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Sample records for half-sarcomeres produce emergent

  1. Interactions between connected half-sarcomeres produce emergent mechanical behavior in a mathematical model of muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth S Campbell

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Most reductionist theories of muscle attribute a fiber's mechanical properties to the scaled behavior of a single half-sarcomere. Mathematical models of this type can explain many of the known mechanical properties of muscle but have to incorporate a passive mechanical component that becomes approximately 300% stiffer in activating conditions to reproduce the force response elicited by stretching a fast mammalian muscle fiber. The available experimental data suggests that titin filaments, which are the mostly likely source of the passive component, become at most approximately 30% stiffer in saturating Ca2+ solutions. The work described in this manuscript used computer modeling to test an alternative systems theory that attributes the stretch response of a mammalian fiber to the composite behavior of a collection of half-sarcomeres. The principal finding was that the stretch response of a chemically permeabilized rabbit psoas fiber could be reproduced with a framework consisting of 300 half-sarcomeres arranged in 6 parallel myofibrils without requiring titin filaments to stiffen in activating solutions. Ablation of inter-myofibrillar links in the computer simulations lowered isometric force values and lowered energy absorption during a stretch. This computed behavior mimics effects previously observed in experiments using muscles from desmin-deficient mice in which the connections between Z-disks in adjacent myofibrils are presumably compromised. The current simulations suggest that muscle fibers exhibit emergent properties that reflect interactions between half-sarcomeres and are not properties of a single half-sarcomere in isolation. It is therefore likely that full quantitative understanding of a fiber's mechanical properties requires detailed analysis of a complete fiber system and cannot be achieved by focusing solely on the properties of a single half-sarcomere.

  2. Interactions between connected half-sarcomeres produce emergent mechanical behavior in a mathematical model of muscle.

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth S Campbell

    2009-01-01

    Most reductionist theories of muscle attribute a fiber's mechanical properties to the scaled behavior of a single half-sarcomere. Mathematical models of this type can explain many of the known mechanical properties of muscle but have to incorporate a passive mechanical component that becomes approximately 300% stiffer in activating conditions to reproduce the force response elicited by stretching a fast mammalian muscle fiber. The available experimental data suggests that titin filaments, whi...

  3. Emergence of KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bossa Maria C

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of KPC-producing K. pneumoniae has now become a global concern. KPC beta-lactamases are plasmid-borne and, like extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBLs, can accumulate and transfer resistance determinants to other classes of antibiotics. Therefore, infection control guidelines on early identification and control of the spread of organisms carrying these resistant determinants are needed. Findings Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC was detected in two isolates of carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae obtained from patients at an Italian teaching hospital. The first strain was isolated from a culture drawn from a central venous device (CVC in a patient with Crohn's disease who was admitted to a gastroenterology ward. The second was isolated from a urine sample collected from an indwelling urinary catheter in an intensive care unit (ICU patient with a subdural haematoma. The patients had not travelled abroad. Both isolates were resistant to all β-lactams and were susceptible to imipenem and meropenem but resistant to ertapenem. Isolates also showed resistance to other classes of non-β-lactam antibiotics, such as quinolones, aminoglycosides (with the exception for amikacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX and nitrofurantoin. They were determined to contain the plasmid encoding the carbapenemase gene bla-KPC and were also positive in the Hodge test. Conclusions This is the second report of KPC-producing isolates in Italy, but the first concerning KPC type 2 gene, and it may have important implications for controlling the transmission of microorganisms resistant to antibiotics.

  4. Emerging Perspectives on the Natural Microbiome of Fresh Produce Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin R. Jackson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants harbor a diverse microbiome existing as bacterial populations on the leaf surface (the phyllosphere and within plant tissues (endophytes. The composition of this microbiome has been largely unexplored in fresh produce vegetables, where studies have tended to focus on pathogen detection and survival. However, the application of next-generation 16S rRNA gene sequencing approaches is beginning to reveal the diversity of this produce-associated bacterial community. In this article we review what is known about the composition of the microbiome of fresh produce vegetables, placing it in the context of general phyllosphere research. We also demonstrate how next-generation sequencing can be used to assess the bacterial assemblages present on fresh produce, using fresh herbs as an example. That data shows how the use of such culture-independent approaches can detect groups of taxa (anaerobes, psychrophiles that may be missed by traditional culture-based techniques. Other issues discussed include questions as to whether to determine the microbiome during plant growth or at point of purchase or consumption, and the potential role of the natural bacterial community in mitigating pathogen survival.

  5. Emergence of ESBL-producing organisms in Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khosbayar, T.; Lkhamsuren, E.; Sop, C.Y.; Pak, C.Y.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Extended spectrum β-lactamase is most commonly produced by strains of K.pneumoniae and E.coli, and TEM, SHV, CTX-M and AmpC types of the ESBLs are commonly spread among different nations. Previous investigators have already established that certain strains or ''epidemic clones'' of ESBL producing organisms spread within and also among hospitals. Although, some clones may disseminate regionally. Other authors emphasize the importance of plasmid transfer, rather than strain spread and plasmid encoding ESBL can transmit between different species of the family Enterobacteriaceae. The genes encoding these β-lactamases are often located on large plasmids that also encode genes for resistance to other antibiotics, including aminoglycosides, tetracycline, sulfonamides, trimethoprim and chloramphenicol. Furthermore, there is an increasing tendency for pathogens to produce multiple Β-lactamases. Some isolate of Klebsiella pneumoniae which is multiply resistant, expresses a minimum of five different β-lactamases, most of which are encoded on one large transferable plasmid. Materials and Methods: Nonrepetitive ESBL producing E. coli, K. pneumoniae and E.cloaceae isolates were collected in the bacteriology laboratory at Maternal and Child Research Institution, Ulaanbaatar (the biggest and central hospital facility for reproductive health service in Mongolia) in 2001, 2002, 2005, and 2006. Isolates were identified by conventional biochemical testing. Antimicrobial susceptibility were tested by disk diffusion test and MICs of some -lactams were determined alone or in combination with a fixed concentration of either clavulanic acid (2 μg/ml) according to the guideline of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). ESBL production was screened using cefpodoxime disks and was confirmed by the double-disk synergy test. For detection of resistance transfer by conjugation, agar-mating technique was used with cultures of E.coli J53 Azir. PCRs with

  6. The role of emerging technologies to ensure the microbial safety of fresh produce, milk and eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article reviews emerging techniques that are applied in the produce and dairy industry to ensure product safety. Microbial safety of produce, dairy and egg continues to be a major concern. According to Economic Research Service, USDA the cost of foodborne illnesses in the U.S. tops $15.6 billio...

  7. [Investigation of emergency capacities for occupational hazard accidents in silicon solar cell producing enterprises].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, D D; Xu, J N; Zhu, B L

    2016-11-20

    Objective: To investigate and analyze the influential factors of occupational hazard acci-dents, emergency facilities and emergency management in Silicon solar cell producing enterprises, then to pro-vide scientific strategies. Methods: The methods of occupationally healthy field investigating, inspecting of ven-tilation effectiveness, setup of emergency program and wearing chemical suit were used. Results: The mainly occupational hazard accidents factors in the process of Silicon solar cell producing included poisoning chemi-cals, high temperature, onizing radiation and some workplaces. The poisoning chemicals included nitric acid, hydrofluoric acid, sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, chlorine, phos-phorus oxychloride, phosphorus pentoxide, nitrogen dioxide, ammonia, silane, and so on; the workplaces in-cluded the area of producing battery slides and auxiliary producing area. Among the nine enterprises, gas detec-tors were installed in special gas supplying stations and sites, but the height, location and alarmvalues of gas detectors in six enterprises were not according with standard criteria; emergency shower and eyewash equip-ment were installed in workplaces with strong corrosive chemicals, but the issues of waste water were not solved; ventilation systems were set in the workplaces with ammonia and silane, but not qualified with part lo-cations and parameters in two enterprises; warehouses with materials of acid, alkali, chemical ammonia and phosphorus oxychloride were equipped with positive - pressure air respirator resuscitator and emergency cabi-nets, but with insufficient quantity in seven enterprises and expiration in part of products. The error rate of set-up emergency program and wearing chemical cloth were 30%~100% and 10%~30%, respectively. Among the nine enterprises, there were emergency rescue plans for dangerous chemical accidents, but without profession-al heatstroke and irradiation accident emergency plans

  8. Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase–Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Children: Old Foe, Emerging Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukac, Paul J.; Bonomo, Robert A.; Logan, Latania K.

    2015-01-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae present an ever-growing burden in the hospital and community settings, across all ages and demographics. Infections due to ESBL-containing pathogens continue to be associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. With widespread empiric broad-spectrum β-lactam use creating selective pressure, and the resultant emergence of stable, rapidly proliferating ESBL-producing clones with continued horizontal gene transfer across genera, addressing this issue remains imperative. Although well characterized in adults, the epidemiology, risk factors, outcomes, therapies, and control measures for ESBL-producing bacteria are less appreciated in children. This analysis provides a brief summary of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in children, with a focus on recent clinical and molecular data regarding colonization and infection in nonoutbreak settings. PMID:25595742

  9. Emergency control room design of a nuclear reactor used to produce radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Isaac J.A.L. dos; Farias, Larissa P. de; Ponte, Luana T.L.; Goncalves, Gabriel L.; Castro, Heraclito M.; Farias, Marcos S.; Carvalho, Paulo V.R. de; Vianna Filho, Alfredo M.V., E-mail: luquetti@ien.gov.br [Instituto Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    A control room is defined as a functional entity with an associated physical structure, where the operators carry out the centralized control, monitoring and administrative responsibilities. Emergency control room acts as an alternative control room for the purpose of shutting down or maintaining the facility in a safe shutdown state when the main control room is uninhabitable. The mission of emergency control room is to provide the resources to bring the plant to a safe shutdown condition after an evacuation of the main control room. An evacuation of the main control room is assumed when there is no possibility to accomplish tasks involved in the shutdown except reactor trip. The purpose of this paper is to present a specific approach for the design of the emergency control room of a nuclear reactor used to produce radioisotope. The approach is based on human factors standards and the participation of a multidisciplinary team in the development phase of the design. Using the information gathered from standards and from the multidisciplinary team a 3D Sketch and a 3D printing of the emergency control room were created. (author)

  10. Emergency control room design of a nuclear reactor used to produce radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Isaac J.A.L. dos; Farias, Larissa P. de; Ponte, Luana T.L.; Goncalves, Gabriel L.; Castro, Heraclito M.; Farias, Marcos S.; Carvalho, Paulo V.R. de; Vianna Filho, Alfredo M.V.

    2015-01-01

    A control room is defined as a functional entity with an associated physical structure, where the operators carry out the centralized control, monitoring and administrative responsibilities. Emergency control room acts as an alternative control room for the purpose of shutting down or maintaining the facility in a safe shutdown state when the main control room is uninhabitable. The mission of emergency control room is to provide the resources to bring the plant to a safe shutdown condition after an evacuation of the main control room. An evacuation of the main control room is assumed when there is no possibility to accomplish tasks involved in the shutdown except reactor trip. The purpose of this paper is to present a specific approach for the design of the emergency control room of a nuclear reactor used to produce radioisotope. The approach is based on human factors standards and the participation of a multidisciplinary team in the development phase of the design. Using the information gathered from standards and from the multidisciplinary team a 3D Sketch and a 3D printing of the emergency control room were created. (author)

  11. Evaluating cash benefits as real options for a commodity producer in an emerging market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Antonio Lucena Aiube

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The amount of cash a firm should maintain is an old problem tackled by finance literature. The recent advances in finance, mainly in the derivatives area, has opened the opportunity to revisit this subject. Cossin and Hricko (2004 studied the benefits of cash holdings using the Real Options approach. We follow their ideas extending the problem to a specific commodity producer firm in an emerging economy. We evaluate the benefits considering that raising capital takes time (timing benefit and also the benefit of avoiding the issue of securities at unfavorable moments (underpricing benefit. We use numerical procedures to solve the problem. Despite the fact that the results are not totally intuitive, we verify that the timing benefit is much more relevant than that of avoiding the underpricing benefit and that firms in emerging economies have greater advantage holding cash than those in developed economies. There is empirical evidence of this last result in the literature.

  12. Electric power self-producers and the support of emergent supplying by concessionaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dastre, L.D.; Sebusiani, L.R.; Arantes, R.L.; Placido, R.; Vieira, F.O.; Janotta, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    The electric energy supplying to self-producers has particular features due to its load behavior impressed by the industrial process load itself. This matter is regulated by the National Division of Water Sources and Electric Power - DNAEE since late 1985. Nevertheless the entry of new and different price versions at marginal costs - such as the Green Rate -stressed relative pricing adjustments on regular rates as well as on emergent ones, which is going to allow unusual commercial fronts and is going to demand a continuous managerial attention on those supplying modes. (author)

  13. Managing produced water from coal seam gas projects: implications for an emerging industry in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Peter J; Gore, Damian B; Khan, Stuart J

    2015-07-01

    This paper reviews the environmental problems, impacts and risks associated with the generation and disposal of produced water by the emerging coal seam gas (CSG) industry and how it may be relevant to Australia and similar physical settings. With only limited independent research on the potential environmental impacts of produced water, is it necessary for industry and government policy makers and regulators to draw upon the experiences of related endeavours such as mining and groundwater extraction accepting that the conclusions may not always be directly transferrable. CSG is widely touted in Australia as having the potential to provide significant economic and energy security benefits, yet the environmental and health policies and the planning and regulatory setting are yet to mature and are continuing to evolve amidst ongoing social and environmental concerns and political indecision. In this review, produced water has been defined as water that is brought to the land surface during the process of recovering methane gas from coal seams and includes water sourced from CSG wells as well as flowback water associated with drilling, hydraulic fracturing and gas extraction. A brief overview of produced water generation, its characteristics and environmental issues is provided. A review of past lessons and identification of potential risks, including disposal options, is included to assist in planning and management of this industry.

  14. Organic livestock production: an emerging opportunity with new challenges for producers in tropical countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander, M; Subrahmanyeswari, B; Mukherjee, R; Kumar, S

    2011-12-01

    Agrochemicals, veterinary drugs, antibiotics and improved feeds can increase the food supply while minimising production costs in various livestock production systems around the world. However, these days, quality-conscious consumers are increasingly seeking environmentally safe, chemical-residue-free healthy foods, along with product traceability and a high standard of animal welfare, which organic production methods are said to ensure. Organic production is not only a challenge for producers in developing countries, it offers new export opportunities as well. Organic agriculture is practised by 1.8 million producers in 160 countries, and production of organically grown food continues to increase steadily by 15% per year. Most tropical countries are now exporting organic agricultural products but, apart from organic beef from Brazil and Argentina, organic livestock products are yetto take off. Most trade in organic livestock products is restricted to the European Union and other developed nations. Nevertheless, tropical countries cannot afford to neglect this emerging system of animal production. Organic production is knowledge- and management-intensive. Producers must be well versed in organic production standards, principles and practices, which require a high degree of knowledge and skill. In organic production, it is not simply the final product but the whole production process that must be inspected and approved by the accredited certification bodies. Organic livestock farming is still evolving, and further research is needed to make it sustainable. In this paper, the authors review the prospects of organic animal husbandry and its possible constraints in developing and tropical countries.

  15. New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1-producing Enterobacteriaceae: emergence and response in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struelens, M J; Monnet, D L; Magiorakos, A P; Santos O'Connor, F; Giesecke, J

    2010-11-18

    Acquired carbapenemases confer extensive antibiotic resistance to Enterobacteriaceae and represent a public health threat. A novel acquired carbapenemase, New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1 (NDM-1), has recently been described in the United Kingdom and Sweden, mostly in patients who had received care on the Indian subcontinent. We conducted a survey among 29 European countries (the European Union Member States, Iceland and Norway) to gather information on the spread of NDM-1-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Europe, on public health responses and on available national guidance on detection, surveillance and control. A total of 77 cases were reported from 13 countries from 2008 to 2010. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most frequently reported species with 54%. Among 55 cases with recorded travel history, 31 had previously travelled or been admitted to a hospital in India or Pakistan and five had been hospitalised in the Balkan region. Possible nosocomial acquisition accounted for 13 of 77 cases. National guidance on NDM-1 detection was available in 14 countries and on NDM-1 control in 11 countries. In conclusion, NDM-1 is spreading across Europe, where it is frequently linked to a history of healthcare abroad, but also to emerging nosocomial transmission. National guidance in response to the threat of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is available in approximately half of the surveyed European countries. Surveillance of carbapenemase- producing Enterobacteriaceae must be enhanced in Europe and effective control measures identified and implemented.

  16. Emergence of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii producing OXA-23 Carbapenemase in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-M. Rolain

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to describe the molecular support of carbapenem resistance from randomly selected clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant (MDR Acinetobacter baumannii as a pilot study from the Hamad Medical Corporation (HMC, Qatar. Results of our report will be used to study carbapenemases using molecular techniques in all isolated MDR A. baumannii. Forty-eight MDR A. baumannii were randomly selected from isolates preserved at HMC. Identification of all isolates was confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Antibiotic resistance was tested phenotypically by Phoenix and confirmed by Etest. The molecular support of carbapenemases (blaOXA-23, blaOXA-24, blaOXA-58, blaNDM was investigated by real-time PCR. The epidemiologic relatedness of the isolates was verified by phylogenetic analysis based on partial sequences of CsuE and blaOXA-51 genes. All 48 isolates were identified as A. baumannii and were confirmed to be resistant to most antibiotics, especially meropenem, imipenems, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, amikacin, gentamicin and most of the β-lactams; they were sensitive to colistin. All the isolates were positive for blaOXA-23 and negative for the other tested carbapenemase genes. Clonality analysis demonstrated that different lineages were actually circulating in Qatar; and we suggest that an outbreak occurred in the medical intensive care unit of HMC between 2011 and 2012. Here we report the emergence of MDR A. baumannii producing the carbapenemase OXA-23 in Qatar.

  17. MAppERS: a peer-produced community for emergency support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigerio, Simone; Schenato, Luca; Bianchizza, Chiara; Del Bianco, Daniele

    2014-05-01

    A general trend in European governance tends to shift responsibilities in territorial management from national central authorities to local/regional levels and to the citizens as first actors of Civil Protection. Prevention is a long term goal that rests not only on the capacities of professional operators and volunteers, but that has to necessarily imply the involvement and awareness of the citizens over the territory they inhabit. In fact people often do not have chance to interact in the surveillance of the territory and only face risks when they have to bear impacts on their lives. Involvement of population creates more cost-effective and context-specific strategies of territorial surveillance and management. A collaborative user environment is useful for emergency response and support in the wake of disasters, feeding updated information on the ground directly to on-site responders. MAppERS (Mobile Application for Emergency Response and Support) is a EU project (funded under programme 2013-2015 Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection, ECHO A5) which empowers citizens as "crowd-sourced mappers" through the development of a smart phone application able to collect GPS-localised and detailed parameters, that can then be sent from citizens to civil protection operators in a contest of geospatial response. The process of app design includes feedback from citizens, involving them in training courses on the monitoring of the territory as long term objective of raising public awareness and participation from the citizens, as actors in a networked disaster response community. The project proceeds from the design and testing of the smart phone applications (module MAppERS-V for volunteers, module MAppERS-C for citizens) according to software engineering environment (Android and Iphone SDK). Information exchange and data transfer need clearness and efficiency; thus a previous research is conducted on the cost-effectiveness of already existing practices for territorial

  18. Emergence of blaNDM-7-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Gabon, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussounda, Mesmin; Diene, Seydina M; Dos Santos, Sandra; Goudeau, Alain; François, Patrice; van der Mee-Marquet, Nathalie

    2017-02-01

    Reports of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Africa remain rare and assess mostly bla OXA-48 -producing isolates from Mediterranean countries and South Africa. We identified bla NDM-7 -producing Enterobacteriaceae in Gabon in 2016. The isolates contained bla NDM-7 IncX3 plasmids that were unusual and similar to the one described in a colistin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae SZ04 isolate from China.

  19. Emergence and nosocomial spread of carbapenem-resistant OXA-232-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Brunei Darussalam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdul Momin, Muhd Haziq Fikry; Liakopoulos, Apostolos; Phee, Lynette M.; Wareham, David W.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are identified as a major global health concern. The success of CRE is facilitated by the emergence, acquisition and spread of successful clones carrying plasmid-encoded resistance genes. In this study, an outbreak of carbapenem-resistant

  20. Emergence of New Delhi metalo-β- lactamase (NDM-1) – producing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The New Delhi metallo-beta- lactamase (NDM-1) gene is an emerging well acknowledged public health threats among human and animal pathogens worldwide. Since its first ... The Gram negative bacteria were. identified by conventional bacteriological procedures and with16s RNA PCR method. In all, 7.3% (4/55) of the ...

  1. Molecular epidemiology of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in the community and hospital in Korea: emergence of ST131 producing CTX-M-15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Sun

    2012-06-01

    major clones, predominantly ST131. The multidrug resistant ST131 clone producing CTX-M-15 has emerged as a major clone in both the community and hospital, suggesting the widespread of this epidemic clone in Korea.

  2. Producer organizations, family farms and market connection. Lessons for emerging biodiesel supply chains in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belo Leite, Dal J.G.; Bijman, J.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Slingerland, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Producer organizations (POs) are often recognized as a pathway to boost rural development by enhancing farmers' access to market opportunities. Smallholder production and marketing of new crops (such as those for biodiesel feedstock) are constrained as farmers and buyers face high transaction costs.

  3. Contribution of horizontal gene transfer to the emergence of VIM-4 carbapenemase producer Enterobacteriaceae in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonnevend Á

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ágnes Sonnevend,1 Nour Yahfoufi,1,2 Akela Ghazawi,1 Wafaa Jamal,3 Vincent Rotimi,3 Tibor Pál1 1Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, UAE; 2Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 3Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait City, Kuwait Abstract: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae encountered in countries of the Arabian Peninsula usually produce OXA-48-like and New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamases (NDM carbapenemases. However, a temporary increase in VIM-4-producing, clonally unrelated Enterobacteriaceae strains was described earlier in a Kuwaiti hospital. We investigated the genetic support of blaVIM-4 in six Klebsiella pneumoniae strains, one Escherichia coli, and one Enterobacter cloacae strain and compared it to that of VIM-4-producing isolates from other countries of the region. Five K. pneumoniae strains and the E. coli strain from Kuwait carried an ~165 kb IncA/C-type plasmid indistinguishable by restriction fragment length polymorphism. The complete sequence of one of them (pKKp4-VIM was established. pKKp4-VIM exhibited extensive similarities to episomes pKP-Gr642 carrying blaVIM-19 encountered in Greece and to the partially sequenced pCC416 harboring blaVIM-4 detected in Italy. In other countries of the region, the only similar plasmid was the one detected in the isolate from the UAE. In all Kuwaiti strains, irrespective of the species and their VIM plasmids, the blaVIM-4 gene was located within the same integron structure (In416, different from those of other countries of the region. Our data show that the spread of this IncA/C plasmid and particularly that of the In416 integron caused a considerable, albeit temporary, increase in the rate of mostly clonally unrelated VIM-producing Enterobacteriaceae strains of multiple species

  4. Chronological emergence of a class a carbapenemase-producing Enterobacter aerogenes in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-Yi Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the case of a 77-year-old, long-term, bedridden patient, with a nosocomial wound infection caused by a multidrug-resistant strain of Enterobacter aerogenes (E. aerogense. The isolate produced an Ambler-class A carbapenemase, which was demonstrated by the Modified Hodge test (MHT and a confirmatory inhibition test. However, no known carbapenemase genes were discovered in this isolate by polymerase chain reactions (PCRs with specific primers. New carbapenemase or other resistant mechanisms could be explored from the isolate of carbapenem-resistant E. aerogense, according to the revised criteria (CLSI, 2012.

  5. Emergence and clonal dissemination of carbapenem-hydrolysing OXA-58-producing Acinetobacter baumannii isolates in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevillano, Elena; Fernández, Elena; Bustamante, Zulema; Zabalaga, Silvia; Rosales, Ikerne; Umaran, Adelaida; Gallego, Lucía

    2012-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging multidrug-resistant pathogen and very little information is available regarding its imipenem resistance in Latin American countries such as Bolivia. This study investigated the antimicrobial resistance profile of 46 clinical strains from different hospitals in Cochabamba, Bolivia, from March 2008 to July 2009, and the presence of carbapenemases as a mechanism of resistance to imipenem. Isolates were obtained from 46 patients (one isolate per patient; 30 males,16 females) with an age range of 1 day to 84 years, and were collected from different sample types, the majority from respiratory tract infections (17) and wounds (13). Resistance to imipenem was detected in 15 isolates collected from different hospitals of the city. These isolates grouped into the same genotype, named A, and were resistant to all antibiotics tested including imipenem, with susceptibility only to colistin. Experiments to detect carbapenemases revealed the presence of the OXA-58 carbapenemase. Further analysis revealed the location of the bla(OXA-58) gene on a 40 kb plasmid. To our knowledge, this is the first report of carbapenem resistance in A. baumannii isolates from Bolivia that is conferred by the OXA-58 carbapenemase. The presence of this gene in a multidrug-resistant clone and its location within a plasmid is of great concern with regard to the spread of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii in the hospital environment in Bolivia.

  6. High Gastrointestinal Colonization Rate with Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Hospitalized Patients: Emergence of Carbapenemase-Producing K. pneumoniae in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desta, Kassu; Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinash; Azazh, Aklilu; Mohammod, Halima; Desalegn, Dawit; Shimelis, Damte; Gulilat, Dereje; Lamisso, Biruk; Makonnen, Eyasu; Worku, Alemayehu; Mannerqvist, Kerstin; Struwe, Johan; Aspevall, Olov; Aklillu, Eleni

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the gastrointestinal colonization rate and antibiotic resistance patterns of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL)- producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in hospitalized patients admitted at Ethiopia’s largest tertiary hospital. Fecal samples/swabs from 267 patients were cultured on chrome agar. ESBL. Bacterial species identification, verification of ESBL production and antibiotic susceptibility testing were done using Vitek 2 system (bioMérieux, France). Phenotype characterization of ESBL-E.coli and ESBL- K.pneumoniae was done using Neo-Sensitabs™. ESBL positivity rate was much higher in K. pneumoniae (76%) than E. coli (45%). The overall gastrointestinal colonization rate of ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) in hospitalized patients was 52% (95%CI; 46%–58%) of which, ESBL-E. coli and K.pneumoniae accounted for 68% and 32% respectively. Fecal ESBL-E carriage rate in neonates, children and adults was 74%, 59% and 46% respectively. Gastrointestinal colonization rate of ESBL-E.coli in neonates, children and adults was 11%, 42% and 42% respectively. Of all E. coli strains isolated from adults, children and neonates, 44%, 49% and 22% were ESBL positive (p = 0.28). The prevalence of ESBL-K.pneumoniae carriage in neonates, children and adults was 68%, 22% and 7% respectively. All K. pneumoniae isolated from neonates (100%) and 88% of K. pneumoniae isolated from children were ESBL positive, but only 50% of K.pneumoniae isolated from adults were ESBL positive (p = 0.001). Thirteen patients (5%) were carriers of both ESBL-E.coli and ESBL-KP. The overall carrier rate of ESBL producing isolates resistant to carbapenem was 2% (5/267), all detected in children; three with E.coli HL cephalosporinase (AmpC), resistant to ertapenem and two with K. pneumoniae Carbapenemase (KPC) resistant to meropenem, ertapenem and impenem. We report a high gastrointestinal colonization rate with ESBL-E and the emergence of carbapenems-resistant K

  7. Quorum sensing signaling molecules produced by reference and emerging soft-rot bacteria (Dickeya and Pectobacterium spp..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Crépin

    Full Text Available Several small diffusible molecules are involved in bacterial quorum sensing and virulence. The production of autoinducers-1 and -2, quinolone, indole and γ-amino butyrate signaling molecules was investigated in a set of soft-rot bacteria belonging to six Dickeya or Pectobacterium species including recent or emerging potato isolates.Using bacterial biosensors, immunoassay, and chromatographic analysis, we showed that soft-rot bacteria have the common ability to produce transiently during their exponential phase of growth the N-3-oxo-hexanoyl- or the N-3-oxo-octanoyl-l-homoserine lactones and a molecule of the autoinducer-2 family. Dickeya spp. produced in addition the indole-3-acetic acid in tryptophan-rich conditions. All these signaling molecules have been identified for the first time in the novel Dickeya solani species. In contrast, quinolone and γ-amino butyrate signals were not identified and the corresponding synthases are not present in the available genomes of soft-rot bacteria. To determine if the variations of signal production according to growth phase could result from expression modifications of the corresponding synthase gene, the respective mRNA levels were estimated by reverse transcriptase-PCR. While the N-acyl-homoserine lactone production is systematically correlated to the synthase expression, that of the autoinducer-2 follows the expression of an enzyme upstream in the activated methyl cycle and providing its precursor, rather than the expression of its own synthase.Despite sharing the S-adenosylmethionine precursor, no strong link was detected between the production kinetics or metabolic pathways of autoinducers-1 and -2. In contrast, the signaling pathway of autoinducer-2 seems to be switched off by the indole-3-acetic acid pathway under tryptophan control. It therefore appears that the two genera of soft-rot bacteria have similarities but also differences in the mechanisms of communication via the diffusible molecules

  8. Quorum Sensing Signaling Molecules Produced by Reference and Emerging Soft-Rot Bacteria (Dickeya and Pectobacterium spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crépin, Alexandre; Barbey, Corinne; Beury-Cirou, Amélie; Hélias, Valérie; Taupin, Laure; Reverchon, Sylvie; Nasser, William; Faure, Denis; Dufour, Alain; Orange, Nicole; Feuilloley, Marc; Heurlier, Karin; Burini, Jean-François; Latour, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Background Several small diffusible molecules are involved in bacterial quorum sensing and virulence. The production of autoinducers-1 and -2, quinolone, indole and γ-amino butyrate signaling molecules was investigated in a set of soft-rot bacteria belonging to six Dickeya or Pectobacterium species including recent or emerging potato isolates. Methodology/Principal Findings Using bacterial biosensors, immunoassay, and chromatographic analysis, we showed that soft-rot bacteria have the common ability to produce transiently during their exponential phase of growth the N-3-oxo-hexanoyl- or the N-3-oxo-octanoyl-l-homoserine lactones and a molecule of the autoinducer-2 family. Dickeya spp. produced in addition the indole-3-acetic acid in tryptophan-rich conditions. All these signaling molecules have been identified for the first time in the novel Dickeya solani species. In contrast, quinolone and γ-amino butyrate signals were not identified and the corresponding synthases are not present in the available genomes of soft-rot bacteria. To determine if the variations of signal production according to growth phase could result from expression modifications of the corresponding synthase gene, the respective mRNA levels were estimated by reverse transcriptase-PCR. While the N-acyl-homoserine lactone production is systematically correlated to the synthase expression, that of the autoinducer-2 follows the expression of an enzyme upstream in the activated methyl cycle and providing its precursor, rather than the expression of its own synthase. Conclusions/Significance Despite sharing the S-adenosylmethionine precursor, no strong link was detected between the production kinetics or metabolic pathways of autoinducers-1 and -2. In contrast, the signaling pathway of autoinducer-2 seems to be switched off by the indole-3-acetic acid pathway under tryptophan control. It therefore appears that the two genera of soft-rot bacteria have similarities but also differences in the

  9. Study of the mechanisms for the emergency cooling of the core of the Radioisotope Producing Reator (RPR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacerda, F.C.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanisms for the emergency cooling of the core of the Radioisotope Producing Reactor (R.P.R.) are studied, in particular the thermal-hydraulic behaviour of the coolant after reactor shut-down. The coolant operates bd convection, and flows downward through the core passing into beel-shaped plenum that encloses the core and proceeding across the primary cooling loop. When the reactor is shut-down, the coolant flow undergoes a transient period until the steady state of natural convection is reached, after which the coolant flows upwards from the lower plenum. A plocking valve will be installed at the exit of the lower plenum, which will automatically shut in case of an accident that will involve the loss of flow in the primary circuit. The present work aims at evaluating the contribution of natural convection by natural recirculation in the core when the blocking valve is close, and via the external coolant circuit when the blocking valve is open. In particular, we study the natural self-regulating mechanisms of extraction of the heat generated by the fission product after reactor shut-down. (author) [pt

  10. Emergence of quinolone resistance among extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in the Central African Republic: genetic characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Thierry

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cross-resistance to quinolones and beta-lactams is frequent in Enterobacteriaceae, due to the wide use of these antibiotics clinically and in the food industry. Prescription of one of these categories of antibiotic may consequently select for bacteria resistant to both categories. Genetic mechanisms of resistance may be secondary to a chromosomal mutation located in quinolone resistance determining region of DNA gyrase or topoisomerase IV or to a plasmid acquisition. The insertion sequence ISCR1 is often associated with qnr and may favour its dissemination in Gram-negative bacteria. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic mechanism of quinolone resistance among extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae strains in the Central African Republic. Findings Among seventeen ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolated from urine, pus or stool between January 2003 and October 2005 in the Central African Republic, nine were resistant to ciprofloxacin (seven from community patients and two from hospitalized patients. The ESBL were previously characterized as CTX-M-15 and SHV-12. Susceptibility to nalidixic acid, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin, and the minimal inhibitory concentrations of these drugs were determined by disc diffusion and agar dilution methods, respectively. The presence of plasmid-borne ISCR1-qnrA region was determined by PCR and amplicons, if any, were sent for sequencing. Quinolone resistance determining region of DNA gyrase gyrA gene was amplified by PCR and then sequenced for mutation characterization. We found that all CTX-M-producing strains were resistant to the tested quinolones. All the isolates had the same nucleotide mutation at codon 83 of gyrA. Two Escherichia coli strains with the highest MICs were shown to harbour an ISCR1-qnrA1 sequence. This genetic association might favour dissemination of resistance to quinolone and perhaps other antibiotics among Enterobacteriaceae

  11. Quantifying trends in disease impact to produce a consistent and reproducible definition of an emerging infectious disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Sebastian; Bogich, Tiffany L; Jones, Kate E; Kilpatrick, A Marm; Daszak, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The proper allocation of public health resources for research and control requires quantification of both a disease's current burden and the trend in its impact. Infectious diseases that have been labeled as "emerging infectious diseases" (EIDs) have received heightened scientific and public attention and resources. However, the label 'emerging' is rarely backed by quantitative analysis and is often used subjectively. This can lead to over-allocation of resources to diseases that are incorrectly labelled "emerging," and insufficient allocation of resources to diseases for which evidence of an increasing or high sustained impact is strong. We suggest a simple quantitative approach, segmented regression, to characterize the trends and emergence of diseases. Segmented regression identifies one or more trends in a time series and determines the most statistically parsimonious split(s) (or joinpoints) in the time series. These joinpoints in the time series indicate time points when a change in trend occurred and may identify periods in which drivers of disease impact change. We illustrate the method by analyzing temporal patterns in incidence data for twelve diseases. This approach provides a way to classify a disease as currently emerging, re-emerging, receding, or stable based on temporal trends, as well as to pinpoint the time when the change in these trends happened. We argue that quantitative approaches to defining emergence based on the trend in impact of a disease can, with appropriate context, be used to prioritize resources for research and control. Implementing this more rigorous definition of an EID will require buy-in and enforcement from scientists, policy makers, peer reviewers and journal editors, but has the potential to improve resource allocation for global health.

  12. Emergence of KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae ST512 isolated from cerebrospinal fluid of a child in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bakour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report class A carbapenemase (KPC-3-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae meningitis in a 6-month-old child in Algeria. Multilocus sequence typing showed that the sequence type obtained corresponded to ST512, an allelic single-locus variant of the pandemic ST258 widely distributed in KPC producers from Europe. To our knowledge, this is the first report of KPC-3-producing K. pneumoniae ST512 in a North African country.

  13. Analysis of Food Safety and Security Challenges in Emerging African Food Producing Areas through a One Health Lens: The Dairy Chains in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Rachel; Mantovani, Alberto; Frazzoli, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    Challenges posed by changes in livestock production in emerging food producing areas and demographic development and climate change require new approaches and responsibilities in the management of food chains. The increasingly recognized role of primary food producers requires the support of the scientific community to instruct effective approaches based on scientific data, tools, and expertise. Mali is an emerging food producing area, and this review covers (i) the dairy farming scenario and its environment, (ii) the role of dairy production in food security, including the greatly different animal rearing systems in the Sahel and tropical regions, (iii) risk management pillars as modern infrastructures, effective farmer organizations, and institutional systems to guarantee animal health and safety of products, and (iv) feasible interventions based on good practices and risk assessment at the farm level (e.g., sustainable use of fertilizers, feeds, veterinary drugs, and pesticides) to protect consumers from food safety hazards. Social innovation based on the empowerment of the primary food producers emerges as crucial for sustainable and safe food production. Sustainable policies should be supported by the mobilization of stakeholders of One Health, which is a science-based approach to linking human health and nutrition with the health and management of food producing animals and environmental safety. In the context of the complex, multifaceted scenario of Mali dairy production, this article presents how a cost-effective animal health and food safety scheme could be established in the dairy production chain. Because milk is a major commodity in this country, benefits could be derived in food security, public health, the resilience of the farming system, animal husbandry, and international trade.

  14. Emerging Perils of Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase Producing Enterobacteriaceae Clinical Isolates in a Teaching Hospital of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Prasad Parajuli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Infections due to extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae are on the rise. They pose serious public health problems due to their resistance to large number of antibiotics. However, little is known about the genotypes of ESBL from Nepal. Therefore, the study presents results of phenotypic and molecular characterization of ESBL producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. isolated from various clinical specimens in a tertiary care teaching hospital of Nepal. Methods. A total of 172 Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates recovered from various clinical specimens were analyzed for their antibiotic susceptibility test. Detection of ESBLs was carried out using combination disk test and multiplex PCR for their genotypes (CTX-M, SHV, and TEM. Results. Out of 172 clinical isolates, 70 (40.6% of them were found ESBL producers. The major source of ESBL producers was urinary tract samples and the highest ESBL production was observed in Escherichia coli (46.5%. Among ESBL genotypes, CTX-M (91.4% was most predominant, followed by TEM (65.7% and SHV (11.4% in both of the isolates. Conclusions. High level of drug resistance and ESBL production was observed among the clinical isolates. There is a need for longitudinal and nationwide surveillance for drug resistance in clinical isolates and antimicrobial stewardship is necessary to guide the appropriate and judicious antibiotic use.

  15. Emerging Perils of Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase Producing Enterobacteriaceae Clinical Isolates in a Teaching Hospital of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajuli, Narayan Prasad; Maharjan, Pooja; Joshi, Govardhan; Khanal, Puspa Raj

    2016-01-01

    Introduction . Infections due to extended spectrum β -lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae are on the rise. They pose serious public health problems due to their resistance to large number of antibiotics. However, little is known about the genotypes of ESBL from Nepal. Therefore, the study presents results of phenotypic and molecular characterization of ESBL producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. isolated from various clinical specimens in a tertiary care teaching hospital of Nepal. Methods . A total of 172 Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates recovered from various clinical specimens were analyzed for their antibiotic susceptibility test. Detection of ESBLs was carried out using combination disk test and multiplex PCR for their genotypes (CTX-M, SHV, and TEM). Results . Out of 172 clinical isolates, 70 (40.6%) of them were found ESBL producers. The major source of ESBL producers was urinary tract samples and the highest ESBL production was observed in Escherichia coli (46.5%). Among ESBL genotypes, CTX-M (91.4%) was most predominant, followed by TEM (65.7%) and SHV (11.4%) in both of the isolates. Conclusions . High level of drug resistance and ESBL production was observed among the clinical isolates. There is a need for longitudinal and nationwide surveillance for drug resistance in clinical isolates and antimicrobial stewardship is necessary to guide the appropriate and judicious antibiotic use.

  16. Impact on world oil prices when larger and fewer producers emerge from a political restructuring of the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirl, F.

    1992-01-01

    We investigate how a redistribution of oil reserves among a (probably reduced) set of producers affects OPEC's oil extraction policies and thus international crude oil-prices. The empirical investigation shows that this impact is fairly small, as long as OPEC members do not cooperate. Only cooperation will have a substantial impact. (author)

  17. Rapid Emergence and Clonal Dissemination of CTX-M-15-Producing Salmonella enterica Serotype Virchow, South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Seok; Yun, Young-Sun; Kim, Soo Jin; Jeon, Se-Eun; Lee, Deog-Yong; Chung, Gyung Tae; Yoo, Cheon-Kwon; Kim, Junyoung

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of cefotaxime-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Virchow has dramatically increased in South Korea since the first isolation in 2011. Of 68 isolates collected over 10 years, 28 cefotaxime-resistant isolates harbored the bla(CTX-M-15) extended-spectrum β-lactamase gene and were closely related genetically, demonstrating the clonal dissemination of CTX-M-15-producing Salmonella Virchow in South Korea.

  18. Emergence and outbreak of carbapenemase-producing KPC-3 Klebsiella pneumoniae in Spain, September 2009 to February 2010: control measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robustillo Rodela, A; Díaz-Agero Pérez, C; Sanchez Sagrado, T; Ruiz-Garbajosa, P; Pita López, M J; Monge, V

    2012-02-16

    This report describes the epidemiological features of the first outbreak caused by KPC3 carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-3-KP) in Spain and how it was effectively controlled. From 16 September 2009 to the end of February 2010, seven patients infected or colonised with KPC-3-KP were detected. Stool surveillance cultures were recovered from patients, doctors, nurses, nursing assistants, cleaners and hospital porters working in the affected units. Hand swabs were taken from workers and patients’ relatives for culturing. Environmental samples were also taken. Patients infected or colonised with KPC-3-KP were placed in single rooms under contact precautions and 4% chlorhexidine soap was used for their daily hygiene. Staff attended educational seminars and workshops on hand hygiene and isolation of patients. An alcohol-based disinfectant was used for surface cleaning and disinfecting. The floor was cleaned with a disinfectant containing benzalkonium chloride and didecyldimethylammonium. All samples collected were negative for KPC-3-KP. After implementing the control measures, no further cases were reported in the affected units. All cases had comorbidities, long hospital stay and aggressive/intensive antimicrobial treatment. This study emphasises the importance of early intensification of infection control to interrupt the transmission of KPC-producing organisms.

  19. Proposal of emergency systems for the liberations control in a hydrogen producer plant with the cycle S-I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz S, T.; Francois, J. L.; Nelson, P. F.; Cruz G, M. J.

    2012-10-01

    At present, one of the processes that theoretically has demonstrated to be of the most efficient for the hydrogen production is the thermal-chemistry cycle Sulfur-Iodine (S-I) coupled to a nuclear reactor of very high temperature (VHTR). Because this chemical process of hydrogen production requires of a great inventory of toxic materials (sulfurous compounds, hydriodic acid and iodine) is necessary the emergency systems design with the purpose of protecting the facilitates and equipment s, the atmosphere and population. Inside the important considerations for this design are the obtained results in the liberations simulations of the substances involved in the process. These simulations were realized with the computer code Phast, including the leak through a small failure of the pipe, as well as the catastrophic failure. To determine the good localization of the equipment s, as well as the inventory required for the liberations control. The operation conditions were taken of a combination of the preliminary design proposed by the General Atomics and the optimized conditions by the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, considering a hydrogen production of 1 kg-mol/s. The proposed materials for the neutralization of the liberated substances were selected considering that they did not increase the inventory of process toxic substances. (Author)

  20. Escherichia coli Sequence Type 131 H30 Is the Main Driver of Emerging Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Producing E. coli at a Tertiary Care Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James R; Johnston, Brian; Thuras, Paul; Launer, Bryn; Sokurenko, Evgeni V; Miller, Loren G

    2016-01-01

    The H 30 strain of Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131- H 30) is a recently emerged, globally disseminated lineage associated with fluoroquinolone resistance and, via its H 30Rx subclone, the CTX-M-15 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL). Here, we studied the clonal background and resistance characteristics of 109 consecutive recent E. coli clinical isolates (2015) and 41 historical ESBL-producing E. coli blood isolates (2004 to 2011) from a public tertiary care center in California with a rising prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli isolates. Among the 2015 isolates, ST131, which was represented mainly by ST131- H 30, was the most common clonal lineage (23% overall). ST131- H 30 accounted for 47% (8/17) of ESBL-producing, 47% (14/30) of fluoroquinolone-resistant, and 33% (11/33) of multidrug-resistant isolates. ST131- H 30 also accounted for 53% (8/14) of dually fluoroquinolone-resistant, ESBL-producing isolates, with the remaining 47% comprised of diverse clonal groups that contributed a single isolate each. ST131- H 30Rx, with CTX-M-15, was the major ESBL producer (6/8) among ST131- H 30 isolates. ST131- H 30 and H 30Rx also dominated (46% and 37%, respectively) among the historical ESBL-producing isolates (2004 to 2011), without significant temporal shifts in relative prevalence. Thus, this medical center's recently emerging ESBL-producing E. coli strains, although multiclonal, are dominated by ST131- H 30 and H 30Rx, which are the only clonally expanded fluoroquinolone-resistant, ESBL-producing lineages. Measures to rapidly and effectively detect, treat, and control these highly successful lineages are needed. IMPORTANCE The ever-rising prevalence of resistance to first-line antibiotics among clinical Escherichia coli isolates leads to worse clinical outcomes and higher health care costs, thereby creating a need to discover its basis so that effective interventions can be developed. We found that the H 30 subset within E. coli sequence type 131

  1. Emergence of colistin resistance in extended-spectrum beta lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae isolated from food animals and its public health implication: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asinamai Athliamai Bitrus

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance as a result of emergence of extended-spectrum beta lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae is a major health problem of human and animal that requires an intensive global attention. The production of beta lactamase enzymes remains as one of the major factors contributing to the development of resistance to beta lactams. These enzymes hydrolyze the beta lactam ring of the antibiotic and render it ineffective. Extended-spectrum beta lactamase producing bacteria have the ability to develop resistance to a number of antibiotics including the carbapenem and other third generation cephalosporins. In addition, the recent emergence and dissemination of the colistin resistance determinants mcr-1, mcr-2 and mcr-3 poses a serious threat to colistin as a drug of last resort in human medicine. In this review, we utilized words such as “colistin resistance and Escherichia coli”, “Klebsiella and colistin resistance”, “colistin resistance and Salmonella” as well as “detection of mcr-1 genes in Salmonella and E. coli”. The extended-spectrum beta lactamase producing bacteria under Enterobacteriaceae that are resistant to colistin possess the ability to be transferred resistant determinants to other susceptible cells at a higher frequency. In this paper, the role of manure from food animals and how air travel contributes to the dissemination of mcr-1 haboring bacteria, resistance determinants and other metabolites that constitute a public health problem was also reviewed. It is concluded that these pathogens have significant consequences to the control of infection and plays key roles in treatment failure with colistin. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2018; 5(1.000: 1-11

  2. Emergent strategies of electricity producers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Woerd, F.; Lise, W.; Becker, G.

