WorldWideScience

Sample records for halal production trade

  1. Halal Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In today’s globalized world, halal (meaning ‘permissible’ or ‘lawful’) is about more than food. Politics, power and ethics all play a role in the halal industry in setting new standards for production, trade, consumption and regulation. The question of how modern halal markets are constituted...... is increasingly important and complex. Written from a unique interdisciplinary global perspective, this book demonstrates that as the market for halal products and services is expanding and standardizing, it is also fraught with political, social and economic contestation and difference. The discussion...

  2. On The Halal Frontier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    2011-01-01

    of production, trade, and consumption, but part of a huge and expanding globalized market. In my recent publication modern forms of halal understanding and practice among Malay Muslims in London are explored, that is, the halal consumption of middle-class Malays in the diaspora. The connection between London...

  3. Advances in the industrial production of halal and kosher red meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farouk, Mustafa M

    2013-12-01

    The worldwide volume and value of trade in halal and kosher meat and co-products are huge. Muslim countries alone consumed meat estimated to be worth USD 57.2 billion in 2008. The halal and kosher principles that govern the production of red meat have many similarities, as well as some fundamental differences. Perhaps the most significant difference is that at the time of slaughter, the animal needs only to be alive to meet the minimum halal requirement, but must be both alive and conscious for kosher. It is for this reason that reversible pre-slaughter stunning is acceptable only for halal meat, although a compromise form of post-slaughter stunning is now considered kosher in some countries. Extensive research on animal physiology and welfare has characterised and optimised the methods for stunning livestock, and enabled advancement in associated technologies. This forms the basis for harmonising the religious and secular requirements for the protection of animal welfare at slaughter. These technologies and the associated processing practices for the industrial production of halal and kosher meat are reviewed in this paper. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Branding halal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    2012-01-01

    In the rapidly expanding global market for halal products, Malaysia and Singapore hold a special position as the only two countries in the world where state bodies certify halal products, spaces (shops, factories and restaurants) as well as work processes. In these two countries and in shops all...... to the complexities of which they are a part. More specifically, I explore the visual systems of halal marks on products, advertisements, shops as well as restaurants....

  5. DISSECTING THE CONTENTS OF LAW OF INDONESIA ON HALAL PRODUCT ASSURANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aal Lukmanul Hakim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia with its majority Moslem population and even the biggest Moslem nation in the world has obligations to its citizens to assurance the halal products (halal for consumption and/or used as a constitutional obligation to be enforceable and applicable. The constitutional obligation is granted in the form of legal certainty covering the halalness of all products either to those useable, consumed and/or utilized by the society. Upon the legalization and enactment of Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 33 year 2014 regarding Halal Product Assurance is the evidence of constitutionally protection commitment. Having this Halal Product Assurance Law, the people may consume and/or use any products safely, pleasantly, securely and healthy, in addition to the increase of added value for Business Entities to product and sell Halal Products.

  6. The Usage of Social Media as an Information Seeking Tool of Halal Food Products

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Zanariah Yusoff; Nazilah Mohamad; Mohd Faradi Ghazali; Nor Hafizah Abdullah; Sharipah Nur Mursalina Syed Azmy

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of social media as an information seeking tool of halal food products among Muslim. This is a conceptual paper which employed a comprehensive review to investigate strategy used by Muslim family in information seeking of halal food products using social media.  This study had revealed that respondents are likely to use social media in search for information regarding halal foods. As expected by the researchers, children tend to be the majority ...

  7. Halal Activism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to further our understanding of contemporary Muslim consumer activism in Malaysia with a particular focus on halal (in Arabic, literally “permissible” or “lawful”) products and services. Muslim activists and organisations promote halal on a big scale in the interface...... zones between new forms of Islamic revivalism, the ethnicised state and Muslim consumer culture. Organisations such as the Muslim Consumers Association of Malaysia play an important role in pushing and protecting halal in Malaysia, that is, halal activists constantly call on the state to tighten halal...... in particular historical/national settings and that these issues should be explored in the interfaces between Islam, the state and market. More specifically, this article examines the above issues building on ethnography from fieldwork with three Muslim organisations in Malaysia....

  8. Industrial halal meat production and animal welfare: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farouk, M M; Pufpaff, K M; Amir, M

    2016-10-01

    Islam teaches zero-tolerance to all forms of animal abuse throughout the halal meat production supply chain and demands that when animals are slaughtered, they must be slaughtered in the mindful and attentive way espoused by the Prophet Muhammad. Why then are poor practices and animal welfare abuses still occurring during halal meat production, and how can they be reduced or eliminated? In this review we discuss how improvements might be achieved through: (1) training of staff regarding the religious and regulatory requirements of animal welfare from on-farm to slaughter; (2) empathy and compassion assessment of applicants prior to employment; (3) installation of CCTV cameras around lairage and slaughter sites; (4) regular employee follow-up training to minimise 'compassion fatigue'; (5) incorporating animal welfare requirements in halal certification; (6) using mosque-based sermons by Imams to increase awareness of animal welfare issues; and (7) making portable humane slaughter units available to small cottage operations and home/neighbourhood-kills through mosque-based organizations/structures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Designing Halal Supply Chain: Malaysia’s Halal Industry Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasi Raja Zuraidah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to survey current halal activities in the Malaysia halal industry. The conventional supply chain focuses on oneway interconnected processes wherein raw materials are transformed into final products, and delivered to end customers. However, due to recent halal criteria requirements received from customers, the conventional supply chain has shifted to halal supply chain management. The halal supply chain is a network of supply that gives special attention and endorsement to the products and services to ensure halal integrity throughout the network. This study used a qualitative research approach. The data was gathered through in-depth interviews with five case study halal manufacturers in Malaysia. The results suggest a streamlined framework of halal supply chains that consists of (1 Halal procurement (2 Halal manufacturing (3 Halal distribution (4 Halal logistics.

  10. Halal food and products in Malaysia: People's awareness and policy implications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abdul Raufu Ambali; Ahmad Naqiyuddin Bakar

    2013-01-01

    ... products or foods in the city of Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia. It is argued that many factors have a bearing on the awareness of Halal products or food but unfortunately most of the previous studies...

  11. The Issue of Undeclared Ingredients in Halal and Kosher Food Production: A Focus on Processing Aids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Al‐Mazeedi, Hani M; Regenstein, Joe M; Riaz, Mian Nadeem

    2013-01-01

    .... The original sources and the details of their processing prior to inclusion in the final food product are not provided to consumers but will determine their acceptability for both halal and kosher food production...

  12. Consumer Demand on Halal Cosmetics and Personal Care Products in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muniaty Aisyah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the influential factors involved in Moslem consumers’ decision to purchase halal cosmetics and personal care products in Indonesia by using the Theory of Planned Behavior. 100 questionnaires were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling, collected from respondents of female consumers who purchased Wardah cosmetics and personal care products in South Jakarta and South Tangerang. The findings show that attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control and purchase intention are positively related to the consumers’ decision to purchase halal cosmetics and personal care products. By addressing the consumers’ traits that can predict halal cosmetics and personal care products necessity, marketers could generate proper marketing strategies to validate consumers’ demand which in turn will stimulate the growth of halal products industry in Indonesia.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v9i1.1867

  13. The Usage of Social Media as an Information Seeking Tool of Halal Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Zanariah Yusoff

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of social media as an information seeking tool of halal food products among Muslim. This is a conceptual paper which employed a comprehensive review to investigate strategy used by Muslim family in information seeking of halal food products using social media.  This study had revealed that respondents are likely to use social media in search for information regarding halal foods. As expected by the researchers, children tend to be the majority users of social networking sites compared to their parents. It is crucial for each Muslim to seek information about halal foods as there are too much dumping information that lead to confusion among consumers. Other than that, this study proved the usage of social media not only limited to entertainment yet it plays a vital part as an information seeking tools as well.

  14. Increasing Production and Eliminating Waste through Lean Tools and Techniques for Halal Food Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Manzouri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Major businesses around the world have been trying to reduce the total cost and wastes across their supply chain to remain competitive in the expanding global market. Hence, a collection of reliable tools and techniques are vital for decreasing costs and wastes and for providing effective services for customer demands. Given that lean concept attempts to decrease costs and wastes, this study aims to identify the effective lean tools required for eliminating wastes in the supply chain. Because of the large number of consumers and the global market of Halal products, this study focuses on Halal food supply chains. Out of the questionnaires distributed to 300 Halal food firms in Malaysia, only 61 usable replies were obtained. The results showed that demand collaboration, continuous improvement, and inventory management practices are the most important tools in Lean Supply Chain (LSC implementation. In addition, the results indicated that only a small percentage of Halal food companies are implementing LSC. Malaysia is an important Halal food producer in the word, but has low level of LSC implementation among its Halal food producers. LSC is a new concept that needs more effort to be understood and implemented.

  15. A Study on the Preferences of Consumers of Halal - Certified Products A Case Study of İstanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Özdemir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, consumer’s demographic characteristics, the attitude of halal food and religious life styles aimed to investigate whether there is a significant relationship between preference of halal certified products. The target population of the study is the markets costumers, products are sold is halal certified in İstanbul. The sample of the study is 400 costumers over the age of 18, who agreed to participate in the study. The data collection technique used in the survey technique. Frequency distribution analysis of the data, descriptive statistic, t–test, one-factor analysis of variance and Pearson correlation matrix tests were used for analysis of the data. Of the analyzed demographic variables, gender and income level was found significant difference between religious life style. Marital status, job –carrier and income was a found significant difference between the attitude of halal food. Marital status, job –carrier, income and education was found significant difference between the preference of the halal-certified product. Also there are weak significant relationship between religious life styles and the attitude of halal food, there are very weak significant relationship between religious life styles and preference of halal certified products and there are weak significant relationship between the attitude of halal food and preference of halal certified products

  16. Production of effective microorganism using halal based sources: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since the agriculture sector has long been the backbone of the economy, the nation has found effective microorganism (EM) technology that has potential use in developing a sustainable agriculture sector. Malaysia is recognized as a modern Islamic country; citizens have concerns regarding halal issues associated with ...

  17. The perception and acceptability of pre-slaughter and post-slaughter stunning for Halal production: The views of UK Islamic scholars and Halal consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuseini, Awal; Wotton, Steve B; Hadley, Phil J; Knowles, Toby G

    2017-01-01

    The importance of religious slaughter from economic, emotive and ethical viewpoints is significant. There are apparent economic benefits associated with trading in meats slaughtered according to religious traditions. Some religious authorities insist on the slaughter of animals without stunning, but this, according to many researchers, compromises animal welfare. We conducted a survey of Islamic scholars and Halal consumers, 66 scholars from 55 organisations and 314 consumers from 54 UK cities/towns were surveyed. Forty-nine scholars were interviewed through pre-arranged meetings, 17 surveyed online whilst all 314 consumers were either surveyed online or through the remote completion of copies of the questionnaire. Most of the scholars (>95%) (CI 86.9 to 98.4%) agreed that if an animal is stunned and then slaughtered by a Muslim and the method of stunning does not result in death, cause physical injury or obstruct bleed-out, the meat would be Halal and 53% (CI 47 to 58%) consumers also thought such meat would be Halal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Consumer Demand on Halal Cosmetics and Personal Care Products in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Aisyah, Muniaty

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to analyze the influential factors involved in Moslem consumers' decision to purchase halal cosmetics and personal care products in Indonesia by using the Theory of Planned Behavior. 100 questionnaires were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling, collected from respondents of female consumers who purchased Wardah cosmetics and personal care products in South Jakarta and South Tangerang. The findings show that attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control and ...

  19. Consumer Demand on Halal Cosmetics and Personal Care Products in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Muniaty Aisyah

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to analyze the influential factors involved in Moslem consumers’ decision to purchase halal cosmetics and personal care products in Indonesia by using the Theory of Planned Behavior. 100 questionnaires were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling, collected from respondents of female consumers who purchased Wardah cosmetics and personal care products in South Jakarta and South Tangerang. The findings show that attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control and ...

  20. A usability evaluation of an interactive application for halal products using optical character recognition and augmented reality technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Meng Chun; Nizam, Siti Soleha Muhammad; Arshad, Haslina; A'isyah Ahmad Shukri, Saidatul; Hashim, Nurhazarifah Che; Putra, Haekal Mozzia; Abidin, Rimaniza Zainal

    2017-10-01

    This article discusses the usability of an interactive application for halal products using Optical Character Recognition (OCR) and Augmented Reality (AR) technologies. Among the problems that have been identified in this study is that consumers have little knowledge about the E-Code. Therefore, users often have doubts about the halal status of the product. Nowadays, the integrity of halal status can be doubtful due to the actions of some irresponsible people spreading false information about a product. Therefore, an application that uses OCR and AR technology developed in this study will help the users to identify the information content of a product by scanning the E-Code label and by scanning the product's brand to know the halal status of the product. In this application, E-Code on the label of a product is scanned using OCR technology to display information about the E-Code. The product's brand is scan using augmented reality technology to display halal status of the product. The findings reveal that users are satisfied with this application and it is useful and easy to use.

  1. URGENSI REGULASI DAN EDUKASI PRODUK HALAL BAGI KONSUMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmah Maulida

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of Halal Food is the important thing in context of Muslim of Indonesia. But the lack of education and socialization of halal products in Ponorogo give a significant impact to ignorance of society to consume the halalness. Actually, the consumers really realize that goverment must take a guarantee of safety products, like food, meat, drink, and medicine. But, they give difference opinions about the best strategies of certification of halalness in Indonesia. This article aim to explore the urgencies of educating the halalness, to protect the consumers’ rights in their intake daily life. Kata kunci:Halal Product, Halal Campaign, LPPOM MUI.

  2. #Halal Culture on Instagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena Mejova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Halal is a notion that applies to both objects and actions, and means permissible according to Islamic law. It may be most often associated with food and the rules of selecting, slaughtering, and cooking animals. In the globalized world, halal can be found in street corners of New York and beauty shops of Manila. In this study, we explore the cultural diversity of the concept, as revealed through social media, and specifically the way it is expressed by different populations around the world, and how it relates to their perception of (i religious and (ii governmental authority, and (iii personal health. Here, we analyze two Instagram datasets, using Halal in Arabic (325,665 posts and in English (1,004,445 posts, which provide a global view of major Muslim populations around the world. We find a great variety in the use of halal within Arabic, English, and Indonesian-speaking populations, with animal trade emphasized in first (making up 61% of the language’s stream, food in second (80%, and cosmetics and supplements in third (70%. The commercialization of the term halal is a powerful signal of its detraction from its traditional roots. We find a complex social engagement around posts mentioning religious terms, such that when a food-related post is accompanied by a religious term, it on average gets more likes in English and Indonesian, but not in Arabic, indicating a potential shift out of its traditional moral framing.

  3. Halal pharmaceuticals:A review on malaysian standard, ms 2424:2012 (p)

    OpenAIRE

    Noriah Ramli; Faqihah Salleh; Saiful Nizam Azmi

    2013-01-01

     The increasing of halal awareness in the pharmaceutical industry has a prominent impact on Malaysia’s economic growth. The awareness surprisingly boosts customers’ trust and confidence in every product claimed as halal compliant. As to uphold the trust of customers in halal products, halal pharmaceutical is introduced to the pharmaceutical industry. Aligned with the existence of the halal pharmaceuticals, MS 2424:2012 (P); a Malaysian Standard in Halal Pharmaceuticals-General Guidelines was ...

  4. Production of effective microorganism using halal- based sources: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... great stress. Consequently, off-farm input (example, fertilizers and pesticides) plays an important role in food production. However, Peter Triantafillou, a lecturer at the ... microorganisms and organic fertilizer (example animal manure) in the ... of EM liquid concentrate are not clearly stated and identified since ...

  5. Halal and kosher slaughter methods and meat quality: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farouk, M M; Al-Mazeedi, H M; Sabow, A B; Bekhit, A E D; Adeyemi, K D; Sazili, A Q; Ghani, A

    2014-11-01

    There are many slaughter procedures that religions and cultures use around the world. The two that are commercially relevant are the halal and kosher methods practiced by Muslims and Jews respectively. The global trade in red meat and poultry produced using these two methods is substantial, thus the importance of the quality of the meat produced using the methods. Halal and kosher slaughter per se should not affect meat quality more than their industrial equivalents, however, some of their associated pre- and post-slaughter processes do. For instance, the slow decline in blood pressure following a halal pre-slaughter head-only stun and neck cut causes blood splash (ecchymosis) in a range of muscles and organs of slaughtered livestock. Other quality concerns include bruising, hemorrhages, skin discoloration and broken bones particularly in poultry. In addition to these conventional quality issues, the "spiritual quality" of the meat can also be affected when the halal and kosher religious requirements are not fully met during the slaughter process. The nature, causes, importance and mitigations of these and other quality issues related to halal and kosher slaughtering and meat production using these methods are the subjects of this review. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Halal pharmaceuticals:A review on malaysian standard, ms 2424:2012 (p

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriah Ramli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing of halal awareness in the pharmaceutical industry has a prominent impact on Malaysia’s economic growth. The awareness surprisingly boosts customers’ trust and confidence in every product claimed as halal compliant. As to uphold the trust of customers in halal products, halal pharmaceutical is introduced to the pharmaceutical industry. Aligned with the existence of the halal pharmaceuticals, MS 2424:2012 (P; a Malaysian Standard in Halal Pharmaceuticals-General Guidelines was developed. The standard is fully installed with the terms and definitions pertinent to the halal pharmaceuticals and all of the requirements to comply halal certification.

  7. Halal Supply Chain Management Streamlined Practices: Issues and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijrah Abd Kadir, Muhammad; Zuraidah Raja Mohd Rasi, Raja; Omar, Siti Sarah; Manap, Zariq Imran Abdul

    2016-11-01

    The quickly developing worldwide halal in business sector has given a remarkable window of chance, which empowers Malaysia to the renowned halal centre in worldwide (known as Halal-hubs). Malaysia also has proactively taken a lead in halal activities, which is presently considered as the benchmark for a halal framework worldwide. Malaysia also set up the Halal Industry Development Corporation (HDC) which driving a wide range of halal activities since the demand of halal food has increased significantly which is very crucial for a Muslim in ensuring its authenticity and integrity. Even in parallel to this developments, many studies has been conducted because there are many issues still occurs in the food industry. The issue of consumer awareness and understanding the halal principles, mixing of halal and non- halal products, halal certification and logo compliance with Shariah law and lack of regulation and enforcement need the serious attention by all parties along the supply chain. The challenges occur mainly in the halal food segregation and halal traceability of the products. The unit of analysis in this study different halal stakeholders group which are JAKIM, Halal Development Centre (HDC), Raw Material Manufacturers, Retailers and Government Agencies. This paper attempt discusses the issues and challenges occurs in the halal supply chain and faced by the practitioners as well as the relevant parties involved in the industry especially for food products manufacturers. The study would like to give a basic information about the issues and challenges in the contribution of Halal Supply Chain Management (HSCM) as well as for the future studies.

  8. KEPASTIAN HUKUM SERTIFIKASI DAN LABELISASI HALAL PRODUK PANGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KN Sofyan Hasan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Halal certificate is a written fatwa MUI that states halal food products in accordance with Islamic law, aims to provide legal assurance to consumers. However, the existing regulations are still per-ceived sectoral, partial, inconsistent and not systemic. Moreover, the most fundamental thing is the halal certification is not an obligation (mandatory for businesses but it is voluntary. Consequently, halal certification and halal label do not have strong legal legitimacy which results in legal uncer-tainty of halal food products. In regard to this, the draft of Law on Halal Product Guarantee that is still stalled in the House should be soon stipulated and MUI should be given the authority to issue halal certification and perform it through the Fatwa Commission LPPOM. In addition, the govern-ment serves as a regulator as well as supervisor in the implementation of the provisions of the law which cause justice uncertainty.

  9. Detection of porcine DNA in gelatine and gelatine-containing processed food products-Halal/Kosher authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirhan, Yasemin; Ulca, Pelin; Senyuva, Hamide Z

    2012-03-01

    A commercially available real-time PCR, based on a multi-copy target cytochrome b (cyt b) using porcine specific primers, has been validated for the Halal/Kosher authentication of gelatine. Extraction and purification of DNA from gelatine were successfully achieved using the SureFood® PREP Animal system, and real-time PCR was carried out using SureFood® Animal ID Pork Sens kit. The minimum level of adulteration that could be detected was 1.0% w/w for marshmallows and gum drops. A small survey was undertaken of processed food products such as gum drops, marshmallows and Turkish delight, believed to contain gelatine. Of fourteen food products from Germany, two samples were found to contain porcine gelatine, whereas of twenty-nine samples from Turkey twenty-eight were negative. However, one product from Turkey contained porcine DNA and thus was not Halal, and neither was the use of porcine gelatine indicated on the product label. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Manufacturing halal in Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    2016-01-01

    decades, Malaysia has become a world leader in the global expansion of halal markets. This has come about in large part because the state and government of Malaysia have taken on the role of halal-certifying authority within the country. In effect, it has certified, standardized and bureaucratized halal...

  11. Halal Pharmaceuticals: Legal, Shari’ah Issues and Fatwa of Drug, Gelatine and Alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Afifi Ab. Halim; Mohd Mahyeddin Mohd Salleh; Mohd Izhar Ariff Mohd Kashim; Azlin Alisa Ahmad (Ph.D); Norhaslinda Nordin

    2014-01-01

    Halal products are fast gaining worldwide recognition as a new benchmark for safety and quality assurance. Products with halal certification are confidently accepted by consumers especially Muslims as well as those of other religions. Undoubtedly halal product industry has been an emerging industry in Malaysia and all over the world. Recognizing the new concept of halal industry presents an opportunity for manufacturers to make better strategies and innovations in producing their products tow...

  12. Developing control points for halal slaughtering of poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahdan, I A; Regenstein, J M; Shahabuddin, A S M; Rahman, M T

    2016-07-01

    Halal (permissible or lawful) poultry meat production must meet industry, economic, and production needs, and government health requirements without compromising the Islamic religious requirements derived from the Qur'an and the Hadiths (the actions and sayings of the Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him). Halal certification authorities may vary in their interpretation of these teachings, which leads to differences in halal slaughter requirements. The current study proposes 6 control points (CP) for halal poultry meat production based on the most commonly used halal production systems. CP 1 describes what is allowed and prohibited, such as blood and animal manure, and feed ingredients for halal poultry meat production. CP 2 describes the requirements for humane handling during lairage. CP 3 describes different methods for immobilizing poultry, when immobilization is used, such as water bath stunning. CP 4 describes the importance of intention, details of the halal slaughter, and the equipment permitted. CP 5 and CP 6 describe the requirements after the neck cut has been made such as the time needed before the carcasses can enter the scalding tank, and the potential for meat adulteration with fecal residues and blood. It is important to note that the proposed halal CP program is presented as a starting point for any individual halal certifying body to improve its practices. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. KEPASTIAN HUKUM SERTIFIKASI DAN LABELISASI HALAL PRODUK PANGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KN Sofyan Hasan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Halal certificate is a written fatwa MUI that states halal food products in accordance with Islamic law, aims to provide legal assurance to consumers. However, the existing regulations are still per-ceived sectoral, partial, inconsistent and not systemic. Moreover, the most fundamental thing is the halal certification is not an obligation (mandatory for businesses but it is voluntary. Consequently, halal certification and halal label do not have strong legal legitimacy which results in legal uncer-tainty of halal food products. In regard to this, the draft of Law on Halal Product Guarantee that is still stalled in the House should be soon stipulated and MUI should be given the authority to issue halal certification and perform it through the Fatwa Commission LPPOM. In addition, the govern-ment serves as a regulator as well as supervisor in the implementation of the provisions of the law which cause justice uncertainty. Key words: halal certificate, the Indonesian Ulama Council, food products

  14. Regulating Halal and Kosher Foods: Different Arrangements between State, Industry and Religious Actors

    OpenAIRE

    Havinga, Tetty

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe Netherlands, like other Western countries, is a growing market for halal food products, that is, food products that comply with Islamic food laws. Halal food is becoming more visible as Dutch supermarkets, hospitals and schools decide to include halal food in their supply. This development has been criticised by animal protectionists and people who fear the ‘Islamisation’ of Dutch society. In this article, the regulation of halal food in the Netherlands is compared to the regu...

  15. Regulating Halal and Kosher Foods: Different Arrangements between State, Industry and Religious Actors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Havinga (Tetty)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe Netherlands, like other Western countries, is a growing market for halal food products, that is, food products that comply with Islamic food laws. Halal food is becoming more visible as Dutch supermarkets, hospitals and schools decide to include halal food in their supply. This

  16. An Insight of Meat Industry in Pakistan with Special Reference to Halal Meat: A Comprehensive Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Faraz

    2017-01-01

    Livestock is considered central component in agricultural sector of Pakistan, provides employment to more than 8 million families. Meat and meat products holds pivotal significance in meeting dietary requirements serving as major protein source and provide essential vitamins and minerals. Globally, consumer demand is increasing for healthy, hygienic and safe meat and meat products due to growing population, income level and food choices. As, food choices are mainly influenced by region, religion and economic level. However, religion is one of the major factor to influence the food choices. In this context, halal foods a growing trend, trade estimated to cross USD $ 3 trillion and among this, meat sector contribute about US$ 600 billion. Halal meat and allied products is requirement from Muslims but it is also accepted by non-Muslims due to safe and hygienic nature, nutritious value and superior quality. Pakistan meat industry is vibrant and has seen rigorous developments during last decade as government also showed interest to boost livestock production and processing facilities to meet increasing local and global demand. The industry has potential to grow owing to its natural animal rearing capability, muslim majority country (96% of total population), improvisation of market and consumer preference towards halal meat. Current review debates Pakistan meat industry scenario, production trend, global trade as well as future potential with respect to modernization, processing, distribution and trade. The data presented here is useful for meat producers, processors and people involved in export of Pakistani meat and meat based products. PMID:28747818

  17. PENGEMBANGAN KONSEP SISTEM JAMINAN HALAL DI RUMAH POTONG AYAM (Studi Kasus pada Industri Daging Ayam [Concept Development Of Halal Assurance System In The Chicken Slaughter House (Case Study Of Chicken Meat Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwit Estuti1

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of effective halal assurance system model was one of producer's effort to supply halal food for Moslem consumers. The objective Of this research was to develop halal assurance system concept which is consist of halal manual. Halal Standard Operating Procedure, Guideline, and Work Instruction which should be applied at Chicken Slaughter House. flied research used descriptive method by distributing questionnaire, direct observation, on-site verification and halal assurance system assessment on two Chicken Slaughter House. The halal assurance system assessment was conducted based on ISO 9000, 2000 guideline of arrangement of HACCP system. The conclusion of this research was that this Halal Assurance System was suitable to be used as a standard for Chicken Slaughter House. The document change on both industry was that of applied halal assurance system. It was found that there were two kinds of haram Critical Control Point, which were two points at raw material and four point at chicken production process

  18. Influence of Halal certification on customers' purchase intention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study isto investigate the relationship between HALAL awareness, marketing and religiosity that are postulated to influence customers' intention to purchase HALAL certified consumer products. Customers' who visited SABASUN Hypermarket Sdn. Bhd. in Kuala Terengganu were selected as ...

  19. Halal Literacy: A Concept Exploration and Measurement Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Salehudin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Muslim consumers have strict commandments which guides their consumption behavior. However, Muslim individuals may have different compliance regarding the commandments. This difference in compliance may be explained by difference in halal literacy. Halal literacy is the ability to differentiate permissible (halal and forbidden (haram goods and services which came from better understanding of Islamic laws (shariah.Thus, the purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of Halal Literacy as well as to develop and validate an instrument to measure Halal Literacy for Muslim consumers. Halal literacy was measured using two methods. One method using six items of five point Likert self evaluation scale and the other using fifteen true-false test questions with an option to choose doesn’t know. Proportion of correct and incorrect was used as weights in scoring to represent the difficulty of items. Scoring results were then analyzed with Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA using Weighted Least Square method to test construct validity. Scores were then used to classify cases into high, moderate and low Literacy groups.Self evaluation halal literacy and switching Intentions are compared between groups using ANOVA to determine concurrent validity. Only ten out of fifteen items are considered valid using Confirmatory Factor Analysis. ANOVA showed that grouping of high, moderate and low literacy score can distinguish differences in perceived halal literacy and switching intentions between the groups. Post hoc tests and descriptive statistics revealed interesting non linear relationship between the halal literacy scores; self evaluated halal literacy and intentions to switch from products without halal labels.

  20. Marketing Impact of Halal Labeling toward Indonesian Muslim Consumer’s Behavioral Intention Based on Ajzen’s Planned Behavior Theory: Policy Capturing Studies on Five Different Product Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Salehudin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to test the applicability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB in explaining the intention to switch from products without certified Halal labels within a wide array of purchase context, especially in the purchase of food and medicine products. A policy capturing questionnaire was used to elicit responses from consumers using a convenience sampling technique. A total of 7500 responses were obtained from 150 participating respondent in 50 different scenario cases. Data is analyzed using Multi-Group Structural Equation Modeling. The study finds that the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB is not completely valid to explain both the behavioral intention of Muslim consumers in Indonesia to seek information about the Halal certification of a product and to cancel their purchase if the product did not have Halal certification. Differences in magnitude and significance of causal relationships exist between different product categories.

  1. Counterfeit-Product Trade.

    OpenAIRE

    Grossman, Gene M; Shapiro, Carl

    1988-01-01

    We analyze a two-country model of trade in both legitimate and counterfeit products. Domestic firms own trademarks and establish reputations for delivering high-quality products in a steady-state equilibrium. Foreign suppliers export legitimate low-quality merchandise and counterfeits of domestic brand-name goods. Heterogeneous home consumers either purchase low-quality imports or buy brand-name products, rationally expecting some degree of counterfeiting of the latter. We characterize a coun...

  2. Counterfeit Product Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Grossman, Gene

    1986-01-01

    We analyze a two-country model of trade in both legitimate and counterfeit products. Domestic firms own trademarks and establish reputations for delivering high-quality products in a steady-state equilibrium. Foreign suppliers export legitimate low-quality merchandise and counterfeits of domestic brand-name goods. Heterogeneous home consumers either purchase low-quality imports or buy brand-name products, rationally expecting some degree of counterfeiting of the latter. We characterize a coun...

  3. The Growth of Halal Meat Markets in Europe: An Exploration of the Supply Side Theory of Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lever, John; Miele, Mara

    2012-01-01

    Over the last 15 years dedicated markets for halal meat have emerged in a number of European countries. While ethnic stores still constitute the major retail outlet for halal meat in most countries, "halal" labelled meat and meat products are increasingly available in supermarkets and fast food restaurants. Market expansion has also…

  4. The Effect Of Atributes Product’s Analysis, Halal Certification, And Product Innovation To The Interest Of Consumer Buying-Back Through The Advantage Competitive Of Micro Small And Medium Business (MSMB) In Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aditi, Bunga

    2017-12-01

    This research is done to know and analyzing the effect of attribute, halal certification product, and product innovation on the competitiveness of Micro Small and Medium Business in Medan, knowing and analyzing the effect of product attribute, halal certification, and product innovation to consumer buying surge. The type of research used is explanatory research with quantitative approach. The population in this study is the community as consumers who are in the area of Medan province of North Sumatera. Total sample of 150 people. Sampling method which use an accidental sampling is the technique of determining samples by chance, example: consumers whomeets with researcher coincidentally can be sampled if the consumer is appropriate or suitable as a source of data. This research uses the method of Structural Equation Modeling analysis. The mainting of this research is showed that product attributes, halal certification, and product innovation had a positive and significant impact on competitive advantage which impact on consumer buy-back (surge) interest. The advantage competitive has affects consumer buying surge interest positively. Keywords: Product attributes, halal certification, product innovation, competitive advantage, consumer buying interest

  5. Global Halal: Meat, Money, and Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Romi Mukherjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The following article deconstructs (and demystifies Halal with a view to unraveling how the religious, racial, economic, and ethico-political are articulated in and around material technologies of meat production and bodily techniques of religious consumption/the consumption of religion. It, thus, attempts to rethink the nexus of food, politics, and contesting visions of the sacred and the profane, from within the folds of the global and global Islam. Halal emerges as a terrain replete with paradigmatic juridical and political questions about the impasses of social and culinary conviviality and cosmopolitanism. Although there is certainly nothing new about religious taboos on food on the body, Halal is far from being a personal or strictly communal set of strictures and practices. On the contrary, global Halal emerges as a new agonistic field typified by charged debates concerning the place of secularism, recognition, and “food diversity” in the global marketplace. This paper offers a cartography, both phenomenological and social scientific, of this multi-tiered site of meat, power, and belief.

  6. What is a halal lab?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    2017-01-01

    but part of a huge and expanding globalized market, the scientific aspects of halal have not been subjected to much anthropological attention. I argue that modern halal in Malaysia should be explored in the interfaces between Islamic science and localized forms of secularism. This tension is a driving...

  7. The Efficiency of Halal Processed Food Industry in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Ali Mohd Noor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency is indispensable for an industry to ensure cost reduction and profit maximization. It also helps the industry to be competitive and remain in the market. In 2010, Malaysia aims to be the world halal hub. The hub should capture at least five percent of the world halal market with at least 10,000 exporting firms. However the hub failed due to the small number of firms efficiency that finally contribute to less number of firms export. Thus, this study aimed to measure the efficiency of halal processed food industry in Malaysia using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA. Input variables used were local raw inputs, labour, and monetary assets of halal food industry in Malaysia. Meanwhile the output used was the total sales revenue of the halal industry in Malaysia. The study shows that very few indusries are efficient in each category led by meat, dairy, cordials and juices, marine products, food crops, and grains industry. Therefore, the government needs to emphasize on industry’s efficiency to be competitive and be the world halal hub in the future.

  8. Halal Cosmetics Adoption Among Young Muslim Consumers in Malaysia: Religiosity Concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohezar, S.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The global increase in Muslim populations and purchasing power has created a new demand for halal cosmetic product development.While the introduction of new product may facilitate companies in gaining competitive advantage, the failure rates of product innovation is also high. Owing to such interests, this paper aims to determine factors that motivate young adult Muslim consumers in the emerging market to adopt halal cosmetics. This study expands prior research by integrating Diffusion of Innovation theory and religiosity dimension to explain the antecedents of halal cosmetics adoption among young Muslim consumers. Data were collected from 238 young Muslim consumers using questionnaires distributed at a number of supermarkets in Kuala Lumpur. The conceptual model and hypotheses developed were tested using partial leased square.Our results demonstrate that perceived product characteristics, social influence and consumer innovativeness influence young Muslim consumers to adopt halal cosmetics products. This study also report religiosity as moderator between these three predictors and halal cosmetic adoption.

  9. Peer Group Effects on Moslem Consumer’s Decision To Purchase Halal Labeled Cosmetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muniaty Aisyah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research are to analyze peer group effects on Moslem consumers’decision to purchase halal-labeled cosmetics directly and indirectly which is mediated by consumers’ religious behavior. This research applies Structural Equation Model and convenience random sampling with 215 samples who have bought halal-labeled cosmeticsand live in Southern Tangerang. The findings show that: first, peer groupdirectly affect consumers’ decisionto purchase halal-labeled cosmetics; second, hablumminannas behavior mediates peer group and consumers’decision to purchase halal-labeled cosmeticsindirectly, third, hablumminallah behavior has the most dominant effect on Moslem consumers’ decision to purchase halal-labeled cosmetics. Based on the findings, it could be concluded that the reason of consumers’ decision to purchase halal-labeled cosmetics is because their religious behavior are high. Therefore, it is suggested that government and related institutions need to implement the Security Act of Halal Products immediately in order to protect the consumer from consuming non-halal productsDOI: 10.15408/aiq.v7i2.1682

  10. Principles in Halal Supply Chain Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieman, H.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Maznah Che Ghazali,

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new framework to optimise the design of halal food supply chains, called the “Halal Supply Chain Model”. In this research the main logistics business processes are defined, which are the determinants for the halal supply chain performance.

  11. Consumer Perception on Halal meat logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieman, H.; Ghazali, M.C.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the preferred minimum level of segregation for halal meat in supermarket, transport, storage and terminals; the responsibility of halal logistics; and the willingness to pay for halal logistics in a Muslim and non-Muslim country.

  12. The Effects of Knowledge, Religiosity Value, and Attitude on Halal Label Reading Behavior of Undergraduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megawati Simanjuntak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Halal label is a label on food that justified according to Islamic law, qualified and did not harm our health. The purpose of this research was to analyze the effect of intrinsic factors (individual characteristics and family characteristics, extrinsic factors, knowledge, religiosity and the attitude towards behavior of reading the halal label on food products of undergraduate students. This study used cross sectional study with survey method. The research involved 400 students of Bogor Agricultural University that were chosen by multistage random sampling with gender as a layer. There was significant difference between female and male in knowledge, religiosity value, and attitude in reading halal label, whereas the behavior in reading label had no significant difference. Age, religiosity value, and attitude were found affected significantly behavior of reading halal label on food products.

  13. The development of halal and kosher meat markets in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Lever, John; Puig De La Bellacasa, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade recognisable markets have emerged for halal and kosher meat in a number of European countries, notably in the UK. Growing segments of these markets are now channeled through product ranges in supermarkets, with the halal market in particular experiencing a rapid increase in demand. A number of factors underpin these developments, including an increase in the Muslim population, changes in consumer behaviour, identity reinforcement, and a general increase in meat consumptio...

  14. Trade and Environmental Issues in Forest Production

    OpenAIRE

    Markku Simula

    1999-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to clarify some of the key issues on trade and environment in the forestry sector. The two main emerging issues in the international trade of forest products within Latin America and the Caribbean to be studied are: 1) implications of the removal of trade barriers for the economic contribution and sustainability of production of the forest sector; and 2) prospects for "green" markets and eco-labelling of forest products based on improved management and harvesting prac...

  15. Linking Halal Food Certification and Business Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ab Talib, Mohamed Syazwan; Chin, Thoo Ai; Fischer, Johan

    2017-01-01

    performance, consistent with other established food standards such as ISO 22000 or HACCP. Originality/value Although numerous studies have concentrated on well-established food certifications, the expanding Muslim population, rising demand for Halal food, and lucrative Halal food market have raised...

  16. Halal stunning and slaughter: Criteria for the assessment of dead animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuseini, Awal; Knowles, Toby G; Hadley, Phil J; Wotton, Steve B

    2016-09-01

    The debate surrounding the acceptability of stunning for Halal slaughter is one that is likely to linger. Compared to a couple of decades or so ago, one may argue that pre-slaughter stunning is becoming a popular practice during Halal slaughter due to the increasing number of Muslim-majority countries who continue to issue religious rulings (Fatwa) to approve the practice. Concerns have often, however been raised about the likelihood of some animals dying as a result of stunning and whether there are mechanisms in place to identify and remove dead animals stunned with irreversible techniques before their necks are cut. This paper reviews literature about what makes meat Halal, considers the arguments put forward by proponents and opponents of pre-slaughter stunning for Halal production and examines the criteria used by Halal Certification Bodies to identify and reject animals that may die as a result of irreversible stunning and considers the specific risks of waterbath stunning (for poultry) from a Halal viewpoint. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Halal authenticity of gelatin using species-specific PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Hessam; Mehdizadeh, Mehrangiz; Mousavi, Seyed Mohammad; Dezfouli, Ehsan Ansari; Solgi, Tara; Khodaverdi, Mahdi; Rabiei, Maryam; Rastegar, Hossein; Alebouyeh, Mahmoud

    2015-10-01

    Consumption of food products derived from porcine sources is strictly prohibited in Islam. Gelatin, mostly derived from bovine and porcine sources, has many applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. To ensure that food products comply with halal regulations, development of valid and reliable analytical methods is very much required. In this study, a species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using conserved regions of mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome b gene) was performed to evaluate the halal authenticity of gelatin. After isolation of DNA from gelatin powders with known origin, conventional PCR using species-specific primers was carried out on the extracted DNA. The amplified expected PCR products of 212 and 271 bp were observed for porcine and bovine gelatin, respectively. The sensitivity of the method was tested on binary gelatin mixtures containing 0.1%, 1%, 10%, and 100% (w/w) of porcine gelatin within bovine gelatin and vice versa. Although most of the DNA is degraded due to the severe processing steps of gelatin production, the minimum level of 0.1% w/w of both porcine and bovine gelatin was detected. Moreover, eight food products labeled as containing bovine gelatin and eight capsule shells were subjected to PCR examination. The results showed that all samples contained bovine gelatin, and the absence of porcine gelatin was verified. This method of species authenticity is very useful to verify whether gelatin and gelatin-containing food products are derived from halal ingredients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An Exploratory Research Regarding Romanian Market for Halal Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin-Cosmin SARACIN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The changes in the social structure, the economic crisis, the ageing of the population had an important role in the development of Romania. As a result, Romania must identify other segments and industries in order to rejuvenate the economy of the country. This study focuses on a market niche represented by Halal food products, which are underdeveloped in Romania at this moment. It may represent a potential catalyst for the development of other latent sectors and may consolidate the bilateral relations with the Muslim countries, in conformity with the globalization and the internalization of the global market. The research method used in this study is the thorough analysis of numerous scientific articles and a literature review. It focuses both on the past and the current state of Halal food products and how the development of this market niche can lead to the expansion of other sectors, such as tourism and education.

  19. Hubungan Antara Persepsi Terhadap Kelompok Referensi Dengan Pengambilan Keputusan Membeli Produk Kosmetika Tanpa Label Halal Pada Mahasiswi Muslim

    OpenAIRE

    Kusumawati, Yunita; Herlena, Benny

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine the relationship between perceptions of reference group to the decision making to purchase cosmetic products without permitted halal label on woman students. Hypothesis of this study is that there is positive correlation between the perceptions of the reference group to the decision making to purchase cosmetic products without permitted halal label on woman students. The subjects of this study are the woman students of Syari'ah and Law Faculty, Sunan Kali...

  20. FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG MEMENGARUHI NIAT MEMBELI MAKANAN KEMASAN BERLABEL HALAL LPPOM-MUI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghfiroh Maghfiroh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Faktor-faktor yang Memengaruhi Niat Membeli Makanan Kemasan Berlabel Halal LPPOM-MUI. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh faktor personal, faktor sosial, faktor informasi dan sikap terhadap niat membeli produk makanan kemasan berlabel halal LPPOM-MUI pada mahasiswa nonmuslim UNY baik secara parsial maupun simultan. Penelitian ini termasuk penelitian kausal asosiatif yang meneliti pengaruh hubungan variabel bebas dan variabel terikat. Populasi penelitian adalah mahasiswa S-1 nonmuslim di UNY tahun 2011-2014. Sampel penelitian berjumlah 92 mahasiswa dengan menggunakan metode purposive sampling. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan angket, analisis data mengunakan metode regresi probit. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan dari 4 variabel bebas terdapat 3 variabel yang tidak berpengaruh. Variabel yang tidak berpengaruh tersebut yaitu variabel faktor personal, sosial, informasi sedangkan variabel yang berpengaruh yaitu variabel sikap. Secara simultan terdapat pengaruh faktor personal, sosial, informasi dan sikap terhadap niat membeli makanan kemasan berlabel halal LPPOM-MUI pada mahasiswa nonmuslim UNY. Kata kunci: niat membeli, personal, sosial, informasi, sikap Abstract: The Determinants of Intention to Buy Labeled Halal Foods By LPPOM-MUI. This study aims to investigate the effect of personal, social, information factors and attitudes on the intention to buy packed labeled halal food products by LPPOM-MUI among non-Muslim students of Yogyakarta State University. This was an associate causal study investigating the effects of independent variables on a dependent variable. The sample, consisting of 92 students was selected by means of the purposive sampling technique. The data were collected through a questionnaire and were analyzed using the probit regression method. The results showed of four independent variables, three of them had no effect on independent variable. Those three variables were personal, social, and information

  1. Halal Logistics Implementation in Malaysia: A Practical View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sham, Rohana; Zuraidah Rasi, Raja; Abdamia, Noranita; Mohamed, Suhana; Thahira Bibi, TKM

    2017-08-01

    Concept of halal is not only acceptable world wide by the Muslim society but also to the non Muslim. However, the implementing of halal logistics in daily operation experience a few difficulties especially on the implementation part. Although there are many academic research paper that highlight the issue of halal logistics and the critical success factor, until today, halal logistics in Malaysia is still experiencing a hiccup. This paper try to highlight a few simple ways of implementation of halal logistics that could enhance the total implementation concept at the very least cost to create benefit to all society. The Paper deals with a few aspect of possible implementation and practice to facilitate the halal logistics approach in daily operation. The main objective is to look at the possible method of implementation and critical success factors towards the implementation of halal logistics operation in daily goods movement in Malaysia.

  2. Endogenous Markups, Firm Productivity and International Trade:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellone, Flora; Musso, Patrick; Nesta, Lionel

    ) markups are positively related to firm productivity; 3) markups are negatively related to import penetration; 4) markups are positively related to firm export intensity and markups are higher on the export market than on the domestic ones in the presence of trade barriers and/or if competitors...

  3. Consumer electronics: employment, production and trade.

    OpenAIRE

    Coote, H.C.

    1983-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper on microelectronics trends in the consumer goods sector of the electronics industry and the impact on world employment, trade and the international division of labour - explains the functions of subcontracting and export processing zones, and protectionism; makes a comparison of industrial production, esp. In export oriented industry; considers why some newly industrializing countries are more successful than others. Bibliography and glossary.

