.gov; Wincheski, R. A., E-mail: stanton.l.dehaven@nasa.gov, E-mail: russel.a.wincheski@nasa.gov [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681 (United States); Albin, S., E-mail: salbin@nsu.edu [Norfolk State University, Norfolk, VA 23504 (United States)

    2015-03-31

    Microstructured optical fibers containing alkali halide scintillation materials of CsI(Na), CsI(Tl), and NaI(Tl) are presented. The scintillation materials are grown inside the microstructured fibers using a modified Bridgman-Stockbarger technique. The x-ray photon counts of these fibers, with and without an aluminum film coating are compared to the output of a collimated CdTe solid state detector over an energy range from 10 to 40 keV. The photon count results show significant variations in the fiber output based on the materials. The alkali halide fiber output can exceed that of the CdTe detector, dependent upon photon counter efficiency and fiber configuration. The results and associated materials difference are discussed.

  1. Alkali Halide Microstructured Optical Fiber for X-Ray Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHaven, S. L.; Wincheski, R. A.; Albin, S.

    2014-01-01

    Microstructured optical fibers containing alkali halide scintillation materials of CsI(Na), CsI(Tl), and NaI(Tl) are presented. The scintillation materials are grown inside the microstructured fibers using a modified Bridgman-Stockbarger technique. The x-ray photon counts of these fibers, with and without an aluminum film coating are compared to the output of a collimated CdTe solid state detector over an energy range from 10 to 40 keV. The photon count results show significant variations in the fiber output based on the materials. The alkali halide fiber output can exceed that of the CdTe detector, dependent upon photon counter efficiency and fiber configuration. The results and associated materials difference are discussed.

  2. Active photonic devices based on colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals and organometallic halide perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez Alvarez, Isaac

    2016-10-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals have arisen as outstanding materials to develop a new generation of optoelectronic devices. Their fabrication under simple and low cost colloidal chemistry methods results in cheap nanostructures able to provide a wide range of optical functionalities. Their attractive optical properties include a high absorption cross section below the band gap, a high quantum yield emission at room temperature, or the capability of tuning the band-gap with the size or the base material. In addition, their solution process nature enables an easy integration on several substrates and photonic structures. As a consequence, these nanoparticles have been extensively proposed to develop several photonic applications, such as detection of light, optical gain, generation of light or sensing. This manuscript reviews the great effort undertaken by the scientific community to construct active photonic devices based on these nanoparticles. The conditions to demonstrate stimulated emission are carefully studied by comparing the dependence of the optical properties of the nanocrystals with their size, shape and composition. In addition, this paper describes the design of different photonic architectures (waveguides and cavities) to enhance the generation of photoluminescence, and hence to reduce the threshold of optical gain. Finally, semiconductor nanocrystals are compared to organometallic halide perovskites, as this novel material has emerged as an alternative to colloidal nanoparticles.

  3. Influence of the Print Run on Silver Halide Printing Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Cigula

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The most common printing technique today is lithography. The difference between printing and nonprinting areason a printing plate is accomplished by opposite physical and chemical properties of those areas (MacPhee, 1998.The printing areas are made of photoactive layer that attracts oil and chemical substances with oil solvent – printinginks. The nonprinting areas are made of aluminium-oxide which attracts water based substances – the fountainsolution.There are many of various types of photoactive layer which are used for production of offset printing plates, amongothers is silver halide layer. The usage of the silver halide technology in the graphic reproduction is not a novelty.The filmmaking phase is based on the usage of the silver halide as the photographically active ingredient, for instance,AgBr (silver bromide. The new, digital plate making technology (Computer to Plate, CtP eliminates thefilmmaking phase and therefore enables control of the printing plate’s exposure made by computer. CtP technologyeliminates the filmmaking phase, but it also results with the reduction of needed material quantities and requiredtime for the production (Limburg, 1994; Seydel, 1996.In this paper the basis of the graphic reproduction by using the silver halide digital printing plates was described.The changes of the AgX copying layer and the surface of the aluminium base in the printing process have beenobserved. The surface characteristics were determined by measuring the relevant surface roughness parameters. Inaddition, measurements of coverage values on the prints, detailed at smaller print run, were conducted.Results showed that surface changes on the printing plate are changing during printing process and that thesechanges influence transfer of the printing ink on the printing substrate. These measurements proved to be of greatinterest in the graphic reproduction as they enable us to determine consistency of the printing plates during theprinting

  4. Oxidative alkoxylation of phosphine in alcohol solutions of copper halides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polimbetova, G. S.; Borangazieva, A. K.; Ibraimova, Zh. U.; Bugubaeva, G. O.; Keynbay, S.

    2016-08-01

    The phosphine oxidation reaction with oxygen in alcohol solutions of copper (I, II) halides is studied. Kinetic parameters, intermediates, and by-products are studied by means of NMR 31P-, IR-, UV-, and ESR- spectroscopy; and by magnetic susceptibility, redox potentiometry, gas chromatography, and elemental analysis. A reaction mechanism is proposed, and the optimum conditions are found for the reaction of oxidative alkoxylation phosphine.

  5. Organolead Halide Perovskites for Low Operating Voltage Multilevel Resistive Switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jaeho; Park, Sunghak; Lee, Joohee; Hong, Kootak; Kim, Do-Hong; Moon, Cheon Woo; Park, Gyeong Do; Suh, Junmin; Hwang, Jinyeon; Kim, Soo Young; Jung, Hyun Suk; Park, Nam-Gyu; Han, Seungwu; Nam, Ki Tae; Jang, Ho Won

    2016-08-01

    Organolead halide perovskites are used for low-operating-voltage multilevel resistive switching. Ag/CH3 NH3 PbI3 /Pt cells exhibit electroforming-free resistive switching at an electric field of 3.25 × 10(3) V cm(-1) for four distinguishable ON-state resistance levels. The migration of iodine interstitials and vacancies with low activation energies is responsible for the low-electric-field resistive switching via filament formation and annihilation.

  6. Lamp-Ballast Compatibility Index for Efficient Ceramic Metal Halide Lamp Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Sourish Chatterjee

    2013-01-01

    Development of energy efficient products and exploration of energy saving potential are major challenges for present day’s technology. Ceramic Metal Halide lamp is the latest improved version of metal halide lamp that finds its wide applications in indoor commercial lighting especially in retail shop lighting. This lamp shows better performance in terms of higher lumen per watt and colour constancy in comparison to conventional metal halide lamp. The inherent negative incremental impedance of...

  7. Fluorescent Properties of Manganese Halide Benzothiazole Inorganic-Organic Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui; Mei, YingXuan; Wei, ZhenHong; Mei, GuangQuan; Cai, Hu

    2016-11-01

    The reaction of manganese (II) halides MnX2 and benzothiazole (btz) in the concentrated acids HX (X = Cl, Br) at 80 °C resulted in the formation of two inorganic-organic hybrid complexes: [(btz)2(MnX4)]·2H2O (X = Cl, 1; X = Br, 2). Both compounds showed green luminescence and exhibited moderate quantum yields of 43.17 % for 1 and 26.18 % for 2, which were directly originated from the tetrahedral coordination of Mn(2+) ion. Two organic - inorganic hybrids [(btz)2(MnX4)]·2H2O based on MnCl2, benzothiazole and halide acids emitted green light with the moderate quantum efficiencies when excited by 365 nm light. Graphical abstract Two organic-inorganic hybrids [(btz)2(MnX4)]·2H2O based on MnCl2, benzothiazole and halide acids emitted green light with the moderate quantum efficiencies when excited by 365 nm light.

  8. Deciphering Halogen Competition in Organometallic Halide Perovskite Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Keum, Jong; Ovchinnikova, Olga S; Belianinov, Alex; Chen, Shiyou; Du, Mao-Hua; Ivanov, Ilia N; Rouleau, Christopher M; Geohegan, David B; Xiao, Kai

    2016-04-20

    Organometallic halide perovskites (OHPs) hold great promise for next-generation, low-cost optoelectronic devices. During the chemical synthesis and crystallization of OHP thin films, a major unresolved question is the competition between multiple halide species (e.g., I(-), Cl(-), Br(-)) in the formation of the mixed-halide perovskite crystals. Whether Cl(-) ions are successfully incorporated into the perovskite crystal structure or, alternatively, where they are located is not yet fully understood. Here, in situ X-ray diffraction measurements of crystallization dynamics are combined with ex situ TOF-SIMS chemical analysis to reveal that Br(-) or Cl(-) ions can promote crystal growth, yet reactive I(-) ions prevent them from incorporating into the lattice of the final perovskite crystal structure. The Cl(-) ions are located in the grain boundaries of the perovskite films. These findings significantly advance our understanding of the role of halogens during synthesis of hybrid perovskites and provide an insightful guidance to the engineering of high-quality perovskite films, essential for exploring superior-performing and cost-effective optoelectronic devices.

  9. Band Together!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Cathy Applefeld

    2011-01-01

    After nearly a decade as band director at St. James High School in St. James, Missouri, Derek Limback knows that the key to building a successful program is putting the program itself above everything else. Limback strives to augment not only his students' musical prowess, but also their leadership skills. Key to his philosophy is instilling a…

  10. Experimental versus expected halide-ion size differences; structural changes in three series of isotypic bismuth chalcogenide halides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Egbert; Krämer, Volker

    2006-06-01

    Experimentally determined halide-ion size differences are compared with expected size differences in the three series of isotypic bismuth chalcogenide halide compounds, KBi(6)O(9)X (X = Cl, Br and I), BiOX (X = F, Cl, Br and I) and BiSX (X = Cl, Br and I). The strong deviations observed can be assigned to steric strain caused by the heterogeneity of the bond-valence pattern and (for BiOX) to anion-anion repulsion and a change in the connectivity scheme. Some special features of the BiOF structure and the question of "isotypism" within the BiOX series are briefly discussed. Structural changes within the BiSX series are analysed.

  11. Enhancement of exciton radiative recombination for In-doped ZnO nanowires with aluminum cylindrical micropillars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jen-Cheng; Liang, Yu-Ting; Cheng, Fang-Ching; Fang, Chia-Hui; Chen, Hung-Ing; Tsai, Chung-Yuan [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering and Department of Electronic Engineering, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan, ROC (China); Jiang, Joe-Air [Department of Bio-Industrial Mechatronics Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Nee, Tzer-En, E-mail: neete@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering and Department of Electronic Engineering, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-04-15

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) has attracted intensive research effort in recent years, due to its unique properties and versatile applications. Recent work on the conservation of surface plasmon (SP) and light through period metal arrays has elucidated the propagation of SP resonance behavior. In this paper, we discuss the enhancement of exciton radiative recombination of the ZnO nanowires with Al cylindrical micropillars. Optical characterization of exciton interacted with SP resonance for indium-doped ZnO nanowires with Al cylindrical micropillars has been also investigated. From photoluminescence spectra of In-doped ZnO nanowires, it is found that the In-doped ZnO nanowires have a blue emission at 425 nm, which resulted from the ZnO band-to-band transition. Prior to the arrays of samples were annealed, a broad green emission centered at 500 nm was observed, which is attributed to ZnO native point defects. The relatively strong green band emission results from the radiative recombination that arises from the ionized oxygen vacancy and surface-defect related luminescence. Compare the In-doped ZnO on Si substrate, the enhancement of PL intensity for In-doped ZnO with deposited Al pattern film can be attributed to strong interaction with SP resonance and exciton over a broad temperature range. These experimental results indicate that Al cylindrical micropillars can significantly enhance carrier confinement and increase the quantum efficiency of In-doped ZnO/Al heterostructures due to the interaction of SP resonance between the In-doped ZnO nanowires and Al cylindrical micropillar structures, the surface-defect related luminescence, and the auxiliary test structures with variable micropillar parameters. -- Highlights: ► We examine the exciton radiative recombination of the ZnO nanowires. ► Al cylindrical micropillars affect the carrier recombination of ZnO/Al structures. ► The interaction of SP resonance between In-doped ZnO nanowire and Al pattern film. ► The carrier

  12. Real-Time Observation of Ultrafast Intraband Relaxation and Exciton Multiplication in PbS Quantum Dots

    KAUST Repository

    El-Ballouli, Ala’a O.