    2004-10-15

    The EU-funded research project EMELIE (Electricity Market Liberalisation In Europe) wants to provide a sound analysis of the economic and environmental impacts of the liberalisation process of the European electricity markets. The EMELIE model simulates various market scenarios. The companies in the EMELIE model are assumed to have a relatively simple strategy, i.e. profit maximisation, which is constrained by trade limitation, emission quota, and available production capacity for various technologies. The Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM) took the initiative to start a complementary line of research. At a more detailed level, we investigated business strategies from the perspective of the companies themselves: What is their dominant strategy in the process of liberalisation? Why do they behave like that? What will be the likely strategy of dominant companies in the years to come? And last but not least: how does this most likely strategy fit into the stylised EMELIE scenarios? In our analysis, we use theories about business behaviour, like the Portfolio Analysis of the Boston Consulting Group and Porter's Typology of Business Strategies. We also consider two theories that relate to company-authority interactions: Williamson's New Institutional Economics that compares market failures with government failures and Tinbergen's Theory of Economic Policy, that warns for exaggerated expectations of a single policy instrument, in this case market liberalisation. We observe that the liberalisation process has brought about a wave of mergers and acquisitions, resulting in concentrated markets. Concentration Standards of Competition Authorities decide on maximum concentration levels, not the market itself. The trend towards market concentration originates because dominant companies want to avoid price competition and consider strategic market behaviour in their best interest. These expansionist' companies prefer proven production technologies with low variable costs like coal, lignite, nuclear and hydro. They want to retain an integrated business structure, being active in electricity production, trade, distribution and sales. The dominant players leave it to niche players to experiment with new production (e.g. renewable energy sources) and trade arrangements. Market concentration remains the dominant trend. Because Regulators will not accept more mergers at the national scale, dominant companies look for international opportunities. We expect that, as soon as public shares become available to private companies, international cross-ownership will increase. To prevent quasi-monopolies, forced splitting of companies comes into the picture. France and Belgium are candidates, but perhaps Germany and the Netherlands as well. As for environmental protection, separate instruments at the EU and national levels have to remain. As for security of supply, discussions focus on instruments to guarantee sufficient generating capacity. The necessity to introduce new instruments in order to guarantee security of supply is hotly debated, but undecided yet.

  3. Register of Planned Emergency Producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-01

    879 1 HELVOET PHARMA INC. PENNSAUKEN NJ 461096 $80 1 FASLOK MILLS INC MURRAT HILL NJ 439625 619 1 HERCULES INC 3 FASRITE LAMINATING CORP WOOD RIDGE...317252 628 HARRIS CORPORATION 1 GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY 3 PRO ELECTRONICS DIV WESTBURY NT A 799145 678 CHEMICA . & MEDICAL DIV HASSALL JOHN INC...ELECTRONim CS Ca, IMC V SAYVILLE Ut A 56730 1 sit PARAMaOUNT nACacmnil cO INC DER PARK my 113336 ITS L&UNAMM MFG CORP ROliKONKOMA MY A 58047S I PTO# INC1

  4. Emergent strategies of electricity producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Woerd, F.; Lise, W.; Becker, G.

    2004-10-01

    The EU-funded research project EMELIE (Electricity Market Liberalisation In Europe) wants to provide a sound analysis of the economic and environmental impacts of the liberalisation process of the European electricity markets. The EMELIE model simulates various market scenarios. The companies in the EMELIE model are assumed to have a relatively simple strategy, i.e. profit maximisation, which is constrained by trade limitation, emission quota, and available production capacity for various technologies. The Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM) took the initiative to start a complementary line of research. At a more detailed level, we investigated business strategies from the perspective of the companies themselves: What is their dominant strategy in the process of liberalisation? Why do they behave like that? What will be the likely strategy of dominant companies in the years to come? And last but not least: how does this most likely strategy fit into the stylised EMELIE scenarios? In our analysis, we use theories about business behaviour, like the Portfolio Analysis of the Boston Consulting Group and Porter's Typology of Business Strategies. We also consider two theories that relate to company-authority interactions: Williamson's New Institutional Economics that compares market failures with government failures and Tinbergen's Theory of Economic Policy, that warns for exaggerated expectations of a single policy instrument, in this case market liberalisation. We observe that the liberalisation process has brought about a wave of mergers and acquisitions, resulting in concentrated markets. Concentration Standards of Competition Authorities decide on maximum concentration levels, not the market itself. The trend towards market concentration originates because dominant companies want to avoid price competition and consider strategic market behaviour in their best interest. These expansionist' companies prefer proven production technologies with low variable costs like coal, lignite, nuclear and hydro. They want to retain an integrated business structure, being active in electricity production, trade, distribution and sales. The dominant players leave it to niche players to experiment with new production (e.g. renewable energy sources) and trade arrangements. Market concentration remains the dominant trend. Because Regulators will not accept more mergers at the national scale, dominant companies look for international opportunities. We expect that, as soon as public shares become available to private companies, international cross-ownership will increase. To prevent quasi-monopolies, forced splitting of companies comes into the picture. France and Belgium are candidates, but perhaps Germany and the Netherlands as well. As for environmental protection, separate instruments at the EU and national levels have to remain. As for security of supply, discussions focus on instruments to guarantee sufficient generating capacity. The necessity to introduce new instruments in order to guarantee security of supply is hotly debated, but undecided yet

  5. Emergence of extended spectrum beta-lactamases-producing strains belonging to cefotaxime-M-1 class from intensive care units patients and environmental surfaces in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aqsa Ashraf Bukhari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR bacteria is the most dangerous threat for the treatment of infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to detect and characterize extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs and carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli among patients and environment of intensive care units (ICUs of three tertiary care hospitals in Pakistan. Materials and Methods: A total of 82 samples from ICU’s patients and inanimate environment (injection trays, wash basins, door handles, hand swabs of professionals, and ICU fridges were screened for ESBL by culturing on CHROMagar-ESBL. ESBL and carbapenemases production were confirmed by double disc synergy test and modified Hodge’s test, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect ESBL encoding genes bla cefotaxime (CTX-M, blaCTX-M-1, blaCTX-M-2, blaCTX-M-9, blaTEM, blaSHV and carbapenemase genes blaKPC, bla New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1, blaOXA-48 and blaVIM. Results: Overall, ESBL production was found high 30/82 (36.5% among isolates of which 15.8% K. pneumoniae and 20.7% E. coli were identified. All the K. pneumoniae and majority of E. coli isolates were MDR, i.e., resistance to three or more antimicrobial categories. Molecular characterization showed the blaCTX-M-1 as the predominant genotype found in 17/21 (80% of the isolates. None of the strains was found positive for carbapenemase-encoding genes. Conclusion: In conclusion, this study demonstrates the emergence of MDR ESBL producing strains among ICU patients and hospital environment, posing a serious threat for the control of nosocomial infections.

  6. Clonal emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae ST14 co-producing OXA-48-type and NDM carbapenemases with high rate of colistin resistance in Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moubareck, Carole Ayoub; Mouftah, Shaimaa F; Pál, Tibor; Ghazawi, Akela; Halat, Dalal H; Nabi, Anju; AlSharhan, Mouza A; AlDeesi, Zulfa O; Peters, Christabel C; Celiloglu, Handan; Sannegowda, Manjunath; Sarkis, Dolla K; Sonnevend, Ágnes

    2018-03-09

    Few studies have addressed the molecular epidemiology of carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) isolates in the Arabian Peninsula, and such investigations have been missing from Dubai, a major economical, tourism and medical centre of the region. The antibiotic susceptibility, the carbapenemase type produced, and the clonality of 89 CRE strains isolated in five major Dubai hospitals in June 2015 - June 2016 were determined. Thirty three percent of the collection of 70 K. pneumoniae, 13 E. coli and 6 other Enterobacteriaceae were extremely drug resistant, 27% were resistant to colistin, and 4.5% (four K. pneumoniae isolates) were resistant to all antibiotics tested. The colistin resistance rate in K. pneumoniae was 31.4%. None of the isolates carried mobile colistin resistance genes. Seventy-seven isolates produced carbapenemase: 53.3% OXA-48-like, 24.7% NDM, and 22.1% both OXA-48-like and NDM, respectively. PFGE clustered 50% of K. pneumoniae into a 35-membered group, which showed significant association with double carbapenemase production, with extreme drug resistance, and with being isolated from Emirati patients. Members of the cluster belonged to sequence type ST14. The rate of colistin resistance in K. pneumoniae ST14 was 37.1% vs. 27.1% of K. pneumoniae isolates outside of the cluster. Two of the panresistant K. pneumoniae isolates also belonged to ST14, whereas the other two were ST15 and ST231, respectively. In conclusion, beyond the overall high colistin resistance rate in CRE, the emergence of a highly resistant clone of K. pneumoniae ST14 in all Dubai hospitals investigated is a serious problem requiring immediate attention. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Life cycle assessment for emerging materials: case study of a garden bed constructed from lumber produced with three different copper treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although important data and methodological challenges facing LCA and emerging materials exist, this LCA captures material and process changes that are important drivers of environmental impacts. LCA methods need to be amended to reflect properties of emerging materials that deter...

  8. Use of probabilistic safety analysis for design of emergency mitigation systems in hydrogen producer plant with sulfur-iodine technology, Section II: sulfuric acid decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza A, A.; Nelson E, P. F.; Francois L, J. L.

    2009-10-01

    Over the last decades, the need to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases has prompted the development of technologies for the production of clean fuels through the use of primary energy resources of zero emissions, as the heat of nuclear reactors of high temperature. Within these technologies, one of the most promising is the hydrogen production by sulfur-iodine cycle coupled to a high temperature reactor initially proposed by General Atomics. By their nature and because it will be large-scale plants, the development of these technologies from its present phase to its procurement and construction, will have to incorporate emergency mitigation systems in all its parts and interconnections to prevent undesired events that could put threaten the plant integrity and the nearby area. For the particular case of sulfur-iodine thermochemical cycle, most analysis have focused on hydrogen explosions and failures in the primary cooling systems. While these events are the most catastrophic, is that there are also many other events that even taking less direct consequences, could jeopardize the plant operation, the people safety of nearby communities and carry the same economic consequences. In this study we analyzed one of these events, which is the formation of a toxic cloud prompted by uncontrolled leakage of concentrated sulfuric acid in the second section of sulfur-iodine process of General Atomics. In this section, the sulfuric acid concentration is near to 90% in conditions of high temperature and positive pressure. Under these conditions the sulfuric acid and sulfur oxides from the reactor will form a toxic cloud that the have contact with the plant personnel could cause fatalities, or to reach a town would cause suffocation, respiratory problems and eye irritation. The methodology used for this study is the supported design in probabilistic safety analysis. Mitigation systems were postulated based on the isolation of a possible leak, the neutralization of a pond of

  9. Genome of the carbapenemase-producing clinical isolate Elizabethkingia miricola EM_CHUV and comparative genomics with Elizabethkingia meningoseptica and Elizabethkingia anophelis: evidence for intrinsic multidrug resistance trait of emerging pathogens.

    OpenAIRE

    Opota, O.; Diene, S.M.; Bertelli, C.; Prod'hom, G.; Eckert, P.; Greub, G.

    2017-01-01

    Elizabethkingia miricola is a Gram-negative non-fermenting rod emerging as a life-threatening human pathogen. The multidrug-resistant (MDR) carbapenemase-producing clinical isolate E. miricola EM_CHUV was recovered in the setting of severe nosocomial pneumonia. In this study, the genome of E. miricola EM_CHUV was sequenced and a functional analysis was performed, including a comparative genomic study with Elizabethkingia meningoseptica and Elizabethkingia anophelis. The resistome of EM_CHUV r...

  10. Increasing proportion of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and emergence of a MCR-1 producer through a multicentric study among hospital-based and private laboratories in Belgium from September to November 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Te Din; Bogaerts, Pierre; Berhin, Catherine; Hoebeke, Martin; Bauraing, Caroline; Glupczynski, Youri

    2017-05-11

    Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) strains have been increasingly reported in Belgium. We aimed to determine the proportion of CPE among Enterobacteriaceae isolated from hospitalised patients and community outpatients in Belgium in 2015. For the hospitalised patients, the results were compared to a previous similar survey performed in the same hospitals in 2012. Twenty-four hospital-based and 10 private laboratories collected prospectively 200 non-duplicated Enterobacteriaceae isolates from clinical specimens. All isolates were screened locally by carbapenem disk diffusion using European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing methodology. Putative CPE strains with inhibition zone diameters below the screening breakpoints were referred centrally for confirmation of carbapenemase production. From September to November 2015, we found a proportion of clinical CPE of 0.55% (26/4,705) and of 0.60% (12/1,991) among hospitalised patients and among ambulatory outpatients respectively. Klebsiella pneumoniae (26/38) and OXA-48-like carbapenemase (28/38) were the predominant species and enzyme among CPE. One OXA-48-producing Escherichia coli isolated from a hospital was found carrying plasmid-mediated MCR-1 colistin resistance. Compared with the 2012 survey, we found a significant increased proportion of clinical CPE (0.55% in 2015 vs 0.25% in 2012; p = 0.02) and an increased proportion of hospitals (13/24 in 2015 vs 8/24 in 2012) with at least one CPE detected. The study results confirmed the concerning spread of CPE including a colistin-resistant MCR-1 producer in hospitals and the establishment of CPE in the community in Belgium. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  11. Emergence of Escherichia coli encoding Shiga toxin 2f in human Shiga toxin-producing E-coli (STEC) infections in the Netherlands, January 2008 to December 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friesema, I.; van der Zwaluw, K.; Schuurman, T.; Kooistra-Smid, M.; Franz, E.; van Duynhoven, Y.; van Pelt, W.

    2014-01-01

    The Shiga toxins of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) can be divided into Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1) and Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) with several sub-variants. Variant Stx(2f) is one of the latest described, but has been rarely associated with symptomatic human infections. In the enhanced STEC

  12. Emergence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Enterobacter spp. in patients with bacteremia in a tertiary hospital in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Keite da Silva; Paganini, Maria Cristina; Conte, Andréia; Cogo, Laura Lúcia; Taborda de Messias Reason, Iara; da Silva, Márcio José; Dalla-Costa, Libera Maria

    2014-02-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are increasingly prevalent in Enterobacter spp., posing a challenge to the treatment of infections caused by this microorganism. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the prevalence, risk factors, and clinical outcomes of inpatients with bacteremia caused by ESBL and non ESBL-producing Enterobacter spp. in a tertiary hospital over the period 2004-2008. The presence of blaCTX-M, blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaPER genes was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nucleotide sequence analysis. Genetic similarity between strains was defined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Enterobacter spp. was identified in 205 of 4907 of the patients who had positive blood cultures during hospitalization. Of those cases, 41 (20%) were ESBL-producing Enterobacter spp. Nosocomial pneumonia was the main source of bacteremia caused by ESBL-producing Enterobacter spp. The presence of this microorganism was associated with longer hospital stays. The ESBL genes detected were: CTX-M-2 (23), CTX-M-59 (10), CTX-M-15 (1), SHV-12 (5), and PER-2 (2). While Enterobacter aerogenes strains showed mainly a clonal profile, Enterobacter cloacae strains were polyclonal. Although no difference in clinical outcomes was observed between patients with infections by ESBL-producing and non-ESBL-producing strains, the detection of ESBL in Enterobacter spp. resulted in the change of antimicrobials in 75% of cases, having important implications in the decision-making regarding adequate antimicrobial therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence of Stx-producing Shigella species isolated from French Travelers Returning from the Caribbean: An Emerging Pathogen with International Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Miranda D.; Lacher, David W.; Leonard, Susan R.; Abbott, Jason; Zhao, Shaohua; Lampel, Keith A.; Prothery, Estelle; Gouali, Malika; Weill, François-Xavier; Maurelli, Anthony T.

    2015-01-01

    Shiga toxins are potent cytotoxins that inhibit host cell protein synthesis, leading to cell death. Classically, these toxins are associated with intestinal infections due to Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli or Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 and infections with these strains can lead to hemolytic uremic syndrome. Over the past decade there is increasing recognition that Shiga toxin is produced by additional Shigella species. We recently reported the presence and expression of stx genes in Shigella flexneri 2a clinical isolates. The toxin genes were carried by a new stx-encoding bacteriophage and infection with these strains correlated with recent travel to Haiti or the Dominican Republic. In this study we further explored the epidemiological link to this region by utilizing the French National Reference Center for Escherichia coli, Shigella and Salmonella collection to survey the frequency of Stx-producing Shigella species isolated from French travelers returning from the Caribbean. About 21% of the isolates tested were found to encode and produce Stx. These isolates included strains of S. flexneri 2a, S. flexneri Y, and S. dysenteriae 4. All of the travelers whom were infected with Stx-producing Shigella had recently traveled to Haiti, the Dominican Republic, or French Guiana. Furthermore, whole genome sequencing found that the toxin genes were encoded by a prophage that was highly identical to the phage we identified in our previous study. These findings demonstrate that this new stx-encoding prophage is circulating within that geographical area, has spread to other continents, and is capable of spreading to multiple Shigella serogroups. PMID:25980352

  14. SIMULATION OF HOMOLOGOUS AND CANNIBALISTIC CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS PRODUCED BY THE EMERGENCE OF A TWISTED FLUX ROPE INTO THE SOLAR CORONA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, Piyali; Fan, Yuhong

    2013-01-01

    We report the first results of a magnetohydrodynamic simulation of the development of a homologous sequence of three coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and demonstrate their so-called cannibalistic behavior. These CMEs originate from the repeated formations and partial eruptions of kink unstable flux ropes as a result of continued emergence of a twisted flux rope across the lower boundary into a pre-existing coronal potential arcade field. The simulation shows that a CME erupting into the open magnetic field created by a preceding CME has a higher speed. The second of the three successive CMEs is cannibalistic, catching up and merging with the first into a single fast CME before exiting the domain. All the CMEs including the leading merged CME, attained speeds of about 1000 km s –1 as they exit the domain. The reformation of a twisted flux rope after each CME eruption during the sustained flux emergence can naturally explain the X-ray observations of repeated reformations of sigmoids and ''sigmoid-under-cusp'' configurations at a low-coronal source of homologous CMEs

  15. California Earthquake Clearinghouse: Advocating for, and Advancing, Collaboration and Technology Interoperability, Between the Scientific and Emergency Response Communities, to Produce Actionable Intelligence for Situational Awareness, and Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosinski, A.; Beilin, P.; Colwell, J.; Hornick, M.; Glasscoe, M. T.; Morentz, J.; Smorodinsky, S.; Millington, A.; Hudnut, K. W.; Penn, P.; Ortiz, M.; Kennedy, M.; Long, K.; Miller, K.; Stromberg, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Clearinghouse provides emergency management and response professionals, scientific and engineering communities with prompt information on ground failure, structural damage, and other consequences from significant seismic events such as earthquakes or tsunamis. Clearinghouse activations include participation from Federal, State and local government, law enforcement, fire, EMS, emergency management, public health, environmental protection, the military, public and non-governmental organizations, and private sector. For the August 24, 2014 S. Napa earthquake, over 100 people from 40 different organizations participated during the 3-day Clearinghouse activation. Every organization has its own role and responsibility in disaster response; however all require authoritative data about the disaster for rapid hazard assessment and situational awareness. The Clearinghouse has been proactive in fostering collaboration and sharing Essential Elements of Information across disciplines. The Clearinghouse-led collaborative promotes the use of standard formats and protocols to allow existing technology to transform data into meaningful incident-related content and to enable data to be used by the largest number of participating Clearinghouse partners, thus providing responding personnel with enhanced real-time situational awareness, rapid hazard assessment, and more informed decision-making in support of response and recovery. The Clearinghouse efforts address national priorities outlined in USGS Circular 1242, Plan to Coordinate NEHRP post-earthquake investigations and S. 740-Geospatial Data Act of 2015, Sen. Orrin Hatch (R-UT), to streamline and coordinate geospatial data infrastructure, maximizing geospatial data in support of the Robert T. Stafford Act. Finally, the US Dept. of Homeland Security, Geospatial Management Office, recognized Clearinghouse's data sharing efforts as a Best Practice to be included in the forthcoming 2015 HLS Geospatial Concept of Operations.

  16. Emergence of a Clonal Lineage of Multidrug-Resistant ESBL-Producing Salmonella Infantis Transmitted from Broilers and Broiler Meat to Humans in Italy between 2011 and 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco, Alessia; Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Feltrin, Fabiola

    2015-01-01

    We report the spread of a clone of multidrug-resistant (MDR), ESBL-producing (blaCTX-M-1) Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis, in the Italian broiler chicken industry and along the food-chain. This was first detected in Italy in 2011 and led to human infection in Italy in 2013....... This megaplasmid carried the ESBL gene blaCTX-M-1, and additional genes [tet(A), sul1, dfrA1 and dfrA14] mediating cefotaxime, tetracycline, sulfonamide, and trimethoprim resistance. It also contained genes conferring enhanced colonization capability, virulence (fimbriae, yersiniabactin), resistance and fitness...

  17. Comparative Genomics of Recent Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O104:H4: Short-Term Evolution of an Emerging Pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grad, Yonatan H.; Godfrey, Paul; Cerquiera, Gustavo C.; Mariani-Kurkdjian, Patricia; Gouali, Malika; Bingen, Edouard; Shea, Terrence P.; Haas, Brian J.; Griggs, Allison; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Lipsitch, Marc; Waldor, Matthew K.; Weill, François-Xavier; Wortman, Jennifer R.; Hanage, William P.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The large outbreak of diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 in Europe from May to July 2011 highlighted the potential of a rarely identified E. coli serogroup to cause severe disease. Prior to the outbreak, there were very few reports of disease caused by this pathogen and thus little known of its diversity and evolution. The identification of cases of HUS caused by E. coli O104:H4 in France and Turkey after the outbreak and with no clear epidemiological links raises questions about whether these sporadic cases are derived from the outbreak. Here, we report genome sequences of five independent isolates from these cases and results of a comparative analysis with historical and 2011 outbreak isolates. These analyses revealed that the five isolates are not derived from the outbreak strain; however, they are more closely related to the outbreak strain and each other than to isolates identified prior to the 2011 outbreak. Over the short time scale represented by these closely related organisms, the majority of genome variation is found within their mobile genetic elements: none of the nine O104:H4 isolates compared here contain the same set of plasmids, and their prophages and genomic islands also differ. Moreover, the presence of closely related HUS-associated E. coli O104:H4 isolates supports the contention that fully virulent O104:H4 isolates are widespread and emphasizes the possibility of future food-borne E. coli O104:H4 outbreaks. PMID:23341549

  18. Ampicillin-Resistant Non-β-Lactamase-Producing Haemophilus influenzae in Spain: Recent Emergence of Clonal Isolates with Increased Resistance to Cefotaxime and Cefixime▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cobos, Silvia; Campos, José; Lázaro, Edurne; Román, Federico; Cercenado, Emilia; García-Rey, César; Pérez-Vázquez, María; Oteo, Jesús; de Abajo, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    The sequence of the ftsI gene encoding the transpeptidase domain of penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP 3) was determined for 354 nonconsecutive Haemophilus influenzae isolates from Spain; 17.8% of them were ampicillin susceptible, 56% were β-lactamase nonproducing ampicillin resistant (BLNAR), 15.8% were β-lactamase producers and ampicillin resistant, and 10.4% displayed both resistance mechanisms. The ftsI gene sequences had 28 different mutation patterns and amino acid substitutions at 23 positions. Some 93.2% of the BLNAR strains had amino acid substitutions at the Lys-Thr-Gly (KTG) motif, the two most common being Asn526 to Lys (83.9%) and Arg517 to His (9.3%). Amino acid substitutions at positions 377, 385, and 389, which conferred cefotaxime and cefixime MICs 10 to 60 times higher than those of susceptible strains, were found for the first time in Europe. In 72 isolates for which the repressor acrR gene of the AcrAB efflux pump was sequenced, numerous amino acid substitutions were found. Eight isolates with ampicillin MICs of 0.25 to 2 μg/ml showed changes that predicted the early termination of the acrR reading frame. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis demonstrated that most BLNAR strains were genetically diverse, although clonal dissemination was detected in a group of isolates presenting with increased resistance to cefotaxime and cefixime. Background antibiotic use at the community level revealed a marked trend toward increased amoxicillin-clavulanic acid consumption. BLNAR H. influenzae strains have arisen by vertical and horizontal spread and have evolved to adapt rapidly to the increased selective pressures posed by the use of oral penicillins and cephalosporins. PMID:17470649

  19. Emerging types of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC O178 present in cattle, deer and humans from Argentina and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika eMiko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available More than 400 serotypes of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC have been implicated in outbreaks and sporadic human diseases. In recent years STEC strains belonging to serogroup O178 have been commonly isolated from cattle and food of bovine origin in South America and Europe. In order to explore the significance of these STEC strains as potential human pathogens, 74 German and Argentinean E. coli O178 strains from animals, food and humans were characterized phenotypically and investigated for their serotypes, stx-genotypes and forty-three virulence-associated markers by a real-time PCR-microarray. The majority (n=66 of the O178 strains belonged to serotype O178:H19. The remaining strains divided into O178:H7 (n=6, O178:H10 (n=1 and O178:H16 (n=1. STEC O178:H19 strains were mainly isolated from cattle and food of bovine origin, but one strain was from a patient with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS. Genotyping of the STEC O178:H19 strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed two major clusters of genetically highly related strains which differ in their stx-genotypes and non-Stx putative virulence traits, including adhesins, toxins and serine-proteases. Cluster A-strains including the HUS-strain (n=35 carried genes associated with severe disease in humans (stx2a, stx2d, ehxA, saa, subAB1, lpfAO113, terE combined with stx1a, espP, iha. Cluster B-strains (n=26 showed a limited repertoire of virulence genes (stx2c, pagC, lpfAO113, espP, iha. Among O178:H7 strains isolated from deer meat and patients with uncomplicated disease a new STEC variant was detected that is associated with the genotype stx1c/stx2b/ehxA/subAB2/espI/[terE]/espP/iha. None of the STEC O178 strains was positive for locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE- and nle-genes. Results indicate that STEC O178:H19 strains belong to the growing group of LEE-negative STEC that should be considered with respect to their potential to cause diseases in humans.

  20. Emergency procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Nasir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab Razak Hamzah; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Mohammad Pauzi Ismail

    2004-01-01

    The following subjects are discussed - Emergency Procedures: emergency equipment, emergency procedures; emergency procedure involving X-Ray equipment; emergency procedure involving radioactive sources

  1. Diabetic Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Campaigns Share this! EmergencyCareForYou » Emergency 101 » Diabetic Emergencies Diabetic Emergencies It is estimated that more than 20 ... they have it. The best way to prevent diabetic emergencies is to effectively manage the disease through ...

  2. Emergency Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Environmental Documents, Reports LANL Home Calendar Search Contacts Resources » Emergency Communication Emergency Communication Stay informed of emergencies, weather delays, closures, other alerts. Find links to

  3. Childhood Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SUBSCRIBE Emergency 101 Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Childhood Emergencies Keeping children healthy and safe is every ... and tools to prevent, recognize and address a childhood emergency is the first step in keeping your ...

  4. Eye Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Marfan Foundation Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ... Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Eye Emergencies Marfan syndrome significantly increases your risk of retinal detachment, a ...

  5. Emergency contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morning-after pill; Postcoital contraception; Birth control - emergency; Plan B; Family planning - emergency contraception ... IUD placed inside the uterus CHOICES FOR EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTION Two emergency contraceptive pills may be bought without a prescription. ...

  6. Pesquisa de Acinetobacter sp e Pseudomonas aeruginosa produtores de metalo-β-lactamase em hospital de emergência de Porto Alegre, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Investigation of metallo-β-lactamase-producing Acinetobacter sp and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at an emergency hospital in Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vani Dos Santos Laranjeira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O aparecimento de Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Acinetobacter sp produtores de metalo-β-lactamases (MBLs é um desafio para os hospitais. MÉTODOS: Verificou-se a produção de MBL em cepas clínicas de Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Acinetobacter sp de um hospital de emergência de Porto Alegre pelo método de aproximação de disco e E-test MBL. Os genes bla foram pesquisados pela PCR. RESULTADOS: Duas cepas de Pseudomonas aeruginosa e oito Acinetobacter sp demonstraram fenótipo de MBLs. A amplificação do gene blaSPM-1 confirmou a enzima em P. aeruginosa.. CONCLUSÕES: Deve-se ter cautela ao avaliar testes fenotípicos utilizados na detecção rotineira de metalo-enzima.INTRODUCTION: The appearance of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter sp. is a challenge for hospitals. METHODS: The production of MBL in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter sp. From an emergency hospital in Porto Alegre was investigated using the disk approximation test and MBL E-test. The bla genes were determined using PCR. RESULTS: Two strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and eight of Acinetobacter sp were shown to be MBL phenotypes. Amplification of the blaSPM-1 gene confirmed the presence of the enzyme in P. aeruginosa. CONCLUSIONS: Caution is needed in evaluating phenotype tests used for routine detection of metallo-β-lactamases.

  7. Emergence of carbapenem resistant Escherichia coli isolates producing blaNDM and blaOXA-48-like carried on IncA/C and IncL/M plasmids at two Iranian university hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solgi, Hamid; Giske, Christian G; Badmasti, Farzad; Aghamohammad, Shadi; Havaei, Seyed Asghar; Sabeti, Shahram; Mostafavizadeh, Kamyar; Shahcheraghi, Fereshteh

    2017-11-01

    The emergence of carbapenem resistance among Escherichia coli is a serious threat to public health. The objective of this study was to investigate resistance genes and clonality of carbapenem resistant E. coli in Iran. Between February 2015 and July 2016, a total of 32 non-duplicate E. coli isolates that were ertapenem resistant or intermediate (R/I-ETP) were collected from patient clinical or surveillance cultures (rectal swabs) at two university hospitals. Resistance genes were identified by PCR and sequencing. Conjugation experiments, PCR-based replicon typing, PFGE and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were performed. PCR assays showed, among the 32 isolates, twenty-nine strains produced carbapenemase genes. The predominant carbapenemase was bla OXA-48 (82.8%), followed by bla NDM-1 (31%), bla NDM-7 (6.9%) and bla OXA-181 (3.4%). Seven of the bla NDM positive isolates co-harbored bla OXA-48 carbapenemases. The bla NDM and bla OXA-48 were found in IncA/C and IncL/M conjugative plasmids, respectively. The bla CTX-M-15 , qnrA and intI1 genes were also present in most isolates. The PFGE revealed genetic diversity among the 28 E. coli isolates, which belonged to six minor PFGE clusters and 14 isolates were singletons. The 26 isolates were distributed into 18 STs, of which two were dominant (ST648 and ST167). We identified one bla NDM-1 -positive ST131 E. coli isolates that harbor the bla CTX-M-15 and bla TEM genes. Horizontal transfer of IncA/C and IncL/M plasmids has likely facilitated the spread of the bla OXA-48 and bla NDM genes among E. coli. Their clonal diversity and the presence of faecal carriers in isolates suggest an endemic spread of OXA-48 and NDM. Therefore, it emphasizes the critical importance of monitoring and controlling the spread of carbapenem resistant E. coli. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Lung Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Marfan Foundation Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ... Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Lung Emergencies People with Marfan syndrome can be at increased risk of sudden lung ...

  9. Entrepreneurship, Emerging Technologies, Emerging Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thukral, Inderpreet S.; Von Ehr, James; Walsh, Steven Thomas; Groen, Arend J.; van der Sijde, Peter; Adham, Khairul Akmaliah

    2008-01-01

    Academics and practitioners alike have long understood the benefits, if not the risks, of both emerging markets and emerging technologies.Yet it is only recently that foresighted firms have embraced emerging technologies and emerging markets through entrepreneurial activity. Emerging technologies

  10. Producing cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, E G

    1923-09-12

    A process and apparatus are described for producing Portland cement in which pulverized shale is successively heated in a series of inclined rotary retorts having internal stirrers and oil gas outlets, which are connected to condensers. The partially treated shale is removed from the lowermost retort by a conveyor, then fed separately or conjointly into pipes and thence into a number of vertically disposed retorts. Each of these retorts may be fitted interiorly with vertical arranged conveyors which elevate the shale and discharge it over a lip, from whence it falls to the bottom of the retorts. The lower end of each casing is furnished with an adjustable discharge door through which the spent shale is fed to a hopper, thence into separate trucks. The oil gases generated in the retorts are exhausted through pipes to condensers. The spent shale is conveyed to a bin and mixed while hot with ground limestone. The admixed materials are then ground and fed to a rotary kiln which is fired by the incondensible gases derived from the oil gases obtained in the previous retorting of the shale. The calcined materials are then delivered from the rotary kiln to rotary coolers. The waste gases from the kiln are utilized for heating the retorts in which the ground shale is heated for the purpose of extracting therefrom the contained hydrocarbon oils and gases.

  11. Emerging Hopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China looks to strategically important emerging industries for innovation-driven economic growthc hina will soon announce a decision to rev up seven strategically impor- tant emerging industries,said the National

  12. Emergent Expertise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGivern, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The concept of emergence appears in various places within the literature on expertise and expert practice. Here, I examine some of these applications of emergence in the light of two prominent accounts of emergence from the philosophy of science and philosophy of mind. I evaluate these accounts with respect to several specific contexts in which…

  13. The spread of KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Spain: WGS analysis of the emerging high-risk clones of Klebsiella pneumoniae ST11/KPC-2, ST101/KPC-2 and ST512/KPC-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteo, Jesús; Pérez-Vázquez, María; Bautista, Verónica; Ortega, Adriana; Zamarrón, Pilar; Saez, David; Fernández-Romero, Sara; Lara, Noelia; Ramiro, Raquel; Aracil, Belén; Campos, José

    2016-12-01

    We analysed the microbiological traits and population structure of KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates collected in Spain between 2012 and 2014. We also performed a comparative WGS analysis of the three major KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae clones detected. Carbapenemase and ESBL genes were sequenced. The Institut Pasteur MLST scheme was used. WGS data were used to construct phylogenetic trees, to identify the determinants of resistance and to de novo assemble the genome of one representative isolate of each of the three major K. pneumoniae clones. Of the 2443 carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates identified during the study period, 111 (4.5%) produced KPC. Of these, 81 (73.0%) were K. pneumoniae and 13 (11.7%) were Enterobacter cloacae. Three major epidemic clones of K. pneumoniae were identified: ST11/KPC-2, ST101/KPC-2 and ST512/KPC-3. ST11/KPC-2 differed from ST101/KPC-2 and ST512/KPC-3 by 27 819 and 6924 SNPs, respectively. ST101/KPC-2 differed from ST512/KPC-3 by 28 345 SNPs. Nine acquired resistance genes were found in ST11/KPC-2, 11 in ST512/KPC-3 and 13 in ST101/KPC-2. ST101/KPC-2 had the highest number of virulence genes (20). An 11 bp deletion at the end of the mgrB sequence was the cause of colistin resistance in ST512/KPC-3. KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae are increasing in Spain. Most KPC-producing K. pneumoniae isolates belonged to only five clones: ST11 and ST512 caused interregional spread, ST101 caused regional spread and ST1961 and ST678 produced independent hospital outbreaks. ST101/KPC-2 had the highest number of resistance and virulence genes. ST101/KPC-2 and ST512/KPC-3 were recently implicated in the spread of KPC in Italy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Emergency surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoneham, M; Murray, D; Foss, N

    2014-01-01

    National reports recommended that peri-operative care should be improved for elderly patients undergoing emergency surgery. Postoperative mortality and morbidity rates remain high, and indicate that emergency ruptured aneurysm repair, laparotomy and hip fracture fixation are high-risk procedures...... undertaken on elderly patients with limited physiological reserve. National audits have reported variations in care quality, data that are increasingly being used to drive quality improvement through professional guidance. Given that the number of elderly patients presenting for emergency surgery is likely...

  15. Emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In 1996 the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) continued in systematic development of its activities in the field of emergency planning according to the concept adopted by the Authority and according to the concept for building Emergency headquarters (EH) adopted after establishing of Emergency Response Centre (ERC). Major efforts were focused not only on building up a quality EH, but also tasks associated with completion and incorporation of ERC into emergency planning and emergency managing. An important role in building ERC was played by international missions. Significant position among these missions was taken by missions from Great Britain, which in the past years made a significant contribution to building up ERC. These missions focused on review of newly created standard procedures, preparation and implementation of first emergency exercises of the EH. The emergency exercises in which NRA SR took place in 1996 are reviewed. In order to make the co-operation of the Authority with the selected Army units of SR more effective in solving extraordinary situations in nuclear energy, an agreement was signed between NRA SR and the Headquarters of the Army of SR, which will help significantly to the objective

  16. Studying Emerge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Sarah Rachael; Selin, Cynthia; Rodegher, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The Emerge event, held in Tempe, AZ in March 2012, brought together a range of scientists, artists, futurists, engineers and students in order to experiment with innovative methods for thinking about the future. These methodological techniques were tested through nine workshops, each of which made...... use of a different format; Emerge as a whole, then, offered an opportunity to study a diverse set of future-oriented engagement practices. We conducted an event ethnography, in which a team of 11 researchers collaboratively developed accounts of the practices at play within Emerge and its workshops...

  17. Chemical Emergencies - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chemical Emergencies - bosanski (Bosnian) PDF Chemical Emergencies - English MP3 Chemical Emergencies - bosanski (Bosnian) MP3 Chemical Emergencies - English MP4 Chemical Emergencies - bosanski (Bosnian) ...

  18. Emerging images

    KAUST Repository

    Mitra, Niloy J.; Chu, Hungkuo; Lee, Tongyee; Wolf, Lior; Yeshurun, Hezy; Cohen-Or, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Emergence refers to the unique human ability to aggregate information from seemingly meaningless pieces, and to perceive a whole that is meaningful. This special skill of humans can constitute an effective scheme to tell humans and machines apart

  19. Emergent emotion

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connell, Elaine Finbarr

    2016-01-01

    I argue that emotion is an ontologically emergent and sui generis. I argue that emotion meets both of two individually necessary and jointly sufficient conditions for ontological emergence. These are, (i) that emotion necessarily has constituent parts to which it cannot be reduced, and (ii) that emotion has a causal effect on its constituent parts (i.e. emotion demonstrates downward causation).\\ud \\ud I argue that emotion is partly cognitive, partly constituted by feelings and partly perceptu...

  20. Dermatologic emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Simón Díaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatologic emergencies represent about 8–20% of the diseases seen in the Emergency Department of hospitals. It is often a challenge for primary care physicians to differentiate mundane skin ailments from more serious, life threatening conditions that require immediate intervention. In this review we included the following conditions: Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrosis, pemphigus vulgaris, toxic shock syndrome, fasciitis necrotising, angioedema/urticaria, meningococcemia, Lyme disease and Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

  1. EMERGENCY CALLS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2001-01-01

    IN URGENT NEED OF A DOCTOR GENEVA EMERGENCY SERVICES GENEVA AND VAUD 144 FIRE BRIGADE 118 POLICE 117 CERN FIREMEN 767-44-44 ANTI-POISONS CENTRE Open 24h/24h 01-251-51-51 Patient not fit to be moved, call family doctor, or: GP AT HOME, open 24h/24h 748-49-50 Association Of Geneva Doctors Emergency Doctors at home 07h-23h 322 20 20 Patient fit to be moved: HOPITAL CANTONAL CENTRAL 24 Micheli-du-Crest 372-33-11 ou 382-33-11 EMERGENCIES 382-33-11 ou 372-33-11 CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL 6 rue Willy-Donzé 372-33-11 MATERNITY 32 bvd.de la Cluse 382-68-16 ou 382-33-11 OPHTHALMOLOGY 22 Alcide Jentzer 382-33-11 ou 372-33-11 MEDICAL CENTRE CORNAVIN 1-3 rue du Jura 345 45 50 HOPITAL DE LA TOUR Meyrin EMERGENCIES 719-61-11 URGENCES PEDIATRIQUES 719-61-00 LA TOUR MEDICAL CENTRE 719-74-00 European Emergency Call 112 FRANCE EMERGENCY SERVICES 15 FIRE BRIGADE 18 POLICE 17 CERN FIREMEN AT HOME 00-41-22-767-44-44 ANTI-POISONS CENTRE Open 24h/24h 04-72-11-69-11 All doctors ...

  2. Emerging images

    KAUST Repository

    Mitra, Niloy J.

    2009-01-01

    Emergence refers to the unique human ability to aggregate information from seemingly meaningless pieces, and to perceive a whole that is meaningful. This special skill of humans can constitute an effective scheme to tell humans and machines apart. This paper presents a synthesis technique to generate images of 3D objects that are detectable by humans, but difficult for an automatic algorithm to recognize. The technique allows generating an infinite number of images with emerging figures. Our algorithm is designed so that locally the synthesized images divulge little useful information or cues to assist any segmentation or recognition procedure. Therefore, as we demonstrate, computer vision algorithms are incapable of effectively processing such images. However, when a human observer is presented with an emergence image, synthesized using an object she is familiar with, the figure emerges when observed as a whole. We can control the difficulty level of perceiving the emergence effect through a limited set of parameters. A procedure that synthesizes emergence images can be an effective tool for exploring and understanding the factors affecting computer vision techniques. © 2009 ACM.

  3. Anorectal emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohsiriwat, Varut

    2016-01-01

    Anorectal emergencies refer to anorectal disorders presenting with some alarming symptoms such as acute anal pain and bleeding which might require an immediate management. This article deals with the diagnosis and management of common anorectal emergencies such as acutely thrombosed external hemorrhoid, thrombosed or strangulated internal hemorrhoid, bleeding hemorrhoid, bleeding anorectal varices, anal fissure, irreducible or strangulated rectal prolapse, anorectal abscess, perineal necrotizing fasciitis (Fournier gangrene), retained anorectal foreign bodies and obstructing rectal cancer. Sexually transmitted diseases as anorectal non-surgical emergencies and some anorectal emergencies in neonates are also discussed. The last part of this review dedicates to the management of early complications following common anorectal procedures that may present as an emergency including acute urinary retention, bleeding, fecal impaction and anorectal sepsis. Although many of anorectal disorders presenting in an emergency setting are not life-threatening and may be successfully treated in an outpatient clinic, an accurate diagnosis and proper management remains a challenging problem for clinicians. A detailed history taking and a careful physical examination, including digital rectal examination and anoscopy, is essential for correct diagnosis and plan of treatment. In some cases, some imaging examinations, such as endoanal ultrasonography and computerized tomography scan of whole abdomen, are required. If in doubt, the attending physicians should not hesitate to consult an expert e.g., colorectal surgeon about the diagnosis, proper management and appropriate follow-up. PMID:27468181

  4. Future fuels: Canada's coast-to-coast network of refineries is emerging from a $3-billion-plus spending binge to take the lead in producing low sulphur gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunan, D.

    2004-01-01

    A series of investments to convert Canada's 22 operating refineries to produce low-sulphur gasoline are discussed. The investment involves more than $3-billion that will transform Canada's portfolio of aging refineries into one of the most efficient in the western world, and in the process reduce sulphur content in Canadian gasoline to 30 ppm. In some cases the refitting will be completed years ahead of the required 2005 deadline. Total refining capacity in Canada is about 2.5 million barrels per day of crude oil, which includes 580,000 barrels per day of capacity that is dedicated to upgrading bitumen into synthetic crude oil. The initiative to update the refineries was led by Irving Oil, which launched a one billion dollar refit of its 250,000 barrels per day Saint John refinery in the year 2000. Irving Oil's efforts were driven by the company's marketing program in the United States where regional fuel quality standards are higher than national standards either in Canada or the United States. Shell Canada and Imperial Oil are also on track to meet the 30 ppm sulphur level ahead of schedule. For example, Shell Canada is cooperating with Suncor Energy Products in the construction of a hydrotreater at Suncor's Sarnia refinery which will be used to reduce sulphur content of diesel from both the Shell and Suncor refineries, while Imperial Oil is investing over $520 million to refit its refineries in Alberta, Ontario and Nova Scotia. Petro-Canada too, has embarked on a $450 million capital program late in 2003 to introduce low sulphur gasoline; this was in addition to the $1.2 billion program to integrate its bitumen production, upgrading and refining operations. Ultramar launched its $300 million desulphurization program in late 2002; the project is now nearing completion. Refit of Ultramar's Jean Gaulin refinery on Quebec's South Shore will also include a 30,000 barrels per day continuous regeneration platformer to provide a second hydrogen source for the

  5. Hematologic emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Vallisa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the surprising progress made in other areas of hematology (advances in the understanding of leukemogenesis, improved transplant techniques has been conspicuously absent in the management of hematologic emergencies. And yet, every step toward greater knowledge, every new treatment option will be of little value unless we are able to manage the acute complications of hematologic diseases. These complications are better defined as hematologic emergencies, and they are characterized by a high rate of mortality. This review is based on a search of the literature that was initially confined to articles published in the journal Hematology from 2000 to 2009. The search was then extended to the Cochrane Library and to Pub Med in February 2010 with the following Keywords emergencies; urgencies; hematology. The same key words were employed in a search of the archives of Blood and the New England Journal of Medicine from 2000 to 2010. The results confirm that hematologic emergencies can be caused by hematologic malignancies as well as by non-neoplastic hematologic diseases. Within the former category; this review examines the causes; manifestations; treatment and prevention of disseminated intravascular coagulation; superior vena caval syndrome; spinal cord compression; tumor lysis syndrome; hyperleukocytosis; and hypercalcemia. We also review emergency situations associated with non-neoplatic haematological diseases; such as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura; drug-induced hemolytic anemia; and acute sickle-cell crisis.

  6. Emergency preparedness

    CERN Document Server

    Cennini, E; Oortman Gerlings, P

    2009-01-01

    On September 19th 2008, a technical fault was at the centre of a sequence of events which hampered the performance of certain equipments of the LHC 3-4 sector. Once the first effects of this sequence of events were detected, the behaviour of the CERN staff confronted to this complex and critical situation became the centre of the risk control process. During such a downward spiral the preparation of all stakeholders is essential and should respect the (apparently) basic principles of emergency preparedness. Preparedness towards normal operation of CERN facilities towards minor up to major emergency situations will be presented. The main technical, organisational and legal frameworks of the CERN emergency preparedness will be recalled, highlighting the CERN risk management and risk control strategy. Then, the sequence of events experienced by different stakeholders on September 19th will be reported, thus starting the learned lessons process.

  7. Emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The nuclear activities are exercised so as to prevent the accidents. They are subjected to a rule whom application is controlled by the Asn. The risk of grave accident is so limited to a very low level of probability. He cannot be however completely pushed aside. The expression ' radiological emergency situation ' indicates a situation which ensues from an incident or of an accident risking to lead to an emission of radioactive materials or a level of radioactivity susceptible to strike a blow at the public health. The term ' nuclear crisis ' is used for the events which can lead to a radiological emergency situation on a nuclear basic installation or during a transport of radioactive materials. The preparation and the management of emergency situations, that they are of natural, accidental or terrorist origin, became a major concern of our society. We propose you of to know more about it in this file. (N.C.)

  8. Emergency neuroradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarabino, T.; Hospital of Andria; Salvolini, U.; Jinkins, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    The book is directed at emergency radiologists and neuroradiologists. It aims at providing exhaustive information that will help the reader understand the clinical problems in the full range of neurological emergencies and to select the methodological and technical options that will ensure prompt and effective response and correct interpretation of the clinical findings. The various chapters address the most common neuroradiological emergencies, summarize their fundamental physiopathological features, describe the main semiological and differential diagnostic features, and provide operative suggestions for the selection of the appropriate techniques to be applied in a sequential order. The book addresses the application of state-of-the-art techniques and their implications for clinical practice (particularly the contributions of standard and functional MRI and of spiral and multislice CT). The illustrations provide not only training but also reference material for routine clinical work. (orig.)