  4. Operation Risk Mitigation On Halal Meat Supply Chain Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Agus; Farida, Ayu; Ulil Albab, Muhammad

    2017-06-01

    Business owner of perishable goods such as meats has barriers to meet the demand of worldwide shipping. One of potential risk is damage resulting in decreased quality product, while the product selection criteria not only focus on quality. As the development of health issues and needs, halal meats is not only considered by the Muslim consumer but also consumer globally. In addition, they have to pay attention to the possible risk that might occur during the logistic operations so as they prevent loss if they fail to deal with the problem and risk properly. Quality Function Development proposed to identify what consumer’s need as well as to analyse the condition of market in the future. The study is conducted in the context of business owner’s feelings based on their obstacles. It also aims to unravel the expectations and perceptions of owners with interrelated issues such as halal meats with each affecting on the other multidirectional ways. This study has revealed new insights for policy makers, logistics service providers, and practitioners whose decisions might impact the industry.

  5. POTENSI PENGEMBANGAN WISATA HALAL DALAM PERSPEKTIF DUKUNGAN KETERSEDIAAN RESTORAN HALAL LOKAL (NON WARALABA DI KOTA GORONTALO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisna Anugrah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focused about the potential development of halal tourism in the perspective support of availability of local halal restaurant (non franchise restaurant in Gorontalo city. In master plan Gorontalo Tourism Development stated that Gorontalo has potential opportunity to develop halal tourism as one of tourism destination. These potential opportunity supported by few of factor which that the majority of the population are moslem, tourist visitor are dominated by domestic tourist which is connected also to majority of population in Indonesia are moslem as well. The city of Gorontalo as the capital city has many facilities than other city in Gorontalo province. The facilities such as star hotel and non star hotel, franchise restaurant, lokal restaurant. Other than that Gorontalo city has strategic position because situated between two cities that has tourist destination and attraction. This study used descriptive qualitative method. The data obtained through field obeservation, interview, and documentation. All data collected by using sampling purposive technique. the quantitative data obtained will be described in descriptive terms. The completion of this research will presented in descriptive. The results showed the existence of a restaurant that has halal certification is sufficient to support halal tourism. In order to run well required cooperation among stakeholders.

  6. The effects of Fair Trade when productivity differences matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaal, A. de; Breimer, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses a heterogeneous rms model to scrutinize Fair Trade s aim to help the most disadvantaged producers in developing countries. Incorporating important aspects of Fair Trade in a two-good heterogeneous rm model we show that only the most productive rms will join Fair Trade

  7. The effects of Fair Trade when productivity differences matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breimer, M.; Vaal, A. de

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses a heterogeneous rms model to scrutinize the alleged aim of Fair Trade to help the most disadvantaged producers in developing countries. Incorpo- rating important aspects of Fair Trade in a two-good heterogeneous rm model we show that the more productive rms will join Fair Trade

  8. Tainted Food, Low-Quality Products and Trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie); L. Zhao (Ling)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines international trade in tainted food and other low-quality products. We first find that for a large class of environments, free trade is the trading system that conveys the highest incentives to produce non-tainted high-quality goods by foreign exporters. However, free

  9. International Marketing and Trade of Protected Designation of Origin Products

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina MORA

    2007-01-01

    This poster paper analyses the international marketing and trade strategies implemented by italian quality food producers with special attention to the export and trade aspects for some important Italian PDOs products: Prosciutto di Parma PDO and Parmigiano Reggiano PDO. Discussing the international marketing and trade strategies, according to the traditional 4P approach, the poster paper will report examples of the strategies of the exporters and would focus on the rapid change in trading an...

  10. Differentiated Agri-Food Product Trade and the Linder Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Haq, Zahoor Ul; Meilke, Karl D.

    2008-01-01

    Using a generalized gravity equation, this study tests for the Linder effect in differentiated agrifood product trade, i.e. as the demand structures of two countries become more similar, their trade intensity increases. Two proxies of demand structure, the Balassa index and the absolute value of the difference in per capita GDPs of trading partners, are used to capture the Linder effect. In addition, two measures of bilateral trade, the Grubel and Lloyed index, and the value of bilateral trad...

  11. Essays on Multinational Production and International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clementi, Federico

    This Thesis consists of an introduction followed by three independent chapters. Each chapter is a self-contained paper that can be read independently. They cover different topics of international economics with a specific focus on multinational production and international trade. A common feature...... the impact of foreign direct investment on the intensity of competition in the host economy. In this chapter I use firm-level data of Romanian manufacturing companies active between 2001 and 2008 and I measure the impact of foreign ownership on the market power of affiliates and local competitors....... The empirical evidence shows that foreign ownership is associated to a higher market power, which I proxy with firms’ estimated markups. Moreover, I find that higher competition of foreign affiliates is associated to a decrease in the markups charged by domestic firms. In the second chapter we analyze how...

  12. Religiosity Aspect in Consumer Behaviour: Determinants of Halal Meat Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusmaliani

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies indicate that religion may influence consumer attitude and behavior in general, especially in food purchasing decisions and eating habits. There are limited studies that examined the role of religiosity in consumer behaviour; especially in relations to halal meat consumption. Due to gaps found in the literature, this study investigates the determinants of intention to eat halal meat. It also examines the levels of determinants of halal meat consumption between Indonesian Muslim living in Jakarta and Melbourne. Respondents were personally and electronically contacted. In total, 160 questionnaires were completed for this initial study. The results indicate that behavioural control and availability of halal meat have significant impact on intention to eat halal meat. The results further suggest that in general there are no significant differences in the levels of determinants of halal meat consumption between Indonesian Muslim living in Jakarta compared to those of in Melbourne, except for availability of halal meat. This study contributes to the marketing literature focuses on the impacts of religion on consumer behaviour which is still under researched.

  13. Services trade restrictiveness and manufacturing productivity : the role of institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Beverelli, Cosimo; Fiorini, Matteo; HOEKMAN, BERNARD M.

    2015-01-01

    We study the effect of services trade restrictiveness on manufacturing productivity for a broad cross-section of countries at different stages of economic development. Decreasing services trade restrictiveness has a positive indirect impact on the manufacturing sectors that use services as intermediate inputs in production. We identify a critical role of local institutions in shaping this effect: countries with high institutional capacity benefit the most from services trade policy reforms in...

  14. China's exporters and importers: firms, products, and trade partners

    OpenAIRE

    Kalina Manova; Zhiwei Zhang

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses newly available data on Chinese trade flows to establish novel and confirm existing stylized facts about firm heterogeneity in trade. First, the bulk of exports and imports are captured by a few multi-product firms that transact with a large number of countries. Second, the average importer imports more products than the average exporter exports, but exporters trade with more countries than importers do. Third, compared to private domestic firms, foreign affiliates and joint v...

  15. Trading Land: A Review of Approaches to Accounting for Upstream Land Requirements of Traded Products

    OpenAIRE

    Schaffartzik, Anke; Haberl, Helmut; Kastner, Thomas; Wiedenhofer, Dominik; Eisenmenger, Nina; Erb, Karl?Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Summary Land use is recognized as a pervasive driver of environmental impacts, including climate change and biodiversity loss. Global trade leads to ?telecoupling? between the land use of production and the consumption of biomass?based goods and services. Telecoupling is captured by accounts of the upstream land requirements associated with traded products, also commonly referred to as land footprints. These accounts face challenges in two main areas: (1) the allocation of land to products tr...

  16. Analysis of forest product trade relationships between Turkey and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-19

    Apr 19, 2010 ... sector but not in the paper and lumber sectors. The forest products industry sectors of Turkey have the capacity to compete with EU countries. Key words: Hierarchical cluster analysis, foreign trade, trade relationships, forest products industry. INTRODUCTION. The world has become like a small village, as a ...

  17. Establishment approval in international trade of animal products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rau, M.L.; Ge, L.; Valeeva, N.I.; Wagenberg, van C.P.A.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides an overview of different approaches of establishment approval as well as its implementation and organisation in international agrifood trade. The focus is on animal products as establishment approval is particularly used for exporting these products. Based on trade data, 8

  18. Trading Population for Productivity: Theory and Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galor, Oded; Mountford, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This research argues that the differential effect of international trade on the demand for human capital across countries has been a major determinant of the distribution of income and population across the globe. In developed countries the gains from trade have been directed towards investment in education and growth in income per capita, whereas a significant portion of these gains in less developed economies have been channeled towards population growth. Cross-country regressions establish that indeed trade has positive effects on fertility and negative effects on education in non-OECD economies, while inducing fertility decline and human capital formation in OECD economies. PMID:25089061

  19. Ricardian Productivity Differences and the Gains from Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei A. Levchenko; Jing Zhang

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates the role of sectoral heterogeneity in determining the gains from trade. We first show analytically that in the presence of sectoral Ricardian comparative advantage, a one- sector sufficient statistic formula that uses total trade volumes as a share of total absorption systematically understates the true gains from trade. Greater relative sectoral productivity differences lead to larger disparities between the gains implied by the one-sector formula and the true gains. Usi...

  20. Accounting for growth in retail trade : an international productivity comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inklaar, R.; Timmer, M.P.

    In this paper we argue that the standard approach for measuring output and productivity in the trade sector has become obsolete. The key problem is that changes in prices of goods purchased for resale are not accounted for. We outline a consistent accounting framework for measuring trade

  1. Risk in the Trade and Production of Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvius STANCIU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Economic globalization, a phenomenon specific to the modern society, leads to the diversity of trades with food commodity. The current production and trade with foods are characterized by the occurrence of certain new products, designed to certain niche segments of consummers, the toning of food traditions, adaption and modification of food customs in different areas of the globe, modifications in the consummer's behavior. Together with the risk classic factors, there occur and develop new risk factors, which influence the production, trade and consumption of foods.

  2. 17 CFR 41.23 - Listing of security futures products for trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... products for trading. 41.23 Section 41.23 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING... Listing of security futures products for trading. (a) Initial listing of products for trading. To list new security futures products for trading, a designated contract market or registered derivatives transaction...

  3. Hierarchicality of trade flow networks reveals complexity of products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiteng Shi

    Full Text Available With globalization, countries are more connected than before by trading flows, which amounts to at least 36 trillion dollars today. Interestingly, around 30-60 percents of exports consist of intermediate products in global. Therefore, the trade flow network of particular product with high added values can be regarded as value chains. The problem is weather we can discriminate between these products from their unique flow network structure? This paper applies the flow analysis method developed in ecology to 638 trading flow networks of different products. We claim that the allometric scaling exponent η can be used to characterize the degree of hierarchicality of a flow network, i.e., whether the trading products flow on long hierarchical chains. Then, it is pointed out that the flow networks of products with higher added values and complexity like machinary, transport equipment etc. have larger exponents, meaning that their trade flow networks are more hierarchical. As a result, without the extra data like global input-output table, we can identify the product categories with higher complexity, and the relative importance of a country in the global value chain by the trading network solely.

  4. Czech Foreign Trade with Meat and Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Pohlová

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The meat production and meat processing industry are the most important parts of the agribusiness in the Czech Republic. The problem of the industry is its low competitiveness towards foreign producers and processors which results in negative balance of foreign trade. The aim of the article is to evaluate long-term development of value and structure of Czech foreign trade flows of meat and meat products. The analysis covers the period of 2001–2014. The problems of the negative trade balance are revealed through description of the trade flows of meat and meat products, the RCA index and relations between import and export prices. The analysis points out the problems of low competitiveness of the intermediate and finalized meat. Alternatively, Czech Republic has comparative advantage in live animals, sausages and homogenized meat products.

  5. REFLECTIONS ON PRODUCTION INTERNALIZATION AND ITS INTERNATIONAL TRADE IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLIPA RALUCA IRINA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertically-integrated multinational companies place the different stages of production and marketing chain in different countries, looking for advantages such as low production costs, lower taxes, abundant resources and so on, while benefiting from the advantages of economies of scale, control of supplies or outlets. In fact, this vertical integration of multinational companies has led to the expansion of intra-firm trade and "internalized" operations, thus creating their own markets for the vertically-integrated production. Internationally active firms operate in a way that replaces the different functions of an open market with internal transactions, i.e. intra-firm transactions, whenever internal transaction costs are lower than the open-market ones. The direct consequence over international trade is the increase of intra-firm share of trade flows to one third of world trade, those companies making a suppression of international market segments that act in favour of an internal market. The creation of a multinational market and the enhancement of intra-firm trade have profound quantitative and qualitative implications on the composition, geographic orientation and dynamics of international trade. This paper deals with the issue of production internalization, with an overview of the main contributions made to the theory of internalization, while tackling its relative dimension. However, we intend to highlight the implications of this phenomenon on international trade. The work methodology falls within the range of qualitative approaches: logical argumentation, critical theoretical analysis.

  6. International biodiesel markets. Developments in production and trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamers, P. [Ecofys Germany, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    The global biodiesel market has shown an exponential growth in production and trade across the past decade. Nowadays, more biodiesel than ever before is sourced from abroad and procurement areas - especially of large scale producers and traders - span the globe. While this trend is bound to continue, markets and trade developments are still strongly linked to support and trade policies. Furthermore, the biodiesel industry is strongly linked to other sectors (agriculture and mineral oil industry in particular) and faces significant market disturbances some of which have led to various inefficiencies in the past. Due to the pace of this market development, a methodological assessment and understanding of the numerous influencing factors was needed to reduce uncertainties and risks for those involved. A recently published analysis by Ecofys and the Copernicus Institute, Utrecht University, provided such an analysis. It evaluates how the interaction of domestic policies steered global trade streams towards different markets, in particular in connection to underlying trade policies and additional market forces, over the past decade. It provides robust data on international production and trade volumes which have already served as input to the recently published Special Report on Renewable Energy (SRREN) by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). This market brochure was commissioned by UFOP to build upon the methodologies and findings of Lamers et al. and to provide a picture of the global biodiesel market in 2010/2011. It is structured in six sections: an overview of global production volumes (Section 2); developments of EU (Section 3) and other world (Section 4) markets and (trade) policies; global net trade volumes (Section 5); vegetable oil trade patterns and their link to biodiesel trade (Section 6); Conclusions and Outlook (Section 7)

  7. THE ROMANIAN EXTERNAL TRADE IN LIVE ANIMALS AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela MiĠuko VLAD

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In terms of foreign trade, in Romania there were some major changes over the past 20 years. In this paper we have focused on the Romanian external trade. The products which have been taken into account were live animals and animal products. Thus, we have made an analyse on the Romanian imports and exports at the global level and at the European level. Focused on the animal products, on the global level, there were registered major differences during the first seven years in the analysed period. Breaking by branches, we have pointed out huge distinctions between imports and exports, where the balance of trade was completely negative. Meanwhile, to have a good view on the international trade there were made links, based on some indexes between imports, exports, GDP and investments.

  8. Factors Shaping Agri-food Product Trade in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bórawski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to recognize the role of internal and external factors in the trade balance. The analysis of the trade balance is useful to help formulate goals and premises of economy policy to properly allocate production means to eliminate the negative effects of trade liberalization. The authors have studied data about trade of agricultural commodities in the years 2000–2010. To measure the impact of macroeconomic variables used a regression model. The macroeconomic factors included: X1 (inflation, X2 (investment in agriculture and hunting, X3 (GDP and X4 (exchange rate and X5 (FAO food price index. We wanted to recognize the impact of macroeconomic factors on: Y1 (total export, Y2 (total import, Y3 (trade balance.

  9. Characteristics of Serbian foreign trade of agricultural and food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božić Dragica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural and food products are a significant segment of the total foreign trade of Serbia, which is characterized by a relatively high import dependency, modest export and constantly present deficit. In such conditions, agrarian sector serves as a stabilizer, and its importance is reflected in the permanently positive balance, increased participation, particularly in total exports, and balancing the trade balance of the country. The aim of the paper is to analyze the basic characteristics of foreign trade of agricultural and food products of Serbia in the period 2005-2015. The tendencies in export, import, and the level of coverage of import by export of agro-food (or agrarian products are analysed. The participation of these products in the total foreign trade of Serbia is also considered, followed by the comparison of this indicator with the neighbouring countries. In the next part of the paper, the structure of Serbian export and import of agricultural and food products (by product groups is analysed. Special attention is given to the territorial orientation of export and import of agrarian products by the most important trade partners. In order to conduct more comprehensive analysis of comparative advantages, or competitiveness of certain groups of agro-food products of Serbia in the exchange with the world, indicator of Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA is calculated. The analysis of qualitative competitiveness is derived using the indicator - unit value of export and import. The analysis points to the dynamic growth in the value of Serbian export and import of agro-food products, with the constant surplus of trade balance in the observed period. These products are significantly represented in the structure of the total foreign trade of the country, particularly in export (with about 20%. RCA indicators show that Serbia has a comparative advantage in trade of agro-food products to the world in primary products and products of lower

  10. DETECTING VERTICAL INTRA-INDUSTRY TRADE IN CULTURAL PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affortunato Francesca

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The European integration process has always since markedly characterized by the increasing incidence of Intra-Industry Trade. This has been theoretically justified on the grounds of the new approaches emerging in international trade literature, based on imperfect competition and differentiated products. In recent years another distinctive economic feature of European Union is the importance gained by the so called “cultural and creative sectors”, which are often studied and monitored by reports for their great growth potential. We provide here a systematic decomposition of world trade in “cultural/creative goods” for the year 2009 (using harmonised bilateral flows for some 213 products defined as “cultural products” by UNESCO, 2009 into three trade types: inter-industry, intra-industry (IIT in horizontally versus vertically differentiated products. We show that the world trade in cultural goods is significantly characterised by two-way trade of vertically differentiated products. Moreover we specifically focus on the Italian peculiarities in the “cultural trade”: therefore we first work out which ones of the world countries are the “top exporters” of these categories of products and then we compute an indicator of the Italian goods’ quality relative to each of these competitors. Not surprisingly, we find that the most important bilateral IIT intensities in cultural products are observed in Europe. However the presence of developing countries is not unimportant. This can be explained partly to as a consequence of the increasing level of trade integration among some Asian countries and as a consequence of an increasing despecialization of firstly industrialized countries in the production and trading of these products. Finally, with reference to the relative quality of Italian cultural products compared with that of the other top-exporters in these sectors, we find that Italian

  11. Unit Values in International Trade and Product Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Hong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Is the unit value of traded goods representative of quality? To answer this question, we analyze unit value with respect to exporter country’s capacity to export, which is determined by its production cost, tariff, and distance. The change in a country’s export unit value is decomposed into the components associated with pure term-of-trade effect, quality effect, distance effect, and production cost effect. Our empirical results confirm that tariff, distance, and wages all significantly affect the unit values. Furthermore, by comparing CIF and FOB unit values, we show that quality is an important contributor on driving up the unit values: exporters increase unit price to distant trading partners through quality upgrading. This “Washington apple effect” is much larger than the pure distance effect or production cost increase.

  12. 78 FR 7395 - Foreign-Trade Zone 129-Bellingham, WA; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; T.C. Trading...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 129--Bellingham, WA; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; T.C. Trading Company, Inc. (Eyeglass Assembly and Kitting); Blaine, WA The Port of Bellingham, grantee of FTZ 129, submitted a notification of...

  13. Trading Land: A Review of Approaches to Accounting for Upstream Land Requirements of Traded Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffartzik, Anke; Haberl, Helmut; Kastner, Thomas; Wiedenhofer, Dominik; Eisenmenger, Nina; Erb, Karl-Heinz

    2015-10-01

    Land use is recognized as a pervasive driver of environmental impacts, including climate change and biodiversity loss. Global trade leads to "telecoupling" between the land use of production and the consumption of biomass-based goods and services. Telecoupling is captured by accounts of the upstream land requirements associated with traded products, also commonly referred to as land footprints. These accounts face challenges in two main areas: (1) the allocation of land to products traded and consumed and (2) the metrics to account for differences in land quality and land-use intensity. For two main families of accounting approaches (biophysical, factor-based and environmentally extended input-output analysis), this review discusses conceptual differences and compares results for land footprints. Biophysical approaches are able to capture a large number of products and different land uses, but suffer from a truncation problem. Economic approaches solve the truncation problem, but are hampered by the limited disaggregation of sectors and products. In light of the conceptual differences, the overall similarity of results generated by both types of approaches is remarkable. Diametrically opposed results for some of the world's largest producers and consumers of biomass-based products, however, make interpretation difficult. This review aims to provide clarity on some of the underlying conceptual issues of accounting for land footprints.

  14. Trading Land: A Review of Approaches to Accounting for Upstream Land Requirements of Traded Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberl, Helmut; Kastner, Thomas; Wiedenhofer, Dominik; Eisenmenger, Nina; Erb, Karl‐Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Summary Land use is recognized as a pervasive driver of environmental impacts, including climate change and biodiversity loss. Global trade leads to “telecoupling” between the land use of production and the consumption of biomass‐based goods and services. Telecoupling is captured by accounts of the upstream land requirements associated with traded products, also commonly referred to as land footprints. These accounts face challenges in two main areas: (1) the allocation of land to products traded and consumed and (2) the metrics to account for differences in land quality and land‐use intensity. For two main families of accounting approaches (biophysical, factor‐based and environmentally extended input‐output analysis), this review discusses conceptual differences and compares results for land footprints. Biophysical approaches are able to capture a large number of products and different land uses, but suffer from a truncation problem. Economic approaches solve the truncation problem, but are hampered by the limited disaggregation of sectors and products. In light of the conceptual differences, the overall similarity of results generated by both types of approaches is remarkable. Diametrically opposed results for some of the world's largest producers and consumers of biomass‐based products, however, make interpretation difficult. This review aims to provide clarity on some of the underlying conceptual issues of accounting for land footprints. PMID:27547028

  15. Prospects for wood products trade under the new partnership for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    regional wood products trade in the countries of Sub-Sahara Africa using Ghana, Nigeria and Cameroon as case study. A total of 517 wood processing firms comprising 121 in Ghana, 258 in Nigeria and 138 in Cameroon were surveyed through the ...

  16. Konnichiwa Halal - As Japan opens its arms to Muslims

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    I was speaking at a conference at Tokyo Institute of Technology, which brings a three-year project to an end that was sponsored by Gurunavi Food Guide. The event was organized to help Japanese businesses understand Muslim consumers and expand their portfolio into the Halal food industry.

  17. World coal production, consumption and trade for year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, P. (Coal Chemistry Research Institute, Beijing (China))

    1992-06-01

    By the year 2000, coal production will increase at a slow rate, and because supply is greater than demand, it will be a buyer's market. In general, prices will not rise steeply in the international markets, and Europe and Asia will continue to be the major trading centres. World exports may reach 510 Mt; Australia and the USA will continue to be the major producers. Although China is an important coal producing country, its exports form just 4-5% of global trade volume. 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Trade and product innovations as sources for productivity increases: an empirical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, Paul; Butter, den Frank A.G.

    2006-01-01

    Commonly increases in total factor productivity (TFP) are associated with technological innovations measured by R and D expenditures. Empirical evidence seems to corroborate this relationship. However, in trading countries like the Netherlands, productivity increases, even in industry, can also be

  19. THE EVOLUTION OF ROMANIAN TRADE IN INFORMATION PRODUCTS AND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CECILIA IRINA RABONTU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The trade in Romania has seen an increased dynamism in many areas. When it comes to food or non food products, or services are bringing into question we can say that the period of consumerism in which we are living hallmarks the commercial activities. Trade in information products and services had lately a remarkable richness, being the categories that arouses greatest interest from certain consumers becoming more and more numerous and demanding in terms of technology. In this paper we proposed to analyze how much the sales of information products and services respond to the many needs expressed by Romanian customers and to capture the dynamics in which this type of commerce evolved.

  20. Peer Group Effects on Moslem Consumer's Decision to Purchase Halal Labeled Cosmetics.

    OpenAIRE

    Muniaty Aisyah

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this research are to analyze peer group effects on Moslem consumers’decision to purchase halal-labeled cosmetics directly and indirectly which is mediated by consumers’ religious behavior. This research applies Structural Equation Model and convenience random sampling with 215 samples who have bought halal-labeled cosmeticsand live in Southern Tangerang. The findings show that: first, peer groupdirectly affect consumers’ decisionto purchase halal-labeled cosmetics; second, hab...

  1. Preferential Trade Arrangements and the Pattern of Production and Trade when Inputs are Differentiated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. François (Joseph)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper is concerned with rules of origin when intermediate goods are differentiated. An analytical model emphasizes trade patterns and the relative importance of trade in intermediates given trade preferences. Econometric evidence based on intra-OECD trade in motor vehicles and motor

  2. Consumptive water footprint and virtual water trade scenarios for China - with a focus on crop production, consumption and trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhuo, L.; Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2016-01-01

    The study assesses green and blue water footprints (WFs) and virtual water (VW) trade in China under alternative scenarios for 2030 and 2050, with a focus on crop production, consumption and trade. We consider five driving factors of change: climate, harvested crop area, technology, diet, and

  3. Processing Trade, Productivity and Prices: Evidence from a Chinese Production Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yao Amber; Smeets, Valerie; Warzynski, Frederic

    In this paper, we use a detailed production survey in the Chinese manufacturing industry to estimate both revenue and physical productivity and relate our measurements to firms' trade activity. We find that Chinese exporters for largely export oriented products like leather shoes or shirts appear...

  4. 78 FR 49254 - Foreign-Trade Zone 158-Vicksburg/Jackson, Mississippi; Authorization of Production Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 158--Vicksburg/Jackson, Mississippi; Authorization of Production Activity; Extension of Production Authority; Bauhaus USA, Inc. (Upholstered Furniture); Saltillo, Mississippi On February 28, 2013, the Greater Mississippi Foreign-Trade Zone, Inc., grantee of FTZ 158...

  5. 78 FR 28801 - Foreign-Trade Zone 117-Orange, TX, Authorization of Production Activity, Signal International...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 117--Orange, TX, Authorization of Production Activity, Signal International Texas GP, LLC (Shipbuilding), Orange, TX On January 10, 2013, the Foreign Trade Zone of Southeast Texas, Inc., grantee of FTZ 117, submitted a notification of proposed production activity to the Foreign...

  6. Komodifikasi Pariwisata Halal NTB dalam Promosi Destinasi Wisata Islami di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafizah Awalia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Halal tourism destination becomes the new brand for West Nusa Tenggara. Strong local ethnic and religious plurality obtain halal tourism label. It is important to assess if the government saw the domination of the discourse object of power through the economic and tourism sectors. Therefore, this discourse halal tourism can be evaluated using the perspective of post-modern social theory Michael Foucault discourse and power: the power elite that is capable of creating a new discourse (halal tourism to strengthen its political dominance. Then, using the perspective of Baudrillard's theory of the emergence of consumerist society in NTB as a result of capital commodification and domination of the capitalists.   Keywords: Commodification, Discourse, Tourism, Halal

  7. 78 FR 22843 - Foreign-Trade Zone 33-Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Authorization of Export Production Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 33--Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Authorization of Export Production Activity, Tsudis Chocolate Company (Chocolate Confectionery Bars), Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania On...

  8. Examination of forest products trade between Turkey and European ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The success of getting in the foreign trade forms one of the basic stones of economic development for countries. The current and potential trading volume among countries and determining the main factors affecting trade are quite important. The trade currents of the European Union (EU) countries and Turkey in the forest ...

  9. Innovation in logistics services – halal logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Jaafar, Harlina Suzana; Endut, Intan Rohani; Faisol, Nasruddin; Omar, Emi Normalina

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The expansion of liberalization of trade and services has forced companies to consider the global market demand in their competitive strategic planning. Hence, business organisations need to be continuously as innovation could promise potential growth and development so as to gain competitive advantage in being ahead in the market. Specifically, supply chain has always been viewed as the most important areas to be innovated as it would be an effective means to gain efficiencies and...

  10. Trade and product innovations as sources for productivity increases: an empirical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Butter, F.A.G.; Mohlmann, J.L.; Wit, P.

    2008-01-01

    Increases in total factor productivity (TFP) are commonly associated with technological innovations measured by the stock of R&D. Empirical evidence seems to corroborate this relationship. However, in trading countries like The Netherlands, productivity increases, even in industry, can also be the

  11. Water saving through international trade of agricultural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapagain, A. K.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2006-06-01

    Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. The paper analyses the consequences of international virtual water flows on the global and national water budgets. The assessment shows that the total amount of water that would have been required in the importing countries if all imported agricultural products would have been produced domestically is 1605 Gm3/yr. These products are however being produced with only 1253 Gm3/yr in the exporting countries, saving global water resources by 352 Gm3/yr. This saving is 28 per cent of the international virtual water flows related to the trade of agricultural products and 6 per cent of the global water use in agriculture. National policy makers are however not interested in global water savings but in the status of national water resources. Egypt imports wheat and in doing so saves 3.6 Gm3/yr of its national water resources. Water use for producing export commodities can be beneficial, as for instance in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Brazil, where the use of green water resources (mainly through rain-fed agriculture) for the production of stimulant crops for export has a positive economic impact on the national economy. However, export of 28 Gm3/yr of national water from Thailand related to rice export is at the cost of additional pressure on its blue water resources. Importing a product which has a relatively high ratio of green to blue virtual water content saves global blue water resources that generally have a higher opportunity cost than green water.

  12. From deficit to surplus: An econometric analysis of US trade balance in forest products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daowei Zhang; Ying Lin; Jeffrey P. Prestemon

    2017-01-01

    Although the US trade deficit has persisted since 1975, the country changed in 2009 from a net importer to a net exporter of forest products, emerging as the world's largest exporter of forest products. Drawing on recent data, we model the real dollar value of US exports, imports, and the trade balance in forest products to identify factors likely to explain this...

  13. Free Trade Agreements and Firm-Product Markups in Chilean Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamorgese, A.R.; Linarello, A.; Warzynski, Frederic Michel Patrick

    In this paper, we use detailed information about firms' product portfolio to study how trade liberalization affects prices, markups and productivity. We document these effects using firm product level data in Chilean manufacturing following two major trade agreements with the EU and the US. The d...... bargaining power....

  14. Determinants of Intra-Industry Trade in Agricultural and Food Products Between Poland and EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łapinska Justyna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the country-specific determinants of intra-industry trade between Poland and its European Union trading partners in agricultural and food products during the time period 2002-2011. An econometric model for panel data is applied for the analysis of the factors determining Polish bilateral intra-industry trade with European Union countries. The research leads to the formulation of a statement that the intensity of intra-industry trade in agricultural and food products is positively influenced by the intensity of trade with EU countries and the level of economic development of the member countries (as measured by the size of their GDP per capita. Increase in intra-trade turnover is also facilitated by EU membership and by the fact that Poland’s trade partners use similar Slavic-based languages. Relative differences in the size of the economies and relative differences in Poland’s and its trading partners’ levels of economic development have a negative impact. The degree of the imbalance of trade turnover between trading partners also negatively influences the intensity of intra-trade exchange. The research confirms that the impact of all of the identified factors determining intra-industry trade is consistent with the predictions of the theory.

  15. Willingness to pay for fair trade products: Results from a discrete choice experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peyer, Mathias; Balderjahn, Ingo; Scholderer, Joachim

    was combined with a strong manufacturer brand, when participants had prior experience with fair-trade products, and when participants had high prior awareness of fair trade labels. Based on the parameter estimates, price response functions were fitted, and changes in market shares were predicted for each brand...... participated in a discrete choice experiment. Willingness to pay was estimated based on participants' choices between different orange juice brands. The experimental design included presence versus absence of a fair trade label as a generic attribute, price as an alternative-specific attribute, and prior...... awareness of fair trade labels and prior experience with fair trade products as individual-differences variables. Results indicated that consumer willingness to pay for fair trade labels was significant and positive under virtually all experimental conditions, and increased further when the fair trade label...

  16. Trade and product innovations as sources for productivity increases: an empirical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    de Wit, Paul; Butter, den, F.A.G.

    2006-01-01

    Commonly increases in total factor productivity (TFP) are associated with technological innovations measured by R and D expenditures. Empirical evidence seems to corroborate this relationship. However, in trading countries like the Netherlands, productivity increases, even in industry, can also be the result of innovations in the way transactions are managed. These innovations reduce transaction costs and exploit the welfare gains from (further) international division of labour. Such innovati...

  17. Causes and Remedies for Errors in International Forest Products Trade Data: Examples from the Hardwood Trade Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; William G. Luppold

    1995-01-01

    The quality of data concerning international hardwood products trade declined in the 1980s because of several problems associated with the collection and processing of individual export transaction records. This note examines the source, impact, and remedies for data problems caused by data screening procedures, nonreporting, recording errors, and alternative...

  18. Trade-Facilitated Technology Spillovers in Energy Productivity Convergence Processes across EU Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wan, J.; Baylis, K.; Mulder, P.

    2015-01-01

    This empirical paper tests for trade-facilitated spillovers in the convergence of energy productivity across 16 European Union (EU) countries from 1995 to 2005. One might anticipate that by inducing specialization, trade limits the potential for convergence in energy productivity. Conversely, by

  19. 78 FR 66330 - Foreign-Trade Zone 196-Fort Worth, Texas, Authorization of Production Activity, Flextronics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 196--Fort Worth, Texas, Authorization of Production Activity, Flextronics International USA, Inc. (Mobile Phone Assembly and Kitting), Fort Worth, Texas On June 14, 2013, Flextronics International USA, Inc. submitted a notification of proposed production activity to the Foreign...

  20. 77 FR 55182 - Foreign-Trade Zone 45-Portland, OR, Authorization of Production Activity, Shimadzu USA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 45--Portland, OR, Authorization of Production Activity, Shimadzu USA Manufacturing, Inc., (Analytical Instruments-- Liquid Chromatographs and Mass Spectrometer... production activity within Subzone 45G, at the facility of Shimadzu USA Manufacturing, Inc. (Shimadzu...

  1. U.S. Timber Production, Trade, Consumption, and Price Statistics, 1965-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Howard; Kwameka C. Jones

    2016-01-01

    This report presents annual data but is published every 2 years. The data present current and historical information on production, trade, consumption, and prices of timber products in the United States. The report focuses on national statistics but includes some data for individual states and regions and for Canada. The data were collected from industry trade...

  2. U.S. Timber Production, Trade, Consumption and Price Statistics 1965-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Howard; Rebecca M. Westby

    2013-01-01

    This report presents annual data but is published every 2 years. The data present current and historical information on the production, trade, consumption, and prices of timber products in the United States. The report focuses on national statistics, but includes some data for individual states and regions and for Canada. The data were collected from industry trade...

  3. U.S. Timber production, trade, consumption, and price statistics 1965-1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Howard

    1999-01-01

    This report presents statistical information on production, trade, consumption, and prices of forest products in the United States. Although national statistics are dealt with for the most part, some statistics are given for regions, states, and Canada. The tables presented in this report contain information collected from industry trade associations and government...

  4. U.S. timber production, trade, consumption, and price statistics, 1963-1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Howard

    1997-01-01

    This report presents information on trends in production, trade, consumption, and prices of forest product in the United States. Although national trends are dealt with for the most part, some information is given for regions, states, and Canada. The tables presented in this report are from information collected from industry trade associations and government agencies...

  5. U.S. timber production, trade, consumption, and price statistics 1965 to 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Howard

    2007-01-01

    This report presents annual data but is published every 2 years. The data present current and historical information on the production, trade, consumption, and prices of timber products in the United States. The report focuses on national statistics, but includes some data for individual States and regions and for Canada. The data were collected from industry trade...

  6. 77 FR 59890 - Foreign-Trade Zone 92-Gulfport, MS; Authorization of Production Activity; Gulf Ship, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 92--Gulfport, MS; Authorization of Production Activity; Gulf Ship, LLC (Shipbuilding); Gulfport, MS On May 10, 2012, the Mississippi Coast Foreign-Trade Zone, Inc., grantee of FTZ 92, submitted a notification of proposed production activity to the Foreign-Trade Zones...

  7. China's forest products trade and its influencing factors: A structural analysis based on the Asian International Input-Output Table

    OpenAIRE

    加賀爪, 優; ウフル, ロシャングリ; 波多野, 佑美

    2014-01-01

    China is one of the major consumers of forest products, and its trade with developed countries has vastly expanded after it joined the WTO and abolished tariffs. The structure of China's import and export trade of forest products has also greatly changed alongside rapid economic growth. In this study, we focus on China's forest products trade with its main trading partners. By analyzing these trade patterns based on the Asian International Input-Output Table and the Japan-China International ...

  8. Estimating productivity with multi-product firms, pricing heterogeneity and the role of international trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smeets, Valerie Anne Rolande; Warzynski, Frederic Michel Patrick

    and the destination of exports. We find that both imports from countries with abundant and cheap labor like China and from countries with similar level of development matter, although the mechanism through which productivity is affected is likely to be different. In addition, exporting to more distant OECD economies......In this paper, we analyze the relationship between exports, imports and firm productivity. We use a rich product-firm-level dataset providing both revenue and quantities of all products for a large panel of Danish manufacturing firms over the period 1998-2008 and link it to firms’ international...... trade transactions by product. We use our detailed product level information to compute a firm level deflator and avoid the criticism of biased estimates due to the use of industry level deflator. We find that both importing and exporting behaviours are strongly associated with productivity, but firms...

  9. TRENDS AND MARKETS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF PRODUCTION AND TRADE WITH ROMANIAN PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Cohut Ioana

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The current stage of retail trade development in Romania still shows an important capacity to absorb, both of large outlets as well as of small outlets, which lately have disappeared from the market and they hardly cope with the superstore competition. A part of the market which has been yet insufficiently explored, with an important potential for development and which is represented by the stores selling traditional Romanian products, as well as the bio product stores, as long as these are made in Romania and are not imported. Also, the paper is trying to analyse the importance of this type of trade and its trends, its lacks and the possibilities of development.

  10. Examination of forest products trade between Turkey and European ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-19

    Apr 19, 2010 ... The success of getting in the foreign trade forms one of the basic stones of economic development for ..... countries raise the transportation and operation costs. A .... The Financing Preferences and Capital Structure of. Micro ...

  11. The Comparative Analysis of Some Forest Products Foreign Trade in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ALEVLİ, Cumhur; YILDIRIM, İbrahim

    2018-01-01

    Forest products industry has an important place in the international trade. The round wood obtained from forests is an input for a great deal of industry. These inputs bring with different costs in different countries. In some places a product which is costly, it is possible that the same product is cheaper in different places. As a result of cost difference of resources and materials, mutual trades with countries come to the fore.In this study, the foreign trade values of some forest product...

  12. Causes of World Trade Growth in Agricultural and Food Products, 1951 - 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Raúl Serrano; Vicente Pinilla

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to analyse the causes of the growth of international agricultural and food trade in volume terms from 1951 to 2000. The results suggest that income growth has been the principal reason for this expansion, while exchange rate stability and the real price of agricultural products played only a minor role. Multilateral trade liberalisation and trade costs, given their long-term stability, are not elements which could have stimulated their growth. Finally, th...

  13. Monetary union and forest products trade- The case of the euro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Buongiorno

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the establishment of a monetary union in European countries had affected the international trade of forest products between the euro-using countries. A differential gravity model of bilateral trade flows was developed and estimated with panel data for the bilateral trade between 12 euro countries from 1988 to 2013, for...

  14. Foreign trade trends in the Hungarian-Romanian turnover of agricultural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklós VÁSÁRY

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The accession to the European Union (EU has brought a lot of advantages for all the new member states (NMS. The general and wide range implementation of economic integration gave the hope of economic prosperity and macroeconomic stability for all the new member states. In the case of foreign trade of agricultural products the possibility of expansion has opened after EU integration. The chance to build and stabilize new trading relations was especially important for the small countries with an open economy. In general, it can be concluded from the analysis of EU membership that the trade among new member countries has substantially expanded as a result of increasing trading activities in relation to member states which integrated into the EU in 2004 and also due to the elimination of former trading barriers and a growing common internal market. Starting from this, the examination of trading of goods between particular countries is also justified. The important aspects in considering the possible solutions for the consequences of the economic crisis in 2008 are: the strengthening of regional markets, the utilization of geographical conditions and the increasing role of comparative advantages. The present study details how the Hungarian-Romanian agricultural trade has changed in the frames of bilateral trading activities due to the second wave of Eastern expansion and what tendencies can be observed. In regards to trading of goods, it is reviewed which products show concentration and which products can be characterized with comparative advantages.

  15. Halal logistics: A marketing mix perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Bakar Abdul Hamid

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ḥalāl is no longer understood as solely concerning food consumption or ritual slaughter. It is at the centre of the global Muslim food industry and logistics is one of its driving forces. The growing demand for ḥalāl food integrity contributes to the need for ḥalāl logistics. However, ḥalāl logistics operation has thus far not been warmly received by the industry thus hampering the availability of such services. This conceptual study attempts to illuminate the issue by addressing ḥalāl logistics from a marketing perspective. The concept of marketing mix and how it can be practiced by industrial players in marketing or promoting ḥalāl logistics services underpins our discussion. Existing literature is reviewed and discussed to ascertain the link between ḥalāl logistics and the 7Ps of its marketing mix, namely, product, place, price, promotion, people, process, and programme.

  16. 77 FR 70139 - Foreign-Trade Zone 8-Toledo, OH; Authorization of Production Activity; Whirlpool Corporation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 8--Toledo, OH; Authorization of Production Activity; Whirlpool Corporation (Washing Machines); Clyde and Green Springs, OH On July 20, 2012 the Toledo-Lucas...

  17. Assessing the Impact of Trade Policy on Labor Markets and Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. François (Joseph)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper discusses the measurement of production and employment effects of trade policy, and more broadly the effects of economic integration and globalization. First, it provides a broad-brush overview of the ex-post literature linking trade to performance, such as measures of worker

  18. 77 FR 55455 - Foreign-Trade Zone 235-Lakewood, NJ, Authorization of Production Activity, Cosmetic Essence...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 235--Lakewood, NJ, Authorization of Production Activity, Cosmetic Essence Innovations, LLC, (Fragrance Bottling), Holmdel, NJ Cosmetic Essence Innovations, LLC (CEI...

  19. 77 FR 26737 - Foreign-Trade Zone 235-Lakewood, NJ: Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Cosmetic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 235--Lakewood, NJ: Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Cosmetic Essence Innovations, LLC (Fragrance Bottling); Holmdel, NJ Cosmetic Essence Innovations...

  20. A Game Theory Approach for Product Specialization in International Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana-Veronica ALEXA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Game theory, in its most basic form, considers two players and analyses the different strategies that they can use and the effect that these strategies will have on each player. International trade allows countries to use better their resources (labor, technology or capital. Since countries have different capital or natural resources, some of them will produce a good more efficiently than others and therefore could sell it cheaper than other countries. By using game theory in international trade we could determine if the H-O-S model is correct and what would be the best specialization for each country.

  1. Analysis of forest product trade relationships between Turkey and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-19

    Apr 19, 2010 ... terms of this sector (Ulusivuori and Terro, 2002). Superiority and competitiveness in foreign trade is the ability to be in the most advantageous position in a continuously changing market environment. The competi- tiveness is based on consumer-orientation, quality, technical advantage, diversity of service ...

  2. Analysis of forest product trade relationships between Turkey and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The countries have needed to strengthen their trade relationships in the face of increasing competition conditions with globalization and a lot of unions emerged all over the world. The European Union, remaining in the foreground as an economical, commercial and political factor in these unions, possesses considerable ...

  3. Obesity: A by‐product of Trade or Attitude?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Watkins, Johnathan; Wulaningsih, Wahyu

    2016-01-01

    ... (whose biggest trading partner is the United States) have higher obesity levels as well as steeper growth trajectories than those of Switzerland, Italy, Spain, South Korea, and France (see Figure 2 of Ref. ). The important NutriNet‐Santé studies, therefore, beg the question of whether different motives for eating can also explain the differenti...

  4. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, first quarter 1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debra D. Warren

    1989-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  5. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, second quarter 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debra D. Warren

    1995-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and pdces; employment In the forest industries; international trade In logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related Items.

  6. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, fourth quarter 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debra D. Warren

    1993-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  7. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, third quarter 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debra D. Warren

    1986-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries ; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  8. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, all quarters 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoping Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  9. Efficient halal bleeding, animal handling, and welfare: A holistic approach for meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghwan, Z A; Bello, A U; Abubakar, A A; Imlan, J C; Sazili, A Q

    2016-11-01

    Traditional halal slaughter and other forms of religious slaughter are still an issue of debate. Opposing arguments related to pre-slaughter handling, stress and pain associated with restraint, whether the incision is painful or not, and the onset of unconsciousness have been put forward, but no consensus has been achieved. There is a need to strike a balance between halal bleeding in the light of science and animal welfare. There is a paucity of scientific data with respect to animal welfare, particularly the use of restraining devices, animal handling, and efficient halal bleeding. However, this review found that competent handling of animals, proper use of restraining devices, and the efficient bleeding process that follows halal slaughter maintains meat eating quality. In conclusion, halal bleeding, when carried out in accordance with recommended animal welfare procedures, will not only maintain the quality and wholesomeness of meat but could also potentially reduce suffering and pain. Maintained meat quality increases consumer satisfaction and food safety. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Customer Awareness and Behavior Intention Towards the Use of Halal Logo on Restaurants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabainah Bachok

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The trend of eating out leads the food service industry to the needs of managing customers and making sure that all their needs and preferences can be fulfilled. The certification and recognition of establishment also becomes the in thing in hospitality industry, which includes the certification of halal, HACCP, and ISO. Establishment with certification is useful as a marketing strategy to attract more customers. This study discusses the level of customer awareness of towards the halal logo used in some restaurants which is carried out to give evidence to restaurant operators regarding the importance of attaching the genuine halal logo in their restaurant. From the findings, it is showed that customers are do aware of the use of halal logo on restaurants. It is also a factor in choosing a restaurant. It is concluded that halal logo is one of the main factors for customers in choosing restaurants which in return can be a main strategy to attract and retain more customers in the future, not only for the local customer but also to foreigners.