    2014-03-19

    We examine ultrafast intraconduction band relaxation and multiple-exciton generation (MEG) in PbS quantum dots (QDs) using transient absorption spectroscopy with 120 fs temporal resolution. The intraconduction band relaxation can be directly and excellently resolved spectrally and temporally by applying broadband pump-probe spectroscopy to excite and detect the wavelengths around the exciton absorption peak, which is located in the near-infrared region. The time-resolved data unambiguously demonstrate that the intraband relaxation time progressively increases as the pump-photon energy increases. Moreover, the relaxation time becomes much shorter as the size of the QDs decreases, indicating the crucial role of spatial confinement in the intraband relaxation process. Additionally, our results reveal the systematic scaling of the intraband relaxation time with both excess energy above the effective energy band gap and QD size. We also assess MEG in different sizes of the QDs. Under the condition of high-energy photon excitation, which is well above the MEG energy threshold, ultrafast bleach recovery due to the nonradiative Auger recombination of the multiple electron-hole pairs provides conclusive experimental evidence for the presence of MEG. For instance, we achieved quantum efficiencies of 159, 129 and 106% per single-absorbed photon at pump photoexcition of three times the band gap for QDs with band gaps of 880 nm (1.41 eV), 1000 nm (1.24 eV) and 1210 nm (1.0 eV), respectively. These findings demonstrate clearly that the efficiency of transferring excess photon energy to carrier multiplication is significantly increased in smaller QDs compared with larger ones. Finally, we discuss the Auger recombination dynamics of the multiple electron-hole pairs as a function of QD size.

  13. Quantum Statistical Properties of the Exciton in a Leaky Quasi-Mode Cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Zhao-Xian; JIAO Zhi-Yong

    2002-01-01

    We have studied quantum statistical properties of the exciton in a leaky quasi-mode cavity. It is shown that when the exciton is initially in a squeezed coherent state whereas cavity initially in a vacuum state, there is energy exchange between the exciton and cavity. Both the exciton and cavity may exhibit sub-Poissonian distribution and exist quadrature squeezing. Calculation shows that correlation between the exciton and cavity is classical, which implies that there is not the violation of the Cauchy-Schwartz inequality.

  14. Spectral signatures of x((5)) processes in four-wave mixing of homogeneously broadened excitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langbein, W.; Meier, T.; Koch, S.W.;

    2001-01-01

    The influence of fifth-order coherences on the spectrally resolved four-wave mixing response of predominantly homogeneously broadened quasi-two-dimensional excitons is studied. Fifth-order signatures are discussed as a function of spectral position and excitation polarization. An exciton-biexcito...... of one- and two-exciton resonances up to the fifth order in the optical field.......The influence of fifth-order coherences on the spectrally resolved four-wave mixing response of predominantly homogeneously broadened quasi-two-dimensional excitons is studied. Fifth-order signatures are discussed as a function of spectral position and excitation polarization. An exciton...

  15. Exciton-Phonon Scattering in CdSe/ZnSe Quantum Dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立功; 申德振; 范希武; 吕少哲

    2002-01-01

    A temperature-dependent photoluminescence measurement is performed in CdSe/ZnSe quantum dots with a ZnCdSe quantum well. We deduce the temperature dependence of the exciton linewidth and peak energy of the zero-dimensional exciton in the quantum dots and two-dimensional exciton in the CdSe wetting layer. The experimental data reveal a reduction of homogeneous broadening of the exciton line in the quantum dots in comparison with that in the two-dimensional wetting layer, which indicates the decrease of exciton and optical phonon coupling in the CdSe quantum dots.

  16. Transient demonstration of exciton behaviours in solid state cathodoluminescence under different driving voltage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Fu-Jun; Zhao Su-Ling; Xu Zheng; Huang Jin-Zhao; Xu Xu-Rong

    2007-01-01

    In the solid state cathodoluminescence (SSCL), organic materials were excited by hot electrons accelerated in silicon oxide (SiO2) layer under alternating current (AC). In this paper exciton behaviours were analysed by using transient spectra under different driving voltages. The threshold voltages of SSCL and exciton ionization were obtained from the transient spectra. The recombination radiation occurred when the driving voltage went beyond the threshold voltage of exciton ionization. Prom the transient spectrum of two kinds of luminescence (exciton emission and recombination radiation), it was demonstrated that recombination radiation should benefit from the exciton ionization.

  17. Dark-bright exciton spin-flip rates of quantum dots determined by a modified local density of optical states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodahl, Peter; Johansen, Jeppe; Julsgaard, Brian;

    2009-01-01

    This work investigates the influence of dark excitons on the radiative dynamics of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs). Dark excitons have total angular momentum of 2 and contribute to the fine structure of the exciton ground state. As opposed to bright excitons that have total angular momentum 1...

  18. Hamiltonian multiplex interaction based on excitons effect in semiconductor QCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezu Jahanshir

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The subject of modern technology has been the focus of extensive theoretical investigations in semiconducting nanostructures which we know as quantum dots (QCs. The possibility of monitoring and controlling the properties of QCs attracted considerable attention to these objects, as an important basic system in future technology. So, the quantum-mechanical effects play a significant role in the description of the formation mechanism QCs, determination of mass spectrum, binding energy and other characteristics. Based on QFT and by using oscillator representation method (ORM and operator product expansion technique developed in QFT, we study the properties of electron-hole QDs, determine mass spectrum and peruse spin-spin interactions in exciton system and its multiple pair systems. This method has applications to calculate the binding energy of exciton system in ground and excited states with semi-nuclear structure in semiconductor QCs or cold atomic few-body systems and develop the general calculation’s theory of few-body systems based on the Coulomb interaction between particles by forming excitonic pairs in semiconductor QCs. We investigate the binding energy of exciton bound states. It is shown that fermion particles have a very small mass, and after bonding together by dynamically force, constituent particles become massive, which is analogous to what happens in QCD.

  19. Optical absorption of charged excitons in semiconducting carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønnow, Troels Frimodt; Pedersen, Thomas Garm; Cornean, Horia

    2012-01-01

    In this article we examine the absorption coefficient of charged excitons in carbon nanotubes. We investigate the temperature and damping dependence of the absorption spectra. We show that the trion peak in the spectrum is asymmetric for temperatures greater than approximately 1 K whereas the abs...

  20. Excitons in van der Waals Heterostructures: A theoretical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Latini, Simone

    to experimental results. Ultimately this thesis puts forth a first-principles methodology that allows us to address scientific questions that are beyond the capability of existing state of the art techniques and enables 2D materials researcher to predict and design dielectric, electronic and excitonic properties...

  1. Excitonic Doppler-Rabi Oscillations in a Moving Organic Slab

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    It is theoretically shown that excitonic Doppler-Rabi oscillations can occur in an organic slab moving along the axis of a high-Q cavity. Due to the √N enhancement of the vacuum Rabi frequency, this effect can be more easily observed than that in a moving two-level atom.

  2. Exploration of exciton delocalization in organic crystalline thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Kim; Manning, Lane; Rawat, Naveen; Ainsworth, Victoria; Furis, Madalina

    The electronic properties of organic semiconductors play a crucial role in designing new materials for specific applications. Our group recently found evidence for a rotation of molecular planes in phthalocyanines that is responsible for the disappearance of a delocalized exciton in these systems for T >150K.................()().......1 In this study, we attempt to tune the exciton delocalization of small organic molecules using strain effects and alloying different molecules in the same family. The exciton behavior is monitored using time- and polarization resolved photolumniscence (PL) spectroscopy as a function of temperature. Specifically, organic crystalline thin films of octabutoxy phthalocyanine (H2OBPc), octyloxy phthalocyanines and H-bonded semiconductors such as the quinacridone and indigo derivatives are deposited on flexible substrates (i.e. Kapton and PEN) using an in-house developed pen-writing method.........2 that results in crystalline films with macroscopic long range order. The room temperature PL studies show redshift and changes in polarization upon bending of the film. Crystalline thin films of alloyed H2OBPc and octabutoxy naphthalocyanine with ratios ranging from 1:1 to 100:1 fabricated on both sapphire and flexible substrates are also explored using the same PL spectroscopy to elucidate the behaviors of delocalized excitons. .1N. Rawat, et al., J Phys Chem Lett 6, 1834 (2015). 2R. L. Headrick, et al., Applied Physics Letters 92, 063302 (2008). NSF DMR-1056589, NSF DMR-1062966.

  3. NaV2O5 : An exotic exciton system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostovoy, MV; Khomskii, DI; Knoester, J; Cho, K; Matsui, A

    2001-01-01

    We show that the phase transition which sodium vanadate undergoes at T-c = 34 K is driven by a charge ordering. The relevant effective Hamiltonian is of the Frenkel exciton type, with a very large bandwidth to molecular energy ratio. This causes strong non-Heitler-London effects and a temperature de

  4. NaV2O5 : An Exotic Exciton System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostovoy, Maxim V.; Khomskii, Daniel I.; Knoester, Jasper

    2001-01-01

    We show that the phase transition which sodium vanadate undergoes at Tc = 34 K is driven by a charge ordering. The relevant effective Hamiltonian is of the Frenkel exciton type, with a very large bandwidth to molecular energy ratio. This causes strong non-Heitler-London effects and a temperature dep

  5. Exciton transport in thin-film cyanine dye J-aggregates

    CERN Document Server

    Valleau, Stéphanie; Yung, Man-Hong; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2012-01-01

    We present a theoretical model for the study of exciton dynamics in J-aggregated monolayers of fluorescent dyes. The excitonic evolution is described by a Monte-Carlo wave function approach which allows for a unified description of the quantum (ballistic) and classical (diffusive) propagation of an exciton on a lattice in different parameter regimes. The transition between the ballistic and diffusive regime is controlled by static and dynamic disorder. As an example, the model is applied to three cyanine dye J-aggregates: TC, TDBC, and U3. Each of the molecule-specific structure and excitation parameters are estimated using time-dependent density functional theory. The exciton diffusion coefficients are calculated and analyzed for different degrees of film disorder and are correlated to the physical properties and the structural arrangement of molecules in the aggregates. Further, exciton transport is anisotropic and dependent on the initial exciton energy. The upper-bound estimation of the exciton diffusion ...

  6. Coherent optical writing and reading of the exciton spin state in single quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    Benny, Y; Kodriano, Y; Poem, E; Presman, R; Galushko, D; Petroff, P M; Gershoni, D

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate a one to one correspondence between the polarization state of a light pulse tuned to excitonic resonances of single semiconductor quantum dots and the spin state of the exciton that it photogenerates. This is accomplished using two variably polarized and independently tuned picosecond laser pulses. The first "writes" the spin state of the resonantly excited exciton. The second is tuned to biexcitonic resonances, and its absorption is used to "read" the exciton spin state. The absorption of the second pulse depends on its polarization relative to the exciton spin direction. Changes in the exciton spin result in corresponding changes in the intensity of the photoluminescence from the biexciton lines which we monitor, obtaining thus a one to one mapping between any point on the Poincare sphere of the light polarization to a point on the Bloch sphere of the exciton spin.