  9. EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Pantić

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Emergency contraception refers to any device or drug that is used as an emergency procedure to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sexual intercourse.The first method of emergency contraception was high dose of estrogen. Concern about side effects led to subsequent development of the so-called Yuzpe regimen which combined ethinil estradiol with levonorgestrel and levonorgestrel alone. Less convenient to use is the copper intauterine contraceptive device.It is known that in some women sexual steroids may inhibit or delay ovulation and may interfere with ovum and sperm transport and implantation. Copper intrauterine device causes a foreign-body effect on the endometrium and a direct toxic effect to sperm and blastocyst.The Yuzpe regimen reduces the risk of pregnancy after a single act of sexual intercourse by about 75% and the levonorgestrel alone by about 85%. The copper intrauterine device is an extremely effective method for selected patients.Nausea and vomiting are common among women using the Yuzpe regimen and considerably less common among women using levonorgestrel alone regimen.Emergency contraception is relatively safe with no contraindications except pregnancy. It is ineffective if a woman is pregnant. There is no need for a medical hystory or a phisical examination before providing emergency contraceptive pills. They are taken long before organogenesis starts, so they should not have a teratogenic effect.Counseling should include information about correct use of the method, possible side effects and her preferences for regular contraception.Unintended pregnancy is a great problem. Several safe, effective and inexpensive methods of emergency contraception are available including Yuzpe regimen, levonorges-trel-only regimen and copper intrauterine device.

  10. Nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This leaflet, which is in the form of a fold-up chart, has panels of text which summarize the emergencies that could arise and the countermeasures and emergency plans that have been prepared should nuclear accident occur or affect the United Kingdom. The levels of radiation doses at which various measures would be introduced are outlined. The detection and monitoring programmes that would operate is illustrated. The role of NRPB and the responsible government departments are set out together with an explanation of how the National Arrangements for Incidents involving Radioactivity would be coordinated. (UK)

  11. EMERGING MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHEORGHE CARALICEA-MĂRCULESCU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The emerging markets are winning the currency war, because at this very moment its the battle of global financial institutions , as to who is more vulnerable and more exposed to the debt crisis and have their hands in more risky assets. US and Euro with their intertwining the financial stuff of the nation, the banks and the corporations are in a deep mess. One goes down, takes the other ones too. Right now , they all are struggling and getting beaten up , while the emerging markets are quiet and not really expressing their stands on the current situation except are reacting by all only putting their own houses in order.

  12. Emergency radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keats, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    This book is the German, translated version of the original published in 1984 in the U.S.A., entitled 'Emergency Radiology'. The publication for the most part is made up as an atlas of the radiological images presenting the findings required for assessment of the emergency cases and their first treatment. The test parts' function is to explain the images and give the necessary information. The material is arranged in seven sections dealing with the skull, the facial part of the skull, the spine, thorax, abdominal region, the pelvis and the hip, and the limbs. With 690 figs [de

  13. Extended Producer Responsibility in the Aviation Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, Marisa; Laan, Erwin; Irion, B.D.

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we investigate recent initiatives with respect to extended producer responsibility in the aviation sector. We compare those with the existing practices in the automobile sector and the emerging regulations in the shipping sector. We describe the challenges and the lessons to be learned from the evolution and state of extended producer responsibility in these two industries.

  14. Emergency Preparedness

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    The trends of RPC work in the area of preparedness for nuclear and radiological accidents are listed. RPC in cooperation with Swedish Government developed the project on preparation for iodine prophylaxis in case of accident at Ignalina NPP and arranged seminar on emergency preparedness issues in 2001.

  15. Emerging Materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege; Breinbjerg, Morten; Pold, Søren

    2009-01-01

    The authors examine how materiality emerges from complex chains of mediation in creative software use. The primarily theoretical argument is inspired and illustrated by interviews with two composers of electronic music. The authors argue that computer mediated activity should not primarily be und...

  16. Emergency preparedness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, J. [Key Safety and Blowout Control Corp., Sylvan Lake, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    This presentation included several slides depicting well control and emergency preparedness. It provided information to help in pre-emergency planning for potential well control situations. Key Safety and Blowout Control Corp has gained experience in the Canadian and International well control industry as well as from the fires of Kuwait. The president of the company lectures on the complications and concerns of managers, wellsite supervisors, service companies, the public sector, land owners, government agencies and the media. The slides presented scenarios based on actual blowout recovery assignments and described what types of resources are needed by a well control team. The presentation addressed issues such as the responsibility of a well control team and what they can be expected to do. The issue of how government agencies become involved was also discussed. The presentation combines important information and descriptive images of personal experiences in fire fighting and well control. The emergency situations presented here demonstrate the need for a thorough understanding of preplanning for emergencies and what to expect when a typical day in the oil patch turns into a high stress, volatile situation. tabs., figs.

  17. OPERATION EMERGENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MELBO, IRVING R.

    THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE EMERGING ENVIRONMENT FOR THE FUTURE OF PUBLIC EDUCATION IN CALIFORNIA IS CONSIDERED. CERTAIN WORLD REVOLUTIONS HAVE AFFECTED CONTEMPORARY LIFE. THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION BROUGHT WITH IT INCREASED PRODUCTIVITY, RESEARCH, HIGHER STANDARDS OF LIVING, LONGER LIFE SPANS, AND CATEGORIZATION OF NATIONS INTO HAVES AND HAVE NOTS.…

  18. Emergent Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, H.A.P.; Everdij, M.H.C.; Bouarfa, S.; Cook, A; Rivas, D

    2016-01-01

    In complexity science a property or behaviour of a system is called emergent if it is not a property or behaviour of the constituting elements of the system, though results from the interactions between its constituting elements. In the socio-technical air transportation system these interactions

  19. Emergence delirium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Louise; Andersen, Lars Peter Holst; Gögenur, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Emergence delirium (ED) is a well-known phenomenon in the postoperative period. However, the literature concerning this clinical problem is limited. This review evaluates the literature with respect to epidemiology and risk factors. Treatment strategies are discussed. The review concludes...

  20. Thyroid emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klubo-Gwiezdzinska, Joanna; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2012-03-01

    This review presents current knowledge about the thyroid emergencies known as myxedema coma and thyrotoxic storm. Understanding the pathogenesis of these conditions, appropriate recognition of the clinical signs and symptoms, and their prompt and accurate diagnosis and treatment are crucial in optimizing survival. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Emerging Options for Emergency Contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuko Koyama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Emergency post-coital contraception (EC is an effective method of preventing pregnancy when used appropriately. EC has been available since the 1970s, and its availability and use have become widespread. Options for EC are broad and include the copper intrauterine device (IUD and emergency contraceptive pills such as levonorgestrel, ulipristal acetate, combined oral contraceptive pills (Yuzpe method, and less commonly, mifepristone. Some options are available over-the-counter, while others require provider prescription or placement. There are no absolute contraindications to the use of emergency contraceptive pills, with the exception of ulipristal acetate and mifepristone. This article reviews the mechanisms of action, efficacy, safety, side effects, clinical considerations, and patient preferences with respect to EC usage. The decision of which regimen to use is influenced by local availability, cost, and patient preference.

  2. Emerging Options for Emergency Contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Atsuko; Hagopian, Laura; Linden, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Emergency post-coital contraception (EC) is an effective method of preventing pregnancy when used appropriately. EC has been available since the 1970s, and its availability and use have become widespread. Options for EC are broad and include the copper intrauterine device (IUD) and emergency contraceptive pills such as levonorgestrel, ulipristal acetate, combined oral contraceptive pills (Yuzpe method), and less commonly, mifepristone. Some options are available over-the-counter, while others require provider prescription or placement. There are no absolute contraindications to the use of emergency contraceptive pills, with the exception of ulipristal acetate and mifepristone. This article reviews the mechanisms of action, efficacy, safety, side effects, clinical considerations, and patient preferences with respect to EC usage. The decision of which regimen to use is influenced by local availability, cost, and patient preference. PMID:24453516

  3. Emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In 1995, major efforts of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) were focused on tasks associated with completion and incorporation of the Emergency Response Centre (ERC) of NRA SR in emergency planning and crisis management. Construction of the ERC had begun based on NRA SR's knowledge, as well as recommendations of Regulatory Assistance Management Group (RAMG) International Mission in 1993 and follow-up missions in 1994. Early in 1994, re-construction of selected rooms had been done and early in 1995, supported by the UK and U.S.A. Government's funding, technical equipment was purchased. The equipment was necessary for ERC operation as tools to improve NRA SR readiness for the management of emergency situations at nuclear installations. NRA SR commenced operation of the Centre in April 1995. The Centre has been on-line connected to a teledosimetric system of Radiation Monitoring Laboratory in Trnava. The basic software for assessment of radiation consequences of a NPP accident was supplied were also focused on cooperation with state administration authorities and organizations which were involved in an emergency planning structure. In September 1995, staffing of the ERC was completed and parallel, the first document concerning the ERC prime task, i.e. activities and procedures of of NRA SR Crisis crew in case of an accident at a nuclear installation on the territory of the Slovak Republic, was approved by the NRA SR's Management. In the period that is being assessed, NRA SR made significant progress in events classification and emergency planning terminology in order to unify the above between both the Slovak NPPs

  4. Emerging Multinationals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Peter

    South Korean and Taiwanese brands have long been household names. Today, however, the names of transnational companies (TNCs) from an increasingly diverse set of emerging and developing economies are regularly making if not the dinner table conversation then at least the headlines...... of the international business press. This reflects that companies such as Mittal and Tata (India), China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC), Haier and Lenovo (PRC), Embraer (Brazil), SAPMiller (South Africa), and Cemex (Mexico) are foraying ever deeper into the international economy and increasingly investing...... countries. Apart from a few early pioneering studies (Lecraw 1977; Lall 1983; Wells 1983; Agarwal 1985) only few studies have been made so far of outward investment from emerging and developing economies. This is in spite of the fact that the value of outward FDI stock from developing countries reached USD...

  5. Emerging Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Schwaller, Pedro; Weiler, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilit...

  6. Emerging jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwaller, Pedro; Stolarski, Daniel [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland). TH-PH Div.; Weiler, Andreas [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland). TH-PH Div.; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilities for discovery at LHCb are also discussed.

  7. Emerging jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwaller, Pedro; Stolarski, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilities for discovery at LHCb are also discussed.

  8. The implied producer investigating an emergent typology in participatory culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Biennales, that we are not 'just' dealing with a 'new' genre or style within the art category; on the other hand we are not dealing with a pure commercial culture either (the abstract notion of 'the user' has its limits); what is becoming evident is that the 'implicit' roles of the participatory 'actors...

  9. Infrared radiation emerging from smoke produced by brush fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinman, J. A.; Olson, W. S.; Harshvardhan, M.

    1981-01-01

    The IR radiative transport properties of brush fire smoke clouds, computed for a model with finite horizontal dimensions as well as the more common plane-parallel model, are presented. The finite model is a three-dimensional version of the two-stream approximation applied to cubic clouds of steam, carbon, and silicates. Assumptions are made with regard to the shape and size distributions of the smoke particles. It is shown that 11.5-micron radiometry can detect fires beneath smoke clouds if the path integrated mass density of the smoke is less than or equal to 3 g/sq m.

  10. Emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    According the conception of the Emergency Response Centre (ERC) of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA), and the obtained experience from exercises, and as well as on the basis of recommendations of international missions, the NRA SR started, in 1997 the ERC extension. The new room enable the work for radiation protection group, reactor safety and logistic group separately. At the same time special room was build for work of the NECRA Technical Support Group of the Emergency Commission for Radiation Accidents of the SR.This group co-operates closely with ERC while evaluation the situation, and by using the information system of the NRA and database of ERC to generate the conditions of nuclear facilities in once of emergency. Extension of the mentioned rooms was carried out. The financing by the European Union helped to build the project RAMG. In this way the NRA gained a working site which, with its equipment and parameters belongs to the top working sites of regulatory bodies of developed European countries. The NRA preparation of exercise and special staff education was carried out in 1997, for employees of the NRA and members of Emergency Headquarters (EH) for work in ERC in case of nuclear installation accident. The task of education of member of EH was their preparation for carrying out three exercises. These exercises are described. In the area of emergency preparedness, in accordance with inspection plan of the Office, 7 team inspections were carried out in individual localities; in NPP Bohunice, two in NPP Mochovce and one in Bohunice Conditioning Centre for radioactive wastes. Solution of the task of development of science and technology in the area of 'Development of technical and programme means for analyses of accidents and solutions of crisis situations'continued in 1997. Another regulations were elaborated for activity of members of EH of the NRA. The following was was carried out: selection of data for transfer and the

  11. Producing The New Regressive Left

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crone, Christine

    members, this thesis investigates a growing political trend and ideological discourse in the Arab world that I have called The New Regressive Left. On the premise that a media outlet can function as a forum for ideology production, the thesis argues that an analysis of this material can help to trace...... the contexture of The New Regressive Left. If the first part of the thesis lays out the theoretical approach and draws the contextual framework, through an exploration of the surrounding Arab media-and ideoscapes, the second part is an analytical investigation of the discourse that permeates the programmes aired...... becomes clear from the analytical chapters is the emergence of the new cross-ideological alliance of The New Regressive Left. This emerging coalition between Shia Muslims, religious minorities, parts of the Arab Left, secular cultural producers, and the remnants of the political,strategic resistance...

  12. Abdominal emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raissaki, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: There are numerous conditions that affect mainly or exclusively the pediatric population. These constitute true emergencies, related to patient's health. Delay in diagnosis and treatment of abdominal non-traumatic emergencies may result in rapid deterioration, peritonitis, sepsis, even death or in severe complications with subsequent morbidity. Abdominal emergencies in children mostly present with pain, tenderness, occasionally coupled by vomiting, fever, abdominal distension, and failure to pass meconium or stools. Diarrhea, blood per rectum, abnormal laboratory tests and lethargy may also be manifestations of acute abdominal conditions. Abdominal emergencies have a different aetiology, depending on age and whether the pain is acute or chronic. Symptoms have to be matched with age and gender. Newborns up to 1 months of age may have congenital diseases: atresia, low obstruction including Hirschsprung's disease, meconium ileus. Meconium plug is one of the commonest cause of low obstruction in newborns that may also develop necrotizing enterocolitis, incarcerated inguinal hernia and mid-gut volvulus. Past the immediate postnatal period, any duodenal obstruction should be considered midgut volvulus until proven otherwise and patients should undergo ultrasonography and/or properly performed upper GI contrast study that records the exact position of the deduno-jejunal junction. Infants 6 months-2 years carry the risk of intussusception, mid-gut volvulus, perforation, acute pyelonephritis. Preschool and school-aged children 2-12 years carry the risk of appendicitis, genito-urinary abnormalities including torsion, urachal abnormalities, haemolytic uremic syndrome and Henoch-Schonlein purpura. Children above 12 years suffer from the same conditions as in adults. Most conditions may affect any age despite age predilection. Abdominal solid organ ultrasonography (US) coupled with gastrointestinal ultrasonography is the principle imaging modality in radiosensitive

  13. India Emerging

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Here Veena Jha surveys the history of philanthropic giving in India going back to the ...... claim that ICTs produced benefits go beyond those pertaining to investors and owners. ...... Anti-migration policies include restricted access to public services by below poverty ...... Which medicines and vaccinations are not available?

  14. Is it an Emergency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergency 101 Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Is it an Emergency? Medical emergencies can be frightening and ... situation. Here you can find information about emergencies. It is essential to know how to recognize the ...

  15. Emergency planning for fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacey, L.R.

    1991-01-01

    In April 1989, NRC published new emergency planning regulations which apply to certain by-product, source, and special nuclear materials licensees including most fuel cycle facilities. In addition to these NRC regulations, other regulatory agencies such as EPA, OSHA, and DOT have regulations concerning emergency planning or notification that may apply to fuel cycle facilities. Emergency planning requirements address such areas as emergency classification, organization, notification and activation, assessment, corrective and protective measures, emergency facilities and equipment, maintaining preparedness, records and reports, and recovery. This article reviews applicable regulatory requirements and guidance, then concentrates on implementation strategies to produce an effective emergency response capability

  16. The future of emergency medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Sandra M; Gardner, Angela F; Weiss, Larry D; Wood, Joseph P; Ybarra, Michael; Beck, Dennis M; Stauffer, Arlen R; Wilkerson, Dean; Brabson, Thomas; Jennings, Anthony; Mitchell, Mark; McGrath, Roland B; Christopher, Theodore A; King, Brent; Muelleman, Robert L; Wagner, Mary J; Char, Douglas M; McGee, Douglas L; Pilgrim, Randy L; Moskovitz, Joshua B; Zinkel, Andrew R; Byers, Michelle; Briggs, William T; Hobgood, Cherri D; Kupas, Douglas F; Krueger, Jennifer; Stratford, Cary J; Jouriles, Nicholas J

    2010-08-01

    The specialty of emergency medicine (EM) continues to experience a significant workforce shortage in the face of increasing demand for emergency care. In July 2009, representatives of the leading EM organizations met in Dallas for the Future of Emergency Medicine Summit. Attendees at the Future of Emergency Medicine Summit agreed on the following: 1) Emergency medical care is an essential community service that should be available to all; 2) An insufficient emergency physician workforce also represents a potential threat to patient safety; 3) Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education/American Osteopathic Association (AOA)-accredited EM residency training and American Board of Medical Specialties/AOA EM board certification is the recognized standard for physician providers currently entering a career in emergency care; 4) Physician supply shortages in all fields contribute to-and will continue to contribute to-a situation in which providers with other levels of training may be a necessary part of the workforce for the foreseeable future; 5) A maldistribution of EM residency-trained physicians persists, with few pursuing practice in small hospital or rural settings; 6) Assuring that the public receives high quality emergency care while continuing to produce highly skilled EM specialists through EM training programs is the challenge for EM's future; 7) It is important that all providers of emergency care receive continuing postgraduate education. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Brookhaven Linac Isoptope Producer (BLIP)—positioned at the forefront of research into radioisotopes used in cancer treatment and diagnosis—produces commercially...

  18. Producing charcoal from wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pogorelov, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental works to use wood wastes for producing charcoal are examined, which are being conducted in the Sverdlovsk assembly and adjustment administration of Soyuzorglestekhmontazh. A wasteless prototype installation for producing fine charcoal is described, along with its subsequent briqueting, which is made on the basis of units which are series produced by the factories of the country. The installation includes subassemblies for preparing and drying the raw material and for producing the charcoal briquets. In the opinion of specialists, the charcoal produced from the wastes may be effectively used in ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy and in the production of pipes.

  19. Emergency planning for industrial hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gow, H.B.F.; Kay, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    The European Communities have produced a Directive on the Major Accident Hazards of Certain Industrial Activities which sets out standards for the control and mitigation of the hazards presented by sites and storages which contain significant quantities of dangerous substances. An essential element of these controls is the provision of effective on-and off-site emergency plans. This conference explores the considerable research effort which is going on throughout the world in the improvement of systems for emergency planning. Attention was also drawn to areas where difficulties still exist, for example in predicting the consequences of an accident, the complexities of communication problems and the difficulties arising from involvement of the public. The proceedings are in six parts which deal with organizations implementing emergency planning: on- and off-site emergency planning and design; techniques for emergency plans; expenses and auditing of emergency plans; lessons learnt from the emergency management of major accidents; information to the public to and during emergencies. (author)

  20. Carbapenemase-producing Organism in Food

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-08-06

    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the article, Carbapenemase-producing Organism in Food.  Created: 8/6/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/13/2014.

  1. Biologically produced sulfur

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, W.E.; Keizer, de A.; Janssen, A.J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Sulfur compound oxidizing bacteria produce sulfur as an intermediate in the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfate. Sulfur produced by these microorganisms can be stored in sulfur globules, located either inside or outside the cell. Excreted sulfur globules are colloidal particles which are

  2. Consumers and Producers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Maira (Elisa)

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstractIn the last few decades, advances in information and communication technology have dramatically changed the way consumers and producers interact in the marketplace. The Internet and social media have torn down the information barrier between producers and consumers, leading to

  3. Producers and oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greaves, W.

    1993-01-01

    This article attempts an assessment of the potential use of futures by the Middle East oil producers. It focuses on Saudi Arabia since the sheer size of Saudi Arabian sales poses problems, but the basic issues discussed are similar for the other Middle East producers. (Author)

  4. Pediatric oncologic emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zietz, Hallie A.

    1997-01-01

    Oncologic emergencies arise in three ways: disease or therapy induced cytopenias; a space occupying lesion causing pressure on or obstruction of surrounding tissues; or leukemia or tumors creating life-threatening metabolic or hormonal problems. Knowledge of presenting signs and symptoms of these emergencies are essential in pediatric oncologic nursing. Neutropenia opens the door for all manner of infections, but the most life threatening is septicemia progressing to shock. A variety of organisms can cause septic shock in the neutropenic patient, but episodes are most often due to gram-negative organisms and the endotoxins they release. Shock, while still compensated, may present with a elevated or subnormal temperature, flushed, warm, dry skin, widening pulse pressure, tachycardia, tachypnoea and irritability, but without medical intervention will progress to hypo tension, cool, clammy extremities, decreased urinary out- put, and eventually to bradycardia and cardiogenic shock. Another emergency in the cytopenia category is bleeding as a result of thrombocytopenia. Of greatest concern is intracranial hemorrhage that may occur at platelet counts of less than 5,000/mm3. Space-occupying lesions of the chest may produce superior vena cava syndrome (SVGS), pleural and pericardial effusions, and cardiac tamponade. SVGS is most often caused by non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and presents as cough, hoarseness, dyspnea, orthopnea and chest pain. Signs include swelling, plethora, cyanosis, edema of conjunctiva and wheezing. Pleural and pericardial effusions present with respiratory or cardiac distress as does cardiac tamponade. Abdominal emergencies arise because of inflammation, mechanical obstruction, hemorrhage (often from steroid induced ulcers), and perforation. Pain is the most common presenting symptom, although vital sign alterations, fever, blood in vomitus or stool, abdominal distension and cessation of flatus are also important components of the acute abdomen

  5. How Mobility Systems Produce Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Tim; Jensen, Ole B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores a crucial aspect of sustainable mobility: the production of social inequality in mobility systems. The approach taken is to focus on how, as new transit infrastructures create alternative ways of traveling in and accessing the city, they create changed conditions for the forma......This paper explores a crucial aspect of sustainable mobility: the production of social inequality in mobility systems. The approach taken is to focus on how, as new transit infrastructures create alternative ways of traveling in and accessing the city, they create changed conditions...... for the formation of subject identities. New types of travellers are realised in the newly engineered spaces of mobility. The paper argues that this focus on these emergent mobile subject types can be useful in investigating the social inequalities that can result from the introduction of new infrastructures...... are constructed and how social inequality is materially produced....

  6. Producing the Spielberg Brand

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, J.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter looks at the manufacture of Spielberg’s brand, and the limits of its usage. Spielberg’s directorial work is well known, but Spielberg’s identity has also been established in other ways, and I focus particularly on his work as a producer. At the time of writing, Spielberg had produced (or executive produced) 148 movies and television series across a range of genres that takes in high budget blockbusters and low budget documentaries, with many more to come. In these texts, Spielber...

  7. Agricultural Producer Certificates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — A Certified Agricultural Producer, or representative thereof, is an individual who wishes to sell regionally-grown products in the public right-of-way. A Certified...

  8. Methods for producing diterpenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention discloses that by combining different di TPS enzymes of class I and class II different diterpenes may be produced including diterpenes not identified in nature. Surprisingly it is revealed that a di TPS enzyme of class I of one species may be combined with a di TPS enzyme...... of class II from a different species, resulting in a high diversity of diterpenes, which can be produced....

  9. Polysaccharide-producing microalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braud, J.P.; Chaumont, D.; Gudin, C.; Thepenier, C.; Chassin, P.; Lemaire, C.

    1982-11-01

    The production of extracellular polysaccharides is studied with Nostoc sp (cyanophycus), Porphiridium cruentum, Rhodosorus marinus, Rhodella maculata (rhodophyci) and Chlamydomonas mexicana (chlorophycus). The polysaccharides produced are separated by centrifugation of the culture then precipitation with alcohol. Their chemical structure was studied by infrared spectrometry and acid hydrolysis. By their rheological properties and especially their insensitivity to temperatrure and pH variations the polysaccharides produced by Porphryridium cruentum and Rhodella maculata appear as suitable candidates for industrial applications.

  10. Producing metallurgic coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, T.; Isida, K.; Vada, Y.

    1982-11-18

    A mixture of power producing coals with coal briquets of varying composition is proposed for coking in horizontal chamber furnaces. The briquets are produced from petroleum coke, coal fines or semicoke, which make up less than 27 percent of the mixture to be briquetted and coals with a standard coking output of volatile substances and coals with high maximal Gizeler fluidity. The ratio of these coals in the mixture is 0.6 to 2.1 or 18 to 32 percent, respectively. Noncaking or poorly caking coals are used as the power producing coals. The hardness of the obtained coke is DJ15-30 = 90.5 to 92.7 percent.

  11. Emergency Medical Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... need help right away, you should use emergency medical services. These services use specially trained people and ... emergencies, you need help where you are. Emergency medical technicians, or EMTs, do specific rescue jobs. They ...

  12. Chemical Emergencies Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Chemical Emergencies Overview Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... themselves during and after such an event. What chemical emergencies are A chemical emergency occurs when a ...

  13. Household Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Home Be Informed Household Chemical Emergencies Household Chemical Emergencies Although the risk of a chemical accident ... reduce the risk of injury. Before a Household Chemical Emergency It is critical to store household chemicals ...

  14. Emergency Contraception Website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Text Only Full media Version Get Emergency Contraception NOW INFO about Emergency Contraception Q&A about Emergency Contraception Español | Arabic Find a Morning After Pill Provider Near You This website ...

  15. Standards and producers' liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretschmer, F.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses the liability of producers and the diligence required, which has to come up to technical standards and the latest state of technology. The consequences of this requirement with regard to claims for damages are outlined and proposals for reforms are pointed out. (HSCH) [de

  16. Producing superhydrophobic roof tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrascosa, Luis A M; Facio, Dario S; Mosquera, Maria J

    2016-01-01

    Superhydrophobic materials can find promising applications in the field of building. However, their application has been very limited because the synthesis routes involve tedious processes, preventing large-scale application. A second drawback is related to their short-term life under outdoor conditions. A simple and low-cost synthesis route for producing superhydrophobic surfaces on building materials is developed and their effectiveness and their durability on clay roof tiles are evaluated. Specifically, an organic–inorganic hybrid gel containing silica nanoparticles is produced. The nanoparticles create a densely packed coating on the roof tile surface in which air is trapped. This roughness produces a Cassie–Baxter regime, promoting superhydrophobicity. A surfactant, n-octylamine, was also added to the starting sol to catalyze the sol–gel process and to coarsen the pore structure of the gel network, preventing cracking. The application of ultrasound obviates the need to use volatile organic compounds in the synthesis, thereby making a ‘green’ product. It was also demonstrated that a co-condensation process effective between the organic and inorganic species is crucial to obtain durable and effective coatings. After an aging test, high hydrophobicity was maintained and water absorption was completely prevented for the roof tile samples under study. However, a transition from a Cassie–Baxter to a Wenzel state regime was observed as a consequence of the increase in the distance between the roughness pitches produced by the aging of the coating. (paper)

  17. Emerging Pathogens Initiative (EPI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Emerging Pathogens Initiative (EPI) database contains emerging pathogens information from the local Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). The EPI software...

  18. Dominance of IMP-4-Producing Enterobacter cloacae among Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townell, Nicola; Nimmo, Graeme R.; George, Narelle M.; Robson, Jennifer; Vohra, Renu; Davis, Louise; Heney, Claire; Paterson, David L.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) has been increasing worldwide. blaIMP has been reported to be the predominant carbapenemase-encoding gene within Enterobacteriaceae in Australia. However, there are limited data currently available on CPE from Queensland, Australia. A total of 58 CPE isolates were isolated between July 2009 and March 2014 from Queensland hospitals. The clonality of isolates was determined by Diversilab repetitive sequence-based PCR. The isolates were investigated for the resistance mechanisms carbapenemase, extended-spectrum β-lactamase, and AmpC β-lactamase and for aminoglycoside resistance and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes by PCR. The plasmid types associated with carbapenemase-encoding genes were characterized. The majority of the CPE were Enterobacter cloacae (n = 29). The majority of Queensland CPE isolates were IMP producers and comprised 11 species (n = 48). Nine NDM-producing Enterobacteriaceae were identified. One NDM-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate coproduced OXA-48. One K. pneumoniae isolate was an OXA-181 producer. The incidence of IMP producers increased significantly in 2013. blaIMP-4 was found in all IMP-producing isolates. blaTEM, qnrB, and aacA4 were common among IMP-4 producers. The HI2 (67%) and L/M (21%) replicons were associated with blaIMP-4. All HI2 plasmids were of sequence type 1 (ST1). All but one of the NDM producers possessed blaCTX-M-15. The 16S rRNA methylase genes found among NDM producers were armA, rmtB, rmtC, and rmtF. The substantial increase in the prevalence of CPE in Queensland has been associated mainly with the emergence E. cloacae strains possessing HI2 plasmids carrying blaIMP-4 over the past 2 years. The importation of NDM producers and/or OXA-48-like producers in patients also contributed to the increased emergence of CPE. PMID:25918153

  19. Towards accurate emergency response behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargent, T.O.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear reactor operator emergency response behavior has persisted as a training problem through lack of information. The industry needs an accurate definition of operator behavior in adverse stress conditions, and training methods which will produce the desired behavior. Newly assembled information from fifty years of research into human behavior in both high and low stress provides a more accurate definition of appropriate operator response, and supports training methods which will produce the needed control room behavior. The research indicates that operator response in emergencies is divided into two modes, conditioned behavior and knowledge based behavior. Methods which assure accurate conditioned behavior, and provide for the recovery of knowledge based behavior, are described in detail

  20. [Cryptosporidiosis: an emerging zoonosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Coco, V F; Córdoba, M A; Basualdo, J A

    2009-01-01

    The genus Cryptosporidium, responsible for producing cryptosporidiosis, includes several species. Humans and livestock are the main sources of infection. Waterborne cryptosporidiosis outbreaks are associated with drinking water. The infective parasite stage is the oocyst, which is resistant to conventional potabilization treatments. In immunocompetent hosts it produces acute, self-limiting diarrhoea. In immunocompromised people, it could develop severe, life-threatening pattern forms of the infection. People with AIDS are especially susceptible to these clinical forms. Cryptosporidium infections are also considered a major cause of morbimortality in calves, which leads to important economic losses. In the last years, there has been an increase of patients suffering from different causes of immunosuppression, and the need to find an effective therapy against Cryptosporidium has become greater. In spite of the many attempts of the pharmaceutical industry to develop an effective antiparasitic agent to treat cryptosporidiosis, this infection and its clinical consequences still constitute a major public health problem. This article analizes the taxonomy, morphology, biology and life cycle of Cryptosporidium. Clinical, immunological, epidemiological features and diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis are also included. Treatment and prevention of the infection are discussed, and future tendencies are suggested for this emerging parasitic infection.

  1. USA coal producer perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porco, J. [Alpha Natural Resources, Latrobe, PA (US). Alpha Energy Global Marketing

    2004-07-01

    The focus is on the Central Appalachian coal industry. Alpha Natural Resources was formed in 2002 from Pittston Coal's Virginia and Coastal operations. AMCI's U.S. operations and Mears Enterprises in Pennsylvania were acquired later. The company produces 20-21 million tonnes per year and sells 20 million tonnes of steam coal and 10 million tonnes of exports, including some coal that is brokered. Foundry coke is a major product. Capital investment has resulted in increased productivity. Central Appalachia is expected to continue as a significant coal-producing region for supplying metallurgical coke. Production is expected to stabilize, but not increase; so the mines will have a longer life. 31 slides/overheads are included.

  2. Dimuons produced by antineutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benvenuti, A.; Cline, D.; Ford, W.T.; Imlay, R.; Ling, T.Y.; Mann, A.K.; Orr, R.; Reeder, D.D.; Rubbia, C.; Stefanski, R.; Sulak, L.; Wanderer, P.

    1975-01-01

    In a run with a predominantly phi-bar beam we have observed seven dimuon events which show clearly that dimuons are produced by phi-bar as well as by phi. Using the signature of those events we tentatively identify twelve dimuon events from earlier runs as phi-bar-induced. The characteristics of the total sample support the explanation that dimuons arise from new hadron production

  3. Antibacterial resistance: an emerging 'zoonosis'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labro, Marie-Thérèse; Bryskier, Jean-Marie

    2014-12-01

    Antibacterial resistance is a worldwide threat, and concerns have arisen about the involvement of animal commensal and pathogenic bacteria in the maintenance and spread of resistance genes. However, beyond the facts related to the occurrence of resistant microorganisms in food, food-producing animals and companion animals and their transmission to humans, it is important to consider the vast environmental 'resistome', the selective pathways underlying the emergence of antibacterial resistance and how we can prepare answers for tomorrow.

  4. Use of probabilistic safety analysis for design of emergency mitigation systems in hydrogen producer plant with sulfur-iodine technology, Section II: sulfuric acid decomposition; Uso de analisis probabilistico de seguridad para el diseno de sistemas de mitigacion de emergencia en planta productora de hidrogeno con tecnologia azufre-iodo, Seccion II: descomposicion de acido sulfurico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza A, A.; Nelson E, P. F.; Francois L, J. L. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, UNAM, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)], e-mail: iqalexmdz@yahoo.com.mx

    2009-10-15

    Over the last decades, the need to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases has prompted the development of technologies for the production of clean fuels through the use of primary energy resources of zero emissions, as the heat of nuclear reactors of high temperature. Within these technologies, one of the most promising is the hydrogen production by sulfur-iodine cycle coupled to a high temperature reactor initially proposed by General Atomics. By their nature and because it will be large-scale plants, the development of these technologies from its present phase to its procurement and construction, will have to incorporate emergency mitigation systems in all its parts and interconnections to prevent undesired events that could put threaten the plant integrity and the nearby area. For the particular case of sulfur-iodine thermochemical cycle, most analysis have focused on hydrogen explosions and failures in the primary cooling systems. While these events are the most catastrophic, is that there are also many other events that even taking less direct consequences, could jeopardize the plant operation, the people safety of nearby communities and carry the same economic consequences. In this study we analyzed one of these events, which is the formation of a toxic cloud prompted by uncontrolled leakage of concentrated sulfuric acid in the second section of sulfur-iodine process of General Atomics. In this section, the sulfuric acid concentration is near to 90% in conditions of high temperature and positive pressure. Under these conditions the sulfuric acid and sulfur oxides from the reactor will form a toxic cloud that the have contact with the plant personnel could cause fatalities, or to reach a town would cause suffocation, respiratory problems and eye irritation. The methodology used for this study is the supported design in probabilistic safety analysis. Mitigation systems were postulated based on the isolation of a possible leak, the neutralization of a pond of

  5. Emergency care of raptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jennifer E; Heatley, J Jill

    2007-05-01

    Raptors may present with a variety of conditions, such as trauma, debilitation, and disease, that necessitate emergency care. Emergency treatment should prioritize stabilization of the patient. Diagnostic testing should be delayed until feasible based on patient status. This article reviews emergency medicine in raptors, including appropriate handling and restraint, hospitalization, triage and patient assessment, sample collection, supportive care, and common emergency presentations.

  6. Producing quality radiographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullinan, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    This book gives an overview of physics, equipment, imaging, and quality assurance in the radiology department. The chapters are laid out with generous use of subheads to allow for quick reference, Points are illustrated with clear, uncluttered line diagrams and well-produced images. The accompanying explanations are miniature lessons by themselves. Inserted at various points throughout the text are important notes that highlight key concepts. The chapter ''Image Evaluation and Application of Radiographic Principles'' present a systematic approach to evaluating radiographs and contains several sample radiographs to illustrate the points made

  7. Medical Emergencies in Goa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddichha, Sahoo; Saxena, Mukul Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Background: Most emergencies in Goa arise due to road traffic accidents and drowning, which have been compounded by the rise in number of recorded accidents in 2007 to be above 4000. It is believed that 11 people meet with an accident on Goa's roads every day and this is expected to rise by 10% by next year. Similar is the case with drownings and other medical emergencies. We therefore aimed to conduct a cross-sectional survey of medical emergencies and identify various types of emergencies presenting to emergency departments. Materials and Methods: Using a stratified random sampling design, all emergencies presenting to the three government hospitals in Goa, which handle 90% of all emergencies currently, were studied on specially designed data sheets in order to collect data. Emergency medical technicians (ETs) were placed in the Casualty Ward of the medical colleges and they recorded all emergencies on the data sheet. The collected data were then analyzed for stratification and mapping of emergencies. Results: GMC Hospital attended to majority of emergencies (62%), which were mainly of the nature of accidents or assaults (17%) and fever related (17%). Most emergencies were noncritical and about 1% expired. Maximum emergencies also presented from Salcette and Bardez, and occurred among young males in the age group of 19-45 years. Males were also more prone to accidents while females had pregnancies as emergencies. Conclusion: Potential emergency services need to target young males with higher concentrations required in Salcette in South Goa and Bardez in North Goa. PMID:20606921

  8. Producing x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.; Jung, R.G.; Applebaum, D.C.; Fairand, B.P.; Gallagher, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    A method of producing x-rays by directing radiant energy from a laser onto a target is described. Conversion efficiency of at least about 3 percent is obtained by providing the radiant energy in a low-power precursor pulse of approximately uniform effective intensity focused onto the surface of the target for about 1 to 30 nanoseconds so as to generate an expanding unconfined coronal plasma having less than normal solid density throughout and comprising a low-density (underdense) region wherein the plasma frequency is less than the laser radiation frequency and a higher-density (overdense) region wherein the plasma frequency is greater than the laser radiation frequency and, about 1 to 30 nanoseconds after the precursor pulse strikes the target, a higher-power main pulse focused onto the plasma for about 10 -3 to 30 nanoseconds and having such power density and total energy that the radiant energy is absorbed in the underdense region and conducted into the overdense region to heat it and thus to produce x-rays therefrom with the plasma remaining substantially below normal solid density and thus facilitating the substantial emission of x-rays in the form of spectral lines arising from nonequilibrium ionization states

  9. Producing Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm; Hein Jessen, Mathias

    Since the beginning of the 1990’s, civil society has attracted both scholarly and political interest as the ‘third sphere’ outside the state and the market not only a normatively privileged site of communication and ‘the public sphere’, but also as a resource for democratization processes...... and social cohesion, as well as a provider of welfare services from a welfare state in dire straits. However, such a view upholds a sharp distinction between the three sectors and their distinct logic. This article claims that the separation of spheres is a fundamental part of our ‘social imaginary......’ and as such dominates our way of thinking about civil society. Yet, this view hinders the understanding of how civil society is not a pre-existing or given sphere, but a sphere which is constantly produced both discursively, conceptually and practically. Through two examples; 1,the case of philanthropy in the beginning...

  10. Translating Signs, Producing Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Neilson

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper moves between two streets: Liverpool Road in the Sydney suburb of Ashfield and Via Sarpi in the Italian city of Milan. What connects these streets is that both have become important sites for businesses in the Chinese diaspora. Moreover, both are streets on which locals have expressed desires for Chinese signs to be translated into the national lingua franca. The paper argues that the cultural politics inherent in this demand for translation cannot be fully understood in the context of national debates about diversity and integration. It is also necessary to consider the emergence of the official Chinese Putonghua as global language, which competes with English but also colonizes dialects and minority languages. In the case of these dual language signs, the space between languages can neither be reduced to a contact zone of minority and majority cultures nor celebrated as a ‘third space’ where the power relations implied by such differences are subverted. At stake is rather a space characterised by what Naoki Sakai calls the schema of co-figuration, which allows the representation of translation as the passage between two equivalents that resemble each other and thus makes possible their determination as conceptually different and comparable. Drawing on arguments about translation and citizenship, the paper critically interrogates the ethos of interchangeability implied by this regime of translation. A closing argument is made for a vision of the common that implies neither civilisational harmony nor the translation of all values into a general equivalent. Primary sources include government reports, internet texts and media stories. These are analyzed using techniques of discourse analysis and interpreted with the help of secondary literature concerning globalisation, language and migration. The disciplinary matrix cuts and mixes between cultural studies, translation studies, citizenship studies, globalization studies and

  11. Emergencies and emergency planning in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammet, H.

    1986-01-01

    The organization for dealing with radiation emergencies in France is complex and centralized. It consists of the Radiation Security Council with participants from the Premier Ministre and the Ministers of Interior, Industry, Health, and Defense. A permanent general secretary for radiation security coordinates the work of the various departments. Planning for nuclear power emergencies is divided between on-site, in which organization and intervention are the responsibilities of the manager of the plant, and off-site, in which organization and intervention are the responsibility of the regional governor. Both on-site and off-site planning have models integrated into a special code of practice called the radiation emergency organization

  12. Emergency control; Kawalan kecemasan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-31

    The chapter briefly discussed the following subjects: plans and actions taken in emergency condition. It covers four main elements in planning, command, control center, emergency plans, continuous training and practices.

  13. Emergency care of reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, T H

    1998-09-01

    Common reptile emergencies are reviewed in this article and the fundamentals of emergency care are provided. Important points include obtaining a complete history and husbandry review, physical examination, diagnostic tests, fluid support, anesthetics, and antibiotics.

  14. [Emerging noninfectious diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consiglio, Ezequiel

    2008-11-01

    In recent years, emerging diseases were defined as being infectious, acquiring high incidence, often suddenly, or being a threat or an unexpected phenomenon. This study discusses the hallmarks of emerging diseases, describing the existence of noninfectious emerging diseases, and elaborating on the advantages of defining noninfectious diseases as emerging ones. From the discussion of various mental health disorders, nutritional deficiencies, external injuries and violence outcomes, work injuries and occupational health, and diseases due to environmental factors, the conclusion is drawn that a wide variety of noninfectious diseases can be defined as emergent. Noninfectious emerging diseases need to be identified in order to improve their control and management. A new definition of "emergent disease" is proposed, one that emphasizes the pathways of emergence and conceptual traits, rather than descriptive features.

  15. OEM Emergency Preparedness Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Emergency Management compiles a wide variety of information in support of Emergency Preparedness, including certain elements of the System for Risk...

  16. Emergency Nurses Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... menu Join ENA Today! Membership in the Emergency Nurses Association offers a variety of benefits and allows ... a part of more than 42,000 emergency nurses working together to promote safe practice and safe ...

  17. Power Producer Production Valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kněžek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing developments in the electricity market, in particular the establishment of the Prague Energy Exchange (PXE and the associated transfer from campaign-driven sale to continuous trading, represent a significant change for power companies.  Power producing companies can now optimize the sale of their production capacities with the objective of maximizing profit from wholesale electricity and supporting services. The Trading Departments measure the success rate of trading activities by the gross margin (GM, calculated by subtracting the realized sales prices from the realized purchase prices and the production cost, and indicate the profit & loss (P&L to be subsequently calculated by the Control Department. The risk management process is set up on the basis of a business strategy defining the volumes of electricity that have to be sold one year and one month before the commencement of delivery. At the same time, this process defines the volume of electricity to remain available for spot trading (trading limits. 

  18. Antibiotics produced by Streptomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procópio, Rudi Emerson de Lima; Silva, Ingrid Reis da; Martins, Mayra Kassawara; Azevedo, João Lúcio de; Araújo, Janete Magali de

    2012-01-01

    Streptomyces is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria that grows in various environments, and its shape resembles filamentous fungi. The morphological differentiation of Streptomyces involves the formation of a layer of hyphae that can differentiate into a chain of spores. The most interesting property of Streptomyces is the ability to produce bioactive secondary metabolites, such as antifungals, antivirals, antitumorals, anti-hypertensives, immunosuppressants, and especially antibiotics. The production of most antibiotics is species specific, and these secondary metabolites are important for Streptomyces species in order to compete with other microorganisms that come in contact, even within the same genre. Despite the success of the discovery of antibiotics, and advances in the techniques of their production, infectious diseases still remain the second leading cause of death worldwide, and bacterial infections cause approximately 17 million deaths annually, affecting mainly children and the elderly. Self-medication and overuse of antibiotics is another important factor that contributes to resistance, reducing the lifetime of the antibiotic, thus causing the constant need for research and development of new antibiotics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Cyclotron produced radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopicka, K.; Fiser, M.; Hradilek, P.; Hanc, P.; Lebeda, O.

    2003-01-01

    Some of the cyclotron-produced radionuclides may serve as important materials for the production of radiopharmaceuticals. This lecture deals with basic information relating to various aspects of these compounds. In comparison with radionuclides /compounds used for non-medical purposes, radiopharmaceuticals are subject to a broader scale of regulations, both from the safety and efficacy point of view; besides that, there are both radioactive and medical aspects that must be taken into account for any radiopharmaceutical. According to the regulations and in compliance with general rules of work with radioactivity, radiopharmaceuticals should only be prepared/manufactured under special conditions, using special areas and special equipment and applying special procedures (e.g. sterilisation, disinfection, aseptic work). Also, there are special procedures for cleaning and maintenance. Sometimes the requirements for the product safety clash with those for the safety of the personnel; several examples of solutions pertaining to these cases are given in the lecture. Also, the specific role of cyclotron radiopharmaceuticals is discussed. (author)

  20. Harwell emergency handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The Harwell Laboratory Emergency Handbook 1987 contains emergency procedures to deal with any incident which might occur at AERE Harwell involving radioactive or toxic material releases. The Handbook gives details of the duties of members of the Site Emergency Organization and other key members of staff, the methods by which incidents are controlled, the communication links and liaison arrangements with other organizations and the possible consequences and actions that may be needed following an emergency. (UK)

  1. Derivatives in emerging markets

    OpenAIRE

    Dubravko Mihaljek; Frank Packer

    2010-01-01

    Turnover of derivatives has grown more rapidly in emerging markets than in developed countries. Foreign exchange derivatives are the most commonly traded of all risk categories, with increasingly frequent turnover in emerging market currencies and a growing share of cross-border transactions. As the global reach of the financial centres in emerging Asia has expanded, the offshore trading of many emerging market currency derivatives has risen as well. Growth in derivatives turnover is positive...

  2. [Emergent viral infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galama, J.M.D.

    2001-01-01

    The emergence and re-emergence of viral infections is an ongoing process. Large-scale vaccination programmes led to the eradication or control of some viral infections in the last century, but new viruses are always emerging. Increased travel is leading to a rise in the importation of exotic

  3. Emergency preparedness in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koivukoski, J.

    1993-01-01

    Although the menace of nuclear war still persists, the focus in national emergency preparedness in Finland is presently on emergencies involving nuclear installations. The nuclear power plants, nuclear submarines and other installations in the former USSR are a major reason for this. In this article the main features and organization of emergency preparedness in Finland are described. (orig.)

  4. Emerging technology and ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Wakunuma, Kutoma

    2011-01-01

    This e-book on Emerging Technologies and Ethics includes a collection of essays which explore the future and ethics of emerging information and communication technologies. Articles in the collection include an overview of the legal implications which may be relevant to the ethical aspects of emerging technologies and also ethical issues arising from the mass-take up of mobile technologies.

  5. Neurologic emergencies in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Vernon B

    2014-12-01

    Sports neurology is an emerging area of subspecialty. Neurologists and non-neurologists evaluating and managing individuals participating in sports will encounter emergencies that directly or indirectly involve the nervous system. Since the primary specialty of sports medicine physicians and other practitioners involved in the delivery of medical care to athletes in emergency situations varies significantly, experience in recognition and management of neurologic emergencies in sports will vary as well. This article provides a review of information and elements essential to neurologic emergencies in sports for the practicing neurologist, although content may be of benefit to readers of varying background and expertise. Both common neurologic emergencies and less common but noteworthy neurologic emergencies are reviewed in this article. Issues that are fairly unique to sports participation are highlighted in this review. General concepts and principles related to treatment of neurologic emergencies that are often encountered unrelated to sports (eg, recognition and treatment of status epilepticus, increased intracranial pressure) are discussed but are not the focus of this article. Neurologic emergencies can involve any region of the nervous system (eg, brain, spine/spinal cord, peripheral nerves, muscles). In addition to neurologic emergencies that represent direct sports-related neurologic complications, indirect (systemic and generalized) sports-related emergencies with significant neurologic consequences can occur and are also discussed in this article. Neurologists and others involved in the care of athletes should consider neurologic emergencies in sports when planning and providing medical care.