  11. The trade in sharks and their products in the United Arab Emirates

    KAUST Repository

    Jabado, Rima W.

    2015-01-01

    The rapid growth in the demand for shark products, particularly fins, has led to the worldwide overexploitation of many elasmobranch species. Although there are growing concerns about this largely unregulated and unmonitored trade, little information still exists about its dynamics, the species involved and the impact of this pressure on stocks in various regions. Our study provides the first attempt at characterizing the trade in shark products from the United Arab Emirates (UAE), the fourth largest exporter in the world of raw dried shark fins to Hong Kong. A review of trade records and informal interviews with local traders confirmed that the UAE is being used as hub in the broader North Indian Ocean region for the trade in shark products with the Emirati fishery minimally contributing to this trade. Results based on morphological identification of sharks (n= 12,069) and DNA barcoding of tissue samples (n= 655) indicated that the trade was made up of at least 37 species. The most abundant families represented at the Dubai study site were the Sphyrnidae (9.3%), Lamnidae (9%) and Alopiidae (5.9%). While information was mostly limited to shark products originating from the UAE and Oman, results indicated that 45.3% of species traded were considered to be at high risk of global extinction based on the IUCN Red List Global Assessments. Since many of the species found during this survey are likely part of stocks shared with other countries, regional cooperation and management will be crucial to ensure their long term survival.

  12. The impact of retailers own brand Fair Trade products on developing countries producers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguiar, L. K.; Vieira, L. M.; Ferreira, G. C.

    Fair Trade certification allows small producers to access international markets and to add value to their products. The Fair-Trade Labelling Organisation certification body (FLOCERT) is responsible for organising and transferring technical information from the consumer market to producers...... in developing countries. Fair trade certification reduces the complexity of transactions and enables producers to adhere to the certification system. FLOCERT exercises governance power in production sites to meet demand by the enforcement of the standards not dissimilar to what happens in global value chains...

  13. CHANGES IN FOREIGN TRADE IN AGRI-FOOD PRODUCTS BETWEEN THE EU AND CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Pawlak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to identify the changes in bilateral trade in agri-food products between the EU and China, as well as to assess – in mutual relations – ex post competitive advantages of major groups of agri-food products in 2008–2015. The research is based on data from the Statistical Office of the European Union (Eurostat. The analysis covered the value, trade balance, shares in total trade and commodity structure of trade in agri-food products between the EU and China. Selected indices of revealed comparative advantage (XRCA, MRCA, RTA, Coverage Ratios (CR, Specialization Indicators (SI, and the indices of Intra-Industry Trade (IIT were calculated for major product groups of the Combined Nomenclature. It was  proved that bilateral trade in agri-food products between the EU and China has increased signifi cantly in 2008–2015, and the EU transformed from an importer to a net exporter. Despite the intensifi cation of mutual trade, the importance of China in the EU export of agri-food products remained relatively small. The structure of bilateral trade in agri-food products between the EU and China is consistent with the distribution of comparative advantages obtained by exporters and it is shaped under assumptions of the theory of similarity of preferences, the theory of product diff erentiation of the Armington type, and the Heckscher-Ohlin-Samuelson theorem of resources abundance. It can be considered that the Chinese agri-food sector is still in the stage of a factor-driven economy, while the agriculture and food industry in the EU countries has reached the stage of an innovation-driven economy.

  14. The System for Management of Business Activity of Production and Trade Enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Rudenko Inna V.; Garkusha Natalia M.

    2017-01-01

    The article is aimed at deepening the theoretical and methodical approaches to the formation of a system for management of business activity of production and trading enterprises in the contemporary conditions of managing. Features of the system approach to management have been determined, a model of the system for management of business activity, taking into consideration specifics of activity of production and trade enterprises, has been developed. A characterization of the common functions...

  15. Virtual water trade of agricultural products: A new perspective to explore the Belt and Road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Jin-He; Tian, Qing; Liu, Ze-Hua; Zhang, Hong-Lei

    2018-05-01

    The Belt and Road is an initiative of cooperation and development that was proposed by China. Moreover, most of the spanning countries faced water shortages and agriculture consumed a lot of water. Virtual water links water, food and trade and is an effective tool to ease water shortages. Therefore, this paper aims to understand the Belt and Road from the new perspective of virtual water trade of agricultural products. We considered agricultural products trade from 2001 to 2015. On the whole, the results indicated that China was in virtual water trade surplus with the countries along the Belt and Road. However, in terms of each country, >40 spanning countries were in virtual water trade surplus with China and eased water shortages. Russia had the largest net imported virtual water from China. Furthermore, the proportion of the grey water footprint that China exported to the spanning countries was much higher than that imported, no matter from the whole or different geographical regions. Moreover, more than half of the countries' virtual water trade with China conformed to the virtual water strategy, which helped to ease water crises. Furthermore, the products that they exported to China were mainly advantageous products that each spanning countries have. Virtual water trade is a new perspective to explore the Belt and Road. Agricultural products trade with China definitely benefits both the countries along the Belt and Road and China from the perspective of virtual water. The findings are beneficial for the water management of the countries along the Belt and Road and China, alleviating water shortages, encouraging the rational allocation of water resources in the various departments. They can provide references for optimizing trade structures as well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. New Faces of Globalization: Market Integration, Production Disintegration, Genesis of New Global Organizational Structures for Production and Trade

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sarmiza Pencea

    2010-01-01

    ... for investment, production and trade. A number of developing countries with adequate comparative advantages could better benefit from these processes, accelerating their own industralization and modernization, increasing their access...

  17. The importance of the wholesale markets for trade in agricultural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzman Boris

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is based on the importance of wholesale markets as special market institutions in trade in agro-industrial products. Based on communication knowledge about the retail market operations (wholesale gross markets, on the domestic market, as well as the importance given to wholesale markets in the developed countries from the aspect of trade, it is concluded that even domestic trade can increase selling these type of products at wholesale markets. The subject of research of this paper is concept of building wholesale markets as a substitute for retail trade (quantitative or wholesale gross markets for agro-industrial products. This paper aims to achieve such a level of knowledge that will enable making quality decisions starting from the interests of businesses, traders and customers (consumers.

  18. 78 FR 20889 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 158-Vicksburg/Jackson, Mississippi; Notification of Proposed Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 158--Vicksburg/Jackson, Mississippi; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Bauhaus USA, Inc.; (Upholstered Furniture); Saltillo, Mississippi The Greater Mississippi Foreign-Trade Zone, Inc., grantee of FTZ 158, submitted a notification of proposed production...

  19. AnAnalytical Study of Chinese Salt (MSG: Is it Halal or Haram (Urdu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Junaid Akbar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Monosodium Glutamate is the scientific name of Chinese salt, which also called Ajinomoto. Monosodium Glutamate was first discovered by the Japanese chemist Ikeda Kibunae in 1908. The MSG was firstly derived from seaweed. Later on MSG was got from meat, gluten,and vegetables etc. It can be derived from Najasul‘ain and GherNajasul‘ain things. If it was got from Najasul ‘ain, then there is a question about MSG that is it Halal(permissible/ lawful or Haram(non-permissible/unlawful. This research in this article is concluded that if the culture of MSG is Halal or the properIsti Halah has been done in Najas; MSG will be Halal(permissible/ lawful. However, where no such details are available about the culture of MSG, it should be avoid, although it cannot be declared Haram as per Islamic Jurisprudence rules

  20. The relationship between in-store marketing and observed sales for organic versus fair trade products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Herpen, Erica; van Nierop, Erjen; Sloot, Laurens

    To stimulate sales of sustainable products, such as organic and fair trade products, retailers need to know whether their in-store instruments effectively enhance market shares. This study uses sales data and a multilevel modeling approach to explain the market shares of sustainable products

  1. The relationship between in-store marketing and observed sales for organic versus fair trade products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herpen, van E.; Nierop, van J.E.M.; Sloot, L.M.

    2012-01-01

    To stimulate sales of sustainable products, such as organic and fair trade products, retailers need to know whether their in-store instruments effectively enhance market shares. This study uses sales data and a multilevel modeling approach to explain the market shares of sustainable products

  2. Critical limits for the control points for halal poultry slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahdan, Intan Azura; Regenstein, Joe Mac; Rahman, Mohammad Tariqur

    2017-06-01

    This study proposes critical limits (CL) for control points for halal slaughter (CPHS). Previously, 6 control points (CP) were determined, and CL for these 6 CPHS are suggested based on: 1) a literature survey for the CL for CP 1 (poultry breeding, rearing, and poultry feed) and CP 2 (welfare of poultry during transportation and lairage); 2) a field survey of slaughter plants in Kuantan (Malaysia) for CP 3 (immobilization), CP 4 (slaughter), CP 5 (time for full bleed-out), and CP 6 (washing and packaging); and 3) controlled experiments to refine the CL for CP 3, 4, and 5. The CL for CP 1 focused on stress reduction during rearing and use of substances that could compromise poultry meat wholesomeness. The CL for CP 2 emphasizes humane best-practices for handling poultry during lairage. The CL for CP 3 suggests a gap of 5 s between 2 shackles if only one shackler is employed and shackling times of slaughter knife. In CP 5 the recommended minimum time between neck cutting and scalding is 9.5 min. Finally, the CL for CP 6 emphasizes good supply chain hygiene and zero adulteration from haram species and substances. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  3. Halal on the menu?: Contested food politics and French identity in fast-food

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Wynne; Annes, Alexis

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Many regard France as a nation with a distinctive and world-renown cuisine. However, the common hamburger became the center of a public dialog in 2009e2010 as the nation grappled with the meaning of fast-food processed by halal standards. Using content analysis of national newspapers, we analyze how the French media framed the introduction of a halal hamburger onto the menu of fast-food restaurant Quick. Media framing was unsettled and contentious. We explore this disc...

  4. Not Eating the Muslim Other: Halal Certification, Scaremongering, and the Racialisation of Muslim Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakira Hussein

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Campaigns against the halal certification of food in Muslim-minority societies reveal the shift in the representation of Muslims from a visible, alien presence to a hidden, covert threat. This paper uses one such campaign in Australia as a point of entry for analysing the ramifications for Muslim identity of this ‘stealth jihad’ discourse. Muslims living in the west are increasingly targeted not for ‘standing out’ as misfits, but for blending in as the invisible enemy. The scare campaign against halal certification closely parallels previous campaigns against kosher certification, highlighting the increasing resemblance between contemporary Islamophobia and historical anti-Semitism.

  5. Virtual water flows in the international trade of agricultural products of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Jinhe; Tang, Guorong; Chen, Min; Wang, Lachun

    2016-07-01

    With the rapid development of the economy and population, water scarcity and poor water quality caused by water pollution have become increasingly severe in China. Virtual water trade is a useful tool to alleviate water shortage. This paper focuses on a comprehensive study of China's international virtual water flows from agricultural products trade and completes a diachronic analysis from 2001 to 2013. The results show that China was in trade surplus in relation to the virtual water trade of agricultural products. The exported virtual water amounted to 29.94billionm(3)/yr. while 155.55billionm(3)/yr. was embedded in imported products. The trend that China exported virtual water per year was on the decline while the imported was on a rising trend. Virtual water trade of China was highly concentrated. Not all of the exported products had comparative advantages in virtual water content. Imported products were excessively concentrated on water intensive agricultural products such as soya beans, cotton, and palm oil. The exported virtual water mainly flowed to the Republic of Korea, Hong Kong of China and Japan, while the imported mainly flowed from the United States of America, Brazil and Argentina. From the ethical point of view, the trade partners were classified into four types in terms of "net import" and "water abundance": mutual benefit countries, such as Australia and Canada; unilateral benefit countries, such as Mongolia and Norway; supported countries, such as Egypt and Singapore; and double pressure countries, such as India and Pakistan. Virtual water strategy refers to water resources, agricultural products and human beings. The findings are beneficial for innovating water resources management system, adjusting trade structure, ensuring food security in China, and promoting the construction of national ecological security system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Fragmented Production in East Asia: What are Their Implications for the Sino-U.S. Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Feiting

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fragmented production means organization of production in which different stages of production are divided among different suppliers that are located in different countries. East Asia is one of the most important manufacturing centers in the world, China imports components from other East Asian economies for processing and then exports to the United States. The volume of export from China to the United States increase in traditional international trade statistics. Therefore, the solution of Sino-U.S. trade imbalance should pay attention to the relationship between the United States, China, and other East Asian economies.

  7. 75 FR 37406 - Order Exempting the Trading and Clearing of Certain Products Related to ETFS Physical Swiss Gold...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... COMMISSION Order Exempting the Trading and Clearing of Certain Products Related to ETFS Physical Swiss Gold... Physical Swiss Gold Shares (``Gold Products'') and ETFS Physical Silver Shares (``Silver Products'') (collectively, ``Gold and Silver Products''), which would be traded on national securities exchanges (as to...

  8. The impact of computers on productivity in the trade sector : Explorations with Dutch microdata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, L.; McGuckin, R.H.; Timmer, M.P.

    The impact of computers on productivity in the Dutch trade sector during the period 1988-1994 is examined. The analysis is based on a panel data set derived from the Production Survey of Statistics Netherlands, which includes data on output, employment, wages, and various types of investment. A new

  9. Organic rice production in developing countries with regard to fair trade (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merlin, Charlotte; Mikkelsen, Henrik N.; Olsen, Lino Klit

    1999-01-01

    This report deals with the possibilities of organic rice production in developing countries under fair trade conditions - conditions which assures the producer a fair price for the delivered product.It is concluded that the following points should be worked with when carrying out such a project:1...

  10. Trade costs, openness and productivity: market access at home and abroad

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lejour, Arjan; Rojas-Romagosa, Hugo; Rodriguez, V.F.; Montalvo, Carlos; van der Zee, Frans

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the channels between openness and productivity and trade hampering factors. The stylized facts from the heterogeneous firms literature suggests that firms face market entry costs for each new product they export and to each new export market. Transport costs, border costs and

  11. The Impact of Computers on Productivity in the Trade Sector : Explorations with Dutch Microdata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, Lourens; McGuckin, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Trends in productivity, labor, and investment in the retail and wholesale trade sectors for the Netherlands in the 1988-94 period are examined. The analysis is based on a longitudinally linked panel of firms from the annual survey of Production Statistics collected by Statistics Netherlands (CBS).

  12. Short- and long-run exchange rate effects on forest product trade: evidence from panel data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torjus F. Bolksejo; Joseph Buongiorno

    2006-01-01

    Impacts of exchange rates on international forest products trade are widely debated, but the empirical evidence regarding this issue is still inconclusive. Here, we report findings of the impacts of the exchange rates on the main forest product imports and exports of the US, from January 1989 to November 2004. Export data consisted of monthly series of the main...

  13. Gains from trade due to within-firm productivity: Does services exporting matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Dincer, N. Nergiz; Tekin-Koru, Ayca

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on gains from trade due to rising within-firm productivity in presence of services exporting. The complementarity between exporting and investing in productivity enhancements is investigated by using descriptive regressions using rich, firm-level data for the period 2003-2011 for Turkey. The authors use three productivity measures for robustness purposes. The results show that firms that export both goods and services throughout the sample have higher productivity compared ...

  14. The Product Space Revisited: China’s Trade Profile

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrarini, Benno; Scaramozzino, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    The concept of product space has encountered broad interest within the development community, as an analytical tool against which to assess countries’ potential to diversify their production and export structures. It has received far less attention in the economics literature, and its assumptions and building blocks have not been put under scrutiny. This paper assesses whether exclusive reliance on export data in product space analysis may limit its value as a tool assessing country capabilit...

  15. Water saving through international trade of agricultural products

    OpenAIRE

    Chapagain, A.K.; Hoekstra, A.Y.; H. H. G. Savenije

    2006-01-01

    Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. The paper analyses the consequences of international virtual water flows on the global and national water budgets. The assessment shows that the total amount of water that would have been re...

  16. Dietary transition, nutritional and health outcomes, and changing agrifood production and trade patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Wusheng; Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Cao, Lijuan

    and health outcomes of diet transition and alternative diets on the one hand and the associated agricultural and food production and trade effects on the other hand, using the Chinese case as an example. We base this analysis in a modified GTAP model featuring the demand, production and supply and trade...... such as those from the WHO and the Chinese health authority, as exogenous changes to consumer demands via shifts of consumer preferences. Simulations of these scenarios will then reveal the production and trade pattern changes that are necessary to accommodate the demand shifts, as well as the associated...... efficiency and welfare consequences. Realizing that changing dietary trends are likely to be costly, in a more refined scenario, we consider public policy options to influence consumer choices for purposes of reaching a given alternative diet target. Since the costs of the policy intervention...

  17. Vulnerability of countries to food-production crises propagating in the virtual water trade network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamea, S.; Laio, F.; Ridolfi, L.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, the international trade of food and agricultural commodities has undergone a marked increase of exchanged volumes and an expansion of the trade network. This globalization of trade has both positive and negative effects, but the interconnectedness and external dependency of countries generate complex dynamics which are often difficult to understand and model. In this study we consider the volume of water used for the production of agricultural commodities, virtually exchanged among countries through commodity trade, i.e. the virtual water trade. Then, we set up a parsimonious mechanistic model describing the propagation, into the global trade network, of food-production crises generated locally by a social, economic or environmental event (such as war, economic crisis, drought, pest). The model, accounting for the network structure and the virtual water balance of all countries, bases on rules derived from observed virtual water flows and on data-based and statistically verified assumption. It is also tested on real case studies that prove its capability to capture the main features of crises propagation. The model is then employed as the basis for the development of an index of country vulnerability, measuring the exposure of countries to crises propagating in the virtual water trade network. Results of the analysis are discussed within the context of socio-economic and environmental conditions of countries, showing that not only water-scarce, but also wealthy and globalized countries, are among the most vulnerable to external crises. The temporal analysis for the period 1986-2011 reveals that the global average vulnerability has strongly increased over time, confirming the increased exposure of countries to external crises which may occur in the virtual water trade network.

  18. Water saving through international trade of agricultural products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, Ashok; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Savenije, H.H.G.

    2006-01-01

    Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water

  19. Capsicum--production, technology, chemistry, and quality--Part II. Processed products, standards, world production and trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, V S

    1986-01-01

    Capsicums, as a spice, have been known since the beginning of civilization and historically associated with the discovery of the New World. The genus Capsicum (Fam. Solanaceae) provides many varieties and adds color, pungency, and aroma to the cuisines of most of the world. From the pungent chilli, of interest also to pharmaceuticals, to the colorful paprika and the bell capsicums with its remarkable aroma, the genus has been of great interest for its chemistry and physiological action. Pungency as a sensory attribute, its evaluation, structure-activity relationship, and its increasing acceptance and preference by diverse populations of the world are of great interest to many research disciplines. In a comprehensive review of all aspects in four sequential parts, Part I deals with History, Botany, Cultivation, and Primary Processing (CRC Critical Review, Food Science and Nutrition). The Capsicums among the spices are second only to black pepper in trades both in volume and value. The production of the different forms of this spice as ground, specialty seasonings, and as the concentrated oleoresins through technologically advanced processes, proposed newer products, the standard to control quality of the different products, world production, trade, and prospects are reviewed in detail in this, Part II.

  20. Implications of the South Korea-U.S. Free Trade Agreement on South Korean Dairy Product Imports.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Keithly G.; Blayney, Donald P.

    2012-01-01

    This study empirically estimates the South Korean short-run and long-run import demand parameters for source-based dairy products and assess the impacts of the KORUS FTA on dairy product trade. These estimates were derived using a Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) demand system. The impact of the tariff reductions associated with the free trade agreement was calculated. Based on the results, it appears that the free trade agreements open up the South Korean dairy product markets primarily by...

  1. Evolutions and Trends in the International Trade with High-Tech Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Stănculescu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the ways for accessing knowledge and, through it, for competitivity on international level, is the world trade with high-tech (HT products. European Union and its Member States (Romania inclusive position on international HT market defines in fact their competitivity in the global economy. Many politics for encourage innovation in a country lead also to stimulate the technological transfer out of that country. Politics that reduce trade barriers and uncertainties in international trade relations have the potential to increase the international technology transfer. The weight of HT products and services in the entire world trade is around of 19-20%, this percentage varying in different studies and statistics due to the products groups considered to be part of this category and to the inclusion of some adjacent services. During 2001-2008, the world HT export value increased in average by 7% per year. The growth rates were fairly high, by one hand, because of the rising of exported/imported products complexity (and of advanced technologies, and by the other hand, due to the evolution of global demand and offer, that influence the prices of these products. The Popular Republic of China was the country that influenced mostly the increase of international trade with HT products. Four economies – China, United States, EU – 27 and Japan – totalize over one half of the world HT exports. USA and EU registered also the most important commercial deficits in the world in this field until 2008. In 2008, USA deficit turns into commercial surplus in HT area because of the decrease of imports following the crisis. As for Romania, the weight of HT products exports and imports in the whole country’s trade differs from about 4%, in exports case, to about 9-10%, in that of imports. Commercial balance in this field was always in the red. During 2001-2008, the greatest weights in the world trade with HT products have had, in order, the groups

  2. 26 CFR 1.1031(a)-1 - Property held for productive use in trade or business or for investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....1031(a)-1 Property held for productive use in trade or business or for investment. (a) In general—(1... business or for investment is exchanged solely for property of a like kind to be held either for productive use in a trade or business or for investment. Under section 1031(a)(1), property held for productive...

  3. 77 FR 71167 - Foreign-Trade Zone 37-Orange County, New York, Authorization of Production Activity, Takasago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 37--Orange County, New York, Authorization of Production... International Corporation (Takasago) submitted a notification of proposed production activity to the Foreign... determined that no further review of the activity is warranted at this time. The production activity...

  4. 77 FR 46377 - Foreign-Trade Zone 37-Orange County, NY, Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Takasago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 37--Orange County, NY, Notification of Proposed Production... (Takasago) submitted a notification of proposed production activity for their facility located in Harriman... facility is used for the manufacturing of fragrance compounds. Production under FTZ procedures could exempt...

  5. 78 FR 40427 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 183-Austin, Texas; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Samsung...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... status production equipment. The additional component sourced from abroad is: acetic acid (duty rate 1.8... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 183--Austin, Texas; Notification of Proposed Production..., LLC (Samsung), operator of Subzone 183B, submitted a notification of proposed production activity to...

  6. Consumptive water footprint and virtual water trade scenarios for China - With a focus on crop production, consumption and trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, La; Mekonnen, Mesfin M; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2016-09-01

    The study assesses green and blue water footprints (WFs) and virtual water (VW) trade in China under alternative scenarios for 2030 and 2050, with a focus on crop production, consumption and trade. We consider five driving factors of change: climate, harvested crop area, technology, diet, and population. Four scenarios (S1-S4) are constructed by making use of three of IPCC's shared socio-economic pathways (SSP1-SSP3) and two of IPCC's representative concentration pathways (RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5) and taking 2005 as the baseline year. Results show that, across the four scenarios and for most crops, the green and blue WFs per tonne will decrease compared to the baseline year, due to the projected crop yield increase, which is driven by the higher precipitation and CO2 concentration under the two RCPs and the foreseen uptake of better technology. The WF per capita related to food consumption decreases in all scenarios. Changing to the less-meat diet can generate a reduction in the WF of food consumption of 44% by 2050. In all scenarios, as a result of the projected increase in crop yields and thus overall growth in crop production, China will reverse its role from net VW importer to net VW exporter. However, China will remain a big net VW importer related to soybean, which accounts for 5% of the WF of Chinese food consumption (in S1) by 2050. All scenarios show that China could attain a high degree of food self-sufficiency while simultaneously reducing water consumption in agriculture. However, the premise of realizing the presented scenarios is smart water and cropland management, effective and coherent policies on water, agriculture and infrastructure, and, as in scenario S1, a shift to a diet containing less meat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Prediction of Pig Trade Movements in Different European Production Systems Using Exponential Random Graph Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relun, Anne; Grosbois, Vladimir; Alexandrov, Tsviatko; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Jose M; Waret-Szkuta, Agnes; Molia, Sophie; Etter, Eric Marcel Charles; Martínez-López, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    In most European countries, data regarding movements of live animals are routinely collected and can greatly aid predictive epidemic modeling. However, the use of complete movements' dataset to conduct policy-relevant predictions has been so far limited by the massive amount of data that have to be processed (e.g., in intensive commercial systems) or the restricted availability of timely and updated records on animal movements (e.g., in areas where small-scale or extensive production is predominant). The aim of this study was to use exponential random graph models (ERGMs) to reproduce, understand, and predict pig trade networks in different European production systems. Three trade networks were built by aggregating movements of pig batches among premises (farms and trade operators) over 2011 in Bulgaria, Extremadura (Spain), and Côtes-d'Armor (France), where small-scale, extensive, and intensive pig production are predominant, respectively. Three ERGMs were fitted to each network with various demographic and geographic attributes of the nodes as well as six internal network configurations. Several statistical and graphical diagnostic methods were applied to assess the goodness of fit of the models. For all systems, both exogenous (attribute-based) and endogenous (network-based) processes appeared to govern the structure of pig trade network, and neither alone were capable of capturing all aspects of the network structure. Geographic mixing patterns strongly structured pig trade organization in the small-scale production system, whereas belonging to the same company or keeping pigs in the same housing system appeared to be key drivers of pig trade, in intensive and extensive production systems, respectively. Heterogeneous mixing between types of production also explained a part of network structure, whichever production system considered. Limited information is thus needed to capture most of the global structure of pig trade networks. Such findings will be useful

  8. 78 FR 13857 - Foreign-Trade Zone 93-Raleigh-Durham, NC; Authorization of Production Activity; Revlon Consumer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ...; Revlon Consumer Products Corporation (Hair Coloring Products); Oxford, NC On October 10, 2012, Revlon... activity to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board on behalf of Revlon Consumer Products Corporation, within...

  9. Making Your Trade Fair Exhibit More Productive and More Interesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Jack

    1982-01-01

    Suggestions for producing a successful exhibit booth include the following: the effectiveness of an exhibit depends on the effectiveness of the people staffing it; avoid games and unrelated giveaway items; demonstrate product in the booth; give special attention to existing customers; and make literature available only from the booth personnel.…

  10. Trade, production fragmentation, and China's carbon dioxide emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Erik; Pei, Jiansuo; Yang, Cuihong

    An input-output framework is adopted to estimate China's carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions as generated by its exports in 2002. More than one half of China's exports are related to international production fragmentation. These processing exports generate relatively little value added but also

  11. Labour productivity and profitability in the Dutch flower trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Dalen (Jan); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractThis paper makes an attempt to illustrate the use of econometric models as frame of reference for diagnosing small firm performance. For this purpose, two models are developed explaining differences in labour productivity and profitability among Dutch flower exporters. In addition, we

  12. Roles of production, consumption and trade in global and regional aerosol radiative forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J.; Tong, D.; Davis, S. J.; Ni, R.; Tan, X.; Pan, D.; Zhao, H.; Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Feng, T.; Zhang, Q.; Yan, Y.; Hu, Y.; Li, J.; Liu, Z.; Jiang, X.; Geng, G.; He, K.; Huang, Y.; Guan, D.

    2016-12-01

    Anthropogenic aerosols exert strong radiative forcing on the climate system. Prevailing view regards aerosol radiative forcing as a result of emissions from regions' economic production, with China and other developing regions having the largest contributions to radiative forcing at present. However, economic production is driven by global demand for computation, and international trade allows for separation of regions consuming goods and services from regions where goods and related aerosol pollution are produced. It has recently been recognized that regions' consumption and trade have profoundly altered the spatial distribution of aerosol emissions and pollution. Building upon our previous work, this study quantifies for the first time the roles of trade and consumption in aerosol climate forcing attributed to different regions. We contrast the direct radiative forcing of aerosols related to regions' consumption of goods and services against the forcing due to emissions produced in each region. Aerosols assessed include black carbon, primary organic aerosol, and secondary inorganic aerosols including sulfate, nitrate and ammonium. We find that global aerosol radiative forcing due to emissions produced in East Asia is much stronger than the forcing related to goods and services ultimately consumed in that region because of its large net export of emissions-intensive goods. The opposite is true for net importers like Western Europe and North America: global radiative forcing related to consumption is much greater than the forcing due to emissions produced in these regions. Overall, trade is associated with a shift of radiative forcing from net importing to net exporting regions. Compared to greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, the short atmospheric lifetimes of aerosols cause large localized differences in radiative forcing. International efforts to reduce emissions in the exporting countries will help alleviate trade-related climate and health impacts of

  13. Shelf-life of Halal fresh and minced beef meat packaged under modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Piras

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The shelf-life of Halal fresh cut and minced beef meat, packaged under modified atmosphere (MAP was evaluated. The microbial profile of the carcasses intended for cutting and mincing was investigated by detecting spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. Samples of diced meat (DM, marrowbones (MB, steaks (S and minced meat (MM were packaged in MAP (66.0% O2, 25.0% CO2 and 9.0% N2 and stored at +2 and +8°C. At 0, 7 and 14 days, gas composition of headspace was measured. Moreover, in all the samples colony count at 30°C, Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria (LAB and Pseudomonas spp. were determined. The carcasses contamination was in compliance with the criteria fixed by EC Reg. 2073/2005. Gas composition of the headspace changed significantly during the storage, mainly at +8°C, where a significant decrease of O2 (until 0.1-0.6% and an increase of CO2 (until 81.0-89.0% were recorded. This could be related to the level of LAB and Pseudomonas spp. Less significant changes were observed at +2°C. At 7 days of storage colony count, mean values were higher than >107 CFU/g in the samples at +8°C, and also at 14 days at +2°C, presumably due to the high levels of Pseudomonas spp., that was dominant at the end of the test. Overall, the microbial mean counts were higher than those detected in similar products packaged under vacuum. In order to extend the shelf-life of the fresh meat and meat preparations, differentiated gas mixtures, and particularly a higher percentage of CO2, could be employed.

  14. Pulses production in Italy: trade, marketing and policy issues

    OpenAIRE

    Rino Ghelfi; Alessandro Palmieri

    2017-01-01

    Italian pulses production has sharply fallen since the middle of the last century and the role that pulses played has diminished at both the agricultural and food levels. This is the result of several factors that are analysed in this article, among which the most important can be identified in the low profitability compared to other crops, mainly cereals, the historic collapse of domestic consumption and a strong competition from foreign producers. Conversely, in recent years, different sign...

  15. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, third quarter 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debra D. Warren

    1997-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries: international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood: volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items. View an updated online version of this publication with downloadable excel files at

  16. 78 FR 58273 - Approval for Manufacturing (Production) Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 284, Liberty Pumps, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ..., Liberty Pumps, Inc. (Submersible and Water Pumps), Bergen, New York Pursuant to its authority under the..., grantee of Foreign-Trade Zone 284, has requested manufacturing (production) authority on behalf of Liberty... procedures within FTZ 284 on behalf of Liberty Pumps, Inc., as described in the application and Federal...

  17. The Europe-U.S. Retail Trade Productivity Gap in a Rear-view Mirror

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harchaoui, Tarek M.

    2012-01-01

    Is the Europe-U.S. retail trade productivity gap a genuine phenomenon or the result of a variety of measurement issues? This research question, which raised concerns during most of the decade preceding the Great Recession, has two primary motivations. First, I hope to gain a better understanding of

  18. The role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE to facilitate the international trade in animals and animal products : policy and trade issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.K. Bruckner

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The international trade in animals and animal products has become a sensitive issue for both developed and developing countries by posing an important risk for the international spread of animal and human pathogens whilst at the same time being an essential activity to ensure world-wide food security and food safety. The OIE has since its founding in 1924, applied a democratic and transparent decision-making process to continuously develop and review international standards for animal health and zoonoses to facilitate trade in animals and animal products. The role of the OIE is also mandated by the World Trade Organization (WTO as international reference point for standards related to animal health. In support of its overall objective of promoting animal health world-wide, the OIE has also launched several other initiatives such as the improvement of the governance of veterinary services within its member countries and territories and to enhance the availability of diagnostic and scientific expertise on a more even global geographical distribution. Several trade facilitating concepts such as country, zonal and compartment freedom from disease as well the trade in disease free commodities has been introduced to enhance the trade in animals and animal products for all its members including those from developing and transitional countries who are still in the process of enhancing to full compliance with international sanitary standards.

  19. Virtual water trade of agri-food products: Evidence from italian-chinese relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamastra, Lucrezia; Miglietta, Pier Paolo; Toma, Pierluigi; De Leo, Federica; Massari, Stefania

    2017-12-01

    At global scale, the majority of world water withdrawal is for the agricultural sector, with differences among countries depending on the relevance of agri-food sector in the economy. Virtual water and water footprint could be useful to express the impact on the water resources of each production process and good with the objective to lead to a sustainable use of water at a global level. International trade could be connected to the virtual water flows, in fact through commodities importation, water poor countries can save their own water resources. The present paper focuses on the bilateral virtual water flows connected to the top ten agri-food products traded between Italy and China. Comparing the virtual water flow related to the top 10 agri-food products, the virtual water flow from Italy to China is bigger than the water flow in the opposite direction. Moreover, the composition of virtual water flows is different; Italy imports significant amounts of grey water from China, depending on the different environmental strategies adopted by the two selected countries. This difference could be also related to the fact that traded commodities are very different; the 91% of virtual water imported by Italy is connected to crops products, while the 95% of virtual water imported by China is related to the animal products. Considering national water saving and global water saving, appears that Italy imports virtual water from China while China exerts pressure on its water resources to supply the exports to Italy. This result at global scale implies a global water loss of 129.29millionm3 because, in general, the agri-food products are traded from the area with lower water productivity to the area with the higher water productivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Emerging Economies, Productivity Growth, and Trade with Resource-Rich Economies by 2030

    OpenAIRE

    Kym Anderson; Anna Strutt

    2013-01-01

    Rapid economic growth in some emerging economies in recent decades has significantly increased their global economic importance. If this rapid growth continues and is strongest in resource-poor Asian economies, the growth in global demand for imports of primary products also will continue, to the on-going benefit of natural resource-rich countries. This paper explores how global production, consumption and trade patterns might change over the next two decades in the course of economic develop...

  1. The Spatial Dimension of Trade- and FDI-driven Productivity Growth in Chinese Provinces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitze, T.; Ozyurt, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the major determinants of long- and short-run labour productivity evolution for Chinese provinces between 1978 and 2010. The role played by openness to trade and foreign direct investment (FDI) constitutes the main focus of this analysis. From a methodological perspective, our...... to fully exploit the benefits from such spillovers, coordinated industrial policies which foster regional complementarities and support the free movement of production factors across regional borders are crucial....

  2. 19 CFR 102.25 - Textile or apparel products under the North American Free Trade Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Textile or apparel products under the North American Free Trade Agreement. 102.25 Section 102.25 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES OF ORIGIN Rules of Origin § 102.25 Textile or apparel products under the North...

  3. 75 FR 81977 - Order Exempting the Trading and Clearing of Certain Products Related to the CBOE Gold ETF...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Clearing of Certain Products Related to the CBOE Gold ETF Volatility Index and Similar Products AGENCY... Register a proposal to exempt the trading and clearing of certain options (``Options'') on the CBOE Gold... volatility of shares of gold exchange-traded funds (``ETFs'') generally, regardless of issuer, including...

  4. Growing Exports by Signaling Product Quality: Trade Competition and the Cross-National Diffusion of ISO 9000 Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xun; Prakash, Aseem

    2011-01-01

    Trade policy is an important topic in global public policy. It is recognized that trade is hampered when buyers have incomplete information about the offered products, a problem accentuated in the international markets by the physical and cultural distances between buyers and sellers. Buyers look for proxies to assess product quality, and…

  5. Pulses production in Italy: trade, marketing and policy issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rino Ghelfi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Italian pulses production has sharply fallen since the middle of the last century and the role that pulses played has diminished at both the agricultural and food levels. This is the result of several factors that are analysed in this article, among which the most important can be identified in the low profitability compared to other crops, mainly cereals, the historic collapse of domestic consumption and a strong competition from foreign producers. Conversely, in recent years, different signals appear to delineate a possible framework for recovery for legumes: the first of these is represented by the recent reversal trend in domestic consumption, due to healthy reasons and a fall in meat consumption. The favourable trend of organic consumption can also be considered as a positive factor for pulses. However, the focus point for pulses future perspective is the recent development of the European policy (2014-2020 that planned several actions in support of them, such as coupled payments and the provisions of greening rules. These policies aim to support the training effort needed to bring home to producers the importance of legumes in a proper crop rotation that maintains soil fertility and therefore better yields and profitability. In light of this and based on the general crisis in cereals prices, it is possible to be reasonably optimistic regarding the future of the legumes sector in Italy.

  6. FORMULASI HUKUM DAN PENTINGNYA JAMINAN KEPASTIAN HUKUM PRODUK PANGAN HALAL DALAM HUKUM NASIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KN Sofyan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The Food Act No.18 of 2012 is in the government'sdevelopment efforts of food to meet the basic needs of theIndonesian people in a fair and equitable based onindependence and not contrary to the religion, beliefs and,cultur of society. Related to food safety hazards includingdangerous category of "unlawful and or dubious" its effect doesnot seem as effects of chemical contamination, physical andmicrobiological direct implications for health problems. Theimportance of the legal aspects of drug and food labeling,related with the ever-increasing consumer demands, especiallyregarding the halal aspect. This issue has been legallyregulated by government, both in the food laws, consumerprotection laws and regulations governing government is moretechnical. With the certification of halal food products becamepublic consumption, is one of the government's efforts to protectconsumers against 88% Muslim community.ملخص: قانون الأغذیة 18 لسنة 2012 في جھود التنمیة في الحكومة من الموادالغذائیة ل تلبیة الاحتیاجات الأساسیة للشعب الإندونیسي في الثقافیھ عادلة ومنصفةعلى أساس الاستقلال و الذي لا یتعارض مع الدین، والمعتقدات، و المجتمع . تتعلقمخاطر سلامة الأغذیة بما في ذلك فئة خطیرة من "غیر قانوني و أو مشكوك فیھا" لایبدو أثره كما آثار التلوث الكیمیائي، والآثار المباشرة الفیزیائیة و المیكروبیولوجیةللمشاكل الصحیة. أھمیة الجوانب القانونیة لوضع العلامات المخدرات والمواد الغذائیة،ذات الصلة مع طلبات المستھلكین المتزایدة، وخاصة فیما یتعلق بالجانب الحلال. وقدتم تنظیم ھذه المسألة من الناحیة

  7. A multiplex PCR mini-barcode assay to identify processed shark products in the global trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardeñosa, Diego; Fields, Andrew; Abercrombie, Debra; Feldheim, Kevin; Shea, Stanley K H; Chapman, Demian D

    2017-01-01

    Protecting sharks from overexploitation has become global priority after widespread population declines have occurred. Tracking catches and trade on a species-specific basis has proven challenging, in part due to difficulties in identifying processed shark products such as fins, meat, and liver oil. This has hindered efforts to implement regulations aimed at promoting sustainable use of commercially important species and protection of imperiled species. Genetic approaches to identify shark products exist but are typically based on sequencing or amplifying large DNA regions and may fail to work on heavily processed products in which DNA is degraded. Here, we describe a novel multiplex PCR mini-barcode assay based on two short fragments of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene. This assay can identify to species all sharks currently listed on the Convention of International Trade of Endangered Species (CITES) and most shark species present in the international trade. It achieves species diagnosis based on a single PCR and one to two downstream DNA sequencing reactions. The assay is capable of identifying highly processed shark products including fins, cooked shark fin soup, and skin-care products containing liver oil. This is a straightforward and reliable identification method for data collection and enforcement of regulations implemented for certain species at all governance levels.

  8. KAP AMONG DOCTORS WORKING IN HOSPITALS, REGARDING HALAL PHARMACEUTICALS; A CROSS SECTIONAL ASSESSMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeeqa, Saleha; Sarriff, Azmi; Masood, Imran; Atif, Muhammad; Farooqui, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing awareness amongst Muslims to avoid all items containing non-Halal ingredients. This sentiment has now progressed into the field of various medications. It therefore, required a study to assess the knowledge, attitude and perception (KAP) relating to pharmaceuticals containing non-Halal ingredients among doctors working in various hospitals of Malaysia. This was a cross sectional study, carried out in January 2013-February 2013 period, using a structured, self-administered questionnaires. Study settings included various government hospitals in Malaysia. Data were collected by distributing questionnaires through respective heads of the departments. Study was conducted on a sample of 243 participants. Inclusion criterion was a registered medical doctor working in a government hospital. Descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, frequency, percentage, median, inter quartile range) was applied to summarize the data, non-parametric tests were applied. χ2 Test and Fisher's Exact Test were applied to assess the association between demographic characteristics and knowledge, attitude and perception scores. Results revealed that the hospital doctors had a good and positive attitude and perception about Halal pharmaceuticals. Mean knowledge score out of maximum possible 9 score was 7.67 ± 1.68. Mean attitude score out of maximum possible 45 score was 34.10 ± 5.35 while mean perception score out of maximum possible 55 score was 45.73 ± 5.44. Mean overall KAP score out of maximum possible 109 was 87.60 ± 10.37. There was a significant, positive and weak correlation (0.20-0.29) between knowledge and attitude (r = 0.231, p attitude and perception (r = 0.588, p attitude towards Halal pharmaceuticals.

  9. ANTESEDEN NIAT UNTUK MEMLIH JASA HALAL BEAUTY CENTER: APLIKASI THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOR DAN PERAN RELIGIUSITAS

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra Suparno

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This research aims to analyze the influence of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavior control towards intention to choose halal beauty center with the Islamic religiousity as the moderating variable. This study took 120 respondents as its samples by using accidental and purposive sampling as the method to collect the sample. Using Multiple Regression Analyis, and Chow test, the results of this study shows that attitude and subjective norm have a positive influence towar...

  10. Study on the new financial products traded on the Forex Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurenţiu Paul BARANGA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper puts forward an analysis of the new trends in terms of foreign currency transactions and, implicitly, the new financial products traded on the Forex market with a view to identify the category they belong to, namely foreign currency transactions or foreign exchange derivative transactions. Also, the implications of including the new products traded on the Forex market into one of the two categories have been taken into account, both in terms of market microstructure and in terms of investor-wise implications. Thus, the analysis showed that, by changing the destination of the amounts deposited by clients into the settlement account of the Forex services provider, i.e. from amounts deposited in order to cover the equivalent of purchased foreign currencies into amounts deposited in order to cover any price difference, financial products such as currency pairs and rolling spot Forex acquire features similar to those of derivatives (such as Contracts For Difference - CFDs. Further, acknowledging these financial products of the Forex market (currency pairs and rolling spot Forex as derivatives would determine a series of transformations of the microstructure of the market they are traded on, changes that would contribute to a better protection of investors and to improved monitoring and prevention by the supervisory authorities of the potential risks induced by such transactions on the financial market.

  11. Waterpipe industry products and marketing strategies: analysis of an industry trade exhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Mohammed; Nakkash, Rima T; Hawkins, Ben; Akl, Elie A

    2015-12-01

    Understanding product development and marketing strategies of transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) has been of vital importance in developing an effective tobacco control policy. However, comparatively little is known of the waterpipe tobacco industry, which TTCs have recently entered. This study aimed to gain an understanding of waterpipe tobacco products and marketing strategies by visiting a waterpipe trade exhibition. In April 2014, the first author attended an international waterpipe trade exhibition, recording descriptions of products and collecting all available marketing items. We described the purpose and function of all products, and performed a thematic analysis of messages in marketing material. We classified waterpipe products into four categories and noted product variation within categories. Electronic waterpipe products (which mimic electronic cigarettes) rarely appeared on waterpipe tobacco marketing material, but were displayed just as widely. Claims of reduced harm, safety and quality were paramount on marketing materials, regardless of whether they were promoting consumption products (tobacco, tobacco substitutes), electronic waterpipes or accessories. Waterpipe products are diverse in nature and are marketed as healthy and safe products. Furthermore, the development of electronic waterpipe products appears to be closely connected with the electronic cigarette industry, rather than the waterpipe tobacco manufacturers. Tobacco control policy must evolve to take account of the vast and expanding array of waterpipe products, and potentially also charcoal products developed for waterpipe smokers. We recommend that tobacco substitutes be classified as tobacco products. Continued surveillance of the waterpipe industry is warranted. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Halal banking in post-soviet central Asia: Antecedents and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Ahmad Malik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available With the fall of Soviet Union in 1991 the whole Central Asian region perceived a considerable rise in Muslim identity, a call back to Islamic legacy. Nowadays, lots of Central Asian Muslims need to be aware of what Islam has termed legal (Halal and illegal (Haram. The process of Islamic revival occurred rapidly soon after the unification of Central Asian republics with other Muslim geographies through the membership of Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC and other similar organizations. This interaction tended to be an essential push factor to the previously existing indigenous reviving trends and sentiments. Besides many other needs, Muslim customer demand appeared as navel movement in the market generally and in banking and financial sector particularly. To satisfy this need, the governments of Muslim majority Central Asian states, namely Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan presented Halal banking and financial goods in the market. In this work, it has been attempted to recognize the causes that lead to the emergence of Islamic banking and finance industry in the region and also to investigate the effect of these causes considering the development and progress of Halal banking and financial industry.