  7. Core-Exciton Decay in Photoemission and the Nonmetal - Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiandi

    Ultra thin films or overlayers of materials, normally metallic in the bulk case, can exhibit nonmetallic characters. Typically, these systems undergo a nonmetal-to-metal transition with changing film density, crystalline structure, or thickness. The purpose of this thesis is to identify this electronic phase transition and to investigate the corresponding fundamental mechanisms by studying the detailed electronic structure. In particular, I attempted to look at the evolution of electronic structure in films undergoing this transition. The core -exciton decay in the resonant photoemission was probed, from both theoretical and experimental points of view, to correlate with the change of film metallicity. Resonant photoemission, combining with normal photoemission, was found to be a sensitive and successful method to identify the overlayer nonmetal-metal transition, both from static and dynamic pictures. In most of this work, we concentrate on the studies of the evolution of electronic structure of ultra thin films of divalent metals, on different crystalline surfaces. The formation of new Hg electronic states arising from the electron orbital hybridization between adjacent adatoms, the formation of quantum well states in the overlayers, and the evolution of mercury shape resonance due to 5d to epsilonf excitation, all provide indications of when mercury overlayers undergo a nonmetal to metal transition. This transition has been found to be associated the changes in adatom coordination number. On both Cu(100) and W(110), the interactions between the Hg adatoms and the substrates are very weak and the surface bonding is more like covalent bonding at low coverages. The Hg overlayers on these two surfaces resembles free-standing layers, and the metallicity of the overlayers is largely determined by the nearest neighbor interactions of Hg adatoms. Comparing Hg overlayers on Ni(111) where there exists a nonmetal to metal transition caused by the structure phase transition

  8. Exciton localization in solution-processed organolead trihalide perovskites

    OpenAIRE

    He, Haiping; Yu, Qianqian; LI, Hui; Li, Jing; Si, Junjie; Jin, Yizheng; Wang, Nana; Wang, Jianpu; He, Jingwen; Wang, Xinke; Zhang, Yan; Ye, Zhizhen

    2016-01-01

    Organolead trihalide perovskites have attracted great attention due to the stunning advances in both photovoltaic and light-emitting devices. However, the photophysical properties, especially the recombination dynamics of photogenerated carriers, of this class of materials are controversial. Here we report that under an excitation level close to the working regime of solar cells, the recombination of photogenerated carriers in solution-processed methylammonium–lead–halide films is dominated b...

  9. 40 CFR 721.530 - Substituted aliphatic acid halide (generic name).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted aliphatic acid halide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.530 Substituted aliphatic acid halide (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance substituted...

  10. Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of allylic halides and acetates with indium organometallics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, David; Pérez Sestelo, José; Sarandeses, Luis A

    2004-11-12

    The palladium(0)-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of allylic halides and acetates with indium organometallics is reported. In this synthetic transformation, triorganoindium compounds and tetraorganoindates (aryl, alkenyl, and methyl) react with cinnamyl and geranyl halides and acetates to afford the S(N)2 product regioselectively and in good yield. The reaction proceeds with net inversion of the stereochemical configuration.

  11. Famed Bulgarian physicists. I. St. Petroff's Goettingen research of the photostimulated interconversions of color centers in alkali halides: the discovery of the photostimulated aggregation

    CERN Document Server

    Georgiev, Mladen

    2008-01-01

    This essay tells briefly of the life and work of one of the most successful scientists originating from a Balkan settlement whose name and popularity have greatly exceeded its realm. The word is of a discovery during WWII of the photostimulated aggregation of the F centers (else alkali atoms) dissolved from the vapor into an alkali halide crystal. Using optical absorption techniques while a grantee of Humboldt's Foundation in Goettingen, Germany between 1943-1944, he found new absorption bands pertaining to small-size F center aggregates and followed their interconversions. A primary photochemical solid state reaction was evidenced for the first time leading to nanoscale products.

  12. Spinodal Decomposition-Enabled Halide Perovskite Double Heterostructure with Reduced Fr\\"ohlich Electron-Phonon Coupling

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yiping; Chen, Zhizhong; Deschler, Felix; Sun, Xin; Lu, Toh-Ming; Wertz, Esther; Hu, Jia-Mian; Shi, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Epitaxial III-V semiconductor heterostructures are key components in modern microelectronics, electro-optics and optoelectronics. With superior semiconducting properties, halide perovskite materials are rising as promising candidates for coherent heterostructure devices. In this report, spinodal decomposition is proposed and experimentally implemented to produce epitaxial double heterostructures in halide perovskite system. Pristine epitaxial mixed halide perovskites rods and films were synth...

  13. Exciton-polariton dynamics in quantum dot-cavity system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neto, Antonio F.; Lima, William J.; Villas-Boas, Jose M. [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2012-07-01

    Full text: One of the basic requirement for quantum information processing systems is the ability to completely control the state of a single qubit. This imply in know all sources of decoherence and elaborate ways to avoid them. In recent work, A. Laucht et al. [1] presented detailed theoretical and experimental investigations of electrically tunable single quantum dot (QD) - photonic crystal (PhC) nanocavity systems operating in the strong coupling regime of the light matter interaction. Unlike previous studies, where the exciton-cavity spectral detuning was varied by changing the lattice temperature, or by the adsorption of inert gases at low temperatures, they employ the quantum confined Stark-effect to electro-optically control the exciton-cavity detuning. The new built device enabled them to systematically probe the emission spectrum of the strongly coupled system as a function of external control parameters, as for example the incoherent excitation power density or the lattice temperature. Those studies reveal for the first time insights in dephasing mechanisms of 0D exciton polaritons [1]. In another study [2], using a similar device, they investigate the coupling between two different QDs with a single cavity mode. In both works, incoherent pumping was used, but for quantum information, coherent and controlled excitations are necessary. Here, we theoretically investigate the dynamics a single quantum dot inside a cavity under coherent pulse excitation and explore a wide range of parameters, as for example, the exciton-cavity detunings, the excitation power, the spontaneous decay, and pure dephasing. We use density matrix formalism in the Lindblad form, and we solve it numerically. Our results show that coherent excitation can be used to probe strong coupling between exciton and cavity mode by monitoring the exciton Rabi oscillation as function of the cavity detuning. This can give new insights for future experimental measurement focusing on quantum

  14. On the regulation of photosynthesis by excitonic interactions between carotenoids and chlorophylls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Stefan; Quentmeier, Claudia C; Liao, Pen-Nan; Hafi, Nour; Barros, Tiago; Wilk, Laura; Bittner, Florian; Walla, Peter J

    2009-07-28

    Selective 2-photon excitation (TPE) of carotenoid dark states, Car S(1), shows that in the major light-harvesting complex of photosystem II (LHCII), the extent of electronic interactions between carotenoid dark states (Car S(1)) and chlorophyll (Chl) states, phi(Coupling)(Car S(1)-Chl), correlates linearly with chlorophyll fluorescence quenching under different experimental conditions. Simultaneously, a linear correlation between both Chl fluorescence quenching and phi(Coupling)(Car S(1)-Chl) with the intensity of red-shifted bands in the Chl Q(y) and carotenoid absorption was also observed. These results suggest quenching excitonic Car S(1)-Chl states as origin for the observed effects. Furthermore, real time measurements of the light-dependent down- and up-regulation of the photosynthetic activity and phi(Coupling)(Car S(1)-Chl) in wild-type and mutant (npq1, npq2, npq4, lut2 and WT+PsbS) Arabidopsis thaliana plants reveal that also in vivo the quenching parameter NPQ correlates always linearly with the extent of electronic Car S(1)-Chl interactions in any adaptation status. Our in vivo measurements with Arabidopsis variants show that during high light illumination, phi(Coupling)(Car S(1)-Chl) depends on the presence of PsbS and zeaxanthin (Zea) in an almost identical way as NPQ. In summary, these results provide clear evidence for a very close link between electronic Car S(1)-Chl interactions and the regulation of photosynthesis. These findings support a photophysical mechanism in which short-living, low excitonic carotenoid-chlorophyll states serve as traps and dissipation valves for excess excitation energy.

  15. Excitonic complexes in GaN/(Al,Ga)N quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmaghraoui, D.; Triki, M.; Jaziri, S.; Muñoz-Matutano, G.; Leroux, M.; Martinez-Pastor, J.

    2017-03-01

    Here we report a theoretical investigation of excitonic complexes in polar GaN/(Al,Ga)N quantum dots (QDs). A sum rule between the binding energies of charged excitons is used to calculate the biexciton binding energy. The binding energies of excitonic complexes in GaN/AlN are shown to be strongly correlated to the QD size. Due to the large hole localization, the positively charged exciton energy is found to be always blueshifted compared to the exciton one. The negatively charged exciton and the biexciton energy can be blueshifted or redshifted according to the QD size. Increasing the size of GaN/AlN QDs makes the identification of charged excitons difficult, and the use of an Al0.5Ga0.5N barrier can be advantageous for clear identification. Our theoretical results for the binding energy of exciton complexes are also confronted with values deduced experimentally for InAs/GaAs QDs, confirming our theoretical prediction for charged excitonic complexes in GaN/(Al,Ga)N QDs. Finally, we realize that the trends of excitonic complexes in QDs are significantly related to competition between the local charge separation (whatever its origin) and the correlation effect. Following our findings, entangled photons pairs can be produced in QDs with careful control of their size in order to obtain zero exciton–biexciton energy separation.

  16. Impact of the organic halide salt on final perovskite composition for photovoltaic applications

    KAUST Repository

    Moore, David T.

    2014-08-01

    The methylammonium lead halide perovskites have shown significant promise as a low-cost, second generation, photovoltaic material.Despite recent advances, however, there are still a number of fundamental aspects of their formation as well as their physical and electronic behavior that are not well understood. In this letter we explore the mechanism by which these materials crystallize by testing the outcome of each of the reagent halide salts. We find that components of both salts, lead halide and methylammonium halide, are relatively mobile and can be readily exchanged during the crystallization process when the reaction is carried out in solution or in the solid state. We exploit this fact by showing that the perovskite structure is formed even when the lead salt\\'s anion is a non-halide, leading to lower annealing temperature and time requirements for film formation. Studies into these behaviors may ultimately lead to improved processing conditions for photovoltaic films. © 2014 Author(s).

  17. Impact of the organic halide salt on final perovskite composition for photovoltaic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David T. Moore

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The methylammonium lead halide perovskites have shown significant promise as a low-cost, second generation, photovoltaic material. Despite recent advances, however, there are still a number of fundamental aspects of their formation as well as their physical and electronic behavior that are not well understood. In this letter we explore the mechanism by which these materials crystallize by testing the outcome of each of the reagent halide salts. We find that components of both salts, lead halide and methylammonium halide, are relatively mobile and can be readily exchanged during the crystallization process when the reaction is carried out in solution or in the solid state. We exploit this fact by showing that the perovskite structure is formed even when the lead salt's anion is a non-halide, leading to lower annealing temperature and time requirements for film formation. Studies into these behaviors may ultimately lead to improved processing conditions for photovoltaic films.

  18. X-ray Scintillation in Lead Halide Perovskite Crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Birowosuto, M. D.; Cortecchia, D.; Drozdowski, W.; K. Brylew; Łachmański, W.; A. Bruno; Soci, C.

    2016-01-01

    Current technologies for X-ray detection rely on scintillation from expensive inorganic crystals grown at high-temperature, which so far has hindered the development of large-area scintillator arrays. Thanks to the presence of heavy atoms, solution-grown hybrid lead halide perovskite single crystals exhibit short X-ray absorption length and excellent detection efficiency. Here we compare X-ray scintillator characteristics of three-dimensional (3D) MAPbI3 and MAPbBr3 and two-dimensional (2D) (...

  19. Dissociative electron capture by. pi. -allyliron tricarbonyl halide molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nekrasov, Y.S.; Avakyan, N.P.; Khvostenko, V.I.; Kritskaya, I.I.; Maurodiev, V.K.; Mazunov, V.A.