  6. The nuclear emergency plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuertes Menendez, M. J.; Gasco Leonarte, L.; Granada Ferrero, M. J.

    2007-01-01

    Planning of the response to emergencies in nuclear plants is regulated by the Basic Nuclear Emergency Plan (PLABEN). This basic Plan is the guidelines for drawing up, implementing and maintaining the effectiveness of the nuclear power plant exterior nuclear emergency plans. The five exterior emergency plans approved as per PLABEN (PENGUA, PENCA, PENBU, PENTA and PENVA) place special emphasis on the preventive issues of emergency planning, such as implementation of advance information programs to the population, as well as on training exercises and drills. (Author)

  7. Radiation produced biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosiak, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    radiation technique. Immobilization of biologically active species in hydrogel matrices, their use as drug delivery systems and enzyme traps as well as modification of material surfaces to improve their biocompatibility and ability to bond antigens and antibodies have been the main subject of their investigations. The rising interest in the field of application of radiation to bioengineering was also recognized by the International Atoimc Energy Agency, which has initiated the international programs relating to those studies. In these lectures some directions of investigations on the formation of hydrogels and their applications for biomedical purposes have been specified. Also, some examples of commercialized products being produced by means of radiation technique have been presented

  8. Color on emergency mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lili; Qi, Qingwen; Zhang, An

    2007-06-01

    There are so many emergency issues in our daily life. Such as typhoons, tsunamis, earthquake, fires, floods, epidemics, etc. These emergencies made people lose their lives and their belongings. Every day, every hour, even every minute people probably face the emergency, so how to handle it and how to decrease its hurt are the matters people care most. If we can map it exactly before or after the emergencies; it will be helpful to the emergency researchers and people who live in the emergency place. So , through the emergency map, before emergency is occurring we can predict the situation, such as when and where the emergency will be happen; where people can refuge, etc. After disaster, we can also easily assess the lost, discuss the cause and make the lost less. The primary effect of mapping is offering information to the people who care about the emergency and the researcher who want to study it. Mapping allows the viewers to get a spatial sense of hazard. It can also provide the clues to study the relationship of the phenomenon in emergency. Color, as the basic element of the map, it can simplify and clarify the phenomenon. Color can also affects the general perceptibility of the map, and elicits subjective reactions to the map. It is to say, structure, readability, and the reader's psychological reactions can be affected by the use of color.

  9. Update on emergency contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, Wing Kay; Blumenthal, Paul D

    2016-12-01

    Emergency contraception provides a critical and time-sensitive opportunity for women to prevent undesired pregnancy after intercourse. Both access and available options for emergency contraception have changed over the last several years. Emergency contraceptive pills can be less effective in obese women. The maximum achieved serum concentration of levonorgestrel (LNG) is lower in obese women than women of normal BMI, and doubling the dose of LNG (3 mg) increases its concentration maximum, approximating the level in normal BMI women receiving one dose of LNG. Repeated use of both LNG and ulipristal acetate (UPA) is well tolerated. Hormonal contraception can be immediately started following LNG use, but should be delayed for 5 days after UPA use to avoid dampening the efficacy of UPA. The copper intrauterine device (IUD) is the only IUD approved for emergency contraception (and the most effective method of emergency contraception), but use of LNG IUD as emergency contraception is currently being investigated. Accurate knowledge about emergency contraception remains low both for patients and healthcare providers. Emergency contraception is an important yet underutilized tool available to women to prevent pregnancy. Current options including copper IUD and emergency contraceptive pills are safe and well tolerated. Significant gaps in knowledge of emergency contraception on both the provider and user level exist, as do barriers to expedient access of emergency contraception.

  10. [Oncological emergencies in the emergency department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimpoeşu, Diana; Dumea, Mihaela; Durchi, Simona; Apostoae, F; Olaru, G; Ciolan, Mioara; Popa, O; Corlade-Andrei, Mihaela

    2011-01-01

    to assess the profile and the characteristic of oncological patients, establishing management in patients with neoplasia presented in the emergency department (ED), the analysis of short-term movements in patients with neoplasia whilst in the ED. we performed a retrospective study on nonrandomized consecutive cases. The lot analysis included 1315 oncological patients admitted in the Emergency Department of the Clinical Emergency Hospital "St. Spiridon" Iaşi, in the period June 1st, 2009 - May 31st, 2010. 23.12% of the patients had high suspicion of neoplasia at the first visit to the ED. 67.07% of patients were in metastatic stage disease located as follows: liver metastasis 37.59%, lung metastasis 18.36%, lymph node metastasis 13, 29%. After processing the data there were found statistically significant correlations between the age of patients and the documented/suspected diagnosis of neoplasia (p = 0.01) in the sense that a neoplasia diagnosis in emergency was more frequent in people of young age. It should be mentioned that other studies rarely mention first diagnosis of neoplasia in emergency department with presence of complications. 1315 oncological patients presented in ED, almost a quarter of which presented high suspicion of neoplasia (still without histopathological confirmation) when in ED (23.12%). Most of them were aged male patients (over 65 years old), with tumors of the digestive system. A significant proportion (almost 60%) of these patients ended up in emergency due to complications and the therapy intended life support and pain management. Some of these patients were directed to further exploring and emergency outpatient therapy while 75% of patients were hospitalized after stabilization. Although we expected that the frequency of complications to be higher in patients previously diagnosed with cancer, data analysis showed no statistically significant differences (p = NS) between the rate of complications in patients previously diagnosed with

  11. New trends in emerging pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovgaard, Niels

    2007-12-15

    The emergence of pathogens is the result of a number of impact in all parts of the food chain. The emerging technologies in food production explain how new pathogens can establish themselves in the food chain and compromise food safety. The impact of the food technology is analysed for several bacteria, such as Yersinia, Campylobacter, Arcobacter, Helicobacter pullorum, Enterobacter sakazakii, Mycobacterium avium spp. paratuberculosis, prions related to vCJD and others. The importance of the ability of many microbes to form VBNC forms is elaborated on. Research on culture independent methods may address this outstanding issue to the better understanding of emerging pathogens. The "demerging" of pathogens also occur, and examples of this are explained. The reaction of bacteria to stresses and sublethal treatments, and how exposure to one stress factor can confer resistance to other stresses, literally speaking causing contagious resistance, are explained. The implication of this e.g. in modern approaches of food preservation, such as Minimally processed Foods, is considerable. Intestinal colonization of EHEC may be regulated by Quorum sensing, and this ability of microbes plays an important role in the colonization of microbes in food and on food processing equipment, an important factor in the emergence of pathogens. The emergence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as an opportunistic human pathogen, used for centuries for food and production of alcoholic beverages, calls for research in molecular tools to distinguish between probiotic and clinical strains. Cyclospora cayetanensis and Norovirus outbreaks can no longer be designated as emerging pathogens, they share however one characteristic in the epidemiology of emerging nature, the importance of the hygiene in the primary production stage, including supply of potable water, and the application of GMP and the HACCP principles in the beginning of the food chain. Hepatitis E virus is a potential emerging food borne

  12. Management of small producers waste in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabjan, Marija; Rojc, Joze

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Radioactive materials are extensively used in Slovenia in various fields and applications in medicine, industry and research. For the managing of radioactive waste raised from these establishments the Agency for radwaste management (ARAO) was authorised as the state public service of managing the radioactive waste in 1999. The public service of the radioactive waste of small producers in Slovenia is performed in line with the Governmental decree on the Mode, Subject and Terms of Performing the Public Service of Radioactive Waste Management (Official Gazette RS No. 32/99). According to the Decree the scope of the public service includes: 'collection of the waste from small producers at the producers' premises and its transportation to the storage facility for treatment, storing and disposal', 'acceptance of radioactive waste in case of emergency situation on the premises, in case of transport accidents or some other accidents', 'acceptance of radioactive waste in cases when the producer is unknown', 'management (collection, transport, pre-treatment, storing, together with QA and radiation protection measures) of radioactive waste', 'treatment and conditioning of radioactive waste for storing and disposal', and 'operating of the Central Interim Storage for LIL waste from small producers'. After taking over the performing of the public service, ARAO first started with the project for refurbishment and modernization of the Central Interim Storage Facility, including improvements of the storage utilization and rearrangement of the stored waste. (authors)

  13. Train operation in emergencies

    CERN Document Server

    Jia, Limin; Qin, Yong

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the latest findings on train operation theories and methods in the context of emergencies. It examines and assesses a range of aspects—including the definition of a railway emergency, transport organization modes in emergencies, calculating railway transport capacity in emergencies, line planning in emergencies, train re-pathing in emergencies and train re-scheduling in emergencies—that are urgently needed in the railway transportation field, which faces the serious challenge of dealing with emergencies worldwide. The book highlights the latest research results in an integrated and systematic way, and the methodology presented is oriented on real-world problems, allowing it to be used not only directly in railway operational management, but also as the point of departure for further applications or theoretical research. As such, the book will be of considerable interest to graduate students and researchers in the field of traffic and transportation engineering.>.

  14. Defining an emerging disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutou, F; Pastoret, P-P

    2015-04-01

    Defining an emerging disease is not straightforward, as there are several different types of disease emergence. For example, there can be a 'real' emergence of a brand new disease, such as the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the 1980s, or a geographic emergence in an area not previously affected, such as the emergence of bluetongue in northern Europe in 2006. In addition, disease can emerge in species formerly not considered affected, e.g. the emergence of bovine tuberculosis in wildlife species since 2000 in France. There can also be an unexpected increase of disease incidence in a known area and a known species, or there may simply be an increase in our knowledge or awareness of a particular disease. What all these emerging diseases have in common is that human activity frequently has a role to play in their emergence. For example, bovine spongiform encephalopathy very probably emerged as a result of changes in the manufacturing of meat-and-bone meal, bluetongue was able to spread to cooler climes as a result of uncontrolled trade in animals, and a relaxation of screening and surveillance for bovine tuberculosis enabled the disease to re-emerge in areas that had been able to drastically reduce the number of cases. Globalisation and population growth will continue to affect the epidemiology of diseases in years to come and ecosystems will continue to evolve. Furthermore, new technologies such as metagenomics and high-throughput sequencing are identifying new microorganisms all the time. Change is the one constant, and diseases will continue to emerge, and we must consider the causes and different types of emergence as we deal with these diseases in the future.

  15. Breastfeeding in emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, M

    1995-02-01

    In emergency situations created by wars, natural disasters, and famines, people are forced to live in crowded, unsanitary conditions where access to food and health care is limited and the danger of infection, particularly with diarrheal diseases, is great. The situation is compounded when anxieties exist concerning breast feeding; this usually occurs in industrialized countries where artificial feeding was widespread prior to the crisis, breast feeding skills were lost, and inaccurate information replaced traditional knowledge. It is believed that psychological stress and poor diet cause breast milk to dry up. Although diet is important, undernourished women are capable of producing enough milk to feed their babies. Psychological stress can temporarily prevent the release of milk from the breast, but it does not affect milk production. Large supplies of infant formula are not needed, and unrestricted distribution of breast milk substitutes can undermine breast feeding and increase the risk of disease and death. Almost all mothers are physically capable of breast feeding. Those who provide health care and relief assistance during emergencies should undertake the following measures to support breast feeding and to protect the health of mothers: 1) work for agreement between outside agencies and local health workers on breast feeding policy and practice, share up-to-date information, and establish mechanisms to ensure actions are implemented in a coordinated manner; 2) ensure that maternity care practices follow WHO/UNICEF guidelines; 3) encourage women who are not breast feeding to do so, rather than criticizing them; 4) educate the whole community about the benefits of breast feeding and highlight the importance of family and social support; 5) offer one-to-one assistance to mothers who are experiencing difficulty breast feeding through use of a network of experienced mothers, or by training breast feeding counselors (women), who are sensitive to the culture

  16. Turn emergency generators into dollars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheahen, T.P.; Stegen, G.R.

    1997-01-01

    The concept of distributed, dispatchable power generation is essentially the reverse of interruptible service. It can be understood by regarding both power and money as vectors: when the direction of the power flow switches, so does the direction of the money flow. At a signal given by the utility, a factory activates its emergency generating system and briefly becomes an independent power producer (IPP), feeding power into a local region of the grid. Upon receipt of another signal, it retires from that role. It may, however, continue to generate power for its own use

  17. The future of UK gas producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallas, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    Traditionally, an oil company wishing to develop UK gas reserves almost always faced a protracted gas sales negotiation with British Gas. British Gas then had an effective monopoly in the resale of that gas to final consumers. This traditional pattern is now in a process of fundamental change, as a result of recent UK gas market re-regulation and the emergence of a new large scale opportunity to sell gas for power generation. The impact of these changes is still not very well understood outside a relatively small group of gas specialists but is likely to be significant for British Gas, consumers and UK gas producers. This paper outlines the background to the recent changes, the possible future of UK gas marketing and the likely impact on gas producers in the North Sea

  18. A Probabilistic Risk Assessment For Emergency Preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joomyung; Jae, Moosung; Ahn, Kwangil

    2013-01-01

    The importance of nuclear power plant PSA has grown up all over the world due to this incident. The main concern of this study is to develop a methodology to carry on an emergency preparedness evaluation and to set an exclusive area, or the emergency response area boundary in order to apply it to domestic reference plants. This study also focuses on evaluating the risk parameter of major nuclides through a sensitivity analysis and a safety assessment by calculating the population dose, early fatality, and cancer fatality rates. A methodology for an emergency preparedness, which can be applied to evaluate the damage of the radioactive release as well as to assess the safety of the accident scenario of a nuclear power plant, has been developed and applied for the reference plants in Korea. By applying a source term analysis, an exclusive zone based on the radioactive dose is obtained. And the results of the health effect assessment based on the release fraction of specific nuclides to public with an effective emergency response activity have been simulated. A methodology utilizing the Level 3 PSA with the actual emergency response activities has been developed and applied to typical nuclear accident situations. The plausible standard for performing an emergency plan is suggested and the valuable information regarding emergency preparedness has been produced in this study. For further works, the sensitivity study on important parameters will be performed to simulate the actual severe accident situations such as sheltering, evacuation, and emergency response activities

  19. Energy emergency handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This Handbook identifies selected state and federal measures available to mitigate the impact of an energy emergency, and provides a comprehensive energy emergency communications directory. In the case of state remedial actions, particular emphasis has been placed on typical implementation procedures and likely impacts. The discussions of federal actions focus on initation and implementation procedures. The directory is designed to facilitate communications of all types (telephone, Telex, TWX, or facsimile) among key energy emergency officials in the federal and state governments.

  20. Nonneurologic emergencies in boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletta, Domenic F

    2009-10-01

    Professional boxing has done an admirable job in promoting safety standards in its particular sport. However, injuries occur during the normal course of competition and, unfortunately, an occasional life-threatening emergency may arise. Although most common medical emergencies in boxing are injuries from closed head trauma, in this article those infrequent but potentially catastrophic nonneurologic conditions are reviewed along with some less serious emergencies that the physician must be prepared to address.

  1. Radiological Emergency Response Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Quality Data Asset includes all current and historical emergency radiological response event and incident of national significance data and surveillance, monitoring,...

  2. Historicism and Industry Emergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirsch, David; Moeen, Mahka; Wadhwani, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Management and organization scholars have increasingly turned to historical sources to examine the emergence and evolution of industries over time. This scholarship has typically used historical evidence as observations for testing theoretically relevant processes of industry emergence....... In this chapter, an alternative approach is explored that focuses on reconstructing causes and processes that time and theory have erased. The emergence of three industries—plant biotechnology, savings banking, and the automobile—shows how time, along with prevailing functional models of industry evolution, leads...... excluded phenomena and explanations, reconstructing uncertainty and alternative paths of industry emergence, and studying the processes of information elision and exclusion in the formation of industry knowledge....

  3. Inspection of Emergency Arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The Working Group on Inspection Practices (WGIP) was tasked by the NEA CNRA to examine and evaluate the extent to which emergency arrangements are inspected and to identify areas of importance for the development of good inspection practices. WGIP members shared their approaches to the inspection of emergency arrangements by the use of questionnaires, which were developed from the requirements set out in IAEA Safety Standards. Detailed responses to the questionnaires from WGIP member countries have been compiled and are presented in the appendix to this report. The following commendable practices have been drawn from the completed questionnaires and views provided by WGIP members: - RBs and their Inspectors have sufficient knowledge and information regarding operator's arrangements for the preparedness and response to nuclear emergencies, to enable authoritative advice to be given to the national coordinating authority, where necessary. - Inspectors check that the operator's response to a nuclear emergency is adequately integrated with relevant response organisations. - Inspectors pay attention to consider the integration of the operator's response to safety and security threats. - The efficiency of international relations is checked in depth during some exercises (e.g. early warning, assistance and technical information), especially for near-border facilities that could lead to an emergency response abroad. - RB inspection programmes consider the adequacy of arrangements for emergency preparedness and response to multi-unit accidents. - RBs assess the adequacy of arrangements to respond to accidents in other countries. - The RB's role is adequately documented and communicated to all agencies taking part in the response to a nuclear or radiological emergency. - Inspectors check that threat assessments for NPPs have been undertaken in accordance with national requirements and that up-to-date assessments have been used as the basis for developing emergency plans for

  4. Mass-producing B mesons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksan, Roy; Ali, Ahmed

    1993-06-15

    Since the discovery of the upsilon resonances in 1977 the physics of the fifth quark - beauty - has played a vital role in establishing and consolidating today's Standard Model of particle physics. In recent years, a wealth of data on B particle (containing the beauty quark) has emerged from the detectors ARGUS (at the DORIS ring, DESY, Hamburg) and CLEO (at the Cornell CESR ring) as well as from CERN's LEP electron-positron collider and the proton-antiproton colliders at CERN and Fermilab. But the most challenging goal of this physics is to explore the mystery of CP violation, so far only seen in neutral kaon decays. This subtle mechanism - a disregard for the combined symmetry of particle antiparticle switching and left-right reflection - possibly moulded the evolution of the Universe after the Big Bang, providing a world dominated by matter, rather than one where matter and antimatter play comparable roles. To fully explore CP violation in the laboratory needs a dedicated machine - a particle 'factory' - to mass produce B mesons. Only when this full picture of CP violation has been revealed will physicists finally be able to solve its mysteries. As well as major proposals in the US and Japan, several ideas have been launched in Europe. Over the years, many working groups have accumulated an impressive amount of data and knowledge on the physics as well as on the machine and detectors. The spearheads of experimental B physics are the ARGUS and CLEO collaborations. Highlights include the determination of the parameters of the (Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa, CKM) quark mixing matrix, testing the consistency of the Standard Model with six quarks and three leptons, and giving the first indirect hint that the as yet unseen sixth ('top') quark is very heavy, together with initial indications of how it should decay. Valuable complementary information has come from proton-antiproton collider data and particularly from the LEP experiments at the Z resonance. Experiments at

  5. Mass-producing B mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksan, Roy; Ali, Ahmed

    1993-01-01

    Since the discovery of the upsilon resonances in 1977 the physics of the fifth quark - beauty - has played a vital role in establishing and consolidating today's Standard Model of particle physics. In recent years, a wealth of data on B particle (containing the beauty quark) has emerged from the detectors ARGUS (at the DORIS ring, DESY, Hamburg) and CLEO (at the Cornell CESR ring) as well as from CERN's LEP electron-positron collider and the proton-antiproton colliders at CERN and Fermilab. But the most challenging goal of this physics is to explore the mystery of CP violation, so far only seen in neutral kaon decays. This subtle mechanism - a disregard for the combined symmetry of particle antiparticle switching and left-right reflection - possibly moulded the evolution of the Universe after the Big Bang, providing a world dominated by matter, rather than one where matter and antimatter play comparable roles. To fully explore CP violation in the laboratory needs a dedicated machine - a particle 'factory' - to mass produce B mesons. Only when this full picture of CP violation has been revealed will physicists finally be able to solve its mysteries. As well as major proposals in the US and Japan, several ideas have been launched in Europe. Over the years, many working groups have accumulated an impressive amount of data and knowledge on the physics as well as on the machine and detectors. The spearheads of experimental B physics are the ARGUS and CLEO collaborations. Highlights include the determination of the parameters of the (Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa, CKM) quark mixing matrix, testing the consistency of the Standard Model with six quarks and three leptons, and giving the first indirect hint that the as yet unseen sixth ('top') quark is very heavy, together with initial indications of how it should decay. Valuable complementary information has come from proton-antiproton collider data and particularly from the LEP experiments at the

  6. Emergências hipertensivas Hypertensive emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Soares Feitosa-Filho

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available As urgências e as emergências hipertensivas são ocorrências clínicas que podem representar mais de 25% dos atendimentos a urgências médicas. O médico deverá estar habilitado a diferenciá-las, pois o prognóstico e o tratamento são distintos. Estima-se que 3% de todas as visitas às salas de emergência decorrem de elevações significativas da pressão arterial. Nos quadros relacionados a estes atendimentos, a emergência hipertensiva é a entidade clínica mais grave que merece cuidados intensivos. É caracterizada por pressão arterial marcadamente elevada e sinais de lesões de órgãos-alvo (encefalopatia, infarto agudo do miocárdio, angina instável, edema agudo de pulmão, eclâmpsia, acidente vascular encefálico. O objetivo deste estudo foi apresentar os principais pontos sobre o seu apropriado diagnóstico e tratamento. Foi realizada busca por artigos originais com os unitermos "crise hipertensiva" e "emergência hipertensiva" nas bases de dados Pubmed e MedLine nos últimos dez anos. As referências disponíveis destes artigos foram verificadas. Os artigos foram identificados e revisados e o presente estudo condensa os principais resultados descritos. Para esta revisão foram considerados ensaios clínicos em língua inglesa, estudos retrospectivos e artigos de revisão. A crise hipertensiva é a entidade clínica com aumento súbito da PA (> 180 x 120 mmHg, acompanhada por sintomas, que podem ser leves (cefaléia, tontura, zumbido ou graves (dispnéia, dor precordial, coma e até morte, com ou sem lesão aguda de órgãos-alvo. Se os sintomas forem leves e sem lesão aguda de órgãos alvos, define-se a urgência hipertensiva. Se o quadro clínico apresentar risco de vida e refletir lesão aguda de órgãos-alvo têm-se, então, a emergência hipertensiva. Muitos pacientes também apresentam uma PA elevada demais, por não usarem suas medicações, tratando-se apenas de hipertensão arterial sistêmica crônica n

  7. Producers give prices a boost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Uranium producers came alive in August, helping spot prices crack the $8.00 barrier for the first time since March. The upper end of NUKEM's price range actually finished the month at $8.20. Scrambling to fulfill their long-term delivery contracts, producers dominate the market. In the span of three weeks, five producers came out for 2 million lbs U3O8, ultimately buying nearly 1.5 million lbs. One producer accounted for over half this volume. The major factor behind rising prices was that producers required specific origins to meet contract obligations. Buyers willing to accept open origins created the lower end of NUKEM's price range

  8. The Emergence of Ideas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halskov, Kim; Dalsgård, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The development of new ideas is an essential concern for many design projects. There are, however, few in-depth studies of how such ideas emerge within these contexts. In this article we offer an analysis of the emergence of ideas from specific sources of inspiration, as they arise through...

  9. Emergency exercise scenario tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeblom, K.

    1998-03-01

    Nuclear power plant emergency exercises require a realistically presented accident situation which includes various aspects: plant process, radioactivity, radiation, weather and people. Experiences from nuclear power plant emergency exercises show that preparing accident scenarios even for relatively short exercises is tedious. In the future modern computer technology and past experience could be used for making exercise planning more effective. (au)

  10. Theme: Emerging Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpiedi, Barbara J.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Consists of six articles discussing the effect of emerging technologies on agriculture. Specific topics include (1) agriscience programs, (2) the National Conference on Agriscience and Emerging Occupations and Technologies, (3) biotechnology, (4) program improvement through technology, (5) the Agriscience Teacher of the Year program, and (6)…

  11. Emergency presurgical visit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Castro Díaz

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective has been to create a Protocol of Structured Presurgical Visit applicable to the patients who are undergoing an emergency surgery, to provide the user and his family all the necessary cares on the basis of those nursing diagnosis that prevail in all the cases of surgical emergency interventions. The used method has been an analysis of the emergency surgical interventions more prevalent from February 2007 until October 2008 in our area (a regional hospital, and statistic of those nursing diagnosis that more frequently appeared in these interventions, the previous moment to the intervention and in addition common to all of them. The results were the following ones: the more frequent emergency operations were: Caesarean, ginecological curettage, laparotomy, help in risk childbirth, orthopaedic surgery and appendectomy. The more frequent nursing diagnosis in all the emergency operations at the previous moment of the intervention were: risk of falls, pain, anxiety, deficit of knowledge, risk of infection, movement stress syndrome, risk of hemorrhage, cutaneous integrity deterioration. The conclusion is that users present at the previous moment to an emergency operation several problems, which force to the emergency surgical ward nurse to the introduction of the nursing methodology, in order to identify the problems, to mark results and to indicate the interventions to achieve those results, besides in a humanitarian way and with quality. This can be obtained by performing a Structured Emergency Presurgical Visit.

  12. Emerging wind energy technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Flemming; Grivel, Jean-Claude; Faber, Michael Havbro

    2014-01-01

    This chapter will discuss emerging technologies that are expected to continue the development of the wind sector to embrace new markets and to become even more competitive.......This chapter will discuss emerging technologies that are expected to continue the development of the wind sector to embrace new markets and to become even more competitive....

  13. Competitiveness in Emerging Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents a collection of interrelated research advances in the field of technological entrepreneurship from the perspective of competition in emerging markets. Featuring contributions by scholars from different fields of interest, it provides a mix of theoretical developments, insights...... and research methods used to uncover the unexplored aspects of competitiveness in emerging markets in an age characterized by disruptive technologies....

  14. Radiology in emergency medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, R.; Barsan, W.G.

    1986-01-01

    This book gives a discussion of radiologic modalities currently being used in emergency situations. Radiographs, echocardiographs, radionuclide scans and CT scans are systematically analyzed and evaluated to provide a step-by-step diagnostic process for emergency physicians to follow when a radiologist is not present

  15. Emergent Collaboration on Twitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard, Daniel; Razmerita, Liana; Tan, Chee-Wee

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores the organizing elements that foster emergent collaboration within large-scale communities on online social platforms like Twitter. This study is based on a case study of the #BlackLivesMatter social movement and draws on organizing dynamics and online social network literature...... foster emergent collaboration in social movements using Twitter....

  16. Educational program emergency planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Tammy

    2009-01-01

    Tragic university shootings have prompted administrators of higher education institutions to re-evaluate their emergency preparedness plans and take appropriate measures for preventing and responding to emergencies. To review the literature and identify key components needed to prevent shootings at higher education institutions in the United States, and in particular, institutions housing radiologic science programs. Twenty-eight emergency preparedness plans were retrieved electronically and reviewed from a convenience sample of accredited radiologic science programs provided by the Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology Web site. The review of the 28 emergency preparedness plans confirmed that most colleges are prepared for basic emergencies, but lack the key components needed to successfully address mass-casualty events. Only 5 (18%) of the 28 institutions addressed policies concerning school shootings.

  17. Management of Radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentijo, J. C.; Gil, E.; San Nicolas, J.; Lazuen, J. A.

    2004-01-01

    Spain has a system of planning and response to emergency situations that is structured and coordinated by the General Directorship of civil Defense of the Ministry of the Interior and in which all levels of the Public Administration. state, autonomous and municipal-and owners of potentially hazardous activities participate. Activities involving a nuclear or radiological risk have specific emergency plans whose general principles are based on the general emergency system and whose technical bases are consistent with international practices and recommendations. The Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear actively participates in the design, implementation and activation of these plans, and for this purpose has an organization superimposed on its ordinary working organization that is activated in the event of an accident, as well as an Emergency Room specifically designed to deal with nuclear and radiological emergencies. (Author)

  18. Emergency preparedness training for local communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, M.J.; Thompson, K.K.

    1987-01-01

    Detroit Edison, in cooperation with Monroe County, has developed a comprehensive training program for local emergency workers in the area surrounding the Fermi 2 Nuclear Power Plant. Using expertise from both organizations, a program consisting of two videotapes, two slide-tapes and nine narrated slide series was produced to address the worker-specific training needs of county emergency workers. In June of 185, the program was approved by Detroit Edison and the Monroe County Board of Commissioners. To date, Monroe County has trained more than 1000 emergency workers. This program has been so well received that the county staff has developed and presented a modified version of this program to the general public. The result of this cooperative effort is increased public confidence in emergency preparedness at the state, local and utility level and a renewed spirit of cooperation and trust between the utility and local units of government

  19. Medical management and planning for radiation emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bongirwar, P.R.

    2001-01-01

    Radiation Emergencies which result as a consequence of nuclear or radiological accidents can produce a spectrum of different types of radiation injuries which could include cases of whole body irradiation causing Acute Radiation Syndrome, partial body irradiation, radiation burns (localized irradiation), radioactive contamination and combined injuries having component of conventional injuries. General principles of managing these cases entail doing triage, offering immediate emergency care and instituting definitive treatment. Infra-structural facilities which are required to facilitate their management include first aid post at plant site, personnel decontamination centre, site clinic and specialized hospital which can offer comprehensive investigational and treatment modalities. Training of medical and paramedical personnel is crucial as part of emergency preparedness programme and if needed, help can be sought from WHO's Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Assistance Network Centres. (author)

  20. Emergence in Dynamical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Collier

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Emergence is a term used in many contexts in current science; it has become fashionable. It has a traditional usage in philosophy that started in 1875 and was expanded by J. S. Mill (earlier, under a different term and C. D. Broad. It is this form of emergence that I am concerned with here. I distinguish it from uses like ‘computational emergence,’ which can be reduced to combinations of program steps, or its application to merely surprising new features that appear in complex combinations of parts. I will be concerned specifically with ontological emergence that has the logical properties required by Mill and Broad (though there might be some quibbling about the details of their views. I restrict myself to dynamical systems that are embodied in processes. Everything that we can interact with through sensation or action is either dynamical or can be understood in dynamical terms, so this covers all comprehensible forms of emergence in the strong (nonreducible sense I use. I will give general dynamical conditions that underlie the logical conditions traditionally assigned to emergence in nature.The advantage of this is that, though we cannot test logical conditions directly, we can test dynamical conditions. This gives us an empirical and realistic form of emergence, contrary those who say it is a matter of perspective.

  1. [Distiller Yeasts Producing Antibacterial Peptides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyachko, E V; Morozkina, E V; Zaitchik, B Ts; Benevolensky, S V

    2015-01-01

    A new method of controlling lactic acid bacteria contamination was developed with the use of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains producing antibacterial peptides. Genes encoding the antibacterial peptides pediocin and plantaricin with codons preferable for S. cerevisiae were synthesized, and a system was constructed for their secretory expression. Recombinant S. cerevisiae strains producing antibacterial peptides effectively inhibit the growth of Lactobacillus sakei, Pediacoccus pentasaceus, Pediacoccus acidilactici, etc. The application of distiller yeasts producing antibacterial peptides enhances the ethanol yield in cases of bacterial contamination. Recombinant yeasts producing the antibacterial peptides pediocin and plantaricin can successfully substitute the available industrial yeast strains upon ethanol production.

  2. Training for emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grauf, E.

    1993-01-01

    There are specific boundary conditions where preparedness for in-plant emergency management is as necessary and useful as is the training for the management of design-based accidents. The shift personnel has to be trained to cope particularly with the difficult and demanding initial phase of an emergency, and care must be taken to be very close to reality. Only thus can weak points be discovered and removed by pinpointed measures such as organisational changes, optimization of emergency management procedures, or hardware conditions. (orig.) [de

  3. Acute oncological emergencies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gabriel, J

    2012-01-01

    The number of people receiving systemic anti-cancer treatment and presenting at emergency departments with treatment-related problems is rising. Nurses will be the first point of contact for most patients and need to be able to recognise oncological emergencies to initiate urgent assessment of patients and referral to the acute oncology team so that the most appropriate care can be delivered promptly. This article discusses the role of acute oncology services, and provides an overview of the most common acute oncological emergencies.

  4. Create an Emergency Kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... models take up less space in your kit. Cell phone. Always carry a cell phone and let people know where you are going ... pump in your emergency kit. Remember that despite safety standards and careful monitoring, these devices can fail. ...

  5. Winter Weather Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health problems, including ... there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...

  6. Emerging topics in FXTAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Deborah A; Birch, Rachael C; Anheim, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes key emerging issues in fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) as presented at the First International Conference on the FMR1 Premutation: Basic Mechanisms & Clinical Involvement in 2013....

  7. 7. Emergency contraception

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sitwala

    individually on each day after satisfying the selection criteria. ... thought the pills can work up to a maximum of 24 hours. The main source of information was from friends (80%). ... 6 – 10 years .... emergency contraceptive pills among Swedish.

  8. Clustering of Emerging Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzmaikin, A.

    1997-01-01

    Observations show that newly emerging flux tends to appear on the Solar surface at sites where there is flux already. This results in clustering of solar activity. Standard dynamo theories do not predict this effect.

  9. Emergency management at sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockholts, I.P.

    1992-01-01

    In the past years, all kind of activities in the field of emergency management have been taken in order to handle accidents. In the scope of this paper, emergencies are those accidents that may lead to severe releases of oil and gas, whereby also attention is paid to collisions between offshore installations and drifting objects and the situation where people fall overboard. Case histories show that coping with these serious accidents is not always as effective and successful as intended. The stage from being aware of the risks, to being prepared to cope with the consequences, to actually being capable to combat is long and consists of many elements. This paper will deal with the general approach of emergency management, the development of automated tools for decision support on emergencies as well as some fate and effect models

  10. Emerging Targets in Photopharmacology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lerch, Michael M.; Hansen, Mickel J.; van Dam, Gooitzen M.; Szymanski, Wiktor; Feringa, Ben L.

    2016-01-01

    The field of photopharmacology uses molecular photoswitches to establish control over the action of bioactive molecules. It aims to reduce systemic drug toxicity and the emergence of resistance, while achieving unprecedented precision in treatment. By using small molecules, photopharmacology

  11. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, A.L.; Rutten, V.P.M.G.; Helden van, P.D.

    2013-01-01

    This supplement to Transboundary and Emerging Diseases is a compilation of selected papers presented at the International Wildlife Tuberculosis Conference, held from 9 to 12 September 2012 in Skukuza, South Africa.

  12. OEM Emergency Response Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Emergency Management retains records of all incident responses in which it participates. This data asset includes three major sources of information:...

  13. Imaging of gynecologic emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Matthias W.; Huisman, Thierry A.G.M.; John Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, Baltimore, MD; Kubik, Rahel A.

    2016-01-01

    Acute abdominal pain related to the female genital organs is frequently encountered in the emergency department. Gynecological emergencies are diseases of the female reproductive system that are potentially life-threatening and peril the sexual function and fertility. In the diagnostic work-up of acute abdominal pain, a wide variety of differential diagnoses needs to be considered depending on the age of the patient and a concomitant pregnancy. There is significant clinical overlap with gastrointestinal emergencies. Therefore, imaging plays a key role in diagnosing the cause of the pain and the planning of the therapy. The aim of this review is to illustrate the significant role of imaging in frequently encountered gynecologic emergencies.

  14. Emergency Notification System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The USAID ENS provides quick and effective notification messages during any emergency affecting the Ronald Reagan Building, SA-44, Potomac Yards and USAID Washington...

  15. Football emergency medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    may be called upon to intervene medically when a football player succumbs to a severe ... including safety and security services, emergency and primary health care medical ..... of the European Resuscitation Council (ERC) guidelines 2005.

  16. Emerging nuclear suppliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sands, A.

    1990-01-01

    Efforts to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons have usually taken two tracks: The traditional approach has concentrated on a potential proliferant's perceived need for nuclear technology and possibly weapons; a second approach has targeted the supply side of the proliferation equation. The issue being examined in this book---emerging nuclear suppliers---falls between these two approaches. The potential proliferants have emerged as possible unrestrained suppliers of nuclear materials and technology. They threaten the entire nonproliferation regime by their exporting, not their weapons development. Analyzing and understanding the issue of emerging suppliers requires a refined definition of suppliers in general. The simple dichotomy of traditional versus emerging suppliers is no longer an adequate framework for analysis. Suppliers differ significantly in their technical capabilities, experience, and regime involvement, and these distinctions result in different nuclear export policies

  17. A method of producing hydroxymethyfurfural

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of producing 5-hydroxymethylfurfural by dehydration of fructose and/or glucose and/or mannose.......The present invention relates to a method of producing 5-hydroxymethylfurfural by dehydration of fructose and/or glucose and/or mannose....

  18. Producers' Complex Risk Management Choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Isengildina, O.; Irwin, S.H.; Garcia, P.; Good, D.L.

    2008-01-01

    Producers have a wide variety of risk management instruments available, making their choice(s) complex. The way producers deal with this complexity can vary and may influence the impact that the determinants, such as risk aversion, have on their choices. A recently developed choice bracketing

  19. Method of producing molybdenum-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, Eric John

    2013-05-28

    Method of producing molybdenum-99, comprising accelerating ions by means of an accelerator; directing the ions onto a metal target so as to generate neutrons having an energy of greater than 10 MeV; directing the neutrons through a converter material comprising techentium-99 to produce a mixture comprising molybdenum-99; and, chemically extracting the molybdenum-99 from the mixture.

  20. Tekna's produced water conference 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The conference has 22 presentations discussing topics on discharge reduction, produced water quality, produced water re-injection, chemicals particularly environmentally friendly ones, separation technology, reservoir souring, total water management systems, pollution, oil in water problems and platform operation. Various field tests and experiences particularly from the offshore petroleum sector are presented (tk)

  1. DOES ELECTRIC CAR PRODUCE EMISSIONS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír RIEVAJ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the comparison of the amount of emissions produced by vehicles with a combustion engine and electric cars. The comparison, which is based on the LCA factor results, indicates that an electric car produces more emissions than a vehicle with combustion engine. The implementation of electric cars will lead to an increase in the production of greenhouse gases.

  2. Transfusion Related Emergencies

    OpenAIRE

    Osborn, Megan Boysen; Tran, Min-Ha

    2016-01-01

    Audience: This exercise is appropriate for all emergency medicine learners (residents and medical students) and learners from other specialties (internal medicine, family medicine, anesthesia). Introduction: About 85 million red blood cell units are transfused worldwide each year. Transfusion reactions can complicate up to 8% of blood transfusions and can range from benign to life threatening. An emergency physician must be able to discuss the risks and benefits of blood transfusion...

  3. Ten Questions about Emergence

    OpenAIRE

    Fromm, Jochen

    2005-01-01

    Self-Organization is of growing importance for large distributed computing systems. In these systems, a central control and manual management is exceedingly difficult or even impossible. Emergence is widely recognized as the core principle behind self-organization. Therefore the idea to use both principles to control and organize large-scale distributed systems is very attractive and not so far off. Yet there are many open questions about emergence and self-organization, ranging from a clear ...

  4. Diabetic and endocrine emergencies

    OpenAIRE

    Kearney, T; Dang, C

    2007-01-01

    Endocrine emergencies constitute only a small percentage of the emergency workload of general doctors, comprising about 1.5% of all hospital admission in England in 2004–5. Most of these are diabetes related with the remaining conditions totalling a few hundred cases at most. Hence any individual doctor might not have sufficient exposure to be confident in their management. This review discusses the management of diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state, hypoglycaemia, hyperca...

  5. Design of emergency shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, S.E.

    1993-01-01

    Manufacturing of an emergency movable shield in the hot laboratories center is urgently needed for the safety of personnel in case of accidents or spilling of radioactive materials. In this report, a full design for an emergency shield is presented and the corresponding dose rates behind the shield for different activities (from 1 mCi to 5 Ci) was calculated by using micro shield computer code. 4 figs., 1 tab

  6. Emergency response workers workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agapeev, S.A.; Glukhikh, E.N.; Tyurin, R.L.

    2012-01-01

    A training workshop entitled Current issues and potential improvements in Rosatom Corporation emergency prevention and response system was held in May-June, 2012. The workshop combined theoretical training with full-scale practical exercise that demonstrated the existing innovative capabilities for radiation reconnaissance, diving equipment and robotics, aircraft, emergency response and rescue hardware and machinery. This paper describes the activities carried out during the workshop [ru

  7. Planning for nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakey, J.R.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper aims to stimulate discussions between nuclear engineers and the radiological protection professions in order to facilitate planning for nuclear emergencies. A brief review is given of the response to nuclear accidents. Studying accidents can lead to prevention, but some effort must be put into emergency response. Such issues as decontamination and decommissioning, socio-economic consequences, education and training for nuclear personnel and exercises and drills, are raised. (UK)

  8. Emerging technologies in surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satava, R.M.; Gaspari, A.; Di Lorenzo, N.

    2007-01-01

    Tremendous acceleration and changes in scientific discovery and progress are presently occurring. These important emerging technologies that will affect the practicing surgeon within the next 10 to 20 years are illustrated in detail in this volume. Its purpose is not to review clinical experience of the common surgical practice of the past decade, but to outline and illustrate the future trends. International experts in this field demonstrate emerging procedures and significant advances. (orig.)

  9. Accident and emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, V.; Moellenbach, K.; Heinonen, R.; Jakobsson, S.; Kukko, T.; Berg, Oe.; Larsen, J.S.; Westgaard, T.; Magnusson, B.; Andersson, H.; Holmstroem, C.; Brehmer, B.; Allard, R.

    1988-06-01

    There is an increasing potential for severe accidents as the industrial development tends towards large, centralised production units. In several industries this has led to the formation of large organisations which are prepared for accidents fighting and for emergency management. The functioning of these organisations critically depends upon efficient decision making and exchange of information. This project is aimed at securing and possibly improving the functionality and efficiency of the accident and emergency management by verifying, demonstrating, and validating the possible use of advanced information technology in the organisations mentioned above. With the nuclear industry in focus the project consists of five main activities: 1) The study and detailed analysis of accident and emergency scenarios based on records from incidents and rills in nuclear installations. 2) Development of a conceptual understanding of accident and emergency management with emphasis on distributed decision making, information flow, and control structure sthat are involved. 3) Development of a general experimental methodology for evaluating the effects of different kinds of decision aids and forms of organisation for emergency management systems with distributed decision making. 4) Development and test of a prototype system for a limited part of an accident and emergency organisation to demonstrate the potential use of computer and communication systems, data-base and knowledge base technology, and applications of expert systems and methods used in artificial intelligence. 5) Production of guidelines for the introduction of advanced information technology in the organisations based on evaluation and validation of the prototype system. (author)

  10. Emerging zoonotic viral diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L-F; Crameri, G

    2014-08-01

    Zoonotic diseases are infectious diseases that are naturally transmitted from vertebrate animals to humans and vice versa. They are caused by all types of pathogenic agents, including bacteria, parasites, fungi, viruses and prions. Although they have been recognised for many centuries, their impact on public health has increased in the last few decades due to a combination of the success in reducing the spread of human infectious diseases through vaccination and effective therapies and the emergence of novel zoonotic diseases. It is being increasingly recognised that a One Health approach at the human-animal-ecosystem interface is needed for effective investigation, prevention and control of any emerging zoonotic disease. Here, the authors will review the drivers for emergence, highlight some of the high-impact emerging zoonotic diseases of the last two decades and provide examples of novel One Health approaches for disease investigation, prevention and control. Although this review focuses on emerging zoonotic viral diseases, the authors consider that the discussions presented in this paper will be equally applicable to emerging zoonotic diseases of other pathogen types.

  11. Emergency reactor cooling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakawa, Ken.

    1993-01-01

    An emergency nuclear reactor cooling device comprises a water reservoir, emergency core cooling water pipelines having one end connected to a water feeding sparger, fire extinguishing facility pipelines, cooling water pressurizing pumps, a diesel driving machine for driving the pumps and a battery. In a water reservoir, cooling water is stored by an amount required for cooling the reactor upon emergency and for fire extinguishing, and fire extinguishing facility pipelines connecting the water reservoir and the fire extinguishing facility are in communication with the emergency core cooling water pipelines connected to the water feeding sparger by system connection pipelines. Pumps are operated by a diesel power generator to introduce cooling water from the reservoir to the emergency core cooling water pipelines. Then, even in a case where AC electric power source is entirely lost and the emergency core cooling system can not be used, the diesel driving machine is operated using an exclusive battery, thereby enabling to inject cooling water from the water reservoir to a reactor pressure vessel and a reactor container by the diesel drive pump. (N.H.)

  12. Proposal of emergency systems for the liberations control in a hydrogen producer plant with the cycle S-I; Propuesta de sistemas de emergencia para el control de liberaciones en una planta productora de hidrogeno con el ciclo S-I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz S, T.; Francois, J. L.; Nelson, P. F. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Paseo Cuauhnahuac No. 8532, Col. Progreso, 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico); Cruz G, M. J., E-mail: truizsmx@yahoo.com.mx [UNAM, Facultad de Quimica, Circuito Interior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04360 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    At present, one of the processes that theoretically has demonstrated to be of the most efficient for the hydrogen production is the thermal-chemistry cycle Sulfur-Iodine (S-I) coupled to a nuclear reactor of very high temperature (VHTR). Because this chemical process of hydrogen production requires of a great inventory of toxic materials (sulfurous compounds, hydriodic acid and iodine) is necessary the emergency systems design with the purpose of protecting the facilitates and equipment s, the atmosphere and population. Inside the important considerations for this design are the obtained results in the liberations simulations of the substances involved in the process. These simulations were realized with the computer code Phast, including the leak through a small failure of the pipe, as well as the catastrophic failure. To determine the good localization of the equipment s, as well as the inventory required for the liberations control. The operation conditions were taken of a combination of the preliminary design proposed by the General Atomics and the optimized conditions by the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, considering a hydrogen production of 1 kg-mol/s. The proposed materials for the neutralization of the liberated substances were selected considering that they did not increase the inventory of process toxic substances. (Author)

  13. Emergent web intelligence advanced information retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Badr, Youakim; Abraham, Ajith; Hassanien, Aboul-Ella

    2010-01-01

    Web Intelligence explores the impact of artificial intelligence and advanced information technologies representing the next generation of Web-based systems, services, and environments, and designing hybrid web systems that serve wired and wireless users more efficiently. Multimedia and XML-based data are produced regularly and in increasing way in our daily digital activities, and their retrieval must be explored and studied in this emergent web-based era. 'Emergent Web Intelligence: Advanced information retrieval, provides reviews of the related cutting-edge technologies and insights. It is v

  14. Porous and Nanoporous Semiconductors and Emerging Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Föll

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pores in single-crystalline semiconductors can be produced in a wide range of geometries and morphologies, including the “nanometer” regime. Porous semiconductors may have properties completely different from the bulk, and metamaterials with, for example, optical properties not encountered in natural materials are emerging. Possible applications of porous semiconductors include various novel sensors, but also more “exotic” uses as, for example, high explosives or electrodes for micro-fuel cells. The paper briefly reviews pore formation (including more applied aspects of large area etching, properties of porous semiconductors, and emerging applications.

  15. Integration of emergency action levels with Combustion Engineering Emergency Operating Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faletti, D.W.; Jamison, J.D.