  13. U.S. forest products trade policies: what are the options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Darr

    1975-01-01

    Trade and other policies are being considered by the U.S. Forest Service according to the terms of the Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-378,93d Congress, S.2296). This paper describes the issues involved in the question, "Should we or should we not attempt to reduce net imports of forest products?" In terms of...

  14. Global and Regional Trends in Production, Trade and Consumption of Food Legume Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Akibode, Comlanvi Sitou; Maredia, Mywish K.

    2012-01-01

    Food legumes play an important and diverse role in the farming systems and in the diets of poor people around the world. They are ideal crops for simultaneously achieving three developmental goals in targeted population—reducing poverty, improving human health and nutrition, and enhancing ecosystem resilience. This report provides global and regional trend analysis and sheds light on the pulse crop production, price, trade, and consumption patterns observed in the developing world, developed ...

  15. A comparative analysis of the purchase motivations of Fair Trade products: the impact of social capital

    OpenAIRE

    De Devitiis, Biagia; D'Alessio, Massimiliano; Maietta, Ornella Wanda

    2008-01-01

    Objective of this paper is to analyse the motivations in the purchase of Fair Trade (FT) food products sold in the World Shops (WS) in order to characterize WS consumer profiles according to the ethical content of their motivations. A questionnaire has been distributed, at this end, to a sample of consumers in Emilia Romagna, Puglia and in Campania. A principal component analysis has been performed in order to identify the main motivations in the purchase. On the basis of these results, consu...

  16. 78 FR 11626 - Foreign-Trade Zone 181-Akron/Canton, OH, Authorization of Production Activity, Cimbar Performance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 181--Akron/Canton, OH, Authorization of Production Activity, Cimbar Performance Minerals, (Barium Sulfate Grinding), Wellsville, OH On October 10, 2012, the Northeast...

  17. The value and adaptation of plant uptake models in international trade of produce treated with crop protection products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennedy, C.; Anderson, J.; Snyder, N.

    2010-01-01

    Crop Protection Product (CPP) national registrations and/or international trade require magnitude and decline of residue data for treated produce. These data are used to assess human dietary risk and establish legal limits (Maximum Residue Limits, MRLs) for traded produce. The ability to predict...

  18. 78 FR 64197 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 8-Toledo, Ohio, Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Whirlpool...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 8--Toledo, Ohio, Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Whirlpool Corporation, Subzone 8I, (Washing Machines), Clyde and Green Springs, Ohio Whirlpool...

  19. 78 FR 17635 - Foreign-Trade Zone 93-Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina; Notification of Proposed Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 93--Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Southern Lithoplate, Inc. (Aluminum Printing Plates); Youngsville, North Carolina The...

  20. 78 FR 43141 - Foreign-Trade Zone 93-Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina, Authorization of Production Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 93--Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina, Authorization of Production Activity, Southern Lithoplate, Inc. (Aluminum Printing Plates), Youngsville, North Carolina On...

  1. Does Religious Commitment Matter in the Relationship Between Brand Personality and Purchase Intention on Halal Brand? Evidence from Consumers in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dharma Tuah Putra NASUTION

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate a model of brand personality and the effect of a halal brand on purchase intentions, particularly, by highlighting of religious commitment mediated between brand personality, and purchase intentions on a Halal brand. This study uses a path analysis with the main concepts of brand personality, religious commitment, and purchase intentions. The sampling method used non-probability sampling. Data were collected from 120 respondents at several supermarkets in North Sumatera, Indonesia. Findings of the study indicated that brand personality does not have a significant and positive effect on the purchase intention of a Halal brand. However, the role of religious commitment is significant in mediating the relationship between brand personality and purchase intentions of a Halal brand. Finally, the results of this study also showed the total effects between brand personality, purchase intentions, and religious commitment. Dimensions of brand personality were not always relevant on the dimensions of a Halal brand.

  2. Islam, Standards, and Technoscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    Halal (literally, "permissible" or "lawful") production, trade, and standards have become essential to state-regulated Islam and to companies in contemporary Malaysia and Singapore, giving these two countries a special position in the rapidly expanding global market for halal products......, this book provides an exploration of the role of halal production, trade, and standards. Fischer explains how the global markets for halal comprise divergent zones in which Islam, markets, regulatory institutions, and technoscience interact and diverge. Focusing on the "bigger institutional picture......" that frames everyday halal consumption, Fischer provides a multisited ethnography of the overlapping technologies and techniques of production, trade, and standards that together warrant a product as "halal," and thereby help to format the market. Exploring global halal in networks, training, laboratories...

  3. Islam, Standards, and Technoscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    , this book provides an exploration of the role of halal production, trade, and standards. Fischer explains how the global markets for halal comprise divergent zones in which Islam, markets, regulatory institutions, and technoscience interact and diverge. Focusing on the "bigger institutional picture......Halal (literally, "permissible" or "lawful") production, trade, and standards have become essential to state-regulated Islam and to companies in contemporary Malaysia and Singapore, giving these two countries a special position in the rapidly expanding global market for halal products......" that frames everyday halal consumption, Fischer provides a multisited ethnography of the overlapping technologies and techniques of production, trade, and standards that together warrant a product as "halal," and thereby help to format the market. Exploring global halal in networks, training, laboratories...

  4. INTERNATIONAL TRADE WITH AGRIFOOD PRODUCTS OF ROMANIA, AS A CONSEQUENCE OF THE EUROPEAN QUALITY CONFORMITY LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurentiu MUNTEANU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to find the tendency of the volume of international agrifood product exchanges that should enable the substantiation of decisions regarding the structure and level of the international trade of Romania. By the adequate indicator is rendered the tendency of the import and export that should finally substantiate the degree of ensuring competitiveness on the market of Romania. We start from quantitative issues (progressive quantities of agrifood product exchanges to qualitative ones (with reference to the balance level, deducting the knowledge of policies on product quality in the market competitiveness. On such basis may be configured exchanges and twodimensional involvements of the production volume ↔commercial agrifood product exchanges.

  5. IMPACT OF ECONOMIC CRISIS ON WOOD MARKETS (CONSUMPTION, PRODUCTION AND TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria‐Loredana POPESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Global economic crisis represents one of the causes why wood consumption is increasing especially in countries less developed. In countries where governments couldn’t improve the quality of life and unemployment rate is higher, local communities devastate a lot of forestry. In last thirty years we saw a deforestation process at the global level related to land being converted to other uses: agriculture and urbanization, which represent a positive trend of a negative use. The statistics reveal, on one hand, an increasing demand for paper, paper products, wood products and wood energy. So this point is important to analyze: where wood came from and where it is going as either raw material or processed goods? For undeveloped countries, like Romania, it is easy to export primary wood product without evaluating the consequences. On the other hand, developed countries like Sweden export value added products which brig them higher value and profits and require greater manufacturing and marketing skills (case IKEA. For this, government policy could introduce trade barriers to decrease log consumption (like export taxes and simultaneously support furniture production and trade (e.g. export.

  6. Linking environment-productivity trade-offs and correlated uncertainties: Greenhouse gas emissions and crop productivity in paddy rice production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Kiyotada, E-mail: hayashi@affrc.go.jp [Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, 3-1-3 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8604 (Japan); Nagumo, Yoshifumi [Crop Research Center, Niigata Agricultural Research Institute, 857 Nagakura-machi, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-0826 (Japan); Domoto, Akiko [Mie Prefecture Agricultural Research Institute, 530 Kawakita-cho, Ureshino, Matsusaka, Mie 515-2316 (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    In comparative life cycle assessments of agricultural production systems, analyses of both the trade-offs between environmental impacts and crop productivity and of the uncertainties specific to agriculture such as fluctuations in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and crop yields are crucial. However, these two issues are usually analyzed separately. In this paper, we present a framework to link trade-off and uncertainty analyses; correlated uncertainties are integrated into environment-productivity trade-off analyses. We compared three rice production systems in Japan: a system using a pelletized, nitrogen-concentrated organic fertilizer made from poultry manure using closed-air composting techniques (high-N system), a system using a conventional organic fertilizer made from poultry manure using open-air composting techniques (low-N system), and a system using a chemical compound fertilizer (conventional system). We focused on two important sources of uncertainties in paddy rice cultivation—methane emissions from paddy fields and crop yields. We found trade-offs between the conventional and high-N systems and the low-N system and the existence of positively correlated uncertainties in the conventional and high-N systems. We concluded that our framework is effective in recommending the high-N system compared with the low-N system, although the performance of the former is almost the same as the conventional system. - Highlights: • Correlated uncertainties were integrated into environment-productivity trade-offs. • Life cycle GHG emissions and crop yields were analyzed using field and survey data. • Three rice production systems using chemical or organic fertilizers were compared. • There were portfolio (insurance) effects in matured technologies. • Analysis of trade-offs and correlated uncertainties will be useful for decisions.

  7. Modeling ecological synergies and trade-offs in livestock production systems in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, V. A.; Chaplin-Kramer, R.; Hamel, P.

    2016-12-01

    Livestock production is critical to maintaining livelihoods in many of the world's rural economies, and interacts with complex ecological processes in ways that present both opportunities and risks for ecosystems and the benefits they provide to people. We present a new dynamic simulation model to examine cattle production in the savannas of East Africa, and its synergies and trade-offs with co-benefits such as wildlife conservation and related tourism. The InVEST rangeland production model couples biomass production from the CENTURY model with diet selection and herbivore physiology from the GRAZPLAN animal biology model. This powerful and flexible model demonstrates that through their interactions mediated by forage availability and tick-borne disease, cattle and wildlife may benefit from integration.

  8. Industrial-strength ecology: trade-offs and opportunities in algal biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurin, Jonathan B; Abbott, Rachel L; Deal, Michael S; Kwan, Garfield T; Litchman, Elena; McBride, Robert C; Mandal, Shovon; Smith, Val H

    2013-11-01

    Microalgae represent one of the most promising groups of candidate organisms for replacing fossil fuels with contemporary primary production as a renewable source of energy. Algae can produce many times more biomass per unit area than terrestrial crop plants, easing the competing demands for land with food crops and native ecosystems. However, several aspects of algal biology present unique challenges to the industrial-scale aquaculture of photosynthetic microorganisms. These include high susceptibility to invading aquatic consumers and weeds, as well as prodigious requirements for nutrients that may compete with the fertiliser demands of other crops. Most research on algal biofuel technologies approaches these problems from a cellular or genetic perspective, attempting either to engineer or select algal strains with particular traits. However, inherent functional trade-offs may limit the capacity of genetic selection or synthetic biology to simultaneously optimise multiple functional traits for biofuel productivity and resilience. We argue that a community engineering approach that manages microalgal diversity, species composition and environmental conditions may lead to more robust and productive biofuel ecosystems. We review evidence for trade-offs, challenges and opportunities in algal biofuel cultivation with a goal of guiding research towards intensifying bioenergy production using established principles of community and ecosystem ecology. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  9. Barreiras técnicas para as exportações: um estudo de caso do abate halal

    OpenAIRE

    Weise, Andreas Dittmar; Dall’Azen, Fernando; Universidade Federal de Santa Maria

    2014-01-01

    RESUMO O objetivo do presente trabalho é analisar a importância fundamental para as empresas exportadoras de se conhecer o ambiente institucional, a cultura, costumes, religião etc. do país importador, especificamente o caso do abate Halal para os países Islâmicos. A fim de demonstrar como o mercado de alimentos Halal é um mercado de grandes oportunidades e que pode ser muito bem explorado pelas empresas exportadoras brasileiras, foram selecionados os países que possuem mais de 10 milhões de...

  10. Design of multi-language trading system of ethnic characteristic agricultural products based on android

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanqin, Wu; Yasheng, Jin; Yugang, Dai

    2017-06-01

    Under the current situation where Internet technology develops rapidly, mobile E-commerce technology has brought great convenience to our life. Now, the graphical user interface (GUI) of most E-commerce platforms only supports Chinese. Thus, the development of Android client of E-commerce that supports ethnic languages owns a great prospect. The principle that combines front end design and database technology is adopted in this paper to construct the Android client system of E-commerce platforms that supports ethnic languages, which realizes the displaying, browsing, querying, searching, trading and other functions of ethnic characteristic agricultural products on android platforms.

  11. The Impact of Mobile TradeManager on Fashion Product Sales: From Usability Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Zilong Liu; Zhenhua Liu; Qingfei Min

    2014-01-01

    The competition in fashion and textiles (FTs) industry is strong. Enterprises have to compete at all levels and need to adapt to the mobile commerce (MC) context. Mobile TradeManager (MTM) is a typical MC application and good use of it will facilitate the sales of FTs products. Plenty of prior studies on MC were developed to discuss the subjective beliefs. Motivated by the research that appeals for more attention to IT artifact itself, this paper integrates the system usability of MC into the...

  12. A Generational Cohort Study of the Relationship between Religious Intensity and Religious Assurance for the Purchase of Non-food Products

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hifza Ibrahim; Hashanah Ismail

    2015-01-01

    .... The objective of this paper is to examine the influence of religion and intensity of religion in a consumer's make up on the purchase intention of nonfood products carrying the Halal label by a specific market segment...

  13. Linking environment-productivity trade-offs and correlated uncertainties: Greenhouse gas emissions and crop productivity in paddy rice production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kiyotada; Nagumo, Yoshifumi; Domoto, Akiko

    2016-11-15

    In comparative life cycle assessments of agricultural production systems, analyses of both the trade-offs between environmental impacts and crop productivity and of the uncertainties specific to agriculture such as fluctuations in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and crop yields are crucial. However, these two issues are usually analyzed separately. In this paper, we present a framework to link trade-off and uncertainty analyses; correlated uncertainties are integrated into environment-productivity trade-off analyses. We compared three rice production systems in Japan: a system using a pelletized, nitrogen-concentrated organic fertilizer made from poultry manure using closed-air composting techniques (high-N system), a system using a conventional organic fertilizer made from poultry manure using open-air composting techniques (low-N system), and a system using a chemical compound fertilizer (conventional system). We focused on two important sources of uncertainties in paddy rice cultivation-methane emissions from paddy fields and crop yields. We found trade-offs between the conventional and high-N systems and the low-N system and the existence of positively correlated uncertainties in the conventional and high-N systems. We concluded that our framework is effective in recommending the high-N system compared with the low-N system, although the performance of the former is almost the same as the conventional system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Food, Feed, or Fuel? Phosphorus Flows Embodied in US Agricultural Production and Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, G.; Bennett, E.; Carpenter, S.

    2012-12-01

    Agricultural phosphorus (P) use is integral to sustainable food production and water quality regulation. Globalization of agricultural systems, changing diets, and increasing biofuel production pose new challenges for managing non-renewable P reserves, particularly in key agricultural producing regions such as the US. We used a detailed model of the US agricultural system to assess the quantity of mineral P fertilizers used to produce food crops, livestock, and biofuels relative to the P ultimately consumed in domestic diets. We also quantified linkages in fertilizer use between the US and its trading partners globally via agricultural trade. Feed and livestock production drove by far the largest demand for P fertilizers in the US (56% of all P use for domestic and imported products). Of the total mineral P inputs to US domestic agriculture in 2007 (1905 Gg P), 28% were retained in agricultural soils as surplus P, 40% were lost through processing and waste prior to consumption in human diets, while 10% were diverted directly to biofuel production. One quarter of P fertilizer in the US was required to produce exports, particularly major food and feed crops (corn, soybean, and wheat) that drove a large net P flux out of the country (338 Gg P) with strongly crop-specific effects on soil P imbalances nationally. However, US meat consumption involved considerable reliance on P fertilizer use in other countries to produce red meat imports linked primarily to soil P surpluses abroad. We show that changes in domestic farm management and consumer waste could together reduce the P fertilizer needed to produce food consumed in the US by half, which is comparable to the P fertilizer reduction attainable by cutting domestic meat consumption (44%). More effective distribution of P use for major crops nationally and greater recycling of all agricultural wastes is critical to using US phosphate rock reserves as efficiently as possible while maintaining export-oriented agriculture.

  15. Short Term Electric Production Technology Switching Under Carbon Cap and Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald F. Larson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examines fuel switching in electricity production following the introduction of the European Union’s Emissions Trading System (EU ETS for greenhouse gas emissions. A short-run restricted cost equation is estimated with carbon permits, high-carbon fuels, and low carbon fuels as variable inputs. Shadow values and substitution elasticities for carbon-free energy resources from nuclear, hydroelectric and renewable sources are imputed from the cost equation. The empirical analysis examines 12 European countries using monthly data on fuel use, prices, and electricity generation during the first phase of the European Emissions Trading System. Despite low emission permit prices, this study finds statistically significant substitution between fossil fuels and carbon free sources of energy for electric power production. Significant substitution between fossil fuels and nuclear energy also was found. Still, while 18 of the 20 substitution elasticities are statistically significant, they are all less than unity, consistent with limited substitution. Overall, these results suggest that prices for carbon emission permits relative to prices for carbon and carbon free sources of energy do matter but that electric power producers have limited operational flexibility in the short-run to satisfy greenhouse gas emission limits.

  16. Climate change imposes phenological trade-offs on forest net primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duveneck, Matthew J.; Thompson, Jonathan R.

    2017-09-01

    Climate warming is expected to lengthen growing seasons of temperate forest ecosystems and increase gross primary productivity. Simultaneously, warming is expected to increase summer ecosystem respiration, which could offset gains accrued from longer growing seasons. These responses have been observed during anomalously warm years, but the role of future climate change on phenological trade-offs and how they affect net primary productivity (NPP) at regional scales in temperate forests remain unexplored. We simulated scenarios of climate change on monthly forest NPP throughout 18 million hectares of temperate forests in New England, USA, through year 2100. Using an ecophysiological model coupled to a forest landscape model, we simulated scenarios of climate change on monthly NPP. A high emission scenario (RCP 8.5), resulted in longer growing seasons that offset midsummer ecosystem respiration costs and produced greater annual NPP throughout the study landscape compared to simulations using the current climate. In spring and autumn months, temperature was positively associated with greater NPP; in summer months, the relationship was negative. Spatially, the greatest increase in NPP occurred in the warmer southern region under a warm climate scenario with increased precipitation. Under a warm scenario with drier conditions, the greatest increase in NPP occurred in the cooler northern region. Phenological trade-offs will affect NPP of future forests and their potential to serve as a negative feedback to climate change. Barring other limitations, longer growing seasons will offset greater respiratory demands and contribute to increases in NPP throughout the temperate forests of New England in the future.

  17. Foreign Trade

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Foreign Trade database has monthly volume and value information for US imports, exports, and re-exports of fishery or fishery derived products. Data is...

  18. Global trade & the Dutch hub: understanding variegated forms of embeddedness of international trade in the Netherlands: clothing, flowers, and high-tech products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, M.

    2010-01-01

    As global trade increases, some regions have become specialized in international trade and logistics, forming hubs to larger market areas. Although a lot is known about international trade in quantitative terms, much less is known about actual trade activities taking place in trade hubs and the ways

  19. A competitive trade-off limits the selective advantage of increased antibiotic production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardin, Ylaine; Springer, Michael; Kishony, Roy

    2016-09-26

    In structured environments, antibiotic-producing microorganisms can gain a selective advantage by inhibiting nearby competing species 1 . However, despite their genetic potential 2,3 , natural isolates often make only small amounts of antibiotics, and laboratory evolution can lead to loss rather than enhancement of antibiotic production 4 . Here, we show that, due to competition with antibiotic-resistant cheater cells, increased levels of antibiotic production can actually decrease the selective advantage to producers. Competing fluorescently labelled Escherichia coli colicin producers with non-producing resistant and sensitive strains on solid media, we found that although producer colonies can greatly benefit from the inhibition of nearby sensitive colonies, this benefit is shared with resistant colonies growing in their vicinity. A simple model, which accounts for such local competitive and inhibitory interactions, suggests that the advantage of producers varies non-monotonically with the amount of production. Indeed, experimentally varying the amount of production shows a peak in selection for producers, reflecting a trade-off between benefit gained by inhibiting sensitive competitors and loss due to an increased contribution to resistant cheater colonies. These results help explain the low level of antibiotic production observed for natural species and can help direct laboratory evolution experiments selecting for increased or novel production of antibiotics.

  20. The role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) to facilitate the international trade in animals and animal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, G K

    2009-03-01

    The international trade in animals and animal products has become a sensitive issue for both developed and developing countries by posing an important risk for the international spread of animal and human pathogens whilst at the same time being an essential activity to ensure world-wide food security and food safety. The OIE has since its founding in 1924, applied a democratic and transparent decision-making process to continuously develop and review international standards for animal health and zoonoses to facilitate trade in animals and animal products. The role of the OIE is also mandated by the World Trade Organization (WTO) as international reference point for standards related to animal health. In support of its overall objective of promoting animal health world-wide, the OIE has also launched several other initiatives such as the improvement of the governance of veterinary services within its member countries and territories and to enhance the availability of diagnostic and scientific expertise on a more even global geographical distribution. Several trade facilitating concepts such as country, zonal and compartment freedom from disease as well the trade in disease free commodities has been introduced to enhance the trade in animals and animal products for all its members including those from developing and transitional countries who are still in the process of enhancing to full compliance with international sanitary standards.

  1. New Faces of Globalization: Market Integration, Production Disintegration, Genesis of New Global Organizational Structures for Production and Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmiza Pencea

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to trade liberalisation and ITC revolution, companies could imagine new and better ways of creating and delivering value. In search of higher efficiency, competitiveness and profits, they reorganise, choosing to focus on their core competencies and to globally outsource, or offshore non-core activities and functions. As a result, reorganisation and relocation became the new forces of change across economies, leading to the rise of new, more diverse and more efficient global organisational structures for investment, production and trade. A number of developing countries with adequate comparative advantages could better benefit from these processes, accelerating their own industralization and modernization, increasing their access to new technologies and managerial know-how and turning themselves into successful, high-rate growing, „ emerging” economies. The paper concludes that under such a global backdrop, taking part in global value chains (GVC and in international production networks (IPNs could be the best strategic option for both company strategies and governmental catch-up policies, provided that, or especially if companies enjoy high competences and tacit skills which make them capable of assuming complex tasks and of climbing further the technological ladder.

  2. Entropy of international trades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Young; Lee, D.-S.

    2017-05-01

    The organization of international trades is highly complex under the collective efforts towards economic profits of participating countries given inhomogeneous resources for production. Considering the trade flux as the probability of exporting a product from a country to another, we evaluate the entropy of the world trades in the period 1950-2000. The trade entropy has increased with time, and we show that it is mainly due to the extension of trade partnership. For a given number of trade partners, the mean trade entropy is about 60% of the maximum possible entropy, independent of time, which can be regarded as a characteristic of the trade fluxes' heterogeneity and is shown to be derived from the scaling and functional behaviors of the universal trade-flux distribution. The correlation and time evolution of the individual countries' gross-domestic products and the number of trade partners show that most countries achieved their economic growth partly by extending their trade relationship.

  3. Analisis Risiko Makanan Halal Di Restoran Menggunakan Metode Failure Mode and Effect Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wildatus Sholichah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The halal food served in restaurants is important for Muslim consumers and it is one of the most susceptible issues for restaurant business. Therefore, restaurant internal efforts to ensure the halal food by examining critical risks including the way to manage them become important to be execute by restaurant management. This research aims to create a model using Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA method to identify and analyze the existing risks. Moreover, it also explains some improvement programs toward the risk management. The results of the risk identification and analysis will be determined by using Risk Priority Number (RPN. It is categorized that 7% risk event is classified as ‘very high risk’, 50% as ‘high risk’, 25% as ‘moderate risk’, and 18% considered as ‘low risk’. Furthermore, the improvement programs explained in this research are about delivery order system, packaging improvement, and also training, reward and punishment system. These programs are mainly purposed to reduce the risk with ‘high risk’ category.

  4. IOS APPLICATION FOR FINDING HALAL FOOD, MOSQUE, QIBLA DIRECTION AND PRAYER TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febria Roosita Dwi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Muslim sometimes has trouble when they travel to a new place for find where the location of the halal food and mosque near their location is. Other things that Muslim will have difficulty when they travel in to a new place are find the Qibla direction, pray time in local time and the mosque location near their location. From that problem MLH (Muslim Little Helper want to help them to solve their problem. The process is carried out as follows: The app get the user location, send the location to the YELP API server and muslimshalat.com API to get the location of halal food, and mosque (using YELP and for find the direction of Qibla and the prayer schedule (by using muslimshalat.com API. After the system get the data, then it will show on the Map (using apple map inside the app and put the data as marker. For the Qibla direction and prayer time, it will show in arrow image and listview. This app will be use Swift for the development language. The test result shows that the YELP API can be use only in USA, and internet play as the main rule in this app, because to create connection to the server to pull the data, the system need internet to pass all the data to server.

  5. The influence of information about organic production and fair trade on preferences for and perception of pineapple

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, A.A.M.; Mojet, J.; Lyon, D.; Sefa-Dedeh, S.

    2008-01-01

    The influence of information about organic production and fair trade on hedonic and analytic judgments of pineapple was studied in British (n = 44) and Dutch (n = 51) subjects. The subjects received pineapple pieces of three regularly grown varieties, in which information about organic production

  6. Challenges of Sanitary Compliance Related to Trade in Products of Animal Origin in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magwedere, Kudakwashe; Songabe, Tembile; Dziva, Francis

    2015-06-30

    Irrespective of the existence of potentially pathogenic organisms carried by animals, foods of animal origin remain the prime nutrition of humans world-wide. As such, food safety continues to be a global concern primarily to safeguard public health and to promote international trade. Application of integrated risk-based quality assurance procedures on-farm and at slaughterhouses plays a crucial role in controlling hazards associated with foods of animal origin. In the present paper we examine safety assurance systems and associated value chains for foods of animal origin based on historical audit results of some Southern African countries with thriving export trade in animal products, mainly to identify areas for improvement. Among the key deficiencies identified were: i) failure to keep pace with scientific advances related to the ever-changing food supply chain; ii) lack of effective national and regional intervention strategies to curtail pathogen transmission and evolution, notably the zoonotic Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli ; and iii) a lack of effective methods to reduce contamination of foods of wildlife origin. The introduction of foods of wildlife origin for domestic consumption and export markets seriously compounds already existing conflicts in legislation governing food supply and safety. This analysis identifies gaps required to improve the safety of foods of wildlife origin.

  7. Anti-Halal and Anti-Animal Slaughtering Campaigns and Their Impact in Post-War Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Agus Yusoff

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the overall impact of anti-halal and anti-slaughtering campaigns in the context of post-war Sri Lanka. The reemergence of majoritarian ethno-religious anti-minority nationalist forces and their intensified anti-minority hatred and violence have made it challenging for ethno-religious minorities in Sri Lanka to engage in religious norms and duties. This is especially true for the Muslim community. Numerous Islamic fundamentals have been criticized and opposed. Muslims have had to endure threats and acts of violence. These campaigns and violent oppositions, imposed by the Buddhist-nationalist forces, have caused concern for Muslims performing their obligatory religious duties and norms. In Sri Lanka, the Muslim community has been allowed to produce halal food and slaughter animals for human consumption and religious rituals for a long period without disturbance. Unfortunately, retaliation and hatred in the post-civil war era in the country have threatened these rights. Thus, it has become imperative to investigate the motivating factors of the anti-halal and anti-animal slaughtering campaigns and violence, as well as their related impact, which is lacking in the existing literature on ethno-religious politics in the context of Sri Lanka. This study found that the anti-halal and anti-animal slaughtering campaigns and oppositions that have been intensified by the Buddhist nationalist forces were part of anti-Muslim sentiments intended to sabotage the economic pride of Muslims and undermine their religious renaissance. The study also found that these campaigns have been facilitated by the state and that continuous facilitation of the anti-Muslim sentiments and campaigns, including the anti-halal and anti-animal slaughter campaigns, would challenge the country’s economic prosperity and the rebuilding of ethno-religious harmony.

  8. Current and predicted trends in the production, consumption and trade of live animals and their products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narrod, C; Tiongco, M; Scott, R

    2011-04-01

    Changes in livestock production, driven by both demand- and supply-side factors, have been significant worldwide. Though historically the developed world was a large supplier of meat and livestock for the developing world, the developing world has rapidly increased production and is meeting more of its growing domestic demand. Many regions of the developing world, however, do not produce enough currently to meet their domestic demand and continue to import more than they produce. There are exceptions, such as Brazil, Thailand, the People's Republic of China and India, where growth in livestock production has been rapid. It is anticipated that in the future many of the developing countries will increase domestic production to meet growing domestic demand. By 2030, beef will probably still be the most significant meat import of developing countries and milk will have more than doubled as a net export of the developed world.

  9. Spatial Trade-Offs between Wind Power Production and Bird Collision Avoidance in Agricultural Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Eichhorn

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of renewable energy production is seen as an appropriate way to mitigate climate change. Renewable energies are not free of negative external effects on humans and the natural environment. We analyzed the conflict between wind power production and bird protection through the example of one of the most sensitive species, the red kite (Milvus milvus in West Saxony, Germany. We investigated a large number of potential land use scenarios, defined by whether or not each potential site contained a wind turbine (WT. Based on meteorological and ornithological data, we evaluated the land use scenarios for their annual energy supply and impact on the red kite. We identified the efficient land use scenarios that maximized energy supply for a given ecological impact. Within the scope of our analysis, the current allocation of WTs in the study region was considered inefficient. The set of efficient scenarios allowed us to draw conclusions on the trade-offs involved. We developed an indicator that measures the severity of the conflict between wind power production and bird protection. Increasing the minimum distance of WTs to settlements beyond the legal requirements in order to minimize the impact on humans further intensifies the conflict. Our results can support planning authorities in their development of long-term regional plans by identifying areas that are most suitable for wind power production from an integrated point of view.

  10. The role of the legal and illegal trade of live birds and avian products in the spread of avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, T

    2009-04-01

    The panzootic of the H5N1 strain of highly pathogenic avian influenza has become an international crisis. All parts of the world are now considered at risk due to trade globalisation, with the worldwide movement of animals, products and humans, and because of the possible spread of the virus through the migration of wild birds. The risk of introducing notifiable avian influenza (NAI) through trade depends on several factors, including the disease status of the exporting country and the type of products. The highest risk occurs in the trade of live birds. It is important to assess and manage these risks to ensure that global trade does not result in the dissemination of NAI. However, it is also important that the risk of infection is not used as an unjustified trade barrier. The role of the regulatory authorities is thus to facilitate the safe trade of animal products according to international guidelines. Nevertheless, the balance between acceptable risk and safe trade is difficult to achieve. Since the movements of poultry and birds are sometimes difficult to trace, the signature or 'identity card' of each isolated virus can be very informative. Indeed, sequencing the genes of H5N1 and other avian influenza viruses has assisted greatly in establishing links and highlighting differences between isolates from different countries and tracing the possible source of introduction. Recent examples from Asia, Europe and Africa, supported by H5N1 molecular fingerprinting, have demonstrated that the sources of introduction can be many and no route should be underestimated.

  11. Safe application of regionalization for trade in poultry and poultry products during highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swayne, David E; Hill, Rick E; Clifford, John

    2017-04-01

    The 2014-2015 H5Nx high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak affected 211 commercial premises, 21 backyard flocks, 75 individual wild birds and four captive-reared raptors in 21 Western and upper Midwestern states, resulting in death or culling of over 50.4 million poultry in the stamping-out programme that cost the US government $850 million. The outbreak had a negative $3.3 billion impact on the economy. Seventeen trading partners suspended imports of all US-origin poultry and poultry products while 38 trading partners regionalized the United States, and allowed trade in poultry and poultry products to continue from areas of the US not affected by HPAI. Disease response and control activities in addition to the use of comprehensive surveillance and regionalization (zoning) as prescribed by the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code are a scientifically valid and effective means to maintain safe trade in poultry and poultry products. This was further realized during the 2016 H7N8 HPAI outbreak in Dubois County, Indiana, with greater acceptance of regionalization and continuity in trade with a more limited cost of $30 million for eradication.

  12. PENINGKATAN MAWAS DIRI KONSUMEN MENGGUNAKAN PRODUK BERLABEL HALAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardiyono Mardiyono

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The large quantity of goods and service produced by businessmen required customers to be more careful eitherto choose or to use the product, especially to theproduct with label ?kosher.?The action to keep on guard theproduct produced by businessmen did not need special clarification, not only in the practice but it also neededto pay attention on the regulation to avoid loss in using it. Once the customer did a careless thing, he or shewould get an effect later. Customers had got protection for fourteen years based on the regulation No 8 year1999. However, in progress, itrequired customers, stated in regulation as the last customers, to be more carefulespecially in consuming foreign product. Normatively, the kosher of this product had to be tested.

  13. An EPQ Model with Increasing Demand and Demand Dependent Production Rate under Trade Credit Financing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanjuan QIN

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates an EPQ model with the increasing demand and demand dependent production rate involving the trade credit financing policy, which is seldom reported in the literatures. The model considers the manufacturer was offered by the supplier a delayed payment time. It is assumed that the demand is a linear increasing function of the time and the production rate is proportional to the demand. That is, the production rate is also a linear function of time. This study attempts to offer a best policy for the replenishment cycle and the order quantity for the manufacturer to maximum its profit per cycle. First, the inventory model is developed under the above situation. Second, some useful theoretical results have been derived to characterize the optimal solutions for the inventory system. The Algorithm is proposed to obtain the optimal solutions of the manufacturer. Finally, the numerical examples are carried out to illustrate the theorems, and the sensitivity analysis of the optimal solutions with respect to the parameters of the inventory system is performed. Some important management insights are obtained based on the analysis.

  14. A comparison of blood loss during the Halal slaughter of lambs following Traditional Religious Slaughter without stunning, Electric Head-Only Stunning and Post-Cut Electric Head-Only Stunning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Rizvan; Knowles, Toby G; Wotton, Steve B

    2015-12-01

    Blood lost at exsanguination during the Halal slaughter of lambs was compared between the slaughter methods of Traditional Religious Slaughter without stunning (TRS), Electric Head-Only Stunning (EHOS) and Post-Cut Electric Head-Only Stunning (PCEHOS). Two protocols were examined, Experimental (80 lambs) and Commercial (360 lambs), assessing varying periods of animal orientation during the 4 min bleeding process (upright orientation before vertical hanging). Live-weight, blood weight (Experimental only), carcass weights and by-product weights were recorded. The Experimental protocol highlighted an increase in blood loss at 60s in EHOS and PCEHOS compared to TRS (Pslaughter change in animal orientation from an upright to a vertical hanging position aided the amount of blood loss. The bleeding of lambs is largely completed by 2 min. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) in final blood loss between treatments. This research was undertaken to inform discussion on the merits of different slaughter methods compatible with Halal requirements. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Analysis on Production and Foreign Trade Indicators of Romania with Milk and Dairy Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Anda Milin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, with globalization of markets has become an obvious fact, when the supply of basic needs is done all over the world and traditional relationship based on trust between producers and consumers has become increasingly blurred, implementation and compliance with European regulations on quality and food safety have become imperative . The paper is based on analysis of indicators on production, processing and import-export activities related to milk Romanian industry.

  16. Measuring and moderating the water resource impact of biofuel production and trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingerman, Kevin Robert

    Energy systems and water resources are inextricably linked, especially in the case of bioenergy, which can require up to three orders of magnitude more water than other energy carriers. Water scarcity already affects about 1 in 5 people globally, and stands to be exacerbated in many locales by current biofuel expansion plans. This dissertation engages with several of the analytical and governance challenges raised by this connection between bioenergy expansion and global water resources. My examination begins with an overview of important concepts in water resource analysis, followed by a review of current literature on the water impacts of most major energy pathways. I then report on a case study of ethanol fuel in California. This work employed a coupled agro-climatic and life cycle assessment (LCA) model to estimate the water resource impacts of several bioenergy expansion scenarios at a county-level resolution. It shows that ethanol production in California regularly consumes more than 1000 gallons of water per gallon of fuel produced, and that 99% of life-cycle water consumption occurs in the feedstock cultivation phase. This analysis then delves into the complexity of life cycle impact assessment for water resources. Despite improvements in water accounting methods, impact assessment must contend with the fact that different water sources are not necessarily commensurable, and that impacts depend on the state of the resource base that is drawn upon. I adapt water footprinting and LCA techniques to the bioenergy context, describing comprehensive inventory approaches and developing a process for characterizing (weighting) consumption values to enable comparison across resource bases. This process draws on metrics of water stress, accounting for environmental flow requirements, climatic variability, and non-linearity of water stress effects. My assessment framework was developed in hopes that it would be useful in managing the risks and impacts it describes. The

  17. Protectionist Responses to the Crisis; Damage Observed in Product-Level Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Brad J. McDonald; Christian Henn

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates how trade flows are being affected by new discriminatory measures implemented during the global financial crisis. We match data on behind-the-border measures (e.g., bailouts and subsidies) and border measures implemented through April 2010 to monthly HS 4-digit bilateral trade data. Our estimation strategy relies on a first-differenced gravity equation and time-varying fixed effects to disentangle the impact of new discriminatory measures. Trade in exporter-importer pa...

  18. Spatial and functional organization of pig trade in different european production systems: implications for disease prevention and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eRelun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the complexity of live pig trade organization is a key factor to predict and control major infectious diseases such as Classical or African swine fever. Whereas the organization of pig trade has been described in several European countries with indoor commercial production systems, little information is available on this organisation in other systems like outdoor or small-scale systems. The objective of this study was to describe and compare the spatial and functional organisation of live pig trade in different European countries and different production systems. Data on premise characteristics and pig movements between premises were collected during 2011 from Bulgaria, France, Italy and Spain, which swine industry is representative of most of the production systems in Europe (i.e. commercial vs small-scale; outdoor vs indoor. Trade communities were identified in each country using the Walktrap algorithm. Several descriptive and network metrics were generated at country and community level. Pig trade organization showed heterogeneous spatial and functional organization. Trade communities mostly composed of indoor commercial premises were identified in Western France, Northern Italy, Northern Spain and North-Western Bulgaria. They covered large distances, overlapped in space, demonstrated both scale-free and small-world properties, with a role of trade operators and multipliers as key premises. Trade communities involving outdoor commercial premises were identified in Western Spain, South-Western and Central France. They were more spatially clustered, demonstrated scale-free properties, with multipliers as key premises. Small-scale communities involved the majority of premises in Bulgaria and in central and Southern Italy. They were spatially clustered and had scale-free properties, with key premises usually being commercial production premises. These results indicate that a disease might spread very differently according to the

  19. Spatial and Functional Organization of Pig Trade in Different European Production Systems: Implications for Disease Prevention and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relun, Anne; Grosbois, Vladimir; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel; Alexandrov, Tsviatko; Feliziani, Francesco; Waret-Szkuta, Agnès; Molia, Sophie; Etter, Eric Marcel Charles; Martínez-López, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the complexity of live pig trade organization is a key factor to predict and control major infectious diseases, such as classical swine fever (CSF) or African swine fever (ASF). Whereas the organization of pig trade has been described in several European countries with indoor commercial production systems, little information is available on this organization in other systems, such as outdoor or small-scale systems. The objective of this study was to describe and compare the spatial and functional organization of live pig trade in different European countries and different production systems. Data on premise characteristics and pig movements between premises were collected during 2011 from Bulgaria, France, Italy, and Spain, which swine industry is representative of most of the production systems in Europe (i.e., commercial vs. small-scale and outdoor vs. indoor). Trade communities were identified in each country using the Walktrap algorithm. Several descriptive and network metrics were generated at country and community levels. Pig trade organization showed heterogeneous spatial and functional organization. Trade communities mostly composed of indoor commercial premises were identified in western France, northern Italy, northern Spain, and north-western Bulgaria. They covered large distances, overlapped in space, demonstrated both scale-free and small-world properties, with a role of trade operators and multipliers as key premises. Trade communities involving outdoor commercial premises were identified in western Spain, south-western and central France. They were more spatially clustered, demonstrated scale-free properties, with multipliers as key premises. Small-scale communities involved the majority of premises in Bulgaria and in central and Southern Italy. They were spatially clustered and had scale-free properties, with key premises usually being commercial production premises. These results indicate that a disease might spread very differently

  20. 77 FR 63290 - Foreign-Trade Zone 181-Akron/Canton, OH, Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Cimbar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... Activity, Cimbar Performance Minerals, (Barium Sulfate Grinding), Wellsville, OH The Northeast Ohio Trade... sulfate into ground barium sulfate. Production under FTZ procedures could exempt Cimbar from customs duty... barium sulfate (duty rate of $1.25 per metric ton). Public comment is invited from interested parties...

  1. The Impact of Mobile TradeManager on Fashion Product Sales: From Usability Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilong Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The competition in fashion and textiles (FTs industry is strong. Enterprises have to compete at all levels and need to adapt to the mobile commerce (MC context. Mobile TradeManager (MTM is a typical MC application and good use of it will facilitate the sales of FTs products. Plenty of prior studies on MC were developed to discuss the subjective beliefs. Motivated by the research that appeals for more attention to IT artifact itself, this paper integrates the system usability of MC into the behavioral model. To this end, the purpose of this study is twofold: (a to identify the impact of MTM usability on consumers’ online shopping behavior of FTs production, and (b to explore and understand how usability of MTM could be improved. Data analysis, based on a survey of 837 MTM users, reveals that perceived entertainment, MTM system usability, subjective norm, and consumer’s self-efficacy significantly affect individual’s intention to use MTM. Meanwhile, it is revealed that MTM usability is a joint function of mobile device’s system performance, WAP website’s design, and the characteristics of wireless communication networks.

  2. Emerging product carbon footprint standards and schemes and their possible trade impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolwig, S.; Gibbon, P.

    2009-12-15

    Concern over climate change has stimulated interest in estimating the total amount of greenhouse gasses produced during the life-cycle of goods and services - i.e. during their production, transportation, sale, use and disposal. The outcome of these calculations is referred to as 'product carbon footprints' (PCFs). The paper reviews the rationale, context, coverage and characteristics of emerging standards and certification schemes that estimate and designate PCFs, and discusses the possible impacts on trade, particularly exports from distant and developing countries. It draws on a survey of PCF certification schemes carried out during 2009, on a review of evolving international and national standards, and on a review of consumer surveys. Since 2007 one public standard, and two public and 14 private certification schemes referring to standards for calculating and communicating PCFs have become operational. Two new international standards and several new schemes, including three public ones, are due to become operational by 2011 or earlier. The private schemes are owned by a mixture of voluntary bodies and private companies, including some large retailers. Many provide assistance for reducing carbon footprints or procedures for certification or labelling. Nonetheless, to date only a few thousand products have been footprinted. As PCFs are already becoming market access requirements for bio-fuels imported to the EU, and may also become EU market access requirements for all mass-produced goods within 10-15 years, there is a danger that developing country exporters will lose out as a result. This is because: they are less likely to have the resources necessary for calculating and verifying PCFs; publicly available datasets are less likely to include processes carried out mainly in developing countries; and some existing standards do not currently include production of capital goods in their definition of product life cycles, which imparts a bias against

  3. Health Impacts from Corn Production Pre-and Post-NAFTA Trade Agreement (1986–2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Cano, Oliver; Sánchez-Piña, Ramón Alberto; González-Ibarra, Álvaro Jesús; Murillo-Zamora, Efrén; Nava-Garibaldi, Cynthia Monique

    2016-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a powerful methodology for the study of health impacts and public policies. We performed this study to quantitatively explain the potential health impacts on disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) of corn produced in Mexico and imported from the United States of America (U.S.) from 1984 until 2014. The processes are hybrid and organic corn production. The functional unit was defined as 1 ton of corn production. Results indicate a total value of 178,431, 244,175, and 283,426 DALYs of three decades: 1984–1993, 1994–2003, and 2004–2013, of Mexican production; the U.S. production and transport were also calculated, showing values of 29,815, 65,837, and 107,729 for the same three decades. Additionally, DALYs were obtained for the category of human health and climate change by functional unit: 802.31 (1984–1993), 802.67 (1994–2003), and 803.92 (2004–2013), and for imported corn transported to Mexico from the U.S., 859.12 (1984–2013). DALYs on human toxicity were obtained: 99.05 (1984–1993), 99.05 (1994–2003), and 99.04 (2004–2013), and for the corn imported and transported to Mexico from the U.S., 116.25 (1984–2013). Conclusions: Environmental and health impacts in terms of DALYs are higher when corn is imported versus the corn produced in Mexico. Environmental health and nominal corn cultivation and transport impacts have increased as a result of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Mexico needs to redefine its public policies to suffer less of an environmental burden from corn to ensure global environmental health and food security. PMID:27420088

  4. Health Impacts from Corn Production Pre-and Post-NAFTA Trade Agreement (1986-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Cano, Oliver; Sánchez-Piña, Ramón Alberto; González-Ibarra, Álvaro Jesús; Murillo-Zamora, Efrén; Nava-Garibaldi, Cynthia Monique

    2016-07-13

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a powerful methodology for the study of health impacts and public policies. We performed this study to quantitatively explain the potential health impacts on disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) of corn produced in Mexico and imported from the United States of America (U.S.) from 1984 until 2014. The processes are hybrid and organic corn production. The functional unit was defined as 1 ton of corn production. Results indicate a total value of 178,431, 244,175, and 283,426 DALYs of three decades: 1984-1993, 1994-2003, and 2004-2013, of Mexican production; the U.S. production and transport were also calculated, showing values of 29,815, 65,837, and 107,729 for the same three decades. Additionally, DALYs were obtained for the category of human health and climate change by functional unit: 802.31 (1984-1993), 802.67 (1994-2003), and 803.92 (2004-2013), and for imported corn transported to Mexico from the U.S., 859.12 (1984-2013). DALYs on human toxicity were obtained: 99.05 (1984-1993), 99.05 (1994-2003), and 99.04 (2004-2013), and for the corn imported and transported to Mexico from the U.S., 116.25 (1984-2013). Environmental and health impacts in terms of DALYs are higher when corn is imported versus the corn produced in Mexico. Environmental health and nominal corn cultivation and transport impacts have increased as a result of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Mexico needs to redefine its public policies to suffer less of an environmental burden from corn to ensure global environmental health and food security.