    1985-12-20

    Result are given for a study of dissociative electron impact by complexes (I)-(III), C/sub 3/H/sub 5/Fe (CO)/sub 3/ /SUP X/ , where X - C1 (I), Br (II), and of -allyliron tricarbonyl halides upon dissociative electron capture. The mechanisms for the formation of C/sub 3/H/sub 5/Fe (CO)/sup -//sub 3/ anions in the gas phase and under electrochemical reduction conditions on a dropping mercury electrode were shown to differ. A predominant effect was proposed for solvation factors on the electrochemical reduction in the condensed phase.

  20. Analysis and modeling of alkali halide aqueous solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Sun Hyung; Anantpinijwatna, Amata; Kang, Jeong Won;

    2016-01-01

    A new model is proposed for correlation and prediction of thermodynamic properties of electrolyte solutions. In the proposed model, terms of a second virial coefficient-type and of a KT-UNIFAC model are used to account for a contribution of binary interactions between ion and ion, and water and ion...... on calculations for various electrolyte properties of alkali halide aqueous solutions such as mean ionic activity coefficients, osmotic coefficients, and salt solubilities. The model covers highly nonideal electrolyte systems such as lithium chloride, lithium bromide and lithium iodide, that is, systems...

  1. Revealing the ultrafast charge carrier dynamics in organo metal halide perovskite solar cell materials using time resolved THz spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponseca, C S; Sundström, V

    2016-03-28

    Ultrafast charge carrier dynamics in organo metal halide perovskite has been probed using time resolved terahertz (THz) spectroscopy (TRTS). Current literature on its early time characteristics is unanimous: sub-ps charge carrier generation, highly mobile charges and very slow recombination rationalizing the exceptionally high power conversion efficiency for a solution processed solar cell material. Electron injection from MAPbI3 to nanoparticles (NP) of TiO2 is found to be sub-ps while Al2O3 NPs do not alter charge dynamics. Charge transfer to organic electrodes, Spiro-OMeTAD and PCBM, is sub-ps and few hundreds of ps respectively, which is influenced by the alignment of energy bands. It is surmised that minimizing defects/trap states is key in optimizing charge carrier extraction from these materials.

  2. Optical response of confined excitons in GaInAsSb/GaSb Quantum Dots heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Cano, R [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Occidente, A.A. 2790, Cali (Colombia); Tirado-Mejia, L; Fonthal, G; Ariza-Calderon, H [Laboratorio de Optoelectronica, Universidad del Quindio, A.A. 4603 Armenia (Colombia); Porras-Montenegro, N, E-mail: rsanchez40@gmail.co [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad del Valle, A.A. 25360, Cali (Colombia)

    2009-05-01

    The narrow-gap Ga{sub 1-x}In{sub x}As{sub y}Sb{sub 1-y} compounds are suitable materials for heterostructure devices operating in the infrared wavelength range. In these compounds grown by liquid phase epitaxy over GaSb single crystals, for x and y values in the range of 0.10 to 0.14 for both variables, the photoluminescence optical response at 12K is blue-shifted by 20 meV related to the photoreflectance response. We believe this behavior is due to possible higher electronic confinement in some places of the heterostructure, possibly formed in the interface during the growth process. In order to explain this behavior, in this work we study the exciton recombination energy in spherical Quantum Dots (QDs) on Ga{sub 1-x}In{sub x}As{sub y}Sb{sub 1-y}/GaSb, using the variational procedure within the effective-mass approximation and considering an electron in a Type I band alignment formed by two semiconductors with similar parabolic conduction bands. Our results are in good agreement with recent experimental results.

  3. Band tail absorption saturation in CdWO4 with 100 fs laser pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laasner, R; Fedorov, N; Grigonis, R; Guizard, S; Kirm, M; Makhov, V; Markov, S; Nagirnyi, V; Sirutkaitis, V; Vasil'ev, A; Vielhauer, S; Tupitsyna, I A

    2013-06-19

    The decay kinetics of the excitonic emission of CdWO4 scintillators was studied under excitation by powerful 100 fs laser pulses in the band tail (Urbach) absorption region. A special imaging technique possessing both spatial and temporal resolution provided a unique insight into the Förster dipole-dipole interaction of self-trapped excitons, which is the main cause of the nonlinear quenching of luminescence in this material. In addition, the saturation of phonon-assisted excitonic absorption due to extremely short excitation pulses was discovered. A model describing the evolution of electronic excitations in the conditions of absorption saturation was developed and an earlier model of decay kinetics based on the Förster interaction was extended to include the saturation effect. Compared to the previous studies, a more accurate calculation yields 3.7 nm as the Förster interaction radius. It was shown that exciton-exciton interaction is the main source of scintillation nonproportionality in CdWO4. A quantitative description using a new model of nonproportionality was presented, making use of the corrected value of the Förster radius.

  4. Jointly Tuned Plasmonic–Excitonic Photovoltaics Using Nanoshells

    KAUST Repository

    Paz-Soldan, Daniel

    2013-04-10

    Recent advances in spectrally tuned, solution-processed plasmonic nanoparticles have provided unprecedented control over light\\'s propagation and absorption via engineering at the nanoscale. Simultaneous parallel progress in colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics offers the potential for low-cost, large-area solar power; however, these devices suffer from poor quantum efficiency in the more weakly absorbed infrared portion of the sun\\'s spectrum. Here, we report a plasmonic-excitonic solar cell that combines two classes of solution-processed infrared materials that we tune jointly. We show through experiment and theory that a plasmonic-excitonic design using gold nanoshells with optimized single particle scattering-to-absorption cross-section ratios leads to a strong enhancement in near-field absorption and a resultant 35% enhancement in photocurrent in the performance-limiting near-infrared spectral region. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  5. Excitonic Absorption of Semiconductor Nanorings under Terahertz Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Tong-Yi; ZHAO Wei; ZHU Shao-Lan

    2005-01-01

    @@ The optical absorption of GaAs nanorings (NRs) under a dc electric field and a terahertz (THz) ac electric field applied in the plane containing the NRs is investigated theoretically. The NRs may enclose some magnetic flux in the presence of a magnetic field perpendicular to the NRs plane. Numerical calculation shows that the excitonic effects are essential to correctly describe the optical absorption in NRs. The applied lateral THz electric field, as well as the dc field leads to reduction, broadening and splitting of the exciton peak. In contrast to the presence of a dc field, significant optical absorption peak arises below the zero-field bandgap in the presence of a THz electric field at a certain frequency. The optical absorption spectrum depends evidently on the frequency and amplitude of the applied THz field and on the magnetic flux threading the NRs. This promises potential applications of NRs for magneto-optical and THz electro-optical sensing.

  6. Collective oscillations in spatially modulated exciton-polariton condensate arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, Andrey A.; Kanakov, Oleg I.; Altshuler, Boris L.; Ivanchenko, Mikhail V.

    2015-02-01

    We study collective dynamics of interacting centers of exciton-polariton condensation in presence of spatial inhomogeneity, as modeled by diatomic active oscillator lattices. The mode formalism is developed and employed to derive existence and stability criteria of plane wave solutions. It is demonstrated that k0 = 0 wave number mode with the binary elementary cell on a diatomic lattice possesses superior existence and stability properties. Decreasing net on-site losses (balance of dissipation and pumping) or conservative nonlinearity favors multistability of modes, while increasing frequency mismatch between adjacent oscillators detriments it. On the other hand, spatial inhomogeneity may recover stability of modes at high nonlinearities. Entering the region where all single-mode solutions are unstable we discover subsequent transitions between localized quasiperiodic, chaotic and global chaotic dynamics in the mode space, as nonlinearity increases. Importantly, the last transition evokes the loss of synchronization. These effects may determine lasing dynamics of interacting exciton-polariton condensation centers.

  7. Charge transfer excitons in C60-dimers and polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Harigaya, K

    1996-01-01

    Charge-transfer (CT) exciton effects are investigated for the optical absorption spectra of crosslinked C60 systems by using the intermediate exciton theory. We consider the C60-dimers, and the two (and three) molecule systems of the C60-polymers. We use a tight-binding model with long-range Coulomb interactions among electrons, and the model is treated by the Hartree-Fock approximation followed by the single-excitation configuration interaction method. We discuss the variations in the optical spectra by changing the conjugation parameter between molecules. We find that the total CT-component increases in smaller conjugations, and saturates at the intermediate conjugations. It decreases in the large conjugations. We also find that the CT-components of the doped systems are smaller than those of the neutral systems, indicating that the electron-hole distance becomes shorter in the doped C60-polymers.

  8. Exciton and Biexciton Binding Energies in Rectangular Quantum Dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yong-Hui; KONG Xiao-Jun

    2005-01-01

    @@ In the effective mass approximation, using the variational technology and a method of expanding the wavefunctions of exciton in terms of the eigenfunctions of the noninteracting electron-hole system, we calculate the exciton and biexciton ground state binding energies for rectangular quantum dots (QDs). In the calculation, a three-dimensional Fourier expansion of Coulomb potential is used to remove the numerical difficulty with the 1/r singularity, and it considerably reduces the computational effort. Our results agree fairly well with the previous results. It is found that the binding energies are highly correlated to the size of QDs. The quantum confinement effect of spherical QDs about biexciton is obviously larger than that of rectangular QDs when the well width is narrower than 2.0aB.

  9. Multiple exciton collection in a sensitized photovoltaic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambur, Justin B; Novet, Thomas; Parkinson, B A

    2010-10-01

    Multiple exciton generation, the creation of two electron-hole pairs from one high-energy photon, is well established in bulk semiconductors, but assessments of the efficiency of this effect remain controversial in quantum-confined systems like semiconductor nanocrystals. We used a photoelectrochemical system composed of PbS nanocrystals chemically bound to TiO(2) single crystals to demonstrate the collection of photocurrents with quantum yields greater than one electron per photon. The strong electronic coupling and favorable energy level alignment between PbS nanocrystals and bulk TiO(2) facilitate extraction of multiple excitons more quickly than they recombine, as well as collection of hot electrons from higher quantum dot excited states. Our results have implications for increasing the efficiency of photovoltaic devices by avoiding losses resulting from the thermalization of photogenerated carriers.

  10. Evaluation of defects in cuprous oxide through exciton luminescence imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazer, Laszlo, E-mail: jl@laszlofrazer.com [Department of Physics, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Lenferink, Erik J. [Department of Physics, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Chang, Kelvin B. [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R. [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Stern, Nathaniel P. [Department of Physics, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Ketterson, John B. [Department of Physics, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    The various decay mechanisms of excitons in cuprous oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) are highly sensitive to defects which can relax selection rules. Here we report cryogenic hyperspectral imaging of exciton luminescence from cuprous oxide crystals grown via the floating zone method showing that the samples have few defects. Some locations, however, show strain splitting of the 1s orthoexciton triplet polariton luminescence. Strain is reduced by annealing. In addition, annealing causes annihilation of oxygen and copper vacancies, which leads to a negative correlation between luminescence of unlike vacancies. - Highlights: • We use luminescence to observe defects in high quality cuprous oxide crystals. • Strain is reduced by annealing. • Annealing causes annihilation of oxygen and copper vacancies.

  11. Quasiparticle Gaps and Exciton Coulomb Energies in Si Nanoshells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, K. [University of Illinois, Chicago; Idrobo Tapia, Juan C [ORNL; Tiago, Murilo L [ORNL; Reboredo, Fernando A [ORNL; Ogut, Serdar [University of Illinois, Chicago

    2009-01-01

    Quasiparticle gaps and exciton Coulomb energies of H-passivated spherical Si nanoshells are computed using rst principles SCF and GW methods. We nd that the quasiparticle gap of a nanoshell depends on both its inner radius R1 (weakly) and outer radius R2 (strongly). These dependences on R1 and R2 are mostly consistent with electrostatics of a metallic shell. We also nd that the unscreened Coulomb energy ECoul in Si nanoshells has a somewhat unexpected size dependence at xed outer radius R2: ECoul decreases as the nanoshell becomes more conning, contrary to what one would expect from quantum connement eects. We show that this is a consequence of an increase in the average electron-hole distance, giving rise to reduced exciton Coulomb energies in spite of the reduction in the conning nanoshell volume.