    1985-09-01

    This report documents the development of a method for integrating Emergency Action Levels (EALs) with plant-specific Emergency Operating Procedures (EOPs) using the Combustion Engineering Owners' Group Emergency Operating Procedure Technical Guidelines (CEOG EOPTFs). EALs are discrete conditions or values of plant operating parameters which, if exceeded, require declaration of an appropriate level of emergency. At most operating plants, the EALs and event classification procedures are totally separate from the Emergency Operating Procedures used by the plant staff to control the plant during abnormal conditions. Control room personnel using the EOPs to deal with abnormal plant conditions must recognize when plant safety is sufficiently degraded that an emergency declaration may be warranted, and then enter a separate classification procedure containing EALs for a number of plant conditions and parameters. The operator then compares the existing plant conditions to the EALs and makes an emergency declaration accordingly. Using the Combustion Engineering Owners' Group Technical Guidelines document, a set of emergency class definitions and criteria were developed based on the status of the three main fission product barriers (fuel cladding, primary coolant system and containment). The EOPTGs were then annotated with suggested guidance to a procedure writer. The proposed method was tested by applying it to the reactor accident sequences that were shown in the reactor safety study to dominate accident risk. The object of the test was to determine if an EAL set linked to the EOP annotations would produce timely and accurate classification of the risk-dominant sequences. 6 refs., 13 figs., 31 tabs

  16. Thunderstorm Charge Structures Producing Negative Gigantic Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, L.; Liu, N.; Riousset, J. A.; Shi, F.; Rassoul, H.

    2016-12-01

    Here we present observational and modeling results that provide insight into thunderstorm charge structures that produce gigantic jet discharges. The observational results include data from four different thunderstorms producing 9 negative gigantic jets from 2010 to 2014. We used radar, very high frequency (VHF) and low frequency (LF) lightning data to analyze the storm characteristics, charge structures, and lightning activity when the gigantic jets emerged from the parent thunderstorms. A detailed investigation of the evolution of one of the charge structures by analyzing the VHF data is also presented. The newly found charge structure obtained from the observations was analyzed with fractal modeling and compared with previous fractal modeling studies [Krehbiel et al., Nat. Geosci., 1, 233-237, 2008; Riousset et al., JGR, 115, A00E10, 2010] of gigantic jet discharges. Our work finds that for normal polarity thunderstorms, gigantic jet charge structures feature a narrow upper positive charge region over a wide middle negative charge region. There also likely exists a `ring' of negative screening charge located around the perimeter of the upper positive charge. This is different from previously thought charge structures of the storms producing gigantic jets, which had a very wide upper positive charge region over a wide middle negative charge region, with a very small negative screening layer covering the cloud top. The newly found charge structure results in leader discharge trees in the fractal simulations that closely match the parent flashes of gigantic jets inside and outside the thundercloud. The previously used charge structures, while vital to the understanding of gigantic jet initiation and the role of charge imbalances inside the cloud, do not produce leader discharge trees that agree with observed gigantic jet discharges.Finally, the newly discovered gigantic jet charge structures are formed near the end of a convective pulse [Meyer et al., JGR, 118

  17. Errors in imaging patients in the emergency setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Antonio; Reginelli, Alfonso; Pinto, Fabio; Lo Re, Giuseppe; Midiri, Federico; Muzj, Carlo; Romano, Luigia; Brunese, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Emergency and trauma care produces a "perfect storm" for radiological errors: uncooperative patients, inadequate histories, time-critical decisions, concurrent tasks and often junior personnel working after hours in busy emergency departments. The main cause of diagnostic errors in the emergency department is the failure to correctly interpret radiographs, and the majority of diagnoses missed on radiographs are fractures. Missed diagnoses potentially have important consequences for patients, clinicians and radiologists. Radiologists play a pivotal role in the diagnostic assessment of polytrauma patients and of patients with non-traumatic craniothoracoabdominal emergencies, and key elements to reduce errors in the emergency setting are knowledge, experience and the correct application of imaging protocols. This article aims to highlight the definition and classification of errors in radiology, the causes of errors in emergency radiology and the spectrum of diagnostic errors in radiography, ultrasonography and CT in the emergency setting.

  18. Emergency system for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns a circuit called 'of emergency help' intended to remove, in a safe and quick manner, the residual thermal power on the safety vessel of a fast neutron reactor cooled by a liquid metal flow, in the event of a failure occurring inside the main reactor vessel or on it. This system includes a network of spray nozzle tubes, distributed around and near the external surface of the safety vessel, to project on to the surface of the vessel a mist of a liquid having high latent vaporisation heat. The steam produced on contact with the safety vessel is collected in the space provided between the safety vessel and the external protection vessel by at least one collector pipe for dischaging this steam outside the vessel. Under a preferred design mode of the invention the liquid is water the use of which turns out to be particularly advantageous in practice owing to its favourable physical properties and its low cost [fr

  19. Producing colour pictures from SCAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robichaud, K.

    1982-01-01

    The computer code SCAN.TSK has been written for use on the Interdata 7/32 minicomputer which will convert the pictures produced by the SCAN program into colour pictures on a colour graphics VDU. These colour pictures are a more powerful aid to detecting errors in the MONK input data than the normal lineprinter pictures. This report is intended as a user manual for using the program on the Interdata 7/32, and describes the method used to produce the pictures and gives examples of JCL, input data and of the pictures that can be produced. (U.K.)

  20. Producing new radionuclides for medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaut, C.

    2009-01-01

    The Arronax cyclotron, a new particle accelerator dedicated to the production of radionuclides for medicine and research has been commissioned in Nantes (France). Because of its unique features: an energy of 70 MeV and an intensity of 750 μA, Arronax will produce radionuclides that can not be produce in present cyclotrons. Among others it will produce Strontium-82 and Germanium-68 that are the precursors for Rubidium-82 and Gallium-68 respectively. 20 per cent of the research works will be dedicated to other domains like radioactive wastes, the radiation biological damage and the radiation damage on electronic devices. (A.C.)

  1. Cellulase producing microorganism ATCC 55702

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dees, H. Craig

    1997-01-01

    Bacteria which produce large amounts of cellulase--containing cell-free fermentate have been identified. The original bacterium (ATCC 55703) was genetically altered using nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment to produce the enhanced cellulase producing bacterium (ATCC 55702), which was identified through replicate plating. ATCC 55702 has improved characteristics and qualifies for the degradation of cellulosic waste materials for fuel production, food processing, textile processing, and other industrial applications. ATCC 55702 is an improved bacterial host for genetic manipulations using recombinant DNA techniques, and is less likely to destroy genetic manipulations using standard mutagenesis techniques.

  2. Methods of producing cesium-131

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikrantz, David H; Snyder, John R

    2012-09-18

    Methods of producing cesium-131. The method comprises dissolving at least one non-irradiated barium source in water or a nitric acid solution to produce a barium target solution. The barium target solution is irradiated with neutron radiation to produce cesium-131, which is removed from the barium target solution. The cesium-131 is complexed with a calixarene compound to separate the cesium-131 from the barium target solution. A liquid:liquid extraction device or extraction column is used to separate the cesium-131 from the barium target solution.

  3. Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyou, J; Gaujoux, S; Marcellin, L; Leconte, M; Goffinet, F; Chapron, C; Dousset, B

    2015-12-01

    Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy (excluding obstetrical emergencies) occur in one out of 500-700 pregnancies and may involve gastrointestinal, gynecologic, urologic, vascular and traumatic etiologies; surgery is necessary in 0.2-2% of cases. Since these emergencies are relatively rare, patients should be referred to specialized centers where surgical, obstetrical and neonatal cares are available, particularly because surgical intervention increases the risk of premature labor. Clinical presentations may be atypical and misleading because of pregnancy-associated anatomical and physiologic alterations, which often result in diagnostic uncertainty and therapeutic delay with increased risks of maternal and infant morbidity. The most common abdominal emergencies are acute appendicitis (best treated by laparoscopic appendectomy), acute calculous cholecystitis (best treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy from the first trimester through the early part of the third trimester) and intestinal obstruction (where medical treatment is the first-line approach, just as in the non-pregnant patient). Acute pancreatitis is rare, usually resulting from trans-ampullary passage of gallstones; it usually resolves with medical treatment but an elevated risk of recurrent episodes justifies laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the 2nd trimester and endoscopic sphincterotomy in the 3rd trimester. The aim of the present work is to review pregnancy-induced anatomical and physiological modifications, to describe the main abdominal emergencies during pregnancy, their specific features and their diagnostic and therapeutic management. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  4. Emergency planning zone reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the process used by a large industrial Department of Energy (DOE) site to communicate changing hazards to its stakeholders and install the confidence necessary to implement the resulting emergency planning changes. Over the last decade as the sites missions have shifted from full-scale production to a greater emphasis on environmental restoration and waste management, the off-site threat from its operations has substantially decreased. The challenge was to clearly communicate the reduced hazards, install confidence in the technical analysis that documented the hazard reduction, and obtain stakeholder buy-in on the path forward to change the emergency management program. The most significant change to the emergency management program was the proposed reduction of the sites Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ). As the EPZ is defined as an area for which planning is needed to protect the public in the event of an accident, the process became politically challenging. An overview of how the site initially approached this problem and then learned to more substantially involve the state and local emergency preparedness agencies and the local Citizens Advisory Board will be presented. (author)

  5. Methods of producing transportation fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Vijay [Katy, TX; Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria [Houston, TX; Cherrillo, Ralph Anthony [Houston, TX; Bauldreay, Joanna M [Chester, GB

    2011-12-27

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for producing transportation fuel is described herein. The method for producing transportation fuel may include providing formation fluid having a boiling range distribution between -5.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process to a subsurface treatment facility. A liquid stream may be separated from the formation fluid. The separated liquid stream may be hydrotreated and then distilled to produce a distilled stream having a boiling range distribution between 150.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. The distilled liquid stream may be combined with one or more additives to produce transportation fuel.

  6. Radiological emergencies - planning and preparedness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-12-31

    This information and training film in three parts deals with the technical background for emergency planning, emergency planning concepts and emergency preparedness. It describes the technical characteristics of radiological emergencies on which important emergency planning concepts are based and the purpose of those concepts. The film also demonstrates how emergency organizations must work together to ensure adequate preparedness. The programme reflects the standards, guidance and recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency

  7. Information Systems Coordinate Emergency Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    -changing planet. This information can be captured, analyzed, and visualized by geographic information systems (GIS) to produce maps, charts, and other tools that can reveal information essential to a wide variety of applications including emergency management. Knowing precise, real-time information about the size, location, environmental conditions, and resulting damage of an event like a flood or wildfire as well as the location and numbers of emergency responders and other resources contributes directly to the effectiveness of disaster mitigation. The need for such information is also evident when responding to homeland security threats, such as a terrorist attack. Recognizing the value of its geospatial information resources for this and other purposes, in 1998 Stennis and the state of Mississippi partnered to form what became the Enterprise for Innovative Geospatial Solutions (EIGS) industry cluster, supporting the growth of remote sensing and GIS-based research and business. As part of EIGS, several companies partnered with NASA through dual use and Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts. Among those was NVision.

  8. The Emerging World Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETER COLLECOTT

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available It is common ground amongst almost all commentators that the world has changed radically over the past 25 years – the 25 years since the fall of the Berlin Wall heralded the ending of the Cold War, the reunification of a tragically divided Europe, and the acceleration of the process of globalisation which has its only comparable period in the decades leading up to the First World War in 1914. When analyzing the Emerging World Order it is important to cover more than Brazil economy or any other individual BRICs or other Emerging Powers. Instead, our analysis will provide a global view about the economic and political global power structures which are evolving and forming before our eyes, and then to talk about the challenges these emerging realities pose for us in Europe, and in the West in general.

  9. Emergency reactor shutdown device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikehara, Morihiko.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To smoothen the emergency operation of the control rod in a BWR type reactor and to eliminate the external discharge of radioactively contaminated water. Constitution: A drain receiving tank is connected through a scram valve to the top of a cylinder which is containing a hydraulic piston connected to a trombone-shaped control rod and an accumulator is connected through another scram valve to the bottom of the cylinder. The respective scram valves are constructed to be opened by the reactor emergency shutdown signal from a reactor control system in such a manner that drain valve and a vent valve of the tank normally opened at the standby time are closed after approx. 10 seconds from the opening of the scram valves. In this manner, back pressure is not applied to the hydraulic piston at the emergency time, thereby smoothly operating the control rod. (Sikiya, K.)

  10. The emerging nuclear suppliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, L.A.

    1990-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, a growing amount of attention has been paid to a small group of mostly developing countries that have come to be called the emerging nuclear suppliers. Argentina and Brazil, China and South Korea, India and Pakistan, Spain and Yugoslavia have frequently been mentioned in this category. Their actual and potential nuclear export dealings and policies have been the subject of academic writings and policy papers, of scholarly symposia and exchanges at meetings of the traditional nuclear suppliers. With foundation and other support, UCLA's Center for International and Strategic Affairs has begun a major project to develop a database on the transactions, policies, and export control institutions of the emerging suppliers. This chapter provides some guidelines for policy toward the emerging nuclear suppliers

  11. Hanford Emergency Response Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagoner, J.D.

    1994-04-01

    The Hanford Emergency Response Plan for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), incorporates into one document an overview of the emergency management program for the Hanford Site. The program has been developed in accordance with DOE orders, and state and federal regulations to protect worker and public health and safety and the environment in the event of an emergency at or affecting the Hanford Site. This plan provides a description of how the Hanford Site will implement the provisions of DOE 5500 series and other applicable Orders in terms of overall policies and concept of operations. It should be used as the basis, along with DOE Orders, for the development of specific contractor and RL implementing procedures

  12. Emergent geometry of membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badyn, Mathias Hudoba de; Karczmarek, Joanna L.; Sabella-Garnier, Philippe; Yeh, Ken Huai-Che [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia,6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver (Canada)

    2015-11-13

    In work http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.86.086001, a surface embedded in flat ℝ{sup 3} is associated to any three hermitian matrices. We study this emergent surface when the matrices are large, by constructing coherent states corresponding to points in the emergent geometry. We find the original matrices determine not only shape of the emergent surface, but also a unique Poisson structure. We prove that commutators of matrix operators correspond to Poisson brackets. Through our construction, we can realize arbitrary noncommutative membranes: for example, we examine a round sphere with a non-spherically symmetric Poisson structure. We also give a natural construction for a noncommutative torus embedded in ℝ{sup 3}. Finally, we make remarks about area and find matrix equations for minimal area surfaces.

  13. Hanford Emergency Response Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagoner, J.D.

    1994-04-01

    The Hanford Emergency Response Plan for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), incorporates into one document an overview of the emergency management program for the Hanford Site. The program has been developed in accordance with DOE orders, and state and federal regulations to protect worker and public health and safety and the environment in the event of an emergency at or affecting the Hanford Site. This plan provides a description of how the Hanford Site will implement the provisions of DOE 5500 series and other applicable Orders in terms of overall policies and concept of operations. It should be used as the basis, along with DOE Orders, for the development of specific contractor and RL implementing procedures.

  14. Emergent biosynthetic capacity in simple microbial communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsuan-Chao Chiu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Microbes have an astonishing capacity to transform their environments. Yet, the metabolic capacity of a single species is limited and the vast majority of microorganisms form complex communities and join forces to exhibit capabilities far exceeding those achieved by any single species. Such enhanced metabolic capacities represent a promising route to many medical, environmental, and industrial applications and call for the development of a predictive, systems-level understanding of synergistic microbial capacity. Here we present a comprehensive computational framework, integrating high-quality metabolic models of multiple species, temporal dynamics, and flux variability analysis, to study the metabolic capacity and dynamics of simple two-species microbial ecosystems. We specifically focus on detecting emergent biosynthetic capacity--instances in which a community growing on some medium produces and secretes metabolites that are not secreted by any member species when growing in isolation on that same medium. Using this framework to model a large collection of two-species communities on multiple media, we demonstrate that emergent biosynthetic capacity is highly prevalent. We identify commonly observed emergent metabolites and metabolic reprogramming patterns, characterizing typical mechanisms of emergent capacity. We further find that emergent secretion tends to occur in two waves, the first as soon as the two organisms are introduced, and the second when the medium is depleted and nutrients become limited. Finally, aiming to identify global community determinants of emergent capacity, we find a marked association between the level of emergent biosynthetic capacity and the functional/phylogenetic distance between community members. Specifically, we demonstrate a "Goldilocks" principle, where high levels of emergent capacity are observed when the species comprising the community are functionally neither too close, nor too distant. Taken together

  15. PFP Emergency Lighting Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BUSCH, M.S.

    2000-01-01

    NFPA 101, section 5-9 mandates that, where required by building classification, all designated emergency egress routes be provided with adequate emergency lighting in the event of a normal lighting outage. Emergency lighting is to be arranged so that egress routes are illuminated to an average of 1.0 footcandle with a minimum at any point of 0.1 footcandle, as measured at floor level. These levels are permitted to drop to 60% of their original value over the required 90 minute emergency lighting duration after a power outage. The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) has two designations for battery powered egress lights ''Emergency Lights'' are those battery powered lights required by NFPA 101 to provide lighting along officially designated egress routes in those buildings meeting the correct occupancy requirements. Emergency Lights are maintained on a monthly basis by procedure ZSR-12N-001. ''Backup Lights'' are battery powered lights not required by NFPA, but installed in areas where additional light may be needed. The Backup Light locations were identified by PFP Safety and Engineering based on several factors. (1) General occupancy and type of work in the area. Areas occupied briefly during a shiftly surveillance do not require backup lighting while a room occupied fairly frequently or for significant lengths of time will need one or two Backup lights to provide general illumination of the egress points. (2) Complexity of the egress routes. Office spaces with a standard hallway/room configuration will not require Backup Lights while a large room with several subdivisions or irregularly placed rooms, doors, and equipment will require Backup Lights to make egress safer. (3) Reasonable balance between the safety benefits of additional lighting and the man-hours/exposure required for periodic light maintenance. In some plant areas such as building 236-Z, the additional maintenance time and risk of contamination do not warrant having Backup Lights installed in all rooms

  16. Emergent technologies: 25 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rising, Hawley K.

    2013-03-01

    This paper will talk about the technologies that have been emerging over the 25 years since the Human Vision and Electronic Imaging conference began that the conference has been a part of, and that have been a part of the conference, and will look at those technologies that are emerging today, such as social networks, haptic technologies, and still emerging imaging technologies, and what we might look at for the future.Twenty-five years is a long time, and it is not without difficulty that we remember what was emerging in the late 1980s. Yet to be developed: The first commercial digital still camera was not yet on the market, although there were hand held electronic cameras. Personal computers were not displaying standardized images, and image quality was not something that could be talked about in a standardized fashion, if only because image compression algorithms were not standardized yet for several years hence. Even further away were any standards for movie compression standards, there was no personal computer even on the horizon which could display them. What became an emergent technology and filled many sessions later, image comparison and search, was not possible, nor the current emerging technology of social networks- the world wide web was still several years away. Printer technology was still devising dithers and image size manipulations which would consume many years, as would scanning technology, and image quality for both was a major issue for dithers and Fourier noise.From these humble beginnings to the current moves that are changing computing and the meaning of both electronic devices and human interaction with them, we will see a course through the changing technology that holds some features constant for many years, while others come and go.

  17. Efficiency of emergency exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zander, N.; Sogalla, M.

    2011-01-01

    In order to cope with accidents beyond the design basis within German nuclear power plants which possibly lead to relevant radiological consequences, the utilities as well as the competent authorities exist emergency organisations. The efficiency, capacity for teamwork and preparedness of such organisations should be tested by regular, efficient exercise activities. Such activities can suitably be based on scenarios which provide challenging tasks for all units of the respective emergency organisation. Thus, the demonstration and further development of the efficiency of the respective organisational structures, including their ability to collaborate, is promoted. (orig.)

  18. Preparing for Emergency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melchiors, Jacob; Todsen, Tobias; Nilsson, Philip

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Emergency cricothyrodotomy (EC) is a lifesaving procedure. Evidence-based assessment of training effects and competency levels is relevant to all departments involved in emergency airway management. As most training uses low-fidelity models, the predictive value of good performance....... Sixteen physicians (7 experienced surgeons and 9 novice physicians) performed an EC on a low-fidelity model and a cadaver. Two blinded raters assessed video recordings of performances using the assessment tool. RESULTS: We found a high interrater reliability, based on a Pearson's r (0.81), and good...

  19. Characterization of radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chester, C.V.

    1985-01-01

    Several severe radiological emergencies were reviewed to determine the likely range of conditions which must be coped with by a mobile teleoperator designed for emergencies. The events reviewed included accidents at TMI (1978), SL-1 (1961), Y-12 (1958), Bethesda (1982), Chalk River (1952 and 1958), Lucens (1969). The important conditions were: radiation fields over 10,000 R/h, severe contamination, possible critical excursion, possible inert atmosphere, temperatures from 50 0 C to -20 0 C, 100% relative humidity, 60-cm-high obstacles, stairs, airlocks, darkness, and lack of electric power

  20. Ultrasonography in abdominal emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risi, D.; Alessi, G.; Meli, C.; Marzano, M.; Fiori, E.; Caterino, S.

    1989-01-01

    From February 1986 to March 1988 113 abdominal US exams were performed in emergency situation to evaluate the accuracy of this methodology: 13 were blunt traumas, 18 post-operative complications. A real-time scanner with a linear probe of 5 MHz was employed. The results were confirmed by surgical and/or clinical and instrumental evaluation. In 81% of the examinations, ultrasonography allowed a diagnosis to be made. Gallbladder and biliary pathologies were the most common findings. The results (sensibility 96%, specificity 88%, accuracy 95%) confirm the affidability of ultrasonography in abdominal emergencies, as shown in literature

  1. Abdominal Aortic Emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Christie; Swaminathan, Anand

    2017-11-01

    This article discusses abdominal aortic emergencies. There is a common thread of risk factors and causes of these diseases, including age, male gender, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and connective tissue disorders. The most common presenting symptom of these disorders is pain, usually in the chest, flank, abdomen, or back. Computed tomography scan is the gold standard for diagnosis of pathologic conditions of the aorta in the hemodynamically stable patient. Treatment consists of a combination of blood pressure and heart rate control and, in many cases, emergent surgical intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Laser-produced X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, L.T.; Seely, J.F.

    2010-01-01

    A formidable array of advanced laser systems are emerging that produce extreme states of light and matter. By irradiating solid and gaseous targets with lasers of increasing energy densities, new physical regimes of radiation effects are being explored for the first time in controlled laboratory settings. One result that is being accomplished or pursued using a variety of techniques, is the realization of novel sources of X-rays with unprecedented characteristics and light-matter interactions, the mechanisms of which are in many cases still being elucidated. Examples include the megajoule class of laser-produced plasmas designed in pursuit of alternative-energy and security applications and the petawatt class of lasers used for fast ignition and X-ray radiographic applications such as medical imaging and real-time imaging of plasma hydrodynamics. As these technologies mature, increased emphasis will need to be placed on advanced instrumentation and diagnostic metrology to characterize the spectra, time structure, and absolute brightness of X-rays emitted by these unconventional sources. Such customized and absolutely calibrated measurement tools will serve as an enabling technology that can help in assessing the overall system performance and progress, as well as identification of the underlying interaction mechanisms of interest to basic and applied strong-field and high-energy-density science.

  3. Producer controlled transportation and other innovations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelson, D. W.

    1997-01-01

    The emergence of producer-driven natural gas pipelines in Alberta was chronicled, providing a brief history of gas pipeline development in the province. The relationship between risk taking and reward expectations was explained as a prelude to a description of Alliance Pipelines, and its proposal to establish a competitive transportation market and international commodity pricing for Alberta gas. Owners of Alliance represent about 25 per cent of gas production in Western Canada. Equity participation is by way of ownership of units in three limited liability partnerships, and of shares of three general partners that manage the affairs of the limited liability partnership. This arrangement allows participating gas producers to avoid putting Alliance Pipelines' debt on their balance sheets, and to achieve certain tax advantages. Equally important, the partnership structure provides a solid foundation for risk/reward allocation among the partners. Details about proposed operating procedures, Alliance Pipelines' obligations to its owners, and the benefits of ownership were discussed. Alliance Pipelines Co. has the tacit approval of the Alberta government to let the market decide and its promise not do anything to jeopardize Alliance's competitive position vis-a-vis other pipelines. Applications have been submitted for Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), and National Energy Board (NEB) approvals

  4. Price satisfaction and producer loyalty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutonyi, Sarah; Beukel, Karin; Gyau, Amos

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate which dimensions of price satisfaction influence producers’ trust in buyers and assess the mediating role of such trust in the relationship between price satisfaction and producer loyalty in fresh fruit supply chains. Design/methodology/approach......Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate which dimensions of price satisfaction influence producers’ trust in buyers and assess the mediating role of such trust in the relationship between price satisfaction and producer loyalty in fresh fruit supply chains. Design...... reliability, and relative price are dimensions of price satisfaction that affect producers’ trust in the buyer. Moreover, trust between the producer and the buyer is found to be a strong mediator between price satisfaction and producer loyalty. The findings support recent studies about trust and its mediating...... between the multi-dimensional nature of price satisfaction and producer loyalty with trust as a mediating variable in the business-to-business (B2B) context. Although B2B relationships have been shown to be of great importance for smallholders in enhancing business performance with their buyers, little...

  5. Producing liquid fuels from biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solantausta, Yrjo; Gust, Steven

    The aim of this survey was to compare, on techno-economic criteria, alternatives of producing liquid fuels from indigenous raw materials in Finland. Another aim was to compare methods under development and prepare a proposal for steering research related to this field. Process concepts were prepared for a number of alternatives, as well as analogous balances and production and investment cost assessments for these balances. Carbon dioxide emissions of the alternatives and the price of CO2 reduction were also studied. All the alternatives for producing liquid fuels from indigenous raw materials are utmost unprofitable. There are great differences between the alternatives. While the production cost of ethanol is 6 to 9 times higher than the market value of the product, the equivalent ratio for substitute fuel oil produced from peat by pyrolysis is 3 to 4. However, it should be borne in mind that the technical uncertainties related to the alternatives are of different magnitude. Production of ethanol from barley is of commercial technology, while biomass pyrolysis is still under development. If the aim is to reach smaller carbon dioxide emissions by using liquid biofuels, the most favorable alternative is pyrolysis oil produced from wood. Fuels produced from cultivated biomass are more expensive ways of reducing CO2 emissions. Their potential of reducing CO2 emissions in Finland is insignificant. Integration of liquid fuel production to some other production line is more profitable.

  6. Human body may produce bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerian, Alen J

    2017-06-01

    "Human body may produce bacteria" proposes that human body may produce bacteria and represent an independent source of infections contrary to the current paradigm of infectious disorders proposed by Louis Pasteur in 1880. The following observations are consistent with this hypothesis: A. Bidirectional transformations of both living and nonliving things have been commonly observed in nature. B. Complex multicellular organisms harbor the necessary properties to produce bacteria (water, nitrogen and oxygen). C. Physical laws suggest any previously observed phenomenon or action will occur again (life began on earth; a non living thing). D. Animal muscle cells may generate energy (fermentation). E. Sterilized food products (i.e. boiled eggs), may produce bacteria and fungus under special conditions and without any exposure to foreign living cells. "Human body may produce bacteria" may challenge the current medical paradigm that views human infectious disorders as the exclusive causative byproducts of invading foreign cells. It may also introduce new avenues to treat infectious disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mental health triage in emergency medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, D; Pollard, C; Walpole, B

    1999-02-01

    The aim of this study was to: (i) develop a triage scale consistent with the National Triage Scale (NTS) for patients with mental health problems attending emergency departments; and (ii) to reduce emergency waiting times, transit times and improve skills assessing mental health problems. We developed a Mental Health Triage Scale (MHTS) consistent with the NTS. The MHTS was then implemented using a structured education package, and evaluated from March to August 1994. Further evaluation occurred after 2 years. A four-tiered MHTS was produced: category 2, violent, aggressive or suicidal, danger to self or others or with police escort; category 3, very distressed or psychotic, likely to deteriorate, situational crisis, danger to self or others; category 4, long-standing semi-urgent mental health disorder, supporting agency present; and category 5, long-standing non-acute mental health disorder, no support agency present. Patients with illness, injury or self-harm were triaged using combined mental health and medical information. Mean emergency waiting times and transit times were reduced. More consistent triaging for mental health patients occurred, and more consistent admission rates by urgency. Reduced mental health 'did not waits' showed improved customer satisfaction. Mental Health Triage Scale was considered appropriate by liaison psychiatry and its use has continued at 2 years follow-up. A systematic approach to mental health triaging produced a workable scale, reduced waiting times, transit times, and provided effective and consistent integration of mental health patients into a general emergency department.

  8. Emergency operation determination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, Tetsushi.

    1993-01-01

    The system of the present invention can determine an emergency operation coping with abnormal events occurring during nuclear plant operation without replying on an operator's judgement. That is, the system of the present invention comprises an intelligence base which divides and classifies the aims of the plant operation for the function, structure and operation manual and puts them into network. Degree of attainment for the extend of the status normality is determined on every aim of operation based on various kinds of measured data during plant operation. For a degree of attainment within a predetermined range, it is judged that an emergency operation is possible although this is in an abnormal state. Degree of emergency is determined by a fuzzy theory based on the degree of attainment, variation coefficient for the degree of attainment and the sensitivity to external disturbance as parameters. Priority for the degree of emergency on every operation aims is determined by comparison. Normality is successively checked for the determined operation aims. As a result, equipments as objects of abnormality suppressing operation are specified, and the operation amount of the equipments as objects are determined so that the measuring data are within a predetermined range. (I.S.)

  9. Biodosimetry: emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2016-01-01

    Biodosimetry assays are the only methods available for ascertaining and estimating biological dose for suspected over-exposures and manage radiological emergency situations. These methods also plays a major role in medical management and triage. In the eventuality of radiological emergency, it becomes inevitable to provide care for exposed individuals. However, large numbers of unexposed individuals or those with clinically insignificant doses are to be screened off for effective medical management of those who really need the specialized medical attention. Majority of individuals involved in radiological accidents may not need any medical attention but will need ascertainment of dose estimation and counselling. The decision making and counselling is possible only with the evidence of dose estimation. Though Biodosimetry procedures-are known for their inherent delay, since radiation effects are very slow in nature, give ample time for such investigations to be completed without any hurry to take medical actions in most cases. High throughput facilities in the state of the art Biodosimetry lab established at HS and EG, BARC has helped us to address many small scale radiological emergencies in the past. These experiences also helped the lab to prepare itself for large scale scenario and support the emergency management with continually improving preparedness and indigenous development of facilities. (author)

  10. Emerging Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlister, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Communities of practice are emerging as an innovative approach to faculty development. While collaborative learning is becoming popular in the classroom, autonomy and individualism continue to dominate the culture of higher education for faculty. However, as we begin to recognize that old solutions to new problems are no longer effective, there is…

  11. Structural Emergency Control Paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Thanh Long; Chatzivasileiadis, Spyros; Chiang, Hsiao-Dong

    2017-01-01

    demand and hopefully stabilize the system. This traditional emergency control results in interrupted service with severe economic damage to customers. Also, such control is usually less effective due to the lack of coordination among protective devices. In this paper, we propose a novel structural...

  12. Emerging Asian Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trezise, Philip H.

    What we can expect in the future from the miracle economies of Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, and Hong Kong, whether they pose a threat to the older industrial states of Western Europe and North American, and whether China is to be the next emerging Asian economy are discussed. The amazing economic recovery of these East Asian countries…

  13. Fire Department Emergency Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.; Bell, K.; Kelly, J.; Hudson, J.

    1997-09-01

    In 1995 the SRS Fire Department published the initial Operations Basis Document (OBD). This document was one of the first of its kind in the DOE complex and was widely distributed and reviewed. This plan described a multi-mission Fire Department which provided fire, emergency medical, hazardous material spill, and technical rescue services

  14. Costs of Emergency Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All RSS Feeds ACEP In the News Multimedia Image Gallery ACEP Video ACEP Radio ACEP Ads Resources Statistics & Reports Health Policy Campaigns Published Letters Journalism Awards Fact Sheets Social Media Contact Us Site Body Main Content Annals of Emergency Medicine | EMAF Website | ...

  15. LNG - emergency control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berardinelli, Ricardo Porto; Correa, Kleber Macedo; Moura Filho, Nelson Barboza de; Fernandez, Carlos Antonio [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Matos, Jose Eduardo Nogueira de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The operation of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is pioneering within the PETROBRAS System. PETROBRAS Transporte - TRANSPETRO is going to operate two flexible LNG terminals, located in Ceara and Rio de Janeiro. In accordance with the Corporate Health, Safety and Environmental (HSE) Directive - Training, Education and Awareness, PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. - TRANSPETRO has prepared an action plan with the objective of ensuring the operational safety of the undertaking. Among other actions a training program for the emergency control of LNG will be inserted into the timetable. The above mentioned training program was held over a period of 20 hours, and was divided between theory and practice. In the theoretical part, the characteristics of the product, the history of accidents and the emergency response procedures were covered. In the practical part, 3000 gallons of LNG were utilized where the behavior of the product could be confirmed following a confined leak, thereby verifying the efficacy of the emergency control resources. The teaching process of the course was developed in the company through the preparation of specific procedures, emergency plans and the formation of internal instructors. (author)

  16. Financing emerging energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Row, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the financing of emerging energies in Canada. Transforming energy markets will involve billions of dollars of investment from businesses and residents. Many different types of return on investment can be expected. These benefits will continue to grow over time and provide a permanent i ncome

  17. Emergence of regional clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Michael S.; Østergaard, Christian Richter; Dalum, Bent

    2010-01-01

    The literature on regional clusters has increased considerably during the last decade. The emergence and growth patterns are usually explained by such factors as unique local culture, regional capabilities, tacit knowledge or the existence of location-specific externalities (knowledge spillovers...

  18. Emerging Art Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraussl, R.G.W.; Logher, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the performance and risk-return characteristics of three major emerging art markets: Russia, China, and India. According to three national art market indices, built by hedonic regressions based on auction sales prices, the geometric annual returns are 10.00%, 5.70%, and 42.20%

  19. Emergency preparedness in obstetrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeri, Sina; Marcozzi, David

    2015-04-01

    During and after disasters, focus is directed toward meeting the immediate needs of the general population. As a result, the routine health care and the special needs of some vulnerable populations such as pregnant and postpartum women may be overlooked within a resource-limited setting. In the event of hazards such as natural disasters, manmade disasters, and terrorism, knowledge of emergency preparedness strategies is imperative for the pregnant woman and her family, obstetric providers, and hospitals. Individualized plans for the pregnant woman and her family should include knowledge of shelter in place, birth at home, and evacuation. Obstetric providers need to have a personal disaster plan in place that accounts for work responsibilities in case of an emergency and business continuity strategies to continue to provide care to their communities. Hospitals should have a comprehensive emergency preparedness program utilizing an "all hazards" approach to meet the needs of pregnant and postpartum women and other vulnerable populations during disasters. With lessons learned in recent tragedies such as Hurricane Katrina in mind, we hope this review will stimulate emergency preparedness discussions and actions among obstetric providers and attenuate adverse outcomes related to catastrophes in the future.

  20. Produced water - composition and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvernheim, Arne Lund

    1998-01-01

    Produced water can be defined as ''High volume waste-water separated from oil and gas that is produced from subsurface formations''. The water contains aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, particulate matter and soluble salts as well as elements originating from formations and from sea water injections. Residues of chemicals may also be present. The accepted North Sea discharge limit is 40 ppm. In this presentation the focus will be on the chemical composition of produced water and on the challenges involved in developing and implementing analytical methods. The focus will also be on the development of a new oil-in-water analytical method as a replacement for the Freon method. 7 refs., 1 tab

  1. Method of producing grouting mortar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelomov, I K; Alchina, S I; Dizer, E I; Gruzdeva, G A; Nikitinskii, V I; Sabirzyanov, A K

    1980-10-07

    A method of producing grouting mortar by mixing the cement with an aqueous salt solution is proposed. So as to increase the quality of the mortar through an acceleration of the time for hardening, the mixture is prepared in two stages, in the first of which 20-30% of the entire cement batch hardens, and in the second of which the remainder of the cement hardens; 1-3-% of an aqueous salt solution is used in quantities of 0.5/1 wt.-% of weight of the cement. The use of this method of producing grouting mortar helps to increase the flexural strength of the cement brick up to 50% after two days ageing by comparison with the strength of cement brick produced from grouting mortar by ordinary methods utilizing identical quantities of the initial components (cement, water, chloride).

  2. Radioactivity monitoring of Irish dairy produce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelleher, K.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The RPII has been carrying out monitoring of milk and dairy produce since 1986. Milk samples are routinely analysed for radiocaesium and strontium-90 as part of the RPII's environmental monitoring programme to determine the doses received to the Irish population from milk consumption. The method the RPII utilises for determining the Sr-90 activity in milk is by measuring the Cerenkov radiation produced by its daughter 90 Y isolated from interfering nuclides such as uranium, thorium, radium and their decay products as well as isotopes of caesium, potassium and strontium by extraction with 10% di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate (HDEHP) in toluene. The chemical yield of 90 Y is determined by the acidmetric titration of yttrium nitrate carrier with titriplex III. The levels of Sr-90 and dose to the Irish population from milk consumption have been negligible when compared to other radioactive sources in the Irish environment. Other dairy products are analysed for radiocaesium on a routine basis for commercial customers to ensure the levels of radioactivity in the dairy products fall within EC regulations governing the export/import of dairy produce. The export of milk and milk produce from Ireland is a very important industry, 80% of dairy products produced in Ireland are exported and these exports are worth Euro 2.2 billion annually to the Irish economy. The dairy products are analysed by gamma spectroscopy and include full and skim milk powders, butter, casein, cheese, cream, whey and lactose. The levels of radiocaesium in these products are typically below 5 Bk/kg and fall well within the limit of 370 Bq/kg laid down by the European Community in Council Regulation 737/90. Although the levels of these radionuclides are relatively low the RPII recognises the importance of analysing these samples for radioactivity to inform the public, ensure consumer confidence and, more importantly, to maintain a level of expertise in the RPII in these analytical techniques so that

  3. Radioactivity monitoring of Irish dairy produce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelleher, K. (Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland. Radiation Monitoring, Dublin (Ireland))

    2010-03-15

    Full text: The RPII has been carrying out monitoring of milk and dairy produce since 1986. Milk samples are routinely analysed for radiocaesium and strontium-90 as part of the RPII's environmental monitoring programme to determine the doses received to the Irish population from milk consumption. The method the RPII utilises for determining the Sr-90 activity in milk is by measuring the Cerenkov radiation produced by its daughter 90Y isolated from interfering nuclides such as uranium, thorium, radium and their decay products as well as isotopes of caesium, potassium and strontium by extraction with 10% di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate (HDEHP) in toluene. The chemical yield of 90Y is determined by the acidmetric titration of yttrium nitrate carrier with titriplex III. The levels of Sr-90 and dose to the Irish population from milk consumption have been negligible when compared to other radioactive sources in the Irish environment. Other dairy products are analysed for radiocaesium on a routine basis for commercial customers to ensure the levels of radioactivity in the dairy products fall within EC regulations governing the export/import of dairy produce. The export of milk and milk produce from Ireland is a very important industry, 80% of dairy products produced in Ireland are exported and these exports are worth Euro 2.2 billion annually to the Irish economy. The dairy products are analysed by gamma spectroscopy and include full and skim milk powders, butter, casein, cheese, cream, whey and lactose. The levels of radiocaesium in these products are typically below 5 Bk/kg and fall well within the limit of 370 Bq/kg laid down by the European Community in Council Regulation 737/90. Although the levels of these radionuclides are relatively low the RPII recognises the importance of analysing these samples for radioactivity to inform the public, ensure consumer confidence and, more importantly, to maintain a level of expertise in the RPII in these analytical techniques so

  4. Apparatus for producing laser targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarboe, T.R.; Baker, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    This patent relates to an apparatus and method for producing deuterium targets or pellets of 25u to 75u diameter. The pellets are sliced from a continuously spun solid deuterium thread at a rate of up to 10 pellets/second. The pellets after being sliced from the continuous thread of deuterium are collimated and directed to a point of use, such as a laser activated combustion or explosion chamber wherein the pellets are imploded by laser energy or laser produced target plasmas for neutral beam injection

  5. Producing deep-water hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilenko, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Several studies relate the history and progress made in offshore production from oil and gas fields in relation to reserves and the techniques for producing oil offshore. The intention herein is not to review these studies but rather to argue that the activities of prospecting and producing deep-water oil and gas call for a combination of technology and project management and, above all, of devotion and innovation. Without this sense of commitment motivating men and women in this industry, the human adventure of deep-water production would never have taken place

  6. Method for producing redox shuttles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupek, Krzysztof Z.; Dzwiniel, Trevor L.; Krumdick, Gregory K.

    2015-03-03

    A single step method for producing a redox shuttle having the formula 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-phenylene tetraethyl bis(phosphate) is provided, the method comprising phosphorylating tert butyl hydroquinone with a phosphate-containing reagent. Also provided is method for producing 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-phenylene tetraethyl bis(phosphate), the method comprising solubilizing tert-butyl hydroquinone and tetrabutylammonium bromide with methyltetrahydrofuran to create a mixture; heating the mixture while adding base to the mixture in an amount to turn the mixture orange; and adding diethyl chlorophosphate to the orange mixture in an amount to phosphorylate the hydroquinone.

  7. Assessing School Emergency Care Preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Charles; Varnes, Jill

    A study assessed the emergency health care preparedness of a north central Florida public school district in light of seven criteria: (1) school policies regarding delivery of emergency health care; (2) identification of school personnel responsible for rendering emergency care; (3) training levels of emergency health care providers (first aid and…

  8. The difficult medical emergency call

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Thea Palsgaard; Kjærulff, Thora Majlund; Viereck, Søren

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pre-hospital emergency care requires proper categorization of emergency calls and assessment of emergency priority levels by the medical dispatchers. We investigated predictors for emergency call categorization as "unclear problem" in contrast to "symptom-specific" categories and the ......BACKGROUND: Pre-hospital emergency care requires proper categorization of emergency calls and assessment of emergency priority levels by the medical dispatchers. We investigated predictors for emergency call categorization as "unclear problem" in contrast to "symptom-specific" categories...... and the effect of categorization on mortality. METHODS: Register-based study in a 2-year period based on emergency call data from the emergency medical dispatch center in Copenhagen combined with nationwide register data. Logistic regression analysis (N = 78,040 individuals) was used for identification...

  9. Radiological emergency response - a functional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, P.

    1998-01-01

    The state of Louisiana's radiological emergency response programme is based on the federal guidance 'Criteria for Preparation and Evaluation of Radiological Emergency Response Plans and Preparedness in Support of Nuclear Power Plants' (NUREG-0654, FEMA-REP-1 Rev. 1). Over the past 14 years, the planning and implementation of response capabilities became more organized and efficient; the training programme has strengthened considerably; co-ordination with all participating agencies has assumed a more co-operative role, and as a result, a fairly well integrated response planning has evolved. Recently, a more 'functional' approach is being adopted to maximize the programme's efficiency not only for nuclear power plant emergency response, but radiological emergency response as a whole. First, several broad-based 'components' are identified; clusters of 'nodes' are generated for each component; these 'nodes' may be divided into 'sub-nodes' which will contain some 'attributes'; 'relational bonds' among the 'attributes' will exist. When executed, the process begins and continues with the 'nodes' assuming a functional and dynamic role based on the nature and characteristics of the 'attributes'. The typical response based on stand-alone elements is thus eliminated, the overlapping of functions is avoided, and a well structured and efficient organization is produced, that is essential for today's complex nature of emergency response. (author)

  10. Marketing Hardwoods to Furniture Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven A. Sinclair; Robert J. Bush; Philip A. Araman

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the many problems in developing marketing programs for small wood products manufacturers. It examines the problems of using price as a dominant means for getting and attracting customers. The marketing of hardwood lumber to furniture producers is then used as an example. Data from 36 furniture lumber buyers is presented to illustrate...

  11. Importance of producing impactful research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nienaber, S

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available from the more pragmatic issue of funding. Funding agencies, organisational leadership and policymakers need scientists to prove that the science we produce makes enough of an impact to merit further funding in future. This emphasis and pressure around...

  12. Method of producing vegetable puree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A process for producing a vegetable puree, comprising the sequential steps of: a)crushing, chopping or slicing the vegetable into pieces of 1 to 30 mm; b) blanching the vegetable pieces at a temperature of 60 to 90°C; c) contacted the blanched vegetable pieces with a macerating enzyme activity; d......) blending the macerated vegetable pieces and obtaining a puree....

  13. Developing utility emergency preparedness exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeblom, K.

    1986-01-01

    Utility emergency preparedness exercises constitute an important link in upgrading the response to nuclear power plant emergencies. Various emergency exercises are arranged annually at the Loviisa nuclear power plant. The on-site simulator is a practical tool in developing suitable accident scenarios and demonstrating them to the site emergency players and spectators. The exercises concentrate on emergency management and radiological activities. It is important to create a high degree of motivation. (author)

  14. Emergency Physicians at War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muck, Andrew E; Givens, Melissa; Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Mason, Phillip E; Goolsby, Craig

    2018-05-01

    Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF-A) in Afghanistan and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) represent the first major, sustained wars in which emergency physicians (EPs) fully participated as an integrated part of the military's health system. EPs proved invaluable in the deployments, and they frequently used the full spectrum of trauma and medical care skills. The roles EPs served expanded over the years of the conflicts and demonstrated the unique skill set of emergency medicine (EM) training. EPs supported elite special operations units, served in medical command positions, and developed and staffed flying intensive care units. EPs have brought their combat experience home to civilian practice. This narrative review summarizes the history, contributions, and lessons learned by EPs during OEF-A/OIF and describes changes to daily clinical practice of EM derived from the combat environment.

  15. [Enterostomy post emergency enterectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilescu, S; Velicu, D; Gheorghiu, L; Duţescu, S

    2002-01-01

    This is a clinical approach regarding 43 resection of intestine, performed in emergency condition, terminated as enterostomy, with represent 20% of enterectomyes performed in emergency condition and 1.6% of urgent operations. The decision of enterostomy has been taken in the conditions of peritoneal sepsis, occlusion or the association of the two circumstances. The results are comparatively analyzed between the cases with enterostomy that has been made from the beginning (66% success, 33% gone wrong), and those with enterostomy made at the second intervention (14% success, 86% gone wrong). One discusses problems of leading, technique and post-operating nursing. The intestinal reintegration has been made possible at 16 patients after a timing of three of four weeks.

  16. Emergency plan belgian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clymans, A.

    1989-01-01

    The Chernobyl disaster prompted authorities in Belgium to carry out a comprehensive review of all emergency plans and, in particular, those designed specifically for nuclear accidents. This review was aimed at determining what type of plans existed and to what extent such plans were operational. This paper sets out to present a broad overview of different aspects of this problem: organization of public emergency plans, co-ordination of operations, merits and demerits of centralization as opposed to decentralization, planning zones, obligation to release information to the public and relations with the media, and finally the international dimension to the problem. The author expresses the hope that the latter area will inspire practical suggestions [fr

  17. Emergency Physicians at War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Givens

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF-A in Afghanistan and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF represent the first major, sustained wars in which emergency physicians (EPs fully participated as an integrated part of the military’s health system. EPs proved invaluable in the deployments, and they frequently used the full spectrum of trauma and medical care skills. The roles EPs served expanded over the years of the conflicts and demonstrated the unique skill set of emergency medicine (EM training. EPs supported elite special operations units, served in medical command positions, and developed and staffed flying intensive care units. EPs have brought their combat experience home to civilian practice. This narrative review summarizes the history, contributions, and lessons learned by EPs during OEF-A/OIF and describes changes to daily clinical practice of EM derived from the combat environment.