  5. 78 FR 73824 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 20-Suffolk, Virginia; Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 20--Suffolk, Virginia; Notification of Proposed... are: duty-free, 10 cents/barrel or 6.5%). Public comment is invited from interested parties...

  6. Reframing ‘Crisis’ in Fair Trade Coffee Production: Trajectories of Agrarian Change in Nicaragua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraser, J.; Fisher, E.; Arce, A.M.G.

    2014-01-01

    A focus on crisis provides a methodological window to understand how agrarian change shapes producer engagement in fair trade. This orientation challenges a separation between the market and development, situating fair trade within global processes that incorporate agrarian histories of social

  7. Effect of non-tariff barriers on secondary processed wood product trade: New Zealand exports to the United States, China and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Turner; Joseph Buongiorno; Shushuai Zhu; Frances Maplesden

    2008-01-01

    Secondary processed wood products - builder's carpentry and joinery, moldings and millwork, wooden furniture, and prefabricated buildings - have grown significantly in importance in the global trade of wood products. At the same time there has been increased use of non-tariff barriers to restrict their trade.  These barriers could have an important impact on the...

  8. Trade-offs in defensive metabolite production but not ecological function in healthy and diseased sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gochfeld, Deborah J; Kamel, Haidy N; Olson, Julie B; Thacker, Robert W

    2012-05-01

    Diseases of marine organisms, and sponges in particular, are increasingly reported worldwide. Prior research indicates that the survival of sponges on reefs is due largely to their production of biologically active secondary metabolites that provide protection from a diversity of stressors. Aplysina Red Band Syndrome (ARBS) is an emerging disease affecting Caribbean rope sponges (Aplysina spp.), but it is not known whether secondary metabolites play a role in disease susceptibility and resistance. To investigate whether differences in secondary metabolites may explain variability in susceptibility to ARBS in Aplysina cauliformis, we used high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to generate chemical profiles from healthy tissue in both healthy and diseased sponges, and quantified peak areas for 15 metabolites. Analyses of healthy and diseased sponges revealed qualitative and quantitative differences in their chemical profiles. Aplysamine-1 and fistularin-3 were produced in significantly higher concentrations by healthy sponges, whereas aerothionin and 11-oxoaerothionin were found only in diseased sponges. At natural concentrations, extracts from both healthy and diseased sponges deterred feeding by an omnivorous reef fish. Fistularin-3 deterred feeding at concentrations found in healthy sponges, but not at concentrations found in diseased sponges. Aerothionin deterred feeding at concentrations found in diseased sponges, and may at least partially replace the loss of fistularin-3 as a feeding deterrent compound following pathogenesis, suggesting a trade-off in the production of feeding deterrent compounds. Extracts from healthy and diseased sponges inhibited bacterial growth, and both aplysamine-1 and fistularin-3 displayed selective antibacterial activity. Despite differences in secondary metabolite production between healthy and diseased sponges, the stress associated with ARBS does not appear to compromise the ability of A. cauliformis to maintain defenses

  9. The enlightenment from Malaysian consumers' perspective toward cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayob, Ain; Awadh, Ammar Ihsan; Jafri, Juliana; Jamshed, Shazia; Ahmad, Hawa Mas Azmar; Hadi, Hazrina

    2016-01-01

    Variety of cosmetic products was used in our daily life, yet the amount and types of the cosmetic products used by the consumers were varied, which may be due to the different perspectives held by each of the consumers. To explore consumers' perspectives toward cosmetic products. An interview guide was developed with a set of 12 semistructured questions. Participants in Kuantan, Pahang were recruited via the purposive sampling, and they undergo in-depth face-to-face interviews. All of the interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and were analyzed via thematic content analysis. For the awareness of cosmetic products, less aware about the cosmetic products in Malaysia were noted among the participants. In terms of perceptions about the cosmetic products, participants expressed positive perceptions toward natural cosmetic products, quality were seen as synonymous with branded products and halal certification. Next, for the attitude toward the use of cosmetic products, participants were influenced by ingredients, product brand, and halal certification. Based on personal experiences, they provide complaints and suggestions for the enhancement of cosmetic products' quality. Participants were found to have less awareness about the cosmetic products in Malaysia. Besides, they realized about the chemical ingredients and halal certification for the cosmetic products. Therefore, they held positive perceptions and practiced positive attitudes toward natural and halal cosmetic products. Finally, adverse reactions from the use of cosmetic products were commonly experienced by the participants, which contributed mainly by the ingredients. Thus, they hoped for serious approached to be enacted to solve this problem.

  10. Trends in World Silk Cocoons and Silk Production and Trade, 2007-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGATHA AGATHA POPESCU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to analyze world production and trade for fresh silk cocoons and raw silk using FAO Stat data for  the  period 2007-2010. The use of index, share and comparison methods allowed to identify the major trends in the analyzed period. Silk decline was determined by the increased importance of cotton and artificial fibres in textile and clothing industry. Important changes are taking place on silk cocoons and silk market. While, the European market decreased, the Asian market has mainly developed fresh cocoons and raw silk, while the European market became more interested of clothes. Silk consumption declined because of consumer’s preference for synthetic fibres, except traditional consumers from Asia.  China is the main producer and exporter of fresh and dry cocoons, while raw silk is produced and exported by China, Brazil and Italy and imported by India, Japan and Italy. In Europe, Bulgaria is the top producer of fresh cocoons and raw silk and Italy is the main raw silk importer and the top producer and exporter of textile and fashion clothes. Silk will remain an important raw material for producing high quality and luxury clothes.

  11. Modelling production-consumption flows of goods in Europe: the trade model within Transtools3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Jong, Gerard; Tanner, Reto; Rich, Jeppe

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a new model for trade flows in Europe that is integrated with a logistics model for transport chain choice through Logsum variables. Logsums measures accessibility across an entire multi-modal logistical chain, and are calculated from a logistics model that has been estimated...... to evaluate how changes in policies on transport costs and changes in multi-modal networks will influence trade patterns. As an example the paper presents outcomes for a European-wide truck tolling scenario, which showcases to which extent trade is influenced by such a policy. The paper discusses how...

  12. Preference Evaluation System for Construction Products Using QFD-TOPSIS Logic by Considering Trade-Off Technical Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeho Cho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the feasibility of quality function deployment, technique for the order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (QFD-TOPSIS in presenting user preferences for multiple alternatives, such as construction technologies, products, systems, and design solutions, with trade-off technical characteristics (TC. The original QFD as house of quality (HOQ defines the requirements and features as subjective matrix relations, which cause interpretations to vary across users and limit its industrial applications. QFD-TOPSIS is a new model that combines the benefits of QFD with those of TOPSIS, maintains the subjectivity and objectivity evaluation of the technical characteristics (TC, and rates the preferences by considering users’ individual propensity for requirements. In addition, QFD-TOPSIS rates the preferences through the reciprocal compensation effects of trade-off TC and filters unsuitable alternatives with predefined restrictive conditions. Trade-off refers to conflicts and/or contradictions between attributes, often arising in multicriteria decision-making. Users or project stakeholder groups define the priorities of trade-off TC that directly influence product preferences and decision-making. In the present study, we have developed a Web system based on the QFD-TOPSIS logic and tested its operation to verify its industrial applicability and viability for automatic quality evaluation.

  13. Production and trading of biomass for energy: an overview of the global status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinimö, J.; Junginger, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The markets for industrially used biomass for energy purposes are developing rapidly toward being international commodity markets. Determining international traded biomass volumes for energy purposes is difficult, for several reasons, such as challenges regarding the compilation of statistics on the

  14. Gravity models of forest products trade: applications to forecasting and policy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Buongiorno

    2016-01-01

    To predict the value of trade between countries, a differential gravity model of bilateral trade flowswas formulated and estimated with panel data from 2005 to 2014 for each of the commodity groups HS44 (wood and articles of wood), HS47 (pulp of wood, fibrous cellulosic material) and HS48 (paper and paperboard). The parameters were estimated with a large database by...

  15. Fish and fishery products trade in Brazil, 2005 to 2015: A review of available data and trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Simões Coelho Barone

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Along the last ten years fish and fishery product trade in Brazil has been on a downward trajectory turning a profit of US$ 98.6 million in 2005 into a loss of US$ 1.25 billion by 2014. On the other hand, the country is a leading producer of grains and has the third largest animal feed industry in the world, which has added 5.5 million hectares of freshwater reservoirs and 3.5 million km2 of an exclusive marine economic zone in the same period, a sizable potential for development of the aquaculture industry. This study aims at unveiling strategies for the reduction of the deficit in the Brazilian seafood trade balance, based on critical analysis of the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of imported fishery products. The fish and fishery product trade in Brazil, from 2005 to 2015, was studied considering import and export data mined from the Brazilian Ministry of Development, Industry and Commerce databases through the Aliceweb system, and clustered as follows: processing; product species; origin; conservation; and group. The main imported products were gutted fresh fish, highest price (salmon; salted dried fish, higher price (cod; frozen fish fillets, lowest price (fish and hake. The replacement of fish imports by domestic production is not enough to enable consumers to identify the equivalence between products (technical, qualitative or organoleptic. Developing strategies for the production of fish and fishery products at competitive prices and quantities that meet consumer demand is an immediate need, and the development of the aquaculture industry a rational strategy.

  16. Managing Water Sustainability: Virtual Water Flows and Economic Water Productivity Assessment of the Wine Trade between Italy and the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Paolo Miglietta

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The management of natural resources in economic activities has become a fundamental issue when considering the perspective of sustainable development. It is necessary to rethink every process in order to reach efficiency from different points of view, not only environmentally but also economically. Water scarcity is growing because of economic and population growth, climate change, and the increasing water demand. Currently, agri-food represents the most water consumptive sector, and the increasing importance of international trade in this industry puts freshwater issues in a global context that should be analyzed and regulated by sustainable policies. This analysis is focused on virtual water flows and economic water productivity related to the wine trade, and aims to evaluate water loss/savings achieved through bilateral trade relations. The choice fell on Italy, the first wine producer in the world, and the Balkan countries. The latter are new markets for wine production/consumption, in which Italian wines are strongly positioned for different reasons. The results show that, from a national point of view and considering wine trade, Italy exports water in virtual form to the Balkan countries, more than it imports, so that in effect it partially uses its own water resources for the wine supply of the Balkans. The latter, on the other hand, being a net importer of wine, partially depends on Italian water resources and exerts less pressure on their own water basins in the supporting wine supply. We also observed that the wine trade between Italy and the Balkans implies global water savings.

  17. Measuring Regional Spillovers in Long- and Short-Run Models of Total Factor Productivity, Trade, and FDI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitze, Timo Friedel

    2014-01-01

    This article applies the novel concept of global panel cointegration to analyze the role played by trade and foreign direct investment (FDI) activity in driving regional total factor productivity (TFP). Using West German state-level data for the period 1976–2008, the approach allows us to ident......This article applies the novel concept of global panel cointegration to analyze the role played by trade and foreign direct investment (FDI) activity in driving regional total factor productivity (TFP). Using West German state-level data for the period 1976–2008, the approach allows us...... throughout the analysis. Finally, summing over the four variables to get a direct and indirect net effect of internationalization activity, the author finds that the direct effect is always positive, while the indirect net effect is positive in the short run but slightly negative in the long-run equation....

  18. The spread of pathogens through trade in honey bees and their products (including queen bees and semen): overview and recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutinelli, F

    2011-04-01

    International trade in bees and bee products is a complex issue, affected bytheir different origins and uses. The trade in bees, which poses the main risk for disease dissemination, is very active and not all transactions may be officially registered by the competent authorities. Globally, bee health continues to deteriorate as pathogens, pests, parasites and diseases are spread internationally through legitimate trade, smuggling and well-intentioned but ill-advised bee introductions by professionals. International trade rules strengthen the ability of many countries to protect bee health while trading but also carry obligations. Countries that are Members of the World Trade Organization (WTO) should only restrict imports to protect against identifiable health risks. If imports are safe, trade should be permitted. The trading rules of the WTO have given greater importance to the international standards applicable to bee health, developed by the World Organisation for Animal Health, which aims to prevent the spread of animal diseases while facilitating international trade in animals and animal products.

  19. Islam, Standards, and Technoscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    Halal (literally, "permissible" or "lawful") production, trade, and standards have become essential to state-regulated Islam and to companies in contemporary Malaysia and Singapore, giving these two countries a special position in the rapidly expanding global market for halal products: in these n......Halal (literally, "permissible" or "lawful") production, trade, and standards have become essential to state-regulated Islam and to companies in contemporary Malaysia and Singapore, giving these two countries a special position in the rapidly expanding global market for halal products......: in these nations state bodies certify halal products as well as spaces (shops, factories, and restaurants) and work processes, and so consumers can find state halal-certified products from Malaysia and Singapore in shops around the world. Building on ethnographic material from Malaysia, Singapore, and Europe......" that frames everyday halal consumption, Fischer provides a multisited ethnography of the overlapping technologies and techniques of production, trade, and standards that together warrant a product as "halal," and thereby help to format the market. Exploring global halal in networks, training, laboratories...

  20. Dynamic Optimal Production Strategies Based on the Inventory-Dependent Demand under the Cap-and-Trade Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuzhuo Ma

    2014-01-01

    length of the decision duration period. The capacitated strategy is also discussed, in which different combinations of different decision intervals of different production rates are explicitly explored. The impact of various factors on the length of these intervals is qualitatively described. Through the sensitivity analysis, we further discuss the impact of product prices on the positions of the switch time points between the decision intervals. Company’s performance including profit and emission is numerically compared in the situation of joining or not joining the cap-and-trade system.

  1. The impact of foreign trade in agricultural products of Bosnia and Herzegovina within the framework of CEFTA 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćejvanović Ferhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern conditions, characterized by the growing importance of foreign trade between the countries, relations of a country with international environment play an increasingly impor­tant role in economic development. Over the last decade the process of economic integration through the removal of barriers for the free movement of goods, services, money and people has improved job creation and economic growth. From economic cooperation with foreign countries should expect positive effects on the economy of the state if the external economic factor used in accordance with the plans and programs of economic development of a coun­try. Thereto, there are social forces that can decide relatively independently to all elements of internal development and cooperation with foreign countries. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the CEFTA 2006 on the foreign trade of agricultural products in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In this respect it may be noted that foreign trade of agricultural products has an impact on the agricultural sector in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  2. The impact of global trends on Czech trade in agrarian and foodstuff products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Rosochatecká

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Czech retail market has changed its structure and form during the last twenty years. The influence of two factors is especially significant. The first one is the growth of internationalization and the second one is market concentration growth. The significant opening process of the Czech economy, accompanied by the liberalization of the Czech market process, enabled the international retail companies to penetrate the national retail market. The most powerful European retail companies are now present in the Czech market. The available shopping area/cap is also one of the largest in Europe. Retail chains have taken a dominant position in the market, and because of their market power they are able to determine trade/contract conditions for domestic suppliers. Retail chains’ sales have been constantly growing. While in 2006 the value of sales was about 258.5 billion CZK, in 2008 it was about 312.2 billion CZK. The impact of the economic crisis on the Czech retail market has not been as stressful as it was abroad. In 2009, a slowdown of the Czech retail market was recorded, but the value of sales decreased by only 3 billion CZK (in comparison with 2008. The highest sales (59 billion CZK were recorded by the Lidl & Schwarz-Gruppe, which is the owner of two dominant retail chains in the Czech retail market (Kaufland and Lidl. The main aim of the paper is to evaluate the selected aspects, which have been influencing the relationship between multinational companies (retail companies – supermarkets and hypermarkets and local (Czech suppliers of agrarian and foodstuff products (farmers and foodstuff companies. The paper analyses the problem of abuse of multinational companies’ significant market power in relation to their suppliers. Based on a pilot project, the efficiency of market force law, and its use in practice, are analysed. The main idea is to analyse the following problems: the impact of 30 days payment period for goods delivered, under

  3. The Transaction Costs Perspective on Standards as a Source of Trade and Productivity Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butter, den Frank A.G.; Groot, Stefan P.T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the design, implementation and use of standards from the perspective of transaction costs economics. A proper design and implementation of standards may lead to a considerable reduction of transaction costs, which enhances trade and, consequently, economic welfare. A major

  4. Production Systems for the Muslim Goat's Meat Market

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Norwegian dairy goat production is well established and production of Halal meat on surplus .... The dates for first and last day on spring, summer and autumn pastures are also recorded for each farm. Generally the grazing period is the longest for the farms along ..... cashmere fibre is collected for dehairing in Scotland.

  5. Production Systems for the Muslim Goat's Meat Market | Asheim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marketing of modern Halal products such as pizzas, sausages and hamburgers, takes place through a separate company “Alfathi Ltd.” and the meat industry is also interesting in enhancing the production of fresh goat's meat, in particular for Islamic religious celebrations. In the study, the economy of specialized sheep ...

  6. Development of swine-specific DNA markers for biosensor-based halal authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M E; Hashim, U; Kashif, M; Mustafa, S; Che Man, Y B; Abd Hamid, S B

    2012-06-29

    The pig (Sus scrofa) mitochondrial genome was targeted to design short (15-30 nucleotides) DNA markers that would be suitable for biosensor-based hybridization detection of target DNA. Short DNA markers are reported to survive harsh conditions in which longer ones are degraded into smaller fragments. The whole swine mitochondrial-genome was in silico digested with AluI restriction enzyme. Among 66 AluI fragments, five were selected as potential markers because of their convenient lengths, high degree of interspecies polymorphism and intraspecies conservatism. These were confirmed by NCBI blast analysis and ClustalW alignment analysis with 11 different meat-providing animal and fish species. Finally, we integrated a tetramethyl rhodamine-labeled 18-nucleotide AluI fragment into a 3-nm diameter citrate-tannate coated gold nanoparticle to develop a swine-specific hybrid nanobioprobe for the determination of pork adulteration in 2.5-h autoclaved pork-beef binary mixtures. This hybrid probe detected as low as 1% pork in deliberately contaminated autoclaved pork-beef binary mixtures and no cross-species detection was recorded, demonstrating the feasibility of this type of probe for biosensor-based detection of pork adulteration of halal and kosher foods.

  7. Influence of gas stunning and halal slaughter (no stunning) on rabbits welfare indicators and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakyinsige, K; Sazili, A Q; Zulkifli, I; Goh, Y M; Abu Bakar, F; Sabow, A B

    2014-12-01

    This study assessed the effect of gas stunning which has not been conducted until now in comparison with slaughter without stunning on the welfare and meat quality of rabbits. Eighty male New Zealand White rabbits were divided into two groups of 40 animals and subjected to either halal slaughter without stunning (HS) or gas stunning using 61.4% CO2, 20.3% oxygen and 18.3 % nitrogen (GS). Analysis of the sticking blood revealed that both slaughter procedures caused a substantial increase in the levels of catecholamines, hypercalcemia, hyperglycemia, lactic acidemia and an increase in enzyme activities. The ultimate pH of the Longissimus lumborum muscle did not differ between treatments. GS exhibited higher lightness and cooking loss, and lower glycogen and MFI than HS. This indicates that both GS and HS can be significant stressors although the amount of stress may be below the threshold to negatively affect rabbit meat quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Vie d’inclusione dei musulmani in Europa: marketing halal e banca islamica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Gradoli

    2016-07-01

      This work aims to highlight the obstacles of the social, political, economic and financial exclusion of the European Muslims in order to present eventual inclusive solutions. In Europe the Islamic presence is growing because of two main reasons: the immigration fluxes from Asia and from the Islamic Mediterranean countries and the high birth rates of the European Muslim families. Even if part of the European culture presents several features deriving from the Islamic heritage and even if the national and EU legislations present anti-discrimination laws and specific protections for religious freedom, the Muslims have been socially excluded. Furthermore, Islamophobia has been increasing since 9/11 and especially in the recent months after the jihadist attacks in Paris and Brussels. This feeling increased the exception of Muslims from the public and private life in the European countries. Because of these reasons nowadays it is necessary to improve the available normative tools and, at the same time, it seems crucial to adopt a multidisciplinary method that should involve the Islamic banking, that is fundamental for the development of the Islamic European entrepreneurs, or the halal marketing which considers religion as a new/old variable for the microsegmentation of the European market.

  9. Comparing quantitative analysis on revealed comparative advantages of aquatic products trade of china and ASEAN based on 21st century maritime silk road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, X. F.; Han, Y. H.; Li, Z. W.

    2017-11-01

    As the world’s leading aquaculture, aquatic production and trading country, China’s development of aquatic products trade with ASEAN is facing a historic opportunity in the favourable circumstances of construction of the 21st century Maritime Silk Road. In order to make guidance of the product selection and transformation for corresponding export enterprises, this article makes a quantitative analysis the Revealed Comparative Advantage of aquatic products trade from China and ASEAN respectively based on the HS classification and thoroughly compares the RCA indices. The comparison results show that the international competitiveness of aquatic products structures of China and ASEAN are quite different with few overlaps of strong competitive products, and there is a great gap between the two areas in many kinds of products.

  10. Biogenic Amines as Quality Marker in Organic and Fair-Trade Cocoa-Based Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Restuccia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the quantitative determination of eight biogenic amines (cadaverine, serotonin, histamine, spermidine, spermine, tyramine, putrescine and β-phenylethylamine by an liquid chromatography method with evaporative light scattering detection was performed. The analysis of several samples of conventional, organic and fair trade cocoa-derivatives showed that organic and fair trade samples always contain much lower amine concentrations in comparison with their conventional counterparts, supporting the idea that biogenic amines can be regarded as cocoa quality markers. Irrespective of the kind of sample, results also showed that the most abundant amines were histamine, tyramine, spermidine, putrescine and spermine while β-phenylethylamine, cadaverine and serotonine have been found more rarely, all the amines never reaching dangerous amounts for consumer health. With the aim to confirm the experimental results, clustering analysis was performed on samples and instrumental results using principal component analysis.

  11. Using International Trade Data for Evaluating the Product Specific Competitiveness and Supplied Product Quality of Countries: A Successful Example of Applied Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Cleff

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a simple regression-based method for reducing the complexity of decisions in the international procurement process. Based on foreign trade data, the method uses indicators, which allow a product specific cross-section and longitudinal-section valuation of the international competitiveness and the supplied product quality of all potential supplier countries. The method thus provides a variety of information for procurement departments, including the present level and the dynamic of competitiveness and product quality for the potential supplier countries within every product group of the international product nomenclature (Combined System and the Harmonised System. Potential supplier countries --the companies of which have proven to be particularly competitive in the different product quality stages-- are identified. This pre-selection of countries enables the companies to limit their search for potential suppliers to the selected supplier countries. High search costs are subsequently reduced and trend prognoses can be constructed.

  12. ECONOMIC UNITY OF PRODUCTION AND TRADE OF SLAUGHTER ANIMALS AND MEAT (PATHS OF INITIATION OF LONG TERM SOLUTIONS IN CROATIAN ANIMAL BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krsto Benčević

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available For starting a long term programmes in Croatian animal production, formation of "economic unities" is necessary. Presentation and explanation of production and trade unity for animal production and marketing with subjects and phases is given here. It is pointed out that production of slaughter animals and meat is key interest of market and economic policy as well as of development of agricultural country. It seems that production and trade of meat in Croatia is not organized enough in overall market competition and in meat processing. Creating the economic unity of production and trade of slaughter animals can help in relative fast and efficient solving of problems accumulated in agriculture, especialy in meat production (PIK Vrbovec, Danica, Bejle etc. For initiating and getting in function the phases of production and trade of slaughter animals and meat, proper legislation should be introduced. This legislation should comprehencively define the idea of agricultural economy as a subject of legislative and normisation acts for overall, process and market oriented functioning of multidisciplinary agricultural systems. Additionaly, law on trade of slaughter animals, meat and agricultural products should be introduced in order to form a market and determine the share and obligations of certain participants in structure of such market.

  13. MOVEMENT OF INTRA-INDUSTRY TRADE INDEX IN TERMS OF EXCHANGE RATE CHANGE: THEORETICAL ANALYSIS BASED ON A TWO-STAGE PRODUCTION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiro Takahashi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the movement of intra-industry trade index when the exchange rate or the world price changes. In our two-stage production model, firms construct factories in a foreign country by foreign direct investment (FDI. The firms export components from the home country to the foreign factories, and import final products from the foreign factories. The foreign factories also sell the final products in the world market. Under this knockdown system, we research the movement of the intra-industry trade index of the home country. This paper shows that appreciation of the exchange rate does not always raise the intra-industry trade index. We also show that changes in the world price have the similar effect on the movement of the intra-industry trade index.

  14. COMPETITIVENESS ANALYSIS OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA BY MEANS OF EFFICIENCY INDICATORS OF FOREIGN TRADE WITH AGRICULTURAL FOOD PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris COREŢCHI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An old traditional form of foreign economic relations is represented by foreign trade. Republic of Moldova,Featuring a geographical position that represents the area of intersection the numerous trade routes and regionalconnotation communications, should use these advantages in order to extend the export-import relations; there for,Republic of Moldova follows to use the internal potential in intensive and effective way. Competitiveness of externaltrade with agricultural food products has a particularly important role which is steadily increasing, it determine theincreasing or decreasing of the national income produced outside depending upon the ratio between the nationaland international amount of goods. Ensuring the economic efficiency of production requires a certain minimumvolume of its. If the volume exceeds the absorption capacity of the internal market, ensuring efficient productionrequires a call to the external market. On the other hand, certain products can not be obtained either domesticproduction or isn’t justified from the economic point of view can be obtained only from the external market.

  15. 75 FR 74001 - Foreign-Trade Zone 72-Indianapolis, IN, Application for Subzone, GEA Bloomington Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Bloomington Production Operations, LLC (Refrigerator Manufacturing), Bloomington, IN An application has been... Bloomington Production Operations, LLC (GEA Bloomington), located in Bloomington, Indiana. The ] application... product) include: ABS resin, plastic fittings, rubber gaskets, screws, bolts, hinges, brackets, metal...

  16. 78 FR 36523 - Foreign-Trade Zone 84-Houston, Texas; Authorization of Production Activity; Toshiba International...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ...; Toshiba International Corporation; (Hybrid Electric Vehicle Motors and Generators Production); Houston... of proposed production activity on behalf of Toshiba International Corporation, located in Houston...

  17. Production and Trade Situation in Iran and USA and Impact of Exchange rate Volatility on the Exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Salarpour

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, pistachio production and trade and influential factors on its exports in Iran and the USA are compared the the .Using the annual data from 1970 to 2011; this study aimed to analyze the effects of pistachio price and the effects of food security. Moreover, the relationship between exchange rate and pistachio export in the Iranian economy was analyzed through examining a non linear relation between the two factors. Therefore, the hypothesis validation upon nonlinearity relationship between exchange rate and pistachio export was analyzed using smooth transition autoregressive model (STAR. The results of smooth transition model (STAR show that there is a nonlinear Granger causality between exchange rate and pistachio export and vice versa. It is therefore recommended ,in order to determine the threshold level of potential benefits of pistachio exports, the existence of the nonlinear relationship between the dynamic exchange rate and pistachio exports should be considered. Furthermore, in order to maintain market share in the international level, understanding target markets of export and achieving complete information upon the position of the major competitors in the production and trade of Pistachio is essential.

  18. Physico-chemical characteristics of Longissimus lumborum muscle in goats subjected to halal slaughter and anesthesia (halothane) pre-slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabow, Azad Behnan; Sazili, Awis Qurni; Zulkifli, Idrus; Goh, Yong Meng; Ab Kadir, Mohd Zainal Abidin; Adeyemi, Kazeem Dauda

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the effect of halal slaughter and anesthesia pre-slaughter followed by bleeding on meat quality characteristics of goats. Eleven male Boer cross goats were divided into two groups and subjected to either halal slaughter (HS) or anesthesia with halothane and propofol pre-slaughter (AS). At pre-rigor, HS had significantly lower (P < 0.05) muscle pH and glycogen than AS. However, no significant difference was observed in the pH and glycogen content between the treatments on 1, 3 and 7 days post mortem. The drip loss of HS was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than that of AS at all aging periods. Treatment had no effect on sarcomere length, myofibrillar fragmentation index and shear force values, loss of thiol groups and degradation of major myofibrillar proteins. It can be concluded that HS did not have deleterious effect on meat quality traits of goat when compared to AS. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  19. A Simple Visual Ethanol Biosensor Based on Alcohol Oxidase Immobilized onto Polyaniline Film for Halal Verification of Fermented Beverage Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Kuswandi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple visual ethanol biosensor based on alcohol oxidase (AOX immobilised onto polyaniline (PANI film for halal verification of fermented beverage samples is described. This biosensor responds to ethanol via a colour change from green to blue, due to the enzymatic reaction of ethanol that produces acetaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide, when the latter oxidizes the PANI film. The procedure to obtain this biosensor consists of the immobilization of AOX onto PANI film by adsorption. For the immobilisation, an AOX solution is deposited on the PANI film and left at room temperature until dried (30 min. The biosensor was constructed as a dip stick for visual and simple use. The colour changes of the films have been scanned and analysed using image analysis software (i.e., ImageJ to study the characteristics of the biosensor’s response toward ethanol. The biosensor has a linear response in an ethanol concentration range of 0.01%–0.8%, with a correlation coefficient (r of 0.996. The limit detection of the biosensor was 0.001%, with reproducibility (RSD of 1.6% and a life time up to seven weeks when stored at 4 °C. The biosensor provides accurate results for ethanol determination in fermented drinks and was in good agreement with the standard method (gas chromatography results. Thus, the biosensor could be used as a simple visual method for ethanol determination in fermented beverage samples that can be useful for Muslim community for halal verification.

  20. Trade-offs Between Electricity Production from Small Hydropower Plants and Ecosystem Services in Alpine River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Philipp; Schwemmle, Robin; Viviroli, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    The need for a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and the decision to phase out nuclear power plants in Switzerland and Germany increases pressure to develop the remaining hydropower potential in Alpine catchments. Since most of the potential for large reservoirs is already exploited, future development focusses on small run-of-the-river hydropower plants (SHP). Being considered a relatively environment-friendly electricity source, investment in SHP is promoted through subsidies. However, SHP can have a significant impact on riverine ecosystems, especially in the Alpine region where residual flow reaches tend to be long. An increase in hydropower exploitation will therefore increase pressure on ecosystems. While a number of studies assessed the potential for hydropower development in the Alps, two main factors were so far not assessed in detail: (i) ecological impacts within a whole river network, and (ii) economic conditions under which electricity is sold. We present a framework that establishes trade-offs between multiple objectives regarding environmental impacts, electricity production and economic evaluation. While it is inevitable that some ecosystems are compromised by hydropower plants, the context of these impacts within a river network should be considered when selecting suitable sites for SHP. From an ecological point of view, the diversity of habitats, and therefore the diversity of species, should be maintained within a river basin. This asks for objectives that go beyond lumped parameters of hydrological alteration, but also consider habitat diversity and the spatial configuration. Energy production in run-of-the-river power plants depends on available discharge, which can have large fluctuations. In a deregulated electricity market with strong price variations, an economic valuation should therefore be based on the expected market value of energy produced. Trade-off curves between different objectives can help decision makers to define policies

  1. Measuring a Country's Product Ladder and Technology Level based on Trade Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-il Kim

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This study tries to quantify the technology level of products based on the concept of product ladder. While many studies on country technology competitiveness use the aggregate indices such as total factor productivity and revealed comparative advantage, this study estimates the ranking of about 2000 products in product ladder by using SITC 5 digit level export data. Based on the product ladder, this study measures the country and industry ranking and explores the characteristics of the ranking. It provides the international comparison of inter-industry and intra-industry ranking differences in product ladder. The statistical relationships between the ranking in product ladder and the determinants of technology level such as R&D and physical capital investment and wage, confirms that the measured ranking in product ladder could be regarded as an indirect indicator of technology level. The product ladder is applied to the estimation of production function to see the effect of the product differentiation on labor productivity.

  2. 77 FR 77016 - Foreign-Trade Zone 33 - Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Notification of Proposed Export Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... Export Production Activity Tsudis Chocolate Company (Chocolate Confectionery Bars) Pittsburgh, PA Tsudis... production of chocolate confectionery bars for export (no shipments for U.S. consumption would occur). For...

  3. Permit trading and credit trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Jan-Tjeerd; R. Dijstra, Bouwe

    This paper compares emissions trading based on a cap on total emissions (permit trading) and on relative standards per unit of output (credit trading). Two types of market structure are considered: perfect competition and Cournot oligopoly. We find that output, abatement costs and the number....... Environmental policy can lead to exit, but also to entry of firms. Entry and exit have a profound impact on the performance of the schemes, especially under imperfect competition. We find that it may be impossible to implement certain levels of total industry emissions. Under credit trading several levels...... of firms are higher under credit trading. Allowing trade between permit-trading and credit-trading sectors may increase in welfare. With perfect competition, permit trading always leads to higher welfare than credit trading. With imperfect competition, credit trading may outperform permit trading...

  4. Trade-offs of water use for hydropower generation and biofuel production in the Zambezi basin in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanzel, Philipp; Kling, Harald; Nicholson, Kit

    2014-05-01

    Hydropower is the most important energy source in Mozambique, as in many other southern African countries. In the Zambezi basin, it is one of the major economic resources, and substantial hydropower development is envisaged for the next decades. In Mozambique, the extension of the large Cahora Bassa hydropower plant and the construction of several new facilities downstream are planned. Irrigated agriculture currently plays a minor role, but has a large potential due to available land and water resources. Irrigation development, especially for the production of biofuels, is an important government policy goal in Mozambique. This contribution assesses interrelations and trade-offs between these two development options with high dependence on water availability. Potential water demand for large-scale irrigated agriculture is estimated for a mix of possible biofuel crops in three scenarios with different irrigated area sizes. Impacts on river discharge and hydropower production in the Lower Zambezi and its tributaries under two projected future climates are simulated with a hydrological model and a reservoir operation and hydropower model. Trade-offs of increasing biofuel production with decreasing hydropower generation due to diminished discharge in the Zambezi River are investigated based on potential energy production, from hydropower and biofuels, and resulting gross revenues and net benefits. Results show that the impact of irrigation withdrawal on hydropower production is rather low due to the generally high water availability in the Zambezi River. In simulations with substantial irrigated areas, hydropower generation decreases by -2% as compared to a scenario with only small irrigated areas. The economic analyses suggest that the use of water for cultivation of biofuel crops in the Zambezi basin can generate higher economic benefits than the use of water for hydroelectric power production. If world oil prices stay at more than about 80 USD/barrel, then the

  5. How fair is fair trade?

    OpenAIRE

    Maseland, Robbert; Vaal, Albert de

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent fair trade programmes, are indeed ‘fair’. This is accomplished by comparing fair trade with free trade and protectionist trade regimes on their compliance of the criteria set by the fair trade movement itself. This comparison is made using comparative cost based and economies of scale models. It is found that whether or not fair trade is superior to free trade or protectionism is highly dependent on a number of characteristics of the products to which fa...

  6. Trade, Technology Diffusion and Misallocation : Trade Partner Matters (Replaces CentER DP 2011-125)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curuk, M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper suggests that contingent on the productivity level of the trade partner; international trade may create resource misallocation in less productive countries. It theoretically shows how the interaction between technology diffusion induced by trade and cross sectoral heterogeneity

  7. Potential Impact of TPP Trade Agreement on US Bilateral Agricultural Trade: Trade Creation or Trade Diversion?

    OpenAIRE

    Yeboah, Osei Agyeman; Shaik, Saleem; Agyekum, Afia Fosua

    2015-01-01

    Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) trade agreement is a trade agreement U.S is negotiating with 11 other countries in the Asia-Pacific region (Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, and Vietnam) to reduce or eliminate tariffs on U.S. products exported to the TPP countries. With TPP, U.S expects to expand its trade with members of the partnership; resulting in GDP growth. However, there exist large concerns about the potential negative ...

  8. 78 FR 33808 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 39-Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; Notification of Proposed Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2013-13319] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-54-2013] Foreign-Trade..., grills, pedestal assemblies, blades); electric motors; electronic transmitters; electrical cords and... Secretary, Foreign-Trade Zones Board, Room 21013, U.S. Department of Commerce, 1401 Constitution Avenue NW...

  9. 78 FR 42929 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 41-Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... status production equipment. ] The components and materials sourced from abroad include: polymer paint..., light bulbs, fluorescent light bulbs, light housing for range hoods, light diodes, coaxial cables, wire...

  10. Islam, Standards, and Technoscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    Halal (literally, "permissible" or "lawful") production, trade, and standards have become essential to state-regulated Islam and to companies in contemporary Malaysia and Singapore, giving these two countries a special position in the rapidly expanding global market for halal products: in these n......Halal (literally, "permissible" or "lawful") production, trade, and standards have become essential to state-regulated Islam and to companies in contemporary Malaysia and Singapore, giving these two countries a special position in the rapidly expanding global market for halal products......: in these nations state bodies certify halal products as well as spaces (shops, factories, and restaurants) and work processes, and so consumers can find state halal-certified products from Malaysia and Singapore in shops around the world. Building on ethnographic material from Malaysia, Singapore, and Europe......, this book provides an exploration of the role of halal production, trade, and standards. Fischer explains how the global markets for halal comprise divergent zones in which Islam, markets, regulatory institutions, and technoscience interact and diverge. Focusing on the "bigger institutional picture...

  11. Climate Change Creates Trade Opportunity in India

    OpenAIRE

    Dinda, Soumyananda

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is an emerging challenge to developing economy like India however it also creates opportunity to grow through climate friendly goods production and new direction of trade. This paper focuses India’s potential export trade in climate friendly goods. The estimated gravity model is defined as the potential trade and potential trade gap is measured as how well a bilateral trade flow performs relative to the mean as predicted by the model. Potential trade gap means that actual trade...

  12. The effect of inter-annual variability of consumption, production, trade and climate on crop-related green and blue water footprints and inter-regional virtual water trade: A study for China (1978-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, La; Mekonnen, Mesfin M; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies into the relation between human consumption and indirect water resources use have unveiled the remote connections in virtual water (VW) trade networks, which show how communities externalize their water footprint (WF) to places far beyond their own region, but little has been done to understand variability in time. This study quantifies the effect of inter-annual variability of consumption, production, trade and climate on WF and VW trade, using China over the period 1978-2008 as a case study. Evapotranspiration, crop yields and green and blue WFs of crops are estimated at a 5 × 5 arc-minute resolution for 22 crops, for each year in the study period, thus accounting for climate variability. The results show that crop yield improvements during the study period helped to reduce the national average WF of crop consumption per capita by 23%, with a decreasing contribution to the total from cereals and increasing contribution from oil crops. The total consumptive WFs of national crop consumption and crop production, however, grew by 6% and 7%, respectively. By 2008, 28% of total water consumption in crop fields in China served the production of crops for export to other regions and, on average, 35% of the crop-related WF of a Chinese consumer was outside its own province. Historically, the net VW within China was from the water-rich South to the water-scarce North, but intensifying North-to-South crop trade reversed the net VW flow since 2000, which amounted 6% of North's WF of crop production in 2008. South China thus gradually became dependent on food supply from the water-scarce North. Besides, during the whole study period, China's domestic inter-regional VW flows went dominantly from areas with a relatively large to areas with a relatively small blue WF per unit of crop, which in 2008 resulted in a trade-related blue water loss of 7% of the national total blue WF of crop production. The case of China shows that domestic trade, as governed by

  13. Carbon, land, and water footprint accounts for the European Union: consumption, production, and displacements through international trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen-Olsen, Kjartan; Weinzettel, Jan; Cranston, Gemma; Ercin, A Ertug; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2012-10-16

    A nation's consumption of goods and services causes various environmental pressures all over the world due to international trade. We use a multiregional input-output model to assess three kinds of environmental footprints for the member states of the European Union. Footprints are indicators that take the consumer responsibility approach to account for the total direct and indirect effects of a product or consumption activity. We quantify the total environmental pressures (greenhouse gas emissions: carbon footprint; appropriation of biologically productive land and water area: land footprint; and freshwater consumption: water footprint) caused by consumption in the EU. We find that the consumption activities by an average EU citizen in 2004 led to 13.3 tCO(2)e of induced greenhouse gas emissions, appropriation of 2.53 gha (hectares of land with global-average biological productivity), and consumption of 179 m(3) of blue water (ground and surface water). By comparison, the global averages were 5.7 tCO(2)e, 1.23 gha, and 163 m(3) blue water, respectively. Overall, the EU displaced all three types of environmental pressures to the rest of the world, through imports of products with embodied pressures. Looking at intra-EU displacements only, the UK was the most important displacer overall, while the largest net exporters of embodied environmental pressures were Poland (greenhouse gases), France (land), and Spain (freshwater).

  14. 78 FR 20888 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 161-Sedgwick County, Kansas; Notification of Proposed Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... Production Activity; Siemens Energy, Inc., (Wind Turbine Nacelles and Hubs), Hutchinson, Kansas Siemens Energy, Inc. (SEI), an operator of FTZ 161, submitted a notification of proposed production activity for.../hoses/seals/sheets/tape/bags/ containers; bushings; funnels; weather strips; hydraulic hoses; rubber...

  15. Analysing trade-offs between milk, feed and manure production on Dutch dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samson, Sabrina; Gardebroek, C.; Jongeneel, R.A.

    2017-01-01

    The abolition of milk quota fuels environmental concerns in the Netherlands. A microeconomic model is developed to analyse the technical relations between milk, roughage and manure production. Production functions for milk, feed and roughage are estimated based on milk quota and manure constraints.

  16. Trade-offs between microbiome diversity and productivity in a stratified microbial mat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Hans C.; Brislawn, Colin; Renslow, Ryan S.; Dana, Karl; Morton, Beau; Lindemann, Stephen R.; Song, Hyun-Seob; Atci, Erhan; Beyenal, Haluk; Fredrickson, James K.; Jansson, Janet K.; Moran, James J.

    2016-11-01

    Productivity is a major determinant of ecosystem diversity. Microbial ecosystems are the most diverse on the planet yet very few relationships between diversity and productivity have been reported as compared to macro-ecological studies. Here we evaluated the spatial relationships of productivity and microbiome diversity in a laboratory-cultivated photosynthetic mat. The goal was to determine how spatial diversification of microorganisms drives localized carbon and energy acquisition rates. We measured sub-millimeter depth profiles of net primary-productivity and gross oxygenic photosynthesis in the context of the localized microenvironment and community structure and observed negative correlations between species richness and productivity within the energy-replete, photic zone. Variations between localized community structures were associated with distinct taxa as well as environmental profiles describing a continuum of biological niches. Spatial regions corresponding to high primary productivity and photosynthesis rates had relatively low species richness and high evenness. Hence, this system exhibited negative species-productivity and species–energy relationships. These negative relationships may be indicative of photosynthetically-driven, light-controlled mat ecosystems that are able to be the most productive with a relatively smaller, even distributions of species that specialize within the highly-oxic, photic zones.

  17. Trade-offs between microbiome diversity and productivity in a stratified microbial mat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Hans C; Brislawn, Colin; Renslow, Ryan S; Dana, Karl; Morton, Beau; Lindemann, Stephen R; Song, Hyun-Seob; Atci, Erhan; Beyenal, Haluk; Fredrickson, James K; Jansson, Janet K; Moran, James J

    2017-02-01

    Productivity is a major determinant of ecosystem diversity. Microbial ecosystems are the most diverse on the planet yet very few relationships between diversity and productivity have been reported as compared with macro-ecological studies. Here we evaluated the spatial relationships of productivity and microbiome diversity in a laboratory-cultivated photosynthetic mat. The goal was to determine how spatial diversification of microorganisms drives localized carbon and energy acquisition rates. We measured sub-millimeter depth profiles of net primary productivity and gross oxygenic photosynthesis in the context of the localized microenvironment and community structure, and observed negative correlations between species richness and productivity within the energy-replete, photic zone. Variations between localized community structures were associated with distinct taxa as well as environmental profiles describing a continuum of biological niches. Spatial regions in the photic zone corresponding to high primary productivity and photosynthesis rates had relatively low-species richness and high evenness. Hence, this system exhibited negative species-productivity and species-energy relationships. These negative relationships may be indicative of stratified, light-driven microbial ecosystems that are able to be the most productive with a relatively smaller, even distributions of species that specialize within photic zones.