  12. Chemical potential and compressibility of quantum Hall bilayer excitons,.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, Brian

    2016-02-25

    I consider a system of two parallel quantum Hall layers with total filling factor 0 or 1. When the distance between the layers is small enough, electrons and holes in opposite layers can form inter-layer excitons, which have a finite effective mass and interact via a dipole-dipole potential. I present results for the chemical potential u of the resulting bosonic system as a function of the exciton concentration n and the interlayer separation d. I show that both u and the interlayer capacitance have an unusual nonmonotonic dependence on d, owing to the interplay between an increasing dipole moment and an increasing effective mass with increasing d. Finally, I discuss the transition between the superfluid and Wigner crystal phases, which is shown to occur at d x n-1/10. Results are derived first via simple intuitive arguments, and then verified with more careful analytic derivations and numeric calculations.

  13. Spectroscopic study of silver halides in montmorillonite and their antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabnezhad, Sh; Rassa, M; Mohammadi Dahanesari, E

    2016-10-01

    In this study silver halides (AgX, X=Cl, Br, I) in montmorillonite (MMT) were prepared by dispersion method in dark. AgNO3 was used as a silver precursor. The nanocomposites (NCs) (AgX-MMT) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The powder X-ray diffraction showed intercalation of AgCl and AgBr nanoparticles (NPs) into the clay interlayer space. The diffuse reflectance spectra indicated a broad surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption band in the visible region for AgCl-MMT and AgBr-MMT NCs, resulting of metallic Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs). But the results were opposite in case of AgI-MMT NC. The antibacterial activity of NCs was investigated against Gram-positive bacteria, i.e., Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus and Gram-negative bacteria, i.e., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, by the well diffusion method. The antibacterial effects on Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus and Escherichia coli decrease in the order: AgCl-MMT>AgBr-MMT>AgI-MMT. No antibacterial activity was detected for Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  14. Origin of unusual bandgap shift and dual emission in organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, M Ibrahim; Jacopin, Gwénolé; Meloni, Simone; Mattoni, Alessandro; Arora, Neha; Boziki, Ariadni; Zakeeruddin, Shaik Mohammed; Rothlisberger, Ursula; Grätzel, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Emission characteristics of metal halide perovskites play a key role in the current widespread investigations into their potential uses in optoelectronics and photonics. However, a fundamental understanding of the molecular origin of the unusual blueshift of the bandgap and dual emission in perovskites is still lacking. In this direction, we investigated the extraordinary photoluminescence behavior of three representatives of this important class of photonic materials, that is, CH3NH3PbI3, CH3NH3PbBr3, and CH(NH2)2PbBr3, which emerged from our thorough studies of the effects of temperature on their bandgap and emission decay dynamics using time-integrated and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. The low-temperature (perovskite composition, the bandgap exhibits an unusual blueshift by raising the temperature from 15 to 300 K. Density functional theory and classical molecular dynamics simulations allow for assigning the additional photoluminescence peak to the presence of molecularly disordered orthorhombic domains and also rationalize that the unusual blueshift of the bandgap with increasing temperature is due to the stabilization of the valence band maximum. Our findings provide new insights into the salient emission properties of perovskite materials, which define their performance in solar cells and light-emitting devices.

  15. Modified Becke-Johnson exchange potential: improved modeling of lead halides for solar cell applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radi A. Jishi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report first-principles calculations, within density functional theory, on the lead halide compounds PbCl2, PbBr2, and CH3NH3PbBr3−xClx, taking into account spin-orbit coupling. We show that, when the modified Becke-Johnson exchange potential is used with a suitable choice of defining parameters, excellent agreement between calculations and experiment is obtained. The computational model is then used to study the effect of replacing the methylammonium cation in CH3NH3PbI3 and CH3NH3PbBr3 with either N2H5+or N2H3+, which have slightly smaller ionic radii than methylammonium. We predict that a considerable downshift in the values of the band gaps occurs with this replacement. The resulting compounds would extend optical absorption down to the near-infrared region, creating excellent light harvesters for solar cells.

  16. Lindblad theory of dynamical decoherence of quantum-dot excitons

    OpenAIRE

    Eastham, P. R.; Spracklen, A O; Keeling, Jonathan Mark James

    2013-01-01

    We use the Bloch-Redfield-Wangsness theory to calculate the effects of acoustic phonons in coherent control experiments where quantum-dot excitons are driven by shaped laser pulses. This theory yields a generalized Lindblad equation for the density operator of the dot, with time-dependent damping and decoherence due to phonon transitions between the instantaneous dressed states. It captures similar physics to the form recently applied to Rabi oscillation experiments [Ramsay et al., Phys. Rev....

  17. One Dimensional Time-Dependent Tunnelling of Excitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilcullen, Patrick; Salayka-Ladouceur, Logan; Malmgren, Kevin; Reid, Matthew; Shegelski, Mark R. A.

    2017-03-01

    We study the time-dependent tunnelling of excitons in one dimension using numerical integration based on the Crank-Nicholson method. A complete development of the time-dependent simulator is provided. External barriers studied include single and double delta barriers. We find that the appearance of transmission resonances depends strongly on the dielectric constant, relative effective masses, and initial spatial spread of the wavefunction. A discussion regarding applications to realistic systems is provided.

  18. Exciton-mediated photothermal cooling in GaAs membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Xuereb, André; Naesby, Andreas; Polzik, Eugene S; Hammerer, Klemens

    2012-01-01

    Cooling of the mechanical motion of a GaAs nano-membrane using the photothermal effect mediated by excitons was recently demonstrated by some of us [K. Usami, et al., Nature Phys. 8, 168 (2012)] and provides a clear example of the use of thermal forces to cool down mechanical motion. Here, we report on a single-free-parameter theoretical model to explain the results of this experiment which matches the experimental data remarkably well.

  19. Exciton lifetime measurements on single silicon quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangghaleh, Fatemeh; Bruhn, Benjamin; Schmidt, Torsten; Linnros, Jan

    2013-06-01

    We measured the exciton lifetime of single silicon quantum dots, fabricated by electron beam lithography, reactive ion etching and oxidation. The observed photoluminescence decays are of mono-exponential character with a large variation (5-45 μs) from dot to dot, even for the same emission energy. We show that this lifetime variation may be the origin of the heavily debated non-exponential (stretched) decays typically observed for ensemble measurements.

  20. Exciton spin dynamics in ZnO epilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagarde, D.; Lombez, L.; Balocchi, A.; Renucci, P.; Carrere, H.; Amand, T.; Marie, X. [Laboratoire de Nanophysique, Magnetisme et Optoelectronique, INSA, 135 avenue de Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Mei, Z.X.; Du, X.L.; Xue, Q.K. [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences and National Center for Nano-Science and Technology, Beijing 100080 (China)

    2007-07-01

    We used time-resolved optical orientation experiments to study the low temperature spin dynamics of a ZnO epilayer. The sample shows a circular polarisation of the donor-bound exciton of 11% with a decay time of 275 ps. A very narrow spectral dependence of the initial polarisation and a rapid decrease of the polarisation decay time with temperature are also observed. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Electronic absorption of Frenkel excitons in topologically disordered systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Kenneth S.

    1986-10-01

    A self-consistent effective medium theory of the electronic absorption spectra of tightly bound dipolar excitons in simple fluids is developed within the adiabatic picture. The theoretical approach is based on the isomorphism between the path-integral formulation of quantum theory and classical statistical mechanics and is an extension of previous work [D. Chandler, K. S. Schweizer, and P. G. Wolynes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1100 (1982)]. The consequences of fluid structural disorder on resonant excitation transfer and the statistical fluctuations of single molecule energy levels are simultaneously treated. Detailed numerical calculations are performed to establish the dependence of the absorption spectrum on fluid density, short range order, and the relative magnitude of the resonant transfer vs the single site disorder. The density dependence of the spectral features are found to be a sensitive function of fluid structure and the relative strength of the localizing vs the delocalizing interactions. By comparing the liquid state results with the corresponding crystalline solid behavior, the consequences of topological disorder on the exciton spectrum are identified. The relevance of the theoretical predictions to spectroscopic probes of exciton delocalization in molecular liquids and glasses is discussed.

  2. Excitons in conjugated polymers: Do we need a paradigma change?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beenken, Wichard J.D. [Department of Theoretical Physics I, Ilmenau University of Thechnology (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    We have previously shown that both, polymer conformation and dynamics are crucial for the exciton transport in conjugated polymers. Thereby we found that the usual Foerster-type hopping transfer model - even if one applies the line-dipole approximation - falls short in one crucial aspect: the nature of the sites the excitons are transferred between is still unclear. We found that the simple model of spectroscopic units defined as segments of the polymer chains separated by structural defects breaking the {pi}-conjugation is only justified for chemical defects like hydrogenated double bonds, or extreme gauche (90 ) torsions between the monomers. Both defects are far too rare in a well-prepared conjugated polymer to explain the mean spectroscopic-unit length of typically 6-7 monomers. Meanwhile, also the concept of dynamical formation of the spectroscopic units, we had previously suggested, has also failed. Thus the question of a paradigma change concerning the exciton transport in conjugated polymers appears on the agenda. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  3. Photoluminescence of localized excitons in InGan quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usov, S. O., E-mail: S.Usov@mail.ioffe.ru; Tsatsul' nikov, A. F.; Lundin, V. V.; Sakharov, A. V.; Zavarin, E. E.; Ledentsov, N. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2008-02-15

    Photoluminescence spectra of samples with ultrathin InGaN layers embedded in AlGaN and GaN matrices are studied experimentally in the temperature range of 80 to 300 K. It is shown that the temperature dependences can be understood in the context of Eliseev's model and that, in the active region of the structures under study, the dispersion {sigma} of the exciton-localization energy depends on the average In content in InGaN-alloy layers. Furthermore, the Urbach energy E{sub U}, which characterizes the localization energy of excitons in the tails of the density of states, was determined from an analysis of the shape of the low-energy slope of the spectrum. It is shown that {sigma} and E{sub U}, quantities representing the scale of the exciton-localization effects, vary linearly with the photoluminescence-peak wavelength in the range from the ultraviolet to the green region of the spectrum.

  4. Disorder limited exciton transport in colloidal single-wall carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crochet, Jared J; Duque, Juan G; Werner, James H; Lounis, Brahim; Cognet, Laurent; Doorn, Stephen K

    2012-10-10

    We present measurements of S(1) exciton transport in (6,5) carbon nanotubes at room temperature in a colloidal environment. Exciton diffusion lengths associated with end quenching paired with photoluminescence lifetimes provide a direct basis for determining a median diffusion constant of approximately 7.5 cm(2)s(-1). Our experimental results are compared to model diffusion constants calculated using a realistic exciton dispersion accounting for a logarithmic correction due to the exchange self-energy and a nonequilibrium distribution between bright and dark excitons. The intrinsic diffusion constant associated with acoustic phonon scattering is too large to explain the observed diffusion length, and as such, we attribute the observed transport to disorder-limited diffusional transport associated with the dynamics of the colloidal interface. In this model an effective surface potential limits the exciton mean free path to the same size as that of the exciton wave function, defined by the strength of the electron-hole Coulomb interaction.