  18. Emerging and Disruptive Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kricka, Larry J

    2016-08-01

    Several emerging or disruptive technologies can be identified that might, at some point in the future, displace established laboratory medicine technologies and practices. These include increased automation in the form of robots, 3-D printing, technology convergence (e.g., plug-in glucose meters for smart phones), new point-of-care technologies (e.g., contact lenses with sensors, digital and wireless enabled pregnancy tests) and testing locations (e.g., Retail Health Clinics, new at-home testing formats), new types of specimens (e.g., cell free DNA), big biology/data (e.g., million genome projects), and new regulations (e.g., for laboratory developed tests). In addition, there are many emerging technologies (e.g., planar arrays, mass spectrometry) that might find even broader application in the future and therefore also disrupt current practice. One interesting source of disruptive technology may prove to be the Qualcomm Tricorder XPrize, currently in its final stages.

  19. [Hospital emergency rooms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudela, Pere; Mòdol, Josep Maria

    2003-05-17

    Overuse of hospital emergency rooms (HERs) is parallel to their controversy. To understand this problem, some concepts should be first clarified. In HERs, there are some intrinsic aspects which are directly related to the emergency itself and thus cannot be modified (intermittent patient flow, need to prioritize, difficulty to achieve a rapid diagnosis, influence of time on treatment, value of clinical follow up, patient's expectations, impact of HER on the overall hospital working dynamics). On the other hand, there are some extrinsic aspects which indeed are not related to HER itself but are rather historically associated with it (precarious structure, delay on admission, lack of privacy, inadequate triage of cases, lack of professionalization); these latter aspects may be potentially modified and should be reconsidered.

  20. [Ambulance in emergency medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Fikret; Ergun, Alper

    2002-07-01

    The ambulance service is very important in emergency medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate the new governing statuate of private ambulance service and to propose some new ideas. We examinated the new governing statuate of private ambulance service, rules of patient transporte between the hospitals and reports written by SSK Goztepe Educational Hospital ambulance drivers. We concluded that SSK Goztepe Educational Hospital ambulance drivers have a iot of problems especially at the rules of patient transport between the hospitals and there are some defiencies at the new governing statuate of private ambulance service. We concluded that it is necesssary to manage all the ambulance services in one center; all the private ambulance services have to have a specialist and all these must be determinated by the special rules. Key words: Regulation ofprivate ambulance, emergency head maintanence, ambulance services

  1. Hantaviruses as emergent zoonoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LS Ullmann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses belong to the Bunyaviridae family, which consists of vector-borne viruses. These viruses can provoke two infection types: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS - which occurs in the Old World - and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS - an emergent zoonosis that can be found in many countries of the western hemisphere. Rodents are hantavirus reservoirs and each species seems to host a different virus type. Humans acquire the infection by inhaling contaminated aerosol particles eliminated by infected animals. The factors involved in the emergence of hantavirus infections in the human population include ecological modifications and changes in human activities. The most important risk factor is contact between man and rodents, as a result of agricultural, forestry or military activities. Rodent control remains the primary strategy for preventing hantavirus diseases, including via health education and hygienic habits.

  2. Guidelines for emergency laparoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauerland Stefan

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acute abdominal pain is a leading symptom in many surgical emergency patients. Laparoscopy allows for accurate diagnosis and immediate therapy of many intraabdominal pathologies. The guidelines of the EAES (European Association for Endoscopic Surgery provides scientifically founded recommendations about the role of laparoscopy in the different situations. Generally, laparoscopy is well suited for the therapy of the majority of diseases that cause acute abdominal pain.

  3. Emerging contaminants in groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Lapworth, Dan; Stuart, Marianne; Hart, Alwyn; Crane, Emily; Baran, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    The term ‘emerging contaminants’ (ECs) is used to cover not only newly developed compounds but also includes newly discovered compounds in the environment (often due to analytical developments), and compounds that have been recently categorised as contaminants. ECs include a huge array of different compounds (and their metabolites) that are used by society for a range of purposes and include; pharmaceuticals, pesticides, personal care products, veterinary medicines, engineered nano-materials,...

  4. 'Regular' and 'emergency' repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchnik, N.V.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments on the combined action of radiation and a DNA inhibitor using Crepis roots and on split-dose irradiation of human lymphocytes lead to the conclusion that there are two types of repair. The 'regular' repair takes place twice in each mitotic cycle and ensures the maintenance of genetic stability. The 'emergency' repair is induced at all stages of the mitotic cycle by high levels of injury. (author)

  5. Web Science emerges

    OpenAIRE

    Shadbolt, Nigel; Berners-Lee, Tim

    2008-01-01

    The relentless rise in Web pages and links is creating emergent properties, from social networks to virtual identity theft, that are transforming society. A new discipline, Web Science, aims to discover how Web traits arise and how they can be harnessed or held in check to benefit society. Important advances are beginning to be made; more work can solve major issues such as securing privacy and conveying trust.

  6. Emerging Market Multinationals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Peter; Hobdari, Bersant

    2017-01-01

    International knowledge flows and innovation are becoming ever more important to the competitiveness of multinational corporations. Emerging market multinationals (EMNCs) in specific are deploying increasingly activist measures to harness foreign sources of knowledge and innovation as a strategy...... in which this disagreement can be reconciled through recognition of other EMNC advantages, particularly abilities to leverage country-specific assets, and possession and development of dynamic capabilities. Finally, we identify a set of core themes in the recent literature on strategic asset...

  7. Emerging and Disruptive Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Kricka, Larry J.

    2016-01-01

    Several emerging or disruptive technologies can be identified that might, at some point in the future, displace established laboratory medicine technologies and practices. These include increased automation in the form of robots, 3-D printing, technology convergence (e.g., plug-in glucose meters for smart phones), new point-of-care technologies (e.g., contact lenses with sensors, digital and wireless enabled pregnancy tests) and testing locations (e.g., Retail Health Clinics, new at-home test...

  8. Tacit knowledge emergence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper outlines tacit knowledge emergence. Tacit knowledge is 'knowledge that we have without knowing we have it and that once we know we have it, it becomes harder to know how we know what we know'. We learn by doing. Knowledge is not a thing; it is a process. It cites examples of tacit knowledge transfer failures. Failure in organization could be attributed to lack of explicit scientific and engineering knowledge, lack of research or improperly implemented knowledge

  9. Architecture humanitarian emergencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez-Guillamon, Maria; Eskemose Andersen, Jørgen; Contreras, Jorge Lobos

    2013-01-01

    Introduced by scientific articles conserning architecture and human rights in light of cultures, emergencies, social equality and sustainability, democracy, economy, artistic development and science into architecture. Concluding in definition of needs for new roles, processes and education of arc......, Architettura di Alghero in Italy, Architecture and Design of Kocaeli University in Turkey, University of Aguascalientes in Mexico, Architectura y Urbanismo of University of Chile and Escuela de Architectura of Universidad Austral in Chile....

  10. Secondary reactions as a tool to produce exotic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufour, J.P.; Fleury, A.; Bimbot, R.

    1980-01-01

    The possibility of using secondary reactions as tool to produce new isotopes is considered. This question is renewed with the emergence of intense beams of energetic heavy ions in the range of 20 to 100 MeV/nucleon. Three different methods are considered. They involve either the 'in situ' production of a secondary radioactive target, which interacts with the primary beam, or the production of a radioactive secondary beam by an inverse fusion or a fragmentation process. Very heavy or very neutron deficient isotopes can be produced by these methods

  11. Emerging drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael E; Bryant, Sean M; Aks, Steven E

    2014-02-01

    Many new emerging drugs of abuse are marketed as legal highs despite being labeled "not for human consumption" to avoid regulation. The availability of these substances over the Internet and in "head shops" has lead to a multitude of emergency department visits with severe complications including deaths worldwide. Despite recent media attention, many of the newer drugs of abuse are still largely unknown by health care providers. Slight alterations of the basic chemical structure of substances create an entirely new drug no longer regulated by current laws and an ever-changing landscape of clinical effects. The purity of each substance with exact pharmacokinetic and toxicity profiles is largely unknown. Many of these substances can be grouped by the class of drug and includes synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, phenethylamines, as well as piperazine derivatives. Resultant effects generally include psychoactive and sympathomimetic-like symptoms. Additionally, prescription medications, performance enhancing medications, and herbal supplements are also becoming more commonly abused. Most new drugs of abuse have no specific antidote and management largely involves symptom based goal directed supportive care with benzodiazepines as a useful adjunct. This paper will focus on the history, epidemiology, clinical effects, laboratory analysis, and management strategy for many of these emerging drugs of abuse. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Nuclear medicine in emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansi, L.; Rambaldi, P.F.; Cuccurullo, V.; Varetto, T.

    2005-01-01

    The role of a procedure depends not only on its own capabilities but also on a cost/effective comparison with alternative technique giving similar information. Starting from the definition of emergency as a sudden unexpected occurrence demanding immediate action, the role of nuclear medicine (NM) is difficult to identify if it is not possible to respond 24h a day, 365 days a year, to clinical demands. To justify a 24 h NM service it is necessary to reaffirm the role in diagnosis of pulmonary embolism in the spiral CT era, to spread knowledge of the capabilities of nuclear cardiology in reliability diagnosis myocardial infraction (better defining admission and discharge to/from the emergency department), to increase the number of indications. Radionuclide technique could be used as first line, alternative, complementary procedures in a diagnostic tree taking into account not only the diagnosis but also the connections with prognosis and therapy in evaluating cerebral pathologies, acute inflammation/infection, transplants, bleeding, trauma, skeletal, hepatobiliary, renal and endocrine emergencies, acute scrotal pain

  13. Emergency Response Guideline Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary D Storrick

    2007-01-01

    Task 5 of the collaborative effort between ORNL, Brazil, and Westinghouse for the International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative entitled 'Development of Advanced Instrumentation and Control for an Integrated Primary System Reactor' focuses on operator control and protection system interaction, with particular emphasis on developing emergency response guidelines (ERGs). As in the earlier tasks, we will use the IRIS plant as a specific example of an integrated primary system reactor (IPSR) design. The present state of the IRIS plant design--specifically, the lack of a detailed secondary system design--precludes establishing detailed emergency procedures at this time. However, we can create a structure for their eventual development. This report summarizes our progress to date. Section 1.2 describes the scope of this effort. Section 2 compares IPSR ERG development to the recent AP1000 effort, and identifies three key plant differences that affect the ERGs and control room designs. The next three sections investigate these differences in more detail. Section 3 reviews the IRIS Safety-by-Design philosophy and its impact on the ERGs. Section 4 looks at differences between the IRIS and traditional loop PWR I and C Systems, and considers their implications for both control room design and ERG development. Section 5 examines the implications of having one operating staff control multiple reactor units. Section 6 provides sample IRIS emergency operating procedures (EOPs). Section 7 summarizes our conclusions

  14. Method for producing carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan [Santa Fe, NM; Perry, William L [Jemez Springs, NM; Chen, Chun-Ku [Albuquerque, NM

    2006-02-14

    Method for producing carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes were prepared using a low power, atmospheric pressure, microwave-generated plasma torch system. After generating carbon monoxide microwave plasma, a flow of carbon monoxide was directed first through a bed of metal particles/glass beads and then along the outer surface of a ceramic tube located in the plasma. As a flow of argon was introduced into the plasma through the ceramic tube, ropes of entangled carbon nanotubes, attached to the surface of the tube, were produced. Of these, longer ropes formed on the surface portion of the tube located in the center of the plasma. Transmission electron micrographs of individual nanotubes revealed that many were single-walled.

  15. Treatment of offshore produced water - an effective membrane process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.; Larson, R.; Scherer, B.

    1991-01-01

    The conference paper describes a new membrane technology being extremely effective in separating hydrocarbons from water streams. The membrane is composed of a completely natural cellulose and is resistant to all hydrocarbons and organic solvents, and preliminary tests have shown that it is resistant to fouling by oily molecules and calcium scaling. The membrane system being designed shows good potential for the treatment of offshore produced water with a hydrocarbon content well within present and emerging standards. 6 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Nonlinear Pricing to Produce Information

    OpenAIRE

    David J. Braden; Shmuel S. Oren

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the firm's dynamic nonlinear pricing problem when facing consumers whose tastes vary according to a scalar index. We relax the standard assumption that the firm knows the distribution of this index. In general the firm should determine its marginal price schedule as if it were myopic, and produce information by lowering the price schedule; “bunching” consumers at positive purchase levels should be avoided. As a special case we also consider a market characterized by homogeneous...

  17. Method for producing metallic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan; Perry, William L.; Kroenke, William J.

    2004-02-10

    Method for producing metallic nanoparticles. The method includes generating an aerosol of solid metallic microparticles, generating non-oxidizing plasma with a plasma hot zone at a temperature sufficiently high to vaporize the microparticles into metal vapor, and directing the aerosol into the hot zone of the plasma. The microparticles vaporize in the hot zone to metal vapor. The metal vapor is directed away from the hot zone and to the plasma afterglow where it cools and condenses to form solid metallic nanoparticles.

  18. Method for producing metallic microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan; Perry, William L.; Kroenke, William J.

    2004-06-29

    Method for producing metallic particles. The method converts metallic nanoparticles into larger, spherical metallic particles. An aerosol of solid metallic nanoparticles and a non-oxidizing plasma having a portion sufficiently hot to melt the nanoparticles are generated. The aerosol is directed into the plasma where the metallic nanoparticles melt, collide, join, and spheroidize. The molten spherical metallic particles are directed away from the plasma and enter the afterglow where they cool and solidify.

  19. Extended producer responsibility in oligopoly

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroaki Ino

    2007-01-01

    I investigate the optimal environmental tax under a policy based on extended producer responsibility (EPR) in oligopoly markets. I introduce the recycling market and explicitly consider how these policies affect the incentive for recycling. I derive the optimal tax rule, which depends on the weighted sum of the markup in the product market and the markdown in the recycling market. In contrast to the existing works that emphasize that the optimal tax rate is lower than the marginal external da...

  20. MARKETING STRATEGIES OF SMARTPHONES PRODUCERS

    OpenAIRE

    Markova V.; Tzinlin M.; Ge C.

    2017-01-01

    Smartphones global market is one of the most dynamically developing markets that can be characterized by high level of competition. The growth of smartphones homogeneity, which is a reduction in difference between technical and functional parameters of smartphones produced by various manufacturers, can be considered the market’s specific feature. The unique situation of high-tech product homogeneity in a fast-growing market is scantily described in specialized literature. The article shows ch...

  1. Emergency Victim Care. A Textbook for Emergency Medical Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Trade and Industrial Education Service.

    This textbook for emergency medical personnel should be useful to fire departments, private ambulance companies, industrial emergency and rescue units, police departments, and nurses. The 30 illustrated chapters cover topics such as: (1) Emergency Medical Service Vehicles, (2) Safe Driving Practices, (3) Anatomy and Physiology, (4) Closed Chest…

  2. The state of emergency medicine in the United Republic of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.A. Nicks

    2012-09-01

    Currently at most hospitals, emergency patients are cared for in Emergency Centres (ECs staffed with rotating personnel who are neither trained nor equipped to provide complete resuscitative care, but dedicated emergency care training projects are emerging. The first Emergency Medicine residency in the country was initiated in 2010 and will produce its first graduates in 2013. In 2011, a dedicated Emergency Nursing curriculum was introduced, and the Emergency Medical Association of Tanzania (EMAT, the first Emergency Medicine professional society in the country, was formed and ratified by the Ministry of Health. EMAT has been given a mandate to develop feasible initiatives for the dissemination of emergency care training to district and sub-district facilities. However, significant gaps exist in the capacity for emergency medical care including deficits in human resources, essential equipment and infrastructure – concurrent issues that EMAT must address within its development strategy.

  3. The Military Emergency Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Requena, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    One of the most justified and pressing demands that society makes of the State, requiring a fast, forceful and effective response, is that it guarantees the safety of people and their assets when a disaster seriously endangers them. At the proposal of the President of the Government, the Cabinet of Ministers, in its meeting held on October 7, 2005, agreed to create the Military Emergency Unit, known since the as the UME. Its mission is to intervene anywhere in the national territory when the President of the Government, or the Minister to whom he delegates, so decides in order to assure the safety and welfare of citizens in cases of serious risk, disaster, catastrophe or any other public need. The UME is organically incorporated into the Ministry of Defense and its actions may be supported with all the available human and material needs of the Armed Forces. Availability and effectiveness, with calmness and humility, have characterized the early actions of the Military Emergency Unit and are the guidelines for future action. The first steps of this military unit have focused on a clear goal: collaboration and participation in situations whose seriousness requires the coordination of different forces in order to immediately respond to them. The UME is the States tool to join forces and, with other administration and institutions, help to rapidly and effectively deal with emergencies. It has taken its first step and achieved the capacity specified in the UME Operations Order for 2007. The 150 men and women per battalion, plus the 80 in the Gando detachment, are on active duty and have sufficient material means to deploy, if necessary and when requested by the regions, town councils an other administrative bodies, to help in the extinction of forest fires. (Author)

  4. Emergence of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Paule Bassez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Indeed, even if we know that many individual components are necessary for life to exist, we do not yet know what makes life emerge. One goal of this journal Life is to juxtapose articles with multidisciplinary approaches and perhaps to answer in the near future this question of the emergence of life. Different subjects and themes will be developed, starting of course with the multiple definitions of life and continuing with others such as: life diversity and universality; characteristics of living systems; thermodynamics with energy and entropy; kinetics and catalysis; water in its different physical states; circulation of sap and blood and its origin; the first blood pump and first heart; the first exchange of nutrients between cells, sap and blood; essential molecules of living systems; chirality; molecular asymmetry and its origin; formation of enantiomer excess and amplification; microscopic observations on a micrometer and sub-micrometer scales, at molecular and atomic levels; the first molecules at the origin of genetic information, viroids, circular RNA; regions of space or the area inside membranes and cells capable of initiating and maintaining life; phenomena at the origin of the emergence of life; molecules studied in the traditional field of chemistry and in the recent field of nanoscience governed by new laws; interaction between the individual molecules and components of living systems; interaction between living systems and the environment; transfer of information through generations; continuation of life from one generation to the next; prebiotic chemistry and prebiotic signatures on Earth, on Mars, on other planets; biosignatures of the first forms of life; fossils and pseudofossils dating 3.5 Ga ago and more recent ones; experimental fossilization; pluricellular eukaryotes dating 2.1 Ga ago; sudden increase in oxygen in the atmosphere around 2.0 to 2.5 Ga ago and its relation to geology; shell symmetry; aging with

  5. Belgonucleaire's emergency exercises; Report on communication experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depoele, Sabine van

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is not to have a theoretical explanation about risk communication but rather to give some practical communication hints we learned from the Regional Emergency Exercise Belgonucleaire had a few months ago. Belgonucleaire fabricates Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel since 1973. This fuel is produced at Belgonucleaire's plant at Dessel, which is located in the vicinity of other Belgian plants related to the nuclear sector. Every year Belgonucleaire organises an Internal Emergency Exercise and every 3 years a Regional Emergency Exercise. The purpose of this Emergency Exercise is to make sure that Belgonucleaire is capable of successfully handling in cooperation with the other plants in the nuclear sector, the authorities and security teams a hypothetical crisis scenario. The scenario elaborated this time was that due to a tear in a glove some radioactivity was emitted and because the filter system failed some of this radioactivity came into the air. Some contamination could be measured. The goal of this Emergency Exercise is multiple: to bring under control and to master an emergency situation; to emit an immediate warning to and to protect the employees and the visitors present on the site; to communicate essential information to the security service and co-ordination centre of the government in conformance with the emergency plan for nuclear risks on the Belgian territory. Communication plays a vital role in this emergency organisation plan. It concerns contacts with the authorities (at federal, regional and local level), the nearby-located plants, the support- and emergency services and last but not least with the media. In addition a communication cell was set up at the Dessel Town Hall. An established relationship with all of the organisation's stakeholders based on credibility and trust is the best insurance policy for handling communications during a crisis. This is indeed a process we work on the whole year round. A proactive communication

  6. Emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, N.; Worrell, E.; Ruth, M.; Price, L.; Elliott, R.N.; Shipley, A.M.; Thorne, J.

    2000-10-01

    U.S. industry consumes approximately 37 percent of the nation's energy to produce 24 percent of the nation's GDP. Increasingly, industry is confronted with the challenge of moving toward a cleaner, more sustainable path of production and consumption, while increasing global competitiveness. Technology will be essential for meeting these challenges. At some point, businesses are faced with investment in new capital stock. At this decision point, new and emerging technologies compete for capital investment alongside more established or mature technologies. Understanding the dynamics of the decision-making process is important to perceive what drives technology change and the overall effect on industrial energy use. The assessment of emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies can be useful for: (1) identifying R&D projects; (2) identifying potential technologies for market transformation activities; (3) providing common information on technologies to a broad audience of policy-makers; and (4) offering new insights into technology development and energy efficiency potentials. With the support of PG&E Co., NYSERDA, DOE, EPA, NEEA, and the Iowa Energy Center, staff from LBNL and ACEEE produced this assessment of emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies. The goal was to collect information on a broad array of potentially significant emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies and carefully characterize a sub-group of approximately 50 key technologies. Our use of the term ''emerging'' denotes technologies that are both pre-commercial but near commercialization, and technologies that have already entered the market but have less than 5 percent of current market share. We also have chosen technologies that are energy-efficient (i.e., use less energy than existing technologies and practices to produce the same product), and may have additional ''non-energy benefits.'' These benefits are as important (if

  7. Emerging hot spot analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinau, Kristian Hegner

    Traditionally, focus in the transport field, both politically and scientifically, has been on private cars and public transport. Freight transport has been a neglected topic. Recent years has seen an increased focus upon congestion as a core issue across Europe, resulting in a great need for know...... speed data for freight. Secondly, the analytical methods used, space-time cubes and emerging hot spot analysis, are also new in the freight transport field. The analysis thus estimates precisely how fast freight moves on the roads in Northern Jutland and how this has evolved over time....

  8. Corruption in emergency procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Jessica; Søreide, Tina

    2008-12-01

    Corruption in emergency procurement reduces the resources available for life-saving operations, lowers the quality of products and services provided, and diverts aid from those who need it most.(1) It also negatively influences public support for humanitarian relief, both in the affected country and abroad. This paper aims to unpack and analyse the following question in order to mitigate risk: how and where does corruption typically occur, and what can be done? Suggested strategies reflect a multi-layered approach that stresses internal agency control mechanisms, conflict-sensitive management, and the need for common systems among operators.

  9. EDF national emergency organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laverge, J.

    1992-01-01

    The scope of French nuclear power led Electricite de France (EDF) to design standard products, manufactured in series but adaptable to different sites. Standardization is based on the decision on a single technology: pressurized water reactors (PWR). Thirty-four 900 MW and seventeen 1300 MW units are in operation on seventeen sites. The specific nature of French organization for normal operation and accident management results from equipment standardization and single licensee. This specificity is based on emergency plan standardization and highly structured national organization. Figs

  10. Emergence and Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bullwinkle, Tammy J; Ibba, Michael

    2013-01-01

    ancestor and as such they provide insights into the evolution and development of the extant genetic code. Although the aaRSs have long been viewed as a highly conserved group of enzymes, findings within the last couple of decades have started to demonstrate how diverse and versatile these enzymes really...... are. Beyond their central role in translation, aaRSs and their numerous homologs have evolved a wide array of alternative functions both inside and outside translation. Current understanding of the emergence of the aaRSs, and their subsequent evolution into a functionally diverse enzyme family...

  11. Preventive measures for emergencies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calliess, J.

    1990-01-01

    The meeting discussed the new provisions for civil defense on account of the amended Disaster Control Act which had been recently adopted by the Lower House of Parliament. In 6 working groups it was discussed how appropriate and sensible the attempt is to make provisions for civil defence in order to protect the population, and how adequate legislative measures are in the face of true threat and var scenarios. Ethical aspects and aspects of international law were considered, as well as the role of public health and free charitable institutions concering preventive measures in emergencies. (orig. HSCH) [de

  12. Emergency response strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrilo, D.; Dias de la Cruz, F.

    1984-01-01

    In the present study is estimated, on the basis of a release category (PWR4) and several accident scenarios previously set up, the emergency response efficacy obtained in the application of different response strategies on each of the above mentioned scenarios. The studied strategies contemplate the following protective measures: evacuation, shelter and relocation. The radiological response has been obtained by means of CRAC2 (Calculation of Reactor Accident Consequences) code, and calculated in terms of absorbed dose equivalent (Whole body and thyroid), as well as early and latent biological effects. (author)

  13. Dangerous goods emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a general overview of the State of Western Australia including: the legal framework of the Dangerous Goods and Emergency response management scenarios (which consist mainly of fuel products such as LP gas); particular problems unique to the Western Australian environment; what has been done to overcome those problems. Western Australia has an area of about two and a half million square kilometers. The demography of the State is such that the population is concentrated in the south-west corner of the State with isolated pockets, mainly associated with mineral development but also associated with agriculture, scattered throughout the State

  14. CSN's New Emergency Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sendin, P.

    2005-01-01

    During the month of July 2005 the physical renovation works and technological updating of the basic infrastructures of the CSN Emergency Room (SALEM) were finished, allowing the Room to now have greater functionality and a broader technical capacity. Nevertheless, the technological improvement process of SALEM will reach its full potential within the next few years, once the installation currently underway of the new information integration and monitoring systems and the decision making support systems have been completed. This article describes the improvements introduced to the Room and the objectives pursued in this renovation project to convert the SALEM into a new generation room in accordance with its current technological context. (Author) 4 refs

  15. Emergency procedures in London

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cree, D.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter discusses the following: emergency services (fire brigade, ambulance and police) that would be involved in dealing with an accident to a nuclear fuel flask in transport through London, with special reference to procedures used by the Metropolitan Police; geographical area covered by Metropolitan Police; initiation of action; decision whether to evacuate the area of the accident; examples of action taken to deal with non-radiation accidents (in absence of any example of relevant radiation accident); specific instructions, or advice, to police relating to the movement of irradiated fuel; training exercises. (U.K.)

  16. German emergency management concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkart, K.

    1993-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of the margin and start-up value concepts (according to ICRP 40 and EU-ordinances) are explained, and it is demonstrated that the two concepts are combinable. The combined concept has the advantage of immediately providing, if required, intervention levels for the various measures to be taken, and of obliging those persons concerned with emergency protection to study and quantify, already at the planning stage, the influence of a range of accident conditions on the decision on measures. In this context, the use of computerized decision support systems which are currently being developed is indispensable. (orig./DG) [de

  17. Emergency peripartum hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsson, Maija; Tapper, Anna Maija; Colmorn, Lotte Berdiin

    2015-01-01

    peripartum hysterectomies reached 211, yielding an incidence rate of 3.5/10 000 (95% confidence interval 3.0-4.0) births. Finland had the highest prevalence (5.1) and Norway the lowest (2.9). Primary indications included an abnormally invasive placenta (n = 91, 43.1%), atonic bleeding (n = 69, 32.......7%), uterine rupture (n = 31, 14.7%), other bleeding disorders (n = 12, 5.7%), and other indications (n = 8, 3.8%). The delivery mode was cesarean section in nearly 80% of cases. Previous cesarean section was reported in 45% of women. Both preterm and post-term birth increased the risk for emergency peripartum...

  18. Wind emergency response system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, A.J.; Buckner, M.R.; Mueller, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    The WIND system is an automated emergency response system for real-time predictions of the consequences of liquid and airborne releases from SRP. The system consists of a minicomputer and associated peripherals necessary for acquisition and handling of large amounts of meteorological data from a local tower network and the National Weather Service. The minicomputer uses these data and several predictive models to assess the impact of accidental releases. The system is fast and easy to use, and output is displayed both in tabular form and as trajectory map plots for quick interpretation. The rapid response capabilities of the WIND system have been demonstrated in support of SRP operations

  19. Emerging from the Cradle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Glen; Garofalo, Joe; Bell, Randy

    2004-01-01

    New technologies often assume the form of prior traditions during their infancy. For example, filmed plays known as photoplays were initially produced prior to the development of modern cinema conventions. Similarly, printed books at first assumed many of the characteristics of hand-lettered manuscripts.

  20. Method of producing ethyl alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philliskirk, G; Yates, H J

    1978-09-13

    Ethanol was produced from whey by removing protein from the whey by ultrafiltration, concentrating the deproteinized whey by reverse osmosis to a lactose content of at least 8 g/100 mL, fermenting with Candida pseudotropicalis NCYC 744, and distilling. E.g., milk whey was deproteinized to give a permeate containing 8.3 g lactose/100 mL. After fermentation, the final lactose content was 0.1 g/100 mL and the ethanol concentration was 3.55 g/100 mL, representing a 42% conversion of lactose to ethanol.

  1. Producing biofuels using polyketide synthases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D

    2013-04-16

    The present invention provides for a non-naturally occurring polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a carboxylic acid or a lactone, and a composition such that a carboxylic acid or lactone is included. The carboxylic acid or lactone, or derivative thereof, is useful as a biofuel. The present invention also provides for a recombinant nucleic acid or vector that encodes such a PKS, and host cells which also have such a recombinant nucleic acid or vector. The present invention also provides for a method of producing such carboxylic acids or lactones using such a PKS.

  2. Uranium producers foresee new boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, H.

    1979-01-01

    The status of uranium production in Canada is reviewed. Uranium resources in Saskatchewan and Ontario are described and the role of the Cluff Lake inquiry in securing a government decision in favour of further uranium development is mentioned. There have been other uranium strikes near Kelowna, British Columbia and in the Northwest Territories. Increasing uranium demand and favourable prices are making the development of northern resources economically attractive. In fact, all uranium currently produced has been committed to domestic and export contracts so that there is considerable room for expanding the production of uranium in Canada. (T.I.)

  3. Soybean biomass produced in Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semino, Stella Maris; Paul, Helena; Tomei, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Soybean biomass for biodiesel, produced in Argentina amongst other places, is considered by some to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate climate change when compared with fossil fuel. To ensure that the production of biofuels is ‘sustainable', EU institutions and national governments...... are currently designing certification schemes for the sustainable production of biomass. This paper questions the validity of proposed environmental standards, using the production of Argentine soybean as a case study. The production of soybean production is associated with profound environmental impacts...

  4. Producing deuterium-enriched products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method of producing an enriched deuterium product from a gaseous feed stream of mixed hydrogen and deuterium, comprises: (a) combining the feed stream with gaseous bromine to form a mixture of the feed stream and bromine and exposing the mixture to an electrical discharge effective to form deuterium bromide and hydrogen bromide with a ratio of D/H greater than the ratio of D/H in the feed stream; and (b) separating at least a portion of the hydrogen bromide and deuterium bromide from the mixture. (author)

  5. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  6. On-site emergency planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueffer, K.

    1980-01-01

    This lecture covers the Emergency Planning of the Operating organization and is based on the Code of Practice and Safety Guides of the IAEA as well as on arrangements in use at the Swiss Nuclear Power Station Beznau and - outlines the basis and content of an emergency plan - describes the emergencies postulated for emergency planning purposes - describes the responsibilities, the organization and the procedures of the operating organization to cope with emergency situations and the liaison between the operating organization, the regulatory body and public authorities - describes the facilities and equipment which should be available to cope with emergency sitauations - describes the measures and actions to be taken when an emergency arises in order to correct abnormal plant conditions and to protect the persons on-and off-site - describes the aid to be given to affected personnel - describes the aspects relevant to maintaining the emergency plan and organization in operational readiness. (orig./RW)

  7. Plan for radiological emergencies situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada Figueroa, E.R.

    1998-01-01

    The objective for the Emergencies plan it is to reestablish the stock that they should be executed by the regulatory Entity in Guatemala during a real potential radiological emergency situation in the national territory

  8. Emergency Meal Planning for Diabetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... emergency . What should I expect during an emergency situation? Many things we depend on daily may not ... 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc., 30 East 33rd Street, New York, NY 10016, 1-800-622-9010. ...

  9. Ideas Production in Emerging Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Luintel, Kul B; Kahn, Mosahid

    2012-01-01

    We model 'new ideas' production in a panel of 17 emerging countries. Our results reveal: (i) ideas production is duplicative, (ii) externality associated with domestic knowledge stocks is of above unit factor proportionality, (iii) OECD countries raise the innovation-bar for emerging countries, (iv) there is no significant knowledge diffusion across emerging countries, and (v) growth in emerging countries appear far from a balanced growth path.

  10. Methods of producing luminescent images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadhead, P.; Newman, G.A.

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for producing a luminescent image in a layer of a binding material in which is dispersed a thermoluminescent material. The layer is heated uniformly to a temperature of 80 to 300 0 C and is exposed to luminescence inducing radiation whilst so heated. The preferred exposing radiation is X-rays and preferably the thermoluminescent material is insensitive to electromagnetic radiation of wavelength longer than 300 mm. Information concerning preparation of the luminescent material is given in BP 1,347,672; this material has the advantage that at elevated temperatures it shows increased sensitivity compared with room temperature. At temperatures in the range 80 to 150 0 C the thermoluminescent material exhibits 'afterglow', allowing the image to persist for several seconds after the X-radiation has ceased, thus allowing the image to be retained for visual inspection in this temperature range. At higher temperatures, however, there is negligible 'afterglow'. The thermoluminescent layers so produced are particularly useful as fluoroscopic screens. The preferred method of heating the thermoluminescent material is described in BP 1,354,149. An example is given of the application of the method. (U.K.)

  11. Concrete produced with recycled aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. L. Tenório

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of the mechanical and durable properties of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC for using in concrete. The porosity of recycled coarse aggregates is known to influence the fresh and hardened concrete properties and these properties are related to the specific mass of the recycled coarse aggregates, which directly influences the mechanical properties of the concrete. The recycled aggregates were obtained from construction and demolition wastes (CDW, which were divided into recycled sand (fine and coarse aggregates. Besides this, a recycled coarse aggregate of a specific mass with a greater density was obtained by mixing the recycled aggregates of the CDW with the recycled aggregates of concrete wastes (CW. The concrete was produced in laboratory by combining three water-cement ratios, the ratios were used in agreement with NBR 6118 for structural concretes, with each recycled coarse aggregates and recycled sand or river sand, and the reference concrete was produced with natural aggregates. It was observed that recycled aggregates can be used in concrete with properties for structural concrete. In general, the use of recycled coarse aggregate in combination with recycled sand did not provide good results; but when the less porous was used, or the recycled coarse aggregate of a specific mass with a greater density, the properties of the concrete showed better results. Some RAC reached bigger strengths than the reference concrete.

  12. Communication system for emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajioka, Yoshiteru

    1996-01-01

    People are apprehensive that a strong earthquake with a magnitude of nearly 8 may occur in Tokai area. The whole area of Shizuoka Prefecture has been specified as the specially strengthened region for earthquake disaster measures. This report outlines the communication system for emergency with respect to atomic disaster caused by an earthquake. Previously, wireless receiving system is stationed in the whole area to simultaneously inform the related news to the residents and so, communications with them are possible at any time by using the system. Since mobile wireless receiving sets are stationed in all town halls, self defense organizations and all the places of refuge, mutual communications are possible. These communication system can be utilized for either earthquake or nuclear disaster. Further, Shizuoka general information network system has been established as a communication system for anti-disaster organization and a wireless network via a communication satellite, ''super bird'' has been constructed in addition to the ground network. Therefore, the two communication routes became usable at emergency and the systems are available in either of nuclear disaster or earthquake. (M.N.)

  13. Orion Emergency Mask Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, George C.; Graf, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Emergency mask approach on Orion poses a challenge to the traditional Shuttle or Station approaches. Currently, in the case of a fire or toxic spill event, the crew utilizes open loop oxygen masks that provide the crew with oxygen to breath, but also dumps the exhaled oxygen into the cabin. For Orion, with a small cabin volume, the extra oxygen will exceed the flammability limit within a short period of time, unless a nitrogen purge is also provided. Another approach to a fire or toxic spill event is the use of a filtering emergency masks. These masks utilize some form of chemical beds to scrub the air clean of toxic providing the crew safe breathing air for a period without elevating the oxygen level in the cabin. Using the masks and a form of smoke-eater filter, it may be possible to clean the cabin completely or to a level for safe transition to a space suit to perform a cabin purge. Issues with filters in the past have been the reaction time, breakthroughs, and high breathing resistance. Development in a new form of chemical filters has shown promise to make the filtering approach feasible.

  14. Abdominal emergencies in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coca Robinot, D; Liébana de Rojas, C; Aguirre Pascual, E

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal symptoms are among the most common reasons for pediatric emergency department visits, and abdominal pain is the most frequently reported symptom. Thorough history taking and physical examination can often reach the correct diagnosis. Knowing the abdominal conditions that are most common in each age group can help radiologists narrow the differential diagnosis. When imaging tests are indicated, ultrasonography is usually the first-line technique, enabling the diagnosis or adding relevant information with the well-known advantages of this technique. Nowadays, plain-film X-ray studies are reserved for cases in which perforation, bowel obstruction, or foreign body ingestion is suspected. It is also important to remember that abdominal pain can also occur secondary to basal pneumonia. CT is reserved for specific indications and in individual cases, for example, in patients with high clinical suspicion of abdominal disease and inconclusive findings at ultrasonography. We review some of the most common conditions in pediatric emergencies, the different imaging tests indicated in each case, and the imaging signs in each condition. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Masaki.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To actuate an automatic pressure down system (ADS) and a low pressure emergency core cooling system (ECCS) upon water level reduction of a nuclear reactor other than loss of coolant accidents (LOCA). Constitution: ADS in a BWR type reactor is disposed for reducing the pressure in a reactor container thereby enabling coolant injection from a low pressure ECCS upon LOCA. That is, ADS has been actuated by AND signal for a reactor water level low signal and a dry well pressure high signal. In the present invention, ADS can be actuated further also by AND signal of the reactor water level low signal, the high pressure ECCS and not-operation signal of reactor isolation cooling system. In such an emergency core cooling system thus constituted, ADS operates in the same manner as usual upon LOCA and, further, ADS is operated also upon loss of feedwater accident in the reactor pressure vessel in the case where there is a necessity for actuating the low pressure ECCS, although other high pressure ECCS and reactor isolation cooling system are not operated. Accordingly, it is possible to improve the reliability upon reactor core accident and mitigate the operator burden. (Horiuchi, T.)

  16. Emergency preparedness and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, M.

    1996-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, it became painfully obvious to the international community that there was an urgent need to establish a system for the coordination of international disaster assistance. It became the task of the United Nations Office for Disaster Relief (UNDRO) to develop such a system. The former UNDRO was subsumed into the Department of Humanitarian Affairs (DHA), established in January 1992 on the basis of UN General Assembly Resolution 46/182 adopted in December 1991, and the disaster relief system presently found in DHA is a further evolution of the system established by UNDRO. One particular importance in relation to nuclear accidents is the fact that UNDRO and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) signed a Memorandum of Understanding defining their respective responsibilities and the need for cooperation in case of accidents involving the unintentional release of nuclear radiation. In essence, the MOU makes it clear that the responsibilities of the IAEA, in connection with accidents at Nuclear Power Plants, related to the technical and radiological aspects, in particular to accident prevention, to the on-site preparedness, and to remedial measures within the 30-km zone outside the NPP. DHA's responsibilities, on the other hand, relate to the general preparedness and the rescue efforts outside the 30 km zone. In this respect, the preparedness and emergency response system is no different from the system employed in any other type of sudden-onset emergency

  17. Emergency reactor cooling circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Hidefumi; Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Kataoka, Yoshiyuki.

    1994-01-01

    Cooling water in a gravitationally dropping water reservoir is injected into a reactor pressure vessel passing through a pipeline upon occurrence of emergency. The pipeline is inclined downwardly having one end thereof being in communication with the pressure vessel. During normal operation, the cooling water in the upper portion of the inclined pipeline is heated by convection heat transfer from the communication portion with the pressure vessel. On the other hand, cooling water present at a position lower than the communication portion forms cooling water lumps. Accordingly, temperature stratification layers are formed in the inclined pipeline. Therefore, temperature rise of water in a vertical pipeline connected to the inclined pipeline is small. With such a constitution, the amount of heat lost from the pressure vessel by way of the water injection pipeline is reduced. Further, there is no worry that cooling water to be injected upon occurrence of emergency is boiled under reduced pressure in the injection pipeline to delay the depressurization of the pressure vessel. (I.N.)

  18. Emergency contraception: clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasier, Anna

    2013-03-01

    Emergency contraception (EC) is widely used to prevent unwanted pregnancy. This review considers the safety and efficacy of three commonly used methods -- levonorgestrel (LNG-EC), ulipristal acetate (UPA) and the copper intrauterine device. All are extremely safe, and side effects are minimal. Concerns about increased risks of ectopic pregnancy after EC use have proved unfounded, and possible teratogenic effects seem unlikely. Although the true effectiveness of EC is impossible to estimate, recent research suggests that LNG-EC prevents around 50% of expected pregnancies in women using the method within 72 h of intercourse, whereas UPA appeared to prevent almost two thirds of pregnancies. Emergency intrauterine device insertion probably prevents over 95% of pregnancies. However, although improved accessibility of EC has clearly led to increased use, it does not appear to have had any public health benefit in reducing unintended pregnancy rates. Most of the data on sexual behavior following improved access to EC do not show any detrimental effect on subsequent use of other more effective methods of contraception or on the incidence of unintended pregnancy or sexually transmitted infection. However, unless these other methods of contraception are also made easily available from pharmacies, improved access to EC risks unlinking its use with use of subsequent ongoing contraception. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Emergency Teacher Certification. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashburn, Elizabeth A.

    Emergency certification involves the issuance of teaching licenses to individuals who have not completed a traditional college or university teacher education program. This two-page information review examines the problems arising from emergency certification and its relationship to student achievement. Some alternatives to emergency certification…

  20. Emergency Health Services Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health Services and Mental Health Administration (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.

    This annotated bibliography contains books, journal articles, visual aids, and other documents pertaining to emergency health care, which are organized according to: (1) publications dealing with day-to-day health emergencies that occur at home, work, and play, (2) documents that will help communities prepare for emergencies, including natural…

  1. Training teams for emergency management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafstal, A.M.; Johnston, J.H.; Oser, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    Emergency management (EM), the decision making involved in directing the relief operation after a disaster or otherwise catastrophic accident is an issue of great public and private concern because of the high stakes involved. Due to the nature of emergencies, and especially mass emergencies, EM

  2. NLM Emergency Access Initiative: FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facebook Visit us on Twitter Visit us on Youtube Emergency Access Initiative Home | Journals | Books | Online Databases | FAQs Take Short Survey FAQ What is the Emergency Access Initiative? The Emergency Access Initiative (EAI) is a collaborative partnership between NLM and participating publishers to

  3. Emergency Contraception: a survey of Hospital Emergency Departments Staffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization defines emergency contraception (EC as a means to prevent unwanted pregnancy. In countries where EC is dispensed behind the counter, emergency departments are a preferred point of care for its prescription and dispensing. In light of this situation and as no studies on emergency contraception in emergency departments in Italy have been conducted to date, this study was designed with a view to analyze the responses of emergency room physicians in relation to their prescribing habits and knowledge about the drug and in relation to frequency and profile of women arriving for care at hospital emergency departments in Piedmont and requesting prescription for the morning-after pill. This cross-sectional survey involved 29 hospital emergency departments in Piedmont where no gynecologists are on active duty. The survey instrument was a 24-item questionnaire. Analysis of responses revealed that in the physicians’ opinion the vast majority of requests came from Italian nationals (97% ranging in age from 18 to 30 years (76%, single and not cohabiting with a partner (60%, and nulliparous (64.0%. Women mostly request EC for first-time and the most common reasons were condom breakage or slippage. Just over half the physicians (52% stated that emergency contraception prescription was not an appropriate part of care provided at an emergency department and 72% stated they felt uneasy about prescribing emergency contraception. The survey also revealed gaps in physician knowledge about the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of emergency contraception pills.

  4. Emergency Contraception: a survey of Hospital Emergency Departments Staffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization defines emergency contraception (EC as a means to prevent unwanted pregnancy. In countries where EC is dispensed behind the counter, emergency departments are a preferred point of care for its prescription and dispensing. In light of this situation and as no studies on emergency contraception in emergency departments in Italy have been conducted to date, this study was designed with a view to analyze the responses of emergency room physicians in relation to their prescribing habits and knowledge about the drug and in relation to frequency and profile of women arriving for care at hospital emergency departments in Piedmont and requesting prescription for the morning-after pill. This cross-sectional survey involved 29 hospital emergency departments in Piedmont where no gynecologists are on active duty. The survey instrument was a 24-item questionnaire. Analysis of responses revealed that in the physicians’ opinion the vast majority of requests came from Italian nationals (97% ranging in age from 18 to 30 years (76%, single and not cohabiting with a partner (60%, and nulliparous (64.0%. Women mostly request EC for first-time and the most common reasons were condom breakage or slippage. Just over half the physicians (52% stated that emergency contraception prescription was not an appropriate part of care provided at an emergency department and 72% stated they felt uneasy about prescribing emergency contraception. The survey also revealed gaps in physician knowledge about the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of emergency contraception pills.

  5. Symptom-based emergency operating procedures development for Ignalina NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruglov, Y.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper and lecture are presented: (1) Introduction; (2) EOP project work stages and documentation; (3) Selection and justification of accident management strategy; (4) Content of EOP package; (5) Development of EOP package; (6) EOP package verification; (7) EOP package validation; (8) EOP training; (9) EOP implementation; (10) Conditions of symptom-based emergency operating producers package application and its interconnection with event-based emergency operating procedures; (11) Rules of EOP application; EOP maintenance

  6. Operator use of procedures during simulated emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, E.M.; Mumaw, R.J.; Lewis, P.M.

    1995-04-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an empirical study of nuclear power plant operator performance in cognitively demanding simulated emergencies. During emergencies operators follow highly prescriptive written procedures. The objectives of the study were to understand and document what role higher-level cognitive activities such as diagnosis, or more generally {open_quotes}situation assessment,{close_quotes} play in guiding operator performance, given that operators utilize procedures in responding to the events. The study examined crew performance in variants of two simulated emergencies: (1) an Interfacing System Loss of Coolant Accident and (2) a Loss of Heat Sink scenario. Data on operator performance were collected using training simulators at two plant sites. Up to 11 crews from each plant participated in each of two simulated emergencies for a total of 38 cases analyzed. Crew performance was videotaped and partial transcripts were produced and analyzed. The results revealed a number of instances where higher-level cognitive activities such as situation assessment and response planning enabled operators to handle aspects of the situation that were not fully addressed by the procedures. The paper summarizes these cases and their implications for the development and evaluation of training and control room aids, as well as for human reliability analyses. The full report of the study is published as NUREG/CR-6208.

  7. Operator use of procedures during simulated emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, E.M.; Mumaw, R.J.; Lewis, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an empirical study of nuclear power plant operator performance in cognitively demanding simulated emergencies. During emergencies operators follow highly prescriptive written procedures. The objectives of the study were to understand and document what role higher-level cognitive activities such as diagnosis, or more generally ' situation assessment,' play in guiding operator performance, given that operators utilize procedures in responding to the events. The study examined crew performance in variants of two simulated emergencies: (1) an Interfacing System Loss of Coolant Accident and (2) a Loss of Heat Sink scenario. Data on operator performance were collected using training simulators at two plant sites. Up to 11 crews from each plant participated in each of two simulated emergencies for a total of 38 cases analyzed. Crew performance was videotaped and partial transcripts were produced and analyzed. The results revealed a number of instances where higher-level cognitive activities such as situation assessment and response planning enabled operators to handle aspects of the situation that were not fully addressed by the procedures. The paper summarizes these cases and their implications for the development and evaluation of training and control room aids, as well as for human reliability analyses. The full report of the study is published as NUREG/CR-6208

  8. Novel and Emerging Technologies for Produced Water Treatment, March 30, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development of unconventional gas resources, including coalbed methane (CBM), shale gas, and tight sand is currently one of the most rapidly growing trends in domestic oil and gas exploration and production.