  18. 77 FR 36997 - Foreign-Trade Zone 7-Mayaguez, PR; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Baxter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ..., glutamic acid, N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine and L- Lysine-Acetate (duty rate range: 3%-6.5%). Public comment is...--Mayaguez, PR; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Baxter Healthcare of Puerto Rico... Industrial Development Company, grantee of FTZ 7, submitted a notification of proposed production activity on...

  19. 77 FR 68103 - Foreign-Trade Zone 163-Ponce, PR; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Zimmer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... is used for the production, warehousing and distribution of orthopedic implants for knee and hip... reduced on foreign status production equipment. Components and materials sourced from abroad include...-adhesive shapes of plastics; other shapes of plastics; packaging; bars, rods, angles shapes and sections of...

  20. Three stage trade credit policy in a three-layer supply chain-a production-inventory model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Brojeswar; Sankar Sana, Shib; Chaudhuri, Kripasindhu

    2014-09-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the optimal replenishment lot size of supplier and optimal production rate of manufacturer under three levels of trade credit policy for supplier-manufacturer-retailer supply chain. The supplier provides a fixed credit period to settle the accounts to the manufacturer, while the manufacturer gives a fixed credit period to settle the account to the retailer and the retailer, in turn, also offers a credit period to each of its customers to settle the accounts. We assume that the supplier supplies the raw material to the manufacturer and sends back the defective raw materials to the outside supplier after completion of inspection at one lot with a sales price. The system always produces good items in the model. Also, we consider the idle times of supplier and manufacturer. Finally, numerical examples are provided to illustrate the behaviour and application of the model with graphical simulation.

  1. The Effects of International Trade on Resource Misallocation : Trade Partner Matters (Replaced by CentER DP 2012-046)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curuk, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper suggests that contingent on the productivity level of the trade partner; international trade may create resource misallocation in less productive countries. It theoretically shows how productivity spillovers induced by trade with more productive countries and heterogeneity in pro-

  2. Trading forests: land-use change and carbon emissions embodied in production and exports of forest-risk commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henders, Sabine; Persson, U. Martin; Kastner, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Production of commercial agricultural commodities for domestic and foreign markets is increasingly driving land clearing in tropical regions, creating links and feedback effects between geographically separated consumption and production locations. Such teleconnections are commonly studied through calculating consumption footprints and quantifying environmental impacts embodied in trade flows, e.g., virtual water and land, biomass, or greenhouse gas emissions. The extent to which land-use change (LUC) and associated carbon emissions are embodied in the production and export of agricultural commodities has been less studied. Here we quantify tropical deforestation area and carbon emissions from LUC induced by the production and the export of four commodities (beef, soybeans, palm oil, and wood products) in seven countries with high deforestation rates (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Papua New Guinea). We show that in the period 2000-2011, the production of the four analyzed commodities in our seven case countries was responsible for 40% of total tropical deforestation and resulting carbon losses. Over a third of these impacts was embodied in exports in 2011, up from a fifth in 2000. This trend highlights the growing influence of global markets in deforestation dynamics. Main flows of embodied LUC are Latin American beef and soybean exports to markets in Europe, China, the former Soviet bloc, the Middle East and Northern Africa, whereas embodied emission flows are dominated by Southeast Asian exports of palm oil and wood products to consumers in China, India and the rest of Asia, as well as to the European Union. Our findings illustrate the growing role that global consumers play in tropical LUC trajectories and highlight the need for demand-side policies covering whole supply chains. We also discuss the limitations of such demand-side measures and call for a combination of supply- and demand-side policies to effectively limit tropical

  3. Strategic production modeling for defective items with imperfect inspection process, rework, and sales return under two-level trade credit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Khanna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality decisions are one of the major decisions in inventory management. It affects customer’s demand, loyalty and customer satisfaction and also inventory costs. Every manufacturing process is inherent to have some chance causes of variation which may lead to some defectives in the lot. So, in order to cater the customers with faultless products, an inspection process is inevitable, which may also be prone to errors. Thus for an operations manager, maintaining the quality of the lot and the screening process becomes a challenging task, when his objective is to determine the optimal order quantity for the inventory system. Besides these operational tasks, the goal is also to increase the customer base which eventually leads to higher profits. So, as a promotional tool, trade credit is being offered by both the retailer and supplier to their respective customers to encourage more frequent and higher volume purchases. Thus taking into account of these facts, a strategic production model is formulated here to study the combined effects of imperfect quality items, faulty inspection process, rework process, sales return under two level trade credit. The present study is a general framework for many articles and classical EPQ model. An analytical method is employed which jointly optimizes the retailer’s credit period and order quantity, so as to maximize the expected total profit per unit time. To study the behavior and application of the model, a numerical example has been cited and a comprehensive sensitivity analysis has been performed. The model can be widely applicable in manufacturing industries like textile, footwear, plastics, electronics, furniture etc.

  4. TRADE LIBERALIZATION AND CONSUMER VULNERABILITY: A LEGAL FRAMEWORK ON LEGISLATIONS AND TESTING MECHANISM FOR ASEAN PRODUCT SAFETY DIRECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Sagoff Alsagoff

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since its inception in 1967 ASEAN has advanced in great leaps in the economic sector luring new member states into its pact. From a mere five member states (Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Singapore and the Philippines ASEAN has today managed to entice five other neighbouring states (Brunei 1984, Vietnam 1995, Laos & Myanmar 1997, Cambodia 1999 into its pact transforming itself into union of ten member states with a consumer population expected to exceed 600 million people. In order to ensure sustainability amid global challenges, member states have engrossed ASEAN Charter in 2007 with a view of creating an ASEAN Economic Community by 2015 that is robust, competitive and sustainable. At this juncture, ASEAN has to realize that like any trade liberalization initiatives, goods moved readily and freely throughout the free-trade area that is facilitated by a lucrative non-barrier tariffs incentives. This vision of a single market which creates a frontier without borders can prove to be advantageous to member states only if they have the required vehicle that is able to overcome the drawback of its progression through harmonization and synchronization efforts that is effective and successful. Like everything else, every advantage has some disadvantages attached to it. This article will address important determining factors that are crucial in the development and scope of proposed ASEAN Product Safety Directive including reviewing relevant determining factors such as regional stability, consumer protection legislations and standard and testing agencies of which one without the other will be incomplete. The proposals suggested in this article will strengthen and unite ASEAN in overcoming unsafe product issues at ASEAN level.

  5. The analysis of production and trade patterns in cocoa market worldwide and in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzejuk, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Cocoa belongs to the group of one of the most valuable commodities in the world. Most production of cocoa beans takes place in the African countries in the Equatorial “Cocoa Belt”. However, most processing of raw products is made in Western European countries. Poland is a substantial producer of confectionery chocolate products, therefore the country imports cocoa butter and cocoa paste, which gives it 8th and 6th place in the world in terms of quantity imported. This paper presents an analys...

  6. The Vegetable industry in China; Developments in policies, production, marketing and international trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.M.; Jinsong, C.; Zhang XiaoYong, Xiaoyong; Kamphuis, B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Development of Chinese vegetable industry over the past three decades. The changes of governmental vegetable policy and the major institutions involved. The major production regions in China, their leading vegetable varieties and cultivation technology. The reform of vegetable marketing structure

  7. 77 FR 46024 - Foreign-Trade Zone 8-Toledo, OH; Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Whirlpool...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ...--Toledo, OH; Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Whirlpool Corporation (Washing Machines), Clyde and Green Springs, OH The Toledo-Lucas County Port Authority, grantee of FTZ 8, submitted a...

  8. Trade-offs between Biofuels Energy Production, Land Use and Water Use in Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fidler, Michal [Intelligentsia International Inc., LaBelle, FL (United States); Capece, John [Intelligentsia International Inc., LaBelle, FL (United States); Hanlon, Edward [Univ. of Florida, Immokalee, FL (United States); Alsharif, Kamal [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States)

    2014-02-11

    Objective of the presentation is to document land use and water use implications of biomass production to demonstrate the overall resources implications associated with bioethanol production for Florida’s transportation sector needs. Rationale for using biofuels (BF) is explained, so are advantages & challenges of BF production and use. Land use changes (LUC) in Florida are presented and consequences outlined. It is documented that Florida’s agricultural land is a very limited resource, with only 0.43 ac/person comparing to the global average of 1.71 ac/person. The direct relation of increased biofuels production causing increased water use is explained. Favorable climate, water resources, advanced research, traditional leading agricultural role, minor oil reserves, no refineries and increasing energy demands are the main reasons why Florida considers pursuing BF production in large scale. Eight various bioethanol crops produced in Florida were considered in this study (Miscanthus, Switchgrass, Sweet Sorghum, Corn, Elephantgrass, Sugarcane, Energycane, Eucalyptus). Biomass yield and bioethanol yield of these crops are documented. Bioethanol needs of Florida are estimated and related land requirements for the needed bioethanol production calculated. Projections for various bioethanol blends (E15 to E85) are then presented. Finally, water demand for biofuels production is quantified. It is concluded that land use requirement for production of all ethanol in E85 fuel blend in Florida is roughly the same as the total available ag land in Florida for the best yielding biofuels crops (energycane, eucalyptus). Water demand for production of all ethanol needed for E100 would increase current overall water consumption in Florida between 65% and 100% for the most common biofuels crops. Vehicular energy is only 33% of Floridians energy consumption, so even all Florida’s agricultural land was given up for biofuels, it would still produce only 33% of Florida’s total

  9. Environmental trade-offs of pig production systems under varied operational efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, G A; Takahashi, T; Mogensen, L; Hermansen, J E; Sage, C L; Chapman, D V; Lee, M R F

    2017-11-01

    Production of pork, the most consumed meat globally, is estimated to emit 668 m tonnes CO2-eq of greenhouse gases each year. Amongst various production systems that comprise the pig industry, grain-based intensive production is widely regarded as the largest polluter of the environment, and thus it is imperative to develop alternative systems that can provide the right balance between sustainability and food security. Using an original dataset from the Republic of Ireland, this paper examines the life-cycle environmental impacts of representative pig farms operating under varying production efficiencies. For the baseline farm with an average production efficiency, global warming potential (GWP), acidification potential (AP) and eutrophication potential (EP) per kg carcass weight departing the slaughterhouse were estimated to be 3.5 kg CO2-eq, 43.8 g SO2-eq and 32.1 g PO4-eq, respectively. For herds with a higher production efficiency, a 9% improvement in feed conversion ratio was met by 6%, 15% and 12% decreases in GWP, EP, AP, respectively. Scenario and sensitivity analyses also revealed that (a) a switch to high-protein diets results in lower GWP and higher AP and EP, and (b) reducing transportation distances by sourcing domestically produced wheat and barley does not lower environmental impacts in any notable manner. To improve cross-study comparability of these findings, results based on an auxiliary functional unit, kg liveweight departing the farm gate, are also reported.

  10. Tracing trade-related telecouplings in the global land-system using the embodied human appropriation of net primary production framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberl, H.; Kastner, T.; Schaffartzik, A.; Erb, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    Global land-system change is influenced by a complex set of drivers that transcend spatial, institutional and temporal scales. The notion of "telecouplings" is gaining importance in Land System Science as a framework to address that complexity of drivers. One of them is the trade in land-based products, which forges connections between different geographic regions. Trade in land-based products is growing rapidly, thereby creating an increasing spatial disconnect between the locations where primary products (e.g. crops, fodder or timber) are grown and harvested and where the related environmental pressures occur, and the locations where final products (e.g. food, fiber or bioenergy) are consumed. Governing land-related sustainability issues such as GHG emissions or pressures on biodiversity and ecosystems related with land-use changes requires information on trade-related telecouplings, e.g. in order to avoid leakage effects. However, tracing land use (change) related with flows of traded products is challenging, among others due to (a) the lack of easily implementable metrics to account for differences in land quality and land-use intensity, and (b) the lack of satisfactory methods to allocate land to products that are traded and consumed. Drawing from a database derived from FAO statistics that allows tracing bilateral trade flows between ~200 countries at a resolution of ~500 products for the time period 1986-2006, this presentation will discuss how the framework of embodied human appropriation of net primary production (eHANPP) can help tackling these difficult issues. The HANPP framework allows to consistently represent important aspects of land quality and land-use intensity, e.g. natural productivity potential or land-use efficiency. In terms of allocation of land to products, eHANPP is a factor-based approach, and the presentation will discuss differences to alternative methods such as environmentally extended input-output analysis. We will use the available

  11. The Impact of the Processing and Foreign Trade of Agricultural Products on Agricultural Modernization: An Empirical Analysis Based on Cointegration and VEC Model

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Based on the data related to the Chinese and world agricultural production and trade from 1986 to 2011, this paper uses the principal component analysis, cointegration and vector error correction model to perform the empirical analysis of the impact of processing, import and export of agricultural products on the agricultural modernization in China. The results show that the processing and export of agricultural products play a role in promoting the agricultural modernization in China, while ...

  12. The good work--a Swedish trade union vision in the shadow of lean production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Jan; Abrahamsson, Lena

    2009-07-01

    "The Good Work" (Det goda arbetet) was established as a highly praised and established concept in the Swedish working life debate in the middle of the 1980s. In this paper, we are going to discuss the concept in relation to the massive introduction of lean production in Swedish industry. The aim of this paper is to restore the theory of the good work into the industrial society of today. We will search for a model for 'good work' in balance between the demands from production and good conditions for a learning environment. The theoretical base for this paper will be found in both organisational research and research on production technology systems. We identify three strong trends in Swedish industrial companies giving both pitfalls and possibilities for the good work; the learning focus as a way to increase productivity and improve working conditions; Lean Production in most cases imply narrow short-cyclic work tasks; and the global market that reduces national discretion. As a result, we formulate a new set of criteria for "the good work".

  13. The significance of food safety in trade and banning the importation of GMO products into Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh. Aghaiypour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to legislation in Iran, the importation of transgenic products should be banned due to the lack of strong evidence for the safety of genetically modified foods. Therefore, the detection of genetically modified on importing products should perform by food control laboratories. In this study, specific primers were designed for 35S promoter (500 bp, NOS terminator (253 bp, NPT (470 bp and GUS (443 bp for the detection of GMO in 134 imported samples by Polymerase chain reaction. The results showed the identification of GMO in food has become an important issue in food control, and Iranian Government has not adopted to import any GMO products into Iran. Therefore, this could indicate the significance of food safety and low confidence of people on the safety of these products in Iran. In fact, this protocol can be used for detection of GM products and for the labeling GM samples in order to ensure human health safety and protect the environment.

  14. Analytical investigation of legal high products containing Salvia divinorum traded in smartshops and internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier Moreira, Fernando; Carvalho, Félix; de Lourdes Bastos, Maria; Guedes de Pinho, Paula

    2014-09-01

    Lately, the hallucinogenic plant Salvia divinorum has been considered a popular recreational product among adolescents, being legally sold in several countries in "smartshops" and in internet websites. Sellers frequently omit the safety information about the plant, encouraging its use for recreational purposes, without providing adequate qualitative and quantitative details. The principal hallucinogenic compound of the plant, salvinorin A, alongside with three other isomeric compounds, salvinorin B, C and D were evaluated in 10 products containing S. divinorum. These products were obtained in smartshops and from internet websites, and contained concentrated extracts of salvinorin A, with potencies labeled between "5x" and "60x". For that purpose a simple and rapid extraction protocol and a GC-MS methodology were developed and applied to the purchased samples. The analysis of S. divinorum samples allowed the identification of four salvinorins, salvinorin A being the most prevalent hallucinogen. In the tested samples, there were several unreliable data provided to consumers. Frequently, there was no information on salvinorin A concentration, but when it existed, it generally did not correspond to the true amount present in products. On the other hand, the concentration of salvinorin A in each product far exceeded the amount needed to produce hallucinogenic effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Emerging product carbon footprint standards and schemes and their possible trade impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolwig, Simon; Gibbon, Peter

    Concern over climate change has stimulated interest in estimating the total amount of greenhouse gasses produced during the life-cycle of goods and services - i.e. during their production, transportation, sale, use and disposal. The outcome of these calculations is referred to as "product carbon...... footprints or procedures for certification or labelling. Nonetheless, to date only a few thousand products have been footprinted. As PCFs are already becoming market access requirements for bio-fuels imported to the EU, and may also become EU market access requirements for all mass-produced goods within 10......-15 years, there is a danger that developing country exporters will lose out as a result. This is because: they are less likely to have the resources necessary for calculating and verifying PCFs; publicly available datasets are less likely to include processes carried out mainly in developing countries...

  16. The Role of Latin America’s Land and Water Resources for Global Food Security: Environmental Trade-Offs of Future Food Production Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachsbarth, Insa; Willaarts, Bárbara; Xie, Hua; Pitois, Gauthier; Mueller, Nathaniel D.; Ringler, Claudia; Garrido, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    One of humanity’s major challenges of the 21st century will be meeting future food demands on an increasingly resource constrained-planet. Global food production will have to rise by 70 percent between 2000 and 2050 to meet effective demand which poses major challenges to food production systems. Doing so without compromising environmental integrity is an even greater challenge. This study looks at the interdependencies between land and water resources, agricultural production and environmental outcomes in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), an area of growing importance in international agricultural markets. Special emphasis is given to the role of LAC’s agriculture for (a) global food security and (b) environmental sustainability. We use the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT)—a global dynamic partial equilibrium model of the agricultural sector—to run different future production scenarios, and agricultural trade regimes out to 2050, and assess changes in related environmental indicators. Results indicate that further trade liberalization is crucial for improving food security globally, but that it would also lead to more environmental pressures in some regions across Latin America. Contrasting land expansion versus more intensified agriculture shows that productivity improvements are generally superior to agricultural land expansion, from an economic and environmental point of view. Finally, our analysis shows that there are trade-offs between environmental and food security goals for all agricultural development paths. PMID:25617621

  17. The role of Latin America's land and water resources for global food security: environmental trade-offs of future food production pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insa Flachsbarth

    Full Text Available One of humanity's major challenges of the 21st century will be meeting future food demands on an increasingly resource constrained-planet. Global food production will have to rise by 70 percent between 2000 and 2050 to meet effective demand which poses major challenges to food production systems. Doing so without compromising environmental integrity is an even greater challenge. This study looks at the interdependencies between land and water resources, agricultural production and environmental outcomes in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC, an area of growing importance in international agricultural markets. Special emphasis is given to the role of LAC's agriculture for (a global food security and (b environmental sustainability. We use the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT-a global dynamic partial equilibrium model of the agricultural sector-to run different future production scenarios, and agricultural trade regimes out to 2050, and assess changes in related environmental indicators. Results indicate that further trade liberalization is crucial for improving food security globally, but that it would also lead to more environmental pressures in some regions across Latin America. Contrasting land expansion versus more intensified agriculture shows that productivity improvements are generally superior to agricultural land expansion, from an economic and environmental point of view. Finally, our analysis shows that there are trade-offs between environmental and food security goals for all agricultural development paths.

  18. Balancing Development and Conservation? An Assessment of Livelihood and Environmental Outcomes of Nontimber Forest Product Trade in Asia, Africa, and Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Kusters

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the question, to what extent and under which conditions nontimber forest product (NTFP trade leads to both livelihood improvement and forest conservation. We based the analysis on a standardized expert-judgment assessment of the livelihood and environmental outcomes of 55 cases of NTFP trade from Asia, Africa, and Latin America. The results show that NTFP trade benefits several components of peoples' livelihoods, but may increase inequality between households. Involvement of women in the production-to-consumption system (PCS tends to have a positive impact on intrahousehold equity. In 80% of the cases, the commercial production of NTFPs does not enable people to make financial investments to increase quality and quantity of production, limiting the potential for development. In our set of cases, commercial extraction from the wild, without further management, tends to lead to resource depletion. NTFP production systems are generally considered to have lower environmental values than natural forest, but do contribute positively to the environmental values in the landscape. We found that higher livelihood outcomes are associated with lower environmental outcomes and conclude that NTFP trade is not likely to reconcile development and conservation of natural forest.

  19. The role of Latin America's land and water resources for global food security: environmental trade-offs of future food production pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachsbarth, Insa; Willaarts, Bárbara; Xie, Hua; Pitois, Gauthier; Mueller, Nathaniel D; Ringler, Claudia; Garrido, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    One of humanity's major challenges of the 21st century will be meeting future food demands on an increasingly resource constrained-planet. Global food production will have to rise by 70 percent between 2000 and 2050 to meet effective demand which poses major challenges to food production systems. Doing so without compromising environmental integrity is an even greater challenge. This study looks at the interdependencies between land and water resources, agricultural production and environmental outcomes in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), an area of growing importance in international agricultural markets. Special emphasis is given to the role of LAC's agriculture for (a) global food security and (b) environmental sustainability. We use the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT)-a global dynamic partial equilibrium model of the agricultural sector-to run different future production scenarios, and agricultural trade regimes out to 2050, and assess changes in related environmental indicators. Results indicate that further trade liberalization is crucial for improving food security globally, but that it would also lead to more environmental pressures in some regions across Latin America. Contrasting land expansion versus more intensified agriculture shows that productivity improvements are generally superior to agricultural land expansion, from an economic and environmental point of view. Finally, our analysis shows that there are trade-offs between environmental and food security goals for all agricultural development paths.

  20. 77 FR 74170 - Foreign-Trade Zone 84-Houston, TX; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Mitsubishi...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... by gasoline, propane or electric motors. Production under FTZ procedures could exempt MCFA from... keys, articles of base metal, flanges, wrenches, hand tools, flexible tubing, engines, parts of engines... circuits, torque converters, parts of forklift trucks, electric motors, hydraulic pumps, crankshafts...

  1. 78 FR 13857 - Foreign-Trade Zone 84-Houston, TX; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Toshiba...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ...; Toshiba International Corporation (Hybrid Electric Vehicle Motors and Generators Production) The Port of... of Toshiba International Corporation (Toshiba), located in Houston, Texas. The notification..., 2013. The Toshiba facility is located at 13131 West Little York Road, Houston (Harris County), Texas. A...

  2. Examination of worldwide hardwood lumber production, trade, and apparent consumption: 1995-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide hardwood lumber production fluctuated between 1995 and 2013 and changed considerably with respect to regional market shares. Similarly, worldwide hardwood lumber imports and exports have been constantly changing. Understanding these changes is important because collectively, they define the hardwood lumber consumption of a region or country. In 1995, North...

  3. DNA metabarcoding of orchid-derived products reveals widespread illegal orchid trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Hugo J; Ghorbani, Abdolbaset; Manzanilla, Vincent; Raclariu, Ancuta-Cristina; Kreziou, Anna; Ounjai, Sarawut; Osathanunkul, Maslin; Gravendeel, Barbara

    2017-09-27

    In eastern Mediterranean countries orchids continue to be collected from the wild for the production of salep, a beverage made of dried orchid tubers. In this study we used nrITS1 and nrITS2 DNA metabarcoding to identify orchid and other plant species present in 55 commercial salep products purchased in Iran, Turkey, Greece and Germany. Thirty samples yielded a total of 161 plant taxa, and 13 products (43%) contained orchid species and these belonged to 10 terrestrial species with tuberous roots. Another 70% contained the substitute ingredient Cyamopsis tetraganoloba (Guar). DNA metabarcoding using the barcoding markers nrITS1 and nrITS2 shows the potential of these markers and approach for identification of species used in salep products. The analysis of interspecific genetic distances between sequences of these markers for the most common salep orchid genera shows that species level identifications can be made with a high level of confidence. Understanding the species diversity and provenance of salep orchid tubers will enable the chain of commercialization of endangered species to be traced back to the harvesters and their natural habitats, and thus allow for targeted efforts to protect or sustainably use wild populations of these orchids. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. 78 FR 4383 - Foreign-Trade Zone 117-Orange, Texas; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Signal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ..., gaskets, tarpaulins, life jackets, insulation, plaster tiles, tableware, winches, ladders, hangers, pipes/ fittings of lead and tin, flexible tubing of base metals, boilers, steam turbines and related parts, diesel... products (e.g., angles, pipe, plate), which requires that all applicable duties be paid on such items...

  5. Slow steaming application for a 50,000dwt product tanker: Trade-off ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Product Tanker). Prior to this paper, the talk of slow steaming has always impinged on Container vessels. The shipping industry being a truly global industry, although being passionate about her past (one in which the idea was to get cargo and ...

  6. trade on non-timber forest products (ntfps) between south west ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    INTRODUCTION. Forest, apart from timber, forest contains many useful goods and services of subsistence and commercial value called Non-Timber Forest Products ... A. F. Nkwatoh, Department of Geology and Environmental Science, University of Buea, P.O. Box 63 Buea, South ... The study area has a humid tropical.

  7. 78 FR 72861 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 20-Suffolk, Virginia, Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... and boxes; plastic fuel tanks; metal filters; pipes (parts of generators); radiators and caps; tow bar... Authority, grantee of FTZ 20, submitted a notification of proposed production activity to the FTZ Board on... to the requirements of the regulations of the FTZ Board (15 CFR 400.22) was received on November 21...

  8. Environmental trade-offs of pig production systems under varied operational efficiencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAuliffe, G. A.; Takahashi, T; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2017-01-01

    it is imperative to develop alternative systems that can provide the right balance between sustainability and food security. Using an original dataset from the Republic of Ireland, this paper examines the life-cycle environmental impacts of representative pig farms operating under varying production efficiencies...

  9. 78 FR 9667 - Foreign-Trade Zone 50-Long Beach, California; Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... camera kits, digital cameras with lenses, digital cameras with memory cards, home theater systems and camera systems (duty rate ranges from duty-free to 2.1%) for the foreign status inputs noted below... PNA from customs duty payments on the foreign status components used in export production. On its...

  10. 78 FR 5773 - Foreign-Trade Zone 22-Chicago, IL, Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Panasonic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... cards, leather camera cases, digital still cameras, camera lenses, home theater systems, HDMI cables... FTZ Board. Production under FTZ procedures could exempt PNA from customs duty payments on the foreign... rates during customs entry procedures that apply to camera kits, digital cameras with lenses, digital...

  11. Managing the Trade-Public Health Linkage in Defence of Trade Liberalisation and National Sovereignty: An Appraisal of United States-Measures Affecting the Production and Sale of Clove Cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapiwa Victor Warikandwa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Under the legal framework of the World Trade Organisation (WTO, countries have great flexibility to unilaterally adopt environmental regulations that have effect within their territories only. However, the same discretion does not apply to measures that adversely affect imports or exports. An absence of clear guidelines on how to address some of the attendant issues poses challenges to the effectiveness of a trade-environment linkage. Not surprisingly, attempts to link the environment and trade have resulted in a number of jurisprudentially significant cases in which the WTO's Panel and Appellate Body have tried to address critical questions about the Organisation's capacity to address or manage legal or quasi-legal subjects falling outside the scope of its legal framework. In this regard the Panel and Appellate Body reports in the case of United States - Measures Affecting the Production and Sale of Clove Cigarettes (US-Clove Cigarettes have re-ignited the debate on the Organisation's existential challenge of balancing the rights of the sovereign to freely regulate matters pertaining to health or the environment within its domestic domain with the need to maintain the sanctity of the multilateral trade order. This article demonstrates that in the US-Clove Cigarettes case the WTO Panel and Appellate Body, whilst managing to successfully defend the integrity of WTO Member States' treaty commitments and the overarching importance of trade liberalisation within the organisation's policy foundations even in the context of public health-related regulations, failed to provide any substantive affirmation of the development-related challenges facing developing countries that are part of the WTO family.

  12. International Trade of Biofuels (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, the production and trade of biofuels has increased to meet global demand for renewable fuels. Ethanol and biodiesel contribute much of this trade because they are the most established biofuels. Their growth has been aided through a variety of policies, especially in the European Union, Brazil, and the United States, but ethanol trade and production have faced more targeted policies and tariffs than biodiesel. This fact sheet contains a summary of the trade of biofuels among nations, including historical data on production, consumption, and trade.

  13. International trade. Multinational aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Y

    2000-01-01

    Of numerous regional economic agreements, the European Union (EU), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), South American Common Market (MERCOSUR), the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and the Australia-New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Agreement are examples that are actively pursuing regional integration for freer trade of animals and animal products. The World Trade Organization (WTO) believes that regional and multinational integration initiatives are complements rather than alternatives in the pursuit of more open trade. In the efforts to harmonize SPS standards among multilateral trading nations, it is recommended that national requirements meet the standards developed by the OIE and the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission as the minimum requirements rather than adopting the standards of the lowest common denominator. Regional grouping may hinder multilateral or bilateral trade between the countries of a group and those of the other groups. How to eliminate such non-tariff barriers as traditional trade custom remains to be examined. Ongoing activities of VICH (Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medical Products) may pave the way for more open trade in pharmaceutical products between multilateral regional groups.

  14. Production versus environmental impact trade-offs for Swiss cropping systems: a model-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necpalova, Magdalena; Lee, Juhwan; Six, Johan

    2017-04-01

    There is a growing need to improve sustainability of agricultural systems. The key focus remains on optimizing current production systems in order to deliver food security at low environmental costs. It is therefore essential to identify and evaluate agricultural management practices for their potential to maintain or increase productivity and mitigate climate change and N pollution. Previous research on Swiss cropping systems has been concentrated on increasing crop productivity and soil fertility. Thus, relatively little is known about management effects on net soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and environmental N losses in the long-term. The aim of this study was to extrapolate findings from Swiss long-term field experiments and to evaluate the system-level sustainability of a wide range of cropping systems under conditions beyond field experimentation by comparing their crop productivity and impacts on soil carbon, net soil GHG emissions, NO3 leaching and soil N balance over 30 years. The DayCent model was previously parameterized for common Swiss crops and crop-specific management practices and evaluated for productivity, soil carbon dynamics and N2O emissions from Swiss cropping systems. Based on a prediction uncertainty criterion for crop productivity and soil carbon (rRMSEproductivity of Swiss cropping systems was mainly driven by total N inputs to the systems. The GWP of systems ranged from -450 to 1309 kg CO2 eq ha-1 yr-1. All studied systems, except for ORG-RT-GM systems, acted as a source of net soil GHG emissions with the relative contribution of soil N2O emissions to GWP of more than 60%. The GWP of systems with CT decreased consistently with increasing use of organic manures (MIN>IN>ORG). NT relative to RT management showed to be more effective in reducing GWP from MIN systems due to reduced soil N2O emissions and positive effects on soil C sequestration. GM relative to CC management was shown to be more effective in mitigating NO3 leaching and

  15. Changes in Polish foreign trade in agri-food products under accession to the European Union Zmainy w polskim handlu zagranicznym produktami rolno-spożywczymi w warunkach integracji z Unią Europejską

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Pawlak

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to assess main trends and changes in commodity structure of Polish agri-food trade in 2003-2006. Joining in the Common Market and adopting the Common Trade Policy rules caused the significant growth of Polish agri-food trade values and improvement in the positive trade balance. Taking into account loss or reduction of some cost advantages, as well as liberalization of world agricultural trade, next years can be much more difficult for Polish exporters. The highest export potential applies to trade in animal origin products. Considering commodity structure of Polish agri-food trade, it should be said that processed products dominate both in export and in import.

  16. Unconventional Means of Oil and Gas Production and Their Influence on International Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Černý, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The growing world population accompanied by an increase in GDP is effectively raising the demand for energy. One of the options are unconventional means of oil and gas, originating mainly from shales and oil sands. The goal of this thesis is to introduce the reader to unconventional means and their influence on international business. After a short introduction and definition an analysis of the situation in the U.S. follows, where the recent years have brought an increase in production from u...

  17. A comparison of bleeding efficiency, microbiological quality and lipid oxidation in goats subjected to conscious halal slaughter and slaughter following minimal anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabow, A B; Sazili, A Q; Zulkifli, I; Goh, Y M; Ab Kadir, M Z A; Abdulla, N R; Nakyinsige, K; Kaka, U; Adeyemi, K D

    2015-06-01

    The study assessed the effect of conscious halal slaughter and slaughter following minimal anesthesia on bleeding efficiency of goats and keeping quality of goat meat. Ten Boer cross bucks were divided into two groups and subjected to either halal slaughter without stunning (HS) or minimal anesthesia prior to slaughter (AS). The blood lost during exsanguination was measured. Residual blood was further quantified by determination of hemoglobin and myoglobin content in longissimus lumborum muscle. Storage stability of the meat was evaluated by microbiological analysis and lipid oxidation. Blood loss at exsanguination, residual hemoglobin and lipid oxidation were not significantly different (p>0.05) between HS and AS. Lactic acid bacteria was the only microbe that was significantly elevated after 24h of storage at 4°C in the AS group. In conclusion, slaughtering goats under minimal anesthesia or fully conscious did not affect bleeding efficiency and keeping quality of goat meat. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. 26 CFR 1.1033(g)-1 - Condemnation of real property held for productive use in trade or business or for investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... productive use in trade or business or for investment shall be treated as property similar or related in... be made with respect to any property for which (i) the investment credit under section 38 has been... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Condemnation of real property held for...

  19. Non-Halal biomarkers identification based on Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Gas Chromatography-Time of Flight Mass Spectroscopy (GC-TOF MS) techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witjaksono, Gunawan; Saputra, Irwan; Latief, Marsad; Jaswir, Irwandi; Akmeliawati, Rini; Abdelkreem Saeed Rabih, Almur

    2017-11-01

    Consumption of meat from halal (lawful) sources is essential for Muslims. The identification of non-halal meat is one of the main issues that face consumers in meat markets, especially in non-Islamic countries. Pig is one of the non-halal sources of meat, and hence pig meat and its derivatives are forbidden for Muslims to consume. Although several studies have been conducted to identify the biomarkers for nonhalal meats like pig meat, these studies are still in their infancy stages, and as a result there is no universal biomarker which could be used for clear cut identification. The purpose of this paper is to use Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Gas Chromatography-Time of Flight Mass Spectroscopy (GC-TOF MS) techniques to study fat of pig, cow, lamb and chicken to find possible biomarkers for pig fat (lard) identification. FTIR results showed that lard and chicken fat have unique peaks at wavenumbers 1159.6 cm-1, 1743.4 cm-1, 2853.1 cm-1 and 2922.5 cm-1 compared to lamb and beef fats which did not show peaks at these wavenumbers. On the other hand, GC/MS-TOF results showed that the concentration of 1,2,3-trimethyl-Benzene, Indane, and Undecane in lard are 250, 14.5 and 1.28 times higher than their concentrations in chicken fat, respectively, and 91.4, 2.3 and 1.24 times higher than their concentrations in cow fat, respectively. These initial results clearly indicate that there is a possibility to find biomarkers for non-halal identification.

  20. The concepts of al-halal and al-haram in the Arab-Muslim culture : a translational and lexicographical study

    OpenAIRE

    Jallad, Nader Al

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims at providing sufficient definitions of the concepts of al-Halal and al-Haram in the Arab-Muslim culture, illustrating how they are treated in some bilingual Arabic-English dictionaries since they often tend to be provided with inaccurate, lacking and sometimes simply incorrect definitions. Moreover, the paper investigates how these concepts are linguistically reflected through proverbs, collocations, frequent expressions, and connotations. These concepts are deeply rooted in t...

  1. Trade Agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Kowalczyk, Carsten; Riezman, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the most significant recent developments in the theory of trade agreements. The paper offers an integrated approach to evaluating trade agreements, and uses the approach to present results on preferential and multilateral trade agreements. The paper identifies also several questions for further research.

  2. Opportunities and Threats from Ukrainian Membership in WTO in Foreign Trade for Meat and Milk Products with EU Countries and Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyzym Mykola O.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of consequences of Ukrainian membership in World Trade Organisation (WTO in foreign trade of meat and milk products with EU countries and Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia (CU. The article shows that meat and milk products are one of the main export agricultural commodities of the country. It analyses the structure of export of agro-industrial products from Ukraine. It studies situation and changes that took place in the market of meat and meat processing products in Ukraine after its membership in WTO. It shows that Ukrainian export of meat products mainly consists of products with low added value, while products with high added value are imported to Ukraine. It also shows that due to liberalisation of customs rules and the system of trade allocation in the world market of meat and meat products the internal market of Ukraine became unprotected from imported products, which resulted in significant increase of cheaper import into Ukraine and uncompetitiveness of domestic producers of meat products. The article studies situations and shifts that took place in the market of milk and milk products in the result of Ukrainian WTO membership. It proves that the CU market stays, in the middle-term prospect, the most powerful for domestic producers of milk products. It shows that standards of milk quality, applied in EU countries, are higher than in Ukraine and CU, which means it is impossible to compete with EU high technology production. It holds that milk quality increase pursuant to EU standards requires additional investments into re-equipment of the production technology.

  3. Reducing Carbon Emissions in a Closed-Loop Production Routing Problem with Simultaneous Pickups and Deliveries under Carbon Cap-and-Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuanjing Fang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of reverse logistics into production routing problems can promote and coordinate the implementation of sustainable development for supply chains. This study aims to incorporate reverse logistics into production routing problems and investigate the reduction of carbon emissions under carbon cap-and-trade. Mixed-integer programming models are proposed for the production routing problem with reverse logistics by considering simultaneous pickups and deliveries in vehicle routing subproblems. To solve this problem, we propose a solution method of a branch-and-cut guided search algorithm based on adaptation of known valid inequalities. Computational results highlight the trade-offs among various performance indicators, including emission levels and operational costs of production, inventory holding, fuel consumption, and drivers.

  4. The enlightenment from Malaysian consumers' perspective toward cosmetic products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ain Ayob

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: Variety of cosmetic products was used in our daily life, yet the amount and types of the cosmetic products used by the consumers were varied, which may be due to the different perspectives held by each of the consumers. Objectives: To explore consumers' perspectives toward cosmetic products. Methods: An interview guide was developed with a set of 12 semistructured questions. Participants in Kuantan, Pahang were recruited via the purposive sampling, and they undergo in-depth face-to-face interviews. All of the interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and were analyzed via thematic content analysis. Results: For the awareness of cosmetic products, less aware about the cosmetic products in Malaysia were noted among the participants. In terms of perceptions about the cosmetic products, participants expressed positive perceptions toward natural cosmetic products, quality were seen as synonymous with branded products and halal certification. Next, for the attitude toward the use of cosmetic products, participants were influenced by ingredients, product brand, and halal certification. Based on personal experiences, they provide complaints and suggestions for the enhancement of cosmetic products' quality. Conclusions: Participants were found to have less awareness about the cosmetic products in Malaysia. Besides, they realized about the chemical ingredients and halal certification for the cosmetic products. Therefore, they held positive perceptions and practiced positive attitudes toward natural and halal cosmetic products. Finally, adverse reactions from the use of cosmetic products were commonly experienced by the participants, which contributed mainly by the ingredients. Thus, they hoped for serious approached to be enacted to solve this problem.

  5. Swiss hydropower production. Optimisation potentials in European electricity trading; Die Schweizer Wasserkrafterzeugung. Optimierungspotenziale im europaeischen Stromhandel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieper, Thomas; Laue, Dirk Simon [RWE Supply and Trading GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Swiss hydropower plays a central role in the formation of electricity prices in Western Europe as well as in cross-border electricity transmission. Although subject to constraints relating to hydrology as well as energy economy, its inherent flexibility makes it possible to make use of the most profitable electricity price differences relative to neighbouring European electricity markets (referred to as location spreads), especially between France and Italy. In times of favourable framework conditions it is also possible to use location spread potentials in relation to Germany. Studies in electricity statistics permit analysis of cross-border transmission schedules and spot price differences as well as identification of behavioural patterns in history and thus of optimisation potentials of Swiss hydropower production.

  6. Trade-off between mesophilic and thermophilic denitrification: rates vs. sludge production, settleability and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtens, Emilie N P; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Verliefde, Arne; Jauregui, Ruy; Pieper, Dietmar H; Boon, Nico

    2014-10-15

    The development of thermophilic nitrogen removal strategies will facilitate sustainable biological treatment of warm nitrogenous wastewaters. Thermophilic denitrification was extensively compared to mesophilic denitrification for the first time in this study. Two sequential batch reactors (SBR) at 34 °C and 55 °C were inoculated with mesophilic activated sludge (26 °C), fed with synthetic influent in a first phase. Subsequently, the carbon source was switched from acetate to molasses, whereas in a third phase, the nitrate source was fertilizer industry wastewater. The denitrifying sludge maintained its activity at 55 °C, resulting in an immediate process start-up, obtaining nitrogen removal rates higher than 500 mg N g(-1) VSS d(-1) in less than one week. Although the mesophilic SBR showed twice as high specific nitrogen removal rates, the maximum thermophilic denitrifying activity in this study was nearly 10 times higher than the activities reported thus far. The thermophilic SBR moreover had a 73% lower sludge volume index, a 45% lower sludge production and a higher resilience towards a change in carbon source compared with the mesophilic SBR. The higher resilience was potentially related to a higher microbial diversity and evenness of the thermophilic community at the end of the synthetic feeding period. The thermophilic microbial community showed a higher similarity over the different feeding periods implying a more stable community. Overall, this study showed the capability of mesophilic denitrifiers to maintain their activity after a large temperature increase. Existing mesophilic process systems with cooling for the treatment of warm wastewaters could thus efficiently be converted to thermophilic systems with low sludge production and good settling properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Towards a certification of biomass: Feasibility of a certifications scheme of sustainability standards for trade and production of bioethanol in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Delzeit, Ruth; Bohle, Hans-Georg; Holm-Muller, Karin

    2007-01-01

    Bioenergy produced from biomass is increasingly used to substitute fossil energy sources. Trade of biomass is expected to increase in the following years due to disparities in production costs and potentials in countries and regions. In this paper the possibility of a certification scheme for minimizing negative socio-ecological impacts and for increasing a sustainable production of biomass is discussed, taking Brazilian bioethanol as an example. This case-study comes up with a first set of f...

  8. Developing the greatest Blue Economy: Water productivity, fresh water depletion, and virtual water trade in the Great Lakes basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, A. S.; Ruddell, B. L.; Mubako, S. T.

    2016-12-01

    The Great Lakes basin hosts the world's most abundant surface fresh water reserve. Historically an industrial and natural resource powerhouse, the region has suffered economic stagnation in recent decades. Meanwhile, growing water resource scarcity around the world is creating pressure on water-intensive human activities. This situation creates the potential for the Great Lakes region to sustainably utilize its relative water wealth for economic benefit. We combine economic production and trade datasets with water consumption data and models of surface water depletion in the region. We find that, on average, the current economy does not create significant impacts on surface waters, but there is some risk that unregulated large water uses can create environmental flow impacts if they are developed in the wrong locations. Water uses drawing on deep groundwater or the Great Lakes themselves are unlikely to create a significant depletion, and discharge of groundwater withdrawals to surface waters offsets most surface water depletion. This relative abundance of surface water means that science-based management of large water uses to avoid accidentally creating "hotspots" is likely to be successful in avoiding future impacts, even if water use is significantly increased. Commercial water uses are the most productive, with thermoelectric, mining, and agricultural water uses in the lowest tier of water productivity. Surprisingly for such a water-abundant economy, the region is a net importer of water-derived goods and services. This, combined with the abundance of surface water, suggests that the region's water-based economy has room to grow in the 21st century.

  9. DNA Barcoding of the Endangered Aquilaria (Thymelaeaceae and Its Application in Species Authentication of Agarwood Products Traded in the Market.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiou Yih Lee

    Full Text Available The identification of Aquilaria species from their resinous non-wood product, the agarwood, is challenging as conventional techniques alone are unable to ascertain the species origin. Aquilaria is a highly protected species due to the excessive exploitation of its precious agarwood. Here, we applied the DNA barcoding technique to generate barcode sequences for Aquilaria species and later applied the barcodes to identify the source species of agarwood found in the market. We developed a reference DNA barcode library using eight candidate barcode loci (matK, rbcL, rpoB, rpoC1, psbA-trnH, trnL-trnF, ITS, and ITS2 amplified from 24 leaf accessions of seven Aquilaria species obtained from living trees. Our results indicated that all single barcodes can be easily amplified and sequenced with the selected primers. The combination of trnL-trnF+ITS and trnL-trnF+ITS2 yielded the greatest species resolution using the least number of loci combination, while matK+trnL-trnF+ITS showed potential in detecting the geographical origins of Aquilaria species. We propose trnL-trnF+ITS2 as the best candidate barcode for Aquilaria as ITS2 has a shorter sequence length compared to ITS, which eases PCR amplification especially when using degraded DNA samples such as those extracted from processed agarwood products. A blind test conducted on eight agarwood samples in different forms using the proposed barcode combination proved successful in their identification up to the species level. Such potential of DNA barcoding in identifying the source species of agarwood will contribute to the international timber trade control, by providing an effective method for species identification and product authentication.