  5. Role of Strain on the Coherent Properties of GaAs Excitons and Biexcitons

    CERN Document Server

    Wilmer, Brian L; Ashley, Joseph M; Hall, Kimberley C; Bristow, Alan D

    2016-01-01

    Polarization-dependent two-dimensional Fourier-transform spectroscopy (2DFTS) is performed on excitons in strained bulk GaAs layers probing the coherent response for differing amounts of strain. Biaxial tensile strain lifts the degeneracy of heavy-hole (HH) and light-hole (LH) valence states, leading to an observed splitting of the associated excitons at low temperature. Increasing the strain increases the magnitude of the HH/LH exciton peak splitting, induces an asymmetry in the off-diagonal coherences, increases the difference in the HH and LH exciton homogenous linewidths, and increases the inhomogeneous broadening of both exciton species. All results arise from strain-induced variations in the local electronic environment, which is not uniform along the growth direction of the thin layers. For cross-linear polarized excitation, wherein excitonic signals give way to biexcitonic signals, the high-strain sample shows evidence of bound LH, HH, and mixed biexcitons.

  6. Effect of Strong Orbital Magnetic Field on the Exciton Condensation in an Extended Falicov Kimball Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, S.; Taraphder, A.

    2016-10-01

    A spinless, extended Falicov-Kimball model in the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field is investigated employing a self-consistent mean-field theory in two dimensions. In the presence of the field the excitonic average Δ = is modified: the exciton responds in subtle different ways for different values of the magnetic flux. We examine the effects of Coulomb interaction and hybridization between the localized and itinerant electrons on the excitonic average, for rational values of the applied magnetic field. The excitonic average is found to get enhanced exponentially with the Coulomb interaction while it saturates at large hybridization. The orbital magnetic field suppresses the excitonic average in general, though a strong commensurability effect of the magnetic flux on the behaviour of the excitonic order parameter is observed.

  7. Role of strain on the coherent properties of GaAs excitons and biexcitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmer, Brian L.; Webber, Daniel; Ashley, Joseph M.; Hall, Kimberley C.; Bristow, Alan D.

    2016-08-01

    Polarization-dependent two-dimensional Fourier-transform spectroscopy (2DFTS) is performed on excitons in strained bulk GaAs layers, probing the coherent response for differing amounts of strain. Uniaxial tensile strain lifts the degeneracy of heavy-hole (HH) and light-hole (LH) valence states, leading to an observed splitting of the associated excitons at low temperature. Increasing the strain increases the magnitude of the HH/LH exciton peak splitting, induces an asymmetry in the off-diagonal interaction coherences, increases the difference in the HH and LH exciton homogenous linewidths, and increases the inhomogeneous broadening of both exciton species. All results arise from strain-induced variations in the local electronic environment, which is not uniform along the growth direction of the thin layers. For cross-linear polarized excitation, wherein excitonic signals give way to biexcitonic signals, the high-strain sample shows evidence of bound LH, HH, and mixed biexcitons.

  8. Theory for electric dipole superconductivity with an application for bilayer excitons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qing-Dong; Bao, Zhi-qiang; Sun, Qing-Feng; Xie, X C

    2015-07-08

    Exciton superfluid is a macroscopic quantum phenomenon in which large quantities of excitons undergo the Bose-Einstein condensation. Recently, exciton superfluid has been widely studied in various bilayer systems. However, experimental measurements only provide indirect evidence for the existence of exciton superfluid. In this article, by viewing the exciton in a bilayer system as an electric dipole, we derive the London-type and Ginzburg-Landau-type equations for the electric dipole superconductors. By using these equations, we discover the Meissner-type effect and the electric dipole current Josephson effect. These effects can provide direct evidence for the formation of the exciton superfluid state in bilayer systems and pave new ways to drive an electric dipole current.

  9. Sodium-metal halide and sodium-air batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Seongmin; Kim, Jae-Kwang; Choi, Aram; Kim, Youngsik; Lee, Kyu Tae

    2014-07-21

    Impressive developments have been made in the past a few years toward the establishment of Na-ion batteries as next-generation energy-storage devices and replacements for Li-ion batteries. Na-based cells have attracted increasing attention owing to low production costs due to abundant sodium resources. However, applications of Na-ion batteries are limited to large-scale energy-storage systems because of their lower energy density compared to Li-ion batteries and their potential safety problems. Recently, Na-metal cells such as Na-metal halide and Na-air batteries have been considered to be promising for use in electric vehicles owing to good safety and high energy density, although less attention is focused on Na-metal cells than on Na-ion cells. This Minireview provides an overview of the fundamentals and recent progress in the fields of Na-metal halide and Na-air batteries, with the aim of providing a better understanding of new electrochemical systems.

  10. Structure and Bonding in Small Neutral Alkali-Halide Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Aguado, A; López, J M; Alonso, J A

    1997-01-01

    The structural and bonding properties of small neutral alkali-halide clusters (AX)n, with n less than or equal to 10, A=Li, Na, K, Rb and X=F, Cl, Br, I, are studied using the ab initio Perturbed Ion (aiPI) model and a restricted structural relaxation criterion. A trend of competition between rock-salt and hexagonal ring-like isomers is found and discussed in terms of the relative ionic sizes. The main conclusion is that an approximate value of r_C/r_A=0.5 (where r_C and r_A are the cationic and anionic radii) separates the hexagonal from the rock-salt structures. The classical electrostatic part of the total energy at the equilibrium geometry is enough to explain these trends. The magic numbers in the size range studied are n= 4, 6 and 9, and these are universal since they occur for all alkali-halides and do not depend on the specific ground state geometry. Instead those numbers allow for the formation of compact clusters. Full geometrical relaxations are considered for (LiF)n (n=3-7) and (AX)_3 clusters, an...

  11. Tunable Near-Infrared Luminescence in Tin Halide Perovskite Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, May L; Tay, Timothy Y S; Sadhanala, Aditya; Dutton, Siân E; Li, Guangru; Friend, Richard H; Tan, Zhi-Kuang

    2016-07-21

    Infrared emitters are reasonably rare in solution-processed materials. Recently, research into hybrid organo-lead halide perovskite, originally popular in photovoltaics,1-3 has gained traction in light-emitting diodes (LED) due to their low-cost solution processing and good performance.4-9 The lead-based electroluminescent materials show strong colorful emission in the visible region, but lack emissive variants further in the infrared. The concerns with the toxicity of lead may, additionally, limit their wide-scale applications. Here, we demonstrate tunable near-infrared electroluminescence from a lead-free organo-tin halide perovskite, using an ITO/PEDOT:PSS/CH3NH3Sn(Br1-xIx)3/F8/Ca/Ag device architecture. In our tin iodide (CH3NH3SnI3) LEDs, we achieved a 945 nm near-infrared emission with a radiance of 3.4 W sr(-1) m(-2) and a maximum external quantum efficiency of 0.72%, comparable with earlier lead-based devices. Increasing the bromide content in these tin perovskite devices widens the semiconductor bandgap and leads to shorter wavelength emissions, tunable down to 667 nm. These near-infrared LEDs could find useful applications in a range of optical communication, sensing and medical device applications.

  12. Two-Dimensional Halide Perovskites: Tuning Electronic Activities of Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanyue; Xiao, Hai; Goddard, William A

    2016-05-11

    Two-dimensional (2D) halide perovskites are emerging as promising candidates for nanoelectronics and optoelectronics. To realize their full potential, it is important to understand the role of those defects that can strongly impact material properties. In contrast to other popular 2D semiconductors (e.g., transition metal dichalcogenides MX2) for which defects typically induce harmful traps, we show that the electronic activities of defects in 2D perovskites are significantly tunable. For example, even with a fixed lattice orientation one can change the synthesis conditions to convert a line defect (edge or grain boundary) from electron acceptor to inactive site without deep gap states. We show that this difference originates from the enhanced ionic bonding in these perovskites compared with MX2. The donors tend to have high formation energies and the harmful defects are difficult to form at a low halide chemical potential. Thus, we unveil unique properties of defects in 2D perovskites and suggest practical routes to improve them.

  13. Fragmentation mechanism and energetics of some alkyl halide ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenstock, H.M.; Buff, R.; Ferreira, M.A.; Lias, S.G.; Parr, A.C.; Stockbauer, R.L.; Holmes, J.L.

    1982-05-05

    Halogen loss from iodoethane, 1-bromopropane, 2-bromopropane, 1-iodopropane, and 2-iodopropane has been studied by means of electron-ion coincidence techniques and by observation of metastable transition. Analysis of the breakdown curves and the study of residence times gave the zero-kelvin thresholds for halogen loss and indicated the size of the kinetic shift. The fragmentation onset for iodoethane was located in a Franck-Condon gap. The zero-kelvin thresholds for the propyl halides were found to lie at or just above the upper spin-orbit level of the parent ion. All of the propyl halides exhibited a unimolecular metastable transition. At fragmentation onset the 2-halopropane ions have negligible fragment kinetic energy while the 1-halopropane produce secondary propyl ions wih 100-200 meV of kinetic energy. It was established that a potential barrier must be surmounted in this fragmentation-isomerization process and analysis suggests a dynamic mechanism other than conventional QET, for example, weak couplings of vibrational modes. Analysis of the 2-halopropane fragmentation thresholds leads to an accurate, absolute value for the proton affinity of propylene, 751.4 +/- 2.9 kJ/mol at room temperature. This value reconciles some differences inherent in the proton affinity scale based on various relative measurements.

  14. Dislocation unpinning model of acoustic emission from alkali halide crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B P Chandra; Anubha S Gour; Vivek K Chandra; Yuvraj Patil

    2004-06-01

    The present paper reports the dislocation unpinning model of acoustic emission (AE) from alkali halide crystals. Equations are derived for the strain dependence of the transient AE pulse rate, peak value of the AE pulse rate and the total number of AE pulse emitted. It is found that the AE pulse rate should be maximum for a particular strain of the crystals. The peak value of the AE pulse rate should depend on the volume and strain rate of the crystals, and also on the pinning time of dislocations. Since the pinning time of dislocations decreases with increasing strain rate, the AE pulse rate should be weakly dependent on the strain rate of the crystals. The total number of AE should increase linearly with deformation and then it should attain a saturation value for the large deformation. By measuring the strain dependence of the AE pulse rate at a fixed strain rate, the time constant $_{\\text{s}}$ for surface annihilation of dislocations and the pinning time $_{\\text{p}}$ of the dislocations can be determined. A good agreement is found between the theoretical and experimental results related to the AE from alkali halide crystals.

  15. Temperature dependence of excitonic transition in ZnSe/ZnCdSe quantum wells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Zi-zheng; LIANG Xi-xia; BAN Shi-liang

    2005-01-01

    A theoretical calculation for the temperature dependence of the excitonic transition in ZnSe/ZnCdSe quantum wells is performed. The exciton binding energy is calculated with a variational technique by considering the temperature-dependence parameters. Our results show that the exciton binding energy reduces linearly with temperature increasing. We find that the strain due to lattice mismatch and differential thermal expansion decreases with the temperature increasing.

  16. Collective Behavior of a Spin-Aligned Gas of Interwell Excitons in Double Quantum Wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larionov, A. V.; Bayer, M.; Hvam, Jørn Märcher;

    2005-01-01

    The kinetics of a spin-aligned gas of interwell excitons in GaAs/AlGaAs double quantum wells (n–i–n heterostructure) is studied. The temperature dependence of the spin relaxation time for excitons, in which a photoexcited electron and hole are spatially separated between two adjacent quantum wells...... is associated with indirect evidence of the coherence of the collective phase of interwell excitons at temperatures below the critical value....