  9. Navy-After-Next Contingency Producible Corvette (CPC): Emergency Production Historical Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCarton, Matthew; Garzke, Bill

    2004-01-01

    ...?" Two approaches were tried by the U.S. Navy during World War One and Two. The first approach was to use an existing fleet destroyer design and attempt to accelerate production by increasing the number on order and the number of building yards...

  10. Using Complex Auditory-Visual Samples to Produce Emergent Relations in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groskreutz, Nicole C.; Karsina, Allen; Miguel, Caio F.; Groskreutz, Mark P.

    2010-01-01

    Six participants with autism learned conditional relations between complex auditory-visual sample stimuli (dictated words and pictures) and simple visual comparisons (printed words) using matching-to-sample training procedures. Pre- and posttests examined potential stimulus control by each element of the complex sample when presented individually…

  11. Engineering CNDP's of dendrimers containing phosphorous interior compositions to produce new emerging properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminade, Anne-Marie; Majoral, Jean-Pierre

    2018-03-01

    Phosphorus-containing dendrimers are defined as dendrimers having at least one phosphorus atom at each branching point. In this review, we will show how phosphorhydrazone dendrimers can be modified at will at the level of the core and of the branches, to afford specific properties, such as fluorescence to image biological events. Accelerated methods of synthesis of phosphorus (one step for one generation) will be also displayed, as well as the specific reactivity of P=N-P=S linkages obtained in most of these accelerated method of synthesis, which has led to particularly original dendritic architectures, such as dendrons included in dendrimers. Finally, we will display how modifications of the internal structure of a series of dendrimers having the same type and number of terminal functions can deeply modify their biological anti-inflammatory properties. Among the six critical nanoscale design parameters (CNDP), we will show how two of them, i.e., architecture and elemental composition, have been particularly engineered to modify phosphorus-containing dendrimers, in order to fulfill the desired properties.

  12. Evolution of Emergent Technologies for Producing Nonwoven Fabrics for Air Filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Yingjie

    2016-01-01

    Nonwovens is a fast growing industry driven by technological research and development (R&D), and one of the major application areas for nonwovens is air filtration. Research on nonwovens technologies has mainly focused on the science and technology areas, but there is very little published research on technology management issues within the…

  13. Emergence of the continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, H.

    1978-01-01

    If early degassing of the Earth produced a global ocean several km deep overlying a global sialic crust, then late heavy bombardment of that crust by basin forming impacting bodies would have produced topography such that by 4 billion years ago dry continential landmasses would stand above sea level. From extrapolation of lunar crater statistics, at least 50% of an original global crust on the earth would have been converted into basins averaging 4 km deep after isostatic adjustment. These basins formed the sink into which such a global ocean would drain. If the ocean was initially 2 km deep, then approximately 50% of the early Earth would have stood above sea level when the late heavy bombardment came to a close.

  14. Part I. Emergency workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This monograph deals with assessment of radiological health effects of the Chernobyl accident for emergency workers (part 1) and the population of the contaminated areas in Russia (part 2). The Chernobyl emergency workers and people living in the contaminated areas of Russia received much lower doses than the population of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and it was unclear whether risks of radiation-induced cancers derived with the Japanese data could be extrapolated to the low dose range However, it was predicted as early as in 1990 that the thyroid cancer incidence might be increasing due to incorporated 131 irradiation. What conclusions can be drawn from regarding cancer incidence among emergency workers and residents of the contaminated areas in Russia and the role of the radiation factor on the basis of the registry data? Leukemia incidence. Leukemia incidence is known to be one of principal indications of radiation effects. The radiation risk for leukemias is 3-4 times higher that for solid cancers and its latent period is estimated to be 2-3 years after exposure. Results of the radiation epidemiological studies discussed in this book show that in the worst contaminated Bryansk region the leukemia incidence rate is not higher than in the country in general. Even though some evidence exists for the dose response relationship, the radiation risks appear to be not statistically significant. Since risks of leukemia are known to be higher for those who were children at exposure, long-term epidemiological studies need to be continued. The study of leukemias among emergency workers strongly suggest the existence of dose response relationship. In those who received external doses more than 0.15 Gy the leukemia incidence rate is two time higher and these emergency workers should be referred to as a group of increased radiation risk. Solid cancers. The obtained results provide no evidence to a radiation-induced increase in solid cancers among residents of the contaminated areas

  15. Emerging technology and techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopi Naveen Chander

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A technique of fabricating feldspathic porcelain pressable ingots was proposed. A 5 ml disposable syringe was used to condense the powder slurry. The condensed porcelain was sintered at 900΀C to produce porcelain ingots. The fabricated porcelain ingots were used in pressable ceramic machines. The technological advantages of pressable system improve the properties, and the fabricated ingot enhances the application of feldspathic porcelain.

  16. Diseases in insects produced for food and feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilenberg, Jørgen; Vlak, J.M.; Nielsen-Leroux, C.

    2015-01-01

    Increased production of insects on a large scale for food and feed will likely lead to many novel challenges, including problems with diseases. We provide an overview of important groups of insect pathogens, which can cause disease in insects produced for food and feed. Main characteristics of each...... pathogen group (viruses, bacteria, fungi, protists and nematodes) are described and illustrated, with a selection of examples from the most commonly produced insect species for food and feed. Honeybee and silkworm are mostly produced for other reasons than as human food, yet we can still use them...... as examples to learn about emergence of new diseases in production insects. Results from a 2014 survey about insect diseases in current insect production systems are presented for the first time. Finally, we give some recommendations for the prevention and control of insect diseases. Key words: disease...

  17. Human Cells as Platform to Produce Gamma-Carboxylated Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa Bomfim, Aline; de Freitas, Marcela Cristina Corrêa; Covas, Dimas Tadeu; de Sousa Russo, Elisa Maria

    2018-01-01

    The gamma-carboxylated proteins belong to a family of proteins that depend on vitamin K for normal biosynthesis. The major representative gamma-carboxylated proteins are the coagulation system proteins, for example, factor VII, factor IX, factor X, prothrombin, and proteins C, S, and Z. These molecules have harbored posttranslational modifications, such as glycosylation and gamma-carboxylation, and for this reason they need to be produced in mammalian cell lines. Human cells lines have emerged as the most promising alternative to the production of gamma-carboxylated proteins. In this chapter, the methods to generate human cells as a platform to produce gamma-carboxylated proteins, for example the coagulation factors VII and IX, are presented. From the cell line modification up to the vitamin K adaptation of the produced cells is described in the protocols presented in this chapter.

  18. Radiological emergency response - a functional approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, Prosanta [Louisiana Radiation Protection Div., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The radiological emergency response program in the State of Louisiana is discussed. The improved approach intends to maximize the efficiency for both nuclear power plant and radiological emergency response as a whole. Several broad-based components are identified: cluster of `nodes` are generated for each component; these `nodes` may be divided into `sub-nodes` which will contain some `attributes`; `relational bonds` among the `attributes` will exist. When executed, the process begins and continues with the `nodes` assuming a functional and dynamic role based on the nature and characteristics of the `attributes`. The typical response based on stand-alone elements is eliminated; overlapping of functions is avoided, and is produced a well-structure and efficient organization 1 ref., 6 figs.; e-mail: prosanta at deq.state.la.us

  19. Radiological emergency response - a functional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, Prosanta

    1997-01-01

    The radiological emergency response program in the State of Louisiana is discussed. The improved approach intends to maximize the efficiency for both nuclear power plant and radiological emergency response as a whole. Several broad-based components are identified: cluster of 'nodes' are generated for each component; these 'nodes' may be divided into 'sub-nodes' which will contain some 'attributes'; 'relational bonds' among the 'attributes' will exist. When executed, the process begins and continues with the 'nodes' assuming a functional and dynamic role based on the nature and characteristics of the 'attributes'. The typical response based on stand-alone elements is eliminated; overlapping of functions is avoided, and is produced a well-structure and efficient organization

  20. Ar-41 measurements and nuclear emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunst, J.J.; Rodriguez, M.; Ugarte, R.; Vigile, R.S.; Boutet, L.I.; Jordan, O.D.; Hernandez, D.G.

    2010-01-01

    During the early phase of an emergency is necessary to confirm the release of radioactivity predictions made by the operator of the nuclear plant. In this context, it has begun measuring Ar-41 in the vicinity of a research reactor. Since the Ar-41 is produced in the reactor, it has been studied as a good way to validate the air dispersion model used in nuclear emergencies and to develop a method to improve the characterization of the release. For this latter purpose a pilot experiment was conducted to determine computational and experimental methods, the flux of 1.29 MeV of Ar-41 and compared to evaluate the accuracy of the assessments made. This paper describes meteorological forecasting systems used in the experiment, the estimate of the stability class and the concentration of nuclides using a calculation code developed by the ARN, as well as the methodology and equipment used for measurement in the field. (authors) [es

  1. Conducting nanofibres produced by electrospinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S.; Davis, F. J.; Mitchell, G. R.; Robinson, E.

    2009-08-01

    Electrospun fibres based on polypyrrole have been prepared. The incorporation of preformed polypyrrole into fibres electrospun from a carrier polymer can only be achieved when materials are prepared with particulates smaller than the cross-section of the fibre; even so there are some problems, with the substantial loss of material from the electrode tip. As an alternative approach, soluble polypyrroles can be prepared but these are not of sufficient viscosity to prepare electrospun fibres, once again a carrier polymer must be employed. More effective loadings are gained by the process of coating the outer surface of a pre-spun fibre; in this way electrospun fibres coated with polypyrrole can be prepared. This approach has been adapted to produce silver coated polymer fibres by the use of copolymers of styrene and 3-vinyl benzaldehyde.

  2. Conducting nanofibres produced by electrospinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, S; Mitchell, G R; Robinson, E; Davis, F J

    2009-01-01

    Electrospun fibres based on polypyrrole have been prepared. The incorporation of preformed polypyrrole into fibres electrospun from a carrier polymer can only be achieved when materials are prepared with particulates smaller than the cross-section of the fibre; even so there are some problems, with the substantial loss of material from the electrode tip. As an alternative approach, soluble polypyrroles can be prepared but these are not of sufficient viscosity to prepare electrospun fibres, once again a carrier polymer must be employed. More effective loadings are gained by the process of coating the outer surface of a pre-spun fibre; in this way electrospun fibres coated with polypyrrole can be prepared. This approach has been adapted to produce silver coated polymer fibres by the use of copolymers of styrene and 3-vinyl benzaldehyde.

  3. Producer flexibility answers market forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Flatern, R.

    1996-01-01

    The petroleum industry was revolutionized in the 1980s when oil became a commodity and rising prices no longer ensured profits. Alliancing, partnering, integration and operator cooperation became economic responses to the 1990s market reality. The industry has long been a bastion of free-marketeering; competition among producers and service providers continues to control prices. But new, more efficient ways of doing business control costs in an industry buffeted by stagnant prices, a prolonged period of downsizing and increasingly difficult and remote operating environments. How long the new business atmosphere will last depends on industry needs and how well things work out. But based on the successes of the immediate past and the foreseeable future, the new cross-company business practices seem destined only to multiply

  4. Tactical training of emergency management - the MUSTER concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Verner.

    1996-08-01

    The efficiency with which complex, large-scale organisations respon d to emergencies and critical situations depends crucially on the co-ordination of actions and communication among decision makers. However, decision makers have typically few opportunities to train distributed crisis management under artificial, yet realistic conditions; and at the same time, real emergencies occur fortunately so relatively infrequently that few decision makers have a chance of establishing a useful real-life experience of crisis management. There is therefore a need for having available realistic and flexible multi-user training environments in which co-ordinated response to crises or emergencies may be trained. The objective of the MUSTER project (Multi-User System for Training and Evaluating Environmental Emergency Response) is to produce specifications for a training system supporting collaborative training and evaluation directed to the special needs of environmental emergency management. The MUSTER project was partially funced by CEC

  5. Process for producing a polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshimura, M; Haruta, K; Matsuzaka, J; Terakado, H

    1969-02-13

    A novel polymer is produced by a novel polymerization or copolymerization process in the presence of a free radical-forming catalyst or radical-forming irradiation energy to provide a monomer of the general formula CH/sub 2/=C(R/sub 1/)(COO)-(R/sub 2/OOCR/sub 3/COO)sub(n)-R/sub 2/OH wherein R/sub 1/ is hydrogen, halogen or alkyl radical containing one or two atoms; R/sub 2/ is an epoxy compound residue; R/sub 3/ is a polybasic anhydride residue; and n is an integer. This polymer: (1) enables the cross-linking reaction, (2) improves the adhesiveness of adhesives, pigments, films and coatings; (3) is adjustable for mutual solubility and affinity when blending with other solvents and resins; (4) is resistant to yellowing and mechanically stronger than the benzene nucleus of styrene; (5) improves the textile dyeing affinity, adhesiveness and dispersion of pigments, and the dimensional stability of films and sheets; (6) is suitable as a molding material of synthetic resins, adhesives and coatings because of its three dimensional cross-linking construction; (7) can control the hardness, flexibility and rigidity of the molding materials; and (8) can lower the cost of production. In an example, 10 g of the monomer of the above mentioned formula wherein n=1, R/sub 1/=CH/sub 3/, R/sub 2/=-(CH/sub 2/)/sub 2/ and R/sub 3/ is ortho-substituted benzene, and 0.1 g of benzol peroxide, are added to ampoule, sealed and polymerized at 120/sup 0/C for 2 hours. Next the contents are precipitated in a large amount of benzene to produce a polymer having a molecular weight of 9,500. The products have good dimensional stability as molding materials.

  6. EMERGE - ESnet/MREN Regional Science Grid Experimental NGI Testbed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mambretti, Joe; DeFanti, Tom; Brown, Maxine

    2001-07-31

    This document is the final report on the EMERGE Science Grid testbed research project from the perspective of the International Center for Advanced Internet Research (iCAIR) at Northwestern University, which was a subcontractor to this UIC project. This report is a compilation of information gathered from a variety of materials related to this project produced by multiple EMERGE participants, especially those at Electronic Visualization Lab (EVL) at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC), Argonne National Lab and iCAIR. The EMERGE Science Grid project was managed by Tom DeFanti, PI from EVL at UIC.

  7. The Student Volunteer Army: a 'repeat emergent' emergency response organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, Sally; Mills, Colleen E

    2017-10-01

    This paper seeks to contribute to understanding of the factors associated with an effective emergent emergency response organisation and to provide new insights into this understudied area. It examines, through an analysis of a range of textual resources, the emergence and re-emergence of the Student Volunteer Army (SVA) during the devastating earthquakes in Canterbury, New Zealand, in 2010-11. This evaluation is conducted in relation to the four key features of an effective emergency response organisation: adaptability; direction; leadership; and communication. In addition, the paper aims to further understanding of 'emergency entrepreneurship' and thus of the values and strategies that underpin social entrepreneur organisations in times of normalcy. The paper concludes that the unique position of the SVA as a 'repeat emergent' emergency response organisation enabled it to innovate continually and to improve repeatedly its systems, relationships, and image, such that it exhibited features common to emergent and established emergency response organisations. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  8. Emergency exercise ''Mosel 90''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miska, H.H.

    1993-01-01

    An emergency exercise for the environs of the nuclear power plant CPN de Cattenom was performed from April, 5th to 7th, 1990. Administration and operational personnel from Luxembourg, Saarland, and Rhineland-Palatinate (RP) participated in the combined staff and field exercise; the competent French authority, la Prefecture de Metz, played the role of the licencee. While each responsible authority tested its alarm -and response plan and trained its personnel, a major aim of the off-site exercise was to investigate and improve the methods of communication in this border region location; the outer planning zone (radius 25 km) of the French reactors encompasses parts of Luxembourg and of the two German states mentioned above. Preparation and scenario of the exercise will be explained and lessons learned will be discussed

  9. Emergent Computation Emphasizing Bioinformatics

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Matthew

    2005-01-01

    Emergent Computation is concerned with recent applications of Mathematical Linguistics or Automata Theory. This subject has a primary focus upon "Bioinformatics" (the Genome and arising interest in the Proteome), but the closing chapter also examines applications in Biology, Medicine, Anthropology, etc. The book is composed of an organized examination of DNA, RNA, and the assembly of amino acids into proteins. Rather than examine these areas from a purely mathematical viewpoint (that excludes much of the biochemical reality), the author uses scientific papers written mostly by biochemists based upon their laboratory observations. Thus while DNA may exist in its double stranded form, triple stranded forms are not excluded. Similarly, while bases exist in Watson-Crick complements, mismatched bases and abasic pairs are not excluded, nor are Hoogsteen bonds. Just as there are four bases naturally found in DNA, the existence of additional bases is not ignored, nor amino acids in addition to the usual complement of...

  10. Upgrading France's emergency plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moures, Y.

    1991-01-01

    In France as elsewhere, the Chernobyl accident spurred a new stage in the development of nuclear safety. In the months following the accident, France's Minister of Industry launched a campaign to strengthen research and safety measures to: prevent reactor accidents; reinforce the concept of quality in operations; train staff, in areas such as crisis management; systematically review plans, installations and techniques related to crisis management; study accident containment procedures. There was also a systematic review of communication links with authorities and outside emergency organizations during the critical phase of an accident. On the operational level regulatory monitoring procedures were reorganized and reinforced. France has not opted for the permanent presence of on-site inspectors, but rather for the total, continuous responsibility of the power plant operator, with the safety authority intervening at frequent intervals. A major programme was also established to increase capabilities for investigation and intervention in a radioactive environment in nuclear installations. (author)

  11. Emergency core cooling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzaki, Kiyoshi; Inoue, Akihiro.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To improve core cooling effect by making the operation region for a plurality of water injection pumps more broader. Constitution: An emergency reactor core cooling device actuated upon failure of recycling pipe ways is adapted to be fed with cooling water through a thermal sleeve by way of a plurality of water injection pump from pool water in a condensate storage tank and a pressure suppression chamber as water feed source. Exhaust pipes and suction pipes of each of the pumps are connected by way of switching valves and the valves are switched so that the pumps are set to a series operation if the pressure in the pressure vessel is high and the pumps are set to a parallel operation if the pressure in the pressure vessel is low. (Furukawa, Y.)

  12. Implementation of Emerging Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barba, F. J.; Orlien, Vibeke; Mota, Maria J.

    2016-01-01

    safety are presented and discussed with an ultimate goal to explore strategies for their implementation in the food industry. Novel thermal and nonthermal technologies have shown clear environmental benefits by improving the overall energy efficiency of the process and reducing the use of nonrenewable......Novel processing technologies have been gaining interest among food researchers due to their lower impact on nutritional and sensory properties of the products compared to the conventional thermal techniques. In this chapter some of the most well-studied (eg, high-pressure processing, pulsed...... electric fields, ohmic heating, microwave, and ultrasound) emerging technologies are briefly reviewed. Most of these technologies have found niche applications in the food industry, replacing or complementing conventional preservation technologies. Thereby, data on commercialization, energy, and microbial...

  13. Communication in nuclear emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozawa, Masao

    1996-01-01

    In order to take protection measures smoothly at the time of emergency in nuclear power stations and others, it is necessary to prepare information communication facilities mutually among disaster prevention organizations including the state and information transmission network for residents in surrounding areas. The matters decided in ''the measures to be taken for the time being for the countermeasures to prevent disaster in nuclear power stations and others'' are shown. In order to avoid the congestion of communication, the exclusively used communication systems are adopted for disaster prevention organizations, in which facsimile is used to transmit graphic information. The data communication circuits for distributing SPEEDI are installed between Science and Technology Agency, Nuclear Power Safety Technology Center and respective prefectures. The routes, means and order of notices must be confirmed beforehand mutually among the related organizations. As to the general communication for disaster countermeasures, the communication systems in ministries and agencies are described. (K.I.)

  14. Emerging treatments in alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falto-Aizpurua, Leyre; Choudhary, Sonal; Tosti, Antonella

    2014-12-01

    Alopecia is a common concern encountered in the medical practice. Treatment approach varies according to the type and severity of alopecia. However, available treatment options have limited efficacy and several adverse effects. Presently, there are different treatment options being studied to overcome these limitations. Additionally, cellular pathways involved in the pathophysiology of alopecia are further being clarified to potentially target pathogenic molecules. We searched the literature for recently published articles discussing new treatment options as well as mechanisms involved in alopecia. We discuss the use of stem cells, growth factors, cellular pathways and robotic hair transplant, among other emerging therapies used for alopecia. Future looks very promising and new effective treatments such as janus kinase inhibitors could possibly be available for alopecia areata. The stem-cell technology is advancing and companies involved in hair follicle neogenesis are starting clinical trials on patients with androgenetic alopecia.

  15. Emergency planning knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheorghe, A.; Vamanu, D.

    1996-01-01

    This book is an essay in dealing with the risks and consequences of disruptive events in some emblematical enterprises of our time. The striking relevance of the variability factor in emergency management makes it difficult to encompass the entire difficulty in a fully generic, streamlined discourse. That is why, while trying its best to extract generic pieces of wisdom from the varied experience reported in the exploding literature around that deals with the subject, this text would rather focus on a few case histories at hand, that may more eloquently, if implicitly, illustrate authors' stand. The three projects that served the purpose - ETH-NUMERISK, MONITOT.HSK, and ETH-CHEMRISK - are components of a research project in the Swiss academic and educational environment. figs., tabs., refs,

  16. Emergent traffic jams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, K.; Paczuski, M.

    1995-01-01

    We study a single-lane traffic model that is based on human driving behavior. The outflow from a traffic jam self-organizes to a critical state of maximum throughput. Small perturbations of the outflow far downstream create emergent traffic jams with a power law distribution P(t)∼t -3/2 of lifetimes t. On varying the vehicle density in a closed system, this critical state separates lamellar and jammed regimes and exhibits 1/f noise in the power spectrum. Using random walk arguments, in conjunction with a cascade equation, we develop a phenomenological theory that predicts the critical exponents for this transition and explains the self-organizing behavior. These predictions are consistent with all of our numerical results

  17. Emergent traffic jams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Kai; Paczuski, Maya

    1995-04-01

    We study a single-lane traffic model that is based on human driving behavior. The outflow from a traffic jam self-organizes to a critical state of maximum throughput. Small perturbations of the outflow far downstream create emergent traffic jams with a power law distribution P(t)~t-3/2 of lifetimes t. On varying the vehicle density in a closed system, this critical state separates lamellar and jammed regimes and exhibits 1/f noise in the power spectrum. Using random walk arguments, in conjunction with a cascade equation, we develop a phenomenological theory that predicts the critical exponents for this transition and explains the self-organizing behavior. These predictions are consistent with all of our numerical results.

  18. Assessment of produced water contaminated soils to determine remediation requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clodfelter, C.

    1995-01-01

    Produced water and drilling fluids can impact the agricultural properties of soil and result in potential regulatory and legal liabilities. Produced water typically is classified as saline or a brine and affects surface soils by increasing the sodium and chloride content. Sources of produced water which can lead to problems include spills from flowlines and tank batteries, permitted surface water discharges and pit areas, particularly the larger pits including reserve pits, emergency pits and saltwater disposal pits. Methods to assess produced water spills include soil sampling with various chemical analyses and surface geophysical methods. A variety of laboratory analytical methods are available for soil assessment which include electrical conductivity, sodium adsorption ratio, cation exchange capacity, exchangeable sodium percent and others. Limiting the list of analytical parameters to reduce cost and still obtain the data necessary to assess the extent of contamination and determine remediation requirements can be difficult. The advantage to using analytical techniques is that often regulatory remediation standards are tied to soil properties determined from laboratory analysis. Surface geophysical techniques can be an inexpensive method to rapidly determine the extent and relative magnitude of saline soils. Data interpretations can also provide an indication of the horizontal as well as the vertical extent of impacted soils. The following discussion focuses on produced water spills on soil and assessment of the impacted soil. Produced water typically contains dissolved hydrocarbons which are not addressed in this discussion

  19. Manual for reactor produced radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    numerous new developments that have taken place since then. Hence in this manual it was decided to focus only on reactor produced radioisotopes. This manual contains procedures for 48 important reactor-produced isotopes. These were contributed by major radioisotope producers from different parts of the world and are based on their practical experience. In case of widely used radioisotopes such as 131 I, 32 P and 99 Mo, information from more than one centre is included so that the users can compare the procedures. As in the earlier two versions, a general introductory write-up is included covering basic information on related aspects such as target irradiation, handling facilities, radiation protection and transportation, but in less detail. Relevant IAEA publications on such matters, particularly related to radiation protection and transportation, should be referred to for guidelines. Similarly, the nuclear data contained in the manual are only indicative and the relevant databases should be referred to for more authentic values. It is hoped that the manual will be a useful source of information for those working in radioisotope production laboratories as well as those intending to initiate such activities

  20. Conceptions of mobile emergency service health professionals concerning psychiatric emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Bonfada

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Under the Brazilian Psychiatric Reformation, assistance to psychological seizures represents a challenge for the emergency services. Therefore, the objective of this paper is the analysis of the conceptions of health professionals who work at the Mobile Emergency Service in Natal on psychiatric emergency care. This paper is, then, a qualitative study that used interviews as tools for collecting information. By using thematic analysis, the speeches were grouped into three categories: the stigma on patients and the professionals' fear of services interventions in psychiatric emergencies; having psychiatric emergencies regarded as harmful to patients and others' security; psychiatric emergencies being taken as patients' aggressiveness or severe depression. The data collected indicate that the interviewed professionals' ideas are supported by elements associated with the ideology that insanity implies social segregation and dangerousness. Thus, the survey prompted reflection on relevant issues to the process of psychiatric reformation implementation.

  1. The Emergence of the Analytical Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    2012-01-01

    accountability, visibility and documentation. It is argued that pedagogy is generated as a sequential and unit-specified way of working on the production of ‘the learning child’, forming a time- and material-optimising approach. Hereby, the nursery teacher, as a daily scientific researcher, comes to serve...... the nation by an ongoing observational intervention, producing the learning foundation for the entrepreneurial citizen, and thus the nation as a knowledge society in a globalised world. This is what this article terms the emergence of the analytical method....

  2. The Emerging City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    The paper explores how urban bodies such as architecture, urban design, art works and social action can be drawn together in as urban assemblages producing “a movement of generalised deterritorialization”(Deleuze & Guattari 2004:78) in relation to the city. The first example, “The Elbæk bench” – ......, Capitalism and Schizofrenia. Transl. Massumi Continuum, New York, London Whitehead, A.N. (1978) Process and Reality, corrected edition, Eds. Griffin, David Ray & Sherburne, Donald. W. The Free Press, New York...

  3. Mobile emergency, an emergency support system for hospitals in mobile devices: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, Pierfrancesco; Boncinelli, Sergio; Grossi, Francesco; Mangini, Marco; Nesi, Paolo; Sequi, Leonardo

    2013-05-23

    Hospitals are vulnerable to natural disasters, man-made disasters, and mass causalities events. Within a short time, hospitals must provide care to large numbers of casualties in any damaged infrastructure, despite great personnel risk, inadequate communications, and limited resources. Communications are one of the most common challenges and drawbacks during in-hospital emergencies. Emergency difficulties in communicating with personnel and other agencies are mentioned in literature. At the moment of emergency inception and in the earliest emergency phases, the data regarding the true nature of the incidents are often inaccurate. The real needs and conditions are not yet clear, hospital personnel are neither efficiently coordinated nor informed on the real available resources. Information and communication technology solutions in health care turned out to have a great positive impact both on daily working practice and situations. The objective of this paper was to find a solution that addresses the aspects of communicating among medical personnel, formalizing the modalities and protocols and the information to guide the medical personnel during emergency conditions with a support of a Central Station (command center) to cope with emergency management and best practice network to produce and distribute intelligent content made available in the mobile devices of the medical personnel. The aim was to reduce the time needed to react and to cope with emergency organization, while facilitating communications. The solution has been realized by formalizing the scenarios, extracting, and identifying the requirements by using formal methods based on unified modeling language (UML). The system and was developed using mobile programming under iOS Apple and PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor My Structured Query Language (PHP MySQL). Formal questionnaires and time sheets were used for testing and validation, and a control group was used in order to estimate the reduction of time needed

  4. MARKETING STRATEGIES OF SMARTPHONES PRODUCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markova V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Smartphones global market is one of the most dynamically developing markets that can be characterized by high level of competition. The growth of smartphones homogeneity, which is a reduction in difference between technical and functional parameters of smartphones produced by various manufacturers, can be considered the market’s specific feature. The unique situation of high-tech product homogeneity in a fast-growing market is scantily described in specialized literature. The article shows changeability of smartphones global market leaders and explains that the key success factor in such a mature market is marketing. Based on secondary information, marketing strategies of long standing market leader in sales Samsung and overtaking Apple companies are determined as well as strategies of contenders for leadership - Chinese companies Huawei and Lenovo. It is shown on Lenovo case that inexplicit positioning leads to a loss of the growing market share due to offensive marketing strategies of other Chinese companies. The research results broaden the knowledge of methodical potential of marketing strategies in companies’ activities in competitive markets of homogeneous high-tech products.

  5. Producing tantalum or columbium powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rerat, C.F.

    1979-01-01

    A process is described for the production of tantalum or columbium powder with a high yield within a desired range of particle sizes. A molten salt bath of a double salt comprising either an alkali metal tantalum fluoride or an alkali metal columbium fluoride and a relatively large amount of alkali metal halide diluent salt to act as a heat sink is initially maintained at a temperature a little above the liquidus temperature of the salt mixture. A liquid alkali metal at a comparatively low temperature is added to the continuously stirred bath at a high mass flow rate, and reduces the double salt, producing tantalum or columbium. The reaction is exothermic and causes the temperature to rise rapidly to a desired final reaction temperature within the range 760 to 1000 0 . The liquid alkali metal is thereafter fed at a high mass flow rate to complete the reaction quickly at the final reaction temperature. Forced cooling at a heat extraction rate not less than 42 kilojoules/min./kg. of double salt is used during at least a portion of the reaction cycle at a rate sufficient to maintain the final reaction temperature within a desired range. (author)

  6. Sideways Force Produced During Disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, H. R.; Paccagnella, R.; Breslau, J.; Jardin, S.; Sugiyama, L.

    2012-10-01

    We extend previous studies [1] of vertical displacement events (VDE) which can produce disruptions. The emphasis is on the non axisymmetric ``sideways'' wall force Fx. Simulations are performed using the M3D [2] code. A VDE expels magnetic flux through the resistive wall until the last closed flux surface has q VDE is presented. The wall force depends strongly on γτw, where γ is the mode growth rate and τw is the wall resistive penetration time. The force Fx is largest when γτw is a constant of order unity, which depends on the initial conditions. For large values of γτw, the wall force asymptotes to a relatively smaller value, well below the critical value ITER is designed to withstand. The principle of disruption mitigation by massive gas injection is to cause a disruption with large γτw. [4pt] [1] H. R. Strauss, R. Paccagnella, and J. Breslau,Phys. Plasmas 17, 082505 (2010) [2] W. Park, E.V. Belova, G.Y. Fu, X. Tang, H.R. Strauss, L.E. Sugiyama, Phys. Plasmas 6, 1796 (1999).

  7. Yeast: A new oil producer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beopoulos Athanasios

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand of plant oils or animal fat for biodiesel and specific lipid derivatives for the oleochemical field (such as lubricants, adhesives or plastics have created price imbalance in both the alimentary and energy field. Moreover, the lack of non-edible oil feedstock has given rise to concerns on land-use practices and on oil production strategies. Recently, much attention has been paid to the exploitation of microbial oils. Most of them present lipid profiles similar in type and composition to plants and could therefore have many advantages as are no competitive with food, have short process cycles and their cultivation is independent of climate factors. Among microorganisms, yeasts seem to be very promising as they can be easily genetically enhanced, are suitable for large-scale fermentation and are devoid of endotoxins. This review will focus on the recent understanding of yeasts lipid metabolism, the succeeding genetic engineering of the lipid pathways and the recent developments on fermentation techniques that pointed out yeasts as promising alternative producers for oil or plastic.

  8. Collision-produced atomic states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, N.; Copenhagen Univ.

    1988-01-01

    The last 10-15 years have witnessed the development of a new, powerful class of experimental techniques for atomic collision studies, allowing partial or complete determination of the state of the atoms after a collision event, i.e. the full set of quantum-mechanical scattering amplitudes or - more generally - the density matrix describing the system. Evidently, such studies, involving determination of alignment and orientation parameters, provide much more severe tests of state-of-the-art scattering theories than do total or differential cross section measurements which depend on diagonal elements of the density matrix. The off-diagonal elements give us detailed information about the shape and dynamics of the atomic states. Therefore, close studies of collision-produced atomic states are currently leading to deeper insights into the fundamental physical mechanisms governing the dynamics of atomic collision events. The first part of the lectures deals with the language used to describe atomic states, while the second part presents a selection of recent results for model systems which display fundamental aspects of the collision physics in particularly instructive ways. I shall here restrict myself to atom-atom collisions. The discussion will be focused on states decaying by photon emission though most of the ideas can be easily modified to include electron emission as well. (orig./AH)

  9. Engineering microbes to produce biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackett, Lawrence P

    2011-06-01

    The current biofuels landscape is chaotic. It is controlled by the rules imposed by economic forces and driven by the necessity of finding new sources of energy, particularly motor fuels. The need is bringing forth great creativity in uncovering new candidate fuel molecules that can be made via metabolic engineering. These next generation fuels include long-chain alcohols, terpenoid hydrocarbons, and diesel-length alkanes. Renewable fuels contain carbon derived from carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide is derived directly by a photosynthetic fuel-producing organism(s) or via intermediary biomass polymers that were previously derived from carbon dioxide. To use the latter economically, biomass depolymerization processes must improve and this is a very active area of research. There are competitive approaches with some groups using enzyme based methods and others using chemical catalysts. With the former, feedstock and end-product toxicity loom as major problems. Advances chiefly rest on the ability to manipulate biological systems. Computational and modular construction approaches are key. For example, novel metabolic networks have been constructed to make long-chain alcohols and hydrocarbons that have superior fuel properties over ethanol. A particularly exciting approach is to implement a direct utilization of solar energy to make a usable fuel. A number of approaches use the components of current biological systems, but re-engineer them for more direct, efficient production of fuels. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Emergency preparedness at Ignalina NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kairys, A.

    1998-01-01

    Brief review of Ignalina NPP safety upgrading and personnel preparedness to act in cases of accidents is presented. Though great activities are performed in enhancing the plant operation safety, the Ignalina NPP management pays a lot of attention to preparedness for emergency elimination and take measures to stop emergency spreading. A new Ignalina NPP emergency preparedness plan was drawn up and became operational. It is the main document to carry out organizational, technical, medical, evacuation and other activities to protect plant personnel, population, the plant and the environment from accident consequences. Great assistance was rendered by Swedish experts in drawing this new emergency preparedness plan. The plan consists of 3 parts: general part, operative part and appendixes. The plan is applied to the Ignalina NPP personnel, Special and Fire Brigade and also to other contractor organizations personnel carrying out works at Ignalina NPP. There are set the following emergency classes: incident, emergency situation, alert, local emergency, general emergency. Separate intervention level corresponds to each emergency class. Overview of personnel training to act in case of an emergency is also presented

  11. Emergent Phenomena at Oxide Interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, H.Y.

    2012-01-01

    with T-operation. (iii) Gauge symmetry (G), which is associated with a change in the phase of the wave-function as Ψ → e iθ Ψ. Gauge symmetry is connected to the law of charge conservation, and broken G-symmetry corresponds to superconductivity/superfluidity. To summarize, the interplay among these electronic degrees of freedom produces various forms of symmetry breaking patterns of I, T, and G, leading to novel emergent phenomena, which can appear only by the collective behavior of electrons and cannot be expected from individual electrons. Figure 1 shows this schematically by means of several representative phenomena. From this viewpoint, the interfaces of TMOs offer a unique and important laboratory because I is already broken by the structure itself, and the detailed form of broken I-symmetry can often be designed. Also, two-dimensionality usually enhances the effects of electron correlations by reducing their kinetic energy. These two features of oxide interfaces produce many novel effects and functions that cannot be attained in bulk form. Given that the electromagnetic responses are a major source of the physical properties of solids, and new gauge structures often appear in correlated electronic systems, we put 'emergent electromagnetism' at the center of Fig. 1.

  12. Reactor-produced therapeutic radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    2002-01-01

    The significant worldwide increase in therapeutic radioisotope applications in nuclear medicine, oncology and interventional cardiology requires the dependable production of sufficient levels of radioisotopes for these applications (Reba, 2000; J. Nucl. Med., 1998; Nuclear News, 1999; Adelstein and Manning, 1994). The issues associated with both accelerator- and reactor-production of therapeutic radioisotopes is important. Clinical applications of therapeutic radioisotopes include the use of both sealed sources and unsealed radiopharmaceutical sources. Targeted radiopharmaceutical agents include those for cancer therapy and palliation of bone pain from metastatic disease, ablation of bone marrow prior to stem cell transplantation, treatment modalities for mono and oligo- and polyarthritis, for cancer therapy (including brachytherapy) and for the inhibition of the hyperplastic response following coronary angioplasty and other interventional procedures (For example, see Volkert and Hoffman, 1999). Sealed sources involve the use of radiolabeled devices for cancer therapy (brachytherapy) and also for the inhibition of the hyperplasia which is often encountered after angioplasty, especially with the exponential increase in the use of coronary stents and stents for the peripheral vasculature and other anatomical applications. Since neutron-rich radioisotopes often decay by beta decay or decay to beta-emitting daughter radioisotopes which serve as the basis for radionuclide generator systems, reactors are expected to play an increasingly important role for the production of a large variety of therapeutic radioisotopes required for these and other developing therapeutic applications. Because of the importance of the availability of reactor-produced radioisotopes for these applications, an understanding of the contribution of neutron spectra for radioisotope production and determination of those cross sections which have not yet been established is important. This

  13. Technical support and emergency centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohun, L.; Kapisovsk y, M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents technical support and emergency management center which will be on two places: Mochovce NPP Emergency Centre (Technical support center and Support working center) and Reserve Emergency Centre in Levice (Reserve emergency center and Environmental Evaluation Center). The main aims of the emergency management centers are: the management and coordination of all persons and organisations; provision of the all information needed to evaluation of the accident and its mitigation; continuous evaluation of the potential or real radiological consequences; taking measure for an early notification of the governmental bodies and the organizations, warning and protection of the public; and other aims. In the next part the data for technical support and emergency centre are discussed

  14. Octocrylene, an emerging photoallergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avenel-Audran, Martine; Dutartre, Hervé; Goossens, An; Jeanmougin, Michel; Comte, Christelle; Bernier, Claire; Benkalfate, Lamia; Michel, Maryse; Ferrier-Lebouëdec, Marie Christine; Vigan, Martine; Bourrain, Jean Luc; Outtas, Omar; Peyron, Jean Louis; Martin, Ludovic

    2010-07-01

    Octocrylene is a new emerging photoallergen. We report and discuss 50 cases of photoallergic contact dermatitis from octocrylene use and/or positive photopatch test reactions to this UV filter and draw attention to the unexpected association in adults with a history of photoallergic contact dermatitis from ketoprofen. Patients were divided in 3 groups: group A comprised 11 children; group B, 28 adults with a history of photoallergy from sunscreen products; and group C, 14 adults systematically tested with octocrylene because of a history of photoallergy from ketoprofen. All patients but 3 in group C had positive test reactions to octocrylene. Ten of 11 children in group A and 9 of 28 adults in group B had positive patch test reactions to octocrylene. One child in group A, the other 19 adults in group B, and 11 of 14 adults in group C had positive photopatch test reactions to octocrylene. All adults in group C and 24 of 28 adults in group B had a history of photoallergy from ketoprofen and positive patch test or photopatch test reactions to other allergens that are often positive in patients with photoallergy from ketoprofen, especially fragrance components. Octocrylene appears to be a strong allergen leading to contact dermatitis in children and mostly photoallergic contact dermatitis in adults with an often-associated history of photoallergy from ketoprofen. Patients with photoallergy from ketoprofen frequently have positive photopatch test reactions to octocrylene. These patients need to be informed of sunscreen products not containing octocrylene, benzophenone-3, or fragrances.

  15. Carbon market emerges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hordern, N.

    2001-01-01

    Last November COP6, the UN climate change conference in The Hague, failed to agree on the rules of the Kyoto Protocol, the treaty limiting developed countries' emissions of greenhouse gases ('carbon'). Many in the Australian resource and energy sector were relieved that COP6 was inconclusive. As Industry Minister Senator Nick Minchin put it: 'Better no outcome than a bad outcome.' However, the financial services sector -potentially a major beneficiary of the international carbon it hoped COP6 would endorse -received a setback. Apparently not for long. Only months later, a nascent Australian carbon trading market seems to be emerging by stealth, irrespective of COP6's fortunes. This poses both opportunities and costs for the resources and energy sectors. Whoever succeeds in influencing the design of a trading scheme, 'pilot' or not, will have a box seat when - not if - a 'mandatory' emissions trading scheme is introduced. Government policy is that there will be no mandatory emissions trading scheme until the establishment of a UN endorsed international market requires one of Australia. This, in turn, depends upon the conclusion of the negotiations that stalled in The Hague. COP6 is set to resume in Germany, probably in July

  16. Emerging Power Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    the only one to influence matters on a global scale besides, the US. Of particular importance in this context has been the growing attractiveness of the EU market and the considerable “soft power” which the EU exerts in some parts of the world. The paper reconstructs the most important steps of Europe......Many observers posit that a shift in global power has taken place the last many years, away from the West to “emerging powers”, in particular the BRICS. In contrast to this view, this paper accepts Moravcsik’s view that it has been the EU which has developed into the “second superpower”, being......’s rise, with emphasis on the “expansionist” character of the EU. Internal developments in the EU have been crucial for its growing external influence. The “expansionism” of the EU and its system has until recently been peaceful. In the case of Ukraine, however, another (regional) power has applied...

  17. BWR emergency procedure guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, J.S.; Karner, E.F.; Stratman, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter describes plans for dealing with reactor accidents developed by the Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) Owners' Group in response to post-Three Mile Island US NRC requirements. The devised Emergency Procedure Guidelines (EPGs), applicable to all BWRs, are symptom-based rather than event-based. According to the EPGs, the operator does not need to identify what event is occurring in the plant in order to decide what action to take, but need only observe the symptoms (values and trends of key control parameters) which exist and take appropriate action to control these symptoms. The original objective was to provide reactor operator guidance in responding to a small break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), but subsequent revisions have included other types of reactor accidents. Topics considered include the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) control guideline, the primary containment control guideline, the secondary containment control guideline, the radioactivity release control guideline, multiple failures vs. the design basis, safe limits vs. technical specifications, the technical status, licensing, and implementation. The EPGs are based upon maintaining both adequate core cooling and primary containment integrity

  18. Automated emergency operating procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Ramirez, G.; Nelson, P.F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a training tool for the symptom oriented emergency operating procedures used at the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant. EOPs and operator training are intended to assist the operator for managing accident situations. A prototype expert system based on the EOPs has been developed for operator training. The demonstration expert system was developed using a commercial shell. The knowledge base consists of two parts. The specific operator actions to be executed for 5 selected accident sequences and the EOPs steps for the reactor pressure vessel control of the water level, pressure, and power. The knowledge is expressed in the form of IF-THEN production rules. A typical training session will display a set of conditions and will prompt the trainee to indicate the appropriate step to perform. This mode will guide the trainee through selected accident sequences. A second mode of the expert system will prompt the trainee for the current plant conditions and the expert system will respond with the EOPs which are required to be performed under these conditions. This allows the trainee to study What if situations

  19. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Kenji; Oikawa, Hirohide.

    1990-01-01

    The device according to this invention can ensure cooling water required for emerency core cooling upon emergence such as abnormally, for example, loss of coolant accident, without using dynamic equipments such as a centrifugal pump or large-scaled tank. The device comprises a pressure accumulation tank containing a high pressure nitrogen gas and cooling water inside, a condensate storage tank, a pressure suppression pool and a jet stream pump. In this device there are disposed a pipeline for guiding cooling water in the pressure accumulation tank as a jetting water to a jetting stream pump, a pipeline for guiding cooling water stored in the condensate storage tank and the pressure suppression pool as pumped water to the jetting pump and, further, a pipeline for guiding the discharged water from the jet stream pump which is a mixed stream of pumped water and jetting water into the reactor pressure vessel. In this constitution, a sufficient amount of water ranging from relatively high pressure to low pressure can be supplied into the reactor pressure vessel, without increasing the size of the pressure accumulation tank. (I.S.)

  20. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Akira; Kobayashi, Masahide.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To enable a stable operation of an emergency core cooling system by preventing the system from the automatic stopping at an abnormally high level of the reactor water during its operation. Constitution: A pump flow rate signal and a reactor water level signal are used and, when the reactor water level is increased to a predetermined level, the pump flow rate is controlled by the reactor water level signal instead of the flow rate signal. Specifically, when the reactor water level is gradually increased by the water injection from the pump and exceeds a setting signal for the water level, the water level deviation signal acts as a demand signal for the decrease in the flow rate of the pump and the output signal from the water level controller is also decreased depending on the control constant. At a certain point, the output signal from the water level controller becomes smaller than the output signal from the flow rate controller. Thus, the output signal from the water level controller is outputted as the output signal for the lower level preference device. In this way, the reactor water level and the pump flow rate can be controlled within a range not exceeding the predetermined pump flow rate. (Horiuchi, T.)

  1. Gas spill emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This video presentation was designed to explain the steps that should be taken in the event of a petroleum product spill on land, to keep damages and consequences to a minimum. The events that took place when an oil truck full of gasoline overturned and smashed into a house on a residential street were described to illustrate the principles involved. The following sequence of events and actions, based on general principles of bringing the situation under control during an emergency operation were depicted: (1) identification of spilled product, (2) assessment of the situation, (3) setting priorities and evacuating the endangered area, and (4) setting up a communication system. The fire fighters sprayed the area with foam because of the fire and explosion potential. Sand was used to contain the spill and to keep it out of the storm sewers. The spilled oil was recovered. Three other spill situations - a spill at a service station, a spill in a ditch, and a spill in a waterway - were also documented. It was emphasized that while it is not possible to establish a single set of rules and actions that would apply to all situations since no two accidents involving petroleum products are alike, the general principles are universal and can be applied in all situations. First priority to consider should always be human life, then property, then the environment

  2. Emerging radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allard, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, a number of radiation protection issues have emerged into the public forum. The perceived high risks associated with radiation exposure, and disproportionate media attention to such issues, have contributed to heightened concerns by the public and the individual occupationally exposed worker. This paper examines the new and controversial radiation risk estimates of the National Research Council's BEIR V committee, which are based on the most current atomic-bomb survivor data and a revised dosimetry model. These risk estimates are somewhat higher than past values, and may eventually impact the legal framework in the United States through the regulations of the EPA, NRC, DOE, OSHA, and other agencies that set radiation exposure standards. Additionally, present regulations and standards are often based upon differing levels of acceptable risk, which have led to conflicting exposure and effluent release criteria. Further, due to inherent boundaries in legal authority, many potentially significant sources of radiation exposure to the public remain unregulated Radiation exposure scenarios such as medical x-ray, radon, and other technology enhanced sources have no legal limits. These issues and others are examined and analyzed with respect to regulatory policy

  3. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Ken.