  10. DNA Barcoding of the Endangered Aquilaria (Thymelaeaceae) and Its Application in Species Authentication of Agarwood Products Traded in the Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shiou Yih; Ng, Wei Lun; Mahat, Mohd Noor; Nazre, Mohd; Mohamed, Rozi

    2016-01-01

    The identification of Aquilaria species from their resinous non-wood product, the agarwood, is challenging as conventional techniques alone are unable to ascertain the species origin. Aquilaria is a highly protected species due to the excessive exploitation of its precious agarwood. Here, we applied the DNA barcoding technique to generate barcode sequences for Aquilaria species and later applied the barcodes to identify the source species of agarwood found in the market. We developed a reference DNA barcode library using eight candidate barcode loci (matK, rbcL, rpoB, rpoC1, psbA-trnH, trnL-trnF, ITS, and ITS2) amplified from 24 leaf accessions of seven Aquilaria species obtained from living trees. Our results indicated that all single barcodes can be easily amplified and sequenced with the selected primers. The combination of trnL-trnF+ITS and trnL-trnF+ITS2 yielded the greatest species resolution using the least number of loci combination, while matK+trnL-trnF+ITS showed potential in detecting the geographical origins of Aquilaria species. We propose trnL-trnF+ITS2 as the best candidate barcode for Aquilaria as ITS2 has a shorter sequence length compared to ITS, which eases PCR amplification especially when using degraded DNA samples such as those extracted from processed agarwood products. A blind test conducted on eight agarwood samples in different forms using the proposed barcode combination proved successful in their identification up to the species level. Such potential of DNA barcoding in identifying the source species of agarwood will contribute to the international timber trade control, by providing an effective method for species identification and product authentication.

  11. The enlightenment from Malaysian consumers’ perspective toward cosmetic products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayob, Ain; Awadh, Ammar Ihsan; Jafri, Juliana; Jamshed, Shazia; Ahmad, Hawa Mas Azmar; Hadi, Hazrina

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds: Variety of cosmetic products was used in our daily life, yet the amount and types of the cosmetic products used by the consumers were varied, which may be due to the different perspectives held by each of the consumers. Objectives: To explore consumers’ perspectives toward cosmetic products. Methods: An interview guide was developed with a set of 12 semistructured questions. Participants in Kuantan, Pahang were recruited via the purposive sampling, and they undergo in-depth face-to-face interviews. All of the interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and were analyzed via thematic content analysis. Results: For the awareness of cosmetic products, less aware about the cosmetic products in Malaysia were noted among the participants. In terms of perceptions about the cosmetic products, participants expressed positive perceptions toward natural cosmetic products, quality were seen as synonymous with branded products and halal certification. Next, for the attitude toward the use of cosmetic products, participants were influenced by ingredients, product brand, and halal certification. Based on personal experiences, they provide complaints and suggestions for the enhancement of cosmetic products’ quality. Conclusions: Participants were found to have less awareness about the cosmetic products in Malaysia. Besides, they realized about the chemical ingredients and halal certification for the cosmetic products. Therefore, they held positive perceptions and practiced positive attitudes toward natural and halal cosmetic products. Finally, adverse reactions from the use of cosmetic products were commonly experienced by the participants, which contributed mainly by the ingredients. Thus, they hoped for serious approached to be enacted to solve this problem. PMID:27413352

  12. IN A GLOBALIZED WORLD TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Ditescu

    2012-01-01

    Trade and globalization have brought many benefits to countries and their citizens because they allow countries access to more efficient production, increased labor productivity, supported extending the knowledge and new technologies planetary scale, and rich assortment of products to which population access. Also, through the multilateral trading system has been a significant reduction of customs protectionism, have mitigated the effects of non-tariff barriers, trade policy measures have bec...

  13. Trade-offs and spatial dependency of rice production and environmental consequences at community level in Southeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Liu, Zhong; Wang, Lihua; Wan, Haibo; Jing, Changwei; Jiang, Jingang; Wu, Jiaping; Qi, Jiaguo

    2018-02-01

    Over the past three decades, farmers in China have increasingly used fertilizers to increase paddy rice production. While this approach has eased the rising demand for food, it is unclear whether it pays off in the long-run when costs associated with environmental consequences are considered. Using two case studies in Zhejiang Province, China, this paper analyzed field-based rice yields, fertilizer inputs, nitrogen leaching and greenhouse emissions and their socioeconomic values of different farm practices. The objective was to assess the trade-offs among economic gains from increased yield and environmental consequences of different paddy rice management practices. The results indicated short-term economic gains to farmers outweigh the environmental cost concerns. However, considering the lasting environmental effects, there is a significant imbalance toward a conservative farming practice. The results further indicated that synergies can be achieved if precision management practices are adopted. It was also indicated that a large spatial variation exists in yields and environmental impacts, suggesting ‘one-size fits all’ policies will likely be ineffective in reducing environmental impacts. Although only two case studies were demonstrated in this study, the approach may be generalized to other geographic regions to help guide paddy farmers in similar climatic and land use environments such as those in the subtropical regions of Southeast Asia, to achieve synergic environment practices.

  14. Project AProWa: a national view on managing trade-offs between agricultural production and conservation of aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietzel, Anne; Rahn, Eric; Stamm, Christian

    2014-05-01

    for irrigation can already be documented. Due to drier summers induced by climate change, this phenomenon is expected to gain more importance in the future. Related to water quantity and quality it is crucial to think about the diverging interests between the supply of the population with national agricultural products and the preservation of the water bodies, their ecological value and their other ecosystem services (e.g. drinking water supply). The project AProWa attempts to elucidate trade-offs of national goals for water protection and agricultural production in Switzerland by involving stakeholders from agricultural administration (Federal Office for Agriculture, FOAG), agricultural research (Agroscope), water research (Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Eawag) and environmental protection (Federal Office for the Environment, FOEN). This is done by applying multi-criteria decision analysis facilitating consensus regarding goals and possible activities and alternatives to reach these goals. This is followed by an evaluation of main conflicts and prioritized research gaps. We present preliminary results from workshops and interdisciplinary discussion groups that encompass an objectives hierarchy reflecting agricultural production and water conservation goals. Furthermore, an inventory of agricultural practices and water protection measures is presented, enabling their evaluation for the provision of agricultural production while sustaining aquatic ecosystems.

  15. 75 FR 77042 - Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar Containing Products of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ... Comercio Exterior de Costa Rica. Based on this data, USTR determines that Costa Rica's trade surplus is 25... data published by the Ministerio de Fomento, Industria, y Comercio. Based on this data, USTR determines...

  16. Firm Based Trade Models and Turkish Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilüfer ARGIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Among all international trade models, only The Firm Based Trade Models explains firm’s action and behavior in the world trade. The Firm Based Trade Models focuses on the trade behavior of individual firms that actually make intra industry trade. Firm Based Trade Models can explain globalization process truly. These approaches include multinational cooperation, supply chain and outsourcing also. Our paper aims to explain and analyze Turkish export with Firm Based Trade Models’ context. We use UNCTAD data on exports by SITC Rev 3 categorization to explain total export and 255 products and calculate intensive-extensive margins of Turkish firms.

  17. Evaluation of crop production, trade, and consumption from the perspective of water resources: a case study of the Hetao irrigation district, China, for 1960-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Sun, Shikun; Wu, Pute; Wang, Yubao; Zhao, Xining

    2015-02-01

    The integration of water footprints and virtual water flows allows the mapping of the links between production, trade, and consumption and could potentially help to alleviate water scarcity and improve water management. We evaluated the water footprints and virtual water flows of crop production, consumption, and trade and their influencing factors in the Hetao irrigation district in China for 1960-2010. The water footprint of crop production and the export of virtual water fluctuated but tended to increase during this period and were influenced mainly by agricultural factors such as crop yield, irrigation efficiency, and area sown. The water footprint of crop consumption and the import of virtual water increased during 1960-1979 and decreased during 1980-2010 and were influenced by socio-economic factors such as total population, the retail-price index, and the proportion of the population in urban areas. Most of the water footprint of production was exported to other areas, which added to the pressure on local water systems. The import of virtual water led to a saving of water for the Hetao irrigation district, while its share of the water footprint of consumption has decreased significantly since 1977. An increase in irrigation efficiency can alleviate water scarcity, and its application should be coupled with measures that constrain the continued expansion of agriculture. Full-cost pricing of irrigation water was an effective policy tool for its management. Re-shaping regional water-production and water-trade nexuses by changing crop structures could provide alternative opportunities for addressing the problems of local water scarcity, but the trade-offs involved should first be assessed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Trading Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Wellman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  19. Evaluating Future Land-use Change Scenarios: Trade-offs between Bio-energy Demand, Food Production, and Carbon Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, E.; Yamagata, Y.

    2012-12-01

    In the construction of consistent future climate scenario, land use scenario has important role through both biogeochemical and biogeophysical effects on climate change. In terms of carbon emissions by the land-use change, relative importance may be high in the lower radiative forcing and lower carbon emission scenarios, which may use large amount of bio-energy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS). In this study, we first evaluated the CO2 emissions by land-use change in the 21st century using each RCPs scenarios. We use an offline terrestrial biogeochemical model VISIT, with book-keeping consideration of the carbon emission from deforested biomass and the regrowing uptake from abandoned cropland and pasture employing the gridded transition land-use data from RCPs. Effect of CO2 fertilization, land-use transition itself, and climate change are evaluated in the analysis. We found that constructing consistent land-use change carbon emission scenario with the gridded land-use change data requires precise considerations of effects of CO2 fertilization and climate change particularly for the regrowing uptake. Also, our result showed more emission of CO2 by the land-use change than the assumption in the integrated assessment model for RCP2.6 scenario. Then, we estimated the land-use area required to sustain the required biofuel production to match the assumption of BECCS use in RCPs with a global process based crop model. In the evaluation, we also estimated the further changes in carbon emissions by the required land-use change due to differences in crop yield assumptions, which also take into account of climate change. The trade-offs between land-use for crop, biocrop, and natural vegetation low-carbon scenario are discussed using the integrated terrestrial modeling approach.

  20. Trade Policy of Transition Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Moraga-Gonzalez, José Luis; Viaene, Jean-Marie

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThis paper focuses on ignored issues regarding the impact of trade reforms in transition economies. These economies are primarily characterized by a low quality of their products, large depreciations of their currencies, and a high degree of government intervention in economic activity. These elements are embedded in a duopoly model of vertical product differentiation and international trade. First, we show that trade liberalization in transition economies reduces the output of lo...

  1. Emissions Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Backhaus, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Emissions trading is a market-based instrument to achieve environmental targets in a cost-effective way by allowing legal entities to buy and sell emission rights. The current international dissemination and intended linking of emissions trading schemes underlines the growing relevance of this

  2. Organ Trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.E. Ambagtsheer (Frederike)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractOrgan trade constitutes the sale and purchase of organs for financial or material gain. Although prohibited since the 1980s, an increasing number of reports indicate its proliferation across the globe. Yet, many knowledge gaps exist on organ trade, in particular on the demand -and

  3. How Forest Management affects Ecosystem Services, including Timber Production and Economic Return: Synergies and Trade-Offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp S. Duncker

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Forest ecosystems deliver multiple goods and services and, traditionally, forest owners tend to have a high interest in goods in the form of merchantable wood. As a consequence, forest management often aims to increase timber production and economic returns through intervention into natural processes. However, forests provide further services, including carbon sequestration, water quantity and quality, and preservation of biodiversity. In order to develop and implement strategies for sustainable forest management, it is important to anticipate the long-term effects of different forest management alternatives on the ability of the forest to provide ecosystem goods and services. Management objectives might emphasize economic interests at the expense of other services. Very few attempts have been made to illustrate and evaluate quantitatively the relationship between forest goods and services. By use of virtual but realistic datasets, we quantified, for multiple services, the effects of five forest management alternatives that form an intensity gradient. Our virtual forest management units represented Central European forest ecosystems in the submontane vegetation zone under a humid-temperate climate with acidic soils. In this zone the European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. is the dominant tree species. In order to assess the effects on ecosystem services, the untouched natural forest reserve served as a reference. Wherever possible, response functions were deduced to couple the various services via stand-level data to demonstrate trade-offs between the services. Management units comprised all development phases in the sense of a "normal forest". It was clearly illustrated that maximizing the rates of biomass production and carbon sequestration may conflict with protection of authentic biodiversity. Several silvicultural operations may, however, have positive effects on biodiversity and water protection without high costs. We also illustrated that

  4. Pricing fair trade products to include unpaid labour and empower women – the example of Nicaraguan sesame and coffee cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity Butler

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses an initiative taking place in two cooperatives in Nicaragua. This involves the incorporation of a component for women’s unpaid work into the cost structures of Fair Trade contracts for coffee and sesame. The argument is that the unpaid work which is done mainly by women in the household and community represents an important input into production and one which should be valued and remunerated. Its recognition can both empower women and provide a fresh demonstration of the power of the cooperatives and Fair Trade in innovating so as to improve the conditions of disadvantaged people in their supply chains.The funding which has now been in place for two years has led to a number of very different projects for women. The involvement has spread not only to women doing unpaid work but also to women in low paid and marginalised jobs within the cooperatives. In particular, this raises the question of to whom the money allocated under this scheme should be paid, and whether it should primarily be used for collective or individual projects. This is an innovative development with the power fundamentally to change gender relations and empower women. It is significant that it is being pioneered in a poor country in the South rather than in the rich North. Este artículo analiza una iniciativa que tiene lugar en dos cooperativas de Nicaragua. Se incorpora al estudio el componente del trabajo no remunerado de las mujeres en el coste de las estructuras del comercio justo con contratos para el café y el sésamo. El argumento que se esgrime es que el trabajo no remunerado realizado principalmente por mujeres en el ámbito doméstico y de la comunidad representa un aporte importante a la producción, que se debe valorar y remunerar. Su reconocimiento puede investir de poder a las mujeres y demostrar el poder de las cooperativas y el comercio justo para innovar y mejorar las condiciones de personas desfavorecidas en las cadenas de producci

  5. Lumpy countries, urbanization, and trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, Steven; van Marrewijk, Charles

    Lumpiness of production factors within a country might overturn the Heckscher-Ohlin (HO) model's predictions for the factor content of trade. Trade patterns, as predicted by this model, can both be magnified or reversed by uneven concentration of production factors within a country. Cities are the

  6. A trade balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Kay, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of the World Trade Organization (WTO) has been widely accepted as representing the legalisation of world trading rules. However, it is important to reflect on the limits of this legalisation thesis in terms of the interface between international and domestic policy processes....... By locating trading disputes in a political analysis of policy implementation, it is argued that it is difficult to establish conceptually how the WTO dispute settlement system could have authority separate from and above the conventional international politics of trade policy relations. Instead, the article...... argues that case outcomes should be expected to be largely the product of domestic political institutions and policy processes, and how these intersect with developments in the WTO dispute settlement system. Brief studies of the Australian government's dispute settlement strategy and two high-profile WTO...

  7. Model based quantification of global virtual water trade and the sources of water withdrawal for major crops and livestock products (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, T.; Hanasaki, N.; Inuzuka, T.; Kanae, S.

    2010-12-01

    Water scarce regions are sometimes saving local water consumption by importing water intensive commodities such as crops and meat. From the point of view, the trade and transport of water intensive commodities are called virtual water trade, and used for quantifying how much water demand is mitigated by the trade. Identifying the source of the water used to produce the commodities, such as precipitation (green water) and irrigation water (blue water), will be useful, too, for assessing the impacts of the production on the level of sustainability and the opportunity cost in the exporting region. Recent improvements in global hydrological models consisting of both physically based hydrological and anthropogenic activity modules enabled us to quantify the virtual water content of major crops consistent with their global hydrological simulation. Enhancing one of these models, called H08, we were able to assess two major sources of water used to produce the traded commodities: green water and blue water. Blue water was further subdivided into three subcategories (i.e., streamflow, medium-size reservoirs, and nonrenewable and nonlocal blue water). We conducted a global hydrological simulation for 15 years from 1985 to 1999 at a spatial resolution of 0.5 degree by 0.5 degree longitudinal and latitudinal grids. Total precipitation on land was 113,900 km3 yr-1, with 72,080 km3 yr-1 on average evaporating in the period 1985-1999. Green water evapotranspiration from rainfed and irrigated cropland and blue water evapotranspiration from irrigated cropland was estimated at 7820, 1720, and 1530 km3 yr-1, respectively. Next, using global trade data for 2000 and the simulated virtual water content of major crops, the virtual water flow was estimated globally. Our results indicated that the global virtual water export (i.e., the volume of water that an exporting nation consumes to produce the commodities that it trades abroad) of five crops (barley, maize, rice, soybean, and wheat

  8. A trade-off between natural and acquired antibody production in a reptile: implications for long-term resistance to disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska C. Sandmeier

    2012-08-01

    Vertebrate immune systems are understood to be complex and dynamic, with trade-offs among different physiological components (e.g., innate and adaptive immunity within individuals and among taxonomic lineages. Desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii immunised with ovalbumin (OVA showed a clear trade-off between levels of natural antibodies (NAbs; innate immune function and the production of acquired antibodies (adaptive immune function. Once initiated, acquired antibody responses included a long-term elevation in antibodies persisting for more than one year. The occurrence of either (a high levels of NAbs or (b long-term elevations of acquired antibodies in individual tortoises suggests that long-term humoral resistance to pathogens may be especially important in this species, as well as in other vertebrates with slow metabolic rates, concomitantly slow primary adaptive immune responses, and long life-spans.

  9. The Spatial Dimension of Trade- and FDI-driven Productivity Growth in Chinese Provinces – A Global Cointegration Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özyurt, Selin; Mitze, Timo

    Since the introduction of its “open door” policy in the late 1970s, China has been attracting a growing share of FDI inflows and its international trade integration has advanced considerably. In this study, we take a closer look at the regional growth impact of the Chinese internationalization ac...

  10. Trade Patterns in Japan's Machinery Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Hitoshi Sasaki; Yuko Koga

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes trade patterns in Japan's machinery sector using disaggregated data of export and import commodities. It is found that the vertical intra-industry trade--the two-way trade of products differentiated by quality--with Asian countries expanded in the 1990s. According to the results of the empirical study, this trade pattern is closely related to differences in the capital/labor ratio between Japan and its trading partners, and to Japan's foreign direct investments. It suggest...

  11. Trade structure, trade mode and the urban-rural income gap in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wei

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the effect of foreign trade in China on the urban-rural income gap from certain angles including trade scale, trade structure and trade mode at the national and provincial levels. The empirical results indicate that, from the perspective of trade scale, the export and import in the eastern and national regions have an expansion effect on the urban-rural income gap, and, in the central regions, they have a reduction effect. Furthermore, export in the western regions has a reduction effect while import in these regions did not have a significant effect. From the perspective of trade structure, the trade of high-tech products and labour-intensive products in the national and eastern regions has an expansion effect, and the trade of the above-mentioned products in the central regions has a reduction effect. The trade of labour-intensive products in the western regions has a reduction effect, and that of high-tech products an expansion effect. From the perspective of trade mode, processing trade and general trade in the national and eastern regions have an expansion effect, while in the central regions they have a reduction effect. General trade in the western regions would expand the urban-rural income gap, and processing trade does not have a significant effect. Consequently, when the South African Government is working out trade multiplicative and corresponding policy, they should consider the development of foreign trade and should pay attention to the labour market structure.

  12. The European Union’s and Poland’s trade relations with the African, Caribbean and Pacific group of states (ACP in the agri-food products in the years 2000-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to examine key trends in the European Union’s trade policy towards the African, Caribbean and Pacific group of states (ACP, as well as to identify main changes in the commodity structure of the European (and Polish agri-food trade. The results showed that for the ACP countries, the European market is perceived as a source of food industry while the EU (including Poland imports from ACP region coffee, tea and cocoa. This confirms a certain specialization of production and trade in ACP countries. Both the European Union and Poland, are net importers of agri- food products from the ACP region.

  13. Comparative analysis on the conditions of production in two associations of fruit growers of western Colombia to participate in fair trade projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Elena Santacoloma Varón

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis was performed on two fruit-farming organizations agro-ecologically and conventionally oriented and established its affinity with fair trade principles. A survey was done on fruit production, marketing systems and opportunities to sell "fair price" products. It was found that both groups are small farmers, agro-ecological producers offer a variety of fruit, because of not using chemicals the consumers recognize the quality by an extra charge, they sell their products in farmer markets and generate direct relationships with consumers.Conventional producers offer only Lulo (Solanum quitoense, chemicals are used, the indicator of quality is recognized by the size and presentation of the fruit and marketing is done in supermarkets. We conclude that agro-ecological producers would be close to a way of fair trade, provided that incorporate quality improvement programs, and use the product information and communication technologies for development of cooperation networks and identification of market niches. It is important to support public or private access to credit, infrastructure and market information to help in decision making improvement.

  14. The impact of the joining of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for World Trade Organization (WTO on local marketing of national products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najah Hassan Salamah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Saudi Arabia is one of the wealthiest nations per capita in the world, as well as an economic power through possession of a large share of global oil resources. This study has been carried out to identify the benefits, which are likely to be enjoyed by Saudi Arabia after its accession into World Trade Organization. A total of 15 entrepreneurs filled out the questionnaires, which were designed on the basis of Likert scale. In order to analyze the outcomes, descriptive statistics technique has been applied after data collection from the respondents. Most of the participants consider the joining of Saudi Arabia into World Trade Organization as a beneficial decision for the Saudi market. This accession is advantageous as it helps to enhance the marketing and investment opportunities, as a consequence of which the economy of Saudi Arabia flourishes and the population rises. The marketing techniques are required to be established and adopted to manufacture high-quality products. The study outcomes are helpful for the policymakers and Saudi companies to emphasize on the production of high-quality products, as well as to implement the strategies for better marketing of their products in local market.

  15. Physicians and Insider Trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesselheim, Aaron S; Sinha, Michael S; Joffe, Steven

    2015-12-01

    Although insider trading is illegal, recent high-profile cases have involved physicians and scientists who are part of corporate governance or who have access to information about clinical trials of investigational products. Insider trading occurs when a person in possession of information that might affect the share price of a company's stock uses that information to buy or sell securities--or supplies that information to others who buy or sell--when the person is expected to keep such information confidential. The input that physicians and scientists provide to business leaders can serve legitimate social functions, but insider trading threatens to undermine any positive outcomes of these relationships. We review insider-trading rules and consider approaches to securities fraud in the health care field. Given the magnitude of the potential financial rewards, the ease of concealing illegal conduct, and the absence of identifiable victims, the temptation for physicians and scientists to engage in insider trading will always be present. Minimizing the occurrence of insider trading will require robust education, strictly enforced contractual provisions, and selective prohibitions against high-risk conduct, such as participation in expert consulting networks and online physician forums, by those individuals with access to valuable inside information.

  16. The nature and significance of intra-industry trade

    OpenAIRE

    Roy J. Ruffin

    1999-01-01

    In this article, Roy Ruffin gives an overview of intra-industry trade for the generalist. Intra-industry trade represents international trade within industries rather than between industries. Such trade is more beneficial than inter-industry trade because it stimulates innovation and exploits economies of scale. Moreover, since productive factors do not switch from one industry to another, but only within industries, intra-industry trade is less disruptive than inter-industry trade.

  17. Trade Policy Preferences and the Factor Content of Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte; Smolka, Marcel

    This paper provides a theoretical and empirical analysis of public opinion towards free trade, investigating cleavages both between and within countries. We study the distributional effects of trade policy in a neoclassical economy with not just two, but many input factors in production. We...... demonstrate that the factor price changes induced by trade policy are negatively correlated with the factor content of free trade (and therefore factor abundance). Using large-scale international survey data, we test whether these predicted distributional effects are reflected in the trade policy preferences...... of workers with different labor market skills. In order to isolate the effects of factor abundance from other skill-related confounding factors, we employ a within-skill-group estimator that exploits the cross-country variation in the factor content of free trade. In line with theory, the data show...

  18. International trade standards for commodities and products derived from animals: the need for a system that integrates food safety and animal disease risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, G R; Penrith, M-L; Atkinson, M W; Thalwitzer, S; Mancuso, A; Atkinson, S J; Osofsky, S A

    2013-12-01

    A case is made for greater emphasis to be placed on value chain management as an alternative to geographically based disease risk mitigation for trade in commodities and products derived from animals. The geographic approach is dependent upon achievement of freedom in countries or zones from infectious agents that cause so-called transboundary animal diseases, while value chain-based risk management depends upon mitigation of animal disease hazards potentially associated with specific commodities or products irrespective of the locality of production. This commodity-specific approach is founded on the same principles upon which international food safety standards are based, viz. hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP). Broader acceptance of a value chain approach enables animal disease risk management to be combined with food safety management by the integration of commodity-based trade and HACCP methodologies and thereby facilitates 'farm to fork' quality assurance. The latter is increasingly recognized as indispensable to food safety assurance and is therefore a pre-condition to safe trade. The biological principles upon which HACCP and commodity-based trade are based are essentially identical, potentially simplifying sanitary control in contrast to current separate international sanitary standards for food safety and animal disease risks that are difficult to reconcile. A value chain approach would not only enable more effective integration of food safety and animal disease risk management of foodstuffs derived from animals but would also ameliorate adverse environmental and associated socio-economic consequences of current sanitary standards based on the geographic distribution of animal infections. This is especially the case where vast veterinary cordon fencing systems are relied upon to separate livestock and wildlife as is the case in much of southern Africa. A value chain approach would thus be particularly beneficial to under-developed regions of

  19. Production of hard coal and world trade have declined for the first time in years; Steinkohlengewinnung und -welthandel erstmals seit Jahren ruecklaeufig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasche, Eckart

    2016-10-15

    At the beginning of August, the Association of Coal Importers (VDKi) presented its statistics on hard coal production and trade for 2015 as well as forecasts for the current year. The emissions of hard coal and natural gas in the entire value-added chain were determined and also explained by the contracted consulting firm Poeyry. [German] Anfang August stellte der Verein der Kohlenimporteure (VDKi) seine Statistik ueber Steinkohlengewinnung und -handel fuer 2015 sowie Prognosen fuer das laufende Jahr vor. Dabei wurden auch die in seinem Auftrag vom Beratungsunternehmen Poeyry ermittelten Emissionen von Steinkohle und Erdgas in der gesamten Wertschoepfungskette erlaeutert.

  20. Bleeding Efficiency and Meat Oxidative Stability and Microbiological Quality of New Zealand White Rabbits Subjected to Halal Slaughter without Stunning and Gas Stun-killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakyinsige, K; Fatimah, A B; Aghwan, Z A; Zulkifli, I; Goh, Y M; Sazili, A Q

    2014-03-01

    A study was conducted to compare the effect of halal slaughter without stunning and gas stun killing followed by bleeding on residual blood content and storage stability of rabbit meat. Eighty male New Zealand white rabbits were divided into two groups of 40 animals each and subjected to either halal slaughter without stunning (HS) or gas stun-kill (GK). The volume of blood lost during exsanguination was measured. Residual blood was further quantified by determination of haemoglobin content in Longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle. Storage stability of the meat was evaluated by microbiological analysis and measuring lipid oxidation in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). HS resulted in significantly higher blood loss than GK. HS had significantly lower residual haemoglobin in LL muscle compared to GK. Slaughter method had no effect on rabbit meat lipid oxidation at 0, 1, and 3 d postmortem. However, at 5 and 8 days of storage at 4°C, significant differences (pslaughter method. At days 5 and 7 postmortem, bacterial counts for all tested microbes were affected by slaughter method, with GK exhibiting significantly higher growth than HS. It can be concluded that slaughter method can affect keeping quality of rabbit meat, and HS may be a favourable option compared to GK due to high bleed out.

  1. Improving U.S. Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentsen, Lloyd

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the need to formulate a coherent trade policy in response to international economic realities. The author argues against a return to trade protectionism and supports efforts to establish workable reciprocity agreements. Increasing import tariffs on high technology products would control access to American markets. (AM)

  2. Extension Resources for International Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Susan D.

    2016-01-01

    With the opening of additional trade partnerships, the reduction of global transportation and communication costs, and the increase in demand for U.S. agricultural products and services, international trade is an area of great importance to more and more Extension clients and stakeholders. This article provides information about the primary…

  3. Globalization and world trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; Joseph Buongiorno

    2007-01-01

    This chapter discusses economic globalization and world trade in relation to forest sector modeling for the US/North American region. It discusses drivers of economic globalization and related structural changes in US forest product markets, including currency exchange rates and differences in manufacturing costs that have contributed to the displacement of global...

  4. Fear Trading

    OpenAIRE

    Ardia, David

    2003-01-01

    Our trading strategy is inspired from the paper "implied volatility indices as leading indicators of stock index returns?", Giot (2002,[3]). It uses stylized facts observed in stock markets: the so called "leverage effect", the clustering and the mean-reverting behaviour of the implied volatility. Based on S&P100 and VIX data, we show that abnormally high levels of volatility can be used as a trading signals for long traders. A bootstrap procedure confirms the significant returns for the 1986...

  5. The effects of processing non-timber forest products and trade partnerships on people's well-being and forest conservation in Amazonian societies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Morsello

    Full Text Available This study evaluated whether processing non-timber forest products (NTFPs and establishing trade partnerships between forest communities and companies enhance the outcomes of NTFP commercialization. In particular, we evaluated whether product processing, partnerships, or their combination was associated with a number of outcomes related to the well-being of forest inhabitants and forest conservation. We based our analyses on ethnographic and quantitative data (i.e., survey and systematic observations gathered at seven communities from five societies of the Brazilian and Bolivian Amazon. Our results indicated that product processing and partnerships do not represent a silver bullet able to improve the results of NTFP commercialization in terms of well-being and conservation indicators. Compared with cases without interventions, households adopting partnerships but not product processing were most often associated with improved economic proxies of well-being (total income, NTFP income, food consumption and gender equality in income. In comparison, the combination of product processing and partnerships was associated with similar outcomes. Unexpectedly, product processing alone was associated with negative outcomes in the economic indicators of well-being. All of the investigated strategies were associated with less time spent in social and cultural activities. With respect to forest conservation, the strategies that included a partnership with or without processing produced similar results: while household deforestation tended to decrease, the hunting impact increased. Processing alone was also associated with higher levels of hunting, though it did not reduce deforestation. Our results indicate that establishing partnerships may enhance the outcomes of NTFP trade in terms of the financial outcomes of local communities, but practitioners need to use caution when adopting the processing strategy and they need to evaluate potential negative results

  6. The effects of processing non-timber forest products and trade partnerships on people's well-being and forest conservation in Amazonian societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsello, Carla; Ruiz-Mallén, Isabel; Diaz, Maria Dolores Montoya; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated whether processing non-timber forest products (NTFPs) and establishing trade partnerships between forest communities and companies enhance the outcomes of NTFP commercialization. In particular, we evaluated whether product processing, partnerships, or their combination was associated with a number of outcomes related to the well-being of forest inhabitants and forest conservation. We based our analyses on ethnographic and quantitative data (i.e., survey and systematic observations) gathered at seven communities from five societies of the Brazilian and Bolivian Amazon. Our results indicated that product processing and partnerships do not represent a silver bullet able to improve the results of NTFP commercialization in terms of well-being and conservation indicators. Compared with cases without interventions, households adopting partnerships but not product processing were most often associated with improved economic proxies of well-being (total income, NTFP income, food consumption and gender equality in income). In comparison, the combination of product processing and partnerships was associated with similar outcomes. Unexpectedly, product processing alone was associated with negative outcomes in the economic indicators of well-being. All of the investigated strategies were associated with less time spent in social and cultural activities. With respect to forest conservation, the strategies that included a partnership with or without processing produced similar results: while household deforestation tended to decrease, the hunting impact increased. Processing alone was also associated with higher levels of hunting, though it did not reduce deforestation. Our results indicate that establishing partnerships may enhance the outcomes of NTFP trade in terms of the financial outcomes of local communities, but practitioners need to use caution when adopting the processing strategy and they need to evaluate potential negative results for indicators of

  7. U.S. trade remedy law and agriculture: trade diversion and investigation effects

    OpenAIRE

    Colin A. Carter; Caroline Gunning-Trant

    2010-01-01

    We study U.S. agricultural antidumping and countervailing duty cases from 1980 to 2005, and gauge the effectiveness of trade remedy law as a form of protection. The purpose is to measure the resulting investigation and trade diversion effects. Previous research on trade in manufactured products has shown that the domestic protection offered by AD and CV duties is largely offset by trade diversion. In contrast, we find that for agriculture, trade diversion is relatively unimportant. So AD and ...

  8. 77 FR 65856 - Foreign-Trade Subzone 93G-Oxford, NC; Notification of Proposed Production Activity Revlon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... Activity Revlon Consumer Products Corporation (Cosmetics and Personal Care Products) Revlon Consumer Products Corporation (Revlon), operator of Subzone 93G, has submitted a notification of proposed production... regulations of the Board (15 CFR 400.22) was received on October 10, 2012. Revlon's Oxford facility was...

  9. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); P. Reddy (Prashant); C. Flath (Christoph)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2011 (Power TAC 2011). Agents are simulations of electrical power brokers, who must compete with each other for both power production and consumption, and manage their portfolios.

  10. International red meat trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  11. 27 CFR 28.290 - Receipt in foreign trade zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Receipt in foreign trade zone. 28.290 Section 28.290 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... in Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.290 Receipt in foreign trade zone. On receipt at the zone, the shipment...

  12. 78 FR 146 - Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ...-Containing Products of Chile, Morocco, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras... Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of Chile, Morocco, Costa Rica, the Dominican... sugar and syrup goods and sugar-containing products exceeded its exports by 3,066 metric tons. The...

  13. Some timber product market and trade implications of an invasive defoliator: the case of Asian lymantria in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; James A. Turner; Joseph Buongiorno; Shushuai Zhu; Ruhong Li

    2008-01-01

    US policy and forest product industry decisionmakers need quantitative information about the magnitude of timber product market impacts from the possible introduction of an exotic and potentially dangerous defoliating forest pest. We applied the Global Forest Products Model to evaluate the effects on the United States of an invasion by the Asian gypsy (...

  14. Indonesia's Intra -Industry Trade with ASEAN

    OpenAIRE

    Widarjono, Agus

    2008-01-01

    AFTA has been starting since 2003. This study will investigate Indonesia's bilateral trade with ASEAN member by examining intra-industry trade. The Grubel-Lloyd Index is applied to measure intra-industry trade. Intra –industry trade is classified based on factor intensity in the production process. There are natural resource intensive, unskilled labor intensive, physical capital intensive, human capital intensive and technological intensive. This research shows that level of Indonesia...

  15. Trading off natural resources and rural livelihoods. A framework for sustainability assessment of small-scale food production in water-limited regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recanati, Francesca; Castelletti, Andrea; Dotelli, Giovanni; Melià, Paco

    2017-12-01

    Enhancing local production is key to promoting food security, especially in rural households of low-income countries, but may conflict with limited natural resources and ecosystems preservation. We propose a framework integrating the water-food nexus and a sustainable livelihoods perspective to assess small-scale food production in water-poor regions. We demonstrate it by assessing alternative production scenarios in the Gaza Strip at different spatial scales. At the scale of a single farm, there is a clear conflict among objectives: while cash crops ensure good incomes but contribute scarcely to domestic protein supply, crops performing well from the nutritional and environmental viewpoint are among the worst from the economic one. At the regional scale, domestic production might cover an important fraction of nutritional needs while contributing to household income, but water scarcity impairs the satisfaction of food demand by domestic production alone. Pursuing food security under multiple constraints thus requires a holistic perspective: we discuss how a multidimensional approach can promote the engagement of different stakeholders and allow the exploration of trade-offs between food security, sustainable exploitation of natural resources and economic viability.

  16. BENEFITS AND DRAWBACKS OF ONLINE TRADING VERSUS TRADITIONAL TRADING. EDUCATIONAL FACTORS IN ONLINE TRADING

    OpenAIRE

    Petric (Iancu) Ioana Ancuta

    2015-01-01

    In terms of marketing, online trading is a new distribution channel and trading platforms are products of Investment and Financial Services Companies. Internet shortens the connection between the investor and the products they wish to purchase (shares, futures, CFDs, government securities, bonds, etc.), and in some cases it no longer needs a security broker. Increasing use of the Internet and increasing competitiveness between Investment and Financial Services Companies do the latter, to seek...

  17. Analyzing Trade-Offs, Synergies, and Drivers among Timber Production, Carbon Sequestration, and Water Yield in Pinus elliotii Forests in Southeastern USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Cademus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Managing Pinus elliotii forests for timber production and/or carbon sequestration is a common management objective, but can negatively affect water yield due to high losses from evapotranspiration. Thus, understanding the trade-offs and potential synergies among multiple ecosystem goods services, as well as the drivers influencing these interactions, can help identify effective forest management practices. We used available data from 377 permanent plots from the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis Program for 2002–2011, and a forest water yield model to quantify provision levels and spatial distribution and patterns of carbon sequestration, timber volume and water yield for Pinus elliotii ecosystems in North Florida, USA. A ranking-classification framework and statistical analyses were used to better understand the interactions among ecosystem services and the effect of biophysical drivers on ecosystem service bundles. Results indicate that increased biomass reduced water yield but this trade-off varied across space. Specific synergies, or acceptable provision levels, among carbon sequestration, timber volume and water yield were identified and mapped. Additionally, stand age, silvicultural treatment, and site quality significantly affected the provision level of, and interactions among, the three ecosystem goods and services. The framework developed in this study can be used to assess, map, and manage subtropical forests for optimal provision of ecosystem services.

  18. Trade Liberalisation and Vertical Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Peter Arendorf; Laugesen, Anders Rosenstand

    producers face decisions on exporting, vertical integration of intermediate-input production, and whether the intermediate-input production should be offshored to a low-wage country. We find that the fractions of final-good producers that pursue either vertical integration, offshoring, or exporting are all......We build a three-country model of international trade in final goods and intermediate inputs and study the relation between four different types of trade liberalisation and vertical integration. Firms are heterogeneous with respect to both productivity and factor (headquarter) intensity. Final-good...... increasing when intermediate-input trade or final-goods trade is liberalised. Finally, we provide guidance for testing the open-economy property rights theory of the firm using firm-level data and surprisingly show that the relationship between factor (headquarter) intensity and the likelihood of vertical...

  19. 77 FR 52680 - Foreign-Trade Zone 242-Boundary County, ID, Notification of Proposed Production Activity, AREVA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... Activity, AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC, (Gas Centrifuge Production Equipment), Bonneville County, ID... AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (AES), located in Bonneville County, Idaho. The notification conforming...

  20. Protecting Trade Secrets in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courage, Noel; Calzavara, Janice

    2015-05-18

    Patents in the life sciences industries are a key form of intellectual property (IP), particularly for products such as brand-name drugs and medical devices. However, trade secrets can also be a useful tool for many types of innovations. In appropriate cases, trade secrets can offer long-term protection of IP for a lower financial cost than patenting. This type of protection must be approached with caution as there is little room for error when protecting a trade secret. Strong agreements and scrupulous security can help to protect the secret. Once a trade secret is disclosed to the public, it cannot be restored as the owner's property; however, if the information is kept from the public domain, the owner can have a property right of unlimited duration in the information. In some situations patents and trade secrets may be used cooperatively to protect innovation, particularly for manufacturing processes. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  1. Changes in Canadian Agricultural Marketing and Trade Policy: The Impacts of New Trade Rules and New Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Veeman, Michele M.

    1996-01-01

    The Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement (CUSTA) and the subsequent North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) have contributed to increasing concentration of agricultural trade between the United States and Canada. This has heightened bilateral trade tensions and trade conflicts for numbers of Canadian farm products. These conflicts, and the need to accommodate domestic marketing policies to the obligations of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and its successor, the Wor...

  2. Energy trade-offs between intensive biomass utilization, site productivity loss, and ameliorative treatments in loblolly pine plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Andrew Scott; Thomas J. Dean

    2006-01-01

    Loblolly pine plantations are the most important source of forest products in the US and the slash remaining after conventional harvest represents a significant potential source of bioenergy. However, slash removal in intensive harvests might, under some circumstances, reduce site productivity by reducing soil organic matter and associated nutrients. Two complimentary...

  3. Trade-offs in the formation of consumer purchase intentions with regard to complex genetically modified products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone; Søndergaard, Helle Alsted; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2004-01-01

    ) is a production technology whose application to the food domain is highly controversial to consumers in many parts of the western world. The research investigates consumer reactions to applications of genetic modification to produce enzymes that result in improved performance of target products, both at consumer...

  4. 75 FR 66360 - Transportation and Energy Products and Services Trade Mission; Doha, Qatar, and Abu Dhabi and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-28

    ... systems, products and technologies, including port development, supply chain systems and strategies; energy products and services; smart grid technologies; mass transportation systems; and other relevant... expand in to new markets. The mission will include, but is not limited to: Advanced vehicle technologies...

  5. The Formation of Russian Agrarian Trade Structure: Inter-industry vs. Intra-industry Trade Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Ishchukova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on specialization of Russia’s foreign trade in agrarian products and foodstuffs in terms of inter-industry and intra-industry trade. The main objective of this study is to analyse the extent of intra-industry trade in Russia’s foreign trade in agricultural products and to identify significant changes in trade patterns at the industry level over the transformation period (1996–2012.The results coming from individual conducted analyses provide a systematic decomposition of Russia’s foreign trade into three trade types: inter-industry, intra-industry in horizontally and vertically differentiated products. Inter-industry type of trade dominates in Russian foreign trade in agricultural and food products and accounts for about a third of total trade flows. The analysis revealed significant differences in the intensity of intra-industry trade, depending on geographic region. The lowest level of intra-industry trade is observed in relation to Africa and South America, the highest - in relation to CIS countries. There were also found some trends, including the expanding intra-industry trade in relation to the CIS countries, as well as a decrease in relation to Asian and EU countries.

  6. U.S. mineral dependence—Statistical compilation of U.S. and world mineral production, consumption, and trade, 1990–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, James J.; Matos, Grecia R.; Menzie, W. David

    2013-01-01

    This report provides insight into the dependence of the United States on foreign supply to meet the country’s mineral needs. When determining vulnerabilities to the U.S. supply, it is not enough to look solely at the mining source for each mineral to determine the potential impact that a supply disruption might have on the Nation’s economy. The tables that accompany this report help to illustrate the importance not only of the mining and processing of minerals but also the exporting countries and end uses. Understanding the total risks and costs of supply disruptions along the supply chain are beyond the scope of this report. However, this overview of mineral production, consumption, and trade highlights the importance of understanding what is happening at each point along the supply chain.

  7. Trading stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Interest in stage-and age structured models has recently increased because they can describe quantitative traits such as size that are left out of age-only demography. Available methods for the analysis of effects of vital rates on lifespan in stage-structured models have not been widely applied ...... examples. Much of our approach relies on trading of time and mortality risk in one stage for time and risk in others. Our approach contributes to the new framework of the study of age- and stage-structured biodemography....

  8. Anonymous electronic trading versus floor trading

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Günter; Hess, Dieter

    1995-01-01

    This paper compares the attractiveness of floor trading and anonymous electronic trading systems. It is argued that in times of low information intensity the insight into the order book of the electronic trading system provides more valuable information than floor trading, but in times of high information intensity the reverse is true. Thus, the electronic system's market share in trading activity should decline in times of high information intensity. This hypothesis is tested by data on BUND...

  9. Comparison between Mt-DNA D-Loop and Cyt B primers for porcine DNA detection in meat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzah, Azhana; Mutalib, Sahilah Abd.; Babji, Abdul Salam

    2013-11-01

    This study was conducted to detect the presence of porcine DNA in meat products in the market using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and commercial PCR-southern hybridization analysis. Porcine DNA detection in meat products was tested due to some issues associated with the adulteration of food products in Malaysia. This is an important issue especially for Halal authentication which is required for some religious practices such as in Islam and Hinduisms. Many techniques have been developed for determining the Halal status of food products. In this paper, mt-DNA D-loop primer and cytochrome (cyt) b were used to detect the presence of porcine DNA in meat products. Positive and negative controls were always present for each batch of extraction. DNA of raw pork meat was used as a positive control while nucleus free water is used as negative control. A pair of oligonucleotide primer was used namely Pork1 and Pork2 which produced amplicon of 531 base pair (bp) in size. While, PCR-southern hybridization was conducted using primers readily supplied by commercial PCR-Southern hybridization and produced amplicon with 276 bp in size. In the present study, demonstrated that none of the samples were contaminated with porcine residuals but selected samples with pork meat were positive. The species-specific PCR amplification yielded excellent results for identification of pork derivatives in food products and it is a potentially reliable and suitable technique in routine food analysis for Halal certification.

  10. Trade-offs between cattle production and bird conservation in an agricultural frontier of the Gran Chaco of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrangelo, Matias E; Gavin, Michael C

    2012-12-01

    Intensification of food production in tropical landscapes in the absence of land-use planning can pose a major threat to biological diversity. Decisions on whether to spatially integrate or segregate lands for production and conservation depend in part on the functional relations between biological diversity and agricultural productivity. We measured diversity, density, and species composition of birds along a gradient of production intensification on an agricultural frontier of the Argentine Chaco, where dry tropical forests are cleared for cattle production. Bird species diversity in intact forests was higher than in any type of cattle-production system. Bird species richness decreased nonlinearly as cattle yield increased. Intermediate-intensity silvopastoral systems, those in which forest understory is selectively cleared to grow pastures of non-native plants beneath the tree canopy, produced 80% of the mean cattle yield obtained in pastures on cleared areas and were occupied by 70-90% of the number of bird species present in the nearest forest fragments. Densities of >50% of bird species were significantly lower in open pastures than in silvopastoral systems. Therefore, intermediate-intensity silvopastoral systems may have the greatest potential to sustain cattle yield and conserve a large percentage of bird species. However, compared with low-intensity production systems, in which forest structure and extent were intact, intermediate-intensity silvopastoral systems supported significantly fewer forest-restricted bird species and fewer frugivorous birds. These data suggest that the integration of production and conservation through intermediate-intensity silvopastoral systems combined with the protection of forest fragments may be required to maintain cattle yield, bird diversity, and conservation of forest-restricted species in this agricultural frontier. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. Environmentally Responsible Trade and Its Importance for Sustainable Forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Maxymets

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the environmental component of trade, primarily foreign trade, which concerns the interests of many countries. It examines the reciprocal influence of foreign trade and the environment. The author defines environmentally responsible trade and formulates its main principles. She examines the development of trade in forest products globally and in Ukraine and evaluates the impact of different trade restrictions on the condition of forests and the forestry industry. Indicators of the efficiency of foreign trade from the economic and environmental perspectives are proposed. Underlining the need for enterprises to switch over to environmentally responsible trade, the author proposes instruments to achieve this end.