  17. Exciton-related energies of the 1s-like states of excitons in GaAs-Ga{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}As double quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Guillermo L. [Fisica Teorica y Aplicada, Escuela de Ingenieria de Antioquia, A.A. 7516, Medellin (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, C.P. 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Duque, C.A., E-mail: cduque_echeverri@yahoo.es [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellin (Colombia)

    2012-10-15

    The dependencies of the binding energies of the lowest four 1s-like exciton states in GaAs-(Ga,Al)As coupled double quantum wells (CDQW) on the geometric parameters of the system are theoretically studied. A variational approach, together with the parabolic band and effective mass approximations, were considered in order to perform the numerical calculations. It is shown that in the case of a symmetric system there is a degeneracy between the heavy-hole even and odd states and this degeneracy can be removed by the presence of a sufficiently narrow middle barrier. In contrast to this fact, the electron even and odd states are never degenerated. It is detected that, if the system is asymmetric, there will appear binding energies anticrossings between the heavy-hole states at the point of the asymmetric {yields} symmetric QW transition. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Study of 1s-like exciton states in double quantum wells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Binding energy decreases with the presence of second well. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Binding energy of (2,2) state can be larger than (1,1) state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Central barrier can remove degeneracy of states. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anticrossing between states can be induced via symmetries.

  18. Spatial mapping of exciton lifetimes in single ZnO nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Reparaz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the spatial dependence of the exciton lifetimes in single ZnO nanowires. We have found that the free exciton and bound exciton lifetimes exhibit a maximum at the center of nanowires, while they decrease by 30% towards the tips. This dependence is explained by considering the cavity-like properties of the nanowires in combination with the Purcell effect. We show that the lifetime of the bound-excitons scales with the localization energy to the power of 3/2, which validates the model of Rashba and Gurgenishvili at the nanoscale.

  19. Exciton binding energy in GaAsBiN spherical quantum dot heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Subhasis; Dhar, S.

    2017-03-01

    The ground state exciton binding energies (EBE) of heavy hole excitons in GaAs1-x-yBixNy - GaAs spherical quantum dots (QD) are calculated using a variational approach under 1s hydrogenic wavefunctions within the framework of effective mass approximation. Both the nitrogen and the bismuth content in the material are found to affect the binding energy, in particular for larger nitrogen content and lower dot radii. Calculations also show that the ground state exciton binding energies of heavy holes increase more at smaller dot sizes as compared to that for the light hole excitons.

  20. Singlet Exciton Lifetimes in Conjugated Polymer Films for Organic Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoichko D. Dimitrov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The lifetime of singlet excitons in conjugated polymer films is a key factor taken into account during organic solar cell device optimization. It determines the singlet exciton diffusion lengths in polymer films and has a direct impact on the photocurrent generation by organic solar cell devices. However, very little is known about the material properties controlling the lifetimes of singlet excitons, with most of our knowledge originating from studies of small organic molecules. Herein, we provide a brief summary of the nature of the excited states in conjugated polymer films and then present an analysis of the singlet exciton lifetimes of 16 semiconducting polymers. The exciton lifetimes of seven of the studied polymers were measured using ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy and compared to the lifetimes of seven of the most common photoactive polymers found in the literature. A plot of the logarithm of the rate of exciton decay vs. the polymer optical bandgap reveals a medium correlation between lifetime and bandgap, thus suggesting that the Energy Gap Law may be valid for these systems. This therefore suggests that small bandgap polymers can suffer from short exciton lifetimes, which may limit their performance in organic solar cell devices. In addition, the impact of film crystallinity on the exciton lifetime was assessed for a small bandgap diketopyrrolopyrrole co-polymer. It is observed that the increase of polymer film crystallinity leads to reduction in exciton lifetime and optical bandgap again in agreement with the Energy Gap Law.

  1. Transport of dipolar excitons in (Al,Ga)N/GaN quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedichkin, F.; Andreakou, P.; Jouault, B.; Vladimirova, M.; Guillet, T.; Brimont, C.; Valvin, P.; Bretagnon, T.; Dussaigne, A.; Grandjean, N.; Lefebvre, P.

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the transport of dipolar indirect excitons along the growth plane of polar (Al,Ga)N/GaN quantum well structures by means of spatially and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. The transport in these strongly disordered quantum wells is activated by dipole-dipole repulsion. The latter induces an emission blue shift that increases linearly with exciton density, whereas the radiative recombination rate increases exponentially. Under continuous, localized excitation, we observe continuously decreasing emission energy, as excitons propagate away from the excitation spot. This corresponds to a steady-state gradient of exciton density, measured over several tens of micrometers. Time-resolved microphotoluminescence experiments provide information on the dynamics of recombination and transport of dipolar excitons. We account for the ensemble of experimental results by solving the nonlinear drift-diffusion equation. Quantitative analysis suggests that in such structures, exciton propagation on the scale of 10 to 20 μ m is mainly driven by diffusion, rather than by drift, due to the strong disorder and the presence of nonradiative defects. Secondary exciton creation, most probably by the intense higher-energy luminescence, guided along the sample plane, is shown to contribute to the exciton emission pattern on the scale up to 100 μ m . The exciton propagation length is strongly temperature dependent, the emission being quenched beyond a critical distance governed by nonradiative recombination.

  2. Effects of Electric and Magnetic Fields on Pure Dephasing of Exciton Qubits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yun-Fei; XIAO Jing-Lin

    2009-01-01

    In a two-dimensional quantum dot (QD) with parabolic confinement potential, we investigate pure dephasing due to deformation potential exciton-bulk longitudinal acoustic phonons (LAP) interaction for exciton qubits under the influence of external static electric and magnetic fields by adopting the full quantum-mechanical method of Kunihiro Kojima and Akihisa Tomita. The wave function is found and the dependence of the pure dephusing factor on the confinement length of the QD and time and temperature is discussed. We find the external electric and magnetic fields have important effects on pure dephasing of exciton qubits because exciton-LAP interaction increases, leading to more pure dephasing.

  3. Singlet Exciton Lifetimes in Conjugated Polymer Films for Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Dimitrov, Stoichko

    2016-01-13

    The lifetime of singlet excitons in conjugated polymer films is a key factor taken into account during organic solar cell device optimization. It determines the singlet exciton diffusion lengths in polymer films and has a direct impact on the photocurrent generation by organic solar cell devices. However, very little is known about the material properties controlling the lifetimes of singlet excitons, with most of our knowledge originating from studies of small organic molecules. Herein, we provide a brief summary of the nature of the excited states in conjugated polymer films and then present an analysis of the singlet exciton lifetimes of 16 semiconducting polymers. The exciton lifetimes of seven of the studied polymers were measured using ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy and compared to the lifetimes of seven of the most common photoactive polymers found in the literature. A plot of the logarithm of the rate of exciton decay vs. the polymer optical bandgap reveals a medium correlation between lifetime and bandgap, thus suggesting that the Energy Gap Law may be valid for these systems. This therefore suggests that small bandgap polymers can suffer from short exciton lifetimes, which may limit their performance in organic solar cell devices. In addition, the impact of film crystallinity on the exciton lifetime was assessed for a small bandgap diketopyrrolopyrrole co-polymer. It is observed that the increase of polymer film crystallinity leads to reduction in exciton lifetime and optical bandgap again in agreement with the Energy Gap Law.

  4. On the binding energies of excitons in polar quantum well structures in a weak electric field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Yun-Feng; Liang Xi-Xia; K. K. Bajaj

    2005-01-01

    The binding energies of excitons in quantum well structures subjected to an applied uniform electric field by taking into account the exciton longitudinal optical phonon interaction is calculated. The binding energies and corresponding Stark shifts for Ⅲ-Ⅴ and Ⅱ-Ⅵ compound semiconductor quantum well structures have been numerically computed.The results for GaAs/AlGaAs and ZnCdSe/ZnSe quantum wells are given and discussed. Theoretical results show that the exciton-phonon coupling reduces both the exciton binding energies and the Stark shifts by screening the Coulomb interaction. This effect is observable experimentally and cannot be neglected.

  5. Dephasing in the quasi-two-dimensional exciton-biexciton system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2000-01-01

    The polarization decay in the exciton-biexciton system of a homogeneously broadened single quantum well is studied by transient four-wave mixing. All three decay rates in the exciton-biexciton three-level system are deduced. The relation between the rates unravels correlations between scattering...... processes of excitons and biexcitons. Density and temperature dependences show that the involved processes are mainly radiative decay and phonon scattering. The radiative decay rate of the biexcitons is found to be comparable to the one of the excitons, and the involved spontaneous photon emissions from...

  6. Exciton dynamics and non-linearities in two-dimensional hybrid organic perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Baki, K.; Boitier, F.; Diab, H.; Lanty, G.; Jemli, K.; Lédée, F.; Garrot, D.; Deleporte, E.; Lauret, J. S.

    2016-02-01

    Due to their high potentiality for photovoltaic applications or coherent light sources, a renewed interest in hybrid organic perovskites has emerged for few years. When they are arranged in two dimensions, these materials can be considered as hybrid quantum wells. One consequence of the unique structure of 2D hybrid organic perovskites is a huge exciton binding energy that can be tailored through chemical engineering. We present experimental investigations of the exciton non-linearities by means of femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. The exciton dynamics is fitted with a bi-exponential decay with a free exciton life-time of ˜100 ps. Moreover, an ultrafast intraband relaxation (energy.

  7. Anomalous Photoluminescence of Weakly Confined Excitons including Radiative Correction in Nano-to-Bulk Crossover Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Takuya; Yokoshi, Nobuhiko; Ishihara, Hajime

    2015-06-01

    We develop a theoretical formalism to calculate photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of weakly confined excitons incorporating the microscopic nonlocal optical response. The nonlocality is caused by the center-of-mass (c. m.) motion of exciton and becomes remarkable in nano-to-bulk crossover regime. The theory successfully explains the characteristics of recently observed peculiar PL spectra in high quality CuCl films [5], wherein the signals appear at the exciton states with the very large radiative corrections not only for the lowest level but also for the higher ones including non-dipole types of excitons.

  8. On the kinetics and thermodynamics of excitons at the surface of semiconductor nanocrystals: Are there surface excitons?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kambhampati, Patanjali, E-mail: pat.kambhampati@mcgill.ca

    2015-01-13

    Highlights: • The surface of semiconductor nanocrystals is one of their defining features. • The kinetics of surface trapping can be monitored by pump/probe spectroscopy. • The thermodynamics of surface trapping is revealed by photoluminescence spectroscopy. • We produce the first microscopic picture of how excitons are coupled to the surface. • We discuss the possibility of surface excitons in nanocrystals. - Abstract: The surface of semiconductor nanocrystals is one of their defining features by virtue of their nanometer size. Yet the surface is presently among the most poorly understood aspects of nanocrystal science. This perspective provides an overview of spectroscopic work that has revealed the first insights into the nature of the surface, focusing upon CdSe nanocrystals. We focus on two aspects of surface processes in nanocrystals: the kinetics of surface trapping and the thermodynamics of core/surface equilibria. We describe femtosecond pump/probe spectroscopic experiments which reveal the signatures of carrier trapping at the surface. We also describe temperature dependent steady-state photoluminescence experiments which reveal new aspects of the surface. This work suggest that the surface emission is largely driven by homogeneous broadening via phonon progressions. The implications are that the surface electronic state bears similarity to the quantized excitonic core of the nanocrystal.

  9. UV-visible spectroscopy of macrocyclic alkyl, nitrosyl and halide complexes of cobalt and rhodium. Experiment and calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Emily A; West, Aaron C; Pestovsky, Oleg; Kristian, Kathleen E; Ellern, Arkady; Dunne, James F; Carraher, Jack M; Bakac, Andreja; Windus, Theresa L

    2015-02-28

    Transition metal complexes (NH3)5CoX(2+) (X = CH3, Cl) and L(H2O)MX(2+), where M = Rh or Co, X = CH3, NO, or Cl, and L is a macrocyclic N4 ligand are examined by both experiment and computation to better understand their electronic spectra and associated photochemistry. Specifically, irradiation into weak visible bands of nitrosyl and alkyl complexes (NH3)5CoCH3(2+) and L(H2O)M(III)X(2+) (X = CH3 or NO) leads to photohomolysis that generates the divalent metal complex and ˙CH3 or ˙NO, respectively. On the other hand, when X = halide or NO2, visible light photolysis leads to dissociation of X(-) and/or cis/trans isomerization. Computations show that visible bands for alkyl and nitrosyl complexes involve transitions from M-X bonding orbitals and/or metal d orbitals to M-X antibonding orbitals. In contrast, complexes with X = Cl or NO2 exhibit only d-d bands in the visible, so that homolytic cleavage of the M-X bond requires UV photolysis. UV-Vis spectra are not significantly dependent on the structure of the equatorial ligands, as shown by similar spectral features for (NH3)5CoCH3(2+) and L(1)(H2O)CoCH3(2+).