    1989-01-01

    In PWR type reactors, a cooling water spray portion of emergency core cooling pipelines incorporated into pipelines on high temperature side is protruded to the inside of an upper plenum. Upon rupture of primary pipelines, pressure in a pressure vessel is abruptly reduced to generate a great amount of steams in the reactor core, which are discharged at a high flow rate into the primary pipelines on high temperature side. However, since the inside of the upper plenum has a larger area and the steam flow is slow, as compared with that of the pipelines on the high temperature side, ECCS water can surely be supplied into the reactor core to promote the re-flooding of the reactor core and effectively cool the reactor. Since the nuclear reactor can effectively be cooled to enable the promotion of pressure reduction and effective supply of coolants during the period of pressure reduction upon LOCA, the capacity of the pressure accumulation vessel can be decreased. Further, the re-flooding time for the reactor is shortened to provide an effect contributing to the improvement of the safety and the reduction of the cost. (N.H.)

  4. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Nobuaki.

    1993-01-01

    A reactor comprises a static emergency reactor core cooling system having an automatic depressurization system and a gravitationally dropping type water injection system and a container cooling system by an isolation condenser. A depressurization pipeline of the automatic depressurization system connected to a reactor pressure vessel branches in the midway. The branched depressurizing pipelines are extended into an upper dry well and a lower dry well, in which depressurization valves are disposed at the top end portions of the pipelines respectively. If loss-of-coolant accidents should occur, the depressurization valve of the automatic depressurization system is actuated by lowering of water level in the pressure vessel. This causes nitrogen gases in the upper and the lower dry wells to transfer together with discharged steams effectively to a suppression pool passing through a bent tube. Accordingly, the gravitationally dropping type water injection system can be actuated faster. Further, subsequent cooling for the reactor vessel can be ensured sufficiently by the isolation condenser. (I.N.)

  5. Emerging optical nanoscopy techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montgomery PC

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Paul C Montgomery, Audrey Leong-Hoi Laboratoire des Sciences de l'Ingénieur, de l'Informatique et de l'Imagerie (ICube, Unistra-CNRS, Strasbourg, France Abstract: To face the challenges of modern health care, new imaging techniques with subcellular resolution or detection over wide fields are required. Far field optical nanoscopy presents many new solutions, providing high resolution or detection at high speed. We present a new classification scheme to help appreciate the growing number of optical nanoscopy techniques. We underline an important distinction between superresolution techniques that provide improved resolving power and nanodetection techniques for characterizing unresolved nanostructures. Some of the emerging techniques within these two categories are highlighted with applications in biophysics and medicine. Recent techniques employing wider angle imaging by digital holography and scattering lens microscopy allow superresolution to be achieved for subcellular and even in vivo, imaging without labeling. Nanodetection techniques are divided into four subcategories using contrast, phase, deconvolution, and nanomarkers. Contrast enhancement is illustrated by means of a polarized light-based technique and with strobed phase-contrast microscopy to reveal nanostructures. Very high sensitivity phase measurement using interference microscopy is shown to provide nanometric surface roughness measurement or to reveal internal nanometric structures. Finally, the use of nanomarkers is illustrated with stochastic fluorescence microscopy for mapping intracellular structures. We also present some of the future perspectives of optical nanoscopy. Keywords: microscopy, imaging, superresolution, nanodetection, biophysics, medical imaging

  6. Advising the public about radiation emergences. NCRP Commentary No. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Technologies that use or produce radiation or radioactive materials, like many other complex technologies, have the inherent potential to cause emergency situations in which public safety may be jeopardized. Professionals engaged with such technologies are trained to minimize risk and potential harm, even in emergencies, but there can be no question that emergencies are public events and that, as such, the public must be informed. The degree of the public's involvement in an emergency will, of course, depend on the type and scale of the event but the need for information is present in all cases. This Commentary reviews salient features involved in the provision of information to the public relating to radiation emergencies. Section 2 outlines sources of information available to the public for a broad understanding of technology and science in general, and radiation matters in particular. Section 3 addresses the vital matter of credibility. In Section 4, matters of perception and their influence on the usability of information are assessed. Section 5 directs attention to the role of information sources during the emergency itself. Section 6 presents a survey of the types of information that can prove helpful to the public in connection with a radiation emergency and exhibits a proposed index for helping people comprehend the magnitude of radiation levels and their impacts. Means for improving the dissemination of information and the public's capacity to use it are outlined in Section 7. Finally, appendices provide information about emergency response organizations and additional information about the proposed radiation index

  7. An expert system for improving nuclear emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salame-Alfie, A.; Goldbogen, G.C.; Ryan, R.M.; Wallace, W.A.; Yeater, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    The accidents at TMI-2 and Chernobyl have produced initiatives aimed at improving nuclear plant emergency response capabilities. Among them are the development of emergency response facilities with capabilities for the acquisition, processing, and diagnosis of data which are needed to help coordinate plant operations, engineering support and management under emergency conditions. An effort in this direction prompted the development of an expert system. EP (EMERGENCY PLANNER) is a prototype expert system that is intended to help coordinate the overall management during emergency conditions. The EP system was built using the GEN-X expert system shell. GEN-X has a variety of knowledge representation mechanisms including AND/OR trees, Decision trees, and IF/THEN tables, and runs on an IBM PC-XT or AT computer or compatible. Among the main features, EP is portable, modular, user friendly, can interact with external programs and interrogate data bases. The knowledge base is made of New York State (NYS) Procedures for Emergency Classification, NYS Radiological Emergency Preparedness Plan (REPP) and knowledge from experts of the NYS Radiological Emergency Preparedness Group and the Office of Radiological Health and Chemistry of the New York Power Authority (NYPA)

  8. The Brazilian emergency response system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Raul dos

    1997-01-01

    With the objective of improving the response actions to potential or real emergency situations generated by radiological or nuclear accidents, the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) installed an integrated response system on a 24 hours basis. All the natiowide notifications on events that may start an emergency situation are converged to this system. Established since July 1990, this system has received around 300 notifications in which 5% were classified as potential emergency situation. (author)

  9. Regulatory aspects of emergency planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamgochian, M.T.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses the advances that have been made in the USA in the field of emergency planning over the past several years and considers regulatory changes that may be on the horizon. The paper examines the importance of severe accident source terms and their relationship to emergency preparedness, recent research results of work on source terms, and the experience gained from evaluation of licensee performance during annual emergency preparedness exercises. (author)

  10. Transport accident emergency response plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallette-Fontaine, M.; Frantz, P.

    1998-01-01

    To comply with the IAEA recommendations for the implementation of an Emergency Response Plan as described in Safety Series 87, Transnucleaire, a company deeply involved in the road and rail transports of the fuel cycle, masters means of Emergency Response in the event of a transport accident. This paper aims at analyzing the solutions adopted for the implementation of an Emergency Response Plan and the development of a technical support and adapted means for the recovery of heavy packagings. (authors)

  11. Curved backgrounds in emergent gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurasia, Shikha; Erlich, Joshua; Zhou, Yiyu

    2018-06-01

    Field theories that are generally covariant but nongravitational at tree level typically give rise to an emergent gravitational interaction whose strength depends on a physical regulator. We consider emergent gravity models in which scalar fields assume the role of clock and rulers, addressing the problem of time in quantum gravity. We discuss the possibility of nontrivial dynamics for clock and ruler fields, and describe some of the consequences of those dynamics for the emergent gravitational theory.

  12. Fire Service Emergency Management Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Adapted from Formulating Public Policy in Emergency Management Course Book and ResourceMRanual for Public OTTicials, ILMA Emergency Management Institute...659-2447 (202) 785-2757 Christian Reformed World Relief Presbyterian Church in U.S. Committee General Assemby Mission Board C. Neil Molenaar 341 Ponce...Healer, Mind as Slayer. New York: Delta Books , 1977. 86B:6 B-45 4) Mitchell, J.T., & Resnik, HLP: Emergency Response to Crisis: A Crisis Intervention

  13. Emergency medicine and general practice

    OpenAIRE

    Abela, Gunther

    2005-01-01

    Emergency Medicine and Immediate Medical Care are relatively new specialties. In Malta, there is quite a considerable area of overlap between these specialties and general practice. Indeed, the family physician is confronted with some sort of medical emergency quite regularly. The brief of this article is to go through recent developments in Emergency Medicine as applied to General Practice. The areas considered are Basic Life Support, Head Injury, Asthma, Anaphylaxis, Community Acquired Pneu...

  14. Emergency medicine in Dubai, UAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Robert; Abbo, Michael; Virk, Alamjit

    2009-08-18

    Dubai has rapidly risen to prominence in the Persian Gulf region as a center of global commerce and tourism and as a cultural crossroad between East and West. The health-care infrastructure has undergone rapid development. Collaborations with academic medical centers now exist to advance clinical care, teaching and research. Emergency medicine has also advanced and is undergoing dynamic change. Dubai may soon emerge as a regional leader in emergency medicine training and practice.

  15. Emergency medicine in Dubai, UAE

    OpenAIRE

    Partridge, Robert; Abbo, Michael; Virk, Alamjit

    2009-01-01

    Dubai has rapidly risen to prominence in the Persian Gulf region as a center of global commerce and tourism and as a cultural crossroad between East and West. The health-care infrastructure has undergone rapid development. Collaborations with academic medical centers now exist to advance clinical care, teaching and research. Emergency medicine has also advanced and is undergoing dynamic change. Dubai may soon emerge as a regional leader in emergency medicine training and practice.

  16. 7 CFR 1206.16 - Producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... producing, or causing to be produced, mangos beyond the person's own family use and having value at first... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.16 Producer. Producer means...

  17. First Response to Medical Emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manisah Saedon; Sarimah Mahat; Muhamad Nurfalah Karoji; Hasnul Nizam Osman

    2015-01-01

    Accident or medical emergencies, both minor and critical, occurs each day and can happen in any workplace. In any medical emergencies, time is a critical factor because the first person to arrive at the scene of an accident has a key role in the rescue of a victim. With the knowledge of some common medical procedures and emergency actions, this first responder can make a positive contribution to the welfare of the accident victim. In some cases, this contribution can make difference between life and death. Improper response to medical emergencies by an untrained person can result in worsen injuries or death. Therefore, first aids training are necessary to provide the information. (author)

  18. Security and Emergency Management Division

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Volpe's Security and Emergency Management Division identifies vulnerabilities, risks, and opportunities to improve the security of transportation systems, critical...

  19. Local Emergency Operations Centers (EOC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The physical location at which the coordination of information and resources to support domestic incident management activities normally takes place. An Emergency...

  20. Visioning future emergency healthcare collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Söderholm, Hanna M.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2010-01-01

    physicians, nurses, administrators, and information technology (IT) professionals working at large and small medical centers, and asked them to share their perspectives regarding 3DMC's potential benefits and disadvantages in emergency healthcare and its compatibility and/or lack thereof......New video technologies are emerging to facilitate collaboration in emergency healthcare. One such technology is 3D telepresence technology for medical consultation (3DMC) that may provide richer visual information to support collaboration between medical professionals to, ideally, enhance patient......, and resources. Both common and unique perceptions regarding 3DMC emerged,illustrating the need for 3DMC, and other collaboration technologies,to support interwoven situational awareness across different technological frames....

  1. Medical emergencies in dental practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wilson, M H

    2009-06-01

    Serious medical emergencies are fortunately a rare occurrence in the dental practice environment; however, if an emergency situation is encountered a delay in treatment may result in potentially avoidable consequences. The risk of mortality or serious morbidity can be reduced by ensuring that basic emergency equipment and medications are in place, and that the dental team is appropriately trained in basic life support measures. This article aims to provide an overview of the basic emergency medications and equipment that should be present in dental practices, and to discuss specific responses to some of the more common adverse medical events that can present while providing dental treatment.

  2. Burden of emerging/re emerging diseases in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Burden of emerging/re emerging diseases in India. 1-2 million deaths for 1994 epidemic of plague. 20,565 deaths in 2004 due to rabies. 400 million chronic carriers of hepatitis B virus. More than 18 million carriers of hepatitis C virus. 'Mutant' measles virus infection in ...

  3. Occurrence of carbapenemase-producing bacteria in coastal recreational waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montezzi, Lara Feital; Campana, Eloiza Helena; Corrêa, Laís Lisboa; Justo, Livia Helena; Paschoal, Raphael Paiva; da Silva, Isabel Lemos Vieira Dias; Souza, Maria do Carmo Maciel; Drolshagen, Marcia; Picão, Renata Cristina

    2015-02-01

    The spread of carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative rods is an emerging global problem. Although most infections due to carbapenemase producers are limited to healthcare institutions, reports of the occurrence of clinically relevant carbapenemase producers in sewage and polluted rivers are increasingly frequent. Polluted rivers flowing to oceans may contaminate coastal waters with multidrug-resistant bacteria, potentially threatening the safety of recreational activities in these locations. Here we assessed the occurrence of carbapenemase producers in water from touristic beaches located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, showing distinct pollution patterns. The presence of enterobacteria was noted, including the predominantly environmental genus Kluyvera spp., producing either Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) or Guyana extended-spectrum (GES)-type carbapenemases and often associated with quinolone resistance determinants. An Aeromonas sp. harbouring blaKPC and qnrS was also observed. These findings strengthen the role of aquatic matrices as reservoirs and vectors of clinically relevant antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, with potential to favour the spread of these resistance threats throughout the community. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  4. Preparing for Emergency Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asproth, Viveca; Amcoff Nyström, Christina

    2010-11-01

    Disaster relief can be seen as a dynamic multi actor process with actors both joining and leaving the relief work during the help and rescue phase after the disaster has occurred. Actors may be governmental agencies, non profit voluntary organisations or spontaneous helpers comprised of individual citizens or temporal groups of citizens. Hence, they will vary widely in agility, competence, resources, and endurance. To prepare for for disasters a net based Agora with simulation of emergency situations for mutual preparation, training, and organisational learning is suggested. Such an Agora will ensure future security by: -Rising awareness and preparedness of potential disaster responders by help of the components and resources in the netAgora environment; -Improving cooperation and coordination between responders; -Improving competence and performance of organisations involved in security issues; -Bridging cultural differences between responders from different organizations and different backgrounds. The developed models are intended to reflect intelligent anticipatory systems for human operator anticipation of future consequences. As a way to catch what should be included in this netbased Agora and to join the split pictures that is present, Team Syntegrity could be a helpful tool. The purpose of Team Syntegrity is to stimulate collaboration and incite cross fertilization and creativity. The difference between syntegration and other group work is that the participants are evenly and uniquely distributed and will collectively have the means, the knowledge, the experience, the perspectives, and the expertise, to deal with the topic. In this paper the possibilities with using Team Syntegrity in preparation for the development of a netbased Agora is discussed. We have identified that Team Syntegrity could be useful in the steps User Integration, Designing the netAgora environment, developing Test Scenarios, and assessment of netAgora environment.

  5. Interventions for emergency contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie; Che, Yan; Showell, Emily; Chen, Ke; Cheng, Linan

    2017-08-02

    Emergency contraception (EC) is using a drug or copper intrauterine device (Cu-IUD) to prevent pregnancy shortly after unprotected intercourse. Several interventions are available for EC. Information on the comparative effectiveness, safety and convenience of these methods is crucial for reproductive healthcare providers and the women they serve. This is an update of a review previously published in 2009 and 2012. To determine which EC method following unprotected intercourse is the most effective, safe and convenient to prevent pregnancy. In February 2017 we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Popline and PubMed, The Chinese biomedical databases and UNDP/UNFPA/WHO/World Bank Special Programme on Human Reproduction (HRP) emergency contraception database. We also searched ICTRP and ClinicalTrials.gov as well as contacting content experts and pharmaceutical companies, and searching reference lists of appropriate papers. Randomised controlled trials including women attending services for EC following a single act of unprotected intercourse were eligible. We used standard methodological procedures recommended by Cochrane. The primary review outcome was observed number of pregnancies. Side effects and changes of menses were secondary outcomes. We included 115 trials with 60,479 women in this review. The quality of the evidence for the primary outcome ranged from moderate to high, and for other outcomes ranged from very low to high. The main limitations were risk of bias (associated with poor reporting of methods), imprecision and inconsistency. Comparative effectiveness of different emergency contraceptive pills (ECP)Levonorgestrel was associated with fewer pregnancies than Yuzpe (estradiol-levonorgestrel combination) (RR 0.57, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.84, 6 RCTs, n = 4750, I 2 = 23%, high-quality evidence). This suggests that if the chance of pregnancy using Yuzpe is assumed to be 29 women per 1000, the chance of pregnancy using levonorgestrel would be between

  6. Spinoffs from radiological emergency preparedness programmes to generic emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    In the USA, the radiological emergency preparedness (REP) programme for nuclear power plants is being used to enhance emergency management programmes for other types of emergencies. The REP programme is particularly useful in developing plans and preparedness measures for chemical accidents. The Integrated Emergency Management System (IEMS) approach provides a means for maximizing relationships between the REP programme and other programmes. IEMS essentially involves applying common elements of planning and preparedness to all types of emergencies, while recognizing that unique characteristics of specific natural and man-made emergencies require special planning and preparedness considerations. Features of the REP programme that make it compatible with the IEMS approach and useful in coping with other types of emergencies are: (1) the close co-operation between the national nuclear regulatory and emergency management organizations; (2) the programme integration among all levels of government, the nuclear power industry, public interest groups and the general public and (3) the comprehensiveness and sophistication of the programme. The REP programme in the USA represents a state-of-the-art emergency management capability. Some of its elements are readily transferrable to most other types of emergency preparedness programmes, while other elements can be adapted more readily to other hazard-specific programmes. The Bhopal accident has been a catalyst for this adaptation to chemical accidents, in such areas as furnishing hazard-specific information to the public, alert and notification systems, definition of the hazards and risks involved, establishing planning zones and developing close working relationships among the industry, the public and government

  7. Emerging electrochemical energy conversion and storage technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badwal, Sukhvinder P. S.; Giddey, Sarbjit S.; Munnings, Christopher; Bhatt, Anand I.; Hollenkamp, Anthony F.

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical cells and systems play a key role in a wide range of industry sectors. These devices are critical enabling technologies for renewable energy; energy management, conservation, and storage; pollution control/monitoring; and greenhouse gas reduction. A large number of electrochemical energy technologies have been developed in the past. These systems continue to be optimized in terms of cost, life time, and performance, leading to their continued expansion into existing and emerging market sectors. The more established technologies such as deep-cycle batteries and sensors are being joined by emerging technologies such as fuel cells, large format lithium-ion batteries, electrochemical reactors; ion transport membranes and supercapacitors. This growing demand (multi billion dollars) for electrochemical energy systems along with the increasing maturity of a number of technologies is having a significant effect on the global research and development effort which is increasing in both in size and depth. A number of new technologies, which will have substantial impact on the environment and the way we produce and utilize energy, are under development. This paper presents an overview of several emerging electrochemical energy technologies along with a discussion some of the key technical challenges. PMID:25309898

  8. Emergency situation in a medical cyclotron facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Bhat, M.K.; Singh, D.K.; Pthania, B.S.; Pandit, A.G.; Jacob, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Medical cyclotron is a particle accelerator used in producing short lived radioisotopes such as 18 F, 11 C, 15 O, 13 N, 18 F-2 gas etc. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a nuclear imaging modality that has rapidly gained favour. 18 F-FDG is the most widely used radiopharmaceutical with a half-life of 109.8 min. Having more than five years experience in this field we face lots of emergency conditions in the medical cyclotron facility. On the basis of harm we have divided in to three categories i.e. Harm of (a) working personnel, (b) Equipment and (c) environment. Radioactive gas leak and Target foil rupture is considered as the major emergency situations during medical cyclotron operations because there is a potential of over exposure to the working personnel. Radiation protection survey of a self-shielded medical cyclotron installation was carried out during normal and emergency conditions. It is found that the induced activity in the target foil increases with its successive usages. Recommendations have also been made to reduce personal exposure while handling the radioactive gas leak and target foil rupture conditions

  9. Overview of radiation emergencies: international perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, B.

    1986-01-01

    The author gives an international perspective to emergency planning focusing on the situation in Sweden after the Chernobyl accident. The situation in Sweden, as in other European countries outside the USSR, was not covered by emergency plans. There was no accident site within the country and, therefore, no local authority responsible for remedial action. Nevertheless, the central authorities had to deal with the immediate situation. The most urgent task was to find areas where milk-producing cattle could be released to the fields. The Swedish authorities decided that an appropriate level for rejecting food on the market would be 300 Bq/kg. In order to ascertain that dairy milk would not exceed 300 Bq/l, the Swedish authorities requested farmers in the most contaminated regions to keep milk-producing cattle indoors about six weeks. Sweden, like many other countries, was lucky that the accident did not happen later in the grazing season and that the rain-out of radioactive material from the cloud did not occur over the main agricultural areas; otherwise, the consequences would have been much worse

  10. Seed germination and seedling emergence of Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy B. Harrington

    2009-01-01

    Scotch broom is a large, leguminous shrub that has invaded 27 U.S. states. The species produces seeds with a hard coat that remain viable in the soil for years. Growth-chamber studies were conducted to determine effects of temperature regime and cold-stratification period on seed germination. Seedling emergence, mortality, and biomass also were studied in response to...

  11. Social Grooming in the Kindergarten: The Emergence of Flattery Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the emergence of flattery behavior in young children and factors that might affect whether and how it is displayed. Preschool children between the ages of 3 and 6 years were asked to rate drawings produced by either a present or absent adult stranger (Experiments 1 and 2), child stranger (Experiments 2 and 3), classmate,…

  12. Markets for reactor-produced non-fission radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    Current market segments for reactor produced radioisotopes are developed and reported from a review of current literature. Specific radioisotopes studied in is report are the primarily selected from those with major medical or industrial markets, or those expected to have strongly emerging markets. Relative market sizes are indicated. Special emphasis is given to those radioisotopes that are best matched to production in high flux reactors such as the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory or the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A general bibliography of medical and industrial radioisotope applications, trends, and historical notes is included

  13. Emergence Issues - not so simple

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaesthetics Supplement: Emergence Issues - not so simple. S Afr Fam Pract 2014. Vol 56 No 2 Supplement 1. Introduction. Emergence from anaesthesia is by definition the process of return to baseline physiological function of all organ systems after cessation of administration of general anaesthesia and is the stage from ...

  14. Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program (TEPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    The Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program (TEPP) will develop and enhance integrated emergency preparedness capabilities in two major areas. First, the program is responsible for planning and ensuring proper DOE response to transportation incidents involving DOE shipments. Second, the program is responsible for ensuring DOE can carry out its responsibilities under regulations, the National Contingency Plan (NCP) and the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) to provide technical advice and assistance as needed for any transportation incident involving radioactive or mixed hazard materials. This plan proposes a strategy for developing a comprehensive Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program, including a well organized central management and coordination structure, that serves as a process to identify, verify, and establish a consolidated effort across the Department in this very important area. This plan assumes Emergency Management to be the full range of emergency activities necessary for mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery while Emergency Preparedness activities are primarily those necessary in preparation for Incident Response Emergency Preparedness, which is the focus of this strategy plan, requires a well organized central coordination structure to be effective. 7 refs

  15. Periodontal Emergencies in General Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadia, Reena; Ide, Mark

    2017-05-01

    Diagnosing and managing periodontal emergencies is a common part of general dental practice. This article summarises the presentation, aetiology and management of the key periodontal emergencies, including gingival abscess, periodontal abscess, peri-coronitis/peri-coronal abscess, perio-endo lesion/ abscess, necrotising gingivitis and periodontitis, acute herpetic gingivostomatitis, acute physical/chemical/thermal injury and subgingival root fracture.

  16. Nuclear emergency preparedness in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The preparedness of utilities and government agencies at various levels for dealing with nuclear emergencies occurring at nuclear reactors in Canada is reviewed and assessed. The review is centered on power reactors, but selected research reactors are included also. Emergency planning in the U.S.A., Germany and France, and international recommendations on emergency planning are reviewed to provide background and a basis for comparison. The findings are that Canadians are generally well protected by existing nuclear emergency plans at the electric utility and provincial levels but there are improvements that can be made, mainly at the federal level and in federal-provincial coordination. Ten issues of importance are identified: commitment to nuclear emergency planning by the federal government; division of federal and provincial roles and responsibilities; auditing of nuclear emergency preparedness of all levels of government and of electric utilities; the availability of technical guidance appropriate to Canada; protective action levels for public health and safety; communication with the public; planning and response for the later phases of a nuclear emergency; off-site exercises and training; coordination of international assistance; and emergency planning for research reactors. (L.L.) 79 refs., 2 tabs

  17. Threat from Emerging Vectorborne Viruses

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-06-09

    Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the commentary by CDC author Ronald Rosenberg, Threat from Emerging Vectorborne Viruses.  Created: 6/9/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/9/2016.

  18. Emergency Department Management of Trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Colin; Lippert, Freddy

    1999-01-01

    Initial assessment and management of severely injured patients may occur in a specialized area of an emergency department or in a specialized area of a trauma center. The time from injury until definitive management is of essence for survival of life-threatening trauma. The initial care delivered...... injured patients after these patients reach a hospital emergency department or a trauma center....

  19. SICOEM: emergency response data system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.; Villota, C.; Francia, L.

    1993-01-01

    The main characteristics of the SICOEM emergency response system are: -direct electronic redundant transmission of certain operational parameters and plant status informations from the plant process computer to a computer at the Regulatory Body site, - the system will be used in emergency situations, -SICOEM is not considered as a safety class system. 1 fig

  20. SICOEM: emergency response data system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, A.; Villota, C.; Francia, L. (UNESA, Madrid (Spain))

    1993-01-01

    The main characteristics of the SICOEM emergency response system are: -direct electronic redundant transmission of certain operational parameters and plant status informations from the plant process computer to a computer at the Regulatory Body site, - the system will be used in emergency situations, -SICOEM is not considered as a safety class system. 1 fig.

  1. Work shifts in Emergency Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Recupero

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Emergency Medicine is known as a high stress specialty. The adverse effect of constantly rotating shifts is the single most important reason given for premature attrition from the field. In this work problems tied with night shift work will be taken into account and some solutions to reduce the impact of night work on the emergency physicians will be proposed.

  2. Emergency Medical Services - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Well-Being 11 - Emergency Room - Amarɨñña / አማርኛ (Amharic) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Arabic (العربية) Expand Section ... Well-Being 11 - Emergency Room - myanma bhasa (Burmese) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Dari (دری) Expand Section ...

  3. How can emerging powers speak?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Peter Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Emerging powers like China, India and Brazil are receiving growing attention as objects in International Relations (IR) discourse. Scholars from these emerging powers are rarely present as subjects in mainstream IR discourse, however. This paper interrogates the conditions for scholars in emergin...

  4. [Emergency medicine and vulnerable populations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemaud, André-Michel

    2012-01-01

    In emergency medicine, assessing a situation of precarity is sometimes extremely complex. Home visits often provide useful information which can lead to the putting in place of a system of support. Medical marginalisation results from a combination of multiple difficulties, notably financial. This article is the testimony of a doctor working in a structure providing emergency medical care in the home.

  5. Emergence of Symmetries from Entanglement

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Maximal Entanglement appears to be a key ingredient for the emergence of symmetries. We first illustrate this phenomenon using two examples: the emergence of conformal symmetry in condensed matter systems and  the relation of tensor networks to holography. We further present a Principle of Maximal Entanglement that seems to dictate to a large extend the structure of gauge symmetry.

  6. Anticipatory Ethics for Emerging Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brey, Philip A.E.

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, a new approach for the ethical study of emerging technology ethics will be presented, called anticipatory technology ethics (ATE). The ethics of emerging technology is the study of ethical issues at the R&D and introduction stage of technology development through anticipation of

  7. The Comprehensive Emergent Literacy Model

    OpenAIRE

    Leigh Rohde

    2015-01-01

    The early skills of Emergent Literacy include the knowledge and abilities related to the alphabet, phonological awareness, symbolic representation, and communication. However, existing models of emergent literacy focus on discrete skills and miss the perspective of the surrounding environment. Early literacy skills, including their relationship to one another, and the substantial impact of the setting and context, are ...

  8. Institutional planning for radiation emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keil, E.R.

    1986-01-01

    Persons providing health care pride themselves on their ability to handle emergencies. This pride is born of the daily experience of caring for the sick and injured. Emergencies include traumatic injuries, sudden changes in health status, and various minor disturbances in the physical environment inside the hospital. The effectiveness of this ability is unquestioned in limited-scale problems. However, survey experience of the Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Hospitals (JCAH) reveals weaknesses when health care organizations are faced with larger scale problems such as earthquakes and plane crashes. One may speculate that a massive emergency such as occurred at Chernobyl would overwhelm this ability. Based on the same survey experience, JCAH believes that health care organizations can plan and train to prepare for large-scale emergencies in a careful and systematic manner. Through such study and practice, their existing confidence and ability to deal with limited emergencies can be explained

  9. Emergency preparedness at the UJD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seliga, Mojmir

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the emergency planning is to suggest optimum organisational and technical measures to restrict the threat or to eliminate the menace to the population in case of incident or accident at nuclear facility. The emergency plan is activated and executed through the set of emergency procedures, which define basic activities of the UJD during the emergency situations in compliance with legislation regulations. The assessment of the course and consequences of serious incidents and accidents of nuclear installations is carried out by the Emergency Response Centre (KKC). The Emergency Plan of UJD is the set of technical and organisation measures with the aim to propose optimal measures for protection of population and environment. The UJD- Department of Emergency Management and Informatics has an irreplaceable role in the structure of emergency response. The Emergency Response Centre is its organisational part. The UJD is a contact point of the Slovak Republic with the IAEA in frame of convention on early notification of nuclear accidents. The same is valid for bilateral agreements between the Slovak Republic and Czech Republic, Germany, Austria, Hungary, Poland and Ukraine. Uninterrupted 24 hours duty service of the contact point is assured for the UJD by the Office of Civil Protection of Ministry of Interior. In order to fulfil the tasks of the emergency planning UJD established its Emergency Response Group, which consists of four professional teams: 1. Reactor safety group, 2. Radiation protection group, 3. Logistic group, 4. Information group. Information Group consists of the head of Group, the report analysis experts and news service experts. The information group is responsible for public information as well as for informing the authorities. The Information Centre is situated closely to the Emergency Response Centre. The information group gathers, coordinates and prepares all pieces of information in compliance with commitments of the Slovak Republic

  10. Emergency management information system (EMINS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desonier, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    In a time of crisis or in an emergency, a manager is required to make many decisions to facilitate the proper solution and conclusion to the emergency or crisis. In order to make these decisions, it is necessary for the manager to have correct up-to-date information on the situation, which calls for an automated information display and entry process. The information handling needs are identified in terms of data, video, and voice. Studies of existing Emergency Operations Centers and evaluations of hardware and software have been completed. The result of these studies and investigations is the design and implementation of an automated Emergency Management Information System. Not only is the system useful for Emergency Management but for any information management requirement

  11. Emergency preparedness: a comprehensive plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.H.

    1975-01-01

    The Atlantic Richfield Hanford Company (ARHCO) has developed comprehensive plans for coping with emergencies ranging from criticality to civil disturbance. A unique notification system provides for immediate contact with key personnel by using a central communications center, crash alarm warning networks, and a continuing telephone cascade notification system. There is also the capability of immediately contacting other contractor key personnel. Certain jobs have been predetermined as necessary for coping with an emergency. An emergency staff consisting of responsible management, with alternates, has been preselected to automatically fill these jobs when notified. Control centers for headquarters and ''field'' are established with telephone and radio communication capabilities and are also supplied with some source materials to assist initiating plans for containing an emergency for recovery. A comprehensive emergency procedures manual has been developed, which contains information of company-wide application and procedures for specific facilities covering almost all accident situations

  12. Modeling the Emergence of Contact Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tria, Francesca; Servedio, Vito D.P.; Mufwene, Salikoko S.; Loreto, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Contact languages are born out of the non-trivial interaction of two (or more) parent languages. Nowadays, the enhanced possibility of mobility and communication allows for a strong mixing of languages and cultures, thus raising the issue of whether there are any pure languages or cultures that are unaffected by contact with others. As with bacteria or viruses in biological evolution, the evolution of languages is marked by horizontal transmission; but to date no reliable quantitative tools to investigate these phenomena have been available. An interesting and well documented example of contact language is the emergence of creole languages, which originated in the contacts of European colonists and slaves during the 17th and 18th centuries in exogenous plantation colonies of especially the Atlantic and Indian Ocean. Here, we focus on the emergence of creole languages to demonstrate a dynamical process that mimics the process of creole formation in American and Caribbean plantation ecologies. Inspired by the Naming Game (NG), our modeling scheme incorporates demographic information about the colonial population in the framework of a non-trivial interaction network including three populations: Europeans, Mulattos/Creoles, and Bozal slaves. We show how this sole information makes it possible to discriminate territories that produced modern creoles from those that did not, with a surprising accuracy. The generality of our approach provides valuable insights for further studies on the emergence of languages in contact ecologies as well as to test specific hypotheses about the peopling and the population structures of the relevant territories. We submit that these tools could be relevant to addressing problems related to contact phenomena in many cultural domains: e.g., emergence of dialects, language competition and hybridization, globalization phenomena. PMID:25875371

  13. Some emergency instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, P H

    1986-10-01

    , and the adaptation of existing equipment to produce a mobile monitor for sheep to support the MAFF monitoring programme.

  14. 7 CFR 1212.19 - Producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... producing, or causing to be produced, honey beyond personal use and having value at first point of sale. ... person who is engaged in the production and sale of honey in any State and who owns, or shares the...

  15. Genetic engineering of to produce Bacterial Polyhydroxyalkanotes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PHAs), in the sense of an environmental precaution appears meaningful and necessary. In order to more economically produce microbial products, this investigation was focused on suitable producers, like the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe ...

  16. Characterization of bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum F1 and ... brevis OG1 isolated from Nigerian fermented food products, produced bacteriocins ... interest for food safety and may have future applications as food preservative.

  17. Evolutionary ecology of virus emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, John J

    2017-02-01

    The cross-species transmission of viruses into new host populations, termed virus emergence, is a significant issue in public health, agriculture, wildlife management, and related fields. Virus emergence requires overlap between host populations, alterations in virus genetics to permit infection of new hosts, and adaptation to novel hosts such that between-host transmission is sustainable, all of which are the purview of the fields of ecology and evolution. A firm understanding of the ecology of viruses and how they evolve is required for understanding how and why viruses emerge. In this paper, I address the evolutionary mechanisms of virus emergence and how they relate to virus ecology. I argue that, while virus acquisition of the ability to infect new hosts is not difficult, limited evolutionary trajectories to sustained virus between-host transmission and the combined effects of mutational meltdown, bottlenecking, demographic stochasticity, density dependence, and genetic erosion in ecological sinks limit most emergence events to dead-end spillover infections. Despite the relative rarity of pandemic emerging viruses, the potential of viruses to search evolutionary space and find means to spread epidemically and the consequences of pandemic viruses that do emerge necessitate sustained attention to virus research, surveillance, prophylaxis, and treatment. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. State of emergency and emergency: Comparative terminological and semantic aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Avramović, Dragutin; Mlađan, Dragan

    2014-01-01

    The issue of theoretical definition and distinction between a state of emergency and an emergency is made current in recent national and international literature, as well as in different comparative law normative solutions. Considering the usage inconsistencies of the two terms, this paper attempts to highlight the differences between them, as they essentially carry distinctive legal meanings despite their implied lexical and logical similarity. The paper stresses the necessity of their clear...

  19. Emergency department discharge prescription interventions by emergency medicine pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarz, Joseph L; Steffenhagen, Aaron L; Svenson, James; Hamedani, Azita G

    2013-02-01

    We determine the rate and details of interventions associated with emergency medicine pharmacist review of discharge prescriptions for patients discharged from the emergency department (ED). Additionally, we evaluate care providers' satisfaction with such services provided by emergency medicine pharmacists. This was a prospective observational study in the ED of an academic medical center that serves both adult and pediatric patients. Details of emergency medicine pharmacist interventions on discharge prescriptions were compiled with a standardized form. Interventions were categorized as error prevention or optimization of therapy. The staff of the ED was surveyed related to the influence and satisfaction of this new emergency medicine pharmacist-provided service. The 674 discharge prescriptions reviewed by emergency medicine pharmacists during the study period included 602 (89.3%) for adult patients and 72 (10.7%) for pediatric patients. Emergency medicine pharmacists intervened on 68 prescriptions, resulting in an intervention rate of 10.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.0% to 12.7%). The intervention rate was 8.5% (95% CI 6.4% to 11.1%) for adult prescriptions and 23.6% for pediatric prescriptions (95% CI 14.7% to 35.3%) (difference 15.1%; 95% CI 5.1% to 25.2%). There were a similar number of interventions categorized as error prevention and optimization of medication therapy, 37 (54%) and 31 (46%), respectively. More than 95% of survey respondents believed that the new pharmacist services improved patient safety, optimized medication regimens, and improved patient satisfaction. Emergency medicine pharmacist review of discharge prescriptions for discharged ED patients has the potential to significantly improve patient care associated with suboptimal prescriptions and is highly valued by ED care providers. Copyright © 2012. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  20. Inadequate emergence after anesthesia: emergence delirium and hypoactive emergence in the Postanesthesia Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xará, Daniela; Silva, Acácio; Mendonça, Júlia; Abelha, Fernando

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the frequency, determinants, and outcome of inadequate emergence after elective surgery in the Postanesthesia Care Unit (PACU). Prospective observational study. 12-bed PACU of a tertiary-care hospital in a major metropolitan area. 266 adult patients admitted to the PACU. To evaluate inadequate emergence, the Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale (RASS) was administered to patients 10 minutes after their admission to the PACU. Demographic data, perioperative variables, and postoperative length of stay (LOS) in the PACU and the hospital were recorded. 40 (15%) patients showed symptoms of inadequate emergence: 17 patients (6.4%) screened positive for emergence delirium and 23 patients (8.6%) showed hypoactive emergence. Determinants of emergence delirium were longer duration of preoperative fasting (P = 0.001), higher visual analog scale (VAS) scores for pain (P = 0.002), and major surgical risk (P = 0.001); these patients had a higher frequency of postoperative delirium (P = 0.017) and had higher nausea VAS score 6 hours after surgery (P = 0.001). Determinants of hypoactive emergence were duration of surgery (P = 0.003), amount of crystalloids administered during surgery (P = 0.002), residual neuromuscular block (P < 0.001), high-risk surgery (P = 0.002), and lower core temperature on PACU admission (P = 0.028); these patients also had more frequent residual neuromuscular block (P < 0.001) postoperative delirium (P < 0.001), and more frequent adverse respiratory events (P = 0.02). Patients with hypoactive emergence had longer PACU and hospital LOS. Preventable determinants for emergence delirium were higher postoperative pain scores and longer fasting times. Hypoactive emergence was associated with longer postoperative PACU and hospital LOSs. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. 7 CFR 1131.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Handling Definitions § 1131.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of components of skim milk) and butterfat in milk of a producer that is: (a) Received by the operator of a pool... percentage in paragraph (d)(2) of this section may be increased or decreased by the market administrator if...

  2. 7 CFR 1033.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Handling Definitions § 1033.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of components of skim milk), including nonfat components, and butterfat in milk of a producer that is: (a... percentages in paragraph (d)(4) of this section may be increased or decreased by the market administrator if...

  3. 7 CFR 1001.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Handling Definitions § 1001.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of components of skim milk) and butterfat contained in milk of a producer that is: (a) Received by the operator... be increased or decreased by the Market Administrator if the Market Administrator finds that such...

  4. 7 CFR 1126.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Handling Definitions § 1126.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of components of skim milk), including nonfat components, and butterfat contained in milk of a producer that is...) of this section may be increased or decreased by the market administrator if there is a finding that...

  5. 7 CFR 1006.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Handling Definitions § 1006.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of components of skim milk) and butterfat contained in milk of a producer that is: (a) Received by the operator... (d) (1) through (3) of this section may be increased or decreased by the market administrator if the...

  6. 29 CFR 780.213 - Produce business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Produce business. 780.213 Section 780.213 Labor Regulations... Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.213 Produce business. In some instances, hatcheries also engage in the produce business as such and commingle with the culled eggs and chickens other eggs and...

  7. Internet Usage In The Fresh Produce Supply Chainin China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoxiao; Duan, Yanqing; Fu, Zetian; Liu, Xue

    Although effective implementation of the Internet technologies has a great potential for improving efficiency and reducing wastage within the fresh produce supply chain. the situation of the Internet usage by SMEs (small and medium sized enterprises) in the fresh produce supply chain is still unclear in China. As the main players, SMEs haven't been given enough attention from both academics and governments. Therefore, this research attempts to address this issue by, first, investigating the current usage of the Internet and related software by Chinese SMEs in the fresh produce supply chain, and then, by identifying enablers and barriers faced by SMEs to call government's attention. As a part of an EU-Asia IT&C funded project, a survey was carried out with SMEs in this industry from five major cities in China. The results reveal that in the relatively developed areas of China, SMEs in the fresh produce supply chain are rapidly adopting the Internet and software packages, but the level of adoption varies greatly and there is a significant lack of integration among the supply chain partners. Chinese SMEs are keen to embrace emerging technologies and have acted to adopt new software and tools. Given that cost of implementation is not a barrier, their concern over legal protection and online security must be addressed for further development.

  8. Experiences of Emerging Economy Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Experiences of Emerging Economy Firms investigates the different elements of the experiences of emerging economy firms and sheds essential light on a large variety of aspects associated with their functioning in both home and host contexts. For example, firms must be able to overcome the liability...... of foreign and emerging issues when they expand their activities in various contexts, enter, exit, and re-enter overseas markets; they have to overcome institutional barriers, adapt the cultural challenges in foreign markets, undergo the impact of large multinational firms from developed economies...

  9. Environmental monitoring in emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    This manual gives technical guidance on emergency monitoring procedures to those who would have to assess the situation after an accident leading to the uncontrolled release of radioactive substances to the environment. Its aim is to draw attention to the important factors that should be considered in formulating emergency plans. The seven annexes contain inventories of fission products and possible releases; dispersion, deposition and dose-exposure relationships for airborne releases; α-, β- and γ-radiation surveys; information on sample collection and field evaluation; and brief descriptions of the environmental monitoring procedures adopted in previous emergencies (Windscale 1957, AERE Harwell 1961 and NRTS Idaho 1961).

  10. Nuclear emergency planning in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baarli, J.

    1986-01-01

    The nuclear emergency planning in Norway is forming a part of the Search and Rescue Service of the country. Due to the fact that Norway do not have any nucleat power reactor, the nuclear emergency planning has not been given high priority. The problems however are a part of the activity of the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene, and the emergency preparedness is at the present time to a large extent based on the availability of professional health physicists and their knowledge, rather than established practices

  11. Decision support for emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, V.

    1989-05-01

    A short introduction will be given to the Nordic project ''NKA/INF: Information Technology for Accident and Emergency Management'', which is now in its final phase. To perform evaluation of the project, special scenarious have been developed, and experiments based on these will be fulfilled and compared with experiments without use of the decision support system. Furthermore, the succeeding European project, ''IT Support for Emergency Management - ISEM'', with the purpose of developing a decision support system for complex and distributed decision making in emergency management in full scale, will be described and the preliminary conceptual model for the system will be presented. (author)

  12. Educational course in emergency radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velkova, K.; Stoeva, M.; Cvetkova, S.; Hilendarov, A.; Petrova, A.; Stefanov, P.; Simova, E.; Georgieva, V.; Sirakov, N.

    2012-01-01

    Emergency radiology is the part of radiology primarily focused on acute diagnosing conditions in ER patients. This advanced area of radiology improves the quality of care and treatment of patients and of the emergency medicine as a whole. The educational course in Emergency (ER) Radiology is available for medical students in their 8th and 9th semester. The main objective of the ER course is to obtain knowledge about the indications, possibilities and diagnostic value of the contemporary imaging methods in ER cases. Therapeutic methods under imaging control are also covered by the course. The curriculum of the course consists of 6 lectures and 12 practical classes. (authors)

  13. Emerging & re-emerging infections in India: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Dikid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of emerging infectious diseases in humans has increased within the recent past or threatens to increase in the near future. Over 30 new infectious agents have been detected worldwide in the last three decades; 60 per cent of these are of zoonotic origin. Developing countries such as India suffer disproportionately from the burden of infectious diseases given the confluence of existing environmental, socio-economic, and demographic factors. In the recent past, India has seen outbreaks of eight organisms of emerging and re-emerging diseases in various parts of the country, six of these are of zoonotic origin. Prevention and control of emerging infectious diseases will increasingly require the application of sophisticated epidemiologic and molecular biologic technologies, changes in human behaviour, a national policy on early detection of and rapid response to emerging infections and a plan of action. WHO has made several recommendations for national response mechanisms. Many of these are in various stages of implementation in India. However, for a country of size and population of India, the emerging infections remain a real and present danger. A meaningful response must approach the problem at the systems level. A comprehensive national strategy on infectious diseases cutting across all relevant sectors with emphasis on strengthened surveillance, rapid response, partnership building and research to guide public policy is needed.

  14. Emerging and Re-Emerging Zoonoses of Dogs and Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno B. Chomel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the middle of the 20th century, pets are more frequently considered as “family members” within households. However, cats and dogs still can be a source of human infection by various zoonotic pathogens. Among emerging or re-emerging zoonoses, viral diseases, such as rabies (mainly from dog pet trade or travel abroad, but also feline cowpox and newly recognized noroviruses or rotaviruses or influenza viruses can sicken our pets and be transmitted to humans. Bacterial zoonoses include bacteria transmitted by bites or scratches, such as pasteurellosis or cat scratch disease, leading to severe clinical manifestations in people because of their age or immune status and also because of our closeness, not to say intimacy, with our pets. Cutaneous contamination with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Leptospira spp., and/or aerosolization of bacteria causing tuberculosis or kennel cough are also emerging/re-emerging pathogens that can be transmitted by our pets, as well as gastro-intestinal pathogens such as Salmonella or Campylobacter. Parasitic and fungal pathogens, such as echinococcosis, leishmaniasis, onchocercosis, or sporotrichosis, are also re-emerging or emerging pet related zoonoses. Common sense and good personal and pet hygiene are the key elements to prevent such a risk of zoonotic infection.

  15. Information sharing guidebook for transportation management centers, emergency operations centers, and fusion centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    This guidebook provides an overview of the mission and functions of transportation management centers, emergency operations centers, and fusion centers. The guidebook focuses on the types of information these centers produce and manage and how the sh...

  16. Information sharing guidebook for transportation management centers, emergency operations centers, and fusion centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    This guidebook provides an overview of the mission and functions of transportation management centers, emergency operations centers, and fusion centers. The guidebook focuses on the types of information these centers produce and manage and how the sh...

  17. Institutional arrangements in the emerging biodiesel industry: Case studies from Minas Gerais—Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watanabe, K.; Bijman, J.; Slingerland, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Connecting (small) family farmers to the emerging biodiesel industry requires careful design of the institutional arrangements between the producers of oil crops and the processing companies. According to institutional economics theory, the design of effective and efficient arrangements depends on

  18. Re-Emergent Tremor of Parkinson's Disease Masquerading as Essential Tremor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Morgan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The re-emergent tremor of Parkinson’s disease (PD is generally recognized as a postural tremor. Phenomenology Shown: A PD patient with a re-emergent tremor occurring during a task (spiral drawing, which on the surface produced a tremor that resembled that of essential tremor (ET. Educational Value: Researchers and clinicians should be aware of features of this re-emergent tremor to help distinguish it from that of ET.

  19. American College of Emergency Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these... Read More More Than 850 Hours of Online Education Log In Now > Physicians Podcasts and Apps Reimbursement Quality Issues MOC Resource Center International Residents & Students Contracts & ... Medicine Foundation Online Buyers' Guide Emergency Care For You emCareers.org ...

  20. Rural transportation emergency preparedness plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Improving the emergency preparedness of rural transportation systems is the overall goal of this research. Unique characteristics exist in rural transportation systems including widely dispersed and diverse populations and geographic areas. Exploring...