  12. Trade in mineral resources

    OpenAIRE

    Graham A. Davis

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a review of current thinking on the economics of international trade in mineral resources. I first define what is meant by trade in mineral resources. I then discuss patterns of trade in mineral resources. The paper then moves on to the five topics requested by the World Trade Organization: theoretical and empirical literature on international trade in minerals; trade impacts of mineral abundance and the resource curse; the political economy of mineral trade in resource-ab...

  13. Extracting Geography from Trade Data

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yuke; Marshall, Nicholas; Steinerberger, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The gravity equation has been successful in establishing a connection between the amount of trade between two countries, their respective gross domestic products and "distance" (a complex notion including geographical, historical, linguistic and sociological components). We take the inverse route and show that it is possible to construct a meaningful 'distance' without any external information simply from knowing the bilateral trade volumes between countries. The main tool is a non-standard interpretation of trade flows data as a set of high-dimensional points and the use of mathematical tools to perform dimensionality reduction. This may have further applications for problems in long-term economic analysis, cartel detection and others.

  14. Managing Carbon Footprints under the Trade Credit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigate how the retailer adjusts optimal ordering policy in the presence of cap-and-trade system and trade credit, and the corresponding changes of the retailer’s total costs and carbon footprint. Trade credit is one of the most used short-term financing tools. Our study shows that carbon emissions trading will shorten the ordering cycle for products that emit more carbon dioxide during the storage stage, and therefore reduce the buying behavior stimulation effect of trade credit on these products. Under the cap-and-trade system, the retailer’s total cost may increase or decrease, depending on the combination of carbon cap allocated to the retailer and the carbon price. Moreover, trade credit and the corresponding cost of capital affect the retailer’s carbon emission reduction strategy by changing the retailers’ consolidated cost during the ordering and inventory holding stages.

  15. Islam, Standards, and Technoscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    Halal (literally, "permissible" or "lawful") production, trade, and standards have become essential to state-regulated Islam and to companies in contemporary Malaysia and Singapore, giving these two countries a special position in the rapidly expanding global market for halal products......: in these nations state bodies certify halal products as well as spaces (shops, factories, and restaurants) and work processes, and so consumers can find state halal-certified products from Malaysia and Singapore in shops around the world. Building on ethnographic material from Malaysia, Singapore, and Europe......, activism, companies, shops and restaurants, this book will be an essential resource to scholars and students of social science interested in the global interface zones between religion, standards, and technoscience....

  16. From biophysical to social-ecological trade-offs: integrating biodiversity conservation and agricultural production in the Argentine Dry Chaco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias E. Mastrangelo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural intensification in rural areas of developing countries compromises the provision of ecosystem services. Social conflict arises among landholders with different preferences for ecosystem services and land-use practices in agricultural frontiers of the Argentine Dry Chaco. We explored policy and management options by assessing the actual and potential outcomes of alternative land-use systems and scenarios. We first constructed the efficiency frontier for avian habitat and agricultural productivity to analyze the combinations of ecosystem services that can be achieved under different land-use intensities. A nonlinear, concave efficiency frontier indicated opportunities to achieve large gains for production with small losses for conservation, for instance, by transitioning from low- to intermediate-intensity systems. Second, we projected production and conservation outcomes, which can be achieved through the implementation of five alternative policy options. The land sharing with conservation scenario, 70% of the landscape covered by intermediate-intensity systems and 30% by undisturbed forests, yielded the higher combination of avian habitat and agricultural productivity. Third, we constructed indifference curves of three landholder groups, i.e., preproductivist, multifunctional, and productivist, by assessing their intentions (proxies for preferences to conserve and convert remnant forests in their landholdings. Multifunctional landholders showed balanced preferences for conserving and converting forests in their landholdings, and maintaining intermediate-intensity systems. A general willingness to conserve forests coexisted in preproductivist landholders with the intention to clear some portions of the landholding and intensify landuse, indicating the potential of an endogenously motivated transition toward a multifunctional regime. Such transition may increase their productivity by 35-65% without compromising avian habitat

  17. Trade Liberalisation and Vertical Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Peter Arendorf; Laugesen, Anders

    We build a three-country model of international trade in final goods and intermediate inputs and study the relation between different types of trade liberalisation and vertical integration. Firms are heterogeneous with respect to both productivity and factor intensity as observed in data. Final......-economy property rights theory of the firm using firm-level data. Finally, we notice that our model's sorting pattern is in line with recent evidence when the wage difference across countries is not too big....

  18. Trade tensions between EU and Russia: Possible effects on trade in agricultural commodities for Visegrad countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erokhin, V.; Heijman, W.J.M.; Ivolga, A.

    2014-01-01

    The paper includes overview of the current state of the EU-CIS and the EU-Russia trade flows with particular attention to trade in agricultural commodities, as well as contemporary tendencies in agricultural production and foreign trade in agricultural commodities and food in Russia. The paper

  19. 78 FR 56655 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 203-Moses Lake, Washington; Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... Production Activity; AREVA Inc. (Fuel Rod Assemblies); Richland, Washington The Moses Lake Public Corporation... AREVA Inc. (AREVA), located in Richland, Washington. The notification conforming to the requirements of the regulations of the FTZ Board (15 CFR 400.22) was received on August 29, 2013. The AREVA facility...

  20. 78 FR 8493 - Foreign-Trade Zone 45-Portland, OR; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; SoloPower Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... Activity; SoloPower Inc. (Thin Film Photovoltaic Solar Panels); Portland, OR SoloPower Inc. (SoloPower) has... production of thin film photovoltaic solar panels. Pursuant to 15 CFR 400.14(b), FTZ activity would be... sourced from abroad include: Polymer film; diodes; conductive paste; junction boxes; sealant; silicone...

  1. 78 FR 18314 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 39-Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; Notification of Proposed Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... Production Activity; CSI Calendering, Inc. (Rubber Coated Textile Fabric); Arlington, Texas The Dallas/Fort... activity to the FTZ Board on behalf of CSI Calendering, Inc. (CSI), located in Arlington, Texas. The... for the calendering, slitting, and laminating of RFL (resorcinol formaldehyde latex) textile fabric...

  2. Regional Algal Biofuel Production Potential in the Coterminous United States as Affected by Resource Availability Trade-offs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venteris, Erik R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Skaggs, Richard [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wigmosta, Mark S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Coleman, Andre M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-03-15

    The warm sunny climate and unoccupied arid lands in the American southwest are favorable factors for algae cultivation. However, additional resources affect the overall viability of specific sites and regions. We investigated the tradeoffs between growth rate, water, and CO2 availability and costs for two strains: N. salina and Chlorella sp. We conducted site selection exercises (~88,000 US sites) to produce 21 billion gallons yr-1 (BGY) of renewable diesel (RD). Experimental trials from the National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bio-Products (NAABB) team informed the growth model of our Biomass Assessment Tool (BAT). We simulated RD production by both lipid extraction and hydrothermal liquefaction. Sites were prioritized by the net value of biofuel minus water and flue gas costs. Water cost models for N. salina were based on seawater and high salinity groundwater and for Chlorella, fresh and brackish groundwater. CO2 costs were based on a flue gas delivery model. Selections constrained by production and water were concentrated along the Gulf of Mexico and southeast Atlantic coasts due to high growth rates and low water costs. Adding flue gas constraints increased the spatial distribution, but the majority of sites remained in the southeast. The 21 BGY target required ~3.8 million hectares of mainly forest (41.3%) and pasture (35.7%). Exclusion in favor of barren and scrub lands forced most production to the southwestern US, but with increased water consumption (5.7 times) and decreased economic efficiency (-38%).

  3. The effect of inter-annual variability of consumption, production, trade and climate on crop-related green and blue water footprints and inter-regional virtual water trade: A study for China (1978e2008)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhuo, L.; Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies into the relation between human consumption and indirect water resources use have unveiled the remote connections in virtual water (VW) trade networks, which show how communities externalize their water footprint (WF) to places far beyond their own region, but little has been done

  4. International trade of animal feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Jingmeng; Liu, Qian; Hou, Yong; Qin, Wei; Lesschen, Jan Peter; Zhang, Fusuo; Oenema, Oene

    2017-01-01

    International trade of food and feed has facilitated the specialization and agglomeration of agricultural production systems in many countries. Confined animals in specialized production systems are increasingly supplied with soybean and maize, imported from other countries. This has increased

  5. Trading Capsule for Increased Cytotoxin Production: Contribution to Virulence of a Newly Emerged Clade of emm89 Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Luchang; Olsen, Randall J; Nasser, Waleed; de la Riva Morales, Ivan; Musser, James M

    2015-10-06

    Strains of emm89 Streptococcus pyogenes have become one of the major causes of invasive infections worldwide in the last 10 years. We recently sequenced the genome of 1,125 emm89 strains and identified three major phylogenetic groups, designated clade 1, clade 2, and the epidemic clade 3. Epidemic clade 3 strains, which now cause the great majority of infections, have two distinct genetic features compared to clade 1 and clade 2 strains. First, all clade 3 organisms have a variant 3 nga promoter region pattern, which is associated with increased production of secreted cytolytic toxins SPN (S. pyogenes NADase) and SLO (streptolysin O). Second, all clade 3 strains lack the hasABC locus mediating hyaluronic acid capsule synthesis, whereas this locus is intact in clade 1 and clade 2 strains. We constructed isogenic mutant strains that produce different levels of SPN and SLO toxins and capsule (none, low, or high). Here we report that emm89 strains with elevated toxin production are significantly more virulent than low-toxin producers. Importantly, we also show that capsule production is dispensable for virulence in strains that already produce high levels of SPN and SLO. Our results provide new understanding about the molecular mechanisms contributing to the rapid emergence and molecular pathogenesis of epidemic clade 3 emm89 S. pyogenes. S. pyogenes (group A streptococcus [GAS]) causes pharyngitis ("strep throat"), necrotizing fasciitis, and other human infections. Serious infections caused by emm89 S. pyogenes strains have recently increased in frequency in many countries. Based on whole-genome sequence analysis of 1,125 strains recovered from patients on two continents, we discovered that a new emm89 clone, termed clade 3, has two distinct genetic features compared to its predecessors: (i) absence of the genes encoding antiphagocytic hyaluronic acid capsule virulence factor and (ii) increased production of the secreted cytolytic toxins SPN and SLO. emm89 S

  6. Feeding humanity through global food trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, Paolo; Carr, Joel A.; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca; Vandoni, Stefano

    2014-09-01

    The recent intensification of international trade has led to a globalization of food commodities and to an increased disconnection between human populations and the land and water resources that support them through crop and livestock production. Several countries are not self-sufficient and depend on imports from other regions. Despite the recognized importance of the role of trade in global and regional food security, the societal reliance on domestic production and international trade remains poorly quantified. Here we investigate the global patterns of food trade and evaluate the dependency of food security on imports. We investigate the relationship existing between the trade of food calories and the virtual transfer of water used for their production. We show how the amount of food calories traded in the international market has more than doubled between 1986 and 2009, while the number of links in the trade network has increased by more than 50%. Likewise, global food production has increased by more than 50% in the same period, providing an amount of food that is overall sufficient to support the global population at a rate of 2700-3000 kcal per person per day. About 23% of the food produced for human consumption is traded internationally. The water use efficiency of food trade (i.e., food calories produced per unit volume of water used) has declined in the last few decades. The water use efficiency of food production overall increases with the countries' affluence; this trend is likely due to the use of more advanced technology.

  7. Trade-offs for food production, nature conservation and climate limit the terrestrial carbon dioxide removal potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boysen, Lena R; Lucht, Wolfgang; Gerten, Dieter

    2017-10-01

    Large-scale biomass plantations (BPs) are a common factor in climate mitigation scenarios as they promise double benefits: extracting carbon from the atmosphere and providing a renewable energy source. However, their terrestrial carbon dioxide removal (tCDR) potentials depend on important factors such as land availability, efficiency of capturing biomass-derived carbon and the timing of operation. Land availability is restricted by the demands of future food production depending on yield increases and population growth, by requirements for nature conservation and, with respect to climate mitigation, avoiding unfavourable albedo changes. We integrate these factors in one spatially explicit biogeochemical simulation framework to explore the tCDR opportunity space on land available after these constraints are taken into account, starting either in 2020 or 2050, and lasting until 2100. We find that assumed future needs for nature protection and food production strongly limit tCDR potentials. BPs on abandoned crop and pasture areas (~1,300 Mha in scenarios of either 8.0 billion people and yield gap reductions of 25% until 2020 or 9.5 billion people and yield gap reductions of 50% until 2050) could, theoretically, sequester ~100 GtC in land carbon stocks and biomass harvest by 2100. However, this potential would be ~80% lower if only cropland was available or ~50% lower if albedo decreases were considered as a factor restricting land availability. Converting instead natural forest, shrubland or grassland into BPs could result in much larger tCDR potentials ̶ but at high environmental costs (e.g. biodiversity loss). The most promising avenue for effective tCDR seems to be improvement of efficient carbon utilization pathways, changes in dietary trends or the restoration of marginal lands for the implementation of tCDR. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. 50 CFR 23.69 - How can I trade internationally in fur skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in fur... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND... Section 23.69 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  9. A Framework for Analyzing Technical Trade Barriers in Agricultural Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Donna; Josling, Timothy E.; Orden, David

    1999-01-01

    Technical trade barriers are increasingly important in the international trade of agricultural products. Designing technical trade measures that can satisfy the growing demand for food safety, product differentiation, environmental amenities, and product information at the lowest cost to the consumer and to the international trading system requires an understanding of the complex economics of regulatory import barriers. This report proposes a definition and classification scheme to frame disc...

  10. Exploring the Serbian consumer attitude towards agro-food products with ethical values: organic, fair-trade and typical/traditional products

    OpenAIRE

    Driouech, Noureddin; El Bilali, Hamid; Sinisa BERJAN; Radovic, Mirjana; Despotovic, Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    The new Millennium has seen a renewed and intensified interest in issues of business ethics and corporate social responsibility (CSR). This has been partly driven by a wave of concern about conduct and governance of business and partly reflects a growing interest amongst consumers, policy makers and businesses, in forms of production and consumption that are more sustainable and more ethically oriented. This is typified by growth in demand of products encompassing ethical values such as organ...

  11. State Trading Companies, Time Inconsistency, Imperfect Enforceability and Reputation

    OpenAIRE

    Melkonian, Tigran A.; Stanley R. Johnson

    1998-01-01

    Strategic trade in international markets is important for agricultural and other basic commodities. State trading companies (STCs) and large private firms control most of the trade volume. In this study the authors use concepts of modern game theory to treat time inconsistency issues associated with strategic trade. The results are particularly applicable to trade in commodities with lengthy production periods, such as agriculture. The model considered here provides an important context for e...

  12. Technological Progress, Exit and Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp; Sørensen, Allan

    The dynamics of export market exit and firm closure have found limited attention in heterogeneous-firms trade models. Accordingly, several of the predictions on exit stemming from new-new trade theory are at odds with the stylized facts. Empirically, higher productivity firms survive longer, higher...... productivity exporters are more likely to continue to export, and market exit is typically preceded by periods of contracting market shares. We show that the simple inclusion of exogenous economy wide technological progress into the standard Melitz (2003) model generates a tractable dynamic framework...

  13. QTL analysis of a red junglefowl x White Leghorn intercross reveals trade-off in resource allocation between behavior and production traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, Karin; Kerje, Susanne; Carlborg, Orjan; Jacobsson, Lina; Andersson, Leif; Jensen, Per

    2002-11-01

    contrafreeloading. Significant QTLs were found for PC1 and PC4 scores on chromosomes 27 and 7, respectively. The location of the QTLs coincided with known QTLs for growth rate and body weight. The results suggest a trade-off between energy-demanding behavior and high production and that some of this may be caused by genetic linkage or pleiotropic gene effects.

  14. Japanese Trading Companies: Can they Be Copied?

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi Sarathy

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of Japanese trading companies suggests that would-be U.S. trading companies could be emulate Japan's special, rather than general, trading companies. Factors likely to lead to success are: offering narrow high-margin product lines in geographically diversified markets; integration with manufacturing operations having strong domestic markets; well capitalized finances with access to ample credit, perhaps achieved through partnership with large international banks; efficient working ca...

  15. WORLD MALT AND MALTING BARLEY: COMPETITION, MARKETING, AND TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    Satyanarayana, Vidyashankara; Wilson, William W.; Johnson, D. Demcey; Dooley, Frank J.

    1996-01-01

    Recent trends in production marketing, trade, and policies affecting world malting barley and malt sector are examined. A spatial equilibrium model of production and trade is used to assess the effects of alternative levels of supply, demand, and policy variables on composition and direction of malting barley and malt trade flows.

  16. Nigeria in World Ginger Trade: An analysis of performance from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The trade performance of Nigeria was based on world ginger export characteristics, value of trade and quantity traded from 2008 to 2012 assessed on yearly and ... program be sustained so as to boost local production and activate the ginger value chain for greater production, processing and marketing efficiency.

  17. [Falsified medicines in parallel trade].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muckenfuß, Heide

    2017-11-01

    The number of falsified medicines on the German market has distinctly increased over the past few years. In particular, stolen pharmaceutical products, a form of falsified medicines, have increasingly been introduced into the legal supply chain via parallel trading. The reasons why parallel trading serves as a gateway for falsified medicines are most likely the complex supply chains and routes of transport. It is hardly possible for national authorities to trace the history of a medicinal product that was bought and sold by several intermediaries in different EU member states. In addition, the heterogeneous outward appearance of imported and relabelled pharmaceutical products facilitates the introduction of illegal products onto the market. Official batch release at the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut offers the possibility of checking some aspects that might provide an indication of a falsified medicine. In some circumstances, this may allow the identification of falsified medicines before they come onto the German market. However, this control is only possible for biomedicinal products that have not received a waiver regarding official batch release. For improved control of parallel trade, better networking among the EU member states would be beneficial. European-wide regulations, e. g., for disclosure of the complete supply chain, would help to minimise the risks of parallel trading and hinder the marketing of falsified medicines.

  18. Free trade or just trade? The World Trade Organisation, human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The author assesses these claims from a human rights perspective and explores the relationship between trade, human rights and development. The article sketches the history and functions of the WTO, discusses the linkages between trade liberalisation, human rights and development, and assesses the human rights ...

  19. 76 FR 71617 - Request for Comments Concerning Compliance With Telecommunications Trade Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Request for Comments Concerning Compliance With Telecommunications Trade Agreements... compliance with the following agreements regarding telecommunications products and services of the United... Agreement (``CAFTA-DR''), and any other telecommunications trade agreements, such as Mutual Recognition...

  20. Production inventory model for two-level trade credit financing under the effect of preservation technology and learning in supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the inventory model for a retailer under two levels of trade credit to reflect the supply chain management. Supplier offers trade credit period of M to the retailer while in turn retailer provides a trade credit period of N to his/her customers. The supplier is willing to provide the retailer a full trade credit period for payments and the retailer offers the partial trade credit period to his/her customers. Here, selling items are considered as perishable items such as fruits, fresh fishes, gasoline, photographic films, etc. so that its potential worth decreases. It is assumed that decay in potential worth of items can be increased by using preservation technology. The demand is considered as the function of selling price and trade credit. Ordering cost can be reducing due to learning by doing phenomenon. By applying convex fractional programming results, we obtain necessary and sufficient conditions of an optimal solution. Some theorems are developed to determine retailer’s optimal ordering policies and numerical examples are given to illustrate these theorems. In addition, some managerial insights from the numerical examples are also concluded.

  1. Assessment of the meat quality of lamb M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum and M. triceps brachii following three different Halal slaughter procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danso, A S; Richardson, R I; Khalid, R

    2017-05-01

    A total of fifteen male and fifteen female lambs were allocated to three groups of ten animals and subjected to: traditional Halal slaughter without stunning (TNS); slaughter following electric head-only stunning (EHOS) or; post-cut electric head-only stun (PCEHOS) and their meat quality was determined. Instrumental and sensory analyses were carried out on two muscles; M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) and M. triceps brachii (TB). Additionally, the effects of sex and muscle type were also assessed. No differences were found among slaughter methods for pH, drip loss and shear force. TB had a higher pHu and was more tender than LTL. Muscles from EHOS and PCEHOS lambs discoloured more quickly than TNS muscles. There were no differences in the measured sensory attributes, with the exception of EHOS meat being tougher than PCEHOS and TNS meat. This study showed that the three slaughter methods had no substantial effect on lamb meat quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Trade logistic and regional integration in Latin America & the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero, Pablo; Lucenti, Krista; Galarza S., Sebastián

    2009-01-01

    During the past few decades, the landscape of the world economy has changed. New trade patterns reflect the globalization of the supply chain and intra-industry trade, and increasing flows between neighboring countries and trading blocs with similar factor endowments. Similarly, the approach to production, trade, and transportation has evolved incorporating freight logistics as an important valueadded service in the global production. This integrated approach have become essential, and as suc...

  3. Tests of the Empirical Classification of Horizontal and Vertical Intra-industry Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüthje, Teit; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2002-01-01

    Using longitudinal data this paper shows the separation of international trade in (a) inter-industry trade, (b) horizontal intra-industry trade, and (c) vertical intra-industry trade used in the empirical trade literature to be non-stable at the individual product level. The high level of vertica...

  4. Оn the issue of setting priorities in the organization of risk-based supervision over the safety of consumer products traded on the common economic space of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.Yu. Popova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Significant volumes of mutual trade between the countries of the Eurasian Economic Union, combined with the urgency of protecting the population against the risks of negative impacts on the health products are aiming to optimize the supervision of the products traded in the market. One of the ways to optimize is the transition to a risk-based model of health service activities and choice of products for top-priority (priority control. The approaches to the selection of priorities are offered, based on the account of the product use, consumer contingent specificity, known types of hazards, results of inspection and enforcement activities. It was found that the priority products exported by EASE member countries on the common market and forming potentially the greatest risk of harm to the health of consumers may include: dairy products; bird eggs (FEACN group 04; fats and oils of animal or vegetable origin and their cleavage products; prepared edible fats; waxes of animal or vegetable origin (FEACN group 15; sugar and sugar confectionery (FEACN group 17; meat, fish or crustaceans, mollusks or other aquatic invertebrates (FEACN group 16; alcoholic and soft drinks and so on. (FEACN group 22; vegetables, roots and tubers (FEACN group 07; toys, games and sports equipment (FEACN group 95. In relation to these groups of products the priority study of the risk profile required, as well as the development of algorithms and regulations of the supervisory and control measures and improvement of laboratory support methods.

  5. Mainstreaming fair trade: the role of retailers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveer, P.J.M.; Rossing, G.; Hendriksen, A.; Voerman, K.

    2014-01-01

    In just two decades, fair trade has evolved from a niche market supplying products for a small group of dedicated consumers to a well-established market in several European countries, including the Netherlands. This transition has led to important changes in the dynamics in the fair-trade supply

  6. Expanding Trade within Africa: The Impact of Trade Facilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Njinkeu, Dominique; S. Wilson, John; Powo Fosso, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of trade facilitation on intra-African trade. The authors examine the role of trade facilitation reforms, such as increased port efficiency, improved customs, and regulatory environments, and upgrading services infrastructure on trade between African countries. They also consider how regional trade agreements relate to intra-African trade flows. Using trade d...

  7. Trade Policy of Transition Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis); J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThis paper focuses on ignored issues regarding the impact of trade reforms in transition economies. These economies are primarily characterized by a low quality of their products, large depreciations of their currencies, and a high degree of government intervention in economic activity.

  8. Trade microenterprises in EU economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Gołaś

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the results of the analysis of positions of microenterprises in trade and repair in European Union (EU economy. The results show that microenterprises make up the most numerous group of economic subjects in EU. In terms of income generation, value added, labour productivity and financial efficiency the position of microenterprises in enterprises sector is conclusively the weakest.

  9. GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS: INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND TRADE POLICY EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Frisvold

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Where approved, producers have adopted genetically modified (GM crops extensively. Yet, areas not adopting GM crops account for large shares of production and consumption. GM crops differ from previous agricultural innovations because consumers may perceive them as fundamentally different from (and potentially inferior to conventionally grown crops. Many countries maintain restrictions on production and importation of GM crops. GM crop adoption affects producers and consumers, not only through technological change, but also through trade policy responses. This article reviews open economy analyses of impacts of GM crops. To varying degrees, commodities are segmented into GM, conventionally grown, and organic product markets. Recent advances in trade modeling consider the consequences of market segmentation, along with consequences of GM crop import restrictions, product segregation requirements, and coexistence policies.

  10. Structure and evolution of the global seafood trade network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gephart, Jessica A.; Pace, Michael L.

    2015-12-01

    The food production system is increasingly global and seafood is among the most highly traded commodities. Global trade can improve food security by providing access to a greater variety of foods, increasing wealth, buffering against local supply shocks, and benefit the environment by increasing overall use efficiency for some resources. However, global trade can also expose countries to external supply shocks and degrade the environment by increasing resource demand and loosening feedbacks between consumers and the impacts of food production. As a result, changes in global food trade can have important implications for both food security and the environmental impacts of production. Measurements of globalization and the environmental impacts of food production require data on both total trade and the origin and destination of traded goods (the network structure). While the global trade network of agricultural and livestock products has previously been studied, seafood products have been excluded. This study describes the structure and evolution of the global seafood trade network, including metrics quantifying the globalization of seafood, shifts in bilateral trade flows, changes in centrality and comparisons of seafood to agricultural and industrial trade networks. From 1994 to 2012 the number of countries trading in the network remained relatively constant, while the number of trade partnerships increased by over 65%. Over this same period, the total quantity of seafood traded increased by 58% and the value increased 85% in real terms. These changes signify the increasing globalization of seafood products. Additionally, the trade patterns in the network indicate: increased influence of Thailand and China, strengthened intraregional trade, and increased exports from South America and Asia. In addition to characterizing these network changes, this study identifies data needs in order to connect seafood trade with environmental impacts and food security outcomes.

  11. Google matrix analysis of the multiproduct world trade network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermann, Leonardo; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2015-04-01

    Using the United Nations COMTRADE database [United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics Database, available at: http://comtrade.un.org/db/. Accessed November (2014)] we construct the Google matrix G of multiproduct world trade between the UN countries and analyze the properties of trade flows on this network for years 1962-2010. This construction, based on Markov chains, treats all countries on equal democratic grounds independently of their richness and at the same time it considers the contributions of trade products proportionally to their trade volume. We consider the trade with 61 products for up to 227 countries. The obtained results show that the trade contribution of products is asymmetric: some of them are export oriented while others are import oriented even if the ranking by their trade volume is symmetric in respect to export and import after averaging over all world countries. The construction of the Google matrix allows to investigate the sensitivity of trade balance in respect to price variations of products, e.g. petroleum and gas, taking into account the world connectivity of trade links. The trade balance based on PageRank and CheiRank probabilities highlights the leading role of China and other BRICS countries in the world trade in recent years. We also show that the eigenstates of G with large eigenvalues select specific trade communities.

  12. The World Trade Organization and organic food trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines the global food regulation regime and its institutions, focussing upon the way in which these address organic food trade. While the WTO agreements have rules for scientifically based policy measures adopted to protect human, animal or plant health or life, there is some...... disagreement on whether the WTO's Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (addresses food labelling) covers production standards based on ethical values such as those defining organic food standards. Another problem is that two sets of international standards for organic food exist—the Codex Alimentarius...... to these private organisations. It is concluded that this current state of affairs entails that organic food standards can potentially be used by governments as technical barriers to trade to protect their domestic organic producers from international competition. In the concluding section, the potential...

  13. Redirecting International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari; Söderlund, Bengt; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    2014-01-01

    The global financial crisis has contributed to the redirection of trade towards new markets outside the OECD area, where both demand patterns and the institutional environment differ from those in the OECD. This study provides an empirical examination of the consequences of this shift, based...... on Swedish firm-level trade data. Results suggest that weak institutions hamper trade and reduce the length of trade relations, especially for small firms. Trade in industries that are characterized by a high frequency of trade conflicts and where transactions require extensive relationship......-specific investments are particularly difficult to redirect towards markets with weak institutions....

  14. Redirecting International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari; Söderlund, Bengt; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    The global financial crisis has accelerated the redirection of trade towards new markets, outside the OECD area, where both demand patterns and the institutional environment differ from those in the OECD. This study provides an empirical examination of the consequences of this shift. Results...... suggest that weak institutions hamper trade and reduces the length of trade relations, especially for small firms. Furthermore, trade in industries that are characterized by a high degree of trade conflicts and that requires extensive relationship specific investments for trade to occur are comparatively...... difficult to redirect towards markets with weak institutions....

  15. Reconfiguring trade mark law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew James

    2013-01-01

    First, this article argues that trade mark law should be approached in a supplementary way, called reconfiguration. Second, the article investigates such a reconfiguration of trade mark law by exploring the interplay of trade marks and service transactions in the Single Market, in the cross......-border setting, with a particular focus on small business and consumers. The article's overall message is to call for a rethink of received wisdom suggesting that trade marks are effective trade-enabling devices. The case is made for reassessing how we think about European trade mark law....

  16. 121 | Page WORLD TRADE ORGANISATION (WTO): TRADE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    of the current rules of WTO that reinforce the disadvantages faced by developing economies. This essay deals with these unfair trade rules and disadvantages inherent in the World Trade Organization (WTO) system by .... also expand their exports given the comparative advantage they have in respect of those national ...

  17. Research and Development Costs in Retail Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojko LUKIC

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research and development expenses are crucial business performance factors for all enterprises, including trading companies. The size and structure of these expenses depend largely on the nature of a company’s activities. Due to such importance and specificity, the research focus of this article is on R&D expenses in trading companies with particular emphasis on retail companies. Their share in the sales revenue of trading companies is increasingly important and determined by many factors, such as innovation, size, location, product categories, and others. Due to varying intensity of influence of these and other factors, research and development expenses in commercial companies differ among countries, trade types (wholesale, retail, wholesale and retail, retail formats (store types and product categories. Understanding the factors of these differences is important for efficient management of research and development costs in trade, particularly retail companies. They are the focus of research in this work.

  18. The alcohol industry and trade agreements: a preliminary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, Donald W

    2009-02-01

    To review trade agreements, their relation to alcohol control policy and examine the role of the alcohol industry in supporting and attempting to influence trade policy. Review of peer review, public health advocacy literature (both pro and con on free trade), business, press and government documents on trade agreements, assess current and potential challenges by trade agreements to alcohol control policy and investigate the means and extent of industry influence in trade agreements. 'Free' trade agreements reduce trade barriers, increase competition, lower prices and promote alcohol consumption. However, international treaties, negotiated by free trade experts in close consultation with corporate lobbyists and without significant, if any, public health input, governments and corporations contain significant provisions that will result in increased alcohol consumption and may challenge public health measures of other nations as constraints on trade. Conversely, alcohol control measures seek to reduce access and consumption, raise prices and restrict advertising and product promotion. The prospect is for increased alcohol consumption and concomitant problems throughout the world. Trade agreements challenge effective alcohol control policies. The alcohol industry seeks to influence agreements and can be expected to work through trade agreements to reduce tariffs, increase market access and seek to restrict effective domestic regulations. Further research is needed on the impact of trade agreements and the ongoing role of the industry. Advocates must recognize the inherent conflicts between unbridled free trade and public health, work to exclude alcohol from trade agreements, counter industry influence and protect alcohol control policies.

  19. BENEFITS AND DRAWBACKS OF ONLINE TRADING VERSUS TRADITIONAL TRADING. EDUCATIONAL FACTORS IN ONLINE TRADING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petric (Iancu Ioana Ancuta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In terms of marketing, online trading is a new distribution channel and trading platforms are products of Investment and Financial Services Companies. Internet shortens the connection between the investor and the products they wish to purchase (shares, futures, CFDs, government securities, bonds, etc., and in some cases it no longer needs a security broker. Increasing use of the Internet and increasing competitiveness between Investment and Financial Services Companies do the latter, to seek new distribution channels to specific products. The purpose of this paper is to examine to what extent the investor education level affects the decision to move from traditional trading to online trading and the benefits and disadvantages of these types of transactions. To whom should the Investment and Financial Services Companies guide their marketing campaign to attract more investors for online platforms? The work presented is part of a larger project that will be part of author thesis, studying other factors that influence the decision to move from traditional to online trading: cost factor, time factor, psychological and social attributes of investors, yield portfolios and technological capacities of Investment and Financial Services Companies. Starting from the idea that with the increase of experience in stock investments the investors will want to make their own decisions, Investment and Financial Services Companies should provide new products. Compared to competitors, an Investment and Financial Services Company must innovate, and information technology currently offers the tools for innovation facilities. At the same time, the existence and development of the Internet has made the transaction without assistance or with minimal human intervention possible (Voss, 2000. The difference is in the knowledge about stock market, the speed the transaction orders arrive in the stock market, direct access to multiple markets, transaction costs and the level

  20. Trade Facilitation in Ethiopia:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tilahun_EK

    Italy. LL.M (Business Law) Addis Ababa .... section identifies the main trade facilitation challenges in Ethiopia that are mostly within customs law. ... Various international and regional organizations define trade facilitation according to their mandate ...

  1. Trade and insecure resources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garfinkel, Michelle R; Skaperdas, Stergios; Syropoulos, Constantinos

    2015-01-01

    .... Depending on world prices, free trade can intensify arming to such an extent that the additional security costs it brings swamp the traditional gains from trade and thus render autarky more desirable...

  2. Trade Agreements PTI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The objective of the Trade Agreements PTI is to advance CBP’s mission by working with internal and external stakeholders to facilitate legitimate trade and address...

  3. Trade in goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2006-01-01

    An analysis of the rules governing trade in goods under the GATT agreement and the Agreement on Safeguards......An analysis of the rules governing trade in goods under the GATT agreement and the Agreement on Safeguards...

  4. Complementarity in Northeast Asian Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Yirl Nam

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the degree of competition and complementarity among three Northeast Asian countries ? China, Japan and Korea. An attempt is made to identify sectors or commodities that are expected to potentially increase trade between Korea and China or Japan. For the analysis, bilateral, as well as total trade at a somewhat disaggregated commodity level, are considered. We try to analyze the extent of the structural similarities (between one's exports and the other's imports and vice versa, therefore, comlementarity in international trade between the Northeast Asian countries with the index of trade conformity (ITC. The ITC analysis yielded the following implications. Korea's imports from Japan are much more likely to increase than those from China, in a potential sense. Potentially speaking, Korea's exports to the two other countries will increase relatively, somewhat more for Korea's exports to Japan than to China. Looking at it another way, in terms of potential, Korea's exports to China are much more likely to increase than are China's exports to Korea. The overall aggregate trade structures (between one's exports and the other's imports and vice versa of Japan and Korea are quite similar, therefore complementary, and Japan's exports to Korea are potentially a little more likely to increase than are Korea's exports to Japan. We also try to identify some commodities which are expected to increase bilateral trade between Korea and China or Japan. For example, Korea's exports to Japan have the potential to increase in apparel, bags, and textile articles; fish and meat; arts for office machines; miscellaneous manufactured goods; aluminum, copper; miscellaneous chemical products; and watches and clocks. It was possible to identify even more complementary relationships between the countries as the product classification was disaggregated further.

  5. Trade integration and trade imbalances in the European Union: a network perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautier M Krings

    Full Text Available We study the ever more integrated and ever more unbalanced trade relationships between European countries. To better capture the complexity of economic networks, we propose two global measures that assess the trade integration and the trade imbalances of the European countries. These measures are the network (or indirect counterparts to traditional (or direct measures such as the trade-to-GDP (Gross Domestic Product and trade deficit-to-GDP ratios. Our indirect tools account for the European inter-country trade structure and follow (i a decomposition of the global trade flow into elementary flows that highlight the long-range dependencies between exporting and importing economies and (ii the commute-time distance for trade integration, which measures the impact of a perturbation in the economy of a country on another country, possibly through intermediate partners by domino effect. Our application addresses the impact of the launch of the Euro. We find that the indirect imbalance measures better identify the countries ultimately bearing deficits and surpluses, by neutralizing the impact of trade transit countries, such as the Netherlands. Among others, we find that ultimate surpluses of Germany are quite concentrated in only three partners. We also show that for some countries, the direct and indirect measures of trade integration diverge, thereby revealing that these countries (e.g. Greece and Portugal trade to a smaller extent with countries considered as central in the European Union network.

  6. Trade Integration and Trade Imbalances in the European Union: A Network Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krings, Gautier M.; Carpantier, Jean-François; Delvenne, Jean-Charles

    2014-01-01

    We study the ever more integrated and ever more unbalanced trade relationships between European countries. To better capture the complexity of economic networks, we propose two global measures that assess the trade integration and the trade imbalances of the European countries. These measures are the network (or indirect) counterparts to traditional (or direct) measures such as the trade-to-GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and trade deficit-to-GDP ratios. Our indirect tools account for the European inter-country trade structure and follow (i) a decomposition of the global trade flow into elementary flows that highlight the long-range dependencies between exporting and importing economies and (ii) the commute-time distance for trade integration, which measures the impact of a perturbation in the economy of a country on another country, possibly through intermediate partners by domino effect. Our application addresses the impact of the launch of the Euro. We find that the indirect imbalance measures better identify the countries ultimately bearing deficits and surpluses, by neutralizing the impact of trade transit countries, such as the Netherlands. Among others, we find that ultimate surpluses of Germany are quite concentrated in only three partners. We also show that for some countries, the direct and indirect measures of trade integration diverge, thereby revealing that these countries (e.g. Greece and Portugal) trade to a smaller extent with countries considered as central in the European Union network. PMID:24465381

  7. Stochastic Trade Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Massimo Riccaboni; Stefano Schiavo

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops a simple network model to describe the dynamic of the intensive and extensive margin of international trade flows. The result is achieved by means of the combination of two mechanisms of proportional growth: the first (discrete) determines the formation of trade links, the second (continuous) governs trade intensity. We show that our setup is able to simultaneously match a large number of empirical regularities, such as the fraction of zero trade flows across pairs of coun...

  8. HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL INTRA-INDUSTRY TRADE OF TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEVZAT ŞİMŞEK

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Crucial improvement have taken place in intra-industry trade literature since intra-industry trade phenomenon was empirically determined. Nowadays economists discuss on the necessity of distinguishing between horizontal and vertical intra-industry trade especially relating to product differentiation in each industry. As standard Grubel-Lloyd index does not determine the time when two way trade is taken into consideration, in this paper first of all Two-Way Trade index is used and then horizontal intra-industry trade and low-high quality vertical intra-industry trade are distinguished from each other regarding unit value differential. As a result of the analysis the findings show that low quality vertical intra-industry trade dominate in Turkey's intra-industry trade.

  9. Fur skin and fur garment trade between Europe and Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2016-01-01

    International trade and specialization with agricultural raw materials and processed products is often rather limited due to trade barriers, logistic problems and food security. This production of raw fur skin - which is also considered an agricultural product - mostly takes place in the Western...... hemisphere, and to a high degree in Europe, while processing and production of fur garments now more and more takes place in Asia. The objective of this paper is to analyze, quantify and explain trade patterns and international specialization within fur skin and fur garments focusing on Europa and Asia...... as two major trading partners. Data is provided from international trade statistics, national statistical institutions and organizations. The analyses combine international trade theories with trade statistics and in this way results and conclusions are presented. The analyses show that international...

  10. Trade, development and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    1994-01-01

    Mainstream economic theory argues that trade, and especially free trade, is beneficial to everyone involved. This fundamental idea ? which has the character of a dogma ? still plays an important role in international discussions on trade issues, notably in relation to development and environment....

  11. Banking and Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Ratnovski, L.

    2016-01-01

    We study the interaction between relationship banking and short-term arm’s length activities of banks, called trading. We show that a bank can use the franchise value of its relationships to expand the scale of trading, but may allocate too much capital to trading ex post , compromising its ability

  12. Individual Attitudes Towards Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte; Smolka, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Using the 2007 wave of the Pew Global Attitudes Project, this paper finds statistically significant and economically large Stolper-Samuelson effects in individuals’ preference formation towards trade policy. High-skilled individuals are substantially more pro-trade than low-skilled individuals......-Ohlin model in shaping free trade attitudes, relative to existing literature....

  13. The Double Dividend of Agricultural Trade Liberalization: Consistency between National Food Security and Gains from Trade

    OpenAIRE

    HOSOE, Nobuhiro

    2013-01-01

    National food security is one of the main justifications used to oppose agricultural trade liberalization in Japan. Opponents of agricultural trade liberalization argue that because food supply is subject to various uncertainties, importation of cheap foods is too risky a policy. We used a Monte Carlo simulation to perform a computable general equilibrium analysis and investigated the impact of trade liberalization on national food security with random productivity shocks in four major crop m...

  14. Discovering Preferential Patterns in Sectoral Trade Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Cingolani

    Full Text Available We analyze the patterns of import/export bilateral relations, with the aim of assessing the relevance and shape of "preferentiality" in countries' trade decisions. Preferentiality here is defined as the tendency to concentrate trade on one or few partners. With this purpose, we adopt a systemic approach through the use of the tools of complex network analysis. In particular, we apply a pattern detection approach based on community and pseudocommunity analysis, in order to highlight the groups of countries within which most of members' trade occur. The method is applied to two intra-industry trade networks consisting of 221 countries, relative to the low-tech "Textiles and Textile Articles" and the high-tech "Electronics" sectors for the year 2006, to look at the structure of world trade before the start of the international financial crisis. It turns out that the two networks display some similarities and some differences in preferential trade patterns: they both include few significant communities that define narrow sets of countries trading with each other as preferential destinations markets or supply sources, and they are characterized by the presence of similar hierarchical structures, led by the largest economies. But there are also distinctive features due to the characteristics of the industries examined, in which the organization of production and the destination markets are different. Overall, the extent of preferentiality and partner selection at the sector level confirm the relevance of international trade costs still today, inducing countries to seek the highest efficiency in their trade patterns.

  15. International trade and endogenous standards: the case of GMO regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Vigani, Mauro; Raimondi, V; Olper, A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper quantifies the effect of GMO regulation on bilateral trade flows of agricultural products. We develop a composite index of GMO regulations and using a gravity model we show that bilateral differences in GMO regulation negatively affect trade flows. This effect is especially driven by labeling, approval process and traceability. Our results are robust to the endogeneity of GMO standards to trade flows.

  16. Fragmentation and Trade in Value Added over Four Decades

    OpenAIRE

    Robert C. Johnson; Guillermo Noguera

    2012-01-01

    We combine data on trade, production, and input use to compute the value added content of trade for forty-two countries from 1970 to 2009. For the world, the ratio of value added to gross trade falls by ten to fifteen percentage points, with two-thirds of this decline in the last two decades. Across countries, declines range from zero to twenty-five percentage points, with large declines concentrated among countries undergoing structural transformation. Across bilateral trade partners, declin...

  17. Trade, Reform and Structural Change in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Betts, Caroline; Giri, Rahul; Verma, Rubina

    2017-01-01

    We develop a two country, three-sector model to quantify the effects of Korean trade policies for structural change from 1963 through 2000. The model features non-homothetic preferences, Armington trade, proportional import tariffs and export subsidies, and is calibrated to match sectoral value added data on Korean production and trade. Korea’s tariff liberalization increased imports and trade, especially agricultural imports, accelerating de-agriculturalization and intensifying industrializa...

  18. Endogenous Differentiation Strategies, Comparative Advantage and the Volume of Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Erkel-Rousse, Hélène

    1997-01-01

    We present a trade model in which producer differentiation strategies are endogenous. Firms can influence the brand image of their products through a trade-off between cost and product quality. Comparative advantage depends on both variable costs and the ratio of perceived product quality to total costs. Firms sell either a small range of standard varieties or a large range of more expensive high-quality varieties. Empirical trade equations including differentiation variables are derived from...

  19. An Analysis of Determinants of Agriculture Trade Intensities of South Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Dembatapitiya, Pradeepa

    2012-01-01

    South Asian agricultural trade depends on few sectors in the economy and it exports primary products for limited number of countries. It shows regional outward orientation and thus there is still gaining in agricultural trade in South Asian region. Reinforcement of trade relationships within South Asia will be a solution for that and the study is focused on analyzing agriculture trade intensities in South Asia. Trade intensity measures the level of trade relationships between two nations. The...

  20. External trade development in 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Český statistický úřad

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of the external trade development of the CR in total (turnover, export, import, trade balance). Main factors, which influence the external trade development. Territorial structure (by main blocks and selected countries) and commodity structure (by SITC, rev. 4) of the external trade. Comparisons of the CR external trade development with the external trade development of the other member states of the EU.