  10. Determining the spatial coherence of excitons from the photoluminescence spectrum in charge-transfer J-aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestand, Nicholas J.; Spano, Frank C.

    2016-12-01

    The importance of spatial coherence in energy and charge transfer processes in biological systems and photovoltaic devices has been hotly debated over the past several years. While larger spatial coherences are thought to benefit transport, a clear correlation has yet to be established, partly because a simple and accurate measure of the coherence length has remained elusive. Previously, it was shown that the number of coherently connected chromophores, NCoh , can be determined directly from the ratio (SR) of the 0-0 and 0-1 vibronic line strengths in the photoluminescence (PL) spectrum. The relation NCoh = λ02SR, where λ02 is the associated monomeric Huang-Rhys parameter, was derived in the Frenkel exciton limit. Here, it is shown that SR remains a highly accurate measure of coherence for systems characterized by significant charge transfer interactions (e.g. conjugated π-stacked systems). The only requirement is that the exciton band curvature must be positive, as in a J-aggregate.

  11. Optical and Spectral Studies on β Alanine Metal Halide Hybrid Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetlin, M. Daniel; Selvarajan, P.; Perumal, S.; Ramalingom, S.

    2011-10-01

    We have synthesized and grown β alanine metal halide hybrid crystals viz. β alanine cadmium chloride (BACC), an amino acid transition metal halide complex crystal and β alanine potassium chloride (BAPC), an amino acid alkali metal halide complex crystal by slow evaporation method. The grown crystals were found to be transparent and have well defined morphology. The optical characteristics of the grown crystals were carried out with the help of UV-Vis Spectroscopy. The optical transmittances of the spectrums show that BAPC is more transparent than BACC. The Photoluminescence of the materials were determined by the Photoluminescent Spectroscopy

  12. Photophysical behavior and fluorescence quenching by halides of quinidine dication: Steady state and time resolved study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Neeraj Kumar; Tewari, Neeraj; Arora, Priyanka; Rautela, Ranjana; Pant, Sanjay [Photophysics Laboratory, Department of Physics, DSB Campus, Kumaun University, Nainital 263002, Uttarakhand (India); Joshi, Hem Chandra, E-mail: hem_sup@yahoo.co.uk [Institute for Plasma Research, Laser Diagnostics Division, Bhat, Near Indira Bridge, Gandhinagar 382428, Gujarat (India)

    2015-02-15

    The fluorescence quenching of quinidine in acidified aqueous solution by various halides (Cl{sup −}, Br{sup −} and I{sup −}) was studied using steady state and time resolved fluorescence techniques. The quenching process was characterized by Stern–Volmer (S–V) plots. Possibility of conformers (one is not quenched by halide and the other is quenched) is invoked to explain the observed results. - Highlights: • Fluorescence quenching of quinidine in acidified aqueous solution by halides. • Various quenching parameters have been estimated. • Possibility of conformers is invoked to explain the observed results.

  13. Energetics of the ruthenium-halide bond in olefin metathesis (pre)catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Falivene, Laura

    2013-01-01

    A DFT analysis of the strength of the Ru-halide bond in a series of typical olefin metathesis (pre)catalysts is presented. The calculated Ru-halide bond energies span the rather broad window of 25-43 kcal mol-1. This indicates that in many systems dissociation of the Ru-halide bond is possible and is actually competitive with dissociation of the labile ligand generating the 14e active species. Consequently, formation of cationic Ru species in solution should be considered as a possible event. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  14. Cerium doped lanthanum halides: fast scintillators for medical imaging; Halogenures de lanthane dopes cerium des scintillateurs rapides pour l'imagerie medicale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selles, O

    2006-12-15

    This work is dedicated to two recently discovered scintillating crystals: cerium doped lanthanum halides (LaCl{sub 3}:Ce{sup 3+} and LaBr{sub 3}:Ce{sup 3+}).These scintillators exhibit interesting properties for gamma detection, more particularly in the field of medical imaging: a short decay time, a high light yield and an excellent energy resolution. The strong hygroscopicity of these materials requires adapting the usual experimental methods for determining physico-chemical properties. Once determined, these can be used for the development of the industrial manufacturing process of the crystals. A proper comprehension of the scintillation mechanism and of the effect of defects within the material lead to new possible ways for optimizing the scintillator performance. Therefore, different techniques are used (EPR, radioluminescence, laser excitation, thermally stimulated luminescence). Alongside Ce{sup 3+} ions, self-trapped excitons are involved in the scintillation mechanism. Their nature and their role are detailed. The knowledge of the different processes involved in the scintillation mechanism leads to the prediction of the effect of temperature and doping level on the performance of the scintillator. A mechanism is proposed to explain the thermally stimulated luminescence processes that cause slow components in the light emission and a loss of light yield. Eventually the study of afterglow reveals a charge transfer to deep traps involved in the high temperature thermally stimulated luminescence. (author)

  15. Radiative recombination of localized excitons and mobility edge excitons in GaInNAs/GaAs quantum wells with strong carrier localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Q.X. [Physical Electronics and Photonics, Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology and Goeteborg University, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)]. E-mail: zhao@fly.chalmers.se; Wang, S.M. [Photonics Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Wei, Y.Q. [Photonics Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Sadeghi, M. [Photonics Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Larsson, A. [Photonics Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Willander, M. [Physical Electronics and Photonics, Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology and Goeteborg University, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2005-06-20

    The radiative recombination in In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N{sub 0.01}As{sub 0.99}/GaAs quantum well structures exhibiting strong carrier localization was investigated by optical spectroscopy. For In-concentration from 0 to 30%, the results indicate that the degree of carrier localization decreases with increasing In-concentration. At temperatures below 100 K, the mobility edge excitons as well as localized excitons are identified and their transitions energies strongly depend on the excitation intensity. At elevated temperatures the localized excitons become quenched. The temperature dependence of the photoluminescence emission energy shows different behaviors at different excitation intensities.

  16. Exciton generation/dissociation/charge-transfer enhancement in inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells by robust single nanocrystalline LnPxOy (Ln = Eu, Y) doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiao; Sun, Weifu; Chen, Zihan; Wei, Taihuei; Chen, Chuyang; He, Xingdao; Yuan, Yongbiao; Li, Yue; Li, Qinghua

    2014-06-11

    Low-temperature solution-processed photovoltaics suffer from low efficiencies because of poor exciton or electron-hole transfer. Inorganic/organic hybrid solar cell, although still in its infancy, has attracted great interest thus far. One of the promising ways to enhance exciton dissociation or electron-hole transport is the doping of lanthanide phosphate ions. However, the underlying photophysical mechanism remains poorly understood. Herein, by applying femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy, we successfully distinguished hot electron, less energetic electron, hole transport from electron-hole recombination. Concrete evidence has been provided that lanthanide phosphate doping improves the efficiency of both hot electron and "less energetic" electron transfers from donor to acceptor, but the hole transport almost remains unchanged. In particular, the hot electron transfer lifetime was shortened from 30.2 to 12.7 ps, that is, more than 60% faster than pure TiO2 acceptor. Such improvement was ascribed to the facts that the conduction band (CB) edge energy level of TiO2 has been elevated by 0.2 eV, while the valence band level almost remains unchanged, thus not only narrowing the energy offset between CB levels of TiO2 and P3HT, but also meanwhile enlarging the band gap of TiO2 itself that permits one to inhibit electron-hole recombination within TiO2. Consequently, lanthanide phosphate doped TiO2/P3HT bulk-heterojunction solar cell has been demonstrated to be a promising hybrid solar cell, and a notable power conversion efficiency of 2.91% is therefore attained. This work indicates that lanthanide compound ions can efficiently facilitate exciton generation, dissociation, and charge transport, thus enhancing photovoltaic performance.

  17. Bosonic Condensation and Disorder-Induced Localization in a Flat Band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baboux, F; Ge, L; Jacqmin, T; Biondi, M; Galopin, E; Lemaître, A; Le Gratiet, L; Sagnes, I; Schmidt, S; Türeci, H E; Amo, A; Bloch, J

    2016-02-12

    We report on the engineering of a nondispersive (flat) energy band in a geometrically frustrated lattice of micropillar optical cavities. By taking advantage of the non-Hermitian nature of our system, we achieve bosonic condensation of exciton polaritons into the flat band. Because of the infinite effective mass in such a band, the condensate is highly sensitive to disorder and fragments into localized modes reflecting the elementary eigenstates produced by geometric frustration. This realization offers a novel approach to studying coherent phases of light and matter under the controlled interplay of frustration, interactions, and dissipation.

  18. The Effect of Radiation "Memory" in Alkali-Halide Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korovkin, M. V.; Sal'nikov, V. N.

    2017-01-01

    The exposure of the alkali-halide crystals to ionizing radiation leads to the destruction of their structure, the emergence of radiation defects, and the formation of the electron and hole color centers. Destruction of the color centers upon heating is accompanied by the crystal bleaching, luminescence, and radio-frequency electromagnetic emission (REME). After complete thermal bleaching of the crystal, radiation defects are not completely annealed, as the electrons and holes released from the color centers by heating leave charged and locally uncompensated defects. Clusters of these "pre centers" lead to electric microheterogeneity of the crystal, the formation of a quasi-electret state, and the emergence of micro-discharges accompanied by radio emission. The generation of REME associated with residual defectiveness, is a manifestation of the effect of radiation "memory" in dielectrics.

  19. Interactions between halide anions and a molecular hydrophobic interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Blake M; Hands, Michael D; Wilcox, David S; Fega, K Rebecca; Slipchenko, Lyudmila V; Ben-Amotz, Dor

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between halide ions (fluoride and iodide) and t-butyl alcohol (TBA) dissolved in water are probed using a recently developed hydration-shell spectroscopic technique and theoretical cluster and liquid calculations. High ignal-to-noise Raman spectroscopic measurements are combined with multivariate curve resolution (Raman-MCR) to reveal that while there is little interaction between aqueous fluoride ions and TBA, iodide ions break down the tetrahedral hydration-shell structure of TBA and produce a red-shift in its CH stretch frequency, in good agreement with the theoretical effective fragment potential (EFP) molecular dynamics simulations and hybrid quantum/EFP frequency calculations. The results imply that there is a significantly larger probability of finding iodide than fluoride in the first hydration shell of TBA, although the local iodide concentration is apparently not as high as in the surrounding bulk aqueous NaI solution.

  20. Fast Photoconductive Responses in Organometal Halide Perovskite Photodetectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Mei, Jingjing; Wang, Yunpeng; Zhang, Ligong; Zhao, Haifeng; Zhao, Dongxu

    2016-02-03

    Inorganic semiconductor-based photodetectors have been suffering from slow response speeds, which are caused by the persistent photoconductivity of semiconductor materials. For realizing high speed optoelectronic devices, the organometal halide perovskite thin films were applied onto the interdigitated (IDT) patterned Au electrodes, and symmetrical structured photoconductive detectors were achieved. The detectors were sensitive to the incident light signals, and the photocurrents of the devices were 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than dark currents. The responsivities of the devices could reach up to 55 mA W(1-). Most importantly, the detectors have a fast response time of less than 20 μs. The light and bias induced dipole rearrangement in organometal perovskite thin films has resulted in the instability of photocurrents, and Ag nanowires could quicken the process of dipole alignment and stabilize the photocurrents of the devices.